Top List Curated by Listnerd
  • Public list
  • Nov 27th 2012
  • 1.545 views
  • 615 votes
  • 615 voters
  • 8%
Best Material of All Time

More about Best Material of All Time:

Best Material of All Time is a public top list created by Listnerd on rankly.com on November 27th 2012. Items on the Best Material of All Time top list are added by the rankly.com community and ranked using our secret ranking sauce. Best Material of All Time has gotten 1.545 views and has gathered 615 votes from 615 voters. O O

Best Material of All Time is a top list in the Science category on rankly.com. Are you a fan of Science or Best Material of All Time? Explore more top 100 lists about Science on rankly.com or participate in ranking the stuff already on the all time Best Material of All Time top list below.

If you're not a member of rankly.com, you should consider becoming one. Registration is fast, free and easy. At rankly.com, we aim to give you the best of everything - including stuff like the Best Material of All Time list.

Get your friends to vote! Spread this URL or share:

Items just added

    1
    Erebus Crystal

    Erebus Crystal

    An Erebus crystal is an anorthoclase mineral, a type of feldspar found in the immediate area surrounding Mount Erebus in Antarctica near McMurdo Station. This particular feldspar crystal is rich in sodium, potassium, and aluminium silicate. Similar crystals can also be found on Mount Kenya. Though the formation and growth of these crystals is not well understood, it is evident that the crystals grow in the magma beneath Mount Erebus and are ejected out of the mountain encased in glassy volcanic bombs. This glass structure quickly weathers away leaving the mountainside covered in crystals.
    7.00
    8 votes
    2
    7.86
    7 votes
    3
    Bakelite

    Bakelite

    • Parent material class: Phenol formaldehyde resin
    Bakelite ( /ˈbeɪkəlaɪt/ BAY-kə-lyt), or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, is an early plastic. It is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from an elimination reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. It was developed by Belgian-born chemist Leo Baekeland in New York in 1907. One of the first plastics made from synthetic components, Bakelite was used for its electrical nonconductivity and heat-resistant properties in electrical insulators, radio and telephone casings, and such diverse products as kitchenware, jewelry, pipe stems, and children's toys. In 1993 Bakelite was designated a National Historic Chemical Landmark by the American Chemical Society in recognition of its significance as the world's first synthetic plastic. The "retro" appeal of old Bakelite products and labor intensive manufacturing has made them collectible in recent years. Bakelite and Bakelit are registered trademarks of Momentive Specialty Chemicals. Dr. Baekeland had originally set out to find a replacement for shellac, made from the excretion of lac beetles. Chemists had begun to recognize that many natural resins and fibres were polymers, and Baekeland investigated the reactions of phenol and
    7.67
    6 votes
    4
    Concrete

    Concrete

    Concrete is a composite construction material composed primarily of aggregate, cement, and water. There are many formulations, which provide varied properties. The aggregate is generally a coarse gravel or crushed rocks such as limestone, or granite, along with a fine aggregate such as sand. The cement, commonly Portland cement, and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, serve as a binder for the aggregate. Various chemical admixtures are also added to achieve varied properties. Water is then mixed with this dry composite, which enables it to be shaped (typically poured) and then solidified and hardened into rock-hard strength through a chemical process called hydration. The water reacts with the cement, which bonds the other components together, eventually creating a robust stone-like material. Concrete has relatively high compressive strength, but much lower tensile strength. For this reason it is usually reinforced with materials that are strong in tension (often steel). Concrete can be damaged by many processes, such as the freezing of trapped water. Concrete is widely used for making architectural structures, foundations, brick/block walls, pavements,
    7.67
    6 votes
    5
    Lime

    Lime

    Lime is a general term for calcium-containing inorganic materials, in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides predominate. Strictly speaking, lime is calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. It is also the name of the natural mineral (native lime) of the CaO composition which occurs as a product of coal seam fires and in altered limestone xenoliths in volcanic ejecta. The word "lime" originates with its earliest use as building mortar and has the sense of "sticking or adhering." These materials are still used in large quantities as building and engineering materials (including limestone products, concrete and mortar) and as chemical feedstocks, among other uses. Lime industries and the use of many of the resulting products date from prehistoric periods in both the Old World and the New World. Lime is used extensively for waste water treatment with ferrous sulfate. The rocks and minerals from which these materials are derived, typically limestone or chalk, are composed primarily of calcium carbonate. They may be cut, crushed or pulverized and chemically altered. "Burning" (calcination) converts them into the highly caustic material quicklime (calcium oxide, CaO) and, through subsequent
    7.67
    6 votes
    6
    Copper

    Copper

    • Child material class: copper wire
    • Parent material class: Metal
    Copper ( /ˈkɒpər/ KOP-ər) is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, a building material, and a constituent of various metal alloys. The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus), later shortened to сuprum. Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts, which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). Decorative art prominently features copper, both by itself and as part of pigments. Copper(II) ions are water-soluble, where they function at low concentration as bacteriostatic substances, fungicides, and wood preservatives. In sufficient amounts, they are poisonous to higher organisms; at lower concentrations it is an
    7.50
    6 votes
    7
    Alabaster

    Alabaster

    Alabaster is a name applied to varieties of two distinct minerals, when used as a material: gypsum (a hydrous sulfate of calcium) and calcite (a carbonate of calcium). The latter is the alabaster of the present day; generally, the former is the alabaster of the ancients. Both are easy to work, with an attractive appearance, and have been used for making a variety of artworks and objects, especially small carvings. The two kinds are distinguished from one another readily, because of differences in their relative hardness. The gypsum kind is so soft as to be readily scratched with a fingernail (Mohs hardness 1.5 to 2), while the calcite kind is too hard to be scratched in this way (Mohs hardness 3), although it does yield readily to a knife. Moreover, the calcite alabaster, being a carbonate, effervesces upon being touched with hydrochloric acid, whereas the gypsum alabaster, when thus treated, remains practically unaffected. Due to the characteristic color of white alabaster, the term has entered the vernacular as a metonym for white things, particularly "alabaster skin", which means very light and quite transparent, and possibly derives from the use of alabaster for tomb effigies.
    6.57
    7 votes
    8
    Flint

    Flint

    Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert. It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks and limestones. Inside the nodule, flint is usually dark grey, black, green, white, or brown in colour, and often has a glassy or waxy appearance. A thin layer on the outside of the nodules is usually different in colour, typically white and rough in texture. From a petrological point of view, "flint" refers specifically to the form of chert which occurs in chalk or marly limestone. Similarly, "common chert" (sometimes referred to simply as "chert") occurs in limestone. The exact mode of formation of flint is not yet clear but it is thought that it occurs as a result of chemical changes in compressed sedimentary rock formations, during the process of diagenesis. One hypothesis is that a gelatinous material fills cavities in the sediment, such as holes bored by crustaceans or molluscs and that this becomes silicified. This theory certainly explains the complex shapes of flint nodules that are found. The source of dissolved silica in the porous media could arise from the spicules of silicious
    8.60
    5 votes
    9
    Amethyst

    Amethyst

    Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry. The name comes from the Ancient Greek ἀ a- ("not") and μέθυστος methustos ("intoxicated"), a reference to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness. The ancient Greeks and Romans wore amethyst and made drinking vessels of it in the belief that it would prevent intoxication. It is one of several forms of quartz. Amethyst is the traditional birthstone for February. Amethyst is a purple variety of quartz (SiO2) and owes its violet color to irradiation, iron impurities (in some cases in conjunction with transition element impurities), and the presence of trace elements, which result in complex crystal lattice substitutions. The hardness of the mineral is the same as quartz, thus it is suitable for use in jewelry. Amethyst occurs in primary hues from a light pinkish violet to a deep purple. Amethyst may exhibit one or both secondary hues, red and blue. The ideal grade is called "Deep Siberian" and has a primary purple hue of around 75–80%, with 15–20% blue and (depending on the light source) red secondary hues. Green quartz is sometimes incorrectly called green amethyst, which is an actual misnomer and
    7.33
    6 votes
    10
    Hsianghualite

    Hsianghualite

    Hsianghualite is a tectosilicate (framework silicate) of lithium, calcium and beryllium, with fluorine, a member of the zeolite group. It was discovered in 1958 and named for the type locality, Hsiang Hua, 香花, meaning fragrant flower. Structure is analogous to that of analcime with Be and Si in tetrahedral co-ordination forming a three-dimensional framework. Its space group is I213 (Previously reported as I4132). Unit cell parameters are a = 12.879 or 12.897, and Z = 8. It occurs within phlogopite veins in the light-coloured band of green and white banded metamorphosed Devonian limestone which has been intruded by beryllium-bearing granite. Associated mineral include fluorite, liberite, chrysoberyl, taaffeite and nigerite. Hsianghualite has been found only at the type locality, the Xianghualing Mine in Linwu County, Hunan Province, China.
    7.33
    6 votes
    11
    Chromium

    Chromium

    Chromium ( /ˈkroʊmiəm/ KROH-mee-əm) is a chemical element which has the symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in Group 6. It is a steely-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point. It is also odorless, tasteless, and malleable. The name of the element is derived from the Greek word "chrōma" (χρώμα), meaning colour, because many of its compounds are intensely coloured. Chromium oxide was used by the Chinese in the Qin dynasty over 2,000 years ago to coat metal weapons found with the Terracotta Army. Chromium was discovered as an element after it came to the attention of the western world in the red crystalline mineral crocoite (lead(II) chromate), discovered in 1761 and initially used as a pigment. Louis Nicolas Vauquelin first isolated chromium metal from this mineral in 1797. Since Vauquelin's first production of metallic chromium, small amounts of native (free) chromium metal have been discovered in rare minerals, but these are not used commercially. Instead, nearly all chromium is commercially extracted from the single commercially viable ore chromite, which is iron chromium oxide (FeCr2O4). Chromite is also now the chief
    7.17
    6 votes
    12

    Deoxidized steel

    • Parent material class: Steel
    Deoxidized steel is steel that has a some or all of the oxygen removed from the melt during the steelmaking process. Liquid steels contain dissolved oxygen after their conversion from molten iron, but the solubility of oxygen in steel decreases with temperature. As steel cools, excess oxygen can cause blowholes or precipitate FeO. Therefore, several strategies have been developed for deoxidation. This may be accomplished by adding metallic deoxidizing agents to the melt either before or after it is tapped, or by vacuum treatment, in which carbon dissolved in the steel is the deoxidizer. There are four types, ranging from fully deoxidized to slightly deoxidized: killed, semi-killed, rimmed, and capped. Note that none of the various types are better than the other, but that each is useful in its own regard. Killed steel is steel that has been completely deoxidized by the addition of an agent before casting, so that there is practically no evolution of gas during solidification. They are characterized by a high degree of chemical homogeneity and freedom from gas porosity. The steel is said to be "killed" because it will quietly solidify in the mould, with no gas bubbling out. It is
    8.20
    5 votes
    13

    Stainless Steel Alloy 316

    • Parent material class: Stainless steel
    The second most common alloy of stainless, after 304. It is a particularly rust-free austenitic chromium-nickel alloy, since addition of molybdenum prevents specific forms of corrosion.  ISO 3506
    7.80
    5 votes
    15
    Ambergris

    Ambergris

    Ambergris ( /ˈæmbərɡriːs/ or  /ˈæmbərɡrɪs/, Latin: Ambra grisea, Ambre gris, ambergrease or grey amber) is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish color produced in the digestive system of and regurgitated or defecated by sperm whales. Freshly produced ambergris has a marine, fecal odor. However, as it ages, it acquires a sweet, earthy scent commonly likened to the fragrance of rubbing alcohol without the vaporous chemical astringency. The principal historical use of ambergris was as a fixative in perfumery, though it has now been largely displaced by synthetics. Ambergris occurs as a biliary secretion of the intestines of the sperm whale and can be found floating upon the sea, or in the sand near the coast. It is also sometimes found in the abdomens of whales. Because the beaks of giant squids have been found embedded within lumps of ambergris, scientists have theorised that the substance is produced by the whale's gastrointestinal tract to ease the passage of hard, sharp objects that the whale might have eaten. Ambergris is usually passed in the fecal matter. Ambergris that forms a mass too large to be passed through the intestines is expelled via the mouth,
    8.75
    4 votes
    16
    Paper

    Paper

    Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon, drawing or for packaging. It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets. Paper is a versatile material with many uses. Whilst the most common is for writing and printing upon, it is also widely used as a packaging material, in many cleaning products, in a number of industrial and construction processes, and even as a food ingredient – particularly in Asian cultures. Paper, and the pulp papermaking process, was said to be developed in China during the early 2nd century AD by the Han court eunuch Cai Lun, although the earliest archaeological fragments of paper derive from the 2nd century BC in China. The oldest known archaeological fragments of the immediate precursor to modern paper date to 2nd century BC in China. Papermaking is considered one of the Four Great Inventions of China, and the pulp papermaking process is ascribed to Cai Lun, a 2nd century AD Han court eunuch. With paper an effective substitute for silk in many applications, China could export silk in greater quantity, contributing to a Golden
    8.75
    4 votes
    17
    Aluminium oxide

    Aluminium oxide

    Aluminium oxide is an amphoteric oxide with the chemical formula Al2O3. It is commonly referred to as alumina (α-alumina), aloxide, or corundum in its crystalline form, as well as many other names, reflecting its widespread occurrence in nature and industry. Its most significant use is in the production of aluminium metal, although it is also used as an abrasive owing to its hardness and as a refractory material owing to its high melting point. There is also a cubic γ-alumina with important technical applications. Corundum is the most common naturally occurring crystalline form of aluminium oxide. Rubies and sapphires are gem-quality forms of corundum, which owe their characteristic colors to trace impurities. Rubies are given their characteristic deep red color and their laser qualities by traces of chromium. Sapphires come in different colors given by various other impurities, such as iron and titanium. Aluminium oxide is an electrical insulator but has a relatively high thermal conductivity (30 WmK) for a ceramic material. In its most commonly occurring crystalline form, called corundum or α-aluminium oxide, its hardness makes it suitable for use as an abrasive and as a
    6.50
    6 votes
    18
    Corundum

    Corundum

    Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with traces of iron, titanium and chromium. It is a rock-forming mineral. It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials, but can have different colors when impurities are present. Transparent specimens are used as gems, called ruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange. All other colors are called sapphire, e.g., "green sapphire" for a green specimen. The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word குருந்தம் "kuruntam" meaning "ruby", and related to Sanskrit "kuruvinda". Because of corundum's hardness (pure corundum is defined to have 9.0 Mohs), it can scratch almost every other mineral. It is commonly used as an abrasive, on everything from sandpaper to large machines used in machining metals, plastics, and wood. Some emery is a mix of corundum and other substances, and the mix is less abrasive, with an average hardness near 8.0. In addition to its hardness, corundum is unusual for its density of 4.02 g/cm, which is very high for a transparent mineral composed of the low atomic mass elements aluminium and oxygen. Corundum occurs as a mineral in mica schist, gneiss, and some marbles in metamorphic terranes. It
    6.50
    6 votes
    19
    6.50
    6 votes
    20

    Condurrite

    Condurrite is a name given to a mixture of cuprite, domeykite and tenorite. It takes its name from the Great Condurrow Mine at Troon, Cornwall in the United Kingdom, which is regarded as the type locality.
    7.40
    5 votes
    21
    Wire rope

    Wire rope

    • Parent material class: Steel wire
    Wire rope is a type of rope which consists of several strands of metal wire laid (or 'twisted') into a helix. Initially wrought iron wires were used, but today steel is the main material used for wire ropes. Historically wire rope evolved from steel chains which had a record of mechanical failure. While flaws in chain links or solid steel bars can lead to catastrophic failure, flaws in the wires making up a steel cable are less critical as the other wires easily take up the load. Friction between the individual wires and strands, as a consequence of their twist, further compensates for any flaws. Modern wire rope was invented by the German mining engineer Wilhelm Albert in the years between 1831 and 1834 for use in mining in the Harz Mountains in Clausthal, Lower Saxony, Germany. It was quickly accepted because it proved superior to ropes made of hemp or to metal chains, such as had been used before. Wilhelm Albert's first ropes consisted of wires twisted about a hemp rope core, six such strands then being twisted around another hemp rope core in alternating directions for extra stability. Earlier forms of wire rope had been made by covering a bundle of wires with hemp. In 1840,
    7.20
    5 votes
    22
    Polycarbonate

    Polycarbonate

    • Parent material class: Thermoplastic
    Polycarbonates (PC), known by the trademarked names Lexan, Makrolon, Makroclear and others, are a particular group of thermoplastic polymers. They are easily worked, molded, and thermoformed. Because of these properties, polycarbonates find many applications. Polycarbonates do not have a unique resin identification code and are identified as Other, 7. Polycarbonates received their name because they are polymers containing carbonate groups (–O–(C=O)–O–). Most polycarbonates of commercial interest are derived from rigid monomers. A balance of useful features including temperature resistance, impact resistance and optical properties position polycarbonates between commodity plastics and engineering plastics. The main polycarbonate material is produced by the reaction of bisphenol A and phosgene COCl2. The overall reaction can be written as follows: The first step of the synthesis involves treatment of bisphenol A with sodium hydroxide, which deprotonates the hydroxyl groups of the bisphenol A. The diphenoxide ((NaOC6H4)2CMe2) reacts with phosgene to give a chloroformate, which subsequently is attacked by another phenoxide. The net reaction from the diphenoxide is: In this way,
    7.00
    5 votes
    23

    Lapis armenus

    Lapis armenus, also known as Armenian stone or lapis stellatus, in natural history, is a variety of precious stone, resembling lapis lazuli, except that it is softer, and instead of veins of pyrite, is intermixed with green. "The Armenian stone" is so nearly identical to lapis lazuli that it has often not been distinguished from it; Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary for instance treats the two terms as synonyms. British History Online defines lapis armenus as "Armenian stone, or azurite, a naturally occurring basic COPPER carbonate, originally from Armenia, but later from Germany, from which BLUE BICE was prepared. It was often found in association with another copper carbonate, malachite from which GREEN BICE was prepared... Probably because they were both blue, blue bice was sometimes misinterpreted to mean LAPIS LAZULI." Herman Boerhaave believed it rather to rank among semi-metals, and supposed it was composed of both metal and earth. He added that it only differs from lazuli in degree of maturity, and that both of them seem to contain arsenic. It has been found in Tirol, Hungary, and Transylvania, and used both in mosaic work, to make the blue color azure, and as a
    8.00
    4 votes
    24

    French wire

    French wire, also known as bullion or gimp, is a fine coil of silver or gold-filled wire used by jewellers to conceal beading wire next to crimps and clasps. Proponents maintain that French wire gives jewelry an elegant, professionally finished look while also protecting and strengthening the ends of the beadwork. Also widely available in silver and gold plated wire, this less expensive version is more commonly used by hobbyist beaders on seed bead and knotted pearl projects.
    9.00
    3 votes
    25

    Glass-coated wire

    Glass-coating is a process invented in 1924 by G. F. Taylor and converted into production machine by Ulitovski for producing fine glass-coated metal filaments only a few micrometres in diameter. In this process, known as the "Taylor-wire" or "microwire process" or "Taylor-Ulitovski process", the metal to be produced in microwire form is held in a glass tube, typically a borosilicate composition, which is closed at one end. This end of the tube is then heated in order to soften the glass to a temperature at which the metal part is in liquid state and the glass can be drawn down to produce a fine glass capillary containing a metal core. In recent years the process was converted to continuous one by continuously feeding the metal drop with new material. Metal cores in the range 1 to 120 micrometres with a glass coating a few micrometres in diameter can be readily produced by this method. Glass-coated microwires successfully produced by this method include copper, silver, gold, iron, platinum, and various alloy compositions. It has even proved possible to produce amorphous metal ("glassy metal") cores because the cooling rate achievable by this process can be of the order of 1,000,000
    9.00
    3 votes
    26

    Wollaston wire

    Wollaston wire is a very fine (less than .01 mm thick) platinum wire clad in silver and used in electrical instruments. For most uses, the silver cladding is etched away by acid to expose the platinum core. The wire is named after its inventor, William Hyde Wollaston, who first produced it in England in the early 19th century. Platinum wire is drawn through successively smaller dies until it is about .003 inches (0.076 mm) in diameter. It is then embedded in the middle of a silver wire having a diameter of about 0.1 inches (2.5 mm). This composite wire is then drawn until the silver wire has a diameter of about .002 inches (0.051 mm), causing the embedded platinum wire to be reduced by the same 50:1 ratio to a final diameter of .00006 inches (1.5 µm). Removal of the silver coating with an acid bath leaves the fine platinum wire as a product of the process. Wollaston wire was used in early radio detectors known as electrolytic detectors and the hot wire barretter. Other uses include suspension of delicate devices, sensing of temperature, and sensitive electrical power measurements.
    9.00
    3 votes
    27
    Moissanite

    Moissanite

    Moissanite /ˈmɔɪsənaɪt/ originally referred to a rare mineral discovered by Henri Moissan having a chemical formula SiC and various crystalline polymorphs. Earlier, this material had been synthesized in the laboratory and named silicon carbide (SiC). Mineral moissanite was discovered by Henri Moissan while examining rock samples from a meteor crater located in Canyon Diablo, Arizona, in 1893. At first, he mistakenly identified the crystals as diamonds, but in 1904 he identified the crystals as silicon carbide. The mineral form of silicon carbide was named moissanite in honor of Moissan later on in his life. The discovery in the Canyon Diablo meteorite and other places was challenged for a long time as carborundum contamination from human abrasive tools. Until the 1950s no other source, apart from meteorites, had been encountered. Later moissanite was found as inclusion in kimberlite from a diamond mine in Yakutia in 1959, and in the Green River Formation in Wyoming in 1958. The existence of moissanite in nature was questioned even in 1986 by Charles Milton, an American geologist. Moissanite, in its natural form, is very rare. It has only been discovered in a small variety of places
    7.75
    4 votes
    28

    Surgical stainless steel

    • Parent material class: Stainless steel
    Surgical stainless steel is a specific type of stainless steel, used in medical applications, which includes alloying elements of: chromium, nickel and molybdenum. The chromium gives the metal its scratch resistance and corrosion resistance. The nickel provides a smooth and polished finish. The molybdenum gives greater hardness and helps maintain a cutting edge. Although there are myriad variations in the recipes, there are two main varieties of stainless steel: martensitic and austenitic; see the stainless steel article. The word 'surgical' refers to the fact that these types of steel are well-suited for making surgical instruments: they are easy to clean and sterilize, strong, and corrosion-resistant. The nickel/chrome/molybdenum alloys are also used for orthopaedic implants as aids in bone repair, and as a structural part of artificial heart valves and other implants. However, immune system reaction to nickel is a potential complication. In some cases today titanium is used instead in procedures that require a metal implant which will be permanent. Titanium is a reactive metal, the surface of which quickly oxidizes on exposure to air, creating a microstructured stable oxide
    7.75
    4 votes
    29
    Tin

    Tin

    Tin ( /ˈtɪn/ TIN) is a chemical element with symbol Sn (for Latin: stannum) and atomic number 50. It is a main group metal in group 14 of the periodic table. Tin shows chemical similarity to both neighboring group 14 elements, germanium and lead and has two possible oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table. Tin is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, where it occurs as tin dioxide, SnO2. This silvery, malleable post-transition metal is not easily oxidized in air and is used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion. The first alloy, used in large scale since 3000 BC, was bronze, an alloy of tin and copper. After 600 BC pure metallic tin was produced. Pewter, which is an alloy of 85–90% tin with the remainder commonly consisting of copper, antimony and lead, was used for flatware from the Bronze Age until the 20th century. In modern times tin is used in many alloys, most notably tin/lead soft solders, typically containing 60% or more of tin. Another large application for tin is corrosion-resistant tin plating of steel. Because of
    7.75
    4 votes
    30

    Malleable iron

    • Parent material class: Cast iron
    Malleable iron is cast as White iron, the structure being a metastable carbide in a pearlitic matrix. Through an annealing heat treatment, the brittle structure as first cast, is transformed into the malleable form. Carbon agglomerates into small roughly spherical aggregates of graphite leaving a matrix of ferrite or pearlite according to the exact heat treat used. Three basic types of malleable iron are recognized within the casting industry: Blackheart malleable iron, Whiteheart malleable iron and Pearlitic malleable iron. Malleable iron was used as early as the 4th century BCE, and malleable iron artifacts have been discovered by archaeologists between 4th century BCE and 9th century CE in China. By the Tang Dynasty, the use of malleable iron in China waned, although there are malleable iron artifacts dating to the 9th century. Malleable iron is mentioned in England in a patent dating to the 1670s. Réaumur conducted extensive research on malleable iron in 1720. He discovered that iron castings which were too hard to be worked could be softened by packing them into iron ore or hammer slag and exposing them to high temperature for a number of days. Creating malleable iron began in
    6.60
    5 votes
    31
    Nickel

