An island group is a chain or other grouping of islands.
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The Leeward Islands /ˈliːwərd/ are a group of islands in the West Indies. They are the northern islands of the Lesser Antilles chain. As a group they start east of Puerto Rico and reach southward to Dominica. They are situated where the northeastern Caribbean Sea meets the western Atlantic Ocean. The more southerly part of the Lesser Antilles chain is called the Windward Islands.
The name of this island group, Leeward Islands, dates from previous centuries, when sailing ships were the sole form of transport across the Atlantic Ocean. Because of prevailing currents and winds, the fastest route west across the Atlantic to the New World from Africa brought sailing ships to a point that was halfway south on the Lesser Antilles chain of islands, roughly between the islands of Dominica and Martinique or nearby. This area became the dividing line between what are now known as the Windward Islands and the Leeward Islands.
In the West Indies, the prevailing winds, known as the trade winds, blow from the southeast to the northwest. When sailing ships arrived, what are now known as the Leeward Islands were down wind, or "in the lee of the wind" to them. In other words, these islands were
The Antilles islands (/ænˈtɪliːz/; Antilles [ɑ̃.tij] in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch and German and Antilhas in Portuguese) form the greater part of the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea. The Antilles are divided into two major groups: the "Greater Antilles" to the north and west, including the larger islands of Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), and Puerto Rico; and the smaller "Lesser Antilles" on the southeast—comprising the northerly Leeward Islands, the southeasterly Windward Islands, and the Leeward Antilles just north of Venezuela. The Bahamas, though part of the West Indies, are generally not included among the Antillean islands.
Geographically, the Antilles are generally considered part of North America or Central America. Culturally speaking, the Antillean countries of Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico are included in Latin America.
In terms of geology, the Greater Antilles are made up of continental rock, as distinct from the Lesser Antilles, which are mostly young volcanic or coral islands.
The word Antilles originated in the period before the European conquest of the New World—Antilia being one of those
Midway Atoll ( /ˈmɪdweɪ/; also called Midway Island and Midway Islands; Hawaiian: Pihemanu Kauihelani) is a 2.4-square-mile (6.2 km) atoll in the North Pacific Ocean. As its name suggests, lies nearly halfway between North America and Asia, and almost halfway around the world from Greenwich, England, near the northwestern end of the Hawaiian archipelago, about one-third of the way between Honolulu, Hawaii, and Tokyo, Japan. Midway Atoll is an unorganized, unincorporated territory of the United States, and the former home of the Midway Naval Air Station (former ICAO PMDY). For statistical purposes, Midway is grouped as one of the United States Minor Outlying Islands. It is less than 140 nautical miles (259 km; 161 mi) east of the International Date Line, about 2,800 nautical miles (5,200 km; 3,200 mi) west of San Francisco, and 2,200 nautical miles (4,100 km; 2,500 mi) east of Tokyo.
The Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, encompassing 590,991.50 acres (239,165.77 ha) of land and water (mostly water) in the surrounding area, is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). The visitor program reopened in January 2008 and there are facilities for visitors. Travel to
The Pribilof Islands (formerly the Northern Fur Seal Islands) are a group of four volcanic islands off the coast of mainland Alaska, in the Bering Sea, about 200 miles (320 km) north of Unalaska and 200 miles southwest of Cape Newenham. The Siberia coast is roughly 500 miles (800 km) northwest. About 200 km (77 sq mi) in total area, they are mostly rocky and are covered with tundra, with a population of 684 as of the 2000 census.
The principal islands are Saint Paul and Saint George. The former was named for the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul, on the day of which the island was discovered; the latter was probably named for the ship sailed by the islands' discoverer, Gavriil Pribilof. The Otter and Walrus islets are near St. Paul. The total land area of all the islands is 75.072 sq mi (194.44 km). The islands are part of the Bering Sea unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge.
The islands were first visited by Europeans in 1786 by Gavriil Pribylov, who discovered the fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) rookeries for which they became famous, and thus became Russian territory. The islands passed to the United States in 1867 with the Alaska Purchase. From 1870 to 1890, the U.S.
The Juan Fernández Islands (Spanish: Archipiélago Juan Fernández) are a sparsely inhabited island group reliant on tourism and fishing in the South Pacific Ocean, situated about 600 km (324 nmi; 373 mi) off the coast of Chile, and is composed of three main volcanic islands; Robinson Crusoe Island, Alejandro Selkirk Island and Santa Clara Island, the first two being formerly called Más a Tierra and Más Afuera respectively.
The islands are mainly known for having been the home to the marooned sailor Alexander Selkirk for four years, which may have inspired the novel Robinson Crusoe. The islands have an area of 181 km (70 sq mi), of which 93 km (36 sq mi) are taken up by Robinson Crusoe (together with Santa Clara), and 33 km (13 sq mi) by Alexander Selkirk. The population is 633 (all on Robinson Crusoe); of those 598 reside in the capital, San Juan Bautista, on Cumberland Bay on the north coast of the island (2002 census).
The archipelago administratively belongs to Chile's Valparaíso Region (which also includes Easter Island), and more specifically forms one of the nine communes of the Valparaíso Province named Juan Fernández.
Robinson Crusoe is the largest of the islands, at 93 km
The Rat Islands (Aleut: Qax̂um tanangis) are a volcanic group of islands in the Aleutian Islands in southwest Alaska, between Buldir Island and the Near Islands group to its west, and Amchitka Pass and the Andreanof Islands group to its east, at about 51°47′17″N 178°18′10″E / 51.78806°N 178.30278°E / 51.78806; 178.30278.
The largest islands in the group are, from west to east, Kiska, Little Kiska, Segula, Hawadax or Kryssei, Khvostof, Davidof, Little Sitkin, Amchitka, and Semisopochnoi. The total land area of the Rat Islands is 360.849 sq mi (934.594 km). None of the islands are inhabited.
The name Rat Islands is the English translation of the name given to the islands by Captain Fyodor Petrovich Litke in 1827 when he visited the Aleutian Islands on a voyage around the world. The islands are named so because of the rats that have ruled Rat Island since about 1780. As of 2009, the island is believed to be rat free.
The Rat Islands are very earthquake-prone as they are located on the boundary of the Pacific and North American tectonic plates. In 1965, there was a major earthquake with a magnitude of 8.7 in the Rat Islands.
Also known as the RKLM, the SMBI and Bay Islands, the four inhabited southern Moreton Bay islands in Queensland, Australia. The group is at 27°38'S 153°23'E, and is part of the Redland City, with a permanent population of 4240 as of the 2006 census. However, nearly one third of all dwellings on the islands were unoccupied, suggesting a high proportion of "second homes" are maintained by people elsewhere on Census Night
The four inhabited Bay Islands in 2006 were:
Tiny Perulpa Island is joined by a causeway to Macleay and is generally regarded as part of Macleay.
In 2007, after a national A Current Affair television news segment, the islands received an enormous amount of interest as having the cheapest land in Australia.
Russell and Macleay have most basic services such as supermarkets, restaurants, primary schools, doctors, police, ambulance, fire brigade, SES, clubs and pubs. Lamb Island has a kiosk with basic supplies and convenience items. Karragarra has no shops at all, which is preferred by the residents.
Originally subdivided in the early 1970s, a bridge was promised by the then government. This never eventuated and residents are now feeling the pressure of transport to the
The Windward Islands (French: Îles du Vent) are the eastern group of the Society Islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southern Pacific Ocean. These islands were originally named the Georgian Islands in honor of King George III of England
The archipelago comprises an administrative division (French: subdivision administrative) of French Polynesia, and includes the following islands:
The capital of the administrative district is Papeete on the island of Tahiti. Tahiti, Moorea, and Mehetia are high islands. Tetiaroa and Maiao are coral atolls.
The majority of the population speaks French and Tahitian (co-official with French throughout French Polynesia).
Administratively, the Windward Islands form the administrative subdivision of the Windward Islands (subdivision administrative des Îles du Vent), one of French Polynesia's five administrative subdivisions. Geographically, the administrative subdivision of the Windward Islands is identical with the electoral district of the Windward Islands (circonscription des Îles du Vent), one of French Polynesia's 6 electoral districts (circonsriptions électorales) for the Assembly of French Polynesia (see also
The Jason Islands (Spanish: Islas Sebaldes) are an archipelago in the Falkland Islands, lying to the far north-west of West Falkland. Three of the islands, Steeple Jason, Grand Jason and Clarke's Islet are private nature reserves owned by the Wildlife Conservation Society, New York. Other islands in the group are National Nature Reserves owned by the Falkland Islands Government.
The islands include Steeple Island, Grand Island, Elephant Island, Flat Island and South Island.
The Spanish name for the archipelago is Islas Sebaldes, however, this is sometimes subdivided into "Islas los Salvajes" (western, Grand Jason, and Steeple Jason) and "Islas las Llaves" (eastern, Flat Jason, Seal Rocks and North Fur Island),. No such distinction exists in English-language toponymy.
The Jason Islands are somewhat geologically distinct. Ian Strange says,
sharply rising peaks give them a grandeur found in few other areas of the archipelago.
An archipelago in the region of the Falkland Islands appeared on maps from the early 16th century, suggesting they may have been sighted by Ferdinand Magellan's or another expedition of the 16th century. Amerigo Vespucci is believed to have sighted the islands in
The Nanpō Islands (南方諸島, nanpō shotō) is a collective term for the groups of islands that are located to the south of the Japanese archipelago. They extend from the Izu Peninsula west of Tokyo Bay southward for about 750 miles (1200 km), to within 300 miles (500 km) of the Mariana Islands. The Nanpō Islands are all administered by Tokyo Metropolis.
The Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of the Japan Coast Guard defines the Nanpō Shotō as follows:
The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, another government organ that is responsible for standardization of place names, does not use the term Nanpō Shotō although it has agreed with the Japan Coast Guard over the names and extents of the subgroups of the Nanpō Shotō.
The Kerama Islands (慶良間諸島, Kerama Shotō, Okinawan: キラマ Kirama) are a group of 22 islands located 32 kilometres (20 mi) southwest of Okinawa Island in Japan. Four of the islands are inhabited: Tokashiki (渡嘉敷島, Tokashikijima), Zamami (座間味島, Zamamijima), Aka (阿嘉島, Akajima), and Geruma (慶留間島, Gerumajima). The islands are within Shimajiri District. The Kerama-shotō coral reef is a Ramsar Site.
During World War II and preliminary to the Battle of Okinawa, soldiers of the 77th Infantry Division landed in the Kerama Islands on March 26, 1945. Further landings followed, and the Kerama group was secured over the next five days. Kerama was used as a staging area for the assault on Okinawa. During the battle the first civilian mass suicides that later marked the Battle of Okinawa took place.
The first US Navy ship to anchor in the harbor was the USS Makin Island, a small "jeep" carrier.
It was the site of a true story about romance between two dogs who lived on neighboring islands that was made into the 1988 Japanese film I Want to See Marilyn (Marilyn ni Aitai). It is now a popular beach and diving destination for visitors to Okinawa.
The Kerama Islands are served by the Kerama Airport,
The Palm Islands are an artificial archipelago in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Major commercial and residential infrastructures will be constructed by Nakheel Properties, a property developer in The UAE. The Belgian and Dutch dredging and marine contractors, Jan De Nul and Van Oord, some of the world's specialists in land reclamation, were hired to complete construction. The islands are the Palm Jumeirah, the Palm Jebel Ali and the Palm Deira.
Each settlement will be in the shape of a palm tree, topped with a crescent. The settlements will have a large number of residential, leisure and entertainment centers. The Palm Islands are located off the coast of The UAE in the Persian Gulf and will add 520 kilometers of beaches to the city of Dubai.
The first two islands will comprise of approximately 100 million cubic meters of rock and sand. The Palm Deira will be composed of approximately one billion cubic meters of rock and sand. All materials will be quarried in The UAE. Among the three islands, there will be over 100 luxury hotels, exclusive residential beach side villas and apartments, marinas, water theme parks, restaurants, shopping malls, sports facilities and health spas.
St Kilda (Scottish Gaelic: Hiort) is an isolated archipelago 64 kilometres (40 mi) west-northwest of North Uist in the North Atlantic Ocean. It contains the westernmost islands of the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. The largest island is Hirta, whose sea cliffs are the highest in the United Kingdom and three other islands (Dùn, Soay and Boreray), were also used for grazing and seabird hunting. The islands are administratively a part of the Comhairle nan Eilean Siar local authority area.
