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Best Language Writing System of All Time

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    1
    Soyombo script

    Soyombo script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Sanskrit Language
    The Soyombo script (Mongolian Соёмбо бичиг, soyombo bichig) is an abugida developed by the Mongolian monk and scholar Bogdo Zanabazar in 1686 to write Mongolian. It can also be used to write Tibetan and Sanskrit. A special character of the script, the Soyombo symbol, became a national symbol of Mongolia, and has appeared on the national flag since 1921, and on the national coat of arms since 1992, as well as money, stamps, etc. The Soyombo script was created as the fourth Mongolian script, only 38 years after the invention of the Clear script. A legend talks about Zanabazar seeing letter-like signs in the sky one night, which he turned into his new script. The name of the script alludes to this story. It is derived from the Sanskrit word Svayambhu, meaning "created out of itself". The syllabic system in fact appears to be based on Devanagari script, while the base shape of the letters is derived from the Nepalese Lantsa script (rajana). Details of individual characters resemble traditional Mongolian script and the Orkhon script. It is unclear whether Zanabazar designed the Soyombo symbol himself, or if it had existed beforehand. The eastern Mongols used the script primarily as a
    9.80
    5 votes
    2
    Serbian Cyrillic alphabet

    Serbian Cyrillic alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Serbian language
    • parent writing systems: Cyrillic alphabet
    The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (Serbian: српска ћирилица, srpska ćirilica, pronounced [sr̩̂pskaː ʨirǐliʦa]) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić. It is one of the two standard modern alphabets used to write the Serbian and Bosnian languages, the other being Latin. Cyrillic has been the official script in Serbia since 2006. Karadžić based his alphabet on the Cyrillic script, faithfully following Johann Adelung's principle of "write as you speak and read as it is written". Serbian Cyrillic and Latin alphabets have a complete one-to-one congruence, with the Latin digraphs Lj, Nj, and Dž counting as single letters. The Cyrillic alphabet is seen as being more traditional, and has official status in Serbia (designated in the Constitution as the "official script", compared to Serbian Latin's status of "script in official use" designated by a lower-level act), Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro (besides Latin script). During the course of the 20th century the Latin alphabet has become more frequently used, especially in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, together with the
    7.67
    6 votes
    3
    Tatar alphabet

    Tatar alphabet

    Three scripts are currently used for the Tatar language: Arabic (in China), Cyrillic (in Tatarstan and Kazakhstan) and Latin (unofficially). The official Cyrilic version of the Tatar alphabet used in Tatarstan contains 39 letters: А Ә Б В Г Д Е (Ё) Ж Җ З И Й К Л М Н Ң О Ө П Р С Т У Ү Ф Х Һ Ц Ч Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь Э Ю Я Due to the Russian Federal law, only Cyrillic alphabets may have official status in regions of the Russian Federation. There is ongoing confrontation with regards to adoption of the Latin script for the Tatar language. While a Tatar version of the Latin alphabet called Jaŋalif had been in use during the 1930s, there is controversy in the matter of Latin-based Tatar alphabet for İdel-Ural (Qazan) Tatar. One dimension of the controversy is that there are several proposed Latin alphabets. The other dimension is that the federal authorities in a move to solidify the unity of the Russian Federation, have lately outlawed any switch to Latin, or any other non-Cyrillic, alphabet. This specifically targeted Tatars, but affects all other nations living within borders now recognized as Russian Federation. The Tatarstani parliament legislated encoding mostly with the characters listed in
    7.67
    6 votes
    4
    Gupta script

    Gupta script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Sanskrit Language
    The Gupta script (sometimes referred to as Gupta Brahmi Script or Late Brahmi Script ) was used for writing Sanskrit and is associated with the Gupta Empire of India which was a period of material prosperity and great religious and scientific developments. The Gupta script was descended from Brahmi and gave rise to the Nagari, Sharada and Siddham scripts. These scripts in turn gave rise to many of the most important scripts of India, including Devanagari (the most common script used for writing Sanskrit since the 19th Century), the Gurmukhi script for Punjabi Language and the Tibetan script. The Gupta Script was descended from the Ashokan Brahmi script, and is a crucial link between Brahmi and most other scripts in the Brahmic family of Scripts, a family of alphasyllabaries or abugidas. This means that while only consonantal phonemes have distinct symbols, vowels are marked by diacritics, with /a/ being the implied pronunciation when the diacritic is not present. In fact, the Gupta script works in exactly the same manner as its predecessor and successors, and only the shapes and forms of the graphemes and diacritics are different. Through the 4th Century AD, letters began to take
    7.50
    6 votes
    5
    Hieratic

    Hieratic

    • type of writing: Abjad
    • languages: Egyptian language
    Hieratic refers to a cursive writing system that was used in the provenance of the pharaohs in Egypt and Nubia that developed alongside the hieroglyphic system, to which it is intimately related. It was primarily written in ink with a reed brush on papyrus, allowing scribes to write quickly without resorting to the time-consuming hieroglyphs. In the 2nd century AD, the term hieratic was first used by Saint Clement of Alexandria. It derives from the Greek phrase γράμματα ἱερατικά (grammata hieratika; literally "priestly writing"), as at that time hieratic was used only for religious texts, as had been the case for the previous thousand years. Hieratic can also be an adjective meaning "[o]f or associated with sacred persons or offices; sacerdotal." In the Proto-Dynastic Period of Egypt, hieratic first appeared and developed alongside the more formal hieroglyphic script. It is an error to view hieratic as a derivative of hieroglyphic writing. Indeed, the earliest texts from Egypt are produced with ink and brush, with no indication their signs are descendants of hieroglyphs. True monumental hieroglyphs carved in stone did not appear until the 1st Dynasty, well after hieratic had been
    7.50
    6 votes
    6
    Thaana

    Thaana

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Dhivehi language
    Thaana, Taana or Tāna (written ތާނަ‎ in Tāna script) is the modern writing system of the Maldivian language spoken in the Maldives. Tāna has characteristics of both an abugida (diacritic, vowel-killer strokes) and a true alphabet (all vowels are written), with consonants derived from indigenous and Arabic numerals, and vowels derived from the vowel diacritics of the Arabic abjad. Its orthography is largely phonemic. The Tāna script first appeared in a Maldivian document towards the beginning of the 18th century in a crude initial form known as Gabulhi Thaana which was written scripta continua. This early script slowly developed, its characters slanting 45 degrees, becoming more graceful and spaces were added between words. As time went by it gradually replaced the older Dhives Akuru alphabet. The oldest written sample of the Thaana script is found in the island of Kanditheemu in Northern Miladhunmadulu Atoll. It is inscribed on the door posts of the main Hukuru Miskiy (Friday mosque) of the island and dates back to 1008 AH (AD 1599) and 1020 AH (AD 1611) when the roof of the building were built and the renewed during the reigns of Ibrahim Kalaafaan (Sultan Ibrahim III) and Hussain
    7.50
    6 votes
    7
    Noxilo language

    Noxilo language

    Noxilo (Japanese: ノシロ語 [noɕiɽoɡo]) is an international auxiliary language, created by Mizuta Sentaro (水田 扇太郎 mizuta sentarō). In 1997 he published a book outlining the language, and presented it on his website. He claims it was created to address the alleged problems of several constructed languages, including; being based mostly on European languages, racism, and sexism. However, speakers may use as many words from their native language as they wish, making Noxilo potentially unintelligible to anyone who does not speak their language. A good illustration of the many origins of the words lie in the numbers. Below is a chart that displays a number, its pronunciation, and origin. There are two forms of the Noxilo script: one using Latin letters, and one derived from Latin letters. In the Latin form of the alphabet uppercase and lowercase letters are treated as separate letters: Uppercase letters are syllables unless a vowel follows; lowercase (there are only two) are simple consonants. The original script is similar to kana in that voiced consonants are derived from their unvoiced homologues (by adding a stroke), and there is a special letter for a syllable-final nasal. Sentences in
    8.20
    5 votes
    8
    Tagalog alphabet

    Tagalog alphabet

    • languages: Kapampangan language
    Filipino orthography specifies the correct utilisation of the writing system of the Filipino language, the national and co-official language of the Philippines. During the Pre-Hispanic Era, most of the languages of the Philippines were written in abugida, an ancient segmental writing system. Examples of this ancient Philippine writing system which descended from the Brāhmī script are the Kawi, Baybayin, Buhid, Hanunó'o, Tagbanwa, Butuan, Kapampangan and other Brahmic family of scripts known to antiquity. A controversial and debatable script of the Philippines is the Eskayan script. Baybayin script began to decline in the 17th century and became obsolete in the 18th century. The scripts that are still in use today by the indigenous Mangyan groups of the Philippines are the Buhid and the Hanunó'o script. When the Spaniards arrived in 1521 and began to colonize the islands of the Philippines in 1565, they introduced the Latin script to the Catholicized Filipinos. When most of the Philippine languages were first written in the Latin script, they used the Spanish alphabet. This alphabet was called the Abecedario, the original alphabet of the Catholicized Filipinos, which variously had
    8.20
    5 votes
    9
    Northeastern Iberian script

    Northeastern Iberian script

    • type of writing: Semi-syllabary
    The northeastern Iberian script is also known as Levantine Iberian or Iberian, because it is the Iberian script that was most frequently used, and was the main means of written expression of the Iberian language. The language is also expressed by the southeastern Iberian script and by the Greco-Iberian alphabet. To understand the relationship between northeastern Iberian and southeastern Iberian scripts, it is necessary to point out that they are two different scripts with different values for the same signs. However it is clear they have a common origin and the most accepted hypothesis is that northeastern Iberian script was derived from the southeastern Iberian script. There is no agreement on this, but some researchers conclude that it is linked to the Phoenician alphabet alone, whilst others believe the Greek alphabet also had a role. All the paleohispanic scripts, with the exception of the Greco-Iberian alphabet, share a common distinctive typological characteristic: they represent syllabic value for the occlusives, and monophonemic value for the rest of the consonants and vowels. In a writing system they are neither alphabets nor syllabaries, but are rather mixed scripts that
    8.00
    5 votes
    10
    Cypriot syllabary

    Cypriot syllabary

    • languages: Eteocypriot
    The Cypriot syllabary is a syllabic script used in Iron Age Cyprus, from ca. the 11th to the 4th centuries BCE, when it was replaced by the Greek alphabet. A pioneer of that change was king Evagoras of Salamis. It is descended from the Cypro-Minoan syllabary, in turn a variant or derivative of Linear A. The island of Cyprus has always been known to possess its own script during the classical period. The Cypriot Syllabary however, only refers to the script used during iron age Greece. The script used during bronze age Greece is generally known as Cypro-Minoan script. Most texts using the script are in the Arcadocypriot dialect of Greek, but some bilingual (Greek and Eteocypriot) inscriptions were found in Amathus. It has been established that the Cypriot Syllabary is derived from the Linear A script and most probably, the Minoan writing system. The most obvious change is the disappearance of ideograms, which were frequent and represented a significant part of Linear A. The earliest inscriptions are found on clay tablets. Parallel to the evolution of cuneiform, the signs soon became simple patterns of lines. There are some evidence of a Semitic influence due to trade, but this
    7.80
    5 votes
    11

    Phoenician alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Phoenician
    • parent writing systems: Proto-Canaanite alphabet
    The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, was a non-pictographic consonantal alphabet, or abjad. It was used for the writing of Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language, used by the civilization of Phoenicia. It has been classified as an abjad because it records only consonantal sounds, with the addition of matres lectionis for some vowels. Phoenician became one of the most widely used writing systems, spread by Phoenician merchants across the Mediterranean world, where it was assimilated by many other cultures and evolved. The Aramaic alphabet, a modified form of Phoenician, was the ancestor of modern Arabic script, while Hebrew script is a stylistic variant of the Aramaic script. The Greek alphabet (and by extension its descendants such as the Latin, the Cyrillic and the Coptic), was a direct successor of Phoenician, though certain letter values were changed to represent vowels. As the letters were originally incised with a stylus, most of the shapes are angular and straight, although more cursive versions are increasingly attested in later times, culminating in the Neo-Punic alphabet of Roman-era North
    7.80
    5 votes
    12
    Pahlavi scripts

    Pahlavi scripts

    • languages: Malayalam Language
    Pahlavi or Pahlevi denotes a particular and exclusively written form of various Middle Iranian languages. The essential characteristics of Pahlavi are Pahlavi compositions have been found for the dialects/ethnolects of Parthia, Parsa, Sogdiana, Scythia, and Khotan. Independent of the variant for which the Pahlavi system was used, the written form of that language only qualifies as Pahlavi when it has the characteristics noted above. Pahlavi is then an admixture of Pahlavi may thus be defined as a system of writing applied to (but not unique for) a specific language group, but with critical features alien to that language group. It has the characteristics of a distinct language, but is not one. It is an exclusively written system, but much Pahlavi literature remains essentially an oral literature committed to writing and so retains many of the characteristics of oral composition. The term Pahlavi is said to be derived from the Parthian language word parthav or parthau, meaning Parthia, a region just east of the Caspian Sea, with the -i suffix denoting the language and people of that region. If this etymology is correct, Parthav presumably became pahlaw through a semivowel glide rt
    6.67
    6 votes
    13
    Daba script

    Daba script

    Daba script is a possibly existing Pictogram writing system for Mosuo language, a dialect of Naxi language. If it exists, it will be the third living Pictogram writing system. The other two are Naxi people's Dongba script and Shui people's Shuǐshū (Chinese: 水書; Shui script).
    7.60
    5 votes
    14
    Tagbanwa

    Tagbanwa

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Ethnic Groups of Palawan
    Tagbanwa, also known as Apurahuano, is one of the indigenous writing systems of the Philippines. The Tagbanwa languages (Aborlan, Calamian, and Central), which are Austronesian languages with about 8,000 speakers in the central and northern regions of Palawan, are dying out as the younger generations of Tagbanwa are learning Cuyonon and Tagalog. The Tagbanwa script was used in the Philippines until the 17th century. Closely related to Baybayin, it is believed to have come from the Kawi script of Java, Bali and Sumatra, which in turn, descended from the Pallava script, one of the southern Indian scripts derived from Brahmi. Tagbanwa is a syllabic alphabet in which each consonant has an inherent vowel /a/. Other vowels are indicated either by separate letters, or by diacritics. When vowels appear at the beginning of words or one they own, they are represented by separate letters. Tagbanwa is traditionally written on bamboo in vertical columns from bottom to top and left to right. Though it is read from left to right in horizontal lines. Tagbanwa script was added to the Unicode Standard in March, 2002 with the release of version 3.2. The Unicode block for Tagbanwa is U+1760–U+177F.
    8.75
    4 votes
    15
    Glagolitic alphabet

    Glagolitic alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Old Church Slavonic
    The Glagolitic alphabet ( /ɡlæɡəˈlɪtɪk/), also known as Glagolitsa, (OCS: , Кѷрїлловица) is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. The name was not coined until many centuries after its creation, and comes from the Old Slavic glagolъ "utterance" (also the origin of the Slavic name for the letter G). The verb glagoliti means "to speak". It has been conjectured that the name glagolitsa developed in Croatia around the 14th century and was derived from the word glagolity, applied to adherents of the liturgy in Slavonic. The name Glagolitic in Belarusian is глаголіца (hłaholica), Bulgarian, Macedonian and Russian глаголица (glagolica), Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian glagoljica / глагољица, Czech hlaholice, Polish głagolica, Slovene glagolica, Slovak hlaholika, and Ukrainian глаголиця (hlaholyća). The creation of the characters is popularly attributed to Saints Cyril and Methodius, who may have created them in order to facilitate the introduction of Christianity. It is believed that the original letters have been fitted to the original Macedonian Slavic. The number of letters in the original Glagolitic alphabet is not known, but may have been close to its presumed Greek model. The 41 letters
    6.50
    6 votes
    16
    Latin alphabet

    Latin alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Japanese Language
    • parent writing systems: Old Italic alphabet
    The classical Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet evolved from a western variety of the Greek alphabet called the Cumaean alphabet, which was adopted and modified by the Etruscans who ruled early Rome. The Etruscan alphabet was in turn adopted and further modified by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language. During the Middle Ages, the Latin alphabet was adapted to Romance languages, direct descendants of Latin, as well as to Celtic, Germanic, Baltic, and some Slavic languages. With the age of colonialism and Christian evangelism, the Latin script was spread overseas, and applied to indigenous American, Australian, Austronesian, Austroasiatic, and African languages. More recently, western linguists have also tended to prefer the Latin script or the International Phonetic Alphabet (itself largely based on Latin script) when transcribing or creating written standards for non-European languages, such as the African reference alphabet. The term Latin alphabet may refer to either the alphabet used to write Latin (as described in this article), or other alphabets based on the Latin script, which is the basic set of letters common to the various alphabets descended from the classical
    10.00
    3 votes
    17
    Paleo-Hebrew alphabet

    Paleo-Hebrew alphabet

    • type of writing: Abjad
    • languages: Hebrew Language
    The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (Hebrew: הכתב העברי הקדום‎) (Yiddish: כתב עברי) is an abjad offshoot of the ancient Semitic alphabet and closely related to the Phoenician alphabet from which it descends. It dates to the 10th century BCE or earlier. It was used as the main vehicle for writing the Hebrew language by the Israelites, who would later split into Jews and Samaritans. It began to fall out of use by the Jews in the 5th century BCE when they adopted the Aramaic alphabet as their writing system for Hebrew, from which the present Jewish "square-script" Hebrew alphabet descends. The Samaritans, who now number less than one thousand people, continue to use a derivative of the Old Hebrew alphabet, known as the Samaritan alphabet. The earliest known inscription in the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet was discovered on the stone on a wall at Tel Zayit, in the Beth Guvrin Valley in the lowlands of ancient Judea. The 22 letters were carved on one side of the 38 lb stone (17 kg) - which resembles a bowl on the other. Next would be the Gezer calendar dated to the late 10th century BCE. The script of the Gezer calendar bears strong resemblance to the akin contemporaneous Phoenician inscriptions from
    7.40
    5 votes
    18
    Woleaian script

    Woleaian script

    • languages: Woleaian Language
    The Woleai or Caroline Island script, thought to have been a syllabary, was a partially Latin-based script indigenous to Woleai Atoll and nearby islands of Micronesia and used to write the Woleaian language until the mid 20th century. At the time the script was first noticed by Europeans, Micronesia was known as the Caroline Islands, whence the name Caroline Island script. The script has 99 known (C)V glyphs, which are not quite enough for a complete representation of the Woleaian language, even given the fact that consonant and vowel length are ignored. Approximately a fifth of them derive from the Latin alphabet. The question for historians is whether the Wolaians had proto-writing which crystallized into full-fledged writing under the influence of the Latin alphabet, or if they were exposed to the Latin alphabet without completely understanding it (see trans-cultural diffusion), and supplemented it either with existing signs from petroglyphs, tattoos, and the like, or by created new rebus or ad hoc symbols, until it was sufficient to fully express Woleaian. The script was written from left to right. Since length was ignored, one glyph stood for both ga and ka ([xa] and [kːa),
    7.40
    5 votes
    19
    Lepcha script

    Lepcha script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Lepcha Language
    The Lepcha script, or Róng script (Lepcha: อักษรเลปชา) is an abugida used by the Lepcha people to write the Lepcha language. Unusually for an abugida, syllable-final consonants are written as diacritics. Lepcha is derived from the Tibetan script, and may have some Burmese influence. According to tradition, it was devised in the beginning of 18th century by prince Phyagdor Namgyal of the Tibetan dynasty in Sikkim, or by scholar Thikúng Men Salóng in the 17th century. Early Lepcha manuscripts were written vertically, a sign of Chinese influence. When they were later written horizontally, the letters remained in their new orientations, rotated 90° from their Tibetan prototypes. This resulted in an unusual method of writing final consonants. Lepcha is now written horizontally, but the changes in the direction of writing have resulted in a metamorphosis of the eight syllable-final consonants from conjuncts (ligatures) as in Tibetan to superposed diacritics. As in most other Brahmic scripts, the short vowel /-a/ is not written; other vowels are written with diacritics before (/-i, -o/), after (/-ā, -u/), or under (/-e/) the initial consonant. The length mark, however, is written over the
    8.50
    4 votes
    20
    Śāradā script

    Śāradā script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Kashmiri Language
    The Śāradā, or Sharada, script (शारदा) is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts, developed around the 8th century. It was used for writing Sanskrit and Kashmiri. The Gurmukhī script was developed from Śāradā. Originally more widespread, its use became later restricted to Kashmir, and it is now rarely used except by the Kashmiri Pandit community for ceremonial purposes. Śāradā is another name for Saraswati, the goddess of learning. Śāradā script was added to the Unicode Standard in January, 2012 with the release of version 6.1. The Unicode block for Śāradā script, called Sharada, is U+11180–U+111DF. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points:
    8.50
    4 votes
    21
    Romanian alphabet

    Romanian alphabet

    • languages: Romanian Language
    The Romanian alphabet is a modification of the classical Latin alphabet and consists of 31 letters: The letters Q (read kü or chiu), W (dublu ve), and Y (igrec or i grec) were officially introduced in the Romanian alphabet in 1982, although they had been used earlier. They occur only in foreign words and their Romanian derivatives, such as quasar, watt, and yacht. The letter K, although relatively older, is also rarely used and appears only in proper names and international neologisms such as kilogram, broker, karate. These four letters are still perceived as foreign, which explains their use for stylistic purposes in words such as nomenklatură (normally nomenclatură, meaning "nomenclature", but sometimes spelled with a k to mean the members of the Communist leadership in the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc countries, as Nomenklatura is used in English). In cases where the word is a direct borrowing having diacritical marks not present in the above alphabet, official spelling tends to favor their use (München, Angoulême etc., as opposed to the use of Istanbul over İstanbul). Romanian spelling is mostly phonetic. The table below gives the correspondence between letters and sounds.
    7.20
    5 votes
    22
    Sylheti Nagari

    Sylheti Nagari

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Sylheti Language
    Sylheti Nagari or Syloti Nagri (Silôṭi Nagôri) is the original script used for writing the Sylheti language. It is an almost extinct script, this is because the Sylheti Language itself was reduced to only dialect status after Bangladesh gained independence and because it did not make sense for a dialect to have its own script, its use was heavily discouraged. The government of the newly formed Bangladesh did so to promote a greater "Bengali" identity. This led to the informal adoption of the Eastern Nagari script also used for Bengali and Assamese. It is also known as Jalalabadi Nagri, Mosolmani Nagri, Ful Nagri etc. Sylheti Nagari was added to the Unicode Standard in March, 2005 with the release of version 4.1. The Unicode block for Sylheti Nagari is U+A800–U+A82F. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points:
    6.17
    6 votes
    23
    Egyptian language

    Egyptian language

    • type of writing: Ideogram
    Egyptian is the oldest known indigenous language of Egypt and a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Written records of the Egyptian language have been dated from about 3400 BC, making it one of the oldest recorded languages known, outside of Sumerian. Egyptian was spoken until the late 17th century AD in the form of Coptic. The national language of modern-day Egypt is Egyptian Arabic, which gradually replaced Coptic as the language of daily life in the centuries after the Muslim conquest of Egypt. Coptic is still used as the liturgical language of the Coptic Church. It has a handful of fluent speakers today. Egyptian belongs to the Afroasiatic language family, formerly known as Hamito-Semitic. Among the typological features of Egyptian that are typically Afroasiatic are: fusional morphology, consonantal lexical roots, a series of emphatic consonants, a three-vowel system /a i u/, nominal feminine suffix *-at, nominal m-, adjectival *-ī, and characteristic personal verbal affixes. Of the other Afroasiatic branches, Egyptian shows its greatest affinities with Semitic, Berber, and to a lesser extent Cushitic. In Egyptian, the Proto-Afroasiatic voiced consonants */d z ð/
    9.33
    3 votes
    24
    Orkhon script

    Orkhon script

    • languages: Old Turkic language
    The Old Turkic script (also known as variously Göktürk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey script) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk and other early Turkic Khanates during the 8th to 10th centuries to record the Old Turkic language. The script is named after the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia, where early 8th century inscriptions were discovered in an 1889 expedition by Nikolay Yadrintsev. These Orkhon inscriptions (Turkish: Orhun Yazıtları) were published by Vasily Radlov and deciphered by the Danish philologist Vilhelm Thomsen in 1893. The discovery of short runic inscriptions on a great number of articles for common personal use proves that the knowledge and use of the runic script was generally spread among the old Turkic tribes. The Avars brought it with them to Europe. It was later used by the Uyghur Empire. Additionally, a Yenisei variant is known from 9th-century Kyrgyz inscriptions, and it has likely cousins in the Talas Valley of Turkestan and the Old Hungarian script of the 10th century. The alphabet was usually written from right to left. Further Turkic Nestorian manuscripts, that have the same "rune-like" duct as the Old Turkic script, have been found especially in the
    9.33
    3 votes
    25
    Younger Futhark

    Younger Futhark

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Old Norse
    • parent writing systems: Elder Futhark
    The Younger Futhark, also called Scandinavian runes, is a runic alphabet, a reduced form of the Elder Futhark, consisting of only 16 characters, in use from ca. 800 AD. The reduction, paradoxically, happened at the same time as phonetic changes led to a greater number of different phonemes in the spoken language, when Proto-Norse evolved into Old Norse. Thus, the language included distinct sounds and minimal pairs which were not separate in writing. Also, since the writing custom avoided having the same rune twice in consecutive order, the spoken distinction between long and short vowels were not retained in writing, either. The only real reason for using the same rune consecutively, would be when it represented different sounds following each other, such as carving kunuur for the name Gunvor. Usage of the Younger Futhark is found in Scandinavia and Viking Age settlements abroad, probably in use from the 9th century onward. While the Migration Period Elder Futhark had been an actual "secret" known only to a literate elite, with only some 350 surviving inscriptions, literacy in the Younger Futhark became widespread in Scandinavia, as witnessed by the great number of Runestones (some
    8.00
    4 votes
    26
    Syriac alphabet

    Syriac alphabet

    • type of writing: Abjad
    • languages: Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Language
    The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language from the 1st century AD. It is one of the Semitic abjads directly descending from the Aramaic alphabet and shares similarities with the Phoenician, Hebrew, Arabic, and the traditional Mongolian alphabets. Syriac is written from right to left. It is a cursive script where some, but not all, letters connect within a word. The alphabet consists of 22 letters, all of which are consonants. The vowel sounds are supplied by the reader's memory or by pointing (a system of diacritical marks to indicate the correct reading). In fact, three letters act as matres lectionis: rather than being a consonant, they indicate a vowel. ʾĀlap̄ (ܐ), the first letter, represents a glottal stop, but it can also indicate a vowel at the beginning or the end of a word. The letter Waw (ܘ) is the consonant w, but can also represent the vowels o and u. Likewise, the letter Yōḏ (ܝ) represents the consonant y, but it also stands for the vowels i and e. In addition to the sounds of the language, the letters of the Syriac alphabet can be used to represent numbers in a system similar to Hebrew and Greek numerals. When Arabic began to
    6.00
    6 votes
    27
    Urdu alphabet

    Urdu alphabet

    • languages: Hindi Language
    The Urdu alphabet is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Urdu language. It is a modification of the Persian alphabet, which is itself a derivative of the Arabic alphabet. With 38 letters, the Urdu alphabet is typically written in the calligraphic Nasta'liq script, whereas Arabic is more commonly in the Naskh style. Usually, bare transliterations of Urdu into Roman letters (called Roman Urdu) omit many phonemic elements that have no equivalent in English or other languages commonly written in the Latin script. The National Language Authority of Pakistan has developed a number of systems with specific notations to signify non-English sounds, but these can only be properly read by someone already familiar with Urdu, Persian, or Arabic for letters such as ژ خ غ ط ص or ق and Hindi for letters such as ڑ. The Urdu language developed during the Mughal Empire under the influence of Persian and, to a lesser extent, of Arabic and Turkic languages on the Hindi dialects of North-central India. A modification of the Persian alphabet was developed to suit this language. Despite the invention of the Urdu typewriter in 1911, Urdu newspapers continued to be published from handwritten scripts by
    6.00
    6 votes
    28
    Sakha writing system

    Sakha writing system

    There have been three major Sakha writing systems used since the early 20th century. The first systematic alphabet was developed by Semyon Novgorodov, and was based on the International Phonetic Alphabet. Novgorodov's alphabet was developed in 1917, and continued in use until 1929. In addition to the characters shown below, Novogorodov also introduced four letters to represent the diphthongs found in Sakha: /ɯa͡/ – , /ie͡/ – , /uo͡/ – , and /yø͡/ – w. Vowel and consonant length was indicated with the colon (e.g. a:, t:). While this alphabet was in use, various changes were implemented, including the addition of capital letters. After 1929, Novgorodov's alphabet was replaced by a form of Latin script based on the Uniform Turkic Alphabet. This was in turn replaced in 1939 by an alphabet using the Cyrillic script. Prior to the Novgorodov alphabet, various ad hoc phonetic Latin and Cyrillic-based systems had been developed. Currently only the Cyrillic Sakha alphabet is in use. This script consists of the usual Russian characters but with 5 additional letters: Ҕҕ, Ҥҥ, Өө, Һһ, Үү.
    6.80
    5 votes
    29
    Chinese written language

    Chinese written language

    • languages: Aramaic language
    Written Chinese (Chinese: 中文; pinyin: zhōngwén) comprises Chinese characters used to represent the Chinese language, and the rules about how they are arranged and punctuated. Chinese characters do not constitute an alphabet or a compact syllabary. Rather, the writing system is roughly logosyllabic; that is, a character generally represents one syllable of spoken Chinese and may be a word on its own or a part of a polysyllabic word. The characters themselves are often composed of parts that may represent physical objects, abstract notions, or pronunciation. Various current Chinese characters have been traced back to the late Shang Dynasty about 1200–1050 BC, but the process of creating characters is thought to have begun some centuries earlier. After a period of variation and evolution, Chinese characters were standardized under the Qin Dynasty (221–206 BC). Over the millennia, these characters have evolved into well-developed styles of Chinese calligraphy. Some Chinese characters have been adopted as part of the writing systems of other East Asian languages, such as Japanese and Korean. Literacy requires the memorization of a great many characters: Educated Chinese know about
    9.00
    3 votes
    30
    Lycian alphabet

    Lycian alphabet

    • languages: Lycian language
    • parent writing systems: Greek alphabet
    The Lycian alphabet was used to write the Lycian language. It was an extension of the Greek alphabet, with half a dozen additional letters for sounds not found in Greek. It was largely similar to the Lydian and the Phrygian alphabets. The Lycian alphabet contains letters for 29 sounds. Some sounds are represented by more than one symbol, which is considered one "letter". There are six vowel letters, one for each of the four oral vowels of Lycian, and separate letters for two of the four nasal vowels. Nine the Lycian letters do not appear to derive from the Greek alphabet. The Lycian alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in April, 2008 with the release of version 5.1. It is encoded in Plane 1 (Supplementary Multilingual Plane). The Unicode block for Lycian is U+10280–U+1029F. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points:
    9.00
    3 votes
    31
    Pahlavi script

    Pahlavi script

    The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sassanid Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. The word Pahlavi, referring to the script of Middle Persian, itself is a borrowing from Parthian (parthau "Parthian" ¬ニメ pahlaw; the semivowel glide r changes to l, a common occurrence in language evolution). The word originally referred to the language spoken by the Parthians, and later came to be applied to the script used to write Middle Persian, which was derived from the Aramaic alphabet. Middle Persian Pahlavi script was derived from Aramaic independently, although Inscriptional MP Pahlavi is quite similar to Inscriptional Parthian Pahlavi. Main article: Pahlavi literature. The earliest evidence of Middle Persian (MP) Pahlavi writing have reached us from the Parthian period and are used on various pieces of graffiti that have been discovered in the Persepolis complex. This is not to say that Middle Persian was not written any earlier than this. Indeed, there are reasons to believe that the earliest forms of Middle Persian were already written in various forms of Aramaic during the later Achaemenid era. Still, extensive use of the MP
    9.00
    3 votes
    32
    Celestial Alphabet