    Nickel

    Nickel ( /ˈnɪkəl/ NI-kəl) is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile. Pure nickel shows a significant chemical activity that can be observed when nickel is powdered to maximize the exposed surface area on which reactions can occur, but larger pieces of the metal are slow to react with air at ambient conditions due to the formation of a protective oxide surface. Even then, nickel is reactive enough with oxygen so that native nickel is rarely found on Earth's surface, being mostly confined to the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were protected from oxidation during their time in space. On Earth, such native nickel is always found in combination with iron, a reflection of those elements' origin as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis. An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth's inner core. The use of nickel (as a natural meteoric nickel–iron alloy) has been traced as far back as 3500 BC. Nickel was first isolated and classified as a chemical element in 1751 by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who
    6.60
    5 votes
    32
    Bustamite

    Bustamite

    Bustamite is a calcium manganese inosilicate (chain silicate) and a member of the wollastonite group. Magnesium, zinc and iron are common impurities substituting for manganese. It is a polymorph of johannsenite, with bustamite as the high-temperature form of CaMnSi2O6 and johannsenite as the low temperature form. The inversion takes place at 830 °C, but may be very slow. Bustamite could be confused with light-colored rhodonite or pyroxmangite, but both these minerals are biaxial (+) whereas bustamite is biaxial (-). There is considerable variety in the literature about the size and type of the unit cell, the formula to be used, and the value of Z, the number of formula units per unit cell. Bustamite is a triclinic mineral, which could be described by a primitive unit cell, but the larger A-centered cell is often preferred, in order to facilitate comparison with the similar mineral wollastonite. The formula for bustamite is CaMn(SiO3)2 but it is sometimes written (Ca,Mn)SiO3, and changing the formula in this way will change the value of Z. The structure is chains of SiO4 tetraheda with repeat unit of three tetrahedra, unlike the pyroxenes where the repeat unit is two. Ca and Mn are
    7.50
    4 votes
    33
    Chrome chalcedony

    Chrome chalcedony

    Chrome chalcedony is an green variety of the mineral chalcedony, colored by small quantities of chromium. It is most commonly found in Zimbabwe, where it is known as Mtorolite, Mtorodite, or Matorolite. Chrome chalcedony is similar in appearance to the better known chrysoprase, but differs in that whilst chrome chalcedony is colored by chromium (as chromium(III) oxide), chrysoprase is colored by nickel. The two can be distinguished with a Chelsea color filter, as chrome chalcedony will appear red, whilst chrysoprase will appear green. Chrome chalcedony (unlike chrysoprase) may also contain tiny black specks of chromite. Chrome chalcedony is (together with agate, carnelian, chrysoprase, heliotrope, onyx and others) a variety of chalcedony. This is a cryptocrystalline form of silica, consisting of fine intergrowths of the minerals quartz and moganite. Chrome chalcedony (known as mtorolite, mtorodite or matorolite) occurs in Zimbabwe, principally near to the mining town of Mtoroshanga, located on the Great Dyke geological feature. It has also been discovered in western Australia, the Balkans, Bolivia, Turkey and the Ural mountains. Chrome chalcedony was widely used in jewellery and
    7.50
    4 votes
    34
    Lanthanum

    Lanthanum

    Lanthanum ( /ˈlænθənəm/) is a chemical element with the symbol La and atomic number 57. Lanthanum is a silvery white metallic element that belongs to group 3 of the periodic table and is the first element of the lanthanide series. It is found in some rare-earth minerals, usually in combination with cerium and other rare earth elements. Lanthanum is a malleable, ductile, and soft metal that oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air. It is produced from the minerals monazite and bastnäsite using a complex multistage extraction process. Lanthanum compounds have numerous applications as catalysts, additives in glass, carbon lighting for studio lighting and projection, ignition elements in lighters and torches, electron cathodes, scintillators, and others. Lanthanum carbonate (La2(CO3)3) was approved as a medication against renal failure. Lanthanum is a soft, malleable, silvery white metal which has hexagonal crystal structure at room temperature. At 310 °C, lanthanum changes to a face-centered cubic structure, and at 865 °C into a body-centered cubic structure. Lanthanum is easily oxidized (a centimeter-sized sample will completely oxidize within a year) and is therefore used in elemental
    7.50
    4 votes
    35
    Lead

    Lead

    Lead ( /ˈlɛd/) is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin: plumbum) and atomic number 82. Lead is a soft, malleable poor metal. It is also counted as one of the heavy metals. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed to air. Lead has a shiny chrome-silver luster when it is melted into a liquid. Lead is used in building construction, lead-acid batteries, bullets and shots, weights, as part of solders, pewters, fusible alloys, and as a radiation shield. Lead has the highest atomic number of all of the stable elements, although the next higher element, bismuth, has a half-life that is so long (much longer than the age of the universe) that it can be considered stable. Its four stable isotopes have 82 protons, a magic number in the nuclear shell model of atomic nuclei. Lead, at certain contact degrees, is a poisonous substance to animals as well as for human beings. It damages the nervous system and causes brain disorders. Excessive lead also causes blood disorders in mammals. Like the element mercury, another heavy metal, lead is a neurotoxin that accumulates both in soft tissues
    7.50
    4 votes
    36
    Pig iron

    Pig iron

    Pig iron is the intermediate product of smelting iron ore with a high-carbon fuel such as coke, usually with limestone as a flux. Charcoal and anthracite have also been used as fuel. Pig iron has a very high carbon content, typically 3.5–4.5%, which makes it very brittle and not useful directly as a material except for limited applications. The traditional shape of the molds used for these ingots was a branching structure formed in sand, with many individual ingots at right angles to a central channel or runner. Such a configuration is similar in appearance to a litter of piglets suckling on a sow. When the metal had cooled and hardened, the smaller ingots (the pigs) were simply broken from the much thinner runner (the sow), hence the name pig iron. As pig iron is intended for remelting, the uneven size of the ingots and the inclusion of small amounts of sand caused only insignificant problems considering the ease of casting and handling them. The Chinese were making pig iron by the later Zhou Dynasty (1122–256 BC). In Europe, the process was not invented until the Late Middle Ages (1350–1500). Actually the phase transition of the iron into liquid phase in the furnace was an
    7.50
    4 votes
    37
    Soapstone

    Soapstone

    Soapstone (also known as steatite or soaprock) is a metamorphic rock, a talc-schist. It is largely composed of the mineral talc and is thus rich in magnesium. It is produced by dynamothermal metamorphism and metasomatism, which occurs in the areas where tectonic plates are subducted, changing rocks by heat and pressure, with influx of fluids, but without melting. It has been a medium for carving for thousands of years. Petrologically, soapstone is composed dominantly of talc, with varying amounts of chlorite and amphiboles (typically tremolite, anthophyllite, and magnesiocummingtonite), and trace to minor FeCr-oxides. It may be schistose or massive. Soapstone is formed by the metamorphism of ultramafic protoliths (e.g. dunite or serpentinite) and the metasomatism of siliceous dolostones. Pyrophyllite, a mineral very similar to talc, is sometimes called soapstone in the generic sense since its physical characteristics and industrial uses are similar, and because it is also commonly used as a carving material. However this mineral typically does not have such a soapy feel as that from which soapstone derives its name. Steatite is relatively soft (because of the high talc content,
    7.50
    4 votes
    38
    Stucco

    Stucco

    Stucco or render is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as decorative coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture. Stucco may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials such as concrete, cinder block, or clay brick and adobe. The difference in nomenclature between stucco, plaster, and mortar is based more on use than composition. Until the later part of the nineteenth century, it was common that plaster, which was used inside a building, and stucco, which was used outside, would consist of the same primary materials: lime and sand (which are also used in mortar). Animal or plant fibers were often added for additional strength. In the later part of the nineteenth century, Portland cement was added with increasing frequency in an attempt to improve its durability. At the same time, traditional lime plasters were being replaced by gypsum plaster. Traditional stucco is made of lime, sand, and water. Modern stucco is made of Portland cement, sand, and water. Lime is added to increase the permeability and workability of modern stucco.
    7.50
    4 votes
    39
    Amazonite

    Amazonite

    Amazonite (sometimes called "Amazon stone") is a green variety of microcline feldspar. The name is taken from that of the Amazon River, from which certain green stones were formerly obtained, but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area. Amazonite is a mineral of limited occurrence. Formerly it was obtained almost exclusively from the area of Miass in the Ilmen mountains, 50 miles southwest of Chelyabinsk, Russia, where it occurs in granitic rocks. More recently, high-quality crystals have been obtained from Pike's Peak, Colorado, where it is found associated with smoky quartz, orthoclase, and albite in a coarse granite or pegmatite. Crystals of amazonite can also be found in Crystal Park, El Paso County, Colorado. Other localities in the United States which yield amazonite include the Morefield Mine in Amelia, Virginia. It is also found in pegmatite in Madagascar and in Brazil. Because of its bright green color when polished, amazonite is sometimes cut and used as a gemstone, although it is easily fractured. For many years, the source of amazonite's color was a mystery. Naturally, many people assumed the color was due to copper because copper compounds often
    8.67
    3 votes
    40
    8.67
    3 votes
    41

    Aluminum Alloy 2024

    • Parent material class: Aluminium
    General 2024 characteristics and uses (from Alcoa): Good machinability and surface finish capabilities. A high strength material of adequate workability. Has largely superseded 2017 for structural applications. Used in aircraft fittings, gears and shafts, bolts, clock parts, computer parts, couplings, fuse parts, hydraulic valve bodies, missile parts, munitions, nuts, pistons, rectifier parts, worm gears, fastening devices, veterinary and orthopedic equipment, structures. Aluminium 2024-T3; UNS A92024; ISO AlCu4Mg1; NF A-U4G1 (France); DIN AlCuMg2; AA2024-T3, ASME SB211; CSA CG42 (Canada)
    7.25
    4 votes
    42
    Papyrus

    Papyrus

    Papyrus ( /pəˈpaɪrəs/) is a thick paper-like material produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. Papyrus is first known to have been used in ancient Egypt (at least as far back as the First Dynasty), but it was also used throughout the Mediterranean region. Ancient Egyptians used this plant as a writing material and for boats, mattresses, mats, rope, sandals, and baskets. Chemically, papyrus is composed of 57% cellulose, 27% lignin, 9% minerals, and 7% water. Papyrus was first manufactured in Egypt as far back as the third millennium BC. In the first centuries BC and AD, papyrus scrolls gained a rival as a writing surface in the form of parchment, which was prepared from animal skins. Sheets of parchment were folded to form quires from which book-form codices were fashioned. Early Christian writers soon adopted the codex form, and in the Græco-Roman world, it became common to cut sheets from papyrus rolls to form codices. Codices were an improvement on the papyrus scroll, as the papyrus was not pliable enough to fold without cracking and a long roll, or scroll, was required to create large-volume
    7.25
    4 votes
    43
    Plaster

    Plaster

    • Child material class: Lime plaster
    Plaster is a building material used for coating walls and ceilings. Plaster starts as a dry powder similar to mortar or cement and like those materials it is mixed with water to form a paste which liberates heat and then hardens. Unlike mortar and cement, plaster remains quite soft after setting, and can be easily manipulated with metal tools or even sandpaper. These characteristics make plaster suitable for a finishing, rather than a load-bearing material. The term plaster can refer to gypsum plaster (also known as plaster of Paris), lime plaster, or cement plaster. Gypsum plaster, or plaster of Paris, is produced by heating gypsum to about 300°F (150 °C): When the dry plaster powder is mixed with water, it re-forms into gypsum. The setting of unmodified plaster starts about 10 minutes after mixing and is complete in about 45 minutes; but not fully set for 72 hours. If plaster or gypsum is heated above 392°F (200°C), anhydrite is formed, which will also re-form as gypsum if mixed with water. A large gypsum deposit at Montmartre in Paris led gypsum plaster to be commonly known as "plaster of Paris". Plasterers often use gypsum to simulate the appearance of surfaces of wood, stone,
    7.25
    4 votes
    44
    Titanium

    Titanium

    Titanium ( /taɪˈteɪniəm/ ty-TAY-nee-əm) is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It has a low density and is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant (including sea water, aqua regia and chlorine) transition metal with a silver color. Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, by William Gregor in 1791 and named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth for the Titans of Greek mythology. The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the Earth's crust and lithosphere, and it is found in almost all living things, rocks, water bodies, and soils. The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores via the Kroll process or the Hunter process. Its most common compound, titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments. Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a component of smoke screens and catalysts; and titanium trichloride (TiCl3), which is used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene. Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong lightweight alloys for aerospace
    7.25
    4 votes
    45

    Baling wire

    Baling wire, otherwise known as farm wire or soft wire is a type of wire used in an agricultural setting and industrial setting for everything from mending fences to manually binding a rectangular bale of hay, straw, or cut grass. It is also used to band together condensed cardboard, textiles, aluminum and other materials that are processed in the recycling industry. Baling wire is commonly used in many non-agricultural applications, usually in an informal, make-do manner. It is frequently referred to as one of the basic repair materials. Typical uses range from supporting loose mufflers to patching chain-link fences. Common phrases often include baling wire as an ad hoc, fix-anything material, alongside chewing gum, duct tape, and the cable tie. In the United States, Australia, and around the world, baling wire was used in mechanical hay balers pulled behind a tractor. The balers used a wire twister that first cut then twisted the ends of the wire such that the bale kept its shape after the baler had pressed the hay into a tight rectangular bale. These hay balers were in common use up until the late 1980s. When the hay was fed to the stock the wire was cut and hung in bundles
    8.33
    3 votes
    46
    Chalcedony

    Chalcedony

    Chalcedony ( /kælˈsɛdəni/) is a cryptocrystalline form of silica, composed of very fine intergrowths of the minerals quartz and moganite. These are both silica minerals, but they differ in that quartz has a trigonal crystal structure, while moganite is monoclinic. Chalcedony's standard chemical structure (based on the chemical structure of quartz) is SiO2 (Silicon Dioxide). Chalcedony has a waxy luster, and may be semitransparent or translucent. It can assume a wide range of colors, but those most commonly seen are white to gray, grayish-blue or a shade of brown ranging from pale to nearly black. The name "chalcedony" comes from the Latin calcedonius, the word used to translate the Greek word khalkedon, found only once, in the Book of Revelation; according to the OED a connection with the town of Chalcedon in Asia Minor is "very doubtful". There is no reason to assume that the precious stone referred to by this name in the Bible is the same as what is now understood by the name. Chalcedony occurs in a wide range of varieties. Many semi-precious gemstones are in fact forms of chalcedony. The more notable varieties of chalcedony are as follows: Agate is a variety of chalcedony with
    8.33
    3 votes
    47
    Chrysoprase

    Chrysoprase

    Chrysoprase, chrysophrase or chrysoprasus is a gemstone variety of chalcedony (a cryptocrystalline form of silica) that contains small quantities of nickel. Its color is normally apple-green, but varies to deep green. The darker varieties of chrysoprase are also referred to as prase. (However, the term prase is also used to describe chlorite-included quartz, and to a certain extent is a color-descriptor, rather than a rigorously defined mineral variety.) Chrysoprase is cryptocrystalline, which means that it is composed of crystals so fine that they cannot be seen as distinct particles under normal magnification. This sets it apart from rock crystal, amethyst, citrine, and the other varieties of crystalline quartz which are basically transparent and formed from easily recognized six-sided crystals. Other members of the cryptocrystalline silica family include agate, carnelian, and onyx. Unlike many non-transparent silica minerals, it is the color of chrysoprase, rather than any pattern of markings, that makes it desirable. The word chrysoprase comes from the Greek χρυσός chrysos meaning 'gold' and πράσινον prasinon, meaning 'green'. Unlike emerald which owes its green color to the
    8.33
    3 votes
    48
    Hemp

    Hemp

    Hemp (from Old English hænep) is a term reserved mainly for low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) varieties of the plant Cannabis sativa. Of the approximately 2000 cannabis plants varieties known, about 90% contain only low-grade THC and are most useful for their fiber, seeds and medicinal or psychoactive oils. Hemp is one of the earliest domesticated plants known. In modern times hemp is used for industrial purposes including paper, textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastics, construction (as with Hemcrete and insulation), body products, health food and bio-fuel. Hemp is thus legally grown in many countries across the world including Spain, China, Japan, Korea, France, North Africa and Ireland. Although hemp is commonly associated with marijuana (hemp's THC-rich cousin), since 2007 the commercial success of hemp food products has grown considerably. Hemp is one of the faster growing biomasses known, producing up to 25 tonnes of dry matter per hectare per year. A typical average yield in large scale modern agriculture is about 2.5–3.5 t/ac (air dry stem yields of dry, retted stalks per acre at 12% moisture). Approximately one tonne of bast fiber and 2–3 tonnes of core material can be
    8.33
    3 votes
    49

    Welded wire mesh

    Welded wire mesh, or welded wire fabric, or "weldmesh" is a steel reinforcement material in concrete. The mesh is used for replacing the traditional "cut & bend" and placing of steel thermo-mechanical treated bars. The mesh is an electric fusion welded prefabricated reinforcement consisting of a series of parallel longitudinal wires with accurate spacing welded to cross wires at the required spacing. Machines are used to produce the mesh with precise dimensional control. The product results in considerable savings in time, labour and money. The welded wire mesh is a metal screen that is made up of low carbon steel wire or stainless steel wire. It is available in various sizes and shapes. It is widely used in agricultural, industrial, transportation, horticultural and food procuring sectors. It is also used in mines, gardening, machine protection and other decorations. Weldmesh is the term given to the kind of barrier fencing that is manufactured in square or rectangular mesh from steel wire, welded at each intersection. It is usually affixed to steel uprights. Weldmesh is a relatively cheap fencing solution but has the advantage over chainlink wire of not bending so easily and not
    8.33
    3 votes
    50
    Amalgam

    Amalgam

    • Parent material class: Metal
    In dentistry, amalgam is an alloy of mercury with various metals used for dental fillings. It commonly consists of mercury (50%), silver (~22-32% ), tin (~14%), copper (~8%), and other trace metals. In the 1800s, amalgam became the dental restorative material of choice due to its low cost, ease of application, strength, and durability. Recently however, its popularity has diminished somewhat. Concern for aesthetics, environmental pollution, health, and the availability of improved, reliable, composite materials have all contributed. In particular, concerns about the toxicity of mercury have made its use increasingly controversial. Due to a worldwide plan to phase out the use of mercury, Norway and Denmark have deliberated in 2009 a ban of mercury dental amalgam.Sweden announced a similar ban and dentists in Sweden will no longer be allowed to use mercury in fillings after April 1, 2008. The Swedish amalgam ban is for both environmental and health issues, according to the Swedish authorities. In 1833 the Crawcour brothers, two Frenchmen, brought amalgam to the United States, and in 1844 it was reported that fifty percent of all dental restorations placed in upstate New York
    6.20
    5 votes
    51
    Glass

    Glass

    Glass is an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid material. Glasses are typically brittle and optically transparent. The most familiar type of glass, used for centuries in windows and drinking vessels, is soda-lime glass, composed of about 75% silica (SiO2) plus sodium oxide Na2O from soda ash, lime CaO, and several minor additives. Often, the term glass is used in a restricted sense to refer to this specific use. In science, however, the term glass is usually defined in a much wider sense, including every solid that possesses a non-crystalline (i.e., amorphous) structure and that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid state. In this wider sense, glasses can be made of quite different classes of materials: metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, and polymers. For many applications (bottles, eyewear) polymer glasses (acrylic glass, polycarbonate, polyethylene terephthalate) are a lighter alternative to traditional silica glasses. Silica (the chemical compound SiO2) is a common fundamental constituent of glass. In nature, vitrification of quartz occurs when lightning strikes sand, forming hollow, branching rootlike structures called
    6.20
    5 votes
    52

    Adamantine

    Adamantine is a mineral, often referred to as adamantine spar. It is a silky brown form of corundum. It has a Mohs rating of 9. Adamantine is also used as an adjective to refer to non-metallic, brilliant light reflecting and transmitting properties, known as adamantine luster. Diamond is the best known material to be described as having adamantine luster, although anglesite, cerussite and corundum in some of its forms are also described in this way.
    9.50
    2 votes
    53
    9.50
    2 votes
    54

    Coating

    • Child material class: Protective coating
    A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate. In many cases coatings are applied to improve surface properties of the substrate, such as appearance, adhesion, wetability, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, and scratch resistance. In other cases, in particular in printing processes and semiconductor device fabrication (where the substrate is a wafer), the coating forms an essential part of the finished product. Coating and printing processes involve the application of a thin film of functional material to a substrate, such as paper, fabric, film, foil or sheet stock. This article discusses what is frequently termed 'roll-to-roll' or 'web-based' coating. A roll of substrate, when wound through the coating machine, is typically called a web. Coatings may be applied as liquids, gases or solids. Coatings can be measured and tested for proper opacity and film thickness by using a drawdown card. Coating processes are classified as follows: Common roll-to-roll coating processes include: The main coating and varnishes for the printing industry include:
    9.50
    2 votes
    55
    Hemimorphite

    Hemimorphite

    Hemimorphite, is a sorosilicate mineral which has been mined from days of old from the upper parts of zinc and lead ores, chiefly associated with smithsonite. It was often assumed to be the same mineral and both were classed under the same name of calamine. In the second half of the 18th century it was discovered that there were two different minerals under the heading of calamine - a zinc carbonate and a zinc silicate, which often closely resembled each other. The silicate was the more rare of the two, and was named hemimorphite because of the hemimorph development of its crystals. This unusual form, which is typical of only a few minerals, means that the crystals are terminated by dissimilar faces. Hemimorphite most commonly forms crystalline crusts and layers, also massive, granular, rounded and reniform aggregates, concentrically striated, or finely needle-shaped, fibrous or stalactitic, and rarely fan-shaped clusters of crystals. Some specimens show strong green fluorescence in shortwave ultraviolet light (253.7 nm) and weak light pink fluorescence in longwave UV. Hemimorphite most frequently occurs as the product of the oxidation of the upper parts of sphalerite bearing ore
    9.50
    2 votes
    56

    Hoelite

    Hoelite is a mineral, discovered in 1922 at Mt. Pyramide, Spitsbergen, Norway and named after Norwegian geologist Adolf Hoel (1879–1964). Its chemical formula is (C6H4)2(CO)2 or C14H8O2 (9,10-anthraquinone). It is a very rare organic mineral which occurs in coal fire environments in association with sal ammoniac and native sulfur.
    9.50
    2 votes
    57
    Plain-carbon steel

    Plain-carbon steel

    • Child material class: mild steel
    • Parent material class: Steel
    Carbon steel is steel where the main interstitial alloying constituent is carbon. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) defines carbon steel as the following: "Steel is considered to be carbon steel when no minimum content is specified or required for chromium, cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, titanium, tungsten, vanadium or zirconium, or any other element to be added to obtain a desired alloying effect; when the specified minimum for copper does not exceed 1.04 percent; or when the maximum content specified for any of the following elements does not exceed the percentages noted: manganese 1.65, silicon 0.60, copper 0.60." The term "carbon steel" may also be used in reference to steel which is not stainless steel; in this use carbon steel may include alloy steels. As the carbon content rises, steel has the ability to become harder and stronger through heat treating, but this also makes it less ductile. Regardless of the heat treatment, a higher carbon content reduces weldability. In carbon steels, the higher carbon content lowers the melting point. Carbon steel is broken down in to four classes based on carbon content: Mild steel, also called plain-carbon steel, is the
    9.50
    2 votes
    58
    Tantalum

    Tantalum

    Tantalum ( /ˈtæntələm/ TAN-təl-əm) is a chemical element with the symbol Ta and atomic number 73. Previously known as tantalium, the name comes from Tantalus, a character from Greek mythology. Tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion resistant. It is part of the refractory metals group, which are widely used as minor component in alloys. The chemical inertness of tantalum makes it a valuable substance for laboratory equipment and a substitute for platinum, but its main use today is in tantalum capacitors in electronic equipment such as mobile phones, DVD players, video game systems and computers. Tantalum, always together with the chemically similar niobium, occurs in the minerals tantalite, columbite and coltan (a mix of columbite and tantalite). Tantalum was discovered in Sweden in 1802 by Anders Ekeberg. One year earlier, Charles Hatchett had discovered the element columbium. In 1809, the English chemist William Hyde Wollaston compared the oxides derived from both columbium—columbite, with a density 5.918 g/cm, and tantalum—tantalite, with a density 7.935 g/cm, and concluded that the two oxides, despite their difference in measured
    9.50
    2 votes
    59

    Gray iron

    • Parent material class: Cast iron
    Gray iron, or grey iron, is a type of cast iron that has a graphitic microstructure. It is named after the gray color of the fracture it forms, which is due to the presence of graphite. It is the most common cast iron and the most widely used cast material based on weight. It is used for housings where tensile strength is non-critical, such as internal combustion engine cylinder blocks, pump housings, valve bodies, electrical boxes, and decorative castings. Grey cast iron's high thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity are often exploited to make cast iron cookware and disc brake rotors. A typical chemical composition to obtain a graphitic microstructure is 2.5 to 4.0% carbon and 1 to 3% silicon. Silicon is important to making grey iron as opposed to white cast iron, because silicon is a graphite stabilizing element in cast iron, which means it helps the alloy produce graphite instead of iron carbides. Another factor affecting graphitization is the solidification rate; the slower the rate, the greater the tendency for graphite to form. A moderate cooling rate forms a more pearlitic matrix, while a slow cooling rate forms a more ferritic matrix. To achieve a fully ferritic
    7.00
    4 votes
    60

