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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best Medical specialty of All Time

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    2
    Mental retardation

    Mental retardation

    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Willowbrook State School
    Mental retardation (MR) is a generalized disorder appearing before adulthood, characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors. It has historically been defined as an Intelligence Quotient score under 70. Once focused almost entirely on cognition, the definition now includes both a component relating to mental functioning and one relating to individuals' functional skills in their environment. As a result, a person with a below-average intelligence quotient (BAIQ) may not be considered mentally retarded. Syndromic mental retardation is intellectual deficits associated with other medical and behavioral signs and symptoms. Non-syndromic mental retardation refers to intellectual deficits that appear without other abnormalities. The terms used to describe this condition are subject to a process called the euphemism treadmill. This means that whatever term is chosen for this condition, it eventually becomes perceived as an insult. The terms mental retardation and mentally retarded were invented in the middle of the 20th century to replace the previous set of terms, which were deemed to have become offensive. By the end of the
    8.00
    5 votes
    3
    Aviation medicine

    Aviation medicine

    Aviation medicine, also called flight medicine or aerospace medicine, is a preventive or occupational medicine in which the patients/subjects are pilots, aircrews, or persons involved in spaceflight. The specialty strives to treat or prevent conditions to which aircrews are particularly susceptible, applies medical knowledge to the human factors in aviation and is thus a critical component of aviation safety. A military practitioner of aviation medicine may be called a flight surgeon and a civilian practitioner is an aviation medical examiner. Broadly defined, this subdiscipline endeavors to discover and prevent various adverse physiological responses to hostile biologic and physical stresses encountered in the aerospace environment. Problems range from life support measures for astronauts to recognizing an ear block in an infant traveling on an airliner with elevated cabin pressure altitude. Aeromedical certification of pilots, aircrew and patients is also part of Aviation Medicine. A final subdivision is the AeroMedical Transportation Specially. These military and civilian specialists are concerned with protecting aircrew and patients who are transported by AirEvac aircraft
    6.67
    6 votes
    4
    Intensive care medicine

    Intensive care medicine

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Wilson's disease
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Royal Hobart Hospital
    Intensive-care medicine or critical-care medicine is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of life threatening conditions requiring sophisticated organ support and invasive monitoring. Patients requiring intensive care may require support for instability (hypertension/hypotension), airway or respiratory compromise (such as ventilator support), acute renal failure, potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmias, or the cumulative effects of multiple organ failure, more commonly referred to now as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. They may also be admitted for intensive/invasive monitoring, such as the crucial hours after major surgery when deemed too unstable to transfer to a less intensively monitored unit. Intensive care is usually only offered to those whose condition is potentially reversible and who have a good chance of surviving with intensive care support. Since the critically ill are so close to dying, the outcome of this intervention is difficult to predict. A prime requisite for admission to an intensive-care unit (ICU) is that the underlying condition can be overcome. Medical studies suggest a relation between ICU volume and quality of care for
    7.80
    5 votes
    5
    Orthopedic surgery

    Orthopedic surgery

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Mallet finger
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Peter Millett
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: New England Baptist Hospital
    Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics (also spelled orthopaedic surgery and orthopaedics in British English) is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders. Nicholas Andry coined the word "orthopaedics" in French as orthopedie, derived from the Greek words orthos ("correct", "straight") and paideion ("child"), when he published Orthopedie (translated as Orthopaedia: or the Art of Correcting and Preventing Deformities in Children) in 1741. The correction of spinal and bony deformities became the cornerstone of orthopedic practice. In the US orthopedics is standard, although the majority of college, university and residency programs, and even the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, still use the spelling with the Latinate digraph ae. Elsewhere, usage is not uniform; in Canada, both spellings are acceptable; orthopaedics usually prevails in the rest of the British Commonwealth, especially in the UK. In the United States, orthopedic surgeons have typically completed
    7.60
    5 votes
    6
    Otolaryngology

    Otolaryngology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Oral cancer
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: New York Eye and Ear Infirmary
    Otolaryngology or ENT (ear, nose, and throat) is the branch of medicine and surgery that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the head and neck. The full name of the specialty is otorhinolaryngology from neoclassical Greek and modern Greek: ωτο(ρ)ρινολαρυγγολογία from ῥινο-, rhino- (root of ῥίς) "nose", ὠτ-, ot- (root of οὖς) "ear", λαρυγγ-, laryng- (root of λάρυγξ) "larynx/throat", and the suffix -logy "study"; thus, the term literally means "the study of ear and throat". Practitioners are called and professionally designated by the more accurate term otolaryngologists – head and neck surgeons, as specialists trained in otolaryngology are experts in surgical conditions of the head and neck. Some people refer to it simply as head and neck surgery. In the United States, otolaryngology is one of the most competitive specialties in medicine in which to obtain a residency position following medical school. Otolaryngologists are physicians (MD, DO, MBBS, MBChB, etc.) who, in the United States, complete at least five years of surgical residency training. This is composed of one year in general surgical training and four years in otolaryngology–head and neck surgery;
    7.60
    5 votes
    7

    Transfusion medicine

    Transfusion medicine (or transfusiology) is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood components. The blood bank is the section of the clinical laboratory where medical technologists process and distribute blood products under the supervision of a medical director, often certified in Pathology or Transfusion Medicine. The blood donor center, also under the supervision of a physician who may be a Transfusion Medicine specialist, is the facility that collects and processes blood products. Transfusion medicine is a board-certified specialty recognized by the American Board of Pathology. Physicians from a wide range of backgrounds, including pathology, hematology, anesthesiology and pediatrics, are eligible for board certification in Transfusion Medicine following a 1-2 year fellowship. Physicians certified in Transfusion Medicine are trained in blood product selection and management, immunohematology, apheresis, stem cell collection, cellular therapy, and coagulation. They are often considered a consultant for physicians who require expertise advice on the subjects listed above. In 1628, English physician William Harvey discovered that blood
    7.40
    5 votes
    8

    Oncology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Cancer
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
    Oncology (from the Ancient Greek onkos (ὄγκος), meaning bulk, mass, or tumor, and the suffix -logy (-λογία), meaning "study of") is a branch of medicine that deals with cancer. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist. Oncology is concerned with: The most important diagnostic tool remains the medical history: the character of the complaints and any specific symptoms (fatigue, weight loss, unexplained anemia, fever of unknown origin, paraneoplastic phenomena and other signs). Often a physical examination will reveal the location of a malignancy. Diagnostic methods include: Apart from in diagnosis, these modalities (especially imaging by CT scanning) are often used to determine operability, i.e. whether it is surgically possible to remove a tumor in its entirety. Generally, a "tissue diagnosis" (from a biopsy) is considered essential for the proper identification of cancer. When this is not possible, "empirical therapy" (without an exact diagnosis) may be given, based on the available evidence (e.g. history, x-rays and scans.) Occasionally, a metastatic lump or pathological lymph node is found (typically in the neck) for which a primary tumor cannot be found.
    7.00
    5 votes
    9
    Pain medicine

    Pain medicine

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Sciatica
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Neurology
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Stanford University Medical Center
    Pain medicine is a branch of anaesthetics concerned with the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Modern pain medicine is individualised, holistic, and multidisciplinary, using a wide variety of drugs and physical and psychosocial interventions.
    8.25
    4 votes
    10
    General surgery

    General surgery

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Inguinal hernia
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Singleton Hospital
    General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, gallbladder and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland (depending on the availability of head and neck surgery specialists). They also deal with diseases involving the skin, breast, soft tissue, and hernias. In the past, surgeons in the United States were required to be board certified by the American Board of Surgery or the American Osteopathic Board of Surgery in order to progress into further sub-specialty training. However, recently, board certification has been delegated into separate branches, whereby successful completion of a residency in general surgery is not necessarily required, but may well be desired. Some training in many sub-specialties is still part of the general surgical training program. General surgeons may sub-specialize into one or more of the following disciplines: In the United States and Canada, the overall responsibility for trauma care falls under the auspices of general surgery. Some general surgeons obtain advanced training and specialty certification in this field alone. General surgeons must be able to deal
    6.80
    5 votes
    11

    Critical Care Medicine

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Burn
    Critical Care Medicine is a peer-reviewed monthly medical journal in the field of intensive-care medicine. It is the official publication of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and is published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. The journal's editor-in-chief is Joseph E. Parrillo.
    8.00
    4 votes
    12
    Parkinson's disease

    Parkinson's disease

    • Physicians with this Specialty: James Parkinson
    Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson disease, Parkinson's, idiopathic parkinsonism, primary parkinsonism, PD, hypokinetic rigid syndrome/HRS, or paralysis agitans) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease result from the death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain; the cause of this cell death is unknown. Early in the course of the disease, the most obvious symptoms are movement-related; these include shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait. Later, cognitive and behavioural problems may arise, with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep and emotional problems. PD is more common in the elderly, with most cases occurring after the age of 50. The main motor symptoms are collectively called parkinsonism, or a "parkinsonian syndrome". Parkinson's disease is often defined as a parkinsonian syndrome that is idiopathic (having no known cause), although some atypical cases have a genetic origin. Many risk and protective factors have been investigated: the clearest evidence is for an
    8.00
    4 votes
    13

    Abdominal surgery

    • Physicians with this Specialty: Theodor Billroth
    The term abdominal surgery broadly covers surgical procedures that involve opening the abdomen. Surgery of each abdominal organ is dealt with separately in connection with the description of that organ (see stomach, kidney, liver, etc.) Diseases affecting the abdominal cavity are dealt with generally under their own names (e.g. appendicitis). The most common abdominal surgeries are described below. Complications of abdominal surgery include Sterile technique, aseptic post-operative care, antibiotics, and vigilant post-operative monitoring greatly reduce the risk of these complications. Planned surgery performed under sterile conditions is much less risky than that performed under emergency or unsterile conditions. The contents of the bowel are unsterile, and thus leakage of bowel contents, as from trauma, substantially increases the risk of infection.
    6.60
    5 votes
    14

    Neurology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Cardiovascular disease
    Neurology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology is indexed in:
    6.60
    5 votes
    15

    Clinical engineering

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Atherosclerosis
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Hospital Clínic metro station
    Clinical engineering is a specialty within Biomedical engineering responsible primarily for applying and implementing medical technology to optimize healthcare delivery. Roles of clinical engineers include training and supervising biomedical equipment technicians (BMETs), working with governmental regulators on hospital inspections/audits, and serving as technological consultants for other hospital staff (i.e. physicians, administrators, I.T., etc.). Clinical engineers also advise medical device producers regarding prospective design improvements based on clinical experiences, as well as monitor the progression of the state-of-the-art in order to redirect hospital procurement patterns accordingly. Their inherent focus on practical implementation of technology has tended to keep them oriented more towards incremental-level redesigns and reconfigurations, as opposed to "revolutionary" R&D or cutting-edge ideas that would be many years from clinical adoptability; however, there is nonetheless an effort to expand this time-horizon over which clinical engineers can influence the trajectory of biomedical innovation. In their various roles, they form a sort of "bridge" between product
    7.75
    4 votes
    16
    Nuclear medicine

    Nuclear medicine

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. In nuclear medicine procedures, radionuclides are combined with other elements to form chemical compounds, or else combined with existing pharmaceutical compounds, to form radiopharmaceuticals. These radiopharmaceuticals, once administered to the patient, can localize to specific organs or cellular receptors. This property of radiopharmaceuticals allows nuclear medicine the ability to image the extent of a disease process in the body, based on the cellular function and physiology, rather than relying on physical changes in the tissue anatomy. In some diseases nuclear medicine studies can identify medical problems at an earlier stage than other diagnostic tests. Nuclear medicine, in a sense, is "radiology done inside out" or "endo-radiology" because it records radiation emitting from within the body rather than radiation that is generated by external sources like X-rays. Treatment of diseased tissue, based on metabolism or uptake or binding of a particular ligand, may also be accomplished, similar to other areas of pharmacology. However, the
    7.75
    4 votes
    17
    Respiratory disease