    Celestial Alphabet

    The Celestial alphabet is an alphabet created by Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa in the 16th Century. Other alphabets with a similar origin are Transitus Fluvii and Malachim. It was used as a system of writing in the 2010 video game, Nier. The manga Beelzebub contains an army of demons named after the letters of the alphabet.
    7.75
    4 votes
    33
    Ge'ez alphabet

    Ge'ez alphabet

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Amharic Language
    Ge'ez (ግዕዝ Gəʿəz), is a script used as an abugida (syllable alphabet) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea but originated in an abjad (consonant-only alphabet) used to write Ge'ez, now the liturgical language of the Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox Church. In Amharic and Tigrinya the script is often called fidäl (ፊደል), which means "script" or "alphabet". The Ge'ez script has been adapted to write other, mostly Semitic, languages, such as Amharic in Ethiopia and Tigrinya in Eritrea and Ethiopia. It is also used for Sebatbeit, Me'en, and most other languages of Ethiopia. In Eritrea it is used for Tigre, and it has traditionally been used for Blin, a Cushitic language. Tigre, spoken in western and northern Eritrea , is considered to resemble Ge'ez more so than do the other derivative languages. Some other languages in the Horn of Africa, such as Oromo, used to be written using Ge'ez but have migrated to Latin-based orthographies. For the representation of sounds, this article uses a system that is common (though not universal) among linguists who work on Ethiopian Semitic languages. This differs somewhat from the conventions of the International Phonetic Alphabet. See the
    7.75
    4 votes
    34
    Geba script

    Geba script

    • languages: Naxi Language
    Geba is a syllabic script for the Naxi language. It is called ¹Ggo¹baw in Naxi, adapted as Geba, 哥巴, in Chinese. Some glyphs resemble the Yi script, and some appear to be adaptations of Chinese characters. Geba is only used to transcribe mantras, and there are few texts, though it is sometimes used to annotate dongba pictographs.
    7.75
    4 votes
    35
    Ugaritic alphabet

    Ugaritic alphabet

    • type of writing: Abjad
    • languages: Ugaritic language
    The Ugaritic script is a cuneiform (wedge-shaped) abjad used from around either the fifteenth century BCE or 1300 BCE for Ugaritic, an extinct Northwest Semitic language, and discovered in Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra), Syria, in 1928. It has 30 letters. Other languages (particularly Hurrian) were occasionally written in the Ugaritic script in the area around Ugarit, although not elsewhere. Clay tablets written in Ugaritic provide the earliest evidence of both the West and South Semitic orders of the alphabet, which gave rise to the alphabetic orders of Arabic (in earlier order of its abjad), the reduced Hebrew, and more distantly Greek, and Latin alphabets on the one hand, and of the Ge'ez alphabet on the other. Arabic and Old South Arabian are the only other Semitic alphabets which have letters for all or almost all of the 29 commonly-reconstructed proto-Semitic consonant phonemes. According to Dietrich and Loretz in Handbook of Ugaritic Studies (ed. Watson and Wyatt, 1999): "The language they [the 30 signs] represented could be described as an idiom which in terms of content seemed to be comparable to Canaanite texts, but from a phonological perspective, however, was more like
    6.60
    5 votes
    36
    Dhives Akuru

    Dhives Akuru

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Dhivehi language
    Divehi Akuru or Dhives Akuru (island letters) is a script formerly used to write the Maldivian language. This script was christened "Dives Akuru" by H. C. P. Bell who studied Maldive epigraphy when he retired from the British government service in Colombo and wrote an extensive monography on the archaeology, history and epigraphy of the Maldive islands. The Divehi Akuru developed from the Grantha script. The early form of this script was Dīvī Grantha which was christened Evēla Akuru (ancient letters) by HCP Bell in order to distinguish it from the more recent variants of the same script. The ancient form (Evela) can be seen in the loamaafaanu (copper plates) of the 12th and 13th centuries and in inscriptions on coral stone (hirigaa) dating back from the Maldive Buddhist period. Like the native script of Sri Lanka and those of most of India, and unlike Thaana, Dhives akuru is descended ultimately from the Brahmi script and thus was written from left to right. Divehi Akuru was still used in some atolls in the South Maldives as the main script until around 70 years ago. Since then, use is purely scholarly, or by hobbyists. It can still be found on gravestones, and some monuments,
    5.00
    7 votes
    37
    Cyrillic alphabet

    Cyrillic alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Bulgarian Language
    The Cyrillic script ( /sɨˈrɪlɪk/) or azbuka is an alphabetic writing system. It is based on the Early Cyrillic, which was developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the 10th century AD at the Preslav Literary School. It is the basis of alphabets used in various languages, past and present, in parts of the Balkans and Northern Eurasia, especially those of Slavic origin, and non-Slavic languages influenced by Russian. As of 2011 around 252 million people in Europe and Asia use it as the official alphabet for their national languages. About half of them are in Russia. Cyrillic is one of the most used writing systems in the world. Cyrillic is derived from the Greek uncial script, augmented by ligatures and consonants from the older Glagolitic alphabet and Old Bulgarian for sounds not found in Greek. It is named in honor of the two Byzantine Greek brothers, Saints Cyril and Methodius, who created the Glagolitic alphabet earlier on. Modern scholars believe that Cyrillic was developed and formalized by early disciples of Cyril and Methodius. With the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007, Cyrillic became the third official script of the European Union,
    7.50
    4 votes
    38

    Scottish Gaelic alphabet

    • languages: Scottish Gaelic language
    The Scottish Gaelic alphabet contains 18 letters, five of which are vowels. The letters are (vowels in bold): The five vowels also appear with grave accents, the absence or presence of which can change the meaning of a word drastically as in bàta (a boat) versus bata (a stick): The acute accent is also used on some vowels: Since the 1980s the acute accent has not been used in Scottish high school examination papers, and many publishers have adopted the Scottish Qualifications Authority's orthographic conventions for their books. The acute accent is still used in most Scottish universities (and several Scottish academics remain vociferously opposed to the SEB's conventions) and by a minority of Scottish publishers, as well as in Canada. It is also increasingly common to see other Latin letters in loanwords, including v and z, etc. The alphabet is known as the aibidil in Scottish Gaelic, and formerly the Beith Luis Nuin from the first three letters of the Ogham alphabet: b, l, n. The letters were traditionally named after trees and other plants. Some of the names differ from their modern equivalents (e.g. dair > darach, suil > seileach).
    7.50
    4 votes
    39
    Cree syllabics

    Cree syllabics

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Cree language
    Cree syllabics, found in two primary variants, are the versions of Canadian Aboriginal syllabics used to write Cree dialects, including the original syllabics system created for Cree and Ojibwe. Syllabics were later adapted to several other languages. It is estimated that over 70,000 Algonquian-speaking people use the script, from Saskatchewan in the west to Hudson Bay in the east, the US border to Mackenzie and Kewatin in the north. Cree syllabics were developed by James Evans, a missionary in what is now Manitoba, during the 1830s for the Ojibwe language. Evans had originally adapted the Latin script to Ojibwe (see Evans system), but after learning of the success of the Cherokee syllabary, he experimented with invented scripts based on his familiarity with shorthand and Devanagari. When Evans later worked with the closely related Cree, and ran into trouble with the Latin alphabet, he turned to his Ojibwe project and in 1840 adapted it to the Cree language. The result contained just nine glyph shapes, each of which stood for a syllable with the vowels determined by the orientations of these shapes. With the 1841 publication of a syllabics hymnbook, the new script spread quickly.
    8.67
    3 votes
    40
    Dongba script

    Dongba script

    • type of writing: Pictogram
    • languages: Naxi Language
    The Dongba, Tomba or Tompa symbols are a system of pictographic glyphs used by the ²dto¹mba (Bon priests) of the Naxi people in southern China. In the Naxi language it is called ²ss ³dgyu 'wood records' or ²lv ³dgyu 'stone records'. They are perhaps a thousand years old. The glyphs may be used as rebuses for abstract words which do not have glyphs. Dongba is largely a mnemonic system, and cannot by itself represent the Naxi language; different authors may use the same glyphs with different meanings, and it may be supplemented with the geba syllabary for clarification. The Dongba script appears to be an independent ancient writing system, though presumably it was created in the environment of older scripts. According to Dongba religious fables, the Dongba script was created by the founder of the Bön religious tradition of Tibet, Tönpa Shenrab (Tibetan: ston pa gshen rab) or Shenrab Miwo (Tibetan: gshen rab mi bo). From Chinese historical documents, it is clear that dongba was used as early as the 7th century, during the early Tang Dynasty. By the Song Dynasty in 10th century, dongba was widely used by the Naxi people. After the 1949 Communist Revolution in China, the use of Dongba
    8.67
    3 votes
    41
    Gurmukhī script

    Gurmukhī script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Punjabi language
    Gurmukhi (Punjabi: ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ, IPA: [ɡʊɾmʊkʰi]) is the most common script used for writing the Punjabi language in India. An abugida derived from the Laṇḍā script and ultimately descended from Brahmi, Gurmukhi was standardized by the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad Dev Ji, in the 16th century. The whole of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji's 1430 pages are written in this script. The name Gurmukhi is derived from the Old Punjabi term "guramukhī", meaning "from the mouth of the Guru". Modern Gurmukhi has forty-one consonants (vianjan), nine vowel symbols (lāga mātrā), two symbols for nasal sounds (bindī and ṭippī), and one symbol which duplicates the sound of any consonant (addak). In addition, four conjuncts are used: three subjoined forms of the consonants Rara, Haha and Vava, and one half-form of Yayya. Use of the conjunct forms of Vava and Yayya is increasingly scarce in modern contexts. Gurmukhi is primarily used in the Punjab state of India where it is the sole official script for all official and judicial purpose. The script is also widely used in the Indian states of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and the national capital of Delhi, with Punjabi being one of the official languages in
    8.67
    3 votes
    42
    Japanese writing system

    Japanese writing system

    • type of writing: Logogram
    • languages: Japanese Language
    The modern Japanese writing system uses three main scripts: Several thousand kanji are in regular use, while the two syllabaries each contain 48 basic characters, each representing one sound in the Japanese language. Almost all Japanese sentences contain both kanji and hiragana, while some additionally use katakana. (For those unfamiliar with either language, the frequent appearance of the relatively distinctive hiragana characters is an easy way to distinguish written Japanese from Chinese.) Because of this mixture of scripts in addition to a large inventory of kanji characters, the Japanese writing system is often considered to be the most complicated in use anywhere in the world. To a lesser extent, modern written Japanese also uses acronyms from the Latin alphabet, for example in terms such as "BC/AD", "a.m./p.m.", "FBI", and "CD". Romanized Japanese, called rōmaji, is frequently used by foreign students of Japanese who have not yet mastered the three main scripts, and by native speakers for computer input. The Japanese writing system allows for transmitting information that is usually communicated in other languages by using different words or by adding extra descriptive
    8.67
    3 votes
    43
    Mithilakshar

    Mithilakshar

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Maithili Language
    Tirhuta (तिरहुता / তিরহুতা) or Mithilakshar (मिथिलाक्षर / মিথিলাক্ষর) is the script used for the Maithili language, Bengali Language, Assamese_language, Manipuri Language and Kokborok Language. The script has a rich history spanning a thousand years, but years of neglect by the Bihar government have taken their toll on the use of Tirhuta from Maithili language. Most speakers of Maithili language have switched to using the Devanagari script, which is also used to write neighboring Central Indic languages to the west such as Hindi. As a result, the number of people with a working knowledge of Tirhuta has dropped considerably in recent years. The variance of Tirhuta script used in West Bengal and Bangladesh is commonly called Bengali alphabet. In fact, many letters of Bengali alphabet (e.g. ক /k/, খ /kʰ/, দ /d̪/, জ /dʒ/) are written the same in both Tirhuta and Bengali. Nevertheless, there are sufficient differences between the two scripts to somewhat impede mutual comprehension. For example, the letter representing the sound /r/ in Tirhuta has the same form as the Bengali letter ব /b/, and the Bengali letter র /r/ has the same shape as the Tirhuta letter /w/. Furthermore, many of the
    8.67
    3 votes
    44
    Zlango

    Zlango

    Zlango is an icon-based "language" (actually a logographic writing system) built for web and mobile messaging. Zlango Ltd., the Israeli company which created and owns Zlango, has released a Java and Brew application for mobile phones which uses the Zlango icon language to create a new form of SMS, called ZMS, using Zlango's icons instead of words. Online, Zlango is available for composing messages and then sharing them in e-mail, publishing them on the Zlango site, embedding them in blogs, spaces, sites, and more. Zlango was created in 2004 by Yoav Lorch, an author and playwright, as an attempt to shorten text messages. When he found that abbreviated texts only removed 20% of letters, he decided to enter the field of pictographic language. The name Zlango is a combination of lingo, slang, and language, with the letter Z as homage to Esperanto creator L. L. Zamenhof. On February 2007, Zlango Ltd. announced that it raised $12 million from the VCs Benchmark and Accel. Zlango Ltd.'s Tel Aviv offices currently include around 40 employees. Zlango's products are currently released in many countries, as well as over the Web in many forms. Zlango's mobile application was released in the
    8.67
    3 votes
    45
    Armenian alphabet

    Armenian alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Armenian Language
    The Armenian alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Armenian language since the year 405 or 406. It was introduced by Saint Mesrop Mashtots, an Armenian linguist and ecclesiastical leader, and originally contained 36 letters. Armenian literature with pre-Mashtotsian letters was burned during the introduction of Christianity. Two more letters, օ and ֆ, were added in the Middle Ages, and reforms of the alphabet in 1922-1924 created two new letters. Until the 19th century, Classical Armenian was the literary language; since then, the Armenian alphabet has been used to write the two official literary dialects of Eastern Armenian and Western Armenian. The Armenian word for "alphabet" is այբուբեն aybuben (Armenian pronunciation: [ɑjbubɛn]), named after the first two letters of the Armenian alphabet Ա այբ ayb and Բ բեն ben. Its directionality is horizontal left-to-right, like the Latin and Greek alphabets. Listen to the pronunciation of the letters in  Eastern Armenian (help·info) or in  Western Armenian (help·info). Ancient Armenian manuscripts used many ligatures to save space. Some of the commonly used ligatures are: ﬓ (մ+ն), ﬔ (մ+ե), ﬕ (մ+ի), ﬖ (վ+ն), ﬗ (մ+խ), և
    10.00
    2 votes
    46
    Vatteluttu

    Vatteluttu

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Malayalam Language
    Vatteluttu alphabet, also spelled Vattezhutthu alphabet (Tamil: வட்டெழுத்து vaṭṭeḻuttu; Malayalam: വട്ടെഴുത്ത് Vaṭṭeḻuttŭ) (means rounded letters) is an abugida writing system originating from the ancient Tamil people of Southern India. Developed from the Tamili (Tamil-Brahmi), Vatteluttu is one of the three main alphabet systems developed by South Indian people to write the Proto-Tamil language, alongside the more modern Grantha alphabet (Pallava or Grantha Tamil) and Tamil alphabet. The syllabic alphabet is attested from the 6th century CE to the 14th century in present day Tamil Nadu and Kerala states in India. It was later supplanted by modern Tamil script and Malayalam script. It was also an ancient writing system used for writing the Tamil language after the 2nd century CE replacing an older Tamil-Brahmi script based on the Brahmi writing system. This rounded form of writing was also used in Kerala to write in Tamil as well as in Proto-Malayalam and Malayalam language. Currently Malayalam uses the Malayalam script. Inhabitants of Kuccaveli, located north of Trincomalee, used the Vatteluttu script between the 5th and 8th centuries, attested to on rock inscriptions found
    10.00
    2 votes
    47
    Cherokee syllabary

    Cherokee syllabary

    • type of writing: Syllabary
    • languages: Cherokee Language
    The Cherokee syllabary is a syllabary invented by Sequoyah, also known as George Gist, to write the Cherokee language in the late 1810s and early 1820s. His creation of the syllabary is particularly noteworthy in that he could not previously read any script. He first experimented with logograms, but his system later developed into a syllabary. In his system, each symbol represents a syllable rather than a single phoneme; the 85 (originally 86) characters in the Cherokee syllabary provide a suitable method to write Cherokee. Some symbols do resemble the Latin, Greek and even the Cyrillic scripts' letters, but the sounds are completely different (for example, the sound /a/ is written with a letter that resembles Latin D). Each of the characters represents one syllable, such as in the Japanese kana and the Bronze Age Greek Linear B writing systems. The first six characters represent isolated vowel syllables. Characters for combined consonant and vowel syllables then follow. It is recited from left to right, top to bottom. The charts below show the syllabary as arranged by Samuel Worcester along with his commonly used transliterations. He played a key role in the development of
    6.40
    5 votes
    48
    Batak alphabet

    Batak alphabet

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Batak Karo Language
    The Batak script, called locally surat Batak, is an abugida used to write the Austronesian Batak languages spoken by several million people on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. In most Batak communities, only the priests, or datu were able to use the Batak script, and used it mainly for magical texts and calendars. After the arrival of Europeans in the Batak lands, first German missionaries and, from 1878 onwards, the Dutch, the Batak script was, alongside the Roman script, taught in the schools, and teaching and religious materials were printed in the Batak script. Soon after the first World War the missionaries decided to discontinue printing books in the Batak script. The script soon fell out of use and is now only used for ornamental purposes. The Batak script was probably derived from Pallava and Old Kawi alphabets, which ultimately were derived from the Brahmi alphabet, the root of almost all the Indic and Southeast Asian abugidas. Batak is written from up to down within one line, and left to right for lines. Like most abugidas, each consonant has an inherent vowel of /a/, unless there is a diacritic (in Toba Batak called pangolat) to indicate the lack of a vowel. Other
    7.25
    4 votes
    49
    Linear A

    Linear A

    • languages: Eteocretan language
    Linear A is one of two writing systems used in ancient Crete prior to its Mycenaean descendent Linear B. Cretan hieroglyphic is the other. In Minoan times, Linear A was the primary script used in palace and religious writings. It was discovered by archaeologist Arthur Evans. In the 1950s, Linear B was largely deciphered. Although the two systems share many symbols, this did not lead to a subsequent decipherment of Linear A. Using the values associated with Linear B in Linear A produces unintelligible words. If it uses the same or similar syllabic values as Linear B, then its underlying language appears unrelated to any known language. This has been dubbed Eteocretan language. It is difficult to evaluate a given analysis of Linear A as there is little point of reference for reading its inscriptions. The simplest approach to decipherment may be to presume that the values of Linear A match more or less the values given to the deciphered Linear B script, used for Mycenean Greek. Vladimir I. Georgiev published his Le déchiffrement des inscriptions crétoises en linéaire A ("The decipherment of Cretan inscriptions in Linear A") in 1957 stating that Linear A contains Greek linguistic
    8.33
    3 votes
    50
    Nāgarī script

    Nāgarī script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Hariyani
    The Nāgarī script is the ancestor of Devanagari and other variants, and was first used to write Prakrit and Sanskrit. It was in vogue from before the 10th century The Nāgarī script appeared in ancient India around the 8th century CE as an eastern variant of the Gupta script (whereas Śāradā was the western variety). In turn it branched off into several scripts, such as Devanagari and Nandinagari, and also influenced the development of the Śāradā-derived Gurmukhī script.
    8.33
    3 votes
    51
    Transitus Fluvii

    Transitus Fluvii

    Transitus Fluvii ("passing through the river" in Latin), or Passage Du Fleuve (in French), is an occult alphabet consisting of 22 characters described by Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa in his Third Book of Occult Philosophy (Köln, 1533, but written around 1510). It is derived from the Hebrew alphabet, and is similar to the Celestial and Malachim alphabets. The name may refer to crossing of the Euphrates by the Jews on their return from Babylon to rebuild the Temple. This alphabet can also be found in Abraham de Balmis Peculium Abrae. Grammatica hebraea una cum latino, Venetiis, 1523, sig. B6v. Also in Geoffroy Tory, Champ Fleury, Paris 1529, f. 76v ubi tamen: “Lettres Chaldaiques,” and Giovanni Agostino Panteo's Voarchadumia contra alchimiam, Venice, 1530, pp. 545–46. Pantheus claims that, while the Hebrew alphabet was entrusted to Moses and Enochian to Enoch, the Transitus Fluvii was entrusted to Abraham. The alphabet is depicted in the movie The Blair Witch Project. It is also referenced in the book, "An Enemy at Green Knowe", part of the Green Knowe series by the British author Lucy Boston.
    8.33
    3 votes
    52
    Gujarati script

    Gujarati script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Gujarati Language
    The Gujarati script (ગુજરાતી લિપિ Gujǎrātī Lipi), which like all Nāgarī writing systems is strictly speaking an abugida rather than an alphabet, is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. It is a variant of Devanāgarī script differentiated by the loss of the characteristic horizontal line running above the letters and by a small number of modifications in the remaining characters. With a few additional characters, added for this purpose, the Gujarati script is also often used to write Sanskrit and Hindi. Gujarati numerical digits are also different from their Devanagari counterparts. Gujarati script is descended from Brahmi and is part of the Brahmic family. The Gujarātī script was adapted from the Devanāgarī script to write the Gujarātī language. The earliest known document in the Gujarātī script is a handwritten manuscript dating from 1592, and the script first appeared in print in a 1797 advertisement. Until the 19th century it was used mainly for writing letters and keeping accounts, while the Devanāgarī script was used for literature and academic writings. It is also known as the śarāphī (banker's), vāṇiāśāī (merchant's) or mahājanī (trader's) script. The Gujarati
    6.20
    5 votes
    53
    Kashubian alphabet

    Kashubian alphabet

    The Kashubian alphabet (kaszëbsczi alfabét, kaszëbsczé abecadło) is the script of the Kashubian language, based on the Latin alphabet. The Kashubian alphabet consists of 34 letters: A, Ą, Ã, B, C, D, E, É, Ë, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, Ł, M, N, Ń, O, Ò, Ó, Ô, P, R, S, T, U, Ù, W, Y, Z, Ż The Kashubian language also use some digraphs: ch, cz, dz, dż, rz and sz. The digraphs cz, dż, sz, ż are pronounced in a different manner from their Polish counterparts – they are postalveolar, not retroflex – but "rz" is pronounced exactly the same as in Polish.
    9.50
    2 votes
    54
    Pitman Shorthand

    Pitman Shorthand

    • type of writing: Abjad
    • languages: English Language
    Pitman shorthand is a system of shorthand for the English language developed by Englishman Sir Isaac Pitman (1813–1897), who first presented it in 1837. Like most systems of shorthand, it is a phonetic system; the symbols do not represent letters, but rather sounds, and words are, for the most part, written as they are spoken. As of 1996, Pitman shorthand was the most popular shorthand system used in the United Kingdom and the second most popular in the United States. One characteristic feature of Pitman shorthand is that unvoiced and voiced pairs of sounds (such as /p/ and /b/ or /t/ and /d/) are represented by strokes which differ only in thickness; the thin stroke representing 'light' sounds such as /p/ and /t/; the thick stroke representing 'heavy' sounds such as /b/ and /d/. Doing this requires a writing instrument which is responsive to the user's drawing pressure: specialist fountain pens (with fine, flexible nibs) were originally used, but pencils are now more commonly used. Pitman shorthand uses straight strokes and quarter-circle strokes, in various orientations, to represent consonant sounds. The predominant way of indicating vowels is to use light or heavy dots, dashes,
    9.50
    2 votes
    55
    Sinhala alphabet

    Sinhala alphabet

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Pali Language
    The Sinhalese alphabet is an abugida used in Sri Lanka to write the official language Sinhala and also the liturgical languages Pali and Sanskrit. Being a member of the Brahmic family of scripts, the Sinhalese script can trace its ancestry back more than 2000 years. Sinhalese is often considered two alphabets, or an alphabet within an alphabet, due to the presence of two sets of letters. The core set, known as the śuddha siṃhala (pure Sinhalese, ශුද්ධ සිංහල) or eḷu hōḍiya (Eḷu alphabet එළු හෝඩිය ), can represent all native phonemes. In order to render Sanskrit and Pali words, an extended set, the miśra siṃhala (mixed Sinhalese, මිශ්‍ර සිංහල), is available. The alphabet is written from left to right. The Sinhalese script is an abugida, as each consonant has an inherent vowel (/a/), which can be changed with the different vowel signs (see image on left). Most of the Sinhalese letters are curlicues; straight lines are almost completely absent from the alphabet. This is because Sinhala used to be written on dried palm leaves, which would split along the veins on writing straight lines. This was undesirable, and therefore, the round shapes were preferred. The core set of letters forms
    9.50
    2 votes
    56
    Merovingian script

    Merovingian script

    Merovingian script was a medieval script so called because it was developed in France during the Merovingian dynasty. It was used in the 7th and 8th centuries before the Carolingian dynasty and the development of Carolingian minuscule. There were four major centres of Merovingian script: the monasteries of Luxeuil, Laon, Corbie, and Chelles. Each script developed from uncial, half-uncial, and the Merovingian charter scripts. The Luxeuil type uses distinctive long, slim capital letters as a display script. These capitals have wedge-shaped finials, and the crossbar of A resembles a small letter v while that of H is a wavy line. The letter O is often written as a diamond shape, with a smaller o written inside. In the Luxeuil minuscule script, the letter a resembles two letter cs ("cc"); b often has an open bowl, and an arm connecting it to the following letter. Because of these features the Luxeuil type is sometimes called "a-b type." The letter d can have either a vertical ascender or an ascender slanted to the left; i is often very tall, resembling l; n can be written with an uncial form (similar to a capital N); o is often oval-shaped and has a line connecting it to the next
    7.00
    4 votes
    57
    Rejang script

    Rejang script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Rejang language
    The Rejang script, sometimes spelt Redjang and locally known as Surat Ulu ('upstream script'), is an abugida of the Brahmic family, and is related to other scripts of the region, like Batak, Buginese, and others. Rejang is a member of the closely related group of Surat Ulu scripts that include the script variants of Bengkulu, Lembak, Lintang, Lebong, and Serawai. Other scripts that are closely related, and sometimes included in the Surat Ulu group, are Kerinci and Lampung. The script was in use prior to the introduction of Islam to the Rejang area; the earliest attested document appears to date from the mid-18th century CE. The Rejang script is sometimes also known as the KaGaNga script following the first three letters of the alphabet. The term KaGaNga was never used by the users of the script community, but it was coined by the British anthropologist Mervyn A. Jaspan (1926–1975) in his book Folk literature of South Sumatra. Redjang Ka-Ga-Nga texts. Canberra, The Australian National University 1964. The script was used to write texts in Malay and Rejang, which is now spoken by about 200,000 people living in Indonesia on the island of Sumatra in the southwest highlands, north
    6.00
    5 votes
    58
    Maltese alphabet

    Maltese alphabet

    • languages: Maltese Language
    The Maltese alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet with the addition of some letters with diacritic marks and digraphs. It is used to write the Maltese language. It contains 30 letters: Before the standardisation of the Maltese alphabet, there were several ways of writing the sounds peculiar to Maltese, namely ċ, ġ, għ, ħ, w, x, and ż. ċ was formerly written as c (in front of e and i, in Italian fashion). Vella used ç for ċ. ç was used in other books during the 19th century. Rather than using a c with a cedilla (ç), Panzavecchia used a c with ogonek. A Short Grammar of the Maltese Language used ch for ċ, in English fashion. It was not until 1866 that ċ came to be used. ġ and g were formerly confused. When they were differentiated, g was written as gk, g, gh and (by Vassalli) as a mirrored Г. On the other hand, ġ was more commonly written as g or j in English fashion. Vella used a g with two dots, but in 1843 reduced it to one dot, instituting today’s ġ. Until the middle of the 19th century, two għ sounds were differentiated in Maltese. These were variously represented as gh, ġh, gh´, gh˙ and with two letters not represented in Unicode (they resembled an upside down U).
    8.00
    3 votes
    59
    Ol Chiki script

    Ol Chiki script

    • languages: Santali Language
    The Ol Chiki script, also known as Ol Cemetʼ ("Learning of writing", In Santali, Ol means writing and Cemet' means learning, Ol Cemet' means the learning of writing.), Ol Ciki, Ol (and sometimes as the Santali alphabet), was created in 1925 by Raghunath Murmu for the Santali language. Previously, Santali had been written with the Bengali alphabet, Oriya alphabet, or Latin alphabet, on the rare occasions it was written at all. But because Santali is not an Indo-Aryan language (like most other languages in the south of India), Indic scripts did not have letters for all of Santali's phonemes, especially its stop consonants and vowels, which made writing the language accurately in an unmodified Indic script difficult. The detailed analysis was given by Dr. Byomkes Chakrabarti in his 'Comparative Study of Santali and Bengali'. Missionaries (first of all Paul Olaf Bodding, a Norwegian) brought the Latin alphabet, which was better at representing some Santali stops, but vowels were still problematic. Unlike most Indic scripts, which are derived from Brahmi, Ol Chiki is a true alphabet, not an abugida, with vowels given equal representation with consonants. Additionally, because it was
    8.00
    3 votes
    60
    Brāhmī

    Brāhmī

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Sanskrit Language
    Brāhmī is the modern name given to the oldest script used in India, during the final centuries BCE and the early centuries CE. Like its contemporary, Kharoṣṭhī, which was used in what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan, Brāhmī was an alphasyllabary. The best-known Brāhmī inscriptions are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka in north-central India, dated to the 3rd century BCE. Inscriptions in Tamil-Brahmi, a Southern Brahmic alphabet found on pottery in South India and Sri Lanka, may even predate the Ashoka edicts. The Gupta script of the 5th century is sometimes called "Late Brahmi". From the 6th century onward, the Brahmi script diversified into numerous local variants, grouped as the Brahmic family of scripts. The script was deciphered in 1837 by James Prinsep, an archaeologist, philologist, and official of the British East India Company. Scholars, such as F. Raymond Allchin, take Brāhmī as a purely indigenous development, perhaps with the Bronze Age Indus script as its predecessor. G. R. Hunter in his book "The Script of Harappa and Mohenjodaro and Its Connection with Other Scripts (1934) details out the derivation of the Brahmi alphabets from the Indus Script, the match being
    6.75
    4 votes
    61
    Language of flowers

    Language of flowers

    Flora from the Latin name of Flora, the goddess of plants, flowers, and fertility in Roman mythology and graphy from the Greek γραφή graphẽ "writing" is recognised as type of visual art related to flowers. A contemporary definition of floriography principles is “the art of expression through the language of flowers”. The language of flowers, sometimes called floriography, was a Victorian-era means of communication in which various flowers and floral arrangements were used to send coded messages, allowing individuals to express feelings which otherwise could not be spoken. This language was most commonly communicated through Tussie-Mussies, an art which has a following today. “Tussie-mussie” is a quaint, endearing term from the early 1400s for small, round bouquets of herbs and flowers with ­symbolic meanings. Just as a calligrapher uses his quill, or a photographer relies on his camera, flowers are the Floriographer’s form of expression. The Floriographer gives each bloom a voice, creating something beautiful not only to the eye, but resonating on a much deeper level; the impalpable sense of the sentiments themselves. Well versed in the language of flowers, the skills of the
    6.75
    4 votes
    62
    Oriya script