    6061 aluminium alloy

    • Parent material class: Aluminium
    6061 is a precipitation hardening aluminium alloy, containing magnesium and silicon as its major alloying elements. Originally called "Alloy 61S" it was developed in 1935. It has good mechanical properties and exhibits good weldability. It is one of the most common alloys of aluminium for general purpose use. It is commonly available in pre-tempered grades such as 6061-O (solutionized) and tempered grades such as 6061-T6 (solutionized and artificially aged) and 6061-T651 (solutionized, stress-relieved stretched and artificially aged). 6061 has a density of 2.70 g/cm³ (0.0975 lb/in³). The alloy composition of 6061 is: The mechanical properties of 6061 depend greatly on the temper, or heat treatment, of the material. Young's Modulus is 10×10 psi (69 GPa) regardless of temper. Annealed 6061 (6061-O temper) has maximum tensile strength no more than 18,000 psi (125 MPa), and maximum yield strength no more than 8,000 psi (55 MPa). The material has elongation (stretch before ultimate failure) of 25–30%. T4 temper 6061 has an ultimate tensile strength of at least 30,000 psi (207 MPa) and yield strength of at least 16,000 psi (110 MPa). It has elongation of 16%. T6 temper 6061 has an
    6.00
    5 votes
    61

    Cafetite

    Cafetite is a rare titanium oxide mineral with formula (Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)2Ti4O12·4(H2O)). It was first described in 1959 for an occurrence in the Afrikanda Massif, Afrikanda, Kola Peninsula, Murmanskaja Oblast', Northern Region, Russia. It is also reported from the Khibiny and Kovdor massifs of the Kola Peninsula and from Meagher County, Montana, USA. It occurs in pegmatites in a pyroxenite intrusion as crystals in miarolitic cavities. It occurs associated with ilmenite, titaniferous magnetite, titanite, anatase, perovskite, baddeleyite, phlogopite, clinochlore and kassite.
    8.00
    3 votes
    62
    Dolomite

    Dolomite

    Dolomite ( /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is a carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2. The term is also used to describe the sedimentary carbonate rock dolostone. Dolostone (dolomite rock) is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite with a stoichiometric ratio of 50% or greater content of magnesium replacing calcium, often as a result of diagenesis. Limestone that is partially replaced by dolomite is referred to as dolomitic limestone, or in old U.S. geologic literature as magnesian limestone. Dolomite was first described by the Austrian naturalist Belsazar Hacquet as the "stinking stone" (German: Stinkstein, Latin: lapis suillus in 1778). In 1791, it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist, Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) from exposures in what are now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy. The mineral was given its name in March 1792 by Nicolas de Saussure. Hacquet and Dolomieu met in Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1784, which may have contributed to Dolomieu's work. The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system. It forms white, gray to pink, commonly curved (saddle shape) crystals, although it is usually
    8.00
    3 votes
    63
    Invar

    Invar

    Invar, also known generically as FeNi36 (64FeNi in the US), is a nickel iron alloy notable for its uniquely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE or α). The name, Invar, comes from the word invariable, referring to its lack of expansion or contraction with temperature changes. It was invented in 1896 by Swiss scientist Charles Édouard Guillaume. He received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1920 for this discovery, which enabled improvements in scientific instruments. Like other nickel/iron compositions, Invar is a solid solution; that is, it is a single-phase alloy, consisting of around 36% nickel and 64% iron. Common grades of Invar have a coefficient of thermal expansion (denoted α, and measured between 20–100 °C) of about 1.2 × 10 K (1.2 ppm/°C). Extra-pure grades (
    8.00
    3 votes
    64
    Pulp

    Pulp

    Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fibre crops or waste paper. Wood pulp is the most common raw material in papermaking. Using wood to make paper is a fairly recent innovation. Paper making, using cotton and linen fibers, spread to Europe in the 12th century. Medieval historian Lynn White credited the spinning wheel with increasing the supply of rags, which led to cheap paper, which was a factor in the development of printing. By the 1800s, fibre crops such as linen fibres were still the primary material source, and paper was a relatively expensive commodity. The use of wood to make pulp for paper began with the development of mechanical pulping in Germany by F.G. Keller in the 1840s, and by the Canadian inventor Charles Fenerty in Nova Scotia. Chemical processes quickly followed, first with J. Roth's use of sulfurous acid to treat wood, followed by B. Tilghman's U.S. patent on the use of calcium bisulfite, Ca(HSO3)2, to pulp wood in 1867. Almost a decade later the first commercial sulfite pulp mill was built in Sweden. It used magnesium as the counter ion and was based on work by Carl Daniel
    8.00
    3 votes
    65
    Thermoplastic

    Thermoplastic

    • Child material class: Polycarbonate
    A Thermoplastic, also known as a thermosoftening plastic, is a polymer that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature, and returns to a solid state upon cooling. Most thermoplastics have a high molecular weight, whose chains associate through intermolecular forces; this property allows thermoplastics to be remolded because the intermolecular interactions spontaneously reform upon cooling. In this way, thermoplastics differ from thermosetting polymers, which form irreversible chemical bonds during the curing process; thermoset bonds break down upon melting and do not reform upon cooling. Above its glass transition temperature, Tg, and below its melting point, Tm, the physical properties of a thermoplastic change drastically without an associated phase change. Within this temperature range, most thermoplastics are rubbery due to alternating rigid crystalline and elastic amorphous regions, approximating random coils. Some thermoplastics do not fully crystallize below Tg, retaining some, or all of their amorphous characteristics. Amorphous and semi-amorphous plastics are used when high optical clarity is necessary, as a light wave cannot pass through larger crystallites
    8.00
    3 votes
    66
    8.00
    3 votes
    68

    Wiegand wire

    Wiegand wire is produced by cold-working a 0.010 inch (0.254 millimeter) diameter ferromagnetic wire made of Vicalloy, a mixture of cobalt, iron, and vanadium. The cold-working process consists of increasing amounts of twist and de-twist of the wire under applied tension in several steps. The wire is then age-hardened to hold in the tension built up during the cold-working process. This procedure causes the Wiegand wire to have a soft magnetic center, the core, and a work-hardened surface with a higher magnetic coercivity, the shell. When an alternating magnetic field of proper strength is applied to the Wiegand wire, the core's magnetic field will switch polarity and then reverse again, causing a Wiegand pulse to be generated. This is called the Wiegand effect. The patented cold-working process that produces the Wiegand wire permanently locks in the ability to exhibit Barkhausen effect discontinuities in the material. To achieve magnetic switching, the wire is put in the presence of alternating longitudinal magnetic fields. The resultant hysteresis loop contains large discontinuous jumps known as Barkhausen discontinuities that occur due to shell and core polarity switching.
    8.00
    3 votes
    69
    Analcite

    Analcite

    Analcime or analcite (from the Greek analkimos - "weak") is a white, grey, or colourless tectosilicate mineral. Analcime consists of hydrated sodium aluminium silicate in cubic crystalline form. Its chemical formula is NaAlSi2O6·H2O. Minor amounts of potassium and calcium substitute for sodium. A silver-bearing synthetic variety also exists (Ag-analcite). Analcime is usually classified as a zeolite mineral, but structurally and chemically it is more similar to the feldspathoids. Analcime occurs as a primary mineral in analcime basalt and other alkaline igneous rocks. It also occurs as cavity and vesicle fillings associated with prehnite, calcite, and zeolites. Locations include the Cyclopean Islands east off Sicily and near Trentino in northern Italy; Victoria in Australia; Kerguelen Island in the Indian Ocean; in the Lake Superior copper district of Michigan, Bergen Hill, New Jersey, Golden, Colorado, and at Searles Lake, California in the United States; and at Cape Blomidon, Nova Scotia and Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec in Canada; and in Iceland.
    6.75
    4 votes
    70
    Faujasite

    Faujasite

    Faujasite is a mineral group in the zeolite family of silicate minerals. The group consists of faujasite-Na, faujasite-Mg and faujasite-Ca. They all share the same basic formula: (Na2,Ca,Mg)3.5[Al7Si17O48]·32(H2O) by varying the amounts of sodium, magnesium and calcium. It occurs as a rare mineral in several locations worldwide and is also synthesized industrially. Faujasite was first described in 1842 for an occurrence in the Limberg Quarries, Sasbach, Kaiserstuhl, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The sodium modifier faujasite(Na) was added following the discovery of the magnesium and calcium rich phases in the 1990s. It was named for Barthélemy Faujas de Saint-Fond (1741-1819), French geologist and volcanologist. Faujasite occurs in vesicles within basalt and phonolite lava and tuff as an alteration or authigenic mineral. It occurs with other zeolites, olivine, augite and nepheline. The faujasite framework consists of sodalite cages which are connected through hexagonal prisms. The pores are arranged perpendicular to each other. The pore, which is formed by a 12-membered ring, has a relatively large diameter of 7.4 Å. The inner cavity has a diameter of 12 Å and is surrounded by
    6.75
    4 votes
    71
    Steel Wire Armoured (SWA) Cable

    Steel Wire Armoured (SWA) Cable

    Steel wire armoured cable, commonly abbreviated as SWA, is a hard-wearing power cable designed for the supply of mains electricity. It is one of a number of armoured electrical cables – which include 11kV Cable and 33kV Cable – and is found in underground systems, power networks and cable ducting. The typical construction of an SWA cable can be broken down as follows: The PVC version of SWA cable, described above, meets the requirements of both British Standard BS5467 and International Electrotechnical Commission standard IEC 60502. It is known as SWA BS5467 Cable and it has a voltage rating of 600/1000V. SWA cable can be referred to more generally as mains cable, armoured cable, power cable and booklet armoured cable. The name power cable, however, applies to a wide range of cables including 6381Y, NYCY, NYY-J and 6491X Cable. Steel wire armour is only used on multicore versions of the cable. A multicore cable, as the name suggests, is one where there are a number of different cores. When SWA cable has only one core, aluminium wire armour (AWA) is used instead of steel wire. This is because the aluminium is non-magnetic. A magnetic field is produced by the current in a single core
    6.75
    4 votes
    72
    Compost

    Compost

    Compost ( /ˈkɒmpɒst/ or /ˈkɒmpoʊst/) is organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer and soil amendment. Compost is a key ingredient in organic farming. At the simplest level, the process of composting simply requires making a heap of wetted organic matter (leaves, "green" food waste) and waiting for the materials to break down into humus after a period of weeks or months. Modern, methodical composting is a multi-step, closely monitored process with measured inputs of water, air and carbon- and nitrogen-rich materials. The decomposition process is aided by shredding the plant matter, adding water and ensuring proper aeration by regularly turning the mixture. Worms and fungi further break up the material. Aerobic bacteria manage the chemical process by converting the inputs into heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium. The ammonium is further converted by bacteria into plant-nourishing nitrites and nitrates through the process of nitrification. Compost can be rich in nutrients. It is used in gardens, landscaping, horticulture, and agriculture. The compost itself is beneficial for the land in many ways, including as a soil conditioner, a fertilizer, addition of
    9.00
    2 votes
    73
    Iron

    Iron

    • Child material class: Cast iron
    • Parent material class: Metal
    Iron (AE /ˈaɪərn/ EYE-ər-n, BE /ˈaɪən/ EYE-ən) is a chemical element with the symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element (by mass) forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Iron's very common presence in rocky planets like Earth is due to its abundant production as a result of fusion in high-mass stars, where the production of nickel-56 (which decays to the most common isotope of iron) is the last nuclear fusion reaction that is exothermic. This causes radioactive nickel to become the last element to be produced before collapse of a supernova leads to the explosive events that scatter this precursor radionuclide of iron abundantly into space. Like other group 8 elements, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +6, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give iron oxides, also known as rust. Unlike
    9.00
    2 votes
    74
    Fluorite

    Fluorite

    Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is a halide mineral composed of calcium fluoride, CaF2. It is an isometric mineral with a cubic habit, though octahedral and more complex isometric forms are not uncommon. Crystal twinning is common and adds complexity to the observed crystal habits. The word fluorite is derived from the Latin root fluo, meaning "to flow" because the mineral is used as a flux in iron smelting to decrease the viscosity of slags at a given temperature. This increase in fluidity is the result of the ionic nature of the mineral. The melting point of pure calcium fluoride is 1676 K. In 1852 fluorite gave its name to the phenomenon of fluorescence, which is prominent in fluorites from certain locations, due to certain impurities in the crystal. Fluorite also gave the name to its constitutive element fluorine. Fluorite is a colorful mineral, both in visible and ultraviolet light, and the stone has ornamental and lapidary uses. Industrially, fluorite is used as a flux for smelting, and in the production of certain glasses and enamels. The purest grades of fluorite are a source of fluoride for hydrofluoric acid manufacture, which is the intermediate source of most
    5.80
    5 votes
    75
    Coal

    Coal

    Coal (from the Old English term col, which has meant "mineral of fossilized carbon" since the 13th century) is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Throughout history, coal has been a useful resource. It is primarily burned for the production of electricity and/or heat, and is also used for industrial purposes, such as refining metals. A fossil fuel, coal forms when dead plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, then sub-bituminous coal, then bituminous coal, and lastly anthracite. This involves biological and geological processes that take place over a long period. Coal is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, as well as one of the largest worldwide anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide releases. In 1999 world gross carbon dioxide
    7.67
    3 votes
    76
    7.67
    3 votes
    77
    Optical ground wire

    Optical ground wire

    An optical ground wire (also known as an OPGW or, in the IEEE standard, an optical fiber composite overhead ground wire) is a type of cable that is used in the construction of electric power transmission and distribution lines. Such cable combines the functions of grounding and communications. An OPGW cable contains a tubular structure with one or more optical fibers in it, surrounded by layers of steel and aluminum wire. The OPGW cable is run between the tops of high-voltage electricity pylons. The conductive part of the cable serves to bond adjacent towers to earth ground, and shields the high-voltage conductors from lightning strikes. The optical fibers within the cable can be used for high-speed transmission of data, either for the electrical utility's own purposes of protection and control of the transmission line, for the utility's own voice and data communication, or may be leased or sold to third parties to serve as a high-speed fiber interconnection between cities. The optical fiber itself is an insulator and protects against power transmission line and lightning induction, external noise and cross-talk. Typically OPGW cables contain single-mode optical fibers with low
    7.67
    3 votes
    78
    Brass

    Brass

    • Parent material class: Metal
    Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties. By comparison, bronze is principally an alloy of copper and tin. Bronze does not necessarily contain tin, and a variety of alloys of copper, including alloys with arsenic, phosphorus, aluminium, manganese, and silicon, are commonly termed "bronze". The term is applied to a variety of brasses and the distinction is largely historical, both terms having a common antecedent in the term latten. Brass is a substitutional alloy. It is used for decoration for its bright gold-like appearance; for applications where low friction is required such as locks, gears, bearings, doorknobs, ammunition, and valves; for plumbing and electrical applications; and extensively in musical instruments such as horns and bells for its acoustic properties. It is also used in zippers. Because it is softer than most other metals in general use, brass is often used in situations where it is important that sparks not be struck, as in fittings and tools around explosive gases. The malleability and acoustic properties of brass have made it the metal of choice for musical
    10.00
    1 votes
    79
    Concertina wire

    Concertina wire

    Concertina wire or Dannert Wire is a type of barbed wire or razor wire that is formed in large coils which can be expanded like a concertina. In conjunction with plain barbed wire and steel pickets, it is used to form military wire obstacles. During World War I soldiers manufactured concertina wire themselves, using ordinary barbed wire. Today, it is factory made. In the First World War, barbed wire obstacles were made by stretching lengths of barbed wire between stakes of wood or iron. At its simplest, such a barrier would resemble a fence as might be used for agricultural purposes. The double apron fence comprised a line of pickets with wires running diagonally down to points on the ground either side of the fence. Horizontal wires were attached to these diagonals. More elaborate and formidable obstructions could be formed with multiple lines of stakes connected with wire running from side-to-side, back-to-front, and diagonally in every possible direction. Effective as these obstacles were their construction took considerable time. Barbed wire obstacles were vulnerable to being pushed about by artillery shells and in the First World War this frequently resulted in a mass of
    10.00
    1 votes
    80
    Manganese

    Manganese

    Manganese ( /ˈmæŋɡəniːz/ MANG-gə-neez) is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is found as a free element in nature (often in combination with iron), and in many minerals. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. Historically, manganese is named for various black minerals (such as pyrolusite) from the same region of Magnesia in Greece which gave names to similar-sounding magnesium, Mg, and magnetite, an ore of the element iron, Fe. By the mid-18th century, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine. Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite (now known to be manganese dioxide) contained a new element, but they were not able to isolate it. Johan Gottlieb Gahn was the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774, by reducing the dioxide with carbon. Manganese phosphating is used as a treatment for rust and corrosion prevention on steel. Depending on their oxidation state, manganese ions have various colors and are used industrially as pigments. The permanganates of alkali and alkaline earth metals are powerful oxidizers. Manganese
    10.00
    1 votes
    81
    Reinforced concrete

    Reinforced concrete

    Reinforced concrete is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength and/or ductility. The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars (rebar) and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before it sets. Reinforcing schemes are generally designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjuction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete may also be permanently stressed (in compression), so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads. In the United States, the most common methods of doing this are known as pre-tensioning and post-tensioning. For a strong, ductile and durable construction the reinforcement needs to have the following properties at least: Without reinforcement, constructing modern structures with the concrete material would not be possible. Many different types of structures
    10.00
    1 votes
    82
    Resin

    Resin

    Resin in the most specific use of the term is a hydrocarbon secretion of many plants, particularly coniferous trees. Resins are valued for their chemical properties and associated uses, such as the production of varnishes, adhesives and food glazing agents. They are also prized as an important source of raw materials for organic synthesis, and as constituents of incense and perfume. Plant resins have a very long history that was documented in ancient Greece by Theophrastus, in ancient Rome by Pliny the Elder, and especially in the resins known as frankincense and myrrh, prized in ancient Egypt. These were highly prized substances, and required as incense in some religious rites. Amber is a hard fossilized resin from ancient trees. More broadly, the term "resin" also encompasses a great many synthetic substances of similar mechanical properties (thick liquids that harden into transparent solids), as well as shellacs of insects of the superfamily Coccoidea. Other liquid compounds found in plants or exuded by plants, such as sap, latex, or mucilage, are sometimes confused with resin, but are not chemically the same. Saps, in particular, serve a nutritive function that resins do not.
    10.00
    1 votes
    83
    Steel

    Steel

    • Child material class: Low alloy steel
    • Parent material class: Metal
    Steel is an alloy made by combining iron and other elements, the most common of these being carbon. When carbon is used, its content in the steel is between 0.2% and 2.1% by weight, depending on the grade. Other alloying elements sometimes used are manganese, chromium, vanadium and tungsten. Carbon and other elements act as a hardening agent, preventing dislocations in the iron atom crystal lattice from sliding past one another. Varying the amount of alloying elements and the form of their presence in the steel (solute elements, precipitated phase) controls qualities such as the hardness, ductility, and tensile strength of the resulting steel. Steel with increased carbon content can be made harder and stronger than iron, but such steel is also less ductile than iron. Alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are known as cast iron because of their lower melting point and good castability. Steel is also distinguishable from wrought iron, which can contain a small amount of carbon, but it is included in the form of slag inclusions. Two distinguishing factors are steel's increased rust resistance and better weldability. Though steel had been produced by various inefficient methods
    10.00
    1 votes
    84
    Weathering steel

    Weathering steel

    • Child material class: Cor-ten steel
    • Parent material class: Steel
    Weathering steel, best-known under the trademark COR-TEN steel and sometimes written without the hyphen as "Corten steel", is a group of steel alloys which were developed to eliminate the need for painting, and form a stable rust-like appearance if exposed to the weather for several years. United States Steel Corporation (USS) holds the registered trademark on the name COR-TEN. Although USS sold its discrete plate business to International Steel Group (now Arcelor-Mittal) in 2003, it still sells COR-TEN branded material in strip-mill plate and sheet forms. The original COR-TEN received the standard designation A 242 ("COR-TEN A") from the ASTM International standards group. Newer ASTM grades are A 588 ("COR-TEN B") and A 606 for thin sheet. All alloys are in common production and use. "Weathering" means that due to their chemical compositions, these steels exhibit increased resistance to atmospheric corrosion compared to other steels. This is because the steel forms a protective layer on its surface under the influence of the weather. The corrosion-retarding effect of the protective layer is produced by the particular distribution and concentration of alloying elements in it. The
    6.50
    4 votes
    85

    7075 aluminium alloy

    Aluminium alloy 7075 is an aluminium alloy, with zinc as the primary alloying element. It is strong, with a strength comparable to many steels, and has good fatigue strength and average machinability, but has less resistance to corrosion than many other Al alloys. Its relatively high cost limits its use to applications where cheaper alloys are not suitable. 7075 aluminum alloy's composition roughly includes 5.6–6.1% zinc, 2.1–2.5% magnesium, 1.2–1.6% copper, and less than half a percent of silicon, iron, manganese, titanium, chromium, and other metals. It is produced in many tempers, some of which are 7075-O, 7075-T6, 7075-T651. Aluminium 7075 has a density of 2.810 g/cm³ (0.1015 lb/in³). The mechanical properties of 7075 depend greatly on the temper of the material. Un-heat-treated 7075 (7075-O temper) has maximum tensile strength no more than 40,000 psi (276 MPa), and maximum yield strength no more than 21,000 psi (145 MPa). The material has an elongation (stretch before ultimate failure) of 9–10%. T6 temper 7075 has an ultimate tensile strength of 74,000–78,000 psi (510–538 MPa) and yield strength of at least 63,000–69,000 psi (434–476 MPa). It has a failure elongation of 5–8%.
    8.50
    2 votes
    86
    Diamond

    Diamond

    In mineralogy, diamond (from the ancient Greek αδάμας – adámas "unbreakable") is an allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at ambient conditions. Diamond is renowned as a material with superlative physical qualities, most of which originate from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms. In particular, diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any bulk material. Those properties determine the major industrial application of diamond in cutting and polishing tools and the scientific applications in diamond knives and diamond anvil cells. Diamond has remarkable optical characteristics. Because of its extremely rigid lattice, it can be contaminated by very few types of impurities, such as boron and nitrogen. Combined with wide transparency, this results in the clear, colorless appearance of most natural diamonds. Small amounts of defects or impurities (about one per million of lattice atoms) color diamond blue (boron), yellow (nitrogen), brown (lattice defects),
    8.50
    2 votes
    87
    Kota Stone

    Kota Stone

    Kota Stone is a fine-grained variety of limestone, quarried at Kota district, Rajasthan, India. Many hundreds of mines are located in or near the town of Ramganj mandi and Kota district. The rich greenish-blue and brown colours of this stone are most popular. It is an excellent building stone. It is mainly used for exteriors, pathways, corridors, driveways, balconies, commercial buildings etc. It is also suitable for use in chemical industries as flooring, wall fixing and lining. Other colors–black, pink, grey, beige. Polishing brings a shine and smoothness to the surface of stone after cutting into pieces of different sizes and thickness. The stone tends to flake over a period of time. However, periodic polishing using polishing wax can eliminate this phenomenon. Also, the stone lacks the luster compared to marble or granite. Kota Stone competes in the market for its lower cost and longer durability. Another aspect that the Kota Stone loses to Marble and Granite is the size. Its maximum sizes are around 240 cm in length and 75 cm in width. This is due to the physical properties–the brittleness of limestone. So, when flooring is done, especially large spaces, the number of joints
    8.50
    2 votes
    88
    Textile

    Textile

    A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibres together (felt). The words fabric and cloth are used in textile assembly trades (such as tailoring and dressmaking) as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibres. Fabric refers to any material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods (garments, etc.). Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but often refers to a finished piece of fabric used for a specific purpose (e.g., table cloth). The word textile is from Latin, from neuter of textilis, woven, from textus, past participle of texere, to weave; see text. The discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests textile-like materials were made even in prehistoric times. The
    8.50
    2 votes
    89

    Anthonyite

    Anthonyite is a hydrous secondary copper halide mineral with chemical formula of Cu(OH,Cl)2•3(H2O). It was discovered in 1963 in the Centennial mine, Calumet, Houghton County, Michigan, USA. It was discovered by the University of Arizona mineralogist John W. Anthony (1920–1992), who named it for himself. Anthonyite is lavender in color, has a Mohs hardness of 2 and crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. Anthonyite occurs as an alteration of native copper in basalt in fractures and cavities by circulation of chloride rich groundwater or connate fluids. The similar orthorhombic mineral calumetite occurs by the same process. It occurs associated with tremolite, quartz, epidote, monazite, native copper, cuprite and paratacamite in the Centennial mine area. It also occrs in the Cole mine, at Bisbee, Cochise County, Arizona; and Villa Hermosa, Sonora, Mexico. It occurs as a slag mineral in Richelsdorf, Hesse, Germany and Laurium, Greece.
    7.33
    3 votes
    90
    Asbestos