St Kilda may have been permanently inhabited for at least two millennia, the population probably never exceeding 180 (and certainly no more than 100 after 1851). The entire population was evacuated from Hirta (the only inhabited island) in 1930. Currently, the only year-round residents are defence personnel although a variety of conservation workers, volunteers and scientists spend time there in the summer months.
The origin of the name St Kilda is a matter of conjecture. The islands' human heritage includes numerous unique architectural features from the historic and prehistoric periods, although the earliest written records of island life date from the Late Middle Ages. The medieval village on Hirta
Macclesfield Bank, also called Zhongsha Islands (Chinese: 中沙群島; pinyin: Zhōngshā Qúndǎo; literally "Central Sands Islands"), is an elongated sunken atoll of underwater reefs and shoals in the South China Sea. It lies east of the Paracel Islands, southwest of the Pratas Islands and north of the Spratly Islands. Its length exceeds 130 km (81 mi) southwest-northeast, with a maximal width of more than 70 km (43 mi). With an area of 6,448 km (2,490 sq mi) within the outer rim of the reef, although completely submerged without any emergent cays or islets, it is one of the largest atolls of the world.
The broken coral reef rim of Macclesfield Bank, with a width of up to 8 km (5 mi), has depths of 11.8 m (39 ft) at Pygmy Shoal on the northeast end of the bank and depths of 11.6 to 18 m (59 ft) elsewhere. Within the lagoon, Walker Shoal marks the least known depth of 9.2 metres. In general, the central lagoon is very deep, with depths up to 100 metres.
The elongated atoll consists of:
The China's term Zhongsha Islands for the Macclesfield Bank has a wider meaning than the geographic feature or atoll; it includes some geographically separate features: -
To the east, near the Philippines
The Tanimbar Islands, also called Timur Laut, are a group of about 65 islands in the Maluku province of Indonesia, including Fordata, Larat, Maru, Molu, Nuswotar, Selaru, Selu, Seira, Wotap, Wuliaru and Yamdena. The Indonesian phrase timur laut means 'northeast'.
The Aru Islands and Kai Islands lie to the northeast, and Babar Island and Timor lie to the west. The islands separate the Banda Sea and the Arafura Sea. The total land area of the Islands is 5440 km² (2100 sq mi).
The largest of the group is Yamdena. Yamdena Island has a range of thickly forested hills along its eastern coast, while its western coast is lower. Saumlaki is the chief town, located on the south end of Yamdena. Other islands include Larat, Selaru, and Wuliaru.
The population was 105,394 at the 2010 Census, of whom about 73% are Christian, and the remainder Muslim or unknown. The tiny island of Tanimbarkei is part not part of Tanimbar, but of the Kai Islands and inhabited by less than 1000 very traditional people.
The Tanimbar Islands are part of the Banda Sea Islands moist deciduous forests ecoregion.
The Tanimbar Islands were part of the Dutch East Indies. During World War II the Dutch sent a detachment of
The Aran Islands (Irish: Oileáin Árann — Aran Islands pronunciation: [ˈɪlɑːn ˈɑːrənʲ]) or The Arans (na hÁrainneacha — [nə ˈhɑːrənʲəxə]) are a group of three islands located at the mouth of Galway Bay, on the west coast of Ireland. They constitute the barony of Aran in County Galway, Ireland. From west to east they are: Inishmore (Árainn Mhór/Inis Mór — [ˈɑːrənʲ woːr] or [ˈɪnɪɕ woːr]), the largest; Inishmaan (Inis Meáin/Inis Meadhóin — [ˈɪnɪɕ mʲɑːn]), the second-largest; and Inisheer (Inis Thiar/Inis Oírr/Inis Oirthir — [ˈɪnɪɕ iːr] or [ˈɪnɪɕ siːr]), the smallest. Irish is the main spoken language on all three islands, and is the language used naming the islands and their villages and townlands. There are 1,200 people living on the islands and the overwhelming majority are Irish speakers.
The approaches to the bay between the Aran Islands and the mainland are as follows:
The islands' geology is mainly karst limestone and is thus closely related to The Burren in Co. Clare (to the east), not the granites of Connemara to the north. This is most obvious in the construction of the walls around the fields.
The limestones date from the Visean period (Lower Carboniferous), formed as
The Phi Phi Islands (Thai: หมู่เกาะพีพี, Thai pronunciation: [pʰīː pʰīː]) are located in Thailand, between the large island of Phuket and the western Andaman Sea coast of the mainland. The islands are administratively part of Krabi province. Ko Phi Phi Don ("ko" (Thai: เกาะ) meaning "island" in the Thai language) is the largest island of the group, and is the only island with permanent inhabitants, although the beaches of the second largest island, Ko Phi Phi Lee (or "Ko Phi Phi Leh"), are visited by many people as well. The rest of the islands in the group, including Bida Nok, Bida Noi, and Bamboo Island (Ko Mai Phai), are not much more than large limestone rocks jutting out of the sea.
Phi Phi Don was initially populated by Muslim fishermen during the late 1940s, and later became a coconut plantation. The Thai population of Phi Phi Don remains more than 80% Muslim. The actual population however, if counting laborers, especially from the north-east, from the mainland is much more Buddhist these days.
The islands came to worldwide prominence when Ko Phi Phi Leh was used as a location for the 2000 British-American film The Beach. This attracted criticism, with claims that the film
The Pratas Islands, also called Dongsha Islands (simplified Chinese: 东沙群岛; traditional Chinese: 東沙群島; pinyin: Dōngshā Qúndǎo), consist of three islands forming from an atoll located in northeastern South China Sea, 340 km (211 mi) southeast of Hong Kong. The islands are governed by the Republic of China (Taiwan). The People's Republic of China claims sovereignty over these islands along with all other territories currently controlled by the Republic of China. It is the seventh national park of the Republic of China. The main island of the group, Dongsha Island, is the largest of the South China Sea Islands.
Dongsha Islands were found by Chinese people. The islands were recorded in the book "Guangzhou Ji" (廣州記) written by Pei Yuan (裴淵) in Jin Dynasty over 1000 years ago. Chinese fishermen fished in the sea around the Dongsha Islands by that time. A Japanese businessman named Nishizawa Yoshizi (西澤吉次) established a guano collecting station, destroyed the Dawang joss house (大王庙), and dig graves and poured bone ashes of Chinese fishermen into the sea there, and renamed the island "Nishizawa Island" in 1908-09, but after a diplomatic confrontation, Chinese sovereignty was re-established,
Jemo Island Atoll (Marshallese: Jemo̧, /tʲaɦʲmʲaɦˠʷ/ or [t͡ɕææ̯mæ͡ɒɒ̯]) is an uninhabited coral island in the Pacific Ocean, in the Ratak Chain of the Marshall Islands north-east of Likiep Atoll. The island is oval-shaped, and occupies the southwestern end of a narrow submarine ridge that extends to the northeast for several kilometers. Its total land area is only 0.16 square kilometres (0.062 sq mi). The island is traditionally held as a food reserve for the family of Joachim and Lijoan deBrum, passed down from Iroijlaplap Jortoka Lobareo and is owned by the current Likiep land-owning families of Joachim debrum.
Belep (sometimes unofficially spelled Bélep) is a commune in the North Province of New Caledonia, an overseas territory of France in the Pacific Ocean.
The commune's territory is made up of the Belep Islands (also known as the Belep Archipelago), which lie to the north of New Caledonia's mainland. The two principal islands in the Belep Archipelago are Art Island (aka Aar) and Pott Island (aka Phwoc), and the rest of the archipelago consists of the Northern Daos Islands, the Southern Daos Islands, and several very small islets.
The administrative centre of the commune is the settlement of Waala, on Art Island, the largest of the Belep Islands.
The Belep Islands were named after a Kanak chief who settled there in ancient times. A Catholic mission was founded in Belep in 1856. The islands were the site of a leper colony between 1892 and 1898.
The South China Sea Islands consist of over 250 around 1-km islands, atolls, cays, shoals, reefs, and sandbars in the South China Sea, most of which have no indigenous people, many of which are naturally under water at high tide, some of which are permanently submerged. The features are grouped into three archipelagos (listed by area size), Macclesfield Bank and Scarborough Shoal:
There are minerals, natural gas, and oil deposits on the islands and under their nearby seafloor, also an abundance of sealife, such as fish, animals and vegetation traditionally exploited as food by all the claimant nations for thousands of years - mostly without disputes that could risk war. in the 20th Century, since the WW2 settlements failed to resolve ownership of such lesser areas of land, seas and islands, - and because of the economic, military, and transportational importance - their control, especially that of the Spratlys, has been in dispute between China and several Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam from the mid-20th century onwards. True occupation and control are shared between the claimants. (See Claims and control below)
The countries with the most extensive activity in the South
The Anzhu Islands or Anjou Islands (Russian: острова Анжу, Sakha: Анжу арыылара) are a geographical subgroup of the New Siberian Islands archipelago. They are located between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea in the Russian Arctic. The total area of the islands is approx. 29,000 km².
The main islands of the Anzhu subgroup are (from west to east):
The Anzhu Islands are named after Russian explorer Pyotr Anjou, a Russian-born descendant of Protestant refugees from the French province of Anjou.
This island group is a practically uninhabited territory. It belongs administratively to the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) of the Russian Federation.
The Magdalen Islands (French, Îles de la Madeleine) form a small archipelago in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence with a land area of 205.53 square kilometres (79.36 sq mi). Though closer to Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia, the islands form part of the Canadian province of Quebec.
The islands form the territory equivalent to a regional county municipality (TE) and census division (CD) of Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine. Its geographical code is 01.
The islands also form the urban agglomeration of Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine, divided into two municipalities. These are Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine (2006 census pop. 12,560), the central municipality, and Grosse-Île (pop. 531). The mayors are Joêl Arseneau and Rose Elmonde Clarke.
There are eight major islands: Havre-Aubert, Grande Entrée, Cap aux Meules, Grosse Île, Havre aux Maisons, Pointe-Aux-Loups, Île d'Entrée and Brion. All except the latter are inhabited. There are several other tiny islands that are also considered part of the archipelago: Rocher aux Oiseaux, Île aux Loups-marins, Île Paquet and Rocher du Corps Mort.
Jacques Cartier was the first European to visit the islands, in 1534. However, Mi'kmaq Indians had been visiting the islands
The Admiralty Islands are a group of eighteen islands in the Bismarck Archipelago, to the north of New Guinea in the south Pacific Ocean. These are also sometimes called the Manus Islands, after the largest island. These rainforest-covered islands form part of Manus Province, the smallest and least-populous province of Papua New Guinea. The total area is 2,100 km (810 sq mi). Many of the islands are atolls and uninhabited.
The larger islands in the center of the group are Manus Island and Los Negros Island. The other larger islands are Tong Island, Pak Island, Rambutyo Island, Lou Island, and Baluan Island to the east, Mbuke Island to the south and Bipi Island to the west of Manus Island. Other islands that have been noted as significant places in the history of Manus include Ndrova Island, Pitylu Island and Ponam Island.
The temperature of the Admiralty Islands varies little throughout the year, reaching daily highs of 30–32 °C (86–90 °F) and 20–24 °C (68–75 °F) at night. Average annual rainfall is 3,382 mm (133 in) and is somewhat seasonal, with June–August being the wettest months.
Manus reaches an elevation of 700 m (2,300 ft) and is volcanic in origin and probably broke
The Glorieuses or Glorioso Islands (French: Îles Glorieuses or officially also Archipel des Glorieuses) are a group of French islands and rocks totalling 5 square kilometres (1,200 acres), at 11°33′S 47°20′E / 11.55°S 47.333°E / -11.55; 47.333, in the northern Mozambique channel, about 160 kilometres (99 mi) northwest of Madagascar. The Glorieuses have an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 48,350 square kilometres (18,670 sq mi). There are anchorages offshore, and Grande Glorieuse has a 1,300-metre (4,300 ft) long airstrip.
