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Best Language Dialect of All Time

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    1

    Kentish dialect

    • Language: English Language
    The Kentish dialect combines many features of other speech patterns, particularly those of East Anglia, The Southern Counties and London. Although there are audio examples available on the British Library website and BBC sources, its most distinctive features are in the lexicon rather than in pronunciation. As Estuary English is considered to be spreading in the area since at least 1984, some debate has emerged as to whether it is replacing local dialects in Kent, Essex and Sussex. Modern Kentish dialect shares many features with other areas of south-east England (sometimes collectively called "Estuary English"). Other characteristic features are more localised. For instance some parts of Kent, particularly in the north west of the county, share many features with broader Cockney. Typical Kentish pronunciation features include the following: The pattern of speech in some of Dickens books pertain to Kentish Dialect, as the author who lived at Higham familiar with the mudflats near to Rochester, and created a comic character Sam Weller who spoke the local accent, principally Kentish with strong London influences. The character name of "Miss Havisham" sounds like the small town on the
    8.14
    7 votes
    2

    Canadian French

    • Language: French Language
    Canadian French (French: Français canadien) is an umbrella term referring to the varieties of French spoken in Canada. French is the mother tongue of nearly seven million Canadians, a figure constituting roughly 22% of the national population. At the federal level it has co-official status alongside English. Provincially, it tends to have more limited status, except in the case of New Brunswick, which is officially bilingual (with English), and in Quebec, where it is the only official language. Government services are also offered in French at the provincial level in certain areas in Ontario (through the French Language Services Act) and Manitoba, and to a variable extent elsewhere. French is also co-official in the three territories. New England French, a variety spoken in parts of New England in the United States, is essentially a variety of Canadian French. Quebec French is spoken in Quebec. Closely related varieties are spoken by francophone communities in Ontario, Western Canada, Labrador and in the New England region of the United States and differ from Quebec French primarily by their greater conservatism. The term Laurentian French has limited application as a collective
    7.86
    7 votes
    3
    Moselle Franconian

    Moselle Franconian

    • Language: German Language
    Moselle Franconian is a group of West Central German dialects, part of the Central Franconian language area. They are spoken in the southern Rhineland and along the course of the Moselle River, in the Siegerland in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, throughout western Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland, in the south of the German-speaking Community of Belgium and in the neighbouring French département of Moselle. A dialect known as Transylvanian Saxon is also spoken in the Transylvania region of Romania, as a result of the emigration of numerous "Transylvanian Saxons" between 1100 and 1300, primarily from areas in which the Moselle Franconian dialect was spoken at that time. By some observers Luxembourgish is considered a form of Moselle Franconian, while others only acknowledge the fact that Luxembourgish forms a dialect continuum with the corresponding Moselle Franconian dialects spoken on the German side of the border. The Franconian dialects spoken in French Lorraine are usually referred to as Lorraine Franconian. Transylvanian Saxon spoken in Romania is today considered an endangered language.
    8.80
    5 votes
    4

    Tosa dialect

    • Language: Japanese Language
    The Tosa dialect (土佐弁, Tosa-ben) is spoken in the central and eastern regions of modern day Kōchi Prefecture in Japan. This area was once known as the Tosa area and the name of the dialect still reflects this older name. The dialect itself developed from the linguistic influence of immigrants to the Tosa area from other parts of Japan and is largely a combination of the Kansai dialect and Chugoku dialects. In particular the accent system used is that of old Kansai-ben. One of the distinctions between Tosa dialect and other Western Japanese dialects is the use of the verb suffixes -yuu and -chuu to show aspect. Grammatically, -yuu encapsulates the continuative and progressive aspects while -chuu separately encapsulates a repeated action or continuing state. In Standard Japanese both are represented by -te-iru. The respective past tense forms are -yotta and -chotta', while the negative forms are -yasen and -chasen. Other distinctive features of Tosa dialect include its clause-ending particles, such as kendo for disjunction, ga as a question marker and ki to denote reason. Many features of Tosa dialect are shared with neighbouring Hata dialect, spoken in the western part of Kōchi
    6.71
    7 votes
    5
    Louisiana Creole French Language

    Louisiana Creole French Language

    • Language: French Language
    Louisiana Creole (Kréyol La Lwizyàn; French: créole louisianais) is a French Creole language spoken by the Louisiana Creole people of the state of Louisiana. The language consists of elements of French, Spanish, African, and Native American roots. Speakers of Louisiana Creole are mainly concentrated in south and southwest Louisiana, where the population of Creolophones is distributed across the region. There are also numbers of Creolophones in Natchitoches Parish on Cane River and sizable communities of Louisiana Creole-speakers in Southeast Texas Beaumont,Texas (Houston, Port Arthur, Galveston) and the Chicago area. California has the most Creole speakers of any state outside Louisiana, and the number of speakers may surpass that of Louisiana. Louisiana Creole speakers in California reside in Los Angeles, San Diego and San Bernardino counties and in Northern California (San Francisco Bay Area, Sacramento County, Plumas County, Tehama County, Mono County, and Yuba County.) St. Martin Parish forms the heart of the Creole-speaking region. Other sizeable communities exist along Bayou Têche in St. Landry, Avoyelles,Iberia and St. Mary Parishes. There are smaller communities on False
    7.33
    6 votes
    6

    German, Colonia Tovar Language

    • Language: German Language
    Alemán Coloniero, spoken in Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, is a dialect that belongs to the Low Alemannic branch of German. The language, like other Alemannic dialects, is not mutually intelligible with Standard German. It is spoken by descendants of Germans from the Black Forest region of southern Baden, who emigrated to Venezuela in 1843. Most speakers also speak Spanish, and the language has also acquired some Spanish loanwords.
    7.17
    6 votes
    7
    Taizhou dialect

    Taizhou dialect

    Taizhou dialect (Tai-chow dialect:T'e-tsiu wa; simplified Chinese: 台州话; traditional Chinese: 台州話; pinyin: Tāizhōu huà) is a dialect of Wu Chinese. It is spoken in the city of Taizhou in Zhejiang province of China. It is only partially intelligible with Shanghainese.
    7.17
    6 votes
    8

    Manx English

    • Language: English Language
    Manx English, or Anglo-Manx, is the historic dialect of English spoken on the Isle of Man, though today in decline. It has many borrowings from the original Manx language, a Goidelic language, and it differs widely from any other English, including other Celtic-derived dialects such as Welsh English and Hiberno-English. Early strata of Anglo-Manx contain much of Gaelic and Norse origin, but more recent Anglo-Manx displays heavy influence from Liverpool and Lancashire in North West England. A.W. Moore noted that the dialect varied to some slight extent from parish to parish and from individual to individual, but in the main the same turns of phrase and the same foundational stock of words pervaded the whole Island. The best known recorder of the Anglo-Manx dialect was the poet, T.E. Brown. In recent years, the Anglo-Manx dialect has almost disappeared in the face of increasing immigration and cultural influence from the United Kingdom. A few words remain in general use, but apart from the Manx accent, little remains of this dialect and it is seldom heard on the island in its original form today. Sources such as A.W. Moore's A Vocabulary of the Anglo-Manx Dialect (Oxford University
    7.00
    6 votes
    9

    Tuamotuan Language

    • Language: Tahitian Language
    The Tuamotuan language or Paumotuan (Paumotuan: Re‘o Pa‘umotu or Reko Pa‘umotu) is a Tahitic language spoken by about 6700 people in the Tuamotu Islands with an additional 2000 speakers in Tahiti. It has seven dialects or linguistic areas covering Parata, Vahitu, Maraga, Fagatau, Tapuhoe, Napuka and Mihiro. It is a Polynesian language belonging to the greater family of Austronesian languages. Pa‘umotu is closely related to the languages of eastern Polynesian including Hawaiian, Māori, Cook Islands Māori and Rapa Nui, the language of Easter Island.
    9.25
    4 votes
    10

    Cumbrian dialect

    • Language: English Language
    The Cumbrian dialect is a local English dialect spoken in Cumbria in northern England, not to be confused with the extinct Celtic language Cumbric that used to be spoken in Cumbria. As in any county, there is a gradual drift in accent towards its neighbours. Barrow-in-Furness (within the historic boundaries of Lancashire) has a similar accent to much of Lancashire whilst the northern parts of Cumbria have a more North-East English sound to them. Whilst clearly being an English accent approximately between Lancashire and Geordie it shares much vocabulary with Scots. 'Cumbrian' here refers both to Cumbria and also to Cumberland, the historic county which, along with Westmorland, has formed the bulk of Cumbria since the enactment of local government re-organisation in 1974. There is a Cumbrian Dictionary of Dialect, Tradition and Folklore, which was written by William Rollinson, but is much harder to find a copy of than the respective dictionaries for Lancashire and Yorkshire. Despite the modern county being created only in 1974 from the counties of Cumberland, Westmorland and north Lancashire and parts of Yorkshire, Cumbria is an ancient land. Before the arrival of the Romans the
    6.83
    6 votes
    11

    Lower Prespa dialect

    The Lower Prespa dialect (Macedonian: Долнoпреспански дијалект, Dolnoprespanski dijalekt), is a member of the western subgroup of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language. This dialect is mainly spoken on the Eastern shore of Prespa Lake and Small Prespa Lake, both in the Republic of Macedonia and by the Slavic-speaking community on the Greek side of the border. The Prespa dialect spoken in the Greek community has elements of Greek such as "d/δ". This area is mainly composed of villages, such as Brajčino, Dupeni, Štrbovo, Ljubojno, western parts of the Florina regional unit and northern parts of the Kastoria regional unit. The Lower Prespa dialect is very similar to the Upper Prespa dialect and Ohrid dialect. Some example phrases (in comparison to Standard Macedonian): Below is written a popular folk song from the Prespa region. The song is in the Lower Prespa dialect.
    6.83
    6 votes
    12

    Trégorrois Breton dialect

    • Language: Breton
    Trégorrois Breton is the dialect of Breton spoken in Trégor (Bro Dreger in Breton). Trégorrois differs from other varieties of the language in a number of ways: There are several other pronunciation details. For example, an heol is pronounced /ãn heul/ (compare to the /ar mur/ of Kemper). This is possible in Trégorrois because the very strong aspiration of /h/ avoids any confusion with "l'huile" (eoul). Finally, future endings are different. The future of Middle Breton was -homp, -het, -hont. Trégorrois moved from h to f (forms in -fomp, -fet, -font, etc.). (Compare with the forms -ahomp, -ahet, -ahont of Vannetais, due to the appearance of an -a- elision (pronounced /e/). This article is based on the French-language Wikipedia's article, (French)Breton trégorrois.
    8.75
    4 votes
    13
    Chakavian dialect

    Chakavian dialect

    • Language: Croatian language
    Chakavian or Čakavian ( /tʃɑːˈkɑːviən/; Croatian: čakavski, proper name: čakavica or čakavština, own name: čokovski, čakavski, čekavski) is a dialect of the Serbo-Croatian language spoken by a minority of Croats. It has low mutual intelligibility with the other two dialects, Štokavian and Kajkavian. All three are named after their word for "what?", which in Čakavian is ča or ca. Čakavian is spoken mainly in the northeastern Adriatic: in Istria, Kvarner Gulf, in most Adriatic islands, and in the interior valley of Gacka, more sporadically in the Dalmatian littoral and central Croatia. Chakavian was the basis for the first literary standard of the Croats. Today, it is spoken almost entirely within Croatia's borders, apart from the Burgenland Croats in Austria and in Hungary. Čakavian is the oldest written Croatian dialect that had made a visible appearance in legal documents - as early as 1275 ("Istrian land survey") and 1288 ("Vinodol codex"), the predominantly vernacular Čakavian is recorded, mixed with elements of Church Slavic. Archaic Čakavian can be traced back to 1105 in the Baška tablet. All these and other early Čakavian texts up to 17th century are mostly written in
    7.40
    5 votes
    14

    Lao French

    • Language: French Language
    French is spoken by a significant minority in Laos. Laos is the second largest Francophone nation in Asia, the others being Vietnam and Cambodia. French is used as a diplomatic and commercial language and is also studied by over a third of students in Laos. The French language was introduced to Laos in the 19th century when French explorers arrived in Laos trying to make inroads into China after colonizing Vietnam. The French did not pay much attention to the kingdom of Lan Xang but established a counsulate in present-day Luang Prabang. By the 1890s, border disputes with Siam and France led to the Franco-Siamese War and the borders of Laos and Siam were established in favor of France and Laos became a French protectorate. Unlike in Vietnam, the French did not pursue to fully exert their influence in Laos and it was not until the 1900s that French began to be introduced into schools in Laos, but it was mostly limited to Vientiane. However, French rule finally gained firmer ground and French soon became the primary language of government and education and the language spread into southern Laos following the founding of Pakse. The French language peaked between the 1910s and World War
    7.40
    5 votes
    15

    Northeast China dialect

    • Language: Standard Mandarin
    The Northeast China dialect is the Mandarin dialect spoken in Northeastern China. Northeastern China dialect evolved from Han immigrants mainly from Shandong and Hebei provinces. While phonologically, the difference between Northeast China dialect and Beijing dialect are not so significant, Northeastern Mandarin contains many colloquialisms not found in Standard Mandarin. Also see Northeastern Mandarin.
    7.40
    5 votes
    16
    Rioplatense Spanish

    Rioplatense Spanish

    • Language: Spanish Language
    Rioplatense Spanish or River Plate Spanish (Spanish: español rioplatense, although locally known as castellano rioplatense) is a dialectal variant (or simply, a "dialect") of the Spanish language spoken mainly in the areas in and around the Río de la Plata basin (or River Plate region) of Argentina and Uruguay, and also in Rio Grande do Sul, although features of the dialect are shared with the varieties of Spanish spoken in Eastern Bolivia and Chile. The usual word employed to name the Spanish language in this region is castellano (English: Castilian) and seldom español (English: Spanish) (see: Names given to the Spanish language). Note that while this article refers to Rioplatense Spanish as a single dialect, there are distinguishable differences among the varieties spoken in Argentina and in Uruguay, as described below. Rioplatense is mainly based in the cities of Buenos Aires, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Santa Fe and Rosario in Argentina, Montevideo in Uruguay, and far south of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil, the seven most populated cities in the dialectal area, along with their respective suburbs and the areas in between. This regional form of Spanish is also found in other areas,
    8.50
    4 votes
    17
    Štip – Kočani dialect

    Štip – Kočani dialect

    Тhe Štip - Kočani (Macedonian: Штипско - Кочански дијалект, Štipsko - Kočanski dijalekt) is a dialect of the Macedonian language. It is member of the eastern group of the Macedonian dialects. This dialect is spoken in the central eastern part of Macedonia, respectively in Štip, Probištip, Kočani, Vinica, Radoviš and in the in surrounding areas. The main characteristic is continuing the vowel.
    9.67
    3 votes
    18

    New York dialect

    The New York dialect is a dialect of the English language that is spoken by many people in New York City and much of its surrounding metropolitan area. It is one of the most recognizable dialects within American English. The English spoken in northern New Jersey and the English spoken in eastern Long Island are distinct from, yet share much in common with, the New York dialect. In contrast, a variety of unrelated dialects are spoken in New York State outside the metropolitan area. The New York dialect is closely confined to the geographically small but densely populated New York City dialect region, which consists of the city's five Boroughs, Western Long Island although the border there is not clearly established, the lower Hudson Valley, and several nearby cities in northeastern New Jersey, e.g., Weehawken, Hoboken, Jersey City, Bayonne, and Newark. However, the terms “New York English” and “New York dialect” are, strictly speaking, misnomers. The classic New York dialect is centered on middle and working class European Americans, and this ethnic cluster now accounts for less than half of the city's population. Now, the most secure strongholds of the New York dialect are arguably
    7.20
    5 votes
    19

    Yemeni Arabic

    • Language: Arabic Language
    Yemeni Arabic is a cluster of Arabic varieties spoken in Yemen, southwestern Saudi Arabia, northern Somalia, and Djibouti. It is generally considered a very conservative dialect cluster, as it has many classical features not found across most of the Arabic speaking world. Yemeni Arabic can be divided roughly into several main dialect groups, each with its own distinctive vocabulary and phonology. The most important of these groups are San'ani, Ta'izzi-Adeni (South Yemeni Arabic or Djibouti Arabic), Tihami and Hadhrami (Hadrami). The independent languages of Mahri (Mehri) and Suqutri (Socotri, Soqotri), as well as a couple of smaller languages, are not Arabic dialects at all, but form a group of its own, confusingly called Modern South Arabian languages, although they are not descended from Old South Arabian (also called Sayhadic). Below is a table showing the transliteration system of some consonants together with their IPA values (Note that some phonetic symbols may not appear in some versions of web browser): The San'ani dialect is distinguished among Yemeni dialects by its use of the hard [ɡ] sound in the place of the classical Arabic qāf (ق), as well as its preservation of the
    8.25
    4 votes
    20
    Gora dialect

    Gora dialect

    The Gorani or Našinski (literally meaning "our language") language is the variety of South Slavic spoken by the Gorani people in the border area between Kosovo, Albania and Macedonia. It is part of the Torlakian dialect group which is the transitional dialect between Eastern and Western South Slavic languages. The dialect is spoken across the Gora region. It is spoken in 18 villages in Kosovo, 11 in Albania and 2 in the Republic of Macedonia. In Kosovo and the Republic of Macedonian it is written in either the Serbian or Macedonian Cyrillic Alphabets, whereas in Albania, the Latin Albanian alphabet is used. In the 1991 Yugoslav census, 54.8% of the inhabitants of the Gora municipality said that they spoke the Goranian language, roughly in proportion to the number who considered themselves ethnic Gorani. Then a little less than half from the inhabitants of Gora described their language as Serbian. The dialect is related to the neighbouring Prizren-South Morava dialect area to the north-east, which comprises the Serbian/Torlakian varieties spoken in the southern half of Kosovo and in south-eastern Serbia, as well as to the northernmost dialects of Macedonia. In the context of
    6.17
    6 votes
    21

    Arabic, Chadian Spoken Language

    • Language: Arabic Language
    Chadian Arabic (also known as Shuwa/Shua/Suwa Arabic (French: Arabe Choa/Chowa), L'arabe du Tchad, Baggara Arabic, and, most recently, within a small scholarly milieu, Western Sudanic Arabic) is one of the regional colloquial Arabic languages. (The term "Shuwa Arabic", found in 20th-century Western linguistic scholarship, properly refers only to the Nigerian dialects of this particular language, and even then, "Shuwa" is not used by those speakers themselves.) It is the mother tongue for over one million people, including town dwellers and nomadic cattle herders. The majority of its speakers live in southern Chad. Its range is an east-to-west oval in the Sahel, about 1400 miles long (12 to 20 degrees east longitude) by 300 miles north-to-south (between 10 and 14 degrees north latitude). Nearly all of this territory is in the two countries of Chad and Sudan. It is also spoken elsewhere in the vicinity of Lake Chad in the countries of Cameroon, Nigeria, Niger. Finally, it is spoken in slivers of the Central African Republic and South Sudan. In addition, this language serves as a lingua franca in much of the region. In most of its range, it is one of several local languages and often
    7.00
    5 votes
    22

    Potteries dialect

    • Language: English Language
    The Potteries dialect refers to a dialect found in the northern West Midlands of England, almost exclusively in and around Stoke-on-Trent. As with most local dialects in English, Potteries dialect derives originally from Anglo Saxon Old English. The 14th-century Anglo Saxon poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, which appears in the Cotton Nero A.x manuscript uses dialect words native to the Potteries, leading some scholars to believe that it was written by a monk from Dieulacres Abbey. However, the most commonly suggested candidate for authorship is John Massey of Cotton, Cheshire (now part of Cranage outside Holmes Chapel). The same manuscript also contains three religious alliterative poems, Cleanness, Patience and Pearl, which are attributed to the same unknown author. Although the identity of the author is still disputed J. R. R. Tolkien and E. V. Gordon writing in 1925 concluded that "his home was in the West Midlands of England; so much his language shows, and his metre, and his scenery." The first documented instance of Potteries dialect is by the prominent Stafforshire lawyer John Ward (1781–1870) and local historian Simeon Shaw in their book The Borough of Stoke-upon-Trent
    7.00
    5 votes
    23
    Standard Mandarin

    Standard Mandarin

    • Language: Chinese language
    Standard Chinese or Modern Standard Chinese, also known as Mandarin, Putonghua, Guoyu and Modern Standard Mandarin, is a standardized variety of Chinese and the official language of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan), and is one of the four official languages of Singapore. The phonology of Standard Chinese or Standard Mandarin is based on the Beijing dialect, but its vocabulary is drawn from the large and diverse group of Chinese dialects spoken across northern, central and southwestern China, a linguistic area whose varieties are collectively known as Mandarin Chinese. The grammar is standardized to the body of modern literary works that define written vernacular Chinese (originally Baihua), the colloquial alternative to Classical Chinese developed around the turn of the 20th century in China. The name "Mandarin" originally referred to the language used by the imperial court in Beijing and sometimes by imperial officials elsewhere (simplified Chinese: 官话; traditional Chinese: 官話; pinyin: Guānhuà; literally "speech of officials"), and as such was adopted as a synonym for Modern Standard Chinese in the 20th century, but the term became ambiguous as its
    7.00
    5 votes
    24

    Abenaki language

    • Language: Mi'kmaq language
    The Abenaki (also Abnaki) language is a dialect continuum within the Eastern Algonquian languages, originally spoken in what is now Vermont, New Hampshire, northern Massachusetts and Maine. Modern Western Abenaki is spoken by a small handful of Abenaki elders in Odanak, Quebec. Eastern Abenaki was spoken by elders of the Penobscot tribe in eastern Maine until the 1990s. It is now considered extinct. Other dialects of Eastern Abenaki, such as Caniba and Aroosagunticook, now extinct, are documented in French-language materials from the colonial period. Western and Eastern Abenaki share many similarities, but they are also different in striking ways. They differ not only in vocabulary but also phonology. bazegw = one niz = two nas = three yaw = four n[ô]lan * = five ngued[ô]z * = six tôbawôz = seven nsôzek = eight noliwi = nine mdala = ten sanôba = man p[e]hanem * = woman miguen = feather * letters in square brackets often lost in vowel syncope. The English word skunk, attested in New England in the 1630s, is probably borrowed from the Abenaki seganku
    8.00
    4 votes
    25
    Torlakian

    Torlakian

    • Language: Serbo-Croatian
    Torlakian or Torlak (Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: [tɔ̌rlaːk]) is a name given to the group of South Slavic dialects of southeastern Serbia (southern Kosovo – Prizren), northeastern Republic of Macedonia (Kumanovo, Kratovo and Kriva Palanka dialects), western Bulgaria (Belogradchik–Godech–Tran-Breznik), which is intermediate between Serbo-Croatian, Bulgarian and Macedonian. Some linguists classify it as an Old Shtokavian dialect or as a fourth dialect of Serbo-Croatian along with Shtokavian, Chakavian, and Kajkavian. Others classify it as a western Bulgarian dialect, in which case it is called Transitional. Torlakian is not standardized, and its subdialects significantly vary in some features. Speakers of the dialectal group are primarily ethnic Serbs, Bulgarians, and Macedonians. There are also smaller ethnic communities of Croats (the Krashovani) in Romania and Slavic Muslims (the Gorani) in southern Kosovo. The Torlakian dialects are intermediate between Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbo-Croatian, and have been variously described, in whole or in parts, as belonging to each of these three neighbouring languages. In the nineteenth century, their classification was hotly contested
    6.00
    6 votes
    26

    Luoyang dialect

    • Language: Standard Mandarin
    The Luoyang dialect is a dialect of Zhongyuan Mandarin spoken in Luoyang and nearby parts of Henan province. Although it served as the prestige dialect of Chinese from the Warring States Period into the Ming Dynasty, it differs greatly from modern Standard Mandarin, which is based instead on the Beijing dialect.
    6.80
    5 votes
    27
    9.00
    3 votes
    28

    Ashtiani dialect

    Ashtiani is one of the Central Iranian dialects. spoken in the Ashtian and Tafresh area of Iran. It is sometimes seen as a transitional dialect between central Iranian languages and Talysh and is very close to Vafsi. Its speakers are also bilingual in Persian and are Muslim.
    7.75
    4 votes
    29

    Doric dialect

    The term Doric was used to refer to all dialects of Lowland Scots but during the twentieth century it became increasingly associated with Mid Northern Scots.
    7.75
    4 votes
    30

    Kannada-Tamil

    Kannada-Tamil is a slang of Kannada-speaking people living in a non-Kannada-speaking state.It is especially common in states which border Karnataka, namely Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharastra, or Kerala. Sometimes this is also known as Shanketi, where Kannada words are mixed in large proportions with other languages.
    7.75
    4 votes
    31

    Welsh English

    • Language: English Language
    Welsh English, Anglo-Welsh, or Wenglish (see below) refers to the dialects of English spoken in Wales by Welsh people. The dialects are significantly influenced by Welsh grammar and often include words derived from Welsh. In addition to the distinctive words and grammar, there is a variety of accents found across Wales from the Cardiff dialect to that of the South Wales Valleys and to West Wales. Aside from lexical borrowings from Welsh like bach (little, wee), eisteddfod, nain and taid (grandmother and grandfather respectively), there exist distinctive grammatical conventions in vernacular Welsh English. Examples of this include the use by some speakers of the tag question isn't it? regardless of the form of the preceding statement and the placement of the subject and the verb after the predicate for emphasis, e.g. Fed up, I am or Running on Friday, he is In South Wales the word "where" may often be expanded to "where to", as in the question, "Where to is your Mam?". The word "butty" is used to mean "friend" or "mate". There is no standard variety of English that is specific to Wales, but such features are readily recognised by Anglophones from the rest of the UK as being from
    5.83
    6 votes
    32
    Qihai dialect

    Qihai dialect

    Qihai dialect (啟海言話) is a Wu Chinese dialect spoken in Tongzhou, Haimen, and Qidong districts in southern Jiangsu province, as well as spoken on Chongming Island in Shanghai, It is considered to be a Taihu Wu dialect, which is intelligible with Shanghainese dialect.
    6.60
    5 votes
    33

    Aachen dialect

    • Language: German Language
    Aachen dialect (Aachen German Öcher Platt) is the name of the dialect of Ripuarian Franconian spoken in the German Rhineland city of Aachen. This dialect, as part of the large West Germanic dialect continuum, is to a large extent similar to the dialects spoken in Eschweiler and in Stolberg. Aachen dialect has a tonal component, which, like Welsh English, is often described as "singsongy" by the layman. It is perhaps closest to the Vaals (Vólsj), Bocholtz (Boches) and Kerkrade (Kirchröadsj) dialects, which are spoken in the Netherlands, only few miles away. This article is based on its German equivalent.
    7.50
    4 votes
    34
    Chittagong District

    Chittagong District

    • Language: Rohingya Language
    Chittagong District is a district located in the south-eastern region of Bangladesh. It is a part of the Chittagong Division. The port city of Chittagong, second largest city in Bangladesh, is located in this district. Because of the natural harbour, Chittagong had been an important location for trade, drawing Arab traders as early as the 9th century CE. The region fell under the rule of kings from Arakan in the 16th and 17th centuries, but later, the Mughal army under Islam Khan conquered Chittagong. During the 17th century, the region also faced a lot of attacks by Portuguese pirates. The Mughals established Chittagong as a district in 1666. The Chittagong Hill Tracts were separated from Chittagong in 1860. After the liberation of Bangladesh, Cox's Bazar was separated into a district in 1984. Administrator of Zila Porishod: M A Salam Deputy Commissioner (DC): Faiz Ahmed There are 14 Upazilas and 12 Thanas (the latter under Chittagong Municipal area) within Chittagong District. The upazilas are: The thanas are: The district of Chittagong consists 13148 mosques, 1025 temples, 535 Buddhist temples and 192 churches. Fakira Mosque in Hathazari, Musa Khan Mosque, Kura Katni Mosque,
    8.67
    3 votes
    35
    Chittagong Division