    Oriya script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Oriya Language
    The Oriya script or Utkala Lipi (Oriya: ଉତ୍କଳ ଲିପି) or Utkalakshara (Oriya: ଉତ୍କଳାକ୍ଷର) is used to write the Oriya language, and can be used for several other Indian languages, for example, Sanskrit. The Oriya script is developed from the Kalinga script, one of the many descendants of the Brahmi script of ancient India. The earliest known inscription in the Oriya language, in the Kalinga script, dates from 1051. Oriya language has undergone through several phases. They are broadly: The script in the Ashokan edicts at Dhauli and Jaugada and the inscriptions of Kharavela in Hati Gumpha of Khandagiri give the first glimpse of possible origin of the Oriya language. From a linguistic perspective, the Hati Gumpha inscriptions are similar to modern Oriya and essentially different from the language of the Ashokan edicts. The question has also been raised as to whether Pali was the prevalent language in Orissa during this period. The Hati Gumpha inscriptions, which are in Pali, are perhaps the only evidence of stone inscriptions in Pali. This may be the reason why the famous German linguist Professor Oldenburg mentioned that Pali was the original language of Orissa. There are noticeable
    6.75
    4 votes
    63
    Idu

    Idu

    Idu (이두; Northern dialects: 리두 Ri-du) is an archaic writing system that represents the Korean language using hanja. The term "idu" is used in two senses. It may refer to various systems of representing Korean phonology through Chinese characters called hanja, which were used from the early Three Kingdoms to Joseon periods. In this sense it includes hyangchal and gugyeol writing, as well as the narrower sense of "idu". The narrower sense refers solely to the system developed in the Goryeo period (918–1392), and first referred to by name in the Jewang Ungi. The idu script used hanja, along with special symbols to indicate Korean verb endings and other grammatical markers that were different in Korean from Chinese. This made both the meaning and pronunciation difficult to parse, and was one reason why the system was gradually abandoned, to be replaced with hangul, after the 15th century. In this respect, it faced problems analogous to those that confronted early efforts to represent the Japanese language with kanji, due to grammatical differences between these languages and Chinese. Characters were selected for idu based on their Korean sound, their adapted Korean sound, or their
    9.00
    2 votes
    64
    Thai alphabet

    Thai alphabet

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Thai Language
    Thai script (Thai: อักษรไทย, àksǒn thai), is used to write the Thai language and other, minority, languages in Thailand. It has forty-four consonants (Thai: พยัญชนะ, phayanchaná), fifteen vowel symbols (Thai: สระ, sàrà) that combine into at least twenty-eight vowel forms, and four tone marks (Thai: วรรณยุกต์ or วรรณยุต, wannayúk or wannayút). Although commonly referred to as the "Thai alphabet", the character set is in fact not a true alphabet but an abugida, a writing system in which each consonant may invoke an inherent vowel sound, described as an implied 'a' or 'o'. Consonants are written horizontally from left to right, with vowels arranged above, below, to the left or to the right of the corresponding consonant or in a combination of those positions. Thai has its own set of Thai numerals which are based on the Hindu Arabic numeral system (Thai: ตัวเลขไทย, tua lek thai), but the standard western Hindu-Arabic numerals (Thai: ตัวเลขฮินดูอารบิก, tua lek hindu arabik) are also commonly used. The Thai alphabet is derived from the Old Khmer script (Thai: อักขระเขมร, akkhara khamen), which is a southern Brahmic style of writing called Vatteluttu. Vatteluttu was also commonly referred
    9.00
    2 votes
    65

    Welsh alphabet

    • languages: Welsh Language
    Welsh orthography uses 28 letters (including eight digraphs) of the Latin script to write native Welsh words as well as older loanwords. The acute accent, the grave accent, the circumflex and the diaeresis mark are also used on vowels, but accented letters are not regarded as part of the alphabet. The letter j is accepted in Welsh orthography for those words borrowed from English in which the /dʒ/ sound is retained in Welsh, even where that sound is not represented by j in English spelling, as in garej (for garage). Some borrowed words that are spelt with a j in English may be pronounced with either /dʒ/ or /ʃ/ in Welsh; the latter pronunciation is represented by si, as in Siapan for Japan. The letters k, v, x and z are used in some technical terms, like kilogram, volt, xeroser and zero, but in all cases can be, and often are, replaced by Welsh letters: cilogram, folt, seroser and sero. Nevertheless, in the Welsh colony in Patagonia, v is used generally to represent the sound /v/. The earliest samples of written Welsh date from the 6th century and are in the Latin alphabet (see Old Welsh). The orthography differs from that of modern Welsh particularly in the use of p, t and c to
    9.00
    2 votes
    66
    Byblos syllabary

    Byblos syllabary

    The Byblos syllabary, also known as the Pseudo-hieroglyphic script, Proto-Byblian, Proto-Byblic, or Byblic, is officially an undeciphered writing system, known from ten inscriptions found in Byblos. The inscriptions are engraved on bronze plates and spatulas, and carved in stone. They were excavated by Maurice Dunand, from 1928 to 1932, and published in 1945 in his monograph Byblia Grammata. The inscriptions are conventionally dated to the second millennium BC, probably between the 18th and 15th centuries BC. Examples of the script have also been discovered in Egypt, Italy, and Megiddo (Garbini, Colless). The Byblos script is usually written from right to left; word dividers are rarely used. The ten known inscriptions, named a to j in their order of discovery, are: Isolated characters from the Byblos syllabary have also been found on various other objects, such as axes and pottery. Also, a spatula is known which has on the front side a Phoenician inscription and on the back side traces of a Proto-Byblian inscription—about half a dozen proto-Byblian characters are recognizable. The Phoenician inscription on this spatula is dated to the 10th century BC which suggests that
    5.80
    5 votes
    67
    Bohorič alphabet

    Bohorič alphabet

    The Bohorič alphabet (Slovene: bohoričica) was an orthography used for Slovene between the 16th and 19th centuries. Its name is derived from Adam Bohorič, who codified the alphabet in his book Articae Horulae Succisivae, published in 1584. The Bohorič alphabet was first used by the Lutheran preacher Primož Trubar, the author of the first printed book in Slovene. However, Trubar did not follow strict rules and often used alternate spellings for the same word. The alphabet consists of 25 letters (including 3 digraphs) in the following order: a b d e f g h i j k l m n o p r ſ ſh s sh t u v z zh The Bohorič alphabet differs from the modern Slovene alphabet in the following letters: (In these cases, the values of the Bohorič letters somewhat resemble German.) In the early Bohorič alphabet, some letters shared majuscule forms: There were other differences from the modern Slovene orthography. The schwa sound preceding R was strictly written with the letter E, while in modern Slovene the E is omitted (except before word-final R): the Slovene name for the city of Trieste, Trst, was thus written as Terſt, the word for "square" was written as terg (instead of the modern trg), etc. One letter
    7.67
    3 votes
    68
    Cursive script

    Cursive script

    • languages: Old Chinese
    Cursive script (simplified Chinese: 草书; traditional Chinese: 草書; pinyin: cǎoshū), sometimes translated as Grass script (see Names below) is a style of Chinese calligraphy. Cursive script is faster to write than other styles, but difficult to read for those unfamiliar with it. It functions primarily as a kind of shorthand script or calligraphic style. People who can read standard or printed forms of Chinese may not be able to comprehend this script at all. The character 書 (shū) means script in this context, and the character 草 (cǎo) means quick, rough or sloppy. Thus, the name of this script is literally "rough script" or "sloppy script". The same character 草 (cǎo) appears in this sense in the noun "rough draft" (草稿, cǎogǎo), and the verb "to draft [a document or plan]" (草擬, cǎonǐ). The other, indirectly related, meaning of the character 草 (cǎo) is grass, which has led to the alternate and literal translation "grass script", even though this does not correlate with the meaning of the original name. While the second translation is not accurate, it is still sometimes used in some sources to refer to this script. Cursive script originated in China during the Han dynasty through Jin
    7.67
    3 votes
    69
    Kannada script

    Kannada script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Kannada Language
    The Kannada AKA Kanarese alphabet (ಕನ್ನಡ ಲಿಪಿ) is an abugida of the Brahmic family, used primarily to write the Kannada language, one of the Dravidian languages of southern India. The Kannada and Telugu alphabets are essentially regional calligraphic variants of a single script. The form of Kannada was strongly influenced by stone carving, and therefore most of the characters are round with straight strokes/wedges. Kannada is second only to the Devanagari script in the number of languages using it in the Indian subcontinent. This script is also used to write the Telugu language (script derived form Old Kannada | Halegannada) , Tulu Language, Banada Language, Konkani by the Konkani diaspora in coastal Karnataka. Similarly, Goykanadi, a variant of Halekannada and Kadamba lipi has been historically used to write Konkani in the state of Goa. Kannada (Kanarese or Canarese) script is derived from the Old Kannada script. Old Kannada script which evolved around 10th century, is the continuation of the Kadamba script which in turn came during 4th century CE. The Kadamba script is said to have evolved from the Proto-Kannada script (during 4th century CE). The Kadamba script is also known as
    7.67
    3 votes
    70
    Mokshan logographic script

    Mokshan logographic script

    • languages: Moksha Language
    The Moksha script is an obsolete logographic writing system, used together with old Mokshan numeric system for writing the equally Moksha language before Christianization. According to the rough count, there were around 3000 characters excluding variants. Official documents were written in the script. It remained in use till beginning of the 20th century in more or less simplified form. All clans have their own clan glyphs.
    7.67
    3 votes
    71
    Old Kawi

    Old Kawi

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Malay Language
    Kawi (also known as Kavi) is the name given to the writing system originating in Java and used across much of Maritime Southeast Asia in inscriptions and texts from the 8th century to around 1500 AD. It is also the name of the language used in these inscriptions and texts, more generally called "Old Javanese". Kawi is derived from the Pallava script (also known as Grantha) mentioned by scholars of Southeast Asian studies such as George Coedès and D. G. E. Hall as the basis of several writing systems of Southeast Asia. The Pallava script was primarily used to write middle Tamil, however, modern Tamil uses a modern script derived from Vatteluttu which itself is derived from the Pallava script. The earliest known texts in Kavi date from the Singhasari kingdom in eastern Java. The more recent scripts were extant in the Majapahit kingdom, also in eastern Java, Bali, Borneo and Sumatra. The scripts are abugidas, meaning that characters are read with an inherent vowel. Diacritics are used, either to suppress the vowel and represent a pure consonant, or to represent other vowels. The literary genre written in this alphabet is called Kakawin. A well-known document written in Kawi is the
    7.67
    3 votes
    72
    Papyrus stem

    Papyrus stem

    The ancient Egyptian papyrus stem hieroglyph is one of the oldest language hieroglyphs from Ancient Egypt. Along with the hieroglyph for the Papyrus clump, a symbol of the Nile god Hapy, it is one of the foundation hieroglyphs at the core of the history of Ancient Egypt. The papyrus stalk, (or stem) was incorporated into designs of columns on buildings, also facades, and is also in the iconographic art portrayed in Ancient Egyptian decorated scenes. The papyrus stem hieroglyph shows a single stalk and umbel of the plant. It is used for the color 'green', and for vigour, or youth-(growing things). The basic usage of the papyrus stem hieroglyph is as an ideogram, (graphic picture), in the word for "papyrus stem", the w3dj, or the older representation of "uatch". As the papyrus plant is from the Nile Delta, and is a symbol of Lower Egypt and its green and productive quality of food growing, the usage of the papyrus stem is also used to represent growth, vigour, youth, all things fresh, new and growing. The green color, or the Nile Delta's connection to the Mediterranean Sea, gave rise to the word the "Great Green", the Mediterranean, and thus its hieroglyphic spelling of the sea,
    7.67
    3 votes
    73

    Rotokas alphabet

    The modern Rotokas alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of only 12 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet: It is the smallest alphabet in use today. The majority of the Rotokas people are literate in their language. In the Rotokas writing system the vowel letters have their IPA values, though they may be written double, aa, ee, ii, oo, uu, for long vowels. The consonant letters have the following values: Here is a sample of written Rotokas:
    7.67
    3 votes
    74
    Slovenian alphabet

    Slovenian alphabet

    • languages: Slovenian language
    The Slovene alphabet is an extension of the Latin script and is used in the Slovene. The standard language uses a Latin alphabet which is a slight modification of Gaj's Latin alphabet, consisting of 25 lower- and upper-case letters: Source: Omniglot The following Latin letters are also found in names of non-Slovene origin: Ć (mehki č), Đ (mehki dž), Q (ku), W (dvojni ve), X (iks), and Y (ipsilon), Ä, Ë, Ö, Ü. The writing itself in its pure form does not use any other signs, except, for instance, additional accentual marks, when it is necessary to distinguish between similar words with a different meaning. For example: There are 5 letters for vowels (A, E, I, O, U) and 20 for consonants. The Western Q, W, X, Y are excluded from the standard language, as are some South Slavic graphemes, Ć, Đ, however they are used as independent letters in encyclopedias and dictionary listings (not always all of them), for foreign Western proper nouns or toponyms are often not transcribed as they are in some other Slavic languages, such as partly in Russian or entirely in Serbian. In addition, the graphemes Ö and Ü are used in certain non-standard dialect spellings - for example, dödöli (Prekmurje
    7.67
    3 votes
    75
    Tamil

    Tamil

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Tamil Language
    • parent writing systems: Grantha
    The Tamil script (தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி tamiḻ ariccuvaṭi "Tamil alphabet") is a script that is used to write the Tamil language as well as other minority languages such as Badaga, Irula, and Paniya. With the use of diacritics to represent aspirated and voiced consonants not represented in the basic script, it is also used to write Saurashtra and, by Tamils, to write Sanskrit. The Tamil script has 12 vowels (உயிரெழுத்து uyireḻuttu "soul-letters"), 18 consonants (மெய்யெழுத்து meyyeḻuttu "body-letters") and one character, the āytam ஃ (ஆய்தம்), which is classified in Tamil grammar as being neither a consonant nor a vowel (அலியெழுத்து aliyeḻuttu "the hermaphrodite letter"), though often considered as part of the vowel set (உயிரெழுத்துக்கள் uyireḻuttukkaḷ "vowel class"). The script, however, is syllabic and not alphabetic. The complete script, therefore, consists of the thirty-one letters in their independent form, and an additional 216 combinant letters representing a total 247 combinations (உயிர்மெய்யெழுத்து uyirmeyyeḻuttu) of a consonant and a vowel, a mute consonant, or a vowel alone. These combinant letters are formed by adding a vowel marker to the consonant. Some vowels require the
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    76
    Ukrainian alphabet

    Ukrainian alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Ukrainian Language
    • parent writing systems: Cyrillic alphabet
    The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine. It is one of the national variations of the Cyrillic script. In Ukrainian it is called Украї́нська абе́тка [ukrɑˈjinʲsʲkɑ ɑˈbɛtkɑ], Ukrayins’ka abetka (from the initial letters a and be), алфаві́т, alfavit, or archaically азбу́ка, azbuka (from the acrophonic early Cyrillic letter names az and buki). Ukrainian text is sometimes romanized: written in the Latin alphabet, for non-Cyrillic readers or transcription systems. See romanization of Ukrainian for details of specific romanization systems. There have also been several historical proposals for a native Latin alphabet for Ukrainian, but none has caught on. Note: before the publication of the official Ukrainian Orthography (1990), the alphabetical order ended with ю, я, ь. The alphabet comprises thirty-three letters, representing thirty-eight phonemes (meaningful units of sound), and an additional sign—the apostrophe. Ukrainian orthography (the rules of writing) is based on the phonemic principle, with one letter generally corresponding to one phoneme. The orthography also has cases where semantic, historical, and morphological
    7.67
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    77
    Writing system of Spanish

    Writing system of Spanish

    • languages: Spanish Language
    Spanish orthography is the writing system for the Spanish language. It is fairly phonemic, especially in comparison to more opaque orthographies like English and Irish, having a relatively consistent mapping of graphemes to phonemes. The Spanish language is written using the Spanish alphabet, which is the Latin alphabet with one additional letter, eñe (⟨ñ⟩), for a total of 27 letters. Although the letters ⟨k⟩ and ⟨w⟩ are part of the alphabet, they appear only in loanwords such as karate, kilo and walkman. Each letter has a single official name according to the Real Academia Española's new 2010 Common Orthography, but in some regions alternative traditional names coexist as explained below. ^1 The sequence ⟨ch⟩ represents the affricate /tʃ/. The digraph was formerly treated as a single letter, called che. ^2 The phonemes /θ/ and /s/ have merged in many dialects; see ceceo. ^3 With the exception of hámster, which has /x/. ^4 When ⟨l⟩ is written double (e.g. calle), it represents the palatal lateral /ʎ/ in a few dialects; but in most dialects—because of the historical merger called yeísmo—it, like the letter ⟨y⟩, represents the phoneme /ʝ/. ^5 The digraph ⟨rr⟩, which only appears
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    78
    Abkhaz alphabet

    Abkhaz alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Abkhaz Language
    The Abkhaz alphabet is an alphabet for the Abkhaz language which consists of 62 letters. Abkhaz did not become a written language until the 19th century. Hitherto, Abkhazians, especially princes, had been using Greek (up to c. 9th century), Georgian (9–19th centuries), and partially Turkish (18th century) languages. The Abkhaz word for alphabet is анбан (anban), which was borrowed from Georgian ანბანი (anbani). The first dedicated Abkhaz alphabet was created in 1862 by the Russian general Peter von Uslar. It had 37 letters and was based on the Cyrillic script. In 1909, it was expanded to 55 letters by Aleksey Chochua to adjust to the extensive consonantal inventory of Abkhaz. In 1926, during the korenizatsiya policy in the Soviet Union, the Cyrillic alphabet was replaced by a Latin alphabet devised by Nikolay Marr. It featured 77 letters and was called the "Abkhaz analytical alphabet". In 1928, this was replaced by another Latin-based alphabet. (See illustration at right.) From 1938 to 1954 the Abkhaz language was written in the Georgian alphabet. Since 1954, the Abkhaz language has been written in a new 62-letter Cyrillic alphabet (see chart below). Of these, 38 are graphically
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    1 votes
    79
    Belarusian Latin alphabet

    Belarusian Latin alphabet

    • languages: Belarusian language
    • parent writing systems: Latin alphabet
    The Belarusian Latin alphabet or Łacinka ([laˈt͡siŋka], from Belarusian: лацінка (BGN/PCGN: latsinka) for the Latin script in general) is the common name of the several historical alphabets to render the Belarusian (Cyrillic) text in Latin script. Łacinka was occasionally used in the Belarusian area mainly in the 19th century and first years of the 20th century. Belarusian was officially written only in the Latin script between 1941 and 1944, in the Nazi German-occupied Belarusian territories. Actually it is used occasionally in its current form by certain authors, groups and promoters in the Nasha Niva weekly, the ARCHE journal, and some of the Belarusian diaspora press on the Internet. It is not, as such, the Romanisation system, as it imposes knowing certain accompanying orthographic conventions. It is similar to the Sorbian alphabet, incorporating features of the Polish and Czech alphabets. In Medieval times (16th century), the first examples of the Latin renderings of the Belarusian (Cyrillic) text are known to occur, coming from the need to include the Old Belarusian quotes in the Polish and Latin texts. Those renderings were un-codified and, seemingly, were done by applying
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    1 votes
    80
    Cuneiform script

    Cuneiform script

    • type of writing: Logogram
    • languages: Assyrian language
    Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. Emerging in Sumer around the 30th century BC, with predecessors reaching into the late 4th millennium (the Uruk IV period), cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs. In the three millennia the script spanned, the pictorial representations became simplified and more abstract as the number of characters in use also grew gradually smaller, from about 1,000 distinct characters in the Early Bronze Age to about 400 distinct characters in Late Bronze Age (Hittite cuneiform). The original Sumerian script was adapted for the writing of the Akkadian, Eblaite, Elamite, Hittite, Luwian, Hattic, Hurrian, and Urartian languages, and it inspired the Ugaritic and Old Persian alphabets. Cuneiform writing was gradually replaced by the Phoenician alphabet during the Neo-Assyrian Empire, and by the 2nd century AD, the script had become extinct. Cuneiform documents were written on clay tablets, by means of a blunt reed for a stylus. The impressions left by the stylus were wedge shaped, thus giving rise to the name cuneiform ("wedge shaped", from the Latin cuneus, meaning "wedge"). The cuneiform writing system was in
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    1 votes
    81
    Cursive hieroglyphs

    Cursive hieroglyphs

    • languages: Egyptian language
    Cursive hieroglyphs are a variety of Egyptian hieroglyphs commonly used for religious documents written on papyrus, such as the Book of the Dead. It was particularly common during the Ramesside Period and many famous documents, such as the Papyrus of Ani, utilize it. It was also employed on wood for religious literature such as the Coffin Texts. Cursive hieroglyphs should not be confused with hieratic. Hieratic is much more cursive, having large numbers of ligatures and signs unique to hieratic. However, there is, as might be expected, a certain degree of influence from hieratic in the visual appearance of some signs. One significant difference is that the orientation of cursive hieroglyphs is not constant, reading right to left or left to right depending on the context, whereas hieratic is always read right to left.
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    1 votes
    82
    Dutch alphabet

    Dutch alphabet

    • languages: Dutch Language
    The modern Dutch alphabet consists of the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and is used for the Dutch language. Five (or six) letters are vowels and 21 (or 20) letters are consonants. Until the nineteenth century, the ſ or long s was also used for words in the Dutch language, but was then replaced with the regular s. The ligature æ was sometimes used (for example in the name Æneas Mackay), but today the letters a and e would replace this letter. Currently the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet are used: The digraph ⟨IJ⟩ behaves like a separate letter for capitalisation. In alphabetically ordered lists, ⟨IJ⟩ may intermix with ⟨Y⟩ (usual for telephone directories) or come between ⟨ii⟩ and ⟨ik⟩ (common in dictionaries). The letter ⟨E⟩ is the most frequently used letter in the Dutch alphabet, usually representing a schwa sound. The least frequently used letters are ⟨Q⟩ and ⟨X⟩. The vowels are: "Y" is sometimes, but not always, a vowel. When a vowel is followed by another vowel, this combination usually represents a long vowel (aa, ee, eu, ie, oe, oo, uu) or a diphthong (ai, au, ei, ou, ui, aai, eeu, ieu, oei, ooi). When one of these letter combinations should not be
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    83

    Hangul

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Korean Language
    Hangul (Korean: 한글 [haːn.ɡɯl] ( listen); transcribed as Han-geul in South Korea), also known as Chosŏn'gŭl (조선글) in North Korea, is the native alphabet of the Korean language. It was created during the Joseon Dynasty in 1443, and is still the official alphabet of Korea. Hangul is a true alphabet of 24 consonant and vowel letters. However, instead of being written sequentially like the letters of the Latin alphabet, Hangul letters are grouped into blocks, such as 한 han, each of which transcribes a syllable. That is, although the syllable 한 han may look like a single character, it is composed of three letters: ㅎ h, ㅏ a, and ㄴ n. Each syllabic block consists of two to five letters, including at least one consonant and one vowel. These blocks are then arranged horizontally from left to right or vertically from top to bottom. The number of possible blocks is 11,172, though there are far fewer possible syllables in Korean, and not all possible syllables actually occur. For a phonological description, see Korean phonology. Until the early twentieth century, Hangul was denigrated as vulgar by the literate elite who preferred the traditional hanja writing system. They gave it such names
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    84
    Javanese script

    Javanese script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Javanese Language
    The Javanese alphabet, natively known as Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏ) or Carakan (ꦕꦫꦏꦤ꧀), known by the Sundanese people as Cacarakan (ꦕꦕꦫꦏꦤ꧀) is the pre-colonial script used to write the Javanese language. The Javanese term for this script is "Dentawiyanjana". Javanese language nowadays is written mainly in the Latin alphabet, instead of Javanese script, for practical purposes. As of 2009 Javanese script has already been added to Unicode in version 5.2. Even so, since its complex script was not supported by TrueType, writing and rendering Javanese on a computer still not as easy as writing in Latin, therefore it hasn't gained any currency except among preservationists. Javanese and Balinese are modern variants of the old Kawi script, a Brahmic script introduced to Java along with Hinduism and Buddhism. Kawi is first attested in a legal document from 804 CE. It was widely used in literature and translations from Sanskrit from the tenth century; by the seventeenth, the script is identified as carakan. A Latin orthography based on Dutch was introduced in 1926, revised in 1972–1973, and has largely supplanted the carakan. Currently, there are only a few newspapers and magazines being printed in
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    1 votes
    85
    Musical notation

    Musical notation

    Music notation or musical notation is any system that represents aurally perceived music, through the use of written symbols. The earliest form of musical notation can be found in a cuneiform tablet that was created at Nippur, Iraq in about 2000 B.C. The tablet represents fragmentary instructions for performing music, that the music was composed in harmonies of thirds, and that it was written using a diatonic scale. A tablet from about 1250 B.C. shows a more developed form of notation. Although the interpretation of the notation system is still controversial, it is clear that the notation indicates the names of strings on a lyre, the tuning of which is described in other tablets. Although they are fragmentary, these tablets represent the earliest notated melodies found anywhere in the world. Ancient Greek musical notation was capable of representing pitch and note-duration, and to a limited extent, harmony. It was in use from at least the 6th century BC until approximately the 4th century AD; several complete compositions and fragments of compositions using this notation survive. The notation consists of symbols placed above text syllables. An example of a complete composition is
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    86
    Old Permic script

    Old Permic script

    • languages: Komi language
    The Old Permic script, sometimes called Abur or Anbur, is a "highly idiosyncratic adaptation" of the Cyrillic script once used to write medieval Komi (Permic). The alphabet was introduced by a Russian missionary, Stepan Khrap, also known as Saint Stephen of Perm (Степан Храп, св. Стефан Пермский) in 1372. The name Abur is derived from the names of the first two characters: An and Bur. The alphabet derived from Cyrillic and Greek, and Komi tribal signs, the latter being similar in the appearance to runes or siglas poveiras, because they were created by incisions, rather than by usual writing. The alphabet was in use until the 17th century, when it was superseded by the Cyrillic script. Abur was also used as cryptographic writing for the Russian language. April 26, which is the saint's day of Stephen of Perm, is celebrated as Old Permic Alphabet Day. The Abur inscriptions are among the oldest relics of the Uralic languages. Only one of these languages has earlier documents: Hungarian, which had been written using the Old Hungarian script first, then with the Latin script after 1000. For comparison, Finnish as a written language only appeared after the Reformation in 1543. However, an
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    87
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    88
    Pan-Nigerian alphabet

    Pan-Nigerian alphabet

    The Pan-Nigerian alphabet is a set of 33 Latin letters standardized by the National Language Centre of Nigeria in the 1980s. It is intended to be sufficient to write all the languages of Nigeria without using digraphs. Several hundred different languages are spoken in Nigeria. The different Latin-based alphabets impeded the use of typewriters. In the 1980s the National Language Centre (NLC) undertook to develop a single alphabet suitable for writing all the languages of the country, taking as its starting point a model proposed by linguist Kay Williamson in 1981. The final version and reference typeface were developed by the typographer Hermann Zapf in 1985. If you have a Unicode font installed with the Pan-Nigerian glyphs then you should see an identical table below: The acute, grave and circumflex accents are also used to mark High, Low, and Falling tone respectively. Mid tone (in languages which contrast High, Mid, and Low) is left unmarked. The following typewriter keyboard was produced for the NLC by Olivetti:
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    1 votes
    89
    Seal script

    Seal script

    • type of writing: Logogram
    • languages: Han'er language
    Seal script (simplified Chinese: 篆书; traditional Chinese: 篆書; pinyin: zhuànshū) is an ancient style of Chinese calligraphy. It evolved organically out of the Zhōu dynasty script (see bronze script), arising in the Warring State of Qin. The Qin variant of seal script became the standard and was adopted as the formal script for all of China in the Qin dynasty, and was still widely used for decorative engraving and seals (name chops, or signets) in the Han dynasty. Ever since, its predominant use has been in seals, hence the English name. The literal translation of its Chinese name 篆书 (zhuànshū) is decorative engraving script, because by the time this name was coined in the Han dynasty, its role had been reduced to decorative inscriptions rather than as the main script of the day. See Chinese Calligraphy for examples of seal script compared with modern Chinese script. Most modern-day Chinese people cannot read seal script, so it is generally not used outside the fields of seals and calligraphy. There are two uses of the word seal script, the Large or Great Seal script (大篆 Dàzhuàn; Japanese daiten), and the lesser or Small Seal Script (小篆 Xiǎozhuàn; Japanese shōten); the latter is also
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    90
    South Arabian alphabet

    South Arabian alphabet

    • type of writing: Abjad
    • languages: Geez Language
    The ancient Yemeni alphabet (also known as musnad المُسنَد) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in about the 9th century BC. It was used for writing the Old South Arabic languages of the Sabaic, Qatabanic, Hadramautic, Minaic (or Madhabic), Himyaritic, and proto-Ge'ez (or proto-Ethiosemitic) in Dʿmt. The earliest inscriptions in the alphabet date to the 9th century BC in Akkele Guzay, Eritrea and in the 10th century BC in Yemen. There are no vowels, instead using the mater lectionis to mark them. Its mature form was reached around 500 BC, and its use continued until the 6th century AD, including Old North Arabian inscriptions in variants of the alphabet, when it was displaced by the Arabic alphabet. In Ethiopia it evolved later into the Ge'ez alphabet, which, with added symbols throughout the centuries, has been used to write Amharic, Tigrinya and Tigre, as well as other languages (including various Semitic, Cushitic, and Nilo-Saharan languages). Zabur is the name of the cursive form of the South Arabian script that was used by the ancient Yemenis (Sabaeans) in addition to their monumental script, or musnad (see, e.g., Ryckmans, J., Müller, W. W., and ‛Abdallah, Yu., Textes
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    91
    Blackfoot Language

    Blackfoot Language

    • type of writing: Abugida
    Blackfoot, also known as Siksika (so called in ISO 639-3), Pikanii, and Blackfeet, is the Algonquian language spoken by the Blackfoot tribes of Native Americans, who currently live in the northwestern plains of North America. There are four dialects of Blackfoot, three of which are spoken in Alberta, Canada and one of which is spoken in the United States: Siksiká (Blackfoot), to the southeast of Calgary, AB; Kainai (Blood), spoken in Alberta between Cardston and Lethbridge; Aapátohsipikani (Northern Piegan), to the west of Fort MacLeod; and Aamsskáápipikani (Southern Piegan), in northwestern Montana. There is a distinct difference between Old Blackfoot (also called High Blackfoot), the dialect spoken by many older speakers; and New Blackfoot (also called Modern Blackfoot), the dialect spoken by younger speakers. Among fellow members of the Algonquian languages, it is relatively divergent in phonology and lexicon. Like the other Algonquian languages, Blackfoot is typologically polysynthetic. Blackfoot has ten consonants, of which all but /ʔ/ and /x/ can be phonemically long: The velar consonants become palatals [ç] and [c] when preceded by front vowels. Blackfoot has a vowel system
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    92
    Clerical script

    Clerical script

    • type of writing: Logogram
    • languages: Old Chinese
    The clerical script (simplified Chinese: 隶书; traditional Chinese: 隸書; pinyin: lìshū; Japanese: 隷書体, Reishotai), also formerly chancery script, is an archaic style of Chinese calligraphy which evolved in the Warring States period to the Qin dynasty, was dominant in the Han dynasty, and remained in use through the Wèi-Jìn (晉) periods. Due to its high legibility to modern readers, it is still used for artistic flavor in a variety of functional applications such as headlines, signboards, and advertisements. This legibility stems from the highly rectilinear structure, a feature shared with modern regular script (kaishu). In structure and rectilinearity, it is generally similar to the modern script; however, in contrast with the tall to square modern script, it tends to be square to wide, and often has a pronounced, wavelike flaring of isolated major strokes, especially a dominant rightward or downward diagonal stroke. Some structures are also archaic. Clerical script is popularly but mistakenly thought to have developed or been invented in the early Hàn dynasty from the small seal script. There are also historical traditions dating to the Hàn dynasty which mistakenly attributed the
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    2 votes
    93
    Georgian alphabet