The archipelago consists of two islands, Grande Glorieuse (11°34′46.549″S 47°17′54.146″E / 11.57959694°S 47.29837389°E / -11.57959694; 47.29837389 (Grande Glorieuse)) and Île du Lys, as well as eight rock islets (Roches Vertes): Wreck Rock (11°30′45.194″S 47°22′54.178″E / 11.51255389°S 47.38171611°E / -11.51255389; 47.38171611 (Wreck Rock)), South Rock (11°35′43.760″S 47°18′6.6600″E / 11.5954889°S 47.30185°E / -11.5954889; 47.30185 (South Rock)) and Verte Rocks (11°34′15.636″S 47°19′54.188″E / 11.57101°S 47.33171889°E / -11.57101; 47.33171889 (Verte Rocks)) and three others that are unnamed. They form part of a coral reef and lagoon. Grande
Marshall Bennett Islands are several islands in Milne Bay and considered part of Papua New Guinea.
They consist of
They are usually considered to be part of the Woodlark Islands group. Of the islands only Dugumenu is uninhabited but is used by neighbouring islanders for the growing of coconuts.
The Pontine Islands are an archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the west coast of Italy. The islands were collectively named after the largest island in the group, Ponza. The other islands in the archipelago are Palmarola, Zannone, and Gavi to the northwest, Ventotene and Santo Stefano to the southeast. These two groups are separated by 22 nautical miles (41 km). From Sabaudia-Cape Circeo peninsula to Zannone the distance is 12 nautical miles (22 km), while Ventotene faces Gaeta (21 miles). The minimum distance between Santo Stefano and the isle of Ischia is 22 nautical miles (41 km).
The archipelago is the result of volcanic activity and has been inhabited for thousands of years. Neolithic artifacts and Bronze Age obsidians have been excavated on the islands. The islands were used by the Etruscans who carved the "Blue Grottos". The earliest recorded history of the islands occurs with the Roman victory over the Volsci at 338 BC. According to a local legend, this was once the lost Kingdom of Tyrrhenia which sank with a narrow strip connected to mainland Italy.
During the reign of Rome's Caesar Augustus, residential expansion on the islands was encouraged and people spread from
The Gotō Islands (五島列島, Gotō-rettō, literally: "five-island archipelago") are Japanese islands in the East China Sea, off the western coast of Kyūshū. The islands are a part of Nagasaki Prefecture
There are 140 islands in total, including five main islands: Fukue Island (福江島, Fukue-jima), Hisaka Island (久賀島, Hisaka-jima), Naru Island (奈留島, Naru-shima), Wakamatsu Island (若松島, Wakamatsu-jima), and Nakadori Island (中通島, Nakadōri-jima).
The group of islands runs approximately 85 km (53 mi) end to end and its center is located at 32°45′03″N 128°27′30″E / 32.75083°N 128.45833°E / 32.75083; 128.45833.
To the north is Tsushima Island in the Tsushima Strait, and to the east is Kyūshū and the rest of Nagasaki Prefecture. The island is about 100 km away from the port of Nagasaki. Tsushima Current (a branch of the Kuroshio) passes around the islands.
The southern of the two principal islands, Fukue Island, measures approximately 25 km north-to-south by 25 km east-to-west; the northern, Nakadori Island, measures approximately 40 km north-to-south by 20 km east-to-west at its widest point. Most of Nakadori Island, however, is quite narrow, measuring less than 6 km wide for much of its
Joló (Tausūg: Sūg) is a volcanic island in the southwest Philippines. It is located in the Sulu Archipelago, between Borneo and Mindanao, and has a population of approximately 300,000 people.
Jolo is also the name of the town on the island which serves as the capital of the province of Sulu, within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. About a third of the island's population live in the municipality of Jolo.
The island is part of the Jolo Group of volcanoes, and contains numerous volcanic cones and craters, including the active Bud Dajo cinder cone.
After a series of less-than-successful attempts during the centuries of Spanish rule in the Philippines, Spanish forces captured the city of Jolo, the seat of the Sultan of Sulu, in 1876.
On that year, the Spanish launched a massive campaign to occupy Jolo. Spurred by the need to curb slave raiding once and for all and worried about the presence of other Western powers in the south (the British had established trading centers in Jolo by the 19th century and the French were offering to purchase Basilan Island from the cash strapped government in Madrid), the Spanish made a final bid to consolidate their rule in this southern
Franz Josef Land, Franz Joseph Land, or Francis Joseph's Land (Russian: Земля Франца-Иосифа, Zemlya Frantsa-Iosifa) is an archipelago located in the far north of Russia. It is found in the Arctic Ocean north of Novaya Zemlya and east of Svalbard, and is administered by Arkhangelsk Oblast. Franz Josef Land consists of 191 ice-covered islands with a total area of 16,134 km (6,229 sq mi). It is currently uninhabited.
At latitudes between 80.0° and 81.9° north, it is the most northerly group of islands associated with Eurasia. The extreme northernmost point is Cape Fligely on Rudolf Island. The archipelago is only 900 to 1,110 km (560 to 690 miles) from the North Pole, and the northernmost islands are closer to the Pole than any other land except for Canada's Ellesmere Island and Greenland.
The archipelago was possibly first discovered by the Norwegian sealers Nils Fredrik Rønnbeck and Aidijärvi aboard the schooner Spidsbergen in 1865 who, according to scarce reports, sailed eastward from Svalbard until they reached a new land, denoted Nordøst-Spitsbergen (Spitsbergen was the contemporary name of Svalbard). It is not known if they went ashore, and the new islands were soon
The Pelagie Islands (Italian: Isole Pelagie, Sicilian: Ìsuli Pilaggî), from the Greek pélagos - πέλαγος meaning "open sea", are the three small islands of Lampedusa, Linosa, and Lampione, located in the Mediterranean Sea between Malta and Tunisia, south of Sicily. To the northwest lie the island of Pantelleria and the Strait of Sicily. Geographically part of the archipelago (Lampedusa and Lampione) belongs to the African continent; politically and administratively the islands fall within the Sicilian province of Agrigento and represent the southernmost part of Italy.
Despite pockets of agriculture, the islands are unnaturally barren due to wanton deforestation and the disappearance of the native olive groves, juniper and carob plantations. Fifty years ago much of the landscape was farmland bounded by dry stone walls but today, the local economy is based on fishing - sponge fishing and canning - supplemented by tourism in Lampedusa.
Of particular ecological concern in the islands is the protection of the Loggerhead Turtle (Caretta caretta) which is endangered throughout the Mediterranean as a result of its nesting sites being taken over by tourism. In Italy the beaches of Pozzolana
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche, French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago of British Crown Dependencies in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two separate bailiwicks: the Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Bailiwick of Jersey. They are considered the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy, and are not part of the United Kingdom. They have a total population of about 168,000 and their respective capitals, Saint Peter Port and Saint Helier, have populations of 16,488 and 28,310. The total area of the islands is 194 km².
The Bailiwicks have been administered separately since the late 13th century; common institutions are the exception rather than the rule. The two Bailiwicks have no common laws, no common elections, and no common representative body (although their politicians consult regularly).
The inhabited islands of the Channel Islands are Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, Sark and Herm (the main islands); Jethou, Brecqhou (Brechou) and Lihou, all except Jersey in the Bailiwick of Guernsey. There are also uninhabited islets: the Minquiers, Écréhous, Les Dirouilles and Les Pierres de Lecq (the Paternosters), part of the
The Borromean Islands (It. Isole Borromee) are a group of three small islands and two islets in the Italian part of Lago Maggiore, located in the western arm of the lake, between Verbania to the north and Stresa to the south. Together totalling just 50 acres (20 hectares) in area, they are a major local tourist attraction for their picturesque setting.
Their name derives from the Borromeo family, which started acquiring them in the early 16th century (Isola Madre) and still owns the majority of them (Isola Madre, Bella, San Giovanni) today.
The Obi Islands (also known as Ombirah, Indonesian Kepulauan Obi) are a group of islands in the Indonesian province of Maluku. They lie north of Buru and Ceram.
The largest in the group is Obi Island. Nearby are the islands of Bisa, Gomumu, Obilatu, Tapat, Tobalai.
The Tuamotus or the Tuamotu Archipelago (French: Îles Tuamotu, officially Archipel des Tuamotu) are a chain of islands and atolls in French Polynesia. They form the largest chain of atolls in the world, spanning an area of the Pacific Ocean roughly the size of Western Europe. The Tuamotu islands were originally settled by Polynesians who share a common culture and language.
French Polynesia is a semi-autonomous island group designated as an overseas country of France. The Tuamotus combine with the Gambier Islands to form the Îles Tuamotu-Gambier which is one of the five administrative divisions of French Polynesia.
The Tuamotus are grouped into sixteen communes: Anaa; Arutua; Fakarava; Fangatau; Hao; Hikueru; Makemo; Manihi; Napuka; Nukutavake; Puka Puka; Rangiroa; Reao; Takaroa; Tatakoto; and Tureia.
The communes on Tuamotu are part of two different electoral districts (circonscriptions électorales) represented in the Assembly of French Polynesia. The Îles Gambier et Tuamotu Est electoral district comprises the commune of Gambier and eleven communes in eastern Tuamotu: Anaa; Fangatau; Hao; Hikueru; Makemo; Napuka; Nukutavake; Pukapuka; Reao; Tatakoto; and Tureia. The other five
The Maddalena Archipelago is a group of islands in the Straits of Bonifacio between Corsica and north-eastern Sardinia, Italy. It consists of seven main islands and numerous other small islets.
The largest island is Isola Maddalena, on which sits the archipelago's largest town, La Maddalena. The other six islands, in order of size, are: Caprera, Spargi, Santo Stefano, Santa Maria, Budelli and Razzoli. Only Maddalena, Caprera and S. Stefano are inhabited.
Lying adjacent to the famous tourist resort of the Costa Smeralda, Maddalena shares the same crystal clear waters and wind blown granite coastlines but also remains a haven for wildlife. It is a designated National Park, the Parco Nazionale Arcipelago di La Maddalena. It is a very popular tourist destination, especially among boaters. In 2006 it was placed on the Tentative list for consideration as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
The islands have been inhabited since prehistoric times. They were known by the Romans as Cunicularia and were a busy shipping area during the second and 1st century BC. The Maddalenas have always held strategic value and were first the object of a dispute between the maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa
The Dampier Archipelago (20°34′52″S 116°36′00″E / 20.581°S 116.6°E / -20.581; 116.6) is a group of islands near Dampier, Western Australia. It is named after William Dampier, an English buccaneer and explorer who visited in 1699. Dampier named one of the islands, Rosemary Island.
The largest island (or peninsula) in the group was known as Murujuga by the earliest inhabitants, the Yaburara (or Jaburara) people. The first British settlers renamed it Dampier Island and it was later officially renamed Burrup Peninsula.
Despite being a region through which considerable shipping and industrial activity occurs the archipelago has considerable marine resources
In 1868, the area was the site of the Flying Foam massacre, in which between 20 and 150 members of the Yaburara are reported to have been killed.
The Duff Islands (Pileni Taumako) are a small island group lying to the northeast of the Santa Cruz Islands in the Solomon Islands province of Temotu. They are also sometimes known as the Wilson Islands.
The islands are located at 9°51'48" S. lat., 167°4'48" E. long.
The Duff Islands consist of:
Frequently, Hallie Jackson Reef is mentioned in the context of the Duff islands, although it is located 45 km west of the 32 km long island chain, and although it is no island, but at most a submarine reef. In the Sailing Directions of 1969 Hallie Jackson Reef is described as a reef 24 feet deep, at 9°44'S, 166°07'E.. The corresponding current (2010) publication has no mention of the reef anymore..
The inhabitants of the Duff Islands are Polynesians, and their language, Pileni, is a member of the Samoic branch of Polynesian languages. On the islands of Duff live about 500 people. The way of life is traditional by subsistence farming and fishing. Taumako has no roads, airport, telephones, or electricity. Contact with outsiders comes by battery-powered marine radio and the occasional cargo ship.
The Duff Islands were named after missionary ship Duff, captained by James Wilson, which reached
Nukulaelae is an atoll that is part of the nation of Tuvalu, and has a population (2002 census) of 393. It has the form of an oval and consists of at least 15 islets. The junior school is Faikimua Primary School.
In 1821 Nukulaelae was visited by Captain George Barrett in the Nantucket whaler Independence II, which he named the ‘Mitchell’s Group’.
In 1865 a trading captain acting on behalf of the German firm of J.C. Godeffroy & Sohn obtained a 25-year lease to the eastern islet of Niuoku. For many years the islanders and the Germans argued over the lease, including its the terms and the importation of labourers, however the Germans remained until the lease expired in 1890.
The population of Nukulaelae from 1860-1900 is estimated to be 300 people.