    Chittagong Division

    Chittagong Division (Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম) is geographically the largest of the seven administrative divisions of Bangladesh. It covers the most south-eastern areas of the country, with a total area of 33,771.18 km² and a population at the 2011 Census (preliminary result) of 28,079,000. The Division is subdivided into eleven districts (zilas) and thence into 99 sub-districts (upazilas). The first six districts listed below comprise the north-western portion (37.6%) of the Division, while the remaining five comprise the south-eastern portion (62.4%), the two portions being separated by the lower (or Bangladeshi) stretch of the Feni River; the upland districts of Khagrachhari, Rangamati and Bandarban together comprise that area previously known as the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The Literacy rate is 22.08%. Census figures for 1991, 2001 and 2011 are from Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Population Census Wing. The 2011 Census figures are based on preliminary results.
    8.67
    3 votes
    36
    Flemish language

    Flemish language

    • Language: Dutch Language
    In English usage, Flemish (Dutch: Vlaams [ˈvlaːms] ( listen)) can refer to The adjective Flemish (first attested as flemmysshe, c. 1325; cf. Flæming, c. 1150), meaning "from Flanders", was probably borrowed from Old Frisian. The name Vlaanderen was probably formed from a stem flām-, meaning "flooded area", with a suffix -ðr- attached; compare Common Germanic *flōðuz, "flood". The Old Dutch form is flāmisk, which becomes vlamesc, vlaemsch in Middle Dutch and Vlaams in Modern Dutch. Dutch is the majority language in Belgium, being spoken natively by three-fifths of the population. Its various dialects contain a number of lexical and a few grammatical features which distinguish them from the standard language. As in the Netherlands, the pronunciation of Standard Dutch is affected by the native dialect of the speaker. All Dutch dialect groups spoken in Belgium are spoken in adjacent areas of the Netherlands as well. At the same time East Flemish forms a continuum with both Brabantic and West Flemish. Standard Dutch is primarily based on the Hollandic dialect (spoken in the Northern Netherlands) and to a lesser extent on Brabantian, which is the most dominant Dutch dialect of the
    8.67
    3 votes
    37
    Newfoundland French

    Newfoundland French

    • Language: French Language
    Newfoundland French or Newfoundland Peninsular French refers to the French spoken on the Port au Port Peninsula (part of the so-called “French Shore”) of Newfoundland. The francophones of the region are unique in Canada, tracing their origins to Continental French fishermen who settled in the late 1800s and early 1900s, and not to the Québécois, or Acadians of the Maritimes. For this reason, Newfoundland French is most closely related to the Norman and Breton French of nearby St-Pierre-et-Miquelon. Today, heavy contact with Acadian French — and especially widespread bilingualism with Newfoundland English — have taken their toll, and the community is in decline. The degree to which lexical features of Newfoundland French constitute a distinct dialect is not presently known. It is uncertain how many speakers survive — the dialect could be moribund. There is a provincial advocacy organisation Fédération des Francophones de Terre-Neuve et du Labrador, representing both the Peninsular French and Acadian French communities. Newfoundland French communities include Cap-St-Georges, Petit Jardin, Grand Jardin, De Grau, Rousseau Rouge, La Pointe à Luc, Trois Cailloux, La Grand’terre,
    8.67
    3 votes
    38

    Old Novgorod dialect

    Old Novgorod dialect (Russian: древненовгородский диалект, dryevnyenovgorodsky dialekt; also translated as Old Novgorodian or Ancient Novgorod dialect) is a term introduced by Andrey Zaliznyak to describe the astonishingly diverse linguistic features of the Old East Slavic birch bark writings ("berestyanaya gramota") from the 11th to 15th centuries excavated in Novgorod and its surroundings. The first birch bark letter was found on July 26, 1951 by Nina Fedorovna Akulova, and at least 1025 have been unearthed thereafter—923 in Novgorod alone. Today, the study of Novgorodian birch bark letters is an established scholarly field in Russian historical linguistics, with far-ranging historical as well as archaeological implications for the study of the Russian Middle Ages. The short birch-bark texts are written in a peculiar Slavic vernacular, reflecting living speech, and almost entirely free of the heavy Church Slavonic influence seen in the literary language of the period. Some of the observed linguistic features are not found in any other Slavic dialect, representing important Proto-Slavic archaisms. Zaliznyak differentiates amongst Old Novgorod features that were already known
    8.67
    3 votes
    39
    Sabino dialect

    Sabino dialect

    Sabino is a Central Italian dialect spoken in Central Italy, exactly in an area which includes northern part of province of Aquila and the whole province of Rieti, with some linguistic islands in the Rome's one. It preserves the Late Latin vocalism, also known as archaic vocalism. It is divided in three main groups, each one representing a local form of Sabino.
    8.67
    3 votes
    40

    Cromarty fisher dialect

    • Language: Scots Language
    North Northern Scots refers to the dialects of Scots spoken in Caithness, the Black Isle and Easter Ross. The dialect of Caithness is generally spoken in the lowlying land to the east of a line drawn from Clyth Ness to some 4 miles west of Thurso. To the west of that Scottish Gaelic used to be spoken. The Caithness varieties have been influenced by both Gaelic and Norn. The dialect spoken the neighbourhood of John o' Groats resembles that of Orkney to some extent. The phonology of the Caithness varieties generally follows the pattern of the Mid Northern Scots varieties but: The grammar is generally follows that of other Scots dialects but: The Past tense and past participles it an t are realised /ɪd/ and /d/ in, for example, hurtit, skelpit (smacked), mendit traivelt (travelled), raxt (reached), telt (told) and kent (knew/known) The diminutive ock is realised /əɡ/ influenced by or borrowed from Gaelic. A final ock in other words may also be realised /əɡ/. Often written ag in dialect writing. The Present participle and gerund in may be differentiated /ən/ and /ɪn/, for example, He wis aye gutteran aboot. and He's fond o gutterin aboot. Contact with Mid Northern Scots via fishermen
    6.40
    5 votes
    41
    Malwi Dialect

    Malwi Dialect

    Malwi refers to a dialect of Punjabi language spoken in the Malwa (Punjab) region of Punjab. It is part of the three prestige dialects of Punjabi which are nearly identical being referred to as standard Punjabi, the others being Doabi and Majhi, spoken throughout Punjab in India. Following are some exmples of Malwai daillect,where S.P. stands for Standard Punjabi and M.D. stands for Malwai dailect. 1. Brother(to call) /Paaji(SP)/BAAI(Malwai dailect) 2.Malwai people generally speak 'B' in the place of 'V' of Standard Punjabi eg. Hair/Waal(S.P.)/Baal(M.D.) calf/Vachha(s.P.)/Bachha (M.D.) 3. he is going/oh jaa reha hai(S.P.)/oh jayi janda ai(M.D.) i am eating/main kha reha haan(S.P.)/Main khaayi jaanai(M.D.) 4. Thus/Is taraN or Inj(S.D.)/AayeN or Eakan (M.D.) 5. yours /Tuhaada(S.P.)/ Thodda or Sodda 6. to pick up /Chukkna(S.P.)/ Chakkna(M.D.) 7. to dig /Puttana (S.P.)/Pattana(m.D.) 8. He wil come /Oh aayega(S.P.)/Oh aa-oo-gaa(M.D.) 9. Pitcher/Ghara(S.P.)/Tora(M.D.) 10. Dew drops/Trail(S.P.)/Tail(M.D.) 11. Camel/Ooth(S.P.)/Utth( M.D.)
    6.40
    5 votes
    42

    Brahmin Tamil

    • Language: Tamil Language
    Brahmin Tamil (Tamil: பிராமண தமிழ்) is the name for the dialect of Tamil traditionally spoken by Tamil Brahmins. The dialect, largely, uses Classical Tamil and has an extremely high proportion of Sanskrit words compared to spoken dialects used by the non-Brahmin Tamils. According to linguist V. Balasubramaniam, Brahmin Tamil dialect is closest to the Central Tamil dialect, particularly, the variant used by Vellalars and Mudaliyars. Brahmin Tamil is believed to have evolved over a long period of time starting from the days of the legendary sage Agastya. However, the dialect took its present form during the reign of the Vijayanagar Empire. During the heyday of Brahmin domination in the early 1900s, Brahmin Tamil was used as the lingua-franca for inter-caste communication. The principal characters in the Tamil movies of the period (1930s and 1940s) also spoke the Brahmin dialect. However, with the rise of the Pure Tamil Movement and the entry of Dravidian ideologues into Tamil cinema in the 1950s, Brahmin Tamil was gradually displaced from public spheres. Today, Brahmin Tamil is only used in films and television soaps centred on the Brahmin society. Brahmin Tamil, has however,
    7.25
    4 votes
    43

    Hamgyŏng dialect

    • Language: Korean Language
    The Hamgyŏng dialects, or Northeastern Korean, is a dialect of the Korean language used in southern North Hamgyŏng, South Hamgyŏng, and Ryanggang Provinces of North Korea, as well as the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture of northeast China. It is one of the more divergent dialects of Korean, and contains intonation, vocabulary, and grammatical differences that distinguish it from the standard Korean of the north or south. Specific vocabulary differences include kinship terminology. For example, "father", in standard Korean abŏji (아버지), becomes abai (아바이) or aebi (애비). It is reflected in Koryo-mar, the dialect of Korean spoken by ethnic Koreans in the former USSR, as most of them are descendants of late 19th-century emigrants from Hamgyŏng province to the Russian Far East. The first dictionary of Korean in a European language, Putsillo 1874's Attempt at a Russian-Korean Dictionary, was based largely on the Hamgyŏng dialect; the author lived in Vladivostok while composing it.
    7.25
    4 votes
    44

    Ibaraki dialect

    The Ibaraki dialect (Shinjitai: 茨城弁, Kyujitai: 茨城辯 Ibaraki-ben) is a Japanese dialect spoken in Ibaraki Prefecture. Ibaraki-ben is characterized by "dakuten" insertion, effecting a voiced syllable. For example, byōki (病気 illness) becomes something like "byōgi". By contraries, "g" sometimes becomes "k" and "b" sometimes becomes "p". For example, "yugata"(夕方 evening) is pronunciated as "yukada" and "zabuton"(座布団cushion) is pronunciated as "zapton" by some speakers. Another characteristic of the dialect in many areas is a decreased distinction between "i" and "e" sounds, so that iro enpitsu (色鉛筆 colored pencil) becomes ero inpitsu among many speakers. The final particles -ppe, -be, and -he are perhaps most well-known. They derive from literary beshi (now beki in standard Japanese). The pitch accent of the Ibaraki dialect is also fairly different from standard Japanese, typically rising at the end of statements and falling in questions.
    7.25
    4 votes
    45

    Puerto Rican Spanish

    • Language: Spanish Language
    Puerto Rican Spanish (español puertorriqueño Spanish pronunciation: [espaˈɲol pweɾtoriˈkeɲo]) is the Spanish language as characteristically spoken in Puerto Rico and by millions of people of Puerto Rican descent living in the United States and elsewhere. It belongs to the group of Caribbean Spanish variants. Since most of the original farmers and commoners of Puerto Rico between the 15th and 18th centuries came from Andalusia, the basis for most of Puerto Rican Spanish is Andalusian Spanish (particularly that of Seville). For example, the endings -ado, -ido, -edo often drop intervocalic /d/ in both Seville and San Juan: hablado > hablao, vendido > vendío, dedo > deo (intervocalic /d/ dropping is quite widespread in coastal American dialects). Seville Spanish is also the source of the merger of phonemes /s/ (coSer) and /θ/ (coCer) that are both pronounced /s/ in much of Andalusia and generally in all Latin America dialects. This merger is called 'seseo' and makes pairs like cocer/coser, abrazar/abrasar, has/haz, vez/ves homophonous. Another Andalusian trait is the tendency to weaken postvocalic consonants, particularly /-s/: 'los dos > lo do, 'buscar' > buhcá(l). Pronouncing "l"
    7.25
    4 votes
    46

    Mandyam Tamil

    • Language: Tamil Language
    Iyengar Tamil are dialects of the Tamil language spoken mostly in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and the adjoining areas in South India. Iyengars are followers of the Visishtadvaita philosophy propounded by Ramanuja. The Sri Vaishnava Paribhashai uses many archaic words from the early religious texts like Nalayira Divya Prabandham. There are three distinct Iyengar dialect forms today. The dialect of the mainstream Iyengars of Tamil Nadu are similar to that of Iyers. The Hebbar and Mandyam dialects are mostly spoken in Karnataka, India. Mandyam Tamil is an Iyengar Tamil dialect spoken in Karnataka, India. There is a city and district in Karnataka called Mandya. Some Iyengars followed Ramanuja from Tamil Nadu and lower Andhra Pradesh (near the Tirupati region, which had a very large Tamil-speaking population) to regions near Mandya and settled there. One hypothesis is that these Iyengars are called Mandyam Iyengars because of Mandya, but Mandyam Iyengars also claim there was a village near Tirupati which sounded similar to "Mandyam" where the people originally came from. The Mandyam Iyengars have always been one of the smallest Brahmin social groups, and recently their local population is
    8.33
    3 votes
    47

    African Spanish dialect

    African Spanish (Spanish: Español Africano) is a group of Spanish dialects spoken in Africa. There are more than 986,000 people of Africa who can speak Spanish. The only officially Spanish-speaking African country is Equatorial Guinea, while other areas in Africa where it is an official language are Canary Islands, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, and Spanish cities Ceuta and Melilla in north Moroccan coast. Spanish is mostly spoken as a second language, but in some areas it has been a first language, like the Canary Islands, Malabo in Equatorial Guinea, and Fez in Morocco. It has also been a first language among some upper classes in Morocco and Western Sahara and many of the upper, middle, and lower classes are Arabic-Spanish bilinguals. This deals with Spanish spoken as a second language. Unlike American Spanish, the Spanish pronunciation of Arabs, Berbers, and Moors follows the Castilian Spanish dialect or peninsular Spanish. But there are some differences from Castilian one.
    6.20
    5 votes
    48

    Lyonnais dialect

    Lyonnais is a dialect of the Franco-Provençal language, which is spoken in the Lyonnais region of France.
    6.20
    5 votes
    49
    Shtokavian dialect

    Shtokavian dialect

    • Language: Croatian language
    Shtokavian or Štokavian ( /ʃtɒˈkɑːviən/; Serbo-Croatian: štokavski ~ штокавски) is the prestige dialect of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language, and the basis of its Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin standards. It is a part of the South Slavic dialect continuum. Shtokavian is sometimes called the Shtokavian diasystem or Central South Slavic diasystem when considered with its standard forms, but this usage meets criticism. Its name comes from the form for the interrogatory pronoun for "what" which is western štokavian što and eastern štokavian šta in the Štokavian dialects system. This is in contrast to the Kajkavian and Čakavian dialects (kaj and ča also meaning "what"). Štokavian is spoken in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the major part of Croatia, and the southern part of Austria’s Burgenland. The primary subdivisions of Štokavian are based on two principles: one is whether the subdialect is Old-Štokavian or Neo-Štokavian, and different accents according to the way the old Slavic phoneme jat has changed. Modern dialectology generally recognises seven Štokavian subdialects. The Proto-Štokavian idiom appeared in the 12th century. In the following century
    9.50
    2 votes
    50
    Resian dialect

    Resian dialect

    • Language: Slovenian language
    The Resian dialect (self-designation Rozajanski langač, or lengač, Slovene: rezijansko narečje, rezijanščina) is a distinct dialect of Slovene spoken in the Resia Valley, Province of Udine, Italy, close to the border with Slovenia. Because of its remote location outside of Slovenia, the dialect has phonetic properties different from standard Slovene, and from most other Slovene dialects. Although not a regulated dialect (scholars consider it a dialect of Slovene rather than a different language), and without any official status in Italy, Resian is written with a Latin script different from that used for standard Slovene. The alphabet contains the letter ⟨W⟩, which is a rare grapheme among Slavic languages; the exceptions being Polish and Sorbian. This grapheme—according to the Italian linguist Bartoli—is characteristic of the Ladin language of the eastern Alps and indicates the autochthonous Neolatin population's strong influence on Resian. Most contemporary scholars consider Resian a transitional dialect between the Carinthian and Littoral dialects of Slovene. Linguists identify three historical layers in the development of Resian. Initially, Resian part of the Carinthian Gail
    7.00
    4 votes
    51

    Amoy dialect

    • Language: Min Nan
    Amoy (Chinese: 廈門話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Ē-mn̂g-ōe), also known as Xiamenese or Xiamen dialect, is a Hokkien dialect which originally comes from Southern Fujian province (in Southeast China), in the area centered around the city of Xiamen. It is highly similar to Taiwanese, and is widely known as Hokkien in Southeast Asia. Amoy is widely considered to be the prestige dialect within Hokkien and Min Nan (including Taiwanese) in general. For this reason, Amoy is often simply called Hokkien or Min Nan. Spoken Amoy and Taiwanese are both mixtures of Zhangzhou and Quanzhou speech. As such, they are very closely aligned phonologically. However, there are some subtle differences between the two, as a result of physical separation and other historical factors. The lexical differences between the two are slightly more pronounced. Generally speaking the Hokkien dialects of Amoy, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, Taiwan, and Southeast Asia are mutually intelligible. In 1842, as a result of the signing of the Treaty of Nanking, Xiamen (Amoy) was designated as a trading port. Xiamen and Gulangyu islands rapidly developed, which resulted in a large influx of people from neighboring areas such as Quanzhou and
    8.00
    3 votes
    52

    Baltimore dialect

    The Baltimore dialect, also known as Baltimorese (sometimes pseudophonetically written Baldimorese, Bawlmerese, or Ballimerese), is a dialect of American English in the Mid-Atlantic United States that originated among the White blue-collar residents of South and Southeast Baltimore. It has a few similarities with the Philadelphia dialect, although they can sound very different. The most notable characteristics of Baltimore English are the fronted "oh" sound (occasionally written out as "eh-ew" or "ao") and the usage of the endearment "hon". It is spoken mostly in Baltimore City and the surrounding areas (particularly Essex, Dundalk, Middle River). It is also heard in other parts of the nearby counties – Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Carroll, Harford, and Howard. While the dialect is localized in these areas, it is not limited to them and can be heard as far west as Frederick and Hagerstown, as far north as Elkton, as far east as Ocean City and as far south as Calvert County. Due to Maryland's small size and its close proximity to a variety of strong cultures, the further one gets from Baltimore, the more the local speech is influenced by these other cultures. For example, the speech of
    8.00
    3 votes
    53

    Banyumasan language

    • Language: Javanese Language
    The Banyumasan language, colloquially known as Basa Ngapak, spoken on the island of Java, is usually considered a dialect of Javanese in modern language classification. The Banyumasan language is mainly spoken in the three areas of the island of Java: the Banyumasan region, located in westernmost Central Java Province and surrounding the Slamet mountain and Serayu River; a neighboring area inside West Java Province; and northern region of Banten Province. This area includes Majenang, Cilacap, Gombong, Kebumen, Banjarnegara, Purbalingga, Purwokerto, Bumiayu, Slawi, Pemalang, Tegal, and Brebes region. Scholars divide the development of Javanese language into four different stages: The phases above were influenced by the emergence of empires in Java. In Javanese cultural history, empires yielded some distinct grades of language, each grade representing the social grade of the speakers (mainly nobles and populaces). Those grades of language are not of significant influence to Banyumasan people. In the Banyumasan region, high grades are usually used only when speaking to a stranger assumed to come from the eastern area of Java i.e. Yogyakarta / Surakarta etc., or on certain occasions.
    8.00
    3 votes
    54
    Beijing dialect

    Beijing dialect

    Beijing dialect, or Pekingese (simplified Chinese: 北京话; traditional Chinese: 北京話; pinyin: Běijīnghuà), is the dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing, China. It is the phonological basis of Standard Chinese, which is used by the People's Republic of China, the Taiwan (Republic of China), and Singapore. Although the Beijing dialect and Standard Chinese are highly similar, various differences generally make clear to Chinese speakers whether an individual is a native of Beijing speaking the local Beijing variant or is an individual speaking Standard Chinese. The term "Beijing dialect" usually refers to the dialect spoken in the urban area of Beijing only. However, linguists have given a broader definition for Beijing Mandarin (simplified Chinese: 北京官话; traditional Chinese: 北京官話; pinyin: Běijīng Guānhuà) that also includes some dialects closely akin to that of urban Beijing. For example, the topolect of Chengde, Hebei, a city to the north of Beijing, is considered sufficiently close to Beijing dialect to be put into this category. Standard Chinese is also put into this category, since it is based on the local dialect of Beijing. Dungan language speakers like Iasyr
    8.00
    3 votes
    55

    Nellai Tamil

    • Language: Tamil Language
    Nellai Tamil, also known as Tirunelveli Tamil, is one of the dialects of Tamil which is spoken in the districts of Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi as well as over the vast area of south Tamil Nadu which was once ruled by the Pandiya Kings. Nellai Tamil is also known as Thenpaandi Tamil. Thenpaandi Seemai refers to the part of a Pandya kingdom which includes the present day Tirunelveli and Tuticorin Districts. The Tirunelveli Tamil Dialect (TTD) has on the whole 41 phonemes of which 31 are segmental and the remaining 10 are suprasegmental. Nellai Tamil also preserves archaic kinship terms that other dialects have long discarded. However, the most unique feature of the Tamil spoken in the Tirunelveli region is that the medial c is pronounced as a voiceless palatal affricate as in Old Tamil (like the Sanskrit j) and has not underwent the change to the dental s as in most other dialects. Nellai Tamil has been used in a number of Tamil movies. Some of them are Seevalaperi Pandi Dum Dum Dum, Saamy, Ayya, Kovil, Thamiraparani, Roja, Thirunelveli, Kushi, Sillunu Oru Kadhal, Raman Thediya Seethai, Pidichirukku, Kannum kannum, Dasavatharam, Seval, Thoothukudi, Veeramum Eeramum, Gentleman,
    8.00
    3 votes
    56
    Yichun dialect

    Yichun dialect

    Yi-Liu, sometimes called Yichun dialect (simplified Chinese: 宜春话; traditional Chinese: 宜春話) after its principal variety, is a dialect of the Gan language. It is spoken in Yichun in Jiangxi province and in Liuyang in Hunan, after which it is named, as well as inShanggao, Qingjiang, Xingan, Xinyu City, Fen yi, Pingxiang City, Fengcheng, Wanzai in Jiangxi and in Liling in Hunan. The Yichun variety will be taken as representative.
    8.00
    3 votes
    57

    Grypsera

    • Language: Polish Language
    Grypsera (from Low German Gripps meaning "intelligence", "cleverness") is a distinct non-standard dialect of the Polish language, used traditionally by recidivist prison inmates. It evolved in the 19th century in the areas of the Russian partition. The basic substrate of the dialect is Polish, but with many notable influences (mostly lexical) from other languages used in Polish lands at that time, most notably Yiddish, German, Ukrainian and Russian. It was also heavily influenced by various regional dialects of the Polish language, most notably the Bałak of Lwów and the Warsaw dialect. Initially it served the role of a secret language, but in the late 19th century it became a standard sociolect of criminals. Grypsera is constantly evolving to maintain the status of a language understood only by a select group of inmates and not by the wardens or informers. Because of this it is currently one of the lexically most rich dialects of the Polish language. Also, it is not possible to prepare a comprehensive dictionary of the dialect since it differs from prison to prison. Phonetically, Grypsera is similar to the Warsaw dialect and shares its most notable features of assimilation of i [i]
    6.75
    4 votes
    58

    Iyo dialect

    The Iyo dialect (伊予弁, Iyo-ben) of Japanese is spoken by people from Ehime Prefecture in Japan. The name is a remnant of the Ehime area's historical name, Iyo Province. Accents vary somewhat by geography within the prefecture. The southern area is particularly influenced by the Kyūshū dialect, while the central and eastern districts have accents similar to Kansai dialect. The Iyo dialect is an old one with many rustic characteristics and modifications of standard Japanese grammar. These patterns are found mostly in the Nanyo (southern) region: Some of the vocabulary in the dialect is readily understandable by speakers of standard Japanese, but many items are so different as to cause significant confusion. An example often proffered by locals is kaku かく, "to move/carry". For instance, it might be used in the context of a classroom—"Move your desk" (机をかいて tsukue o kaite). This would be incomprehensible to a non-local; a speaker of standard Japanese would interpret this as either "draw a desk" or "scratch your desk".
    6.75
    4 votes
    59

    Penang Hokkien

    • Language: Min Nan
    Penang Hokkien (Chinese: 槟城福建话; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Pin-siâⁿ Hok-kiàn-oē) is a local variant of Hokkien spoken in Penang, Malaysia. It is the lingua franca among the majority Chinese population in Penang as well as other northern states of Malaysia surrounding it, and is characterised by the pronunciation of words according to the Zhangzhou (漳州; Hokkien: Chiang-chiu) dialect, together with widespread use of Malay and English borrowed words. It is predominantly a spoken dialect: it is rarely written in Chinese characters, and there is no standard romanisation. This article uses the Missionary Romanisation or Pe̍h-ōe-jī (白話字) which is common in Taiwan. Minnan is one of the sub-languages of the Chinese language and is mainly spoken in southern Fujian, Taiwan, Hainan and parts of Guangdong, with the main standard dialects being Hokkien, Teochew and Hainanese. It is also spoken by many overseas Chinese in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, the Philippines and Indonesia. Penang Hokkien is based on the dialect of Hokkien spoken in the Zhangzhou prefecture of Fujian. It is said that it most closely resembles the dialect spoken in the district of Haicang (海滄) in Longhai (龍海; Hokkien: Liông-hái) county
    6.75
    4 votes
    60

    Madras Tamil

    • Language: Tamil Language
    Madras Bashai (Tamil: மெட்ராஸ் பாஷை) or Madras Tamil, is a colloquial slang of Tamil language spoken in the city of Chennai, India (previously known as Madras). The word bashai derives from the Sanskrit bhasha (language). Like Bambaiya Hindi used in Mumbai, Madras Bashai is a loose polyglot blend of Tamil with Indian English, Telugu and Hindustani. Madras bashai has been largely popularized by autorickshaw drivers and fishermen from the northern parts of the city. Madras Bashai evolved largely during the past three centuries. It grew in parallel with the growth of cosmpolitan Madras. After Madras Bashai became somewhat common in Madras, it became a source of satire for early Kollywood movies from the 1950s, in the form of puns and double entendres. Subsequent generations in Chennai identified with it and absorbed English constructs into the dialect, making it what it is today. Due to immigration and cultural exchange, terms from Madras Bashai are also used sometimes in other cities and towns of South India. Madras Bashai evolved largely during the past three centuries. Madras was founded in 1640 by the British East India Company, and with its emergence as an important city in the
    9.00
    2 votes
    61

    Estuary English

    Estuary English is a dialect of English widely spoken in South East England, especially along the River Thames and its estuary. Phonetician John C. Wells defines Estuary English as "Standard English spoken with the accent of the southeast of England". The name comes from the area around the Thames, particularly its Estuary. Estuary English can be heard in London, Kent, north Surrey and south Essex. Estuary English shares many features with Cockney, and there is some debate among linguists as to where Cockney speech ends and Estuary English begins. The variety first came to public prominence in an article by David Rosewarne in the Times Educational Supplement in October 1984. Rosewarne argued that it may eventually replace Received Pronunciation in the south-east. Studies have indicated that Estuary English is not a single coherent form of English; rather, the reality behind the construct consists of some (but not all) phonetic features of working-class London speech spreading at various rates socially into middle-class speech and geographically into other accents of south-eastern England. Estuary English is characterised by the following features: Despite the similarity between the
    5.80
    5 votes
    62