    Respiratory disease

    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Barlow Respiratory Hospital
    Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting, such as the common cold, to life-threatening entities like bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and lung cancer. The study of respiratory disease is known as pulmonology. A doctor who specializes in respiratory disease is known as a pulmonologist, a chest medicine specialist, a respiratory medicine specialist, a respirologist or a thoracic medicine specialist. Respiratory diseases can be classified in many different ways, including by the organ or tissue involved, by the type and pattern of associated signs and symptoms, or by the cause (etiology) of the disease. Characterised by a high neutrophil count, e.g. asthma, cystic fibrosis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Obstructive lung diseases are diseases of the lung where the airways (i.e.
    7.75
    4 votes
    18

    Speech therapy

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Speech therapy (also called Speech & Language Therapy or Speech & Language Pathology) is the rehabilitative or corrective treatment of physical and/or cognitive deficits/disorder resulting in difficulty with communication and/or swallowing. Communication includes speech (articulation, intonation, rate, intensity), language (phonology, (morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics) both receptive and expressive language, (including reading and writing) and the non-verbal such as facial expression and gesture. Swallowing problems managed under Speech Therapy are problems in the oral, laryngeal, and/or pharyngeal stages of swallowing (not oesophageal). Depending on the nature and severity of the disorder, common treatments may range from physical strengthening exercises, instructive or repetitive practice and drilling, to the use of audio-visual aids and introduction of strategies to facilitate 'functional' communication. Speech therapists are also trained to assess, treat and manage swallowing difficulties. Speech Therapists, Speech and Language Therapists (SLTs), or Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs) are allied health professionals. Health Services employ most SLTs. Other
    6.40
    5 votes
    19
    HIV infection

    HIV infection

    • Physicians with this Specialty: Tony Mills
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a member of the retrovirus family) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4 T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4 T cells through three main mechanisms: First, direct viral killing of infected cells; second, increased rates of apoptosis in infected cells; and third, killing of infected CD4 T cells by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. When CD4 T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections. HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus, part of the family of Retroviridae. Lentiviruses have many morphologies and biological properties in common. Many species are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period. Lentiviruses are transmitted
    6.20
    5 votes
    20

    Orthomolecular medicine

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Huntington's disease
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Max Gerson
    Orthomolecular medicine is a form of complementary and alternative medicine that seeks to maintain health and prevent or treat diseases by optimizing nutritional intake and/or prescribing supplements. The approach is sometimes referred to as megavitamin therapy as the practice evolved out of, and in some cases still uses, doses of vitamins and minerals many times higher than the recommended Dietary Reference Intake. Orthomolecular practitioners may also incorporate a variety of other treatment modalities into their approaches, including dietary restriction, megadoses of non-vitamin nutrients, and mainstream pharmaceutical drugs. Proponents believe that non-optimal levels of certain substances can cause health issues beyond simple deficiency and see balancing them as an integral part of health. The term "orthomolecular" was coined by Linus Pauling to mean "the right molecules in the right amounts" (ortho is Greek for "right"); thus orthomolecular medicine focuses on using the right nutritional molecules in the right amounts for the individual. Proponents state that treatments are based on patients' individual biochemistries. Critics have described some aspects of orthomolecular
    7.00
    4 votes
    21
    7.00
    4 votes
    22
    Thoracic surgery

    Thoracic surgery

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Cardiovascular disease
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Alexis Carrel
    Thoracic surgery is the field of medicine involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the thorax (the chest). Generally treatment of conditions of the lungs, chest wall, and diaphragm. Thoracic surgery is often grouped with cardiac surgery and called cardiothoracic surgery.
    8.33
    3 votes
    23
    Alternative medicine

    Alternative medicine

    • Physicians with this Specialty: Josef Issels
    Alternative medicine is any practice claiming to heal "that does not fall within the realm of conventional medicine." It may be based on historical or cultural traditions, rather than on scientific evidence. Alternative medicine is frequently grouped with complementary medicine or integrative medicine, which, in general, refers to the same interventions when used in conjunction with mainstream techniques, under the umbrella term complementary and alternative medicine, or CAM. Critics maintain that the terms “complementary” and “alternative medicine” are deceptive euphemisms meant to give an impression of medical authority. A 1998 systematic review of studies assessing its prevalence in 13 countries concluded that about 31% of cancer patients use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. Alternative medicine varies from country to country. Jurisdictions where alternative medical practices are sufficiently widespread may license and regulate them. Edzard Ernst has said that in Austria and Germany complementary and alternative medicine is mainly in the hands of physicians, while some estimates suggest that at least half of American alternative practitioners are physicians.
    8.00
    3 votes
    24
    Hematology

    Hematology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Iron deficiency anemia
    Hematology, also spelled haematology (from the Greek αἷμα haima "blood" and -λoγία), is the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. Hematology includes the study of etiology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of blood diseases that affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, and the mechanism of coagulation. The laboratory work that goes into the study of blood is frequently performed by a medical technologist. Hematologists also conduct studies in oncology—the medical treatment of cancer. Physicians specialized in hematology are known as hematologists or haematologists. Their routine work mainly includes the care and treatment of patients with hematological diseases, although some may also work at the hematology laboratory viewing blood films and bone marrow slides under the microscope, interpreting various hematological test results. In some institutions, hematologists also manage the hematology laboratory. Physicians who work in hematology laboratories, and most commonly manage them, are pathologists specialized in the diagnosis of hematological diseases, referred to as
    8.00
    3 votes
    25
    Infectious disease

    Infectious disease

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: AIDS
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Julie Gerberding
    Infectious diseases, also known as transmissible diseases or communicable diseases comprise clinically evident illness (i.e., characteristic medical signs and/or symptoms of disease) resulting from the infection, presence and growth of pathogenic biological agents in an individual host organism. In certain cases, infectious diseases may be asymptomatic for much or even all of their course in a given host. In the latter case, the disease may only be defined as a "disease" (which by definition means an illness) in hosts who secondarily become ill after contact with an asymptomatic carrier. An infection is not synonymous with an infectious disease, as some infections do not cause illness in a host. Infectious pathogens include some viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. These pathogens are the cause of disease epidemics, in the sense that without the pathogen, no infectious epidemic occurs. The term infectivity describes the ability of an organism to enter, survive and multiply in the host, while the infectiousness of a disease indicates the comparative ease with which the disease is transmitted to other hosts. Transmission
    8.00
    3 votes
    26
    Sleep medicine

    Sleep medicine

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Delayed sleep phase syndrome
    • Physicians with this Specialty: William C. Dement
    Sleep medicine is a medical specialty or subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders. From the middle of the 20th century, research has provided increasing knowledge and answered many questions about sleep-wake functioning. The rapidly evolving field has become a recognized medical subspecialty in some countries. Dental sleep medicine also qualifies for board certification in some countries. Properly organized, minimum 12-month, postgraduate training programs are still being defined in the United States. In some countries, the sleep researchers and the doctors who treat patients may be the same people. The first sleep clinics in the United States were established in the 1970s by interested doctors and technicians; the study, diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea were their first tasks. As late as 1999, virtually any American doctor, with no specific training in sleep medicine, could open a sleep laboratory. Disorders and disturbances of sleep are widespread and can have significant consequences for affected individuals as well as economic and other consequences for society. The US National Transportation Safety Board has,
    8.00
    3 votes
    27
    Allergy

    Allergy

    An allergy is a hypersensitivity disorder of the immune system. Allergic reactions occur when a person's immune system reacts to normally harmless substances in the environment. A substance that causes a reaction is called an allergen. These reactions are acquired, predictable, and rapid. Allergy is one of four forms of hypersensitivity and is formally called type I (or immediate) hypersensitivity. Allergic reactions are distinctive because of excessive activation of certain white blood cells called mast cells and basophils by a type of antibody called Immunoglobulin E (IgE). This reaction results in an inflammatory response which can range from uncomfortable to dangerous. Mild allergies like hay fever are very common in the human population and cause symptoms such as red eyes, itchiness, and runny nose, eczema, hives, or an asthma attack. Allergies can play a major role in conditions such as asthma. In some people, severe allergies to environmental or dietary allergens or to medication may result in life-threatening reactions called anaphylaxis. Food allergies, and reactions to the venom of stinging insects such as wasps and bees are often associated with these severe reactions. A
    9.50
    2 votes
    28

    Diabetology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Diabetes mellitus type 2
    Diabetology is the clinical science of diabetes mellitus, its diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. It can be considered a specialised field of endocrinology. The term diabetologist is used in several ways. In North America over the last 40 years it is most often used for an internist who through practice and interest develops expertise in diabetes care without having formal training or board certification in endocrinology. Diabetology is not a recognized medical specialty and has no formal training programs leading to board certification. In other contexts the term diabetologist refers to any physician, including endocrinologists, whose practice and/or research efforts are concentrated mainly in diabetes care. Apart from regulating medication (e.g. insulin) dosage and timing, a diabetologist will also concern himself with the potential consequences of diabetes, e.g. retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy.
    7.67
    3 votes
    29
    Cancer

    Cancer

    • Hospitals with this Specialty: The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
    Cancer /ˈkænsər/, known medically as a malignant neoplasm, is a broad group of various diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors, and invade nearby parts of the body. The cancer may also spread to more distant parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. Not all tumors are cancerous. Benign tumors do not grow uncontrollably, do not invade neighboring tissues, and do not spread throughout the body. There are over 200 different known cancers that afflict humans. Determining what causes cancer is complex. Many things are known to increase the risk of cancer, including tobacco use, certain infections, radiation, lack of physical activity, obesity, and environmental pollutants. These can directly damage genes or combine with existing genetic faults within cells to cause the disease. Approximately five to ten percent of cancers are entirely hereditary. Cancer can be detected in a number of ways, including the presence of certain signs and symptoms, screening tests, or medical imaging. Once a possible cancer is detected it is diagnosed by microscopic examination of a tissue sample. Cancer is
    6.25
    4 votes
    30
    Organ transplant

    Organ transplant

    • Physicians with this Specialty: Alexis Carrel
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Toronto General Hospital
    Organ transplantation is the moving of an organ from one body to another or from a donor site on the patient's own body, for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or absent organ. The emerging field of regenerative medicine is allowing scientists and engineers to create organs to be re-grown from the patient's own cells (stem cells, or cells extracted from the failing organs). Organs and/or tissues that are transplanted within the same person's body are called autografts. Transplants that are recently performed between two subjects of the same species are called allografts. Allografts can either be from a living or cadaveric source. Organs that can be transplanted are the heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and thymus. Tissues include bones, tendons (both referred to as musculoskeletal grafts), cornea, skin, heart valves, and veins. Worldwide, the kidneys are the most commonly transplanted organs, followed closely by the liver and then the heart. The cornea and musculoskeletal grafts are the most commonly transplanted tissues; these outnumber organ transplants by more than tenfold. Organ donors may be living, or brain dead. Tissue may be recovered from
    9.00
    2 votes
    31
    Physical therapy