The atoll was claimed by the United States under the Guano Islands Act from the 19th century until 1983, when claims to the atoll were ceded to Tuvalu.
Nukulaelae is one of the eight constituencies in Tuvalu. Unlike the other seven, it elects just one Member of Parliament, rather than two. Following the 2010 general election, its current representative is Namoliki Sualiki, the successfully re-elected incumbent. He had been elected in 2006,
The Ōsumi Islands (大隅諸島, Ōsumi Shotō) or the Ōsumi Archipelago is an archipelago in the northern part of the Satsunan Islands, northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean and belongs to Japan.
The Ōsumi Islands are the northernmost group of the Satsunan Islands, which are part of the Ryukyu Archipelago, and lie south of the Osumi Peninsula about 60 km from Kyūshū. The coordinates are
The islands are of volcanic origin and have a total area of approximately 1,030 km. (approximately 397 square miles) The climate is subtropical. The highest elevation is mount Miyanoura-dake of about 1,935 meters (about 6348 feet) on Yakushima island.
The archipelago consists of the 3 major islands
and a number of smaller islets the largest being
Additionally, these 3 islands are sometimes included too.
The population is about 50,000 people with about 19,000 living in the City of Nishinoomote located on the northwest coast of Tanegashima. The island group is part of the Kagoshima Prefecture.
The islands are served by New Tanegashima Airport and Yakushima Airport. There are regular connections with Kagoshima and the Amami Islands by ferries.
It is uncertain when the islands were
The Savage Islands (Portuguese: Ilhas Selvagens IPA: [ˈiʎɐʃ sɛɫˈvaʒɐ̃jʃ]), is a small Macaronesian archipelago in the North Atlantic, roughly midway between Madeira and the Canary Islands.
The archipelago comprises two major islands and several islets of varying sizes, comprising two areas: one on Selvagem Grande and the second on Selvagem Pequena. The archipelago is administered by the Portuguese municipality of Funchal, and pertains to the Madeiran civil parish of Sé, and is the southernmost point of Portugal.
It has been designated a natural reserve in 1971, recognizing its role as a very important nidification point for several species of birds. Since then, the decreasing bird populations (namely Cory's Shearwater) and nearby waters have been more closely protected by the Portuguese government. Given its status, remoteness and lack of available fresh water sources, it is inhabited only by reserve staff, scientists conducting research on its wildlife, and by a small Portuguese Navy detachment.
The self-sustaining status of the islands is disputed by Spain. Their habitability determines whether they should be seen as islands or rocks, which has strong consequences for the
The Cumbraes are a group of islands in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland. The islands belong to the traditional county of Bute and the modern unitary authority of North Ayrshire.
The main islands in the group are:
These two islands are separated from each other by a broad sound called The Tan and from the Scottish mainland by a busy shipping channel known as the Fairlie Roads.
There are also a number of uninhabited islets in the group:
The Cumbraes are referred to as the Kumreyiar in the Norse Saga of Haakon Haakonarson.
The Antipodes Islands (from Greek αντίποδες - antipodes) are inhospitable volcanic islands to the south of—and territorially part of—New Zealand. They lie 860 kilometres (534 mi) to the southeast of Stewart Island/Rakiura.
The island group consists of one main island, Antipodes Island, of 20 km (7.7 sq mi) area, Bollons Island of 2 km (0.77 sq mi) to the north, and numerous small islets and stacks, including Windward, Leeward and Archway Islands. The highest point is Mount Galloway (366 m/1,201 ft), which also forms part of the group's most recently active volcano.
Ecologically, the islands are part of the Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra ecoregion. The islands are inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, together with other sub-Antarctic New Zealand islands. The island group is a nature reserve and there is no general public access.
The island group was originally called the "Penantipodes" meaning "next to the antipodes", because it lies near to the antipodes of London. Over time the name has been shortened to "Antipodes" leaving some to suppose its European discoverers had not realised its global location. This misapprehension persists. In fact, the island's antipodes
The Chinijo archipelago (pronounced: [tʃiˈnixo]) is an archipelago located in the northeastern part of the Canary Islands. The archipelago includes the islands of Montaña Clara, Alegranza, Graciosa, Roque del Este, Roque del Oeste and various islands of volcanic origin.
The area is 40.8 km (16 sq mi) and belongs to the municipality of Teguise, Las Palmas (province). La Graciosa is the only inhabited island. The population is around 600.
A natural park (Parque natural del Archipiélago Chinijo) was designated in 1986. The area of the natural park overlaps with that of a separately designated marine reserve. The EU designated a Special Protection Area for birds in 1994.
The New Georgia Islands are part of the Western Province of the Solomon Islands. They are located to the northwest of Guadalcanal. The larger islands are mountainous and covered in rain forest. The main islands are New Georgia, Vella Lavella, Kolombangara (a dormant volcano), Ghizo, Vangunu, Rendova and Tetepare. They are surrounded by coral reefs and includes the largest salt water lagoon in the world: Marovo lagoon.
Another famous location is Kennedy Island where United States President John F. Kennedy spent three days stranded during World War II. Several of the islands were scenes of fighting in the war.
The main towns are Gizo, Munda and Noro. The main industries are forestry and fishing.
One of the smaller New Georgia islands, Ranongga, was lifted three meters (10 ft.) out of the Pacific Ocean by the 2007 Solomon Islands earthquake, causing an expansion of its shoreline by up to 70 meters all around.
The New Georgia languages are spoken on the island of New Georgia.
The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek, Katharevousa: Ἰόνιοι Νῆσοι, Ionioi Nēsoi; Italian: Isole Ionie) are a group of islands in Greece. They are traditionally called the Heptanese, i.e. "the Seven Islands" (Greek: Ἑπτάνησα, Heptanēsa, or Ἑπτάνησος, Heptanēsos; Italian: Eptaneso), but the group includes many smaller islands as well as the seven principal ones.
The seven are, from north to south:
The six northern islands are off the west coast of Greece, in the Ionian Sea. The seventh island, Kythira, is off the southern tip of the Peloponnese, the southern part of the Greek mainland. Kythira is not part of the region of the Ionian Islands, as it is included in the region of Attica.
In Ancient Greek the adjective Ionios (Ἰόνιος) was used as an epithet for the sea between Epirus and Italy in which the Ionian Islands are found because Io swam across it. Latin transliteration, as well as Modern Greek pronunciation, may suggest that the Ionian Sea and Islands are somehow related to Ionia, an Anatolian region; in fact the Ionian Sea and Ionian Islands are spelled in Greek with an omicron (Ιόνια), whereas Ionia has an omega (Ιωνία). In Modern Greek this
Tuvalu consists of nine separate islands, six of which are atolls. Since an atoll typically consists of several islets, there is a total of more than 124 islands and islets. The three remaining islands are actually atolls, too, but they have a completely closed rim of dry land, with a lagoon that has no connection to the open sea or that may be drying up. Each island is surrounded by a coral reef.
The nine units correspond to the nine local government districts.
The smallest island, Niulakita, was uninhabited until it was resettled by people from Niutao in 1949. Until recently, Niulakita was therefore not considered a separate local government district but administratively a part of Niutao.
At least 11 islands are inhabited, expanded over the biggest isles of the nine atolls, plus two islands in Funafuti.
An expedition conducted by the Royal Society of London carried out drilling on the coral reef at Funafuti in 1896, 1897 and 1911.
The Royal Society of London were investigating the formation of coral reefs and whether traces of shallow water organisms could be found at depth in the coral of Pacific atolls. This investigation followed the work on the structure and distribution of
Severnaya Zemlya (Russian: Се́верная Земля́, Northern Land) is an archipelago in the Russian high Arctic. It is located off mainland Siberia's Taymyr Peninsula across the Vilkitsky Strait. This archipelago separates two marginal seas of the Arctic Ocean, the Kara Sea in the west and the Laptev Sea in the east.
Severnaya Zemlya was first noted in 1913 and first charted in 1930–32, making it the last archipelago on Earth to be discovered. Politically, they are part of Russia's Krasnoyarsk Krai region, but are uninhabited by humans except for an Arctic base.
Severnaya Zemlya is notable in connection with the ongoing multi-year shrinkage of the Arctic permanent ice cap. Until recently, the islands were a portion of Eurasia which remained firmly within the grip of the ice even at its smallest extent during the late summer melt season, blocking the Northeast Passage between the Atlantic and Pacific. By the late summer of 2012, however, the permanent ice had reached a record low extent and open water could be found to the north of the archiapelago.
Although located not far off the northern coast of Russia, Severnaya Zemlya was not formally recorded until the 20th century. Earlier
The Lyakhovsky Islands (Russian: Ляховские острова Lyakhovskiye ostrova) are the southernmost group of the New Siberian Islands in the arctic seas of eastern Russia. They are separated from the mainland by the Laptev Strait (60 km wide), and from the Anzhu Islands group by the Sannikov Strait (50 km). Two islands dominate the group:
Other islands in the group are Stolbovoy and Semyonovskiy.
Off Great Lyakhovsky Island's southwestern cape lies a small islet called Ostrov Khopto-Terer.
The islands are named in honour of Ivan Lyakhov, who explored them in 1773.
Part of the action of two novels by Jules Verne, Waif of the Cynthia (1885) and César Cascabel (1890), takes place there. In the latter, the term "Liakhov Islands" refers to the New Siberian group as a whole, as the principal action is on Kotelny Island.
The Maltese Islands are a group of islands in the Mediterranean. The main islands are Malta Island and Gozo. Other islands that form part of the archipelago include: Comino (Kemmuna), Cominotto (Kemmunett, uninhabited), Filfla (uninhabited), Fungus Rock (Il-Ġebla tal-Ġeneral, uninhabited), Manoel Island (which is joined to the town of Gżira, on the mainland by a bridge), and the Islands of St. Paul (uninhabited). The Maltese Islands have been an independent republic since 1974. The centre of government, commerce and culture is the capital city of Valletta, on the eastern coast of Malta.
The Maltese Islands are predominantly Roman Catholic, and St. Paul (Maltese: San Pawl) and the Blessed Virgin Mary (Maltese: l-Imqaddsa Verġni Marija) are considered to be their Patron Saints, with particular devotion annually on the following dates:
This is a list of islands of Malta.
The Paracel Islands, also called Xisha Islands (Chinese: 西沙群岛) in Chinese and Hoàng Sa Islands (Quần đảo Hoàng Sa) in Vietnamese, is a group of islands whose ownership is disputed by China, Vietnam and Taiwan, however is currently under the administration of Hainan Province within the People's Republic of China. In July 2012, China established Sansha City covering these islands as one of the three townships in the city. The Republic of China (Taiwan) and Vietnam also claim sovereignty of these islands. China and South Vietnam both occupied portions of the Paracel Islands until 1974, when the Battle of the Paracel Islands occurred; China took over and has controlled all of the Paracel Islands since then.
The islands are located in the South China Sea consisting of over 30 islets, sandbanks and reefs with about 15,000 km² of the ocean surface. The archipelago is approximately equidistant from the coastlines of Vietnam and China, 180 nautical miles southeast of Hainan Island, and about one-third of the way from central Vietnam to the northern Philippines. Turtles live on the islands, and seabirds have left nests and guano deposits, but there are no permanent human residents except
The Shumagin Islands are a group of 20 islands in the Aleutians East Borough south of the mainland of Alaska, USA, at 54°54'–55°20' North 159°15'–160°45' West. The largest islands are Unga Island, Popof Island, Korovin Island, and Nagai Island. Other islands include Andronica, Big Koniuji, Little Koniuji, Simeonof, Chernabura, and Bird. The total land area is 1,192.369 km² (460.376 sq mi) and their total population as of the 2000 census was 953 persons, almost entirely in the city of Sand Point, on Popof Island.
The Shumagin Islands were named after Nikita Shumagin, one of the sailors on Vitus Bering's 1741 expedition to the arctic seas who died of scurvy and was buried on Nagai Island.
The Sunda Arc is a volcanic arc that has produced the islands of Sumatra and Java, the Sunda Strait and the Lesser Sunda Islands. A chain of volcanoes forms the topographic spine of these islands. The arc marks an active convergent boundary between the East Eurasian plates that underlie Indonesia, especially the Sunda Plate and the Burma Plate, with the India and Australian Plates that form the seabed of the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. The Sunda Arc is a classic example of a volcanic island arc, in which all the elements of such geodynamic features can be identified.