    Mari, Eastern Language

    • Language: Mari language
    Meadow Mari or Eastern Mari is a standardized dialect of the Mari language used by about half a million people mostly in the European part of the Russian Federation. Meadow Mari, Hill Mari, and Russian are official languages in the Mariy El Autonomous Republic of the Russian Federation.
    5.80
    5 votes
    63

    American English

    • Language: English Language
    American English is a set of dialects of the English language used mostly in the United States. Approximately two-thirds of the world's native speakers of English live in the United States. English is the most common language in the United States. Though the U.S. federal government has no official language, English is the common language used by the federal government and is considered the de facto language of the United States because of its widespread use. English has been given official status by 28 of the 50 state governments. The use of English in the United States is a result of English colonization. The first wave of English-speaking settlers arrived in North America during the 17th century, followed by further migrations in the 18th and 19th centuries. Since then, American English has been influenced by the languages of West Africa, the Native American population, Irish, Spanish, and immigration. Compared with English as spoken in England, North American English is more homogeneous. Some distinctive accents can be found on the East Coast (for example, in eastern New England and New York City) partly because these areas were in close contact with England and imitated
    7.67
    3 votes
    64

    Ceqli

    • Language: Loglan
    Ceqli (pronounced ) is a constructed language created by Rex F. May. It was originally inspired by Loglan. Its name is a blend of the names "Chinese" and "English", expressing the fact that the grammar of Ceqli is mostly based on those two languages. On the isolation-synthesis spectrum, Ceqli is closer to isolating than synthetic; there is no inflection, but Ceqli does derive new words by compounding. Ceqli began as an attempt to improve the morphology of Loglan. The morphology of Ceqli is designed to make it easy to tell where one morpheme leaves off and another begins. Every morpheme or root word begins with one or more stops, fricatives and affricates, and the rest of the morpheme consists of vowels, semivowels, nasals and liquids. Given the special morpheme-shape, Ceqli "finds" vocabulary by searching through languages, the ones with most speakers first, for words that fit Ceqli's rules. For example, "biq" (pronounced /biᅤヒ/) is the word for "ice", borrowed directly from Mandarin. "Blu" (blue) is borrowed from English, "dolor" (sorrow) from Spanish, "dielo" (matter, business, affair) from Russian, "gin" (computer) from Hindi, "hana" (nose) from Japanese, etc. Ceqli will
    7.67
    3 votes
    65

    Ceylon Tamil

    • Language: Tamil Language
    The Sri Lankan Tamil dialects or Ceylon Tamil dialects form a group of Tamil dialects used in the modern country of Sri Lanka by Sri Lankan Tamil people that is distinct from the dialects of modern Tamil spoken in Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India. Tamil dialects are differentiated by the phonological changes and sound shifts in their evolution from classical or Old Tamil (300 BC - 700 CE). It is broadly categorized into three sub groups: Jaffna Tamil, Batticaloa Tamil and Negombo Tamil dialects. These dialects are also used by ethnic groups other than Tamils such as Sinhalese people, Sri Lankan Moors and Veddas, who consider them to be distinct. As Tamil is a diglossic language the differences between the standard written languages across the globe is minimal but the spoken varieties differ considerably. The spoken varieties in Sri Lanka although different from those of Tamil Nadu share some common features between the southern dialects of Tamil Nadu and the northern Sri Lankan Tamil dialect, the language of Jaffna. Sri Lankan Tamil dialects retain many words and grammatical forms that are not in everyday use in India, and use many other words slightly differently. The Sri
    7.67
    3 votes
    66
    Cree, Plains Language

    Cree, Plains Language

    • Language: Cree language
    Plains Cree (native name: ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ nēhiyawēwin) is a dialect of the Algonquian language, Cree, which is the most populous Canadian indigenous language. Plains Cree is sometimes considered a dialect of the Cree-Montagnais language, or sometimes a dialect of the Cree language, distinct from the Montagnais language. Plains Cree is one of five main dialects of Cree in this second sense, along with Woods Cree, Swampy Cree, Moose Cree, and Atikamekw. Although no single dialect of Cree is favored over another, Plains Cree is the most widely used. Out of the 80 thousand speakers of the Cree language, the Plains Cree dialect is spoken by about 34,000 people primarily in Saskatchewan and Alberta but also in Manitoba and Montana. This number is diminishing as social pressures increase to use English, leaving many Cree children without a fluent command of Cree. Monolingual Plains Cree speakers are still found, however, in the more rural Cree-speaking areas, such as the Cree territory's northern reaches. These populations, nevertheless, are primarily composed of elders and are continuously shrinking in size. The consonant inventory for Plains Cree contains 10 or 11 sounds. This includes the
    7.67
    3 votes
    67
    Libyan Arabic

    Libyan Arabic

    • Language: Arabic Language
    Libyan Arabic (Lībi ليبي; also known as Sulaimitian Arabic) is a collective term for the closely related varieties of Arabic spoken in Libya. It can be divided into two major dialect areas; the eastern centred in Benghazi and Bayda, and the western centred in Tripoli and Misrata. The eastern variety extends beyond the borders to the east into western Egypt. The transcription of Libyan Arabic into Latin script poses a few problems. First, there is not one standard transcription in use even for Standard Arabic. The use of IPA alone is not sufficient as it obscures some points that can be better understood if several different allophones in Libyan Arabic are transcribed using the same symbol. On the other hand, Standard Arabic transcription schemes, while providing good support for representing Arabic sounds that are not normally represented by the Latin script, do not list symbols for other sounds found in Libyan Arabic. Therefore, to make this article more legible, DIN 31635 is used with a few additions to render phonemes particular to Libyan Arabic. These additions are as follow: Two major historical events have shaped the Libyan dialect: the Hilalian-Sulaimi migration, and the
    7.67
    3 votes
    68
    Limburgish language

    Limburgish language

    • Language: Dutch Language
    Limburgish, also called Limburgian or Limburgic (Limburgish: Lèmbörgs [ˈlem.bœrxs] Dutch: Limburgs [ˈlɪm.bʏrxs], German: Limburgisch [ˈlɪm.buɐ.ɡɪʃ], French: Limbourgeois [ˈlɛ̃.buʁ.ʒwa]) is a group of East Low Franconian language varieties spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions, along the Dutch-Belgian-German border. The area in which it is spoken roughly fits within a wide circle from Venlo to Düsseldorf to Aachen to Maastricht to Hasselt and back to Venlo. In some parts of this area it is generally used as the colloquial language in daily speech. It shares many characteristics both with German and Dutch and is often considered as a variant of one of these languages (see also Dachsprache). Within the modern communities of the Belgian and Dutch provinces of Limburg, intermediate idiolects are also very common, which combine standard Dutch with the accent and some grammatical and pronunciation tendencies derived from Limburgish. This 'Limburgish Dutch' is confusingly also often referred to simply as "Limburgish". The name Limburgish (and variants of it) derives only indirectly from the now Belgian town of Limbourg (Laeboer in Limburgish, IPA: /ˈlæːbuʁ/), which was the capital of
    7.67
    3 votes
    69

    Sathmarisch

    • Language: German Language
    Sathmarisch is a dialect of High German. Sathmarisch is or was spoken in Romania in Satu Mare by persons of Swabian speaking German origin. Most speakers have emigrated into Western Germany.
    7.67
    3 votes
    70

    Caribbean Spanish

    • Language: Spanish Language
    Caribbean Spanish (Spanish: español caribeño) is the general name of the Spanish dialects spoken in the Caribbean region. It closely resembles the Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands and Andalusia. More precisely, the term refers to the Spanish language as spoken in the Caribbean islands of Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, in Panama, Venezuela and only in the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Frequently, word-final /s/ and /d/ are dropped (as in compás [komˈpa] 'beat', mitad [miˈta] 'half'). Syllable-final /s/ (as well as /f/ in any context) may also be debuccalized to [h]. Similarly, syllable-final nasals and /ɾ/ in the infinitival morpheme may also be dropped (e.g. ven [bẽ] 'come', comer [koˈme] 'to eat'); the dropping of final nasals doesn't result in further neutralization compared to other dialects since the nasalization of the vowel is maintained. Several neutralizations also occur in the syllable coda. The liquids /l/ and /ɾ/ may neutralize to [j] (e.g. Cibaeño Dominican celda/cerda [ˈsejða] 'cell'/'bristle'), [l] (e.g. alma/arma [ˈalma] 'soul'/'weapon'), or as complete regressive assimilation (e.g. pulga/purga [ˈpuɡɡa] 'flea'/'purge'). These deletions and
    10.00
    1 votes
    71

    Genoese dialect

    • Language: Ligurian Language
    Genoese (Zeneize) is a dialect of the Ligurian language, the one spoken in Genoa (the principal city of the Liguria region in Italy). Ligurian is listed by Ethnologue as a language in its own right, of the Romance branch, and not to be confused with the ancient Ligurian language. Like the languages of Lombardy, Piedmont, and surrounding regions, it is of Gallo-Italic derivation. In its differences from standard Italian, Genoese is somewhat similar to French. The language is far from dying out. While most remaining speakers of it are elderly, many young people still speak the language. Further, there are several associations dedicated to keeping the language alive. One such association is O Castello in Chiavari, Genoa, Italy. Written literature has been produced in Genoese since the thirteenth century, but the spelling has never been regularized. However, since 2008 there is an official orthography set up by the Académia Ligùstica do Brénno, which attempts to put its script in order based on citizen speech of the Portoria area. Their rules, which may be seen here, are useful to write in all Ligurian language varieties. Genoese phonology includes a number of similarities with French.
    10.00
    1 votes
    72
    Himariote Greek dialect

    Himariote Greek dialect

    The Himariote Greek dialect (Greek: Χειμαρριώτικη διάλεκτος or Xειμαρριώτικα) is a dialect of the Greek language that is mainly spoken by ethnic Greeks in the Himarë region of Albania. Despite the small distances between the towns in the region, there exists some dialectal variation, most prominently in accent. Despite the fact that the Greek community in Himarra resides at the northern end of the Greek-speaking world, in a region known among Greeks as Northern Epirus, the Himariote dialect is a southern dialect of the Greek language. Although links with the Greek dialects spoken in Apulia and Mani have been suggested, the exact provenance of Northern Epirote dialects remains obscure. According to Greek linguist Vayacacos, Himariote, as a subbranch of the Northern Epirote dialects, is classified as a southern dialect, but the two towns next to Himarë, Dhërmi and Palasë, speak a semi-northern dialect. Because of the region's geography and isolation, the local dialect in the Himarë region became separated from the surrounding dialects and underwent a slower evolution, preserving a more conservative and faithful picture of the medieval Greek vernacular. According to Greek professor
    10.00
    1 votes
    73

    Kermashani dialect

    Kermashani (Kermānšāhi) is a subdialect of Kurdish, which is part of the southern branch of Kurdish Language, mostly spoken in western Iran in and around city of Kermanshah (Kirmaşan). It shares many similarities with the Sorani dialect of Kurdish.
    10.00
    1 votes
    74
    Lorraine Franconian

    Lorraine Franconian

    • Language: German Language
    Lorraine Franconian (Lorraine Franconian: Plàtt, lottrìnger Plàtt; French: francique lorrain, platt lorrain; German: Lothringisch) is a designation, in practice ambiguous, for dialects of West Central German (German: Westmitteldeutsch), a group of High German dialects spoken in the Moselle département in the north-eastern French region of Lorraine. The term Lorraine Franconian has multiple denotations. Some scholars use it to refer to the entire group of West Central German dialects spoken in the French Lorraine region. Others use it more narrowly to refer to the Moselle Franconian dialect spoken in the valley of the river Nied (in Pays du Nied, whose largest town is Bouzonville), to distinguish it from the other two Franconian dialects spoken in Lorraine, Luxembourgish to the west and Rhine Franconian to the east. In part due to the ambiguity of the term, estimations of the number of speakers of Lorraine Franconian in France vary widely, ranging from 30,000 to 400,000 (which would make it the 3rd most-spoken regional language in France, after Occitan and Alsatian). The most reliable data come from the Enquête famille carried out by INSEE as part of the 1999 census, but they give a
    10.00
    1 votes
    75
    Maghreb French

    Maghreb French

    • Language: French Language
    French is an administrative language and commonly used, though not on an official basis, in the Maghreb states of Mauritania, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. The language was introduced to the region during French colonial rule in the 19th and 20th centuries. The majority of the population in the Maghreb speaks either a Semitic variety of Arabic as the vernacular language (see; Maghrebi Arabic, Darija, Algerian Arabic, Moroccan Arabic, Tunisian Arabic) or a Berber language natively. Standard Arabic, spoken natively by no one, is the official language of all the Maghreb states. Algeria was a part of the French colonial empire for 130 years during the French rule in Algeria. Algeria was the home to about one million pieds-noirs, who later were expelled to France. French is still the most studied foreign language and is widely spoken. Since independence, the government has pursued a policy of linguistic Arabisation of education and bureaucracy, with some success, although many university courses continue to be taught in French. French is also commonly used in media and commerce. Most of French speakers are in fact Kabyles, where Arabs are less (even if many of them use a mixture of
    10.00
    1 votes
    76

    Maniot dialect

    The Maniot dialect is a variant of the Greek language spoken in Mani. It is characterised by the pronunciation of (/Υ/, /υ/, /ου/) from ypsilon from the modern Greek /οι, ι/ to the more ancient /ου/ ie. “Ancient Greek υ and οι have become /i/ in nearly all varieties of Modern Greek, however, a number of areas (including Mani) have (/Υ/, /υ/, /ου/) ”, plus velar palatalisation, The deletion of Word Final /s/, /Σ/, /ς/, in Mani and its offspring dialect in Cargese, Corsica and shares vocabulary, phonological, and grammatical features with the Tsakonian and Cretan dialects. A highly archaic feature shared by Tsakonian, the Maniot dialect, and the Old Athenian enclave dialects, is the divergent treatment of historical /y/ (). While this sound merged to /i/ everywhere else, these dialects have /u/ instead (e.g. ['ksulo] vs. standard ['ksilo] 'wood'). Ancient Greek υ and οι have become /i/ in nearly all varieties of Modern Greek, however, a number of areas have /u/, They are: the four ‘oasis’ dialects on the edges of or surrounded by the Arvanitika-speaking area, —Kimi, Aegina,Megara, and Old Athenian; the Mani peninsula of the southern Peloponnese; and Tsakonian. Tsakonian is
    10.00
    1 votes
    77
    Subbalkan dialect

    Subbalkan dialect

    The Subbalkan dialect is a Bulgarian dialect, which is part of the Balkan group of the Eastern Bulgarian dialects. Its range includes the northeastern part of Bulgarian Thrace, i.e. the regions of Burgas, Sliven, Yambol, Stara Zagora and Chirpan. As a result of the mass population movements that affected eastern Bulgaria during the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, speakers of the Subbalkan dialect have moved en masse to northeastern Bulgaria and now form a vast portion of the population of the districts of Varna, Dobrich and Balchik. Some of these also went as far as Bessarabia establishing numerous colonies there. Nowadays, a large part of the Bessarabian Bulgarians speak this dialect. The most significant feature of the Subbalkan dialect, as in all Balkan dialects, is the pronunciation of Old Church Slavonic ѣ (yat) as ʲa or ɛ, depending on the character of the following syllable. As a result of its specific characteristics, the Subbalkan dialect is usually considered to be a transitional dialect between the Balkan dialects and the Rup dialects. Most other phonological and morphological characteristics of the Subbalkan dialect are the same as the general features
    10.00
    1 votes
    78

    Tigala

    • Language: Tamil Language
    Thigalas,also known as Thigalaru it is a relatively new name of an endogamous social group or caste of people native to southern Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and border regions of Tamil Nadu.The Name Thigala takes comes from Thee and Kula Meaning fire and clan respectively.
    10.00
    1 votes
    79

    Podhale dialect

    The Podhale dialect (Polish: gwara podhalańska) is a subdialect (gwara) spoken by the Gorals, or the highlanders living in the Tatra Mountains. The dialect, itself a part of the larger Lesser Polish dialectal group, is characterized as Proto-Slavic from the Eastern Lechitic, Old Polish area, superimposed by Slovak. In other words, the language is of Polish origin, but has been influenced by Slovak in recent centuries. The language contains Polish words, specific words, Vlach respectively words, Slovak words and words that are peculiar to the Carpathian language area (Carpathisms). In Henryk Sienkiewicz's 1900 novel The Teutonic Knights, the author had his characters speak a variety of medieval Polish which he recreated by utilizing many of the archaic expressions then still common among the highlanders of Podhale.
    6.50
    4 votes
    80

    Zejtun Dialect

    One of the dialects found in the Maltese language is the ᅤᄏejtun Dialect (in general Maltese termed as ᅤᄏejtuni and by the speakers as ᅤᄏejtewni). This dialect is used by many of the ᅤᄏejtun inhabitants and in other settlements around this city, that consists of about twelve-thousand people. The ᅤᄏejtun dialect is a mixture of semitic dialect and Sicilian dialect. The semitic stem derived from the punic branch of the Maltese language is used in the linguistic form, while the Sicilian dialect is used in the phonetic form. There many words that find it in the Maltese dialect only example: All the vocal letters in this dialect possess a liquid versatility which allows the position, emphasis and tone of the vowels to change without any distinct rule; in some words the consonant letters are found to change as well. It is important to note that such variations in the dialect are innate to native speakers. The vocal 'A' in the ᅤᄏejtun dialect is changed into 'U' or 'E'. Example: This form happens to roughly all of the words that end in the vocal ' A ', but when the sentence construction does not allow the vocal 'A' transmute into 'E', such as in the Maltese equivalent of potato,
    6.50
    4 votes
    81

    Arabic, Baharna Spoken Language

    • Language: Arabic Language
    Baharna Arabic (also known as Bahrani and Bahrani Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken by the Bahranis of Bahrain, and also in Oman. In Bahrain, the dialect is spoken in the capital, Manama, and in most Bahraini villages. Others speak a Gulf dialect which is more similar to those spoken in Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates. In Saudi Arabia, the dialect is spoken in and around Qatif. The differences between Bahrani Arabic and neighboring dialects suggest differing historical origins. The main differences between Bahrani and non-Bahrani dialects are evident in certain grammatical forms and pronunciation. Most of the vocabulary, however, is shared between dialects, or is distinctly Bahraini, arising from a shared modern history. Many Bahrani words have also been borrowed from Hindi or English. Bahrani dialect has borrowed some vocabulary from Persian, Hindi and more recently from English. Bahrani Arabic (called Baħrāni by its speakers) has the main features of Gulf Arabic dialects (e.g. Kuwait, UAE, Qatar) in addition to its own unique features. General features include the Standard Arabic q becoming g (qamar vs gamar 'moon'), k becoming ch in some positions (kalb vs chalb 'dog').
    8.50
    2 votes
    82

    Brazilian German

    • Language: German Language
    Brazilian German is a generic name for German dialects spoken in the southern States of Brazil (mainly Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul). German dialects are in use in Brazil as a result of German settlements, made by Germans, Swiss, and Austrians. These dialects evolved through foreign borrowings. They were influenced by other German dialects, other immigrant languages — especially Talian, and Brazil's national language, Portuguese. The most commonly spoken Brazilian German dialect is Riograndenser Hunsrückisch, a Brazilian variation of the Hunsrückisch dialect. But other dialects of German are also spoken in Brazil, such as:
    8.50
    2 votes
    83

    Davani dialect

    • Language: Persian Language
    The Davani dialect (Davani: devani; Persian: دوانی‎, UniPers: Davâni) is a southwestern Iranian language or southwestern dialect of Fars, spoken in the village of Davan, 12 kilometers north of Kazerun city in Southern Iran. The number of speakers was estimated around 1000 in 2004. The transcription used here is only an approximation. short: â, a, e, i, o, u long: â:, ā, ē, ī, ō, ū Davani is ergative in past transitive constructions. For example (Persian transliterations are in UniPers): English: Hasan saw Ali in the garden. Persian: Hasan,      Ali-râ tuye bâq did. Davani:  hasan-eš   ali-a   tu    bâγ di. Infinitive markers include -san, -tan, -dan, -ðan. The suffix -aku makes nouns definite. For example: bard "stone" → bard-aku "the stone" The plural is marked by the suffix -gal. -u is exceptionally used for "man". For example: sēv "apple" → sēv-gal "apples" merd "man" → merd-u "men"
    8.50
    2 votes
    84
    French, Cajun Language

    French, Cajun Language

    • Language: French Language
    Cajun French (sometimes called Louisiana Regional French) is a variety of dialects of the French language spoken primarily in Louisiana, specifically in the southern and southwestern parishes. While historically other Louisiana French dialects, including Colonial or Plantation Society French, have been spoken in the state, these are now considered to have largely merged with the original Cajun dialects. However, there are still significant populations of Louisiana Creoles, from White-Americans, African-Americans, and Native American tribes who continue to speak this variety of French. Parishes where this dialect is found include, but are not limited to, Avoyelles, Iberia, Pointe Coupée, St. Martin, St. Landry, St. Mary, St. Tammany, Terrebonne, Plaquemines, and other parishes south of Orleans. Cajun French is not the same as Louisiana Creole. Cajun French is almost solely derived from Acadian French as it was spoken in the French colony of Acadia (located in what are now the Maritime provinces of Canada and in Maine) at the time of the expulsion of the Acadians in the mid-18th century; however, a significant amount of cultural vocabulary is derived from Spanish, German, Portuguese,
    8.50
    2 votes
    85
    Hessian dialect

    Hessian dialect

    • Language: German Language
    Hessian (Ger.: Hessisch) is a West Central German group of dialects of the German language in the central German state of Hesse. The dialect most similar to Hessian is Palatinate German (Ger.: Pfälzisch, pronounced [ˈpfɛltsɪʃ]) of the Rhine Franconian sub-family. However, the Hessian dialects have some features which set them somewhat apart from other West-Central German dialects. Hessian can be divided into four main dialects, namely those of: Northern Hesse (around the city of Kassel), Central Hesse (including the Marburg and Gießen areas), Eastern Hesse (around Fulda), Southern Hesse (around Frankfurt). To understand this division one must consider the history of Hesse and the fact that this state is the result of an administrative reform. Consonants are often softened, as outlined by Carsten Keil in his document "A Quick Guide to the Language of Frankfurt".
    8.50
    2 votes
    86

    Qormi Dialect

    One of the dialects found in the Maltese language is the Qormi Dialect (in general Maltese termed as Qormi and by the speakers as Qurmi, and affectionately as it-Tuf, and standard Maltese is called it-Taf. Literally, Taf is the Maltese word for "you know"). This dialect is used by many of the Qormi inhabitants and in other settlements around this city, that consists of around twenty-thousand people. The most distinctive feature of the Qormi dialect lies in its treatment of vowels. Although there is no strict rule, generally the vowels in the dialect take the following forms. Vowels of first syllabes are the ones most affected, but sometimes medial vowels are changed as well. Final vowels, on the other hand, are usually identical to those of the Standard language. The vocal 'A' changes into the vocals 'U'. If in the end, it becomes an 'O'. The vocal 'O' in the Qormi dialect is also changed into 'U'. Example: This form happens to roughly all of the words that have the vowel ' O ' in the first syllabe, although there may be exceptions. The vowels after the 'Għ' change their sound as well. Although there may be exceptions, such as Kollha (all of it) would be pronounced as Killha, Meta
    8.50
    2 votes
    87
    Central Tamil dialect

    Central Tamil dialect

    The Central Tamil dialect is a dialect of Tamil spoken in the districts of Thanjavur, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam and Tiruchirapalli in central Tamil Nadu, India and to some extent, in the neighbouring Cuddalore and Pudukkottai districts.Along with Madurai Tamil, the Central Tamil dialect is considered to be one of the purest forms of spoken Tamil and is considered to be the basis of standard spoken Tamil. Of the different Tamil dialects, the Central Tamil dialect bears the closest affinity to Brahmin Tamil (particularly the variant used by the upper caste Vellalars and Mudaliyars).
    7.33
    3 votes
    88

    Seoul dialect

    • Language: Korean Language
    The Seoul (서울말) or Gyeonggi dialects of Korean are the basis of the standard language of both North and South Korea. They are spoken in the Seoul National Capital Area in South Korea, which includes Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi, as well as in Kaesŏng in North Korea. The vowels for e and ae are merged for young speakers. Vowel length is not distinguished consistently, if at all. Among young speakers or in informal contexts, the postpositions -do (-도, "also"), -ro (-로, "to") and -go (-고, "and then") and their derivatives tend to be pronounced with -du (-두), -ru (-루) and -gu (-구). The sentence-final verb ending -yo tends to be pronounced with a schwa, which is sometimes transcribed as -yeo (-여) on the Internet in informal contexts. Samchon (삼촌, "uncle") is usually pronounced as samchun (삼춘). Young Seoul dialect speakers tend to end interrogative sentences (questions) with -nya? (-냐?). They also use unique intonations slightly different from those used by broadcast news readers. The informal ending -eo (-어) is also used quite commonly in both Seoul dialect questions and sentences. The Seoul accent can be divided into three variations: conservative, general, and modified. The
    7.33
    3 votes
    89
    Solun-Voden dialect

    Solun-Voden dialect

    The Solun-Voden dialect, Lower Vardar dialect, or Kukush-Voden dialect is a South Slavic dialect spoken in parts of the Greek periphery of Central Macedonia, and the vicinity of Gevgelija and Dojran in the Republic of Macedonia. It has been treated as part of both Macedonian and Bulgarian dialectology. The dialect is named after Slavic toponyms for the cities of Thessaloniki (Solun), Edessa (Voden) and Kilkis (Kukush), or after the river Vardar. In terms of Macedonian dialectology, the dialect is classified as a member of the south-eastern subgroup of the Eastern and Southern group of Macedonian dialects, spoken in an area that also covers Veria, Giannitsa, and the towns of Dojran and Gevgelija in the Republic of Macedonia. In terms of Bulgarian dialectology, Solun dialect is a separate Eastern Bulgarian dialect, spoken in the northern part of today's Thessaloniki regional unit in Greece. Solun and Drama-Ser dialects are grouped as western Rup dialects, part of the large Rup dialect massif of Rhodopes and Thrace which are transitional between the Western and Eastern Bulgarian dialects. The dialect spoken around Voden and Kukush as well as in the region of the Lower Vardar to the
    7.33
    3 votes
    90

    Suzhou dialect

    • Language: Chinese, Wu Language
    Suzhou dialect (simplified Chinese: 苏州话; traditional Chinese: 蘇州話; pinyin: Sūzhōu huà; Native name: 蘇州閒話) is a dialect of Wu, one of the subdivisions of Chinese spoken language. It is spoken in the city of Suzhou, in Jiangsu province of China, and is the traditional prestige dialect of Wu. It is typical of the Wu dialects, being rich in vowels and conservative in having many initials. It has many similarities with the Shanghai dialect. Considered one of the most flowing and elegant languages of China [citation needed/ subjective], often called effeminate, especially by the Shanghainese, the Suzhou dialect is mutually intelligible with dialects spoken in neighbouring Shanghai, and the dialects spoken its satellite cities of Kunshan, Changshu, Zhangjiagang etc. It has noticeable differences with Wuxi dialect, although this does not render the two dialects unintelligible to each other. It is also partially intelligible with dialects spoken in Hangzhou and Ningbo. Neither native Mandarin nor Cantonese speakers understand Suzhou dialect. Due to the city's population flow patterns, many Suzhou-area residents native to the city do not speak Suzhou dialect, but can usually understand it,
    7.33
    3 votes
    91