    Physical therapy

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Physical therapy (or physiotherapy), often abbreviated PT, is a health care profession primarily concerned with the remediation of impairments and disabilities and the promotion of mobility, functional ability, quality of life and movement potential through examination, evaluation, diagnosis and physical intervention carried out by Physical Therapists (known as Physiotherapists in some countries) and Physical Therapist Assistants (known as Physical Rehabilitation Therapists in some countries). In addition to clinical practice, other activities encompassed in the physical therapy profession include research, education, consultation and administration. Definitions and licensing requirements in the United States vary among jurisdictions, as each state has enacted its own physical therapy practice act defining the profession within its jurisdiction, but the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has also drafted a model definition in order to limit this variation, and the APTA is also responsible for accrediting physical therapy education curricula throughout the United States of America. In many settings, physical therapy services may be provided alongside, or in conjunction
    9.00
    2 votes
    32

    Urological surgery

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Urethral stricture
    Urological surgery is a field of surgery that integrates surgery for the colon, urogenital, and gynecological organs.
    9.00
    2 votes
    33
    Nutrition

    Nutrition

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Kwashiorkor
    Nutrition (also called nourishment or aliment) is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with a healthy diet. The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the perceived palatability of foods. Dietitians are health professionals who specialize in human nutrition, meal planning, economics, and preparation. They are trained to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice and management to individuals (in health and disease), as well as to institutions. Clinical nutritionists are health professionals who focus more specifically on the role of nutrition in chronic disease, including possible prevention or remediation by addressing nutritional deficiencies before resorting to drugs. While government regulation of the use of this professional title is less universal than for "dietician", the field is supported by many high-level academic programs, up to and including the Doctoral level, and has its own voluntary certification board, professional associations, and peer-reviewed journals, e.g. the American Society for Nutrition and the
    7.33
    3 votes
    34
    Psychoanalysis

    Psychoanalysis

    Psychoanalysis is a psychological and psychotherapeutic theory conceived in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud. Psychoanalysis has expanded, been criticized and developed in different directions, mostly by some of Freud's former students, such as Alfred Adler and Carl Gustav Jung, Wilhelm Reich and later by neo-Freudians such as Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Harry Stack Sullivan and Jacques Lacan. The basic tenets of psychoanalysis include the following: Under the broad umbrella of psychoanalysis there are at least 22 theoretical orientations regarding human mental development. The various approaches in treatment called "psychoanalysis" vary as much as the theories do. The term also refers to a method of studying child development. Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a specific type of treatment in which the "analysand" (analytic patient) verbalizes thoughts, including free associations, fantasies, and dreams, from which the analyst induces the unconscious conflicts causing the patient's symptoms and character problems, and interprets them for the patient to create insight for resolution of the problems. The specifics of the analyst's
    7.33
    3 votes
    35

    Urology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Kidney stone
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation
    Urology (from Greek οὖρον - oûron, "urine" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the medical and surgical specialty that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males. Medical professionals specializing in the field of urology are called urologists and are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with urological disorders. The organs covered by urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis). Urology is one of the most competitive specialties to enter for physicians. The urinary and reproductive tracts are closely linked, and disorders of one often affect the other, so a major part of the conditions managed in urology fall in the area of genitourinary disorders. Urology combines management of medical (i.e., non-surgical) problems such as urinary tract infections and benign prostatic hyperplasia, as well as surgical problems such as the surgical management of cancers, the correction of congenital abnormalities, and correcting stress incontinence. Urology is closely related to, and in some cases
    7.33
    3 votes
    36
    Neuroscience

    Neuroscience

    • Hospitals with this Specialty: McLean Hospital
    Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. Traditionally, neuroscience has been seen as a branch of biology. However, it is currently an interdisciplinary science that collaborates with other fields such as chemistry, computer science, engineering, linguistics, mathematics, medicine and allied disciplines, philosophy, physics, and psychology. The term neurobiology is usually used interchangeably with the term neuroscience, although the former refers specifically to the biology of the nervous system, whereas the latter refers to the entire science of the nervous system. The scope of neuroscience has broadened to include different approaches used to study the molecular, cellular, developmental, structural, functional, evolutionary, computational, and medical aspects of the nervous system. The techniques used by neuroscientists have also expanded enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual nerve cells to imaging of sensory and motor tasks in the brain. Recent theoretical advances in neuroscience have also been aided by the study of neural networks. Given the increasing number of scientists who study the nervous system, several prominent neuroscience
    6.00
    4 votes
    37
    Psychiatry

    Psychiatry

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Florida State Hospital
    Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the study and treatment of mental disorders. These mental disorders include various affective, behavioural, cognitive and perceptual abnormalities. The term was first coined by the German physician Johann Christian Reil in 1808, and literally means the 'medical treatment of the soul' (psych-: soul; from Ancient Greek psykhē: soul; -iatry: medical treatment; from Gk. iātrikos: medical, iāsthai: to heal). A medical doctor specializing in psychiatry is a psychiatrist. Psychiatric assessment typically starts with a mental status examination and the compilation of a case history. Psychological tests and physical examinations may be conducted, including on occasion the use of neuroimaging or other neurophysiological techniques. Mental disorders are diagnosed in accordance with criteria listed in diagnostic manuals such as the widely used Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), edited and used by the World Health Organization. The fifth edition of the DSM (DSM-5) is scheduled to be published in 2013, and its
    5.00
    5 votes
    38
    Toxicology

    Toxicology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Substance abuse
    Toxicology (from the Greek words τοξικός - toxicos "poisonous" and logos) is a branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people. Dioscorides, a Greek physician in the court of the Roman emperor Nero, made the first attempt to classify plants according to their toxic and therapeutic effect. Ibn Wahshiya wrote the Book on Poisons in the 9th or 10th century. Mathieu Orfila is considered to be the modern father of toxicology, having given the subject its first formal treatment in 1813 in his Traité des poisons, also called Toxicologie générale. In 1850 Jean Stas gave the evidence that the Belgian Count Hypolyte Visart de Bocarmé killed his brother-in-law by poisoning with nicotine Theophrastus Phillipus Auroleus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493–1541) (also referred to as Paracelsus, from his belief that his studies were above or beyond the work of Celsus - a Roman physician from the first century) is also considered "the father" of toxicology. He is credited with the classic toxicology maxim, "Alle
    8.50
    2 votes
    39
    5.75
    4 votes
    40
    General practitioner

    General practitioner

    • Physicians with this Specialty: Abdul Khabir
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Royal Victoria Hospital
    A general practitioner (GP) is a medical practitioner who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education for all ages and all sexes. They have particular skills in treating people with multiple health issues and comorbidities. "The good GP will treat patients both as people and as a population". The term general practitioner or GP is common in the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and several Commonwealth countries. In these countries the word physician is largely reserved for certain other types of medical specialists, notably in internal medicine. While in these countries, the term GP has a clearly defined meaning, in North America the term has become somewhat ambiguous, and is not necessarily synonymous with the term "family doctor" or primary care provider, as described below. The basic medical degrees in India are MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery), BAMS (Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery), BHMS (Bachelor of Homoeopathic Medicine and Surgery) and BUMS (Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery). These generally comprise of a four-and-a-half-year course followed by a year of compulsory rotatory internship. The
    10.00
    1 votes
    41
    6.67
    3 votes
    42
    Obstetrics

    Obstetrics

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Adenomyosis
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: St Mary's Hospital, Manchester
    Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, "to stand by") is the medical specialty dealing with the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy (prenatal period), childbirth and the postnatal period. Many obstetricians are also gynecologists, meaning they perform in both specialties. In the United States, these physicians are commonly referred to as OB/GYNs. Prior to the 18th century childbirth in Europe was confined exclusively to women, and rigorously excluded men. The expectant mother would invite close female friends and family members to her home to keep her company. Skilled midwives managed all aspects of the labour and delivery. The presence of physicians and surgeons was very rare and only occurred once a serious complication had taken place and the midwife had exhausted all measures to manage the complication. Calling a surgeon was very much a last resort and having men deliver women in this era whatsoever was seen as offending female modesty. The 18th century marked the beginning of many advances in European midwifery. These advances in knowledge were mainly regarding the physiology of pregnancy and labour. By the end of the century the anatomy
    6.67
    3 votes
    43

    Urologic disease

    Urologic disease can involve congenital or acquired dysfunction of the urinary system. Kidney diseases are normally investigated and treated by nephrologists, while the specialty of urology deals with problems in the other organs. Gynecologists may deal with problems of incontinence in women. Diseases of other bodily systems also have a direct effect on urogenital function. For instance it has been shown that protein released by the kidneys in diabetes mellitus sensitises the kidney to the damaging effects of hypertension . Diabetes also can have a direct effect in urination due to peripheral neuropathies which occur in some individuals with poorly controlled diabetics. Renal failure is defined by functional impairment of the kidney. Renal failure can be acute or chronic, and can be further broken down into categories of pre-renal, intrinsic renal and post-renal. Pre-renal failure refers to impairment of supply of blood to the functional nephrons including renal artery stenosis. Intrinsic renal diseases are the classic diseases of the kidney including drug toxicity and nephritis. Post-renal failure is outlet obstruction after the kidney, such as a kidney stone or prostatic bladder
    6.67
    3 votes
    44
    Virology

    Virology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: AIDS
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Thomas Francis, Jr.
    Virology is the study of viruses and virus-like agents: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit host cells for reproduction, their interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and therapy. Virology is considered to be a subfield of microbiology or of medicine. A major branch of virology is virus classification. Viruses can be classified according to the host cell they infect: animal viruses, plant viruses, fungal viruses, and bacteriophages (viruses infecting bacteria, which include the most complex viruses). Another classification uses the geometrical shape of their capsid (often a helix or an icosahedron) or the virus's structure (e.g. presence or absence of a lipid envelope). Viruses range in size from about 30 nm to about 450 nm, which means that most of them cannot be seen with light microscopes. The shape and structure of viruses has been studied by electron microscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. The most useful and most widely used classification system distinguishes viruses according to the type of nucleic acid
    6.67
    3 votes
    45

    Acute care

    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Sparrow Specialty Hospital
    Acute care is a branch of secondary health care where a patient receives active but short-term treatment for a severe injury or episode of illness, an urgent medical condition, or during recovery from surgery. In medical terms, care for acute health conditions is the opposite from chronic care, or longer term care. Acute care services are generally delivered by teams of health care professionals from a range of medical and surgical specialties. Acute care may require a stay in a hospital emergency department, ambulatory surgery center, urgent care centre or other short-term stay facility, along with the assistance of diagnostic services, surgery, or follow-up outpatient care in the community. Hospital-based acute inpatient care typically has the goal of discharging patients as soon as they are deemed healthy and stable. Acute care settings include but are not limited to: emergency department, intensive care, coronary care, cardiology, neonatal intensive care, and many general areas where the patient could become acutely unwell and require stabilization and transfer to another higher dependency unit for further treatment. The 2008 "Final Report of the Special Commission of Inquiry
    8.00
    2 votes
    46
    Diabetic retinopathy

    Diabetic retinopathy

    • Physicians with this Specialty: P. Namperumalsamy
    Diabetic retinopathy, ([ˌrɛtnˈɑpəθi]) is retinopathy (damage to the retina) caused by complications of diabetes, which can eventually lead to blindness. It is an ocular manifestation of systemic disease which affects up to 80% of all patients who have had diabetes for 10 years or more. Despite these intimidating statistics, research indicates that at least 90% of these new cases could be reduced if there was proper and vigilant treatment and monitoring of the eyes. The longer a person has diabetes, the higher his or her chances of developing diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy often has no early warning signs. Even macular edema, which may cause vision loss more rapidly, may not have any warning signs for some time. In general, however, a person with macular edema is likely to have blurred vision, making it hard to do things like read or drive. In some cases, the vision will get better or worse during the day. As new blood vessels form at the back of the eye as a part of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), they can bleed (ocular hemorrhage) and blur vision. The first time this happens, it may not be very severe. In most cases, it will leave just a few specks of blood,
    8.00
    2 votes
    47
    Orthotics