The India and Australian Plates are subducting beneath the Sunda and Burma plates along the Sunda Arc. The tectonic deformation along this subduction zone in the Java Trench (also known as the Sunda Trench) caused the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake of December 26, 2004.
The Sunda Arc is home to some of the world's most dangerous and explosive volcanoes. The eruption of Mount Tambora on Sumbawa Island, in 1815, is thought to be the most massive in recorded history. Also this subduction zone has created arguably the world's largest active volcano Lake Toba which produced the largest volcanic eruption in human
The Îles du Salut (in English: Salvation Islands) are a group of small islands of volcanic origin about 11 km off the coast of French Guiana (14 km north of Kourou) in the Atlantic Ocean. Although closer to Kourou, the islands are part of Cayenne commune (municipality), specifically Cayenne 1 Canton Nord-Ouest.
There are three islands, from north to south:
Île du Diable is better known to English speakers as Devil's Island. The total area is 0.62 km² (62 hectares). Île du Diable and Île Royale are separated by Passe des Grenadines, Île Royale and Île Saint-Joseph by Passe de Désirade. The islands were used as a penal colony from 1852 onwards, earning them a reputation for harshness and brutality. This system was gradually phased out and has been completely shut down since 1953. Nowadays the islands are a popular tourist destination. The islands were featured in the novel by Henri Charrière, Papillon. He was imprisoned here for 9 years.
The Thimble Islands is an archipelago consisting of small islands in Long Island Sound, located in and around the harbor of Stony Creek in the southeast corner of Branford, Connecticut.
The archipelago of islands made up of Stony Creek pink granite bedrock were once the tops of hills prior to the last ice age. As a result, the Thimble Islands are much more stable than most other islands in Long Island Sound, which are terminal moraines of rubble deposited by retreating glaciers.
Known to the Mattabeseck Indians as Kuttomquosh, "the beautiful sea rocks," they consist of a jumble of granite rocks, ledges and outcroppings resulting from glaciation, numbering between 100 and 365 depending on where the line is drawn between an island and a mere rock. The islands serve as a rest stop for migrating seals.
The first European to discover the islands was Adrian Block in 1614. Legend says that Captain Kidd buried his treasure here, causing intermittent interest among treasure hunters who believe they have unearthed a clue to its location, although more interest is generally paid to Gardiners Island, 30 miles (48 km) away.
The islands themselves - long prized by sailors on the Sound as a
The Con Dao Islands (Vietnamese: Côn Đảo) are an archipelago of Ba Ria-Vung Tau province, in southeastern Vietnam, and a district of this province.
Situated at about 185 km (115 mi) from Vung Tau and 230 km (143 mi) from Ho Chi Minh City, the group includes 16 mountainous islands and islets. The total land area reaches 75.15 km² and the local population is about 5,000.
The island group is served by Co Ong Airport.
On June 16, 1702, the English East India Company founded a settlement on the island of Pulo Condor (Poulo Condore) off the south coast of southern Vietnam, and on March 2, 1705, the garrison and settlement were destroyed.
The largest island is Côn Sơn Island (also known as Con Lon Island), famous for its prison built by the French colonial government.
Many of the islands were given protected status in 1984. In 1984, they became a national park, Côn Đảo National Park, which was subsequently enlarged in 1998. Endangered species protected within the park include the hawksbill turtle, the green turtle and the dugong. Ecosystems represented in the park include seagrass meadow, mangrove and coral reefs.
Côn Đảo National Park is working with the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Vietnam
The Crozet Islands (French: Îles Crozet; or, officially, Archipel Crozet) are a sub-antarctic archipelago of small islands in the southern Indian Ocean. They form one of the five administrative districts of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
Not including minor islets or rock reefs etc., the Crozet group consists of six islands. From east to west:
Group of two major islands (Grand Île—Big Island, and Petite Île—Little Island) and about 20 pinnacle rocks.
The Eastern and Western Groups are 94.5 kilometres (58.7 mi) apart (from Île des Pingouins to Île de la Possession)
The Crozet Islands are uninhabited, except for the research station Alfred Faure (Port Alfred) on the East side of Île de la Possession, which has been continuously manned since 1963. Previous scientific stations included La Grande Manchotière and La Petite Manchotière.
Analysis of magnetic anomalies on the sea floor indicates that the Crozet Plateau formed some 50 million years ago. The islands are of volcanic origin, and basalt. Rock samples indicate volcanic origins going back to at least 8.8 million years.
The Crozet islands have an oceanic climate and some areas are a temperate rainforest.
The Greater Sunda Islands are a group of large islands within the Malay Archipelago. Java, smallest but by far the most populous; Sumatra in the west, directly across the Strait of Malacca from Malaysia; large, compact Borneo, the Indonesian sector of which is called Kalimantan; and wishbone-shaped, distended Sulawesi (formerly Celebes) to the east. Under some definitions, only Java, Sumatra and Borneo are included in the Greater Sunda Islands.
Together with the Lesser Sunda Islands they make up the Sunda Islands.
The Greater Sunda islands are mostly territory of Indonesia. However, the island of Borneo is divided between the countries of Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia. It contains all of Brunei, the Indonesian provinces of Central, East, West, and South Kalimantan, and the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak.
The Montebello Islands, also known as the Monte Bello Islands, are an archipelago of around 174 small islands (about 92 of which are named) lying 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of Barrow Island and 130 kilometres (81 mi) off the Pilbara coast of north-western Australia. Montebello is Italian for "beautiful mountain". The islands form a conservation park administered by the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation, and it is likely that the shallow waters around them will become a marine conservation reserve.
The islands of the archipelago have a collective land area of about 22 km The largest islands, Hermite (or Hermit) and Trimouille have areas of 1022 ha and 522 ha respectively. They consist of limestone rock and sand. The rocky parts are dominated by Triodia hummock grassland with scattered shrubs, while the sandy areas support grasses, sedges and shrubs, mainly Acacia. Patches of mangroves grow in sheltered bays and channels of the archipelago, especially at Hermite Island. The climate is hot and arid with an annual average rainfall of about 320 mm.
The islands have been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area (IBA) because they support
The Near Islands or Sasignan Islands (Aleut: Sasignan tanangin) are the smallest and westernmost group of the Aleutian Islands in southwestern Alaska.
The largest of the Near Islands are Attu and Agattu. Besides a few rocks in the channel between Attu and Agattu, the other important islands are the Semichi Islands to their northeast, notable among which are Alaid, Nizki and Shemya.
About 20 miles to the east-southeast from Shemya are small rocky reefs known as the Ingenstrem Rocks.
The total land area of all of the Near Islands is 1,143.785 km² (441.618 sq mi), and their total population was 47 persons as of the 2000 census. The only populated islands are Shemya and Attu.
The islands were named Near Islands by Russian explorers in the 18th century because they were the nearest of the Aleutian Islands to Russia. They are the farthest of the islands from mainland Alaska.
During the Second World War, the Japanese Imperial Army occupied the Near Islands in 1942. American forces retook the islands during the Aleutian Islands Campaign in 1943.
The North Isles are the northern islands of the Shetland Islands, Scotland. The main islands in the group are Yell, Unst and Fetlar. Sometimes the islands in Yell Sound are included in this group.
They are a significant group, since Yell and Unst are the second and third largest islands in the archipelago, and also the third and fourth most populous (Whalsay, which is not in the group, is the second most populous). Combined, their total land area is far larger than the rest of the Shetland Islands (excluding Mainland) combined.
The group also contains the most northerly land of the United Kingdom and Shetland at Out Stack near Muckle Flugga, and its most northerly settlement Skaw on Unst. These also happen to be the most northerly British territorial claims currently in existence, since Canadian independence, in contradistinction to those of Cornwall, which only represent the southernmost parts of the UK, and not those of British overseas territories, such as the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and British Antarctic Territory. In similar fashion, Britain's most northerly maritime claims are also based on these islands, having great effect on its fishing and oil industries.
The Virgin Islands are the western island group of the Leeward Islands, which are the northern part of the Lesser Antilles, and form the border between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Politically, the eastern islands form the British Virgin Islands and the western ones form the United States Virgin Islands. The British Virgin Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom comprising Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Jost Van Dyke and Anegada. The U.S. Virgin Islands is an unincorporated organized territory of the United States comprising St. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas and Water Island. The Virgin Passage separates the U.S. Virgin Islands from the Spanish Virgin Islands of Vieques and Culebra, which are part of Puerto Rico. The United States dollar is the official currency on both the British and U.S. Virgin Islands.
Christopher Columbus named the islands after Saint Ursula and the 11,000 Virgins (Spanish: Santa Ursula y las Once Mil Vírgenes), shortened to the Virgins (las Vírgenes). The official name of the British territory is the Virgin Islands, and the official name of the U.S. territory is the Virgin Islands of the United States. In practice, the two island groups are
The Windmill Islands are an Antarctic group of rocky islands and rocks about 6 mi (9.7 km) wide, paralleling the coast of Wilkes Land for 17 mi (27 km) immediately north of Vanderford Glacier along the east side of Vincennes Bay. Kirkby Shoal is a small shoal area with depths of less than 18 meters (59 ft) extending about 140 meters (459 ft) westwards and SSW, about 3.4 km (2.1 mi) from the summit of Shirley Island, Windmill Islands, and 0.15 mi (0.24 km) NW of Stonehocker Point, Clark Peninsula.
The Windmill Islands were mapped from aerial photographs taken by USN Operation Highjump, 1946-47. So named by the US-ACAN because personnel of Operation Windmill, 1947–48, landed on Holl Island at the southwest end of the group to establish ground control for USN Operation Highjump photographs. The term "Operation Windmill" is a popular expression which developed after the expedition disbanded and refers to the extensive use of helicopters made by this group. The official title of this expedition was the 'Second Antarctic Development Project', U.S. Navy Task Force 39, 1947–48.
The Gilbert Islands (Gilbertese: Tungaru; formerly Kingsmill Islands) are a chain of sixteen atolls and coral islands in the Pacific Ocean. They are the main part of Republic of Kiribati ("Kiribati" is the Gilbertese rendition of "Gilberts" ) and include Tarawa, the site of the country's capital and residence of almost half of the population.
The atolls and islands of the Gilbert Islands are arranged in an approximate north-to-south line. In a geographical sense, the equator serves as the dividing line between the northern Gilbert Islands and the southern Gilbert Islands. The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) considers the Gilberts wholly within the South Pacific Ocean, however.
Another method of grouping the Gilbert Islands is by former administrative districts, the Northern, Central, and Southern Gilberts (Tarawa once was a separate district as well).
A group of the southern Gilberts is called the Kingsmill Group, a name that in the 19th century applied to all of the Gilberts.
The Gilberts form a continuous chain of seamounts with the Ratak Chain of the Marshall Islands to the north.
In official north-south order (grouped by former administrative districts), the
Vesterålen is a district and archipelago in Nordland county, Norway. It is located just north of the Lofoten district and archipelago and west of the city of Harstad. It is the northernmost part of Nordland county.
The Old Norse forms of the name were Vestráll and Vestrálar (plural). The first element is vestr which means "west" and the last element is áll which means "(deep and narrow) sound" or "strait". The name describes the seaway west of the island of Hinnøya. The old name of the seaway east of Hinnøya (now called Tjeldsundet) might have been Austráll (meaning "the eastern sound/strait").
Vesterålen consists of the municipalities of Andøy, Bø, Hadsel, Sortland, and Øksnes. According to some definitions, Lødingen is also included. Vesterålen is made up of several islands: Langøya, Andøya, Hadseløya, the western part of Hinnøya, the northern part of Austvågøya and several smaller islands.
The landscape is mountainous, but the mountains have a more rounded shape compared to the mountains in Lofoten. The towns and villages are situated on the coastal brim (Strandflaten) between the mountains and the fjords. There are also several lakes, such as Alsvågvatnet. Møysalen National
The Channel Islands of California are a chain of eight islands located in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Southern California along the Santa Barbara Channel in the United States of America. Five of the islands are part of the Channel Islands National Park.
The eight islands are split among the jurisdictions of three separate California counties: Santa Barbara County (four), Ventura County (two), and Los Angeles County (two). The islands are divided into two groups — the Northern Channel Islands and the Southern Channel Islands. The four Northern Islands used to be a single landmass known as Santa Rosae.
The archipelago extends for 160 miles (257.51 kilometers) between San Miguel Island in the north and San Clemente Island in the south. Together, the islands’ land area totals 221,331 acres (89,569 ha), or about 346 square miles (900 km).
