Martial arts, or fighting arts, are specific systems, traditions and practices of human combat. The objectives of martial arts are to defeat an opponent or to defend against physical attack or threat of attack. Examples include Karate, Taekwondo, Boxing and Wing Chun.
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American Kickboxing, also known as Full-Contact Kickboxing or American Full Contact Karate, is a combat sport and a style of kickboxing in which two opponents of similar weight fight each other using full contact strikes with their fists and feet to attack the opponent, while keeping similar rules of Western boxing. Full-contact kickboxing competitions are generally distinguished because of the dress of the fighters, mandatory wearing long pants and foot-pads (unlike other kickboxing styles where fighters wear shorts and fight bare-footed).
Although the term "full contact karate" has been used to refer this sport, it should not be confused with the generic term full contact Karate, which refers to any traditional karate school with the use of full contact sparring, like Kyokushinkai.
Count Dante, Ray Scarica and Maung Gyi held the United States' earliest cross-style, full-contact style martial arts tournaments as early as 1962. However, the American kickboxing sport was truly invented in 1970, as a result of combining boxing punches and tactics, with the kicks of Karate. The primary intention was to create a new sport where karate practitioners in the US could fight with full
Kenpō (拳法) is the name of several Japanese martial arts. The word kenpō is a Japanese translation of the Chinese word "quánfǎ. This term is often informally transliterated as "kempo", as a result of applying Traditional Hepburn romanization, but failing to use a macron to indicate the long vowel. The generic nature of the term combined with its widespread, cross-cultural adoption in the martial arts community has led to many divergent definitions.
Kenpō has also been appropriated as a modern term: a name for multiple martial arts that developed in Hawaii due to cross-cultural exchange between practitioners of Ryukyuan martial arts, Chinese martial arts, Japanese martial arts and multiple additional influences. In the United States, kenpo is often referred to as Kenpo Karate. The most widespread styles have their origin in the teachings of James Mitose and William Kwai Sun Chow. The American East Coast features a branch of Kenpo created by Nick Cerio, and later built upon and redefined by Fredrick J. Villari who brought the hybrid art of Shaolin Kempo Karate to the general public through his nationwide network of "Villari's Martial Arts Centers". The Villari system integrated the
Bare-knuckle boxing (also known as bare-knuckle, prizefighting, or fisticuffs) is the original form of boxing, closely related to ancient combat sports. It involves two individuals fighting without any boxing gloves or other form of padding on their hands. The difference between a streetfight and a bare-knuckle boxing match is an accepted set of rules, such as not striking a downed opponent.
The first bare-knuckle champion of England was James Figg, who claimed the title in 1719 and held it until his retirement in 1730. Other noted champions were Jack Broughton, Daniel Mendoza, Jem Belcher, Hen Pearce, John Gully, Tom Cribb, Tom Spring, Jem Ward, James Burke, William "Bendigo" Thompson, Ben Caunt, Tom Sayers and Jem Mace.
The record for the longest bareknuckle fight is listed as 6 hours and 15 minutes for a match between James Kelly and Jonathan Smith, fought near Fiery Creek, Victoria, Australia, on December 3, 1855, when Smith gave in after 17 rounds.
The bare-knuckle fighter Jem Mace is listed as having the longest professional career of any fighter in history. He fought for more than 35 years into his 60s, and recorded his last exhibition bout in 1909 at the age of 79.
Lathi (Hindi: लाठी, Bengali: লাঠি) means stick and also refers to an martial art based on cane-fighting. The word is used in Hindi, Bengali and various other languages. The lathi typically measures 6 to 8-foot (2.4 m) and may be tipped with metal. It commonly used as a crowd control device by the Indian Police and other South Asian law enforcement agencies. A lathi-wielder is known as a lathial or lethel or lathait.
Following their conquest of India the Mughals introduced zamindar, which refers to intermediary landed elements with various levels of inheritable land rights. Lathial groups were sent to forcefully collect taxes from villagers. The zamindari system continued during British rule and wasn't abolished until after India's independence in 1947. Rich farmers and other eminent people in today's Indian villages still hire lathial for security and as a symbol of their power. Disputes in villages, when settled illegally, still involve lathi battles, but this is no longer common and has largely been replaced by legal methods or, rarely, shootouts. Although lathi remains a popular sport in Indian and Bangladeshi villages, urbanisation has led to its decline as a rural martial
The name of Tây Sơn is used in many ways to refer to the period of peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between the eras of the Later Lê and Nguyễn dynasties in the history of Vietnam between 1770 and 1802. The name Tây Sơn is used to refer to the leaders of this revolt (the Tây Sơn brothers), their uprising (the Tây Sơn Uprising) or their rule (the Tây Sơn Dynasty or Nguyễn Tây Sơn Dynasty).
During the 18th century, Vietnam was under the nominal rule of the officially-revered, but politically-ignored Lê Dynasty. Real power was in the hands of two warring feudal families, the Trịnh Lords of the north who controlled and ruled from the imperial court in Hanoi and the Nguyễn Lords in the south, who ruled from their capital Huế. Both sides fought each other for control of the nation, while claiming to be loyal to the king.
Life for the peasant farmers was difficult. Ownership of land became more concentrated in the hands of a few landlords as time passed. The Mandarin bureaucracy was oppressive and often corrupt; at one point, royal-sanctioned degrees were up for sale for whoever was wealthy enough to purchase them. In contrast to the people, the ruling lords
Yagyū Shingan-ryū (柳生心眼流), is a traditional school (koryū) of Japanese martial arts. Different styles of Yagyū Shingan-ryū, such as Heihojutsu and Taijutsu, assert different founders, Takenaga Hayato and Araki Mataemon respectively, but they all go back to Ushū Tatewaki (羽州 帯刀), referred to in some historical scrolls as Shindō Tatewaki, who taught a system based on Sengoku-period battlefield tactics, that was called Shindō-ryū.
The word shingan (心眼) is rooted in Zen philosophy, and was chosen to describe a fundamental concept of the style. Shingan means "mind’s eye," or "heart's eye," and refers to the ability to sense or read an opponent's intentions via an inner sense. Originally called simply Shingan-ryū, it was later renamed Yagyū Shingan-ryū, due to the influence of Yagyu Tajima No Kami Munenori's Yagyū Shinkage-ryū.
Yagyū Shingan-ryū was created to be a battlefield art with a large comprehensive curriculum of weapons, and grappling techniques for use both while armored and unarmored. The techniques of Yagyū Shingan-ryū were therefore designed to eliminate an enemy quickly and effortlessly. In the early days, both the Yagyū Shingan and Shinkage schools were similar, as both
Taekkyeon is a traditional Korean martial art with a dance-like appearance in some aspects. A Goguryeo mural painting at the Samsil tomb shows Taekkyeon was practiced as early as the Three Kingdoms Era and transmitted from Goguryeo to Shilla. The Three Kingdoms period ran from 57 AD until Silla's triumph over Goguryeo in 668, which marked the beginning of the North and South States period (남북국시대) of Unified Silla in the South and Balhae in the North. The earliest existing written source mentioning Taekkyeon is the book Manmulmo (also Jaemulmo), written around 1790 by Lee, Sung-Ji. Taekkyeon is also frequently romanized informally as Taekkyon or Taekyon.
Taekkyeon derives from an earlier art called Subak. Subak is mentioned in Korea's oldest surviving texts, Samguek Sagi/Yusa in the 12th and 13th centuries. All records before that date have been destroyed in war. Back then, the upper body movements where called Subak and the leg work was known as Taekkyeon. After more than a thousand years of development this Korean military martial art was renamed Taekkyeon, dropping the Subak. Nobody knows why, it is lost to history., during the early Joseon Dynasty. Its practice never seems to
Fencing, which is also known as olympic fencing to distinguish it from historical fencing, is an activity using bladed weapons. It is usually practised with the help of a sword or mini-blade.
Fencing is one of five sports which have been featured at every one of the modern Olympic Games, the other four being Athletics, Cycling, Swimming, and Gymnastics. The sport of fencing is divided into three weapons: Foil, Sabre and Épée.
The rules of modern fencing originated from France, where the first known book on fencing, Treatise on Arms, was written by Diego de Valera between 1458 and 1471, shortly before dueling came under official ban by the Catholic Monarchs. When Spain became the leading power of Europe, the Spanish armies carried fencing abroad and particularly into the south of Italy, one of the main battlefields between both nations.
Modern fencing originated in the 18th century, in the Italian school of fencing of the Renaissance, and, under their influence, was improved by the French school of fencing. The Spanish school of fencing didn't become prominent until the 19th century. Nowadays, these three schools are the most influential around the world.
Dueling went into sharp
Bak Mei (Chinese: 白眉; pinyin: Bái Méi; literally "White Eyebrows") is said to have been one of the legendary Five Elders — survivors of the destruction of the Shaolin Temple by the Qing Dynasty imperial regime (1644–1912) — who, according to some accounts, betrayed Shaolin to the imperial government. He shares his name with the Southern Chinese martial art attributed to him.
Bak Mei has been fictionalized in Hong Kong films such as Executioners from Shaolin (1977), Abbot of Shaolin (1979), and Clan of the White Lotus (1980). In Executioners from Shaolin and Abbot of Shaolin, Bak Mei was played by Lo Lieh, who also directed the 1980 film, which stars Wilson Tong as Bak Mei. Recently, Bak Mei is better known in the West as "Pai Mei" (the Wade-Giles romanization of his name in Mandarin), played by Gordon Liu in the Hollywood film Kill Bill: Volume 2 (2004).
Accounts of the Five Elders are many and varied. Some versions identify the traitor not as Bak Mei, but as Ma Ning-Yee. In other versions, Bak Mei and Ma Ning-Yee both betray Shaolin, sometimes joined by Fung Do-Duk. Still other versions say that "Bak Mei" is a nickname for either Ma Ning-Yee or Fung Do-Duk. The stories of the Five
Thang-ta or huyen lallong is a weapon-based Indian martial art created by the Meitei of Manipur. In the Manipuri language, thang means sword and ta means spear. As its name implies, the sword and spear are the primary weapons in thang-ta. The spear can be used in its non-missile form while in close or thrown from afar. Other weapons used include the shield and axe.
Because of Manipur's cultural similarity, geographic proximity and ethnic ties with Myanmar, thang-ta is closely related to banshay. Both can be practiced in three different ways: ritual, demonstration and combat. The first way is related to the tantric practices and is entirely ritualistic in nature. The second way consists of a spectacular performance involving sword and spear dances. These dances can be converted into actual fighting practices. The third way is the true combat application.
The earliest record of thang-ta and its sibling Sarit Sarak dates back from the early 17th century. Warriors would arrange to fight one-on-one as a way of settling feuds or disputes. The day before a duel, fighters might eat dinner together. While thang-ta involves using weapons against one or more opponents, Sarit Sarak is the art
The Seishindo Kenpo Association is a governing body put in place in 1981, with the authoring of the Seishindo Kenpo Hand Book by Frank Landers, detailing rules and by-laws and standards for the Seishindo Kenpo system, and information on who may join, how to apply for membership and other information about the organization.
The naginata (なぎなた, 薙刀) is one of several varieties of traditionally made Japanese swords (nihonto) in the form of a pole weapon. Naginata were originally used by the samurai class of feudal Japan, and naginata were also used by ashigaru (foot soldiers) and sōhei (warrior monks).
A naginata consists of a wooden shaft with a curved blade on the end, it is similar to the Chinese guan dao or the European glaive. Naginata often have a sword-like hand guard (tsuba) between the blade and shaft when mounted in a koshirae. The 30 cm to 60 cm long naginata blade is forged in the same manner as traditional Japanese swords. The blade has a long tang (nakago) which is inserted in the shaft (nagaye or ebu), the blade is removable and is secured by means of a wood peg (mekugi) that passes through a hole (mekugi-ana) in both the nakago and the nagaye (ebu). The nagaye (ebu) ranges from 120 cm to 240 cm in length and is oval shaped. The area of the nagaye (ebu) were the naginata nakago sits is the tachiuchi or tachiuke. The tachiuchi (tachiuke) would be re-enforced with metal rings (naginata dogane or semegane), and or metal sleeves (sakawa) and wrapped with cord (san-dan maki), the end of the
Seishindo Kenpo is an American martial art system of self-defense. (Seishin: 精神 せいしん mind; soul; heart; spirit; intention), (Do: 道 どう The Way), (Kenpo 拳法 けんぽう Chinese art of self-defense, "Fist Law"). Seishindo Kenpo is primarily an empty hand striking art, using the body's own natural weapons, as defense. kicks, punches, knees and elbows can be used in various combination's to render an attacker helpless. Seishindo Kenpo employs Grappling, Lock Control Manipulation, Throws and Vital Point Strikes, all part of the structured course of learning, the system of Seishindo Kenpo.
The Seishindo Kenpo Creed is a collection of words together forming a symbolic meaning of pride, integrity, trust and respect for the adversary that stands before them. "I will uphold the true spirit of Seishindo Kenpo, which is humility and self-restraint"! The very words that embody the true meaning of Kenpo martial arts.
"I pledge my allegiance to God and Country, and the preservation of the Martial Arts"! - The written words are not meant to be viewed as literal statements, but rather a feeling or state of mind, about how to view the skills your about to learn, and the dangers you shall face in your daily
Calinda (Kalinda) is a martial art, as well as kind of folk music and dance in the Caribbean which arose in the 1720s. Calinda is the French spelling, and the Spanish equivalent is calenda; it is a kind of stick-fighting commonly seen practiced during Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago. There, Carnival songs are considered to be derived from calinda chants and "lavways".
Though it is more commonly practiced as a dance because of the violent outcome of stick fighting, its roots are still that of a martial art originating from Africa, and stick fights still occur in Trinidad. They also have been formalised into annual Carnival competitions.
Kalenda is one name assigned to an Afro-Caribbean form of stick fighting as practiced in Haiti and entering the United States through the port city of New Orleans. It is also practiced in other parts of the Caribbean, such as Martinique.
The well-known Cajun song "Allons dancer Colinda" is about a Cajun boy asking a girl named Colinda to do a risqué dance with him; probably derived from the Calinda dance which was reported to have been performed in New Orleans by Afro-Caribbean slaves brought to Louisiana.
Similar forms of this martial art exist
Genwakai (玄和会) is a style of Karate-do. Genwakai can be translated in several ways.
Therefore, Genwakai can be translated as "The Association that seeks the Highest Subtle Truth."
Nippon Karate-do Genwakai, or just Genwakai for short, is a style of Karate-do that was developed from Gensei-ryu, which has roots in one of the original styles of Okinawa, Shuri-te.
Genwakai was a development of Gensei-ryu, so naturally, the two are very similar. In or around 1962, Yoichi Takahashi（高橋洋一, who renamed himself as Tsugumasa Nangou 南郷,継正), started calling the style of Karate-do he practiced Genwakai. Genwakai has since spread to the US and Europe.
In 1973, Hiroshi Tajima traveled to North America. He visited various cities in Canada, Michigan, California, and Ohio. A close training associate, Robert Clary (Sho Dan) was returning to the United States from Japan. He and Robert Fryer (a former soldier stationed in Japan who studied Genwakai) invited Hiroshi Tajima to come and live in their hometown of Dayton, Ohio. Tajima eventually settled in Dayton, Ohio and achieved the rank of Shihan. Subsequently, he became the director of Nippon Karate-do Genwakai-US.
At the peak of Genwakai training in
Hankumdo is a Korean sword-art where the basic techniques are based on the letters of the Korean alphabet, Hangul.
The goal of hankumdo is to teach people how to defend themselves and at the same time offer them exercises to stay healthy. It also is meant to give practitioners the means to come to a deeper understanding of martial arts principles. It aims to make this easy by using the Korean writing system to systematize the techniques.
This art was developed by the late Myung Jae Nam, the first plans to teach his sword techniques as a separate art emerged in 1986. Hankumdo was first made public during the 3rd International H.K.D Games in 1997.
Master Myung wanted to develop a sword-art that would be truly Korean and easy to learn by everyone. For Koreans who already know the Korean writing system, the techniques are easy to remember, because the strikes follow the standard way in which you would write the characters with your pen. For foreigners it is usually their first encounter with the Korean writing system. At first hankumdo was introduced as a part of the hankido curriculum under the name hankumdobub (hankumdo techniques), but later Myung Jae Nam decided that it was an art
Jogo do Pau (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈʒoɣu du ˈpaw], "game of the stick") is a Portuguese martial art which developed in the northern regions of Portugal (Minho and Trás-os-Montes), focusing on the use of a staff of fixed measures and characteristics. The origins of this martial art are uncertain, but its purpose was primarily self-defence. It was also used to settle accounts, disputes and matters of honour between individuals, families, and even villages. While popular in the northern mountains, it was practically unknown elsewhere, and those who did practise it were taught by masters from the Norte Region, Portugal.
The popularity of this martial art was partly due to the demeanor of the northern folk, who valued personal and family honor enough to kill for it. It was also due in no small part to the relative ease of obtaining a staff as well as the versatility of such a tool: a staff or stick was almost universally present, used as a support for the long daily walks, to help cross the rivers, by the shepherds to protect the cattle from wild animals, and so on. There are references to this martial art being used by the guerrilla against the troops of Napoleon that were
Kendo (剣道, kendō), meaning "Way of The Sword", is a modern Japanese martial art of sword-fighting based on traditional swordsmanship (kenjutsu) which originated with the samurai class of feudal Japan.
Kendo is a physically and mentally challenging activity that combines martial arts practices and values with sport-like strenuous physical activity.
Since the earliest samurai government in Japan, during the Kamakura period (1185–1333), sword fighting, together with horse riding and archery, were the main martial pursuits of the military clans. In this period kendo developed under the strong influence of Zen Buddhism. The samurai could equate the disregard for his own life in the heat of battle, which was considered necessary for victory in individual combat, to the Buddhist concept of the illusory nature of the distinction between life and death.
Those swordsmen established schools of kenjutsu (the ancestor of kendo) which continued for centuries and which form the basis of kendo practice today.
The names of the schools reflect the essence of the originator's enlightenment. Thus the Ittō-ryū (Single sword school) indicates the founder's illumination that all possible cuts with the
Jinenkan (in Japanese 自然舘) is a Japanese martial arts organisation. The name means "Hall of Nature", reflecting an emphasis on natural movements and the strength found in nature and the environment. Jinenkan is one of three organisations teaching Takamatsu-den martial arts (see X-kan). The incumbent headmaster is Manaka (Fumio) Unsui. The Jinenkan teaches taijutsu, bikenjutsu, bōjutsu, sojutsu, naginatajutsu, tantojutsu, tessenjutsu, juttejutsu, kusarigama, and more. All training is done strictly according to the Densho.
The Jinenkan was founded in 1996 by Manaka Fumio, then the senior student of Masaaki Hatsumi, after he left the Bujinkan.
The current series of ranks in the Jinenkan are:
An actual black belt is not used, instead from shodan on a dark blue hakama is worn along with a kaku obi.
Each Jinenkan Dojo can decide to add extra kyu degrees to the curriculum.
Dim Mak, (traditional Chinese: 點脈; simplified Chinese: 点脉; pinyin: diǎnmài; literally "press artery"; Jyutping: dim2 mak6), alternatively diǎnxuè (traditional Chinese: 點穴; simplified Chinese: 点穴), more famously known as the Death Touch, is an attack on pressure points and meridians in some styles of Chinese martial arts used which is said to incapacitate or sometimes cause a delayed or even immediate death to an opponent. The points of attack used in Dim Mak correspond to the same locations as acupuncture points and other Chinese healing arts.
There are many different legends concerning the origins of Dim Mak. Pier Tsui-po says secrets of Dim Mak were only passed along to close family members and trusted students, making professional trainers of authentic Dim Mak nearly impossible to find since Dim Mak isn't a normal martial arts training activity.
Adherents of Dim Mak say that its practitioners are capable of inflicting serious harm to an individual by disrupting their qi or energy flow throughout their meridian channels, causing stagnation of qi, which in turn can lead to injury or death.
The technique depends on the ability to strike precise locations along an appropriate
Hoi Jeon Moo Sool is a form of Korean martial arts that was developed by Myung Jae Ok (명재옥, born 1938) which uses circular motions in order to direct an opponent's power against them. Hoi Jeon Moo Sool means "the circular martial art." Hoi Jeon Moo Sool means "the revolving martial art." where (Hoi Jeon) means to revolve and (Moo Sool) means martial art, this "revolving art" aims to use the opponent's power against them.
Hoi Jeon Moo Sool is made of five categories:
Kyeok Ki is an attacking technique which contains attacking hand techniques, blocking hand techniques and kicking techniques.
Tu Ki, also Du Ki, is a self-defense technique which contains throwing techniques, choking techniques and locking techniques.
Mu Ki is a weapons technique which contains Jang Kum (long sword), Jung Kum (middle sword), Dan Kum (short sword), Jang Bong (long staff), Jung Bong (middle staff), Dan Bong (short staff), Bu Chae (fan), Pyo Chang (sharp nails), Ji Pang Ei (cane), Tee (belt), Ssang Jeol Bong (short sticks connected by a chain).
Hwal Ki is the "revival" technique which teaches all the body's pressure points, physiotherapy, muscular system, bone structure, and acupuncture.
Nae Ki is a
Eskrima, Arnis and (in the West) Kali are umbrella terms for the traditional martial arts of the Philippines that emphasize weapon-based fighting with sticks, knives and other bladed weapons, and various improvised weapons. It also includes hand-to-hand combat and weapon disarming techniques. For the purpose of convenience, the term Eskrima shall be used to refer to these interchangeable terms for the rest of the article.
For all intents and purposes, eskrima, arnis and kali all refer to the same family of Filipino weapon-based martial arts and fighting systems. In Luzon they may go by the name of arnis, arnis de mano, sinawali, pagkalikali, pananandata (use of weapons), didya, kabaroan (blade usage) and kaliradman. In the Visayas and Mindanao, these martial arts have been referred to as eskrima, kali and kalirongan. Kuntaw and silat are separate martial arts that have been practiced in the islands.
Both eskrima and arnis are loans from Spanish and ultimately from Old Frankish:
The name 'kali' is primarily used in the United States and Europe, and seldom in the Visayas, in some cases being an unknown word to eskrima practitioners. The term is used mostly in Mindanao, but due to the
In the Chinese martial arts, imagery of the Five Animals (Chinese: 五形; pinyin: wǔ xíng; literally "Five Forms")—Tiger, Crane, Leopard, Snake, and Dragon—appears predominantly in Southern styles, especially those associated with Guangdong and Fujian Provinces. An alternate selection which is also widely used is the crane, the tiger, the monkey, the snake, and the mantis.
The Five Animal martial arts supposedly originated from the Henan Shaolin Temple, which is north of the Yangtze River, even though imagery of these particular five animals as a distinct set (i.e. in the absence of other animals such as the horse or the monkey as in T'ai chi ch'uan or Xíngyìquán) is either rare in Northern Shaolin martial arts—and Northern Chinese martial arts in general—or recent (cf. wǔxíngbāfǎquán; 五形八法拳; "Five Form Eight Method Fist").
In Mandarin, "wǔxíng" is the pronunciation not only of "Five Animals," but also of "Five Elements," the core techniques of Xíngyìquán, which also features animal mimicry (but of 10 or 12 animals rather than 5) and, with its high narrow Sāntǐshì (三體勢) stance, looks nothing so much like a Fujianese Southern style stranded in the North.
Although the technique is
Gatka (Punjabi: ਗਤਕਾ gatkā) is a weapon-based Indian martial art associated with the Punjab region. Though typically identified with Panjabi Sikhs, it has also traditionally been practiced by other ethno-cultural groups in India and Pakistan. The word gatka properly refers to the wooden sticks which were used for sparring. It might have originated from the Sanskrit word for sword (khadga), or it may derive from the Persian khat. While it is primarily an armed fighting style, gatka also incorporates pehlwani as part of its empty-handed training component.
Gatka can be practiced either as a sport (khel) or ritual (rasmi). The modern sport originated in the later 19th century, out of sword practice in the British Indian Army during the 1880s. It is played by two opponents who spar with wooden staves intended to simulate swords. The sticks may be paired with a shield. In a stricter sense, gatka may refer specifically to this sport. The various other weapons are taught in the ritual aspect of the art. These are demonstrated in preset routines or performed as a sword dance during Sikh festivals. These older techniques should more properly be called shastar vidiyā (ਸ਼ਸਤਰ ਵਿਦਿਆ, from
Silat is a collective word for indigenous martial arts that originates from Indonesia, it is traditionally practiced in, Malaysia, southern Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam, Brunei and the Philippines.
There are hundreds of different styles but they tend to focus either on strikes, joint manipulation, throws, bladed weaponry, or some combination thereof. Silat is one of the sports included in the Southeast Asian Games and other region-wide competitions. Training halls are overseen by separate national organizations in each of the main countries the art is practiced. These are Ikatan Pencak Silat Indonesia (IPSI) from Indonesia, Persekutuan Silat Kebangsaan Malaysia (PESAKA) from Malaysia, Persekutuan Silat Brunei Darussalam (PERSIB) from Brunei and Persekutuan Silat Singapura (PERSISI) from Singapore.
The origin of the word silat is unknown. It likely comes from the Tamil word silambam, which has long been practiced by the Indian community of Malaysia. The Tamils also use the word silatguvarisai to define their silambam movement patterns. Other similar-sounding words have been proposed but none have been proven.
Originally silat was used as a generic term for any system of fighting in
Vajra Mushti (Sanskrit vajramuṣṭi वज्रमुश्टि) is a Sanskrit bahuvrihi compound translating to "one who is grasping a thunderbolt" or "one whose clenched fist is like a diamond". It is a name of Indra mentioned in the Ramayana epic.
In Tantric Buddhism Vajra Mushti is the name of a specific mudra (hand gesture). In Shingon Buddhism, it is also the name of a specific Bodhisattva mentioned in the Vajrasekhara Sutra.
Köräş, also Tatarça köräş (Татарча көрәш, pronounced [tʌˈtɑrɕɑ kɶˈræʃ]; Tatar Cyrillic and Bashkir: Көрәш(ү); Chuvash: Кěреш(ӳ)) - Tatar wrestling, is the Tatar style of wrestling, related to some Central Asian styles of wrestlings, such as kurash and Turkey's yağlı güreş.
The Tatar wrestling is the main competition at the Tatar folk festival Sabantuy . Wrestlers (köräşçe(lär)) use towels to hold their opponents, and their goal is to throw their opponents off the feet .
The first official All-USSR koresh championship took place in Kazan in 1928 and was followed by the first TASSR (Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) national championship in 1949. Since 1956, regular Tatar Köräş competitions have been organised in honor of the national hero and poet Musa Cälil. At the turn of 1950 and 1960, the Federation of freestyle wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling, and sambo started to develop Tatar Köräş. Sportsmen from the neighbour regions, such as Bashkiria, Mordovia, and Ulyanovsk City came to compete in Kazan for the first time in 1959. In 1960, the capital of Tatarstan was appointed host of the first RSFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) national koresh championship,
Combatives is the United States Army's term for hand-to-hand combat training and techniques.
Sometimes called Close Quarters Combat (CQC or close combat), World War II-era American combatives were largely codified by Britons William E. Fairbairn and Eric A. Sykes. Also known for their eponymous Fairbairn-Sykes Fighting Knife, Fairbairn and Sykes had worked in the British Armed Forces and helped teach the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP) quick, effective, and simple techniques for fighting with or without weapons in melee situations. Similar training was provided to British Commandos, the First Special Service Force, Office of Strategic Services, Army Rangers, and Marine Raiders. Fairbairn at one point called this system Defendu and published on it, as did their American colleague Rex Applegate. Fairbairn often referred to the technique as "gutter fighting," a term which Applegate used, along with "the Fairbairn system."
Other combatives systems having their origins in the modern military include Chinese Sanshou, Soviet Bojewoje (Combat) Sambo, and Israeli Kapap. The prevalence and style of combatives training often changes based on perceived need, and even in times of peace, special
Lau Gar (Traditional Chinese: 劉 家; pinyin: Liú Jiā; Yale Cantonese: Lau4 Ga1); is known as a southern Chinese martial art.
According to legend Lau Sam-Ngan learned martial arts from Jee Sin, a Chan (Zen) master at the Southern Shaolin Temple.
Jee Sin (ak Gee Sum Sim See) was also the teacher of Hung Hei Gun,Choy Gau Lee, Mok Da Si, Lau Sam-Ngan and Li Yao San. Together these five students later became the famous founders of five of the southern shaolin styles (Hung Ga, Choy Gar, Mok Gar, Li Gar and Lau Gar).
Lau Gar Kuen is derived from a form of boxing practiced at Kuei Ling Temple situated in Kong Sai Province in west China. It was learned from a monk on retreat from that temple by the master "Three Eyed Lau", a tiger hunter, whom we honour as founder of our style. The style subsequently became popular over a large part of South West China.
Towards the end of the 1800s Master Yau's Grandfather (Yau Luk Sau) conceived the desire to learn Kung Fu. At the age of 13 he left Kowloon and travelled to Kong Sai Province where he trained under the Master Tang Hoi Ching.
Nine years passed before he was given the right to teach independent of Master Tang. Master Yau's Grandfather
T'ai chi ch'uan or Taijiquan, often shortened to t'ai chi, taiji or tai chi in English usage, is a type of internal Chinese martial art practiced for both its defense training and its health benefits. It is also typically practiced for a variety of other personal reasons: its hard and soft martial art technique, demonstration competitions, and longevity. As a result, a multitude of training forms exist, both traditional and modern, which correspond to those aims. Some of t'ai chi ch'uan's training forms are especially known for being practiced at what most people categorize as slow movement.
Today, t'ai chi ch'uan has spread worldwide. Most modern styles of t'ai chi ch'uan trace their development to at least one of the five traditional schools: Chen, Yang, Wu (Hao), Wu, and Sun.