    Orthotics

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Tennis elbow
    Orthotics (Greek: Ορθός, ortho, "to straighten" or "align") is a specialty within the medical field concerned with the design, manufacture and application of orthoses. An orthosis (plural: orthoses) is "an externally applied device used to modify the structural and functional characteristics of the neuromuscular and skeletal system" . An orthosis may be used to: Orthotics combines knowledge of anatomy and physiology, pathophysiology, biomechanics and engineering. Patients benefiting from an orthosis may have a condition such as spina bifida or cerebral palsy, or have experienced a spinal cord injury or stroke. Equally, orthoses are sometimes used prophylactically or to optimise performance in sport. Orthoses were traditionally made by following a tracing of the extremity with measurements to assist in creating a well fitted device. Later the advent of plastics as a material of choice for construction necessitated the idea of creating a plaster of Paris mold of the body part in question. This method extensively is still used throughout the industry. Currently CAD/CAM, CNC machines and even 3D printing are involved in orthotic manufacture. Orthoses are made from various types of
    8.00
    2 votes
    48
    Ophthalmology

    Ophthalmology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Glaucoma
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Selig Percy Amoils
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Moorfields Eye Hospital
    Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems. Since ophthalmologists perform operations on eyes, they are considered to be both surgical and medical specialists. The word ophthalmology comes from the Greek roots ophthalmos meaning eye and logos meaning word, thought, or discourse; ophthalmology literally means "the science of eyes". As a discipline, it applies to animal eyes also, since the differences from human practice are surprisingly minor and are related mainly to differences in anatomy or prevalence, not differences in disease processes. The Indian surgeon Sushruta wrote Sushruta Samhita in Sanskrit in about 800 BC which describes 76 ocular diseases (of these 51 surgical) as well as several ophthalmological surgical instruments and techniques. His description of cataract surgery was more akin to extracapsular lens extraction than to couching. He has been described as the first cataract surgeon. The pre-Hippocratics largely based their anatomical conceptions of the eye on speculation, rather than empiricism. They recognized the sclera and
    6.33
    3 votes
    49
    Podiatry

    Podiatry

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Tinea pedis
    Podiatry or podiatric medicine is a branch of medicine devoted to the study of, diagnosis, and medical treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle, and lower extremity. The term podiatry came into use in the early 20th century in the United States and is now used worldwide with countries such as the United Kingdom and Australia. A Doctor of Podiatric Medicine (DPM), is a specialist qualified by their education and training to diagnose and treat conditions affecting the foot, ankle, and structures of the leg. Podiatric physicians have extensive background knowledge in human anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, sociological and psychological perspectives, general medicine, surgery and pharmacology. Specialist podiatric physicians are podiatrists who are qualified by additional postgraduate training or fellowship training and experience in the specialised field. Within the field of podiatry, US trained podiatric physicians rotate through major areas of medicine gaining exposure and practice to areas including but not limited to: surgery, sports medicine, biomechanics, geriatrics, internal medicine, diabetes, vascular, neurological, pediatrics, dermatological, orthopedics, or primary
    6.33
    3 votes
    50
    Nephrology

    Nephrology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Acute renal failure
    Nephrology (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a branch of internal medicine and pediatrics dealing with the study of the function and diseases of the kidney. Nephrology concerns the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases, including electrolyte disturbances and hypertension, and the care of those requiring renal replacement therapy, including dialysis and renal transplant patients. Many diseases affecting the kidney are systemic disorders not limited to the organ itself, and may require special treatment. Examples include acquired conditions such as systemic vasculitides (e.g. ANCA vasculitis) and autoimmune diseases (e.g., lupus), as well as congenital or genetic conditions such as polycystic kidney disease. Patients are referred to nephrology specialists for various reasons, such as acute renal failure, chronic kidney disease, hematuria, proteinuria, kidney stones, hypertension, and disorders of acid/base or electrolytes. A nephrologist is a physician (MD, MBBS or DO) who has been trained in the diagnosis and management of kidney disease, by regulating blood pressure, regulating electrolytes, balancing fluids in the body,
    5.25
    4 votes
    51
    Vascular surgery

    Vascular surgery

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Aortic aneurysm
    Vascular surgery is a specialty of surgery in which diseases of the vascular system, or arteries and veins, are managed by medical therapy, minimally-invasive catheter procedures, and surgical reconstruction. The specialty evolved from general and cardiac surgery as well as minimally invasive techniques pioneered by interventional radiology. Early leaders of the field included Russian surgeon Nikolai Korotkov, noted for developing early surgical techniques, American interventional radiologist Charles Theodore Dotter who is credited with inventing minimally invasive angioplasty, and Australian Robert Paton, who helped the field achieve recognition as a speciality. Edwin Wylie of San Francisco was one of the early American pioneers who developed and fostered advanced training in vascular surgery and pushed for its recognition as a specialty in the United States in the 1970s. The vascular surgeon is trained in the diagnosis and management of diseases affecting all parts of the vascular system except that of the heart and brain. Cardiothoracic surgeons manage surgical disease of the heart and its vessels. Neurosurgeons and interventional neuroradiologists manage surgical disease of the
    5.25
    4 votes
    52

    Hematopathology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Anemia
    Hematopathology is the branch of pathology which studies diseases of hematopoietic cells (see below). In the United States, hematopathology is a board certified subspecialty (American Board of Pathology) practiced by those physicians who have completed general pathology residency (anatomic, clinical, or combined) and additional fellowship training in hematology. Hematopoietic cells originate from the bone marrow and contribute the cellular components of blood including red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets (megakaryocyte-derived bodies). Additionally, leukocytes contribute significantly to the cellular composition of lymph nodes, the spleen, the thymus, and mucosa associated lymphoid tissues, and are present to some degree in all tissues. Diseases of the hematopoietic system generally manifest as decreases (anemia) or increases (lymphoma/leukemia) in these cell types. Consequently, hematopathologists most frequently evaluate peripheral blood smears, bone marrow aspirates and biopsies, and lymph nodes biopsies to determine the nature of hematopoietic disease. The hematopathologist incorporates traditional microscopy with ancillary techniques
    9.00
    1 votes
    53
    Hepatology

    Hepatology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Liver tumour
    Hepatology is the branch of medicine that incorporates the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas as well as management of their disorders. Etymologically the word Hepatology is formed of ancient Greek hepar(ηπαρ) or hepato-(ηπατο-) meaning ' liver' and suffix -logia(-λογια) meaning 'word' or 'speech'. Although traditionally considered a sub-specialty of gastroenterology, rapid expansion has led in some countries to doctors specializing solely on this area, who are called hepatologists. Diseases and complications related to viral hepatitis and alcohol are the main reason for seeking specialist advice. More than 2 billion people have been infected with Hepatitis B virus at some point in their life, and approximately 350 million have become persistent carriers. Up to 80% of liver cancers can be attributed to either hepatitis B or Hepatitis C virus. In terms of mortality, the former is second only to smoking among known agents causing cancer. With more widespread implementation of vaccination and strict screening before blood transfusion, lower infection rates are expected in the future. In many countries, though, overall alcohol consumption is increasing, and
    9.00
    1 votes
    54
    Radiology

    Radiology

    • Physicians with this Specialty: Antoine Béclère
    Radiology, is a medical specialty that employs the use of imaging to both diagnose and treat disease visualised within the human body. Radiologists use an array of imaging technologies (such as X-ray radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine, positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose or treat diseases. Interventional radiology is the performance of (usually minimally invasive) medical procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies. The acquisition of medical imaging is usually carried out by the radiographer or radiologic technologist. The following imaging modalities are used in the field of diagnostic radiology: Radiographs (or roentgenographs, named after the discoverer of X-rays, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen) are produced by transmitting X-rays through a patient. A capture device then converts them into visible light, which then forms an image for review and diagnosis. The original, and still common, imaging procedure uses silver-impregnated films. In film-screen radiography, an X-ray tube generates a beam of X-rays which is aimed at the patient. The X-rays that pass through the patient are filtered by placing
    9.00
    1 votes
    55

    Vocology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Laryngitis
    Vocology is the science and practice of vocal habilitation.. Its concerns include the nature of speech and language pathology, the defects of the vocal tract (laryngology), the remediation of speech therapy and the voice training and voice pedagogy of song and speech for actors and public speakers. In its broadest sense, vocology is the study of voice, but as a professional discipline it has a narrower focus: the science and practice of voice habilitation, which includes evaluation, diagnosis, and intervention. It is not yet its own professional degree thus only assist superficially to the voice medicine team. Usually a person practicing vocology is a voice coach with additional training in the voice medical arts, or a speech pathologist with additional voice performance training-- so they can better treat the professional voice user. The study of vocology is recognized academically in taught courses and institutes such as the National Center for Voice and Speech, Westminster Choir College at Rider University, The Grabscheid Voice Center at Mount Sinai Medical Center, the Vox Humana Laboratory at St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center and the Regional Center for Voice and Swallowing,
    9.00
    1 votes
    56
    Emergency medicine

    Emergency medicine

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Laryngitis
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Mickey Eisenberg
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Requena
    Emergency medicine is a medical specialty in which physicians (DOs and MDs) care for patients with acute illnesses or injuries which require immediate medical attention. While not usually providing long-term or continuing care, emergency medicine physicians diagnose a variety of illnesses and undertake acute interventions to resuscitate and stabilize patients. Emergency medicine physicians practice in hospital emergency departments, in pre-hospital settings via emergency medical services, other locations where initial medical treatment of illness takes place, and recently the intensive-care unit. Just as clinicians operate by immediacy rules under large emergency systems, emergency practitioners aim to diagnose emergent conditions and stabilize the patient for definitive care. Physicians specializing in emergency medicine in the US and Canada can enter fellowships to receive credentials in subspecialties. These are palliative medicine, critical care medicine, medical toxicology, wilderness medicine, pediatric emergency medicine, sports medicine, emergency medical services, and undersea and hyperbaric medicine. Emergency medicine has evolved to treat conditions that pose a threat to
    7.50
    2 votes
    57
    Endocrinology

    Endocrinology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Pancreatic cancer
    Endocrinology (from Greek ἔνδον, endo, "within"; κρῑνω, krīnō, "to separate"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions called hormones, the integration of developmental events such as proliferation, growth, and differentiation (including histogenesis and organogenesis) and the coordination of metabolism, respiration, excretion, movement, reproduction, and sensory perception depend on chemical cues, substances synthesized and secreted by specialized cells. Endocrinology is concerned with the study of the biosynthesis, storage, chemistry, biochemical and physiological function of hormones and with the cells of the endocrine glands and tissues that secrete them. The endocrine system consists of several glands, all and in different parts of the body, that secrete hormones directly into the blood rather than into a duct system. Hormones have many different functions and modes of action; one hormone may have several effects on different target organs, and, conversely, one target organ may be affected by more than one hormone. In the original 1902 definition by Bayliss and Starling (see below),
    7.50
    2 votes
    58

    Internal medicine

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Hepatitis B
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Peter Agre
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Antelope Valley Hospital Medical Center
    Internal medicine is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases. Physicians specializing in internal medicine are called internists. They are especially skilled in the management of patients who have undifferentiated or multi-system disease processes. Internists care for hospitalized and ambulatory patients and may play a major role in teaching and research. Although some internists are full-time hospitalists, many fulfill locum tenens (temporary) positions both locally and internationally. Internal medicine is also a specialty within clinical pharmacy and veterinary medicine. The term internal medicine comes from the German term Innere Medizin, popularized in Germany in the late 19th century to describe physicians who combined the science of the laboratory with the care of patients. Many early-20th-century American physicians studied medicine in Germany and brought this medical field to the United States. Thus, the name "internal medicine" was adopted in imitation of the existing German term. Specialists in internal medicine are commonly called internists in the United States. Elsewhere, especially in Commonwealth nations, such
    7.50
    2 votes
    59
    Medical genetics

