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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best Leadership Role of All Time

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    1

    Councillor

    A councillor or councilor (Cllr, Coun, Clr or Cr for short) is a member of a local government council, such as a city council. Often in the United States, the title is councilman or councilwoman. In the United Kingdom, all local authorities are overseen by elected councillors. These include: According to "Debrett's Correct Form" the English title "Councillor" (often shortened to "Cllr") only applies to elected members of City, Borough or District councils. However, there is no legal basis for this restriction, and in practice the title is applied to all councillors at all levels of local government. Where necessary, parish and county councillors are differentiated by the use of a more full title, such as "Town Councillor" or "County Councillor". The title precedes the holder's rank or title (e.g. "Cllr Dr John Smith" or "Cllr Sir James Smith) and for women only it precedes their title of marital status (e.g. "Cllr Mrs Joan Smith"; rarely "Miss" but never "Ms"). Councillors are typically elected as members of political parties or alternatively as independents. Councils may also co-opt unelected councillors to fill vacancies on the council where insufficient candidates have stood for
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    Fellow

    A fellow in the broadest sense is someone who is an equal or a comrade. The term fellow is also used to describe a person, particularly by those in the upper social classes. It is most often used in an academic context: a fellow is often part of an elite group of learned people who are awarded fellowship to work together as peers in the pursuit of knowledge or practice. The fellows may include visiting professors, postdoctoral researchers and doctoral researchers. The title of research fellow is used to denote an academic research position at a university or a similar institution. The title of Teaching fellow is used to denote an academic teaching position at a university or similar institution. The title fellow might be given to an academic member of staff upon retirement who continues to be affiliated to a university institution in the United Kingdom. At Colleges of the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin, full fellows form the governing body of the college. They may elect a Council to handle day-to-day management. All fellows are entitled to certain privileges within their colleges, which may include dining at High Table (free of charge) and possibly the right to a
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    Engineer

    Engineer

    An engineer is a professional practitioner of engineering, concerned with applying scientific knowledge, mathematics and ingenuity to develop solutions for technical, social and economic problems. Engineers design materials, structures and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, safety and cost. The word engineer is derived from the Latin roots ingeniare ("to contrive, devise") and ingenium ("cleverness"). Engineers are grounded in applied sciences, and their work in research and development is distinct from the basic research focus of scientists. The work of engineers forms the link between scientific discoveries and their subsequent applications to human needs and quality of life. Engineers develop new technological solutions. During the engineering design process, the responsibilities of the engineer may include defining problems, conducting and narrowing research, analyzing criteria, finding and analyzing solutions, and making decisions. Much of an engineer's time is spent on researching, locating, applying, and transferring information. Indeed, research suggests engineers spend 56% of their time engaged in various different information behaviours,
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    Supervisor

    A supervisor, foreperson, team leader, overseer, cell coach, facilitator, or area coordinator is a manager in a position of trust in business. The US Bureau of Census has four hundred titles under the supervisor classification. An employee is a supervisor if he has the power and authority to do the following actions (according to the Ontario Ministry of Labour): If an employee cannot do the above, legally he or she is probably not a supervisor, but in some other category, such as lead hand. A supervisor is first and foremost an overseer whose main responsibility is to ensure that a group of subordinates get out the assigned amount of production, when they are supposed to do it and within acceptable levels of quality, costs and safety. A supervisor is responsible for the productivity and actions of a small group of employees. The supervisor has several manager-like roles, responsibilities, and powers. Two of the key differences between a supervisor and a manager are (1) the supervisor does not typically have "hire and fire" authority, and (2) the supervisor does not have budget authority. Lacking "hire and fire" authority means that a supervisor may not recruit the employees working
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    Registrar

    A registrar or registrary is an official in an academic institution (a college, university, or secondary school) who handles student records. Typically, a registrar processes registration requests, schedules classes and maintains class lists, enforces the rules for entering or leaving classes, and keeps a permanent record of grades and marks. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median annual salary for registrars in the United States was just under $72k in 2008-2009. In institutions with selective admission requirements a student only begins to be in connection with the registrar's official actions after admission. In the United Kingdom, the term Registrar is usually referred to the head of the University's administration. The role is usually combined with that of Secretary of the University's governing bodies and in these cases, the full title will often be "Registrar and Secretary" (or "Secretary and Registrar") to reflect these dual roles. The University of Cambridge, England uses the archaic spelling of "Registrary" for this office. Various grades of professional academic-related staff perform senior administrative and managerial roles in such universities on
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    12

    Digital marketing

    Digital marketing is the use of internet-connected devices such as computers, tablets, smartphones and game consoles to engage consumers with online advertising. Two different forms of digital marketing exist: In pull digital marketing, the consumer actively seeks the marketing content, often via web searches or opening an email, text message or web feed. Websites, blogs and streaming media (audio and video) are examples of pull digital marketing. In each of these, users have to navigate to the website to view the content. Only current web browser technology is required to maintain static content. Search engine optimization is one tactic used to increase activity. Martin et al. (2003) found that consumers prefer special sales and new product information, whereas "interesting" content was not useful. In push digital marketing the marketer sends a message without the consent of the recipients, such as display advertising on websites and news blogs. Email, text messaging and web feeds can also be classed as push digital marketing when the recipient has not given permission to receive the marketing message. Push marketing is also known as spam. Push technologies can deliver content as
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    13

    Non-executive director

    A non-executive director (NED, also NXD) or outside director is a member of the board of directors of a company who does not form part of the executive management team. They are not an employee of the company or affiliated with it in any other way and are differentiated from inside directors, who are members of the board who also serve or previously served as executive managers of the company (most often as corporate officers). Non-executive directors are sometimes considered the same as an Independent director, while other sources distinguish them from independent directors saying non-executive directors are allowed to hold shares in the company while independent directors are not. Non-executive directors have responsibilities in the following areas, according to the Higgs Report, commissioned by the British government published in 2003: NEDs should also provide independent views on: Non-executive directors are the custodians of the governance process. They are not involved in the day-to-day running of business but monitor the executive activity and contribute to the development of strategy. In 2011 the Financial Times launched the first formal qualification specifically for
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    15
    Prefect

    Prefect

    Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: "make in front", i.e., put in charge) is a magisterial title of varying definition. A prefect's office, department, or area of control is called a prefecture, but in various post-Roman cases there is a prefect without a prefecture or vice versa. The words "prefect" and "prefecture" are also used, more or less conventionally, to render analogous words in other languages, especially Romance languages. Praefectus, often with a further qualification, was the formal title of many, fairly low to high-ranking, military or civil officials in the Roman Empire, whose authority was not embodied in their person (as it was with elected Magistrates) but conferred by delegation from a higher authority. They did have some authority in their prefecture such as controlling prisons and in civil administration. The Praetorian prefect (Praefectus praetorio) began as the military commander of a general's guard company in the field, then grew in importance as the Praetorian Guard became a potential kingmaker during the Empire. From the Emperor Diocletian's tetrarchy (c. 300) they became the administrators of the four Praetorian
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    Commissioner

    Commissioner is in principle the title given to a member of a commission or to an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something, the noun's second meaning). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to include a variety of senior officials, often sitting on a specific commission. In particular, commissioner frequently refers to senior police or government officials. A High Commissioner is equivalent to an ambassador, originally between the United Kingdom and the Dominions sharing the British Monarch as head of state and now between all Commonwealth states whether Commonwealth Realms, Commonwealth Republics or Commonwealth states having their own monarchs. The title is also sometimes given to senior officials in the private sector, for instance many North American sports leagues. A Commissioner within a modern state generally holds his office by virtue of a commission from the head of state or a council of elected representatives (or appointed by non-elected officials in the case of dictatorships). Senior Public Servants, Commissioners and other high-ranking bureaucrats referred to collectively as Mandarins. Commissioners are the
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    20
    Regent

    Regent

    A regent, from the Latin regens, "[one] reigning", or regency council is a person or group of persons selected to act as head of state because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated. The period of rule of a regent or regents is referred to as a regency. In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons, but may also be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out. This was the case in the Kingdom of Finland and the Kingdom of Hungary, where the royal line was considered extinct in the aftermath of World War I. In Iceland, the regent represented the King of Denmark as sovereign of Iceland until the country became a republic in 1944. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795), kings were elective, which often led to a fairly long interregnum. In the interim, it was the Lithuanian Roman Catholic Primate (the Archbishop of Vilnius) who served as the regent, termed the "interrex" (Latin: ruler "between kings" as in ancient Rome). In the small republic of San Marino, the two Captains Regent, or Capitani Reggenti, are elected semi-annually (they serve a six-month term) as joint heads of state and of government. Occasionally,
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    23
    General