The term "t'ai chi ch'uan" translates as "supreme ultimate fist", "boundless fist", or "great extremes boxing". The chi in this instance is the Wade-Giles transliteration of the Pinyin jí, and is distinct from qì (ch'i, "life energy"). The concept of the taiji ("supreme ultimate"), in contrast with wuji ("without ultimate"), appears in both Taoist and Confucian Chinese philosophy, where it represents the
Kajukenbo is a hybrid martial art that combines Western Boxing, Judo, Jujutsu, Kenpo Karate, Eskrima, Tang Soo Do, and Kung Fu. It was founded in 1947 in Oahu, Hawaii, at the Palama Settlement. The original purpose of the art was to deal with local criminals. The founders were Sijo ("founder") Adriano Emperado, Peter Young Yil Choo, Joe Holck, Frank Ordonez, and George Chang (sometimes mistakenly referred to as Clarence Chang) who called themselves the Black Belt Society. The founders of Kajukenbo wanted to develop an art that would "make them invincible in the most difficult streets of Hawaii".
Kajukenbo uses hard, fast strikes to vital points throughout the body, take-downs involving high impact throws, and many joint and limb destruction techniques, usually as follow-ups to take-downs. There are also blocks from attacks, such as punches and defenses and disarmament of offensive weapons. The name works in two ways: "ka" ("long life"), "ju" ("happiness"), "ken" ("fist"), "bo" ("style") or "ka" ("karate"), "ju" ("judo"/"jujutsu"), "ken" ("kenpo"), "bo" (Boxing and/or Chinese Boxing Kung Fu), leading to the art's philosophical meaning: "Through this fist style, one gains long life
Qigong, chi kung, or chi gung (simplified Chinese: 气功; traditional Chinese: 氣功; pinyin: qìgōng; Wade–Giles: chi gong; literally "Life Energy Cultivation") is a practice of aligning breath, movement, and awareness for exercise, healing, and meditation. With roots in Chinese medicine, martial arts, and philosophy, qigong is traditionally viewed as a practice to cultivate and balance qi (chi) or what has been translated as "intrinsic life energy". Typically a qigong practice involves rhythmic breathing coordinated with slow stylized repetition of fluid movement, a calm mindful state, and visualization of guiding qi through the body. Qigong is now practiced throughout China and worldwide, and is considered by some to be exercise, and by others to be a type of alternative medicine or meditative practice. From a philosophical perspective qigong is believed to help develop human potential, allow access to higher realms of awareness, and awaken one's "true nature".
Qigong (Pinyin), ch'i kung (Wade-Giles), and chi gung (Yale) are English words for two Chinese characters: qì (氣) and gōng (功).
Qi (or chi) is usually translated as life energy, lifeforce, or energy flow, and definitions often
The movements of the Southern Dragon style (Chinese: 龍形摩橋; pinyin: lóng xíng mó qiáo; Yale Cantonese: long4 ying4 mo1 kiu4; literally "dragon shape rubbing bridges") of Shaolin Boxing are based on the mythical Chinese dragon. The Dragon style is an imitative-style that was developed based on the imagined characteristics of the mythical Chinese dragon.
The Dragon played an influential and beneficial role in Chinese culture. An amalgam of several creatures, including monitor lizards, pythons and the Chinese alligator, the polymorphic dragon was a water spirit, responsible for bringing the rains and thus ensuring the survival of crops. The dragon was symbolic guardian to the gods, and was the source of true wisdom. This latter feature most likely resulted from the observation of the living reptilian counterparts which, usually at rest, seem to be in a near constant state of contemplation.
The dragon represented two of the ancient elements, Earth and Water, endowing the creature with powers of illusion and strength. A Yang symbol, the Taoists saw the dragon as a personification of the Tao itself — "the Dragon reveals himself only to vanish." Shaolin Buddhists saw him as a vision of
Five Ancestors Fist is a Southern Chinese martial art that consists of techniques from five different styles:
Wuzuquan (Five Ancestor Kungfu) also known as Ngo Cho Kun is a southern Shaolin martial arts based on the techniques of five different styles such as: Baihe, Qitian, Taizu, Luohan and Dazun. There are several versions of Wuzuquan’s history, with some putting the founding of the art around 1300 AD, while other put it as late as the 19th century.
The combination of these five styles and their characteristic techniques were during the creation of the Five Ancestor System, consolidated by a sixth influence; Xuan Nu also known as Hian Loo(玄女拳). 'The Lady in the Green Dress,' who introduced the most deadly of its techniques Dim Mak lethal strikes to the pressure points of the body.
Five Ancestors has been attributed variously to Chua Giok Beng (蔡玉明 -or- 蔡玉鳴) (pinyin: Cài Yùmíng) of Jinjiang near Quanzhou in Fujian in the second half of the 19th century or to Bái Yùfeng., a famous 13th century Shaolin monk of the original Henan Shaolin Temple in the North of China to whom Five Animals style and Hóngquán (洪拳) have also been attributed. The Cai (Chua) branch also calls themselves He
Luohan quan (Chinese: 羅漢拳; pinyin: lúohànquan), also known as rakan ken (羅漢拳) in Japanese, literally means "Arhat boxing". The traditional story of its creation states that Bodhidharma, while visiting the Shaolin Temple taught the monks a series of exercises. By observing and imitating the forms and expressions of each Arhat Statue in the temple, meditation and practice, the exercises evolved into a form called "eighteen hand movements of Arhat", which consisted of eighteen combat skills and techniques. Through this, 24 new movements were then created for advancing and retreating during combat.
Arhat Boxing or Luohan Quan has in total 108 different movements; from six different forms of fist movements, two forms of palm movements, four forms of locking and grappling. Each movement in the art of Arhat Boxing are simple and straight. Each movement represents the simplicity and beauty of the expressions of the Arhat Statues. Each powerful attack is hidden through the movements of Arhat forms.
In today's usage, Luohan Quan has expanded into many various forms. One of those forms is called Xi Nu Luohan Quan which literally means Angry Happy Luohan Quan.
Here's a quote from Xi Nu Luohan
Okichitaw is a martial art based on the fighting techniques of the Plains Cree First Nations. It was founded and developed by Canadian martial artist, George J. Lépine.
In his youth, founder George J. Lépine learned traditional wrestling, tomahawk throwing and hand-to-hand combat techniques (miche che kiske). He also trained in judo, taekwondo and hapkido.
In the early 1990s, Lépine began to organize and codify these techniques and methods, resulting in the system as it is practised today. The main Okichitaw training lodge (mistiko kamik) is located at the martial arts school of the Native Canadian Centre of Toronto and the art is disseminated through classes, workshops and demonstrations.
The scarcity of original reference materials casts doubt upon any attempt to reconstruct indigenous systems; since the latter half of the 20th century, there has been an emerging acceptance of oral traditions as sources of historical record.
Elder Vern Harper, has been involved with Okichitaw from its early stages, advising and encouraging Lépine in its development. Elder Harper officiates at Okichitaw ceremonies and promotions tests.
Lépine presented Okichitaw at the Chungju World Martial Arts
Tegumi (手組) or Mutõ (武当) is a traditional form of wrestling from Okinawa.
According to Shōshin Nagamine, in his "Tales of Okinawa's Great Masters", there are no accurate historical documents surrounding the origins of grappling in Okinawa. Like most other forms of wrestling it seems that tegumi evolved from a primitive form of grappling self-defense, which was constantly being adapted and enhanced as it was exposed to outside influences.
It is believed by some, Shōshin Nagamine-sensei included, that tegumi was probably the original form of fighting in Okinawa and, as it was enhanced by striking and kicking techniques imported from China, became the progenitor of Te, which is the foundation of modern karate.
Known as tegumi in Naha, and mutō in Tomari and Shuri, Okinawan wrestling remained a popular cultural recreation until the Taishō period (1912 – 1925). There is little evidence of how tegumi evolved but the result was a rough and tumble bout where the winner was decided by submission, through joint locks, strangles or pinning. Today, tegumi has a strict set of rules and is still practiced widely.
Okinawan folklore is full of references to tegumi and it is believed that the
Yoseikan Budo (養正館武道) may be classified as a sogo budo form (総合武道 (そうごうぶどう) lit. "composite" or "comprehensive" martial art), but is used here to indicate a martial art into which various martial ways have been integrated. It is probably most widely known for its connection to a pre-war style of aikido; however, it has important connections to judo, karate, western boxing and a traditional form of Japanese armed combat known as Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-ryu.
The name of the art yo-sei-kan is derived from three Japanese characters, yo meaning 'teaching', sei meaning "truth", kan meaning "place", which may be translated roughly into English as "the place where the truth is taught" or alternately "place for practising what is right". The intent of the name was not to assert an exclusive possession of the truth regarding the martial arts but rather to describe how the comprehensive nature of the yoseikan training environment allows an individual to discover their own sense of "truth" by studying a wide range of differing martial techniques, philosophies and principles.
Yoseikan Budo originated in 1931 as the style created by its founder Minoru Mochizuki (1907–2003), a high ranking
Zui Quan (Traditional and Simplified Chinese: 醉拳; pinyin: Zuì Quán) is literally Drunken Fist, also known as Drunken Boxing or Drunkard's Boxing) is a concept in traditional Chinese martial arts, as well as a classification of modern Wushu forms. Zui Quan is sometimes called Zuijiuquan (Chinese: 醉酒拳; pinyin: zuìjiǔquán, literally "Drunken Alcohol Fist").
Zui Quan is a category of techniques, forms and fighting philosophy that appear to imitate a drunkard's movements. The postures are created by momentum and weight of the body, and imitation is generally through staggering and certain type of fluidity in the movements. It is considered to be among the most difficult wushu styles to learn due to the need for powerful joints and fingers. While in fiction practitioners of Zui Quan are often portrayed as being actually intoxicated, Zui Quan techniques are highly acrobatic and skilled and require a great degree of balance and coordination, such that any person attempting to perform any Zui Quan techniques while intoxicated would be likely to injure themselves.
Even though the style seems irregular and off balance it takes the utmost balance to be successful. To excel one must be relaxed
Bình Định ( listen) is a province of Vietnam. It is located in Vietnam's South Central Coast region.
Binh Dinh is divided into one city (Qui Nhơn) and 10 districts:
Binh Dinh was probably one of the places where the Cham first arrived in what is now Vietnam. Its favourable geography led to the rise of the Cham Port of Thi Nai where Quy Nhon is now located. The city-state of Vijaya was located around this port and the main city, which was further inland. Its centre was in the southern lowland of Binh Dinh. However, its architecture implies that it did not become important until the eleventh or twelfth century.
Vijaya’s architecture also distinguishes it from other Champa centers, since it used a combination of stone and brick elements, while most other Cham structures only used bricks. This suggests some influence from Cambodian Angkor. It also points to the relative abundance of labour in Vijaya compared to other Champa centers of powers, because processing stones for construction was more labour-intensive than the production of bricks.
Vijaya was involved various wars with neighbouring countries. Major wars were fought with Angkor (now Cambodia) in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Tán Tuǐ (Chinese: 彈腿) is a famous Northern wushu routine and has several versions due to its incorporation into various styles. For this reason the name can be translated to mean "spring" or "springing leg" (the most popular) or "pond" or "lake leg".
Styles that incorporate Tán Tuǐ include Northern Praying Mantis, Chángquán, and Northern Shaolin as well as many other minor styles and systems.
Tán Tuǐ is composed of a series of forms, which emphasize blocking, stances, footwork, and most of all, kicks. Tán Tuǐ exists as a style on its own, but is commonly used as a basic form for styles like Chāquán.
Today Tán Tuǐ forms the basis for the Bei Chang Quan/Northern Long Fist systems. It is taught to improve fighting skills, balance, strength, flexibility, and focus, and contains the basic skills required in advanced forms. A common saying among Chinese martial artists is "If your Tán Tuǐ is good, your kung fu will be good."
Tán Tuǐ is deeply rooted in China's Hui Muslim community. One such reference to the Islamic influence is the posture of holding one punch out in front of body as a punch is thrown to the rear with the other hand. The body is turned sideways so that both the front and
Isidro Peneda Javier (May 5, 1912) is a Pioneering Filipino Martial Artist Instructor and Author. Javier as a young man living in Tagudin, Philippines, brought with him his family art of Escrima as he migrated to Hawaii then California were he will make his home for the next 79 years. Javier brought with him the family art of Escrima, and the skills of the Bolo. Javier served in the US Navy fighting heroically in World War2. Mr. Javier holds the title, of Honorable Grand Master, and is referred to as "Manong Sonny Javier - Godfather" of the Filipino community.
Meihua Quan (Chinese: 梅花拳; literally "Plum Flower Fist") is a very common name in kung fu:
There are many Meihuaquan that have same origins: Ganzhi Wushi Meihuazhuang, Baijiazhi Meihuaquan, Luodi Meihuaquan, Wuzi Meihuaquan, Leijia Meihuaquan, etc. About the foundation of this style there are different tradition and there are a said that Meihuaquan has no single founder.
Ganzhi wushi meihuazhuang 干支五式梅花桩 (can are translate Plum Blossom Piles of stems and branches) is a branch of Meihuaquan, that can are shorten in Meihuazhuang (Plum Blossom Piles). Ganzhi is a contraction of Tiangan Dizhi, then the name can are Tiangan Dizhi Wushi Meihuazhuang. Starting to the eighth generation master Zhang Congfu create a new kind of practise and the new way toke the name Xiaojia (Little Frame) in opposition to old manners that became known as Dajia (Big Frame). Meihuazhuang are divided into two sections: Wenchang (Civil Field) that work about theory; Wuchang (Martial Field) that work about martial tecnics, like Jiazi (frame), Shoutao (sparring exercise that train combat skills), Chengquan (combat choreography), Yingquan (combat), Gongquan, Ningquan (moving in war). Jiazi is characterized by five
Battōjutsu (抜刀術, battō-jutsu, art of sword drawing) is a Japanese term meaning techniques for engaging a sword. It is often used interchangeably with the terms iaijutsu, battōdō, or iaidō, although each term does have nuances in the Japanese language and different schools of Japanese martial arts may use them to differentiate between techniques (e.g. standing or sitting techniques). The emphasis of training in battō-jutsu is on cutting with the sword. All terms are somewhat more specific than kenjutsu (sword techniques) or kendō (the Way of the sword), as the latter two refer mostly to techniques where the sword is already out of its scabbard (saya) and is therefore engaged in combat.
Battō-jutsu usually incorporates multiple cuts after drawing the sword. The emphasis of training in iaidō is on reaction to unknown situations, or reacting to sudden attack.
It is unclear when the term battō-jutsu first originated. A notable early practitioner was Hayashizaki Jinsuke (c.1546–c.1621), the founder of the Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū and Musō Shinden-ryū schools. His remains are enshrined at Hayashizaki Jinja in the Tōhoku region of Japan.
Ryūha, or Japanese martial traditions, which teach
Freestyle Fighting is a synthesis of various styles of martial arts such that the practitioner is free from only one style and able to use whatever is necessary to defeat the opponent. It varies from practitioner to practitioner in both technique and effectiveness, and has become very popular in today's mixed martial arts or vale tudo fighting competitions.
Freestyle fighting does not mean the fighter is entirely void of style. It is instead a combination of any technique, style, or concept/philosophy. The term freestyle is generic and can be used by anyone at any time. The name is thought to mean the same as mixed martial arts, which refers to the combat sport. Freestyle fighting can refer to using anything possible, including things that are not allowed in competitions like biting and eye gouging unlike "mixed martial arts."
The name "freestyle fighter" may be used by anyone who chooses to use it. A Karateka may use freestyle fighting if he prefers because it is a generally open term though usually when someone is a freestylist, they emphasize independently observing techniques to learn how they are used. In Puerto Rico, freestyle Goju-ryu is commonly practiced by Goju-ryu
Jailhouse rock or JHR is a name which is used to describe a collection of different fighting styles that have been practiced and/or developed within US penal institutions. The different regional “styles” of JHR vary but share a common emphasis on improvisation governed by a specific set of underlying principles.
Some examples of the many styles of JHR are 52 Hand Blocks, Brick City Rock, Comstock Style, Stato. Many of these styles of JHR are thought to have evolved regionally in different penal institutions.
Jailhouse Rock if it exists is in fact one of two of the USA's only "Native Martial Arts", the other being called Rough and Tumble. As such, Jailhouse Rock, the 52 Hand Blocks and their variants may be compared to savate, which was originally a semi-codified fighting method associated with an urban criminal subculture, which underwent a gradual process of codification before becoming established as a martial art accessible by the cultural mainstream.
52 blocks has been referenced in journalist Douglas Century's Street Kingdom: Five Years Inside the Franklin Avenue Posse, as well as numerous Wu Tang Clan songs and Ted Conover's book Newjack.
The existence of this martial art has
Modern Arnis is the system of Filipino martial arts founded by the late Remy Presas as a self-defense system. His goal was to create an injury-free training method as well as an effective self-defense system in order to preserve the older Arnis systems. The term Modern Arnis was used by Remy Presas' younger brother Ernesto Presas to describe his style of Filipino martial arts; since 1999 Ernesto Presas has called his system Kombatan. It is derived principally from the traditional Presas family style of the Bolo (machete) and the stick-dueling art of Balintawak Eskrima, with influences from other Filipino and Japanese martial arts.
Arnis is the Philippines' national martial art and sport, after President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed the Republic Act. No. 9850 in 2009. The Act mandates the Department of Education to include the sport as a Physical Education course. Arnis will be included among the priority sports in Palarong Pambansa (National Games) beginning 2010.
One of the characteristics of Filipino martial arts is the use of weapons from the very beginning of training and Modern Arnis is no exception. The primary weapon is the rattan stick, called a cane or baston (baton),
Dog Kung Fu, i.e. Góuquán (狗拳), i.e. Dishuquan (地术拳), is a martial arts style from China. This is a southern style of Chinese boxing that specializes in takedowns and ground fighting. This martial art also teaches Iron Shirt and Iron Palm fighting methods as well as specialized leaping techniques. Its creation is traditionally credited to a Buddhist nun who developed the style to defend herself from bandits on her travels.
One of the legends on the origins of Dog Kung Fu says that in the southern area of China in Fujian Province, resided the White Lotus(白蓮) temple, where often the nuns who were admitted previously lived secular lives. At that time women were often subjugated to the practice of footbinding. Therefore, any practice that required standing physical exertion was difficult in the least and practically impossible at worst. In response to these physical constraints, the nuns developed a system of fighting that they could use to defend themselves from bandits and wild animals. During the Qing Dynasty imperial regime's destruction of the temples, a nun by the name of Si Yue had left White Lotus Temple and traveled to the northern areas of the province. Supposedly she had
Shotokan (松濤館流, Shōtōkan-ryū) is a style of karate, developed from various martial arts by Gichin Funakoshi (1868–1957) and his son Gigo (Yoshitaka) Funakoshi (1906–1945). Gichin was born in Okinawa and is widely credited with popularizing karate through a series of public demonstrations, and by promoting the development of university karate clubs, including those at Keio, Waseda, Hitotsubashi (Shodai), Takushoku, Chuo, Gakushuin, and Hosei.
Funakoshi had many students at the university clubs and outside dojos, who continued to teach karate after his death in 1957. However, internal disagreements (in particular the notion that competition is contrary to the essence of karate) led to the creation of different organizations—including an initial split between the Japan Karate Association (headed by Masatoshi Nakayama) and the Shotokai (headed by Motonobu Hironishi and Shigeru Egami), followed by many others—so that today there is no single "Shotokan school", although they all bear Funakoshi's influence. Being one of the first and biggest styles, Shotokan is considered a traditional and influential form of karate.
Shotokan was the name of the first official dojo built by Funakoshi, in
Marma Atti (Malayalam ബുത് മര്മ അദി) is an Indian martial art, which emphasizes exhausting and discouraging an attacker psychologically as well as exhausting him physically.
Marma Atti is a refined form of a rudimentary self defence system taught widely in rural south India, enabling a common person to defend him or her self in case of an attack while keeping his or her physical limitations under consideration. It is a limited set of physical self defence and behavioural patterns, emphasising on calm rather than fear in case of attacks.
The movement style consists of fighting using evasive movements, reversals and soft striking. The practitioners of But Marma Atti are also taught to be of unimpeachable character, and to have the moral high ground and inner strength to both evade and psychologically exhaust their opponents.
The psychological aspect of this martial art involves reasoning with the attacker after repeatedly foiling the incoming attacks (the art teaches to successfully evade punches, kicks, knives, sticks and other weapons, frustrating and humiliating the attacker in process) and trying to reason with the attacker while successively foiling his attack attempts and
Dakentaijutsu (Japanese: 打拳体術) refers to the striking component of several Japanese martial arts including the Shinden Fudo Ryu dakentaijutsu taught in the Bujinkan martial arts organization. More generally, the word dakentaijutsu could be used with similar meaning as the word Karate.
In the Bujinkan dakentaijutsu relies on the techniques of the koppojutsu (bone breaking) and koshijutsu (pressure point and muscle/joint tears and dislocations) disciplines. Bujinkan dakentaijutsu applies koppojutsu and koshijutsu techniques by means of hard strikes. This is not complete in koshijutsu you will not strike harder than necessary and the principle of koppojutsu is that you attack the bones of your enemies with your one bone so koppojutsu means more than just breaking bones. Dakentai refereers in Bujinkan to shindenfudo ryu, kukishinden ryu (which means more yoroi kumijutsu) so in a way dakentai jutsu is a principle on its own.
Shinden Fudo Ryu dakentaijutsu is a school of the Bujinkan (and also be studied by other federations)
Glossary of Japanese Martial Arts terms. Contains more than 200 entries.
Hatsumi, Masaaki. (1981) Ninjutsu: History and Tradition. Burbank, CA: Unique Publications.
Kabaddi (sometimes transliterated Kabbadi or Kabadi; Punjabi: ਕਬੱਡੀ, Marathi: कबड्डी, Hindi: कबड्डी, Bengali: কাবাডি,Urdu: کبڈی, Persian: کودّی، کبدی, Kannada: ಕಬಡಿ , Tamil: சடுகுடு, கபடி, Telugu: కబడ్దీ, Malayalam: കബഡി) is a South Asian team sport. The name may be derived from the Tamil word (கை-பிடி) "kai" (hand), "pidi" (catch), which could be translated into "Holding Hands".
Two teams occupy opposite halves of a small swimming pool / field and take turns sending a "raider" into the other half, in order to win points by tackling members of the opposing team; then the raider tries to return to his own half, holding his breath and chanting the word "Kabaddi" during the whole raid. The raider must not cross the lobby unless he touches any of his opponents. If he does so then he will be declared as "out". There is also a bonus line which ensure extra points for the raider if he manages to touch it and return to his side of the field successfully.
In the international team version of kabaddi, two teams of seven members each occupy opposite halves of a field of 10 m × 13 m in case of men and 8 m × 12 m in case of women. Each has three supplementary players held in reserve. The game
Khmer traditional wrestling (Bok Cham Babចំបាប់) is a folk wrestling style from Cambodia. It has been practiced as far back as the Angkor period and is depicted on the bas-reliefs of certain temples. Although predominantly a male sport today, Khmer wrestling was once practiced by both sexes as female wrestlers are also displayed on the Banteay Srei temple. In Khmer wrestling, the dancing is as important as the wrestling. There is a pre-match ritual dancing before the match in which the wrestlers dance and move to the music. Matches consists of three rounds. Victory is obtained by forcing the opponent on their back. The person who is able to win two of the three rounds is the winner of the match. After each round the loser is asked if he wishes to continue with the match. The match is accompanied by the music of two drums (called skor ngey and chhmol which means female drum and male drum). Traditional matches are held during the Khmer New Year and other Cambodian on holidays. This sport used to be a means of choosing tribal and regional leaders. In the olden times, elders taught the young in their village on the full moon night after harvesting. It would take place on a rice paddy
Okinawan kobudō (沖縄古武道), refers to the classical weapon systems of Okinawan martial arts.
Okinawan kobudō is also known as Ryūkyū Kobujutsu (琉球古武術).
Okinawan kobudō is a Japanese term that can be translated as "old martial way of Okinawa". It is a generic term coined in the twentieth century.
Okinawan kobudō refers to the weapon systems of Okinawan martial arts, included the rokushakubo (six foot staff, known as the "bō"), sai (dagger-shaped truncheon), tonfa (handled club), kama (sickle), and nunchaku (chained sticks), but also the tekko (knuckledusters), tinbe-rochin (shield and spear), and surujin (weighted chain). Less common Okinawan weapons include the tambo (short stick), the hanbō (middle length staff) and the eku (boat oar of traditional Okinawan design).
Okinawan kobudō may not be confused with the term Kobudō, which is described in the article Koryū, because the term Kobudō refers not to a weapon system but refers to a concept of moral from the feudal Japan.
It is a popular story and common belief that Okinawan farming tools evolved into weapons due to restrictions placed upon the peasants by the Satsuma samurai clan when the island was made a part of Japan, which
Shintaido (新体道, a Japanese word translated as ‘New Body Way’) is a system of movement which aims to use the body as a means of expression and communication. Incorporating both physical and artistic elements, it was created in Japan in the 1960s. Its roots lay in the traditional Japanese martial arts, Chinese medicine and Buddhist meditation techniques, while its creator Hiroyuki Aoki was also influenced by modern Western art and Christianity.
As well as being a practical martial art Shintaido aims to be a form of artistic expression, a healthy exercise, and a path of self-discovery and transformation.
Shintaido is practised with bare hands, but the curriculum also includes bojutsu (棒術), involving the use of the long staff (or bō, 棒), and kenjutsu (剣術), using a wooden sword (or bokuto, 木刀).
The roots of Shintaido lie in karate(空手, empty hand), which had been brought to Tokyo from Okinawa by Gichin Funakoshi in 1922. One of his students, Shigeru Egami introduced modifications designed to incorporate the values of traditional Japanese martial arts into karate. Aoki, a student of Egami, reached the highest grade of his federation in just four years in the early 1960s. Egami asked him
Bāguàzhǎng is one of the three main Chinese martial arts of the Wudang school, the other two being Taijiquan and Xingyiquan. It is more broadly grouped as an internal practice (or neijia gong). Bāguà zhǎng literally means "eight trigram palm," referring to the trigrams of the Yijing (I Ching), one of the canons of Taoism.
The creation of Baguazhang, as a formalised martial art, is attributed to Dong Haichuan (董海川), who is said to have learned from Taoist (and possibly Buddhist) masters in the mountains of rural China during the early 19th century. There is evidence to suggest a synthesis of several pre-existing martial arts taught and practised in the region in which Dong Haichuan lived, combined with Taoist circle walking. Because of his work as a servant in the Imperial Palace he impressed the emperor with his graceful movements and fighting skill, and became an instructor and a bodyguard to the court. Dong Haichuan taught for many years in Beijing, eventually earning patronage by the Imperial court.
Famous disciples of Dong to become teachers were Yin Fu (尹福), Cheng Tinghua (程廷華), Ma Gui (马贵), Song Changrong (宋長榮), Liu Fengchun (劉鳳春), Ma Weiqi (馬維棋), Liu Baozhen(劉寶珍), Liang
Sarit Sarak (Bengali: সরিত সরকার) is an Indian martial art from the state of Manipur. It is used to defend against armed or unarmed opponents, but on many occasions it is combined with thang-ta. It was taught for self-defence a few generations back but today it is relatively unknown outside Manipur.
Bōjutsu (棒術), translated from Japanese as "staff technique", is the martial art of using a staff weapon called bō which simply means "staff". Staffs have been in use for thousands of years in East Asia. Some techniques involve slashing, swinging, and stabbing with the staff. Others involve using the staff as a pole vault or prop for hand to hand strikes.
Today bōjutsu is usually associated either with Okinawan kobudō or with Japanese koryū budō. Japanese bōjutsu is one of the core elements of classical martial training.
Thrusting, swinging, and striking techniques often resemble empty-hand movements, following the philosophy that the bō is merely an "extension of one’s limbs". Consequently, bōjutsu is often incorporated into other styles of empty hand fighting, or karate.
In the Okinawan context, the weapon is frequently referred to as the kon.
Catch wrestling is a style of folk wrestling that was developed and popularised in the late 19th century by the wrestlers of traveling carnivals who incorporated submission holds, or "hooks", into their wrestling to increase their effectiveness against their opponents. Catch wrestling derives from a number of different styles, the English style of Lancashire wrestling, Irish collar-and-elbow, Greco Roman wrestling, styles of the Indian subcontinent such as Pehlwani and Iranian styles such as Varzesh-e Pahlavani. The training of some modern submission wrestlers, professional wrestlers and mixed martial arts fighters is founded in Catch Wrestling.
Lancashire Wrestling first came to prominence as an amateur sport practiced by coal miners and others in Lancashire, England, with a particular center of popularity in the town of Wigan. Catch wrestling was most popular with the carnivals in the United States during the late 19th and early 20th century. The carnival's wrestlers challenged the locals as part of the carnival's "athletic show" and the locals had their chance to win a cash reward if they could defeat the carnival's strongman by a pin or a submission. Eventually, the carnival's
Enshin kaikan (円心会館) is a style of "full contact karate", or Knockdown karate, founded in 1988 with dojo and students in various countries around the world. The core emphasis in Enshin is use of the Sabaki Method, a system of techniques employed with the goal of turning an opponent's power and momentum against him or her and repositioning oneself to the opponent's "blind" spot to counterattack from a more advantageous position. Although Enshin is a "stand-up fighting" style that includes kicks, strikes, and punches found in most other styles of karate, it also utilizes numerous grabs, sweeps, and throws often associated with Judo or other grappling styles of martial arts.
Enshin was founded by Kancho (Grandmaster) Jōkō Ninomiya who directs the Enshin organization from the honbu in Denver, Colorado. The organization is noted for its annual tournament, the Sabaki Challenge, a full-contact, no pads/no gloves, knockdown karate rules competition held annually in Denver and open to advanced martial artists from any style or school.
Enshin is derived from two Japanese words or kanji: "en," meaning "open or unfinished circle," and, "shin," meaning "heart" or "inner." "En" relates to the
Jōdō (杖道:じょうどう), meaning "the way of the jō", or jōjutsu (杖術:じょうじゅつ) is a Japanese martial art using a short staff called jō. The art is similar to bōjutsu, and is strongly focused upon defense against the Japanese sword. The jō is a short staff, usually about 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) long. The martial art of jōdō was the province of professional warriors, so it was usually not used by travelers to ward off aggressive bandits or swordsmen, as one might expect.