    Georgian alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Georgian Language
    The Georgian alphabet (Georgian: ქართული დამწერლობა, [kʰɑrtʰuli dɑmt͡sʼɛrlɔbɑ], literally "Georgian script") is the writing system used to write the Georgian language and other Kartvelian languages (Mingrelian, Svan, sometimes Laz), and occasionally other languages of the Caucasus such as Ossetic and Abkhaz during the 1940s. The Georgian language has phonemic orthography and the modern alphabet has thirty-three letters. The word meaning "alphabet", Georgian: ანბანი anbani, is derived from the names of the first two letters of each of the three Georgian alphabets. The three alphabets look very different from one another but share the same alphabetic order and letter names. The alphabets may be seen mixed to some extent, though Georgian is unicameral meaning there is normally no distinction between upper and lower case in any of the alphabets. The writing of the Georgian language has progressed through three forms, known by their Georgian names: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri, and Mkhedruli. They have always been distinct alphabets, even though they have been used together to write the same languages, and even though these alphabets share the same letter names and collation. Although the most
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    94

    Initial Teaching Alphabet

    The Initial Teaching Alphabet (or I.T.A. or i.t.a.) was a variant of the Latin alphabet developed by Sir James Pitman (the grandson of Sir Isaac Pitman, inventor of a system of shorthand) in the early 1960s. It was not intended to be a strictly phonetic transcription of English sounds, or a spelling reform for English as such, but instead a practical simplified writing system which could be used to teach English-speaking children to read more easily than can be done with traditional orthography. After children had learned to read using I.T.A., they would then eventually move on to learn standard English spelling. Although it achieved a certain degree of popularity in the 1960s, it has fallen into disuse. The I.T.A. originally had 43 symbols, which was expanded to 44, then to 45. Each symbol predominantly represented a single English sound (including affricates and diphthongs), but there were complications due to the desire to avoid making the I.T.A. needlessly different from standard English spelling (which would make the transition from the I.T.A. to standard spelling more difficult), and in order to neutrally represent several English pronunciations or dialects. In particular,
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    95
    Maghrebi script

    Maghrebi script

    Maghrebi (or Maghribi) script is a cursive form of the Arabic alphabet influenced by Kufic letters that developed in the Maghreb (North Africa) and later in Spain, particularly Andalusia. The Maghrebi script can be divided in five other sub/scripts:
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    2 votes
    96
    Middle Bronze Age alphabets

    Middle Bronze Age alphabets

    Proto-Sinaitic is a Middle Bronze Age script attested in a very small collection of inscriptions at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula. Due to the extreme scarcity of Proto-Sinaitic signs, very little is known with certainty about the nature of the script. Because the script co-existed with Egyptian hieroglyphs, it is likely that it represented true writing, but this is by no means certain. It has also been argued that Proto-Sinaitic was an alphabet and the ancestor of the Phoenician alphabet, from which nearly all modern alphabets descend. There have been two major discoveries of inscriptions that may be related to the Proto-Sinaitic script, the first in the winter of 1904–1905 in Sinai by Hilda and Flinders Petrie, dated to circa 1700-1400 BCE, and more recently in 1999 in Middle Egypt by John and Deborah Darnell, dated to the 18th century BCE. The Sinai inscriptions are best known from carved graffiti and votive texts from a mountain in the Sinai called Serabit el-Khadim and its temple to the Egyptian goddess Hathor (ḥwt-ḥr). The mountain contained turquoise mines which were visited by repeated expeditions over 800 years. Many of the workers and officials were from the
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    97
    Uniform Turkic Alphabet

    Uniform Turkic Alphabet

    The Uniform Turkic Alphabet was a Latin alphabet used by non-Slavic peoples of the USSR in the 1930s. The alphabet used ligatures from Jaŋalif as it was also a part of the uniform alphabet. The uniform alphabet utilized Latin letters, excluding "w." Some additional letters were also introduced into the alphabet. Latinisation (USSR)
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    2 votes
    98
    Dajnko alphabet

    Dajnko alphabet

    The Dajnko alphabet or dajnčica was a Slovene writing system invented by Peter Dajnko. It was used in from 1824 to 1839 mostly in Styria (in what is now eastern Slovenia). Dajnko introduced his alphabet in 1824 in his book Lehrbuch der windischen Sprache (Slovenian Textbook). He decided to replace the older Bohorič alphabet with his own new writing system. He represented the phonemes /ts/, /s/, /z/ with the letters C, S, Z (as in the modern Slovene alphabet) and the phonemes /tʃ/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/ with special characters (see table below). In addition, he invented two extra symbols, which were omitted after 1829 (see table below): Dajnko's alphabetical order was as follows: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S Z X T U Y V The Dajnko alphabet fell out of use after 1839. Soon after this, the Slovenes began using Gaj's alphabet, borrowed from Croatian. Enciklopedija Slovenije, 2. zvezek, članek Dajnčica. Mladinska knjiga, Ljubljana, 1988.
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    99
    European Voynich Alphabet

    European Voynich Alphabet

    The European Voynich Alphabet, or EVA was created by René Zandbergen and Gabriel Landini in 1998 as a system to transcribe the various graphemes ("letters") which make up the text of the Voynich manuscript into Roman characters. With EVA, every Voynich sign is represented by a roughly similar-looking letter of the Latin alphabet. For example, the Voynich symbol is assigned to the Roman character "p". Thus, the Voynich Manuscript can be translated into a computer-readable form which allows for ready statistical analysis (frequency of individual letters, relationships of letters to each other, etc.). As a side effect, EVA-transcription makes it possible to discuss strings of the Voynich text via email or on the Web. One of the aspects in the choice of which Voynich grapheme should be represented by which letter, was readability of the transcribed words. It is possible to "read" the better part of EVA-transcribed text aloud, as the transcription results typically in strings like qocheedy daiin. (It is unclear in how far the fact that this is possible at all points to features of the hypothesised underlying source language or enciphering mechanism.) Since the Voynich manuscript
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    3 votes
    100
    Greek alphabet

    Greek alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Greek Language
    • parent writing systems: Phoenician alphabet
    The Greek alphabet is the script that has been used to write the Greek language since the 8th century BC. It was derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was in turn the ancestor of numerous other European and Middle Eastern scripts, including Cyrillic and Latin. Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, both in its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields. In its classical and modern form, the alphabet has 24 letters, ordered from alpha to omega. Like Latin and Cyrillic, Greek originally had only a single form of each letter; it developed the distinction between upper case and lower case in parallel with Latin during the modern era. (The letter sigma ⟨Σ⟩ has two different lowercase forms, ⟨σ⟩ and ⟨ς⟩, with ⟨ς⟩ being used in word-final position and ⟨σ⟩ elsewhere.) Sound values and conventional transcriptions for some of the letters differ between Ancient Greek and Modern Greek usage, owing to phonological changes in the language. In traditional ("polytonic") Greek orthography, vowel letters can be combined with several diacritics, including
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    3 votes
    101
    Hungarian alphabet

    Hungarian alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Hungarian language
    • parent writing systems: Latin alphabet
    The Hungarian alphabet is an extension of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Hungarian language. One sometimes speaks of the smaller and greater Hungarian alphabets, depending on whether or not the letters Q, W, X, Y are listed, which can only be found in foreign words and traditional orthography of names. The 44 letters of the greater Hungarian alphabet are: Each sign shown above counts as a letter in its own right in Hungarian. Some, such as the letter ó and ő, are inter-filed with the letter preceding it; whereas others, such as ö, have their own place in collation rather than also being inter-filed with o. While long vowels count as different letters, long (or geminate) consonants do not. Long consonants are marked by duplication: e.g.
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    3 votes
    102
    Mayan Hieroglyphic Writing

    Mayan Hieroglyphic Writing

    • type of writing: Logosyllabic writing
    • languages: Chol language
    The Mayan hieroglyphic writing system was used throughout the Mayan region of Mesoamerica in various forms,  from the Late Preclassic period through the Colonial period.  The period extending from roughly 200 to 900 BCE -- the Classic period of lowland Maya culture -- marks its period of highest sophistication.
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    3 votes
    103
    Southwest script

    Southwest script

    • type of writing: Semi-syllabary
    • languages: Tartessian language
    The Southwest Script or Southwestern Script, also known as Tartessian or South Lusitanian, is a Paleohispanic script used to write an unknown language usually identified as Tartessian. Southwest inscriptions have been found mainly in the southwestern quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula, in the south of Portugal (Algarve and southern Alentejo), but also in Spain, in southern Extremadura and western Andalucia. The name of this script is very controversial. The more neutral name is southwestern, because it refers only to the geographical location where the inscriptions had been found, but it needs some additional precision in a general context. Some researchers name this script Tartessian considering this script the script of Tartessos. Others prefer to name this script as South Lusitanian, because almost all the southwestern inscriptions have been found in the south of Portugal (an area included in the Roman province of Lusitania), where the Greek and Roman sources locate the Pre-Roman Conii or Cynetes people, instead in the zone generally considered Tartessian (between Huelva and the Guadalquivir valley). But on the other hand, the name South Lusitanian is inconvenient, as it may
    7.33
    3 votes
    104
    Todo Bichig

    Todo Bichig

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Kalmyk-Oirat Language
    Clear script (or Oirat clear script, Todo bicig, or just Todo) (Mongolian: Тодо бичиг, todo bichig) is a Mongol alphabet created in 1648 by the Oirat Buddhist monk Zaya Pandita Oktorguin Dalai for the Oirat Mongol language. to It was developed on the basis of the traditional Hudum Mongolian alphabet with the goal of distinguishing all sounds in the spoken language, and to make it easier to transcribe Tibetan and Sanskrit. The clear script is a Mongolian script, whose obvious closest forebear is vertical Mongolian. This Mongolian script was descendant from the Old Uyghur alphabet, which itself was descendant from Aramaic. Aramaic is an abjad, an alphabet that has no symbols for vowels, and clear script is the first in this line of descendants to develop a full system of symbols for all the vowel sounds. As mentioned above the clear script was developed as a better way to write Mongolian, specifically of the Western Mongolian groups of the Oirats and Kalmyks. The practicality of clear script lies in the fact that it was supremely created in order to dissolve any ambiguities that might appear when one attempts to write down a language. Not only were vowels assigned symbols, but all
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    3 votes
    105
    Visigothic script

    Visigothic script

    Visigothic script was a type of medieval script that originated in the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, modern Spain and Portugal). Its more limiting alternative designations littera toletana and littera mozarabica associate it with scriptoria specifically in Toledo and with Mozarabic culture more generally, respectively. The script, which exists in book-hand and cursive versions, was used from approximately the late seventh century until the thirteenth century, mostly in Visigothic Iberia but also somewhat in southern France. It was perfected in the 9th-11th centuries and declined afterwards. It developed from uncial script, and shares many features of uncial, especially an uncial form of the letter g. Other features of the script include an open-top a (very similar to the letter u), similar shapes for the letters r and s, and a long letter i resembling the letter l. There are two forms of the letter d, one with a straight vertical ascender, and another with an ascender slanting towards the left. The top stroke of the letter t, by itself, has a hook curving to the left; t also has a number of other forms when used in ligatures and there are two different
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    3 votes
    106
    Nastaʿlīq script

    Nastaʿlīq script

    • languages: Hindko language
    Nastaʿlīq (also anglicized as Nastaleeq; in Persian: نستعلیق nastaʿlīq) is one of the main script styles used in writing the Perso-Arabic script, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy. It was developed in Iran in the 8th and 9th centuries. Although it is sometimes used to write Arabic-language text (where it is known as Taʿliq and is mainly used for titles and headings), its use has always been more popular in the Persian, Turkic, and South Asian spheres of influence. Nastaʿlīq has extensively been (and still is) practiced in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan for written poetry and as a form of art. However, it is harder to read than Naskh. A less elaborate version of Nastaʿlīq serves as the preferred style for writing Persian, Kashmiri, Punjabi and Urdu, and it is often used alongside Naskh for Pashto. Nastaʿlīq was historically used for writing Ottoman Turkish, where it is known as tâlik (not to be confused with a totally different Persian style, also called taʿliq; to distinguish the two, Ottomans refer to this latter as ta'liq-i qadim = old ta'liq). Nastaʿlīq is the core script of the post-Sassanid Persian writing tradition, and equally important in the
    6.25
    4 votes
    107
    Semi-cursive script

    Semi-cursive script

    • type of writing: Logogram
    • languages: Han'er language
    Semi-cursive script is a cursive style of Chinese characters. Because it is not as abbreviated as cursive, most people who can read regular script can read semi-cursive. Also referred to in English both as running script and by its Mandarin Chinese name, xíngshū, it is derived from clerical script, and was for a long time after its development in the 1st centuries AD the usual style of handwriting. Some of the best examples of semi-cursive can be found in the work of Wang Xizhi (321-379) of the Eastern Jin Dynasty.
    6.25
    4 votes
    108
    Arwi alphabet

    Arwi alphabet

    The Arwi script uses the Arabic alphabet together with the addition of 13 letters unique to the Arwi language.
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    3 votes
    109

    Braille

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    Braille /ˈbreɪl/ is a tactile writing system used by the blind and the visually impaired, and found in books, on menus, signs, elevator buttons, and currency. Braille-users can read computer screens and other electronic supports thanks to refreshable braille displays. They can write braille with a slate and stylus or type it on a braille writer, such as a portable braille note-taker, or on a computer that prints with a braille embosser. Braille is named after its creator, Frenchman Louis Braille, who went blind following a childhood accident. At the age of 15, Braille developed his code for the French alphabet in 1824 as an improvement on night writing. He published his system, which subsequently included musical notation, in 1829. The second revision, published in 1837, was the first digital (binary) form of writing. Braille characters are small rectangular blocks called cells that contain tiny palpable bumps called raised dots. The number and arrangement of these dots distinguish one character from another. Since the various braille alphabets originated as transcription codes of printed writing systems, the mappings (sets of character designations) vary from language to language.
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    3 votes
    110
    Insular script

    Insular script

    Insular script was a medieval script system originally used in Ireland, then Great Britain, that spread to continental Europe under the influence of Irish Christianity. Irish missionaries also took the script to continental Europe, where they founded monasteries such as Bobbio. The scripts were also used in monasteries like Fulda, which were influenced by English missionaries. It is associated with Insular art, of which most surviving examples are illuminated manuscripts. It greatly influenced Irish orthography and modern Gaelic scripts in handwriting and typefaces. The script developed in Ireland in the 7th century and was used as late as the 19th century, though its most flourishing period fell between 600 and 850. It was closely related to the uncial and half-uncial scripts, its immediate influences; the highest grade of Insular script is the majuscule Insular half-uncial, which is closely derived from Continental half-uncial script. Works written in Insular scripts commonly use large initial letters surrounded by red ink dots (although this is also true of other scripts written in Ireland and England). Letters following a large initial at the start of a paragraph or section
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    3 votes
    111
    Khmer script

    Khmer script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Khmer language
    The Khmer script (អក្សរខ្មែរ; Âksâr Khmêr ) is an alphasyllabary script used to write the Khmer language (the official language of Cambodia). It is also used to write Pali among the Buddhist liturgy of Cambodia and Thailand. It was adapted from the Pallava script, a variant of Grantha descended from the Brahmi script of India. The oldest dated inscription in Khmer was found at Angkor Borei in Takev Province south of Phnom Penh and dates from 611. The modern Khmer script differs somewhat from precedent forms seen on the inscriptions of the ruins of Angkor. Khmer is written from left to right with multiple levels of character stacking possible. Originally, there were 35 consonants, but only 33 are now in use for modern Khmer. The vowel system consists of independent vowels and dependent vowels. The dependent vowels have two registers of phonemes to account for the that fact that there are fewer vowel graphemes for the vowel phonemes in the spoken language. Khmer also uses diacritics that further enhance the pronunciation of words. Several styles of Khmer writing are used for varying purposes. The two main styles are âksâr chriĕng (lit., slanted script) and âksâr mul (lit., round
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    3 votes
    112
    Malayalam script

    Malayalam script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Malayalam Language
    The Malayalam script (Malayalam: മലയാളലിപി, Malayāḷalipi, [mɐləjaːɭɐ lɪβɪ] ) is a Brahmic script used commonly to write the Malayalam language—which is the principal language of the Indian state of Kerala, spoken by 52 million people in the world. Like many other Indic scripts, it is an abugida, or a writing system that is partially “alphabetic” and partially syllable-based. The modern Malayalam alphabet has 13 vowel letters, 36 consonant letters, and a few other symbols. The Konkani language in Kerala is also sometimes written in the Malayalam script, though relatively rarely. The script is also used to write several minority languages such as Paniya, Betta Kurumba, and Ravula. The Malayalam language itself was historically written in several different scripts. Even today it is sometimes written in Arabi Malayalam, a variant form of the Arabic script, mainly by Muslims in Singapore and Malaysia. The basic characters can be classified as follows: An independent vowel letter is used as the first letter of a word that begins with a vowel. A consonant letter, despite its name, does not represent a pure consonant, but represents a consonant + a short vowel /a/ by default. For example,
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    3 votes
    113
    Quikscript

    Quikscript

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: English Language
    Quikscript (also known as the Read Alphabet and Second Shaw) is an alphabet (and phonemic orthography) specifically designed for the English language. Quikscript replaces traditional English orthography, which uses the Latin alphabet, with completely new letters. It is phonemically regular, compact, and comfortably and quickly written. There are also adapted Quikscript alphabets for other languages, using the same letters for sounds which do not exist in English. George Bernard Shaw, famous writer, critic and playwright, was a highly vocal critic of English spelling because it lacked a coherent system for representing the phonemes of English accurately. As a result, for years he wrote his literary works using Pitman shorthand. However, he found its limitations frustrating as well and realized that it was not a suitable replacement for the Latin alphabet, being difficult to use to produce printed material and impossible to type. A shorthand is, by definition, more specialized than an alphabet, which represents the standard written form of a language. Shaw desired and advocated a phonetic reworking of written English, and this called for a new alphabet. To that end, Shaw placed in
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    3 votes
    114

    Standard Alphabet by Lepsius

    The Standard Alphabet by Lepsius is a Latin alphabet developed by Karl Richard Lepsius, who initially used it to transcribe Egyptian hieroglyphs and extended it to write African languages or transcribe other languages, published in 1854 and 1855, and in a revised edition (with many languages added) in 1863, it was comprehensive but it was not used much as it contains a lot of diacritic marks and therefore was difficult to read, write and typeset at that time. It was initially an alphabet to transcribe Egyptian hieroglyphs phonetically (as in Lepsius' Denkmäler published in 1849), and was extended. Vowel length is indicated by a macron (ā) or a breve (ă) for long and short vowels, respectively. Open vowels are marked by a line under the letter (e̱), while a dot below the letter makes it a close vowel (ẹ). Central vowels are indicated by an ogonek-like hook below (į). Rounded front vowels, especially [ø] and [y] are written with an umlaut (ö and ü), either on top or below, when the space above the letter is needed for vowel length marks (as in ṳ̄ or ṳ̆). As in the International Phonetic Alphabet, nasal vowels get a tilde (ã). A small circle below a letter is used to mark both the
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    3 votes
    115
    Tai Tham script

    Tai Tham script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Northern Thai language
    The Tai Tham script (Northern Thai: ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩬᩥᨦ, Dai Tam; Tai Lü: ᦒᧄ , Tam, "scripture"), also known as the Lanna script, is used for three living languages: Northern Thai (that is, Kam Mueang), Tai Lü and Khün. In addition, the Lanna script is also used for Lao Tham (or old Lao) and other dialect variants in Buddhist palm leaves and notebooks. The script is also known as Tham or Yuan script. The Northern Thai language is a close relative of Thai and member of the Chiang Saeng language family. It is spoken by nearly 6,000,000 people in Northern Thailand and several thousand in Laos of whom few are literate in Lanna script, although there is some resurgent interest in the script among the young. Northern Thai is now written with the Thai alphabet. There are 670,000 speakers of Tai Lü of whom those born before 1950 are literate in Lanna script. The script has also continued to be taught in the monasteries. There are 120,000 speakers of Khün for which Lanna is the only script. Tai Tham script was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2. The Unicode block for Tai Tham is U+1A20–U+1AAF: There are currently a few fonts that support this range. Thai
    7.00
    3 votes
    116
    Telugu

    Telugu

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Telugu language
    • parent writing systems: Kadamba script
    Telugu script, an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write the Telugu language, a language found in the South-Central Indian state of Andhra Pradesh as well as several other neighboring states. The Telugu script is derived from the Bhattiprolu script. It gained prominence during Vengi Chalukyan era. The Brahmi script used by Mauryan kings eventually reached Krishna River delta and gave rise to Bhattiprolu script found on the urn containing Buddha's relics. Buddhism spread to east Asia from the nearby ports of Ghantasala and Masulipatnam (ancient Maisolos of Ptolemy and Masalia of Periplus). The Bhattiprolu Brahmi script evolved into the Telugu script by 5th century C.E. The Muslim historian and scholar Al-Biruni called the Telugu language and script Andhri. Telugu uses sixteen vowels, each of which has both an independent form and a diacritic form used with consonants to create syllables. The language makes a distinction between short and long vowels. The independent form is used when the vowel occurs at the beginning of a word or syllable, or is a complete syllable in itself (example: a, u, o). The diacritic form is added to consonants (represented by the
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    3 votes
    117
    Wadaad's writing

    Wadaad's writing

    Wadaad's writing is the Somali language written with the Arabic script. Originally, it referred to "an ungrammatical Arabic containing some Somali words," as used by Somali religious men (wadaads) to write qasidas, and by merchants for business, letter writing, and to draft petitions. Throughout the ages, various Somali scholars improved this form of writing. The Arabic script was first introduced in the 13th century by Sheikh Yuusuf bin Ahmad al-Kawneyn (colloquially referred to as Aw Barkhadle or the "Blessed Father") of Ashraaf descent to advance the teaching of the Qur'an. Al-Kawneyn devised a Somali nomenclature for the Arabic vowels, which enabled his pupils to read and write in Arabic. Though various Somali wadaads and scholars had used the Arabic script to write in Somali for centuries, it would not be until the 19th century when the Qadiriyyah saint Sheikh Uways al-Barawi would improve the application of the Arabic script to represent Somali. He applied it to the Maay dialect of southern Somalia, which at the time was the closest to standardizing Somali with the Arabic script. Muuse Xaaji Ismaaciil Galaal (1917–1980) was a Somali linguist who in the 1950s introduced a more
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    3 votes
    118
    Ranjana script

    Ranjana script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Nepal Bhasa
    The Rañjanā script (syn: Kutila, Lantsa) is an abugida writing system which developed in the 11th century. It is primarily used for writing Nepal Bhasa but is also used in monasteries of India, Tibet, coastal China, Mongolia, and Japan. It is usually written from left to right but the Kutakshar form is written from top to bottom. It is considered to be the standard Nepali calligraphic script. Rañjanā is a Brahmic script and shows similarities to the Devanagari script of northern India and Nepal. The script is also used in most of the Mahayana and Vajrayana monasteries. Along with the Prachalit script, it is considered as one of the scripts of Nepal. It is the formal script of Nepal duly registered in the United Nation while applying for the free Nation. Therefore, it is vital script to all Nepalese as well. The holy book Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, lettered in gold ink, written by Bhiksu Ananda of Kapitanagar and dating back to the Nepal Sambat year 345 (1215 A.D.), is an early example of the script. The Rañjanā script is used primarily to write Nepal Bhasa, though sometimes also used to write Sanskrit. In Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhist traditions, it is famously used to
    5.20
    5 votes
    119
    Mahal writing system

    Mahal writing system

    • languages: Dhivehi language
    Among the dialects of Maldivian language, the Mahl dialect (Maliku bas) has something extra in the writing system. Like the communities speaking other dialects, among the speakers of this dialect too the Thaana alphabet is used in common for writing. However, it was secession of Minicoy from Maldivian rule and affiliating with India which have resulted in the importation of some additional features to the dialect as well as writing system of the Minicoyans. In 1950s, the Indian government forbade direct travel between Maldivians from the heartland of Maldivian language and Minicoyans. As a result the group of Maldivians living in Minicoy were isolated from their Maldivian counterparts, thus being presented before all dangers of an acculturation process. It was this point which marked the origin of the Mahl writing systems. From 1950s onward Devanagari script got adopted in writing Mahl. Due to owing to lack of contact during an era of modernization efforts in the Maldivian language during the time of Mohamed Amin Didi and afterwards, 'Malikuthaana' emerged as a distinct form of the Thaana script. Thus it was the start of the Post-Maldivian era in Minicoy which originated the Mahl
    6.00
    4 votes
    120
    Samaritan alphabet

    Samaritan alphabet

    • type of writing: Abjad
    • languages: Samaritan Hebrew language
    The Samaritan alphabet is used by the Samaritans for religious writings, including the Samaritan Pentateuch, writings in Samaritan Hebrew, and for commentaries and translations in Samaritan Aramaic and occasionally Arabic. Samaritan is a direct descendant of the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, which was a variety of the Phoenician alphabet in which large parts of the Hebrew Bible were originally penned. All these scripts are believed to be descendants of the Proto-Sinaitic script. That script was used by the ancient Israelites, both Jews and Samaritans. The better-known "square script" Hebrew alphabet traditionally used by Jews is a stylized version of the Aramaic alphabet which they adopted from the Persian Empire (which in turn was adopted from the Arameans). After the fall of the Persian Empire, Judaism used both scripts before settling on the Aramaic form. For a limited time thereafter, the use of paleo-Hebrew (proto-Samaritan) among Jews was retained only to write the Tetragrammaton, but soon that custom was also abandoned. The table at left shows the development of the Samaritan script. At left are the corresponding Hebrew letters for comparison. Column I is the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet.
    6.00
    4 votes
    121
    Celtiberian script

    Celtiberian script

    • type of writing: Semi-syllabary
    The Celtiberian script is a paleohispanic script that was the main means of written expression of the Celtiberian language, an extinct Continental Celtic language, also expressed in Latin alphabet. This script is a direct adaptation of the northeastern Iberian script the most frequently used of the Iberian scripts. All the paleohispanic scripts, with the exception of the Greco-Iberian alphabet, share a common distinctive typological characteristic: they represent syllabic values for the occlusives, and monophonemic values for the rest of consonants and vowels. From the writing systems point of view they are neither alphabets nor syllabaries, rather, they are mixed scripts that are normally identified as semi-syllabaries. There is no agreement about how the paleohispanic semi-syllabaries originated; some researchers conclude that their origin is linked only to the Phoenician alphabet, while others believe the Greek alphabet was also involved. The basic Celtiberian signary contains 26 signs, instead of the 28 signs of the original model, the northeastern Iberian script, because the Celtiberians exclude one of the two rhotic and one of the three nasals: 5 vowels, 15 syllabic signs and
    8.00
    2 votes
    122
    De Landa alphabet

    De Landa alphabet

    The de Landa alphabet is the correspondence of Spanish letters and glyphs written in the pre-Columbian Maya script, which the 16th century Bishop of Yucatán, Fray Diego de Landa recorded as part of his documentation of the Maya civilization during his tenure there. With the aid of two Maya interlocutors who were familiar with the script, de Landa made an attempt to provide a transcribed "A, B, C" for the Maya script with the intent of providing a key to its decipherment and translation. Despite its inaccuracies, the information provided by de Landa would much later prove to be crucial to the mid-20th century breakthrough in the decipherment of the Maya script, starting with the work of the Russian epigrapher and Mayanist, Yuri Knorozov. It proved, in effect, to be the "Rosetta Stone" which would eventually lead to the recovery of the long-lost ability to read many of the Maya inscriptions. The "alphabet", along with some passages of explanatory notes and examples of its use in Maya writing, was written as a small part of de Landa's Relación de las cosas de Yucatán ("Account of the matters of Yucatán"), in which he also documented many aspects of the culture and practices of the
    8.00
    2 votes
    123
    Persian alphabet

    Persian alphabet

    • languages: Persian Language
    • parent writing systems: Perso-Arabic script
    The script used for the Persian language is a form of the Perso-Arabic script, which is derived from Arabic alphabet with four extra letters. Several letters are pronounced differently in Persian than in Arabic. The Persian alphabet is commonly written in a calligraphic style known as Nasta'liq. Below are the 32 letters of Persian. There are seven letters in the Persian alphabet that do not connect to other letters like the rest of the letters in the alphabet. These seven letters do not have initial or medial forms but the solo and the final forms are used instead because they do not allow for a connection to be made on the left hand side to the other letters in the word. For example when the letter alef is at the beginning of a word such as ￘듸フ￙ニ￘ᆲ￘ᄃ "injᅣチ" (here), the initial form of alef is used. Or in the case of ￘ᄃ￙ミ￙ナ￘ᄆ￙ネ￘ᄇ"emruz" (today) the letter re uses the final form and the letter vᅣチv uses the initial form although they are in the middle of the word. The following are not actual letters, but rather different orthographical shapes for letters, and in the case of the , a ligature. As to hamze, it has only a single graphic, since it is never tied to a preceding
    8.00
    2 votes
    124
    Tangut script

    Tangut script

    • type of writing: Logogram
    • languages: Tangut
    The Tangut script (Chinese: 西夏文 xī xià wén) was a logographic writing system, used for writing the extinct Tangut language of the Western Xia Dynasty. According to the latest count, 5863 Tangut characters are known, excluding variants. The Tangut characters are similar in appearance to Chinese characters, with the same type of strokes, but the methods of forming characters in the Tangut writing system are significantly different from those of forming Chinese characters. As in Chinese calligraphy, regular, running, cursive and seal scripts were used in Tangut writing. The codification of the Tangut script in Unicode is still in progress, but there are some Tangut fonts available, including the set provided by Mojikyo. According to the Songshi (宋史, English: "History of Song Dynasty"), the script was designed by the high-ranking official Yeli Renrong under Western Xia Emperor Li Yuanhao's supervision in 1036. The script was invented in a short period of time, and was put into use quickly. Government schools were founded to teach the script. Official documents were written in the script (with diplomatic ones written bilingually). A great number of Buddhist scriptures were translated
    8.00
    2 votes
    125
    Assamese script

    Assamese script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Assamese Language
    The Assamese script (অসমীয়া লিপি Ôxômiya Lipi) is a variant of the Eastern Nagari alphabet also used for Bengali and Bishnupriya Manipuri. The Assamese/Bengali script belongs to the Brahmic family of scripts and is thought to have a continuous history of development from Nagari script, a precursor of Devanagari. However, there are linguists who have a different interpretation about the evolution of the Assamese Script who claim that it evolved from the earlier stage of the Nagari Script, the Gupta Script with significant traits from the Siddham Script. Their claims are supported by the peculiarities of the shapes of the characters found in the Nogajori-Khonikor Gaon stone inscriptions of the 5th century A.D. where the letters are distinctly different from Nagari and have close resemblance with the Gupta Script. By the 17th century three styles of Assamese script could be identified (baminiya, kaitheli and garhgaya) which gave way to the standard script which followed the typeset script. The present standard is identical to the Bengali script except for three letters. Buranjis were written during Ahom dynasties in Assamese language using Assamese script. The earliest evidence of
    9.00
    1 votes
    126
    Mixtec writing

    Mixtec writing

    Mixtec writing originated as a logographic writing system during the Post-Classic period in Mesoamerican history. Records of genealogy, historic events, and myths are found in the pre-Columbian Mixtec codices. The arrival of Europeans in 1520 AD caused changes in form, style, and the function of the Mixtec writings. Today these codices and other Mixtec writings are used as a source of ethnographic, linguistic, and historical information for scholars, and help to preserve the identity of the Mixtec people as migration and globalization introduce new cultural influences. The Mixtec are an indigenous people of Mesoamerica, located in the western region of the modern Mexican state of Oaxaca. The history of the Mixtec in Oaxaca can be traced back to the Formative period, and continues through the Classic and Post-Classic periods to the arrival of Europeans in 1520 AD. Today the region is still populated by the Mixtec and Mixtecan speakers. During the 2500 years before the arrival of Europeans, the Mixtec developed complex social and economic traditions, effectively exploited their diverse environment, created a method of writing, and maintained their autonomy from other civilizations,
    9.00
    1 votes
    127
    Romanian Cyrillic alphabet