    General

    A general officer is an officer of high military rank, usually in the army, and in some nations, the air force. The term is widely used by many nations of the world, and when a country uses a different term, there is an equivalent title given. The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer; and as a specific rank. Since the late twentieth century, the rank of general is usually the highest active rank of a military not at war. The various grades of general officer are at the top of the rank structure. Lower-ranking officers are known as field officers or field-grade officers, and below them are company-grade officers. All officers who commanded more than a single regiment came to be known as "general officers". The word "general" is used in its ordinary sense in English (and other languages) as relating to larger, general, military units, rather than smaller units in particular. There are two common systems of general ranks. Variations of one form, the old European system, were once used throughout Europe. It is used in the United Kingdom (although it did not originate there), from which it eventually spread to the Commonwealth and
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    28

    Board of directors

    A board of directors is a body of elected or appointed members who jointly oversee the activities of a company or organization. Other names include board of governors, board of managers, board of regents, board of trustees, and board of visitors. It is often simply referred to as "the board". A board's activities are determined by the powers, duties, and responsibilities delegated to it or conferred on it by an authority outside itself. These matters are typically detailed in the organization's bylaws. The bylaws commonly also specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, and when they are to meet. In an organization with voting members, e.g., a professional society, the board acts on behalf of, and is subordinate to, the organization's full assembly, which usually chooses the members of the board. In a stock corporation, the board is elected by the stockholders and is the highest authority in the management of the corporation. In a non-stock corporation with no general voting membership, e.g., a typical university, the board is the supreme governing body of the institution; its members are sometimes chosen by the board itself. Typical duties of boards of
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    Treasurer

    Treasurer

    A treasurer is the person responsible for running the treasury of an organization. The adjective for a treasurer is normally "tresorial". The adjective "treasurial" normally means pertaining to a treasury, rather than the treasurer. The Treasury of a country is the department responsible for the country's economy, finance and revenue. The Treasurer is generally the head of the Treasury, although, in some countries (such as the U.K. or the U.S.) the treasurer reports to a Secretary of the Treasury, or Chancellor of the Exchequer. In Australia, the Treasurer is a senior Minister and usually the second most important member of the Government after the Prime Minister. From 1867 to 1993, the Ministry of Finance (Ontario) was called the Treasurer of Ontario. Originally the word referred to the person in charge of the treasure of a noble; however, it has now moved into wider use. In the UK during the 17th Century, a position of Lord High Treasurer was used on several occasions as the third great officer of the Crown. Now the title First Lord of the Treasury is the official title of the British Prime Minister. In corporations, the Treasurer is the head of the corporate treasury department.
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    Printer

    In publishing, printers are both companies providing printing services and individuals who directly operate printing presses. The profession of printer became established after the invention of the moveable type printing press by Johannes Gutenberg around 1450, and proliferated throughout Europe. Such early printers often were recognizable by individual characteristics in the works they produced, such as type or typography, and since early printed books were made in relatively small quantities they are rare and collectible. Today's printers include: An artist who operates a printing press to execute their own works, especially by hand in limited runs, is usually distinguished from other printers by the term printmaker.
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    36

    Art Director

    Art director (A.D.) is the title for a variety of similar job functions in advertising, marketing, publishing, film and television, the Internet, and video games. Various artists may create or develop specific parts of an art piece or scene; but it is the charge of a sole art director to supervise and unify the vision. In particular, the art director is in charge of the overall visual appearance and how it communicates visually, stimulates moods, contrasts features, and psychologically appeals to a target audience. The art director makes decisions about visual elements used, what artistic style to use, and when to use motion. One of the most difficult problems that art directors face is to translate desired moods, messages, concepts, and underdeveloped ideas into imagery. During the brainstorming process, art directors, coworkers, and clients are engaged in imagining what the finished piece or scene might look like. At times, an art director is ultimately responsible for solidifying the vision of the collective imagination while resolving conflicting agenda and inconsistencies between the various individual inputs. A coordination among the different professionals in the mentioned
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    Director

    A member of an institution or business who may or may not have an executive function. The director is usually chosen or appointed to control or govern the affairs of an institution or business.
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    Shareholder

    Shareholder

    A shareholder or stockholder is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns a share of stock in a public or private corporation. Stockholders are granted special privileges depending on the class of stock. These rights may include: Stockholders or shareholders are considered by some to be a subset of stakeholders, which may include anyone who has a direct or indirect interest in the business entity. For example, labor, suppliers, customers, the community, etc., are typically considered stakeholders because they contribute value and/or are impacted by the corporation. Shareholders in the primary market who buy IPOs provide capital to corporations; however, the vast majority of shareholders are in the secondary market and provide no capital directly to the corporation.
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    Chairperson

    The terms, chairperson is a typical example of a non-sexist neologism that was invented to replace the conventional chairman, used to describe the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. Chair and chairwoman (depending on gender) may also be used in similar context. While chairperson dates from the 1970, the use of chair (according to the Oxford English Dictionary) to refer to being in charge of a meeting, as in "to chair a meeting", dates from as early as 1658.
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    Project manager

    A project manager is a professional in the field of project management. Project managers can have the responsibility of the planning, execution and closing of any project, typically relating to construction industry, architecture, Aerospace and Defence, computer networking, telecommunications or software development. Many other fields in the production, design and service industries also have project managers. A project manager is the person responsible for accomplishing the stated project objectives. Key project management responsibilities include creating clear and attainable project objectives, building the project requirements, and managing the constraints of the project management triangle, which are cost, time, scope, and quality. A project manager is often a client representative and has to determine and implement the exact needs of the client, based on knowledge of the firm they are representing. The ability to adapt to the various internal procedures of the contracting party, and to form close links with the nominated representatives, is essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality and above all, client satisfaction, can be realized. The term and title
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    Chancellor

    Chancellor (Latin: cancellarius) is the title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the Cancellarii of Roman courts of justice—ushers who sat at the cancelli or lattice work screens of a basilica or law court, which separated the judge and counsel from the audience. A chancellor's office is called a chancellery or chancery. The word is now used in the titles of many various officers in all kinds of settings (government, education, religion etc.). Nowadays the term is most often used to describe: In Latin America, the terms Canciller (Spanish) or Chanceler (Portuguese), equivalent to "chancellor", are commonly used informally to refer to the post of foreign minister. Likewise, the ministry of foreign affairs in many Latin American countries is referred to as the Cancillería or (in Brazil) Chancelaria. However, in Spain the term canciller refers to a civil servant in the Spanish diplomatic service responsible for technical issues relating to foreign affairs. The chancellor is the principal record-keeper of a diocese or eparchy, or their equivalent. The chancellor is a notary, so that he may certify official documents, and
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    General director

    In CIS corporate governance, the general director is the highest executive position in a company, analogous to a US CEO or a UK managing director. The position exists for all Russian legal forms (Joint stock companies (AO) and limited-liability companies (OOO)), except for a sole proprietorship (IP). The general director is defined as the "single-person executive body" of a company, acts without power of attorney to represent the company, and issues powers of attorney to others. His or her powers are defined precisely by the company charter, by decision of the general meeting of shareholders (AO) or participants (OOO), and by resolutions of the board of directors.
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    Secretary

    Secretary is a title commonly held by a member of an organization, club, or society. Common duties of the Secretary include taking minutes, notifying members of meetings, contacting various persons in relation to the society, administrating the day to day activities of the organization and creating the order of business. The secretary of the club is also considered to be, in most cases, the third person in charge of the organization, after the president/chairman and vice president/vice chairman. The secretary of the NGO or INGO can be vice president/vice chairman.
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    Supervisory board

    A supervisory board or supervisory committee, often called board of directors, is a group of individuals chosen by the stockholders of a company to promote their interests through the governance of the company and to hire and supervise the executive directors and CEO. Corporate governance varies between countries, especially regarding the board system. There are countries that have a one-tier board system (like the U.S.) and there are others that have a two-tier board system like Germany. In a one-tier board, all directors (both executive directors as well as non-executive directors) form one board, called the board of directors. In a two-tier board there is an executive board (all executive directors) and a separate supervisory board (all non-executive directors). German corporation law Aktiengesetz requires all Aktiengesellschaften to have two boards: a management board called Vorstand and a supervisory board called Aufsichtsrat. In Germany the supervisory board of large corporations is composed of 20 members, 10 of which are elected by the shareholders, the other 10 being employee representatives. The supervisory board oversees and appoints the members of the management board
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    Commander-in-Chief