Shintō Musō-ryū jōjutsu (sometimes known as Shinto Muso-ryu jōdo - "Shindo" is also a valid pronunciation for the leading character), is reputed to have been invented by the great swordsman Musō Gonnosuke Katsuyoshi (夢想 權之助 勝吉, fl. c.1605, date of death unknown) about 400 years ago, after a bout won by the famous Miyamoto Musashi (宮本 武蔵, 1584–1645). According to this tradition, Gonnosuke challenged Musashi using a bō, or long staff, a weapon he was said to wield with great skill. Although there are no records of the duel outside of the oral tradition of the Shintō Musō-ryū, it is believed that Musashi caught Gonnosuke's bō in a two sword "X" block (jūji-dome). Once in this position, Gonnosuke could not move in such a way as
Kalaripayattu ([kaɭəɾipːajətːɨ̆]) is an Indian martial art from the southern state of Kerala. One of the oldest fighting systems in existence, it is practiced in Kerala and contiguous parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka as well as northeastern Sri Lanka and among the Malayali community of Malaysia. It was practiced primarily by groups among Keralite castes such as the Nairs and Ezhavas, and was taught by a special caste named Kalari Panicker
Kalari payat includes strikes, kicks, grappling, preset forms, weaponry and healing methods. Regional variants are classified according to geographical position in Kerala; these are the northern style of the Malayalis, the southern style of the Tamils and the central style from inner Kerala. The northern style was practiced primarily by the Nairs, the martial caste of Kerala, and Ezhavas, as well as some Mappilas and Saint Thomas Christians. The southern style, called adi murai, was practiced largely by the Nadars and has features distinguishing it from its other regional counterparts. Northern kalari payat is based on the principle of hard technique, while the southern style primarily follows the soft techniques, even though both systems make
KAPAP (Hebrew: קפא"פ, קפ"פ) is an acronym for Krav Panim el Panim, translated as "face to face combat", is a close quarter battle system of defensive tactics, hand-to-hand combat and self defense.
The KAPAP system was developed in the late 1930s, within the Jewish Aliyah camps (ma-ḥa-not Olim) as part of preparatory training before their arrival in the British Mandate of Palestine. The Palmach and Haganah used KAPAP as an ongoing combat development program for their recruits.
It was primarily considered a practical skill set that was acquired during the training period of the Palmach and Haganah fighters. The main focus was to upgrade the physical endurance, elevate and strengthen the spirit, developing a defensive and offensive skill set. It included physical training and endurance, cold weapon practical usage, boxing, judo, jujutsu, karate and knife and stick fighting.
In the early 1950s the term KAPAP was used interchangeably with the term Krav Maga as elements of the syllabus altered. By the time the 1960s came, the term was used only within certain units who needed more than basic training in Krav Maga such as Unit 216, Sayeret Matkal (Ariel Sharon also served in this unit).
Shindō Yōshin-ryū (新道楊心流), meaning "New Willow School" is a traditional school (koryū) of Japanese martial arts, teaching primarily the art of jūjutsu. The first kanji of the name originally translated into "新=New", but in the mainline branch the kanji for "new" was eventually changed into the homophonic "神=sacred". The name of the school may also be transliterated as Shintō Yōshin-ryū, but the koryu tradition should not be confused with the modern school of Shintōyōshin-ryū which is unconnected.
The Shindō Yōshin-ryū tradition was founded late in the Edo period by a Kuroda clan retainer named Katsunosuke Matsuoka (1836–1898) Katsunosuke was born in Edo-Hantei, the Edo headquarters of the Kuroda clan in 1836. Katsunosuke opened his first dōjō in 1858 in the Asakusa district of Edo where he taught Tenjin Shinyō-ryū jūjutsu. Over the years Katsunosuke became convinced that the contemporary jūjutsu systems of the late Edo period had lost much of their military usefulness, evolving into systems driven more by individual challenge matches than effective military engagement. For this reason in 1864 he decided to combine his expertise in kenjutsu and jūjutsu by formulating a new system of
The Bâton français (French for "French staff") also known as French stick fighting, is a European historical fencing discipline which uses a staff about 1.2 m long (4 ft). The techniques have much in common with longsword and quarterstaff.
The origins of this system are lost in antiquity but probably share a common root with other European stick fighting systems such as quarterstaff, German Stockfechten, Portuguese Jogo do Pau, etc.
The Bâton was systematized in France during the 19th century and is still part of a set of skills associated with the modern French martial art of boxe française (savate).
Chāquán (Chinese: 查拳; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhāquán) is a Chinese martial art that features graceful movements and some acrobatic aerial maneuvers. Chāquán also includes a large range of weapons.
Chāquán falls under the classification Chángquán (literally "long fist"), a general term for external Northern Chinese martial arts, which are known for their extended, long movements.
Chāquán is associated with the Hui people. One famous master of Chaquan was the famous Wang Zi-Ping (Chinese: 王子平), who was known for his great strength. Other famous modern day masters include Zhang Wenguang, Ma Jinbiao, and Liu Hongchi.
Chāquán is one of the sources of the contemporary wǔshù Chángquán often seen in movies and tournaments. Chaquan is a system that has 6 main weapons(staff, saber, sword, spear, kwandao, hookswords).It emphasizes long range movements and stances combined with speed and power. The style includes many forms, including 10 lines of tantui for basic power training, 10 longer sets of chaquan, and other forms as well.
Chinese martial arts, also referred to by the Mandarin Chinese term wushu (simplified Chinese: 武术; traditional Chinese: 武術; pinyin: wǔshù) and popularly as kung fu or gung fu (Chinese: 功夫; pinyin: gōngfu), are a number of fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China. These fighting styles are often classified according to common traits, identified as "families" (家, jiā), "sects" (派, pài) or "schools" (門, mén) of martial arts. Examples of such traits include physical exercises involving animal mimicry, or training methods inspired by Chinese philosophies, religions and legends. Styles which focus on qi manipulation are labeled as internal (内家拳, nèijiāquán), while others concentrate on improving muscle and cardiovascular fitness and are labeled external (外家拳, wàijiāquán). Geographical association, as in northern (北拳, běiquán) and southern (南拳, nánquán), is another popular method of categorization.
Kung-fu and wushu are terms that have been borrowed into English to refer to Chinese martial arts. However, the Chinese terms kung fu and wushu listen (Mandarin) (help·info); Cantonese: móuh-seuht) have distinct meanings; the Chinese literal equivalent of "Chinese
Edmund Kealoha "Ed" Parker (March 19, 1931 – December 15, 1990) was an American martial artist, promoter, teacher, and author.
Parker was born in Hawaii, and raised a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He began his training in the martial arts at a young age in judo and later boxing. Sometime in the 1940s, Ed Parker was first introduced to Kenpō by Frank Chow. Frank Chow introduced Ed Parker to William Chow, a student of James Mitose who trained Parker while serving in the Coast Guard and attending Brigham Young University. In 1953 he was promoted to the rank of black belt. Parker, seeing that modern times posed new situations that were not addressed in Kenpo, adapted the art to make it more easily applicable to the streets of America and called his style, American Kenpo Karate.
Parker opened the first "Americanized" karate school in the western United States in Provo, Utah in 1954. By 1956, Parker opened a Dojo in Pasadena, California. His first brown belt student was Charles Beeder. There is controversy over whether Beeder received the first black belt awarded by Parker. Beeder's son has stated for the record that his father's black belt came after Ed
Jujutsu (English pronunciation: /dʒuˈdʒʌtsu/; Japanese: 柔術, jūjutsu listen (help·info), Japanese pronunciation: [ˈdʑɯɯ.dʑɯ.tsɯ]) is a Japanese martial art and a method of close combat for defeating an armed and armored opponent in which one uses no weapon or only a short weapon. The word jujutsu is often spelled as jujitsu, ju-jitsu, jiu-jutsu or jiu-jitsu.
"Jū" can be translated to mean "gentle, supple, flexible, pliable, or yielding." "Jutsu" can be translated to mean "art" or "technique" and represents manipulating the opponent's force against himself rather than confronting it with one's own force. Jujutsu developed among the samurai of feudal Japan as a method for defeating an armed and armored opponent in which one uses no weapon, or only a short weapon. Because striking against an armored opponent proved ineffective, practitioners learned that the most efficient methods for neutralizing an enemy took the form of pins, joint locks, and throws. These techniques were developed around the principle of using an attacker's energy against him, rather than directly opposing it.
There are many variations of the art, which leads to a diversity of approaches. Jujutsu schools (ryū) may
Lethwei (Burmese: လက်ဝှေ့, pronounced: [leʔ w̥ḛ]) is an unarmed Burmese martial art. It is similar to related styles of Indochinese kickboxing, namely Muay Thai from Thailand, pradal serey from Cambodia, Muay Lao from Laos and tomoi from Malaysia.
Lethwei was based on a combination of boxing arts from India and China.During the age of kingdom,matches were held for entertainment and were popular with every strata of society. Participation was opened to any male, whether king,warriors or public.At that time,matches took place in sandpits instead of rings. Boxers fought without protective equipment, only wrapping their hands in hemp or gauze. There were no draws and no point system, the fight went on until one of the participants was knocked out or could no longer continue.
Kyar Ba Nyein, who participated in boxing at the 1952 Summer Olympics, pioneered modern lethwei by setting in place modern rules and regulations. He travelled around Myanmar, especially the Mon and Karen states where a lot of villagers were still actively practicing lethwei. Kyar Ba Nyein brought them back to Mandalay and Rangoon and, after training with them, encouraged them to compete in the matches he
Ling Lom means "air monkey" in the Lao language and is a martial art practiced in Laos. Ling Lom is a form of Muay Lao, but includes both striking and ground-fighting.
A similar style to Ling Lom of Laos is Muay Lopburi of Thailand.
Shaolin Kung Fu refers to a collection of Chinese martial arts that claim affiliation with the Shaolin Monastery.
Of the multitude styles of kung fu and wushu, only some are actually related to Shaolin. After the loss of records during the 20th Century Cultural Revolution it would be almost impossible for a particular style to conclusively establish a connection to the Temple, aside from a few very well known systems, such as Xiao Hong Quan, the Da Hong Quan, Yin Shou Gun, Damo Sword, etc.
Huang Zongxi described martial arts in terms of Shaolin or "external" arts versus Wudang or internal arts in 1669. It has been since then that Shaolin has been popularly synonymous for what are considered the external Chinese martial arts, regardless of whether or not the particular style in question has any connection to the Shaolin Monastery. Some say that there is no differentiation between the so-called internal and external systems of the Chinese martial arts, while other well-known teachers have expressed differing opinions. For example, the Taijiquan teacher Wu Jianquan:
Those who practice Shaolinquan leap about with strength and force; people not proficient at this kind of training soon
Taido (太道, Taidō) is a Japanese martial art created by Nakai Sensei (中井 道仁). It is practiced primarily in Japan.
This martial art is unrelated to the other Japanese martial art named Taidō (躰道, Taidō).
Japan Taido Association "Ohshi juku" (in Japanese)
Shaolin Shandong black tiger fist (Chinese: 黑虎拳, Hei hu quan) is a northern Chinese martial art which originated in Shandong Province.
It is characterised by its extensive footwork, acrobatic kicks, low, wide stances, and unique fist position (where the thumb is curled in the same manner as the other fingers, rather than wrapped around them). According to the Shaolin Grandmasters' text the style is the single most external style in the Shaolin canon; the longer the stylist practices, however, the more she or he comes to rely solely on internal power. In this respect it is similar to Northern Praying Mantis.
The traditional lineage of the system begins with master Wang Zhenyuan in the late nineteenth-century; but the style was originally formed at the Shaolin Henan Temple before being transferred to Wang. The style was then passed from Wang Zhenyuan to Wang Zijiu, then to Wang Zhixiao, and finally to Su Fuyuan (Cantonese: Souw Hok Gwan). Currently Shandong Black Tiger is actively taught in the Netherlands and Indonesia.
Kenjutsu (剣術) is the umbrella term for all traditional (koryū) schools of Japanese swordsmanship, in particular those that predate the Meiji Restoration and the modern styles of kendo and iaido that emerged from the traditional schools in the late 19th century. Kenjutsu, which originated with the samurai class of feudal Japan, means "the method, or technique, of the sword." This is opposed to kendo, which means "the way of the sword".
The exact activities and conventions undertaken when practicing kenjutsu vary from school to school, where the word school here refers to the practice, methods, ethics, and metaphysics of a given tradition, yet commonly include practice of battlefield techniques without opponent and techniques where two persons paired kata (featuring full contact strikes to the body in some styles and no body contact strikes permitted in others). Historically schools incorporated sparring under a variety of conditions, from using solid wooden bokutō to use of bamboo sword (shinai) and armor (bogu). In modern times sparring in Japanese swordsmanship is more strongly associated with Kendo.
It is thought likely that the first iron swords were manufactured in Japan in the
Luta livre (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈlutɐ ˈlivɾi], freestyle fighting) is the Portuguese term for wrestling. In Brazil, it may also refer to luta livre esportiva, a wrestling variation popular with mixed martial artists.
With the introduction of the Ultimate Fighting Championship, where Brazilian fighter Royce Gracie dominated the first few shows, many English language martial arts publications rushed to find and translate older Brazilian articles regarding the history of Gracie Jiu-Jitsu. It was common knowledge that the practice of no-rules freestyle fighting was common in Brazil, so when those translating the articles saw many references to competitions between Gracie-trained fighters and luta livre practitioners, it was mistakenly assumed that luta livre referred to a specific Brazilian freestyle system.
However, Brazil is home to a system of wrestling which incorporates both submissions and strikes which is most properly referred to as luta livre esportiva and probably what most have in mind when making the aforementioned mistake in semantics. It is striking not only for the efficacy of many of its practitioners in real-world combat (they include mixed martial arts
Mukna (Bengali: মুকনা) is a form of folk wrestling from the north-east Indian state of Manipur. It is popular in Imphal, Thoubal and Bishnupur. The game is generally played on the last day of the Lai Haraoba festival and is an intrinsic part of the ceremonial functions.
Matches begin with the competitors holding each other's belts called ningri. The object is to pin the opponent with their back touching the ground. The winner is called a yatra. Mukna contains many techniques (lou) which require absolute physical fitness and skill to be mastered. Holding the opponent's neck, hair, ear or legs with the hands is not permitted. Any strikes are also considered fouls. Anyone who touches the ground with any part of their body besides the feet is declared the loser. Wrestlers are paired according to weight-class. The traditional attire not only protects the players' vital points but also helps to identify the pana or the yek, to which the wrestler belongs.
Sanda or Sanshou or an "unsanctioned fight" is a Chinese hand-to-hand self-defense system and combat sport. Sanshou is a martial art which was originally developed by the Chinese military based upon the study and practices of traditional Kung fu and modern combat fighting techniques; it combines full-contact kickboxing, which include punches and kicks, with wrestling, takedowns, throws, sweeps, kick catches, and in some competitions, even elbow and knee strikes.
Not seen as a style itself, rather it is considered as just one of the two components of Chinese martial arts training and is often taught alongside with taolu (forms) training. However, as part of the development of sport wushu by the Chinese government, a standard curriculum for sanshou was developed. It is to this standard curriculum that the term "Sanshou" is usually applied.
This curriculum was developed with reference to traditional Chinese martial arts. This general Sanshou curriculum varies in its different forms, as the Chinese government developed a version for civilians for self-defense and as a sport.
The generalized modern curriculum practiced in modern wushu schools is composed of different traditional martial
Southern Praying Mantis (南派螳螂, which reads in Cantonese as Nam (south) Pai (Clan) Tong Long, translated as Praying Mantis) is a Chinese martial art native to the Hakka people (客家, in Cantonese read Ha Ka or Ha Ga, a reference to descendants of the Han Dynasty who later migrated south at a time of political unrest). The Hakka “Praying Mantis” style of fighting is completely unrelated to the Northern Praying Mantis style. In terms of history and techniques, Southern Praying Mantis is more closely associated with fellow Hakka styles such as the Dragon (龍形拳) or Bak Mei (白眉拳).
Southern Praying Mantis places a heavy emphasis on close-range fighting. This system is known for its short power methods, and has aspects of both internal and external techniques. In application, the emphasis is on hand and arm techniques, and a limited use of low kicks. The application of close combat methods with an emphasis on hands and short kicking techniques makes the Southern Praying Mantis art somewhat akin to what many would call "street fighting." The hands are the most readily available for attack and defence of the upper body, and protect the stylist by employing ruthless techniques designed to
Spetsnaz GRU hand-to-hand combat style is a martial art system taught by martial artist Alexander Popov to reconnaissance and saboteur units of the GRU.
The system was developed in the 1920s and 1930s and is taught together with Systema and Combat/Military Sambo but has no relation to them. It is based on Hung Gar style, Shaolin Kung Fu.
The main purpose of the system is to teach the students a close, fast and deadly combat, protecting them while causing harm to their opponent as fast as possible. The system is also concentrated on fighting multiple enemies and training in several weapons – such as various sticks or knives, bayonets, mounted knives, the AK-47, Spetsnaz shovels, dual wielding pistols (Macedonian Style), etc.
Wing Tsun (alternatively 詠春, "chant spring") is a branch of Wing Chun, led by Leung Ting.
The particular phonetic spelling of 詠春 as Wing Tsun was picked by the branch founder Leung Ting to differentiate his branch from the others. WingTsun (without a space) is the trademarked form used by the International WingTsun Association (IWTA), not the name of the style.
The main objective of Wing Tsun (or WT as it is commonly abbreviated) is to be a realistic system of self-defense. WT does not focus on fighting “techniques”, instead relying on fighting and energy principles to be followed at all times. The central idea is that, under pressure, it is impossible to visually recognize the precise direction and speed of an attack and make a conscious decision on an effective way in which to react, all within the very brief amount of time you have before your opponent's attack lands. Rather, one must (counter) attack immediately in a very direct and protected manner and rely on reflexes to determine how to react if the opponent's attack continues to pose a problem. Chi sao, or “sticking hands” trains students to respond reflexively to the speed, force, and direction of an attack, based on
The sport of wushu is both an exhibition and a full-contact sport derived from traditional Chinese martial arts. It was developed in China after 1949, in an effort to standardize the practice of traditional Chinese martial arts, although attempts to structure the various decentralized martial arts traditions date back earlier, when the Central Guoshu Institute was established at Nanking in 1928. The term wushu is Chinese for "martial arts" (武 "Wu" = military or martial, 术 "Shu" = art). In contemporary times, wushu has become an international sport through the International Wushu Federation (IWUF), which holds the World Wushu Championships every two years; the first World Championships were held in 1991 in Beijing and won by Yuan Wen Qing.
Competitive wushu is composed of two disciplines: taolu (套路; forms) and sanda (散打; sparring). Taolu involve martial art patterns and maneuvers for which competitors are judged and given points according to specific rules. The forms comprise basic movements (stances, kicks, punches, balances, jumps, sweeps and throws) based on aggregate categories of traditional Chinese martial art styles and can be changed for competitions to highlight one's
Oil wrestling (Turkish: yağlı güreş), also called grease wrestling, is the Turkish national sport. It is so called because the wrestlers douse themselves with olive oil. It is related to the Uzbeki kurash, Tuvan khuresh and Tatar köräş. The wrestlers, known as pehlivan (meaning "hero" or "champion") wear a type of hand-stitched lederhosen called a kisbet (sometimes kispet), which is traditionally made of water buffalo hide, and most recently has been made of calfskin.
Unlike Olympic wrestling, oil wrestling matches may be won by achieving an effective hold of the kisbet. Thus, the pehlivan aims to control his opponent by putting his arm through the latter's kisbet. To win by this move is called paça kazık. Originally, matches had no set duration and could go on for one or two days until one man was able to establish his superiority, but in 1975 the duration was capped at 40 minutes for the baspehlivan and 30 minutes for the pehlivan category. If there is no winner, play continues for another 15 minutes—10 minutes for the pehlivan category, wherein scores are kept to determine the victor.
The annual Kırkpınar tournament, held in Edirne in Turkish Thrace since 1362, is the oldest
Hakkō-ryū (八光流) or Hakkō-ryū Jujutsu (八光流柔術) is a school or 'style' of jujutsu related to Daito-ryu founded in 1941 by Okuyama Ryuho (1901–1987) a student of Sokaku Takeda and a practitioner of shiatsu.
The school is now headed by his son who inherited the name Okuyama Ryuho. The headquarters or hombu dojo is located in Ōmiya-ku, Saitama, Saitama Prefecture.
Hakkoryu comes from the Japanese language meaning "The Style of the Eighth Light," or specifically "eighth light school" In the color spectrum there are seven color bands. It was believed that there was also an eighth very narrow (barely visible) band: the Eighth Light. The "hidden theme" of which is,"from the faint and weak" in appearance comes surprising strength. Schools of Hakkoryu Jujutsu exercise strategies that avoid conflict as much as possible, and employ techniques that do not use strength, but instead use techniques that work against the body's natural motions. These techniques are not very visible, but effective and strong, as is the eighth light in context.
Okuyama was an instructor of Daito Ryu Aikijujutsu which he studied from two people: Kyoju Dairi Matsuda (Toshimi) Hosaku and later Takeda Sokaku himself. In
Vale tudo (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈvali ˈtudu]; meaning "everything allowed", or "anything goes") are full-contact unarmed combat events, with a limited number of rules, that became popular in Brazil during the 20th century. Vale Tudo has been considered a combat sport by some observers. While Vale Tudo uses techniques from many martial art styles, making it similar to modern mixed martial arts competitions, it is a distinct style in its own right.
Fighting sideshows, termed "Vale Tudo" or "anything goes", became popular in Brazilian circuses during the 1920s. Examples of such bouts were described in the Japanese-American Courier on October 4, 1928:
However, this circus term did not enter popular use until 1959–1960, when it was used to describe the style-versus-style bouts featured in a Rio television show called Heróis do Ringue ("Heroes of the Ring"). The matchmakers and hosts of the show included members of the Gracie family, and the participants were all legitimate practitioners of their styles. One night during the show, João Alberto Barreto (later a referee for UFC 1) was competing against a man trained in Luta Livre. Barreto caught his opponent in an armbar and the man
Bājíquán (Chinese: 八極拳; pinyin: Bājíquán) is a Chinese martial art that features explosive, short-range power and is famous for its elbow strikes. It originated in Hebei Province in Northern China, but is also well known in other places today, especially Taiwan. Its full name is kai men baji quan (開門八極拳), which means "open-gate eight-extremities fist".
Baji quan was originally called bazi quan (巴子拳 or 鈀子拳) or "rake fist" because the fists, held loosely and slightly open, are used to strike downwards in a rake-like fashion. The name was considered to be rather crude in its native tongue, so it was changed to baji quan. The term baji comes from the Daoist classic, the Yijing (I-Ching), and signifies an "extension of all directions". In this case, it means "including everything" or "the universe."
The first recorded baji quan teacher was Wu Zhong 吳鍾 (1712–1802). Famous teachers that promoted the style included Wu Xiufeng 吳秀峰 and Li Shuwen 李書文 (1864–1934). The latter was from Cangzhou(滄州), Hebei, and earned himself the nickname "God of Spear Li". A Peking opera Wu Shen (martial male character) by training, he was also an expert fighter. His most famous quote is, "I do not know what
Capoeira (/ˌkæpuːˈɛərə/; Portuguese pronunciation: [kapuˈejɾɐ]) is a Brazilian martial art that combines elements of dance and music. It was created in Brazil mainly by descendants of African slaves with Brazilian native influences, probably beginning in the 16th century. It is known by quick and complex moves, using mainly power, speed, and leverage for leg sweeps.
The word capoeira probably comes from Tupi, referring to the areas of low vegetation in the Brazilian interior.
Capoeira's history probably begins with the adoption of African slavery by Portuguese colonists in Brazil. Since the 16th century, Portugal extensively adopted slavery to man their colonies, coming mainly from West and Central Africa. Brazil, with its vast territory, was the major destination of African slaves, receiving 38.5% of all slaves sent by ships across the Atlantic Ocean.
Capoeira has a long and controversial history, since historical documentation in Brazil was very scarce in its colonial times. Evidences, studies and oral tradition leave little doubt about its Brazilian roots, but it is impossible to precisely identify the exact Brazilian region or time it began to take form.
In the 16th century
Hankido is a new martial art style developed by the late Myung Jae-nam using even more circular flowing movements owing to Myung Jae-nam's background in traditional Korean dance.
The name hankido is a mix of the name Hanguk (the Korean name for South Korea) and hapkido. The resulting word hankido is often written with the han in Old Korean, where the letter "a" (ㅏ) is written as arae-a, which looks like a dot. Hankido aims to be a Korean martial art for and from the Korean people, accessible to everyone. The precise origin of hapkido, from which hankido is derived, is one of many Japan–Korea disputes, as there is a strong connection to the Japanese martial art aikido. "Aikido" is always written in kanji, which are similar to hanja.
The word hankido actually consists of three different hanja:
So you could say that hankido means: The way for Korean people to develop their internal energy/strength.
Hankido is a relatively new hapkido style, developed by the late Myung Jae Nam. Myung Jae Nam studied traditional hapkido which formed the basis of this new art. Myung Jae Nam started the development of what we now know as hankido in the 1980s. This new hapkido style can be recognized by
Kuk Sool Won (Hangul: 국술원) is a Korean martial arts system founded by Suh In-Hyuk (Hangul: 서인혁; the Kuk Sa Nim or Grandmaster) in 1958. The name Kuk Sool Won translates to "National Martial Art Association" and despite often being shortened to 'Kuk Sool,' the name kuk sool (국술; 國術) is a non-trade marked name used to denote similar Korean martial arts developed prior to or about the same time as the formation of Kuk Sool Won. Kuk Sool Won is currently taught world-wide and since it was founded as a martial arts system and not merely as a martial arts style, Kuk Sool Won does not consider itself limited to any single discipline. It attempts to be a comprehensive study of all traditional Korean martial arts. Suh In Hyuk's philosophy regarding his system is to "Integrate and explore the entire spectrum of established traditional Korean martial arts, body conditioning techniques, mental development, and weapons training."
The study of Kuk Sool Won also includes many modern day techniques such as gun defense and weapon improvisation. Kuk Sool Won has many facets and is performed for self-defense, healing, conditioning, competition, fun and aesthetic purposes.
Kuk Sool Won encompasses
Shorinji Kempo (少林寺拳法, shōrinji-kenpō) was established in 1947 by Doshin So (宗 道臣, Sō Dōshin), a Japanese martial artist. Shorinji Kempo is a system for self-improvement and training (行: gyo or discipline) with many similarities to Shaolin kungfu, including using the same first three kanji.
Shorinji Kempo is a system of "self-defense and training" (護身錬鍛: goshin-rentan), "mental training " (精神修養: seishin-shūyō) and "promoting health" (健康増進: kenkō-zōshin), whose training methods are based on the concept that "spirit and body are not separable" (心身一如: shinshin-ichinyo) and that it is integral to "train both body and spirit" (拳禅一如: kenzen ichinyo).
Through employing a well organized technical training schedule, (科目表: kamoku-hyō), Shorinji Kempo aims to "establish oneself" (自己確立: jiko-kakuritsu) and to promote "mutual comfort" (自他共楽: jita-kyōraku'). The philosophy and techniques of Shorinji Kempo are outlined in a handbook, (少林寺拳法教範: Shōrinji-kenpō-kyōhan).
The organization of Shorinji Kempo group is divided into 5 corporate entities:
The relationship between these 5 entities is very tight because of the unique fusion of religion, budo and education. source: web site of Shorinji Kempo
Wrestling is a form of combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds. A wrestling bout is a physical competition, between two (occasionally more) competitors or sparring partners, who attempt to gain and maintain a superior position. There are a wide range of styles with varying rules with both traditional historic and modern styles. Wrestling techniques have been incorporated into other martial arts as well as military hand-to-hand combat systems.
The term wrestling is attested in late Old English, as wræstlunge (glossing palestram).
Wrestling is one of the oldest forms of combat with references to it as early as the Iliad, in which Homer recounts the Trojan War in the 13th or 12th century BC. The origins of wrestling can be traced back 15,000 years through cave drawings in France. Babylonian and Egyptian relief's show wrestlers using most of the holds known to the present-day sport. In ancient Greece, wrestling occupied a prominent place in legend and literature; wrestling competition, brutal in many aspects, was the number one sport of the Olympic Games. The ancient Romans borrowed
Yabusame (流鏑馬) is a type of mounted archery in traditional Japanese archery. An archer on a running horse shoots three special "turnip-headed" arrows successively at three wooden targets.
This style of archery has its origins at the beginning of the Kamakura period. Minamoto no Yoritomo became alarmed at the lack of archery skills his samurai had. He organized yabusame as a form of practice.
Nowadays, the best places to see yabusame performed are at the Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū in Kamakura and Shimogamo Shrine in Kyoto (during Aoi Matsuri in early May). It is also performed in Samukawa and on the beach at Zushi, as well as other locations.
Japanese bows date back to prehistoric times — the Jōmon Period. The long, unique asymmetrical bow style with the grip below the center emerged under the Yayoi culture (300 BC – 300 AD) Bows became the symbol of authority and power. The legendary first emperor of Japan, Emperor Jimmu, is always depicted carrying a bow.
The use of the bow had been on foot until around the 4th century when elite soldiers took to fighting on horseback with bows and swords. In the 10th century, samurai would have archery duels on horseback. They would ride at each
Defendo is a martial art and self defense system created in 1945 for law enforcement by Bill Underwood, a British-born Canadian. Underwood was originally the creator of Combato (in 1910) a "non-boxing or wrestling" unarmed combat system which he taught in Montreal, Quebec and Toronto, Ontario.
Combato had its beginning in the Liverpool theatres with jiu jitsu demonstrations of traveling Japanese wrestlers, Yukio Tani and Taro Miyake. As a boy, Underwood idolized these experts, rapidly establishing himself as a prodigy. The name "Defendo" was created on August 15, 1945 in New York City by Pat Underwood, Bill's daughter.
Underwood at the time was a guest in the United States training U.S. Army Rangers and for the American FBI in unarmed combat. Bill Underwood was frequently requested by American and Canadian Law Enforcement Agencies to teach them his Combato system as the War was officially over but he initially refused on the basis that Combato was too aggressive. Underwood was asked to modify his system to remove its lethal applications and focus on the Law Enforcement applications of self-defense, compliance and control tactics. He realized that he could not call this system
Jow-Ga Kung Fu (Chinese: 周家) (aka Zhou Jia) (Chinese: 周家功夫) is a form of Kung Fu. It was founded by Jow Lung who was born in 1891, on the eleventh day of the third lunar month (April 16, 1891) in Sa Fu Village of the Canton Province, and died in 1919. His father was Jow Fong Hoy and his mother’s maiden name was Li. At the time of its inception, this particular style of Kung Fu was labeled as having the head of Hung Gar, the tail of Choy Gar and the patterns of the tiger and leopard, or simply Hung Tao Choy Mei. It was so labeled because the essential techniques incorporated the muscular and mighty movements of Hung Gar and the swift footwork and complex kicking of Choy Gar, making it a very effective form of self defense with emphasis on simultaneous attack and defense.