    Romanian Cyrillic alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Romanian Language
    The Romanian Cyrillic alphabet was used to write the Romanian language before 1860–1862, when it was officially replaced by a Latin-based Romanian alphabet. Cyrillic remained in occasional use until circa 1920 (mostly in Bessarabia). It is not the same as the Russian-based Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet used in the Moldavian ASSR since 1926, and then in the Moldavian SSR between 1940 and 1989 (except 1941-44). Between its discarding and the full adoption of the Latin alphabet, a so-called transitional alphabet was in place for a few years (it combined Cyrillic and Latin letters, and included some of the Latin letters with diacritics which came to be used in Romanian spelling). The Romanian Cyrillic alphabet was close to the contemporary version of the Early Cyrillic alphabet of the Old Church Slavonic liturgical language. Starting with the 1830s and ending with the official adoption of the Latin alphabet, there were no regulations for writing Romanian, and various alphabets using Cyrillic and Latin letters, besides the mid-transitional version in the table above, were used, sometimes two or more of them in a single book. The following table shows some of the many alphabets used in
    9.00
    1 votes
    128
    Southeastern Iberian script

    Southeastern Iberian script

    • type of writing: Semi-syllabary
    The southeastern Iberian script, also known as Meridional Iberian, was one of the means of written expression of the Iberian language, which was written mainly in the northeastern Iberian script and residually by the Greco-Iberian alphabet. About the relation between northeastern Iberian and southeastern Iberian scripts, it is necessary to point out that they are two different scripts with different values for the same signs; however it is clear that they had a common origin and the most accepted hypothesis is that northeastern Iberian script derives from southeastern Iberian script. In fact, the southeastern Iberian script is very similar, both considering the shape of the signs or their values, to the Southwestern script used to represent an unknown language usually named Tartessian. The main difference is that southeastern Iberian script doesn’t show the vocalic redundancy of the syllabic signs. Unlike the northeastern Iberian script the decipherment of the southeastern Iberian script is not yet complete, because there are a significant number of signs on which scholars have not yet reached a consensus. Despite it is believed that unlike the northeastern Iberian script the
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    1 votes
    129
    Devanāgarī

    Devanāgarī

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Nepali Language
    Devanagari ( /ˌdeɪvəˈnɑːɡəriː/; Hindustani: [d̪eːʋˈnaːɡri]; देवनागरी Devanāgarī — compound of "deva" (देव) and "nāgarī" (नागरी) ), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी, the name of its parent writing system), is an abugida alphabet of India and Nepal. It is written from left to right, does not have distinct letter cases, and is recognizable (along with most other North Indic scripts, with few exceptions like Gujarati and Oriya) by a horizontal line that runs along the top of full letters. Devanāgarī is the main script used to write Standard Hindi, Marathi, and Nepali. Since the 19th century, it has been the most commonly used script for Sanskrit. Devanāgarī is also employed for Bhojpuri, Gujari, Pahari, (Garhwali and Kumaoni), Konkani, Magahi, Maithili, Marwari, Bhili, Newari, Santhali, Tharu, and sometimes Sindhi, Dogri, Sherpa and by Kashmiri-speaking Hindus. It was formerly used to write Gujarati. Because of its use to write the Hindi language, Devangari is one of the most used and adopted writing systems in the world. Devanāgarī is part of the Brahmic family of scripts of India, Nepal, Tibet, and South-East Asia. It is a descendant of the Gupta script, along with Siddham and
    5.00
    5 votes
    130
    Ashuri alphabet

    Ashuri alphabet

    Ashuri alphabet (Hebrew: alef-bet ashuri) means Assyrian alphabet and also refers to the Assyrian script (Hebrew: k'tav ashuri) which is the name for a traditional calligraphic form of the Hebrew alphabet, and a term that was first used in the Mishnah to refer to either the Aramaic alphabet or the formal script used in certain Jewish ceremonial items, including Sefer Torah, Mezuzah, Tefillin also abbreviated as STA"M (Hebrew: סת"ם). It is also referred to as the "square" script. There are many rules concerning the proper formation of letters if the written text is to be valid for religious purposes. The Ashkenaz, Sefard, Chabad (Lubavitch), and Am Mizrachi (Iraqi Jews) each have their own calligraphic tradition in the method by which each letter is formed, however the final shape of each letter conforms to the legal standard regardless of the calligrapher. While the shapes of the letters are the same, styles can be quite different. Generally, while each tradition favors their own calligraphic style as preferable, none consider the tradition of the other passul (invalid) for Sifrei Torah (Torah scrolls) or any other ritually used scroll or parchment.
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    131
    Aztec writing

    Aztec writing

    • languages: Nahuatl languages
    Aztec or Nahuatl writing is a pictographic and ideographic pre-Columbian writing system with a significant number of logograms and syllabic signs which used in central Mexico by the Nahua peoples. The majority of the Aztec codices were burned either by Aztec tlatoani (emperors), or by Spanish clergy following the conquest of Mesoamerica. Remaining Aztec codices such as Codex Mendoza, Codex Borbonicus, and Codex Osuna were written on deer hide and plant fiber. The Aztec writing system is adopted from writing systems used in Central Mexico, such as Zapotec writing. Mixtec writing is also thought to descend from the Zapotec. The first Oaxacan inscriptions are thought to encode Zapotec, partially because of numerical suffixes characteristic of the Zapotec languages. Aztec was pictographic and ideographic proto-writing, augmented by phonetic rebuses. It also contained syllabic signs and logograms. There was no alphabet, but puns also contributed to recording sounds of the Aztec language. While some scholars have understood the system to not be considered a complete writing system, this is a changing topic. The existence of logograms and syllabic signs are being documented and a phonetic
    6.67
    3 votes
    132
    Canadian Aboriginal syllabics

    Canadian Aboriginal syllabics

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Cree language
    Canadian Aboriginal syllabic writing, or simply syllabics, is a family of abugidas (consonant-based alphabets) used to write a number of Aboriginal Canadian languages of the Algonquian, Inuit, and (formerly) Athabaskan language families. They are valued for their distinctiveness from the Latin script of the dominant colonial languages and for the ease with which literacy can be achieved; indeed, by the late 19th century the Cree had achieved what may have been one of the highest rates of literacy in the world. Canadian syllabics are currently used to write all of the Cree dialects from Naskapi (spoken in Quebec) to the Rocky Mountains, including Eastern Cree, Woods Cree, Swampy Cree and Plains Cree. They are also used to write Inuktitut in the eastern Canadian Arctic; there they are co-official with the Latin script in the territory of Nunavut. They are used regionally for the other large Canadian Algonquian language, Ojibwe in Western Canada, as well as for Blackfoot, where they are obsolete. Among the Athabaskan languages further to the west, syllabics have been used at one point or another to write Dakelh (Carrier), Chipewyan, Slavey, Tli Cho (Dogrib), Tasttine (Beaver).
    6.67
    3 votes
    133
    Carolingian minuscule

    Carolingian minuscule

    Carolingian or Caroline minuscule is a script developed as a calligraphic standard in Europe so that the Latin alphabet could be easily recognized by the literate class from one region to another. It was used in Charlemagne's empire between approximately 800 and 1200. Codices, pagan and Christian texts, and educational material were written in Carolingian minuscule throughout the Carolingian Renaissance. The script developed into blackletter and became obsolete, though its revival in the Italian renaissance forms the basis of more recent scripts. The script ultimately developed from Roman half uncial and its cursive version, which had given rise to various Continental minuscule scripts, which were combined with features from the "Insular" scripts that were being used in Irish and English monasteries. Carolingian minuscule was created partly under the patronage of the Emperor Charlemagne (hence Carolingian). Charlemagne had a keen interest in learning, according to his biographer Einhard: Temptabat et scribere tabulasque et codicellos ad hoc in lecto sub cervicalibus circumferre solebat, ut, cum vacuum tempus esset, manum litteris effigiendis adsuesceret, sed parum successit labor
    6.67
    3 votes
    134
    Cirth

    Cirth

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Khuzdul
    The Cirth ([ˈkirθ]; "Runes") are the letters of a semi-artificial script which was invented by J. R. R. Tolkien for the constructed languages he devised and used in his works. The initial C in Cirth is pronounced as a K, never as an S. The runic alphabet used by the Dwarves of Middle-earth was adapted by J.R.R. Tolkien from real-life runes. In The Hobbit, the Anglo-Saxon futhorc was used in the publication with few changes; in The Lord of the Rings a new system of runes, the Cirth, was devised. Since the Cirth is an alphabet, one rune generally stands for one sound (phoneme) and sounds that would be written with a digraph in English (such as "sh" and "th") are written with one rune. Words are separated by a dot rather than a space, and double consonants are grouped together into one rune, the same as if it were a single consonant. Presumably this alphabet was meant to be used in conjunction with a Dwarf language, but mostly it is used for transliterations. In the fictional history of Middle-earth, the original Certhas Daeron was created by the elf Daeron, the minstrel of king Thingol of Doriath and was later expanded into what was known as the Angerthas Daeron. Although the Cirth
    6.67
    3 votes
    135
    Hebrew alphabet

    Hebrew alphabet

    • type of writing: Abjad
    • languages: Yiddish Language
    The Hebrew alphabet (Hebrew: אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי‎‎, alefbet ʿIvri ), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script, block script, or more historically, the Assyrian script, is used in the writing of the Hebrew language, as well as other Jewish languages, most notably Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic. There have been two script forms in use. The original old Hebrew script is known as the paleo-Hebrew script (which has been largely preserved, in an altered form, in the Samaritan script), while the present "square" form of the Hebrew alphabet is a stylized form of the Aramaic script. Various "styles" (in current terms, "fonts") of representation of the letters exist. There is also a cursive Hebrew script, which has also varied over time and place. The Hebrew alphabet has 22 letters, of which five have different forms when used at the end of a word. Hebrew is written from right to left. Originally, the alphabet was an abjad consisting only of consonants. Like other abjads, such as the Arabic alphabet, means were later devised to indicate vowels by separate vowel points, known in Hebrew as niqqud. In rabbinic Hebrew, the letters א ה ו י are also used as matres
    6.67
    3 votes
    136
    Nü Shu

    Nü Shu

    • type of writing: Syllabary
    • languages: Chinese language
    Nüshu (simplified Chinese: 女书; traditional Chinese: 女書; pinyin: Nǚshū [nỳʂú]; literally "women's writing"), is a syllabic script, a simplification of Chinese characters that was used exclusively among women in Jiangyong County in Hunan province of southern China. The Nüshu script is used to write a local dialect of Chinese known as Xiangnan Tuhua (湘南土話, 'Southern Hunanese Tuhua') that is spoken by the people of the Xiao and Yongming River region of northern Jiangyong County, Hunan. This dialect, which differs enough from the Xiang Chinese dialect of southern Jiangyong and other parts of Hunan that it is unintelligible to speakers of that dialect, is known to its speakers as [tifɯə] "Dong language", and it is only written in the Nüshu script. There are differing opinions on the classification of Xiangnan Tuhua, as it has features of several different Chinese languages, with some scholars classifying it under Yue Chinese and other scholars considering it a hybrid dialect. In addition to speaking Tuhua, most local people in Jiangyong are bilingual in the Hunan dialect of Southwestern Mandarin, which they use for communication with people from outside the area that Tuhua is spoken, as
    6.67
    3 votes
    137
    Perso-Arabic script

    Perso-Arabic script

    • languages: Hindustani language
    • parent writing systems: Arabic alphabet
    The Persian or Perso-Arabic alphabet (Persian: الفبای فارسی‎) is a writing system based on the Arabic script. Originally used exclusively for the Arabic language, the Arabic alphabet was adapted to the Persian language, adding four letters: پ [p], چ [t͡ʃ], ژ [ʒ], and گ [ɡ]. Many languages which use the Perso-Arabic script add other letters. Besides the Persian alphabet itself, the Perso-Arabic script has been applied to the Urdu alphabet, Sindhi alphabet, Saraiki alphabet, Kurdish Sorani alphabet, Lurish (Luri), Ottoman Turkish alphabet, Balochi alphabet, Punjabi Shahmukhi script, Tatar, Azeri, and several others. In order to represent non-Arabic sounds, new letters were created by adding dots, lines, and other shapes to existing letters. For example, the retroflex sounds of Urdu are represented orthographically by adding a small ط above their non-retroflex counterparts: د [d̪] and ڈ [ɖ]. The voiceless retroflex fricative [ʂ] of Pashto is represented in writing by adding a dot above and below the س [s] letter, resulting in ښ. The close central rounded vowel [ʉ] of Kurdish is written by writing two ﻭ [u], resulting in ﻭﻭ. The Perso-Arabic script is exclusively written cursively.
    6.67
    3 votes
    138
    Polish alphabet

    Polish alphabet

    • languages: Polish Language
    The Polish alphabet is the script of the Polish language, the basis for the Polish system of orthography . It is based on the Latin alphabet, but includes certain letters with diacritics: the line or kreska, which is graphically similar to an acute accent (ć, ń, ó, ś, ź); the overdot or kropka (ż); the tail or ogonek (ą, ę); and the stroke (ł). The letters q, v and x, which are used only in foreign words, are frequently not considered part of the Polish alphabet. The Polish alphabet, or variations of it, is also used for writing Kashubian, Silesian, and to a certain extent for the Sorbian languages. When Q, V and X are excluded, there are 32 letters in the Polish alphabet: 9 vowels and 23 consonants. The following table lists the letters of the alphabet, their Polish names (see also Names of letters below), the Polish phonemes which they usually represent, rough English (or other) equivalents to the sounds of those phonemes, and other possible pronunciations. For more information about the sounds, see Polish phonology. The letters q, v, and x do not belong to the Polish alphabet, but are used in some foreign words and commercial names. In loanwords they are often replaced by kw, w,
    6.67
    3 votes
    139
    Tajik alphabet

    Tajik alphabet

    The Tajik language has been written in three alphabets over the course of its history: an adaptation of the Arabic script (specifically the Persian alphabet), an adaptation of the Latin script, and an adaptation of the Cyrillic script. Any script used specifically for Tajik may be referred to as the Tajik alphabet, which is written in Tajik as follows: Persian alphabet: Persian: ‫اﻟﻔﺒﺎی تاجیکی‬‎, Cyrillic: алифбои тоҷикӣ, Latin: alifboi toçikī. The use of a specific alphabet generally corresponds with stages in history, with Arabic being used first, followed by Latin for a short period and then Cyrillic, which remains the most widely used alphabet in Tajikistan. A related language, Judæo-Tajiki, spoken by the Bukharan Jews, traditionally used the Hebrew alphabet but more often today is written using the Cyrillic variant. As with many post-Soviet independent states, the change in writing system, and the debate surrounding it is closely intertwined with political themes. In simple terms, although not having been used since the adoption of Cyrillic, the Latin script is supported by those who wish to bring the country closer to Uzbekistan. The Persian alphabet is supported by the
    5.75
    4 votes
    140
    Afaka script

    Afaka script

    The Afaka script (afaka sikifi) is a syllabary of 56 letters devised in 1910 for the Ndyuka language, an English-based creole of Surinam. The script is named after its inventor, Afáka Atumisi. It continues to be used to write Ndyuka in the 21st century, but the literacy rate in that language for all scripts is under 10%. Afaka is the only script in use that was designed specifically for a creole or for a form of English. It is not supported by Unicode. Afaka is a rather defective script. Tone is phonemic but not written. Final consonants (the nasal [n]) are not written, but long vowels are, by adding a vowel letter. Prenasalized stops and voiced stops are written with the same letters, and syllables with the vowels [u] and [o] are seldom distinguished: The syllables [o]/[u], [po]/[pu], and [to]/[tu] have separate letters, but syllables starting with the consonants [b, d, dy, f, g, l, m, n, s, y] do not. Thus the Afaka rendition of Ndyuka could also be read as Dyoka. In four cases syllables with [e] and [i] are not distinguished (after the consonants [l, m, s, w]); a single letter is used for both [ba] and [pa], and another for both [u] and [ku]. Several consonants have only one
    7.50
    2 votes
    141
    Arabic alphabet

    Arabic alphabet

    • type of writing: Abjad
    • languages: Arabic Language
    • parent writing systems: Proto-Canaanite alphabet
    The Arabic alphabet (Arabic: أَبْجَدِيَّة عَرَبِيَّة‎ ’abjadiyyah ‘arabiyyah) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing the Arabic language. It is written from right to left, in a cursive style, and includes 28 letters. Because letters usually stand for consonants, it is classified as an abjad. It has been claimed that in reading Arabic, the human brain processes Arabic script differently than alphabets, using mainly the left hemisphere, not both. The Arabic alphabet has 28 basic letters. Adaptations of the Arabic script for other languages, such as Persian, Ottoman, Sindhi, Urdu, Malay or Pashto, Arabi Malayalam, have additional letters, shown below. There are no distinct upper and lower case letter forms. Many letters look similar but are distinguished from one another by dots (’i‘jām) above or below their central part, called rasm. These dots are an integral part of a letter, since they distinguish between letters that represent different sounds. For example, the Arabic letters transliterated as b and t have the same basic shape, but b has one dot below, ب, and t has two dots above, ت. Both printed and written Arabic are cursive, with most of the letters
    7.50
    2 votes
    142
    Edo script

    Edo script

    Edo Script is a chromatographic system of writing developed by Edo people of southern Nigeria. The alphabet is called asdolode meaning "marks". It is a writing based on different colour combinations and graphs.
    7.50
    2 votes
    143
    Mandaic alphabet

    Mandaic alphabet

    • languages: Aramaic language
    The Mandaic alphabet is based on the Aramaic alphabet, and is used for writing the Mandaic language. The Mandaic name for the script is Abagada or Abaga, after the first letters of the alphabet. Rather than the ancient Semitic names for the letters (alaph, beth, gimal), the letters are known as â, bâ, gâ and so on. The alphabet consists of 24 letters: the 22 letters of the Aramaic alphabet with two additional letters at the end. As the number 24 is auspicious for Mandaeans (it is the number of hours from sunset to sunset), the additional letters are somewhat artificial. The 23rd letter is adu, the relative particle (cf. Arabic tāʾ marbūṭa, Coptic letter "ti", and English ampersand). And the 24th is the first letter, a, repeated. Thus, Mandaeans say that the abagada has perfected the alpha and omega. Unlike most other Semitic alphabets, the vowels are usually written out in full. The first and last letter, a (corresponding to alaph), is used to represent a range of open vowels. The sixth letter, wa, is used for close back vowels (u and o), and the tenth letter, ya is used for close front vowels (i and e). These last two can also serve as the consonants w/v and y. The eighth letter
    7.50
    2 votes
    144
    Moldovan alphabet

    Moldovan alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Moldovan language
    • parent writing systems: Cyrillic alphabet
    The Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet is a Cyrillic alphabet designed for the Moldovan language in the Soviet Union and used from 1938 to 1989 (and still today in Transnistria). Its introduction was decided by the Central Executive Committee of the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on May 19, 1938. Its structure is based on the Russian Cyrillic alphabet (excluding three Russian letters and adding another), and does not have a direct resemblance to the historical Romanian Cyrillic alphabet used from the Middle Ages until the second half of the 19th century in the Principalities of Vallachia and Moldavia and until 1932 in the Soviet Union. The Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet was used during the Stalin era as a way to separate culturally the Moldovans of the Moldavian ASSR from the Romanians of Romania. Following the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, it was established as the official alphabet of the Moldavian SSR until 1989, when a law returned to the standard Latin-based Romanian alphabet. There were several requests to switch back to the Latin alphabet, which was seen "more suitable for the Romance core of the language," in the Moldovan MSSR. In 1965, the
    7.50
    2 votes
    145
    Tai Dam language

    Tai Dam language

    • type of writing: Abugida
    Tai Dam, also known as Black Tai is a Tai language spoken by the Tai Dam in Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and China (mostly in the Jinping Miao, Yao, and Dai Autonomous County). It is called ภาษาไทดำ [pʰaːsǎː tʰai dam] "Black Tai language" in Thai and Dǎidānyǔ 傣担语 in Chinese. The Tai Dam language is similar to Thai and Lao, but it is not close enough to be readily understood by most Thai and Lao speakers. In particular, the Pali and Sanscrit additions to Thai and Lao are largely missing from Tai Dam. Tai Dam speakers in China are classified as part of the Dai nationality along with almost all the other Tai peoples. But in Vietnam they are given their own nationality (with the White Tai) where they are classified (confusingly for English speakers) as the Thái nationality (meaning Tai people). The Tai Dam language has its own system of writing, called Tai Viet, which consists of 31 consonants and 14 vowels. Although the language is tonal, there are no tone markers, as there are in Tai and Lao. According to Thai authors, the writing system is probably derived from the old Thai writing of the kingdom of Sukhotai. An effort is underway to standardize the script in Unicode:
    7.50
    2 votes
    146
    Vietnamese alphabet

    Vietnamese alphabet

    • languages: Vietnamese Language
    The Vietnamese alphabet (Vietnamese: Quốc Ngữ; literally national language) is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language. It is based on the Latin script (more specifically the Portuguese alphabet) with some digraphs and the addition of nine accent marks or diacritics – four of them to create additional sounds, and the other five to indicate the tone of each word. The many diacritics, often two on the same letter, make written Vietnamese easily recognizable. Note: Naming b 'bê bò' and p 'bê phở' is to avoid confusion in some dialects or some contexts, the same for s 'xờ mạnh (nặng)' and x 'xờ nhẹ', i 'i ngắn' and y 'i dài'. Q, q is always followed by u in every word and phrase in Vietnamese, e.g. quang (light), quần (trousers), quyến rũ (to attract), etc. Most of the consonants are pronounced approximately as in the International Phonetic Alphabet, with the following clarifications: The digraph GH and the trigraph NGH are basically variants of g and ng used before i, in order to avoid confusion with the digraph GI. For historical reasons, gh and ngh are also used before e or ê. The correspondence between the orthography and pronunciation is somewhat complicated. In some
    7.50
    2 votes
    147
    Old Hungarian script

    Old Hungarian script

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Hungarian language
    The Old Hungarian script is an alphabetic writing system used by the Hungarians before the 10th century. In modern Hungarian, the script is known as rovásírás, or székely rovásírás, székely-magyar rovás; for short also simply rovás "notch, score") Because it is superficially reminiscent of the runic alphabet, the Old Hungarian script has also been described as "runic" or "runiform". The script is thought to be derived from the Old Turkic script (unless both it and Old Hungarian derive from a now-lost parent), and was probably in use by the 9th century. The Hungarians settled the Pannonian plain in 895. When the Kingdom of Hungary was established in AD 1000 and Christianity was adopted, the Latin alphabet was adopted and the script fell into disuse. In remote regions of Transylvania, however, the script remained in marginal use by the Székely Magyars at least into the 17th century, giving it the name székely rovásírás. The script is adapted to the phonology of the Hungarian language, featuring letters for phonemes such as cs, gy, ly, ny, ö, sz, ty, ü, zs. The modern Hungarian alphabet represents these sounds with digraphs (letter sequences used to write a single sound) and
    6.33
    3 votes
    148
    Rencong script

    Rencong script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Malay Language
    Rencong script is a writing system used to write Malay in Sumatra (Kerinci, Bengkulu, Palembang and Lampung). The script lasted until the 18th century which was before the Dutch colonised Indonesia. It was gradually replaced by the Jawi script, a slightly modified Arabic script. The Malay used Rencong or Rencang script, Kawi script and Lampung script in ancient times. Studies showed that these writings are related to the ancient Cambodian writings. The script is also related to the Batak script. Rencong script was written on tree bark, bamboo, horns and palmyra-palm leaves.
    6.33
    3 votes
    149
    Albanian alphabet

    Albanian alphabet

    • languages: Albanian language
    • parent writing systems: Latin alphabet
    The modern Albanian alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet, and consists of 36 letters: Note: The vowels are shown in bold.  Listen (help·info) to the pronunciation of the letters. The history of the Albanian alphabet is closely linked with the influence of religion among Albanians. The writers from the North of Albania used Latin letters under the influence of the Catholic Church, those from the South of Albania under the Greek Orthodox church used Greek letters, while others used Arabic letters under the influence of Islam. There were also attempts for an original Albanian alphabet in the period of 1750-1850. The current alphabet in use among Albanians is one of the two variants approved in the Congress of Monastir held by Albanian intellectuals from November 14 to 22 November 1908, in Monastir (Bitola, Macedonia). A first reference for Latin letters was in a medieval Latin manuscript of 1332, possibly attributed to a monk called Brocardus Monacus or to one Guillaume Adam. In this manuscript there is a quoted phrase about the existence of books in Albania "licet Albanenses aliam omnino linguam a latina habeant et diversam, tamen litteram latinam habent in usu et in omnibus suis
    8.00
    1 votes
    150
    Irish orthography

    Irish orthography

    • languages: Irish
    Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 6th century AD. Prior to that, Primitive Irish was written in Ogham. Irish orthography is mainly based on etymological considerations, although a spelling reform in the mid-20th century simplified the relationship between spelling and pronunciation somewhat. There are three dialects of spoken Irish: Ulster (now predominantly in County Donegal), Connacht (Counties Mayo and Galway), and Munster (Counties Kerry, Cork, and Waterford). Some spelling conventions are common to all the dialects, while others vary from dialect to dialect. In addition, individual words may have in any given dialect a pronunciation that is not reflected by the spelling. (The pronunciations in this article reflect Connacht Irish pronunciation; other accents may differ.) The alphabet now used for writing the Irish language consists of the following letters of the Latin script, whether written in Roman hand or Gaelic hand: The acute accent over the vowels is ignored for purposes of alphabetization. Modern loanwords also make use of j k q v w x y z. Of these, v is the most common. It occurs
    8.00
    1 votes
    151
    Kanji

    Kanji

    • type of writing: Logogram
    • languages: Japanese Language
    • parent writing systems: Japanese writing system
    Kanji (漢字; Japanese pronunciation: [kandʑi]  listen) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters (hanzi) that are used in the modern Japanese writing system along with hiragana (ひらがな, 平仮名), katakana (カタカナ, 片仮名), Hindu numerals, and the occasional use of the Latin alphabet. The Japanese term kanji (漢字) for the Chinese characters literally means "Han characters" and is the same written term in the Chinese language to refer to the character writing system hanzi (simplified Chinese: 汉字; traditional Chinese: 漢字). Chinese characters (Japanese: kanji) first came to Japan on official seals, letters, swords, coins, mirrors, and other decorative items imported from China. The earliest known instance of such an import was King of Na Gold Seal given by Emperor Guangwu of Han to a Yamato emissary in 57 AD. Chinese coins from the 1st century AD have been found in Yayoi period archaeological sites. However, the Japanese of that era probably had no comprehension of the script, and would remain illiterate until the 5th century AD. According to the Nihon Shoki and Kojiki, a Korean scholar called Wani (王仁) was dispatched to Japan by the Kingdom of Baekje during the reign of Emperor Ōjin in the
    8.00
    1 votes
    152
    Manchu alphabet

    Manchu alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Xibe Language
    The Manchu alphabet was used for recording the now near-extinct Manchu language; a similar script is used today by the Xibe people, who speak a language descended from Manchu. It is written vertically from top to bottom, with columns proceeding from left to right. According to the Veritable Records (Manchu: manju-i yargiyan kooli; Chinese: 滿洲實錄; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu Shílù), in 1599 the Manchu leader Nurhaci decided to convert the Mongolian alphabet to make it suitable for the Manchu people. He decried the fact that while illiterate Han Chinese and Mongolians could understand their respective languages when read aloud, that was not the case for the Manchus, whose documents were recorded by Mongolian scribes. Overriding the objections of two advisors named Erdeni and G'ag'ai, he is credited with adapting the Mongolian script to Manchu. The resulting script was known as tongki fuka akū hergen ("script without dots and circles"). In 1632, Dahai added diacritical marks to clear up a lot of the ambiguity present in the original Mongolian script; for instance, a leading k, g, and h are distinguished by the placement of no diacritical mark, a dot, and a circle respectively. This revision
    8.00
    1 votes
    153
    Ojhopath

    Ojhopath

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Chakma Language
    The Chakma alphabet (Ajhā pāṭh), also called Ojhapath, Ojhopath, Aaojhapath, is an abugida used for the Chakma language and which is being adapted for the Tanchangya language. The forms of the letters are quite similar to those of the Burmese script. The script is included in Unicode version 6.1.0. Chakma is of the Brahmic type: the consonant letters contain an inherent vowel. Consonant clusters are written with conjunct characters, and a visible vowel killer shows the deletion of the inherent vowel when there is no conjunct. Four independent vowels exist:  a,  i,  u, and  e. Other vowels in initial position are formed by adding the vowel sign to  a, as in  ī,  ū,  ai,  oi. Some modern writers are generalizing this spelling in  i,  u, and  e Chakma vowel signs with the letter ka are given below One of the interesting features of Chakma writing is that CANDRABINDU (cānaphudā) can be used together with ANUSVARA (ekaphudā) and VISARGA (dviphudā): Like other Brahmic scripts, Chakma makes use of the MAAYYAA (killer) to invoke conjoined consonants. In the past, practice was much more common than it is today. Like the Myanmar script, Chakma is encoded with two
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    154
    Regular script

    Regular script

    • type of writing: Logogram
    • languages: Han'er language
    Regular script (simplified Chinese: 楷书; traditional Chinese: 楷書; pinyin: kǎishū; Hepburn: kaisho), also called 正楷 (pinyin: zhèngkǎi), 真書 (zhēnshū), 楷体 (kǎitǐ) and 正書 (zhèngshū), is the newest of the Chinese script styles (appearing by the Cao Wei dynasty ca. 200 CE and maturing stylistically around the 7th century), hence most common in modern writings and publications (after the Ming and sans-serif styles, used exclusively in print). Regular script came into being between the Eastern Hàn and Cáo Wèi dynasties, and its first known master was Zhōng Yáo (sometimes also read Zhōng Yóu; 鍾繇), who lived in the E. Hàn to Cáo Wèi period, ca. 151–230 CE. He is known as the “father of regular script”, and his famous works include the Xuānshì Biǎo (宣示表), Jiànjìzhí Biǎo (薦季直表), and Lìmìng Biǎo (力命表). Qiú Xīguī describes the script in Zhong’s Xuānshì Biǎo as: However, other than a few literati, very few wrote in this script at the time; most continued writing in neo-clerical script, or a hybrid form of semi-cursive and neo-clerical. Regular script did not become dominant until the early Southern and Northern Dynasties, in the 5th century; this was a variety of regular script which emerged from
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    155
    Uyghur Cyrillic alphabet

    Uyghur Cyrillic alphabet

    • languages: Uyghur Language
    • parent writing systems: Cyrillic alphabet
    The Uyghur Cyrillic alphabet (cyr. Уйғур Сирил Йезиқи, lat. Uyghur Siril Yëziqi or USY) is a Cyrillic-derived alphabet used for writing the Uyghur language, primarily by Uyghurs living in Kazakhstan and former CIS countries. It was devised around 1937 by the Soviet Union, which wanted an alternative to the Latin-derived alphabet they had devised some eleven years earlier, in 1926, as they feared a romanization of the Uyghur language would strengthen the relationship of the Uyghurs to Turkey, which had switched to a Latin-based alphabet in 1927-1928. After the proclamation of the Communist People's Republic of China in 1949, Russian linguists began helping the Chinese with codifying the various minority languages of China and promoting Cyrillic-derived alphabets, and thus the Uyghurs of China also came to use the Uyghur Siril Yëziqi. As the tensions between the Soviet Union and China grew stronger, the Chinese dismissed the Uyghur Siril Yëziqi, and as of 1959, the newly devised Uyghur Pinyin Yëziqi became the new alphabet of use among the Chinese Uyghurs and eventually China restored the Arabic script to write Uyghur till now. Uyghur Siril Yëziqi continued to be used in the Soviet
    8.00
    1 votes
    156
    Vai script