    Asbestos

    Asbestos (pronounced  /æsˈbɛstəs/ or /æzˈbɛstəs/) is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals used commercially for their desirable physical properties. They all have in common their eponymous, asbestiform habit: long (ca. 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals. The prolonged inhalation of asbestos fibers can cause serious illnesses including malignant lung cancer, mesothelioma, and asbestosis (a type of pneumoconiosis). The European Union has banned all use of asbestos and extraction, manufacture and processing of asbestos products. Asbestos became increasingly popular among manufacturers and builders in the late 19th century because of its sound absorption, average tensile strength, its resistance to fire, heat, electrical and chemical damage, and affordability. It was used in such applications as electrical insulation for hotplate wiring and in building insulation. When asbestos is used for its resistance to fire or heat, the fibers are often mixed with cement (resulting in fiber cement) or woven into fabric or mats. Asbestos mining began more than 4,000 years ago, but did not start large-scale until the end of the 19th century. For a long time, the world's largest
    7.33
    3 votes
    91

    Bahia Emerald

    The Bahia Emerald is one of the largest emeralds (or rather, emerald crystals embedded in host rock) and contains the largest single shard ever found. The approximately 840 lb (1,900,000 carats) Brazilian stone narrowly escaped flooding during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 during a period of storage in a warehouse in New Orleans. It was subsequently reported stolen in September 2008 from a secured vault in South El Monte in Los Angeles County, California. Whilst the stone has been valued at some $400 million, the true value is unclear. At one point, the emerald was listed for sale on eBay for a "Buy It Now" price of $75 million. It originally was mined in the beryl mines of western Bahia State, Brazil, from which it takes its name. Bahia is an archaic form of Portuguese baía, meaning 'bay' after the bay first seen by European explorers in the 16th century. After being moved from Brazil to the U.S., various attempts were made to sell it without success. There were conflicting claims of ownership. Eventually the emerald was seized from a gem dealer in Las Vegas and taken into the custody of the Los Angeles Sheriff's Department. After a series of legal actions, Judge John A. Kronstadt of
    7.33
    3 votes
    92
    7.33
    3 votes
    93
    Emerald

    Emerald

    Emerald is a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Beryl has a hardness of 7.5–8 on the 10 point Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Most emeralds are highly included, so their toughness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. The word "Emerald" is derived (via Old French: Esmeraude and Middle English: Emeraude), from Vulgar Latin: Esmaralda/Esmaraldus, a variant of Latin Smaragdus, which originated in Greek: σμάραγδος (smaragdos; "green gem"); its original source being either the Sanskrit word मरकत marakata meaning "emerald" or the Semitic word baraq (בָּרָק ;البُراق; "lightning" or "shine") (cf. Hebrew: ברקת bareqeth and Arabic: برق barq "lightning"). It is the same source for the names Persian (زمرّد zomorrod), Turkish (zümrüt), Sanskrit (मरकत ; marakata), Kannada (ಪಚ್ಚೆ ; Pacche), Telugu (Paccha), Georgian (ზურმუხტი; zurmukhti), Russian (изумруд; izumrud) and Armenian zmruxt. Emeralds, like all colored gemstones, are graded using four basic parameters – the four Cs of Connoisseurship: Color, Cut, Clarity and Crystal. The last C, crystal is simply used as a synonym that begins with C for
    7.33
    3 votes
    94
    7.33
    3 votes
    95

    Kobald

    Kobald is a name for pyrites of copper-nickel-cobalt-iron give by German miners of the 15th century. The name (similar to kobold) means goblin. See cobalt.
    7.33
    3 votes
    96
    Masonry

    Masonry

    Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves. The common materials of masonry construction are brick, stone, marble, granite, travertine, limestone, cast stone, concrete block, glass block, stucco, and tile. Masonry is generally a highly durable form of construction. However, the materials used, the quality of the mortar and workmanship, and the pattern in which the units are assembled can significantly affect the durability of the overall masonry construction. Masonry is commonly used for the walls of buildings, retaining walls and monuments. Brick and concrete block are the most common types of masonry in use in industrialized nations and may be either weight-bearing or a veneer. Concrete blocks, especially those with hollow cores, offer various possibilities in masonry construction. They generally provide great compressive strength, and are best suited to structures with light transverse loading when the cores remain unfilled. Filling some or all of the cores with concrete or concrete with steel reinforcement (typically rebar) offers much greater tensile and lateral
    7.33
    3 votes
    97
    Oak

    Oak

    • Parent material class: Wood
    An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus ( /ˈkwɜrkəs/; Latin "oak tree"), of which about 600 species exist. "Oak" may also appear in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus. The genus is native to the Northern Hemisphere, and includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cool temperate to tropical latitudes in Asia and the Americas. Oaks have spirally arranged leaves, with lobed margins in many species; some have serrated leaves or entire leaves with smooth margins. Many deciduous species are marcescent, not dropping dead leaves until spring. The flowers are catkins, produced in spring. The fruit is a nut called an acorn, borne in a cup-like structure known as a cupule; each acorn contains one seed (rarely two or three) and takes 6–18 months to mature, depending on species. The live oaks are distinguished for being evergreen, but are not actually a distinct group and instead are dispersed across the genus. Oak trees are a flowering plant. The genus is divided into two subgenera and a number of sections: The subgenus Quercus is divided into the following sections: There are also some rare species of oak trees which are widely unknown: Scarlet Oak
    7.33
    3 votes
    98

    Stone

    Rock or a piece of rock shaped or finished for a particular purpose, such as a piece of rock that is used in construction: a coping stone; a paving stone. Stone (the generic rock material in all it's shapes, colors, and forms) is considered a natural resource and has additional uses beyond construction such as a visual art medium, a weapon or projectile, and even as a pet.
    7.33
    3 votes
    99
    7.33
    3 votes
    100
    Granite

    Granite

    Granite ( /ˈɡrænɨt/) is a common widely occurring type of intrusive, felsic, igneous rock which is granular and crystalline in texture. This rock consists mainly of quartz, mica, and feldspar. Occasionally some individual crystals (phenocrysts) are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is sometimes known as a porphyry. Granites can be pink to gray in color, depending on their chemistry and mineralogy. By definition, granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz by volume. Granite differs from granodiorite in that at least 35% of the feldspar in granite is alkali feldspar as opposed to plagioclase; it is the alkali feldspar that gives many granites a distinctive pink color. Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite is usually found in the continental plates of the Earth's crust. Granite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures), hard and tough, and therefore it has gained widespread use as a construction stone. The average density
    6.25
    4 votes
    101
    Solder

    Solder

    Solder (/ˈsoʊldə/, /ˈsɒldə/ or USA /ˈsɒdər/) is a fusible metal alloy used to join together metal workpieces and having a melting point below that of the workpiece(s). Soft solder is what is most often thought of when solder or soldering is mentioned and it typically has a melting range of 90 to 450 °C (190 to 840 °F). It is commonly used in electronics and plumbing. Alloys that melt between 180 and 190 °C (360 and 370 °F) are the most commonly used. Soldering performed using alloys with melting point above 450 °C (840 °F) is called 'hard soldering', 'silver soldering' or brazing. For certain proportions an alloy becomes eutectic and melts at a single temperature; non-eutectic alloys have markedly different solidus and liquidus temperature, and within that range they exist as a paste of solid particles in a melt of the lower-melting phase. In electrical work, if the joint is disturbed in the pasty state before it has solidified totally, a poor electrical connection may result; use of eutectic solder reduces this problem. The pasty state of a non-eutectic solder can be exploited in plumbing as it allows molding of the solder during cooling, e.g. for ensuring watertight joint of
    6.25
    4 votes
    102
    Adobe

    Adobe

    Adobe ( /əˈdoʊbi/, UK /əˈdoʊb/; Arabic: الطوب) is a natural building material made from sand, clay, water, and some kind of fibrous or organic material (sticks, straw, and/or manure), which the builders shape into bricks (using frames) and dry in the sun. Adobe buildings are similar to cob and mudbrick buildings. Adobe structures are extremely durable, and account for some of the oldest existing buildings in the world. In hot climates, compared with wooden buildings, adobe buildings offer significant advantages due to their greater thermal mass, but they are known to be particularly susceptible to earthquake damage. Buildings made of sun-dried earth are common in West Asia, North Africa, West Africa, South America, southwestern North America, Spain (usually in the Mudéjar style), Eastern Europe and East Anglia, particularly Norfolk, known as 'clay lump. Adobe had been in use by indigenous peoples of the Americas in the Southwestern United States, Mesoamerica, and the Andean region of South America for several thousand years, although often substantial amounts of stone are used in the walls of Pueblo buildings. (Also, the Pueblo people built their adobe structures with handfuls or
    5.40
    5 votes
    103
    Carrollite

    Carrollite

    Carrollite, CuCo2S4, is a sulfide of copper and cobalt, often with substantial substitution of nickel for the metal ions, and a member of the linnaeite group. It is named after the type locality in Carroll County, Maryland, USA, at the Patapsco mine, Finksburg, Sykesville. Space group: Fd3m. Unit cell parameters = a = 9.48 Å , Z = 8. Unit cell volume: V = 851.97 Å³ (calculated from unit cell parameters). The linnaeite group is a group of sulfides and selenides with the general formula AB2X4 in which X is sulfur or selenium, A is divalent Fe, Ni, Co or Cu and B is trivalent Co, Ni or, for daubreelite, Cr. The minerals are isometric, space group Fd3m and isostructural with each other and with minerals of the spinel group. The structure of the linnaeite group consists of a cubic close packed array of X (X is oxygen in the spinels and sulfur or selenium in the linnaeite group). Within the array of Xs there are two types of interstices, one type tetrahedrally co-ordinated and one type octahedrally co-ordinated. One eighth of the tetrahedal sites A are typically occupied by 2 cations, and half of the octahedral sites B by 3 cations. Charnock et al confirmed that carrollite contains Cu
    7.00
    3 votes
    104
    Gallium phosphate

    Gallium phosphate

    Gallium phosphate (GaPO4 or gallium orthophosphate) is a colorless trigonal crystal with a hardness of 5.5 on the Mohs scale. GaPO4 is isotypic with quartz, possessing very similar properties, but the silicon atoms are alternately substituted with gallium and phosphorus, thereby doubling the piezoelectric effect. GaPO4 has many advantages over quartz for technical applications, like a higher electromechanical coupling coefficient in resonators, due to this doubling. Contrary to quartz, GaPO4 is not found in nature. Therefore, a hydrothermal process must be used to synthesize the crystal. GaPO4 possesses, in contrast to quartz, no α-β phase transition, thus the low temperature structure (structure like α-quartz) of GaPO4 is stable up to 970°C, as are most of its other physical properties. Around 970°C another phase transition occurs which changes the low quartz structure into another structure similar with cristobalite. The specific structure of GaPO4 shows the arrangement of tetrahedrons consisting of GaO4 and PO4 that are slightly tilted. Because of the helical arrangement of these tetrahedrons, two modifications of GaPO4 exist with different optical rotation (left and
    7.00
    3 votes
    105
    Litz wire

    Litz wire

    Litz wire is a type of cable used in electronics to carry alternating current. The wire is designed to reduce the skin effect and proximity effect losses in conductors used at frequencies up to about 1 MHz. It consists of many thin wire strands, individually insulated and twisted or woven together, following one of several carefully prescribed patterns often involving several levels (groups of twisted wires are twisted together, etc.). This winding pattern equalizes the proportion of the overall length over which each strand is at the outside of the conductor. The term litz wire originates from Litzendraht, German for braided/stranded wire or woven wire. Litz wire reduces the impact of the skin effect and the proximity effect. The resistance of a conductor at DC (0 Hz) depends on its cross sectional area. A conductor with a larger area has a lower resistance. The resistance also depends on frequency because the effective cross sectional area changes with frequency. For alternating currents (AC), the skin effect causes the resistance to increase with increasing frequency. For low frequencies, the effect is negligible. For AC at frequencies high enough that the skin depth is small
    7.00
    3 votes
    106
    Sodium chloride

    Sodium chloride

    Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt or halite, is an ionic compound with the formula NaCl, representing equal proportions of sodium and chloride. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of the ocean and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. As the major ingredient in edible salt, it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. In solid sodium chloride, each ion is surrounded by six ions of the opposite charge as expected on electrostatic grounds. The surrounding ions are located at the vertices of a regular octahedron. In the language of close-packing, the larger chloride ions are arranged in a cubic array whereas the smaller sodium ions fill all the cubic gaps (octahedral voids) between them. This same basic structure is found in many other compounds and is commonly known as the halite or rock-salt crystal structure. It can be represented as a face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice with a two-atom basis or as two interpenetrating face centered cubic lattices. The first atom is located at each lattice point, and the second atom is located half way between lattice points along the fcc unit cell edge. Thermal
    7.00
    3 votes
    107

    Titanium Alloy 6-4

    The most common titanium alloy. An alpha-beta alloy, it is hardenable by heat treatment.

    Used for applications requiring excellent fracture toughness and fatigue strength such as aircraft, structural components, blades, discs, rings, airframes, fasteners, components, vessels, cases, hubs, forgings, biomedical implants and devices.

    Biocompatibility: Excellent, especially when direct contact with tissue or bone is required. Ti-6Al-4V's poor shear strength makes it undesirable for bone screws or plates. It also has poor surface wear properties and tends to seize when in sliding contact with itself and other metals. Surface treatments such as nitriding and oxidizing can improve the surface wear properties.
    7.00
    3 votes
    108
    Flint

    Flint

    Chipped stone tools were made by stone age peoples worldwide. Paleolithic tools were relatively simple, repeated small flakes being struck or pressed from a cobble or nucleus until the required shape was achieved. This is called knapping. Freshly made Mesolithic chipped stone tools are very sharp, much sharper than the bronze or even iron blades that eventually replaced them. However they were brittle and easily damaged and could not be easily sharpened. Mesolithic stone tools were, perhaps, the first disposable mass-produced commodity. However, during Neolithic times highly polished blades were valuable tools which were routinely resharpened by careful flaking away from the cutting edge, by repolishing, or by a combination of both. By the Neolithic in Europe the manufacture of chert and obsidian blades had become a highly skilled industry (see Tool stone). During the Neolithic period, large axes were made from flint nodules by chipping a rough shape, a so-called "rough-out". Such products were traded across a wide area. The rough-outs were then polished to give the surface a fine finish to create the axe head. Polishing not only increased the final strength of the product but also
    6.00
    4 votes
    109
    Artificial leather

    Artificial leather

    • Child material class: Naugahyde
    Artificial leather is a fabric or finish intended to substitute for leather in fields such as upholstery, clothing, and fabrics, and other uses where a leather-like finish is required but the actual material is cost-prohibitive, unsuitable, or unusable for ethical reasons. Under the name of artificial leather (not to be confused with the more modern Pleather) or American leather cloth, large quantities of a material having a more or less leather-like surface were once used, principally for upholstery purposes, such as the covering of chairs, lining the tops of writing desks and tables, and so on. There was considerable diversity in the preparation of such materials. A common variety consisted of a web of calico coated with boiled linseed oil mixed with dryers and lampblack or other pigment. Several coats of this mixture were uniformly spread, smoothed and compressed on the cotton surface by passing it between metal rollers, and when the surface was required to possess a glossy enamel-like appearance, it received a finishing coat of copal varnish. A grained Morocco surface was given to the material by passing it between suitably embossed rollers. Preparations of this kind have a
    8.00
    2 votes
    110

    Dimorphite

    Dimorphite (chemical name tetraarsenic trisulfide) is a very rare orange-yellow chalcogenide mineral. In nature, dimorphite forms primarily by deposit in volcanic fumaroles at temperatures of 70°-80°C (158°F-176°F). Dimorphite was first discovered in a such a fumarole near Naples, Italy in 1849 by the mineralologist Arcangelo Scacchi (1810-1893). Since its discovery, dimorphite has been found in the Alacrán silver mine near Copiapó, Chile. It has also been reported from Cerro de Pasco, Peru, and the Lavrion District Mines in Attica, Greece. Dimorphite has two crystal forms, Α- and Β-. This property gives rise to its name, which comes from the Greek for "two" and "form." Dimorphite transitions between its α- and β- forms at around 130°C (266°F). Dimorphite can be synthesized by melting arsenic and sulfur together in the proper molar ratios in vacuum. Initial research done by professors from the Technical University of Moldova and the Bundeswehr University of Munich indicates the possibility of using dimorphite in the development of gas sensors, due to the semiconductive properties of dimorphite.
    8.00
    2 votes
    111
    Straw

    Straw

    Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed. Straw makes up about half of the yield of cereal crops such as barley, oats, rice, rye and wheat. It has many uses, including fuel, livestock bedding and fodder, thatching and basket-making. It is usually gathered and stored in a straw bale, which is a bundle of straw tightly bound with twine or wire. Bales may be square, rectangular, or round, depending on the type of baler used. Current and historic uses of straw include:
    8.00
    2 votes
    112
    9.00
    1 votes
    113
    Carbon nanotube

    Carbon nanotube

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. Nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000:1, significantly larger than for any other material. These cylindrical carbon molecules have unusual properties, which are valuable for nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other fields of materials science and technology. In particular, owing to their extraordinary thermal conductivity and mechanical and electrical properties, carbon nanotubes find applications as additives to various structural materials. For instance, nanotubes form only a tiny portion of the material(s) in (primarily carbon fiber) baseball bats, golf clubs, or car parts. Nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family. Their name is derived from their long, hollow structure with the walls formed by one-atom-thick sheets of carbon, called graphene. These sheets are rolled at specific and discrete ("chiral") angles, and the combination of the rolling angle and radius decides the nanotube properties; for example, whether the individual nanotube shell is a metal or semiconductor. Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs)
    9.00
    1 votes
    114
    Chicken wire

    Chicken wire

    Chicken wire, or poultry netting, is a mesh of wire commonly used to fence poultry livestock. It is made of thin, flexible galvanized wire, with hexagonal gaps. Available in 1 inch (about 2.5 cm) diameter, 2 inch (about 5 cm) and 1/2 inch (about 1.3 cm), chicken wire is available in various wire gauges usually 19 gauge (about 1 mm wire) to 22 gauge (about 0.7 mm wire). Chicken wire is occasionally used to build spacious yet inexpensive cages for small animals (or to protect plants and property from animals) though the thinness and zinc content of galvanized wire may be inappropriate for animals prone to gnawing and will not keep out predators. In construction, chicken wire is used as a matrix to hold cement or plaster, in a process known as stuccoing. Concrete reinforced with chicken wire yields ferrocement, a versatile construction material. It can also be used to make the armature for a papier-mâché sculpture, when relatively high strength is needed. It can also be used as a security measure in musical venues to protect the musicians from things being thrown at them, as seen in the 1980 film The Blues Brothers. Chicken wire netting was invented in 1844 by Charles Barnard, an
    9.00
    1 votes
    115
    Magnesium

    Magnesium

    Magnesium ( /mæɡˈniːziəm/ mag-NEE-zee-əm) is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. Its common oxidation number is +2. It is an alkaline earth metal and the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and ninth in the known universe as a whole. Magnesium is the fourth most common element in the Earth as a whole (behind iron, oxygen and silicon), making up 13% of the planet's mass and a large fraction of the planet's mantle. The relative abundance of magnesium is related to the fact that it is easily built up in supernova stars from a sequential addition of three helium nuclei to carbon (which in turn is made from three helium nuclei). Due to magnesium ion's high solubility in water, it is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater. The free element (metal) is not found naturally on Earth, as it is highly reactive (though once produced, it is coated in a thin layer of oxide (see passivation), which partly masks this reactivity). The free metal burns with a characteristic brilliant white light, making it a useful ingredient in flares. The metal is now mainly obtained by electrolysis of magnesium salts obtained from brine. Commercially, the chief use
    9.00
    1 votes
    116
    Piano wire

    Piano wire

    Piano wire, or "music wire", is a specialized type of wire made for use in piano strings, as well as many other purposes. It is made from tempered high-carbon steel, also known as spring steel. General-purpose, high-carbon steel, drawn music wire (such as ASTM A228) is manufactured in both inch and metric music wire gauges (m.w.g.) in diameters as small as 0.006 inch up to 0.192 inch (0.15 to 4.8 mm). A small number of companies produce the tough, high tensile polished wire intended for limited music instrument markets, which is manufactured from steel of a specific composition by cold drawing. Piano strings are among the most demanding of all applications of steel. Placed under high tension, they are subject to repeated blows, they are stretched and slackened during tuning and are still expected to last for decades. Similar challenges arise in plucked instruments, along with the additional demand of being bent when plucked. Piano wire must also be extremely consistent in size: variations greater than 0.0003 inch (8 μm) will produce audible falseness in modern instruments. Piano wire is sold by weight and packaged in tight coils. It springs back to a gentle curve but can be
    9.00
    1 votes
    117
    Superconducting wire

    Superconducting wire

    Superconducting wire is wire made of superconductors. When cooled below its transition temperature, it has zero electrical resistance. Most commonly, conventional superconductors such as niobium-titanium are used, but high-Tc superconductors such as YBCO are entering the market. Superconducting wire's advantages over copper or aluminum include higher maximum current densities and zero power dissipation. Its disadvantages include the cost of refrigeration of the wires to superconducting temperatures (often requiring cryogens such as liquid helium or liquid nitrogen), the danger of the wire quenching (a sudden loss of superconductivity), the inferior mechanical properties of some superconductors, and the cost of wire materials and construction. Its main application is in superconducting magnets, which are used in scientific and medical equipment where high magnetic fields are necessary. Often the superconductor is in filament form in a copper or aluminium matrix which carries the current should the superconductor quench for any reason. The superconductor filaments can form a third of the total volume of the wire. The construction and operating temperature will typically be chosen to
    9.00
    1 votes
    118
    Wire

    Wire

    • Child material class: Aluminium wire
    A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal. Wires are used to bear mechanical loads and to carry electricity and telecommunications signals. Wire is commonly formed by drawing the metal through a hole in a die or draw plate. Standard sizes are determined by various wire gauges. The term wire is also used more loosely to refer to a bundle of such strands, as in 'multistranded wire', which is more correctly termed a wire rope in mechanics, or a cable in electricity. Although usually circular in cross-section, wire can be made in square or flattened rectangular cross-section, either for decorative purposes, or for technical purposes such as high-efficiency voice coils in loudspeakers. Edge-wound coil springs, such as the "Slinky" toy, are made of special flattened wire. In antiquity, jewelry often contains, in the form of chains and applied decoration, large amounts of wire that is accurately made and which must have been produced by some efficient, if not technically advanced, means. In some cases, strips cut from metal sheet were made into wire by pulling them through perforations in stone beads. This causes the strips to fold round on themselves to
    9.00
    1 votes
    119
    Ammolite

    Ammolite

    Ammolite is a rare and valuable opal-like organic gemstone found primarily along the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains of North America. It is made of the fossilized shells of ammonites, which in turn are composed primarily of aragonite, the same mineral that makes up nacreous pearls. It is one of several biogenic gemstones; others include amber and pearl. In 1981, ammolite was given official gemstone status by the World Jewellery Confederation, the same year commercial mining of ammolite began. It was designated the official gemstone of the Province of Alberta in 2004 and the official gemstone of the City of Lethbridge in 2007. Ammolite is also known as aapoak (Kainah for "small, crawling stone"), gem ammonite, calcentine, and korite. The latter is a trade name given to the gemstone by the Alberta-based mining company Korite International, the first and largest commercial producer of ammolite. The chemical composition of ammolite is variable, and aside from aragonite may include calcite, silica, pyrite, or other minerals. The shell itself may contain a number of trace elements, including: aluminium; barium; chromium; copper; iron; magnesium; manganese; strontium; titanium; and
    6.67
    3 votes
    120
    Cork

    Cork

    • Parent material class: Buoyancy
    Cork is an impermeable, buoyant material, a prime-subset of bark tissue that is harvested for commercial use primarily from Quercus suber (the Cork Oak), which is endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa. Cork is composed of suberin, a hydrophobic substance, and because of its impermeability, buoyancy, elasticity, and fire resistance, it is used in a variety of products, the most common of which is for wine stoppers. The montado landscape of Portugal produces approximately 50% of cork harvested annually worldwide, with Corticeira Amorim being the leading company in the industry. Cork was examined microscopically by Robert Hooke, which led to his discovery and naming of the cell. There are about 2,200,000 hectares of cork forest worldwide; 32.4% in Portugal, and 22.2% in Spain. Annual production is about 300,000 tons; 61.3% from Portugal, 29.5% from Spain, 5.5% Italy. Once the trees are about 25 years old the cork is stripped from the trunks every ten years. The trees live for about 200 years. The first two harvests produce poorer quality cork. The cork industry is generally regarded as environmentally friendly. The sustainability of production and the easy recycling of cork
    6.67
    3 votes
    121
    Electroluminescent wire