    Commander-in-Chief

    A commander-in-chief is the person exercising supreme command authority of a nation's military forces or significant element of those forces. In the latter case, the force element may be defined as those forces within a particular region or those forces which are associated by function. As a practical term it refers to the military competencies that reside in a nation-state's executive, Head of State and/or Head of Government. Often, a given country's commander-in-chief need not be or have been a commissioned officer or even a veteran, and it is by this legal statute that civilian control of the military is realized in states where it is constitutionally required. The role of commander-in-chief derives from the Latin, imperator. Imperatores (commanders-in-chief) of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire possessed imperium (command) powers. In its modern usage, the term was first used by King Charles of England in 1639. A nation's head of state usually holds the position of national commander-in-chief, even if effective executive power is held by a separate head of government. Colonial governors are also often appointed commander-in-chief of the military forces in their colonies.
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    Director-General of the BBC

    The Director-General of the British Broadcasting Corporation is chief executive and (from 1994) editor-in-chief of the BBC. The position was formerly appointed by the Board of Governors of the BBC and is now appointed by the BBC Trust.
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    Editor in Chief

    An editor-in-chief (Editorial Head) is a publication's primary head, having final responsibility for all the operations and policies. He or she heads all the departments of the organization. Additionally, the editor-in-chief is held accountable for delegating tasks to staff members as well as keeping up with the time it takes them to complete their task. The term is generally applied to newspapers, magazines, yearbooks, and television news programs. The term is also applied to academic journals, where the editor-in-chief ultimately decides whether a submitted manuscript will be published in the journal. This decision is made by the editor-in-chief after seeking input from reviewers selected on a basis of relevant expertise. Typical responsibilities of editors-in-chief include:
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    Technical Director

    The Technical Director (TD) or Technical Manager (TM) is usually a senior technical person within a software company, film studio, theatrical company or television studio. This person usually possesses the highest level of skill within a specific technical field and may be recognized as an expert in that industry. The Technical Director provides technical direction on business decision making using the Business Decision Mapping technique and in the execution of specific projects. He or she may be assigned to a single project, or may oversee a number of projects with related technologies. A Technical Director also typically keeps close contact with any Production Managers and keeps them informed of their budget status at all Production Meetings. In software development, a Technical Director is GAGO typically responsible for the successful creation and delivery of the company's product to the marketplace by managing technical risks and opportunities: making key software design and software implementation decisions with the development teams; scheduling of tasks including tracking dependencies, managing change requests, and guaranteeing quality of deliveries; and educating the team on
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    Chief Marketing Officer

    A chief marketing officer (CMO) is a corporate executive responsible for marketing activities in an organization. Most often the position reports to the chief executive officer. With primary or shared responsibility for areas such as sales management, product development, distribution channel management, marketing communications (including advertising and promotions), pricing, market research, and customer service, CMOs are faced with a diverse range of specialized disciplines in which they are required to be knowledgeable. This challenge is compounded by the fact that the day-to-day activities of these functions, which range from the highly analytical (e.g. – pricing and market research) to highly creative (advertising and promotions), are carried out by subordinates possessing learning and cognitive styles to which the CMO must adapt his or her own leadership style. Beyond the challenges of leading their own subordinates, the CMO is invariably reliant upon resources beyond their direct control. That is to say, the priorities and/or resources of functional areas not reporting to marketing such as production, information technology, corporate communications and public affairs,
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    Deputy Governor

    A Deputy governor is a gubernatorial official who is subordinated to a governor, rather like a Lieutenant governor. In the British empire, there were such colonial offices in : This variation was used once, in British Kaffraria (a separate crown colony since 1860, first under a Lieutenant governor; native inhabitants Xhosa), for its last own gubernatorial official before its final (re)incorporation into the Cape Colony: 24 December 1864 - 17 April 1866 Robert Graham
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    Head Master

    Head Master is the title of the person who heads a high school or a secondary school.
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    Office manager

    An office manager shall be an employee charged with the general administrative responsibilities of any given office of a corporation. At the least this means responsibility for all paperwork, including its filing and retention over time, and the supervision of the staff doing it. It will include planning and controlling any expenditure that has do to with office work plus hiring and firing office staff. In small and medium sized companies the task is often given to the corporation's accountant. In large companies there will often be several offices in several geographical areas, and each one will have an office manager.
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    President of the Royal Society

    The president of the Royal Society (PRS) is the elected director of the Royal Society of London who presides of meetings of the society's council. After informal meetings at Gresham College, the Royal Society was officially founded on 28 November 1660 when a group of academics decided to found 'a Colledge for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematicall Experimentall Learning', acquiring a Royal Charter on 15 July 1662 that nominated William Brouncker as president. The royal charter also stipulated that future presidents should be elected by the council and fellows of the society at anniversary meetings each year on St. Andrew's Day (30 November). The details of the presidency were described by the second Royal Charter, which did not give any limit for how long a president could serve and there were considerable fluctuations of a president's term of office until well into the nineteenth century. By then, sentiment had turned against electing wealthy amateurs solely because they might become patrons of the society and, in 1847, the society decided that Fellows will be elected solely on scientific merit. By current society statute, a president can not serve for more than 5 years. The
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    Executive Director

    Executive director is a term sometimes applied to the chief executive officer (CEO) or managing director of an organization, company, or corporation. It is widely used in North American non-profit organizations, though in recent decades many U.S. nonprofits have adopted the title "President/CEO". Confusion can arise because the words "executive" and "director" occur both in this title and in those of various members of some organizations' Board of directors. The precise meanings of these terms are discussed in the "Directors" section of the article on Board of directors. The role of the Executive Director is to design, develop and implement strategic plans for their organization in a cost-effective and time-efficient manner. The Executive Director is also responsible for the day-to-day operation of the organization, including managing committees and staff and developing business plans in collaboration with the board for the future of the organization. In essence, the board grants the executive director the authority to run the organization. The Executive Director is accountable to the Chairman of the Board and reports to the board on a regular basis - quarterly, semiannually, or
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    Vice President

    A vice president (British English - government: vice-president; business: director) is an officer in government or business who is below a president (managing director) in rank. The name comes from the Latin vice meaning 'in place of'. In some countries, the vice president is called the deputy president. A common colloquial term for the office is vee-pee, deriving from a phonetic interpretation of the abbreviation VP. In government, a vice president is a person whose primary responsibility is to replace the president on the event of his or her death, resignation or incapacity. Vice presidents are either elected jointly with the president as his or her running mate, elected separately, or appointed independently after the president's election. Most, but not all, governments with vice presidents have only one person in this role at any time. If the president is not present, dies, resigns, or is otherwise unable to fulfill his or her duties, the vice president will generally serve as president. In many presidential systems, the vice president does not wield much day-to-day political power, but is still considered an important member of the cabinet. Several vice presidents in the
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    Commander

    Commander

    Commander is a naval rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. Commander is also used as a rank or title in some organizations outside of the armed forces, particularly in police and law enforcement. Commander is a rank used in navies but is very rarely used as a rank in armies (except in special forces where it designates the team leader). The title (originally "master and commander") originated in the 18th century to describe naval officers who commanded ships of war too large to be commanded by a Lieutenant but too small to warrant the assignment of a post-captain, or (before about 1770) a sailing-master; the commanding officer served as his own Master. In practice, these were usually unrated sloops-of-war of no more than 20 guns. The Royal Navy shortened "master and commander" to "commander" in 1794; however, the term "master and commander" remained (unofficially) in common parlance for several years. The equivalent American rank master commandant remained in use until changed to commander in 1838. A corresponding rank in some navies is frigate captain. In the 20th and 21st centuries, the rank has been
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    92

    Executive Producer

    An executive producer (EP), sometimes called executive in charge of production, is a producer who was not involved in any technical aspects of the film making or music process in the original definition, but who was still responsible for the overall production. Today, however, the title has become ambiguous, particularly in feature films. An executive producer of a motion picture is often the person who found and bought the literary property that a film is based on, such as a novel or play. He might hire another producer to develop the project further. If the project gets the green-light to go into principal photography, he might hire a line producer to watch over the production day to day. Since the 1980s, however, it has become increasingly common for the line producer to be given the title of Executive Producer, while the initiating producer takes the "Produced by" credit. On other projects, the reverse happens, with the line producer taking the "Produced by" credit. So the two credits have become effectively interchangeable, with no precise definition. The executive producer can also be a person representing a financial investor in a film project, such as a film studio or a
    6.25
    4 votes
    94