    Medical genetics

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Down syndrome
    Medical genetics is the specialty of medicine that involves the diagnosis and management of hereditary disorders. Medical genetics differs from Human genetics in that human genetics is a field of scientific research that may or may not apply to medicine, but medical genetics refers to the application of genetics to medical care. For example, research on the causes and inheritance of genetic disorders would be considered within both human genetics and medical genetics, while the diagnosis, management, and counseling of individuals with genetic disorders would be considered part of medical genetics. In contrast, the study of typically non-medical phenotypes such as the genetics of eye color would be considered part of human genetics, but not necessarily relevant to medical genetics (except in situations such as albinism). Genetic medicine is a newer term for medical genetics and incorporates areas such as gene therapy, personalized medicine, and the rapidly emerging new medical specialty, predictive medicine. Medical genetics encompasses many different areas, including clinical practice of physicians, genetic counselors, and nutritionists, clinical diagnostic laboratory activities,
    7.50
    2 votes
    60

    NCI-designated Cancer Center

    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Fletcher Allen Health Care
    NCI-designated Cancer Centers are a group of approximately 64 cancer research institutions in the United States supported by the National Cancer Institute. Two designations are recognized: Comprehensive Cancer Centers and Cancer Centers. As of 2012, there are 41 Comprehensive Cancer Centers and 23 designated Cancer Centers. Receiving the NCI-designation places cancer centers among the top 4 percent of the approximately 1500 cancer centers in the United States. The standards for Comprehensive Cancer Centers are the more restrictive of the two types. These facilities must demonstrate expertise in each of three areas: laboratory, clinical, and behavioral and population-based research. Comprehensive Cancer Centers are expected to initiate and conduct early phase, innovative clinical trials and to participate in the NCI's cooperative groups by providing leadership and recruiting patients for trials. Comprehensive Cancer Centers must also conduct activities in outreach and education, and provide information on advances in healthcare for both healthcare professionals and the public. Cancer Centers generally conduct a combination of basic, population sciences, and clinical research, and
    7.50
    2 votes
    61

    Obstetrics and gynaecology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Endometrial cancer
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Ogino Ginko
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Baptist Memorial Hospital for Women
    Obstetrics and gynaecology (or obstetrics and gynecology; often abbreviated to OB/GYN, OBG, O&G or Obs & Gyne) are the two surgical–medical specialties dealing with the female reproductive organs in their pregnant and non-pregnant state, respectively, and as such are often combined to form a single medical specialty and postgraduate training programme. This combined training prepares the practicing OB/GYN to be adept at the surgical management of the entire scope of clinical pathology involving female reproductive organs, and to provide care for both pregnant and non-pregnant patients. In veterinary medicine, theriogenology is more commonly used term that also includes andrology. The training for physicians in this field is quite long: in Australia, for example, the residency training period is among the longest at six years, matched only by neurosurgery and maxillofacial surgery. In the UK, training lasts seven years. In the United States, four years in residency are required for MDs and DOs. In India, post graduate training in obstetrics and gynecology is in the form of a two-year diploma course (DGO) or a three-year (MD or MS). Some OB/GYN surgeons elect to do further
    7.50
    2 votes
    62

    Pediatric pulmonology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Upper respiratory tract infection
    A pediatric pulmonologist is a medical doctor that treats respiratory problems in children as well as adolescents. These doctors are trained in both pediatrics and the subspecialty of pulmonology. Pediatric pulmonology is a subspecialty studied in an accredited fellowship program. The requirements to become a Pediatric Pulmonologist generally include: Most of the cases that pediatric pulmonologists encounter have to do with asthma, chronic cough, difficulty breathing, cystic fibrosis, and chronic lung diseases in premature infants. Not all of the problems that they encounter are possible to cure.
    7.50
    2 votes
    63
    Neurosurgery

    Neurosurgery

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Parkinson's disease
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Arne Torkildsen
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: King's College Hospital
    Neurosurgery (or neurological surgery) is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. In the United States, a neurosurgeon must generally complete four years of college, four years of medical school, a one year internship (PGY-1) that is usually affiliated with their residency program, and five to seven years of neurosurgery residency (PGY-2-7). Most, but not all, residency programs have some component of basic science or clinical research. Some programs offer an internal PhD during the residency program as well. Neurosurgeons may pursue an additional training in a fellowship, after residency or in some cases, as a senior resident. These fellowships include pediatric neurosurgery, trauma/neurocritical care, functional and stereotactic surgery, surgical neuro-oncology, radiosurgery, neurovascular surgery, Interventional neuroradiology, peripheral nerve, spine surgery and skull base surgery. Neurosurgeons can also pursue fellowship training in neuropathology and
    6.00
    3 votes
    64
    Tropical medicine

    Tropical medicine

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Malaria
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Thomas Masterman Winterbottom
    Tropical medicine (also sometimes called International medicine) is the branch of medicine that deals with health problems that occur uniquely, are more widespread, or prove more difficult to control in tropical and subtropical regions. Many infections and infestations that are classified as "tropical diseases" used to be endemic in countries located in temperate or even cold areas. This includes widespread epidemics such as malaria and hookworm infections as well as exceedingly rare diseases like lagochilascaris minor. Many of these diseases have been controlled or even eliminated from developed countries, as a result of improvements in housing, diet, sanitation, and personal hygiene. Since climate is not the main reason why those infections remain endemic in tropical areas, there is a trend towards renaming this speciality as "Geographic Medicine" or "Third World Medicine." The training in Tropical Medicine is quite different between countries. Most physicians are trained at Institutes of Tropical Medicine. For example, the training of Dutch tropical doctors consists of two clinical years (Obstetrics & Gynecology, Paediatrics or General Surgery) and a three months course at the
    6.00
    3 votes
    65

    Vaccinology

    • Physicians with this Specialty: Maurice Hilleman
    Vaccinology is the scientific discipline of vaccine research.
    6.00
    3 votes
    66
    Cardiac surgery

    Cardiac surgery

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Rheumatic Heart Disease
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Royal Adelaide Hospital
    Cardiovascular surgery is surgery on the cardiovascular arteryheart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons. Frequently, it is done to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (for example, coronary artery bypass grafting), correct congenital heart disease, or treat valvular heart disease from various causes including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease and atherosclerosis. It also includes heart transplantation. The earliest operations on the pericardium (the sac that surrounds the heart) took place in the 19th century and were performed by Francisco Romero Dominique Jean Larrey, Henry Dalton, and Daniel Hale Williams. The first surgery on the heart itself was performed by Norwegian surgeon Axel Cappelen on the 4th of September 1895 at Rikshospitalet in Kristiania, now Oslo. He ligated a bleeding coronary artery in a 24 year old man who had been stabbed in the left axillae and was in deep shock upon arrival. Access was through a left thoracotomy. The patient awoke and seemed fine for 24 hours, but became ill with increasing temperature and he ultimately died from what the post mortem proved to be mediastinitis on the third postoperative day. The first successful
    7.00
    2 votes
    67
    Deep brain stimulation

    Deep brain stimulation

    • Physicians with this Specialty: Nicholas Schiff
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment involving the implantation of a medical device called a brain pacemaker, which sends electrical impulses to specific parts of the brain. DBS in select brain regions has provided remarkable therapeutic benefits for otherwise treatment-resistant movement and affective disorders such as chronic pain, Parkinson's disease, tremor and dystonia. Despite the long history of DBS, its underlying principles and mechanisms are still not clear. DBS directly changes brain activity in a controlled manner, its effects are reversible (unlike those of lesioning techniques) and is one of only a few neurosurgical methods that allows blinded studies. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved DBS as a treatment for essential tremor in 1997, for Parkinson's disease in 2002, and dystonia in 2003. DBS is also routinely used to treat chronic pain and has been used to treat various affective disorders, including major depression. While DBS has proven helpful for some patients, there is potential for serious complications and side effects. The deep brain stimulation system consists of three components: the implanted pulse generator (IPG), the lead,
    7.00
    2 votes
    68

    Nervous system disease

    Nervous system disease refers to a general class of medical conditions affecting the nervous system. They can be divided into: The term neuropathy is sometimes defined to include any disorder of the nervous system. With this usage, the terms "nervous system disease" and "neuropathy" would be synonymous.
    7.00
    2 votes
    69
    Pathology

    Pathology

    • Physicians with this Specialty: Jack Kevorkian
    Pathology is the precise study and diagnosis of disease. The word pathology is from Ancient Greek πάθος, pathos, "feeling, suffering"; and -λογία, -logia, "the study of". Pathologization, to pathologize, refers to the process of defining a condition or behavior as pathological, e.g. pathological gambling. Pathologies is synonymous with diseases. The suffix "path" is used to indicate a disease, e.g. psychopath. Pathology addresses 4 components of disease: cause/etiology, mechanisms of development (pathogenesis), structural alterations of cells (morphologic changes), and the consequences of changes (clinical manifestations). Pathology is further separated into divisions, based on either the system being studied (e.g. veterinary pathology and animal disease) or the focus of the examination (e.g. forensic pathology and determining the cause of death). General pathology is a broad and complex scientific field which seeks to understand the mechanisms of injury to cells and tissues, as well as the body's means of responding to and repairing injury. Areas of study include cellular adaptation to injury, necrosis, inflammation, wound healing, and neoplasia. It forms the foundation of
    7.00
    2 votes
    70
    Pediatrics

    Pediatrics

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Sinusitis
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Hans Asperger
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Shriners Hospitals for Children-Chicago
    Pediatrics (or paediatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician, or paediatrician. The word pediatrics and its cognates mean healer of children; they derive from two Greek words: παῖς (pais = child) and ἰατρός (iatros = doctor or healer). In the United States, a pediatrician (US spelling) is often a primary care physician who specializes in children, whereas in the Commonwealth a paediatrician (British spelling) generally is a medical specialist not in primary general practice. Pediatrics is a relatively new medical specialty. A 2nd century AD manuscript by the Greek physician and gynecologist Soranus of Ephesus dealt with neonatal pediatrics; the Persian scholar and doctor al-Razi (865–925) published a short treatise on diseases among children. The first printed book on pediatrics was in Italian (1472) – Bagallarder's Little Book on Disease in Children. Pediatrics as a specialized field of medicine developed in the mid-19th century; Abraham Jacobi (1830–1919) is known as the father of pediatrics because of his many contributions to the field.
    7.00
    2 votes
    71

    Xenotransplantation

    • Physicians with this Specialty: John R. Brinkley
    Xenotransplantation (xenos- from the Greek meaning "foreign"), is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another. Such cells, tissues or organs are called xenografts or xenotransplants. In contrast, the term allotransplantation refers to a same-species transplant. Human xenotransplantation offers a potential treatment for end-stage organ failure, a significant health problem in parts of the industrialized world. It also raises many novel medical, legal and ethical issues. A continuing concern is that many animals, such as pigs, have shorter lifespans than humans, meaning that their tissues age at a quicker rate. Disease transmission (xenozoonosis) and permanent alteration to the genetic code of animals are also causes for concern. There are few published cases of successful xenotransplantation. Because there is a worldwide shortage of organs for clinical implantation, about 60% of patients awaiting replacement organs die on the waiting list. Certain procedures, some of which are being investigated in early clinical trials, aim to use cells or tissues from other species to treat life-threatening and debilitating illnesses such as cancer, diabetes,
    7.00
    2 votes
    72