    Chicano English

    Chicano English is a dialect of American English used by Chicanos. One major variation of Chicano English is Tejano English, used mainly in south Texas. It is mistakenly referred to as Spanglish, which is not a recognized dialect of English but rather a mixing of the Spanish and English languages. A high level of Mexican immigration began in the 20th century with the exodus of refugees from the Mexican Revolution (1910) and the linkage of Mexican railroads to the U.S. (Santa Ana, 1991). The Hispanic population is one of the largest and fastest-growing ethnic groups in America. In the Los Angeles area alone, they form 40% of the population (roughly 1.4 out of 3.5 million, in the 1990 Census). The result of this migration, and the segregated social conditions the immigrants found in California, is an ethnic community that is only partly assimilated to the matrix Anglo (that is, European American) community. It retains symbolic links with Hispanic culture (as well as real links through continuing immigration), but linguistically is mostly an English-speaking rather than a Spanish-speaking community, though its members have a distinctive accent. The phonological inventory appears to be
    6.25
    4 votes
    92

    Hiberno-English

    • Language: English Language
    Hiberno-English, or Irish English, is the dialect of English written and spoken in Ireland (Latin: Hibernia). English was first brought to Ireland during the Norman invasion of the late 12th century. Initially, it was mainly spoken in an area known as the Pale around Dublin, with Irish spoken throughout the rest of the country. By the Tudor period, the Irish culture and language had regained most of the territory initially lost to the colonists: even in the Pale, "all the common folk … for the most part are of Irish birth, Irish habit, and of Irish language". However, the resumption of English expansion following the Tudor conquest of Ireland saw a revival in use of their language, especially during the plantations. By the mid-19th century, English was the majority language spoken in the country. It has retained this status to the present day, with even the minority whose first language is Irish usually being fluent in English as well. Modern English as spoken in Ireland today retains some features showing the influence of the Irish language, such as vocabulary, grammatical structure, and pronunciation. Unlike the United States (see American English) and Canada (see Canadian
    6.25
    4 votes
    93
    Tokyo dialect

    Tokyo dialect

    • Language: Japanese Language
    Tokyo dialect (東京方言, 東京弁, 東京語, Tōkyō hōgen, Tōkyō-ben, Tōkyō-go) refers to the Japanese dialect spoken in modern Tokyo. The dialect in modern Tokyo is often considered to equate standard Japanese, though in fact the Tokyo dialect differs from standard Japanese in a number of areas. Traditional dialects in downtown of Tokyo can roughly classify into two groups, Yamanote dialect (山の手言葉, Yamanote kotoba) and Shitamachi dialect (下町言葉, Shitamachi kotoba). The Yamanote dialect is a well-mannered dialect of old upper-class from Yamanote area. Standard Japanese was built around the Yamanote dialect in Meiji period. The Shitamachi dialect is a frank dialect of old working-class from Shitamachi area. The Shitamachi dialect keeps features of Edo Chōnin (Edokko) speech, so also called Edo dialect (江戸言葉, 江戸弁, Edo kotoba, Edo-ben). Tokyo style rakugo is typically played in Shitamachi dialect. Roughly speaking, the difference between Yamanote dialect and Shitamachi dialect looks like the difference between RP and Cockney in English. The origin of Tokyo dialect dates back to the establishment of Edo by Tokugawa Ieyasu. With the establishment of Edo, people gathered from all over the nation and
    6.25
    4 votes
    94
    Central Balkan dialect

    Central Balkan dialect

    The Central Balkan dialect is a Bulgarian dialect, which is part of the Balkan group of the Eastern Bulgarian dialects. Its range includes most of north-central Bulgaria (without the regions of Dryanovo and Elena), as well as the regions of Karlovo, Kazanlak and Plovdiv in southern Bulgaria, all the way down to the northernmost ridges of the Rhodopes. As a result of the mass population movements that affected eastern Bulgaria during the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, the Central Balkan dialect is now spoken also in vast areas of northeastern Bulgaria. The most significant feature of the dialect is the pronunciation of Old Church Slavonic ѣ (yat) as ʲa or ɛ, depending on the character of the following syllable. The Central Balkan dialect lies at the foundation of formal Bulgarian. However, it is not identical to the standard language because many of its features derive from the Western Bulgarian dialects, including the Macedonian dialects, or are a compromise between Eastern and Western standard. The Central Balkan dialect includes a number of subdialects, e.g. Troyan, Lovech, Gabrovo, Karlovo, Kalofer, Tryavna, etc. which share many common features and yet have some
    7.00
    3 votes
    95
    Dzūkian dialect

    Dzūkian dialect

    Dzūkian dialect, known in academic works as Southern Aukštaitian dialect, is one of the three main sub-dialects of the Aukštaitian dialect of Lithuanian language. Dzūkian dialect is spoken in Dzūkija, southern Lithuania. Its most distinctive feature is replacing t, d before i, į, y, ie and č, dž with c and dz (cik instead of tik – just, dzidumas instead of didumas – size, pync instead of pinti – to braid, sveciai instead of svečiai – guests). Since the region borders Slavic lands, the dialect has many Slavic loanwords and barbarisms.
    7.00
    3 votes
    96

    Hiri Motu language

    • Language: Motu Language
    Hiri Motu, (also known as Police Motu or Pidgin Motu) is an official language of Papua New Guinea. It is a simplified version of Motu and although it is strictly neither a pidgin nor a creole it possesses some features of both language types. Phonological and grammatical differences mean not only that Hiri Motu speakers cannot understand Motu, but also that Motu speakers not exposed to Hiri Motu have similar difficulties, though the languages are lexically very similar, and retain a common Austronesian syntactical basis. Unlike Tok Pisin its use has been in decline for many years. Hiri Motu has two dialects, called Austronesian and Papuan. Both dialects are of course Austronesian in both grammar and vocabulary due to their original derivation − the dialect names refer to the "first languages" spoken by users of this lingua franca. The Papuan dialect (also called "Non-central") was in the language's heyday much more widely spoken, and was, at least from about 1964, used as the standard for official publications: but the Austronesian (or "Central") dialect is closer to Motu in grammar and phonology, and its vocabulary is both more extensive, and also closer to the "original"
    7.00
    3 votes
    97

    Northern Low Saxon dialect

    Northern Low Saxon (in Low German, Noordneddersassisch) is a West Low German dialect. As such, it covers a great part of the West Low-German-speaking areas of northern Germany, with the exception of the border regions where Eastphalian and Westphalian are spoken. However, Northern Low Saxon is easily understood by speakers of these dialects. Northern Low Saxon can be divided into Holsteinisch, Schleswigsch, East Frisian Low Saxon, Dithmarsch, North Hanoveranian, Emsländisch and Oldenburgisch. The most obvious common character in grammar is the forming of the perfect participle. It is formed without a prefix, as in English, Danish, Swedish, Norse and Frisian, but unlike standard German, Dutch and some dialects of Westphalian and Eastphalian Low Saxon: The diminutive (-je) (Dutch and Eastern Frisian -tje, Eastphalian -ke, High German -chen, Alemannic -le, li) is hardly used. Some examples are Buscherumpje, a fisherman's shirt, or lüttje, a diminutive of lütt, little. Instead the adjective lütt is used, e.g. dat lütte Huus, de lütte Deern, de lütte Jung. There are a lot of special characteristics in the vocabulary, too, but they are shared partly with other languages and dialects,
    7.00
    3 votes
    98

    Pulaar Language

    • Language: Fula language
    Pulaar is a Fula language spoken primarily as a first language by Fula people and Tukolor (or Toorobe) in the Senegal River valley area traditionally known as Futa Tooro, and further south and east. Pulaar speakers, known as Haalpulaar'en live in Senegal, Mauritania, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau and western Mali. According to Ethnologue there are several dialect differences, but all are inherently intelligible. Pulaar is not to be confused with Pular, another variety of Fula spoken in Guinea-Conakry (including the Fouta Jallon region). The Pulaar and Pular varieties of Fula are to some extent mutually intelligible, but require a separate literature. Pulaar is written in a Latin alphabet, but historically was written in an Arabic alphabet known as ajami (see Fula orthographies). The negative accomplished verb form ends in -aani. (This is slightly different from Maasina Fulfulde and Pular.)
    7.00
    3 votes
    99
    Savo Finnish

    Savo Finnish

    • Language: Finnish Language
    The Savonian dialects (also called Savo Finnish) are forms of Finnish language spoken in Savonia and other parts of Eastern Finland. It belongs to the eastern Finnish dialects and it is divided to more specific dialect groups. Savonian dialects are the most widely distributed dialects of Finnish. They are spoken in the Savonia region (Northern and Southern), but also in North Karelia, the main part of Päijät-Häme, Central Finland, Kainuu, Koillismaa district of Northern Ostrobothnia, the lake section between Southern and Central Ostrobothnia as far north as Evijärvi and in the municipalities of Pudasjärvi and the Southern part of Ranua in Lapland. Also the language spoken by forest settlers in Värmland and Norwegian Hedmark of Central Scandinavia belonged to the old Savonian dialects. The area of Savonian dialects consist one third of the whole area of Finland. The Savonian dialects are of different origin than Western Finnish dialects. Savonian dialects form a dialect continuum with other Eastern dialects of Finnish and Karelian language with whom they have common ancestry in the Proto-Karelian language spoken in the coast of Lake Ladoga in the Iron Age. Although the Savonian
    7.00
    3 votes
    100
    Taiwanese

    Taiwanese

    • Language: Min Nan
    Taiwanese Hokkien (臺灣福建話 or 臺灣閩南語), commonly known as Taiwanese (Tâi-oân-oē 臺灣話 or Tâi-gí 臺語), is the Hokkien dialect of Min Nan as spoken by about 70% of the population of Taiwan. The largest linguistic group in Taiwan, in which Hokkien is considered a native language, is known as Hoklo or Holo (Hō-ló). The correlation between language and ethnicity is generally true, though not absolute, as some Hoklo speak Hokkien poorly while some non-Hoklo speak Hokkien fluently. Pe̍h-ōe-jī (POJ) is a popular orthography for this variant of Hokkien. Taiwanese Hokkien is generally similar to Amoy. Minor differences only occur in terms of vocabulary. Like Amoy, Taiwanese Hokkien is based on a mixture of Zhangzhou and Quanzhou speech. Due to the mass popularity of Hokkien entertainment media from Taiwan, Taiwanese Hokkien has grown to become the more influential Hokkien dialect of Min Nan, especially since the 1980s. Along with Amoy, the Taiwanese prestige dialect (based on the Tâi-lâm variant) is regarded as ‘standard Hokkien.’ Taiwanese Hokkien is a variant of Min Nan, closely related to the Amoy dialect. It is often seen as a Chinese dialect within the larger Sinitic language family. On the
    7.00
    3 votes
    101

    Jurassien dialect

    Jurassien, also known as Jurassien-Méridional, is a dialect of the Franco-Provençal language, which is spoken in France in Doubs (department), Jura (department), and Ain; and in Switzerland in Neuchâtel (canton) and the northwest part of Vaud. The idea of a Jurassienne identity is shared by people all over this region. Despite the border separating France and Switzerland many people, known as "transfrontaliers" live in one country and work in another.
    6.00
    4 votes
    102

    Provençal Language

    • Language: Occitan language
    Provençal (Occitan: Provençau or Prouvençau [pʀuveⁿˈsaw]) is a dialect of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France, mostly in Provence. In the English-speaking world, "Provençal" is often used to refer to all dialects of Occitan, but it actually refers specifically to the dialect spoken in Provence. "Provençal" (with "Limousin") is also the customary name given to the older version of the langue d'oc used by the troubadours of medieval literature, corresponding to Old French or the langue d'oïl of the northern areas of France. In 2007, the ISO 639-3 code changed from prv to oci, as prv was merged into oci. The main sub-dialects of Provençal are: Gavòt (in French Gavot), spoken in the Western Occitan Alps, around Digne, Sisteron, Gap, Barcelonnette and the upper County of Nice, but also in a part of the Ardèche, is not exactly a subdialect of Provençal, but rather a closely related Occitan dialect, also known as Vivaro-Alpine. So is the dialect spoken in the upper valleys of Piedmont, Italy (Val Maira, Val Varacha, Val d'Estura, Entraigas, Limon, Vinai, Pignerol, Sestriera). Some people view Gavòt as a variety of Provençal since a part of the Gavot area (near Digne
    6.00
    4 votes
    103
    Hollandic

    Hollandic

    • Language: Dutch Language
    Hollandic or Hollandish (Dutch: Hollands [ˈɦɔ.lɑnts]) is, together with Brabantian, the most frequently used dialect of the Dutch language. Other important Low Franconian language varieties spoken in the same area are Zeelandic, East Flemish, West Flemish and Limburgish. Originally in the later county of Holland, Old Frisian was spoken. Low Franconian settlers only came in the 12th century and 13th century when Flemish settlers (Frankish speaking) played an important part in draining the swamplands between the coast of Holland and Utrecht. They mixed with the original inhabitants and a Hollandic dialect was created that was partly Franconian, partly Frisian. In the 16th century the Dutch language was standardized, the Brabantian Dutch of Antwerp being the most influential. In that time the written language of the county of Holland, then the most urbanised province in Europe, imitated this Brabantish standard. During the Eighty Years' War and especially after 1585, the sack of Antwerp, and the successes of the Duke of Parma in the 1580s between 100,000 and 200,000 of Brabantish and Flemish Calvinist (and other) refugees and emigrants settled in the cities of Holland proper, which
    8.00
    2 votes
    104

    Malaya Tamil

    • Language: Tamil Language
    Tamil Malaysian or Malaysian Tamil(மலேசியத் தமிழர்)refer to the Malaysians of Tamil ethnic origin from India and Sri Lanka in Malaysia. They make up over 70% of the Indian Malaysian population group in Malaysia. Although bulk of the migration happened during the British colonial period there were established Tamil communities spanning a millennium. Prior to British colonization, Tamils had been conspicuous in the archipelago much earlier, especially since the period of the powerful South India kingdom of the Cholas in the 11th century. By that time, Tamils were among the trading peoples of maritime Asia. Although bulk of these immigrants to South East Asia had assimilated with the majority Malay ethnic group some communities such as the Tamil Muslims and the Malacca Chittys are remnants of these earlier migration history. During the British colonial era, Britain facilitated the migration of Indian workers to work in plantations. The overwhelming majority of migrants from India were ethnic Tamil and from British Presidency of Madras. Important business communities the Tamil Chettiars, a mercantile and money lending caste from Tamil Nadu, and the South Indian Muslims namely Moplahs
    8.00
    2 votes
    105

    Negombo Tamil

    • Language: Tamil Language
    Negombo Tamil dialect or Negombo Fishermen’s Tamil is a Sri Lankan Tamil language dialect used by the fishers of Negombo, Sri Lanka. This is just one of the many dialects used by the remnant population of formerly Tamil speaking people of the western Puttalam District and Gampaha District of Sri Lanka. Those who still identify them as ethnic Tamils are known as Negombo Tamils or as Puttalam Tamils but most residents of these districts identify them as ethnic Sinhalese and are some are bilingual in both the languages. The specific dialect known as Negombo Fisherman’s Tamil (NFT) spoken by the Karava caste fishers of Negombo. NFT has many distinctive traits, some of which may have arisen as a consequence of contact with Sinhala. It is also proposed that it may have undergone considerable morphosyntactic convergence with spoken or colloquial Sinhala (CS), as a consequence of contact with it. For example, NFT has mostly lost Tamil verb agreement morphology for person and number. Colloquial Sinhala (unlike Literary Sinhala) has a single verb form for all persons, singular and plural. Most Tamil dialects, by contrast, retain in both the spoken and the written languages a well-developed
    8.00
    2 votes
    106
    Skopje-Veles dialect

    Skopje-Veles dialect

    The Skopje-Veles dialect (Macedonian: Скопско-велешки дијалект, Skopsko-veleški dijalekt) is a member of the central subgroup of the Western group of dialects of the Macedonian language. The dialect is spoken by a larger group of people in the cities Skopje and Veles and in the surrounding villages: Volkovo, Katlanovo, Petrovec and Čaška among others. This dialect is of historical importance of the Macedonian language as is considered by many to be a prestige dialect. On August 2, 1945, the Skopje-Veles dialect, together with the other dialects of the central group was officially regulated as a basis of the standard Macedonian language. Many Macedonian writers and linguists were writing on this dialect and considered it to be the standard Macedonian language. One of them was Krste Petkov Misirkov and in his book For Macedonian affairs wrote that this dialect should be the standard Macedonian language. He has been writing on Skopje-Veles dialect and on Prilep-Bitola dialect The poem "A voice from Macedonia" by Kole Nedelkovski is probably one of the most famous texts written in the Skopje-Veles dialect.
    8.00
    2 votes
    107

    Insular Scots

    • Language: Scots Language
    Insular Scots comprises varieties of Lowland Scots generally subdivided into: Both dialects share much Norn vocabulary, Shetlandic more so, than does any other Scots dialect, perhaps because they both were under strong Scandinavian influence in their recent past. It should not be confused with the vernacular of the Islands of the Clyde.
    9.00
    1 votes
    108

    Jeolla dialect

    • Language: Korean Language
    The Jeolla AKA Cholla dialects of Korean (Hangul: 전라도 방언/사투리; Hanja: 全羅道方言), or Southwestern Korean, are spoken in the Jeolla (Honam) region of South Korea, including the city of Gwangju. Along with Chungcheong dialects, they are considered non-standard. Perhaps the most obvious difference comes from common verb endings. In place of the usual -seumnida (습니다 [sɯmnita]) or -sehyo (세요 [sɛjo]) endings, a southern Jeolla person will use -rau (라우 [ɾau]) or -jirau (지라우 [tɕiɾau]) appended to the verb. For a causative verb ending, expressed in standard language with a -nikka (니까 [nik͈a]) ending, Jeolla people use -ngkkei (능게 [ŋk͈ei]), so the past tense of the verb "did" ("because someone did it"), haesseunikka (했으니까 [hɛs͈ɯnik͈a]), becomes haesseungkke (했승게 [hɛs͈ɯŋk͈e]). A similar sound is used for the quotative ending, "somebody said...". The usual verb endings are -dago (다고 [tako]) and -rago (라고 [ɾako]). Jeolla dialect prefers -dangkke (당게 [taŋk͈e]). Regarding pronunciation differences, there is often a tendency to pronounce only the second vowel in a diphthong. For example, the verb ending that indicates "since", -neundae, becomes -neundi (는디). The name of the large city Gwangju (광주)
    9.00
    1 votes
    109

    Landese dialect

    Landese (parlar negre) is a subdialect of the Gascon spoken in maritime Aquitaine in South-Western metropolitan France. Landese belongs to the Occitan language. Landese is an endangered subdialect. See the references in the French Wikipedia article on parlar negre.
    9.00
    1 votes
    110

    Mangareva language

    • Language: Tahitian Language
    Mangareva, also known as the Mangarevan language, is a Polynesian language spoken in the Gambier Islands of French Polynesia by about 1600 people on the islands of Gambier and Mangareva. Speakers also have some bilingualism in Tahitian, in which there is a 50-68% lexical similarity. It is a member of the Marquesic subgroup, and as such is closely related to Hawaiian and to the languages of the Marquesas Islands.
    9.00
    1 votes
    111

    Shiqi dialect

    Shiqi dialect is a dialect of Yue Chinese. It is spoken by roughly 160,000 people in Zhongshan, Guangdong's Shiqi urban district. It differs slightly from Standard Cantonese, mainly in its pronunciation and lexicon. Shiqi has the smallest number of tones of any Yue dialect, perhaps a Hakka influence (Lee 1993). They are: This appears to be due to mergers: the fact that entering tone has split oddly suggests that it has split twice, as in Cantonese and Taishanese, but that tone ⑦b subsequently merged with ⑧.
    9.00
    1 votes
    112

    Siebenbürgisch

    • Language: German Language
    The Transylvanian Saxon (Saxon: Siwweberjesch Såksesch or just Såksesch, Hungarian: Erdélyi szász nyelv, German: Siebenbürgersächsisch or Siebenbürgisch-Sächsische Sprache, Romanian: Limba săsească) is a dialect of the Transylvanian Saxons. It belongs to the Moselle Franconian group of West Central German dialects. The language was mainly spoken in Transylvania, Romania (prior to 1918, Hungary) by persons of German origin who settled there in the 12th century. The majority of the speakers have emigrated in several waves to Germany, Austria, the USA, Canada and other Western countries, and preserved (at least temporarily) their specific language there. Before the revolution of 1989 in Romania, the majority of the Transylvanian Saxons were still living in Transylvania. During the communist dictatorship of Nicolae Ceauşescu, many thousand Saxons were sold per capita, for a huge amount of money paid for Romania by West Germany. By 1990 the number of Saxons living in Transylvania has decreased dramatically. After the fall of communism, during 1991-1994, the vast majority of those who remained in Transylvania emigrated to Germany, leaving just a minority of about 15,000 Transylvanian
    9.00
    1 votes
    113

    Svealand Swedish

    • Language: Swedish Language
    Svealand Swedish (in Swedish: Sveamål) is one of the six major groupings of Swedish dialects, clearly distinguished from Finland-Swedish, and the Swedish spoken in Svealand. A major characteristic of Svealand Swedish is the coalescence of the alveolar trill with following dental and alveolar consonants — also over word-boundaries — that transforms them into retroflex consonants that in some cases reduces the distinction between words (as for instance vana — varna, i.e. "habit" — "warn"). This feature is also found in East Norwegian, North Swedish and in some dialects of Scottish Gaelic. A special development holds for rd: One high-status variety of Swedish, that of the capital region of Stockholm–Uppsala, sometimes ambiguously designated as rikssvenska, belongs to Svealand Swedish, though /r/ + /d/ → [ɖ] is employed instead of the traditional transformation to a flap.
    9.00
    1 votes
    114

    Taishan dialect

    • Language: Cantonese
    Taishanese (simplified Chinese: 台山话; traditional Chinese: 臺山話; Taishanese: [hɔi˨san˧wa˧˨˥]) is a dialect of Yue Chinese. The dialect is closely related to Cantonese. Taishanese is spoken in the southern part of Guangdong Province in China, particularly in and around the city-level county of Taishan. In the mid to late 19th century, a significant number of Chinese emigrating to North America originated from this area, making Taishanese a dominant variety of the Chinese language spoken in North American Chinatowns. It was formerly the lingua franca of the overseas Chinese residing in the United States. It is not currently recognized as having official status in any country. The earliest linguistic studies refer to the dialect of Llin-nen or Xinning (Chinese: 新寧). Xinning was renamed Taishan in 1914, and linguistic literature has since generally referred to the local dialect as the Taishan dialect, a term based on the Mandarin pronunciation. Alternative names have also been used. The term Toishan is a convention used by the United States Postal Service, the Defense Language Institute and the United States Census. The terms Toishan, Toisan and Toisaan are all based on Cantonese
    9.00
    1 votes
    115

    African American Vernacular English

    • Language: English Language
    African American Vernacular English (AAVE)—recently called African American Language (AAL) also called African American English; less precisely Black English, Black Vernacular, Black English Vernacular (BEV), or Black Vernacular English (BVE)—is an African American variety (dialect, ethnolect and sociolect) of American English. Non-linguists sometimes call it Ebonics (a term that also has other meanings or strong connotations). Its pronunciation is, in some respects, common to Southern American English, which is spoken by many African Americans and many non-African Americans in the United States. Several creolists, including William Stewart, John Dillard, and John Rickford, argue that AAVE shares so many characteristics with creole dialects spoken by black people in much of the world that AAVE itself is a creole, while others maintain that there are no significant parallels. As with all linguistic forms, its usage is influenced by age, status, topic and setting. There are many literary uses of this variety of English, particularly in African-American literature. AAVE shares several characteristics with Creole English language-forms spoken by people throughout much of the world.
    6.67
    3 votes
    116

    Béarnese dialect

    Béarnese is a dialect of Gascon spoken in Béarn (in the French department of the Pyrénées Atlantiques, in southwestern France). As a written language, it benefited from the fact that Béarn was an independent state from the mid-14th century up to 1620. Béarnese was used in legal and administrative documents long after most other Gascon provinces were incorporated into France (The French language definitively replaced Béarnese language for legal documents in 1789, after the French Revolution). Béarnese is currently the most prominent variety of Gascon. It is widely used in the normativization attempts to reach a standard Gascon and is the most likely dialect to succeed, due to the stronger cultural identity and output of this area. A 1982 survey of the inhabitants of Béarn indicated that 51% of the population spoke Béarnese, 70% understood it, and 85% were in favor of preserving the language. However, use of the language has declined over recent years as Bearnais is rarely transmitted to younger generations within the family. There is a revival of focus on the language which has improved the situation, though, leading children to be taught the language in school (comparable to the
    6.67
    3 votes
    117

    Gyeongsang dialect

    • Language: Korean Language
    The Gyeongsang dialects (also spelled Kyŏngsang), or Southeastern Korean, are dialects of the Korean language of the Yeongnam region, which includes North and South Gyeongsang provinces. There are approximately ten million speakers. Unlike standard Korean, some Gyeongsang dialects are tonal. Gyeongsang dialects vary. A native speaker can distinguish the dialect of Daegu from that of Busan despite the two cities being less than 100 kilometers apart. Dialectal forms are relatively similar along the midstream of Nakdong River but are different near Busan, Jinju, and Pohang as well as along the eastern slopes of Mount Jiri. Most Gyeongsang dialects have six vowels, a (ㅏ), e (ㅔ), eo (ㅓ), o (ㅗ), u (ㅜ), i (ㅣ). In most areas, the vowels ㅐ(ae) and ㅔ (e) are conflated, as are ㅡ(eu) and ㅓ(eo). W and y are generally dropped after a consonant, especially in South Gyeongsang dialects. For example, soegogi (쇠고기) 'beef' is pronounced sogogi, and gwaja (과자) 'sweets' is pronounced gaja. Vowel harmony differs from the standard language. For instance, oneul (오늘), meaning "today," is pronounced onal. The main difference is that e is considered a central vowel. Vowels are fronted when the following
    6.67
    3 votes
    118

    Kriva Palanka dialect

    The Kriva Palanka dialect (Macedonian: Кривопаланечки дијалект, Krivopalanečki dijalekt) is a member of the eastern subgroup of the northern group of dialects of the Macedonian language. This dialect is spoken mainly in the city of Kriva Palanka and surrounding villages. Singular:
    6.67
    3 votes
    119

    Niemodlin dialect

    The Niemodlin dialect (Polish: gwary niemodlińskie, Silesian: djalykt ńymodliński ślůnskij godki, pronunciation: ˈdjalɨkt ɲɨmɔˈdliɲski ˈɕlunskʲij ˈɡɔtki) is a Silesian dialect, used in the parts of Niemodlin city, now in Poland. Linguists differ in the classification of this dialect, some consider it a dialect of Silesian, some of the Polish language. It slightly differs from standard Silesian by having a characteristic pronunciation called masuring (mazuřyńy), which means that the group of consonants č š ž dž are pronounced as the alveolars c s z dz (IPA: [ts], [s], [z], and [dz], respectively). In Niemodlin Silesian phonology a nasalized vowel y ([ɨ̃]) may also occur. It is closely related to the Prudnik dialect.
    6.67
    3 votes
    120
    Central Thuringian

    Central Thuringian

    • Language: German Language
    Central Thuringian (German: Zentralthüringisch) is a Thuringian dialect, that is spoken in the region of central Germany covered by the districts of Gotha, Sömmerda and Ilm-Kreis as well as in the southern part of Unstrut-Hainich district and the city of Erfurt. A feature of the dialect are "falling diphthongs" (fallende diphthonge) (e. g. "Voater" instead of "Vater" (father)).
    5.75
    4 votes
    121
    Scottish English