    Surveyor General

    The Surveyor General is an official responsible for government surveying in a specific country or territory. Originally this would often have been a military appointment, but is now more likely to be a civilian post. The following Surveyor General positions exist, or have existed historically:
    6.25
    4 votes
    98
    7.00
    3 votes
    99

    Pro-Vice-Chancellor

    In a university, an assistant to a vice-chancellor is called a pro-vice-chancellor (also pro vice-chancellor or deputy vice-chancellor). These are sometimes teaching academics who take on additional responsibilities. Some of these responsibilities are in charge of Administration, Research and Development, Academic and Education affairs. In some universities, there are several deputy vice-chancellors subordinate to the vice-chancellor, with pro-vice-chancellor being a position at an executive level ranking below deputy vice-chancellor. In the National University of Ireland, each president of the constituent universities (being University College Dublin, University College Cork, National University of Ireland, Galway and National University of Ireland, Maynooth), holds the title of Pro-Vice-Chancellor of the NUI, though they generally only use this title at conferring ceremonies. In the Australian Catholic University, there are three pro-vice-chancellors, each one responsible for both an area of academic affairs and a regional area. The University of New England, Australia also has three PVCs (two Deans, another Academic) and a deputy VC (Research). In New Zealand universities, the
    7.00
    3 votes
    100
    7.00
    3 votes
    102
    7.00
    3 votes
    104
    Chaplain

    Chaplain

    Traditionally, a chaplain is a minister in a specialized setting such as a priest, pastor, rabbi, imam, lay representative of a world view attached to a secular institution such as a hospital, prison, military unit, police department, university, or private chapel. Though originally the word "chaplain" referred to representatives of the Christian faith, it is now applied to men and women of other religions or philosophical traditions–such as in the case of the humanist chaplains serving with military forces in the Netherlands and Belgium. In recent years many lay individuals have received professional training in chaplaincy and are now appointed as chaplains in schools, hospitals, universities, prisons and elsewhere to work alongside or instead of official members of the clergy. The concept of 'generic' and/or 'multifaith' chaplaincy is also gaining increasing support, particularly within healthcare and educational settings. A chaplain provides pastoral (spiritual) and emotional support for service personnel, including the conduct of religious services at sea or in the field. Military chaplains have a long history; the first English military-oriented chaplains, for instance, were
    8.00
    2 votes
    105

    Chief Operating Officer

    A Chief Operating Officer (or Chief Operations Officer; COO) or Director of Operations (or Operations Director) can be one of the highest-ranking executives in an organization and comprises part of the "C-Suite". The COO is responsible for the daily operation of the company, and routinely reports to the highest ranking executive, usually the Chief Executive Officer (CEO). The COO may also carry the title of President which makes him or her the clear number-two in command at the firm, especially if the highest ranking executive is the Chairman and CEO. Unlike other C-suite positions, which tend to be defined according to commonly designated responsibilities across most companies, the COO job tends to be defined in relation to the specific CEO with whom he/she works, given the close working relationship of these two individuals. In many ways, the selection of a COO is similar to the selection of a Vice President of the United States: the role (including the power and responsibilities therein) can vary dramatically, depending on the style and needs of the President of the United States. Thus, the COO role is highly contingent and situational, as the role changes from company to
    8.00
    2 votes
    110

    Director-General

    The term director-general (plural directors-general, as "general" is postpositive) is a title given the highest executive officer within a governmental, statutory, NGO, third sector or not-for-profit institution. In the European Commission, each department (called a directorate-general) is headed by a non-political director-general. This is roughly equivalent to a British permanent secretary. In most Australian states, the director-general is the most senior civil servant in any government department, reporting only to the democratically-elected minister representing that department. In Victoria and the Australian Government, the equivalent position is the secretary of the department. The Australian Defence Force Cadets has three Directors-General which are all One-star rank's; In Canada, a director general is not the highest civil servant in a department. Directors general typically report to a more senior civil servant, e.g. at the assistant deputy minister level. Deputy ministers are the highest level bureaucrat in the Canadian civil service. At school boards in Quebec, the director general is the highest-ranking employee. In France, the similar word président-directeur général
    9.00
    1 votes
    111

    General Manager

    General manager (sometimes abbreviated GM) is a descriptive term for certain executives in a business operation. It is also a formal title held by some business executives, most commonly in the hospitality industry. A manager may be responsible for one functional area, but the General Manager is responsible for all areas. Sometimes, most commonly, the term General Manager refers to any executive who has overall responsibility for managing both the revenue and cost elements of a company's income statement. This is often referred to as profit & loss (P&L) responsibility. This means that a General Manager usually oversees most or all of the firm's marketing and sales functions as well as the day-to-day operations of the business. Frequently, the General Manager is responsible for effective planning, delegating, coordinating, staffing, organizing, and decision making to attain desirable profit making results for an organization (Sayles 1979). In many cases, the general manager of a business is given a different formal title or titles. Most corporate managers holding the titles of Chief Executive Officer (CEO) or President, for example, are the General Managers of their respective
    9.00
    1 votes
    112
    Geologist

    Geologist

    A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes and history that has shaped it. Geologists usually engage in studying geology. Geologists, studying more of an applied science than a theoretical one, must approach Geology using physics, chemistry and biology as well as other sciences. Geologists, compared to scientists engaged in other fields, are generally more exposed to the outdoors than staying in laboratories; although some geologists prefer to perform most of their studies in the lab. Geologists are engaged in exploration for mining companies in search of metals, oils, and other Earth resources. They are also in the forefront of natural hazards and disasters warning and mitigation, studying earthquakes, volcanic activity, tsunamis, weather storms, and the like; their studies are used to warn the general public of the occurrence of these events. Currently, geologists are also engaged in the discussion of climate change, as they study the history and evidence for this Earth process. Their training typically includes significant coursework in physics, mathematics, and chemistry, in addition to classes offered
    9.00
    1 votes
    113
    Rector

    Rector

    A rector ("ruler", from the Latin regere and rector meaning "ruler" in Latin) in the sphere of academia is the highest academic official of many universities and in certain other institutions of higher education, as well as even in some secondary-level schools. The term and office of a rector are called a rectorate. The title is used widely in universities across Europe. It is also very common in Latin American countries. It is also used in Russia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Indonesia and Israel, all of which are strongly influenced by European traditions. In some universities, the title is phrased in an even loftier manner, as Rector Magnificus or Lord Rector. A notable exception to this terminology is in England and elsewhere in Great Britain, where the head of a university has traditionally been referred to as a "Chancellor". This pattern has been followed in the Commonwealth, the United States, and other countries under British influence. In Scotland, many universities are headed by a Chancellor, with the Lord Rector designated as an elected representative of students at the head of the university court. The head of a university in Germany is called a president, rector
    9.00
    1 votes
    120

    Headmaster

    A head teacher or school principal (also known as headteacher, headmaster, headmistress or the head, sometimes informally in Scots, the heidie or heedie) is the most senior teacher, leader and manager of a school. In the past, the headmaster or headmistress of a British private school was often the owner of the school or a member of the owning family, and the position often remained in the family for many generations. In Scotland, such officials are sometimes known as the "rector", most commonly in independent schools. In North America, Australia and Ireland (including Northern Ireland), such officials are usually known as the "school principal", but some schools, primarily independent schools, use the term "headmaster" or "head master". As in Scotland, the term "rector" is still in use in the United States in independent, religious schools as by tradition, the Head of School was also a priest. Some American state schools, such as Boston Latin School, Brooklyn Latin School, and Milpitas High School, also use the term "headmaster", either because of its history or historical connections. In Britain, the terms "headmaster" and "headmistress" used to be the official title throughout
    6.67
    3 votes
    121
    6.67
    3 votes
    122