    Developmental disability

    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Willowbrook State School
    Developmental disability is a term used in the United States and Canada to describe lifelong disabilities attributable to mental or physical impairments, manifested prior to age 22. It is not synonymous with "developmental delay" which is often a consequence of a temporary illness or trauma during childhood. There are many social, environmental and physical causes of developmental disabilities, although for some a definitive cause may never be determined. Common factors causing developmental disabilities include: Developmental disabilities affect between 1 and 2% of the population in most western countries, although many government sources acknowledge that statistics are flawed in this area. The worldwide proportion of people with developmental disabilities is believed to be approximately 1.4%. It is twice as common in males as in females, and some researchers have found that the prevalence of mild developmental disabilities is likely to be higher in areas of poverty and deprivation, and among people of certain ethnicities. There are many physical health factors associated with developmental disabilities. For some specific syndromes and diagnoses, these are inherent (such as poor
    5.67
    3 votes
    73

    Genitourinary medicine

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Hydronephrosis
    Genitourinary medicine is a portmanteau that includes aspects of andrology, gynecology and urology. It is primarily related to medicine dealing with sexually transmitted diseases.
    8.00
    1 votes
    74
    Interventional radiology

    Interventional radiology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Cardiovascular disease
    Interventional radiology (abbreviated IR or VIR for Vascular and Interventional Radiology, also referred to as Surgical Radiology) is a medical sub-specialty of radiology which utilizes minimally-invasive image-guided procedures to diagnose and treat diseases in nearly every organ system. The concept behind interventional radiology is to diagnose and treat patients using the least invasive techniques currently available in order to minimize risk to the patient and improve health outcomes. As the inventors of angioplasty and the catheter-delivered stent, interventional radiologists pioneered modern minimally-invasive medicine. Using X-rays, CT, ultrasound, MRI, and other imaging modalities, interventional radiologists obtain images which are then used to direct interventional instruments throughout the body. These procedures are usually performed using needles and narrow tubes called catheters, rather than by making large incisions into the body as in traditional surgery. Many conditions that once required surgery can now be treated non-surgically by interventional radiologists. By minimizing the physical trauma to the patient, peripheral interventions can reduce infection rates and
    8.00
    1 votes
    75
    Physical medicine and rehabilitation

    Physical medicine and rehabilitation

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Anterior cruciate ligament injury
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago
    Physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R), physiatry /fɨˈzaɪ.ətri/ or rehabilitation medicine, is a branch of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities. A physician having completed training in this field is referred to as a physiatrist or rehabilitation medicine specialist. Physiatrists specialize in restoring optimal function to people with injuries to the muscles, bones, tissues, and nervous system (such as stroke patients). The term 'physiatry' was coined by Dr. Frank H. Krusen in 1938. The term was accepted by the American Medical Association in 1946. The field grew notably during World War II to accommodate the large number of injured soldiers. A handful of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation doctors create domains by performing electromyography. Electromyography are used to provide nervous system functional information to aid the diagnosis and prognosis for various neuromuscular disorders. Common conditions that are treated by the rehabilitation therapists include amputation, spinal cord injury, sports injury, stroke, musculoskeletal pain syndromes such as low back pain, fibromyalgia,
    8.00
    1 votes
    76
    Erectile dysfunction

    Erectile dysfunction

    • Physicians with this Specialty: John R. Brinkley
    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual performance. A penile erection is the hydraulic effect of blood entering and being retained in sponge-like bodies within the penis. The process is often initiated as a result of sexual arousal, when signals are transmitted from the brain to nerves in the penis. Erectile dysfunction is indicated when an erection is difficult to produce. There are various circulatory causes, including alteration of the voltage-gated potassium channel, as in arsenic poisoning from drinking water. The most important organic causes are cardiovascular disease and diabetes, neurological problems (for example, trauma from prostatectomy surgery), hormonal insufficiencies (hypogonadism) and drug side effects. Psychological impotence is where erection or penetration fails due to thoughts or feelings (psychological reasons) rather than physical impossibility; this is somewhat less frequent but often can be helped. Notably in psychological impotence, there is a strong response to placebo treatment. Erectile dysfunction, tied closely as it is about ideas of physical well
    6.50
    2 votes
    77
    Gastroenterology

    Gastroenterology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Colorectal cancer
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Kenneth Hammerman
    Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is a branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders. The name is a combination of three Ancient Greek words gaster (gen.: gastros) (stomach), enteron (intestine), and logos (reason). In the United States, Gastroenterology is an Internal Medicine Subspecialty certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) and the American Osteopathic Board of Internal Medicine (AOBIM). Diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the organs from mouth to anus, along the alimentary canal, are the focus of this specialty. Physicians practicing in this field of medicine are called gastroenterologists. They have usually completed the eight years of pre-medical and medical education, the year-long internship (if this is not a part of the residency), three years of an internal medicine residency, and two to three years in the gastroenterology fellowship. Some gastroenterology trainees will complete a "fourth-year" (although this is often their 7th year of graduate medical education) in Transplant Hepatology, Advanced Endoscopy, IBD, motility or other topics. Gastroenterology is not the same as colorectal or hepatobiliary
    6.50
    2 votes
    78
    Osteopathic medicine

    Osteopathic medicine

    Osteopathic medicine is a branch of the medical profession in the United States. Osteopathic physicians are licensed to practice medicine and surgery in all 50 states and are recognized in fifty-five other countries, including all Canadian provinces. Frontier physician Andrew Taylor Still founded the profession as a radical rejection of the prevailing system of medical thought of the 19th century. Still's techniques relied heavily on the manipulation of joints and bones to diagnose and treat illness, and he called his practices "osteopathy". By the middle of the 20th century, the profession had moved closer to mainstream medicine, adopting modern public health and biomedical principles. American "osteopaths" became "osteopathic physicians", gradually achieving full practice rights as medical doctors in all 50 states, including serving in the U.S. armed forces as physicians. In the 21st century, the training of osteopathic physicians in the United States is very similar to that of their M.D. counterparts. Osteopathic physicians attend four years of medical school followed by at least three years of residency. They use all conventional methods of diagnosis and treatment. Though still
    6.50
    2 votes
    79
    Plastic surgery

    Plastic surgery

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Bedsore
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Broomfield Hospital
    Plastic surgery is a medical specialty concerned with the correction or restoration of form and function. Though cosmetic or aesthetic surgery is the best-known kind of plastic surgery, most plastic surgery is not cosmetic: plastic surgery includes many types of reconstructive surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns. In the term plastic surgery, the adjective plastic denotes sculpting, and derives from the Greek πλαστική (τέχνη), plastikē (tekhnē), “the art of modelling” of malleable flesh. Reconstructive surgery techniques were being carried out in India by 800 BC. Sushruta, the father of Surgery, made important contributions to the field of plastic and cataract surgery in 6th century BC. The medical works of both Sushruta and Charak originally in Sanskrit were translated into Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate in 750 AD. The Arabic translations made their way into Europe via intermediaries. In Italy the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta. British physicians traveled to India to see rhinoplasties being performed by native methods. Reports on Indian rhinoplasty performed by a
    6.50
    2 votes
    80
    Sports medicine

    Sports medicine

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Mallet finger
    Sports medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness, treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise. Although Most sports teams have employed Team physicians for many years, it is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In recent years Western society has increasingly recognized the dangers of Physical inactivity, and significant efforts have been made within the Public Health community to encourage the nation to become more physically active. To reflect this paradigm shift BASM has renamed itself BASEM (British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine) and the speciality itself has rebranded from Sports Medicine to Sport & Exercise Medicine. Since 2007 several deaneries across the UK have established training programmes in SEM, and recurrent funding for 50 National Training Numbers (NTN’s) is available. In the past SEM has largely been a special interest among General Practitioners. The minimal level of qualification is a Diploma available from FSEM (the Faculty of Sport and Exercise Medicine, which works to develop and promote the medical specialty of Sport and
    6.50
    2 votes
    81
    Surgery

    Surgery

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Colorectal polyp
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Mary Edwards Walker
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Mary Shiels Hospital
    Surgery (from the Greek: χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via Latin: chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance. An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical procedure, operation, or simply surgery. In this context, the verb operate means to perform surgery. The adjective surgical means pertaining to surgery; e.g. surgical instruments or surgical nurse. The patient or subject on which the surgery is performed can be a person or an animal. A surgeon is a person who practises surgery. Persons described as surgeons are commonly physicians, but the term is also applied to podiatrists, dentists (known as oral and maxillofacial surgeons) and veterinarians. A surgery can last from minutes to hours, but is typically not an ongoing or periodic type of treatment. The term surgery can also refer to the place where surgery is performed, or simply the office of a physician, dentist, or veterinarian. Elective surgery generally refers to a surgical procedure that can be scheduled
    6.50
    2 votes
    82
    Dentistry

    Dentistry

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Dental caries
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Fritz Pfeffer
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: King's College Hospital
    Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, the maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures, and their impact on the human body. To the layman, dentistry tends to be perceived as being focused primarily on human teeth, though it is not limited strictly to this. Dentistry is widely considered necessary for complete overall health. Doctors who practice dentistry are known as dentists. The dentist's supporting team – which includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, and dental therapists – aids in providing oral health services. Dentistry usually encompasses very important practices related to the oral cavity. Oral diseases are major public health problems due to their high incidence and prevalence across the globe with the disadvantaged affected more than other socio-economic groups. The majority of dental treatments are carried out to prevent or treat the two most common oral diseases which are dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontal disease (gum disease or pyorrhea). Common treatments involve the restoration of teeth as a
    5.33
    3 votes
    83

    Urgent care

    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Burnley General Hospital
    Urgent care is the delivery of ambulatory care in a facility dedicated to the delivery of medical care outside of a hospital emergency department, usually on an unscheduled, walk-in basis. Urgent care centers are primarily used to treat patients who have an injury or illness that requires immediate care but is not serious enough to warrant a visit to an emergency department. Often urgent care centers are not open on a continuous basis, unlike a hospital emergency department which would be open at all times. The initial urgent care centers opened in the 1970s. Since then, this sector of the healthcare industry has rapidly expanded to an approximately 10,000 centers. Many of these centers have been started by emergency medicine physicians who have responded to the public need for convenient access to unscheduled medical care. Much of the growth of these centers has been fueled by the significant savings that urgent care centers provide over the care in a hospital emergency department. Many managed care organizations (MCOs) now encourage their customers to utilize the urgent care option. The Urgent Care Association of America established criteria for urgent care centers in April 2009
    5.00
    3 votes
    84
    6.00
    2 votes
    85

    Hand surgery

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Mallet finger
    The field of hand surgery deals with both surgical and non-surgical treatment of conditions and problems that may take place in the hand or upper extremity (commonly from the tip of the hand to the shoulder) including injury and infection. Hand surgery may be practiced by graduates of general surgery, orthopedic surgery and plastic surgery. Plastic surgeons and orthopedic surgeons receive significant training in hand surgery during their residency training, with some graduates going on to do an additional one year hand fellowship. Board certified general, plastic, or orthopedics surgeons who have completed approved fellowship training in hand surgery and have met a number of other practice requirements are qualified to take the "Certificate of Added Qualifications in Surgery of the Hand" examination, formerly known as the CAQSH, it is now known as the SOTH." Regardless of their original field of training, once candidates have completed an approved fellowship in hand surgery, all hand surgeons have received training in treating all injuries both to the bones and soft tissues of the hand and upper extremity. Among those without additional hand training, Plastic surgeons have usually
    6.00
    2 votes
    86
    Medical microbiology