Jow Lung 周龍 began his martial arts training with the local town master Zou Geng 邹耕.
Jow Lung 周龍 also had an uncle named Jow Hung Hei 周雄喜 A top fighter in Sun Wui county & a student of Wong Fei Hung's father Wong KayYing. He taught Jow Lung and his brothers Jow Hip, Jow Biu, Jow Hoy and Jow Tin "Nam Siu Lam Hung Gar".
Jow Hung Hei recognized Jow Lung as his best student due to his hard work. Due to the return of a
Krav Maga /krɑːv məˈɡɑː/ (Hebrew: קרב מגע [ˈkʁav maˈɡa], lit. "contact combat") is a noncompetitive martial art and eclectic self-defense system developed in Israel that involves Karate, Boxing, Muay Thai, Kickboxing, Jujutsu, Wrestling, and Grappling techniques. Krav Maga is known for its focus on real-world situations and extremely efficient, brutal counter-attacks. It was derived from street-fighting skills developed by Hungarian-Israeli martial artist Imi Lichtenfeld, who made use of his training as a boxer and wrestler, as a means of defending the Jewish quarter against fascist groups in Bratislava in the mid-to-late 1930s. In the late 1940s, following his immigration to Israel, he began to provide lessons on combat training to what was to become the IDF, who went on to develop the system that became known as Krav Maga. It has since been refined for civilian, police and military applications.
Krav Maga has a philosophy emphasizing threat neutralization, simultaneous defensive and offensive maneuvers, and aggression. Krav Maga is used by Israeli Defense Forces, both regular and special forces, and several closely related variations have been developed and adopted by law
Submission wrestling (also known as submission fighting, submission grappling, sport grappling, or simply as No-Gi) or Combat wrestling (in Japan), is a formula of competition and a general term describing the aspect of martial arts and combat sports that focus on clinch and ground fighting with the aim of obtaining a submission using submission holds. The term "submission wrestling" usually refers only to the form of competition and training that does not use a "jacket", "gi," or "combat kimono," often worn with belts that establish rank by color.
The sport of submission wrestling brings together techniques from Folk Wrestling (Catch-as-catch-can), Luta Livre Esportiva, Freestyle Wrestling, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, Judo and Sambo. Submission fighting as an element of a larger sport setting is very common in mixed martial arts, Pankration, catch wrestling and others. Submission wrestlers or grapplers usually wear shorts, skin-sticky clothing such as Rash guards, speedos and mixed short clothes so they do not rip off in combat.
Mixed martial arts schools and fighters may use the term "submission wrestling" to refer to their grappling methods while avoiding association with any one art.
Tang Soo Do (Hangul: 당수도, pronounced [taŋsudo]) is a Korean martial art promoted by Hwang Kee that has roots in various martial arts, including taekkyeon, Subak, and Shotokan.
Tang Soo Do is the Korean pronunciation of the Chinese characters 唐手道 (Tang Shou Dao). Tang Soo Do literally means "China Hand Way" (the "Tang" refers to the Tang Dynasty). Similar characters are pronounced karate-dō in Japanese. The first character, 唐, which initially referred to China, was later changed to 空 by Gichin Funakoshi to mean "empty" rather than "China" 空手道, thus Kong Shou Dao; the Korean pronunciation of these characters is "Kong Soo Do"). Outside of the Far East, the term "Tang Soo Do" has primarily become synonymous with the Korean martial art promoted by grandmaster Hwang Kee.
According to books published by General Choi Hung Hi in 1965, and Hwang Kee in 1978, Tang Soo Do is one of a number of generic Korean terms for fighting with bare hands and feet. As such, Tang Soo Do cannot be said to have a founder. Rather, the name of "Tang Soo Do" was adopted by Hwang Kee, the founder of the Moo Duk Kwan, as a descriptor of the art he promoted.
The history of the Moo Duk Kwan (from which the majority
Akban (光番) is an international educational non-profit martial arts school. The school's name augments the Turkish word for light and the Japanese word for protection, A.K.A. the "Light guard". It is now used as a two syllable name.
The Akban school was founded in Israel in 1986 as a school based around Bujinkan Ninjutsu. Its syllabus has diversified into Historical European martial arts, MMA and Brazilian Jiu Jitsu systems but it is still koryu and Seishin Teki Kyoko oriented. It is informally identified as simply the organization or Irgun (translation: organization), and trains in Martial arts, Meditation, fitness and outdoor skills. Now having 12 dojos in Israel, the school's veterans instruct about 700 undergraduates and veteran students. It is rated by the Israeli martial arts community as the institution having the longest time to accumulate syllabus for applying for a black belt exam (12 to 13 years) in Israel.
The school was founded in 1986 in Jerusalem by a senior instructor of Doron Navon, the first non Japanese Shihan in Bujinkan Ninjutsu school. Shihan Navon started teaching as a Bujinkan Shidoshi in a rural area at 1977. At 1992, in conjunction with Bujinkan Israel the
Cinco Teros ("Five Strikes") refers to the five most basic strikes in eskrima, which is a class of Filipino martial arts that emphasizes staff and sword fighting.
The art is composed of the four basic cuts and one basic thrust. There are varied patterns for the strikes depending upon the teacher or in the system. However, the Cinco Teros is believed to have originated in Pangasinan, Philippines.
Cinco Teros commonly utilizes an "X" pattern in attacking the opponent, but some methods employ patterns resembling a "+" while others use stiking patterns that emulate a "V".
The most common pattern for the Cinco Teros are as follows:
The Cinco Teros is based upon angles of attack, not specific targets. This allows the practitioner to apply any one of the five striking angles to any target they choose. For example, the fifth strike, which consists of a straight thrust, does not necessarily need to be targeted towards the belly. While it can be targeted towards the belly, it can also be targeted to the throat, the heart, or the eye. Instead of tediuously taking the time to learn individual angles for individual targets, the angles of attack can be applied to any target that is
Mízōngyì (Chinese: 迷蹤藝; literally "Lost Track Skill"), or simply Mízōng, is a style of Chinese martial art based on deception and mobility. Mizong is also known as Mízōngquán (Chinese: 迷蹤拳; literally "Lost Track Fist" or sometimes "Labyrinthine Boxing" stressing the deceptive nature of the art) and Yanqingquan and there are many sub-branches of this style.
Mizong Lohan (Chinese: 迷蹤羅漢; pinyin: mízōng luóhàn; Cantonese Yale: màih jùng lòh hon; literally "Lost Track Arhat") is a combination of two styles: Mízōngquán and Luóhànquán. Through Luóhànquán, its lineage can be traced back to the Shaolin temple during the time of the Tang Dynasty (618–907).
As an external northern Chinese style, Mizong belongs to the "Long Fist" family of martial arts although in some traditions Mizong is considered an internal art, created by Yue Fei, and taught as a precursor system to Hsing I Ch'uan.
Mi Zong Luo Han is an external style, with distinct internal influences. It draws on many aspects of the external northern Shaolin long-fist style, and the internal styles T'ai chi ch'uan and Pakua Chuan, which are often taught alongside it in modern times. It is characterized by deceptive hand movements,
Bando (Burmese: ဗန်တို, pronounced: [bàɴdò]) is a defensive style of thaing focusing on animal-based techniques. The earliest meanings of the word were self-discipline, self-development and self-improvement. Later, it came to mean self-protection or self-defense. Bando is sometimes mistakenly used as a generic word for all Burmese martial arts but it is actually just one system.
As with most Asian martial arts, all bando schools start off by teaching the basic stances and footwork. This preliminary stage of training lasts for several months and in some cases the first stage may continue for years, depending on the instructor or the style. In the second stage of training, a series of blocking and parrying techniques is taught. Bando prioritises defense over offense so that the student will be able to protect themselves, should the need arise. The third stage involves the learning of offensive techniques. Most of bando's techniques are taught through forms or aka which may be performed solo or with a partner. The final stage of mastery includes participation in contests, which sometimes end in deaths.
Forms and techniques in bando are based on the movements of animals, probably
Banshay (Burmese: ဗန်ရှည်, pronounced: [bàɴʃè]) is a weapon-based Burmese martial art focusing primarily on the sword,cane,staff and spear. Influenced by both Chinese and Indian sources.
Banshay makes extensive use of the dha (sword) in pairs. Sword-fencing demonstrations and performances often begin with a pre-fight war dance in which the swordsman spins one or two swords very close to the body without cutting themselves.
Sword training is conducted with the weapon still sheathed. Traditionally when a master first presents the student with a sword, the scabbard would be fixed on so that the trainee is discouraged from killing opponents. Under extreme conditions when the sword must be unsheathed, the scabbard may be broken with a rock or other object.
Bartitsu is an eclectic martial art and self-defence method originally developed in England during the years 1898–1902. In 1901 it was immortalised (as "baritsu") by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, author of the Sherlock Holmes mystery stories. Although dormant throughout most of the 20th century, bartitsu has been experiencing a revival since 2002.
In 1898, Edward William Barton-Wright, a British engineer who had spent the previous three years living in the Empire of Japan, returned to England and announced the formation of a "New Art of Self Defence". This art, he claimed, combined the best elements of a range of fighting styles into a unified whole, which he had named Bartitsu. Barton-Wright, who had previously also studied "boxing, wrestling, fencing, savate and the use of the stiletto under recognised masters", defined Bartitsu as meaning "self defence in all its forms". The word was a portmanteau of his own surname and of "Jujitsu".
As detailed in a series of articles Barton-Wright produced for Pearson's Magazine between 1899 and 1901, Bartitsu was largely drawn from the Shinden Fudo Ryu jujutsu of sensei Terajima Kuniichiro (not to be confused with the SFR taijutsu associated with
La Verdadera Destreza is a Spanish system of fencing. The word "destreza" literally means "skill." However, the full name is perhaps best translated as "the true art."
While Destreza is primarily a system of swordsmanship, it is intended to be a universal method of fighting applicable to all weapons. This includes sword and dagger; sword and cloak; sword and buckler; sword and round shield; the two-handed sword; the flail; and polearms such as the pike and halberd.
Its precepts are based on reason, geometry, and incorporate various other aspects of a well-rounded Renaissance humanist education, with a special focus on the writings of classical authors such as Aristotle, Euclid, and Plato. Authors on Destreza also paid great attention to what modern martial artists would call biomechanics.
The tradition is documented in scores of fencing manuals, but centers on the works of two primary authors, don Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza and his follower, don Luis Pacheco de Narváez. The system of combat is tied to an intellectual, philosophical, and moral ideal.
The origins of this system of swordsmanship date as far back as 1569, when Jerónimo Carranza began reducing it to writing. There is
Tahtib (Arabic: تحطيب taḥṭīb) is the Modern Egyptian term for a traditional form of Egyptian folk dance involving a wooden stick, also known as "stick dance" or "cane dance". It is sometimes also described as a "stick-dancing game", or as a highly ritualized mock fight accompanied by music.
A "Nubian" form of tahtib is regularly performed for tourists in Aswan.
The stick itself is about four feet in length and is called an Asa, Asaya or Assaya, or Nabboot. It is often flailed in large figure-8 patterns across the body with such speed and violence that the displacement of air is loudly discernible. There is another form practised from horseback known as “Horse Stepping” which uses a stick that is nearly 12 feet (3.7 m) long.
Although the dance form originally started as male-only, there are women who perform dressed as men and dance with other women. Another female version of stick dancing has been developed with a flirtatious and generally less aggressive style, and incorporated into cabaret or Raqs sharqi performances. The stick used for this type of dancing is generally more lightweight and hooked at one end like a cane, and generally embellished with metallic-coloured foil or
The German school of fencing (Deutsche Fechtschule) is the historical system of combat taught in the Holy Roman Empire in the Late Medieval, Renaissance and Early Modern periods (14th to 17th centuries), as described in the Fechtbücher ("combat manuals") written at the time. Despite the name, the German school of fencing was practiced throughout Europe. During the period in which it was taught, it was known as the Kunst des Fechtens, or the "Art of Combat". It notably comprises the techniques of the two-handed Zweihänder (two hander), but also describes many other types of combat, notably mounted combat, unarmed grappling, fighting with polearms, with the dagger, the messer with or without buckler, and the staff.
Most of the authors are, or claim to be, in the tradition of the 14th century master Johannes Liechtenauer. The earliest surviving treatise on Liechtenauer's system is contained in a manuscript dated to 1389, known as Ms. 3227a. More manuscript treatises survive from the 15th century, and during the 16th century, the system was also presented in print, notably by Joachim Meyer in 1570. The German tradition is eclipsed by the Italian school of rapier fencing by the early
Jeet Kune Do (截拳道; also "Jeet Kun Do", "JKD," or "Jeet Kuen Do") is a hybrid martial arts system and life philosophy founded by martial artist Bruce Lee with direct, non classical and straightforward movements in 1967. Due to the way his style works they believe in minimal movement with maximum effect and extreme speed. The system works on the use of different 'tools' for different situations. These situations are broken down into ranges (Kicking, Punching, Trapping and Grappling), with techniques flowing smoothly between them. It is referred to as a "style without style" or "the art of fighting without fighting" as said by Bruce Lee himself. Unlike more traditional martial arts, Jeet Kune Do is not fixed or patterned, and is a philosophy with guiding thoughts. It was named for the concept of interception, or attacking your opponent while he is about to attack. However, the name Jeet Kune Do was often said by Bruce Lee to be just a name. He himself often referred to it as "The art of expressing the human body" in his writings and in interviews. Through his studies Bruce came to believe that styles had become too rigid, and unrealistic. He called martial art competitions of the day
Jūkendō (銃剣道) is the Japanese martial art of bayonet fighting, and has been likened to kendo (but with bayonets instead of swords). Jukendo techniques are based on sojutsu (spear fighting) or bayonet techniques from the 17th century, when firearms were introduced to Japan.
During the Meiji period, Japanese bayonet fighting techniques were consolidated into a system named jukenjitsu, and taught at the Toyama military academy in Tokyo. Morihei Ueshiba, founder of aikido, trained in jukenjitsu and incorporated some of that art into his own art. Following World War II, the practice of jukenjitsu was banned by the Allies, but it later returned in the modern form of jukendo. The Japan Amateur Jukendo Federation was established in 1952. The All Japan Jukendo Federation was established in April 1956.
Modern jūkendō uses a mokujū, a wooden replica of a rifle with an attached and blunted bayonet at the end, in place of an actual rifle. The art is practised by both Japanese military personnel and civilians. Training incorporates kata (patterns), two-person drills, and competitive matches using mokujū and protective armor. The three main target areas are the heart, throat, and lower left side
Lerdrit (Thai: เลิศฤทธิ์, RTGS: loetrit, IPA: [lɤ̂ːt.rít]) is a Thai form of martial arts taught and used by the commandos of the Royal Thai Army. Muay Lert Rit (or Lerdit) is a style of fighting derived from traditional Thai battlefield fighting techniques (Muay Boran). A selection was made among the very large portfolio of techniques already available in the different styles and adapted to close combat. Many of the techniques are either very close or taken directly from the Mae Mai (Standard techniques for bare hand fighting) or the Look Mai (Advanced fighting techniques). As with all military techniques, the goal is radical, with disabling in a terminal way your opponent.
The basic principle is using all body weapons very much like in traditional Thai styles (Chaya, Khorat, etc...), but the way the opponent is struck is different. From one side the attacker tries to surprise its opponent to leave him no possibility of defense (attack without warning) and secondly the attacker tries to get the enemy as quickly to the ground to finish him of, typically through projection of the whole body to the ground with the head first, hammering with the foot on the throat or neck, etc... The
Seni Silat Kalimah Panglima Tangkas is a style of silat from Kedah, Malaysia. It is said to trace back to 1118 AD when Almarhum Sheikh Abdullah supposedly taught what would later become Silat Kalimah to the family of Maharaja Derbar Raja II, the 9th ruler of Kedah. The art is said to have been kept secret within the royal family for centuries before it was finally revealed to commoners during the reign of Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin III (1854–1879). It was at this time that the sultan taught the art to his right hand warrior and admiral Panglima Ismail who in turn taught it to Panglima Hadi, which was handed down to Panglima Tok Rashid and a few others before finally being entrusted to the late Tok Guru Yahya Bin Said in 1923. Its contemporaries from the same lineage include Silat Kalimah Yahya Said, Silat Kalimah Malaysia and Silat Kalimah Amin, all of which are very similar in form. Other very closely related systems are Silat Cekak Hanafi, Silat Panglima Tok Rashid, and Silat Kalam, which are all variants of Panglima Tok Rashid's teachings. Silat Kuntau Tekpi on the other hand is from the lineage of Allahyarham Panglima Taib bin Wan Hussein, a contemporary of Panglima Tok Rashid. It
Naginatajutsu (長刀術 or 薙刀術) is the Japanese martial art of wielding the naginata (なぎなた). This is a weapon resembling the medieval European glaive. Most naginatajutsu practiced today is in a modernized form, a gendai budō, in which competitions also are held.
Multiple theories concerning the weapon's exact origins are in debate. It has been suggested that it developed along the same lines as Okinawan kobudō weapons as a modified farming tool. Another theory states that it is the result of the Japanese modifying a Chinese Guan Dao that bears a similar appearance. Others say that a creative samurai in need of a longer weapon attached a sword to a pole.
Perhaps the simplest explanation is the natural development of polearms. Polearms are intended as mass weapons, to be used not just by individual warriors, but by formations of soldiers together on field battles and not for dueling. When fighting in close order, two-handed cut-and-thrust weapons, such as halberds and glaives, are much more efficient than mere spears or swords because of their versatility compared to spears and longer reach compared to swords. Fighting in massed formation does not require similar individual
Taekwondo /ˌtaɪˌkwɒnˈdoʊ/ (Korean 태권도 (跆拳道) [tʰɛɡwʌndo]) is a martial art that originates from Korea. It combines combat techniques, self-defense, sport, exercise, and in some cases meditation and philosophy. In 1989, taekwondo was the world's most popular martial art in terms of number of practitioners. Gyeorugi (pronounced [kjʌɾuɡi]), a type of sparring, has been an Olympic event since 2000.
There are two main branches of taekwondo development, which are not necessarily mutually exclusive:
Although there are doctrinal and technical differences between sparring in the two main styles and among the various organizations, the art in general emphasizes kicks thrown from a mobile stance, employing the leg's greater reach and power (compared to the arm). Taekwondo training generally includes a system of blocks, kicks, punches, and open-handed strikes and may also include various take-downs or sweeps, throws, and joint locks. Some taekwondo instructors also incorporate the use of pressure points, known as jiapsul, as well as grabbing self-defense techniques borrowed from other martial arts, such as hapkido and judo.
In Korean, tae (태, 跆) means "to strike or break with foot"; kwon (권, 拳)
Yaw-Yan, also called Sayaw ng Kamatayan or "Dance of Death" is a Filipino hybrid style of kickboxing developed by Napoleon Fernandez. Since its inception in the 1970s, it has dominated the kickboxing scene in the Philippines and has proven very effective against other stand-up fighting arts.
Yaw-Yan closely resembles Muay Thai, but differs in the hip-torquing motion as well as the downward-cutting nature of its kicks, and the emphasis on delivering attacks from long range (while Muay Thai focuses more on clinching).
Yaw-yan practitioners participate in various Filipino mixed-martial arts tournaments such as the Universal Reality Combat Championship and Fearless Fighting.
The originator of Yaw-Yan is Napoleon A. Fernandez or "Master Nap", a native of Quezon province, who originally studied jiujitsu. The word Yaw-Yan was derived from the last two syllables of Sayaw ng Kamatayan meaning "Dance of Death".
Fernandez had a background in various martial arts such as Jeet Kune Do, Karate, Arnis, Aikido, and Judo. He is said to have modified all the martial art forms that he studied and fused them to create a martial art form that is deadly to opponents and "advantageous to the build of
Yi quan, also known as dacheng quan, is a martial art system which was founded by the Chinese xingyiquan master, Wang Xiangzhai (王薌齋).
Having studied xingyiquan with Guo Yunshen in his childhood, Wang Xiangzhai travelled China, meeting, comparing skills with masters of various styles of kung fu. In the mid-1920s, he came to the conclusion that xingyiquan was often taught wrong, with too much emphasis on 'outer form', neglecting the essence of true martial power. He started to teach what he felt was the true essence of the art using a different name, without the 'xing' (meaning form). Wang Xiangzhai, who had a great knowledge about the theory and history of his art, used the name "Yiquan" (意拳) as it had already been used in historical texts, such as "liuhequan xu" (foreword to the six harmonies boxing, said to be written by Dai Longbang himself : "When Yue Fei was a child, he received special instructions from Zhou Tong. He became skilled in the spear method. He then used his spear art to create a fist method and called it Yi Quan. Mysterious and fabulous, nobody had never had such skills before...")
In the 1940s one of Wang Xiangzhai's students wrote an article about his "school"
Bata (Bataireacht or Rince an Bhata Uisce Bheatha in Irish) or Irish stickfighting is a traditional martial art of Ireland. Often associated with hurling gangs and faction fighters, it was recently dramatised in Gangs of New York, and classically by Irish author William Carleton in "Traits And Stories of The Irish Peasantry". "Bata" (or "bhata") is a general term which can mean any kind of stick and calling Irish stick-fighting "bata" is a modern practice based on a mistaken understanding of the word. The stick is mostly referred to as a shillelagh, traditionally. The word "cudgel" is also used in period texts. Traditionally, blackthorn, oak and ash were the most common types of wood used.
No known textbook for the use of the bata exists; its use has been reconstructed using period sources by modern practitioners, or has been passed down through families. Rince an Bhata Uisce Bheatha means whiskey stick dance and refers to a specific style of Bata passed through the Doyle family, where the stick is often held in two hands. Cumann Bhata is an organization that has reconstructed a one-hand version where the hand is approximately in the center and the stick is held just above the
Juttejutsu (十手術) is the Japanese martial art of using the Japanese weapon jutte (also known as jitte). Juttejutsu was evolved mainly for the law enforcement officers of the Edo period to enable non-lethal disarmament and apprehension of criminals who were usually carrying a sword. Besides the use of striking an assailant on the head, wrists, hands and arms like that of a baton, the jutte can also be used for blocking, deflecting and grappling a sword in the hands of a skilled user.
There are several schools of juttejutsu today and various jutte influences and techniques are featured in several martial arts.
Kinomichi (氣之道) is a martial art in the tradition of budō, developed from the Japanese art aikido by Masamichi Noro and founded in Paris, France, in 1979. Masamichi Noro was one of the live-in students (uchideshi) of Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of aikido. Designated "Delegate for Europe and Africa" by Morihei Ueshiba, Noro debarked in Marseille on September 3, 1961, preceding Nakazono and Tamura in the communal construction of a European and African aikido. In France, Kinomichi is affiliated with the Fédération Française d’Aïkido, Aïkibudo et Affinitaires (FFAAA) and maintains warm relations with the Aikikai Foundation and its leader, Moriteru Ueshiba, the grandson of aikido’s founder.
In the same way that Morihei Ueshiba created aikido from the Daito-ryu aiki-jujutsu of Sokaku Takeda, Masamichi Noro extended his research to the creation of Kinomichi, founded on the technique, principles and philosophy of aikido. This natural process in the world of the Japanese budōs does not constitute a denial or an objection to what came before but, rather, the natural expression and evolution of a living art - the opening of a new path and new possibility.
For Masamichi Noro, the most
Pehlwani (Urdu: پہلوانی,Punjabi: ਪਹਿਲਵਾਨੀ, Hindi: पहलवानी , Bengali: পাহলাভানি) or kushti (Urdu: کشتی,Punjabi: ਕੁਸ਼ਤੀ, Hindi: कुश्ती ,Bengali: কুস্তি) is a form of wrestling from South Asia. It was developed in the Mughal era through a synthesis of Indian malla-yuddha and Iranian Varzesh-e Bastani.
A practitioner of this sport is referred to as a pehlwan, while teachers are known as ustad (or guru, for Hindu teachers). The undefeated champions of India hold the title Rustam-i-Hind, meaning "the Rostam of India", denoting Rostam the hero of the Iranian national epic, the Shahnameh.
Through time Western training methods and nomenclature from Iran and Europe were introduced into pehlwani. Wrestling competitions, known as dangal, held in villages can have their own rules variations. Usually a win is awarded by decision from the panel of judges, knockout, stoppage or submission.
The ancient South Asian form of wrestling is called malla-yuddha. Practiced at least since the 5th century BC and described in the 13th century treatise Malla Purana, it was the precursor of modern pehlwani. In the 16th century India was conquered by the Central Asian Mughals, who were of Mongol descent and
Silambam (Tamil: சிலம்பம்) or silambattam (Tamil: சிலம்பாட்டம்) is a weapon-based Dravidian martial art from Tamil Nadu in south India but also practised by the Tamil community of Sri Lanka and Malaysia. In Tamil, the word silambam refers to the bamboo staff which is the main weapon used in this style. Other weapons are also used such as the short staff (sedi kuchi or muchchaan), deer horn (maduvu), knife (kathi), sword (vaal), stick (kali or kaji), dagger (kuttuval), knuckle duster (kuttu katai), and whips with several flexible and metallic blades (surul pattai). Unarmed silambam, called kuttu varisai, utilizes stances and routines based on animal movements such as the snake, tiger, elephant and eagle forms.
The length of the staff depends on the height of the practitioner. It should just touch the forehead about three fingers from the head, although different lengths are used in different situations. It usually measures roughly 1.68 metres (five and a half feet). The 3 feet stick called sedikutchi can be easily concealed. Separate practice is needed for staffs of different lengths. The usual stance includes holding the staff at one end, right hand close to the back, left hand
Tat Kun Tou (traditional Chinese: 踢拳道; pinyin: tī quán dào; literally "Way of the Kicking Fist", also spelled is also spelled Tat Kon Tou. It was created by Barangay (community) Captain Jose Millan Go aka Joe Go (Go Hoo Se), a Chinese Filipino living in Cebu City, Philippines. The late Grandmaster Jose “Jo Go” Millan Founder of Tat Kun Tou, Gokosha and Banate Eskrima, was one of the earlier students of Anciong Bacon.
He was also known as “Little Anciong” because of his superb ability in stick fighting.
Like most of Anciong's students, their collective loyalty to their teacher are unquestioned. JoGo however kept a low profile refusing to teach Balintawak so not to offend his teacher. Instead, JoGo developed his own martial art systems in respect to Anciong Bacon.
He started out teaching a few students exclusively on his own brand of martial art. Already, a proficient practitioner of other arts such as Tai Chi and Kun Tao from the Go Cho Kun (Five Ancestors Boxing), JoGo put together a system that mimics an unarmed version of Balintawak called Tat Kun Tou.
Tat Kun Tou is a tested system in the mean streets of Cebu. When fighters come across a Tat Kun Tou practitioner, they are
Wu Wei Gung Fu (translated as "The Spontaneous Movement of the Gung Fu") is a Chinese non-classical Martial Art, based on the original teachings of Bruce Lee and on the martial art Wing Chun.
(It is important to note that the history of Wing Chun was passed orally, and therefore many versions exist as to the exact development of Wing Chun's creation. Despite this, most versions concur on the existence of 3 major characters: Ng Mui, Yim Wing Chun, and Leung Bok-chau (Wing Chun's husband).)
About 300 years ago, Yim Wing Chun lived in central China. In her youth she studied the classical Gung Fu system "Plum Flower Fist", taught to her by the Buddhist nun Ng Mui. In the course of her studies, Wing Chun found this fighting system to be obsolete and ungainly, and proceeded to develop a Gung Fu system of her own: a system based on the concept of Wu Wei – that which fits the moment. This new martial art was then named after her: "Wing Chun Gung Fu" (Also known as "Wing Chun", "Ving Tsun", or "Wing Tsun").
Wing Chun taught the new system to her husband, Leung Bok Chau, a performer, and the two traveled across China, passing the system on to students chosen by them. Many years later, the
Goshin Jujutsu (自衛柔術) is a modern self-defence-oriented style of jujutsu. As there is no single creator of Goshin Jujutsu, per se, the name of the style refers to systems which are rooted in traditional Jujutsu, but also draw heavily from sports such as boxing (both Western and Thai) and certain techniques from Judo (itself a Jujutsu derivative), but in a street (i.e., non-sport) application. A distinctive trait of the system is the significant emphasis on modern weapons defense (guns, knives, etc.) from the onset of training, as opposed to sport-oriented systems that omit weapons training entirely, or systems that train in traditional weapons (e.g., sai, sword). Goshin Jujutsu is taught by name most commonly in schools in the Midwestern United States. There are at least four examples of Goshin Jujutsu schools in England,, that grew independently of the Goshin Jujutsu systems in the United States. There is at least one Goshin Jujutsu school in Scotland, and this is affiliated with a Goshin Jujutsu association in England. There is at least one school teaching Goshin Jujutsu in Spain, since at least the 1970s. The Goshin Jujutsu is recognized under "The Traditional & Modern Ju-Jitsu
Wadō-ryū (和道流) is a karate style; three organizations now teach the Wadō-ryū style: the Japan Karate-dō Federation Wadōkai (abbreviated to Wadōkai; "Zen Nihon Karate-dō Renmei Wadokai" in Japan), the Wadōryū Karatedō Renmei, and the Wadō Kokusai Karatedō Renmei (abbreviated to Wadō Kokusai; also known as the Wadō International Karatedō Federation [WIKF]).
The name Wadō-ryū has three parts: Wa, dō, and ryū. Wa means "harmony," dō means "way," and ryū means "style." Harmony should not be interpreted as pacifism; it is simply the acknowledgment that yielding is sometimes more effective than brute strength.