    Scottish English

    • Language: English Language
    Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland. It may or may not be considered distinct from the Scots language. It is always considered distinct from Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic language. The main, formal variety is called Scottish Standard English or Standard Scottish English, often abbreviated to SSE. SSE may be defined as "the characteristic speech of the professional class [in Scotland] and the accepted norm in schools." In addition to distinct pronunciation, grammar and expressions, Scottish English has distinctive vocabulary, particularly pertaining to Scottish institutions such as the Church of Scotland, local government and the education and legal systems. Scottish Standard English is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with focused broad Scots at the other. Scottish English may be influenced to varying degrees by Scots. Many Scots speakers separate Scots and Scottish English as different registers depending on social circumstances. Some speakers code switch clearly from one to the other while others style shift in a less predictable and more fluctuating manner. Generally there is a shift to Scottish English in formal situations or with
    5.75
    4 votes
    122
    Mexican Spanish

    Mexican Spanish

    • Language: Spanish Language
    Mexican Spanish (Spanish: español mexicano) is a version of the Spanish language, as spoken in Mexico and in various places of Canada and the United States of America, where there are communities of Mexican origin. Spanish was brought to Mexico beginning in the 16th century CE. As a result of Mexico City's central role in the colonial administration of New Spain, the population of the city included relatively large numbers of speakers from Spain. Mexico City (Tenochtitlan) had also been the capital of the Aztec Empire, and many speakers of the Aztec language Nahuatl continued to live there and in the surrounding region, outnumbering the Spanish-speakers for several generations. Consequently, Mexico City tended historically to exercise a standardizing effect over the entire central region of the country, more or less, evolving into a distinctive dialect of Spanish which incorporated a significant number of hispanicized Nahuatl words. Nowadays, the manner of speaking of the people of the State of Mexico influences the way people speak in the central region of the country. The territory of contemporary Mexico is not coextensive with what might be termed Mexican Spanish. First, the
    7.50
    2 votes
    123

    Parmesan Dialect

    • Language: Italian Language
    The Parmesan dialect is spoken in Parma, Italy and the surrounding area. This dialect differs significantly from standard Italian. A Parmesan word for locals who have moved abroad is strajé.
    7.50
    2 votes
    124
    Prilep-Bitola dialect

    Prilep-Bitola dialect

    The Prilep-Bitola dialect (Macedonian: Прилепско-битолски дијалект, Prilepsko-bitolski dijalekt) is a member of the central subgroup of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language. This dialect is spoken in much of the Pelagonia region (more specifically, the Bitola, Prilep, Kruševo and Demir Hisar municipalities), as well as by the Macedonian-speaking minority population in and around Florina (Lerin) in neighbouring Greek Macedonia. The Prilep-Bitola dialect, along with other peripheral west-central dialects, provides much of the basis for modern Standard Macedonian. Prestige dialects have developed in the cities of Bitola and Prilep. The phonological characteristics of the Bitola-Prilep dialect which also can also be found in the other peripheral dialects are:
    7.50
    2 votes
    125

    Qingtian dialect

    • Language: Chinese language
    Qingtian dialect (=青田話) is a spoken dialect of the Chinese language. It is spoken in Qingtian county of Lishui prefecture in Zhejiang, China. Qingtian dialect is of the Chuqu Wu dialects spoken in Quzhou and Lishui prefectures of Zhejiang. It is also often spoken by overseas Chinese who are from Qingtian.
    7.50
    2 votes
    126
    Yorkshire dialect and accent

    Yorkshire dialect and accent

    • Language: English Language
    The Yorkshire dialect refers to the varieties of English used in the Northern England historic county of Yorkshire. Those varieties are often referred to as Broad Yorkshire or Tyke. The dialect has roots in older languages such as Old English and Old Norse; it should not be confused with modern slang. The Yorkshire Dialect Society exists to promote use of the dialect in both humour and in serious linguistics; there is also an East Riding Dialect Society. Yorkshire is generally not as stigmatised as other dialects, and has been used in classic works of literature such as Wuthering Heights. Studies have shown that accents in the West Riding (that is, mostly, modern West and South Yorkshire) are generally popular and are associated with common sense, loyalty and reliability. Traditionally, there was not one dialect in Yorkshire but several. The Survey of English Dialects identified many different accents in Yorkshire. The Yorkshire Dialect Society draws a border roughly at the River Wharfe between two main zones. The area to the southwest of the river is more influenced by Mercian dialect whilst that to the northeast is more influenced by Northumbrian dialect. The distinction was
    7.50
    2 votes
    127
    5.50
    4 votes
    128

    Adjaran

    • Language: Georgian Language
    The Adjaran dialect (also called Ach'aruli, Acharuli, Adjaruli, Ajaruli, Adzharuli, Acharian, Adjarian, Ajarian, Adzharian, Acharan, Adjaran, Ajaran, Adzharan, Achar, Adjar, Ajar, and Adzhar / აჭარული) is one of the Georgian dialects. It is primarily spoken within the borders of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Georgia, also in two villages of the adjacent region of Guria, and the ethnic Georgian-inhabited areas of Turkey. The Adjaran dialect is derived from the Meskhet-Klarjetian and surrounding Gurian dialects. The Adjaran dialect has several subdialects, and is spoken with different accents in different locations. Upper Adjaran and Lower Adjaran are the most common subdialects. In addition, a separate Kobuletian dialect is sometimes distinguished as well. The Upper Adjaran subdialect is found in Khulo and Shuakhev, and the Lower Adjaran subdialect is found in the Keda, Khelvachauri and Kobuleti regions. Adjaran is spoken with Khuloan, Shuakhevian, Kobuletian accents. The Kobuletian accent shows less evidence of Turkish influence than the other two. Some distinguish between Ghorjomian and Khikhadzirian variants of the Khuloan accent. The Kirnat-Maradid region also has a unique
    6.33
    3 votes
    129
    Andalusian Spanish

    Andalusian Spanish

    • Language: Spanish Language
    The Andalusian varieties of Spanish (Spanish: andaluz, IPA: [andaˈluθ]). are spoken in Andalusia, Ceuta, Melilla and Gibraltar. They include perhaps the most distinct of the southern variants of peninsular Spanish, differing in many respects from northern varieties, and also from Standard Spanish. Due to the large population of Andalusia, the Andalusian dialect is the second most spoken dialect in Spain, after the transitional variants between Castilian and Andalusian (for example the one from Madrid). Due to massive emigration from Andalusia to the Spanish colonies in the Americas and elsewhere, most American Spanish dialects share some fundamental characteristics with Western Andalusian Spanish, such as the use of ustedes instead of vosotros for the second person plural, and seseo. Many varieties of Spanish, such as Canarian Spanish, Caribbean Spanish and other Latin American Spanish dialects are considered as being based on Andalusian Spanish. Andalusian has a number of distinguishing phonological, morphological, syntactic and lexical features. However, not all of these are unique to Andalusian, nor are all of these features found in all areas where Andalusian is spoken, but in
    6.33
    3 votes
    130
    Gascon language

    Gascon language

    • Language: Occitan language
    Gascon (Occitan: [ɡasˈku], French: [ɡaskɔ̃]) is usually considered as a dialect of Occitan, even though some specialists regularly consider it a separate language. Gascon is mostly spoken in Gascony and Béarn in southwestern France (in parts of the following French départements: Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, Lot-et-Garonne, Haute-Garonne, and Ariège) and in the Aran Valley of Spain. It has about 250,000 speakers worldwide. Only Aranese, a southern Gascon variety, is spoken in Spain. Aranese has been greatly influenced recently by Catalan and Spanish. Both these influences tend to differentiate it more and more from the dialects of Gascon spoken in France. Since the 2006 adoption of the new statute of Catalonia, Aranese is co-official with Catalan and Spanish in Catalonia (before, this status was valid for the Aran Valley only). See Occitan: Debates concerning linguistic classification. The language spoken in Gascony before Roman rule was part of the Basque dialectal continuum (see Aquitanian language); the fact that the word 'Gascon' comes from the Latin root vasco/vasconem, which is the same root that gives us 'Basque', implies that the speakers
    6.33
    3 votes
    131

    Najdi Arabic

    • Language: Arabic Language
    Najdi Arabic (Arabic: اللهجة النجدية‎) is a variety of the Arabic language spoken in the desert and oases of central Saudi Arabia. There are four major groups of Najdi Arabic. 1. Northern Najdi, spoken in Zulfi, Qaseem and Jabal Shammar regions of Najd. 2. Central Najdi (Urban Najdi), spoken in the city of Riyadh and surrounding towns and farming communities. 3. Southern Najdi, spoken in the city of Kharj and surrounding towns. 4. Badawi Najdi, spoken by the nomadic tribes of Najd. Some tribes have their own distinct accents. Badawi Najdi is also spoken in neighboring Jordan, Syria, and Iraq.
    6.33
    3 votes
    132
    New Latin

    New Latin

    • Language: Latin Language
    The phrase New Latin, or Neo-Latin, is used to describe the Latin language used in original works created between c. 1500 and c. 1900. Among other uses, Latin during this period was employed in scholarly and scientific publications. Latin vocabulary words, created during this period for the purpose of expressing scientific ideas, form the basis for much modern scientific terminology, such as technical terms in zoological and botanical description and taxonomy. The language of original Latin works created since the beginning of the 20th century is treated in the article on contemporary Latin. Classicists use the term "Neo-Latin" to describe the use of the Latin language for any purpose, scientific or literary, after the Renaissance. The beginning of the period is imprecise; however, the spread of secular education, the acceptance of humanistic literary norms, and the wide availability of Latin texts following the invention of printing mark the transition to a new era at the end of the 15th century. The end of the New Latin period is likewise indeterminate, but Latin as a regular vehicle of communicating ideas became rare after the first few decades of the 19th century, and by 1900
    6.33
    3 votes
    133

    Rauma dialect

    • Language: Finnish Language
    Rauma language ("rauman giäl") is a dialect of Finnish spoken in the town of Rauma, western Finland. The written form of the dialect was preserved by the writer and doctor Hj. Nortamo, and is currently practiced mainly as a hobby. Some of the most distinctive characteristics of the dialect (as written) are the use of letters 'g' and 'b', which are not common in Finnish language. Pronunciation of these letters is, however, closer to the more common 'k' and 'p' of mainstream Finnish. Rauma dialect is practically extinct from real-life use. Many people in Rauma do speak in a way that carries a resemblance to this dialect - as an example, the tempo of speech is faster than average Finnish, with a lot of shortened words, but few can speak the actual Rauma dialect. There are several subcategories of Rauma dialect, which have subtle differences and have their roots in neighbouring communities.
    6.33
    3 votes
    134

    Suffolk dialect

    • Language: English Language
    Suffolk dialect is an English dialect. Like many English dialects it is rapidly disappearing, with the advent of increasing social and geographical mobility and the influence of the media. Despite this, there are still many people who profess some knowledge of Suffolk dialect, and there is an increasing number of young speakers who have a distinctive Suffolk accent, if not dialect. Suffolk dialect has many characteristics, some of which are similar to its northern neighbour's, Norfolk dialect. Yet it retains many specific and unique terms and phrases which are instantly recognisable. A closely related accent can still be heard in the speech of older people in Colchester and its surrounding towns in northern Essex, where it has not yet quite been displaced by Estuary and Cockney. - "boi" (with an emphasis on the 'i') - a term of familiar address, equivalent to mate, but can be used for a female as well as a male addressee. A corruption of "neighbour" - "dag" = early morning or evening mist, especially associated with coastal / marsh areas, possibly also general eastern England dialect - "bibble" = (of animals, esp. birds) to drink - "hull" = throw - "on the her" (pronounced 'hə') =
    6.33
    3 votes
    135
    Thuringian

    Thuringian

    • Language: German Language
    Thuringian is an East Central German dialect group spoken in much of the modern German Free State of Thuringia north of the Rennsteig ridge, southwestern Saxony-Anhalt and adjacent territories of Hesse and Bavaria. It is close to Upper Saxon German spoken mainly in the state of Saxony, therefore both are also regarded as one Thuringian-Upper Saxon dialect group. Thuringian dialects are among the Central German dialects with the highest number of speakers. The Thuringian dialect is characterized by a rounding of the vowels, the weakening of consonants of Standard German (the lenition of the consonants "p," "t," and "k"), a marked difference in the pronunciation of the "g" sound (which is most common in the areas of North Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt areas), and a highly idiosyncratic, melodic intonation of sentences. The second German consonant shift manifested itself in a manner different from that which occurred elsewhere in the areas that spoke High German. In many words, "b" is pronounced as "w," "v, or "f" would be in Standard German. For example, the word "aber" (but) is pronounced as "awer." The Thuringian dialect has advanced beyond the stage of basilect. Source
    6.33
    3 votes
    136
    Venetian Language

    Venetian Language

    Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken as a native language by over two million people, mostly in the Veneto region of Italy, where of five million inhabitants almost all can understand it. It is sometimes spoken and often well understood outside Veneto, in Trentino, Friuli, Venezia Giulia, Istria, and some towns of Dalmatia, totalling 6–7 million speakers. The language is called vèneto or vènet in Venetian, veneto in Italian; the variant spoken in Venice is called venexiàn/venesiàn or veneziano, respectively. Although referred to as an Italian dialect (Ven diałeto, It dialetto) even by its speakers, it is in fact a separate language, not a variety or derivative of Italian. Instead, Venetian differs both in grammar, phonetics, and vocabulary. It is usually classified as a Western Romance language, a branch of Romance to which Italian does not belong. Some authors include it among the Gallo-Italic languages, but by most authors, it is treated as separate. Typologically, Venetian has little in common with the Gallo-Italic languages of northwestern Italy, but shows some affinity to nearby Istriot. Venetian is not related to Venetic, an extinct Indo-European language that was
    6.33
    3 votes
    137

    Yuantang dialect

    • Language: Chinese, Hakka Language
    Yuantang is language game spoken by Hakka speakers at Yuantang (Chinese: 苑塘), a village in southern China. It is also known as the snake language. Example : 食饭 → 手习花散 [sit fan] → [siu jit fa san]; eat (rice) → hand + learn + flower + separation. Clearly, the words 食 and 饭 are each split into two sounds, the initial and the rime, thus 食 [sit] is made up of the initial of 手 [s] and the rime of 习 [it], and similarly, 饭 [fan] is [f] from 花 and [an] from 散. This is similar to the traditional Chinese practice of representing sounds by two characters known as fanqie. This practice also resembles Jin, another Sinitic language, in its process of splitting a monosyllabic word into two syllables. A similar process is also found in Mandarin. There is no solid evidence for the original of Yuantang dialect. But it is believed to be an invention of a local intellectual in Qing dynasty.
    6.33
    3 votes
    138

    Arabic, Tunisian Spoken Language

    • Language: Arabic Language
    Tunisian Arabic (locally: [tuːnsi] or derja) is a Maghrebi dialect of the Arabic language, spoken by some 11 million people. It is usually known by its own speakers as Derja, which means dialect, to distinguish it from Standard Arabic, or as Tunsi, which means Tunisian. It is spoken all over Tunisia, and merges, as part of a dialect continuum, into similar varieties in eastern Algeria and western Libya. Its morphology, syntax, pronunciation and vocabulary are quite different from Standard or Classical Arabic. Tunisian Arabic, like other Maghrebi dialects, has a vocabulary mostly Arabic, with significant Berber substrates, and many words and loanwords borrowed from Berber, French, Turkish, Italian and Spanish. Derja is mutually spoken and understood in the Maghreb countries, especially Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, but hard to understand for middle eastern Arabic speakers. It continues to evolve by integrating new French or English words, notably in technical fields, or by replacing old French and Spanish ones with Standard Arabic words within some circles. In Eastern Arab countries the similar term (العامية (al-)`āmmiyya) is more commonly used for the colloquial varieties of Arabic
    8.00
    1 votes
    139

    Bakhtiari dialect

    • Language: Luri language
    Bakhtiari dialect is a dialect of Luri spoken by Bakhtiari people in Chaharmahal-o-Bakhtiari, western Khuzestan and parts of Isfahan and Lorestan provinces. It is closely related to the Boir-Aḥmadī, Kohgīlūya, and Mamasanī dialects in northwestern Fars. These dialects, together with the Lori dialects of Lorestan (e.g. Khorramabadi dialect), are referred to as the “Perside” southern Zagros group, or Lori dialects. "Luri and Bakhtiari are much more closely related to Persian, than Kurdish." There do exist transitional dialects between Southern Kurdish and Lori-Bakhtiāri', and Lori-Bakhtiāri itself may be called a transitional idiom between Kurdish and Persian.
    8.00
    1 votes
    140

    Bron language

    Bron is an argot spoken by itinerant coppersmiths and fabric merchants in Miranda de Avilés (Principality of Asturias, Spain), Fornela (León, Spain) and Auvergne, France.
    8.00
    1 votes
    141
    Csángó

    Csángó

    • Language: Hungarian language
    The Csango people (Romanian: Ceangăi, Hungarian: Csángók) are a Hungarian ethnographic group of Roman Catholic faith living mostly in the Romanian region of Moldavia, especially in the Bacău County. Their traditional language, Csango, an old Hungarian dialect is still in use, though the larger part of them speak Romanian. The etymology has been explained by a Hungarian word meaning "which sounds unpleasant", referring to the peculiar sibilating way in which they pronounced certain Hungarian consonants. Perugia, 14 November 1234: Pope Gregory IX to Bela IV, king of Hungary "In the Cuman bishopric - as we were informed - is living a people called Vallah and others, Hungarians and Germans as well, who came here from the Hungarian Kingdom." Roman, 13 April 1562: Report of the Habsburg Agent, John Belsius, to the Emperor Ferdinand the First "On the day of the 10th of April, Despot Vodă left Hîrlău (Horlo) to Tîrgul Frumos (Zeplak = Szeplak) finally on the 12th to the fortress of Roman (Romanvarasch)" Despot Vodă ordered me to write these: Alexandru Moldoveanul forced all the nations, with no exceptions, to be baptized again and to follow the religion of the Moldavians, taking them away
    8.00
    1 votes
    142

    Harbin dialect

    • Language: Standard Mandarin
    The Harbin dialect (simplified Chinese: 哈尔滨话; traditional Chinese: 哈爾濱話; pinyin: hāěrbīn huà) is a variety of Mandarin Chinese spoken in and around the city of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang province. Harbin dialect is phonologically close to the Standard Mandarin language, but the dialect itself carries with it strong cultural and regional connotations. The vocabulary of Harbin Dialect is different from Standard Mandarin for two reasons. One of the sources of the distinct lexical features of the Harbin dialect is the area's colonial Russian influence. The Russian colonial period started in the 1900s, which marked the start of the influx of large amounts of Russian vocabulary, especially neologisms created in Europe and Russia that had never existed in Mandarin. The second source of lexical difference, which is common to all Northeastern Mandarin dialects, is the influence of the area's Manchurian heritage and ancestry. For exact details about the distinctive traits of Northeastern Mandarin, refer to Northeastern Mandarin.
    8.00
    1 votes
    143

    Lapurdian dialect

    Lapurdian or Labourdin (Lapurtera in Standard Basque, Lapurtara in Lapurdian) is a dialect of the Basque language spoken in the Lapurdi region of the Basque Country in France. Lapurdian is felt among other dialect speakers to be clear-cut and elegant, featuring like other Basque dialects on French soil aspired phonemes, and it has added along with Gipuzkoan and High Navarrese to the creation of the Batua, a standardised form of Basque intended for teaching and the media. Classic Lapurdian refers to the form of Lapurdian used in literature during the 17th century, especially by authors like Axular. The type of syllable stress in Hondarribian Basque is considered to be a remainder of the one that may have been used in Classic Lapurdian. Koldo Zuazo conflates Lapurdian and Lower Navarrese as a single primary dialect of Basque.
    8.00
    1 votes
    144

    Nord-gascon dialect

    Nord-gascon is a dialect of the Gascon language, belonging to the Occitan language spoken in Northern Aquitaine, for example in Bordeaux and Médoc. Only a minority of the persons from this area speak this dialect.
    8.00
    1 votes
    145

    Serbo-Romany dialect

    Serbo-Romany dialect is a mergant dialect of Romany spoken by some members of the Roma community in Serbia and the other former Yugoslav states.
    8.00
    1 votes
    146

    Languedocien dialect

    • Language: Occitan language
    Languedocien (French name) or Lengadocian (native name) is an Occitan dialect spoken by some people in the part of southern France known as Languedoc, Rouergue, Quercy, Agenais and Southern Périgord. About ten percent of the population of Languedoc are fluent in the language, and another 20 percent "have some understanding" of the language. All speak French as their first or second language. Languedocien is used primarily by rural people over age 50.
    5.25
    4 votes
    147

    Waitau

    • Language: Cantonese
    Weitou dialect (simplified Chinese: 围头话; traditional Chinese: 圍頭話; literally "walled (village) language"; Jyutping: Waidau Waa) is a dialect of Yue Chinese. It forms part of the Guan-Bao (莞宝片, Dongguan-Bao'an) branch of Yuehai, sometimes called Cantonese. It is spoken by the older generations in Shenzhen, and by those in the New Territories, Hong Kong. The Weitou dialect can be heard in Hong Kong TV dramas and movies, and is usually used to characterize characters who come from walled villages. For example, in the 1992 movie Now You See Love, Now You Don't《我爱扭纹柴》, the chief character, played by Chow Yun-fat who himself grown up in Lamma Island, consistently speaks the Weitou dialect. In a more general sense, Weitou Hua can refer to any Chinese language/dialect spoken in the villages of Shenzhen and Hong Kong in southern China, including Hakka and rural Yue dialects, in contrast to Cantonese (Guangfu) spoken by the majority of Hong Kong and Shenzhen residents. Zhang & Zhuang (2003:21-4) records the phonological systems of three varieties of the Weitou dialect spoken in Hong Kong. Following is the one of Fan Tin (蕃田), San Tin (in IPA). There are four tone contours, when the "entering
    5.25
    4 votes
    148
    Belgian French

    Belgian French

    • Language: French Language
    Belgian French (French: français de Belgique) is the variety of French spoken mainly in the French Community of Belgium, alongside related minority regional languages such as Walloon, Picard, Champenois and Lorrain (Gaumais). French was earlier extensively used also in Flanders, especially by the region's Francophone upper classes, and its usage has decreased primarily because of the efforts of the Flemish Movement and the rise of English as a popular alternative. The role of French remains a controversial topic in Flanders, especially concerning the municipalities with language facilities. French is nonetheless a commonly known second language in Flanders. Belgian French and the French of northern France are almost identical, but there are a few distinct phonological and lexical differences. Historically, French-speaking Belgium was never a single political entity until being unified under French rule during the French Revolution and Napoleonic rule. Prior to that, the region had never belonged to France. It was composed of the County of Hainaut (half of which was annexed by France under Louis XIV), the County of Namur, the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, the Principality of
    7.00
    2 votes
    149
    British English

    British English

    • Language: English Language
    British English (or BrEn, BrE, BE, en-UK or en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere. The Oxford English Dictionary applies the term to English "as spoken or written in the British Isles; esp[ecially] the forms of English usual in Great Britain", reserving "Hiberno-English" for the "English language as spoken and written in Ireland". Nevertheless, Hiberno-English forms part of the broad British English continuum. Others, such as the Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary, define it as the "English language as it spoken and written in England.". There are slight regional variations in formal written English in the United Kingdom. For example, although the words wee and little are interchangeable in some contexts, wee (as an adjective) is almost exclusively written by some people from some parts of northern Britain (and especially Scotland) or from Northern Ireland, whereas in Southern England and Wales, little is used predominantly. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The
    7.00
    2 votes
    150

    Central Russian dialects

    • Language: Russian Language
    Central or Middle Russian dialects is one of the main groups of the Russian dialects. Being of Northern Russian origin, however assumed many Southern Russian features. The official dialect (Standard Russian) originates from a dialect from this group. Central Russian is the transitional stage between the North and the South, so some of its dialects closer to the North has northern features, and those closer to the South has the southern ones.
    7.00
    2 votes
    151
    East Midlands English

    East Midlands English

    East Midlands English is a dialect traditionally spoken in those parts of English Midlands lying East of Watling Street (the A5 London - Shrewsbury Road). Today this area is represented by the counties of the East Midlands of England, (Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Rutland and Northamptonshire, see below). Like that of Yorkshire, the East Midlands dialect owes much of its grammar and vocabulary to Nordic influences, the region having been incorporated in the Norse controlled Danelaw in the late 9th century. At this time, the county towns of the East Midlands counties became Viking fortified city states, known as the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw. For example, the East Midlands word scraight ('to cry') is thought to be derived from the Norse, skrike in modern Scandinavian, also meaning to cry. The romantic English novelist, and East Midlander, D. H. Lawrence who was from the Nottinghamshire town of Eastwood wrote in the dialect of the Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Coalfield in several dialect poems as well as in his more famous works such as Lady Chatterley's Lover and Sons and Lovers. Though spoken less commonly today, the dialect of the East Midlands
    7.00
    2 votes
    152

    English English

    • Language: English Language
    The English language in England refers to the English language as spoken in England. These forms of English are a subsection of British English, as spoken throughout the United Kingdom. Other terms used to refer to the English language as spoken in England include: English English, Anglo-English, and English in England. The related term "British English" has "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word "British" and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity" but is usually reserved to describe the features common to English English, Welsh English, and Scottish English (England, Wales, and Scotland are the three traditional countries on the island of Great Britain; the main dialect of the fourth country of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, is Ulster English, which is generally considered a sub-dialect of Hiberno-English). There are many different accents and dialects throughout England and people are often very proud of their local accent or dialect. However, accents and dialects also highlight social class differences, rivalries, or other associated prejudices—as illustrated by George Bernard
    7.00
    2 votes
    153
    Finland-Swedish

    Finland-Swedish

    • Language: Swedish Language
    Finland Swedish (Swedish: finlandssvenska) is a general term for standard Finland Swedish and the closely related cluster of dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by the Swedish-speaking population as their mother tongue. For the most part, these dialects and the dialects spoken in Sweden are mutually intelligible, although some archaic Swedish dialects in Ostrobothnia are practically unintelligible to Swedish-speaking people in southern Finland (and in Sweden). Most Swedish-speaking Finns emphasize that Finland Swedish is not a language separate from the Swedish of Sweden. The Swedish dialects in Finland are considered varieties of Swedish, and the norm for written Standard Swedish is completely applicable also for Finland Swedish. Swedish as spoken in Finland is regulated by the Swedish Department of the Institute for the Languages of Finland. This regulation includes the officially stated aim of keeping Finland Swedish close to the Swedish as spoken in Sweden and strongly phrased advice against loanwords and calques from Finnish, which are usually incomprehensible to Swedes. An often repeated "fact" is that the municipality with the highest proportion of Swedish speakers in the
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    154
    Frisian language

    Frisian language

    • Language: Dutch Language
    The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 members of Frisian ethnic groups, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany. The Frisian languages are the second closest living languages to English, after Scots. However, modern English and Frisian are mostly unintelligible to each other. Frisian languages bear similarities to Low German, Dutch (from which many Frisian words have been borrowed), and Danish. Additional shared linguistic characteristics between the Great Yarmouth area, Friesland, and Denmark are likely to have resulted from the close trading relationship these areas maintained during the centuries-long Hanseatic League of the Late Middle Ages. There are three varieties of Frisian: West Frisian, Saterland Frisian, and North Frisian. Some linguists consider these three varieties, despite their mutual unintelligibility, to be dialects of one single Frisian language, while others consider them to be three separate languages, as do their speakers. Of the three, the North Frisian language especially is further segmented into several strongly diverse dialects. Stadsfries is not Frisian,
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    155