    Electroluminescent wire

    Electroluminescent wire (often abbreviated to EL wire) is a thin copper wire coated in a phosphor which glows when an alternating current is applied to it. It can be used in a wide variety of applications—vehicle and/or structure decoration, safety and emergency lighting, toys, clothing etc.—much as rope light or Christmas lights are often used. Unlike these types of strand lights, EL wire is not a series of points, but produces a 360 degree unbroken line of visible light. Its thin diameter makes it flexible and ideal for use in a variety of applications such as clothing or costumes. EL wire's construction consists of five major components. First is a solid-copper wire core, coated with phosphor. A very fine wire is spiral-wound around the phosphor-coated copper core. This fine wire is electrically isolated from the copper core. Surrounding this "sandwich" of copper core, phosphor, and fine copper wire is a clear PVC sleeve. Finally, surrounding this thin, clear PVC sleeve is another clear, colored translucent, or fluorescent PVC sleeve. An alternating current electric potential of approximately 90 to 120 volts at about 1000 Hz is applied between the copper core wire and the fine
    6.67
    3 votes
    122
    Lapis lazuli

    Lapis lazuli

    Lapis lazuli ( /ˈlæpɪs ˈlæzjʉlaɪ/ or /ˈlæzjʉli/ LAP-iss LAZ-zew-ly/lee, Arabic: لازورد‎ Persian: لاژورد‎ Urdu: لاجورد) (sometimes abbreviated to lapis) is a relatively rare semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense blue color. Lapis lazuli was being mined in the Badakhshan province of Afghanistan as early as the 3rd millennium BC, and there are sources that are found as far east as in the region around Lake Baikal in Siberia. Trade in the stone is ancient enough for lapis jewelry to have been found at Predynastic Egyptian and ancient Sumerian sites, and as lapis beads at neolithic burials in Mehrgarh, the Caucasus, and even as far from Afghanistan as Mauritania. Lapis lazuli is a rock, largely formed from the mineral lazurite. The main component of lapis lazuli is lazurite (25% to 40%), a feldspathoid silicate mineral with the formula (Na,Ca)8(AlSiO4)6(S,SO4,Cl)1-2. Most lapis lazuli also contains calcite (white), sodalite (blue), and pyrite (metallic yellow). Other possible constituents: augite; diopside; enstatite; mica; hauynite; hornblende, and nosean. Some lapis lazuli contains trace amounts of the sulfur-rich löllingite variety geyerite. Lapis
    6.67
    3 votes
    123
    Phenol formaldehyde resin

    Phenol formaldehyde resin

    • Child material class: Bakelite
    Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde. Phenolic resins are mainly used in the production of circuit boards. They are better known however for the production of molded products including pool balls, laboratory countertops, and as coatings and adhesives. In the form of Bakelite, they are the earliest commercial synthetic resin. Phenol-formaldehyde resins, as a group, are formed by a step-growth polymerization reaction that can be either acid- or base-catalysed. Since formaldehyde exists predominantly in solution as a dynamic equilibrium of methylene glycol oligomers, the concentration of the reactive form of formaldehyde depends on temperature and pH. Phenol is reactive towards formaldehyde at the ortho and para sites (sites 2, 4 and 6) allowing up to 3 units of formaldehyde to attach to the ring. The initial reaction in all cases involves the formation of a hydroxymethyl phenol: The hydroxymethyl group is capable of reacting with either another free ortho or para site, or with another hydroxymethyl group. The first reaction gives a methylene bridge, and the second forms an ether bridge: The
    6.67
    3 votes
    124
    6.67
    3 votes
    125
    6.67
    3 votes
    126

    Tinsel wire

    Tinsel wire is a form of low voltage electrical wire used when maximum mechanical flexibility is required. It is commonly found in cords used for telephones, especially the handset cords, and in headphones. Because of its extreme flexibility it is much more resistant to failing as a result of metal fatigue than ordinary stranded wire or solid wire. Tinsel wire is also used in the power cable for very small appliances such as electric shavers or clocks, where stranded cable conductors of adequate mechanical size would be too stiff. "Tinsel cords" are recognized as type TPT or TST in the US and Canadian electrical codes, and are rated at 0.5 amperes. Tinsel wire is made by wrapping several strands of thin copper foil around a textile core. Because the foil is very thin, it is extremely flexible; the extreme thinness of the foil means that the minimum bend radius imposed on the foil is many times the thickness of the foil, leading to a low probability of metal fatigue. Meanwhile, the fabric core provides high tensile strength. Separated from the core, the individual foils are relatively fragile, and the textile core can be damaged by high temperatures. Together, these two factors
    5.75
    4 votes
    127
    Walnut

    Walnut

    • Parent material class: Wood
    A walnut is an edible seed of any tree of the genus Juglans, especially the Persian walnut, Juglans regia. Broken nutmeats of the eastern black walnut, from the tree Juglans nigra, are also commercially available in small quantities, as are foods prepared with butternut nutmeats. Walnut seeds are a high density source of nutrients, particularly proteins and essential fatty acids. Walnuts, like other tree nuts, must be processed and stored properly. Poor storage makes walnuts susceptible to insect and fungal mold infestations; the latter produces aflatoxin - a potent carcinogen. A mold infested walnut seed batch should not be screened then consumed; the entire batch should be discarded. Walnuts are rounded, single-seeded stone fruits of the walnut tree. The walnut fruit is enclosed in a green, leathery, fleshy husk. This husk is inedible. After harvest, the removal of the husk reveals the wrinkly walnut shell, which is in two halves. This shell is hard and encloses the kernel, which is also made up of two halves separated by a partition. The seed kernels - commonly available as shelled walnuts - are enclosed in a brown seed coat which contains antioxidants. The antioxidants protect
    5.75
    4 votes
    129
    Biotite

    Biotite

    Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(F,OH)2. More generally, it refers to the dark mica series, primarily a solid-solution series between the iron-endmember annite, and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite; more aluminous endmembers include siderophyllite. Biotite was named by J.F.L. Hausmann in 1847 in honour of the French physicist Jean-Baptiste Biot, who, in 1816, researched the optical properties of mica, discovering many unique properties. Biotite is a sheet silicate. Iron, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, oxygen, and hydrogen form sheets that are weakly bound together by potassium ions. It is sometimes called "iron mica" because it is more iron-rich than phlogopite. It is also sometimes called "black mica" as opposed to "white mica" (muscovite) – both form in some rocks, in some instances side-by-side. Like other mica minerals, biotite has a highly perfect basal cleavage, and consists of flexible sheets, or lamellae, which easily flake off. It has a monoclinic crystal system, with tabular to prismatic crystals with an obvious pinacoid termination. It has four prism faces and two pinacoid faces to
    7.50
    2 votes
    130

    Fengite

    Fengite is a transparent form of marble or alabaster. In former times it was sometimes used for windows instead of glass. Fengite is also a variant spelling of phengite, the high silica muscovite variety.
    7.50
    2 votes
    131
    Leather

    Leather

    • Parent material class: Rawhide
    Leather is a durable and flexible material created by the tanning of animal rawhide and skin, often cattle hide. It can be produced through manufacturing processes ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry. Several tanning processes transform hides and skins into leather: Leather—usually vegetable-tanned—can be oiled to improve its water resistance. This supplements the natural oils remaining in the leather itself, which can be washed out through repeated exposure to water. Frequent oiling of leather, with mink oil, neatsfoot oil, or a similar material keeps it supple and improves its lifespan dramatically. Leather with the hair still attached is called hair-on. In general, leather is sold in four forms: Less-common leathers include: There are two other types of leather commonly used in specialty products, such as briefcases, wallets, and luggage: The following are not "true" leathers, but contain leather material. Depending on jurisdiction, they may still be labeled as "Genuine Leather": Today most leather is made of cattle skin but many exceptions exist. Lamb and deerskin are used for soft leather in more expensive apparel. Deer and elkskin are widely used in work gloves
    7.50
    2 votes
    132
    Marble

    Marble

    Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. The word "marble" derives from the Greek "μάρμαρον" (mármaron), from "μάρμαρος" (mármaros), "crystalline rock", "shining stone", perhaps from the verb "μαρμαίρω" (marmaírō), "to flash, sparkle, gleam". This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal, meaning "marble-like." Whilst the English term resembles the French marbre, most other European languages (e.g. Spanish mármol, Italian marmo, Portuguese mármore, German, Norwegian, Danish and Swedish marmor, Armenian marmar, Dutch marmer, Polish marmur, Turkish mermer, Czech mramor and Russian мрáмор ) follow the original Greek. Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks, most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of
    7.50
    2 votes
    133
    Polyurethane

    Polyurethane

    A polyurethane (PUR and PU) is polymer composed of a chain of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links. Polyurethane polymers are formed by combining two or several bi- or higher functional monomers. One contains two or more isocyanate functional groups (with formula –N=C=O) and the other contains two or more hydroxyl groups (with formula –OH). The alcohol and the isocyanate groups combine to form a urethane linkage: This combining process, sometimes called condensation, typically requires the presence of a catalyst. More complicated monomers are also used. Polyurethanes are used in the manufacture of flexible, high-resilience foam seating; rigid foam insulation panels; microcellular foam seals and gaskets; durable elastomeric wheels and tires; automotive suspension bushings; electrical potting compounds; high performance adhesives; surface coatings and surface sealants; synthetic fibers (e.g., Spandex); carpet underlay; and hard-plastic parts (e.g., for electronic instruments). Polyurethane is also used for the manufacture of hoses and skateboard wheels as it combines the best properties of both rubber and plastic. Pioneering research on polyurethane polymers was
    7.50
    2 votes
    134
    Avgas

    Avgas

    • Parent material class: Aviation fuel
    Avgas (aviation gasoline, also known as aviation spirit in the UK) is an aviation fuel used to power piston-engine aircraft. Avgas is distinguished from mogas (motor gasoline), which is the everyday gasoline used in cars and some non-commercial light aircraft. Unlike mogas, avgas contains tetraethyl lead (TEL), a toxic substance used to enhance combustion stability. Avgas is used in aircraft that have piston or Wankel engines. Gas turbines are able to operate on avgas, as the pioneering German Jumo 004 turbojet of World War II was able to do, but typically do not, partially for reasons of fuel economy. Turbine and Diesel engines are designed to use kerosene-based jet fuel. The main petroleum component used in blending avgas is alkylate, which is essentially a mixture of various isooctanes, and some refineries also use some reformate. All grades of avgas that meet CAN 2-3, 25-M82 have a density of 6.01 lb/U.S. gal at 15 °C, or 0.721 kg/l, and this density is commonly used for weight and balance computation. Density increases to 6.41 lb/US gallon at -40 °C, and decreases by about 0.5% per 5 °C (9 °F) increase in temperature. Avgas has an emission coefficient (or factor) of 18.355
    6.33
    3 votes
    135

    Fougerite

    Fougerite is a recently discovered representative of clay minerals, chemically and structurally related to so-called green rust, hydrotalcite-like minerals (hydrotalcite, pyroaurite, iowaite, manasseite) and other layered double hydroxides. The formula of the mineral is complex due to structural variabilities, as is for green rust, thus different formulas can be found elsewhere. The structure is based on brucite-like layers. Fougerite crystallizes in trigonal system. The originally given formula for fougerite is [Fe1-xFexMgy(OH)2+2y][x/n A.mH2O] where A denotes an interlayer anion, n denotes valency, by 1/4 ≤ x/(1+y) ≤ 1/3 and m ≤ (1-x+y) (Trolard et al. 2007). The interlayer anions may be OH, Cl, CO3, SO4 and other. Fougerite is unique among other clay minerals due to having a positive layer charge. Fougerite is found in forested soils near Fougères (Brittany, France). It possess blue-green to bluish-gray colour. The mineral is unstable in air and transforms to lepidocrocite or goethite. It is regarded as a precursor for other iron hydroxides and related compounds, like goethite, lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite (Trolard et al. 2007, Génin et al. 2005).
    6.33
    3 votes
    136
    Iron oxide

    Iron oxide

    Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3. It is one of the three main oxides of iron, the other two being iron(II) oxide (FeO), which is rare, and iron(II,III) oxide (Fe3O4), which also occurs naturally as the mineral magnetite. As the mineral known as hematite, Fe2O3 is the main source of the iron for the steel industry. Fe2O3 is ferromagnetic, dark red, and readily attacked by acids. Iron(III) oxide is often called rust, and to some extent this label is useful, because rust shares several properties and has a similar composition. To a chemist, rust is considered an ill-defined material, described as hydrated ferric oxide. Fe2O3 can be obtained in various polymorphs. In the main ones, α and γ, iron adopts octahedral coordination geometry. That is, each Fe center is bound to six oxygen ligands. α-Fe2O3 has the rhombohedral, corundum (α-Al2O3) structure and is the most common form. It occurs naturally as the mineral hematite which is mined as the main ore of iron. It is antiferromagnetic below ~260 K (Morin transition temperature), and exhibits weak ferromagnetism between 260 K and the Néel temperature, 950 K. It is easy to prepare using both
    6.33
    3 votes
    137

    Layered double hydroxides

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) comprise an unusual class of layered materials with positively charged layers and charge balancing anions located in the interlayer region. This is unusual in solid state chemistry: many more families of materials have negatively charged layers and cations in the interlayer spaces (e.g. kaolinite, Al2Si2O5(OH)4). LDHs are commonly represented by the formula [M1-xMx (OH)2](X)q/n·yH2O. Most commonly, z = 2, and M = Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu or Zn; hence q = x. Pure phases have been shown to exist over the range 0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.33. However, values of x have been reported in the range 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.5. Also possible is z = 1, where M = Li and M = Al. In this case q = 2x - 1. The latter family of materials can be described by the formula [LiAl2(OH)6]X∙yH2O (LiAl2-X)). X represents a generic anion and the value of y is normally found to be between 0.5 – 4. LDHs may be formed with a wide variety of anions X (e.g. Cl, Br, NO3, CO3, SO4 and SeO4). The anions located in the interlayer regions can generally be easily replaced. A wide variety of anions may be incorporated, ranging from simple inorganic anions (e.g. CO3) through organic anions (e.g. benzoate,
    6.33
    3 votes
    138

    Low alloy steel

    • Parent material class: Steel
    Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical properties. Alloy steels are broken down into two groups: low-alloy steels and high-alloy steels. The difference between the two is somewhat arbitrary: Smith and Hashemi define the difference at 4.0%, while Degarmo, et al., define it at 8.0%. Most commonly, the phrase "alloy steel" refers to low-alloy steels. Every steel is truly an alloy, but not all steels are called "alloy steels". Even the simplest steels are iron (Fe) (about 99%) alloyed with carbon (C) (about 0.1% to 1%, depending on type). However, the term "alloy steel" is the standard term referring to steels with other alloying elements in addition to the carbon. Common alloyants include manganese (the most common one), nickel, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, silicon, and boron. Less common alloyants include aluminum, cobalt, copper, cerium, niobium, titanium, tungsten, tin, zinc, lead, and zirconium. The following is a range of improved properties in alloy steels (as compared to carbon steels): strength, hardness, toughness, wear resistance, hardenability, and hot hardness. To achieve
    6.33
    3 votes
    139
    Topaz

    Topaz

    Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces. Pure topaz is colorless and transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine, yellow, pale gray, reddish-orange, or blue brown. It can also be made white, pale green, blue, gold, pink (rare), reddish-yellow or opaque to transparent/translucent. Orange topaz, also known as precious topaz, is the traditional November birthstone, the symbol of friendship, and the state gemstone of the US state of Utah. Imperial topaz is yellow, pink (rare, if natural) or pink-orange. Brazilian Imperial Topaz can often have a bright yellow to deep golden brown hue, sometimes even violet. Many brown or pale topazes are treated to make them bright yellow, gold, pink or violet colored. Some imperial topaz stones can fade on exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time. Blue topaz is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. Typically, colorless, gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and
    6.33
    3 votes
    140
    8.00
    1 votes
    141
    Buoyancy

    Buoyancy

    • Child material class: Cork
    In physics, buoyancy ( /ˈbɔɪ.ənsi/) is an upward force exerted by a liquid, gas or other fluid, that opposes the weight of an immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus a column of fluid, or an object submerged in the fluid, experiences greater pressure at the bottom of the column than at the top. This difference in pressure results in a net force that tends to accelerate an object upwards. The magnitude of that force is proportional to the difference in the pressure between the top and the bottom of the column, and (as explained by Archimedes' principle) is also equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would otherwise occupy the column, i.e. the displaced fluid. For this reason, an object whose density is greater than that of the fluid in which it is submerged tends to sink. If the object is either less dense than the liquid or is shaped appropriately (as in a boat), the force can keep the object afloat. This can occur only in a reference frame which either has a gravitational field or is accelerating due to a force other than gravity defining a "downward" direction (that is, a non-inertial
    8.00
    1 votes
    142
    Compacted graphite iron

    Compacted graphite iron

    Compacted graphite iron (CGI), also known as vermicular graphite iron (GJV, VG, JV or GGV from the German: "Gusseisen mit Vermiculargraphit") especially in non-English speaking countries, is a metal which is gaining popularity in applications that require either greater strength, or lower weight than cast iron. R.D. Schelleng obtained a patent for the production of Compacted graphite iron in 1965. The graphite in compacted graphite iron differs in structure from that in gray iron because the graphite particles are shorter and thicker. This results in stronger adhesion between the graphite and the iron giving the material a greater tensile strength. The first commercial application for compacted graphite iron was for the brake discs for high speed rail trains. More recently compacted graphite iron has been used for diesel engine blocks. It has proven to be useful in the manufacture of V topology diesel engines where the loading on the block is very high between the cylinder banks, and for heavy goods vehicles which use diesel engines with high combustion pressures. It is also used for turbo housings and exhaust manifolds. In the latter case to reduce corrosion.
    8.00
    1 votes
    143

    Copper-clad aluminum wire

    Copper-clad aluminium wire, commonly abbreviated as CCAW or CCA, is an electrical conductor composed of an inner aluminium core and outer copper cladding. The primary applications of this conductor revolve around weight reduction requirements. These applications include high-quality coils, such as the voice coils in headphones, portable loudspeakers or mobile coils; high frequency coaxial applications; such as RF antennas; CATV distribution cables; and power cables. CCA was also used in mains cable for domestic and commercial premises. The copper/aluminium construction was adopted to avoid some of the problems with aluminium wire, yet retain some of the cost advantage. But, solid copper is most commonly used in internal residential 120v or 240v wiring in the US. CCA became extremely popular on emerging markets as a cheap replacement for copper category 5e twisted pair cables. The properties of copper-clad aluminium wire include: The skin effect causes alternating current to concentrate on the more-conductive copper cladding of the conductor, causing the resistance of the wire to approach that of a pure copper wire at high frequencies, which makes the copper-clad aluminium wire a
    8.00
    1 votes
    144
    Dynamite

    Dynamite

    Dynamite is an explosive material based on nitroglycerin, initially using diatomaceous earth (AmE: kieselgur; BrE: kieselguhr), or another absorbent substance such as powdered shells, clay, sawdust, or wood pulp. Dynamites using organic materials such as sawdust are less stable and such use has been generally discontinued. Dynamite was invented by the Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in Krümmel (Geesthacht, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany), and patented in 1867. Its name is derived from Greek roots δύναμις dýnamis that literally mean "connected with power." Dynamite is usually sold in the form of cylinders about 8 in (20 cm) long and about 1.25 in (3.2 cm) in diameter, with a weight of about 0.5 lb troy (0.186 kg) . Other sizes also exist. The maximum shelf life of nitroglycerin-based dynamite is recommended as one year from the date of manufacture under good storage conditions. Dynamite is a high explosive, which means its power comes from detonation rather than deflagration. Another form of dynamite consists of nitroglycerin dissolved in nitrocellulose and a small amount of ketone. This form of dynamite is similar to cordite, and is much safer than the simple mix of
    8.00
    1 votes
    145
    Gold

    Gold

    Gold ( /ˈɡoʊld/) is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal. It is a chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79. Gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements solid under standard conditions. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains in rocks, in veins and in alluvial deposits. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, usually with tellurium. Gold resists attacks by individual acids, but it can be dissolved by the aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid), so named because it dissolves gold. Gold also dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide, which have been used in mining. Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals, a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold in items, giving rise to the term the acid test. Gold has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage, jewelry, and other
    8.00
    1 votes
    146
    Hureaulite

    Hureaulite

    Hureaulite is a manganese phosphate with the formula Mn5(PO3OH)2(PO4)2·4H2O. It was discovered in 1825 and named in 1826 for the type locality, Les Hureaux, Saint-Sylvestre, Haute-Vienne, Limousin, France. It is sometimes written as huréaulite, but the IMA does not recommend this for English language text. A complete series exists from lithiophilite, LiMnPO4 to triphylite, LiFePO4, including hureaulite, strengite, FePO4·2H2O, stewartite, MnFe2(OH,PO4)2·8H2O, and sicklerite, (LiMn,Fe)PO4. Hureaulite is a secondary mineral occurring in granite pegmatites. At the type locality it occurs in a zone of altered triphylite, LiMnPO4, in pegmatite. Typically occurs very late in the sequence of formation of secondary phosphate minerals. Associated at the type locality with vivianite, Fe3(PO4)2·8H2O; rockbridgeite, FeFe4(PO4)3(OH)5; heterosite, (Fe,Mn)PO4 and cacoxenite, Fe24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12·17H2O. It can be synthesised; most natural hureaulites are Mn-rich compounds but extensive (Mn,Fe) solution is known for synthetic material. The type locality is Les Hureaux, Saint-Sylvestre, Haute-Vienne, Limousin, France. Hureaulite is also found in a granite pegmatite known for its phosphates in the
    8.00
    1 votes
    147
    8.00
    1 votes
    148
    7.00
    2 votes
    149
    7.00
    2 votes
    150
    Beryllium

    Beryllium

    Beryllium ( /bəˈrɪliəm/ bə-RIL-ee-əm) is the chemical element with the symbol Be and atomic number 4. Because any beryllium synthesized in stars is short-lived, it is a relatively rare element in both the universe and in the crust of the Earth. It is a divalent element which occurs naturally only in combination with other elements in minerals. Notable gemstones which contain beryllium include beryl (aquamarine, emerald) and chrysoberyl. As a free element it is a steel-gray, strong, lightweight and brittle alkaline earth metal. Beryllium increases hardness and resistance to corrosion when alloyed to aluminium, cobalt, copper (notably beryllium copper), iron and nickel. In structural applications, high flexural rigidity, thermal stability, thermal conductivity and low density (1.85 times that of water) make beryllium a quality aerospace material for high-speed aircraft, missiles, space vehicles and communication satellites. Because of its low density and atomic mass, beryllium is relatively transparent to X-rays and other forms of ionizing radiation; therefore, it is the most common window material for X-ray equipment and in particle physics experiments. The high thermal
    7.00
    2 votes
    151

    Beryllium copper wire

    • Parent material class: copper wire
    Beryllium copper wire is nonferrous wire made of a beryllium copper alloy. It is produced in many forms: round, square, flat and shaped, in coils, on spools and in straight lengths. Beryllium copper wire is resistant to non-oxidizing acids (for example, hydrochloric acid, or carbonic acid), to plastic decomposition products, to abrasive wear and to galling. Furthermore, it can be heat-treated, age hardened and tempered to improve its strength, durability, and electrical conductivity. Age Hardenable -- Alloy 25 -- C17200 -- C17300 Alloy 25 Beryllium Copper is an age-hardening alloy which attains the highest strength of any copper base alloy. It may be age hardened after forming into springs, intricate forms or complex shapes. It has superb spring properties, corrosion resistance and stability as well as good conductivity and low creep. Tempered Beryllium Copper -- Alloy 25 -- C17200 -- C1 has been age hardened and cold drawn. No further heat treatment is necessary except for a possible light stress relief. It is sufficiently ductile to wind on its own diameter and can be formed into springs and most shapes Tempered wire is most useful where the properties of Beryllium Copper are
    7.00
    2 votes
    152
    Carnelian

    Carnelian

    Carnelian (also spelled cornelian) is a brownish-red mineral which is commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone. Similar to carnelian is sard, which is generally harder and darker. (The difference is not rigidly defined, and the two names are often used interchangeably.) Both carnelian and sard are varieties of the silica mineral chalcedony colored by impurities of iron oxide. The color can vary greatly, ranging from pale orange to an intense almost-black coloration. The bow drill was used to drill holes into carnelian in Mehrgarh between 4th-5th millennium BC. Carnelian was recovered from Bronze Age Minoan layers at Knossos on Crete in a form that demonstrated its use in decorative arts; this use dates to approximately 1800 BC. Carnelian was used widely during Roman times to make engraved gems for signet or seal rings for imprinting a seal with wax on correspondence or other important documents. Hot wax does not stick to carnelian. Sard was used for Assyrian cylinder seals, Egyptian and Phoenician scarabs, and early Greek and Etruscan gems. The Hebrew odem (translated sardius), the first stone in the High Priest's breastplate, was a red stone, probably sard but perhaps red
    7.00
    2 votes
    153
    Glazed tile