Five of the islands (San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Anacapa, and Santa Barbara) were made into the Channel Islands National Park in 1980. The Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary encompasses the waters six nautical miles (11 kilometers) off Anacapa, Santa Cruz, San Miguel and Santa Barbara islands.
Santa Catalina Island is the only one
The Islands of the Firth of Clyde are the fifth largest of the major Scottish island groups after the Inner and Outer Hebrides, Orkney and Shetland. They are situated in the Firth of Clyde between Ayrshire and Argyll. There are about forty islands and skerries, of which only six are inhabited and only nine larger than 40 hectares (99 acres). The largest and most populous are Arran and Bute, and Great Cumbrae and Holy Isle are also served by dedicated ferry routes. Unlike the four larger Scottish archipelagos, none of the isles in this group are connected to one another or to the mainland by bridges.
The geology and geomorphology of the area is complex and the islands and the surrounding sea lochs each have distinctive features. The influence of the Atlantic Ocean and the North Atlantic Drift create a mild, damp oceanic climate.
The larger islands have been continuously inhabited since Neolithic times, were influenced by the emergence of the kingdom of Dál Riata from 500 AD and then absorbed into the emerging Kingdom of Alba under Kenneth MacAlpin. They experienced Norse incursions during the early Middle Ages and then became part of the Kingdom of Scotland in the 13th century.
The Liancourt Rocks, also known as Dokdo or Tokto (독도/獨島, literally "solitary island") in Korean, and Takeshima (たけしま/竹島, literally "bamboo island") in Japanese, are a group of small islets in the Sea of Japan (East Sea). Sovereignty over the islets is disputed between Japan and South Korea. South Korea classifies the islets as Dokdo-ri, Ulleung-eup, Ulleung County, North Gyeongsang Province. Japan classifies them as part of Okinoshima, Oki District, Shimane Prefecture.
The Franco-English name of the islets derives from Le Liancourt, the name of a French whaling ship which came close to being wrecked on the rocks in 1849.
The Liancourt Rocks consist of two main islets and 35 smaller rocks; the total surface area of the islets is 0.18745 square kilometres (46.32 acres), with the highest elevation of 169 metres (554 ft) found at an unnamed location on the west islet.
The Liancourt Rocks lie in rich fishing grounds which may contain large deposits of natural gas.
The Liancourt Rocks consist of two main islets and numerous surrounding rocks. The two main islets, called Seodo (서도/西島, "Western Island") and Dongdo (동도/東島, "Eastern Island") in Korean, and Otokojima (おとこじま/男島, "Male
Oinousses (Greek: Οινούσσες), alternative forms: Aignoussa (Αιγνούσα) or Egnoussa(Εγνούσα) is a barren cluster of 1 larger and 8 smaller islands some 2 km off the north-east coast of the Greek island of Chios and 8 km west of Turkey. Administratively the islands form a municipality within the Chios regional unit, which is part of the North Aegean region. The principal town of the islands and seat of the municipality is also called Oinousses. Oinousses has a small resident population, living primarily in the islands' town of Oinoússes (pop. 999), and a recently built monastery. The town is centred around a square (plateia) and a small port; it includes a school, several churches, a Naval high school and a maritime museum. The only other populated settlements are Kástron (pop. 32) and Aspalathrókampos (19).
The vast majority of the workforce of the island is engaged in seafaring, fishing and goat-herding.
The islands are noted as the origin of an unusual cluster of successful ship-owning families: the Lemos, Pateras, Chatzipateras, Kollakis and Lyras families. Whilst most of the families now live elsewhere most of the year, the islands and town are well maintained with a strong naval
Bacan (formerly Bachan, Bachian or Batchian, Dutch: Batjan) refers to a group of islands in the Maluku Islands of Indonesia and to that group's largest island. The islands are mountainous and forested. The islands lie south of Ternate and west of Halmahera's southernmost arm. Bacan itself is the largest; the second and third largest islands are Kasiruta and Mandioli. There are dozens of smaller islands in the group.
Part of North Maluku province, the Bacan kecamatan (sub-district) includes about 56,000 people of which about 8,000 live in the capital Labuha.
In 1513, the first Portuguese trading fleet to reach Maluku set up a trading post on Bacan which at the time was subservient to the Sultan of Ternate. The fleet's commander, Captain Antonio de Miranda Azevedo, left seven men on Bacan to buy cloves for the following year's expedition. Their arrogant behaviour and reported bad treatment of Bacan women led to their murder. As Ternate did not have enough stock, the ship for which the men had stayed to prepare was used by the Sultan of Ternate to fill Ferdinand Magellan's last ship, which was the first ship to circumnavigate the world. A slave and two birds of paradise were given to
The Bass Islands are three American islands in the western half of Lake Erie. They are north of Sandusky, Ohio and south of Pelee Island, Ontario. South Bass Island (41°38′59″N 82°49′08″W / 41.6497°N 82.8189°W / 41.6497; -82.8189 (South Bass Island)) is the largest of the islands, followed closely by North Bass Island (41°42′58″N 82°49′11″W / 41.7160°N 82.8196°W / 41.7160; -82.8196 (North Bass Island)) and Middle Bass Island (41°40′56″N 82°48′39″W / 41.6821°N 82.8107°W / 41.6821; -82.8107 (Middle Bass Island)). They are located in Ottawa County in the state of Ohio. Historically Middle Bass has also been called Ile de Fleurs and North Bass was known as Isle St. George.
At their closest points, Middle Bass Island is approximately 0.5 mi (0.8 km) north of South Bass Island and North Bass Island is approximately 1.0 mi (1.6 km) north of Middle Bass Island. The border between Ohio and Ontario is approximately 1.0 mi (1.6 km) north of North Bass Island.
The village of Put-in-Bay on South Bass Island is a popular tourist stop during the summer. Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial, commemorating the Battle of Lake Erie, is located on South Bass Island, near
Bohol Island /boʊˈhɔːl/ boh-HAWL is the main island of Bohol Province in the Visayas. It lies southeast from Cebu Island across the Cebu Strait (in some references called Bohol Strait) and southwest from Leyte Island, separated by the Camotes Sea and Canigao Channel. Bohol is also located north of Mindanao with the Bohol Sea between them.
The Island of Bohol is oval-shaped and surrounded by 73 smaller islands. The main island has a gently rolling terrain. Bohol's mountainous interior is home to rare and endangered flora and fauna; at certain points, hills drop steeply to the coast from a maximum elevation of 870 meters above sea level. The interior uplands are fit for agro-forestry and high value agricultural production, while the central and northern lowlands also have fertile grounds and an abundant water supply. Over a hundred caves have been identified, the biggest of which is found in the eastern part of the island.
The Chocolate Hills are considered one of Philippine's natural wonders and Bohol is often referred to as the Jewel of the Philippines. They are hills made of limestone leftover from coral reefs during the ice age when the island was submerged. They turn brown
The islands were named when explorer, Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, was sailing in search of the mouth of the Mississippi River along the Gulf Coast. He christened the islands on the eve of La Fête de la Chandeleur—also known as Candlemas, a Christian feast day—on February 1, 1700.
The Breton National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1904 and includes all of the Chandeleur Islands in the Gulf of Mexico. The refuge is the second-oldest in the National Wildlife Refuge System.
Prior to destruction by a hurricane in 1915 there was a fishing settlement on the islands, and even earlier there had been farming on the islands. The Chandeleur Island Light, built in 1895, stood as a landmark and recognizable location for mariners at sea and pilots flying over the Gulf of Mexico. The islands, were constantly eroded and changed by wave action, and most dramatically after the storm surges following hurricanes.
The islands have been generally shrinking and migrating landward since the late 19th century. A survey in the 1980s estimated that they would be in existence for about three more centuries. Before 1996, the seaward front of the islands lost about 20–30 feet of land each year, mostly
The Lesser Antilles (also known as the Caribbees) are a long, partly volcanic island arc in the Caribbean Sea. Most of its islands form the eastern boundary of the Caribbean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean, with the remainder located in the southern Caribbean just north of South America. The Lesser Antilles and the Greater Antilles compose the Antilles, which are in turn part of the West Indies along with the Bahamas, the Cayman Islands, and the Turks and Caicos Islands.
The islands of the Lesser Antilles are divided into three groups. The two main groups are the Windward Islands in the south and the Leeward Islands in the north. The Windward Islands are called such because they were more windward to sailing ships arriving in the New World than the Leeward Islands, given that the prevailing trade winds blow east to west. The trans-Atlantic currents and winds that provided the fastest route across the ocean brought these ships to the rough dividing line between the Windward and Leeward Islands.
The third group is the Leeward Antilles in the west. These consist of the Dutch ABC islands just off the coast of Venezuela, plus a group of Venezuelan islands.
The Lesser Antilles more or less
The Bonin Islands, known in Japan as the Ogasawara Group (小笠原群島, Ogasawara Guntō) are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical and tropical islands, some 1,000 kilometres (540 nmi; 620 mi) directly south of Tokyo, Japan. "Bonin Islands" is the common name in English for Ogasawara Guntō, from the Japanese word bunin (an archaic reading of 無人 mujin), meaning "no people" or "uninhabited." The only inhabited islands of the group are Chichi-jima (父島), the seat of the municipal government, and Haha-jima (母島) which includes Ogasawara Village.
Ogasawara Municipality (mura) and Ogasawara Subprefecture (Tokyo Prefecture) take their names from the Ogasawara Group. However, Ogasawara Archipelago (小笠原諸島, Ogasawara shotō), may also be a wider collective term that includes other islands in Ogasawara Municipality, such as the Volcano Islands, along with other small, uninhabited and isolated islands.
A total population of 2,440 comprising 2,000 on Chichi-jima, and 440 on Haha-jima lives in the Ogasawara Group, which have a total area of 73 square kilometres (28 sq mi).
Because the Ogasawara Islands have never been connected to a continent, many of their animals and plants have undergone unique
The Balearic Islands (English /ˌbæliˈærɨk ˈaɪləndz/; Catalan: Illes Balears [ˈiʎəz βəɫəˈas]; Spanish: Islas Baleares [ˈizlaz βaleˈaɾes]) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
The four largest islands are: Majorca, Minorca, Ibiza and Formentera. The archipelago forms an autonomous community and a province of Spain, with Palma as the capital city. The co-official languages in the Balearic Islands are Catalan and Castilian Spanish. The current Statute of Autonomy declares the Balearic Islands as one nationality of Spain.
The official name of the Balearic Islands in Catalan is Illes Balears, while in Spanish they are known as the Islas Baleares. The term "Balearic" derives from Greek (Γυμνησίαι/Gymnesiae and Βαλλιαρεῖς/Balliareis) and Latin (Baleares).
Of the various theories on the origins of the two ancient Greek and Latin names for the islands — Gymnasiae and Baleares — classical sources provide two.
According to the Lycophron's Alexandra verses, the islands were called Gymnesiae Γυμνησίαι (gymnos γυμνός, meaning naked in Greek) because its inhabitants were often nude, probably because of the year-round
The Banks Islands (in Bislama Bankis) are a group of islands in northern Vanuatu. Together with the Torres Islands to the northwest, they make up the northernmost province of Torba. The group lies about 40 km (25 mi) north of Maewo, and includes Gaua and Vanua Lava, two of the 13 largest islands in Vanuatu. In 2009, the islands supported a population of 8,533 on a land area of 780 km².
The largest island is Gaua (formerly called Santa Maria), which has a rugged terrain, rising to Mount Gharat, an active volcano at the center of the island, at 797 m (2,615 ft). The freshwater Lake Letas in the crater is the largest lake in Vanuatu. The slightly smaller Vanua Lava, is higher at 946 m (3,104 ft); it also has an active volcano at Mount Suretamate (also spelled Süretimiat or Sere'ama, 921 m (3,022 ft)). To its east are two islets, Ravenga and Kwakea (or Qakea). Sola, the provincial capital, is on this island. The third largest island, Ureparapara (also known as Parapara), is an old volcanic cone that has been breached by the sea, forming Divers Bay on its east coast.
To the east of these larger islands lie a number of smaller ones. The furthest north, 50 km (31 mi) northeast of
The Comoro Islands or Comoros (Shikomori Komori; Arabic جزر القمر Juzur al-Qamar; French Les Comores) form an archipelago of volcanic islands situated off the south-east coast of Africa, to the east of Mozambique and north-west of Madagascar. They are divided between the sovereign state of the Comoros and the French overseas department of Mayotte. The islet of Banc du Geyser and the Glorioso Islands are sometimes included as part of the archipelago.