    Helsinki slang

    • Language: Finnish Language
    Helsinki slang or stadin slangi ("Helsinki's slang", from Swedish stad, "city"; see etymology) is a local dialect and a sociolect of the Finnish language mainly used in the capital Helsinki. It is characterized by its abundance of foreign loan words not found in the other Finnish dialects. Helsinki slang first evolved in the late 19th century as a sociolect of the multilingual Helsinki working class communities, where Swedish and Finnish speaking youth lived together with Russian, German and various other language minorities. Grammatically Helsinki slang is based on colloquial Finnish. It is characterized by a large number of words originally borrowed from Swedish, German and Russian, but nowadays chiefly English, vocabularies. The loanwords replace some of even the most mundane Finnish-language words (closest kin words, "food", "die" etc.) with foreign alternatives. However, when spoken by a native Finnish speaker, all words are inflected by the rules of spoken Finnish, and the language sounds distinctively Finnish. The language's history can generally be divided into the 'old' slang (vanha slangi) and the 'new' or 'modern' slang (uusi slangi). Old slang was common in Helsinki up
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    156

    Hida dialect

    • Language: Japanese Language
    The Hida dialect (飛騨弁, Hida-ben) is a Japanese dialect spoken in the Hida region of Gifu Prefecture, Japan. Along with the Mino dialect in the south, it is one of the two main dialects of Gifu Prefecture. It uses a number of non-standard words, for example:
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    157
    Ripuarian

    Ripuarian

    • Language: German Language
    Ripuarian (also Ripuarian Franconian or Ripuarisch Platt; natively Ripoarėsch) is a German dialect group, part of the West Central German language group. Together with the Moselle Franconian and Luxembourgish language, Ripuarian belongs to the larger Central Franconian dialect family and also to the Rhinelandic linguistic continuum with the Low Franconian languages. It is spoken in the Rhineland south of the Benrath line, from northwest of Düsseldorf and Cologne to Aachen in the west, and Waldbröl in the east. The language area also comprises the north of the German-speaking Community of Belgium as well as the southern edge of the Limburg province of the Netherlands, especially Kerkrade (Kirchroa). The name derives from the Ripuarian Franks (Rheinfranken), who settled in the area from the 4th century onwards. The most famous member is Kölsch, the local dialect of Cologne. Dialects belonging to the Ripuarian group almost always call themselves Platt like Öcher Platt (of Aachen) or Eischwiele Platt (of Eschweiler), Bocheser Platt (of Bocholtz) or Bönnsch Platt (of Bonn). Most of the more than one hundred Ripuarian dialects are bound to one specific village or municipality. Usually
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    158

    Skopska Crna Gora dialect

    The Skopska Crna Gora dialect (Macedonian: Скопскоцрногорски дијалект, Skopskocrnogorski dijalekt) is a member of the western subgroup of the northern group of dialects of the Macedonian language. The dialect is spoken on small territory northern of Skopje on the mountain Skopska Crna Gora. The name of the dialect is derived from the name of the mountain because there is no larger city in that territory. The Skopska Crna Gora dialect is spoken in the villages Kučevište, Čučer-Sandevo, Mirkovci and other smaller villages. Since this dialect is in the same group with the Lower Polog dialect, they share many similarities on morphological and phonological level. The phonological characteristics are nearer standard Serbian than Macedonian. There are many words which are typical of the Skopska Crna Gora dialect.
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    159
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    160

    Vevčani-Radožda dialect

    The Vevčani-Radožda dialect (Macedonian: Вевчанско-радошки дијалект, Vevčansko-radoški dijalekt) is a member of the western and north western subgroup of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language. Because of the old and rich tradition that this region has and because of the Vevčani Carnival, many old words are present in everyday communication of the people. The Vevčani-Radοža dialect is the smallest dialect among the others dialects of the Macedonian language. The dialect is spoken in the villages of Radožda, Vevčani, Mali Vlai in the Republic of Macedonia and the village of Lin in Albania. The dialect is close with the Struga, Korča, and Ohrid dialects.
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    161

    Orcadian dialect

    • Language: Scots Language
    Orcadian dialect is a dialect of Insular Scots, itself a dialect of the Scots language. It is derived from Lowland Scots with a degree of influence from the Norn language, which is an extinct North Germanic language. Orcadian is spoken in Orkney, north of mainland Scotland. The other Insular Scots dialect is Shetlandic, which shares some features with Orcadian.
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    3 votes
    162
    Swiss French

    Swiss French

    • Language: French Language
    Swiss French (French: Suisse Romand) is the name used for the variety of French spoken in the French-speaking area of Switzerland known as Romandie. Swiss French is not to be confused with Franco-Provençal/Arpitan (also spoken in Romandie) or Romansh (spoken in the Grisons), two other individual Romance languages. The differences between Swiss French and Parisian French are minor and mostly lexical: a Swiss French speaker would have no trouble understanding a French speaker, while a French speaker would encounter only a few unfamiliar words while listening to a Swiss French speaker. Swiss French, when compared with French of France, has a somewhat "sing-song" effect. Swiss French differs from the French of France to a far lesser extent than Swiss German differs from standard German. This was not always the case, as most of the dialects spoken in the Romandie died out and thus are no longer spoken or used. There is not a single standardized Swiss French language: different cantons (or even different towns in some cases) will use different vocabulary, often derived from the local regional language or from German, since Switzerland is predominantly German-speaking. Many Standard
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    3 votes
    163
    Canarian dialect

    Canarian dialect

    Canarian Spanish (Spanish: español de Canarias, español canario, el habla canaria, or dialecto canario) is a variant of standard Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands by the Canarian people. The variant is very similar to the Andalusian Spanish variety spoken in Andalusia and in much of southern Spain and (especially) to Caribbean Spanish and other Latin American Spanish dialects because of Canarian emigration to the Caribbean and Hispanic America over the years. Canarian Spanish, therefore, heavily influenced the development of Caribbean Spanish and other Latin American Spanish dialects. Hispanic America and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean islands were originally largely settled by colonists from Canary Islands and Andalusia, so the dialects of the islands were already quite close to Canarian and Andalusian speech. In the Caribbean, Canarian speech patterns were never regarded as foreign or overly distinct. The incorporation of the Canary Islands into the Crown of Castile began with Enrique III and ended with the Catholic Monarchs. The expeditions for their conquest started off mainly from ports of Andalusia and is the reason why the Andalusians predominated in the Canaries. There
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    3 votes
    164
    Bali Language

    Bali Language

    • Language: Indonesian Language
    Balinese or simply Bali is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by 3.3 million people (as of 2000) on the Indonesian island of Bali, as well as northern Nusa Penida, western Lombok and eastern Java. Most Balinese speakers also know Indonesian. In 2011, the Bali Cultural Agency estimates that the number of people still using Balinese language in their daily lives on the Bali Island does not exceed 1 million, as in urban areas their parents only introduce Indonesian language or even English, while daily conversations in the institutions and the mass media have disappeared. The written form of the Balinese language is increasingly unfamiliar and most Balinese people use the Balinese language only as a spoken tool with mixing of Indonesian language in their daily conversation. But in the transmigration areas outside Bali Island, Balinese language is extensively used and believed to play an important role in the survival of the language. The higher registers of the language borrow extensively from Javanese: an old form of classical Javanese, Kawi, is used in Bali as a religious and ceremonial language. The official spelling denotes both /a/ and /ə/ by a. However, a is usually pronounced
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    165
    Canadian English

    Canadian English

    • Language: English Language
    Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the variety of English spoken in Canada. English is the first language, or "mother tongue", of approximately 24 million Canadians (77%), and more than 28 million (86%) are fluent in the language. 82% of Canadians outside Quebec speak English natively, but within Quebec the figure drops to just 7.7% as most residents are native speakers of Quebec French. Canadian English contains elements of British English and American English in its vocabulary, as well as many distinctive Canadianisms. In many areas, speech is influenced by French, and there are notable local variations. The phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax and lexicon for most of Canada are similar to that of the Western and Midland regions of the United States. The Canadian Great Lakes region has similarities to that of the Upper Midwest & Great Lakes region and/or Yooper dialect (in particular Michigan which has extensive cultural and economic ties with Ontario), while the phonological system of western Canadian English is virtually identical to that of the Pacific Northwest of the United States, and the phonetics are similar. As such, Canadian English and American English are
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    166

    Cebuano Wikipedia

    The Cebuano Wikipedia (Cebuano: Wikipedya sa Sinugboanon) is the Cebuano-language edition of Wikipedia. Cebuano is the second most spoken language in the Philippines. The Cebuano Wikipedia, Ang Gawasnong Ensiklopedya, was started on December 2003. Currently, it is the third largest Philippine-language Wikipedia by the number of articles after the Waray-Waray and Tagalog Wikipedias. The Cebuano Wikipedia has the highest number of administrators per active users (14.89%). As of August 2012, it has about 43,000 articles.
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    167

    Galičnik dialect

    The Galičnik dialect (Macedonian: Галички дијалект, Galički dijalekt) or Mala Reka dialect (Macedonian: Малорекански дијалект, Malorekanski dijalekt) is a member of the subgroup of western and north western dialects of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language. The dialect is spoken on small territory on the mountain Bistra in western part of the Republic of Macedonia. The name of the dialect is derived by the biggest village in that area- Galičnik. Also the dialect is spoken in many other small villages including the village Gari. The Galičnik dialect is closely related with the Reka dialect which is spoken north-western of Galičnik dialect. This dialect is well known in Republic of Macedonia because of the archaic words that this dialect has. The dialect can be found in many historically important literary works for the Macedonian literature. One of the most important is Ǵorǵija Puleski and his dictionary of three languages. Traditional song from Galičnik, that is sung on the holiday Vasilica:
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    168
    Hohhot dialect

    Hohhot dialect

    • Language: Chinese, Jinyu Language
    Zhangjiakou-Hohhot dialect (simplified Chinese: 张呼片; traditional Chinese: 張呼片; pinyin: Zhānghūpiàn) is a dialect of Jin, one of the principal varieties of Chinese. It is colloquially referred to by native speakers as Cǐdì-huà (此地话; lit.: local speech, or "this-place speech"). It is spoken in the city of Hohhot, in Inner Mongolia, and Zhangjiakou in Hebei Province in China. One of its sub-branch is Hohhot dialect (simplified Chinese: 呼和浩特话; traditional Chinese: 呼和浩特話; pinyin: Hūhéhàotè huà), which is also locally referred as Hūshì-huà (呼市话; lit. Hu-city speech). The other sub-branch is Zhangjiakou dialect (simplified Chinese: 张家口话; traditional Chinese: 張家口話; pinyin: Zhāngjiākǒu huà). The two cities' "dialect" is not a singular entity. People in the Jiu-cheng area, especially the Muslim Hui minority speak in a dialect very similar to what is heard in neighbouring Shanxi province and is undoubtedly a branch of the Jin linguistic group. The Mandarin dialect in Xincheng District is a branched combination of the Jin language, Hebei dialect, Northeastern Mandarin, and elements of the Manchu language, caused by the migration patterns to the region. It has thus created an interesting and
    6.50
    2 votes
    169

    Juba Arabic language

    • Language: Arabic Language
    Juba Arabic is a lingua franca spoken mainly in Equatoria Province in South Sudan, and derives its name from the town of Juba, South Sudan. It is also spoken among communities of people from South Sudan living in towns in Sudan. The pidgin developed in the 19th century, among descendants of Sudanese soldiers, many of whom were forcibly recruited from southern Sudan. Residents of other large towns in South Sudan, notably Malakal and Wau, do not generally speak Juba Arabic, tending towards the use of Arabic closer to Sudanese Arabic, in addition to local languages. Juba derives from a pidgin based in Sudanese Arabic. It has a vastly simplified grammar as well as the influence of local languages from the south of the country. DeCamp, writing in the mid 1970s, classifies Juba Arabic as a pidgin rather than a creole language (meaning that it is not passed on by parents to their children as a first language), though Mahmud, writing slightly later, appears to equivocate on this issue (see references below). Mahmoud's work is politically significant as it represented the first recognition by a northern Sudanese intellectual that Juba Arabic was not merely 'Arabic spoken badly' but is a
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    170

    Madurai Tamil

    • Language: Tamil Language
    Madurai Tamil is the dialect spoken in the city of Madurai and over a vast geographical area of South Tamil Nadu, the area once ruled by the Pandiya Kings. It differs substantially from Nellai Tamil, a region which was also part of the Pandiya domain. The common dialect has made the term Madurai refer to a much larger area than it actually is. It is not uncommon for people from any of the above cities to introduce themselves as people of Madurai.
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    171

    Samogitian language

    • Language: Lithuanian language
    Samogitian (Samogitian: Žemaitiu ruoda, Lithuanian: Žemaičių tarmė) is a dialect of the Lithuanian language spoken mostly in Samogitia (in the western part of Lithuania). Attempts have been made to standardize it. The Samogitian dialect should not be confused with the middle dialect of the Lithuanian language as spoken between the 16th and 18th centuries, which was sometimes referred to as the Samogitian language. The Samogitian language, heavily influenced by Curonian, originated from the East Baltic proto-Samogitian dialect which was close to Aukstaitian dialects. During the 5th century Proto-Samogitians migrated from the lowlands of central Lithuania, near Kaunas, into the Dubysa and Jūra basins, as well as into the Samogitian highlands. They displaced or assimilated the local, Curonian-speaking Baltic populations. Further north, they displaced or assimilated the indigenous, Semigallian speaking peoples. Asimilation of Curonians and Semigallians gave birth for the 3 Samogitian subdialects: "Dounininkų", "Donininkų" and "Dūnininkų". In the 13th century Samogitia became a part of the Baltic confederation called Lietuva (Lithuania), which was formed by Mindaugas. Lithuania
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    172

    Upper Navarrese dialect

    Upper Navarrese (sometimes called High Navarrese) is a dialect of the Basque language spoken in the Navarre (Basque: Nafarroa or Nafarroa Garaia) community of Spain, as established by linguist Louis Lucien Bonaparte in his famous 1869 map. He actually distinguished two dialects: Meridional (area of Pamplona and south) and Septentrional. However, the southern varieties became extinct early in the 20th century. Koldo Zuazo divides Upper Navarrese into two dialects, Eastern and Western, which are no closer to each other than they are to Gipuzkoan, while the division lines between dialects are fuzzier than the clear-cut lines drawn by the prince Bonaparte.
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    173
    Vietnamese French

    Vietnamese French

    Vietnamese French (French: français du Viêt-nam) is a dialect of French spoken in Vietnam. Vietnam is the largest of the three Francophone nations in Asia, the others being Laos and Cambodia, and the language is spoken by over 5% of the population and sometimes used in international relations. The French language's presence in Vietnam began in the 18th century when French explorers and merchants began sailing near the Indochina coast. When the French replaced the Portuguese as the primary European power in Southeast Asia in the 1790s by helping to unify Vietnam under the Nguyen Dynasty and later attacking Da Nang and colonizing Southern Vietnam, they introduced the French language to locals. French became the governing language of French Indochina, which included present-day Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Many Vietnamese began learning French, which replaced the native Vietnamese and royal court Chinese languages and eventually the Vietnamese language's official script was in the Latin script. The building of missionary and government schools spread the French language among educated Vietnamese and soon became the language of the elite classes by the end of the 1800s. By the early
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    174
    African French

    African French

    • Language: French Language
    African French is the generic name of the varieties of French spoken by an estimated 115 million (2007) people in Africa spread across 31 francophone countries. This includes those who speak French as a first or second language in these 31 francophone African countries (dark blue on the map), but it does not include French speakers living in non-francophone African countries. Africa is thus the continent with the most French speakers in the world. French arrived in Africa as a colonial language. These African French speakers are now an important part of the Francophonie. French is mostly a second language in Africa, but in some areas it has become a first language, such as in the region of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, Libreville, Gabon and on the Island of Réunion. In some countries it is a first language among some classes of the population, such as in Tunisia and Morocco where French is a first language among the upper classes (many people in the upper classes are simultaneous bilinguals in Arabic/French), but only a second language among the general population. In each of the francophone African countries French is spoken with local specificities in terms of pronunciation and
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    175
    Albanian, Gheg Language

    Albanian, Gheg Language

    • Language: Albanian language
    Gheg (or Geg) is one of the two major varieties of Albanian language. The other one is Tosk, on which standard Albanian is based. The dividing line between these two varieties is the Shkumbin River, which winds its way through central Albania. Gheg is spoken in Northern Albania, Kosovo, northwestern Republic of Macedonia, southern Montenegro, Serbia, and Turkey. It is also spoken in parts of Sicily and southern Italy. There are still some authors who write in Gheg. Gheg is used on television and in newspapers in Kosovo only. Gheg has several dialects, notably: Italian linguist Carlo Tagliavini puts the Gheg speech of Kosovo and Macedonia in "Eastern Geg". Assimilations are common in Gheg, but are not part of the Albanian literary language which only follows Tosk Albanian.
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    176

    Austral Language

    • Language: Tahitian Language
    Austral (Reo Tuha’a pae) is a Polynesian language spoken by about 8000 people on the Austral Islands of French Polynesia. It is being supplanted by Tahitian.
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    177

    Boholano dialect

    Boholano (Cebuano: Binol-anon) is a variant of Cebuano spoken in the province of Bohol in the Philippines and eastern parts of Southern Leyte. It is sometimes described as a separate language. Boholano, especially as spoken in central Bohol, can be distinguished from other Cebuano variants by a few phonetic changes: The Boholano dialects of western Bohol, including Tagbilaran, though, are almost indistinguishable from other dialects near Cebu City. Furthermore, the phonetic changes detailed above, especially the latter two, can also be observed in the Cebu City dialect.
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    178
    Javanese Language

    Javanese Language

    • Language: Indonesian Language
    Javanese language (Javanese: basa Jawa (ꦧꦱꦗꦮ), Indonesian: bahasa Jawa) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia. There are also pockets of Javanese speakers in the northern coast of western Java. It is the native language of more than 75,500,000 people (more than 40% of total population in Indonesia). Javanese is part of the Austronesian family, and is therefore related to Indonesian and other Malay varieties. Most speakers of Javanese also speak Indonesian: for official and commercial purposes, and to communicate with non-Javanese Indonesians. There are speakers of Javanese in Malaysia (concentrated in the states of Selangor and Johor) and Singapore. Some people of Javanese descent in Suriname (the Dutch colony of Suriname until 1975) speak a creole descendant of the language. Javanese is a Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian language. It is otherwise not particularly close to other languages and is difficult to classify, though not too dissimilar from neighboring languages such as Malay, Sundanese, Madurese, and Balinese. The language is spoken in Central and East Java, as well as on the north coast of West Java. In
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    1 votes
    179
    Kesen dialect

    Kesen dialect

    Kesen dialect (気仙方言, Kesen hōgen) or Kesen (ケセン語, Kesengo, Keseng̃ó) is a dialect of Japanese spoken in Kesen County, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Kesen has been described by Harutsugu Yamaura (山浦玄嗣, Yamaura Harutsugu). Yamaura considers Kesen an independent language, related to both Japanese and Ainu languages, but this is not accepted by other linguists. Kesen is in common use for speech in Kesen County, but was unwritten until Harutsugu Yamaura developed a writing system in 1986 (see below). Unlike the Ryukyuan languages in Okinawa, the status of Kesen as an independent language, rather than a dialect, is disputed. Iwate language activist and medical doctor Harutsugu Yamaura described the dialect in various books, including a dictionary, a grammar, and a translation of the New Testament. Yamaura also created an orthography for Kesen using two writing systems, the first based on the Latin script, and the second on the Japanese writing system. Yamaura has forwarded the theory Kesen should not be considered a Japanese dialect, but an independent language in its own right with an Ainu substrate, a theory that is controversial. According to Yamaura, Kesen was strongly influenced by the
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    180
    Old Latin

    Old Latin

    • Language: Latin Language
    Old Latin (also called Early Latin or Archaic Latin) refers to the Latin language in the period before the age of Classical Latin; that is, all Latin before 75 BC. The term prisca Latinitas distinguishes it in New Latin and Contemporary Latin from vetus Latina, in which "old" has another meaning. The use of "old", "early" and "archaic" has been standard in publications of the corpus of Old Latin writings since at least the 18th century. The definition is not arbitrary but these terms refer to writings with spelling conventions and word forms not generally found in works written under the Roman Empire. This article presents some of the major differences. The concept of Old Latin (Prisca Latinitas) is as old as the concept of Classical Latin, both dating to at least as early as the late Roman Republic. In that time period Marcus Tullius Cicero, along with others, noted that the language he used every day, presumably the upper-class city Latin, included lexical items and phrases that were heirlooms from a previous time, which he called verborum vetustas prisca, translated as "the old age/time of language." During the classical period, Prisca Latinitas, Prisca Latina and other
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    1 votes
    181

    Ribagorçan

    Ribagorçan (autonym: ribagorsano, IPA: [riβaɣoɾˈsano] or ribagorzano, IPA: [riβaɣoɾˈθano]; Aragonese: ribagorzano, IPA: [riβaɣoɾˈθano]; Standard Catalan: ribagorçà, IPA: [riβəɣurˈsa]) is the name given to a number of Romance dialects spoken in the modern territories of the medieval County of Ribagorza, in northern Spain. The area corresponds to the modern administrative units of Ribagorza and La Litera/Llitera, in the province of Huesca, Aragon, and Alta Ribagorça in the province of Lleida, Catalonia. Today, depending on provincial and regional perspectives, Ribagorçan may be described in Aragon as transitional to Catalan, or in Catalonia as transitional to Aragonese. Anyway, eastern dialects in the area tend to be classified as simply Catalan, and western dialects as simply Aragonese, with a small central area of more difficult classification. Historically, the county and its dialect was influenced by its political alliances, conquerors and rulers—ranging from the Romans to the Goths, Navarrese, the Franks, Moors, Castilians and Catalans. As such, the spoken language evolved from a variant of Vulgar Latin and was influenced along the way by its geo-linguistic neighbors—Basque,
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    1 votes
    182
    Ser-Drama-Lagadin-Nevrokop dialect

    Ser-Drama-Lagadin-Nevrokop dialect

    The Ser-Drama-Lagadin-Nevrokop dialect is a transitional South Slavic dialect which belongs to both the southeastern group of Bulgarian language, and the southeastern subgroup of dialects of the Macedonian language. The dialect is dynamic and is well known for the shortening of the words, and also characterised by the excessive use of /ʲa/ for the Proto-Slavic yat even in cases where Standard Bulgarian has /ɛ/, a feature which is typical for a number of dialects spoken in southern and southwestern Bulgaria (e.g. the Thracian dialect). The Ser-Drama-Lagadin-Nevrokop dialect is closely related to the neighbouring dialects, including other eastern Bulgarian dialects and also with the Maleševo-Pirin, Strumica and Solun-Voden dialects of Macedonian/Bulgarian. The Serres-Nevrokop dialect is treated both in the contexts of Bulgarian and Macedonian dialectology. As described in the section about its range, the vast majority of its speakers identify as Bulgarians. In the context of Bulgarian dialectology, the dialect is situated East of the Yat boundary and thus is considered to belong to the Eastern Bulgarian dialects, more exactly to the Rup subgroup The previous range of the dialect
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    183
    Solun dialect

    Solun dialect

    The Solun dialect is a South Slavic dialect spoken in the Solun neighborhood (today Thessaloniki Prefecture, Greece) best represented in the villages of Visoka and Suho, near Lagadin, to the north of Solun. In addition to these, similar dialect is spoken in the villages of Zarovo, Negovan, Gradobor, Ayvatovo, Novo selo, Balevets, Kirechkyoy, Kliseli (Ilinets). It is universaly accepted that the Solun dialect has preserved best the features of the Cyril-Methodius language. It is named after the local Slavic toponyms for the city of Solun (Thessaloniki) and is recognised as a separate dialect (govor) only in Bulgarian dialectology where it is grouped with Drama-Ser dialect in the group West-Rup dialects which are transitory between the Western and Eastern Bulgarian dialects. In Bulgarian dialectology, the dialect spoken around Voden and Kukush, as well as in the region in the Lower Vardar, west from Solun, is characterized as a separate Western Bulgarian Kukush-Voden dialect. Macedonian dialectology does not distinguish Solun dialect from Ser-Drama-Lagadin-Nevrokop dialect, and consider this group as a transitional dialect between Macedonian and Bulgarian language. Two villages in
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    1 votes
    184

    Fulfulde, Maasina Language

    • Language: Fula language
    Maasina Fulfulde (or Maasinankoore in the language itself) is a Fula language spoken primarily as a first language by Fula people and associated groups in the Inner Niger Delta area traditionally known as Macina in the center of what is now the West African state of Mali. It is also spoken elsewhere in Mali, parts of Cote d'Ivoire and Northern Ghana. Maasinankoore is the most widely spoken dialect of Fula spoken in Mali and is a national language of in the country. According to Ethnologue there are two dialects - Western and Eastern - and "There are some dialect differences, but popular opinion is that all dialects in Mali are inherently intelligible." It is written in a modified Latin alphabet but historically was written in the Arabic script. Maasina Fulfulde is grammatically basically the same as other varieties of Fula, with some particularities. For instance there are some slight differences in some verb endings. The counting system retains an interesting recapitulation of older systems historically used by other groups in what is now Mali. Tens from 60-90 have alternative versions not used in other varieties of Fula. In the table the general form, which would be understood by
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    3 votes
    185

    Quebec French

    • Language: French Language
    Quebec French (French: français québécois) or Québécois French is the predominant variety of the French language in Canada, in its formal and informal registers. Quebec French is used in everyday communication, as well as in education, the media, and government. Canadian French is a frequently used umbrella term for the varieties of French used in Canada including Quebec French. Formerly it was used to refer solely to Quebec French and the closely related varieties of Ontario and Western Canada, but is no longer usually felt to exclude Acadian French, which is also spoken in some areas of eastern Quebec. The often derogatory term joual is commonly used to refer to a variety of Quebec French associated with the working class, characterized by certain features perceived as incorrect. Quebec French is not derived, as is sometimes misstated, from Old French – a much earlier ancestor that spanned the 10th to 14th centuries and more closely resembled Latin than modern French does. The origins of Quebec French actually lie in the 17th- and 18th-century regional varieties (dialects) of early modern French, also known as Classical French, and of other Oïl languages (Saintongeais, Norman,
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    Souletin dialect

    Souletin (Basque: Zuberera), is the Basque dialect spoken in Soule, France. In English sources, the Basque-based term Zuberoan is sometimes encountered. In Standard Basque, the dialect is known as Zuberera (the province name Zuberoa plus the language-forming suffix -era), locally variously as Üskara, Xiberera or Xiberotarra. In Spanish, Souletino or Suletino are used. Sometimes the southern dialect named Roncalese was included within Zuberoan. A Basque language variety close to Zuberoan may have extended farther east into the Central Pyrenees, as attested by place-names and historic records about Basque language peoples ("Wascones, qui trans Garonnam et circa Pirineum montem habitant", in the Royal Frankish Annals). Zuberoan is marked by influences from the Occitan language (in particular from its Béarnese form), especially in the lexicon. In contrast to other Basque dialects that have five vowels, Zuberoan has six, with a [y] (written ü) that is markedly noticeable to speakers of other varieties of Basque. However, the sixth vowel may have resulted from an influence of the Béarnese vowel shift some centuries ago, and is not an enduring ancient vowel otherwise vanished from
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    Gorgani dialect

    Gorgani is a dialect (or a locally spoken sub-language) of the Tabarian (Mazandarani) language The dilect is named after Gorgan historical district derived from Old Persian Varkana (Greek Hyrkania). Gorgani appears to be an extinct dialect though it is still referenced in current language codex's. The dialect is part of a group of languages known as Northwest Iranian, after their geographic distribution. Documents have been found dating back to the 14th and 15th centuries which consists of an extensive set of Horufi movement documents.
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    Low Franconian languages