    Glazed tile

    Glazed tiles (Chinese: 琉璃瓦) were used in China since the Zhou Dynasty as building material for roof top. During the Song Dynasty, the manufacture of glazed tiles was standardized in Li Jie's Architecture Standard. In the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty, glazed tiles became ever more popular for top tier buildings, including palace halls in the Forbidden City, and ceremonial temples (for example the Heavenly Temple). There are two main types of Chinese glazed tiles: glazed tubular tile and glazed plate tile. Glazed tubular tiles are moulded into tube shape on a wooden mould, then cut in two halves along their length into two tubular tiles, each semicircular in shape. A tube shape clay mould can be cut into four equal parts, with a cross section of a quarter of a circle, then glazed into a four plate tire. Glazed plate tiles are laid side by side across and overlapping on each other. In the Song Dynasty, the standard for overlap was 40% overlap, and was increased to 70% overlap in the Qing dynasty. With the Song style 40% overlap, it was not possible to have triple tile overlap, there was a 20% gap between the first plate tile and the third plate tile. Hence, if a crack developed in
    7.00
    2 votes
    154

    Morrokide vinyl

    • Parent material class: Polyvinyl chloride
    Pontiac's leather-imitation vinyl used in it's vehicle's interiors.
    7.00
    2 votes
    155

    Naugahyde

    • Parent material class: Artificial leather
    Naugahyde (sometimes abbreviated to Nauga) is an American brand of artificial leather ("pleather"). Naugahyde is a composite of a knit fabric backing and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic coating. It was developed by United States Rubber Company, and is now manufactured and sold by the Uniroyal Engineered Products division of Michelin. Its name, first used as a trademark in 1936, comes from the Borough of Naugatuck, Connecticut, where it was first produced. Uniroyal asserts that Naugahyde is one of the most popular premium pleathers. Naugahyde is manufactured in Stoughton, Wisconsin. A marketing campaign of the 1960s and 1970s asserted humorously that Naugahyde was obtained from the skin of an animal called a "Nauga". The claim became an urban myth. The campaign emphasized that, unlike other animals, which must typically be slaughtered to obtain their hides, Naugas can shed their skin without harm to themselves. The Nauga doll, a squat, horned monster with a wide toothy grin, became popular in the 1960s and is still sold today.
    7.00
    2 votes
    156
    Niobium

    Niobium

    Niobium ( /naɪˈoʊbiəm/) ny-OH-bee-əm or columbium (/kəˈlʌmbiəm/ kə-LUM-bee-əm), is a chemical element with the symbol Nb and atomic number 41. It is a soft, grey, ductile transition metal, which is often found in the pyrochlore mineral, the main commercial source for niobium, and columbite. The name comes from Greek mythology: Niobe, daughter of Tantalus. Niobium has physical and chemical properties similar to those of the element tantalum, and the two are therefore difficult to distinguish. The English chemist Charles Hatchett reported a new element similar to tantalum in 1801 and named it columbium. In 1809, the English chemist William Hyde Wollaston wrongly concluded that tantalum and columbium were identical. The German chemist Heinrich Rose determined in 1846 that tantalum ores contain a second element, which he named niobium. In 1864 and 1865, a series of scientific findings clarified that niobium and columbium were the same element (as distinguished from tantalum), and for a century both names were used interchangeably. The name of the element was officially adopted as niobium in 1949. It was not until the early 20th century that niobium was first used commercially. Brazil
    7.00
    2 votes
    157

    Canada balsam

    Canada balsam, also called Canada turpentine or balsam of fir, is a turpentine which is made from the resin of the balsam fir tree (Abies balsamea) of boreal North America. The resin, dissolved in essential oils, is a viscous, sticky, colourless or yellowish liquid that turns to a transparent yellowish mass when the essential oils have been allowed to evaporate. Canada balsam is amorphous when dried. Since it does not crystallize with age, its optical properties do not deteriorate. However, it has poor thermal and solvent resistance. Due to its high optical quality and the similarity of its refractive index to that of crown glass (n = 1.55), purified and filtered Canada balsam was traditionally used in optics as an invisible-when-dry glue for glass, such as lens elements. Lenses glued with Canada balsam (or with other similar glues) are called cemented lenses. Also, other optical elements can be cemented with Canada balsam, such as two prisms bonded to form a beam splitter. Balsam was phased out as an optical adhesive during World War II, in favour of polyester, epoxy, and urethane-based adhesives. In modern optical manufacturing, UV-cured epoxies are often used to bond lens
    6.00
    3 votes
    158
    Cast iron

    Cast iron

    • Child material class: Ductile iron
    • Parent material class: Iron
    Cast iron is iron or a ferrous alloy which has been heated until it liquefies, and is then poured into a mould to solidify. It is usually made from pig iron. The alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through. Grey cast iron, or grey iron, has graphitic flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks. Carbon (C) and silicon (Si) are the main alloying elements, with the amount ranging from 2.1 to 4 wt% and 1 to 3 wt%, respectively. Iron alloys with less carbon content are known as steel. While this technically makes these base alloys ternary Fe-C-Si alloys, the principle of cast iron solidification is understood from the binary iron-carbon phase diagram. Since the compositions of most cast irons are around the eutectic point of the iron-carbon system, the melting temperatures closely correlate, usually ranging from 1,150 to 1,200 °C (2,102 to 2,192 °F), which is about 300 °C (572 °F) lower than the melting point of pure iron. Cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. With its relatively low melting point, good fluidity,
    6.00
    3 votes
    159
    Cobalt

    Cobalt

    Cobalt ( /ˈkoʊbɒlt/ KOH-bolt or /ˈkoʊbɔːlt/ KOH-bawlt) is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27. It is found naturally only in chemically combined form. The free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal. Cobalt-based blue pigments have been used since ancient times for jewelry and paints, and to impart a distinctive blue tint to glass, but the color was later thought by alchemists to be due to the known metal bismuth. Miners had long used the name kobold ore (German for goblin ore) for some of the blue-pigment producing minerals; they were named because they were poor in known metals and gave poisonous arsenic-containing fumes upon smelting. In 1735, such ores were found to be reducible to a new metal (the first discovered since ancient times), and this was ultimately named for the kobold. Today, some cobalt is produced specifically from various metallic-lustered ores, for example cobaltite (CoAsS), but the main source of the element is as a by-product of copper and nickel mining. The copper belt in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia yields most of the cobalt metal mined worldwide. Cobalt is used in the
    6.00
    3 votes
    160

    Resistance wire

    Resistance wire is a type of high resistance electrical wire. Application for resistance wire includes resistors, heating elements, electric heaters, electric ovens, toasters, and many more. Nichrome, a non-magnetic alloy of nickel and chromium, is commonly used to make resistance wire because it has a high resistivity and resistance to oxidation at high temperatures. When used as a heating element, resistance wire is usually wound into coils. One difficulty in using nichrome wire is that common electrical solder will not stick to it, so the connections to the electrical power must be made using other methods such as crimp connectors or screw terminals and affecting length nature temperature and nature Constantan is another material which is often used. It has low temperature dependence and is easily soldered. Many elements and alloys have been used as resistance wire for special purposes. The table below lists the resistivity of some common materials.
    6.00
    3 votes
    161
    Arsenic

    Arsenic

    Arsenic ( /ˈɑrsɨnɪk/ AR-sə-nik) is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in conjunction with sulfur and metals, and also as a pure elemental crystal. It was first documented by Albertus Magnus in 1250. Arsenic is a metalloid. It can exist in various allotropes, although only the gray form has important use in industry. The main use of metallic arsenic is for strengthening alloys of copper and especially lead (for example, in car batteries). Arsenic is a common n-type dopant in semiconductor electronic devices, and the optoelectronic compound gallium arsenide is the most common semiconductor in use after doped silicon. Arsenic and its compounds, especially the trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides (treated wood products), herbicides, and insecticides. These applications are declining, however. Arsenic is notoriously poisonous to multicellular life, although a few species of bacteria are able to use arsenic compounds as respiratory metabolites. Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a problem that affects millions of people across the world. The three most common arsenic allotropes are metallic gray, yellow and
    5.67
    3 votes
    162

    Black tin

    Black tin is the raw ore of tin, usually cassiterite, as sold by a tin mine to a smelting company. After mining, the ore has to be concentrated by a number of processes to reduce the amount of gangue it contains before it can be sold. It contrasts with white tin, which is the refined, metallic tin produced after smelting. The term "black tin" was historically associated with tin mining in Devon and Cornwall.
    5.67
    3 votes
    163

    Cor-ten steel

    • Parent material class: Weathering steel
    Weathering steel, best-known under the trademark COR-TEN steel and sometimes written without the hyphen as "Corten steel", is a group of steel alloys which were developed to eliminate the need for painting, and form a stable rust-like appearance if exposed to the weather for several years. (Wikipedia)
    5.67
    3 votes
    164

    Copper

    Copper is a heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu. Copper metal has a distinct red/pink color. It has the atomic number 29 and an atomic weight of 62.9296 g/mol. Copper catalyzes the production of very reactive radical ions such as hydroxyl radical in a manner similar to Fenton chemistry. This catalytic activity of copper is used by the enzymes that it is associated with and is thus only toxic when unsequestered and unmediated. This increase in unmediated reactive radicals is generally termed oxidative stress and is an active area of research in a variety of diseases where copper may play an important but more subtle role than in acute toxicity.; It is believed that zinc and copper compete for absorption in the digestive tract so that a diet that is excessive in one of these minerals may result in a deficiency in the other. The RDA for copper in normal healthy adults is 0.9 mg/day.; Numerous alloys of copper exist, many with important historical and contemporary uses. Copper is an essential nutrient to all higher plants and animals. In animals, it is found primarily in the bloodstream, as a cofactor in various enzymes, and in copper-based pigments. In sufficient amounts, copper can be poisonous or even fatal to organisms.
    6.50
    2 votes
    165

    Enameled wire

    • Parent material class: Wire
    Enamelled wire is wire (such as magnet wire) coated with a very thin insulating layer. It is used in applications such as winding electric motor coils, speakers and transformers. It is also used in the construction of electromagnets and inductors. The core material is copper or aluminium, coated with a thin layer of a polyurethane, polyamide, or polyester etc. resin - the so-called "enamel". Aluminium is lighter than copper, but has higher resistivity. For ease of manufacturing inductive components like transformers and inductors, most new enamelled wire has enamel that acts as a flux when burnt during soldering. This means that the electrical connections at the ends can be made without stripping off the insulation first. Older enamelled copper wire is normally not like this, and requires sandpapering or scraping to remove the insulation before soldering. Enamelled wires are classified by their diameter (AWG number or SWG) or area (square millimetres), temperature class and insulation class. Enamelled wires are manufactured in both round and rectangular shapes. Rectangular wire is used in larger windings to make the most efficient use of available winding space. Breakdown voltage
    6.50
    2 votes
    166
    Fiber crop

    Fiber crop

    Fiber crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are traditionally used to make paper, cloth, or rope. The fibers may be chemically modified, like in viscose (used to make rayon and cellophane). In recent years materials scientists have begun exploring further use of these fibers in composite materials. Fiber crops are generally harvestable after a single growing season, as distinct from trees, which are typically grown for many years before being harvested for wood pulp fiber. In specific circumstances, fiber crops can be superior to wood pulp fiber in terms of technical performance, environmental impact or cost. There are a number of issues regarding the use of fiber crops to make pulp. One of these is seasonal availability. While trees can be harvested continuously, many field crops are harvested once during the year and must be stored such that the crop doesn't rot over a period of many months. Considering that many pulp mills require several thousand tonnes of fiber source per day, storage of the fiber source can be a major issue. Botanically, the fibers harvested from many of these plants are bast fibers; the fibers come from the phloem tissue of the plant. The other
    6.50
    2 votes
    167

    Rawhide

    • Child material class: Leather
    Rawhide is a hide or animal skin that has not been exposed to tanning. It is similar to parchment, much lighter in color than leather made by traditional vegetable tanning. The skin from buffalo, deer, elk or cattle from which most rawhide originates is prepared by removing all fur, meat and fat. The hide is then usually stretched over a frame before being dried. The resulting material is hard and translucent. It can be shaped by rewetting and forming before being allowed to thoroughly re-dry. It can be rendered more pliable by 'working', i.e. bending repeatedly in multiple directions, often by rubbing it over a post, sometimes traditionally by chewing. It may also be oiled or greased for a degree of waterproofing. It is often used for objects such as whips, drumheads or lampshades, and more recently chew toys for dogs. It is thought to be more durable than leather, especially in items suffering abrasion during use, and its hardness and shapability render it more suitable than leather for some items. For example, rawhide is often used to cover saddle trees, which make up the foundation of a western saddle, while wet: it strengthens the wooden tree by drawing up very tight as it
    6.50
    2 votes
    168
    Razor wire

    Razor wire

    Barbed tape or razor wire is a mesh of metal strips with sharp edges whose purpose is to prevent passage by humans. The term "razor wire", through long usage, has generally been used to describe barbed tape products. While razor wire is much sharper than the standard barbed wire, it is not actually razor sharp. The multiple blades of a razor wire fence are designed to inflict serious cuts on anyone attempting to climb through and therefore have a strong psychological deterrent effect. In many high-security applications, barbed tape supplanted barbed wire, which could be circumvented relatively quickly by humans with tools, while penetrating razor wire barriers without tools is very slow and difficult, giving security forces more time to respond. Starting in the late 1960s, barbed tape was typically found in prisons and long-term mental hospitals, where the increased breaching time for a poorly equipped potential escapee was a definite advantage. Until the development of reinforced barbed tape in the early 1980s, it was rarely used for military purposes or genuine high security facilities because, with the correct tools, it was easier to breach than barbed wire. Since then some
    6.50
    2 votes
    169
    Wood

    Wood

    • Child material class: Oak
    Wood is a hard, fibrous tissue found in many trees. It has been used for hundreds of thousands of years for both fuel and as a construction material. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers (which are strong in tension) embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in tree roots or in other plants such as shrubs. In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up for themselves. It also mediates the transfer of water and nutrients to the leaves and other growing tissues. Wood may also refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber. The earth contains about one trillion tonnes of wood, which grows at a rate of 10 billion tonnes per year. As an abundant, carbon-neutral renewable resource, woody materials have been of intense interest as a source of renewable energy. In 1991, approximately 3.5 billion cubic meters of wood were harvested. Dominant uses were for furniture
    6.50
    2 votes
    170
    Terra cotta

    Terra cotta

    • Child material class: Glazed architectural terra-cotta
    Terracotta, Terra cotta or Terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cotta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous. Its uses include vessels (notably flower pots), water and waste water pipes, bricks, and surface embellishment in building construction, along with sculpture such as the Terracotta Army and Greek terracotta figurines. The term is also used to refer to items made out of this material and to its natural, brownish orange color, which varies considerably. In archaeology and art history, "terracotta" is often used of objects not made on a potter's wheel, such as figurines, where objects made on the wheel from the same material, possibly even by the same person, are called pottery; the choice of term depending on the type of object rather than the material. An appropriate refined clay is shaped into the desired shape. After drying it is placed in a kiln, or atop combustible material in a pit, and then fired. The typical firing temperatures is around 1000°C. The iron content gives the fired body a yellow, orange, red, "terracotta", pink, grey or brown color. Fired terracotta is not watertight, but
    5.33
    3 votes
    171

    Ashburtonite

    Ashburtonite is a rare lead copper silicate-bicarbonate mineral with formula: HPb4Cu4Si4O12(HCO3)4(OH)4Cl. Ashburnite was first described as a secondary mineral in a shear zone in a series of shales and graywackes. It is an alteration product of galena and chalcopyrite. The secondary minerals within the shear consist of carbonates, arsenates, and sulfates of lead and copper, and to a much lesser extent of zinc and iron. Ashburtonite is associated with beudantite, brochantite, calerdonite, cerussite, diaboleite, duftite, malachite, platterite, adamite, antlerite, bayldonite, bindheimite, carminite, chenevixite, chlorargyrite, chrysocolla, cinnabar, hemimorphite, hydrozincite, jarosite, lavendulan, linarite, mimatite, olivenite, paratacamite, and rosasite. Ashburtonite was first described in 1991 for an occurrence in the Anticline prospects 11 km southwest of Ashburton Downs in the Capricorn Range of Western Australia. It has also been reported from the Tonopah–Belmont Mine in the Big Horn Mountains of Maricopa County, Arizona.
    7.00
    1 votes
    172
    Chert

    Chert

    Chert ( /ˈtʃɜrt/) is a fine-grained silica-rich microcrystalline, cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. It varies greatly in color (from white to black), but most often manifests as gray, brown, grayish brown and light green to rusty red; its color is an expression of trace elements present in the rock, and both red and green are most often related to traces of iron (in its oxidized and reduced forms respectively). Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand, limestone, chalk, and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral, where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. Where it occurs in chalk or marl, it is usually called flint. It also occurs in thin beds, when it is a primary deposit (such as with many jaspers and radiolarites). Thick beds of chert occur in deep geosynclinal deposits. These thickly bedded cherts include the novaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and similar occurrences in Texas in the United States. The banded iron formations of Precambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides. Chert also occurs in diatomaceous deposits and is known as
    7.00
    1 votes
    173
    Cut wire shot

    Cut wire shot

    Cut wire shot is manufactured from high quality wire in which each particle is cut to a length about equal to its diameter. If required, the particles are conditioned (rounded) to remove the sharp corners produced during the cutting process. As-cut particles are an effective abrasive due to the sharp edges created in the cutting process. However, as-cut shot is not a desirable shot peening media. The sharp edges, which are potentially damaging to fatigue life, must be removed in a process called "conditioning". Depending on application, various hardness ranges are available with cut wire media. Generally, the higher the hardness of the media, the lower the durability. Cut-Wire Shot applications include: peening, cleaning, tumbling and vibratory finishing.
    7.00
    1 votes
    174
    7.00
    1 votes
    175
    7.00
    1 votes
    176
    Zinc

    Zinc

    • Parent material class: Metal
    Zinc (/ˈzɪŋk/ ZINGK; from German: Zink), or spelter (which may also refer to zinc alloys), is a metallic chemical element; it has the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element of group 12 of the periodic table. Zinc is, in some respects, chemically similar to magnesium, because its ion is of similar size and its only common oxidation state is +2. Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in the Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes. The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest mineable amounts are found in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc production includes froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning). Brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc, has been used since at least the 10th century BC. Impure zinc metal was not produced in large scale until the 13th century in India, while the metal was unknown to Europe until the end of the 16th century. Alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called "philosopher's wool" or "white snow". The element was probably named by the alchemist Paracelsus after the German word Zinke. German chemist Andreas Sigismund
    7.00
    1 votes
    177

    Andrewsite

    Andrewsite is a now discredited mineral originally reported at the Wheal Phoenix mine, near Liskeard in Cornwall. It was named for Thomas Andrews FRS, the English chemist. It has been shown to be a mixture of hentschelite and rockbridgeite, with minor chalcosiderite.
    6.00
    2 votes
    178

    Austempered ductile iron

    • Parent material class: Ductile iron
    Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) is the newest member of the family of nodular irons. It is somewhat more expensive to produce than ductile iron. It is four times stronger than Gray Iron and twice as strong as regular Ductile Iron, yet ADI still retains excellent ductility. An added bonus is that ADI is very hard giving it excellent wear resistance. ADI can be used to design high strength castings much lighter than previously thought possible. ADI's strength to weight ratio and fatigue properties exceed those of aluminum. ADI is a legitimate substitute in many applications for more expensive steel castings and even forgings.
    6.00
    2 votes
    179

    Binghamite

    Binghamite (also called silkstone and cuyunite) is a type of agate stone found only on the Cuyuna iron range (near Crosby) in Crow Wing County, Minnesota. The formation of the stone occurs near deposits of iron ore. Mining in the area uncovered deposits of the stone, but since mining operations were discontinued in the area many years ago the stone has become fairly rare and is sought after by lapidarists and gem collectors. The stone has areas that are highly chatoyant similar to pietersite or tiger's eye. It is a variety of quartz with fibers of goethite or hematite usually in colors of red, gold, and black. The best binghamite compares with top pietersite for color and chatoyancy. When the stone's pattern is arranged in level lines it is called silkstone. Binghamite shows crystal growth in all directions. It is named after William Bingham, a lapidary, who discovered it in 1936 while out walking with his son.
    6.00
    2 votes
    180
    Euhedral

    Euhedral

    Euhedral crystals are those that are well-formed with sharp, easily recognised faces. Normally, crystals do not form smooth faces or sharp crystal outlines. Many crystals grow from cooling liquid magma. As magma cools, the crystals grow and eventually touch each other, preventing crystal faces from forming properly or at all. However, when snowflakes crystallize, they do not touch each other. Thus, snowflakes form euhedral, six-sided twinned crystals. In rocks, the presence of euhedral crystals may signify that they formed early in the crystallization of a magma or perhaps crystallized in a cavity or vug, without hindrance from other crystals. Etymology: Euhedral is derived from the Greek eu meaning well, good and hedron meaning shape.
    6.00
    2 votes
    181

    Franklinite

    Franklinite is a mineral with formula ZnFe2O4. It is associated with the Franklin Mine and Sterling Hill Mines in New Jersey. Media related to Franklinite at Wikimedia Commons
    6.00
    2 votes
    182

    Hatchettite

    Hatchettite, sometimes termed Mountain Tallow, Mineral Adipocire, or Adipocerite, is a mineral hydrocarbon occurring in the Coal-measures of Belgium and elsewhere, occupying in some cases the interior of hollow concretions of iron-ore, but more generally the cavities of fossil shells or crevices in the rocks. It is of yellow colour, and translucent, but darkens and becomes opaque on exposure. It has no odour, is greasy to the touch, and has a slightly glistening lustre. Its hardness is that of soft wax. The melting point is 46 to 47 °C, and the composition is C 85-55, H 1445. This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
    6.00
    2 votes
    183

    Lime plaster

    • Parent material class: Plaster
    Lime plaster is type of plaster composed of hydrated lime, sand and water. Lime plaster is similar to Lime mortar, the main difference is the based on use rather than composition. Traditional lime plaster contains also horse hair to reinforce plaster. It is sold as 'bagged' powder or hydrated lime; or is available as lime putty. Lime putty is generally considered to be more suitable for pure lime application. Non-hydraulic lime is the most commonly used and known lime, also called (high) calcium lime or air lime, as it sets only by reaction with CO2 in the air and will not set until dry. This causes limitations in construction use as the lime can remain soft for months or years. Non-hydraulic lime can only set through carbonatation (re-absorption of CO2). Hydraulic lime and hydrated lime must not be confused. Hydrated lime is merely a form in which lime can be supplied (as opposed to quicklime or lime putty); while 'hydraulic' refers to its ability to set under water, or in wet conditions. Lime is an extremely caustic material when wet, with a pH of 12. (Lime becomes pH neutral when carbonated). As such, the use of protective goggles, gloves, and clothing are necessary when working
    6.00
    2 votes
    184

    Muscle wire

    Metal strands of the Shape memory alloy TiNi are sometimes referred to as muscle wire.These alloy are sold under trademarks like Nitinol or Flexinol. Muscle wire, also known as memory wire or memory shape alloy is a titanium nickel alloy that returns to a preset shape at a preset temperature. In Octofungi, the preset temperature is about 200 degrees fahrenheit. At this temperature, the wire contracts by about 3.5%. This contraction is translated over the length of the 17 inch wire into a range of motion for the legs of about 70 degrees. The wire has a "programmed" temperature at which it has a "programmed" shape. When the wire cools, it goes back to a non-programmed shape. As the wire is heated, it tries to return to its programmed shape. Hence, the wire has two possible states. There is the cooled state (temperature) at which the wire can be stretched, and the programmed state (temperature) at which the wire returns to its programmed length. At the programmed state, the wire exhibits a crystalline structure known as austenite. As the wire cools, the structure changes to martensite, which is a herringbone shaped crystal lattice. The martensite is much more flexible than the
    6.00
    2 votes
    185
    Tungsten

    Tungsten

    Tungsten /ˈtʌŋstən/, also known as wolfram /ˈwʊlfrəm/ (WUUL-frəm), is a chemical element with the chemical symbol W and atomic number 74. The word tungsten comes from the Swedish language tung sten directly translatable to heavy stone, though the name is volfram in Swedish to distinguish it from Scheelite, in Swedish alternatively named tungsten. A hard, rare metal under standard conditions when uncombined, tungsten is found naturally on Earth only in chemical compounds. It was identified as a new element in 1781, and first isolated as a metal in 1783. Its important ores include wolframite and scheelite. The free element is remarkable for its robustness, especially the fact that it has the highest melting point of all the non-alloyed metals and the second highest of all the elements after carbon. Also remarkable is its high density of 19.3 times that of water, comparable to that of uranium and gold, and much higher (about 1.7 times) than that of lead. Tungsten with minor amounts of impurities is often brittle and hard, making it difficult to work. However, very pure tungsten, though still hard, is more ductile, and can be cut with a hard-steel hacksaw. The unalloyed elemental form
    6.00
    2 votes
    186
    Glazed architectural terra-cotta