    Managing Director

    A managing director or MD (UK English) or chief executive officer (U.S. English) is the director of a company given special powers by its articles of association. In most companies, the managing director is the senior executive director, subordinate only to the chairman of the board. The MD is usually the most senior manager of the company, heading the organisation, and so may have a title such as Chief Executive Officer or CEO. This person may be responsible for the routine operation of the company or this role may be delegated to a separate Chief Operating Officer, leaving the CEO free to plan and direct the company's strategy. However some companies have joint managing directors or a managing director in charge of each separate division. In some Wall Street firms, such as Goldman Sachs, managing director is the second highest title after partner. The managing director is a leadership role for an organisation and the MD may fulfill a motivational role for the workforce, in addition to an operational role in the running of the business. MDs motivate and mentor members of the management team and chair meetings. The MD leads the company and develops the corporate culture for the
    6.67
    3 votes
    123

    President

    A president is a leader of an organization, company, club, trade union, university, or country. Etymologically, a president is one who presides, (from Latin pre- "before" + sedere "to sit"; giving the term praeses). Originally, the term referred to the presiding officer of a ceremony or meeting (i.e., chairman), but today it most commonly refers to an official. Among other things, "President" today is a common title for the heads of state of most republics, whether popularly elected, chosen by the legislature or by a special electoral college. Presidents in countries with a democratic or representative form of government are usually elected for a specified period of time and in some cases may be re-elected by the same process by which they are appointed, i.e. in many nations, periodic popular elections. The powers vested in such presidents vary considerably. Some presidencies, such as that of Ireland, are largely ceremonial, whereas other systems vest the President with substantive powers such as the appointment and dismissal of Prime Ministers or cabinets, the power to declare war, and powers of veto on legislation. In many nations the President is also the Commander-in-Chief of
    6.67
    3 votes
    124

    Superintendent

    In education in the United States, a superintendent (also known as a chief school administrator in many states) is an individual who has executive oversight and administration rights, usually within an educational entity or organization. In the United States there are many variations in public school education systems from state to state. Every state constitution has language requiring a state supported system of public education. Education comes within States' rights so, while there are many similarities among public school education systems from state to state, there are also differences. In many states superintendents of schools are members on the board of education (school board) of their school district, but they usually cannot vote as members of the board. In most states, superintendents of schools are required to hold a "certification" issued by the state in which they work. State certification is typically earned by completing a course of study prescribed by the state, usually 60 graduate hours above the bachelor degree and an internship. While not required by any state, many school boards prefer that their superintendent hold a doctoral degree. Most superintendents are
    6.67
    3 votes
    125

    Trustee

    Trustee (or the holding of a Trusteeship) is a legal term which, in its broadest sense, can refer to any person who holds property, authority, or a position of trust or responsibility for the benefit of another. Although the strictest sense of the term is the holder of property on behalf of a beneficiary, the more expansive sense encompasses persons who serve, for example, on the Board of Trustees for an institution that operates for the benefit of the general public. A trust can be set up either to benefit particular persons, or for any charitable purposes (but not generally for non-charitable purposes): typical examples are a will trust for the testator's children and family, a pension trust (to confer benefits on employees and their families), and a charitable trust. In all cases, the trustee may be a person or company, whether or not they are a prospective beneficiary. Trustees have certain duties (some of which are fiduciary). These include the duty to: The terms of instrument that creates the trust may narrow or expand these duties—but in most instances they cannot be eliminated completely. Corporate trustees, typically trust departments at large banks, often have very narrow
    6.67
    3 votes
    127

    Webmaster

    A webmaster (from web and master), also called a web architect, web developer, site author, or website administrator, is a person responsible for maintaining one or many websites. The duties of the webmaster may include ensuring that the web servers, hardware and software are operating correctly, designing the website, generating and revising web pages, A/B testing, replying to user comments, and examining traffic through the site. As a general rule, professional webmasters "must also be well-versed in Web transaction software, payment-processing software, and security software." Due to the RFC 822 requirement for establishing a "postmaster" email address for the single point of contact for the email administrator of a domain, the "webmaster" address and title were unofficially adopted by analogy for the website administrator. Webmasters may be generalists with HTML expertise who manage most or all aspects of Web operations. Depending on the nature of the websites they manage, webmasters typically know scripting languages such as JavaScript, PHP and Perl. They may also be required to know how to configure web servers such as Apache HTTP Server (Apache) or Internet Information
    6.67
    3 votes
    130

    Governor

    A governor (from French gouverneur) is a governing official, usually the executive (at least nominally, to different degrees also politically and administratively) of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, a governor may be the title of each appointed or elected politician who governs a constituent state. In countries, the heads of the constitutive states, provinces, communities and regions may be titled Governor, although this is less common in parliamentary systems such as in some European nations and many of their former colonies, which use titles such as President of the Regional Council in France and Ministerpräsident in Germany, where in some states there are governorates (German: Regierungsbezirke) as sub-state administrative regions. Other countries using different titles for sub-national units include Spain and Switzerland. The title also lies, historically, to executive officials acting as representatives of a chartered company which has been granted exercise of sovereignty in a colonial area, such as the British HEIC or the Dutch VOC. These companies operate as a major state within a state with its own armed forces. There
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    2 votes
    133

    Secretary General

    A number of international organizations, political parties, and other bodies use the title Secretary General or Secretary-General for their chief administrative officer.
    7.50
    2 votes
    134
    Superintendent

    Superintendent

    Superintendent (supt), often shortened to "super", is a rank in British police services and in most English-speaking Commonwealth nations. In many Commonwealth countries the full version is superintendent of police (SP). The rank is also still used in the former British Colony of Hong Kong. In Australia, the rank of superintendent is the next senior rank from chief Inspector and is less senior than a chief superintendent (Victoria Police, South Australia Police, New South Wales Police, Queensland Police) or an assistant commissioner (Western Australia Police). Some officers also hold the rank of detective chief superintendent (though this is seldom used) and detective superintendent. Superintendents wear an epaulette bearing one pip below a crown, the same rank badge as a lieutenant-colonel and wear police caps with a laurel wreath across the brim to indicate seniority. In Canada, the rank of superintendent is usually the next senior rank up from inspector. Some police forces also have the higher rank of staff superintendent (senior staff superintendent) or regional superintendent. Hong Kong Police Force ranks are based on the British system: In India, a district superintendent of
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    2 votes
    135

    Director

    Titles in academia have been used with varying degrees of consistency in different places and at different times. Some commonly used titles for persons engaged in educating others include:
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    4 votes
    137
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    138

    Chief Financial Officer

    The chief financial officer (CFO) or chief financial and operating officer (CFOO) is a corporate officer primarily responsible for managing the financial risks of the corporation. This officer is also responsible for financial planning and record-keeping, as well as financial reporting to higher management. In some sectors the CFO is also responsible for analysis of data. The title is equivalent to finance director, a common title in the United Kingdom. The CFO typically reports to the chief executive officer and to the board of directors, and may additionally sit on the board. Most CFOs of large companies have finance qualifications such as an MBA or come from an accounting background. A finance department would usually contain some accountants with Certified Public Accountant or equivalent status. The Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002, enacted in the aftermath of several major U.S. accounting scandals, requires at least one member of a public company's audit committee to be a financial expert. The federal government of the United States has incorporated more elements of business-sector practices in its management approaches, including the use of the CFO position (alongside, for example,
    6.33
    3 votes
    139
    6.33
    3 votes
    141
    General

    General

    General (German pronunciation: [ɡenəˈʁaːl]) is currently the highest rank of the German army (Heer) and Luftwaffe (air force). As a four-star rank it is the equivalent to the rank of admiral in the German navy (Deutsche Marine). The German rank of general most likely saw its first use within the religious orders of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, albeit in modified forms and usage from the current understanding of general. By the 16th century, with the rise of standing armies, the German states had begun to appoint generals from the nobility to lead armies in battle. A standard rank system was developed during the Thirty Years War, with the highest rank of General usually reserved for the ruling sovereign (e.g. the Kaiser or Elector) and the actual field commander holding the rank of Generalleutnant. Feldmarschall was a lower rank at that time, as was Generalwachtmeister. By the 17th and 18th centuries, the rank of general was present in all the militaries of the German states, and saw its greatest usage by the militaries of Bavaria and Prussia. It was these two militaries that created the concept of the “general staff”, which was often manned entirely by members of the
    6.33
    3 votes
    142