    Medical microbiology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Meningeal Tuberculosis
    Medical microbiology is both a branch of medicine and microbiology which deals with the study of microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites which are of medical importance and are capable of causing infectious diseases in human beings. It includes the study of microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology and is related to the study of disease pathology and immunology. This branch of microbiology is amongst the most widely studied and followed branches due to its great importance to medicine. Along with providing a deep knowledge and understanding of the nature of pathogens this line of study has also been applied in several immunological innovations in the field of medical science. Through the development of vaccines against invading organisms, deadly and debilitating diseases such as smallpox, polio, and tuberculosis have been either eradicated or are more treatable because of the efforts of scientists and researchers in the field of medical microbiology. There are four fields in medical microbiology : The discipline consists primarily of four major spheres of activity: In addition to these primary activities, medical microbiologists are also involved in teaching
    6.00
    2 votes
    87
    Cardiothoracic Surgery

    Cardiothoracic Surgery

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Myocardial infarction
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Royal Hobart Hospital
    Cardiothoracic surgery is the field of medicine involved in surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the thorax (the chest)—generally treatment of conditions of the heart (heart disease) and lungs (lung disease). Cardiac surgery (involving the heart and great vessels) and thoracic surgery (involving the lungs) are separate surgical specialties, except in the USA, the UK, Australia, New Zealand and in some EU countries, such as Portugal. A cardiac surgery residency typically comprises anywhere from six to nine years (or longer) of training to become a fully qualified surgeon. Cardiac surgery training may be combined with thoracic surgery and / or vascular surgery and called cardiovascular (CV) / cardiothoracic (CT) / cardiovascular thoracic (CVT) surgery. Cardiac surgeons may enter a cardiac surgery residency directly from medical school, or first complete a general surgery residency followed by a fellowship. Cardiac surgeons may further sub-specialize cardiac surgery by doing a fellowship in a variety of topics including: pediatric cardiac surgery, cardiac transplantation, adult acquired heart disease, weak heart issues and many more problems in the heart. The
    7.00
    1 votes
    88
    Public health

    Public health

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Wilson's disease
    Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" (1920, C.E.A. Winslow). It is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. The population in question can be as small as a handful of people or as large as all the inhabitants of several continents (for instance, in the case of a pandemic). The dimensions of health can encompass "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity", as defined by the United Nations' World Health Organization. Public health incorporates the interdisciplinary approaches of epidemiology, biostatistics and health services. Environmental health, community health, behavioral health, health economics, public policy, insurance medicine and occupational health (respectively occupational medicine) are other important subfields. The focus of public health intervention is to improve health and quality of life through the prevention and treatment of disease and other physical and mental health conditions,
    7.00
    1 votes
    89
    Geriatrics

    Geriatrics

    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Hackensack University Medical Center
    Geriatrics or geriatric medicine is a sub-specialty of internal medicine and family medicine that focuses on health care of elderly people. It aims to promote health by preventing and treating diseases and disabilities in older adults. There is no set age at which patients may be under the care of a geriatrician or geriatric physician, a physician who specializes in the care of elderly people. Rather, this decision is determined by the individual patient's needs, and the availability of a specialist. Geriatrics, the care of aged people, differs from gerontology, which is the study of the aging process itself. The term geriatrics comes from the Greek γέρων geron meaning "old man" and ιατρός iatros meaning "healer". However, geriatrics is sometimes called medical gerontology. Geriatrics differs from standard adult medicine because it focuses on the unique needs of the elderly person. The aged body is different physiologically from the younger adult body, and during old age, the decline of various organ systems becomes manifest. Previous health issues and lifestyle choices produce a different constellation of diseases and symptoms in different people. The appearance of symptoms
    5.50
    2 votes
    90
    Infertility

    Infertility

    Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a person to contribute to conception. Infertility may also refer to the state of a woman who is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term. There are many biological causes of infertility, some which may be bypassed with medical intervention. Women who are fertile experience a natural period of fertility before and during ovulation, and they are naturally infertile during the rest of the menstrual cycle. Fertility awareness methods are used to discern when these changes occur by tracking changes in cervical mucus or basal body temperature. Definitions of infertility differ, with demographers tending to define infertility as childlessness in a population of women of reproductive age, while the epidemiological definition is based on "trying for" or "time to" a pregnancy, generally in a population of women exposed to a probability of conception. The time that needs to pass (during which the couple has tried to conceive) for that couple to be diagnosed with infertility differs between different jurisdictions. Existing definitions of infertility lack uniformity, rendering comparisons in prevalence between countries or over time
    5.50
    2 votes
    91
    Occupational therapy

    Occupational therapy

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    According to the World Federation of Occupational Therapy, “occupational therapy is a profession concerned with promoting health and well being through engagement in occupation." Occupational therapy (also abbreviated as OT) is a holistic health care profession that aims to promote health by enabling individuals to perform meaningful and purposeful activities across the lifespan. Occupational therapists are health professionals that use treatments to develop, recover, or maintain the daily living and work skills of their patients with a physical, mental or developmental condition. Under the supervision of occupational therapists, occupational therapy assistants may contribute to the treatment process. Occupational therapy is a client-centered practice in which the client has an integral part in the therapeutic process. The occupational therapy process includes an individualized evaluation during which the client/family and occupational therapist determine the individual’s goals; a customized intervention to improve the person’s ability to perform daily activities and reach his/her goals; and an outcomes evaluation to monitor progression towards meeting the client’s goals.
    5.50
    2 votes
    92
    Clinical psychology

    Clinical psychology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Body dysmorphic disorder
    Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development. Central to its practice are psychological assessment and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration. In many countries, clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession. The field is often considered to have begun in 1896 with the opening of the first psychological clinic at the University of Pennsylvania by Lightner Witmer. In the first half of the 20th century, clinical psychology was focused on psychological assessment, with little attention given to treatment. This changed after the 1940s when World War II resulted in the need for a large increase in the number of trained clinicians. Since that time, two main educational models have developed—the Ph.D. scientist–practitioner model (requiring a doctoral dissertation and therefore research as well as clinical expertise); and the Psy.D. practitioner–scholar
    6.00
    1 votes
    93
    Gynecology

    Gynecology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Cervical cancer
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: St Mary's Hospital, Manchester
    Gynaecology or gynecology is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive system (uterus, vagina, and ovaries). Literally, outside medicine, it means "the science of women". Its counterpart is andrology, which deals with medical issues specific to the male reproductive system. Almost all modern gynaecologists are also obstetricians (see obstetrics and gynaecology). In many areas, the specialties of gynaecology and obstetrics overlap. Gynaecology has been considered to end at 28 weeks gestation, but practically there is no clear cut-off. Since 1st October 1992, this cut-off may be considered to occur at 24 weeks gestation in the United States, since the law and definition of abortion changed to bring it closer to the gestation at which a fetus becomes viable. The word "gynaecology" comes from the Greek ancient Greek gyne, γυνή, modern Greek gynaika, γυναίκα, meaning woman + logia meaning study, so gynaecology literally is the study of women. The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus is the oldest known medical text of any kind. Dated to about 1800 B.C., it deals with women's complaints—gynaecological diseases, fertility, pregnancy, contraception, etc. The text is
    6.00
    1 votes
    94
    Optometry

    Optometry

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Myopia
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Gil Morgan
    Optometry is a health care profession concerned with the health of the eyes and related structures, as well as vision, visual systems, and vision information processing in humans. Optometrists (also known as ophthalmic opticians outside the United States and Canada) are trained to prescribe and fit lenses to improve vision, and to diagnose and treat various eye diseases. In the United States and Canada optometrists are considered Doctors of Optometry and are held to the same legal standards as any physician. In all U.S. states optometrists are licensed to diagnose and treat diseases of the eye through topical diagnostic and therapeutic drugs, and oral drugs in 47/50 states. Doctors of Optometry are also able to perform certain types of laser surgery in some states. In other countries patients are referred to other healthcare professionals, such as ophthalmologists, neurologists and general medical practitioners for further treatment or investigation. The term "optometry" comes from the Greek words ὄψις (opsis; "view") and μέτρον (metron; "something used to measure", "measure", "rule"). The root word opto, is a shortened form derived from the Greek word, ophthalmos, meaning, "eye."
    6.00
    1 votes
    95

    Allergy and Immunology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Hay fever
    Allergy and Immunology is a medical specialty on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of diseases and medical conditions involving the immune system.The field of Allergy and Immunology covers a wide variety of conditions, from allergies brought on by environmental factors, food and drug, etc. to autoimmune diseases and AIDS. The Americn Board of Medical Specialties offers board certification on the specialty of Allergy and Immunology.
    5.00
    2 votes
    96
    Cerebral palsy

    Cerebral palsy

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is an umbrella term encompassing a group of non-progressive, non-contagious motor conditions that cause physical disability in human development, chiefly in the various areas of body movement. Cerebral refers to the cerebrum, which is the affected area of the brain (although the disorder probably involves connections between the cortex and other parts of the brain such as the cerebellum), and palsy refers to disorder of movement. Furthermore, paralytic disorders are not cerebral palsy – the condition of quadriplegia, therefore, should not be confused with spastic quadriplegia, nor tardive dyskinesia with dyskinetic cerebral palsy, nor diplegia with spastic diplegia, and so on. Cerebral palsy's nature as an umbrella term means it is defined mostly via several different subtypes, especially the type featuring spasticity, and also mixtures of those subtypes. Cerebral palsy is caused by damage to the motor control centers of the developing brain and can occur during pregnancy, during childbirth or after birth up to about age three. Resulting limits in movement and posture cause activity limitation and are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, depth
    5.00
    2 votes
    97

    Faith healing

    • Hospitals with this Specialty: City of Faith Medical Center
    Faith healing is healing through spiritual means. Believers assert that the healing of a person can be brought about by religious faith through prayer and/or rituals that, according to adherents, stimulate a divine presence and power toward correcting disease and disability. Belief in divine intervention in illness or healing is related to religious belief. In common usage, faith healing refers to notably overt and ritualistic practices of communal prayer and gestures (such as laying on of hands) that are claimed to solicit divine intervention in initiating spiritual and literal healing. Claims that prayer, divine intervention, or the ministrations of an individual healer can cure illness have been popular throughout history. Miraculous recoveries have been attributed to many techniques commonly lumped together as "faith healing". It can involve prayer, a visit to a religious shrine, or simply a strong belief in a supreme being. The term is best known in connection with Christianity. Some people interpret the Bible, especially the New Testament, as teaching belief in, and practice of, faith healing. There have been claims that faith can cure blindness, deafness, cancer, AIDS,
    5.00
    2 votes
    98
    Immunology

    Immunology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Systemic lupus erythematosus
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Paul A. Offit
    Immunology is a branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. It deals with the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and diseases; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. Immunology has applications in several disciplines of science, and as such is further divided. Even before the concept of immunity (from immunis, Latin for "exempt") was developed, numerous early physicians characterized organs that would later prove to be part of the immune system. The key primary lymphoid organs of the immune system are the thymus and bone marrow, and secondary lymphatic tissues such as spleen, tonsils, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, adenoids, and skin and liver. When health conditions warrant, immune system organs including the thymus, spleen, portions of bone marrow, lymph nodes and secondary lymphatic tissues can be surgically excised for examination while patients are still
    5.00
    2 votes
    99

    Burn surgery

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Dehydration
    Burn surgery is a sub specialization of surgery that deals with the surgical management of burn injuries.
    5.00
    1 votes
    100