    Glazed architectural terra-cotta

    • Parent material class: Terra cotta
    Glazed architectural terra-cotta is a ceramic masonry building material popular in the United States from the late 19th century until the 1930s, and still one of the most common building materials found in U.S. urban environments. It is the glazed version of architectural terra-cotta; the material in both its glazed and unglazed versions is sturdy and relatively inexpensive, and can be molded into richly ornamented detail. Glazed terra-cotta played a significant role in architectural styles such as the Chicago School and Beaux-Arts architecture. The material, also known in Great Britain as faience and sometimes referred to as "architectural ceramics", was closely associated with the work of Cass Gilbert, Louis Sullivan, and Daniel H. Burnham, among other architects. Buildings incorporating glazed terra-cotta include the Woolworth Building in New York City and the Wrigley Building in Chicago. Glazed architectural terra-cotta offered a modular, varied and relatively inexpensive approach to wall and floor construction. It was particularly adaptable to vigorous and rich ornamental detailing. Terra-cotta is an enriched molded clay brick or block. It was usually hollow cast in blocks
    5.00
    3 votes
    187
    Architectural terracotta

    Architectural terracotta

    • Parent material class: Terra cotta
    Terracotta, in its unglazed form, became fashionable as an architectural ceramic construction material in England in the 1860s, and in the United States in the 1870s. It was generally used to supplement brick and tiles of similar colour in late Victorian buildings. It had been used before this in Germany from 1824 by Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Edmund Sharpe designed and oversaw the construction of the first church built almost exclusively of terracotta. This was St Stephen and All Martyrs' Church, Lever Bridge in Bolton, built 1842-45. Henry Cole, secretary to the Science and Arts Department of the UK adopted terracotta for the building which is now the Victoria and Albert Museum (1859–71) and then the Royal Albert Hall (1867–71), both in London. Alfred Waterhouse used it in his designs when in business in Manchester from 1853 and London from 1865. He used a combination of buff and blue-grey terracotta in his Natural History Museum in London. The colour of terracotta varies with the source of the clay. London clay gives a pale pink or buff colour, whereas the Ruabon (North Wales) clay gives a bright red. Terracotta had the advantage of being cheap and light. It was adaptable to
    5.50
    2 votes
    188
    Sandstone

    Sandstone

    Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Like sand, sandstone may be any colour, but the most common colours are tan, brown, yellow, red, gray, pink, white and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colours of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. Fine-grained aquifers, such as sandstones, are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices, such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. Sandstone is mined by quarrying. It is sometimes found where there used to be small seas. It is usually formed in deserts or dry places like the Sahara Desert in Africa, the Arabian desert in the Middle East and the Australian desert (including
    5.50
    2 votes
    189
    Silver

    Silver

    Silver ( /ˈsɪlvər/ SIL-vər) is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργυρος , Latin: argentum, both from the Indo-European root *arg- for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. The metal occurs naturally in its pure, free form (native silver), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal, and it is used as an investment, to make ornaments, jewelry, high-value tableware, utensils (hence the term silverware), and currency coins. Today, silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors, in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. Its compounds are used in photographic film, and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides (Oligodynamic effect). While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics, further research
    5.50
    2 votes
    190
    Tar paper

    Tar paper

    Tar paper is a heavy-duty paper used in construction. Tar paper is made by impregnating paper with tar, producing a waterproof material useful for roof construction. It can be distinguished from Roofing felt:Asphalt-saturated felt. Roofing felt has been in use for over a hundred years. Originally felt was made from recycled rag but today felts are made of recycled paper products (typically cardboard) and sawdust. The most common felt product is the so-called #15 felt. Before the oil crisis felt weighed about 15 pounds per square (one square = 100 square feet) and hence the asphalt-impregnated felt was called "15#" or "15 pound felt". Modern felts no longer weigh 0.73 kg/m2, and to reflect this fact the new felts are called "#15" asphalt felt. In fact, #15 felts can weigh from 7.5 to 12.5 pounds/sq depending on the manufacturer and the standard to which felt is made (i.e., CGSB, ASTM, or none). Thirty pound felt, of 30# felt, is now #30 felt, and actually usually weighs between 16 and 27 pounds per square. Hence, to get a product similar to a 15# felt of old, one could specify a modern #30 felt. Tar paper is more accurately a Grade D building paper (the Grade D designation derives
    5.50
    2 votes
    191
    4.67
    3 votes
    192
    Cement

    Cement

    In the most general sense of the word, a cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" traces to the Romans, who used the term opus caementicium to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder. The volcanic ash and pulverized brick additives that were added to the burnt lime to obtain a hydraulic binder were later referred to as cementum, cimentum, cäment, and cement. Cement used in construction is characterized as hydraulic or non-hydraulic. Hydraulic cements (e.g., Portland cement) harden because of hydration, chemical reactions that occur independently of the mixture's water content; they can harden even underwater or when constantly exposed to wet weather. The chemical reaction that results when the anhydrous cement powder is mixed with water produces hydrates that are not water-soluble. Non-hydraulic cements (e.g. gypsum plaster) must be kept dry in order to retain their strength. The most important use of cement is the production of mortar and concrete—the bonding of natural or artificial aggregates to form a strong building material that is
    4.67
    3 votes
    193
    Niobium-tin

    Niobium-tin

    Niobium-tin (Nb3Sn) or triniobium-tin is a metallic chemical compound of niobium (Nb) and tin (Sn), used industrially as a type II superconductor. This intermetallic compound is a A15 phases superconductor. It is more expensive than niobium-titanium (NbTi), but can withstand magnetic field intensity values up to 30 teslas (T), whereas NbTi can withstand only up to roughly 15 T. Nb3Sn was discovered to be a superconductor in 1954. Its critical temperature is 18.3 kelvin (K). It is usually used at 4.2 K, the boiling point of liquid helium. In April 2008 a record non-copper current density was claimed of 2643 A/mm² at 12 T and 4.2 K Mechanically, Nb3Sn is extremely brittle and thus can not be easily drawn into a wire, which is necessary for winding superconducting magnets. To overcome this, wire manufacturers typically draw down composite wires containing ductile precursors. The "internal tin" process include separate alloys of Nb, Cu and Sn. The "bronze" process contains Nb in a copper-tin bronze matrix. With both processes the strand is typically drawn to final size and coiled into a solenoid or cable before heat treatment. It is only during the heat treatment that the Sn reacts
    4.67
    3 votes
    195
    Agate

    Agate

    Agate ( /ˈæɡət/) is a microcrystalline variety of silica, chiefly chalcedony, characterised by its fineness of grain and brightness of color. Although agates may be found in various kinds of rock, they are classically associated with volcanic rocks and can be common in certain metamorphic rocks. The stone was given its name by Theophrastus, a Greek philosopher and naturalist, who discovered the stone along the shore line of the river Achates (Greek: Ἀχάτης) sometime between the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. Colorful agates and other chalcedonies were obtained over 3,000 years ago from the Achates River, now called Dirillo, in Sicily. Agate is one of the most common materials used in the art of hardstone carving, and has been recovered at a number of ancient sites, indicating its widespread use in the ancient world; for example, archaeological recovery at the Knossos site on Crete illustrates its role in Bronze Age Minoan culture. Most agates occur as nodules in volcanic rocks or ancient lavas where they represent cavities originally produced by the disengagement of volatiles in the molten mass which were then filled, wholly or partially, by siliceous matter deposited in regular layers
    6.00
    1 votes
    196
    Barbed wire

    Barbed wire

    • Parent material class: Wire
    Barbed wire, also known as barb wire (and sometimes bob-wire or bobbed wire), is a type of fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strand(s). It is used to construct inexpensive fences and is used atop walls surrounding secured property. It is also a major feature of the fortifications in trench warfare (as a wire obstacle). A person or animal trying to pass through or over barbed wire will suffer discomfort and possibly injury. Barbed wire fencing requires only fence posts, wire, and fixing devices such as staples. It is simple to construct and quick to erect, even by an unskilled person. The first patent in the United States for barbed wire was issued in 1867 to Lucien B. Smith of Kent, Ohio, who is regarded as the inventor. Joseph F. Glidden of DeKalb, Illinois, received a patent for the modern invention in 1874 after he made his own modifications to previous versions. Barbed wire was the first wire technology capable of restraining cattle. Wire fences were cheaper and easier to erect than their alternatives. (One such alternative was Osage orange, a thorny bush which was time-consuming to transplant and grow. The Osage orange later
    6.00
    1 votes
    197

    Coloradoite

    Coloradoite, also known as mercury telluride (HgTe), is a rare telluride ore associated with metallic deposit (especially gold and silver). Gold usually occurs within tellurides (e.g. Coloradoite) as a high finess native-metal (Fadda et al., 2005). The quest for mining led to the discovery of telluride ores which were found to be associated with metals. Tellurides are ingrown into ores containing these precious metals and are also responsible for a significant amount these metals being produced. Coloradoite a member of the coordination subclass of tellurides is a covalent compound that is isostructural with sphalerite (ZnS) (Povarennykh, 1972). Its chemical properties are highly instrumental in distinguishing it from other tellurides. First discovered in Colorado in 1877, other deposits containing coloradoite have been discovered since then. Although it plays an important role in the geology of minerals, it can also be used for other purposes. Telluride ores occur mainly with metal deposits. In 1848, C.T. Jackson was the first to discover an American mineral containing the element tellurium in the Whitehall mine, in Spotsylvania County, near Frederickson, VA. (Kemp, 1898).
    6.00
    1 votes
    198
    Ductile iron

    Ductile iron

    • Child material class: Austempered ductile iron
    • Parent material class: Cast iron
    Ductile iron, also known as ductile cast iron, nodular cast iron, spheroidal graphite iron, spherulitic graphite cast iron and SG iron, is a type of cast iron invented in 1943 by Keith Millis. While most varieties of cast iron are brittle, ductile iron is much more flexible and elastic, due to its nodular graphite inclusions. On October 25, 1949, Keith Dwight Millis, Albert Paul Gagnebin and Norman Boden Pilling received US patent 2,485,760 on a Cast Ferrous Alloy for ductile iron production via magnesium treatment. Ductile iron is not a single material but is part of a group of materials which can be produced to have a wide range of properties through control of the microstructure. The common defining characteristic of this group of materials is the morphological structure of the graphite. In ductile irons, the graphite is in the form of spherical nodules rather than flakes (as in grey iron), thus inhibiting the creation of cracks and providing the enhanced ductility that gives the alloy its name. The formation of nodules is achieved by addition of nodulizing elements, most commonly Magnesium (note Magnesium boils at 1100C and Iron melts at 1500C) and, less often now, Cerium
    6.00
    1 votes
    199
    Magnet wire

    Magnet wire

    Magnet wire or enamelled wire is a copper or aluminium wire coated with a very thin layer of insulation. It is used in the construction of transformers, inductors, motors, speakers, hard disk head actuators, potentiometers, electromagnets, and other applications which require tight coils of wire. The wire itself is most often fully annealed, electrolytically refined copper. Aluminium magnet wire is sometimes used for large transformers and motors, but because of its lower electrical conductivity, an aluminium wire must have 1.6 times the cross sectional area as a copper wire to achieve comparable DC resistance. Due to this, copper magnet wires contribute to improving energy efficiency in equipment such as electric motors. For further information, see: Copper in energy efficient motors and Copper wire and cable: magnet wire (Winding wire). Smaller diameter magnet wire usually has a round cross section.This kind of wire is use for things such as electric guitar pickups Thicker magnet wire is often square or rectangular (with rounded corners) to provide more current flow per coil length. Modern magnet wire typically uses one to four layers (in the case of quad-film type wire) of
    6.00
    1 votes
    200
    Primer

    Primer

    • Parent material class: Protective coating
    A primer or undercoat is a preparatory coating put on materials before painting. Priming ensures better adhesion of paint to the surface, increases paint durability, and provides additional protection for the material being painted. Primer is a paint product that allows finishing paint to adhere much better than if it were used alone. For this purpose, primer is designed to adhere to surfaces and to form a binding layer that is better prepared to receive the paint. Because primers do not need to be engineered to have durable, finished surfaces, they can instead be engineered to have improved filling and binding properties with the material underneath. Sometimes, this is achieved with specific chemistry, as in the case of aluminum primer, but more often, this is achieved through controlling the primer's physical properties such as porosity, tackiness, and hygroscopy. In practice, primer is often used when painting many kinds of porous materials, such as concrete and especially wood (see detailed description below). Priming is mandatory if the material is not water resistant and will be exposed to the elements. Priming gypsum board (drywall) is also standard practice with new
    6.00
    1 votes
    201
    6.00
    1 votes
    203
    Woodhouseite

    Woodhouseite

    Woodhouseite belongs to the beudantite group AB3(XO4)(SO4)(OH)6 where A = Ba, Ca, Pb or Sr, B = Al or Fe and X = S, As or P. Minerals in this group are isostructural with each other and also with minerals in the crandallite and alunite groups. They crystallise in the rhombohedral system with space group R3m and crystals are usually either tabular {0001} or pseudo-cubic to pseudo-cuboctahedral. Woodhouseite was named after Professor Charles Douglas Woodhouse (1888–1975), an American mineralogist and mineral collector from the University of California, Santa Barbara, USA, and one-time General Manager of Champion Sillimanite, Inc. Woodhouseite is a secondary mineral found where wall rock alteration occurred in hydrothermal and disseminated ore deposits; rare in cave deposits, formed from guano. At the type locality it occurs in vugs in quartz veins in an andalusite, Al2OSiO4, deposit. This is in pre-Cambrian meta-quartzite that has been intruded by late Jurassic granitic rocks. Woodhouseite is found only near masses of lazulite, MgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2. Associated Minerals at the type locality include topaz, Al2SiO4F2, quartz, SiO2, augelite, Al2PO4(OH)3, lazulite, MgAl2(PO4)2(OH)2,
    6.00
    1 votes
    204

    Chaoite

    Chaoite or white carbon is a mineral described as an allotrope of carbon whose existence is disputed. It was discovered in shock-fused graphite gneiss from the Ries crater in Bavaria. It has been described as slightly harder than graphite, with a reflection colour of grey to white. From its electron diffraction pattern, the mineral has been considered to have a carbyne structure, the linear acetylenic carbon allotrope of carbon. A later report has called this identification, and the very existence of carbyne phases, into question, arguing that the new reflections in the diffraction pattern are due to clay impurities. It has been claimed that an identical form can be prepared from graphite by sublimation at 2700-3000 K or by irradiating it with a laser in high vacuum. This substance has been termed ceraphite. A review cautions that "in spite of these seemingly definitive reports … several other groups have tried unsuccessfully to reproduce these experiments. Independent confirmatory work is obviously needed … and at the present time white graphite appears to be the carbon analog of polywater". Chaoite was first described from Möttingen, Ries Crater, Nördlingen, Bavaria, Germany and
    5.00
    2 votes
    205

    Maskelynite

    Maskelynite is a glassy phase found in some meteorites and meteorite impact craters. Typical samples are similar in composition to plagioclase feldspar, and revert to that mineral when melted and recrystallized. It was named after British geologist M.H.N. Story-Maskelyne. The Dhofar 378 meteorite is 47% maskelynite by volume. The phase was first identified in the Shergotty meteorite by G. Tschermak (1872) as an isotropic glass of an unknown origin with near labradorite composition. Similar phases were found in chondrites and Martian (SNC) meteorites. In 1963, D. J. Milton and P. S. de Carli produced a maskelynite-like glass by subjecting gabbro to an explosive shock wave. In 1967, T. E. Bunch and others identified maskelynite in the Clearwater West and Manicouagan craters. At first, maskelynite was believed to result from solid-state transformation of plagioclase into diaplectic glass by a relatively low-pressure shock wave (250 to 300 kilobars) and low-temperature (350 °C), as in Milton and de Carli's experiment. Since 1997 this hypothesis has been challenged, and now it is believed that the glass is formed by the quenching of dense mineral melts produced by higher-pressure shock
    5.00
    2 votes
    206
    5.00
    2 votes
    207
    Stainless steel

    Stainless steel

    • Child material class: Stainless Steel Alloy 409
    • Parent material class: Steel
    In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French "inoxydable", is defined as a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% to 11% chromium content by mass. Stainless steel does not readily corrode, rust or stain with water as ordinary steel does, but despite the name it is not fully stain-proof, most notably under low oxygen, high salinity, or poor circulation environments. It is also called corrosion-resistant steel or CRES when the alloy type and grade are not detailed, particularly in the aviation industry. There are different grades and surface finishes of stainless steel to suit the environment the alloy must endure. Stainless steel is used where both the properties of steel and resistance to corrosion are required. Stainless steel differs from carbon steel by the amount of chromium present. Unprotected carbon steel rusts readily when exposed to air and moisture. This iron oxide film (the rust) is active and accelerates corrosion by forming more iron oxide, and due to the dissimilar size of the iron and iron oxide molecules (iron oxide is larger) these tend to flake and fall away. Stainless steels contain sufficient chromium to form a passive film of
    5.00
    2 votes
    208
    Uranium

    Uranium

    Uranium ( /jʊˈreɪniəm/ yew-RAY-nee-əm) is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table, with symbol U and atomic number 92. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons. Uranium is weakly radioactive because all its isotopes are unstable. The most common isotopes of uranium are uranium-238 (which has 146 neutrons) and uranium-235 (which has 143 neutrons). Uranium has the second highest atomic weight of the primordially occurring elements, lighter only than plutonium. Its density is about 70% higher than that of lead, but not as dense as gold or tungsten. It occurs naturally in low concentrations of a few parts per million in soil, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite. In nature, uranium is found as uranium-238 (99.2739–99.2752%), uranium-235 (0.7198–0.7202%), and a very small amount of uranium-234 (0.0050–0.0059%). Uranium decays slowly by emitting an alpha particle. The half-life of uranium-238 is about 4.47 billion years and that of uranium-235 is 704 million years, making them useful in dating the age of the Earth. Many contemporary uses of
    5.00
    2 votes
    209
    Pseudomalachite

    Pseudomalachite

    Pseudomalachite is a phosphate of copper with hydroxyl, named from the Greek for “false” and “malachite”, because of its similarity in appearance to the carbonate mineral malachite, Cu2(CO3)(OH)2. Both are green coloured secondary minerals found in oxidised zones of copper deposits, often associated with each other. Pseudomalachite is polymorphous with reichenbachite and ludjibaite. It was discovered in 1813. Prior to 1950 it was thought that dihydrite, lunnite, ehlite, tagilite and prasin were separate mineral species, but Berry analysed specimens labelled with these names from several museums, and found that they were in fact pseudomalachite. The old names are no longer recognised by the IMA. The type locality is the Virneberg Mine, Rheinbreitbach, Westerwald, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. This is an area of ancient copper mining dating back to Roman times, and worked intermittently up until 1872. The type material is held at the Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany. The copper ions are co-ordinated by six oxygen ions to form distorted octahedra. These octahedra are linked by sharing edges to form two distinct types of infinite chains, parallel to b. The chains are linked
    4.50
    2 votes
    210

    Stainless Steel Alloy 430

    • Parent material class: Stainless steel
    A ferritic non-heat treatable stainless steel alloy with good ductility, formability, good corrosion and oxidation resistance, thermal conductivity and finish quality.
    4.50
    2 votes
    211
    Aluminium

    Aluminium

    • Child material class: Aluminum Alloy 2024
    • Parent material class: Metal
    Aluminium ( /ˌæljuːˈmɪniəm/ AL-ew-MIN-ee-əm) or aluminum (American English;  /əˈluːmɪnəm/ ə-LOO-mi-nəm) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is silvery white, and it is not soluble in water under normal circumstances. Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth's crust. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth's solid surface. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium is remarkable for the metal's low density and for its ability to resist corrosion due to the phenomenon of passivation. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and are important in other areas of transportation and structural materials. The most useful compounds of aluminium, at least on a weight basis, are the oxides and sulfates. Despite its prevalence in the environment, aluminium salts are not known to be used by any form of life. In keeping with its
    5.00
    1 votes
    212
    Aviation fuel

    Aviation fuel

    • Child material class: Avgas
    Aviation fuel is a specialized type of petroleum-based fuel used to power aircraft. It is generally of a higher quality than fuels used in less critical applications, such as heating or road transport, and often contains additives to reduce the risk of icing or explosion due to high temperatures, among other properties. Most aviation fuels available for aircraft are kinds of petroleum spirit used in engines with spark plugs (i.e. piston and Wankel rotary engines), or fuel for jet turbine engines, which is also used in diesel aircraft engines. Alcohol, alcohol mixtures and other alternative fuels may be used experimentally, but alcohol is not permitted in any certified aviation fuel specification. In Brazil, the Embraer Ipanema EMB-202A is a version of the Ipanema agricultural aircraft with an engine converted to Ethanol. The Convention on International Civil Aviation (ICAO), which came into effect in 1947, exempted air fuels from tax. Australia and the USA oppose a worldwide levy on aviation fuel, but a number of other countries have expressed interest. Fuels have to conform to a specification in order to be approved for use in type certificated aircraft. The American Society for
    5.00
    1 votes
    213

    Cahnite

    Cahnite (Cahnit in German, Cahnita in Spanish, Канит in Russian) is a brittle white or colorless mineral that has perfect cleavage and is usually transparent. It usually forms tetragonal-shaped crystals and it has a hardness of 3 mohs. Cahnite was discovered in the year 1921. It was named Cahnite to honor Lazard Cahn, who was a mineral collector and dealer. It is usually found in the Franklin Mine, in Franklin, New Jersey. Until the year 2002, when a sample of cahnite was found in Japan, that was the only known place that cahnite was located. The geological environment that it occurs in is in pegmatites cutting a changed zinc orebody. The chemical formula for cahnite is Ca2B[AsO4](OH)4. It is made up of 26.91% calcium, 3.63% boron, 25.15% arsenic, 1.35% hydrogen, and 42.96% oxygen. It has a molecular weight of 297.91 grams. Cahnite is not radioactive. Cahnite is associated with these other minerals: willemite, rhodonite, pyrochroite, hedyphane, datolite, and baryte.
    5.00
    1 votes
    214
    Cob

    Cob

    Cob, cobb or clom (in Wales) is a building material consisting of clay, sand, straw, water, and earth, similar to adobe. Cob is fireproof, resistant to seismic activity, and inexpensive. It can be used to create artistic, sculptural forms and has been revived in recent years by the natural building and sustainability movements. Cob is an ancient building material, that may have been used for construction since prehistoric times. Some of the oldest man-made structures in Afghanistan are composed of rammed earth and cob. Cobwork (tabya) was used in the Maghreb and al-Andalus in the 11th and 12th centuries and was described in detail by Ibn Khaldun in the 14th century. Cob structures can be found in a variety of climates across the globe; In the UK it is most strongly associated with counties of Devon and Cornwall in the West Country; the Vale of Glamorgan and Gower Peninsula in Wales; Donegal Bay in Ulster and Munster, South-West Ireland; and Finisterre in Brittany where many homes have survived over 500 years and are still inhabited. Many old cob buildings can be found in Africa, the Middle East, and some parts of the eastern United States. A number of cob cottages survive from
    5.00
    1 votes
    215
    Fuller's earth

    Fuller's earth

    Fuller's earth is usually highly plastic, sedimentary clays or clay-like earthy material used to decolorize, filter, and purify animal, mineral, and vegetable oils and greases. In 2005, the United States was the largest producer of fuller's earth with an almost 70% world share followed at a distance by Japan and Mexico. Fuller's earth usually has a high magnesium oxide content. In the United States, two varieties of fuller's earth are mined, mainly in the southeastern states. These comprise the minerals montmorillonite or palygorskite (attapulgite) or a mixture of the two; some of the other minerals that may be present in fuller's earth deposits are calcite, dolomite, and quartz. In England, fuller's earth occurs mainly in the Lower Greensand. It has also been mined in the Vale of White Horse, Oxfordshire, England. The Combe Hay Mine was a fuller's earth mine operating to the south of Bath, Somerset until 1979. Other sites south of Bath included Frome, Lonsdale, Englishcombe, Tucking Mill and Duncorn Hill. Although these sites had been used since Roman times William Smith developed new methods for the identification of deposits of Fuller's earth to the south of Bath. Other English
    5.00
    1 votes
    216

    Macor

    Macor is a machineable glass-ceramic developed and sold by Corning Incorporated It is a white material that looks somewhat like porcelain. Macor has excellent thermal characteristics, acting as efficient insulation, and stable up to temperatures of 1000 ᅡᄚC, with very little thermal expansion or outgassing. It can be machined into any desired shape using standard metalworking bits and tools. This combination of machinability and good thermal properties have made it the material of choice in many engineering contexts. Macor is made up of fluorphlogopite mica in a borosilicate glass matrix. Its composition is roughly: Macor has a density of 2.52 g/cm, and a thermal conductivity of 1.46 W/(mᅡᄋK). Its low-temperature (25 to 300 ᅡᄚC) thermal expansion is 93ᅢラ10
    5.00
    1 votes
    217
    Myrmekite