    Vai script

    • type of writing: Syllabary
    • languages: Vai Language
    The Vai syllabary is a syllabic writing system devised for the Vai language by Momolu Duwalu Bukele of Jondu, in what is now Grand Cape Mount County, Liberia. Bukele is regarded within the Vai community, as well as by most scholars, as the syllabary's inventor and chief promoter when it was first documented in the 1830s. It is one of the two most successful indigenous scripts in West Africa. Vai is a syllabic script written from left to right that represents CV syllables; a final nasal is written with the same glyph as the Vai syllabic nasal. Originally there were separate glyphs for syllables ending in a nasal, such as don, with a long vowel, such as soo, with a diphthong, such as bai, as well as bili and sɛli. However, these have been dropped from the modern script. The syllabary did not distinguish all the syllables of the Vai language until the 1960s when University of Liberia added distinctions by modifying certain glyphs with dots or extra strokes to cover all CV syllables in use. There are relatively few glyphs for nasal vowels because not only a few occur with each consonant. In 1967 P.E.H. Hair and Svend Holsoe, working independently, suggested that the Cherokee syllabary
    8.00
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    157
    Borama script

    Borama script

    • languages: Somali Language
    The Borama alphabet is a writing script for the Somali language. It was devised around 1933 by Abdurahman Sheikh Nuur of the Gadabuursi clan. Though not as widely known as Osmanya, the other major writing orthography for transcribing Somali, Borama has produced a notable body of literature mainly consisting of qasidas. A quite accurate phonetic writing system, the Borama script was principally used by Nuur and his circle of associates in his native city of Borama. This script is also generally known as the Gadabuursi script.
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    158

    Chinese character

    • type of writing: Logogram
    • languages: Chinese language
    Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese (where they may be called hanzi; 汉字/漢字 "Han character") and Japanese (kanji). Such characters are also used, albeit less frequently, in Korean (hanja), and were formerly used in Vietnamese (hán tự), as well as in a number of other languages. Chinese characters constitute the oldest continuously used system of writing in the world. By nature of widespread use in China and Japan, Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world. Chinese characters number in the tens of thousands, though most of these are minor graphic variants only encountered in historical texts. Studies carried out in China have shown that functional literacy requires a knowledge of between three and four thousand characters. In Chinese orthography, the characters are largely morphosyllabic, each corresponding to a spoken syllable with a distinct meaning. However, the majority of Chinese words today consist of two or more characters. About 10% of native words have two syllables without separate meanings, but they are nonetheless written with two characters. Some characters, generally ligatures, represent polysyllabic
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    159
    Egyptian hieroglyphs

    Egyptian hieroglyphs

    • type of writing: Logogram
    • languages: Egyptian language
    Egyptian hieroglyphs ( /ˈhaɪər.ɵˌɡlɪf/ HYR-o-GLIF, /ˈhaɪ.roʊˌɡlɪf/) HY-roh-GLIF) were a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians that combined logographic and alphabetic elements. Egyptians used cursive hieroglyphs for religious literature on papyrus and wood. Less formal variations of the script, called hieratic and demotic, are technically not hieroglyphs. Various scholars believe that Egyptian hieroglyphs "came into existence a little after Sumerian script, and ... probably [were]... invented under the influence of the latter ...", although it is pointed out and held that "the evidence for such direct influence remains flimsy” and that “a very credible argument can also be made for the independent development of writing in Egypt..." (See further History of writing). The word hieroglyph comes from the Greek adjective ἱερογλυφικός (hieroglyphikos), a compound of ἱερός (hierós 'sacred') and γλύφω (glýphō 'Ι carve, engrave'; see glyph), in turn a loan translation of Egyptian mdw·w-nṯr (medu-netjer) 'god's words'. The glyphs themselves were called τὰ ἱερογλυφικὰ γράμματα (tà hieroglyphikà grámmata) 'the sacred engraved letters'. The word hieroglyph has become a noun in
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    160
    Finnish alphabet

    Finnish alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Finnish Language
    • parent writing systems: Latin alphabet
    The Finnish alphabet (Finnish: Suomen aakkoset) is based on the Latin script, and especially the Swedish alphabet. Officially it comprises 28 letters: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, X, Y, Z, Å, Ä, Ö In addition, w is traditionally listed after v, although officially it is merely a variant of the latter and can be alphabetized as v. Similarly, š and ž are variants of s and z, but they are often overlooked, as they are only used in some relatively new loanwords and foreign names, and may be replaced with sh and zh, respectively. Finnish denotes the phonemic (meaning-distinguishing) gemination with simple digraphs, e.g. sika "pig" vs. siika "whitefish" and kisa "competition, race" vs. kissa "cat". The following table describes how each letter in the Finnish alphabet is spelled and pronounced separately. If the name of a consonant begins with a vowel (usually ä [æ]), it can be pronounced and spelled either as a monosyllabic or bisyllabic word. In practice, the names of the letters are rarely spelled, as people usually just type the (uppercase or lowercase) glyph when then want to refer to a particular letter. The pronunciation instructions enclosed in
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    161
    Kikakui

    Kikakui

    • languages: Mende Language
    The Mende script or Kikakui, is a syllabary used for writing the Mende language of Sierra Leone. It was devised by Mohammed Turay (born ca. 1850), an Islamic scholar, at a town called Maka (Barri Chiefdom, southern Sierra Leone). One of Turay's Koranic students was a young man named Kisimi Kamara. Kamara was the grandson of Turay's sister. Kamara also married Turay's daughter, Mariama. Turay devised a form of writing called 'Mende Abajada' (meaning 'Mende alphabet'), which was inspired in part by the Arabic abjad and in part by the Vai syllabary. Turay's 'Mende Abajada' was adjusted a bit (order of characters) by Kamara, and probably corresponds to the first 42 characters of the script, which is an abugida. Kamara developed the script further (with help from his brothers), adding more than 150 other syllabic characters. Kamara then popularized the script and gained quite a following as result -- which he used to help establish himself as one of the most important chiefs in southern Sierra Leone during his time (he was not a 'simple village tailor' as suggested by some contemporary writers). Kikakui is still used today, but perhaps by less than 500 people. There is also an
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    162
    Macedonian alphabet

    Macedonian alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Macedonian Language
    • parent writing systems: Cyrillic alphabet
    The orthography of Macedonian includes an alphabet (Macedonian: Македонска азбука, Makedonska azbuka), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and punctuation. The Macedonian alphabet was standardized in 1944 by a committee formed in the Socialist Republic of Macedonia (then part of the federation of Yugoslavia) after the liberation from the Nazis in World War II. The alphabet used the same phonemic principles employed by Vuk Karadžić and Krste Petkov Misirkov. Before standardization, the language had been written in a variety of different versions of Cyrillic by different writers, influenced by Bulgarian, Early Cyrillic or Serbian orthography. Origins: The following table provides the upper and lower case forms of the Macedonian alphabet, along with the IPA value for each letter: In addition to the standard sounds of the letters Ѓ and Ќ above, in some accents these letters represent /dʑ/ and /tɕ/, respectively. The above table contains the printed form of the Macedonian alphabet; the cursive script is significantly different, and is illustrated below in lower and upper case (letter order and layout below corresponds to
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    163
    Runic alphabet

    Runic alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Lombardic language
    • parent writing systems: Old Italic alphabet
    Runes (Runic: ᚱᚢᚾᛁᚲ)are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialized purposes thereafter. The Scandinavian variants are also known as futhark or fuþark (derived from their first six letters of the alphabet: F, U, Þ, A, R, and K); the Anglo-Saxon variant is futhorc or fuþorc (due to sound changes undergone in Old English by the same six letters). Runology is the study of the runic alphabets, runic inscriptions, runestones, and their history. Runology forms a specialized branch of Germanic linguistics. The earliest runic inscriptions date from around AD 150. The characters were generally replaced by the Latin alphabet as the cultures that had used runes underwent Christianization, by approximately AD 700 in central Europe and AD 1100 in Northern Europe, however, the use of runes persisted for specialized purposes in Northern Europe. Until the early twentieth century runes were used in rural Sweden for decorative purposes in Dalarna and on Runic calendars. The three best-known runic alphabets are the Elder Futhark (around 150–800), the Anglo-Saxon
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    164
    Tamil-Brahmi

    Tamil-Brahmi

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Tamil Language
    • parent writing systems: Brāhmī
    Tamil-Brahmi, or Damili (Tamil: தமிழ் பிராமி), is an early phonetic script used to write Tamil characters. It is a variant of the Brahmi script, used alongside other variants throughout South Asia, namely Ashokan Brahmi, Southern Brahmi, Bhattiprolu script and the Sri Lankan based Sinhala-Brahmi. Surviving inscriptions of the script have been found on cave beds, pot sherds, Jar burials, coins, seals and rings. Used widely across present-day southern Indian subcontinent (known in ancient times as Tamilakam) in the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and in neighboring Sri Lanka, some examples of Tamil Brahmi have also been found in places like Egypt and Thailand. Dates of some of the early inscriptions are tentative, variously dated from 3rd century BCE to the 1st century CE. Of the many Brahmi varieties, Tamil-Brahmi is related to both Bhattiprolu and Sinhala-Brahmi. Origin theories of it are controversial, with mainstream consensus around a post Ashokan or Early Mauryan dispersal (ca 322-185 BCE) with a number of alternative datings of inscriptions of both Brahmi and Tamil-Brahmi questioning the migration of the script. It is distinguished from Standard Brahmi, by an inherent vowel
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    165
    Tocharian script

    Tocharian script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Tocharian languages
    The Tocharian language is documented in manuscript fragments, mostly from the 8th century (with a few earlier ones) that were written on palm leaves, wooden tablets and Chinese paper, preserved by the extremely dry climate of the Tarim Basin. Samples of the language have been discovered at sites in Kucha and Karasahr, including many mural inscriptions. Tocharian A and B are not mutually intelligible. Properly speaking, based on the tentative interpretation of twqry as related to Tokharoi, only Tocharian A may be referred to as Tocharian, while Tocharian B could be called Kuchean (its native name may have been kuśiññe), but since their grammars are usually treated together in scholarly works, the terms A and B have proven useful. A common Proto-Tocharian language must precede the attested languages by several centuries, probably dating to the 1st millennium BC. Given the small geographical range of and the lack of secular texts in Tocharian A, it might alternatively have been a liturgical language, the relationship between the two being similar to that between Classical Chinese and Mandarin. However, the lack of a secular corpus in Tocharian A is by no means definite, due to the
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    166
    ’Phagspa script

    ’Phagspa script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Sanskrit Language
    The 'Phags-pa script was an alphabet designed by the Tibetan Lama Zhogoin Qoigyai Pagba (Drogön Chögyal Phagpa) for Yuan emperor Kublai Khan, as a unified script for the literary languages of the Yuan Dynasty. Widespread use was limited to about a hundred years during the Yuan Dynasty, and it fell out of use with the advent of the Ming Dynasty. The documentation of its use provides linguists clues about the changes in Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian, and neighboring languages during the Yuan era. The Uyghur-based Mongolian alphabet is not a perfect fit for Middle Mongolian, and it would be impractical to extend it to a language with a very different phonology like Chinese. Therefore, during the Yuan Dynasty (ca. 1269), Kublai Khan asked ´Phags-pa to design a new alphabet for use by the whole empire. ´Phags-pa extended his native Tibetan script (an Indic script) to encompass Mongol and Chinese, evidently Central Plains standard. The resulting 38 letters have been known by several descriptive names, such as "square script" based on their shape, but today are primarily known as the 'Phags-pa alphabet. Despite its origin, the script was written vertically (top to bottom) like the previous
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    167
    Hán Tự

    Hán Tự

    Hán tự (漢字 [hǎːn tɨ̂ˀ], meaning "Chinese character") or chữ Hán, chữ Nho ([cɨ̌ˀ ɲɔ],
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    168
    International Phonetic Alphabet

    International Phonetic Alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • parent writing systems: Romic alphabet
    The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of oral language. The IPA is used by foreign language students and teachers, linguists, Speech-Language Pathologists, singers, actors, lexicographers, constructed language creators, and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are distinctive in oral language: phonemes, intonation, and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech such as tooth gnashing, lisping, and sounds made with a cleft palate, an extended set of symbols called the Extensions to the IPA may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types, letters and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, [t], or with a letter plus diacritics, [t̺ʰ], depending on how precise one wishes to be. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription; thus, /t/ is less specific than, and could refer to, either [t̺ʰ] or
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    169
    Isthmian script

    Isthmian script

    The Isthmian script is a very early Mesoamerican writing system in use in the area of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec from perhaps 500 BCE to 500 CE, although there is disagreement on these dates. It is also called the La Mojarra script and the Epi-Olmec script ('post-Olmec script'). Isthmian script is structurally similar to the later Maya script, and like Maya uses one set of characters to represent logograms (or word units) and a second set to represent syllables. The four most extensive Isthmian texts are those found on: Other texts include: In a 1993 paper, John Justeson and Terrence Kaufman proposed a partial decipherment of the Isthmian text found on the La Mojarra Stela, claiming that the language represented was a member of the Zoquean language family. In 1997, the same two epigraphers published a second paper on Epi-Olmec writing, in which they further claimed that a newly discovered text-section from the stela had yielded readily to the decipherment-system that they had established earlier for the longer section of text. This led to a Guggenheim Fellowship for their work, in 2003. The following year, however, their interpretation of the La Mojarra text was disputed by Stephen
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    170
    Jurchen script

    Jurchen script

    • type of writing: Logogram
    • languages: Manchu Language
    Jurchen script (Jurchen: dʒu ʃə bitxə) was the writing system used to write Jurchen language, the language of the Jurchen people who created the Jin Empire in the northeastern China of the 12th–13th centuries. It was derived from the Khitan script, which in turn was derived from Chinese (Han characters). The script has only been decoded to a small extent. The Jurchens were the ancestors of the Manchu people and spoke a language related to the Manchu language. The Jurchen script, however, is not ancestral to the Manchu script. According to the Sino-Jurchen glossary, the Jurchen script contains 720 characters. These comprise a mixture of logograms, which represent whole words without any phonetic element, and phonograms, which represent sounds. Compound words consisting of two or more characters were also used. The Jurchen characters have a system of radicals similar to Chinese characters and are ordered according to radical and stroke count. The Jurchen script is part of the Chinese family of scripts. After the Jurchen rebelled against the Khitan Liao Dynasty and established the new Jin Dynasty in 1115, they were using the Khitan script. In 1119 or 1120, Wanyan Xiyin, the
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    171
    Linear B

    Linear B

    • type of writing: Syllabary
    • languages: Mycenaean Greek language
    Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek. The script predates the Greek alphabet by several centuries. The oldest Mycenaean writing dates to about 1450 BC. It is descended from the older Linear A, an undeciphered earlier script used for writing the Minoan language, as does the later Cypriot syllabary, which also recorded Greek. Linear B, found mainly in the palace archives at Knossos, Cydonia, Pylos, Thebes and Mycenae, disappeared with the fall of Mycenaean civilization. The succeeding period, known as the Greek Dark Ages, provides no evidence of the use of writing. Linear B consists of around 87 syllabic signs and a large repertory of ideographic signs. These ideograms or "signifying" signs symbolize objects or commodities. They have no phonetic value -and are never used as word signs in writing a sentence. The application of Linear B appears to have been confined to administrative contexts. In all the thousands of clay tablets, a relatively small number of different "hands" have been detected: 45 in Pylos (west coast of the Peloponnese, in southern Greece) and 66 in Knossos (Crete). From this fact it could be
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    172
    Turkish alphabet

    Turkish alphabet

    • languages: Ladino Language
    The Turkish alphabet is a Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş, and Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language. This alphabet represents modern Turkish pronunciation with a high degree of accuracy and specificity. It is the current official alphabet and the latest in a series of distinct alphabets used in different eras. The invention of this alphabet and its adoption in the 20th century were cultural elements of the rise and victory of western Turkish nationalism. The letters of the Turkish alphabet are: Of these 29 letters, 8 are vowels (A, E, I, İ, O, Ö, U, Ü); the 21 others are consonants. The letters Q, W, and X of the ISO basic Latin alphabet do not occur in the Turkish alphabet, while dotted and dotless I are distinct letters in Turkish so that "i" does not become "I" when capitalized. Turkish also uses a, i and u with the circumflex: The names of the vowel letters are the vowels themselves, while the names of the consonant letters are the consonant plus e. The one exception is ğ ("yumuşak ge"; i.e. "soft g"): a, be, ce, çe, de, e, fe, ge, yumuşak
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    173
    Bosnian Cyrillic

    Bosnian Cyrillic

    • languages: Bosnian language
    • parent writing systems: Cyrillic alphabet
    Bosnian Cyrillic, widely known as Bosančica or Croatian Cyirillic is an extinct type of the Cyrillic alphabet that originated in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was widely used in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the bordering areas in Croatia (Dalmatian and Dubrovnik regions). It was particularly in wide use by the Bosnian Church community. Its name in Bosnian is bosančica, bosanica or bošnjačko pismo, the latter of which can be translated as Bosnian script. Croats also called it Croatian script, Croatian–Bosnian script, Bosnian–Croat Cyrillic, harvacko pismo, arvatica or Western Cyrillic. For other names of Bosnian Cyrillic, see below. The use of Bosančica amongst Bosniaks was replaced by Arebica upon the introduction of Islam in Bosnia Eyalet, first amongst the elite, then amongst the wider public. It is hard to ascertain when features of characteristically Bosnian type of Cyrillic script had begun to appear, but paleographers consider that the Humac tablet (Bosnian Cyrillic tablet) is the first document of this type of script and dates back supposedly to the 10th/11th century. Bosnian Cyrillic lasted continuously until the 18th century, with sporadic uses even in the 20th century. Today
    5.67
    3 votes
    174

    Africa Alphabet

    The Africa Alphabet (also International African Alphabet or IAI alphabet) was developed in 1928 under the lead of Diedrich Westermann. He developed it with a group of Africanists at the International Institute of African Languages and Cultures (later the IAI) in London. Its aim was to enable people to write all the African languages for practical and scientific purposes without diacritics. It is based on the International Phonetic Alphabet with little differences such as j and y, which instead have the same (consonant) sound values as in English. This alphabet has influenced development of orthographies of many African languages (serving "as the basis for the transcription" of about 60, by one count), but not all, and discussions of harmonization of systems of transcription that led to, among other things, adoption of the African reference alphabet. The African Alphabet was used, with the International Phonetic Alphabet, as a basis for the World Orthography.
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    175
    Bassa Vah

    Bassa Vah

    The Bassa script, known as Bassa vah or simply vah ('throwing a sign' in Bassa) was an alphabet discovered by Dr Flo Narvin Lewis in the 1920s as used among the slaves.It is not clear what connection it may have had with neighboring scripts, or how much it was actually used, but type was cast for it, and an association for its promotion was formed in Liberia in 1959. It is not used and has been classified as a failed script. Vah is a true alphabet, with 23 consonant letters, 7 vowel letters, and 5 tone diacritics, which are placed inside the vowels.
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    176
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    177
    Maya script

    Maya script

    The Mayan script, also known as Mayan glyphs or Mayan hieroglyphs, is the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially deciphered. The earliest inscriptions found which are identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BCE in San Bartolo, Guatemala. Maya Writing was in continuous use throughout Mesoamerica until shortly after the arrival of the conquistadors in the 16th century CE and into the 18th Century in isolated areas such as Tayasal. Maya writing used logograms complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs, somewhat similar in function to modern Japanese writing. Mayan writing was called "hieroglyphics" or hieroglyphs by early European explorers of the 18th and 19th centuries who did not understand it but found its general appearance reminiscent of Egyptian hieroglyphs, to which the Mayan writing system is not at all related. Although modern Mayan languages utilize the Latin alphabet as standard, Mayan writing has received official support and promotion by the Mexican government and is taught in universities and public schools in several Mayan speaking areas. It is now thought that the codices and
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    178
    Old Italic alphabet

    Old Italic alphabet

    • languages: Raetic language
    Old Italic is any of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages. The alphabets derive from the Euboean Greek Cumaean alphabet, used at Ischia and Cumae in the Bay of Naples in the eighth century BC. Various Indo-European languages belonging to the Italic branch (Faliscan and members of the Sabellian group, including Oscan, Umbrian, and South Picene, and other Indo-European branches such as Celtic, Venetic and Messapic) originally used the alphabet. Faliscan, Oscan, Umbrian, North Picene, and South Picene all derive from an Etruscan form of the alphabet. The Germanic runic alphabet was derived from one of these alphabets by the 2nd century. It is not clear whether the process of adaptation from the Greek alphabet took place in Italy from the first colony of Greeks, the city of Cumae, or in Greece/Asia Minor. It was in any case a Western Greek alphabet. In the alphabets of the West, X had the sound value [ks], Ψ stood for [kʰ]; in Etruscan: X = [s], Ψ = [kʰ] or [kχ] (Rix 202–209). The earliest Etruscan abecedarium, the Marsiliana
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    179
    Old Persian cuneiform script

    Old Persian cuneiform script

    • type of writing: Semi-syllabary
    • languages: Old Persian language
    Old Persian cuneiform is a semi-alphabetic cuneiform script that was the primary script for the Old Persian language. Texts written in this cuneiform were found in Persepolis, Susa, Hamadan, Armenia, and along the Suez Canal. They were mostly inscriptions from the time period of Darius the Great and his son Xerxes. Later kings down to Artaxerxes III used corrupted forms of the language classified as “pre-Middle Persian”. Old Persian cuneiform is loosely inspired by the Sumero-Akkadian cuneiform; however, only one glyph, l(a) (
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    2 votes
    180
    Old Uyghur alphabet

    Old Uyghur alphabet

    • type of writing: Abjad
    • languages: Uyghur Language
    The Old Uyghur alphabet was used for writing the Old Uyghur language, a variety of Old Turkic spoken in the Tarim basin, which is an ancestor of the modern Uyghur language. The term "Uyghur" used for this alphabet is misleading because the Uyghurs of Mongolia used the runic Orkhon (Old Turkic) alphabet, and only adopted the language and this script used by the local inhabitants when they migrated into the Tarim Basin after 840. It was an adaptation of the Sogdian alphabet, used for texts with Buddhist, Manichaean and Christian content for 700–800 years in East Turkestan. The last known manuscripts are dated to the 18th century. This was the prototype for the Mongolian and Manchu alphabets. Like Sogdian writing but to an even greater extent, Old Uyghur writing tended to express with matres lectionis not only the long vowels but also the short ones. In fact, the practice of leaving short vowels unrepresented was almost completely abandoned in Uyghur. Thus, while ultimately deriving from a Semitic abjad, the Uyghur script can be said to have been largely "alphabetized".
    6.50
    2 votes
    181
    Tengwar

    Tengwar

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Quenya
    The Tengwar are an artificial script created by J. R. R. Tolkien. In his fictional universe of Middle-earth, the tengwar were invented by the Elf Fëanor, and used first to write the angelic tongue Valarin and the Elven tongues: Quenya and Telerin. Later a great number of languages of Middle-earth were written using the tengwar, including Sindarin. Tolkien used tengwar to write English: most of Tolkien's tengwar samples are actually in English. According to The War of the Jewels (Appendix D to Quendi and Eldar), Fëanor, when he created his script, introduced a change in terminology. He called a letter, i.e. a written representation of a spoken phoneme (tengwë) a tengwa. Previously, any letter or symbol had been called a sarat (from *sar "incise"). The alphabet of Rúmil of Valinor, on which Fëanor supposedly based his own work, was known as sarati. It later became known as "Tengwar of Rúmil". The plural of tengwa was tengwar, and this is the name by which Fëanor's system became known. Since, however, in commonly used modes, an individual tengwa was equivalent to a consonant, the term tengwar in popular use became equivalent to "consonant sign", and the vowel signs were known as
    6.50
    2 votes
    182
    Balinese script

    Balinese script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Bali Language
    The Balinese alphabet (Balinese: Aksara Bali) is an abugida that was used to write the Balinese language, an Austronesian language spoken by about three million people on the Indonesian island of Bali. The use of the Balinese script has mostly been replaced by the Latin script. Although it is learned in school, few people use it. It is mostly used in temples and for religious writings. The Balinese script was derived from the Old Kawi script, which ultimately derived from the Brāhmī script, the root of all the Indic and Southeast Asian abugidas. The abugida consists of 47 characters, 14 of which are vowels (aksara suara), and the remaining 33 are consonants (aksara wianjana). Vowels (aksara suara) can be written as independent letters, or by using a variety of diacritical marks (pangangge). The independent forms are used when the vowels appear in initial position. They are described in the following list: Like most abugidas, each consonant (aksara wianjana) has an inherent vowel of /a/. Other vowels are indicated by using diacritics (pangangge), which can appear above, below, to the left, or to the right of the consonant. ^1 The consonant ha is sometimes not pronounced. For
    5.33
    3 votes
    183
    Metelko alphabet

    Metelko alphabet

    The Metelko alphabet (Slovene: metelčica) was a Slovene writing system developed by Franc Serafin Metelko. It was used by a small group of authors from 1825 to 1833 but it was never generally accepted. Metelko introduced his alphabet in the book Lehrgebäude der slowenischen Sprache im Königreiche Illyrien und in den benachbarten Provinzen (Slovenian Textbook for the Kingdom of Illyria and Neighboring Provinces, 1825). He invented his alphabet in order to replace the formerly used Bohorič alphabet (bohoričica), which was considered problematic in certain situations. Metelko was influenced by the ideas of Jernej Kopitar, a well-known linguist who also participated in the development of the modern Serbian alphabet (created by Vuk Karadžić, following Kopitar's ideas). Metelko's alphabet has 32 letters in following order: A B D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V Special letters are explained in the following table (other letters have the same meaning as in modern Slovene): Metelko wanted to solve the problem of the formerly used digraphs ZH (for /tʃ/) and SH (for /ʃ/ and /ʒ/) by replacing them with the special letters , and , based on the Cyrillic letters Ч, Ш, Ж. Metelko
    5.33
    3 votes
    184
    Coorgi-Cox Alphabet

    Coorgi-Cox Alphabet

    • languages: Kodava Takk
    The Coorgi-Cox alphabet is an alphabet developed by the linguist Gregg M. Cox and is used by a number of individuals within Kodagu. It is used for the endemic language Kodava, also known sometimes as Coorgi, a minority language. The Coorgi-Cox alphabet uses a combination of 26 consonants, five vowel markings and a diphthong marker. Each letter represents a single sound and there are no capital letters. A computer based font has been created for use with the alphabet. The alphabet was developed out of the request by a group of native individuals to have their own unique script for Kodava Takk, and to distinguish the language on its own merits. Kodava Takk is generally written in the Kannada script, but can also be found written in the Malayalam script especially along the borders with Kerala. The new alphabet is intended to unify, and to provide a single alphabet to be used for all Kodava Takk speakers. In order to introduce the alphabet, 10,000 CD booklets and 25,000 post cards with various scenes from the region were produced and distributed throughout the Coorg area in March and April 2005. Several books are being planned including a phrase book and dictionary.
    7.00
    1 votes
    185
    Gothic alphabet

    Gothic alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Gothic Language
    • parent writing systems: Greek alphabet
    The Gothic alphabet is an alphabet for writing the Gothic language, created in the 4th century by Ulfilas (or Wulfila) for the purpose of translating the Christian Bible. The alphabet is essentially an uncial form of the Greek alphabet, with a few additional letters to account for Gothic phonology: Latin F, two Runic letters to distinguish the /j/ and /w/ glides from vocalic /i/ and /u/, and the ƕair letter to express the Gothic labiovelar. Ulfilas is thought to have consciously chosen to avoid the use of the older Runic alphabet for this purpose, as it was heavily connected with heathen beliefs and customs. Also, the Greek-based script probably helped to integrate the Gothic nation into the dominant Greco-Roman culture around the Black Sea. The individual letters, however, still bear names derived from those of their Runic equivalents. In past centuries, some authors asserted that Greek-like letters were already in use among Germanic tribes long before Ulfilas. Johannes Aventinus (c. 1525) even ascribed them to the mythical progenitor Tuisto, claiming the Greeks had really stolen the idea from them, and not the Phoenicians. Such theories enjoy no scholarly support today, as all
    7.00
    1 votes
    186
    Hieroglyphs

    Hieroglyphs

    A hieroglyph (Greek for "sacred carving") is a character of the ancient Egyptian writing system. Partially pictographic logographic scripts reminiscent of ancient Egyptian are also sometimes called "hieroglyphs". In Neoplatonism, especially of the Renaissance, a hieroglyph was an artistic representation of an esoteric idea, which actual Egyptian hieroglyphs seemed to the Neoplatonists to be. The word hieroglyphics (τὰ ἱερογλυφικά [γράμματα]) may refer to writings in a hieroglyphic system.
    7.00
    1 votes
    187
    Russian alphabet

    Russian alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Russian Language
    • parent writing systems: Cyrillic alphabet
    The Russian alphabet (Russian: русский алфавит, transliteration: rússkij alfavít) is a form of the Cyrillic script, developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the 10th century AD at the Preslav Literary School. The modern Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters. The Russian alphabet is as follows: The consonant letters represent both as "soft" (palatalized, represented in the IPA with a ⟨ʲ⟩) and "hard" consonant phonemes. If a consonant letter is followed by a vowel letter, then the soft/hard quality of the consonant depends on whether the vowel is meant to follow "hard" consonants ⟨а, о, э, у, ы⟩ or "soft" ones ⟨я, ё, е, ю, и⟩; see below. A handful of consonant phonemes do not have phonemically distinct "soft" and "hard" variants. See Russian phonology for details. Until approximately 1900, mnemonic names inherited from Church Slavonic were used for the letters. They are given here in the pre-1918 orthography of the post-1708 civil alphabet. The great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin wrote: "The letters constituting the Slavonic alphabet do not produce any sense. Аз, буки, веди, глаголь, добро etc. are separate words, chosen just for their initial sound". But since the names of
    7.00
    1 votes
    188

    Shavian alphabet

    • languages: English Language
    • parent writing systems: Latin alphabet
    The Shavian alphabet (also known as Shaw alphabet) is an alphabet conceived as a way to provide simple, phonetic orthography for the English language to replace the difficulties of the conventional spelling. It was posthumously funded by and named after Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw. Shaw set three main criteria for the new alphabet: it should be (1) at least 40 letters; (2) as phonetic as possible (that is, letters should have a 1:1 correspondence to sounds); and (3) distinct from the Latin alphabet to avoid the impression that the new spellings were simply "misspellings". The Shavian alphabet consists of three types of letters: tall, deep and short. Short letters are vowels, liquids (r, l) and nasals; tall letters (except Yea
    7.00
    1 votes
    189
    Tulu Script

    Tulu Script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Tulu Language
    The Tulu script (Tulu: Tuḷu lipi—written in Tulu script) is the original script of the Tulu language. It evolved from the Grantha script. It bears partial similarity to the Malayalam script, which also evolved from the Grantha. It was primarily used by Tulu-speaking Brahmins like Shivalli Brahmins to write Vedic mantras and translate Sanskrit works into Tulu. The oldest piece of literature written using this script is the Tulu translation of Mahabharata called Tulu Mahabharato. It is currently not used to write the Tulu language as it uses the Kannada script for documentation. Compared to other South Indian languages, Tulu doesn't possess a vast array of literary works. Tulu Mahabharato is the earliest piece of literature, from the 15th century written in Tulu script. Other manuscripts like Devi Mahatme, from the 15th century and two epic poems written in 17th century, namely Sri Bhagavata and Kaveri have also been found. There are various reasons for the decline of the Tulu script. Linguistically, Tulu was a minority language in the erstwhile Madras Presidency under the British. As such, it was never given due attention by the rulers. Secondly, the establishment of a printing
    7.00
    1 votes
    190
    Old Udi alphabet