The Comoros are located in the Mozambique Channel to the north-west of Madagascar and facing Mozambique. These volcanic islands, covering a total area of 2034 km², are:
Two islets, have been considered part of this archipelago, by various sources, and at different times:
In addition, between Madagascar and Mayotte, there is the Banc du Leven, a former island which is submerged these days.
The affinity between the Comorian flora and the Madagascan flora is certain. The presence of the Banc du Leven, along about one hundred kilometres to the extreme north-west of Madagascar between the Montagne d'Ambre and the archipelago could partly explain this affinity. In fact, this bank with a tabular appearance presents coralligenous sediments
The Line Islands, Teraina Islands or Equatorial Islands, is a chain of eleven atolls and low coral islands in the central Pacific Ocean, south of the Hawaiian Islands, that stretches for 2,350 km in a northwest-southeast direction, making it one of the longest island chains of the world. Eight of the islands form part of Kiribati, while the remaining three are United States territories grouped with the United States Minor Outlying Islands.
Those that are part of Kiribati are in the world's farthest forward time zone, UTC+14:00. The time of day is the same as in Hawaiʻi, but the date is one day ahead. The time is 26 hours ahead of some other islands in Oceania like Baker Island which uses UTC−12:00.
The United States previously claimed all the Line Islands under the Guano Islands Act. This claim was relinquished under the Treaty of Tarawa, which recognised Kiribati's sovereignty over the majority of the chain.
The group is geographically divided into three subgroups; The Northern, Central, and Southern Line Islands. The Central Line Islands are sometimes grouped with the Southern Line Islands. The table below lists the islands from North to South.
The lagoon areas marked with an
Sibuyan /siːbuˈjɑːn/ is a crescent-shaped island of Romblon Province, Philippines. Located in the namesake Sibuyan Sea, it has an area of 445 square kilometres (172 sq mi). The island has two prominent peaks, Mount Guiting-Guiting with a height of 2,058 metres (6,752 ft) and Mount Nailog with a height of 789 metres (2,589 ft). The people speak the Sibuyanon dialect of Romblomanon, a Visayan language.
Sibuyan has been dubbed by some local and international natural scientists as "the Galapagos of Asia", because it has remained in isolation from the rest of the world since its formation. Never in its geological history has it ever been connected with any part of the Philippine archipelago. Seismic forces pushed up a 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) peak from the earth’s crust, forming a series of smaller peaks and slopes. The peak is Mt. Guiting-Guiting (literally means "the saw-toothed mountain", in reference to its jagged ridge). Because of the steep slopes, much of its original forest remains untouched, and the rest is the island as we find it today.
Primary forests cover 140 square kilometres (54 sq mi), which is 33% of the land area of Sibuyan. However, most of the lower altitude forest
The Society Islands (French: Îles de la Société or officially Archipel de la Société) are a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean. They are politically part of French Polynesia. The archipelago is suspected to have been named by Captain James Cook supposedly in honour of the Royal Society, the sponsor of the first British scientific survey of the islands; however, Cook himself stated in his journal that he called the islands Society "as they lay contiguous to one another".
The islands are divided, both geographically and administratively into two groups:
The islands became a French protectorate in 1843 and a colony in 1880. They have a population of 227,807 inhabitants (as of August 2007 census). They cover a land area of 1,590 square kilometres (610 sq mi).
Each of the Society Islands has a small airport. Faaa International Airport is located in Tahiti, and is the largest airport in the Society Islands.
The Brijuni (pronounced [brijǔːni]) or the Brijuni Islands (also known as the Brionian Islands; Italian: Brioni) are a group of fourteen small islands in the Croatian part of the northern Adriatic Sea, separated from the west coast of the Istrian peninsula by the narrow Fažana Strait. The largest island, Veliki Brijun Island- Brioni Grande or Veli Brijun (5.6 km), lies 2 km off the coast, the others are Mali Brijun, San Marco, Gaz, Okrugljak, Supin, Supinič, Galija, Grunj, Krasnica (Vanga), Madona, Vrsar, Jerolim and Kozada. Famous for their scenic beauty, the islands are a holiday resort and a Croatian National Park.
The Brijuni Islands had some Ancient Roman settlements, but up to the late 19th century the islands were mainly used for their quarries, which have been worked on for centuries. The islands belonged to Venice from the Middle Ages, and stone from the islands was used to build the palaces and bridges of the city. The islands were part of the Illyrian Provinces after Napoleon's brief annexation.
In 1815 the islands became part of the Austrian Empire, which later became Austria-Hungary. During this period the islands' quarries first supplied stone to Vienna and Berlin.
The Duke of York Islands, (formerly German: Neu Lauenburg), are a group of islands located in East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea. They are found in St George's Channel between New Britain and New Ireland islands and form part of Bismarck Archipelago. The Duke of York Islands were named in 1767 by Philip Carteret to honor Prince Edward, son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and younger brother of George III of the United Kingdom.
The Duke of York islands consist of a total of thirteen islands and cover 58 km² in area. The largest island of the group is Duke of York Island and other islands include Makada, Kabakon, Kerawara, Ulu, and Mioko.
The island group lies in a seismic active zone, where two tectonic plates push upon each other. Earthquakes and tsunamis are not uncommon for the inhabitants of the islands.
The islands are low-lying, and are threatened with inundation due to rising sea levels. On 28 November 2000 the evacuation and resettlement of one thousand inhabitants to New Britain was announced.
Mindoro (Tagalog pronunciation: [mɪnˈdoɾo]) is the seventh-largest island in the Philippines. It is located off the coast of Luzon, and northeast of Palawan. The southern coast of Mindoro forms the northeastern extremum of the Sulu Sea.
In past times, it has been called Ma-i or Mait by Chinese traders and, by Spaniards, as Mina de Oro (meaning "gold mine") from where the island got its current name. The island was once a single province from 1920 to 1950 when it was divided into its two present-day provinces, Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro.
According to the late historian William Henry Scott, an entry in the official history of the Sung Dynasty for the year 972 mentions Ma-i as a trading partner of China. Other Chinese records referring to Ma-i or Mindoro appear in the years that follow.
Prehispanic Source Materials enumerates the products that Mindoro traders exchanged with the Chinese as "beeswax, cotton, true pearls, tortoise shell, medicinal betelnuts and yu-ta [jute?] cloth" for Chinese porcelain, trade gold, iron pots, lead, colored glass beads and iron needles.
The economy of Mindoro is largely based on agriculture. Products consist of a wide variety of fruits, such
Not to be confused with Heysker/Hyskeir (Small Isles) or Haskeir
The Monach Islands, also known as Heisker (Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Heisgeir / Heisgeir, pronounced [elanˈheʃkʲəɾʲ, ˈheʃkʲəɾʲ] ( listen)), are an island group west of North Uist in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. The islands are not to be confused with Hyskeir in the Inner Hebrides, or Haskeir which is also off North Uist and visible from the group.
The main islands of Ceann Ear (once home to a nunnery), Ceann Iar and Shivinish are all linked at low tide. It is said that it was at one time possible to walk all the way to Baleshare, and on to North Uist, five miles away at low tide. In the 15th century, a large tidal wave was said to have washed this route away. The islands of the group, tend to be low-lying and sandy, subject to intense coastal erosion. Not unlike the Isles of Scilly it is possible that Ceann Iar, Shivinish and Ceann Ear formed a single body of land within historic times, and that their land area has greatly decreased due to overgrazing and sea inundation, and wind erosion as well.
Smaller islands in the group include Deasker (Deas-Sgeir), Shillay (Siolaigh) and Stocaigh (Stockay).
The islands have
The Solor Archipelago (Indonesian: Kepulauan Solor) is a group of islands in the Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia, lying to the east of Flores and to the west of the Alor Strait and the Alor Archipelago. To the north is the west part of the Banda Sea, while to the south across the Savu Sea lies the island of Timor. The largest islands are, from west to east, Solor, Adonara, and Lembata (formerly known as Lomblen), although there are many small islands as well.
Administratively, the Solor Archipelago forms its own regency (kabupaten), the Lembata Regency, within the province of East Nusa Tenggara. It has an area of 473.5 sq mi (1,226.38 km2) and a population of 106,312 (2008 estimate).
In addition to the national language of Indonesian, the population also speak Lamaholot as a lingua franca. There are also many local languages, for example Adonara which is spoken on Adonara and Solor.
The Yasawa Group is an archipelago of about 20 volcanic islands in the Western Division of Fiji, with an approximate total area of 135 square kilometers.
The Yasawa volcanic group consists of six main islands and numerous smaller islets. The archipelago, which stretches in a north-easterly direction for more than 80 kilometers from a point 40 kilometers north-west of Lautoka, is volcanic in origin and very mountainous, with peaks ranging from 250 to 600 meters in height. The only safe passage for shipping is between Yasawa Island (the largest in the archipelago, about 22 kilometers long and less than a kilometer wide) and Round Island, 22 kilometers to the north-east.
The British navigator William Bligh was the first European to sight the Yasawas in 1789, following the mutiny on the HMS Bounty. Captain Barber in the HMS Arthur visited the islands in 1794, but they were not charted until 1840, when they were surveyed and charted by a United States expedition commanded by Charles Wilkes.
Throughout the 1800s, Tongan raiders bartered for, and sometimes stole, the sail mats for which the Yasawa Islanders were famous. The islands were largely ignored by the wider world until World War
The Hebrides ( /ˈhɛbrɨdiːz/; Scottish Gaelic: Innse Gall) comprise a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland. There are two main groups: the Inner and Outer Hebrides. These islands have a long history of occupation dating back to the Mesolithic and the culture of the residents has been affected by the successive influences of Celtic, Norse and English-speaking peoples. This diversity is reflected in the names given to the islands, which are derived from the languages that have been spoken there in historic and perhaps prehistoric times.
A variety of artists have been inspired by their Hebridean experiences. Today the economy of the islands is dependent on crofting, fishing, tourism, the oil industry and renewable energy. The Hebrides lack biodiversity in comparison to mainland Britain, but these islands have much to offer the naturalist. Seals, for example, are present around the coasts in internationally important numbers.
The Hebrides have a diverse geology ranging in age from Precambrian strata that are amongst the oldest rocks in Europe to Paleogene igneous intrusions.
The Hebrides can be divided into two main groups, separated from one
The Banggai Archipelago (Indonesian: Kepulauan Banggai) is a group of islands, which are located at the far eastern end of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. It makes up a newly established regency (kabupaten), created by splitting the existing Banggai Regency into a new Banggai Regency situated the mainland of Sulawesi (capital, Luwuk) and a Banggai Islands Regency comprising the offshore islands (capital, Banggai town). The archipelago is surrounded by the Banda Sea's Gulf of Tolo (Teluk Tolo), and the Molucca Sea. Peleng Straits (Selat Peleng) separates it from mainland Sulawesi.
The islands consist of Peleng, Banggai Island, Bowokan, Labobo, Kebongan, Kotudan, Tropettenando, Timpau, Salue Besar, Salue Kecil, Masepe, and Bangkulu.
Merpati Nusantara Airlines services the islands from Palu (the capital of Central Sulawesi). There is also bus service via Luwuk and then by boat or ship get to Banggai.
The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the northeastern coast of New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean and is part of the Islands Region of Papua New Guinea.
The first inhabitants of the archipelago arrived around 33,000 years ago from New Guinea, either by boats across the Bismarck Sea or via a temporary land bridge, created by an uplift in the Earth's crust. Later arrivals included the Lapita people.
The first European to visit these islands was Dutch explorer Willem Schouten in 1616. The islands remained unsettled by western Europeans until they were annexed as part of the German protectorate of German New Guinea in 1884. The area was named in honour of the Chancellor Otto von Bismarck.
On 13 March 1888, a volcano erupted on Ritter Island causing a megatsunami. Almost 100% of the volcano fell in to the ocean leaving a small crater lake.
Following the outbreak of World War I, the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force seized the islands in 1914 and Australia later received a League of Nations mandate for the islands. They remained under Australian administration — interrupted only by Japanese occupation during World War II — until Papua New Guinea became
The British Isles are a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe that include the islands of Great Britain, Ireland and over six thousand smaller isles. There are two sovereign states located on the islands: Ireland (sometimes called the Republic of Ireland) and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (commonly known as the United Kingdom). The British Isles also include three dependencies of the British Crown: the Isle of Man and, by tradition, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the Bailiwick of Guernsey in the Channel Islands, although the latter are not physically a part of the archipelago.