    Family medicine

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: AIDS
    Family medicine (FM), formerly Family Practice (FP), is a medical specialty devoted to comprehensive health care for people of all ages; the specialist is named a family physician, family doctor, or formerly family practitioner. It is a division of primary care that provides continuing and comprehensive health care for the individual and family across all ages, genders, diseases, and parts of the body. It is based on knowledge of the patient in the context of the family and the community, emphasizing disease prevention and health promotion. According to the World Organization of Family Doctors (Wonca), the aim of family medicine is to provide personal, comprehensive and continuing care for the individual in the context of the family and the community. The issues of values underlying this practice are usually known as primary care ethics. In Europe the discipline is often referred to as general practice, emphasising its holistic nature rather as well as its roots in the family. Others refer to it as the classic GP, knowledgeable yet compassionate. Family physicians in the United States may hold either an M.D. or a D.O. degree. Physicians who specialize in family medicine must
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    101

    Maternal-fetal medicine

    Maternal-Fetal medicine (MFM) is the branch of obstetrics that focuses on the medical and surgical management of high-risk pregnancies. Management includes monitoring and treatment including comprehensive ultrasound, chorionic villus sampling, genetic amniocentesis, and fetal surgery or treatment. Obstetricians who practice maternal-fetal medicine are also known as perinatologists. This is a subspecialty to obstetrics and gynecology mainly used for patients with high-risk pregnancies. Maternal-fetal medicine specialists are obstetrician-gynecologists who undergo an additional 2-3 years of specialized training in the assessment and management of high-risk pregnancies. As a result, they are able to take care of pregnant women who have special medical problems (e.g. heart or kidney disease, hypertension, diabetes, and thrombophilia), pregnant women who are at risk for pregnancy-related complications (e.g. preterm labor, pre-eclampsia, and twin or triplet pregnancies), and pregnant women with fetuses at risk. Fetuses may be at risk because of chromosomal or congenital abnormalities, maternal disease, infections, genetic diseases, and growth restriction. Maternal-fetal medicine
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    102
    Cardiology

    Cardiology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Myocardial infarction
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Karel Frederik Wenckebach
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Bakersfield Heart Hospital
    Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ, kardiā, "heart"; and -λογία, -logia) is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the heart (specifically the human heart). The field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Physicians who specialize in this field of medicine are called cardiologists. Physicians who specialize in cardiac surgery are called cardiac surgeons. Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine. To be a cardiologist in the United States, a three year residency in internal medicine is followed by a three year residency in cardiology. It is possible to specialize further in a subspecialty. Recognized subspecialties in the United States by the ACGME are: Recognized subspecialties in the United States by the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists (AOABOS) include: As the center focus of cardiology, the heart has numerous anatomical features (e.g., atria, ventricles, heart valves) and numerous physiological features (e.g., systole, heart sounds, afterload) that have been encyclopedically documented for many centuries. Disorders of the
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    103

    Drug rehabilitation

    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Brattleboro Retreat
    Drug rehabilitation (often drug rehab or just rehab) is a term for the processes of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment, for dependency on psychoactive substances such as alcohol, prescription drugs, and so-called street drugs such as cocaine, heroin or amphetamines. The general intent is to enable the patient to cease substance abuse, in order to avoid the psychological, legal, financial, social, and physical consequences that can be caused, especially by extreme abuse. Psychological dependency is addressed in many drug rehabilitation programs by attempting to teach the patient new methods of interacting in a drug-free environment. In particular, patients are generally encouraged, or possibly even required, to not associate with friends who still use the addictive substance. Twelve-step programs encourage addicts not only to stop using alcohol or other drugs, but to examine and change habits related to their addictions. Many programs emphasize that recovery is a permanent process without culmination. For legal drugs such as alcohol, complete abstention—rather than attempts at moderation, which may lead to relapse—is also emphasized ("One is too many, and a thousand is never
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    104
    Psychology

    Psychology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Anxiety disorder
    Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors. Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases, and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist, and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and neurobiological processes that underlie certain cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore concepts such as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. Psychologists of diverse stripes also consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling
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    105
    Pulmonology

    Pulmonology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Pneumothorax
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Royal Adelaide Hospital
    Pulmonology is the medical specialty dealing with disease involving the respiratory tract. The term is derived from the Latin word pulmō, pulmonis ("lung") and the Greek -λογία, -logia. Pulmonology is also occasionally referred to as pneumology, from the Greek πνεύμων ("lung") and -λογία, -logia, and sometimes also respirology. Pulmonology is called chest medicine and respiratory medicine in some countries and areas. Pulmonology is considered a branch of internal medicine, and is related to intensive care medicine. Pulmonology often involves managing patients who need life support and mechanical ventilation. Pulmonologists are specially trained in diseases and conditions of the chest, particularly pneumonia, asthma, tuberculosis, emphysema, and complicated chest infections. In the United Kingdom, Ireland, South Africa, and Australia the term "respiratory physician" is used (rather than pulmonologist) to distinguish a physician that practices pulmonology. In Canada, respirology and respirologist are used. Surgery of the respiratory tract is generally performed by specialists in cardiothoracic surgery (or thoracic surgery), though minor procedures may be performed by pulmonologists.
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    106

    Speech and language pathology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Laryngitis
    Speech-Language Pathology (also known as logopaedics or logopedics) professionals (Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs), or informally speech therapists) specialize in communication disorders as well as swallowing disorders. The main components of speech production include: phonation, the process of sound production; resonance; intonation, the variation of pitch; and voice, including aeromechanical components of respiration. The main components of language include: phonology, the manipulation of sound according to the rules of the language; morphology, the understanding and use of the minimal units of meaning; syntax, the grammar rules for constructing sentences in language; semantics, the interpretation of meaning from the signs or symbols of communication; and pragmatics, the social aspects of communication. Speech-language pathology is known by a variety of names in various countries around the world: Prior to 2006, the practice of Speech-Language Pathology in the United States was regulated by the individual states. Since January 2006, the 2005 "Standards and Implementation Procedures for the Certificate of Clinical Competence in Speech-Language Pathology" guidelines as set out
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    107
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    108
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    109

    Dermatology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Skin cancer
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: National Skin Centre
    Dermatology is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases, a unique specialty with both medical and surgical aspects. A dermatologist takes care of diseases, in the widest sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails. Coined in English 1819, the word dermatology originated in the form of the words dermologie (in French, 1764) and, a little later, dermatologia (in Latin, 1777). The term derives from the Greek "δέρματος" (dermatos), genitive of "δέρμα" (derma), "skin" (from "δέρω" – dero, "to flay") + "-logy, "the study of", a suffix derived from "λόγος" (logos), amongst others meaning "speech, oration, discourse, quote, study, calculation, reason", in turn from "λέγω" – lego, "to say", "to speak". Readily visible alterations of the skin surface have been recognized since the dawn of history, with some being treated, and some not. In 1801 the first great school of dermatology became a reality at the famous Hôpital Saint-Louis in Paris, while the first textbooks (Willan's, 1798–1808) and atlases (Alibert's, 1806–1814) appeared in print during the same period of time. In 1952, Dermatology was greatly advanced by Dr. Norman Orentreich's
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    110
    Forensic psychiatry

    Forensic psychiatry

    Forensic psychiatry is a sub-speciality of psychiatry and an auxiliar science of criminology. It encompasses the interface between law and psychiatry. A forensic psychiatrist provides services – such as determination of competency to stand trial – to a court of law to facilitate the adjudicative process. Forensic psychiatrists work with courts evaluating an individual's competency to stand trial, defences based on mental diseases or defects (e.g., the "insanity" defense), and sentencing recommendations. There are two major areas of criminal evaluations in forensic psychiatry. These are Competency to Stand trial (CST) and Mental State at the Time of the Offence (MSO). This is the competency evaluation to determine that a defendant has the mental capacity to understand the charges and assist his attorney. This is seated in the Fifth Amendment to the US Constitution, which ensures the right to be present at your trial, to face your accusers, and to have help from an attorney. In English and Welsh law a similar concept is that of "fitness to plead". Forensic psychiatrists are often called to be expert witnesses in both criminal and civil proceedings. Expert witnesses give their opinion
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    111
    Neurology

    Neurology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Motor neuron disease
    • Physicians with this Specialty: Jonathan Miller
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: LifeCare Hospitals of San Antonio
    Neurology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve" + the suffix -λογία, '-logia', "study of") is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system. To be specific, it deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle. The corresponding surgical specialty is neurosurgery. A neurologist is a physician specializing in neurology and trained to investigate, or diagnose and treat neurological disorders. Neurologists may also be involved in clinical research, and clinical trials, as well as basic research and translational research. Neurology, being a branch of medicine, differs from neuroscience, which is the scientific study of the nervous system in all its aspects. A large number of neurological disorders have been described. These can affect the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), the peripheral nervous system, or the autonomic nervous system. In the United States and Canada, neurologists are physicians who have completed postgraduate training in neurology after graduation from medical school.
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    112

    Preventive medicine

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: AIDS
    Preventive medicine or preventive care consists of measures taken to prevent diseases, (or injuries) rather than curing them or treating their symptoms. This contrasts in method with curative and palliative medicine, and in scope with public health methods (which work at the level of population health rather than individual health). Occupational medicine operates very often within the preventive medicine. Preventive medicine strategies are typically described as taking place at the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary prevention levels. In addition, the term primal prevention has been used to describe all measures taken to ensure fetal well-being and prevent any long-term health consequences from gestational history and/or disease. The rationale for such efforts is the evidence demonstrating the link between fetal well-being, or "primal health," and adult health. Primal prevention strategies typically focus on providing future parents with: education regarding the consequences of epigenetic influences on their child, sufficient leave time for both parents, and financial support if required. This includes parenting in infancy as well. Simple examples of preventive medicine
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    113

    Protozoology

    • Physicians with this Specialty: Carlos Chagas
    Protozoology is the study of protozoan, the "animal-like" (i.e., motile and heterotrophic) protists. This term has become dated as our understanding of the evolutionary relationships of the eukaryota has improved.
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    114

    Rheumatology

    • Associated Diseases or Conditions: Arthritis
    • Hospitals with this Specialty: Royal National Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases
    Rheumatology is a sub-specialty in internal medicine and pediatrics, devoted to diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases. Clinicians who specialize in rheumatology are called rheumatologists. Rheumatologists deal mainly with clinical problems involving joints, soft tissues, autoimmune diseases, vasculitis, and heritable connective tissue disorders. The term rheumatology originates from the Greek word rheuma, meaning "that which flows as a river or stream," and the suffix -logy, meaning "the study of." Rheumatology is a rapidly evolving medical specialty, with advancements owing largely to new scientific discoveries related to immunology of these disorders. Because characteristics of some rheumatological disorders are often best explained by immunology, pathogenesis of many major rheumatological disorders are now described in terms of the autoimmune system, i.e. as an autoimmune disease. Correspondingly, most new treatment modalities are also based on clinical research in immunology and the resulting improved understanding of the genetic basis of rheumatological disorders. Future treatment may include gene therapy as well. At present evidence-based medical treatment of
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    115

    Travel medicine

    Travel medicine or emporiatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and management of health problems of international travelers. Globalization facilitates the spread of disease and increases the number of travelers who will be exposed to a different health environment. Major content areas of travel medicine include the global epidemiology of health risks to the traveler, vaccinology, malaria prevention, and pre-travel counseling designed to maintain the health of the approximately 600 million international travelers. It has been estimated that about 80 million travelers go annually from developed to developing countries. Mortality studies indicate that the cardiovascular disease accounts for most deaths during travel (50-70%), while injury and accident follow (~25%). Infectious disease accounts for about 2.8-4% of deaths during/from travel. Morbidity studies suggest that about half of the people from a developed country that stay one month in a developing country will get sick. Traveler's diarrhea is the most common problem encountered. The field of travel medicine encompasses a wide variety of disciplines including epidemiology, infectious disease, public
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