From one point of view, Wadō-ryū might be considered a style of jūjutsu rather than karate. It should be noted that Hironori Ōtsuka embraced Shotokan and was its chief instructor for a time. When Ōtsuka first registered his school with the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai in 1938, the style was called "Shinshu Wadō-ryū Karate-Jūjutsu," a name that reflects its hybrid character. Ōtsuka was a licensed Shindō Yōshin-ryū practitioner and a student of Yōshin-ryū when he first met the Okinawan karate master Gichin Funakoshi. After having learned from Funakoshi, and after their split, with Okinawan
Xingyiquan (Chinese: 形意拳; pinyin: Xíngyìquán; Wade–Giles: Hsing I Ch'üan) is one of the major "internal" or Wudang styles of Chinese martial arts. The word translates approximately to "Form/Intention Boxing", or "Shape/Will Boxing", and is characterized by aggressive, seemingly linear movements and explosive power. There is no single organizational body governing the teaching of the art, and several variant styles exist.
A practitioner of xingyiquan uses coordinated movements to generate bursts of power intended to overwhelm the opponent, simultaneously attacking and defending. Forms vary from school to school, but include barehanded sequences and versions of the same sequences with a variety of weapons. These sequences are based upon the movements and fighting behavior of a variety of animals. The training methods allow the student to progress through increasing difficulty in form sequences, timing and fighting strategy.
The exact origin of xingyiquan is unknown. The earliest written records of it can be traced to the 18th century to Ma Xueli of Henan Province and Dai Long Bang of Shanxi Province. Legend, however, credits the creation of xingyiquan to the renowned Song Dynasty
Cornish wrestling (Cornish: Omdowl Kernewek) is a form of wrestling which has been established in Cornwall, an area of southwest Britain for several centuries. The referee is known as a 'stickler', and it is claimed that the popular meaning of the word as a 'pedant' originates from this usage. It is colloquially known as "wrasslin" in the Cornish dialect.
The wrestlers in the Cornish style both wear tough jackets enabling them to gain better grip on their opponent. All holds are taken upon the other wrestler's jacket, grabbing of the wrists or fingers is forbidden as well as any holding below the waist. Although all holds are to be taken upon the jacket the flat of the hand is allowed to be used to push or deflect an opponent.
The objective of Cornish wrestling is to throw your opponent and make him land as flat as possible on his back. Three sticklers (referees) watch and control each bout whilst also recording down the score of points achieved in play. Four pins are located on the back of a wrestler, two at the back of each shoulder and two either side just above the buttocks. If a wrestler manages to throw his opponent flat onto his back, simultaneously scoring with all 4 pins
Kumdo is a modern martial art descended from kendo, which is practiced in Korea. It is also romanized as kǒmdo, gumdo, or geomdo. The name means "the way of the sword," and is a cognate with the Japanese term. Kumdo is a martial art that has become engrained within Korean culture and society since being introduced from Japan. The term kumdo has within recent history also been used as a generic term for other Korean martial arts based upon swordsmanship and caution should be exercised so as not to confuse Kumdo with martial arts of Korean origin such as Haidong Gumdo and Hankumdo. Although identical to kendo, minor superficial differences exist due to appropriation and acculturation of kendo. Such differences include the use of native terminology, the use of blue referee flags in contrast to red flags. Furthermore, hakama without koshiita and hakama that use velcro rather than be tied have been developed within Korea, and can be seen in use along side traditional hakama.
Kendo, then still known as gekiken, was introduced to Korea from Japan in 1896 as a form of police and military training. After Japan outlawed many Korean martial arts, they introduced Japanese martial arts such as
Ryabko's Systema is a type of martial art headed by Mikhail Ryabko. Ryabko is a Colonel in the Russian military, and has past military, special forces, and traditional Russian martial arts training.
This art is variously called Systema, "The System", "Russian martial arts" and "poznaj sebya" (Russian language: познай себя "discover yourself"). Although this art uses the same name as Kadochnikov's Systema, it is different in a number of ways, most notably because it doesn't directly study biomechanics. The practical philosophy, training methods, views on history and many other subtleties are completely different.
"The System" is a reference to the various systems of the body (Muscle, Nervous system, respiratory system, etc.) as well as elements of Psychology and the Spirit.
Note: The Systema article describes history common to these arts.
The strongest influence of Ryabko's style is from traditional Russian martial arts, originally through a member of Sokoli Stalina (Russian: Соколы Сталина "Stalin's Falcons" - Joseph Stalin's personal bodyguards.)
Ryabko operates the Systema headquarters in Russia, and continues to train students and military personnel, and also acts as an advisor.
Varma Kalai (Tamil: வர்மக்கலை) is a martial art and esoteric healing art originating from ancient Tamil Nadu in South India. The name literally translate as "The Art of Vital Points". It is an element of the Tamil martial art Kuttu varisai.
Legend has it that Lord Siva taught this art form to his son Lord Murugan and Lord Murugan taught this art to the sage Agastya, foremost of the Siddhar's, during the times of Sangam Literature. He transferred the knowledge of this art to other Siddhar's and he also wrote treatises on this art in Tamil. The presence of shrines to Agathiar in Courtallam suggests that he researched the art there.
Though Varma Kalai has its own form of katas and procedures, it was closely assorted with Silambam's component Kuttu varisai and Kalaripayattu. Knowledge of Varma Kalai was considered vital in both arts to become a Grand Master. The teachers were called as Aasan (Tamil: ஆசான்) and the grand masters were called as Periyaasan (Tamil: பெரியாசன்) or Iyan (Tamil: ஐயன்).
Historically, Varma Kalai has been one of the arts taught to those of royal blood. However, even royalty were required to pass the stringent requirements for discipleship. The schools received
WonHwaDo is a relatively new Korean martial art, founded in 1972 by Bong-Ki Han. The name means, roughly, "The Way of Circular Harmony" (Won = Circle, Hwa = Harmony, Do = Way). The basis of the art lies in circular motion, effectively making use of full 360° rotations of the key joints of the human body. This serves to conserve energy and reduce the risk of injury caused by forced linear action.
Founded in 1972 by Great Grand Master Han Bong Ki. WonHwaDo has its origins in traditional Korean dance and prayer. The latter consisted of holding the hands in the traditional prayer position and then rotating them, as if spinning a wheel. This represented the rotation of the Yin and Yang within the person, bringing them into alignment and harmony, thereby bringing peace and healing.
The WonHwaDo techniques are based on 360 degree circular motions that could be shown as a very flowing movement like Aikido or Taichi. Also dynamic throwing techniques, joint locks, punching are used. Kicking techniques are performed based on circular motions of hands, legs and the whole body. Circular power doesn't stop flowing and it creates a continuous effective attack and defense movement. Since December
Lancashire wrestling is an historic wrestling style from Lancashire in England. Many consider it to be partially the origin of catch wrestling, professional and amateur wrestling.
The style included groundwork and had the reputation of being an extremely fierce and violent sport. Sources show that there were some rules trying to safeguard the wrestlers from serious injury. For instance, there was a ban on breaking an opponent's bones.
In the counties to the north, Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling developed with rules designed to minimise injury to the participants.
Savate (French pronunciation: [savat]), also known as boxe française, French boxing, French kickboxing or French footfighting, is a French martial art which uses the hands and feet as weapons combining elements of western boxing with graceful kicking techniques. Only foot kicks are allowed unlike some systems such as Muay Thai, and Silat which allow the use of the knees or shins. "Savate" is a French word for "old shoe". Savate is perhaps the only style of kickboxing in which the fighters habitually wear shoes. A male practitioner of savate is called a savateur while a female is called a savateuse.
Savate takes its name from the French for "old boot" (heavy footwear that used to be worn during fights; cf. sabot and sabotage). The modern formalized form is mainly an amalgam of French street fighting techniques from the beginning of the 19th century. There are also many types of savate rules. Savate was then a type of street fighting common in Paris and northern France. In the south, especially in the port of Marseille, sailors developed a fighting style involving high kicks and open-handed slaps. It is conjectured that this kicking style was developed in this way to allow the
Sli Beatha is a hybrid martial art and life development system based on the philosophy of Celtic individuality and integrated physical, mental, and spiritual aspects of the individual . The foundation is most closely related to military combatives and places a focus on striking techniques, but includes grappling techniques for self-defense situations that are not typically used in competitive sport.
Sli Beatha was founded in 1996 by former Special Operations police officer Craig Smith and was first taught in Warrensburg, Missouri that Fall. Classes were later taught at the local Central Missouri State University (now the University of Central Missouri) as part of the Central Martial Arts Club.
One of the original students, Duane Hamacher, began teaching the system at the University of Missouri in Columbia after transferring in 2000 and founded the Mizzou Martial Arts Club (2000-2005) to provide classes in Sli Beatha. The application of Sli Beatha to Mixed Martial Arts allowed the club to sponsor tournaments and events in Pankration which attracted a wide range of students . The Mizzou Pankration Team was formed in 2001 as part of the club to compete in and host Pankration/MMA
Eagle Claw (Chinese: 鷹爪派; pinyin: yīng zhǎo pài) is a style of Chinese martial arts known for its gripping techniques, system of joint locks, takedowns, and pressure point strikes, which is representative of Chinese grappling known as Chin Na. The style is normally attributed to the famous patriotic Song Dynasty General Yue Fei. Popular legends states that he learned martial arts from a Shaolin Monk named Zhou Tong and later created Eagle Claw to help his armies combat the invading armies of the Jin Dynasty. It was passed down until the Ming Dynasty when the monk Lai Chin combined the style with another form of boxing called Fanzi. Thus, the style took on long range strikes and aerial jumps. During the Qing Dynasty, the military instructor Liu Shi Jun became known as the modern progenitor of Eagle Claw and taught many students. His student Liu Cheng You later taught Chen Zizheng who was invited to teach the style in the prestigious Chin Woo Athletic Association during the Republican era. The style spread as Chin Woo opened sister schools in other provinces. Today, it is practiced around the world.
While the details of the history alter according to the teller, with names and places
Japanese kickboxing is combat sport created by the Japanese boxing promoter Osamu Noguchi and Karate practitioner Tatsuo Yamada. It was the first combat sport that adopted the name of "kickboxing" in 1966. The sport is now known as Japanese kickboxing and most recently K1 Rules or Oriental Rules to differ from other combat sports that also adopted the name of "kickboxing".
The original rules were very similar to Muay Thai.
On December 20, 1959, a Muay Thai among Thai fighters was held at Tokyo Asakusa town hall in Japan. Tatsuo Yamada, who established "Nihon Kempo Karate-do", was interested in Muay Thai because he wanted to perform Karate matches with full-contact rules since practitioners are not allowed to hit each other directly in karate matches. At this time, it was unimaginable to hit each other in karate matches in Japan. He had already announced his plan which was named "The draft principles of project of establishment of a new sport and its industrialization" in November, 1959, and he proposed the tentative name of "Karate-boxing" for this new sport. It is still unknown whether Thai fighters were invited by Yamada, but it is clear that Yamada was the only karateka who was
Kbach kun dambong veng (Khmer: ក្បាច់គុណដំបងវែង) is the term for a Cambodian martial art based on the long staff. The term "dambong" means "staff" in the Khmer language and the term "veng" means "long". Translated literally it means "the art/martial skill of the long staff." The term is also used in the phrase "land of the lost staff", Battambang. In the town of Battambang there is a big statue of 'Grandfather Dambong' holding the lost staff. It is based on different mae(s) which can be imagined as a Khmer version of kata(s).
Leopard Kung fu is style of Kung fu and is one of the Five Animal styles.
It was supposedly created by Jue Yuan with help from Bai Yufeng and Li Sou. The emphasis of leopard is speed and angular attack. The leopard does not overwhelm or rely on strength, as does the tiger, but instead relies on speed and outsmarting its opponent. The power from the aggressive speed. The leopard practitioner will focus on elbows, knees, low kicks, and leopard punches.
The goals of Leopard style are to:
The leopard style was founded on the creators' observation of the movements of the leopard in the wild, and therefore practitioners of the style imitate these movements. Blocking is wasted in Leopard - the style can be summed up with "Why block when you can hit?" It does not rely on rooted stances, and would only assume a stance while in attack in order to launch at the opponent. This hit and run technique of the leopard, something especially effective against larger opponents, is unique to the animal.
The primary weapon is the leopard fist, which can be likened to a half-opened fist. The primary striking surface is the ridge formed by folding the fingers at the first phalangeal joint; the secondary
Pangamut or pangamot is a Filipino martial art term as taught by Dan Inosanto, Kevin B. Smith, and many others. It is a word that refers to a person's comprehensive skill in combat arts, particularly in empty-handed Filipino martial arts, with respect to his or her abilities in panantukan (hand techniques), dumog (grappling), pananjakman (kicking and sweeping), kaukit (foot trapping), and kino mutai (biting and gouging). It is not a system or style, but rather a generalization of one's fighting prowess. For example, if someone were to say "your pangamut is good", this is a complement that means (without a weapon) you are an all around effective fighter.
Yagyū Shinkage-ryū (柳生新陰流) is one of the oldest Japanese schools of swordsmanship (kenjutsu). Its primary founder was Kamiizumi Nobutsuna, who called the school Shinkage-ryū. In 1565, Nobutsuna bequeathed the school to his greatest student, Yagyū Munetoshi, who added his own name to the school. Today, the Yagyū Shinkage-ryū remains one of the most renowned schools of Japanese swordsmanship. Its name roughly means Yagyū New Shadow School.
At the time of its founding by Kamiizumi Nobutsuna, the superiority of a school was determined through duels. Basic postures were distinct; a very low stance was maintained, in the interest of protecting the body. The idea of winning at any price was deeply ingrained in the schools of the time, as were the concepts of Isatsu-no-tachi (the school of the sword that kills only once) or Ichi-no-tachi (the sword of only one cut). A great deal of importance was placed on the technology of swords and armor themselves. However, with the arrival of muskets (arquebuses) and other elements of modern warfare, these traditionally invincible techniques were no longer sufficient.
Nobutsuna, with the creation of the Shinkage-ryū (New Shadow School), changed basic
Canne de combat is a French martial art. As weapon, it uses a cane or canne (a kind of walking-stick) designed for fighting. Canne de combat was standardized in the 1970s for sporting competition by Maurice Sarry. The canne is very light, made of chestnut wood and slightly tapered. A padded suit and a fencing mask are worn for protection.
The “Canne de Combat” or “Canne d’Arme” is a product of French history and culture. It developed in the early 19th century as a self-defence discipline and was particularly used by upper class "bourgeois" gentlemen in big, unsafe cities such as Paris. Some speak of French martial art although its codification as a sport does not allow this name officially. The history of the discipline is closely linked to the development of the Savate boxing techniques which at the beginning was mainly using kicks and lately under the influence of the British incorporated also punches. Gentlemen trained into the Savate techniques mastered cane as a way of fighting from a certain distance as well as close combat kickboxing. The cane was in the hands of the city men, while the staff was in the hands of farm men. In fact, cane and staff were closely associated in
Capoeira Angola is the traditional style of Capoeira. It is usually, although not always, characterized by playful, ritualized games, which combine elements of dancing, combat, and music, while stressing interaction between the two players and the musicians and observers. It also contains the African roots and methods of capoeira.
Capoeira has its roots in Central and West African cultures that were brought to Brazil through the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. There are diverse theories about the origins of the art form. One of the most popular was introduced by Álbano Neves e Sousa in 1965. This theory was subsequently adopted and developed by Luís da Câmara Cascudo in his book Folclore do Brasil in 1967.
The theory concerns a practice known as "N'golo," or the Dance of the Zebras. The movements of N'golo mimicked the movements of fighting zebras. The N'golo dance was practiced by young warriors competing for the hand of a young woman of marriagable age in a puberty rite known as efundula. The specific group cited by Neves e Sousa was the Mucupe (sometimes spelled Mucope) in Southern Angola. Whoever had a more impressive performance won the bride and was excused from having to pay a
Chángquán (simplified Chinese: 长拳; traditional Chinese: 長拳; pinyin: Chángquán; literally "Long Fist") refers to a family of external (as opposed to internal) martial arts (kung fu) styles from northern China.
The forms of the Long Fist style emphasize fully extended kicks and striking techniques, and by appearance would be considered a long-range fighting system. In some Long Fist styles the motto is that "the best defense is a strong offense," in which case the practitioner launches a preemptive attack so aggressive that the opponent doesn't have the opportunity to attack. Others emphasize defense over offense, noting that nearly all techniques in Long Fist forms are counters to attacks. Long Fist uses large, extended, circular movements to improve overall body mobility in the muscles, tendons, and joints. Advanced Long Fist techniques include qin na joint-locking techniques and shuai jiao throws and takedowns.
The Long Fist style is considered to contain a good balance of hand and foot techniques, but in particular it is renowned for its impressive acrobatic kicks. In demonstration events, Long Fist techniques are most popular and memorable for their whirling, running, leaping,
Seishindo Karate - One of the original ways used to describe the newly developing martial art ideas by Frank Argelander beginning in 1979 through 1984. Since "Seishindo Karate" or was in its infancy of development, Argelander viewed "Seishindo Karate" or "Seishindo" as simply a name to represent his style of movement he was doing at the time. This combination of kicking skills, from his Taekwondo training, blended with the lighting hand skills of Kenpo Karate, gave Argelander a well balanced set of tools in which to build upon.
Wǔdāngquán, is a classification of Chinese martial arts known more generally as nèijiā. The name Wudang refers to the Wudang Mountains of Hubei Province. Chinese legends/myths say that Zhang Sanfeng created tai chi chuan there; however, this has been widely debunked by Stanley Henning's, "Ignorance, Legend and Taijiquan." The word "quan" translates to English as "boxing" or "fist". The pinyin standard spells it "quan"; the Wade-Giles standard spells it "ch'uan", as in T'ai Chi Ch'uan.
Internal or "soft" styles of Chinese martial art are sometimes referred to as Wudang styles regardless of whether they originated in or were developed in the temples of the Wudang Mountains, just as external or "hard" styles are sometimes called Shaolin regardless of whether the individual style traces its origins to the Shaolin tradition or not.
Wudangquan incorporates yin-yang theory from the I Ching as well as the Five Elements of Taoist cosmology: water, earth, fire, wood, and metal. Animal imagery is evident in some of their practices. These motions are trained to be combined and coordinated with the neigong breathing to develop nei jin, internal power, for both offensive and defensive purposes.
Bokator, or more formally, Labokkatao (ល្បុក្កតោ) is a Cambodian martial art that includes close hand-to-hand combat, ground techniques and weapons. Possibly the oldest existing fighting system in Cambodia, oral tradition indicates that bokator or an early form thereof was the close quarter combat system used by the armies of Angkor 1000 years ago. The term bokator translates as "pounding a lion" from the words bok meaning to pound and tor meaning lion. A common misunderstanding is that bokator refers to all Khmer martial arts while in reality it only represents one particular style.
It uses a diverse array of elbow and knee strikes, shin kicks, submissions and ground fighting. Practitioners are trained to strike with knees, hands, elbows, feet, shins, and head. Weapons are also used, primarily the bamboo staff and short sticks.
When fighting, bokator exponents still wear the uniforms of ancient Khmer armies. A krama (scarf) is folded around their waist and blue and red silk cords called sangvar day are tied around the combatants head and biceps. In the past it is said that the cords were enchanted to increase strength, although now they are just ceremonial.
The art contains 341
Iaido (居合道, Iaidō) is a modern Japanese martial art associated with the smooth, controlled movements of drawing the sword from its scabbard or saya, striking or cutting an opponent, removing blood from the blade, and then replacing the sword in the scabbard. While new students of iaido may start learning with a wooden sword (bokken) depending on the teaching style of a particular instructor, many of those who study iaido use a blunt edged sword (iaitō). Few, more experienced, iaido practitioners use a sharp edged sword (shinken).
Practitioners of iaido are often referred to as iaidoka.
Because iaido is practiced with a weapon, it is almost entirely practiced using forms, or kata. Multiple person kata exist within some schools of iaido, when iaidoka will usually use bokken for such kata practice. Iaido does include competition in form of kata but does not use sparring of any kind. Because of this non-fighting aspect, and iaido's emphasis on precise, controlled, fluid motion, it is sometimes referred to as "moving Zen."
Iaido forms (kata) are performed solitarily against one or more imaginary opponents. Some iaido schools, however, include kata performed in pairs. Most of the styles
Kyokushin kaikan (極真会館) is a style of stand-up, full contact karate, founded in 1964 by Korean-Japanese karate master, Masutatsu Oyama (大山倍達, Ōyama Masutatsu) who was born under the name Choi Young-Eui. 최영의}. Kyokushinkai is Japanese for "the society of the ultimate truth". Kyokushin is rooted in a philosophy of self-improvement, discipline and hard training. Its full contact style has had international appeal (practitioners have over the last 40+ years numbered more than 12 million).
The following is a brief overview of the early life of Masutatsu "Mas" Oyama.
The founder of International Karate Organization Kyokushinkaikan, Masutatsu Oyama, was born Choi Bae Dal in 1923 on July the 27th, during the Japanese Occupation.
As a young child, Oyama enjoyed fighting and watching others fight. His childhood was spent in Manchuria, China where he learned Kempo (Chuan'Fa/18 Hands Techniques) from a Chinese seasonal worker named Lee. Oyama refers to Lee as his first teacher.
In 1938, he emigrated to Japan and studied Okinawan Karate under Gichin Funakoshi, eventually gaining 2nd dan. Later, Oyama also trained under Yoshida Kotaro, a famous Daito-ryu Aiki-jujutsu/Yanagi-ryu Aiki-jujutsu
Nanbudō (Japanese 南武道) is a relatively recent martial art of Japanese origin. It was founded by Yoshinao Nanbu (Japanese 南部義尚) (1943—) in 1978. It has its roots in many Japanese systems such as aikido, karate and judo.
The system of martial arts known as Nanbudo was founded in 1978 by Yoshinao Nanbu Doshu-Soke. Mr. Nanbu was born in 1943 in Kobe (Japan), in the Nanbu family, a traditional bushi (samurai) family from the Iwate Prefecture on Northern Honshū. He grew up in a milieu where martial arts were greatly respected. Growing up in a very martial arts-oriented family, he started learning martial arts at an early age. At the age of five he started learning Judo from his father, a 5th Dan who taught the Kobe police force. After a few years he started learning Kendo from his uncle.
At the age of 18, he entered the University of Economic Sciences in Osaka. There he discovered Karate. He learned Shito ryu and Shūkōkai Karate under Masters Tani (8th Dan) and Tanaka. He quickly grew very proficient in this discipline, and in 1963 he won the Japanese University Championship, at that time the most distinguished Karate championship in the world. Following his successes in Japan, Henry
Northern Praying Mantis (Chinese: 螳螂拳; pinyin: tánglángquán; literally "praying mantis fist") is a style of Chinese martial arts, sometimes called Shandong Praying Mantis after its province of origin. It was created by Wang Lang (王朗) and was named after the praying mantis, an insect, the aggressiveness of which inspired the style. One Mantis legend places the creation of the style in the Song Dynasty when Wang Lang was supposedly one of 18 masters gathered by the Abbot Fu Ju (福居), a legendary persona of the historical Abbot Fu Yu (福裕) (1203–1275), to improve Shaolin martial arts. However, most legends place Wang Lang in the late Ming Dynasty.
The mantis is a long and narrow predatory insect. While heavily armoured, it is not built to withstand forces from perpendicular directions. Consequently, its fighting style involves the use of whip-like/circular motions to deflect direct attacks, which it follows up with precise attacks to the opponent's vital spots. These traits have been subsumed into the Northern Praying Mantis style, under the rubric of "removing something" (blocking to create a gap) and "adding something" (rapid attack).
One of the most distinctive features of Northern
Senegalese wrestling (Njom in Serer, fr. Lutte sénégalaise, Laamb in Wolof, Siɲɛta in Bambara) is a type of Folk wrestling traditionally performed by the Serer people and now a national sport in Senegal and parts of The Gambia, and is part of a larger West African form of traditional wrestling (fr. Lutte Traditionnelle). The Senegalese form traditionally allows blows with the hands (frappe), the only of the West African traditions to do so. As a larger confederation and championship around Lutte Traditionnelle has developed since the 1990s, Senegalese fighters now practice both forms, called officially Lutte Traditionnelle sans frappe (for the international version) and Lutte Traditionnelle avec frappe for the striking version.
It takes its root from the wrestling tradition of the Serer people - formally a preparity exercise for war among the warrior classes depending on the technique. In Serer tradition, wrestling is divided into different techniques with mbapate being one of them. It was also an initiation rite among the Serers, the word Njom derives from the Serer principle of Jom (from Serer religion), meaning heart or honour in the Serer language. The Jom principle covers a
Shitō-ryū (糸東流) is a form of karate that was founded in 1931 by Kenwa Mabuni (摩文仁 賢和, Mabuni Kenwa).
Kenwa Mabuni (Mabuni Kenwa 摩文仁 賢和) was born in Shuri, a district of Naha, Okinawa in 1889. Mabuni was a 17th generation descendant of the famous warrior Oni Ufugusuku Kenyu. Perhaps because of his weak constitution, he began his instruction in his home town in the art of Shuri-te (首里手) at the age of 13, under the tutelage of the legendary Ankō Itosu (糸州 安恒, Itosu Ankō) (1831–1915). He trained diligently for several years, learning many kata from this great master. It was Itosu who first developed the Pinan kata, which were most probably derived from the "Kusanku" form.
One of his close friends, Chōjun Miyagi (宮城 長順, Miyagi Chōjun) (co-founder of Gojū-ryū Karate) introduced Mabuni to another great of that period, Kanryō Higaonna (東恩納 寛量, Higaonna Kanryō). Mabuni began to learn Naha-te (那覇手) under him. While both Itosu and Higaonna taught a "hard-soft" style of Okinawan "Te", their methods and emphases were quite distinct: the Itosu syllabus included straight and powerful techniques as exemplified in the Naihanchi and Bassai kata; the Higaonna syllabus stressed circular motion and
Shuai jiao (Chinese: 摔跤 or 摔角; pinyin: Shuāijiāo; Wade–Giles: Shuai-chiao) is the general Mandarin Chinese term for wrestling. As a generic name, it may be used to cover various styles of wrestling practised in China in the form of a martial arts system or a sport. The narrower term pertains to wrestling styles of the North China Plain. The art was introduced to Southern China in Republican era after 1911.
The earliest Chinese term for wrestling, "jǐao dǐ" (角抵, horn butting), refers to an ancient sport in which contestants wore horned headgear with which they attempted to butt their opponents. Legend states that "jiao di" was used in 2697 BC by the Yellow Emperor's army to gore the soldiers of a rebel army led by Chi You. In later times, young people would play a similar game, emulating the contests of domestic cattle, without the headgear. Jiao di has been described as an originating source of wrestling and latter forms of martial arts in China.
"Jiao li" (角力) was first referenced in the Classic of Rites during the Zhou Dynasty. Jiao li supplemented throwing techniques with strikes, blocks, joint locks and attacks on pressure points. These exercises were practiced in the winter by
Espada y Daga (also known as "punta y daga" or "olisi y baraw (cebuano))" is a modern discipline of Eskrima and the Filipino martial arts (FMA) believed to be influenced by Spanish swordsmanship, in particular the Spanish style of Side-sword and Dagger used by the Conquistadores who invaded the Philippine islands in the 16th century, and not the Rapier and Dagger styles used for dueling and self defence purposes by the Spanish upper classes as was once believed.
It is believed that the indigenous peoples who were sympathetic to the Spanish rulers were enlisted into the Spanish forces to help fend off regular invasions from the Muslim pirates from Mindanao and Sulu. Once recruited into the garrisons it is believed the Spanish Friars and commanders taught their fighting skills to the native recruits, who in turn adapted this style of fighting and combined it with their own indigenous fighting skills.
Espada 'y' Daga is originally a Spanish term literally translated as "sword and dagger"; this discipline of the FMA focuses on engaging an opponent(s) in close (Corto), mid (Medio) and long (Larga / Largo) ranges (see main article on Eskrima).
Typically the stronger or dominant hand
Haedong Kumdo, also spelled Haidong Gumdo, is a name coined around 1982 and used for several Korean martial arts organizations that use swords. Spelling varies between certain organizations. Most notable are Haidong Gumdo by the original organization (Daehan Haidong Gumdo Federation) under Kim Jeong-Ho, and Haedong Kumdo by the largest offshoot (Hanguk Haedong Gumdo Federation) under Na Han-Il.
Haidong Gumdo is significantly different style from kumdo, emphasizing a native Korean "battlefield" style of combat over the one-on-one dueling style found in standard or Daehan Kumdo. As such, it is unrelated to modern, standard kumdo. By contrast, the KKA promotes Daehan Kumdo (大韓劍道), with noted changes to reflect Korean cultural influences and methodology.
Haedong Gumdo derives its name from Haedong Seongguk Balhae (海東盛國渤海), a name for Balhae, a medieval kingdom in the region of northeastern Korea, and southern Manchuria.
Practitioners of Haidong Gumdo engage in the practice of basic techniques (kibon), forms (geompeob or pumsae), step sparring (yaksuk daeryun), sparring (hada), energy building exercises (qi gong) and cutting practice (begi).
Basic practice is done with the mokgum
Hung Ga 洪家, Hung Kuen 洪拳, or Hung Ga Kuen 洪家拳 is a southern Chinese martial art associated with the Chinese folk hero Wong Fei Hung, who was a master of Hung Ga.
According to legend, Hung Gar was named after Hung Hei-Gun, who learned martial arts from Jee Sin, a Chan master at the Southern Shaolin Temple. Jee Sin (ak Gee Sum Sim See) was also the master of following 4 students, namely Choy Gau Lee, Mok Da Si, Lau Sam-Ngan and Li Yao San. These five students later became the famous founders of five of the southern shaolin styles (Hung Ga, Choy Gar, Mok Gar, Li Gar and Lau Gar).
The temple where they trained had become a refuge for opponents of the Qing Dynasty, who used it as a base for their activities, and was soon destroyed by Qing forces. Hung, a tea merchant by trade, eventually left his home in Fujian for Guangdong, bringing the art with him.
Even though Hung Ga is supposedly named after Hung Hei Gun, the predominant Wong Fei Hung lineage of Hung Ga claims descent not from him but from his classmate Luk Ah Choi (陸阿采), who taught Wong Fei Hung's father Wong Kei-Ying and, by some accounts, Wong Taai (黃泰), who is variously said to be Wong Kei Ying's father or his uncle. Because
Kurash (kuresh, koresh and variants; Uzbek kurash, Bashkir көрәш köräş, Tatar küreş, куреш, көрәш, kөrəş, Kazakh курес kures, Chuvash кӗрешӳ) is the Turkic term for "wrestling" (from Old Turkic keriš, c.f. Turkish güreş) and specifically refers to a number of folk wrestling styles practiced in Central Asia. The Tatar wrestling is the main competition at the Tatar folk festival Sabantuy.