    Low Franconian languages

    • Language: German Language
    Low Franconian, Low Frankish, or Istvaeonic, is a group of several West Germanic languages spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium (Flanders), in the northern department of France, in western Germany (Lower Rhine), as well as in Suriname, South Africa and Namibia that originally descended from Old Frankish. The Frankish language, also Old Frankish, was the language of the Franks. Classified as a West Germanic language, it was spoken in Merovingian times, preceding the 7th century. Austrasia formed the north-eastern portion of the Kingdom of the Merovingian Franks, comprising parts of the territory of present-day western Germany, eastern and northern France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands. The Franks first established themselves in the Netherlands and Flanders before they started to fight their way down south and east. The language had a significant impact on Old French. It evolved into Old Low Franconian in the north and it was replaced step by step by Langue d'oïl in the south. Old Frankish is not directly attested except in glosses and small phrases. It has been reconstructed from loanwords in Old French and from Old Dutch (see also Comparative method). One known
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    189

    Marquesan language

    • Language: Tahitian Language
    Marquesan is a collection of East-Central Polynesian dialects, of the Marquesic group, spoken in the Marquesas Islands of French Polynesia. They are usually classified into two groups, North Marquesan and South Marquesan, roughly along geographic lines. The North Marquesan dialects are spoken on the islands of Ua Pu and Nuku Hiva, and South Marquesan dialects on the islands of Hiva ʻOa, Tahuata and Fatu Hiva. The dialects of Ua Huka are often incorrectly classified as North Marquesan; they are instead transitional. While the island is in the northern Marquesas group, the dialects show more morphological and phonological affinities with South Marquesan. The North Marquesan dialects are sometimes considered two separate languages: North Marquesan and Tai Pi Marquesan, the latter being spoken in the valleys of the eastern third of the island of Nuku Hiva, in the ancient province of Tai Pi. The most striking feature of the Marquesan languages is their almost universal replacement of the /r/ or /l/ of other Polynesian languages by a /ʔ/ (glottal stop). Like other Polynesian languages, the phonology of Marquesan languages is characterized by a paucity of consonants and a comparative
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    190

    Saxon, Upper Language

    • Language: German Language
    Upper Saxon (German: Obersächsisch is an East Central German dialect spoken in much of the modern German State of Saxony and in the adjacent parts of Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia. Though colloquially called "Saxon" (Sächsisch), it is not to be confused with the Low Saxon dialect group in Northern Germany. Upper Saxon is closely linked to the Thuringian dialect spoken in the adjacent areas to the west. The Upper Saxon dialect evolved as a new variety in the course of the medieval German Ostsiedlung (eastern settlement) from about 1100 onwards. Settlers descending from the stem duchy of Saxony speaking Old Saxon, but also from Thuringia, moved into the Margraviate of Meissen beyond the Elbe and Saale rivers then populated by Polabian Slavs. The importance of the Upper Saxon chancery German rose with establishment of the Saxon electorate. In the context of the Bible translation by Martin Luther, it played a large part in the development of the Early New High German language as a standard variety. Spoken by leading communists descending from the Central German industrial area like Walter Ulbricht, Sächseln was commonly perceived as the colloquial language of East Germany by West German
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    191

    Struga dialect

    The Struga Dialect (Macedonian: Струшки дијалект, Struški dijalekt) is a member of the western and north western subgroup of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language. The dialect is spoken in Struga, Pogradec, Pustec and up to the Golo Brdo and in the surrounding hinterland. The Dialect has many similarities with the Vevčani-Radοža, Ohrid and Korča dialects.
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    192
    Ulster Irish

    Ulster Irish

    • Language: Irish
    Ulster Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the Province of Ulster. The largest Gaeltacht region today is in County Donegal, so that the term Donegal Irish is often used synonymously. Nevertheless, records of the language as it was spoken in other counties do exist, and help provide a broader view of Ulster Irish. When the recommendations of the first Comisiún na Gaeltachta were drawn up in 1926, there were regions qualifying for Gaeltacht recognition in the Sperrin Mountains on the border between County Tyrone and County Londonderry, as well as in the northern Glens of Antrim around Rathlin Island. The report also makes note of small pockets of Irish speakers in northwest County Cavan, southeast County Monaghan, and the far south of County Armagh. However, these small pockets vanished early in the 20th century while the Gaeltacht of the Sperrin Mountains survived until the 1950s and the Glens of Antrim Gaeltacht survived until the 1970s. The last native speaker of Rathlin Island Irish died in 1985. In the 1960s, six families in Belfast formed the Shaw's Road 'Gaeltacht', which has survived and even grown. The Irish-speaking area of the Falls Road in West Belfast
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    193
    West Frisian dialect

    West Frisian dialect

    The West Frisian dialect (Dutch: West-Fries) is a Dutch dialect spoken in the contemporary West Friesland region, Wieringen, Wieringermeer, the coastal area from Den Helder to Castricum, and the island of Texel. It is a Hollandic Dutch dialect but has affinities to the Frisian language. It is not to be confused with the language of the Friesland Province internationally indicated with the name West Frisian language (in Dutch simply Fries) although they are related to each other. The dialect in itself is not a fixed one, as there is a diverse number of subdialects (sometimes referred to as the West Frisian dialect group) that consists of some widely-spoken regional dialects, namely Wierings in Wieringen, Tessels or Texels in Texel and the dialect of Vlieland known as Vlielands, which has fallen into disuse. The smaller regions and villages, such as Zijpe, Andijk, Enkhuizen and Schagen, have some distinct differences between them. Slightly more different from the rest of the group is Derps, the dialect of the village Egmond aan Zee. The dialect descends from an older form of the Hollandic dialect. Only about 7 to 9% of the people speak the strong dialect or a mixture of strong and
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    194
    Cardiff dialect

    Cardiff dialect

    The Cardiff accent and dialect, also known as Cardiff English is the regional accent of English, and a variety of Welsh English, as spoken in and around the city of Cardiff, and is somewhat distinctive in Wales, compared to other Welsh accents. Its pitch is described as somewhat lower than that of Received Pronunciation, whereas its intonation is closer to dialects of England rather than Wales. It is estimated that around 500,000 people speak Cardiff English. The accent is generally limited to inside the city's northern boundary, rather than extending to the nearby South Wales Valleys where the spoken variety of English is different and accent is much stronger Welsh from that of Cardiff. However, the accent area spreads east and west of the city's political borders, covering much of the former counties of South Glamorgan and south-west Gwent, including Newport and coastal Monmouthshire. The dialect developed distinctively as the city grew in the nineteenth century, with an influx of migrants from different parts of Britain and further afield. The Cardiff accent and vocabulary has been influenced in particular by those who moved there from the English Midlands, the West Country,
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    195
    Bedawi Arabic

    Bedawi Arabic

    • Language: Arabic Language
    Bedawi Arabic (also known as Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Arabic [ISO 639-3], Bedawi, Levantine Bedawi Arabic) is a variety of Arabic spoken by Bedouins mostly in eastern Egypt, and also in Jordan, Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Syria. Dialects include Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Arabic, South Levantine Bedawi Arabic, and North Levantine Bedawi Arabic.
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    Cantabrian dialect

    Cantabrian dialect

    Cantabrian or Montañés (that is, from the Mountain) is the name given to the indigenous language of Cantabria, Spain and especially to the variety most distinct from standard Castilian. According to various criteria, Cantabrian may include varieties spoken in various parts of Cantabria, in the border areas of Biscay, and in nearby mountain regions of the provinces of Burgos and Palencia. Within Cantabria, the dialect is spoken in the west and some zones of the Valley of Pas and the Valley of Soba in the east. It is a transition language that can be considered either a dialect of Astur-Leonese, an ancient dialect of Castilian, or an independent Romance language in its own right. Cantabrian has two subdialects: Western and the Eastern. The dividing zone between the variants is between the Saja River and the Pas. Pas dialect is the Eastern variant with the particularity of being specially well preserved. Cantabrian was listed in the UNESCO Red Book of the World’s Languages in Danger in 2009, in the Astur-Leonese linguistic group as a definitely endangered language. Central Cantabrian Na, que entornemos, y yo apaecí esturunciau y con unos calambrios que me jiendían de temblíos... El
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    197
    East Franconian German

    East Franconian German

    • Language: German Language
    East Franconian (Ostfränkisch) is a dialect which is spoken in northern Bavaria and other areas in Germany around Nuremberg, Bamberg, Coburg, Würzburg, Hof, Bayreuth, Bad Mergentheim, and Crailsheim. The major subgroups are Unterostfränkisch (spoken in Lower Franconia and southern Thuringia), Oberostfränkisch (spoken in Upper and Middle Franconia) and Südostfränkisch (spoken in some parts of Middle Franconia and Hohenlohe). In the transitional area between Rhine Franconian in the northwest and the Austro-Bavarian dialects in the southeast, East Franconian has elements of Central German and Upper German. The same goes only for South Franconian German in adjacent Baden-Württemberg. East Franconian is one of the German dialects with the highest number of speakers. The scope of East Franconian is disputed, because it overlaps with neighbour dialects like Bavarian and Swabian in the south, Rhine Franconian in the west and Upper Saxon in the north. Some links in German language: A high German - east franconian dictionary with sound files: http://franken-wiki.de/index.php/Kategorie:Fr%C3%A4nkisch-W%C3%B6rterbuch East Franconian
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    198

    Munster Irish

    • Language: Irish
    Munster Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Munster. Gaeltacht regions in Munster are found in the Dingle Peninsula Gaeltacht of west Kerry, in the Iveragh Peninsula in south Kerry, in Cape Clear Island off the coast of west Cork, in West Muskerry; Coolea, Ballingeary, Ballyvourney, Kilnamartyra, and Renaree of central Cork; and in the Ring Gaeltacht in west Waterford. The north and west of Corca Dhuibhne are today the only place in the province of Munster where Irish has survived as the daily spoken language of most of the community although the language is spoken on a daily basis by a minority in other official Gaeltacht areas in the province. Historically, the Irish language was spoken throughout the province of Munster and Munster Irish had some influence on those parts of Connacht and Leinster bordering Munster such as Kilkenny, Wexford and south Galway and the Aran Islands. Munster dialect played an important role in the Gaelic Revival of the early 20th century. The noted author Peadar Ua Laoghaire wrote in Munster dialect and stated that he wrote his novel Séadna to show younger people what he viewed as good Irish. Peig Sayers was illiterate,
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    199

    Southern Russian dialects

    • Language: Russian Language
    Southern Russian is one of the main groups of Russian dialects. Some of these features such as akanye/yakanye, a debuccalized or lenited /ɡ/, a semivowel /w~u̯/ and palatalized final /tʲ/ in 3rd person forms of verbs are also present in modern Belarusian and some dialects of Ukrainian (Eastern Polesian), indicating a linguistic continuum.
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    200

    Vaudois dialect

    Vaudois is an extinct dialect of the Franco-Provençal language, which was spoken in and around the Canton of Vaud in Switzerland.
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    201

    Versilian dialect

    • Language: Italian Language
    The dialetto versiliese is a Tuscan subdialect. Called on Versilia's historical area, have some differences by basic Tuscan dialect basic, like elision of the word and the lack of the slide word.Other characteristic are the replacement of C with G (example Bruciato/Brugiato - Burnt) or the saving of some letter on the spoken dialect (Inferriata/Inferiata - grating). Pefana, Pefana, sei la mi dama sei la mi sposa tirimi giᅢᄍ qualche cosa. Avere la vergogna sotto la sᅢᄇla de le scarpe Have the shame under shoe's sole Are shameless and without decorum Come Santalᅢᄇ che ppiantava i cchiᅢᄇdi nᅢᄅ buchi fatti Like Santalᅢᄇ: that hammer the nail on the done holes By inept person, a good-for-nothing Dare a ddintᅢᄄnde che cCristo ᅢᄄ morto dal sonno Look for believe someone who Christ as dead when he sleeping Look for believe an absurdity D'ogosto (agosto), moglie mia un ti conoscio On August, oh wife know you not Duve si mangiuca Dio ci conduca Where we snack God lead us ᅢノ mmᅢᄅglio avᅢᄅ paura che ttoccalle Better the fear, which touch the problems Le soccetᅢᅠ sempre in caffo, e ttre dᅢᄄn troppi The society every odd, ant three are too much
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    202
    West Central German

    West Central German

    • Language: German Language
    West Central German belongs to the Central, High German dialect family in the German language. Its dialects are thoroughly Franconian and comprise the parts of the Rhinelandic continuum located south of the Benrath line isogloss, including the following sub-families: Apart from West Central German on the southern edge and in south-east Franconian dialects are turning to Upper German. This transition area between Central German and Upper German is captured by the dialect families of South Franconian German and East Franconian German, colloquially miscalled Franconian as dialects of this sub-family are spoken all over Franconia. West Central German was spoken in several settlements throughout America, for example in the Amana Colonies.
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    203

    Ajami dialect

    Ajami (Achomi) is an Iranian language spoken in the south of Iran, mostly southern Fars province and Hormozgan province. Cities that speak this dialect include Lar, Evaz, Gerash, Khonj, Bastak, Khour, Fedagh along with many others. Achomi is close to Persian in some aspects but it is an independent language. In fact Achomi grammar is far from Persian. Iranian people who have migrated from South of Iran to the Persian Gulf at the early 20th century still speak this dialect in their homes, however, this variety has been highly influenced by the Arabic language. Achomi is not the official name of this Language. It's just the name that was given to it by its speaker in the Persian Gulf to differentiate it from Persian in Iran. In fact in Achomi language achom or achem(in some dialects)( in fact in Kurdish and particularly Southern Kurmanji, achim means I am going)These dilects or as much related to Persian as Kurdish ,but are much closer to Kurdish language than Persian. If these people originally emigrated to southern Iran to stay Sunnis only confirm the fact that these people are Kurdish and their languages are a Kurdish dilect influenced heavily by Persian and Arabic.The safavid
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    204
    Jersey Legal French

    Jersey Legal French

    • Language: French Language
    Jersey Legal French, also known as Jersey French, is the official dialect of French used administratively in Jersey. Since the anglicisation of the island, it survives as a written language for some laws, contracts, and other documents. Jersey's parliament, the States of Jersey, is part of the Assemblée parlementaire de la Francophonie. The English language has been allowed in parliamentary debates since February 2, 1900; the current use of French in the parliament is generally restricted to formalities (prayers, ceremonies, formulæ). Jersey's two official languages are French and English. Jersey Legal French is not to be confused with Jèrriais, a variety of the Norman language also called Jersey Norman-French, spoken in the island. The French of Jersey differs little from that of France. It is characterised by several terms particular to Jersey administration and a few expressions imported from Norman. It is notable that the autochthonous appellation of the archipelago is îles de la Manche (Channel Islands) — îles anglo-normandes (Anglo-Norman Islands) is a somewhat recent invention in continental French. Like in Swiss French and Belgian French, the numbers 70 and 90 are septante
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    205
    Lancashire dialect and accent

    Lancashire dialect and accent

    • Language: English Language
    Lancashire dialect and accent (Lanky) refers to the vernacular speech in Lancashire, one of the counties of England. Simon Elmes' book Talking for Britain said that Lancashire dialect is now much less common than it once was, but it is not yet extinct. As the county encompassed what are now Greater Manchester, Merseyside and part of Cumbria until 1974, the accents found in these areas are also covered by this article. The historic dialects have received some academic interest, most notably the two-part A grammar of the dialect of the Bolton area by Graham Shorrocks. Lancashire emerged during the Industrial Revolution as a major commercial and industrial region. The county encompassed several hundred mill towns and collieries and by the 1830s, approximately 85% of all cotton manufactured worldwide was processed in Lancashire. Preston, Accrington, Blackburn, Bolton, Chorley, Darwen, Oldham, and Burnley were major cotton mill towns during this time. Blackpool was a major centre for tourism for the inhabitants of Lancashire's mill towns, particularly during wakes week. The county today comprises a much smaller area as it was subject to a significant boundary reform in 1974, which
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    206

    Northern Russian dialects

    • Language: Russian Language
    The northern Russian dialects make up one of the main groups of the Russian dialects. Northern dialects are characterized by a number of words like, изба ('log hut'), квашня, озимь ('winter crop'), лаять ('to bark'), ухват, орать ('to plough'), жито ('rye'), беседки ('gathering'), шибко ('very much'), баской ('beautiful') and others. It has also about 200 words of Uralic origin.
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    207

    Vermont English

    • Language: English Language
    Vermont English is a dialect of English language spoken in the U.S. state of Vermont. Although a New England state, the variety of English spoken in most parts of the state generally has more in common with the accent spoken in nearby New York State and parts of the Midwest. Features include:
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    208
    Vidin-Lom dialect

    Vidin-Lom dialect

    The Vidin-Lom dialect is a Bulgarian dialect spoken in the regions of Vidin and Lom and partially in the regions of Berkovitsa and Montana in northwestern Bulgaria. The dialect is part of the Northwestern Bulgarian dialects. The most significant feature of the dialect, as in all Western Bulgarian dialects, is the pronunciation of Old Church Slavonic ѣ (yat) only as ɛ instead of formal and Eastern Bulgarian я/е (ʲa/ɛ) – бел/бели instead of бял/бели. Most other phonological and morphological characteristics of the dialect are the same as the general features typical for all Northwestern Bulgarian dialects (cf. article for details). Стойков, Стойко: Българска диалектология, Акад. изд. "Проф. Марин Дринов", 2006
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    209

    Mino dialect

    The Mino dialect (美濃弁, Mino-ben) is a Japanese dialect spoken in the southern area, made up of the former area known as Mino Province, of Gifu Prefecture, Japan. It is also referred to as the Tōnō dialect (東濃弁 Tōnō-ben) by residents of the Tōnō region of the prefecture, which is the eastern part of the former province. It is sometimes also referred to as the Gifu dialect (岐阜弁 Gifu-ben), but that can sometimes include Hida dialect, which is in the northern part of Gifu Prefecture. Generally speaking, it has many words and grammatical structures that are shared with other nearby dialects, such as the Nagoya and Mikawa dialects in neighboring Aichi Prefecture. However, it also shares features with the Kansai dialect. Up until the Taishō period, the Japanese used ja (じゃ) for copulas and adjectival nouns, which has since evolved into de aru (である). Because the Mino dialect continued to use ja after this evolution, it is still occasionally referred to as a "ja-language." However, the Mino dialect has since evolved, too, and ya (や) is the general term used for copulas and adjectival nouns. Standard Japanese emphasizes copulas with yo, such as da yo (だよ), but the Mino dialect attaches te
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    210
    Ohrid dialect

    Ohrid dialect

    The Ohrid dialect (Macedonian: Охридски дијалект, Ohridski dijalekt) is a member of the western and north western subgroup of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language. The dialect is spoken in the region around the city Ohrid up to the southern point of the Ohrid Lake. Except in the city of Ohrid, the dialect is spoken in the villages Trpejca, Peštani, Elešec and many others smaller villages in that area. This dialect is known among the Macedonians as a dialect of excessive use of the suffix -t and in some extend shortening of the words. The Ohrid dialect is also part of the Macedonian literature, especially with the works of Grigor Prličev with his Biography, Skenderbeg and Serdarot. The Ohrid dialect is closely related with the Struga and Upper Prespa dialects. "...Da vi kaža i drugo: Opisanata vo Armatolos Neda ne e druga ocvan majka, i nejzinoto snovidenie - majčino mi snovidenie. Tolku e verno oti majčinata ljubov pomaga i vo spisanijata..." - Autobiography by Grigor Prličev
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    211
    Sunda Language

    Sunda Language

    • Language: Indonesian Language
    Sundanese (Basa Sunda, in Sundanese script ᮘᮞ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ, literally "language of Sunda") is the language of about 27 million people from the western third of Java or about 15% of the Indonesian population. It appears to be most closely related to Madurese and Malay, and more distantly related to Javanese. It has several dialects, conventionally described according to the locations of the people: Priangan, which covers the largest area of Sunda (Tatar Pasundan in Sundanese), is the most widely spoken type of Sundanese language, taught in elementary till junior-high schools (equivalent to ninth-year school grade) in West Java and Banten Province. Sundanese can be written in different writing systems, the Sundanese script (Aksara Sunda) and Pegon in historical times, and in modern times the Latin script. Sundanese orthography is highly phonetic (see also Sundanese script). There are five pure vowel sounds: a /ɑ/, é /ɛ/, i /i/, o /ɔ/, u /ʊ/, and two neutral vowels; e /ə/, and eu /ɤ/. The consonantal phonemes (18—but see below) are transcribed with the letters p, b, t, d, k, g, c (pronounced /tʃ/), j, h, ng (/ŋ/, occurs initially), ny /ɳ/, m, n, s /s/, w, l, r (trilled or flapped), and y
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    212

    Talian

    Talian is a dialect of the Venetian language spoken by 4,000,000 people mainly in the wine-producing area of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. Talian is sometimes called Vêneto (brasileiro). Talian is also spoken in other parts of Rio Grande do Sul as well as in parts of the neighboring state of Santa Catarina to the north. Despite the similar names, Talian is not derived from standard Italian (actually called grammatical Italian in Brazil), but is mainly a mix of Venetian dialects influenced by other dialects of North Italy as well as local Portuguese: indeed it is also called Veneto (brasileiro). Italian settlers first began arriving into this region in a wave of immigration lasting from approximately 1875 to 1914. These settlers were mainly from Veneto, a region at the north of Italy, where Venetian was spoken, but also from Trentino and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. These immigrants settled as smallholders in the region of Encosta da Serra. There they created three settlements: Conde D'Eu (now, Garibaldi, Rio Grande do Sul), Dona Isabel (now Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul), and Campo dos Bugres (now Caxias do Sul). As more immigrants arrived, the Italian settlement
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    213
    Acadian French

    Acadian French

    • Language: French Language
    Acadian French (French: Français acadien), is a regionalized dialect of Canadian French. It is spoken by the francophone population of the Canadian province of New Brunswick, by small minorities in areas in the Gaspé region of eastern Quebec, by small groups of francophones in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, in the Magdalen Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and a small swath of the northernmost portion (St. John's Valley) of the U.S state of Maine. The remaining majority of predominately-francophone Quebec speak Quebec French. Since there was no linguistic contact with France from the late eighteenth century until the twentieth century, Acadian French retained features that died out during the French standardization efforts of the nineteenth century. That can be seen in examples like: Many aspects of Acadian French (vocabulary, alveolar "r", etc.) are still common in rural areas in the West of France. Speakers of Metropolitan French and even of other Canadian dialects sometimes have minor difficulties understanding Acadian French. See also Chiac, a variety with strong English influence, and Saint Mary's Bay French, a distinct variety of Acadian French spoken around Clare
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    214
    Bavarian Language

    Bavarian Language

    • Language: German Language
    Bavarian (German:  Bairisch (help·info), Austro-Bavarian: Boarisch, IPA: /bɑrɪʃ/, is a major group of Upper German varieties spoken in the southeast of the German language area: Bavaria. The Bavarian regiolect has its origins in the Germanic tribe known as the Bavarii, who established a tribal duchy, which covered much of what is today Bavaria and some of Austria in the early Middle Ages and was eventually subdued by Charlemagne. However, they gradually migrated down the Danube and into the Alps to all those areas where Bavarian dialects are spoken. German linguists refer to this speech variety, a group of three East Upper German dialects, as Bairisch "Bavarian". They are divided into Oberpfälzisch (Upper Palatinian, i.e. North[ern] Bavarian), Donaubairisch (Danube or Danubian Bavarian, i.e. Central Bavarian) and Alpenbairisch (Alpine Bavarian, i.e. South[ern] Bavarian). These areas had been provinces of the Roman Empire, and the languages of the population were based on Latin, but this language was replaced by the Germanic dialects of the immigrants as the previous inhabitants were assimilated or forced out. This development contrasts with that in the provinces of Gallia and
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    215

    Cheshirian dialect

    • Language: English Language
    The Cheshire dialect is a North-west Midlands English dialect which lies between the dialects of the surrounding counties of Lancashire, Staffordshire, Shropshire and Derbyshire. The dialect has existed for centuries, distinct from standard English; Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and the other works of the 14th-century Gawain poet are written in this dialect, as is the religious poem St. Erkenwald, which dates from the late fourteenth or early fifteenth century. Cheshire author Alan Garner states "Of course [the Cheshire dialect] has changed, as all living language changes, since the time of the Gawain poet. But when I read sections of the poem aloud to my father, he knew, and used, more than 90% of the vocabulary; and the phonetics of the vowels have scarcely changed." Early references include English proverbs and dialect words collected by John Ray in the 17th century, and a glossary of Cheshire words, compiled by Roger Wilbraham in 1817 and expanded in 1826. These sources were expanded by Egerton Leigh in a glossary published posthumously in 1877, which was an attempt to preserve a way of speech that was already under threat from "emigration, railways, and the blending of
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    Jeju dialect

    • Language: Korean Language
    The Jeju dialect, also Jeju language or Jejumal, is the Korean dialect, or in some classifications Koreanic language, of Jeju Island in South Korea—apart from the Chuja dialect of the former Bukjeju County area of Jeju City, which is a variety of Jeolla dialect. Jeju differs greatly from the dialects of the mainland, and preserves many archaic words which have since been lost in other Korean dialects. It has borrowed words from foreign languages that are not found in standard Korean, including 240 from Mongolian, 53 from Chinese, 50 words from Japanese, and 22 from Manchu. There are also many unique words which have not been traced to external sources, and which possibly derive from the language of the ancient kingdom of Tamna. A notable difference between Jeju dialect and dialect of mainland Korea is a lack of formality and honorific deference to elders. For example, while a speaker of the Seoul dialect might say 안녕하세요 annyeonghaseyo ("Hello") to an older person, a speaker of the Jeju dialect would say 반갑수다 ban-gapsuda, which is roughly equivalent to "Howdy". To many mainlanders, a child saying this to an adult would be appalling, but on the islands, a more "egalitarian" form of
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    Lower Polog dialect

    Lower Polog dialect

    The Lower Polog dialect (Macedonian: Долнополошки дијалект, Dolnopološki dijalekt) is a member of the western subgroup of the Northern group of dialects of the Macedonian language. It is spoken by the population in north-western Republic of Macedonia. This dialect is spoken in the city Tetovo, in the bigger villages Jegunovce, Vratnica, Tearce, Lešok, Neprošteno, Brvenica, and in all other smaller villages in this area. One of the main characteristics that this dialect has is the use of the words таќе (taḱe)- on that way and ваќе (vaḱe)- on this way. The Lower Polog dialect can be found in several books, two of which were written by Kiril Peychinovich, namely "Ogledalo" and "Uteshenia greshnim". There are many characteristics that are connected with this dialect but the most significant are: Below is written a popular folk song from Lower Polog region. The song is in Lower Polog dialect.
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    Waziri language

    • Language: Pashto language
    Wazirwola (Pashto: وزیر واله wazīrwāla, meaning "of the Wazirs"), or Waziri (Pashto: وزیري), is an east-central Pashto dialect spoken in North Waziristan, South Waziristan, FR Bannu and parts of Tank in Pakistan, and in certain adjacent districts of Paktika, Khost and Paktia provinces of Afghanistan. The Wazir dialect is almost identical to the dialect spoken around Urgon (eastern Paktika province) and the Banucei dialect of Bannu, and somewhat resembles the dialect spoken by Khattaks in Karak. The dialects of Greater Paktia like Khosti and Zadrani are also very closely related, except that they are of the harsh northern variety. Wazirwola differs significantly in pronunciation and grammar from the standard literary Pashto based on the larger Kandahar, Kabul and Peshawar dialects. The vowels [a], [ɑ], [u] and [o] of standard Pashto yield [ɑ], [o], [i] and [e] respectively, so [paʂto] becomes [pɑɕte] in Waziri. A special feature of Waziri is that the phonemes [ʃ] and [ʂ], along with their voiced counterparts, [ʒ] and [ʐ], have merged into the phonemes [ɕ] and [ʑ], both of which also exist in the nearby Ormuri language of Kaniguram, South Waziristan. The Pashto alphabet has no symbol
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    Arabic, Gulf Spoken Language