    Old Udi alphabet

    The Caucasian Albanian alphabet, or the alphabet for the Gargareans, was an alphabet used by the Caucasian Albanians, one of the ancient and indigenous Northeast Caucasian peoples whose territory comprised parts of present-day Azerbaijan and Daghestan. The Caucasian Albanian alphabet came with a comment in Armenian: "Ałuanic girn e" - Աղուանից գիրն է - that is translated from Armenian as "Aghuanic alphabet/writing". It was one of only two indigenous alphabets ever developed for speakers of indigenous Caucasian languages (i.e., Caucasian languages that are not a part of larger groupings like the Turkic and Indo-European languages families) to represent any of their languages, the other being the Georgian alphabet. According to Movses Kaghankatvatsi, the Caucasian Albanian, or Gargarean, alphabet was created by Mesrob Mashtots, the Armenian monk, theologian and translator who is also credited with creating the Armenian alphabet. Koriun, a pupil of Mesrob Mashtots, in his book The Life of Mashtots, wrote about the circumstances of its creation: Then there came and visited them an elderly man, an Albanian named Benjamin. And he Mesrob Mashtots inquired and examined the barbaric diction
    4.50
    4 votes
    191
    Aramaic alphabet

    Aramaic alphabet

    • type of writing: Abjad
    • languages: Aramaic language
    The Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinctive from it by the 8th century BCE. The letters all represent consonants, some of which are matres lectionis, which also indicate long vowels. The Aramaic alphabet is historically significant, since virtually all modern Middle Eastern writing systems use a script that can be traced back to it, as well as numerous non-Chinese writing systems of Central and East Asia. This is primarily due to the widespread usage of the Aramaic language as both a lingua franca and the official language of the Neo-Assyrian, and its successor, the Achaemenid Empire. Among the scripts in modern use, the Hebrew alphabet bears the closest relation to the Imperial Aramaic script of the 5th century BCE, with an identical letter inventory and, for the most part, nearly identical letter shapes. Writing systems that indicate consonants but do not indicate most vowels (like the Aramaic one) or indicate them with added diacritical signs, have been called abjads by Peter T. Daniels to distinguish them from later alphabets, such as Greek, that represent vowels more systematically. This is to avoid the notion that a writing system that
    6.00
    2 votes
    192
    Fraser alphabet

    Fraser alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Lisu Language
    The Fraser alphabet or Old Lisu Alphabet is an artificial script invented around 1915 by Sara Ba Thaw, a Karen preacher from Myanmar, and improved by the missionary James O. Fraser, to write the Lisu language. It is a single-case (unicameral) alphabet. The alphabet uses uppercase letters from the Latin script, and rotated versions thereof, to write consonants and vowels. Tones and nasalization are written with Roman punctuation marks, identical to those found on a typewriter. Like the Indic abugidas, the vowel [a] is not written. However, unlike those scripts, the other vowels are written with full letters. The Chinese government recognized the alphabet in 1992 as the official script for writing in Lisu. Note: You may need to download a Lisu capable Unicode font if not all characters display. For example, ⟨ꓝ⟩ is [tsɑ̄], while ⟨ꓝꓰ⟩ is [tsē]. Tones are written with standard punctuation. Lisu punctuation therefore differs from international norms: the comma is ⟨꓾⟩ (hyphen period), and the full stop is ⟨꓿⟩ (equal sign). The tones ⟨ꓸ⟩, ⟨ꓹ⟩, ⟨ꓺ⟩, ⟨ꓻ⟩ may be combined with ⟨ꓼ⟩ and ⟨ꓽ⟩ as compound tones. However, the only one still in common use is ⟨ꓹꓼ⟩. The apostrophe indicates
    6.00
    2 votes
    193
    Icelandic alphabet

    Icelandic alphabet

    • languages: Icelandic Language
    The modern Icelandic alphabet consists of the following 32 letters: It is a Latin alphabet with diacritics, in addition it includes the character eth Ðð and the runic letter thorn Þþ (pictured to the right) that are considered séríslenskur (“specifically Icelandic, uniquely Icelandic”). Ææ and Öö are considered letters in their own right and not a ligature or diacritical version of their respective letters. Often the glyphs are simplified when handwritten, for example the ligature æ (considered a separate letter) may be written as ae, which can make it easier to write cursively. The modern Icelandic alphabet has developed from a standard established in the 19th century, by the Danish linguist Rasmus Rask primarily. It is ultimately based heavily on an orthographic standard created in the early 12th century by a document referred to as The First Grammatical Treatise, author unknown. The standard was intended for the common language of Scandinavia, alias Old Norse. It did not have much influence, however, at the time. The most defining characteristics of the alphabet were established in the old treatise: The later Rasmus Rask standard was basically a re-enactment of the old treatise,
    6.00
    2 votes
    194
    Kadamba script

    Kadamba script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Kannada Language
    The Kadamba script marks the birth of a dedicated Kannada script that was used for Kannada language. It is a descendant of the Brahmi script. The Kadamba script was developed during the reign of the Kadambas in the 4th - 6th centuries. The Kadamba script is also known as Pre-Old-Kannada script. This script later became very popular in what is today the state of Goa and was used to write Sanskrit, Kannada, Konkani and Marathi.
    6.00
    2 votes
    195
    Linear Elamite

    Linear Elamite

    Linear Elamite is a Bronze Age writing system used in Elam, known from a few monumental inscriptions only. It was used contemporarily with Elamite Cuneiform and likely records the Elamite language. It was in use for a brief period of time during the last quarter of the 3rd millennium BC. It is often claimed that Linear Elamite is a syllabic writing system derived from the older Proto-Elamite writing system, although this has not been proven. Linear Elamite has not been deciphered, in spite of several attempts, most notably those of Walther Hinz and Piero Meriggi. There are only 22 known documents in Linear Elamite; they are identified by letters A-V (Hinz, 1969, pp. 11–44; Andre‚ and Salvini, 1989, pp. 58–61); of these, 19 are on stone and clay objects excavated in the acropolis at Susa (now kept in the Louvre in Paris). The most important longer texts, partly bilingual, appear in monumental contexts. They are engraved on large stone sculptures, including a statue of the goddess Narunte (I), the "table au lion" (A), and large votive boulders (B, D), as well as on a series of steps (F, G, H, U) from a monumental stone stairway, where they alternated with steps bearing texts with
    6.00
    2 votes
    196
    Prachalit script

    Prachalit script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Sanskrit Language
    Nepal script (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल लिपि) is a group of scripts that developed from the Brahmi script and have been used to write Nepal Bhasa, Sanskrit, Nepali, Maithili language and Braj Bhasha. Nepal script is also known as Nepal Lipi and Nepal Akhala and have been used in Nepal since the 10th century. Nepal or Nepalese script appeared in the 10th century. The earliest instance is a manuscript entitled Lankavatara Sutra dated Nepal Sambat 28 (908 AD). Another early specimen is a palm-leaf manuscript of a Buddhist text the Prajnaparamita, dated Nepal Sambat 40 (920 AD). The script has been used on stone and copper plate inscriptions, coins (Nepalese mohar), palm-leaf documents and Hindu and Buddhist manuscripts. Among the different scripts based on Nepal script, Ranjana, Bhujinmol and Prachalit are the most common. Ranjana is the most ornate among the scripts. It is most commonly used to write Buddhist texts and inscribe mantras on prayer wheels, shrines, temples and monasteries. The popular Buddhist mantra Om mani padme hum (meaning ("Hail to the jewel in the lotus" in Sanskrit) is often written in Ranjana. Besides the Kathmandu Valley and the Himalayan region in Nepal, the Ranjana
    6.00
    2 votes
    197
    Beneventan script

    Beneventan script

    Beneventan script was a medieval script, so called because it originated in the Duchy of Benevento in southern Italy. It was also called Langobarda, Longobarda, Longobardisca (signifying its origins with the Lombards), or sometimes Gothica; it was first called Beneventan by palaeographer E. A. Lowe. It is mostly associated with Italy south of Rome, but it was also used in Beneventan-influenced centres across the Adriatic Sea in Dalmatia. The script was used from approximately the mid-8th century until the 13th century, although there are examples from as late as the 16th century. There were two major centres of Beneventan usage: the monastery on Monte Cassino, and Bari. The Bari type developed in the 10th century from the Monte Cassino type; both were based on Roman cursive as written by the Langobards. In general the script is very angular. According to Lowe the perfected form of the script was used in the 11th century, while Desiderius was abbot of Monte Cassino, declining thereafter. Beneventan features many ligatures and "connecting strokes" – the letters of a word could be joined together by a single line, with forms almost unrecognizable to a modern eye. Ligatures involving
    5.50
    2 votes
    198
    Bhujimol

    Bhujimol

    • languages: Nepal Bhasa
    Bhujimol is the name of the most ancient form of Nepal script. It is also one of the most common varieties of the Nepal alphabet. Bhujimol (alternative name: Bhujinmol) has been used to write Nepal Bhasa and Sanskrit. The term Bhujimol means "fly-headed", from the Nepal Bhasa words "bhuji" meaning housefly and "mol" meaning "head". The "head" is the horizontal line that is put above each letter, and Bhujimol refers to its rounded shape. In 2003, a brick was discovered in Kathmandu, in the course of reconstruction of the Dhando Chaitya, bearing inscriptions in both Brahmi and Bhujimol: The upper face is inscribed with Cha Ru Wa Ti in Brahmi, and with Cha Ru Wa Ti Dhande / He Tu Pra Bha in Bhujimol script. There are Swastika marks at the two ends of the upper face with a Chakra mark in between. The brick measures 35.5 cm x 23 cm x 7 cm and weighs 8.6 kg. The brick may date to as early as the 3rd century BC. The previously earliest known inscription in the Kathmandu Valley dates from the 6th century and is installed at Changu Narayan. The inscription is interpreted to refer to Charumati, a daughter of king Ashoka.
    5.50
    2 votes
    199
    Hanja

    Hanja

    • type of writing: Logogram
    • languages: Korean Language
    • parent writing systems: Chinese character
    Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters(hanzi). More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation. Hanja-mal or hanja-eo refers to words which can be written with hanja, and hanmun (한문, 漢文) refers to Classical Chinese writing, although "hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because hanja never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and kyūjitai characters. Only a small number of hanja characters are modified or unique to Korean. By contrast, many of the Chinese characters currently in use in Japan (kanji) and Mainland China have been simplified, and contain fewer strokes than the corresponding hanja characters. Although a phonetic Korean alphabet, now known as hangul, had been created by a team of scholars commissioned in the 1440s by King Sejong the Great, it did not come into widespread use until the late 19th and early 20th century. Thus, until that time it was necessary to be fluent in reading and writing hanja in order to be literate in Korean, as the vast majority of Korean literature and most other
    5.50
    2 votes
    200
    Mongolian script

    Mongolian script

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Mongolian language
    The classical Mongolian script (in Mongolian script: (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌) Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг, Mongol bichig), also known as Uyghurjin Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most successful until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946. Derived from Uighur, Mongolian is a true alphabet, with separate letters for consonants and vowels. The Mongolian script has been adapted to write languages such as Oirat and Manchu. Alphabets based on this classical vertical script are used in Inner Mongolia and other parts of China to this day to write Mongolian, Sibe and, experimentally, Evenki. The Mongolian vertical script was developed as an adaptation of the Uyghur script to write the Mongolian language. It was introduced by the Uyghur scribe Tatar-Tonga, who had been captured by the Mongols during a war against the Naimans around 1204. There were no substantive changes to the Uyghur form for the first few centuries, so that, for example, initial yodh stood for both [dʒ] and [j], while medial tsadi stood for both [dʒ] and [tʃ], and there was no letter for [d] in initial position. Mongolian sources often
    5.50
    2 votes
    201
    Tifinagh

    Tifinagh

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Rifian language
    Tifinagh (pronounced: [tifinaɣ], also written Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet, ⵜⵉⴼⵉⵏⴰⵖ in Neo-Tifinagh, and تيفيناغ in the Berber Arabic alphabet) is a series of abjad and alphabetic scripts used by some Berber peoples, notably the Tuareg, to write their languages. A modern derivate of the traditional script, known as Neo-Tifinagh, was introduced in the 20th century. It is not in widespread use as a means of daily communication, but often serves to assert a Berber identity politically and symbolically. A slightly modified version of the traditional script, called Tifinagh Ircam, is used in a limited number of Moroccan elementary schools in teaching the Berber language to children. The word tifinagh or tifinigh is widely thought to be a feminine plural cognate of Punic, through the feminine prefix ti- and Latin Punicus; thus tifinigh would mean "the Phoenician (letters)". An early form of the script, "Proto-Tifinagh", also known as the Libyco-Berber script, probably developed from the Punic variant of the Phoenician alphabet. Proto-Tifinagh was in use between about the 3rd century BC and the 3rd century AD. There are two known variants: eastern and western. The eastern variant
    5.50
    2 votes
    202
    Ath

    Ath

    • languages: Baronh
    Ath is an alphabet created by Morioka Hiroyuki for his Crest of the Stars novels. It is used primarily to write the fictional language Baronh, although the anime adaptation of the novels shows it used to write at least one other language.
    4.67
    3 votes
    203
    Indus script

    Indus script

    • type of writing: Logogram
    The term Indus script (also Harappan script) refers to short strings of symbols associated with the Indus Valley Civilization, in use during the Mature Harappan period, between the 26th and 20th centuries BC. It is not generally accepted that these symbols form a script used to record a language, and the subject remains controversial. In spite of many attempts at decipherments and claims, it is as yet undeciphered, and no underlying language has been identified. There is no known bilingual inscription. The first publication of a Harappan seal dates to 1873, in a drawing by Alexander Cunningham. Since then, over 4000 symbol-bearing objects have been discovered, some as far afield as Mesopotamia. In the early 1970s, Iravatham Mahadevan published a corpus and concordance of Indus writing listing about 3700 seals and about 417 distinct signs in specific patterns. The average inscription contains five signs, and the longest inscription is only 17 signs long. He also established the direction of writing as right to left. Some early scholars, starting with Cunningham in 1877, thought that the script was the archetype of the Brāhmī script. Cunningham's ideas were supported by G.R. Hunter,
    6.00
    1 votes
    204
    Siddhaṃ script

    Siddhaṃ script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Japanese Language
    Siddhaṃ (Sanskrit सिद्धं, "accomplished" or "perfected"; སིད་དྷཾ།; Chinese: 悉曇文字; pinyin: Xītán wénzi; Japanese: 梵字, bonji; Middle Chinese: Sjettam mjwɐn-dzɨ), also known in its later evolved form as Siddhamātṛkā, is the name of a North Indian script used for writing Sanskrit during the period ca 600-1200 CE. It is descended from the Brahmi script via the Gupta script, which also gave rise to the Devanāgarī script as well as a number of other Asian scripts such as Tibetan script. There is some confusion over the spelling: Siddhāṃ and Siddhaṃ are both common, though Siddhaṃ is correct. The script is a refinement of the script used during the Indian Gupta Empire. The name arose from the practice of writing the word Siddhaṃ, or Siddhaṃ astu (may there be perfection) at the head of documents. Siddhaṃ is an abugida or alphasyllabary rather than an alphabet because each character indicates a syllable, but it does not include every possible syllable. If no other mark occurs then the short 'a' is assumed. Diacritic marks indicate the other vowels, the pure nasal (anusvāra), and the aspirated vowel (visarga). A special mark (virama) can be used to indicate that the letter stands alone with
    4.33
    3 votes
    205
    Abugida

    Abugida

    • languages: Khmer language
    An abugida  /ˌɑːbuːˈɡiːdə/ (from Ge‘ez አቡጊዳ ’äbugida), also called an alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary. This contrasts with a full alphabet, in which vowels have status equal to consonants, and with an abjad, in which vowel marking is absent or optional. (In less formal treatments, all three systems are commonly called alphabets.) Abugidas include the extensive Brahmic family of scripts of South and Southeast Asia. The term abugida was suggested by Peter T. Daniels in his 1990 typology of writing systems. It is an Ethiopian name of the Ge‘ez script, ’ä bu gi da, taken from four letters of that script the way abecedary derives from Latin a be ce de. As Daniels used the word, an abugida contrasts with a syllabary, where letters with shared consonants or vowels show no particular resemblance to each another, and with an alphabet proper, where independent letters are used to denote both consonants and vowels. The term alphasyllabary was suggested for the Indic scripts in 1997 by William Bright, following South Asian linguistic usage, to convey
    5.00
    2 votes
    206
    Cumae alphabet

    Cumae alphabet

    Many local variants of the Greek alphabet were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until they were replaced by the classical 24-letter alphabet that is the standard today, around 400 BC. All forms of the Greek alphabet were originally based on the shared inventory of the 22 symbols of the Phoenician alphabet, with the exception of the letter Samekh, whose Greek counterpart Xi (Ξ) was used only in a sub-group of Greek alphabets, and with the common addition of Upsilon (Υ) for the vowel /u, ū/. The local, so-called epichoric, alphabets differed in many ways: in the use of the consonant symbols Χ, Φ and Ψ; in the use of the innovative long vowel letters (Ω and Η), in the absence or presence of Η in its original consonant function (/h/); in the use or non-use of certain archaic letters (Ϝ = /w/, Ϙ = /k/, Ϻ = /s/); and in many details of the individual shapes of each letter. The system now familiar as the standard 24-letter Greek alphabet was originally the regional variant of the Ionian cities in Asia Minor. It was officially adopted in Athens in 403 BC and in most of the rest of the Greek world by the middle of the 4th century BC. A basic
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    Italic script

    Italic script

    Italic script, also known as chancery cursive, is a semi-cursive, slightly sloped style of handwriting and calligraphy that was developed during the Renaissance in Italy. It is one of the most popular styles used in contemporary Western calligraphy, and is often one of the first scripts learned by beginning calligraphers. Italic script is based largely on Humanist minuscule, which itself draws on Carolingian minuscule. The letters are the same as the Humanist capitals, modeled on Roman square capitals. The Italian scholar Niccolò de' Niccoli was dissatisfied with the lowercase forms of Humanist minuscule, finding it too slow to write. In response, he created the Italic script, which incorporates features and techniques characteristic of a quickly-written hand: oblique forms, fewer strokes per character, and the joining of letters. Perhaps the most significant change to any single character was to the form of the a, which he simplified from the two-story form to the one-story form ⟨ɑ⟩ now ubiquitous to most handwriting styles. Under the influence of Italic movable type used with printing presses, the style of handwritten Italic script moved towards disjoined, more mannered
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    Kharoṣṭhī

    Kharoṣṭhī

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Prakrit
    The Kharoṣṭhī script, is an ancient abugida (or "alphasyllabary") used by the Gandhara culture, nestled in the historic northwest South Asia to write the Gāndhārī and Sanskrit languages. It was in use from the middle of the 3rd century BCE until it died out in its homeland around the 3rd century CE. It was also in use in Kushan, Sogdiana (see Issyk kurgan) and along the Silk Road where there is some evidence it may have survived until the 7th century in the remote way stations of Khotan and Niya. Kharoṣṭhī is encoded in the Unicode range U+10A00—U+10A5F, from version 4.1.0. Kharoṣṭhī is mostly written right to left (type A), but some inscriptions (type B) already show the left to right direction that was to become universal for the later South Asian scripts. Each syllable includes the short a sound by default, with other vowels being indicated by diacritic marks. Recent epigraphical evidence highlighted by Professor Richard Salomon of the University of Washington has shown that the order of letters in the Kharoṣṭhī script follows what has become known as the Arapacana Alphabet. As preserved in Sanskrit documents the alphabet runs: Some variations in both the number and order of
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    Rongorongo

    Rongorongo

    • languages: Rapa Nui Language
    Rongorongo ( /ˈrɒŋɡoʊˈrɒŋɡoʊ/; Rapa Nui: [ˈɾoŋoˈɾoŋo]) is a system of glyphs discovered in the 19th century on Easter Island that appears to be writing or proto-writing. Numerous attempts at decipherment have been made, none successfully. Although some calendrical and what might prove to be genealogical information has been identified, not even these glyphs can actually be read. If rongorongo does prove to be writing, it would be one of very few independent inventions of writing in human history. Two dozen wooden objects bearing rongorongo inscriptions, some heavily weathered, burned, or otherwise damaged, were collected in the late 19th century and are now scattered in museums and private collections. None remain on Easter Island. The objects are mostly tablets shaped from irregular pieces of wood, sometimes driftwood, but include a chieftain's staff, a bird-man statuette, and two reimiro ornaments. There are also a few petroglyphs which may include short rongorongo inscriptions. Oral history suggests that only a small elite was ever literate and that the tablets were sacred. Authentic rongorongo texts are written in alternating directions, a system called reverse boustrophedon.
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    Cham alphabet

    Cham alphabet

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Cham language
    The Cham alphabet is an abugida used to write Cham, an Austronesian language spoken by some 230,000 Cham people in Vietnam and Cambodia. It is written horizontally left to right, as is English. The Cham script is a descendant of the Brahmi script of India. Cham was one of the first scripts to develop from a South Indian Brahmi script called grantha, some time around 200 AD. It came to Southeast Asia as part of the expansion of Hinduism and Buddhism. Hindu stone temples of the Champa civilization contain both Sanskrit and Chamic stone inscriptions. The earliest inscriptions in Vietnam are found in the Mỹ Sơn temple complex. Dated to around 400 CE, the oldest is written in faulty Sanskrit. After this, inscriptions alternate between Sanskrit and the Cham language of the times. Cham kings studied classical Indian texts such as the Dharmaśāstra, and inscriptions make reference to Sanskrit literature. Eventually, while the Cham and Sanskrit languages influenced one another, Cham culture assimilated Hinduism, and Chams were eventually able adequately express the Hindu religion in their own language. By the 8th century, the Cham script had outgrown Sanskrit and the Cham language was in
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    Inuktitut syllabics

    Inuktitut syllabics

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Inuktitut
    Inuktitut syllabics (Inuktitut: ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ ᓄᑖᖅ [ti.ti.ʁa.u.'siq nu.'taːq] or ᖃᓂᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ [qa.ni.u.jaːq.pa.'it]) is a writing system (specifically an abugida) used by the Inuit in Nunavut and in Nunavik, Quebec. In 1976, the Language Commission of the Inuit Cultural Institute made it the co-official script for the Inuit languages, along with the Latin script. The first efforts to write Inuktitut came from Moravian missionaries in Greenland and Labrador in the mid-18th century. In the 1870s, Edmund Peck, an Anglican missionary adapted the Cree script to Inuktitut. Other missionaries, and later linguists in the employ of the Canadian and American governments, adapted the Latin alphabet to the dialects of the Mackenzie River delta, the western Arctic islands and Alaska. Inuktitut is one variation on Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, and can be digitally encoded using the Unicode standard. The Unicode block for Inuktitut characters is called Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics. The consonant in the syllable can be g, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, ng, ł, or absent, and the vowel can be a, i, u, ai (now only in Nunavik), or absent. The Inuktitut script (titirausiq nutaaq) is commonly presented
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    Kaithi

    Kaithi

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Maithili Language
    Kaithi (कैथी), also called "Kayathi" or "Kayasthi", is the name of a historical script used widely in parts of North India, primarily in the former North-Western Provinces, Awadh and Bihar. It was used for writing legal, administrative, and private records. Kaithi script derives its name from the word Kayastha, a social group of India that traditionally consists of administrators and accountants. The Kayastha community was closely associated with the princely courts and colonial governments of North India, and were employed by them to write and maintain records of revenue transactions, legal documents, and title deeds; general correspondence; and proceedings of the royal courts and related bodies. The script used by them acquired the name Kaithi. Documents in Kaithi are traceable to at least the 16th century. The script was widely used during the Mughal period. In the 1880s, during the British Raj, the script was recognized as the official script of the law courts of Bihar. Although in general, Kaithi was much more widely used than Devanagari in some areas, it later on lost its popularity to the other officially-recognized scripts. Kaithi script was added to the Unicode Standard in
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    Mi'kmaq hieroglyphic writing

    Mi'kmaq hieroglyphic writing

    • languages: Mi'kmaq language
    Míkmaq hieroglyphic writing was a writing system and memory aid used by the Míkmaq, a Native American people of the east coast of what is now Canada. The missionary-era glyphs were logograms, with phonetic elements used alongside (Schmidt & Marshall 1995), which included logographic, alphabetic, and ideographic information. They were derived from a pictograph and petroglyph tradition. In Mi'kmaq the glyphs are called komqwejwi'kasikl, or "sucker-fish writings", which refers to the tracks the sucker fish leaves on the muddy river bottom. Scholars have debated whether the earliest known Míkmaq "hieroglyphs" from the 17th century qualified fully as a writing system, rather than as a pictographic mnemonic device. In the 17th century, French missionary Chrétien Le Clercq adapted the Míkmaq characters as a logographic system for pedagogical purposes. In 1978, Ives Goddard and William Fitzhugh of the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution, contended that the pre-missionary system was purely mnemonic, as it could not be used to write new compositions. Schmidt and Marshall argued in 1995 that the missionary system of the 17th century was able to serve as a fully
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    Zhuyin

    Zhuyin

    Zhuyin fuhao , or "Symbols for Annotating Sounds", often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo ( ̄トナ ̄トニ ̄トヌ ̄トネ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of Taiwan for transcribing Chinese, especially Mandarin, for people learning to read, write or speak Mandarin. (See Uses). The system uses 37 special symbols to represent Mandarin sounds: 21 consonant and 16 vowel. Each symbol represents a group of sounds without much ambiguity. It is also the basis for Chinese Braille. The Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation, led by Woo Tsin-hang from 1912 to 1913, created a system called Guoyin zimu (¥ワヒ←゚ᄈ¥ᆳラ₩ᆵヘ "National Pronunciation Letters") or Zhuyin zimu (│ᄄᄏ←゚ᄈ¥ᆳラ₩ᆵヘ or ₩ᄈᄄ←゚ᄈ¥ᆳラ₩ᆵヘ "Sound-annotating Letters") which is based on Zhang Binglin's shorthands. (For differences with the Zhang system, see Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation#Phonetic symbols.) A draft was released on July 11, 1913 by the Republic of China National Ministry of Education, but it was not officially proclaimed until November 23, 1918. Zhuyin zimu was renamed to Zhuyin fuhao in April 1930. The use of Zhuyin Fuhao has
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    Avestan alphabet

    Avestan alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Avestan Language
    The Avestan alphabet is a writing system developed during Iran's Sassanid era (226–651) to render the Avestan language. As a side effect of its development, the script was also used for Pazend, a method of writing Middle Persian that was used primarily for the Zend commentaries on the texts of the Avesta. In the texts of Zoroastrian tradition, the alphabet is referred to as din dabireh or din dabiri, Middle Persian for "the religion's script". The development of the Avestan alphabet was initiated by the need to correctly represent recited Avestan language texts. The various text collections that today constitute the canon of Zoroastrian scripture are the result of a collation that occurred in the 4th century, probably during the reign of Shapur II (309–379). It is likely that the Avestan alphabet was an ad hoc innovation related to this – "Sassanid archetype" – collation. The enterprise, "which is indicative of a Mazdean revival and of the establishment of a strict orthodoxy closely connected with the political power, was probably caused by the desire to compete more effectively with Buddhists, Christians, and Manicheans, whose faith was based on a revealed book." In contrast, the
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    Bengali script

    Bengali script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Arabic Language
    The Bengali alphabet (Bengali: বাংলা লিপি bangla lipi or Bengali: বাংলা হরফ bangla horof) is the writing system for the Bengali language. The script with variations is shared by Assamese and is basis for Meitei, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Kokborok, Garo and Mundari alphabets. All these languages are spoken in the eastern region of South Asia. Historically, the script has also been used to write the Sanskrit language in the same region. From a classificatory point of view, the Bengali script is an abugida, i.e. its vowel graphemes are mainly realized not as independent letters, but as diacritics attached to its consonant letters. It is written from left to right and lacks distinct letter cases. It is recognizable by a distinctive horizontal line running along the tops of the letters that links them together, a property it shares with two other popular Indian scripts: Devanagari (used for Hindi, Marathi and Nepali) and Gurumukhi (used for Punjabi). The Bengali script is, however, less blocky and presents a more sinuous shape. Because of the large population of literate Bengali speakers, Bengali script is one of the more widely used writing systems in the world. The Bengali script evolved
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    Danish and Norwegian alphabet

    Danish and Norwegian alphabet

    • languages: Danish Language
    The Danish and Norwegian alphabet is based upon the Latin alphabet and has consisted of the following 29 letters since 1917 (Norwegian) and 1955 (Danish), although Danish did not officially recognize the W as a separate letter until 1980. The letters c, q, w, x and z are not used in the spelling of indigenous words. They are rarely used in Norwegian, where loan words routinely have their orthography adapted to the native sound system. Conversely, Danish has a greater tendency to preserve the original spelling of loan words. In particular, a 'c' that represents /s/ is almost never normalized to 's' in Danish, as would most often happen in Norwegian. Many words originally derived from Latin roots retain 'c' in their Danish spelling, for example Norwegian sentrum vs Danish centrum. The "foreign" letters also sometimes appear in the spelling of otherwise-indigenous family names. For example, many of the Danish families that use the surname Skov (literally: "Forest") spell it Schou. Norwegian (especially the Nynorsk variant) also uses several letters with diacritic signs: é, è, ê, ó, ò, â, and ô. The diacritic signs are not compulsory, but can be added to clarify the meaning of words
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    Hiragana

    Hiragana

    • type of writing: Syllabary
    • languages: Japanese Language
    • parent writing systems: Japanese writing system
    Hiragana (平仮名, ひらがな or ヒラガナ) is a Japanese syllabary, one basic component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin-script alphabet (referred to in Japanese as romaji). Hiragana and katakana are both kana systems; they have corresponding character sets in which each kana, or character, represents one mora (one sound in the Japanese language). Each kana is either a vowel such as "a" (hiragana あ); a consonant followed by a vowel such as "ka" (hiragana か); or "n" (hiragana ん), a nasal sonorant which, depending on the context, sounds either like English m, n, or ng ([ŋ]), or like the nasal vowels of French. Hiragana is used to write native words for which there are no kanji, including particles such as から kara "from", and suffixes such as さん ~san "Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms." Likewise, hiragana is used to write words whose kanji form is obscure, not known to the writer or readers, or too formal for the writing purpose. There is also some flexibility for words that have common kanji renditions to be optionally written instead in hiragana, according to an individual author's preference. Verb and adjective inflections, as, for example, be-ma-shi-ta
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    Mandombe

    Mandombe

    • languages: Lingala Language
    Mandombe or Mandombé, is a revealed script invented in 1978 by Wabeladio Payi in Mbanza-Ngungu in the Bas-Congo province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, after speaking with Simon Kimbangu, the prophet of the Kimbanguist Church, in a dream. It is based on the sacred shapes 5 and ㄹ, and intended for writing African languages such as the four national languages of the Congo, Kikongo, Lingala, Tshiluba and Swahili, though it does not have enough vowels to write Lingala fully. It is believed that research into the script will result in scientific discoveries. It is taught in Kimbanguist church schools in Angola, the Republic of the Congo, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is also promoted by the Kimbanguist Centre de l’Écriture Négro-Africaine (CENA). The Mandombe Academy at CENA is currently working on transcribing other African languages in the script. It has been classified as the third most viable indigenous script of recent indigenous African scripts, behind only the Vai syllabary and the N'ko alphabet. No proposal has been made to encode the script in Unicode. Mandombe has consonant letters and vowel letters which are combined into syllabic blocks, rather like
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    Pashto alphabet