The first official All-USSR koresh championship took place in Kazan in 1928 and was followed by the first TASSR (Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) national championship in 1949. Since 1956, regular Tatar Köräş competitions have been organised in honor of the national hero and poet Musa Cälil.
At the turn of 1950 and 1960, the Soviet Federation of freestyle wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling, and sambo started to develop Tatar Köräş. Sportsmen from the neighbour regions, such as Bashkortostan, Mordovia, and Ulyanovsk City came to compete in Kazan for the first time in 1959. In 1960, the capital of Tatarstan was appointed host of the first RSFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) national koresh championship, an event that has been repeated every year since that date. It was
Muay Lao is a traditional unarmed martial art from Laos. It is similar to Muay Thai in Thailand and Pradal Serey in Cambodia. It incorporates punches, kicks, elbows and knee strikes. Muay Lao was an event at the 2009 Southeast Asian Games in Vientiane.
Muay Thai (Thai: มวยไทย, RTGS: Muai Thai, IPA: [mūɛj tʰāj]) is a combat sport from Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. It is similar to other Indochinese kickboxing systems, namely pradal serey from Cambodia, tomoi from Malaysia, lethwei from Burma and muay Lao from Laos.
The word muay derives from the Sanskrit mavya which means "to bind together". Muay Thai is referred to as the "Art of Eight Limbs" or the "Science of Eight Limbs" because it makes use of punches, kicks, elbows and knee strikes, thus using eight "points of contact", as opposed to "two points" (fists) in boxing and "four points" (hands and feet) used in other more regulated combat sports, such as kickboxing and savate. A practitioner of muay Thai is known as a nak muay. Western practitioners are sometimes called nak muay farang, meaning "foreign boxer."
Various forms of kickboxing have long been practiced throughout Southeast Asia. Based on Chinese and Indian martial arts, practitioners claim that these systems can be traced back to a thousand years.
In the case of Thailand, muay Thai evolved from the older muay boran (ancient boxing), an unarmed combat method which would
Pankration ( /pæn.ˈkreɪti.ɒn/ or /pæŋˈkreɪʃən/) was a martial art introduced into the Greek Olympic Games in 648 BC and founded as a blend of boxing and wrestling but with almost no rules save disallowing biting and gouging of the opponent's eyes. The term comes from the Greek παγκράτιον [paŋkrátion], literally meaning "all powers" from πᾶν (pan-) "all" + κράτος (kratos) "strength, power".
In Greek mythology, it was said that the heroes Heracles and Theseus invented pankration as a result of using both wrestling and boxing in their confrontations with opponents. Theseus was said to have utilized his extraordinary pankration skills to defeat the dreaded Minotaur in the Labyrinth. Heracles was said to have subdued the Nemean lion using pankration, and was often depicted in ancient artwork doing that. In this context, it should be noted that pankration was also referred to as pammachon or pammachion (πάμμαχον or παμμάχιον), meaning "total combat", from πᾶν-, pān-, "all-" or "total", and μάχη, machē, "combat". The term pammachon was older, and would later become used less than the term pankration.
The mainstream academic view has been that pankration was the product of the development
Seishindo - (Seishin: mind; soul; heart; spirit; intention), (Do: The Way) together translate into "Way of the Mind" which is the understanding of the conscious thought that goes into formulating an action as well as the subconscious understanding of how action can deceive us in battle.
Seishindo? What does it mean? and why Seishindo? As Frank Argelander began to develop his new training methods in the 1970's, that employed the merging of Taekwondo and Kenpo Karate's Natural Weapon together, Argelander would introduce new concepts, principles and ideas of how these two system work in harmony. These concepts of physical movements, balanced together with the understanding of our own self awareness, is the completeness, or whole that every student needs, to achieve that level of completeness in their action, or way; Seishindo, "Way of the Mind"; to find the center or core, of life's force itself.
To achieve Seishindo you must find harmony between physical action, and compassion for those you face in battle. Physical fighting skill is only half of a students total development. Complete understanding of Concepts, Principles and Ideas of motion is the other half of a martial artist training. Without Seishindo, a student physical abilities, may become strong and powerful, but will always lack that completion needed to achieve harmony in their live.
Shoot boxing (シュートボクシング) is both a combat sport and a stand-up fighting promotion company based in Tokyo, Japan. The organization was founded by former kickboxer Caesar Takeshi in 1985.
Shootboxing allows kicks, punches, knees, throws, and standing submissions (chokeholds, armlocks and wristlocks).
Shoot boxing (commonly written as Shootboxing) was created in August 1985 by former kickboxer Caesar Takeshi. The first Shootboxing event took place on September 1, 1985.
Some mixed martial artists such as Hayato Sakurai began their careers in Shootboxing. Shootboxing has also drawn fighters who became famous in other promotions such as Jens Pulver. Many K-1 World MAX stars also either debuted in Shootboxing or have fought for Shootboxing in the past, including Andy Souwer, Albert Kraus, HAYATØ, Buakaw Por. Pramuk, and Davey Abdullah among others.
S-Cup, the Shoot Boxing World Cup, is the 8 man single elimination World Tournament generally held once every 2 years since 1995.
Girls S-Cup, is the 8 woman single elimination World Tournament generally held once every year since 2009.
Professional shoot boxing matches fall into one of two classes, Expert class and Freshman class. The length
Shoot wrestling is a combat sport that has its origins in Japan's professional wrestling circuit of the 1970s. Professional wrestlers of that era attempted to utilize more realistic or "full contact" moves in their matches to increase their excitement. The name "shoot wrestling" comes from the professional wrestling term "shoot", which refers to any unscripted occurrence within a scripted wrestling event. Prior to the emergence of the current sport of shoot wrestling, the term was commonly used in the professional wrestling business, particularly in the United Kingdom, as a synonym for the legitimate sport of catch wrestling. Shoot wrestling can be used to describe a range of hybrid fighting systems such as shootfighting, shooto, pancrase, RINGS submission fighting and shoot boxing.
Historically, shoot wrestling has been influenced by many martial arts such as freestyle wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling, catch wrestling in the beginning, and sambo, karate, kickboxing, Muay Thai and judo in the final stages.
Karl Gotch is one of the most important figures in the development of shoot wrestling. Karl Gotch eventually graduated to the American professional wrestling circuit where he
Taijutsu (体術, literally "body technique" or "body skill") is a Japanese blanket term for any combat skill, technique or system of martial art using body movements that are described as an empty-hand combat skill or system. The term is commonly used when referring to a traditional Japanese martial art but has also been used in the naming of modern martial arts such as Bujinkan Budo Taijutsu. More specific names than Taijutsu are typically used when describing a martial art, such as Jujutsu (focusing on grappling and striking), Judo (focusing on throwing and grappling), Aikido (focusing on throwing and joint locks) as well as Karate and Kenpo (focusing on striking).
In the Japanese anime series Naruto, the term Taijutsu is commonly used to describe empty-hand fighting skills.
Danzan-Ryū (檀山流, "Sandalwood Mountain System" from a Chinese name for Hawaii) is a Ryū of jujutsu founded by Henry Seishiro Okazaki (1890–1951) in Hawaii. Danzan Ryū is ubiquitous in the United States, particularly on the west coast.
For a Danzan Ryū syllabus, see Danzan Ryū Lists.
Seishiro Okazaki was born in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan in 1890. In 1906, he immigrated to the island of Hawaii. Soon after, he was afflicted with a pulmonary condition which may have been tuberculosis . It was during this time, however, that young Okazaki began studying under Yōshin-ryū jujutsu sensei by the name of Yoshimatsu Tanaka in Hilo, Hawaii. Okazaki intensely pursued his studies under Tanaka and he found after sometime that his respiratory condition had gone into remission. Okazaki felt that the study of martial arts had played a large role in his physical recovery and as a result he decided to dedicate his life to the study and teaching of jujitsu and related disciplines . Later in his life he would adopt the western name, Henry.
In 1924, Okazaki returned to Japan and underwent a study of the various schools, or ryū-ha, of the then most popular Jūjutsu styles of Yōshin-ryū, Namba-Shoshin Ryū,
Kuntao (Chinese: 拳道) is a Hokkien term for martial arts created by the Chinese community of Southeast Asia, particularly the Malay Archipelago. Literally meaning "way of the fist", the word kuntao more accurately translates as "fighting art." Although it is most commonly practiced in Indonesia among the Chinese Indonesian communities, styles of kuntao are also practiced in Singapore, Malaysia (especially Borneo) and the Philippines, where Chinese martial arts were brought by merchants, labourers and other settlers from south China. The styles had to be adapted to different terrain, competing against local styles and fighting with local weapons. Many (if not most) styles of kuntao have incorporated techniques from silat and some forms even changed their name from "kuntao" to "silat". Styles which combine both kuntao and silat together are sometimes called kuntao silat.
Kuntao was once practiced in secrecy and passed down through families; many schools continue to maintain an air of secrecy around their training techniques. It was kept hidden not only from non-Chinese, but also from people of differing clans. Although a few non-Chinese in Southeast Asia are known to have historically
Sikaran is a distinct Filipino Martial Art is a art of hand and foot fighting.. As Sikaran is a general term for kicking which is also used as the name of the kicking aspects of other Filipino Martial arts, this article discusses the distinct art which is specifically practiced in the Rizal province that focuses almost exclusively in kicking.
Sikaran comes from the root word sikad which means kick in Tagalog, Capampangan (e.g. sikaran daka - "I'm going to kick you"), as well as Cebuano (e.g. "sikaran tika").
Sikaran is a simple but intense martial art game that originated from the town of Baras in the province of Rizal. According to the forefathers of Baras, it had been practiced long before the Spaniards came to the Philippines in the 16th century.
It is noted that like most Filipino martial arts, Sikaran has no written history as most Filipinos from the lower classes during Spanish colonial times were barely literate (free public education was only introduced during the American era) and it was passed orally from generation to generation.
Like many Filipino martial arts styles, it has been endangered as it does not have as many practitioners as the more mainstream martial arts.
Bishop Donnie Williams, is an American martial artist, author, actor, bishop and Senior Pastor of The Family Church International. Donnie Williams was one of the four skilled martial artist, along with Steve Sanders, Cliff Stewart and Jerry Smith who organize and founded "The Black Karate Federation" helping the inter city kids of South Central Los Angles in the 1970's.
Dumog is the Filipino style of wrestling while standing upright and refers to the grappling aspect of Filipino martial arts. The word dumog is most commonly used in Mindanao and the Visayas, while the word buno is used in Luzon, specifically in the Southern Tagalog-speaking provinces as far south as Mindoro. Techniques encompass a variety of pushes, pulls, weight shifts and joint locks designed to "move" the opponent, often taking advantage of their weight and direction of force to throw them off balance.
It is also used colloquially as being mobbed (dinudumog).
Gouren is a style of folk wrestling which has been established in Brittany for several centuries.
In today's France, Gouren is overseen by the Fédération Française de Lutte (French Wrestling Federation).
Gouren was popular in Brittany towards the beginning of the 20th century, with competitions every Sunday in some small villages.
In 1930, in order to avoid the practice of gouren falling into oblivion, Charles Cottonec of Quimperlé (Finistère) breathed new life into the sport with the creation of a set of rules and the sport's first federation, which is still active today.
Today gouren is well-organised. It has its own federation, clubs (skoliou), and its own European Championships which take place every two years.
Gouren has also kept its cultural ties, and displays of the martial art can be seen alongside traditional Breton music and dance.
The wrestlers, required to fight barefoot, wear a special white shirt (roched) tied with a belt and black trousers (bragoù), and try to bring each other to the ground by grappling the other's roched. A victory (lamm) is declared when the loser is on their back on the ground, with the winner standing; this is usually managed by tripping the
Japanese martial arts refers to the enormous variety of martial arts native to Japan. At least three Japanese terms are often used interchangeably with the English phrase "Japanese martial arts": "budō" (武道), literally meaning "martial way", "bujutsu" (武術), which has no perfect translation but means something like science, art, or craft of war, and "bugei" (武芸), literally meaning "martial art." The term "budō" is a modern one, and is normally intended to indicate the practice of martial arts as a way of life, and encompassing physical, spiritual, and moral dimensions with a focus of self-improvement, fulfillment, or personal growth. The terms bujutsu and bugei have more discrete definitions, at least historically speaking. Bujutsu refers specifically to the practical application of martial tactics and techniques in actual combat. Bugei refers to the adaptation or refinement of those tactics and techniques to facilitate systematic instruction and dissemination within a formal learning environment.
The historical origin of Japanese martial arts can be found in the warrior traditions of the samurai and the caste system that restricted the use of weapons by members of the non-warrior
LINE is a close quarters combat system, derived from various martial arts, used by the United States Marine Corps between 1989 and 1998, and then from 1998 through to 2007 for the US Army Special Forces. It was developed by retired combat-arms Marine Ron Donvito.
Officially, the name stands for Linear Infighting Neural Override Engagement; this is, however, a backronym coined during the project's inception.
The system was designed to be executed within specific and stringent combat-oriented conditions:
These parameters are viewed as the most likely conditions that a combat Marine / soldier would face in close-range combat, since most close combat engagements were likely to occur at night or under reduced visibility, while the Marine was fatigued and wearing his combat load, and when facing asymmetrical odds, such as a numerically superior force. These requirements meant that many flamboyant techniques, exotic kicks, or movements requiring extraordinary feats of strength or agility were excluded from consideration under the LINE system. Techniques like classic judo "hip throws", for instance, were excluded because of the possibility of entanglement on a practitioner's war-belt.
The Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP, /ˈmɪkmæp/) is a combat system developed by the United States Marine Corps to combine existing and new hand-to-hand and close quarters combat (CQC) techniques with morale and team-building functions and instruction in the Warrior Ethos. The program, which began in 2001, trains Marines (and U.S. Navy personnel attached to Marine units) in unarmed combat, edged weapons, weapons of opportunity, and rifle and bayonet techniques. It also stresses mental and character development, including the responsible use of force, leadership, and teamwork.
The MCMAP was officially created by Marine Corps Order 1500.54, published in 2002, as a "revolutionary step in the development of martial arts skills for Marines and replaces all other close-combat related systems preceding its introduction." MCMAP comes from an evolution dating back to the creation of the Marine Corps, beginning with the martial abilities of Marine boarding parties, who often had to rely on bayonet and cutlass techniques.
During World War I these bayonet techniques were supplemented with unarmed combat techniques, which often proved useful in trench warfare. Between the world wars,
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full contact combat sport that allows the use of both striking and grappling techniques, both standing and on the ground, from a variety of other combat sports. The roots of modern mixed martial arts can be traced back to the ancient Olympics where one of the earliest documented systems of codified full range unarmed combat was utilized in the sport of Pankration. Various mixed style contests took place throughout Europe, Japan and the Pacific Rim during the early 1900s. The combat sport of Vale Tudo that had developed in Brazil from the 1920s was brought to the United States by the Gracie family in 1993 with the founding of the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), which is the largest MMA promotion company worldwide.
The more dangerous Vale Tudo style bouts of the early UFCs were made safer with the implementation of additional rules, leading to the popular regulated form of MMA seen today. Originally promoted as a competition with the intention of finding the most effective martial arts for real unarmed combat situations, competitors were pitted against one another with minimal rules. Later, fighters employed multiple martial arts into their style
Shippalgi (Hangul: 십팔기 Hanja: 十八技 lit: "eighteen techniques") is a kind of Korean martial arts, a system of eighteen traditional martial practices followed in Korea since 1759. These methods are classified into three categories (thrust, slice, and strike) and reflect strong influence from Chinese martial arts and the tactical military situation of the 18th and 19th century before firearms and modern military technology replaced bladed weapons as primary-use in the Korean Army.
Sibpalgi, Sipalki, Sibpalki or Sippalki are also used. The initial sound is "sh" rather than "si" as in "sip," and the final sound is more of a softer "g" than a hard "k."
The Korean system of Shippalgi has its roots in the Korean military manual, Muyejebo (“Martial Arts Illustrations”) which was published in 1610. Conflict with the Japanese during the Imjin War (1592 - 1598) revealed severe shortcomings in the Korean national army causing King Seonjo (1567-1608) to order reforms based on the successful training model of the Chinese General Qi Jiguang (1527 - 1587).
The Muyejebo was compiled by one of the king’s military officers, Han Gyo, and consists of 6 fighting systems. These included the Gonbang (long
Chun Kuk Do (CKD) is a Korean-based, American hybrid martial art style. Founded in 1990 by Chuck Norris, CKD evolved from Tang Soo Do and combines elements from several different fighting styles. "Chun Kuk Do" is Korean and is loosely translated as "The Universal Way." Norris trained in various other styles under some of the most respected instructors in the United States. These instructors included Shotokan Karate masters Tsutomu Ohshima and Hidetaka Nishiyama, Shitō-ryū Karate instructor Fumio Demura, American Kenpo Karate founder Ed Parker, Judo expert Gene LeBell, and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu legends the Machado family.
Each summer the United Fighting Arts Federation (UFAF) holds a training conference and the Chun Kuk Do world championship tournament in Las Vegas, Nevada.
Like many other martial arts, Chun Kuk Do includes a code of honor and rules to live by. These rules are from Chuck Norris's personal code. They are:
Like most traditional martial arts, Chun Kuk Do includes the practice of forms (or kata). The majority of the system’s forms are taken from Shotokan, but also includes 1 organization form, and three weapons forms from Isshin Ryu.
As of 2010, The United Fighting Arts
Cuong Nhu (pronounced /Kung new/) Oriental martial arts was originally developed by Dr. Ngo Dong (O'Sensei) in 1965 in Hue, Vietnam. The Cuong Nhu Oriental Martial Arts Association (CNOMAA) is a federally recognized non-profit educational organization. Cuong Nhu is a martial art that blends elements of Shotokan, Wing Chun, Judo, Aikido, T'ai chi ch'uan, Vovinam, and Boxing. It is this blending of hard and soft styles from which Cuong Nhu derives its name, which is Vietnamese for Hard (Cuong) / Soft (Nhu).
The first Cuong Nhu dojo in the United States was opened in 1971 in Gainesville, Florida, at the University of Florida, where Ngo Dong achieved his Ph. D in Entomology. The headquarters of the style was originally relocated to Gainesville Florida in 1977, following a daring escape from Vietnam by Ngo Dong and his family. The Cuong Nhu World headquarters is now permanently located in Jacksonville Florida; locally known as the Mandarin Martial Arts Center.
The current head of style for Cuong Nhu is Grandmaster Quynh Ngo.
Students at beginning levels of Cuong Nhu first concentrate on learning hard style Shotokan karate and Wing Chun techniques such as blocking and kicking, along with
Defendu is a modern martial art developed by William E. Fairbairn and Eric A. Sykes prior to World War II. It is a hand-to-hand combat system based on practical experience mixed with jujutsu and boxing that was developed to train the Shanghai Municipal Police, and was later taught in expanded form to Office of Strategic Services and Special Operations Executive members during World War II.
Based on his training in boxing, early Judo at the Kodokan in Tokyo, and fights he was involved in during his police work, Fairbairn began to develop his own system of hand to hand combat, calling it "Defendu". It was designed to be simple to learn and to provide effective results. Fairbairn published his book, Defendu, in 1926 (re-printed as Scientific Self Defence in 1931), illustrating this method and it is here that the term "Defendu" first appeared. This confused early readers of the book, who assumed that the techniques within had been based mainly in the Eastern martial arts that Fairbairn had learned. Thus, in an attempt to highlight the originality of Fairbairn's material, the term did not appear in the 1931 edition of the book.
Fairbairn was called upon by the British to help train
Juego del Palo (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈxweɣo ðel ˈpalo], Game of the Stick) is a traditional martial art/folk sport of stick fighting practiced in the Canary Islands. It involves the combative use of a slender stick from 4 to 6 feet (1.2 to 1.8 m) long, wielded in both hands, and characterised by fluid motion in attacks and defences.
Though similar stick fighting techniques are present in the Iberian peninsula (e.g. Portuguese Jogo do pau), the origins of Juego del Palo may be traced back to the Guanches, the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands in pre-colonial times during the early 15th century. A Spanish engineer named Leonardo Torriani wrote a history of the Canary Islands in 1590 and included a record of early Juego del Palo, accompanied by an illustration of two Guanche warriors performing a type of ritual combat with short staves in a small arena.Torriani wrote;
"When two Canarians went to duel, they met at a special place established for this purpose. It was a small enclosure with a level, raised stone platform at each end. To begin, they each stood upon a platform, armed with three of the smooth throwing stones they call tahuas, and also with the stick called
K-1 is a world-wide kickboxing promotion founded in Tokyo, Japan by Kazuyoshi Ishii, a former Kyokushin karate practitioner. Its rules are similar to those of kickboxing but they have been simplified to promote exciting matches that may end in a knockout win. The main difference between K-1 rules and kickboxing is the use of knees, allowed in K-1 but not in international kickboxing.
The letter K in K-1 is officially designated by the organisation as a representation of words karate, kickboxing and kung fu. Nevertheless, some reports suggest that it represents the initial K found in competing disciplines such as karate, kickboxing, kung fu, kempo, kakutougi (the generic Japanese term for "combat sports"), and [tae] kwon do. Yet another theory claims that the K simply comes from kakutougi and the "1" component pertains to the single weight division (in earlier competition) and the champion's unique position. Nevertheless, the promotion held several tournaments under K-2 and K-3 banners from 1993 to 1995.
K-1's predecessor Seidokaikan Karate was formed in 1980 by Kazuyoshi Ishii, a former Kyokushin karate practitioner who had formed his own organization to help promote the best
Ki-Aikido (心身統一合氣道, Shinshin-tōitsu-aikidō) is the style of aikido (a modern Japanese martial art) developed by Koichi Tohei.
Ki is a Japanese word meaning (among many others): spirit, mind, heart, which is conceptually related to the Chinese Qi and is of great importance to the way in which Koichi Tohei's style of aikido is taught. Tohei's style of aikido is correctly called Shinshin-tōitsu-aikidō (心身統一合気道, meaning "aikido with mind and body unified" ), but it is frequently referred to as Ki-Aikido, particularly in the Western world.
Tohei studied judo from the age of 16 and as a result of a training injury developed pleurisy, in response to this he began studying zen and misogi at Daitoku-ji in Kyoto under temple head Josei Ota. The breathing exercises he learned would later directly affect the breathing exercises taught as part of the Shin Shin Toitsu Aikido curriculum.
In 1939 he began studying aikido with its founder Morihei Ueshiba. His training was interrupted by World War II, during which he saw service as an officer. He returned from the war in 1946 and resumed his studies of aikido and misogi. In addition he also began studying Shinshin-tōitsu-dō with Tempu Nakamura; much
Monkey Kung Fu, or Monkey Fist (猴拳), is a Chinese martial art which utilizes ape or monkey-like movements as part of its technique.
There are a number of independently developed systems of monkey kung fu. Examples includes Xingzhemen (行者門) named after the protagonist Sun Wukong of the popular Ming dynasty novel Journey to the West, Nanhouquan (南猴拳) or Southern Monkey Fist originating from the Southern Shaolin Temple as well as the more well known Da Sheng Pi Gua Men 大聖劈掛門 style of Hong Kong.
The Hou Quan style from the Emei region, taught by the famous "Monkey King" Xiao Yingpeng and others, was also used as the basis for the modern wushu variant of monkey style (and monkey staff) that is often seen in demonstrations and competitions today. Each independent style has its own unique approach to the expression of how to incorporate a monkey's movements into fighting.
Da Sheng Men, or "Great Sage" Kung Fu, was developed near the end of the Qing dynasty (1911) by a fighter named Kou Si (Kau Sei) from a small village in Northern China. Legend states that while serving a sentence in prison, he observed a group of monkeys from his cell. As he studied their movements and mannerisms, he
Nguni stick fighting (also known as donga, or dlala 'nduku, which literally translates as playing sticks) is a martial art traditionally practiced by teenage Nguni herdboys in South Africa. Each combatant is armed with two long sticks, one of which is used for defense and the other for offense. Little armor is used.
Although Nguni/ Xhosa styles of fighting may use only two sticks, variations of Bantu /Nguni stick fighting throughout Southern Africa incorporate shields as part of the stick fighting weaponry. Zulu stick fighting uses an "Isiquili" or attacking stick, an "Uboko" or defending stick and an "izoliHauw" or defending shield.
The object is for two opposing warriors to fight each other to establish which of them is the strongest or the "Bull" (Inkunzi). In modern times this usually occurs as part of the wedding ceremony where warriors from the bridegroom's household and area welcome warriors from the bride's household and area to meet to "get to know each other", other groups of warriors may also be welcome to join in. Warriors do this by engaging in combat with one another. An "induna" or War Captain / Referee from each group of warriors keeps his crew in check and keeps
Qwan Ki Do (Quán Khí Đạo or the Way of Vital Energy), also written Quan Khi Dao, is a Sino-Vietnamese martial art, founded in 1981 based on traditional martial arts styles.
It is said that Qwan Ki Do was named after Pham Xuân Tong's master: Châu Quan Ky.
Qwan Ki Do is the synthesis of four schools of martial arts from China and Vietnam. It is the outcome of more than 25 years of studies and research from a Vietnamese martial arts expert: Pham Xuân Tong, executor of Châu Quan Ky's will.
The Chinese heritage is made out of three main schools of martial art:
The Vietnamese schools of martial arts are famous for their flying scissors techniques and also for the 'free boxing' style,very close to the South East Asia fighting styles.
As it can be found in the practitioner's guide.
Like in many other Vietnamese martial arts, Qwan Ki Do, has a colored belt system.
It focuses on three levels, only to recognize the knowledge and experience of the student regarding technique:
The practitionner is at the beginning of its initiation. He is wearing a white belt, that symbolise his absence of knowledge.
After accomplishing the exams for the 4th CÂP, the student can prepare for the black belt exam.
Tinku, an Andean tradition, began as a form of ritualistic combat. It is native to the northern region of Potosí in Bolivia. In the language of Quechua, the word “tinku” means encounter. In the language of Aymara it means “physical attack.” During this ritual, men and women from different communities will meet and begin the festivities by dancing. The women will then form circles and begin chanting while the men proceed to fight each other; rarely the women will join in the fighting as well. Large tinkus are held in Potosí during the first few weeks of May.
The story behind this cultural dance is that long ago, the Spanish conquistadors made the indigenous people their slaves. Tinku dance costumes are colorful and decorative. Women wear a dress, abarcas, and a hat and men wear an undershirt, pants, jacket, sandals (abarcas), and hard helmet like hats. Even though the people were slaves, they loved to dance, and would often fight, but never really hurting each other.
This dance was brought to the United States, and there are now many folkloric dance groups, such as Alma Boliviana, Tinkus Incallajta, Tinkus Tiataco, Pachamama, Los Quechuas, Tinkus Wapurs, and many others that perform
Yamanni-ryū (山根流) (also Yamanni-Chinen-ryū and Yamane Ryu) is a form of Okinawan kobudō whose main weapon is the bo, a non-tapered, cylindrical staff. The smaller buki, such as sai, tunfa (or tonfa), nunchaku, and kama (weapon) are studied as secondary weapons.
Tradition maintains that Sakugawa SATUNUSHI, entrusted with the protection of prominent Ryūkyū families, had studied the art in China. Later he lived in Akata village in Shuri, Okinawa. Sakugawa developed the style in the late 18th century. He passed it on to the Chinen family, beginning with Chinen Umikana. Sanda Chinen (1842–1925), also known as Yamani USUMEI and Yamane TANMEI, introduced the "bouncing" motion of the staff which is the style's hallmark. His grandson, Masami Chinen, named the style after him.
In 1979 Chogi Kishaba, a student of Masami Chinen, sent his student, Toshihiro Oshiro, to the United States. In 1985 they founded the Ryūkyū Bujutsu Kenkyu Doyukai or RBKD (Association for the Study and Research of Okinawan Martial Arts) for the purpose of bringing Yamanni-ryū to the West. Kishaba is the head of the RBKD. Shihan Oshiro (8th dan, Yamanni-ryū; 9th dan, Shōrin-ryū) is the Chief Instructor of RBKD USA and
Jousting is a martial game or hastilude between two horsemen and using lances, often as part of a tournament. The primary aim is to strike the opponent with the lance while riding towards him at high speed, if possible breaking the lance on the opponent's shield or armour, or unhorsing him.
Jousting emerged in the High Middle Ages based on the military use of the lance by heavy cavalry. It transformed into a specialized sport during the Late Middle Ages, and remained popular with the nobility both in England and Germany throughout the whole of the 16th century (while in France, it was discontinued after the death of king Henry II in an accident in 1559). In England, jousting was the highlight of the Accession Day tilts of Elizabeth I and James I, and also was part of the festivities at the marriage of Charles I.
Jousting was discontinued in favour of other equestrian sports in the 17th century, although non-contact forms of "equestrian skill-at-arms" disciplines survived. There has been a limited revival of jousting reenactment since the 1970s.
The joust became an iconic characteristic of the knight in Romantic medievalism and hence in the depiction of the Middle Ages in popular
Model Mugging is a form of self-defense training that uses padded trainers or Model Muggers to simulate assaults. It was founded by Matt Thomas, co-author of the book Defend Yourself!: Every Woman's Guide to Safeguarding Her Life. Its inspiration was the 1971 rape and beating of a karate black belt. Model Mugging was originally a self-defense program designed for the specific needs of women. Women learn how to protect themselves from a single unarmed assailant (basic self-defense course), armed assailants, and multiple assailants. Others involved in the early development of Model Mugging include Danielle Smith, Julio Toribio, Sheryl Doran and Mark Morrison
Model mugging training involves students role-playing and sometimes fighting through a variety of assault scenarios. Students are taught physical defenses, methods of avoiding or defusing potential assaults, verbal defenses, and decision-making under the pressure of such situations.