    Chief Information Officer

    Chief information officer (CIO), or information technology (IT) director, is a job title commonly given to the most senior executive in an enterprise responsible for the information technology and computer systems that support enterprise goals. The title of Chief Information Officer in Higher Education may be the highest ranking technology executive although depending on the institution, alternative titles are used to represent this position. Generally, the CIO reports to the chief executive officer, chief operations officer or chief financial officer. In military organizations, they report to the commanding officer. Information technology and its systems have become so important that the CIO has come to be viewed in many organizations as the key contributor in formulating strategic goals for an organization. The CIO manages the implementation of the useful technology to increase information accessibility and integrated systems management. As a comparison, where the CIO adapts systems through the use of existing technologies, chief technology officer develops new technologies to expand corporate technological capabilities. When both positions are present in an organization, the CIO
    8.00
    1 votes
    143
    8.00
    1 votes
    145

    Party secretary

    In politics, a party secretary is a senior official within a political party with responsibility for the organizational and daily political work. In most parties, the party secretary is second in rank to the party leader (or party Chairman). In some parties, especially Communist Parties, the General Secretary is the leader.
    8.00
    1 votes
    148
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    149

    Chair

    The chairman, also commonly chair, is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board committee, or deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is typically elected or appointed by the members of the group. The chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. When the group is not in session, the officer's duties often include acting as its head, its representative to the outside world and its spokesperson. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairperson, chairwoman, presiding officer, president, moderator and convenor. The chairman of a parliamentary chamber is often called the speaker. The term chair is often used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist. Although many experts maintain that use of the term chairman in not sexist because it is meant to encompass both genders, feminists argue otherwise, saying that using an andro-centric generic to stand in for all humans is asymmetrical and therefore biased, because men are allowed to represent all people while women are not. Feminists also say that psycholingual studies find that when
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    2 votes
    151
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    153
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    156
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    2 votes
    158

    Rector

    The term rector in the widest ecclesiastical sense means "one who sets straight, guides, directs; a ruler, governor, director, guide, leader," from the Latin verb rego, regere, rexi, rectum, "to set straight, guide, direct". It has similar meanings, in governmental and academic spheres of administration. A female equivalent is rectoress, and the term and office of a rector are a rectorate. The Latin adjective rectus, meaning "straight", derives from the same source as the verb rego, regere, rexi, rectum, to rule, set straight. Thus a "ruler" in English refers both to a king and a drawing instrument for producing straight lines. In a moral sense a rector has the function of keeping those under his authority on the "straight and narrow path" of correct religious ideology. In classical Latin a rector may be a ruler, director or naval steersman, from which sense is derived "governor", Latin gubernator, one who operates the gubernum, the "rudder" of a ship. In ancient times bishops, as rulers of cities and provinces, especially in the Papal States, were called rectors, as were administrators of the patrimony of the Church (e.g. rector Siciliæ). The term 'Rector' was used by Pope Gregory
    7.00
    2 votes
    159
    7.00
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    160

    Vice-Chancellor

    A vice-chancellor (commonly called a VC) of a university in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, New Zealand, Australia, India, Sri Lanka other Commonwealth countries, and some universities in Hong Kong, is the chief executive of the University. In Scotland and Canada the chief executive of a University is usually called Principal or President with vice-chancellor being an honorific associated with this title, allowing the individual to bestow degrees in absence of the chancellor. Strictly speaking, the VC is only the deputy to the chancellor of the university, but the chancellor is usually a prominent public figure who acts as a ceremonial figurehead only (e.g., the Chancellor of the University of Cambridge is Prince Philip), while the vice-chancellor acts as the day-to-day chief executive. An assistant to a vice-chancellor is called a pro-vice-chancellor or deputy vice-chancellor — these are sometimes teaching academics who take on additional responsibilities. In some universities (e.g. in Australian universities: Deakin University, Macquarie University), there are several deputy vice-chancellors subordinate to the vice-chancellor, with pro-vice-chancellor being a position at
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    2 votes
    161
    Researcher

    Researcher

    In an academic project, a researcher can be a graduate student, post-doctoral scholar, visiting scholar, or undergraduates participating in the project.
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    3 votes
    163
    6.00
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    164

    Chancellor

    A Chancellor is a leader of a college or university, usually either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus. In most Commonwealth (or former Commonwealth) nations, the Chancellor is usually a titular (ceremonial figurehead) non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the Vice-Chancellor, who may also carry a title such as the alternates listed above (such as "President & Vice-Chancellor"). The Chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body (the council or board of governors); if not, this duty is often held by a chairman who may be known as a Pro-Chancellor. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the President, Principal or Rector. In United States, the head of a university is most commonly a university president. In U.S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of Chancellor and report to the overall system's President, or vice versa. In Australia, the chancellor is chairman of the university's governing body; thus, as well as having
    5.67
    3 votes
    165

    Chief Engineer

    In marine transportation, the chief engineer is a licensed mariner in charge of the engineering department on a merchant vessel. "Chief engineer" is the official title of someone qualified to oversee the entire engine department; the qualification is colloquially called a "chief's ticket". A chief engineer (commonly referred to as "The Chief" or just "Chief") is responsible for all operations and maintenance that has to do with any and all engineering equipment throughout the entire ship. Under many jurisdictions the Chief Engineer is of equal rank to the Captain, with responsibility being split between the two posts. The Chief Engineer taking responsibility for engine room and maintenance and the Captain taking responsibility for navigation and deck operations. The chief engineer also determines the fuel, lube oil, and other consumables required for a voyage. The chief engineer also compiles an inventory for spare parts, oversees fuel, lube, and slop oil transfers, all major maintenance, prepares the engine room for inspection by local marine/safety authorities (e.g. U.S. Coast Guard) and is in charge of the engine room during emergency situations. This is the short list of a
    5.67
    3 votes
    166

    Mashgiah ruhani

    Mashgiach ruchani (Hebrew משגיח רוחני) or mashgiach for short, means a spiritual supervisor or guide. It is a title which usually refers to a rabbi who has an official position within a yeshiva and is responsible for the non-academic areas of yeshiva students' lives. The position of mashgiach ruchani arose with the establishment of the modern "Lithuanian-style" mussar yeshivas. The role of the mashgiach ruchani was strongest in the era prior to World War II, when often the mashgiach was responsible for maintaining the yeshiva financially, recruiting and interviewing new students, and hiring staff, something akin to an academic "dean". After the Holocaust, the influence and position of the mashgiach decreased, and the roles of the rosh yeshivas have grown at the expense of those of the mashgiachim. A modern mashgiach is somewhat equivalent to the secular "counselor" position. The need for having a mashgiach within the modern yeshivas was tied in with the rise of the modern mussar movement (teaching of Jewish ethics), inspired by Rabbi Yisrael Lipkin Salanter, (1810-1883), and was seen as necessary because yeshiva students faced greater pressures and problems from the world outside
    5.67
    3 votes
    169
    Businessperson

    Businessperson

    A businessperson (also businessman, business man, businesswoman, or business woman) is someone involved in a particular undertaking of activities, commercial or industrial, for the purpose of generating revenue from a combination of human, financial, and physical capital. An entrepreneur is an example of a business person. Sometimes the term can mean someone who is involved in the management of a company, especially as an owner or an executive. Sometimes it can also mean someone employed in a (usually) profit-oriented enterprise. The term businessperson/man/woman almost always refers to someone with a "white collar" occupation.
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    170
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    175

    Rosh yeshiva

    Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה‎; pl. Heb. Roshei yeshiva; Yeshivish: Rosh yeshivahs), is the title given to the dean of a Talmudical academy (yeshiva). It is made up of the Hebrew words rosh — meaning head, and yeshiva — a school of religious Jewish education. The rosh yeshiva is required to have a vast and penetrating knowledge of the Talmud and the ability to achieve a level of mastery of his material and an ability to analyse and present new perspectives, called chidushim, (novellae) verbally and often in print. Yeshivas play a central role in the life of certain communities within Orthodox Judaism, so the position of rosh yeshiva is more than just a dean of a school. A rosh yeshiva is often a pillar of leadership in extended communities. In Hasidic Judaism the role of rosh yeshiva is secondary to the Rebbe, who is head of the Hasidic dynasty that controls it. In many Hassidic sects, the rosh yeshiva of a school will be the son or son-in-law of the Rebbe, the assumed heir of the Rebbe. Yeshivas continue the scholarly traditions of the Biblical Sanhedrin and the Seventy Elders wherein were discussed and elaborated the 613 Mitzvot. This tradition was continued by the sages of the
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    1 votes
    178