    Pashto alphabet

    • languages: Pashto language
    The Pashto alphabet (Pashto: پښتو الفبې Pax̌to alifbe) is a modified form of the Arabic alphabet with letters added to accommodate phonemes used in Pashto that are not found in Arabic. The seventeenth century saw the rise of a polemic debate that was also polarized along lines of script. The heterodox Roshani movement wrote their literature mostly in the Persianate style called Nasta'liq hand. The followers of the Akhund Darweza, and the Akhund himself, who viewed themselves as defending the religion against the influence of syncretism, wrote Pashto in the Arabicized Naskh, which is the generally used script in the modern era of Pashto with some individualized exceptions because of its greater adaptability for typesetting. Even lithographically reproduced Pashto has been calligraphied in Naskh as a general rule, since it was adopted as standard. The Pashto alphabet has several letters which do not appear in any other Arabic script. For example, the letters representing the retroflex consonants /ʈ/, /ɖ/, // and /ɳ/ are written like the standard Arabic te, dāl, re and nun with a "panḍak", "ğaṛwanday" or also called "skəṇay" attached underneath, which looks like a small circle: ړ ,ډ
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    Tibetan script

    Tibetan script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Dzongkha Language
    The Tibetan alphabet is an abugida of Indic origin used to write the Tibetan language as well as the Dzongkha language, Denzongkha, Ladakhi language and sometimes the Balti language. The printed form of the alphabet is called uchen script (Tibetan: དབུ་ཅན་, Wylie: dbu-can; "with a head") while the hand-written cursive form used in everyday writing is called umê (Tibetan: དབུ་མེད་, Wylie: dbu-med; "headless"). The alphabet is very closely linked to a broad ethnic Tibetan identity. Besides Tibet, it has also been used for Tibetan languages in Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. The Tibetan alphabet is ancestral to the Limbu alphabet, the Lepcha alphabet, and the multilingual 'Phags-pa script. The Tibetan alphabet is romanized in a variety of ways. This article employs the Wylie transliteration system. The creation of the Tibetan alphabet is attributed to Thonmi Sambhota of the mid-7th century. Tradition holds that Thonmi Sambhota, a minister of Songtsen Gampo (569-649), was sent to India to study the art of writing, and upon his return introduced the alphabet. The form of the letters is based on an Indic alphabet of that period. Three orthographic standardizations were developed. The
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    Vinča symbols

    Vinča symbols

    The Vinča symbols, sometimes called the Vinča signs, Vinča script, Vinča-Turdaş script, Old European script, etc, are a set of symbols found on Neolithic era (6th to 5th millennia BCE) artifacts from the Vinča culture of southeastern Europe. The symbols are mostly considered as constituting an instance of "proto-writing"; that is, they probably conveyed a message but did not encode language, predating the development of writing proper by more than a millennium. In 1875, archaeological excavations led by the Hungarian archeologist Zsófia Torma (1840–1899) at (Turdaş, Romania) unearthed a cache of objects inscribed with previously unknown symbols. In 1908, a similar cache was found during excavations conducted by Miloje Vasic (1869–1956) in Vinča, a suburb of Belgrade (Serbia), some 120 km from Turdash. Later, more such fragments were found in Banjica, another part of Belgrade. Since, over one hundred and fifty Vinča sites have been identified in Serbia alone, but many, including Vinča itself, have not been fully excavated. Thus, the culture of the whole area is called the Vinča culture, and the script is often called the Vinča-Turdash script. The discovery of the Tartaria tablets in
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    Western Cree syllabics

    Western Cree syllabics

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Cree, Swampy Language
    Western Cree syllabics are a variant of Canadian Aboriginal syllabics used to write Plains Cree, Woods Cree and the western dialects of Swampy Cree. It is used for all Cree dialects west of approximately the Manitoba–Ontario border in Canada, as opposed to Eastern Cree syllabics. It is also occasionally used by a few Cree speakers in the United States. Cree syllabics uses different glyphs to indicate consonants, and changes the orientation of these glyphs to indicate the vowel that follows it. The basic principles of Canadian syllabic writing are outlined in the article for Canadian Aboriginal syllabics. Western syllabics use only those characters needed to write the phonemes of the western dialects. In this article, Cree words and sounds will transcribed using the Standard Roman Orthography used to teach Plains Cree. There are four basic vowels in Plains and Swampy Cree: a, i, e and o. The a, i and o sounds also have long versions: â, î and ô. The vowel e is always long and is written as ê. In Woods Cree, ê has merged with î, so only three basic vowels are used in that dialect. Woods Cree also has the phoneme th /ð/ (the th from the English word that). For more on Cree dialects
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    Cypro-Minoan syllabary

    Cypro-Minoan syllabary

    The Cypro-Minoan syllabary (abbreviated CM) is an undeciphered syllabic script used on the island of Cyprus during the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1550-1050 BC). The term "Cypro-Minoan" was coined by Sir Arthur Evans in 1909 based on its visual similarity to Linear A on Minoan Crete, which CM is thought to be derived from. Approximately 250 objects bearing Cypro-Minoan inscriptions have been found, including clay tablets, votive stands, clay cylinders and clay balls. Discoveries have been made at various sites around Cyprus, as well as the ancient city of Ugarit on the Syrian coast. The inscriptions have been classified into four closely related groups by Emilia Masson: archaic CM, CM1 (also known as Linear C), CM2 and CM3, although some scholars disagree with this classification. Little is known about how this script originated, or what language was used to write in CM. However, its use continued into the Early Iron Age, forming a link to the Cypriot syllabary, which reads as Greek and has been deciphered. The earliest known inscription in CM was a clay tablet discovered in 1955 at the ancient site of Enkomi, near the east coast of Cyprus. It was dated to ca. 1500 BC, and bore three
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    Swedish alphabet

    • languages: Swedish Language
    Modern Swedish is written with a 29-letter alphabet consisting of the modern 26-letter Latin alphabet plus 3 other letters: 'å', 'ä' and 'ö', added after the letter "z". For some loanwords, there are other letters or diacritical marks in use. In particular, the umlauted-u, "ü" appears in names of German origin, but it is not part of the Swedish alphabet. The symbols 'à' and 'é' are regarded as variants of 'a' and 'e'. The 29-letter form of the alphabet has been in use for many decades, with the 26-letter modern Latin alphabet, and the 3 added letters ⟨å⟩, ⟨ä⟩ and ⟨ö⟩. The use of the letters ⟨q⟩ and ⟨w⟩ are very rare, and up to 2006, the ⟨v⟩ and ⟨w⟩ were often combined in the collating sequence under ⟨v⟩. Before the 1906 spelling reform ⟨q⟩ and ⟨w⟩ were common, and many family names still use them. Currently, the 29 majuscule forms (uppercase or capital letters) in order are: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z, Å, Ä, Ö. Similarly, the 29 minuscule forms (lowercase or small letters) are: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z, å, ä, and ö. Note how the 3 added letters are ranked after the letter (z) and
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    Tocharian languages

    Tocharian languages

    • type of writing: Abugida
    Tocharian or Tokharian (/təˈkɛəriən/ or /təˈkɑriən/) —also known as Agni-Kuchi or Agni-Kuči (outdated: Arśi-Kuči)— is an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family, formerly spoken in oases on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China). Two branches of Tocharian are known from documents dating from the 3rd to 9th centuries AD: Prakrit documents from 3rd century Kroran on the southeast edge of the Tarim Basin contain loanwords and names that appear to come from another variety of Tocharian, dubbed Tocharian C. All these languages became extinct after Uyghur tribes expanded into the area. The existence of the Tocharian languages and alphabet was not even suspected until archaeological exploration of the Tarim basin by Aurel Stein in the early 20th century brought to light fragments of manuscripts in an unknown language. It soon became clear that these fragments were actually written in two distinct but related languages belonging to a hitherto unknown branch of Indo-European, now known as Tocharian. The discovery of Tocharian upset some theories about the relations of Indo-European languages and revitalized their study.
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    Yi script

    Yi script

    • type of writing: Syllabary
    • languages: Yi language
    The Yi script, also historically known as Cuan Wen (Chinese: 爨文) or Wei Shu (Chinese: 違書), is used to write the Yi languages. Classical Yi is a syllabic logographic system that was reputedly devised during the Tang dynasty (618–907) by someone called Aki (Chinese: 阿畸; pinyin: Aqi). However, the earliest surviving examples of the Yi script only date back to the late 15th century and early 16th century, the earliest dated example being an inscription on a bronze bell dated to 1485. There are tens of thousands of manuscripts in the Yi script, dating back several centuries, although most are undated. In recent years a number of Yi manuscript texts written in traditional Yi script have been published. The original script is said to have comprised 1,840 characters, but over the centuries widely divergent glyph forms have developed in different Yi-speaking areas, an extreme example being the character for "stomach" which exists in some forty glyph variants. Due to this regional variation as many as 90,000 different Yi glyphs are known from manuscripts and inscriptions. Although similar to Chinese in function, the glyphs are independent in form, with little to suggest that they are
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    Blackletter

    Blackletter

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    Blackletter, also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century. It continued to be used for the German language until the 20th century. Fraktur is a notable script of this type, and sometimes the entire group of faces is known as Fraktur. Blackletter is sometimes called Old English, but it is not to be confused with the Old English language, despite the popular, though mistaken, belief that the language was written with blackletter. The Old English (or Anglo-Saxon) language predates black letter by many centuries, and was itself written in the insular script. Carolingian minuscule was the direct ancestor of blackletter. Blackletter developed from Carolingian as an increasingly literate 12th-century Europe required new books in many different subjects. New universities were founded, each producing books for business, law, grammar, history, and other pursuits, not solely religious works for which earlier scripts typically had been used. These books needed to be produced quickly to keep up with demand. Carolingian, though legible, was time-consuming and labour-intensive to
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    Coptic alphabet

    Coptic alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Egyptian language
    The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language. The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Egyptian Demotic and is the first alphabetic script used for the Egyptian language. There are several Coptic alphabets, as the Coptic writing system may vary greatly among the various dialects and subdialects of the Coptic language. The Coptic alphabet has a long history, going back to the Hellenistic period, of using the Greek alphabet to transcribe Demotic texts, with the aim of recording the correct pronunciation of Demotic. During the first two centuries of the Common Era, an entire series of magical texts were written in what scholars term Old Coptic, Egyptian language texts written in the Greek alphabet. A number of letters, however, were derived from Demotic, and many of these (though not all) are used in "true" Coptic writing. With the spread of Christianity in Egypt, by the late 3rd century, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was lost, as well as Demotic slightly later, making way for a writing system more closely associated with the Christian church. By the 4th century, the Coptic alphabet was "standardised",
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    Elder Futhark

    Elder Futhark

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Proto-Norse language
    • parent writing systems: Runic alphabet
    The Elder Futhark (or Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark) is the oldest form of the runic alphabet, used by Germanic tribes for Northwest Germanic and Migration period Germanic dialects of the 2nd to 8th centuries for inscriptions on artifacts such as jewellery, amulets, tools, weapons and runestones. In Scandinavia, the script was simplified to the Younger Futhark from the late 8th century, while the Anglo-Saxons and Frisians extended the Futhark which eventually became the Anglo-Saxon futhorc after Proto-English /a/ developed to /o/ in nasal environments. Unlike the Younger Futhark, which remained in use until modern times, the knowledge of how to read the Elder Futhark was forgotten, and it was not until 1865 that the Norwegian scholar Sophus Bugge managed to decipher it. The Elder Futhark (named after the initial phoneme of the first six rune names: F, U, Th, A, R and K) consist of twenty-four runes, often arranged in three groups of eight runes called an ætt. In the following table, each rune is given with its common transliteration: þ corresponds to [θ]. ï is also trans-literated as æ, and may have been either a diphthong, or a vowel near [ɪ] or [æ]. z was
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    Grantha

    Grantha

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Malay Language
    • parent writing systems: Brāhmī
    The Grantha script (கிராந்த ௭ழுத்து grantha eḻuttu) was widely used between the 6th century and the 19th century CE by Tamil speakers in Southern India, particularly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, to write Sanskrit and classical Manipravalam, and is still in restricted use in traditional vedic schools (veda pāṭhaśālā). It evolved from the ancient Brāhmī script and is therefore classified under the Brahmic family of scripts. The Ancient Pallava Variant has been used as far as South East Asia, giving rise to the various South-East Asian script Grantha, is developed from the Southern Variant of Brahmi in Tamil Nadu. South Asian Scripts such as Mon, Lao, Javanese, Khmer and Thai are either direct or indirect derivations from the Pallava Variant of Grantha Script. Malayalam Script is a direct descendant of Grantha Script. Tulu Script and Sinhala script were probably influenced by Grantha Script. The rising popularity of the Devanagari script for Sanskrit, and the political pressure created by the Tanittamil Iyakkam for its complete replacement by the modern Tamil script led to its gradual disuse and abandonment in Tamil Nadu in the early 20th century. In Sanskrit, grantha literally 'a
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    Hindi Language

    Hindi Language

    • languages: Sourashtra language
    Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi and also known as Manak Hindi, High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardised and sanskritised register of the Hindi-Urdu language. It is the native language of "a relatively small number of speakers" in Delhi, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh, northeastern Madhya Pradesh, and parts of eastern Rajasthan, and is one of the official languages of the Republic of India. Colloquial Hindi is mutually intelligible with another register of Hindi-Urdu called (Modern Standard) Urdu. Mutual intelligibility decreases in literary and specialized contexts which rely on educated vocabulary. Speakers of both Hindi and Urdu frequently assert that they are distinct languages, despite the fact that native speakers generally cannot tell the colloquial languages apart. The number of native speakers of Standard Hindi is unclear. According to the 2001 Indian census, 258 million people in India reported their native language to be "Hindi". However, this includes large numbers of speakers of Hindi languages other than Standard Hindi; as of 2009, the best figure Ethnologue could find for Khariboli dialect (the basis of Hindustani) was a 1991
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    Italian alphabet

    Italian alphabet

    • type of writing: Alphabet
    • languages: Italian Language
    • parent writing systems: Latin alphabet
    The Italian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Italian language. The Italian alphabet has five vowel letters, ⟨a e i o u⟩. Of those, only ⟨a⟩ represents one sound value while each of the others has two. In addition, ⟨e⟩ and ⟨i⟩ indicate a different pronunciation of a preceding ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ (see below). In stressed syllables, ⟨e⟩ represents both open /ɛ/ and close /e/. Similarly, ⟨o⟩ represents both open /ɔ/ and close /o/ (see the Italian phonology for further details on these sounds). There is typically no orthographic distinction between the open and closed sounds represented, though accent marks are used in certain instances (see below). In unstressed syllables, only the close variants occur except before sonorants. In addition to representing the respective vowels /i/ and /u/, ⟨i⟩ and ⟨u⟩ also typically represent the semivowels /j/ and /w/, respectively, when unstressed and occurring before another vowel. Many exceptions exist (e.g. attuale, deciduo, deviare, dioscuro, fatuo, iato, inebriare, ingenuo, liana, proficuo, riarso, viaggio). Unstressed ⟨i⟩ may represent that a preceding or following ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ is "soft" (dolce). Normally, ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩ represent the
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    Katakana

    Katakana

    • type of writing: Syllabary
    • languages: Japanese Language
    • parent writing systems: Japanese writing system
    Katakana (片仮名, カタカナ or かたかな) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin script (known as romaji). Katakana and hiragana are both kana systems; they have corresponding character sets in which each kana, or character, represents one mora (one sound in the Japanese language). The word katakana means "fragmentary kana", as the katakana scripts are derived from components of more complex kanji. Each kana is either a vowel such as "a" (katakana ア); a consonant followed by a vowel such as "ka" (katakana カ); or "n" (katakana ン), a nasal sonorant which, depending on the context, sounds either like English m, n, or ng ([ŋ]), or like the nasal vowels of French. In contrast to the hiragana syllabary, which is used for those Japanese language words and grammatical inflections which kanji does not cover, the katakana syllabary is primarily used for transcription of foreign language words into Japanese and the writing of loan words (collectively gairaigo). It is also used for emphasis, to represent onomatopoeia, and to write certain Japanese language words, such as technical and scientific terms, and the names of
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    Limbu script

    Limbu script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Limbu Language
    The Limbu script is used to write the Limbu language. The Limbu script is an abugida derived from the Tibetan script. According to traditional histories, the Limbu script was first invented in the late 9th century by King Sirijonga Haang, then fell out of use, to be reintroduced in the 18th century by Te-ongsi Sirijunga Xin Thebe. Limbu, Lepcha and Newari are the only Sino-Tibetan languages of the Central Himalayas to possess their own scripts. (Sprigg 1959: 590), (Sprigg 1959: 591-592 & MS: 1-4) tells us that the Kiranti or Limbu script was devised during the period of Buddhist expansion in Sikkim in the early 18th century when Limbuwan still constituted part of Sikkimese territory. The Kiranti script was probably composed at roughly the same time as the Lepcha script which was by the third King of Sikkim, Phyag-rdor Nam-gyal (ca. 1700-1717). The Kiranti script is ascribed to the Limbu hero, Te-ongsi Sirijunga (translation: Reincarnated Sirijonga; refer to Sirijonga Haang) who was killed by the Tasong monks in conspiracy with the king of Sikkim at the time when Simah Pratap Shah was King of Nepal (i.e. 11 January 1775 to 17 November 1777; Stiller 141,153). Both Kiranti and Lepcha
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    Macedonian Latin alphabet

    Macedonian Latin alphabet

    Macedonian language is a Slavic language that uses the Cyrillic alphabet. The Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet is officially regulated in the Republic of Macedonia and it is widely used by the institutions in the country. Along with the Cyrillic alphabet, there is also and Latin version of the alphabet so called Macedonian Latin alphabet. This alphabet is taught in the second year in the primary school. This variant of the Macedonian alphabet contains all letters from the standard English alphabet except the letters: W, Q, Y and X. The characteristic letters of the Macedonian Latin version are the letters ᅦᄡᅦᄉ /￉゚/, £ᄌᄚ£ᄌᄆ /c/ , and Dz /dz/ and they are not used in the other scripts of the Slavic languages. The Macedonian Latin alphabet is the following: A-a /a/, B-b /b/, V-v /v/, G-g /g/, D-d /d/, ᅦᄡ-ᅦᄉ /￉゚/, E-e /￉ロ/, ᅤᄑ-ᅤᄒ /ᅧメ/, Z-z /z/, ᅦᄇ-ᅦᄈ /dz/, I-i /i/, J-j /j/, K-k /k/, L-l /l/, ᅦネ-ᅦノ /lj/, M-m /m/, N-n /n/, ᅦヒ-ᅦフ /￉ᄇ/, O-o /￉ヤ/, P-p /p/, R-r /r/, S-s /s/, T-t /t/, £ᄌᄚ-£ᄌᄆ /c/, U-u /u/, F-f /f/, H-h /x/, C-c /ts/, ᅣフ-ᅣヘ /tᅧテ/, ᅦナ-ᅦニ /dᅧメ/, ᅤᅠ-ᅤᄀ /ᅧテ/. Latin alphabet
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    Meetei-Mayek script

    Meetei-Mayek script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Meitei Language
    Meetei Mayek script (also Meithei Mayek, Meitei Mayek, Manipuri script) (Manipuri: Meetei Mayek) is an abugida that was used for the Meitei language (Manipuri), one of the official languages of the Indian state of Manipur, until the eighteenth century, and was replaced by the Bengali script. A few manuscripts survive (right). In the twentieth century the script experienced a resurgence. Meetei Mayek is a Brahmic script with an uncertain history. Since the Meitei language does not have voiced consonants, there are only fifteen consonant letters used for native words, plus three letters for pure vowels. Nine additional consonant letters inherited from the Indic languages are available for borrowings. There are seven vowel diacritics and a final consonant (/ŋ/) diacritic. One of the unique feature of this script is the use of body parts in naming the letters.That is, every letter is named after a body part of human being in Manipuri/Meetei/Meitei language. For example, the first letter "kok" means "head"; the second letter "sam" means "hair"; the third letter "lai" means "forehead", and so on. In view of these facts, this script may be the basic source of human's communication in
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    Meroitic script

    Meroitic script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Meroitic language
    The Meroitic script is an alphabetic script originally derived from Egyptian hieroglyphs, used to write the Meroitic language of the Kingdom of Meroë in Sudan. It was developed in the Napatan Period (about 700–300 BCE), and first appears in the 2nd century BCE. For a time, it was also possibly used to write the Nubian language of the successor Nubian kingdoms. Its use was described by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (c. 50 BC). If the Meroitic alphabet did continue in use by the Nubian kingdoms that succeeded the Kingdom of Meroë, it was replaced by the Coptic alphabet with the introduction of Christianity to Nubia in the sixth century CE. The Nubian form of the Coptic alphabet retained three Meroitic letters. The script was deciphered in 1909 by Francis Llewellyn Griffith, a British Egyptologist, based on the Meroitic spellings of Egyptian names. However, the Meroitic language itself has yet to be translated. In late 2008 the first complete royal dedication was found, which may help confirm or refute some of the current hypotheses. The longest inscription found is in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. There were two graphic forms of the Meroitic alphabet: a monumental
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    240
    Mongolian alphabet

    Mongolian alphabet

    Many alphabets have been devised for the Mongolian language over the centuries, and from a variety of scripts. The oldest, called simply the Mongolian script, has been the predominant script during most of Mongolian history, and is still in active use today in the Inner Mongolia region of China. It has spawned several alphabets, either as attempts to fix its perceived shortcomings, or to allow the notation of other languages, such as Sanskrit and Tibetan. In the 20th century, Mongolia switched first the Latin script, and then almost immediately replaced it with the Cyrillic script for compatibility with the Soviet Union, its political ally of the time. Mongols in Inner Mongolia and other parts of China, on the other hand, continue to use alphabets based on the traditional Mongolian script. The Khitan spoke a proto mongolic language called Khitan language and had developed two scripts for writing their language: a logographic script derived from Chinese characters, and another derived from Uighur. At the very beginning of the Mongol Empire, around 1204, Genghis Khan defeated the Naimans and captured an Uyghur scribe called Tata Tunga, who then adapted the Uyghur alphabet — a
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    Nsibidi

    Nsibidi

    • languages: Igbo Language
    Nsibidi (also known as nsibiri, nchibiddi or nchibiddy) is a system of symbols indigenous to what is now southeastern Nigeria that is apparently ideographic, though there have been suggestions that it includes logographic elements. The symbols are at least several centuries old: Early forms appeared on excavated pottery as well as what are most likely ceramic stools and headrests from the Calabar region, dating between 400 and 1400 CE. Nsibidi's origin is generally attributed to the Ekoi people of southern Nigeria. Alternatively J. K. Macgregor claimed in 1909 that it is traditionally said to have come from the Uguakima, Ebe or Uyanga tribes of the Igbo people, which legend says were taught the script by baboons, although one writer believes Macgregor had been misled by his informants. There are thousands of nsibidi symbols, of which over 500 have been recorded. They were once taught in a school to children. Many of the signs deal with love affairs; those that deal with warfare and the sacred are kept secret. Nsibidi is used on wall designs, calabashes, metals (such as bronze), leaves, swords, and tattoos. It is primarily used by the Ekpe leopard secret society (also known as Ngbe
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    Oracle bone script

    Oracle bone script

    • type of writing: Logogram
    • languages: Old Chinese
    Oracle bone script (Chinese: 甲骨文; pinyin: jiǎgǔwén; literally "shell bone writing") refers to incised (or, rarely, brush-written) ancient Chinese characters found on oracle bones, which were animal bones or turtle shells used in divination in Bronze Age China. The vast majority record the pyromantic divinations of the royal house of the late Shang dynasty at the capital of Yin (modern Anyang, Henan Province); dating of the Anyang examples of oracle bone script varies from ca. 14th -11th centuries BC to ca. 1200 to ca. 1050 BC. Very few oracle bone writings date to the beginning of the subsequent Zhou Dynasty, because pyromancy fell from favor and divining with milfoil became more common. The late Shang oracle bone writings, along with a few contemporary characters in a different style cast in bronzes, constitute the earliest significant corpus of Chinese writing, which is essential for the study of Chinese etymology, as Shang writing is directly ancestral to the modern Chinese script. It is also the oldest known member and ancestor of the Chinese family of scripts. Because turtle shells as well as bones were used, the oracle bone script is also sometimes called shell and bone
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    Proto-Canaanite alphabet

    Proto-Canaanite alphabet

    • type of writing: Abjad
    • parent writing systems: Egyptian hieroglyphs
    Proto-Canaanite is the name given to In the case of (c), Proto-Canaanite is generally assumed to have been pictographic, but no such script is attested, and illustrations of it are modern inventions.
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    Rashi script

    Rashi script

    • parent writing systems: Hebrew alphabet
    Rashi script is a semi-cursive typeface for the Hebrew alphabet. It is named for the author of the most famous rabbinic commentary on the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) and the Talmud, Rashi, and is customarily used for printing his commentaries. The typeface (which was not used by Rashi himself) is based on 15th century Sephardic semi-cursive handwriting. This was taken as a model by early Hebrew typographers such as Abraham Garton, the Soncino family and Daniel Bomberg, a Christian printer in Venice, in their editions of commented texts (such as the Mikraot Gedolot and the Talmud, in which Rashi's commentaries prominently figure). The purpose of this was to distinguish the rabbinic commentary from the text itself, for which a proper square typeface was used. The Rashi typeface is also traditionally used for printed Ladino. The initial development of typefaces for the printing press was often anchored in a pre-existing manuscript culture. In the case of the Hebrew press, Ashkenazi tradition prevailed and square or block letters were cast for Biblical and other important works. Secondary religious text, for example rabbinic commentaries, was however commonly set with a semi-cursive form of
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    Script Modi

    Script Modi

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Marathi Language
    Moḍī (मोडी) is one of the scripts used to write the Marathi language, which is the primary language spoken in the state of Maharashtra in western India. There are several theories about the origin of this script. One of them claims that it was developed by Hemadpant (or Hemadri Pandit) during the reign of Mahadev Yadav and Ramdev Yadav (1260–1309). Others claim that it was brought by Hemandpant from Sri Lanka. It is a popular notion that only Marathi is written in Modi. Other languages also known to have been written in Modi are Urdu, Kannada, Gujarati, Hindi and Tamil. This term most likely derives from the verb "modane" (मोडणे), meaning "to break" in Marathi. Modi is believed to be derived from broken Devanagari characters, which lends support to that particular etymology. However, there are also other experts who believe that the word 'Modi' could have been derived from the word 'Mouryi', which indicates the origin or derivation of Modi from an earlier 'Mouryi' script used during the reign of the Maurya dynasty, who ruled India during 322–185 BCE. However, there is no resemblance in these two scripts, and this opinion is no longer considered valid. Modi was developed as a faster
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    Simplified Chinese character

    Simplified Chinese character

    • type of writing: Logogram
    • languages: Chinese language
    • parent writing systems: Chinese character
    Simplified Chinese characters (simplified Chinese: 简体字; traditional Chinese: 簡體字; Pinyin: Jiǎntǐzì) are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Xiandai Hanyu Tongyong Zibiao (List of Commonly Used Characters in Modern Chinese) for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, it is one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s in an attempt to increase literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Simplified Chinese characters are officially known as 简化字 (traditional Chinese: 簡化字; pinyin: Jiǎnhuàzì), and colloquially called 简体字 (traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: Jiǎntizì). Mao Zedong said in 1952, at the start of the simplification movement, that the process of simplification should embody both structural simplification of character forms as well as substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters, concisely stating the two parallel goals of simplification. Traditional Chinese characters are currently used in Hong Kong,
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    Sundanese script

    Sundanese script

    • type of writing: Abugida
    • languages: Sunda Language
    Sundanese script (Aksara Sunda, ᮃᮊ᮪ᮞᮛ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ) is a writing system which is used by some Sundanese people. It is built based on Old Sundanese script (Aksara Sunda Kuna) which was used by ancient Sundanese between 14th and 18th centuries. Since Sundanese people has utilized many different scripts, there were several requirements considered in the standardization of the Sundanese script for modern usage: (a) a script that can record Sundanese language; (b) period of usage; (c) area of usage; (d) simplicity; (e) shows Sundanese identity. The Government of West Java Province has announced Peraturan Daerah (Local Regulation) No. 6 1996 about Sundanese Language, Literature, and Script. The regulation was motivated by Keputusan Presiden (President's Decision) No. 082/B/1991, 24 Juli 1991. As follow up to the local regulation, on Tuesday, 21 October 1997 in the main hall of Japanese Language Study Centre, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor; a seminar entitled "Lokakarya Aksara Sunda", under cooperation between the Government of West Java Province and Faculty of Literature Universitas Padjadjaran, was held and attended by delegations from local communities and cities in West Java. Several
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    Theban alphabet

    Theban alphabet

    The Theban alphabet is a writing system with unknown origins which first came into publication in the 16th century. It was first published in Johannes Trithemius' Polygraphia (1518), in which it was attributed to Honorius of Thebes "as Pietro de Abano testifies in his greater fourth book". However, it is not known to be extant in any of the known writings attributed to d'Abano (1250-1316) Trithemius' student Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486–1535) included it in his de Occulta Philosophia (Book III, chap. 29, 1531). It is also not known to be found in any manuscripts of the writings of Honorius of Thebes (i.e. Liber Iuratus Honorii, or The Sworn Book of Honorius), with the exception of the composite manuscript found in London, British Library Manuscript Sloane 3853, which however openly identifies Agrippa as its source. It is also known as the Honorian Alphabet or the Runes of Honorius after the legendary magus (Theban is not, however, a runic alphabet), or the Witches' Alphabet due to its use in modern Wicca and other forms of witchcraft as one of many substitution ciphers to hide magical writings such as the contents of a Book of Shadows from prying eyes. The Theban alphabet bears
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    Uncial script

    Uncial script

    Uncial is a majuscule script (written entirely in capital letters) commonly used from the 3rd to 8th centuries AD by Latin and Greek scribes. Uncial letters were used to write Greek, Latin, and Gothic. Early uncial script is likely to have developed from late Old Roman cursive. Early forms are characterized by broad single stroke letters using simple round forms taking advantage of the new parchment and vellum surfaces, as opposed to the angular, multiple stroke letters, which are more suited for rougher surfaces, such as papyrus. In the oldest examples of uncial, such as the De bellis macedonicis manuscript in the British Library, all of the letters are disconnected from one another, and word separation is typically not used. Word separation, however, is characteristic of later uncial usage. As the script evolved over the centuries, the characters became more complex. Specifically, around AD 600, flourishes and exaggerations of the basic strokes began to appear in more manuscripts. Ascenders and descenders were the first major alterations, followed by twists of the tool in the basic stroke and overlapping. By the time the more compact minuscule scripts arose circa AD 800, some of
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    Uralic Phonetic Alphabet

    Uralic Phonetic Alphabet

    The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA) or Finno-Ugric transcription system is a phonetic transcription or notational system used predominantly for the transcription and reconstruction of Uralic languages. It was first published in 1901 by Eemil Nestor Setälä, a Finnish linguist. Unlike the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) notational standard which concentrates on accurately and uniquely transcribing the phonemes of a language, the UPA is also used to denote the functional categories of a language, as well as their phonetic quality. For this reason, it is not possible to automatically convert a UPA transcription into an IPA one. The basic UPA characters are based on the Finnish alphabet where possible, with extensions taken from Cyrillic and Greek orthographies. Small-capital letters and some novel diacritics are also used. Unlike the IPA, which is usually transcribed with upright characters, the UPA is usually transcribed with italic characters. Although many of its characters are also used in standard Latin, Greek, Cyrillic orthographies or the IPA, and are found in the corresponding Unicode blocks, many are not. These have been encoded in the Phonetic Extensions and Phonetic
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