    • Language: Arabic Language
    Gulf Arabic (also known as Khaliji, al-lahja al-khalijiya is a variety of the Arabic language spoken around the shore of the Persian Gulf such as in Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman. Some notable characteristics that set it apart from other Arabian dialects are the presence of Persian loanwords and a pronunciation of k as ch (kalb "dog," read as chalb); q as g (daqiqa "minute," read as dagiga); and, in some instances, the pronunciation j as y (jeeb "bring" (masc), read as yeeb).
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    Brabantian

    Brabantian

    • Language: Dutch Language
    Brabantian or Brabantish, also Brabantic (Dutch: Brabants [ˈbraː.bɑnts]), is a dialect group of the Dutch language. It is named after the historical Duchy of Brabant which corresponded mainly to the Dutch province of North Brabant, the Belgian provinces of Antwerp and Flemish Brabant, as well as the institutional Region of Brussels-Capital (where its native speakers have become a minority) and the province of Walloon Brabant (where the use of French has caused the dialect to become extinct). Brabantian expands into small parts in the west of Limburg while its strong influence on the Flemish dialects in East-Flanders weakens towards the west. In the northwest of North Brabant (Willemstad), Hollandic is spoken. Conventionally, the South Guelderish dialects are distinguished from Brabantian, though there are no objective criteria apart from geography to do this. Because of the relatively large area in which Brabantian is spoken, it can be roughly divided in three sub-dialects: Brabantian is not recognized as a minority language in the Netherlands. Standard Dutch is partly based on Brabantian. About one third of the Dutch-speaking population lives in the Brabantian dialect zone. In
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    Erkech dialect

    Erkech dialect

    The Erkech dialect is a Bulgarian dialect, which is part of the Balkan group of the Eastern Bulgarian dialects. It originates from two villages in the eastern parts of the Balkan Mountains, Kozichino (formerly Erkech) near Pomorie and Golitsa south of Varna. As a result of the mass population movements that affected eastern Bulgaria during the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, speakers of the dialect have established numerous colonies in the regions of Provadia, Varna, Novi Pazar, Balchik, Silistra and Pomorie, thus significantly expanding the range of the dialect. The most significant feature of the dialect, as in all Balkan dialects, is the pronunciation of Old Church Slavonic ѣ (yat) as ʲa or ɛ, depending on the character of the following syllable. Due to the relative isolation of the two villages in the past, the Erkech dialect has a number of idiosyncratic features that separate it from the other Balkan dialects: Most of the other phonological and morphological characteristics of the Erkech dialect are similar to the general features typical for all Balkan dialects, cf. article for details. Стойков, Стойко: Българска диалектология, Акад. изд. "Проф. Марин Дринов",
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    Sussex dialect

    Sussex dialect

    The Sussex dialect is a dialect that was once widely spoken by those living in the historic county of Sussex in southern England. Much of the distinctive vocabulary of the Sussex dialect has now died out, although a few words remain in common usage and some individuals still speak with the traditional Sussex accent. The Sussex dialect is a subset of the Southern English dialect group. Historically, there were three main variants to the dialect: west Sussex (west of Shoreham and the river Adur), mid Sussex (between the Adur and Hastings) and east Sussex (from Hastings eastwards). There were also differences between downland and Wealden communities. In particular, the people of the Weald were thought to have the most impenetrable accents. The Sussex dialect shows remarkable continuity: the three main dialect areas reflect the historic county's history. The west and mid dialect areas reflect the ancient division of Sussex between East and West, which until the creation of the rape of Bramber in the 11th century lay along the river Adur. The eastern dialect area reflects the unique history of the Hastings area, which was home to the kingdom of the Haestingas until the 8th
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    Swiss German Language

    Swiss German Language

    • Language: German Language
    Swiss German (German: Schweizerdeutsch, Alemannic German: Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in Switzerland and in some Alpine communities in Northern Italy. Occasionally, the Alemannic dialects spoken in other countries are grouped together with Swiss German, as well, especially the dialects of Liechtenstein and Austrian Vorarlberg, which are closely associated to Switzerland's. Linguistically, Swiss German forms no unity. The linguistic division of Alemannic is rather into Low, High and Highest Alemannic, varieties of all of which are spoken both inside and outside of Switzerland. The reason "Swiss German" dialects constitute a special group is their almost unrestricted use as a spoken language in practically all situations of daily life, whereas the use of the Alemannic dialects in the other countries is restricted or even endangered. The dialects of Swiss German must not be confused with Swiss Standard German, the variety of Standard German used in Switzerland. Unlike most regional languages in modern Europe, Swiss German is the spoken everyday language of all social levels in industrial cities, as well as in the
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    Albanian, Tosk Language

    Albanian, Tosk Language

    • Language: Albanian language
    Tosk is the southern dialect of the Albanian language. The line of demarcation between Tosk and Gheg (the northern dialect) is the Shkumbin River. Tosk is the basis of the standard Albanian language. Tosk may also refer to the Tosk-speaking Albanian population of southern Albania, subgroups of which include the Myzeqars of Myzeqe, Labs of Labëria and Chams of Çamëria. The Arvanites of Greece and Arbëreshë of Italy are descendants of Tosk-speaking settlers, as are the original inhabitants of Mandritsa in Bulgaria. Tosk, in its narrowest sense, may be applied to the people of Toskëria, the region to the north of the Vjosë river and south of the Shkumbin river, in the territory of Fier County. However, the name Toskëria itself is often used to name entire Tosk-speaking parts of Albania, in contrast to northern Gegëria.
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    Central Austro-Bavarian

    The Central Bavarian Germanic dialects forming a subgroup of the Bavarian dialects. The subgroup covers all dialects spoken along the rivers Isar and Danube, on the northern side of the Alps. Central Bavarian dialects, also known as Central Austro-Bavarian, are spoken in Munich, Upper Bavaria, Lower Bavaria, southern Upper Palatinate, the Swabian district of Aichach, the northern parts of the State of Salzburg, Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Vienna (see Viennese German) and the Northern Burgenland). There are noticeable differences in the language within the group, but changes historically occur along a west-east dialect continuum. That means that the languages of Vienna and Munich are very different from each other, but the dialects of any two neighboring towns in between will be quite similar. However, due to influences of the corresponding political centers, discontinuous change is nowadays noticeable along the national border between Austria and Germany. Generally, Viennese has some characteristics differentiating it from other Bavarian dialects due to the influence of languages spoken by people moving to Vienna from many areas of Austria-Hungary during the 19th century. A
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    Connacht Irish

    Connacht Irish

    • Language: Irish
    Connacht Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Connacht. Gaeltacht regions in Connacht are found in Counties Mayo (notably Tourmakeady, Achill Island and Erris) and Galway (notably in parts of Connemara and on the Aran Islands). The Mayo and Galway varieties differ from each other in a variety of ways, as Mayo is geographically between Galway and Donegal, so Mayo Irish has a number of features in common with Donegal that Galway does not have. Some differences between Mayo and Galway are seen in the lexicon: Some words used in Connacht Irish that aren't found in other dialects include: Variant spellings include: Variants distinctive of, but not unique to Connacht include: The phonemic inventory of Connacht Irish (based on the accent of Tourmakeady in Mayo) is as shown in the following chart (see International Phonetic Alphabet for an explanation of the symbols). Symbols appearing in the upper half of each row are velarized (traditionally called "broad" consonants) while those in the bottom half are palatalized ("slender"). The consonant /h/ is neither broad or slender. The vowels of Connacht Irish are as shown on the following chart. These positions
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    Ecclesiastical Latin

    Ecclesiastical Latin

    • Language: Latin Language
    Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Liturgical or Church Latin) is the Latin used by the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church in all periods for ecclesiastical purposes. Having developed as a style of Late Latin called sermo humilis, used to preach and otherwise communicate to the people in ordinary language, it can be distinguished from Classical Latin by some lexical variations, a simplified syntax in some cases, and, commonly, in modern times, an Italianate pronunciation. It appears in various contexts, including theological works, liturgical rites, and dogmatic proclamations, and in various styles: as syntactically simple as in the Vulgate, as hieratic as in the Roman Canon of the Mass, as terse and technical as the language of Aquinas' Summa Theologica, and as Ciceronian as in Pope John Paul II's encyclical letter Fides et Ratio. In late antiquity and in the early Middle Ages the intended audience or use determined the style the ecclesiastical writer employed; in modern times it depends on the context. Christian Latin refers to the Latin employed in their preaching and writing by Christians of ancient times. The Church issued the dogmatic definitions of the first seven General
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    Limousin language

    Limousin language

    • Language: Occitan language
    Limousin (Occitan: Lemosin) is a dialect of the Occitan language, spoken in the three departments of Limousin, parts of Charente and the Dordogne in the southwest of France. The first Occitan documents are in this dialect, particularly the Boecis, written around the year 1000. Limousin is used primarily by people over age 50 in rural communities. All speakers speak French as a first or second language. Due to the French single language policy, it is not recognised by the government and might be disappearing. A revivalist movement around the Felibrige and the Institut d'Estudis Occitans is active in Limousin (as well as in other parts of Occitania). Most speakers and academics consider Limousin to be a dialect of Occitan. For more detailed information on this question, see the section on Occitan dialects and codification. The following reproduces the first article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."
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    Võro dialect

    Võro dialect

    The Võro dialect is one of the historic dialects of the Estonian language, spoken in Southeastern Estonia roughly in the historic county of Võrumaa.
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    Western Lombard

    • Language: Lombard Language
    Western Lombard is a Romance language spoken in Italy, in the Lombard provinces of Milan, Monza, Varese, Como, Lecco, Sondrio, a small part of Cremona (except Crema and its neighbours), Lodi and Pavia, and the Piedmont provinces of Novara, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola and a small part of Vercelli (Valsesia), and Switzerland (Canton Ticino and part of Grischun). After the name of the region involved, land of the former Duchy of Milan, this language is often referred to as Insubric (see Insubria and Insubres) or Milanese, or, after Clemente Merlo, Cisabduano (literally "of this side of Adda River"). In Italian-speaking contexts, Western Lombard is often called a dialect of Italian. Western Lombard and Standard Italian are very different. Some speakers of Lombard varieties may have difficulty understanding each other and require a standard to communicate, but all Western Lombard varieties are mutually intelligible. Western Lombard is relatively homogenous (much more so than Eastern Lombard language), though it does present a number of variations, mainly in relation to the vowels /o/, /ɔ/ and the development of /ts/ into /s/. At the present time, Western Lombard has no official status in
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    Aostan French

    • Language: French Language
    Aostan French (French: franᅢᄃais d'Aoste) is the dialect of French spoken in the Aosta region of Italy, where there is a significant Francophone population.
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    Arabic, Sudanese Spoken Language

    • Language: Arabic Language
    Sudanese Arabic is the variety of Arabic spoken throughout Sudan. It has much borrowed vocabulary from the local languages (El Rotana). This has resulted in a variety of Arabic that is unique to Sudan, reflecting the way in which the country has been influenced by both African and Arab cultures. Some of the tribes in Sudan still have similar accents to the ones in Saudi Arabia. In 1888 the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain claimed that the Arabic spoken in Sudan was "a pure but archaic Arabic". The pronunciation of certain letters was like Syrian, and not Egyptian, such as g being the pronunciation for Qaf and J being the pronunciation for Jim. Sudanese Arabic is distinct from Egyptian Arabic and does not share some of the characteristic properties of that dialect despite the overall similarity of the two dialects. The Arabic letter ج maintains an archaic pronunciation [ɡʲ] in Sudanese (other dialects typically have [dʒ], [ʒ] or [j], while Egyptian Arabic has [ɡ]). Sudanese Arabic also maintains an archaic rendering of qaf as [ɢ] (Voiced uvular plosive) while Egyptian (like some other modern Urban dialects) renders it as [ʔ]. The uvular rendering of
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    Kičevo-Poreče dialect

    Kičevo-Poreče dialect

    The Kičevo-Poreče dialect (Macedonian: Кичевско-поречки дијалект, Kičevsko-porečki dijalekt) is a member of the central subgroup of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language. The dialect is spoken in a vast area in the Republic of Macedonia and mainly in the cities Kičevo and Makedonski Brod. It is also native to the villages of the region Porečje, such as Samokov and those around Kičevo. Because of the migration of the population from Porečje, the dialect is spoken in the region of Polog and in the capital Skopje. The Kičevo-Poreče dialect is closely related to the Prilep-Bitola dialect, Upper Polog dialect with which they share many common characteristics. This dialect can be found in many books and novels, and one of the more popular is the novel "Milion mačenici" by Risto Krle. The Kičevo-Poreče dialect has a significantly small number of Serbian and Turkish loan words than the North Macedonian dialects. A short story on Poreče dialect: A short story on Kičevo dialect:
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    Kumanovo dialect

    Kumanovo dialect

    The Kumanovo dialect (Macedonian: Кумановски дијалект, Kumanovski dijalekt) is a member of the eastern subgroup of the Northern group of dialects of the Macedonian language. It belongs to the so called Prizren-Timok dialects, also known as Torlakian. The dialect is typical for the northern dialect of the Macedonian language and is very well known because of the use of some cases, such as the locative case. The Kumanovo dialect is spoken mainly in the city of Kumanovo and the surrounding villages. The dialect is closely related with the neighboring Kriva Palanka dialect. The Kumanovo dialect can be found in the literal works, such as the famous play Lenče Kumanovče written by Vasil Iljoski in1928. The Kumanovo dialect is especially popular sources of humor in the spoken media, whereas the print media tend to favor West dialect forms forhumorous anecdotes, quotations in local news stories. The most significant example where Kumanovo dialect is used in humorous way is the festival Tumba Fest.
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    Lwów dialect

    • Language: Polish Language
    The Lwów dialect (Polish: gwara lwowska, Ukrainian: Львівська ґвара) is a subdialect (gwara) of the Polish language characteristic of the inhabitants of the city of Lviv (Polish: Lwów, Ukrainian: Львів), now in Ukraine. Based on the substratum of the Lesser Polish dialect, it was heavily influenced by borrowings (mostly lexical) from other languages spoken in Central Europe, notably German and Yiddish, but also by Czech, Ukrainian, and Hungarian. One of the peculiarities of the Lviv dialect was its popularity. Unlike many other dialects of the Polish language, it was not seen by its speakers as inferior to literary Polish or denoting people of humble origin. Because of that it was being used both by common people and university professors alike. It was also one of the first Polish dialects to be properly classified and to have a dictionary published. Despite that, the best known form of the Lviv dialect was the Bałak, a sociolect of the commoners, street hooligans and youngsters. The Lwów dialect emerged in 19th century and gained much popularity and recognition in the 1920s and 1930s, in part due to countrywide popularity of numerous artists and comedians using it. Among them were
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    Medieval Latin

    Medieval Latin

    • Language: Latin Language
    Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors, medieval Latin should not be confused with Ecclesiastical Latin. There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin ends and medieval Latin begins. Some scholarly surveys begin with the rise of early Ecclesiastical Latin in the middle of the 4th century, others around AD 500, and still others with the replacement of written Late Latin by written Romance languages starting around the year 900 (see under Late Latin). Medieval Latin had an enlarged vocabulary, which freely borrowed from other sources. It was heavily influenced by the language of the Vulgate, which contained many peculiarities alien to Classical Latin that resulted from a more or less direct translation from Greek and Hebrew; these peculiarities mirrored the original not only in its vocabulary, but also in its grammar and syntax. Greek provided much of the technical vocabulary of Christianity. The various
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    Minangkabau Language

    • Language: Indonesian Language
    The Minangkabau language (autonym: Baso Minang(kabau); Indonesian: Bahasa Minangkabau) is an Austronesian language, spoken by the Minangkabau of West Sumatra, the western part of Riau, South Aceh Regency, the northern part of Bengkulu and Jambi, also in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau, who often trade or have a restaurant. The language is also a lingua franca along the western coastal region of the province of North Sumatra, and is even used in parts of Aceh, where the language is called Aneuk Jamee. It is also spoken in some parts of Malaysia, especially Negeri Sembilan. Due to great grammatical similarities between the Minangkabau language and Malay, there is some controversy regarding the relationship between the two. Some see Minangkabau as a dialect of Malay, while others think of Minangkabau as a proper (Malay) language. Besides Indonesia, Minangkabau is also spoken in Malaysia, by some descendants of migrants from the Minang-speaking region in Sumatra (Tanah Minang, or Land of the Minang). Significant numbers of the early migrants settled in what is now the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan; this Negeri Sembilan Malay is known as Bahaso Nogori /
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    Norfolk dialect

    • Language: English Language
    The Norfolk dialect, also known as Broad Norfolk, is a dialect that was once, and to a great extent still is, spoken by those living in the county of Norfolk in England. It employs distinctively unique pronunciations, especially of vowels; and consistent grammatical forms that differ markedly from standard English. Portrayal of the Norfolk dialect and accent in films and TV is often regarded as poor (it is notoriously difficult for 'foreigners' to imitate) and the treatment of it in the television drama All the King's Men in 1999, in part prompted the foundation of the Friends of Norfolk Dialect (FOND), a group formed with the aim of preserving and promoting Broad Norfolk. The group campaigns for the recognition of Norfolk as a dialect, and for the teaching of "Norfolk" in schools. FOND aims to produce a digital archive of recordings of people speaking the dialect's traditional words. In July 2001 the group was awarded £4000 from the National Lottery in aid of recording equipment for this purpose. Arnold Wesker's 1959 play Roots made good use of authentic Norfolk dialect. During the 1960s, Anglia Television produced a soap opera called "Weavers Green" which used local characters
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    Quzhou dialect

    • Language: Chinese, Wu Language
    Quzhou Dialect (衢州話; pronounced [dʒytɕiɯʔuɑ] in Quzhou dialect) is a dialect of Wu Chinese spoken in Quzhou. There are at least the following rimes: 姆 [m], 魚 [ŋ], 爾 [ɫ], 試 [ʐ] 水 [ɥ], 去 [i], 布 [u], 雨 [y] 家 [ɑ], 謝 [iɑ], 瓜 [uɑ] 菜 [e̞], 快 [ue̞] 走 [ɘɪ], 會 [uɘɪ] 包 [ɔ], 表 [iɔ] 勾 [ɤ], 九 [iɯ] 南 [ə], 官 [uə], 捐 [yə] 變 [ie] 三 [æ], 慣 [uæ] 本 [ən], 金 [iɲ], 昏 [uən], 運 [yɲ] 打 [ã], 兩 [iã], 昌 [uã] 方 [ɒ̃], 旺 [iɒ̃], 光 [uɒ̃] 公 [oŋ], 窘 [ioŋ] 六 [əʔ], 业 [iɘʔ], 國 [uəʔ], 肉 [yəʔ] 脱 [ənʔ], 衢 [ɥ] 白 [ɐ̞ʔ] -aq, 弱 [iɐ̞ʔ], 划 [uɐ̞ʔ] Quzhou dialect is considered to have seven tones. However, since the tone split dating from Middle Chinese still depends on the voicing of the initial consonant, these constitute just three phonemic tones: pin, shang, and qu. (Ru syllables are phonemically toneless.) Yin Pin 陰平 [˦] 江天飛空 Yang Pin 陽平 [˩˩˨] 來同魚頭 (Yin) Shang 陰上 [˧˦] 懂紙古口 Yang Qu 陽去 [˧˩] 外地路道 Yin Qu 陰去 [˥˨] 對去馬你 Yang Ru 陽入 [˩˨̚] 六肉白石 Yin Ru 陰入 [˥̚] 各黑出脫 [ni ŋu kəʔ põjɤ ue] Literal meaning:(2nd person singular) (1st person singular) (genitive) (friend) (particle) Meaning: You are my friend. Compare with Japanese: "あなたは私の友達だよ.", or "anata wa watashi no tomodachi dayo"。In this case, "啘", resembles Japanese "だよ". [ɡi ɳi lɔsʐ ue,
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    Sankethi

    • Language: Tamil Language
    Sankethi is distinct from Kannada and is now an independent language according to Dravidian linguists such as Hampa Nagarajaiah. Many still call it a dialect of Kannada in keeping with tradition. It is to be noted that Sankethi can hardly be understood by native Kannada speakers. The language has certainly been influenced by and borrowed from Kannada and Sanskrit, at the same time much of the language retains its original characteristics. It shares similarities with Malayalam as well, as it is believed to have originated from the region referred in modern days as Kerala-Tamil Nadu border and they must have spoken a similar tongue in the days gone. Sankethi has also retained the proto-Dravidian elements in some places. The language is highly developed and differentiated in terms of the number of sounds used. It uses all the sounds in Kannada or Sanskrit plus a few more. In particular, the inflection of the sound "a" can change the meaning significantly. "à" can be called the interrogative as it seems to be a development of "e" and gives the meaning of interrogation when placed initially while "a" gives an affirmative meaning. This sound can of course occur in other places and cause
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    Sognamål dialect

    Sognamål (literally "Sogn language") is a Western Norwegian dialect which is spoken in the area of Sogn. One of the most prominent features of Sognamål is the pronunciation "ao" instead of "å" in many words, similar to how the letter "á" is pronounced in Modern Icelandic. The folk/black metal band Windir from Sogndal used the Sognamål dialect in their lyrics.
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    Southern Austro-Bavarian

    Southern Austro-Bavarian

    Southern Bavarian, or Southern Austro-Bavarian, is a cluster of Germanic dialects of the Bavarian group. They are primarily spoken in the Austrian federal-states of Tyrol, Carinthia and Styria, in the southern parts of Salzburg and Burgenland as well as in the Italian province of South Tyrol. There is also a small region in German Upper Bavaria around Garmisch-Partenkirchen where the dialect is also spoken. The speech area historically included the former linguistic enclaves in Carniola (present-day Slovenia) around Gottschee (Gottscheerish in the Gottschee region), Sorica (Zarz) and Nemški Rovt (Deutsch Ruth). The Cimbrian language still spoken in several language-islands in north-eastern Italy (Friuli, Veneto and Trentino) mostly counts as a separate Bavarian language variant.
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    Syrian Arabic

    • Language: Arabic Language
    Syrian Arabic (Arabic: اللهجة السورية‎) is a variety of Arabic spoken in Syria. Syrian Arabic proper is a form of Levantine Arabic, and may be divided into South Syrian Arabic, spoken in the cities of Damascus, Homs and Hama, and North Syrian Arabic, spoken in the region of Aleppo. Allied dialects are spoken in the coastal mountains. Lebanese Arabic is in some ways part of the South Syrian family, but is more properly viewed as a transitional dialect between it and Palestinian Arabic. Due to Syria's long history of multiculturalism and foreign imperialism, Syrian Arabic exhibits a vocabulary strata that includes word borrowings from Turkish, Kurdish, Armenian, Syriac, French, English, and Persian. Syrian Arabic is written right to left. Other forms of Arabic natively spoken in Syria, but not forming part of the "Syrian Arabic" branch, include: In each of the above areas, people use different patterns of speech and different vocabularies (synonyms). Representatives of all groups may be found and heard in the capital Damascus and in Syrian songs and movies. The diagnostic features of Syrian Arabic (also found in Lebanese Arabic and urban Palestinian Arabic) are: Within Syria itself,
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    Teteven dialect

    Teteven dialect

    The Teteven dialect is a Bulgarian dialect, which is part of the Balkan group of the Eastern Bulgarian dialects. It is spoken in the town of Teteven and several neighbouring villages and is almost completely surrounded by the Central Balkan dialect, except on the west where it borders on the Western Bulgarian Botevgrad dialect. The most significant feature of the dialect, as in all Balkan dialects, is the pronunciation of Old Church Slavonic ѣ (yat) as ʲa or ɛ, depending on the character of the following syllable. Most of the other phonological and morphological characteristics of the Erkech dialect are similar to the general features typical for all Balkan dialects, cf. article for details. Стойков, Стойко: Българска диалектология, Акад. изд. "Проф. Марин Дринов", 2006
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    Tuscan dialect

    Tuscan dialect

    • Language: Italian Language
    The Tuscan language (lingua toscana) or Tuscan dialect (dialetto toscano) is an Italo-Dalmatian language spoken in Tuscany, Italy. Standard Italian is based on Tuscan, specifically on its Florentine variety. Italian became the language of culture for all the people of Italy, thanks to the prestige of the masterpieces of Dante Alighieri, Francesco Petrarca, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini. It would later become the official language of all the Italian states and of the Kingdom of Italy, when it was formed. At no time, however, has Standard Italian been identical to genuine Tuscan. The Tuscan language is a dialect complex composed of many local variants, with minor differences among them. The main subdivision is between Northern Tuscan dialects and Southern Tuscan dialects. The Northern Tuscan dialects are (from east to west): The Southern Tuscan dialects are (from east to west): Excluding the inhabitants of Massa-Carrara province, who speak an Emilian-type dialect, around 3,500,000 people speak the Tuscan dialect. The Tuscan dialect as a whole has certain defining features, with subdialects that are distinguished by minor details. A phonetic
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    Upper Polog dialect

    The Upper Polog dialect (Macedonian: горнополошки дијалект, gornopološki dijalekt ) is a member of the western and north western subgroup of the western group of dialects of the Macedonian language. The dialect is mainly spoken in the area around the city of Gostivar to the villages Brvenica and Bogovinje on north, Reka region on west, Porčie on east and Galičnik on south. The dialect is closely related with the neighbouring dialects, particularly with the Kičevo-Poreče dialect, Reka dialect and Galičnik dialect. Also in some extent, the dialect shares some similarities with the Lower Polog dialect. The dialect is very well known for using masculine forms of direct and indirect objects, for male and female. Traditional song on Upper Polog dialect:
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    Warsaw dialect

    • Language: Polish Language
    The Warsaw dialect (called Gwara warszawska in standard Polish, pronounced [ˈɡvara varˈʂafska]) is a regional dialect of the Polish language spoken in Warsaw. The dialect evolved as late as 18th century, mainly from the Masovian dialect of the Polish language, under notable influence of several languages spoken in the city of Warsaw. After the destruction of Warsaw in the aftermath of the Warsaw Uprising of 1944 the Warsaw dialect has been in decline. It is estimated that in modern times it is almost extinct as the native language and is preserved mostly in literary works. The Warsaw dialect is composed mostly of the Polish language substratum, with notable (mostly lexical) influences from the Masovian dialect of Polish, as well as Russian, German, Yiddish and other languages. The dialect was composed of a variety of different class dialects: the language of the suburbs differed from the language of the city centre and each professional group used its own version of the dialect, slightly different from the others. It is therefore difficult to state the exact classification. The dialect was originally spoken in and around Warsaw, Poland. After 1944 it became dispersed as most of the
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    Yooper dialect

    Yooper dialect

    • Language: English Language
    Yooper is a form of North Central American English mostly spoken in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, which gives the dialect its name (from "U.P." for Upper Peninsula). The dialect is also found in many northern areas of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and largely in Northeast Wisconsin. Yooper differs from standard English primarily because of the linguistic background of settlers to the area. The majority of people living in the Upper Peninsula are of either Finnish, French Canadian, Flemish, Scandinavian, German, or Native American descent. Yooper is so massively influenced by these areas' languages that speakers from other areas may have difficulty understanding it. The Yooper dialect is also influenced by the Finnish language making it similar in character to the so-called "Rayncher speek" of the Mesabi Iron Range in northeast Minnesota. Although these features are found in the UP, they are primarily in the western UP, and not all residents use these features. Equally important is the fact that many of these features are found throughout the upper midwest, especially in northern Wisconsin and northern Minnesota.
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