    Provost

    A provost is the senior academic administrator at many institutions of higher education in the United States, Canada and Australia, the equivalent of a pro-vice-chancellor at some institutions in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Additionally, the heads of certain colleges in the UK and Ireland are called provosts. In this sense, a provost is the equivalent of a master at other colleges. The specific duties and areas of responsibility for a provost vary from one institution to another, but usually include supervision and oversight of curricular, instructional, and research affairs. The various deans of a university's various schools, colleges, or faculties generally report to the provost or jointly to the chief executive officer (variously called president, chancellor, or rector) and the provost, as do the heads of various interdisciplinary units and academic support functions, such as libraries, student services, the registrar, admissions and information technology. The provost, in turn, is responsible to the institution's chief executive officer and governing board or boards (variously called the board of trustees, the board of regents, the board of governors, or the corporation)
    4.50
    4 votes
    179
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    180
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    183

    General secretary

    The office of General Secretary (or First Secretary) is staffed by the chief officer (sometimes also the leader) of: The official title of the leader of most Communist and Socialist political parties is the "General Secretary of the Central Committee" or "First Secretary of the Central Committee". When a Communist party is in power, the General Secretary is usually the country's de facto leader (though sometimes this leader also holds state-level positions to monopolize power, such as a presidency or premiership in order to constitute de jure leadership of the state).
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    2 votes
    185

    Principal

    Principal or Head of School is the title of the head administrator of an elementary school, middle school, or high school in some English-speaking countries, including the United States, India and Australia. Public schools in the United States generally use the title Principal whereas private schools in the United States generally use the title Head of School. In other English-speaking countries, the terms head teacher, head master or head mistress are used. Books and documents relating to the early days of public education in the United States show that the title was originally Principal Teacher. In 1999, there were about 129,000 "principals" in the United States. In many Australian schools, a principal is the head administrator of a school who has been appointed to her/his position by the school board, superintendent, or other body. The principal, often in conjunction with the school board, makes the executive decisions that govern the school, as well as having the authority over the employment (and in some cases firing) of teachers. The principal is often the chief disciplinarian of the students. In many US schools, however, student discipline is the vice-principal's
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    Principal

    The Principal is the chief executive and the chief academic officer of a university or college in certain parts of the Commonwealth. In Scotland the Principal is appointed by the University Court or governing body of the University and will be chairman or president of the body of academics. In the case of the ancient universities of Scotland the Principal is President of the Academic Senate. The Principal also holds the title of Vice-Chancellor but their powers with regard to this position extend only to the awarding of degrees, as both the Vice-Chancellor and Chancellor are titular posts. Queen's University and McGill University in Canada have Principals instead of Presidents, as a result of their Scottish origins. In addition the Royal Military College of Canada, and the Memorial University Campus - Sir Wilfred Grenfell College also have principals.
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    Dean

    A dean, in a church context, is a cleric holding certain positions of authority within a religious hierarchy. The title is used mainly in the Anglican Communion, the Roman Catholic Church, and the Lutheran Church. In the Church of England and elsewhere in the Anglican Communion, the dean is the chief resident cleric of a cathedral or other collegiate church and the head of the chapter of canons. If the cathedral or collegiate church has its own parish, the dean is usually also rector of the parish. However, in the Church of Ireland the roles are often separated, and most cathedrals in the Church of England do not have associated parishes. In the Church in Wales, however, most cathedrals are parish churches, and their deans are now also vicars of their parishes. In some parts of the Communion (particularly in the Scottish Episcopal Church and, formerly in some cathedrals in England), the senior resident cleric in a cathedral is a provost. Each diocese of the Scottish Episcopal Church has a dean of the diocese: this is a cleric who, rather than heading the cathedral staff, assists the bishop in the administration of the diocese. In this way, a Scottish Episcopal dean is similar to an
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    Programmer

    A programmer, computer programmer, developer, or coder is a person who writes computer software. The term computer programmer can refer to a specialist in one area of computer programming or to a generalist who writes code for many kinds of software. One who practices or professes a formal approach to programming may also be known as a programmer analyst. A programmer's primary computer language (C, C++, Java, Lisp, Python etc.) is often prefixed to the above titles, and those who work in a Web environment often prefix their titles with Web. The term programmer can be used to refer to a software developer, Web Developer, Mobile Applications Developer, Embedded Firmware Developer, software engineer, computer scientist, or software analyst. However, members of these professions typically possess other software engineering skills, beyond programming; for this reason, the term programmer is sometimes considered an insulting or derogatory oversimplification of these other professions. This has sparked much debate amongst developers, analysts, computer scientists, programmers, and outsiders who continue to be puzzled at the subtle differences in the definitions of these
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    Acting President

    An Acting President is a person who temporarily fills the role of an organization's or country's president, either when the real president is unavailable (for example ill or on vacation) or when the post is vacant (for example because of death, injury, resignation, or dismissal).
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    Chief Technology Officer

    A chief technology officer (or chief technical officer; CTO) is an executive-level position in a company or other entity whose occupant is focused on scientific and technological issues within an organization. The role became prominent with the ascent of the information technology (IT) industry, but has since become prevalent in technology-based industries of all types (e.g. biotechnology, energy, etc.). As a corporate officer position, the CTO typically reports directly to the chief executive officer (CEO) and is primarily concerned with long-term and "big picture" issues (while still having deep technical knowledge of the relevant field). Depending on company structure and hierarchy, there may also be positions such as director of R&D and vice president of engineering whom the CTO interacts with or oversees. The CTO also needs a working familiarity with regulatory (e.g. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, Consumer Product Safety Commission, as applicable) and intellectual property (IP) issues (e.g. patents, trade secrets, license contracts), and an ability to interface with legal counsel to incorporate those considerations into strategic planning
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    Curator

    A curator (from Latin: curare meaning "take care") is a manager or overseer. Traditionally, a curator or keeper of a cultural heritage institution (e.g., gallery, museum, library or archive) is a content specialist responsible for an institution's collections and involved with the interpretation of heritage material. The object of a traditional curator's concern necessarily involves tangible objects of some sort, whether it be inter alia artwork, collectibles, historic items or scientific collections. More recently, new kinds of curators are emerging: curators of digital data objects and biocurators. In smaller organizations, a curator may have sole responsibility for the acquisition and care of objects. The curator will make decisions regarding what objects to collect, oversee their care and documentation, conduct research based on the collection, provide proper packaging of art for transport, and share that research with the public and scholarly community through exhibitions and publications. In very small volunteer-based museums, such as local historical societies, a curator may be the only paid staff member. In larger institutions, the curator's primary function is as a subject
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    Historian

    "Historian" is a term used by medical professionals (particularly physicians and nurses) to describe a narrator of a medical history. Medical history is usually divided into surgical history (all prior surgeries), social history (sexual, recreational, and alcohol/drug factors), family history (heritable diseases and conditions and their presence in family members), and health or personal health history (the subject's prior illnesses, together with their treatments and outcomes). A patient's ability to "give a good history," that is to accurately recall and describe the details of relevant background, is essential in the treatment of an illness. This term has nothing to do with the subject of History per se and derives instead form the ancient Greek meaning of "history" as "narrative." Patients who are "poor historians" will often require the intervention of family members or care givers to provide the missing pieces of history. Patients who mislead physicians about their histories, either consciously or unconsciously, can greatly aggravate the process of diagnosis and delay treatment by requiring the physician to obtain all past medical records.
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    Online community manager

    The online community manager role is a growing and developing profession. People in this position work to build, grow and manage communities around a brand or cause. While the term "online community manager" may not have been used at the time, the role has existed since online systems first began offering features and functions that allowed for community creation. These early efforts, in the form of Bulletin board systems, had leaders known as System Operators or Sysops. The early 1990s saw the growth of mainstream online computer services such as Prodigy, CompuServe and America Online. Prominent features of these services included communities which went by various names; Special Interest Groups, Communities of Interest and so on. And their leaders were often referred to as Community Managers. Online community managers may serve a variety of roles depending on the nature and purpose of their online community, which may or may not be part of a profit motivated enterprise. Patti Anklam has asserted that "Every network has an underlying purpose" and motivations for such network creation include; Mission, Business, Idea, Learning or Personal. She claims such leaders hold the collective
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    Principal Investigator