    Myrmekite

    Myrmekite describes a vermicular, or wormy, intergrowth of quartz in plagioclase. The intergrowths are microscopic in scale, typically with maximum dimensions less than 1 millimeter. The plagioclase is sodium-rich, usually albite or oligoclase. These quartz-plagioclase intergrowths are associated with and commonly in contact with potassium feldspar. Myrmekite is formed under metasomatic conditions, usually in conjunction with tectonic deformations. It has to be clearly separated from micrographic and granophyric intergrowths, which are magmatic. The word myrmekite is derived from the Ancient Greek μὑρμηχἰα (wart) or μὑρμηξ (ant) and was used by Jakob Sederholm in 1899 for the first time to describe these structures. During K-metasomatism of plagioclase several different types of myrmekite can appear: This is the initial stage of K-metasomatism in cataclastically-deformed magmatic plutonic rocks. The breakage happens primarily along grain-boundary seals and the K-metasomatism may locally replace rims of zoned plagioclase crystals to form interstitial alkali feldspar and rim myrmekite (see illustration). When tectonic strains increase and the cataclasis becomes more intense interior
    5.00
    1 votes
    218
    Pyrite

    Pyrite

    The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. This mineral's metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold because of its superficial resemblance to gold. The color has also led to the nicknames brass, brazzle and Brazil, primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πυρίτης (puritēs), "of fire" or "in fire", in turn from πύρ (pur), "fire". In ancient Roman times, this name was applied to several types of stone that would create sparks when struck against steel; Pliny the Elder described one of them as being brassy, almost certainly a reference to what we now call pyrite. By Georgius Agricola's time, the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. Pyrite is usually found associated with other sulfides or oxides in quartz veins, sedimentary rock, and metamorphic rock, as well as in coal beds, and as a replacement mineral in fossils. Despite being nicknamed fool's gold, pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold. Gold and arsenic occur as a coupled substitution in the pyrite
    4.00
    2 votes
    219
    Bauxite

    Bauxite

    Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3, boehmite γ-AlO(OH), and diaspore α-AlO(OH), in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite, the clay mineral kaolinite, and small amounts of anatase TiO2. Bauxite was named after the village Les Baux in southern France, where it was first recognised as containing aluminium and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821. Lateritic bauxites (silicate bauxites) are distinguished from karst bauxite ores (carbonate bauxites). The early discovered carbonate bauxites occur predominantly in Europe and Jamaica above carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite), where they were formed by lateritic weathering and residual accumulation of intercalated clays or by clay dissolution residues of the limestone. The lateritic bauxites are found mostly in the countries of the tropics. They were formed by lateritization of various silicate rocks such as granite, gneiss, basalt, syenite, and shale. In comparison with the iron-rich laterites, the formation of bauxites demands even more on intense weathering conditions in a location with very good
    4.00
    1 votes
    221

    Coal tar

    Coal tar is a brown or black liquid of extremely high viscosity. Coal tar is among the by-products when coal is carbonized to make coke or gasified to make coal gas. Coal tars are complex and variable mixtures of phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heterocyclic compounds, about 200 substances in all. Coal tar is incorporated into some parking-lot sealcoat products, used to protect and beautify the underlying pavement. Sealcoat products that are coal-tar based typically contain 20 to 35 percent coal-tar pitch. Substantial concerns have been raised about the safety of this application of coal tar, given that coal tar is known to cause cancer in humans and that several PAH compounds in coal tar are toxic to aquatic life. Defenders of coal-tar use in sealcoat have pointed out that humans are exposed to PAHs through many pathways, and similarly that the urban environment has many potential sources of PAHs. The use of coal tar based sealcoats is regional within the US and several areas have banned its use in sealcoat products including: The District of Columbia; the City of Austin, Texas; Dane County, Wisconsin; Washington State; and several municipalities in
    4.00
    1 votes
    222

    Iron ore

    Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), goethite (FeO(OH)), limonite (FeO(OH).n(H2O)) or siderite (FeCO3). Ores carrying very high quantities of hematite or magnetite (greater than ~60% iron) are known as "natural ore" or "direct shipping ore", meaning they can be fed directly into iron-making blast furnaces. Most reserves of such ore have now been depleted. Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron, which is one of the main raw materials to make steel. 98% of the mined iron ore is used to make steel. Indeed, it has been argued that iron ore is "more integral to the global economy than any other commodity, except perhaps oil". Metallic iron is virtually unknown on the surface of the Earth except as iron-nickel alloys from meteorites and very rare forms of deep mantle xenoliths. Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, comprising about 5%, the vast majority is bound in silicate or more rarely
    4.00
    1 votes
    223
    Lignite

    Lignite

    Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad, is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat. It is considered the lowest rank of coal; it is mined in Greece, Germany, Poland, Serbia, Russia, the United States, India, Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power generation. Up to 50% of Greece's electricity and 24.6% of Germany's comes from lignite power plants. Lignite is brownish-black in color and has a carbon content of around 25-35%, a high inherent moisture content sometimes as high as 66%, and an ash content ranging from 6% to 19% compared with 6% to 12% for bituminous coal. The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 - 20 MJ/kg (9–17 million BTU per short ton) on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. The energy content of lignite consumed in the United States averages 15 MJ/kg (13 million BTU/ton), on the as-received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria, Australia averages 8.4 MJ/kg (6.5 million BTU/ton). When reacted with quaternary amine, amine
    4.00
    1 votes
    224

    Maraging steel

    • Parent material class: Steel
    Maraging steels (a portmanteau of "martensitic" and "aging") are steels (iron alloys) which are known for possessing superior strength and toughness without losing malleability, although they cannot hold a good cutting edge. Aging refers to the extended heat-treatment process. These steels are a special class of low-carbon ultra-high-strength steels which derive their strength not from carbon, but from precipitation of inter-metallic compounds. The principal alloying element is 15 to 25% nickel. Secondary alloying elements are added to produce intermetallic precipitates, which include cobalt, molybdenum, and titanium. Original development was carried out on 20 and 25% Ni steels to which small additions of Al, Ti, and Nb were made. The common, non-stainless grades contain 17–19% nickel, 8–12% cobalt, 3–5% molybdenum, and 0.2–1.6% titanium. Addition of chromium produces stainless grades resistant to corrosion. This also indirectly increases hardenability as they require less nickel: high-chromium, high-nickel steels are generally austenitic and unable to transform to martensite when heat treated, while lower-nickel steels can transform to martensite. Due to the low carbon content
    4.00
    1 votes
    225

    Special Wire Rope

    Special Wire Ropes are engineered rope constructions.They are distinguished between non-rotating ropes and non-rotation resistant ropes. Special Wire ropes are designed with computer aided rope design programs. The target is to achieve maximum fill factor ( content of steel in the rope cross section ) e.g. highest possible breaking strenght with the smallest possible diameter of rope. The maximum fill factor can be achieved by using smallest 3D spacing bewtween wires and strands. Compared to standard rope constructions (6-strand 6x36 rope construction) with special wire ropes (8-strand, compacted strands like Veropro 8) the values are 0.68 versus 0.75 for Veropro 8. The breaking load of a special wire rope is approximately 15% to 20% higher compared to regular wire ropes. As a result 15% to 20% heavier weights can be lifted with these constructions. There is therefor a design advantage for the cranemanufacturer , because he can utilize smaller rope diameter for the required lifting capacity and by maintaining the required D/d ratio using smaller sheaves , drums and drives and can finally use enormeous static advantages due to reduced weight . Breaking load is not the only advantage
    4.00
    1 votes
    226
    Aluminium wire

    Aluminium wire

    • Parent material class: Wire
    Aluminum wire is a type of wiring used in houses, power grids, and airplanes. Aluminum provides a much better conductivity to weight ratio than copper, and therefore is used in power wiring of some aircraft. Utility companies have used aluminum wire for transmission of electricity within their power grids since the early 1900s. It has cost and weight advantages over copper wires. Aluminum wire in transmission and distribution applications is still the preferred material today. In North American residential construction, aluminum wire was used to wire entire houses for a short time from the late 1960s to the late 1970s during a period of high copper prices. Wiring devices (outlets, switches, fans, etc.) at the time were not designed with the particular properties of aluminum wire in mind and there were problems with the properties of the wire itself. Older wiring devices not originally rated for aluminum wiring present a fire hazard. Revised manufacturing standards for wiring devices were required. In the mid 1960s when the price of copper spiked, aluminum wire was manufactured in sizes small enough to be used in homes. Aluminum wire requires a larger wire gauge than copper to
    0.00
    0 votes
    227

    Babaghuri

    Babaghuri [baːbaːɡʱuːri] is a kind of agate stone found in Gujarat, India, coloured mostly white yellow or orange. It is named after Baba Ghor, a patron saint of people of African descent living in India and supposedly the person who started the worldwide trade in these stones.
    0.00
    0 votes
    228
    Barite

    Barite

    Baryte, or barite, (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. The baryte group consists of baryte, celestine, anglesite and anhydrite. Baryte itself is generally white or colorless, and is the main source of barium. Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba,Sr)SO4. The radiating form, sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone, attained some notoriety among alchemists for the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo Casciarolo. The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500 which governs baryte for drilling purposes does not refer to any specific mineral, but rather a material that meets that specification. In practice this is usually the mineral baryte. The term "primary baryte" refers to the first marketable product, which includes crude baryte (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods, such as washing, jigging, heavy media separation, tabling, flotation. Most crude baryte requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density. Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size. Most baryte is ground to a small, uniform size before it is used as a filler
    0.00
    0 votes
    229
    Biopolymer

    Biopolymer

    Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms. Since they are polymers, biopolymers contain monomeric units that are covalently bonded to form larger structures. There are three main classes of biopolymers based on the differing monomeric units used and the structure of the biopolymer formed: polynucleotides, which are long polymers composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers; polypeptides, which are short polymers of amino acids; and polysaccharides, which are often linear bonded polymeric carbohydrate structures. Cellulose is the most common organic compound and biopolymer on Earth. About 33 percent of all plant matter is cellulose. The cellulose content of cotton is 90 percent and that of wood is 50 percent. A major but defining difference between biopolymers and other polymers can be found in their structures. All polymers are made of repetitive units called monomers. Biopolymers often have a well-defined structure, though this is not a defining characteristic (example:ligno-cellulose): The exact chemical composition and the sequence in which these units are arranged is called the primary structure, in the case of proteins. Many biopolymers spontaneously fold into
    0.00
    0 votes
    230
    Carbon

    Carbon

    Carbon /ˈkɑrbən/ (from Latin: carbo "coal") is the chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. There are three naturally occurring isotopes, with C and C being stable, while C is radioactive, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity. There are several allotropes of carbon of which the best known are graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon. The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form. For example, diamond is highly transparent, while graphite is opaque and black. Diamond is among the hardest materials known, while graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper (hence its name, from the Greek word "to write"). Diamond has a very low electrical conductivity, while graphite is a very good conductor. Under normal conditions, diamond has the highest thermal conductivity of all known materials. All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form. They are chemically resistant and
    0.00
    0 votes
    231
    Cassiterite

    Cassiterite

    Cassiterite is a tin oxide mineral, SnO2. It is generally opaque, but it is translucent in thin crystals. Its luster and multiple crystal faces produce a desirable gem. Cassiterite has been the chief tin ore throughout ancient history and remains the most important source of tin today. Most sources of cassiterite today are found in alluvial or placer deposits containing the resistant weathered grains. The best sources of primary cassiterite are found in the tin mines of Bolivia, where it is found in hydrothermal veins. Rwanda has a nascent cassiterite mining industry. Fighting over cassiterite deposits (particularly in Walikale) is a major cause of the conflict waged in eastern parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Cassiterite is a widespread minor constituent of igneous rocks. The Bolivia veins and the old exhausted workings of Cornwall, England, are concentrated in high temperature quartz veins and pegmatites associated with granitic intrusives. The veins commonly contain tourmaline, topaz, fluorite, apatite, wolframite, molybdenite, and arsenopyrite. The mineral occurs extensively in Cornwall as surface deposits on Bodmin Moor for example, where there are extensive
    0.00
    0 votes
    232
    0.00
    0 votes
    233
    Duftite

    Duftite

    Duftite is a relatively common arsenate mineral with the formula CuPb(AsO4)(OH), related to conichalcite. It is green and often forms botryoidal aggregates. It is a member of the Adelite-Descloizite Group, Conichalcite-Duftite Series. Duftite and conichalcite specimens from Tsumeb are commonly zoned in colour and composition. Microprobe analyses and X-ray powder-diffraction studies indicate extensive substitution of Zn for Cu, and Ca for Pb in the duftite structure. This indicates a solid solution among conichalcite, CaCu(AsO4 )(OH), austinite, CaZn(AsO4)(OH) and duftite PbCu(AsO4)(OH), all of them belonging to the adelite group of arsenates. It was named after Mining Councilor G Duft, Director of the Otavi Mine and Railroad Company, Tsumeb, Namibia. The type locality is the Tsumeb Mine, Tsumeb, Otjikoto Region, Namibia. The structure is composed of chains of edge-sharing CuO6 distorted octahedra parallel to the c axis. The chains are linked by AsO4 tetrahedra and Pb atoms. Duftite is an uncommon product of weathered sulfide ore deposits. It is associated with azurite at the type locality, and with bayldonite, segnitite, agardite and gartrellite at the Central Cobar Mines, New
    0.00
    0 votes
    234
    Ferricrete

    Ferricrete

    Ferricrete is a hard, erosion-resistant layer of material at the land surface that consists of near surface sediments cemented by iron oxide in to a duricrust. Ferricretes contains sediments and other non-indigenous materials, which have been transported from outside the immediate area in which it occurs. The iron oxide cements are derived from the oxidation of percolating solutions of iron salts. The word is derived from the combination of ferruginous and concrete. Ferricrete is used widely in South Africa to create roads in rural areas. It is better known in these regions by its Afrikaans name "Koffieklip" (coffee stone). Other synonyms are ferruginous duricrust, hardpan, ironpan, ouklip Gravel or ngubane. Ferricrete is also found in the United States in areas of the Gulf Coastal Plain and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Ferricrete is also found in Western and remote Eastern areas of Australia.
    0.00
    0 votes
    235
    Galena

    Galena

    Galena is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide. It is the most important lead ore mineral. Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedral forms. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite, calcite and fluorite. Galena deposits often contain significant amounts of silver as included silver sulfide mineral phases or as limited solid solution within the galena structure. These argentiferous galenas have long been the most important ore of silver in mining. In addition zinc, cadmium, antimony, arsenic and bismuth also occur in variable amounts in lead ores. Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series. The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena. Within the weathering or oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate). Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally occurring bacteria and archaea, in a process similar to bioleaching. Galena deposits are found worldwide in various environments. Noted deposits include those at
    0.00
    0 votes
    236
    Iddingsite

    Iddingsite

    Iddingsite is an alteration of olivine that consists of a mixture of clay minerals, iron oxides and ferrihydrites. It is absent from deep-seated rocks and is found on meteorites. As it has been found on Martian meteorites, its ages have been calculated to obtain absolute ages when liquid water was at or near the surface of Mars. Iddingsite forms from the weathering of basalt in the presence of liquid water and can be described as a phenocryst, i.e. it has megascopically visible crystals in a fine-grained groundmass of a porphyritic rock. It is a pseudomorph that has a composition that is constantly transforming from the original olivine that pass though many stages of structural and chemical change to create a fully altered iddingsite. Because iddingsite is constantly transforming it does not have a definite structure or a definite chemical composition. The chemical formula for iddingsite has been approximated as MgO * Fe2O3 * 4 H2O where CaO can be substituted by MgO. The geologic occurrence of iddingsite is limited to extrusive or subvolcanic rocks that are formed by injection of magma near the surface. Iddingsite is a pseudomorph, and during the alteration process the olivine
    0.00
    0 votes
    237
    0.00
    0 votes
    238
    Metal

    Metal

    • Child material class: Iron
    A metal (from Greek "μέταλλον" – métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is an element, compound, or alloy that is a good conductor of both electricity and heat. Metals are usually malleable, ductile and shiny. The meaning of the term "metal" differs for various communities. Many elements and compounds that are not normally classified as metals become metallic under high pressures (see nonmetal#Metallic allotropes.) Metals typically consist of close-packed atoms, meaning that the atoms are arranged like closely packed spheres. Two packing motifs are common, one being body-centered cubic wherein each metal is surrounded by eight equivalent metals. The other main motif is face-centered cubic where the metals are surrounded by six neighboring atoms. Several metals adopt both structures, depending on the temperature. In a metal, atoms readily lose electrons to form positive ions (cations). Those ions are surrounded by de-localized electrons, which are responsible for the conductivity. The solid thus produced is held together by electrostatic interactions between the ions and the electron cloud, which are called metallic bonds. Metals are usually inclined to form cations through electron loss,
    0.00
    0 votes
    239
    Monel

    Monel

    • Child material class: Monel 400
    Monel is a trademark of Special Metals Corporation for a series of nickel alloys, primarily composed of nickel (up to 67%) and copper, with some iron and other trace elements. Monel was created by David H. Browne, chief metallurgist for International Nickel Co. Monel alloy 400 is binary alloy of the same proportions of nickel and copper as is found naturally in the nickel ore from the Sudbury (Ontario) mines. Monel was named after company president Ambrose Monell, and patented in 1906. One L was dropped, because family names were not allowed as trademarks at that time. Compared to steel, Monel is very difficult to machine as it work-hardens very quickly. It needs to be turned and worked at slow speeds and low feed rates. It is resistant to corrosion and acids, and some alloys can withstand a fire in pure oxygen. It is commonly used in applications with highly corrosive conditions. Small additions of aluminium and titanium form an alloy (K-500) with the same corrosion resistance but with much greater strength due to gamma prime formation on aging. Monel is typically much more expensive than stainless steel. Monel alloy 400 has a specific gravity of 8.83, an electrical conductivity
    0.00
    0 votes
    240
    Polyvinyl chloride

    Polyvinyl chloride

    • Child material class: Morrokide vinyl
    Polyvinyl chloride, commonly abbreviated PVC, is the third-most widely produced plastic, after polyethylene and polypropylene. PVC is used in construction because it is cheaper and stronger than more traditional alternatives such as copper or ductile iron. It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates. In this form, it is used in clothing and upholstery, electrical cable insulation, inflatable products and many applications in which it replaces rubber. Pure polyvinyl chloride without any plasticizer is a white, brittle solid. It is insoluble in alcohol, but slightly soluble in tetrahydrofuran. PVC was accidentally discovered at least twice in the 19th century, first in 1835 by French chemist Henri Victor Regnault and then in 1872 by German chemist Eugen Baumann. On both occasions the polymer appeared as a white solid inside flasks of vinyl chloride that had been left exposed to sunlight. In the early 20th century the Russian chemist Ivan Ostromislensky and Fritz Klatte of the German chemical company Griesheim-Elektron both attempted to use PVC in commercial products, but difficulties in processing the rigid, sometimes
    0.00
    0 votes
    242

    Sascab

    Sascab is a naturally occurring mineral material described variously as "decomposed limestone", as "breccia", and as "the lime gravel mixture the Maya used as mortar." It has been used as a building and paving material in Mesoamerica since antiquity. In the context of pottery the term may also apply to mixtures (with clay and water) of a more finely divided form of the same material (described as "stone dust"). It was used by the ancient Maya in place of (or as a partial replacement for) lime in some applications, without needing to be "burned." According to travel writer Jeanine Kitchel, the American explorer of the Yucatan, Edward Herbert Thompson found (ca.1900) "shallow quarries near Chichen Itza with worked veins of sascab..."
    0.00
    0 votes
    243
    Slate

    Slate

    Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism. The result is a foliated rock in which the foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering. When expertly "cut" by striking with a specialized tool in the quarry, many slates will form smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing and floor tiles and other purposes. Slate is frequently grey in color, especially when seen, en masse, covering roofs. However, slate occurs in a variety of colors even from a single locality; for example, slate from North Wales can be found in many shades of grey, from pale to dark, and may also be purple, green or cyan. Slate is not to be confused with shale, from which it may be formed, or schist. Ninety percent of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from Spain. The word "slate" is also used for some objects made from slate. It may mean a single roofing slate, or a writing slate, traditionally a small piece of slate, often framed in wood, used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard etc., and especially for
    0.00
    0 votes
    244

    Solid wire

    Solid wire or solid core wire consists of one piece of metal wire, as opposed to many separate wires wrapped together. Most house wiring is done with solid, single strand, wire because it is cheaper to manufacture than stranded wire.
    0.00
    0 votes
    245

    Stranded wire

    Stranded wire (opposite to Solid wire) is composed of a bundle of small-gauge wire wrapped in a particular pattern inside insulation to make a larger conductor. Stranded wire is more flexible than a solid strand of the same overall gauge. Stranded conductors are commonly used for electrical applications carrying signals, a computer "mouse" and for power cables between an utilization device and its power source; eg: sweepers, table lamps, powered hand sanders, welding electrode cables, mining machine trailing machine cables. Most house wiring is done with solid, single strand, wire because it is cheaper to manufacture than stranded wire -- to the wall switches and receptacles. However, the use of stranded conductors adds lots of surface area. The wire from the electrical service to earth is solid and large against physical problems. If wires/cables are subject to frequent movement, they should be inspected regularly to see if any of the strands have broken. If so, the wire/cable should be replaced as soon as possible. [A quick splice in a mine cable is to use a square knot until the end of a shift.] High frequency and heavy current electricity travels near the outside of the
    0.00
    0 votes
    246
    Tilia americana

    Tilia americana

    • Parent material class: Wood
    Tilia americana is a species of Tilia native to eastern North America, from southeast Manitoba east to New Brunswick, southwest to northeast Texas, and southeast to South Carolina, and west along the Niobrara River to Cherry County, Nebraska. Common names include American Linden and Basswood (also applied to other species of Tilia in the timber trade). Tilia americana is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree reaching a height of 60 to 120 ft (exceptionally 129 ft) with a trunk diameter of 3–4 ft at maturity. The crown is domed, the branches spreading, often pendulous. The bark is gray to light brown, with narrow, well defined fissures. The roots are large, deep, and spreading. The twigs are smooth, reddish-green, becoming light gray in their second year, finally dark brown or brownish gray, marked with dark wart-like excrescences. The winter buds are stout, ovate-acute, smooth, deep red, with two bud scales visible. The leaves are simple, alternately arranged, ovate to cordate, inequalateral at the base (the side nearest the branch the largest), 10–15 cm (can grow up to 25 cm) long and broad, with a long, slender petiole, a coarsely serrated margin and an acuminate apex. They open
    0.00
    0 votes
    247
    Tool steel

    Tool steel

    • Parent material class: Steel
    Tool steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly well-suited to be made into tools. Their suitability comes from their distinctive hardness, resistance to abrasion, their ability to hold a cutting edge, and/or their resistance to deformation at elevated temperatures (red-hardness). Tool steel is generally used in a heat-treated state. With a carbon content between 0.7% and 1.5%, tool steels are manufactured under carefully controlled conditions to produce the required quality. The manganese content is often kept low to minimize the possibility of cracking during water quenching. However, proper heat treating of these steels is important for adequate performance, and there are many suppliers who provide tooling blanks intended for oil quenching. Tool steels are made to a number of grades for different applications. Choice of grade depends on, among other things, whether a keen cutting edge is necessary, as in stamping dies, or whether the tool has to withstand impact loading and service conditions encountered with such hand tools as axes, pickaxes, and quarrying implements. In general, the edge temperature under expected use is an important determinant
    0.00
    0 votes
    248
    Wolframite

    Wolframite

    Wolframite, (Fe,Mn)WO4, is an iron manganese tungstate mineral that is the intermediate between ferberite (Fe rich) and huebernite (Mn rich). Along with scheelite, the wolframite series are the most important tungsten ore minerals. Wolframite is found in quartz veins and pegmatites associated with granitic intrusives. Associated minerals include cassiterite, scheelite, bismuth, quartz, pyrite, galena, sphalerite, and arsenopyrite. This mineral was historically found in Europe in Bohemia, Saxony, and Cornwall. China reportedly has the world's largest supply of tungsten ore with about 60%. Other producers are Portugal, Russia, Australia, Thailand, South Korea, Rwanda, Bolivia, the United States, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The name "wolframite" is derived from German "wolf rahm" ("wolf cream"), the name given to tungsten by Johan Gottschalk Wallerius in 1747. This, in turn, derives from "Lupi spuma", the name Georg Agricola used for the element in 1546, which translates into English as "wolf's froth" or "cream" (the etymology is not entirely certain), and is a reference to the large amounts of tin consumed by the mineral during its extraction. Wolfram is the basis for
    0.00
    0 votes
    249
    0.00
    0 votes
    250

    Zykaite

    Zykaite or zýkaite is a grey-white mineral consisting of arsenic, hydrogen, iron, sulfur and oxygen with formula: Fe4(AsO4)3(SO4)(OH)·15(H2O). This dull mineral is very soft with a Mohs hardness of only 2 and a specific gravity of 2.5. It is translucent and crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system. Its common associates include limonite, gypsum, scorodite, quartz and arsenopyrite. It is found in the Czech Republic, Poland and Germany. Zykaite was first described in 1978 for an occurrence in the Safary mine, Kutná Hora, Bohemia, Czech Republic and named in honour of Vaclav Zyka, a Czech geochemist.
    0.00
    0 votes
    Get your friends to vote! Spread this URL or share:
    Tags: best, all, time, material

    Discuss Best Material of All Time

    Top List Voters