During the simulated assaults, heavily padded instructors, often referred to as muggers, accost, grab, or directly attack a student, who may respond (if they believe a physical response is appropriate for the situation) with full-force attacks to the
Silat Melayu (Jawi: سيلت ملايو; lit. "Malay silat") is a blanket term for the types of silat created in peninsular Southeast Asia, particularly Malaysia, Thailand, Brunei and Singapore. The silat tradition has deep roots in Malay culture and can trace its origin to the dawn of Malay civilization, 2000 years ago. Since the classical age, silat Melayu underwent great diversification and formed what is today traditionally recognized as the source of Indonesian pencak silat. Nowadays, the term silat Melayu is most often used to differentiate the Malaysian styles from Indonesian pencak silat.
The etymological root of the word silat is uncertain and most hypotheses link it to any similar-sounding word. It may come from Si Elat which means someone who confuses, deceives or bluffs. A similar term, ilat, means an accident, misfortune or a calamity. Another theory is that it comes from silap meaning wrong or error. Some styles contain a set of techniques called Langkah Silap designed to lead the opponent into making a mistake.
The word Melayu means Malay and came from the Sanskrit term Malaiur or Malayadvipa which can be translated as “mountain insular continent”, the word used by ancient
Sōjutsu (槍術), meaning "art of the spear" is the Japanese martial art of fighting with the Japanese spear (槍, yari).
Although the spear had a profound role in early Japanese mythology, where the islands of Japan themselves were said to be created by salt water dripping from the tip of a spear, as a weapon the first spear prototypes were brought from mainland Asia. These early versions were not seen as suitable by the Japanese, who later redesigned them once technology permitted.
The Yari was a popular weapon throughout the feudal period of Japan, being cheaper to produce and requiring less training than other contemporary battlefield weapons, and lending itself to close formations of ashigaru troops, in conjunction with firearms upon their adoption in Japan. The height of sōjutsu's popularity was immediately after the Mongol invasions of the 13th century, who themselves used spearmen in great numbers.
The Japanese ultimately modified the heads of their spears into a number of different variations, leading to the use of the spear both on foot and from horseback, and for slashing as well as the primary use of attacking with thrusts.
Sōjutsu is typically only a single component of
Zipota or zipote is a martial art taught primarily in Texas in the United States and is closely related to the French martial art of savate. Both place an emphasis on kicks, though zipota has more throws and jump kicks, knee/shin and elbow strikes, joint manipulation and it includes aspects of stick fighting and knife fighting. Practitioners of the zipota are known as zipoteros (one who does zipote) or zipotones in Spanish. In zipota, the usual stick weapon is called the makila. The knife is called the saca tripa. It also uses pelotas as a throwing weapon. Stones thrown with the basket fly at high speed and can be lethal within 50 feet (as depicted, possibly inaccurately, in the film Thunder in the Sun).
Although it is claimed to be a Basque variant of Savate, it is unclear whether the sport truly originates in the Basque Country. References are made to zipota being employed by the Basque mythological figure basajaun, but little evidence of this claim is available. Some people suggest it is a Old World Basque martial art that was further developed over generations by Basque immigrants in Texas. Its practitioners may have borrowed, used and coined a number of Basque terms such as
Boxing (pugilism, prize fighting, the sweet science or in Greek pygmachia) is a martial art and combat sport in which two people engage in a contest of strength, reflexes, and endurance by throwing punches at an opponent with gloved hands.
Amateur boxing is an Olympic and Commonwealth sport and is a common fixture in most of the major international games - it also has its own World Championships. Boxing is supervised by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds. The result is decided when an opponent is deemed incapable to continue by a referee, is disqualified for breaking a rule, resigns by throwing in a towel, or is pronounced the winner or loser based on the judges' scorecards at the end of the contest.
The birth hour of boxing as a sport may be its acceptance by the ancient Greeks as an Olympic game as early as 688 BC. Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights, largely in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century, again initially in Great Britain and later in the United States. In 2004, ESPN ranked boxing as the most difficult sport in the world.
First depicted in Sumerian relief (in Iraq) carvings from
Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu (大東流合気柔術), originally called Daitō-ryū Jujutsu (大東流柔術, Daitō-ryū Jūjutsu), is a Japanese martial art that first became widely known in the early 20th century under the headmastership of Takeda Sokaku. Takeda had extensive training in several martial arts (including Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage-ryū and sumo) and referred to the style he taught as "Daitō-ryū" (literally, "Great Eastern School"). Although the school's traditions claim to extend back centuries in Japanese history there are no known extant records regarding the ryū before Takeda. Whether Takeda is regarded as either the restorer or the founder of the art, the known history of Daitō-ryū begins with him. Takeda's most well known student was Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of aikido.
The origins of Daitō-ryū maintain a direct lineage extending approximately 900 years, originating with Shinra Saburō Minamoto no Yoshimitsu (新羅 三郎 源 義光, 1045–1127), who was a Minamoto clan samurai and member of the Seiwa Genji (the branch of the Minamoto family descended from the 56th imperial ruler of Japan, Emperor Seiwa). Daitō-ryū takes its name from the mansion that Yoshimitsu lived in as a child, called "Daitō" (大東),
Kokikai (光気会) is a style of Aikido, founded by Shuji Maruyama. The organization is called Kokikai Aikido International.
The Kokikai style emphasizes natural movement, ki development, relaxation, good posture and mind-body coordination. It is a minimalist martial art that focuses on making techniques effective while using little physical effort. An axiom of the style is “minimum effort for maximum effect.” The name Kokikai means “school of radiant ki”.
The style lists four basic principles:
The style was founded by Shuji Maruyama (referred to as Maruyama Sensei, or Sensei), and continues to be led by him. He continues to develop the art, so there is no set textbook way of performing any technique.
Maruyama Sensei was originally sent to the United States in 1966 by the Aikikai Hombu. He taught in the US for many years. When Koichi Tohei Sensei left Aikikai to found Ki-Aikido, Maruyama Sensei followed him. This was consistent with Japanese martial arts tradition, because he was a direct student of Tohei Sensei. Maruyama Sensei separated from Ki-Aikido in 1986 to found the Kokikai organization.
As of August 2008, the directory on the official Kokikai website listed dojos in Australia,
Naban (Burmese: နပန်း, pronounced: [nəbáɴ]) is a style of wrestling from Myanmar. Related to Tibetan and Cambodian grappling arts, naban was originally based on Indian wrestling. It became popular in rural areas where it was often performed at festivals alongside lethwei matches. Naban is most commonly practiced by the tribal peoples of Myanmar. The Chin, Kachin and Karen have a reputation for their skilled wrestlers.
Techniques include joint locks, strikes to pressure points, and chokeholds. Any part of the opponent's body is a legal target.
Schwingen (from German schwingen "to swing"), also known as Swiss wrestling (French lutte Suisse) and natively as Hoselupf (Swiss German for "breeches-lifting"), is a style of folk wrestling native to Switzerland, more specifically the pre-alpine parts of German-speaking Switzerland. Wrestlers wear Schwingerhosen ("wrestling breeches") with belts that are used for taking holds. Throws and trips are common because the first competitor to pin his/her opponent's shoulders to the ground wins the bout.
Schwingen is considered a "national sport" of Switzerland, alongside Hornussen and Steinstossen. Schwingen and Steinstossen were included as Nationalturnen ("national gymnastics") in the Eidgenössisches Turnfest at Lausanne in 1855.
The modern history of organized Schwingen tournaments begins with the Unspunnenfest of 1805.
As with other types of folk wrestling, the roots of Schwingen in Switzerland cannot be determined exactly. The modern sport was institutionalized in the 19th century out of older, regional traditions.
There are records of wrestling in Switzerland from the medieval period. A picture from the 13th century (in the Cathedral of Lausanne) shows the typical way of gripping
Buno ("to throw" in Tagalog.) is a system of Filipino wrestling like Dumog.
Harimaw Buno, formerly Harimaw Lumad (King of Tiger Wrestling), is a style of Buno used by the Mangyans of Mindoro and the Aetas of Infanta, Quezon.
Buno usually uses standing throws, control locks, joint manipulation, striking, take-downs and ground wrestling techniques,
There is also an armed style of Buno. Weapons that the practitioner can use are knives, spears and bow and arrows. The main weapon used is the lubid or a four-feet long rope.
Training utilizes mud training, canoe training, tamaraw wrestling, log training and tree climbing.
Han Moo Do (also Hanmoodo) is a Korean-style martial art founded in Finland. It is mainly practiced in the Nordic countries. Hanmoodo contains almost all sectors of traditional martial arts and its exponents may participate in full-contact competition.
Han Moo Do was created by Young Suk (Yoon Soon Hwang) (8 dan) in 1989, when the first club was established in Kauhava, Finland. In the last few years, it has been spreading to other Nordic countries, such as Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The first club outside of the nordic region has recently been set up in Limerick, Ireland.
Hanmoodo is descended from other Korean styles, such as Hoi Jeon Moo Sool and Taekwondo, so Hanmoodo resembles these styles as well as Hapkido in many areas. Hanmoodo's techniques include joint-locking techniques, kicks, punches, chokes, throws, takedowns and grappling techniques.
Joint locks mainly target the wrist and elbow but there are also leg locks. Chokes are performed mostly with forearm and wrist. Throws and takedowns resemble Judo and wrestling techniques but are done more elegantly. Kicks are mostly aimed at ribs or head and punches to the abdomen. Punches can be targeted to the body only.
Judo (柔道, jūdō, meaning "gentle way") is a modern martial art, combat and Olympic sport created in Japan in 1882 by Jigoro Kano. Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the object is to either throw or takedown an opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue an opponent with a grappling maneuver, or force an opponent to submit by joint locking or by executing a strangle hold or choke. Strikes and thrusts by hands and feet as well as weapons defenses are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms (kata) and are not allowed in judo competition or free practice (randori).
The philosophy and subsequent pedagogy developed for judo became the model for other modern Japanese martial arts that developed from koryū (古流, traditional schools). The worldwide spread of judo has led to the development of a number of offshoots such as Sambo and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. Judo practitioners are called judoka.
The early history of judo is inseparable from its founder, Japanese polymath and educator Jigoro Kano (嘉納 治五郎, Kanō Jigorō, 1860–1938), born Shinnosuke Kano (嘉納 新之助, Kanō Shinnosuke). Kano was born into a relatively affluent family. His father, Jirosaku, was the
Ninjutsu (忍術) sometimes used interchangeably with the term ninpō (忍法) is the martial art, strategy, and tactics of unconventional warfare and guerrilla warfare as well as the art of espionage purportedly practiced by the shinobi (commonly known outside of Japan as ninja).
While there are several styles of "modern ninjutsu," the historical lineage of these styles is disputed. Some schools and masters claim to be "the only true and legitimate heirs" of the art, but ninjutsu is not totally centralized like modernized martial arts such as judo, karate or taekwondo. Togakure-ryū is said to be the oldest recorded form of ninjutsu dating to the 1500s.
The main character nin (忍) is a phono-semantic compound composed of two greater characters. The upper character ha or jin (刃) is the phonetic indicator; its meaning of "edge of the sword" is therefore irrelevant here. The lower character kokoro or shin (心) means "heart" or "soul". The compound means "stealth", "secrecy", "endurance", "perseverance", and "patience". Jutsu (術) means "art" or "technique". Hō (法) meaning "knowledge", "principle", "law" or "system" when found with the prefix "nin" carries the meaning of ninja arts, higher order
Niyuddha-kride (Devanagari नियुद्ध क्रिडे) is an Indian martial art based on grappling. It concentrates on diversion and quick striking in case of a successful diversion. Practitioners of niyuddha-kride practice swaying movements, quick alterations of movement patterns aim to move in quickly and expectedly.
The northern style of kalaripayat, a form of physical training and armed combat, places comparatively more emphasis on weapons than on empty hands. Masters in this system are usually known as gurukkal (or occasionally as asan), and were often given honorific titles, especially "Panikkar".
Northern kalaripayat is distinguished by its meippayattu, physical training and use of full-body oil massage. The system of treatment and massage, and the assumptions about practice are closely associated with ayurveda. The purpose of medicinal oil massage is to increase practitioners' flexibility or to treat muscle injuries incurred during practice. The term for such massages is "thirumal". The massage specifically for physical flexibility is called "katcha thirumal".
Lineages (sampradayam) in northern kalaripayat include the arappukai, pillatanni and vattantirippu styles.
By oral and written tradition, Parasurama (sixth avatar of Vishnu) is believed to be the northern style's founder. This legend cannot be substanstiated, but kalaripayat is generally believed to have originated in the north of Kerala. What eventually crystallized as northern kalaripayat combined indigenous Dravidian techniques,
Pencak silat (Indonesian pronunciation: [ˈpɛntʃaʔ ˈsilat]; also spelled penchak silat and pentjak silat) is an umbrella term for the indigenous martial arts created in Indonesia. The leading organization of pencak silat in Indonesia is IPSI (Ikatan Pencak Silat Indonesia, literally: Pencak Silat Association of Indonesia). The liaison body for international pencak silat is the International Pencak Silat Association or PERSILAT (Persekutuan Pencak Silat Antara Bangsa).
Pencak silat was chosen in 1948 as a unifying term for the Indonesian fighting styles. It was a compound of the two most commonly used words for martial arts in Indonesia. Pencak was the term used in central and east Java, while silat was used in Sumatra. In modern usage, pencak and silat are seen as being two aspects of the same practice. Pencak is the performance aspects of the martial art, while silat is the essence of the fighting and self-defense. It is often said by practitioners that there can be no silat without pencak, on the other hand pencak without silat skills is purposeless.
Pencak silat was developed in a region where tribal warfare and hunting were common activities. Tribes fought over property, natural
Seidō juku is a style of karate founded by Tadashi Nakamura in 1976 in New York City. It is unique for being a physical, traditional style and incorporating Zen meditation in training.
The World Seido Karate Organization was founded by Tadashi Nakamura, a ninth dan ('Kaicho') black belt with over 50 years of experience in practising and teaching in the martial arts.
Tadashi Nakamura was born on Karafuto Island, Northern Japan (now claimed by Russia), on February 22, 1942. Nakamura began his karate training at age 11 in 1953, studying Goju-ryu Karate style under Kei Miyagi, the son of the Chojun Miyagi (the founder of Goju-ryu Karate-do). Nakamura began studying with Sosai Masutatsu Oyama, the founder of Kyokushin Karate in 1953, and in 1959, he gained his shodan rank, becoming the youngest Kyokushin karateka in Japan to receive a black belt.
Nakamura was asked by Oyama to be chief karate instructor at Camp Zama, a U.S. military base near Tokyo, from 1961 to 1965. He also coached the Toho Medical University karate team for three years. In 1966, Nakamura was selected by Oyama to bring the spirit of karate to America. Nakamura moved to New York City, formed a small dojo in Brooklyn,
Canarian Wrestling is a form of folk wrestling, originally from the Canary Islands, where it is known as Lucha Canaria.
Wrestlers start in the middle of a sand circle, called "terrero". The object is to make their opponent touch the sand with any part of their body, except the feet. To accomplish this, they use different techniques called "mañas" to throw their opponent off balance. Two falls are required to win a bout. A match ends when all the members of one team have been defeated.
Canarian wrestling comes from the history of the Guanches, the earliest known natives of the Canary Islands, who probably brought it from North Africa, although with limited contact between the islands, each island then developed different rules.
In 1420, shortly after the Spanish conquest, Alvar García de Santa María first recorded the wrestling techniques, including the use of referees, or “hombres de honor”. Only some of these early rules and techniques have survived to modern times. After the Conquest, the sport became part of the islands’ folklore, only usually being fought at celebrations or local festivals.
The rules were first laid down in 1872, making it one of the earliest defined forms of
Genbukan (玄武館) is a school for traditional Japanese martial arts (Kobudo古武道 / Koryu Bujutsu古流武術). It was founded in 1984 by its present head and grandmaster, Shoto Tanemura. The name Genbukan means 'the place that nurtures the professional martial artist'. The terms 'Genbukan World Ninpo Bugei Federation', its abbreviation 'GWNBF' and 'Genbukan' may be used interchangeable.
The 'GWNBF' is an international organization with over a hundred dojos in around thirty countries and twenty states of the USA, according to their "dojo locator"., Tanemura is also the head and founder of three organizations that operate under the Genbukan headquarters (Honbu) in Japan:
The Genbukan Ninpo Bugei (玄武館忍法武芸) is divided in 36 categories called the "Ninja Sanjurokkei focusing on tai jutsu, biken jutsu and Seishinteki Kyoyo. Other topics of study may include bō jutsu, yumi, naginata, yari, jutte, kusari-gama, shuriken etc. Value is placed on Rei Ho (etiquette): greetings and proper manners as had been in ancient times.
Genbukan Ninpo tai jutsu consists of:
The ranking system for Genbukan Ninpo Taijutsu, KJJR, Koryu Karate and Goshin-Jutsu (subsystems within GWNBF and KJJR) is from the 10th Kyu level
Iaijutsu (居合術), the art of drawing the sword, is one of the Japanese martial disciplines in the education of the classical warrior (bushi).
"Iaijutsu" was known before the Tokugawa period (before 1603) but it is unclear exactly when the term "iaijutsu" first came into use, or when exactly drawing the katana from its scabbard first became practiced as a martial art. Hayashizaki Jinsuke Shigenobu (c.1546–c.1621), the founder of the Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū and Musō Shinden-ryū schools, is generally credited with the invention of iaijutsu, but this is contrary to the account of Iizasa Chōisai Ienao (c.1387–c.1488), who devised a system of drawing the sword and founded the Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū 100 years earlier.
Iaijutsu is a combative sword-drawing art but not necessarily an aggressive art because iaijutsu is also a counterattack-oriented art. Iaijutsu technique may be used aggressively to wage a premeditated surprise attack against an unsuspecting enemy. The formulation of iaijutsu as a component system of classical bujutsu was made less for the dynamic situations of the battlefield than for the relatively static applications of the warrior's daily life off the field of
Note: The art is commonly abbreviated as LHBF, and often referred to by its Cantonese name: Lok Hap Baat Faat
Liuhebafachuan 六合八法拳; Pinyin: liùhébāfǎquán) (literally Six Harmonies Eight Methods Boxing) is a form of internal Chinese martial arts. It has been called "Xinyi Liuhebafa-" 心意六合八法拳 and is also referred to as "Water Boxing" (shuǐ quán 水拳) due to its principles. The Song Dynasty Taoist sage Chen Tuan (Chén Tuán 陳摶, also known as Chén Xīyí 陳希夷) is often credited with its origin and development. He was associated with the Hua Shan Taoist Monastery on Mount Hua in Shaanxi Province.
The Liuhebafa form "Zhú Jī 築基" was taught in the late 1930s in Shanghai and Nanjing by Wu Yihui (1887–1958). It is said he had learned the art from three teachers: Yan Guoxing, Chen Guangdi, and Chen Helu.
Many of Wu Yihui's students had martial arts backgrounds and modified the form to merge it with their own knowledge. This is one of several explanations for its similarities with other martial arts such as Xingyiquan, Baguazhang, T'ai chi and Yiquan.
The Six Harmonies and the Eight Methods are the guiding principles of Liuhebafa that give it its name.
The system of Liuhebafa, called Huayue Xiyi
Malyutham (Tamil: மல்யுத்தம்) is the ancient Dravidian style of combat wrestling practiced in south India and Sri Lanka. The word malyutham is a cognate of the Sanskrit term mallayuddha, meaning "wrestling fight", but there are distinctions between their training methods. In particular, mallayuddha as it is practiced in north India today has borrowed some of its material from Mughal wrestling or pehlwani.
In competition, the wrestlers grapple while trying to push their opponent to the ground. During a tournament wrestlers travel far and wide challenging local wrestlers. If they win, the name and fame of their hometown or area is multiplied hundredfold.
Wrestling has been practiced in South Asia since at least the 5th century BC . The Mahabharata narrates a memorable wrestling match between Bhima and Jarasandha. Religious texts also describe Balarama, the brother of lord Krishna, as a wrestler. In the Ramayana, there is mention of the vanara King Vali having won against the mighty Ravana, king of Lanka, in a wrestling contest.
Malyutham was practiced throughout the history of ancient Tamilakkam. It is placed among the 64 arts listed in ancient literature. Malyutham reached its
Do Pi, "style of the way", is a southern style of Kung Fu founded by the late Grandmaster Chan Dau in the Yung Kay district of Canton in the late 1930s. Chan was a student of Yu Mui (Hung Gar), monks at a nearby Buddhist monastery (Hop Gar), Jow Lung (Jow-Ga Kung Fu), and Tam Sam (Buk Sing Choy Li Fut). He established a school in Canton and later at the Sham Shui Po district of Kowloon, Hong Kong. The tradition continues today in Hong Kong, by Chan Dau's son, Chan Ching (Lai Chi Kok & Shek Kip Mei St. in Sham Shui Po district) and one of Chan Dau's prominent disciple, Paul Chan in Toronto, Canada.
The style is a combination of Hung Gar, Choy Li Fut, Jow-Ga Kung Fu and Hop Gar. Some of the sets of this style include Drunken Eight Immortals and Drunken Fan, Lohon Kau Da, Lohon Kuen, Tei Saat Kuen.
Kali Sikaran is a Filipino martial arts system, founded by Jeff Espinous in Paris, France in 1990, and it is one of the main styles of the International Kali Arnis Eskrima Federation. Jeff Espinous closed his club in Paris and left for Germany in 1996. In the end of the nineties the style wasn’t represented by any club and was just a vague concept within the IKAEF organization. In early 2000 Johan Skålberg (IKAEF President 98-09) revived Kali Sikaran and together they were promoted Punong Guros (founders) by the Guro team of IKAEF.
The art of Kali has its roots in the ancient Filipino history dating to before the Majapahit Empire, which dominated South East Asia during the 5th and 6th centuries. The art was used against the Spaniards in their attempts to conquer the islands. The famous Ferdinand Magellan was defeated by the national hero Lapu Lapu that was an ancestor of today's arts.
The Spanish occupation lasted for more than 400 years and influenced the art a lot with the Spanish fencing. Kali is also known by names such as Eskrima or Arnis. Because of all the different dialects, there are many different names. Sikaran is influenced by the concept of the old bodyguards at the
Kyudo (弓道, kyūdō, way of the bow) is a modern Japanese martial art (gendai budō); kyudo practitioners are referred to as kyudoka (弓道家, kyūdōka). Kyudo is based on kyūjutsu (art of archery), which originated with the samurai class of feudal Japan.
Kyudo is practiced by thousands of people worldwide. In Japan alone as of 2005, the International Kyudo Federation had 132,760 graded members, additionally kyudo is taught at Japanese schools and some traditions refrain from federation membership.
The beginning of archery in Japan is, as elsewhere, pre-historical. The first images picturing the distinct Japanese asymmetrical longbow are from the Yayoi period (ca. 500 BC–300 AD). The first written document describing Japanese archery is the Chinese chronicle Weishu (dated around 297 AD), which tells how in the Japanese isles people use "a wooden bow that is short from the bottom and long from the top." During these times the bow began to be used in warfare in addition to hunting. Later, the ceremonial use of a bow was adopted from China and continued in Japan after it had ended in China. The composite technique of bow manufacture, by gluing together horn, wood, and animal sinew, was also
Mongolian wrestling, known as Bökh (Mongolian script: ᠪᠦᠺᠡ; Mongolian Cyrillic: Бөх or Үндэсний бөх), is the folk wrestling style of Mongols in Mongolia, Inner Mongolia (China) and other regions. Bökh means "durability".
Wrestling is the most important of the Mongolian culture's historic "Three Manly Skills", that also include horsemanship and archery. Genghis Khan considered wrestling to be an important way to keep his army in good physical shape and combat ready. The court of China's Qing Dynasty (1646–1911) held regular wrestling events, mainly between ethnic Manchu and Mongol wrestlers. There are several different versions, Mongolian (in the country of Mongolia and in Tuva of Russia), Buryatian (in the Buryatia of Russia) and Inner Mongolian (in northern China).
Cave paintings in the Bayankhongor Province of Mongolia dating back to Neolithic age of 7000 BC show grappling of two naked men and surrounded by crowds. The art of Bökh appears on bronze plates discovered in the ruins of the Xiongnu empire (206 BC–220 AD). Originally, Bökh was a military sport intended to provide mainly strength, stamina and skills training to troops. Genghis Khan (1206–1227) and the all later Emperors
Muay boran (Thai: มวยโบราณ, RTGS: muay boran, IPA: [mūɛj bōːrāːn], lit. "ancient boxing") is an umbrella term for the unarmed martial arts of Thailand prior to the introduction of modern equipment and rules in the 1930s. It is thus the direct ancestor of modern Muay Thai. The word muay which means "boxing" comes from the Sanskrit term mavya meaning to bind together. Boran or boraan means "ancient" in Thai.
Muay boran is not a single style but acts as an umbrella term for all traditional Thai styles of Indochinese kickboxing. Whereas Muay Thai is often called the "science of eight limbs", muay boran is said to make use of nawa awut which means "nine weapons", adding headbutts as ninth offensive in addition to the "eight limbs" of hands, legs, elbows and knees used in Muay Thai.
Because Ayutthaya's archives and records were destroyed by the Burmese, the early history of muay boran is difficult to establish. Its origin is said to trace back to the Ao Lai, the first Sino-Thai tribes who arrived in Southeast Asia. Their empty-handed fighting system was variously referred to as pahuyuth (from the Sanskrit bahuyuddha meaning unarmed combat), dhoi muay (a cognate of the Malay word tomoi),
Wing Chun (Chinese: 詠春; pinyin: yǒng chūn; Cantonese Yale: wihng chēun; literally "spring chant"), also romanised as Ving Tsun or Wing Tsun, (and sometimes substituted with the characters 永春 "eternal springtime"); (also known as Snake-Crane style); is a concept-based Chinese martial art and form of self-defense utilising both striking and grappling while specialising in close-range combat.
The alternative characters 永春 "eternal spring" are also associated with some other southern Chinese martial arts, including Weng Chun Kungfu and White Crane Weng Chun (Yong Chun).
The earliest known mentions of Wing Chun date to the period of Red Boat Opera.
The common legend as told by Yip Man involves the young woman Yim Wing-chun, (Wing Chun literally means 'forever springtime' or 'praising spring',) at the time after the destruction of the Southern Shaolin Temple and its associated temples by the Qing government:
After Wing-Chun rebuffs the local warlord's marriage offer, she says she'll reconsider his proposal if he can beat her in a martial art match. She soon crosses paths with a Buddhist nun--Ng Mui, who was one of the Shaolin Sect survivors, and asks the nun to teach her boxing. The
Ringen is the German language term for grappling (wrestling). In the context of the German school of historical European martial arts during the Late Middle Ages and the German Renaissance, ringen refers to unarmed combat in general, including grappling techniques used as part of swordsmanship.
The German tradition has records of a number of master-Ringer of the 15th to 16th centuries specializing in unarmed combat, frequently Jews, such as Ott Jud and Jud Lew.
Unarmed combat was divided in two categories, sportive grappling or geselliges ringen and serious unarmed combat or kampfringen (where kampf is the Early Modern German term for "duel").
While sportive grappling had fixed rules that prohibited dangerous techniques, usually starting in grappling hold and ending with a throw or submission, kampfringen can be considered a system of unarmed self-defense including punches, joint-locks, elbow strikes, chokeholds, headbutts and (to a limited extent) kicks.
The German tradition of ringen was eclipsed during the 17th century as the modern Baroque understanding of nobility precluded the participation of the higher classes in wrestling matches. Wrestling continued to be practiced among
Nanquan (Chinese: 南拳; pinyin: Nán quán; literally "southern fist", or Chinese: 南派; pinyin: Nán pài; literally "southern school") refers to those Chinese martial arts that originated south of the Yangtze River of China, including Hung Kuen, Choi Lei Fut, Hak Fu Mun, Wuzuquan, Wing Chun, etc.
The contemporary Wushu event Nanquan is a modern style created in 1960 derived from martial arts derived in the Chinese provinces south of the Yangtze River and predominantly those styles popular in Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian and Zhejiang. The basis of contemporary Nánquán hail primarily from traditional Cantonese family styles of Hong (Hung), Li (Lei), Liu (Lau), Mo (Mok) and Cai (Choi) along with their more contemporary Kung Fu variants of Choi Lei Fut, Hung Ga and Wing Chun.
Contemporary Nanquan features vigorous, athletic movements with very stable, low stances, extensive hand techniques and a vocal articulation called fasheng ("release shout") which is the predecessor of the Japanese and Korean martial arts kiai. Power is driven from sharp waist movement with special emphasis on fast stance transition to generate power and speed in the arms. Signature hand techniques of Nanquan are the
There are several Chinese martial arts known as Snake Boxing or Fanged Snake Style (Chinese: 蛇拳; pinyin: shéquán; literally "snake fist") which imitate the movements of snakes. It is a style of Shaolin Boxing. Proponents claim that adopting the fluidity of snakes allows them to entwine with their opponents in defense and strike them from angles they wouldn't expect in offense. Snake style is said to especially lend itself to applications with the Chinese straight sword. The snake is also one of the animals imitated in Yang family Taijiquan (T'ai chi ch'uan), Baguazhang and Xingyiquan. The sinuous, fluid motion of the snake lends itself to the practical theory that underlies the "soft" martial arts.
Different snake styles imitate different movements of snakes. Some, for example, imitate the Cylindrophiidae, while others imitate the python, while some schools imitate other types of snakes, like the Cobra. There are two unrelated, Northern and Southern snake styles.
Snake is one of the archetypal Five Animals of Chinese martial arts; the other four being Crane, Tiger, Leopard, and Dragon.
The Taoist temples of the Wudang Mountains were known to have produced many snake stylists.
Bataireacht ([ˈbˠat̪ˠəˌɾʲaxt̪ˠ], meaning stick fighting) is the term used in Irish martial arts traditionally applied to various forms of stick fighting. Today the word bataireacht is used amongst Irish and English language speakers to distinguish between traditional and non-traditional stick-fighting styles.
Bataireacht is a term used to describe the various stickfighting martial arts of Ireland. The term is found in most large format Irish language dictionaries such as those published by An Gum and by Patrick Dinneen. Researcher and author John W. Hurley attributes the reintroduction of the term into modern usage among English speaking practitioners of Irish stick-fighting to his works, which was where the term first appeared in modern popular culture.