    Principal Investigator

    A principal investigator (PI) is the lead scientist or engineer for a particular well-defined science (or other research) project, such as a laboratory study or clinical trial. It is often used as a synonym for "head of the laboratory" or "research group leader", not just for a particular study. In the context of USA federal funding from agencies such as the NIH or the NSF, the PI is the person who takes direct responsibility for completion of a funded project, directing the research and reporting directly to the funding agency. For small projects (which might involve 1-5 people) the PI is typically the person who conceived of the investigation, but for larger projects the PI may be selected by a team to obtain the best strategic advantage for the project. In the context of a clinical trial a PI may be an academic working with grants from NIH or other funding agencies, or may be effectively a contractor for a pharmaceutical company working on testing the safety and efficacy of new medicines. The Association of Clinical Research Professionals (ACRP) provides a certification, specific to physician investigators/principal investigators (PIs). ACRP offers the designation "Certified
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    Actuary

    Actuary

    An actuary is a business professional who deals with the financial impact of risk and uncertainty. Actuaries provide expert assessments of financial security systems, with a focus on their complexity, their mathematics, and their mechanisms (Trowbridge 1989, p. 7). Actuaries mathematically evaluate the probability of events and quantify the contingent outcomes in order to minimize financial losses associated with uncertain undesirable events. Since many events, such as death, cannot be avoided, it is helpful to take measures to minimize their financial impact when they occur. These risks can affect both sides of the balance sheet, and require asset management, liability management, and valuation skills. Analytical skills, business knowledge and understanding of human behavior and the vagaries of information systems are required to design and manage programs that control risk (BeAnActuary 2005a). The profession has consistently ranked as one of the most desirable in various studies over the years. In 2006, a study by U.S. News & World Report included actuaries among the 25 Best Professions that it expects will be in great demand in the future (Nemko 2006). In 2010, a study published
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    Commandant

    Commandant ( /ˌkɒmənˈdɑːnt/ or /ˌkɒmənˈdænt/) is a senior title often given to the officer in charge of a large training establishment or academy. This usage is common in anglophone nations. In some non-English speaking countries it may be a military or police title or rank. In the French Army and French Air Force, the term commandant is used as a rank equivalent to major (NATO rank code OF-3). However, in the French Navy commandant is the style, but not the rank, of the senior officers, specifically capitaine de corvette, capitaine de frégate and capitaine de vaisseau. In South Africa, commandant was the title of the commanding officer of a commando (militia) unit in the 19th and early 20th centuries. During the First World War, Commandant was used as a title by officers commanding Defence Rifle Association units, also known as Burgher Commandoes. The Commandoes were militia units raised in emergencies and constituted the third line of defence after the Permanent Force and the part-time Active Citizen Force regiments. The Commandant rank was equivalent to Major or Lieutenant-Colonel depending on the size of the Commando. From 1950 to 1994 Commandant (rank) was the rank equivalent
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    Partner

    A partner in a law firm, accounting firm, consulting firm, or financial firm is a highly ranked position. Originally, these businesses were set up as legal partnerships in which the partners were entitled to a share of the profits of the enterprise. The name has remained even though many of these entities are now corporations. Sometimes senior employees of the firm may have the title "partner" (e.g., "salaried partner") to indicate a profit sharing status. Salaried partners are distinguished from equity partners, who own the business.
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    Warden

    A warden is the head of some colleges and other educational institutions. This applies especially at some colleges and institutions at the University of Oxford: The title is also used at the University of Cambridge (e.g., at Robinson College), the University of London (e.g., at Goldsmiths) and the University of Bristol (e.g., at Manor Hall)
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    Air chief marshal

    Air chief marshal

    Air chief marshal (Air Chf Mshl or ACM) is a 4-star air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force (RAF). The rank is also used by the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence and it is sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in countries which have a non-English air force-specific rank structure. Officers in the rank of air chief marshal typically hold very senior appointments such as the air force or armed forces commander in those nations which have significant military capability. An air chief marshal may be described generically as an "air marshal". Air Chief Marshal is a four-star rank and has a NATO ranking code of OF-9. An Air Chief Marshal is equivalent to a "full" Admiral or a "full" General in the United Kingdom, the United States and elsewhere. The rank of Air Chief Marshal is immediately senior to the rank of Air Marshal but subordinate to Marshal of the Royal Air Force (or other national equivalent - see Marshal of the Air Force). Although no RAF officer has been promoted to Marshal of the Royal Air Force since the British defence cuts of the 1990s, British Air Chief Marshals are
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    Air Officer Commanding

    Air Officer Commanding (AOC) is a title given in the air forces of Commonwealth (and some other) nations to an air officer who holds a command appointment. Thus, an air vice marshal might be the AOC 38 Group. The equivalent term for army officers is General Officer Commanding (GOC) from where the air force term was derived. An air officer heading a particularly large or important command may be called an Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief (AOC-in-C). In the RAF those air officers who command a group are styled Air Officer Commanding, followed by the name of the group. Currently, there are three AOCs: This title is also used for the appointment of the United Kingdom Air Component Commander in the Middle East, who is dual-hatted as AOC 83 Expeditionary Air Group. In the United States Air Force, the term "Air Officer Commanding" is used specifically to refer to the specially selected officers who command cadet squadrons and groups at the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado. In the case of a cadet squadron, the AOC is normally a major; in the case of a cadet group, the AOC is normally a lieutenant colonel. These officers exercise command authority over their
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    Chief Executive Officer

    A chief executive officer (CEO) is the highest-ranking corporate officer (executive) or administrator in charge of total management of an organization. An individual appointed as a CEO of a corporation, company, organization, or agency typically reports to the board of directors. In British English, terms often used as synonyms for CEO are managing director (MD) and chief executive (CE). In American English, the title executive director (ED) is sometimes used for non-profit organizations. The responsibilities of an organization's CEO (Chief Executive Officer, US) or MD (Managing Director, UK) are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure. They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are typically enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Typically, the CEO/MD has responsibilities as a communicator, decision maker, leader, manager and executor. The communicator role can involve the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as the organization's management and employees; the decision-making role involves high-level decisions about policy and strategy. As a leader, the CEO/MD advises the board of
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    Chief Security Officer

    A chief security officer (CSO) is a corporation's top executive who is responsible for security. The CSO generally serves as the business leader responsible for the development, implementation and management of the organization’s corporate security vision, strategy and programs. They direct staff in identifying, developing, implementing and maintaining security processes across the organization to reduce risks, respond to incidents, and limit exposure to liability in all areas of financial, physical, and personal risk; establish appropriate standards and risk controls associated with intellectual property; and direct the establishment and implementation of policies and procedures related to data security. Digital security is involved in physical security. At many companies a CSO is the person responsible for IT security; the term CSO was first used principally to designate responsibility of IT security and is still used in this way.
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    Commander

    In the United States, commander is a military rank that is also sometimes used as a military title, depending on the branch of service. It is also used as a rank or title in some organizations outside of the military, particularly in police and law enforcement. In the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps, commander (CDR) is a senior officer rank, with the pay grade of O-5. Commander ranks above lieutenant commander and below captain. Commander is equivalent to the rank of lieutenant colonel in the other uniformed services. Notably, it is the first rank at which the holder wears an embellished cap, whereas officers of the other services are entitled to embellishment at O-4 rank. A commander in the U.S. Navy may command a frigate, destroyer, submarine, aviation squadron or small shore activity, or may serve on a staff (typically as executive officer) or as executive officer of a larger vessel. An officer in the rank of commander who commands a vessel may also be referred to as "captain" as a courtesy title, or informally referred to as
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    Dean

    In academic administrations such as universities or colleges, a dean is the person with significant authority over a specific academic unit, or over a specific area of concern, or both. Deans are occasionally found in middle schools and high schools as well. The term comes from the Latin decanus, "a leader of ten", taken from the medieval monasteries (particularly those following the Cluniac Reforms) which were often extremely large, with hundreds of monks (the size of a small college campus). The monks were organized into groups of ten for administrative purposes, along the lines of military platoons, headed by a senior monk, the decanus. The term was later used to denote the head of a community of priests, as the chapter of a cathedral, or a section of a diocese (a "deanery"). When the universities grew out of the cathedral and monastery schools, the title of dean was used for officials with various administrative duties. Many junior high schools and high schools have a teacher or administrator referred to as a dean who is in charge of student discipline and to some degree administrative services. In large schools or some boarding schools there may be a dean of men or boys, and a
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    Master

    A Master (or in female form Mistress) is the title of the head of some colleges and other educational institutions. This applies especially at some colleges and institutions at the University of Oxford (e.g., at University College) and the University of Cambridge (e.g., at Jesus College and Mistress at the former women's college Girton College).
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    Vice President of Corporate Development

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