"Bata" is a general Irish term which can mean any kind of stick. The actual bata or stick used for bataireacht is often referred to as a "Sail-Éille" which is anglicised as "shillelagh". The word "cudgel" is also used in period texts as a word for shillelagh. Blackthorn, oak, ash and hazel were traditionally the most common types of woods used to make shillelagh fighting sticks. Some evidence exists which indicates that, prior to
Grappling refers to techniques, maneuvers, and counters applied to an opponent in order to gain a physical advantage, such as improving relative position, escaping, submitting, or injury to the opponent. Grappling is a general term that covers techniques used in many disciplines, styles and martial arts that are practiced both as combat sports and for self defense. Grappling does not include striking or most commonly the use of weapons. However some fighting styles or martial arts known especially for their grappling techniques teach tactics that include strikes and weapons either alongside grappling or combined with it.
Grappling techniques can be broadly subdivided into Clinch fighting; Takedowns and Throws; Submission holds and Pinning or Controlling Techniques; and Sweeps, Reversals, Turnovers, and Escapes.
The degree to which grappling is utilized in different fighting systems varies. Some systems, such as amateur wrestling, submission wrestling, judo, sumo, and Brazilian jiu-jitsu are exclusively grappling arts and do not allow striking.
Grappling is used often in most martial arts and combat sports; boxing and kickboxing however do not use grappling, usually for the sake of
Hwa Rang Do is a Korean martial art that was created by Joo Bang Lee and his brother Joo Sang Lee. This martial art teaches fighting techniques, weapons, spiritual training, intellectual enhancement, and artistic pursuits. It has a very evolved technical structure.
The name Hwa Rang Do is Korean for "The way of the Flowering Knights". It was named after the Hwarang, a buddist elite youth order of the Silla kingdom during the Three-Kingdoms Period, in what is now Korea. The Hwarang were, basically, voluntary child soldiers consisting of older children, teenagers, and young adults who came mostly from aristocratic families, and who were educated in artistic, academic, and martial fields of study.
In 1942, according to Joo Bang Lee, a monk named Suahm Dosa took him and his brother, Joo Sang Lee, into his home for training. Lee has provided no evidence other than his unsupported word of Suahm Dosa's existence. (Note that "Dosa" is actually his title, and it is roughly equivalent to "hermit sage expert.") They lived with Suahm Dosa at the Suk Wang Sa Temple in the Ham Nam province of North Korea, before later escaping with him to Ohdae Mountain in South Korea during the communist take
Kickboxing (in Japanese キックボクシング kikkubokushingu) is a group of martial arts and stand-up combat sports based on kicking and punching, historically developed from Karate, Muay Thai and Western boxing. Kickboxing is often practiced for self-defense, general fitness, or as a contact sport.
Japanese kickboxing originates in the 1960s, with competitions held since the 1960s. American kickboxing originates in the 1970s. Japanese kickboxing developed into K-1 in 1993. Historically, kickboxing can be considered a hybrid martial art formed from the combination of elements of various traditional styles. This approach became increasingly popular since the 1970s, and since the 1990s, kickboxing has contributed to the emergence of mixed martial arts via further hybridization with ground fighting techniques from jujutsu and collegiate wrestling.
There is no single international governing body. International governing bodies include World Association of Kickboxing Organizations, World Kickboxing Association, International Sport Karate Association, International Kickboxing Federation, among others. Consequently there is no single kickboxing world championship, and champion titles are issued by
Nippon Kempo or Nihon Kempo (日本拳法) is a Japanese martial art that engages in full-contact bouts using a full range of techniques wearing specially developed protective gear (bogu kumite). Nippon Kempo is sometime called "Nikken" as an omission in Japan.
Developed in 1932 by Muneomi Sawayama, the art places an equal emphasis on striking techniques using hands and feet, immobilization and controls, projections and take-downs. Nippon Kempo is a defensive art that does not restrict students in methodology.
From a technical point of view, Nippon Kempo is a martial art system based on techniques of striking and kicking, (atemi-waza), blocking (uke-waza), throwing (nage-waza), reverse joint locks (kansetsu-gyakutori-waza) and ground combat (ne-waza). It uses techniques derived from other arts including judo, jujutsu, karate, boxing and wrestling.
Practitioners fight and practice these techniques with protective gear, as the art is full-contact and therefore men (headgear), do (chest protector), kurobu (gloves), and a mate ate (groin protector) are used. Grabbing a kick, a punch, or locking a joint is allowed, as are knees and elbows to the body or to the face score points. As
Red Warrior, also known as Tushka-homa, is a martial art created by Adrian Roman. Roman explored and documented the different types of weapons that were unique to the American Indian tribes of that era however, there is a decent amount of controversy as to how "authentic" this fighting style is, as it is unclear how much of the martial art is truly derived from Native American techniques and sources and how much is from his previous Kempo training. and questions as to if the style is as degree mill for martial arts have been raised, linking roman with bullshido style practices. Neither Roman or his system garners much respect from the martial arts community.
Ssireum (Hangul: 씨름) or Korean wrestling is a folk wrestling style and traditional national sport of Korea.
In the modern form each contestant wears a belt (satba) that wraps around the waist and the thigh. The competition employs a series of techniques, which inflict little harm or injury to the opponent: opponents lock on to each other's belt, and one achieves victory by bringing any part of the opponent's body above the knee to the ground.
Historically, there have been other terms for "wrestling" in Korean used alongside ssireum, such as gakjeo (각저:角抵), gakhui (각희:角戱), gakryeok (각력:角力), gakgii (각지:角支), chiuhui (치우희:蚩尤戱), sangbak (상박:相撲), jaenggyo (쟁교:爭交). Gak (각:角), a commonly used prefix, seems to have originated from the combative act performed by horned animals such as oxen when competing against one another for the superiority of physical strength. Chinese people used to call Korean wrestling goguryogi (고구려기:高句麗技).
Gakjeochong (각저총:角抵塚) murals show that wrestling in Korea dates back as early as the pre-Three Kingdom era. The Book of Later Han, a Chinese document that was written either before or early in the history of the Three Kingdoms also has records of Korean
Vovinam (Vietnamese: Việt Võ Đạo, Martial Arts of Vietnam) is a Vietnamese martial art.
Vovinam is practiced with and without weapons. It is based on the principle of between hard and soft. It includes training of the body as well as the mind. It uses force and reaction of the opponent. Vovinam also includes hand, elbow, kicks, escape- and levering techniques. Both attack and defense techniques are trained, as well as forms, combat and traditional wrestling. The wide range of techniques include punching, kicking etc. as well as forms, wrestling, sword, staff, axe, folding fan and others.
Self-defense techniques cover defense against weaponless attacks like choking from behind and defense against attacks with knife or sword. Advanced students learn to combine the techniques and learn to defend themselves against armed opponents. Instructors train traditional weapons like the long stick, short stick, knife, sword and sabre. Thereby the weapons serve as training devices for reaching optimal control of body and mind.
Vovinam Việt Võ Đạo was founded as Vovinam by Nguyễn Lộc (1912 – 1960) in 1938, with the intent of providing practitioners with an efficient method of self-defense after a
Brazilian jiu-jitsu (/dʒuːˈdʒɪtsuː/; Portuguese: [ˈʒiw ˈʒitsu], [ˈʒu ˈʒitsu], [dʒiˈu dʒiˈtsu]) (BJJ) is a martial art, combat sport, and a self defense system that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting. Judo was brought to Brazil by Mitsuyo Maeda
BJJ promotes the concept that a smaller, weaker person can successfully defend against a bigger, stronger assailant by using leverage and proper technique – most notably by applying joint-locks and chokeholds to defeat the other person. BJJ training can be used for sport grappling tournaments (gi and no-gi) and mixed martial arts (MMA) competition or self-defense. Sparring (commonly referred to as "rolling") and live drilling play a major role in training, and a premium is placed on performance, especially in competition, in relation to progress and ascension through its ranking system.
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is known as more than just a system of fighting. Since its inception in 1914, its parent art of judo was separated from older systems of Japanese jujutsu by an important difference that was passed on to BJJ: it is not solely a martial art: it is also a sport; a method for promoting physical fitness and building character in
Hapkido (also spelled hap ki do or hapki-do; Hangul: 합기도; Hanja: 合氣道) is a dynamic and also eclectic Korean martial art. It is a form of self-defense that employs joint locks, techniques of other martial arts, as well as kicks, punches, and other striking attacks. There is also the use of traditional weapons, including a sword, rope, nunchaku, cane, short stick, and staff (gun, bō) which vary in emphasis depending on the particular tradition examined.
Hapkido contains both long and close range fighting techniques, utilizing jumping kicks and percussive hand strikes at longer ranges and pressure point strikes, joint locks, or throws at closer fighting distances. Hapkido emphasizes circular motion, non-resisting movements, and control of the opponent. Practitioners seek to gain advantage through footwork and body positioning to employ leverage, avoiding the use of strength against strength.
The art copied from Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu (大東流合気柔術) or a closely related jujutsu system taught by Choi Yong-Sool (Hangul: 최용술) who returned to Korea after World War II, having lived in Japan for 30 years. This system was later combined with kicking and striking techniques of indigenous and
Karate (空手) ( /kəˈrɑːtiː/; Japanese pronunciation: [kaɽate] ( listen)) is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Islands in what is now Okinawa, Japan. It was developed partially from indigenous fighting methods called te (手, literally "hand"; Tii in Okinawan) and from Chinese kenpō. Karate is a striking art using punching, kicking, knee and elbow strikes, and open-handed techniques such as knife-hands. Grappling, locks, restraints, throws, and vital point strikes are taught in some styles. A karate practitioner is called a karateka (空手家). There are several different styles of karate, most of them stemming from the same genealogical tree, and some others acquiring the name "karate" for practical reasons while actually deriving from a mix of other martial arts. Each style of karate stresses some techniques more than others, or has some differences in performing the same techniques from what other styles do. However, most karate schools and styles adhere to the same basic principles, and use the same basic attire, stances and terminology.
Karate was possibly developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom prior to its 19th-century annexation by Japan, but there is no historical proof that karate
Nindokai is a self-defense system which builds on the basis of Japanese and other martial arts. It was established in 1990 by Dr Gerhard Schönberger in Germany and since then it has been continually adapted to the needs of the 21st century and has reached a lot of acceptance especially by police forces and security-companies. Nindokai teaches to end a fight or to avoid a present attack in a simple, fast and as effective way as possible with the least possible risk to one's self, i.e. to survive.
The word Nindokai consists of 3 Japanese characters (kanji): Nin = Enduring heart; Do = Way and Kai = School. Thus Nindokai means: the school in which the persistent way is taught.
Nindokai is neither a martial sport nor a martial art in a traditional manner but a methodical self-defense system. Unlike martial sports, Nindokai focuses on training for real world encounters that are usually unhampered by sparring-guidelines and other rule restrictions. Similarly, Nindokai forgoes the training of ancient arts that are viewed as no longer applicable in modern society. One may find this rationale of effectiveness over rhetoric as a key concept in Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do.
Despite this departure
Pananjakman is a component of eskrima which focuses on low-line kicks. Some claim that pananjakman is an art in and of itself but this separation was probably made for the purpose of marketing the art as a new system. Pananjakman is never taught by itself in the Philippines, and this practice is only done in the West.
Pananjakman can be regarded as the study of leg muscles and bones and how they are connected, with the goal of either inflicting pain or outright breaking or dislocating the bones. Most striking techniques involve applying pressure to bend the target areas in unnatural ways so as to injure or break them. Such pressure may be delivered in the form of a heel smash, a toe kick, a stomp, or a knee. Targets include the groin, thighs, knees, shins, ankles, feet and toes. The upper body is used only for defensive maneuvres, making pananjakman ideal for when combatants are engaged in a clinch. When used effectively, the strikes can bring an opponent to the ground or otherwise end an altercation by making them too weak to stand.
Fundamental techniques include kicking or smashing the ankle to force it either towards or away from the opposite foot (severe supination or
Shooto is a mixed martial arts organization that is governed by the Shooto Association and the International Shooto Commission. Shooto was originally formed in 1985, as an organization and as a particular fighting system derived from shoot wrestling. Practitioners are referred to as shooters, similarly to practitioners of shoot wrestling. Shooto rules have evolved such that their events are now true mixed martial arts competitions.
The word shooto is an English transliteration of 修斗 (pronounced shū-to), an ateji derived from the English word "shoot". The word 修斗 can be translated as "learn combat".
Shooto was established as a "New Martial arts"(Shin-Kakutōgi) in 1985 by Satoru Sayama (the original Tiger Mask), a Japanese professional wrestler trained in shoot wrestling, who wished to create a sport that revolved around a realistic and effective fighting system. After its establishment New Martial arts was renamed "Shooting" which came from Shoot, a term of professional wrestling meaning "Serious match", but this changed to "Shooto" to avoid confusion with Shooting sports. Compared to the other professional wrestling organizations of the time, such as the New Japan Pro Wrestling and
Aikido (合気道, Aikidō) [a.i.ki.doː] is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. Aikido is often translated as "the Way of unifying (with) life energy" or as "the Way of harmonious spirit." Ueshiba's goal was to create an art that practitioners could use to defend themselves while also protecting their attacker from injury.
Aikido is performed by blending with the motion of the attacker and redirecting the force of the attack rather than opposing it head-on. This requires very little physical strength, as the aikidōka (aikido practitioner) "leads" the attacker's momentum using entering and turning movements. The techniques are completed with various throws or joint locks.
Aikido derives mainly from the martial art of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, but began to diverge from it in the late 1920s, partly due to Ueshiba's involvement with the Ōmoto-kyō religion. Ueshiba's early students' documents bear the term aiki-jūjutsu.
Ueshiba's senior students have different approaches to aikido, depending partly on when they studied with him. Today aikido is found all over the world in a number of styles, with broad
American Kenpo or Kenpo Karate is a system of martial arts created by Ed Parker, characterized by the use of quick moves in rapid-fire succession. The multitude of fast strikes, sometimes criticized by other arts, has a dual purpose. The strikes may overwhelm an opponent but more importantly, the various strikes demonstrate to the practitioner that there are many options should the technique not work as planned, and also should the initial strikes miss some will not. Ed Parker stated that this training was not intended for "overkill," but rather "overskill". It is largely marketed as a self-defense system, and is derived from traditional Japanese martial arts and other martial arts such as Southern Chinese kung fu found in the cultural melting pot of Hawaii.
Parker introduced significant modifications in his art, including principles, theories, and concepts of motion as well as terminology, throughout his life. He left behind a large number of instructors who teach many different versions of American Kenpo as Parker died before he named a successor to his art.
The design of the I.K.K.A Crest was completed in 1960 when the art of American Kenpo was gaining international notoriety.
Ba Fa, or Eight Methods, is a Chinese martial art developed by Li De Mao (李德茂) during the Qing dynasty. He combined the techniques of Fanziquan (翻子), Paochui (炮捶), Tantui (弹腿), Tongbeiquan (劈挂) and Xingyiquan (形意) into a new style based on the theory of eight methods ( 八法). The eight methods are: outer trap, inner trap and stab, flick, support, shake, chop and reel. ('攔、拿、扎、崩、托、抖、劈、纏') This style includes both single forms, pair training, as well as weapon training such as spear, saber and sword. Eight Methods Big Spear (Da Qiang, 大枪), also known as the Big Pole, is a specialty of this style. This technique first appear in 1906, just before the Revolution of 1911. It combines the methods of the Yue-family spear (岳家槍), Pear-flower Spear (梨花槍) and Liuhe Spear (六合槍) with principles of the eight methods. It is also design to work on foot or on horse back.
Ba Fa Quan is popular in regions such as Shanxi (山西), Datong (大同), Inner Mongolia (Nei Menggu 内蒙古) and Yuencheng City.
The Bujinkan (武神館) is an international martial arts organization based in Japan and headed by Masaaki Hatsumi. It is best known for its association with ninjutsu. The system taught by this organization, called Bujinkan Budō Taijutsu, consists of nine separate ryūha.
The origins of some of the techniques studied in the Bujinkan are unclear;however, some techniques are from the recognized Japanese martial arts traditions that comprise the system.
Hatsumi's claimed connection to Ninjutsu is through his teacher Takamatsu Toshitsugu. The Bugei Ryuha Daijiten (researched by a friend of Takamatsu) indicates that Takamatsu's "genealogy includes embellishments...to appear older than it actually is". Other researchers believe that there is no historical basis for the claims that Takamatsu had any link to a ninjitsu lineage. It is Hatsumi's assertion that Toshitsugu was permitted to copy the Amatsu Tatara scrolls which supposedly date back to 7BC and contain many assorted techniques (ranging from killing by yelling, and control of weather, to fighting techniques and fortification design). The Bujinkan school claims that Takamatsu's grandfather was a samurai and a direct descendant of the
Like other southern Chinese martial arts, Choi Lei Fut features Five Animal techniques based on the tiger, dragon, crane, leopard, and snake but is distinguished from other southern styles by long, swinging, circular movements and twisting body motions more indicative of northern styles.
Chan Heung (陳享) was born in Guangdong Province, China in 1805 or 1806. At the age of six or seven, he began to study Kung Fu from his uncle, Chan Yuen-Wu (陳遠護), a master of Southern Shaolin - the Buddha Style Fist or Fut Ga Kuen.
So proficient as an adolescent that he could defeat any challenger from nearby villages, Chan Heung was ready to learn more.
At the age of 15 he began training under another Southern Shaolin master, Lei Yau-San (李友山), founder of Lei Ga (Lee Family Style. Lei Yau San was Yuen Woo's sihing or elder brother at Shaolin Temple. After only four or five years of training, it became apparent that Chan Heung was ready to move on once again.
Chan Heung was then referred to the Shaolin monk Choi Fook (蔡褔), who lived on Luofu Mountain. After several years of training under Choi Fook, Chan Heung returned to his home village of Ging Mui (京梅) in the county of Xinhui. He had learned and
Fānziquán (Chinese: 翻子拳; literally "Rotating fist") is a Chinese martial art that emphasizes offense and defense with the hands. Its movements have been described as:
Fānziquán routines are usually quite short and very fast. It is a source of many other modern styles like Eagle Claw.
Until at least the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), Fānziquán was known as Bāshǎnfān (Chinese: 八閃翻; literally "8 flash tumbles"), or "8 evasive tumbles" and in the Qing Dynasty as BāfānMén (Chinese: 八翻门; literally "8 Rotations School").
In accordance to the Bafanquan manuals, during the Ming dynasty a master Wang Zhiyuan had been taught the boxing by a mountain wanderer. It is said that Master Wang was an accomplished warrior but had become injured in battle in a remote part of the area in what is currently Shandong province. It was here that the wanderer had assisted with Master Wang's injuries and was taught the methods of Bafanquan to improve his already good martial skills.
The style then passed down through various generations in the Northern provinces such as Henan, Hebei and Shandong. During the Qing dynasty, one of the most famous exponents of the style was Master Li Gongran from Xiong county in Hebei
Glíma is the Icelandic national style of folk wrestling.
There are four points that differentiate it from other forms of wrestling:
The core of the system are eight main brögð (techniques), which form the basic training for approximately 50 ways to execute a throw or takedown.
Surrounding glima is a code of honour called drengskapur that calls for fairness, respect for and caring about the security of one's training partners.
The word glíma is the Icelandic term for "wrestling" in general. The same word has also a wider meaning of "struggle".
Glima is the Icelandic word for wrestling. In Icelandic collection of texts from 1220 Prose Edda in the book Gylfaginning, Elli defeats Thor in a wrestling match. The oldest Icelandic competition in glima is Skjaldarglíma Ármann which was first held in 1888 and has been held almost every year since. In 1905 the belt was introduced so that the wrestlers could have a better grip on each other. Before that they held on each other's trousers. In 1906 the first Íslandsglíman (Grettisbeltið) competition was held where the winners are named Glímukóngur. In the 1912 Summer Olympics there was a demonstration of glima. In 1987 glima was being taught in
Greco-Roman wrestling (or Graeco-Roman; see spelling differences) is a style of wrestling that is practised worldwide. It was contested at the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 and has been included in every edition of the summer Olympics held since 1908. Two wrestlers are scored for their performance in three two-minute periods, which can be terminated early by a pinfall. This style of wrestling forbids holds below the waist which is the major difference from freestyle wrestling, the other form of wrestling at the Olympics. This restriction results in an emphasis on throws because a wrestler cannot use trips to take an opponent to the ground, or avoid throws by hooking or grabbing the opponent's leg.
Arm drags, bear hugs, and headlocks, which can be found in Freestyle, have even greater prominence in Greco-Roman. In particular, a throw known as a suplex is used, in which the offensive wrestler lifts his opponent in a high arch while falling backward on his own neck to a bridge in order to bring his opponent's shoulders down to the mat. Even on the mat, a Greco-Roman wrestler must still find several ways to turn his opponent's shoulders to the mat for a fall without legs,
Hapkido aka Lady Kung Fu (Chinese: 合氣道) is a 1972 Hong Kong film directed by Huang Feng, starring Angela Mao, Carter Wong and Sammo Hung. It was released by Golden Harvest.
It is 1934, in Japanese occupied Korea. Angela, Carter and Sammo are sitting and talking in a park when they are approached by a group of Japanese toughs. The leader of the Japanese begins to make unwelcome advances, and Angela tries her best to ignore him. Sammo loses his temper and a melee ensues. These three have just graduated, learning the art of Hapkido and they return to China in the hopes of setting up their own school, which they do. The Japanese, who consider it an inferior martial art, try to run them out of town with some traitorous Chinese, including Pai Ying. Angela, Carter and Sammo don’t want any trouble as it goes against the wishes of their master and his teachings. It’s Sammo who finally loses it after being insulted by some Japanese. This doesn’t go down well and Sammo becomes a wanted man, having to hide out while Angela and Carter try to reason with The Black Bear Gang without much luck. Finally the Japanese go too far and Angela, Carter and Sammo are forced to fight back with devastating
Krabi krabong (Thai: กระบี่กระบอง, Thai pronunciation: [krabìː krabɔ̄ːŋ]) is a weapon-based martial art from Thailand. It is closely related to other Southeast Asian fighting styles such as Indonesian-Malay silat, Burmese banshay and the armed Cambodian art bokator. The royal bodyguard corps of King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) are said to be highly trained experts of krabi krabong.
The system's name refers to its main weapons, namely the curved sword (krabi) and staff (krabong). Typically, two swords are wielded as a pair. Unarmed krabi krabong makes use of kicks, pressure point strikes, joint locks, holds, and throws.
The weapons of krabi krabong include the following:
Krabi krabong was developed by the ancient Siamese military for fighting on the battlefield. It may have been used in conjunction with muay boran but whether the two arts were developed together or independently is uncertain. Archaeological findings and traditional dances bear testament to the myriad of weapons that were once used in Thailand. Some of them are no longer found in the country's martial arts today, such as the kris (dagger), hawk (spear), trisun (trident), daab (straight sword) and vajra. These
Lucha libre (Spanish: Free wrestling, lit. "free fight") is a term used in Mexico, and other Spanish-speaking countries, for a form of professional wrestling that has developed within those countries. Although the term nowadays refers exclusively to professional wrestling, it was originally used in the same style as the English term "freestyle wrestling", referring to an amateur wrestling style without the restrictions of Greco-Roman wrestling.
Mexican wrestling is characterized by colorful masks, rapid sequences of holds and maneuvers, as well as "high-flying" maneuvers, some of which have been adopted in the United States. The wearing of masks has developed special significance, and matches are sometimes contested in which the loser must permanently remove his mask, which is a wager with a high degree of weight attached. Tag team wrestling is especially prevalent in lucha libre, particularly matches with three-member teams, called trios.
Lucha libre wrestlers are known as luchadores (singular luchador) ("fighter(s)"). They usually come from extended wrestling families who form their own stables. One such line integrated to the United States professional wrestling scene is Los
Sān Huáng Pào Chuí (Chinese: 三皇炮捶; literally "Three Emperor Cannon Punch") is a Chinese martial art attributed to the Three August Ones: Fuxi, Shennong, and Gonggong.
The spread of Pào Chuí was due in part to its early association with Shaolin. Pào Chuí was one of the earliest styles to be imported intact into the martial arts curriculum at the Shaolin Monastery. According to legend, the Shaolin monks learned Pào Chuí from a martial artist of Mount Emei.
At a festival thrown by the Emperor Gaozu, the Shaolin monk Tanzong gave a demonstration of Pào Chuí.
Chen-style taijiquan includes a Pào Chuí routine in its curriculum.
Pradal serey is an unarmed martial art from Cambodia. In Khmer the word pradal means fighting or boxing and serey means free. Originally used for warfare, pradal serey is now one of Cambodia's national sports. Its moves have been slightly altered to comply with the modern rules.
Pradal serey is mostly the same as unarmed kbach kun boran except it does not include mae (core techniques), tvear (door system that emphasizes footwork). Instead, it focuses more on winning a bout. While most well known for its kicking technique, which generates power from hip rotation rather than snapping the leg, pradal serey consists of four types of strikes: punches, kicks, elbows and knee strikes. The clinch is used to wear down the opponent. Compared to other forms of Southeast Asian kickboxing, pradal serey emphasizes more elusive and shifty fighting stances. The Cambodian style tends to utilize more elbows than that of other regions. More victories come by way of an elbow technique than any other strikes.
As of 2012 there are over 50 Kum Khmer fights held every week in the Phnom Penh region
Fighting has been a constant part of Southeast Asia since ancient times and eventually led to organized
Puroresu (プロレス) is the popular term for the predominant style or genre of professional wrestling that has developed in Japan. The term comes from the Japanese pronunciation of "professional wrestling" (プロフェッショナル・レスリング), which is shortened to puroresu ("purofesshonaru resuringu"). In this sense, Puroresu could be translated into english as "pro-wrest". The term became popular among English-speaking fans due to Hisaharu Tanabe's activities in the online Usenet community. Growing out of origins in the traditional American style of wrestling, it has become an entity in itself. Despite the similarity to its American counterpart in that the outcome of the matches remains predetermined, Japanese pro wrestling is distinct in its psychology and presentation of the sport. It is treated as a legitimate fight, with fewer theatrics; the stories told in Japanese matches are about a fighter's spirit and perseverance. In strong style, the style most typically associated with puroresu, full contact martial arts strikes and shoot submission holds are implemented.
The first Japanese to involve himself in catch wrestling, the basis of traditional professional wrestling, was former sumo wrestler
Sambo (Russian: са́мбо; IPA: [ˈsambə]; САМооборона Без Оружия) is a Russian martial art and combat sport. The word "SAMBO" is an acronym for SAMooborona Bez Oruzhiya, which literally translates as "self-defense without weapons". Sambo is relatively modern since its development began in the early 1920s by the Soviet Red Army to improve their hand-to-hand combat abilities. Intended to be a merger of the most effective techniques of other martial arts, Sambo has roots in Japanese judo, international styles of wrestling, plus traditional folk styles of wrestling such as: Armenian Kokh, Georgian Chidaoba, Moldavian Trîntǎ, Tatar Köräş, Uzbek Kurash, Mongolian Khapsagay and Azerbaijani Gulesh.
The pioneers of Sambo were Viktor Spiridonov and Vasili Oshchepkov. Oshchepkov died in prison as a result of the political purges of 1937 after accusations of being a Japanese spy. Oshchepkov spent much of his life living in Japan and training judo under its founder Kano Jigoro. The two men independently developed two different styles, which eventually cross-pollinated and became what is known as Sambo. Compared to Oshchepkov's judo-based system, then called "Freestyle Wrestling", Spiridonov's
Shurikenjutsu (手裏剣術) is a general term describing the traditional Japanese martial arts of throwing shuriken, which are small, hand-held weapons used primarily by the shinobi in feudal Japan, such as metal spikes bō shuriken, circular plates of metal known as hira shuriken, and knives (tantō).
Shurikenjutsu was usually taught among the sogo-bugei, or comprehensive martial arts systems of Japan, mostly in ninjutsu, as a supplemental art to those more commonly practiced such as kenjutsu, sojutsu, bōjutsu and kumi-uchi (battlefield grappling) or jujutsu, and is much less prevalent today than it was in the feudal era.
The origins of shurikenjutsu are shinobi in origin, as there is a lack of reliable documentation regarding the art's history when compared to other arts. However, there are various oral traditions peculiar to each school (Ryu), that describe how their art developed and came to be used within their system.
The art possesses many originators and innovators who discovered and developed their own various methods of adapting everyday objects into throwing weapons, hence the wide variety of both schools and blades. Furthermore, the art itself is typically quite secretive, as
Sumo (相撲, sumō) is a competitive full-contact wrestling sport where a wrestler (rikishi) attempts to force another wrestler out of a circular ring (dohyō) or to touch the ground with anything other than the soles of the feet. The sport originated in Japan, the only country where it is practiced professionally. It is generally considered to be a gendai budō (a modern Japanese martial art), though this definition is incorrect as the sport has a history spanning many centuries. Many ancient traditions have been preserved in sumo, and even today the sport includes many ritual elements, such as the use of salt purification, from the days when sumo was used in the Shinto religion. Life as a rikishi is highly regimented, with rules laid down by the Sumo Association. Most sumo wrestlers are required to live in communal "sumo training stables" known in Japanese as heya where all aspects of their daily lives—from meals to their manner of dress—are dictated by strict tradition.
In addition to its use as a trial of strength in combat, sumo has also been associated with Shinto ritual, and even certain shrines carry out forms of ritual dance where a human is said to wrestle with a kami (a Shinto
Systema (Система, literally meaning The System) is a Russian martial art. Training includes but not limited to: hand to hand combat, grappling, knife fighting and fire arms training as well. Training involves drills and sparring without set kata. It focuses mainly on controlling the six body levers (elbows, neck, knees, waist, ankles, and shoulders) through pressure point application, striking and weapon applications. Systema is often advertised as being a martial art employed by some Russian Spetsnaz units however, Systema teachers would say that that is a small portion of Systema. Instead of viewing Systema as a martial art, they say that Systema as a lifestyle, or a "system" which extends beyond hand-to-hand combat and covers all aspects of life.
There is no historical "real name" for these arts, a fact which can lead to some confusion. In a sense, the name "Systema" (the system) can be thought of as a generic title comparable to "Kung Fu" ("one who is highly skilled" or "time" and "effort"). The most likely version is that the name Systema was taken from the name given in Russia to a similar martial art before that, the Systema Rukopashnogo Boya (System of hand-to-hand