The oldest rocks in the group are in the north west of Scotland, Ireland and North Wales are 2,700 million years old. During the Silurian period the north-western regions collided with the south-east, which had been part of a separate continental landmass. The topography of the islands is modest in scale by global standards. Ben Nevis rises to an elevation of only 1,344 metres (4,409 ft), Lough Neagh, which is notably larger than other lakes on the isles, covers 381 square kilometres (147 sq mi). The climate is temperate marine, with mild winters and warm
The Alexander Archipelago is a 300 miles (500 km) long archipelago, or group of islands, of North America off the southeastern coast of Alaska. It contains about 1,100 islands, which are the tops of the submerged coastal mountains that rise steeply from the Pacific Ocean. Deep channels and fjords separate the islands and cut them off from the mainland. The northern part of the Inside Passage is sheltered by the islands as it winds its way among them.
The islands have irregular, steep coasts and dense evergreen and temperate rain forests.
In order of land area, the largest islands are Prince of Wales Island, Chichagof Island, Admiralty Island, Baranof Island, Revillagigedo Island, Kupreanof Island, Kuiu Island, Etolin Island, Dall Island, Wrangell Island, Mitkof Island, Zarembo Island, Kosciusko Island, Kruzof Island, Annette Island, Gravina Island, and Yakobi Island. All the islands are rugged, densely forested, and have an abundance of wildlife.
The Tlingit and Kaigani Haida people are native to the area. The Tsimshian people found on Annette Island are not originally from the area, having immigrated to the region from British Columbia in the late 19th century.
The Ascrib Islands are a group of small islands lying in Loch Snizort off the northwest coast of Skye, in Highland, Scotland.
Together with Isay and Loch Dunvegan, they are designated as a Special Area of Conservation owing to the breeding colonies of the common seal.
There is a house on South Ascrib, the largest of the islands.
The islands came up for sale in the late 1990s, and were bought by Lord Palumbo.
The Columbretes Islands (Valencian: Els Columbrets, IPA: [eɫs kolumˈbɾets]) are a group of small uninhabited islets of volcanic origin, in the Mediterranean Sea, 49 km off Oropesa del Mar. Administratively they belong to Castelló de la Plana municipality, Valencian Community, Spain.
The main islets are Illa Grossa (Spanish: Columbrete Grande), La Ferrera, La Foradada and El Carallot. The total emerged area of all four is around 0.19 km² and the highest point is 67 m. Illa Grossa, by far the largest, is the northernmost island of the group. It stands in the place of an ancient crater and shows a distinctive semi-circular pattern. There are no buildings on it, except for a 19th century lighthouse, a jetty and the staff quarters used by the biologists working in the wildlife reserve.
These islands were known by Greeks and Romans from ancient times. Writers such as Strabo or Pliny the Elder cited the astonishing amount of snakes inhabiting them. The names Ophiusa and Colubraria by which they were named (meaning serpent in Greek and Latin, respectively) refer to that fact. The islands owe their present name to "Colubraria", the Latin word for "snake".
After a lighthouse was built on
Lofoten is an archipelago and a traditional district in the county of Nordland, Norway. Though lying within the Arctic Circle, the archipelago experiences one of the world's largest elevated temperature anomalies relative to its high latitude.
Lofoten (Norse Lófót f) was originally the old name of the island Vestvågøya. The first element is ló 'lynx', the last element is derived from Norse fótr m 'foot'. The shape of the island must have been compared with a foot of a lynx. (The old name of the neighbouring island Flakstadøya was Vargfót 'the foot of a wolf', from vargr m 'wolf'. See also Ofoten.)
Vågan (Norse Vágar) is the first known town formation in northern Norway. It existed in the early Viking Age, maybe earlier, and was located on the southern coast on eastern Lofoten, near today's village Kabelvåg in Vågan municipality. However, the Lofotr Viking Museum with the reconstructed 83 m long longhouse (the largest known) is located near Borg on Vestvågøy, which have many archeological finds from the Iron Age and Viking Age.
The islands have for more than 1,000 years been the centre of great cod fisheries, especially in winter, when the cod migrates south from the Barents Sea and
The New Siberian Islands (Russian: Новосиби́рские острова, Novosibirskiye Ostrova) are an archipelago, located to the North of the East Siberian coast between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea north of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic.
The New Siberian Islands proper, or Anzhu Islands, covering a land area of about 29,000 km², consist of:
To the south and nearer to the Siberian mainland lie the Lyakhovskiye Islands (6,095 km²):
The small De Long Islands (228 km²) lie to the north-east of Novaya Sibir. These islands are usually not considered as part of the New Siberian group:
The new Siberian Islands are low-lying. Their highest point is Mt. Malakatyn-Tas on Kotelny island with an elevation of 374 m.
The New Siberian Islands were once major hills within the Great Arctic Plain that once formed northern part of Late Pleistocene "Beringia" between Siberia and Alaska during the Last Glacial Maximum (Late Weichselian Epoch). These islands are what remains of about 1.6 million square kilometers of the formerly subaerial Great Arctic Plain that now lies submerged below parts of the Arctic Ocean, East Siberian Sea, and Laptev Sea. At this plain's greatest extent, sea level was 100–120 m
The Sakishima Islands (先島諸島, Sakishima shotō) (or 先島群島, Sakishima guntō) (Okinawan: Sachishima) are an island chain located at the southernmost end of the Japanese Archipelago. They are part of the Ryukyu Islands and include the Miyako Islands and the Yaeyama Islands. The islands are administered as part of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, though the uninhabited Senkaku Islands are claimed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China on Taiwan.
The Sakishima Islands were first documented in the Shoku Nihongi (797), which says that in 714 Ō no Ason Okeji (太朝臣遠建治) paid tribute to Dazaifu with 52 islanders from Amami (奄美), Shigaki (信覚), Kumi (球美) and other islands. Shigaki is believed to be the current Ishigaki (石垣), Kumi to be the current Kume (久米) or Komi (古見) settlement of Iriomote. The History of Yuan (1370) documented a castaway from Mìyágǔ (密牙古) arrived to Wenzhou in 1317. This is believed to be the first documentation of Miyako (宮古).
Stone tools and shell tools from 2,500 years ago have been excavated from shell mounds on the Sakishima Islands. Shell tools of the same era are also found in Taiwan and the Philippines, but not on Okinawa Island or
The Isole Tremiti are an archipelago in the Adriatic Sea, north of the Gargano Peninsula. They constitute a comune of Italy's Province of Foggia and form part of the Gargano national park. The name of the islands relates to their seismic hazard, with a history of earthquakes in the area: tremiti means "tremors".
The islands were used for the internment of political prisoners during Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime. This was nothing new: two millennia earlier Augustus had exiled his granddaughter Julia the Younger to one of these islands (then named Trimerus in Latin, maybe from Greek Trimeros, Τρίμερος, meaning "tree places" or "tree islands").
The islands are now an important tourist attraction because of the clear waters surrounding them. Up to 100,000 visitors come to the islands in the summer season. Ferry services from the mainland operate from Termoli, Foggia, Vieste, Rodi Garganico e Capoiale.
Inhabited since late Iron Age times (4th-3rd centuries BC), the Tremiti Island have been a confinement place since ancient times. Roman emperor Augustus had his granddaughter Julia the Younger transferred here, where she died after twenty years. In the Middle Ages the archipelago was
The Spanish Virgin Islands, formerly called the Passage Islands and also known as the Puerto Rican Virgin Islands, primarily consisting of the islands of Culebra and Vieques, are part of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and are located east of the main island of Puerto Rico.
Puerto Rican tourist literature uses the name Spanish Virgin Islands, but most general maps and atlases do not treat these islands as part of the Virgin Islands archipelago. As part of Puerto Rico, the Passage Islands are a territory of the United States, and they belonged to Spain before the Spanish-American War in 1898. Spanish remains the predominant language, although English is also common.
The principal islands of the group are Culebra and Vieques, with multiple associated smaller islands and islets. Other islands that are close to the shore of Puerto Rico include: Icacos Island, Cayo Lobo, Cayo Diablo, Palomino Island, Palominito Island, Isla de Ramos, Isla Pineiro, Cayo Lobo. Near Culebra there is Cayo de Luis Pena (named after the second owner).
Culebra's smaller island, Cayo Norte, is part of Culebra National Wildlife Refuge. Much of Vieques is part of Vieques National Wildlife Refuge, formerly a U.S.
The World or World Islands is an artificial archipelago of various small islands constructed in the rough shape of a world map, located 4.0 kilometres (2.5 mi) off the coast of Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The World islands are composed mainly of sand dredged from Dubai's shallow coastal waters, and are one of several artificial island developments in Dubai. The World's developer is Nakheel Properties, and the project was originally conceived by Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the ruler of Dubai.
As of 2010, only a single island has any building on it, which is a show home - all the other projects having been cancelled or delayed due to the 2008 financial crisis. While the developer and Dubai government deny it, a participant in a related law suit has alleged that the islands are also sinking back into the sea.
In July 17, 2012, the Royal Island Beach Club opened on Lebanon Island.
Islands in the archipelago range from 14,000 to 42,000 square metres (150,000 to 450,000 sq ft) in area. Distances between islands average 100 metres (330 ft); they are constructed from 321 million cubic metres of sand and 31 million tons of rock. The entire development is an area that covers 6 by
The Amami Islands (奄美群島, Amami guntō) are a group of islands that is part of the Satsunan Islands, a group of islands in the Ryukyu Archipelago. They are part of Kagoshima Prefecture, in the Kyūshū region of Japan. They consist of:
The name of Amami is probably cognate with Amamikiyo (アマミキヨ) or Amamiko (アマミコ), a goddess often featured in Okinawan legends.
The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan and the Japan Coast Guard agreed on February 15, 2010, to use the name of Amami-guntō (奄美群島) for the Amami Islands. Prior to that, Amami-shotō (奄美諸島) was also used.
Islanders started to produce earthenware from 6000 years ago, affected by the Jōmon culture in Kyūshū. Initially, the styles were similar to those of the main islands of Japan, but later, a style original to Amami, known as Usuki Lower Style, was developed.
Among Japanese literature, the islands first appeared in the 7th century. The Nihon Shoki mentions Amami-shima (海見嶋, "Amami Island") in 657, and Amami-bito (阿麻弥人, "Amami people") in 682. The Shoku Nihongi refers to Amami (菴美) in 699 and Amami (奄美) in 714. All of these are believed to be identical to the current Amami. The tenth kentō-shi mission (Japanese Imperial
D'Entrecasteaux Islands /ˌdɒntrəˈkæstoʊ/ (French: [dɑ̃ tʁəkasto]) are situated near the eastern tip of New Guinea in the Solomon Sea in Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea. The group spans a distance of 160 km, has a total land area of approximately 3,100 km² and is separated from the Papua New Guinea mainland by the 30 km wide Ward Hunt Strait in the north and the 18 km wide Goschen Strait in the south. D'Entrecasteaux Islands show signs of volcanism.
The inhabitants of D'Entrecasteaux Islands are indigenous subsistence horticulturalists living in small, traditional settlements. People of this area produced and traded clay pots as well as participated in the Kula exchange of shell valuables, travelling widely to other islands on sea-going sailing canoes. During the more recent past, people harvested copra, trochus and pearlshells and some timber for cash. Alluvial gold mining was once important and in recent years the area has been subject to mineral exploration.
The three principal islands, from northwest to southeast, are Goodenough (Nidula), then across Moresby Straight to Fergusson (Moratau), the largest of the three, and across Dawson Straight to Normanby (Duau). In
The Desertas Islands (Portuguese: Ilhas Desertas, IPA: [ˈiʎɐʒ ðɨˈzɛɾtɐʃ], "Desert Islands") are a small Portuguese archipelago, located about 25 km to the southeast of Ponta de São Lourenço, the eastern tip of the island of Madeira, the whole chain located roughly between Madeira and the Canary Islands.
It is a chain of three long and narrow islands that stretch over a distance of 23 km north-south. Administratively, the islands are part of the municipality of Santa Cruz, Madeira, and therein of the civil parish of the same name. The islands are a designated nature reserve and a licence is needed to land there. Though close to the main island of Madeira, where the islands can often be seen on the horizon, the geology of the Ilhas Desertas is starkly different. The high, long, and rocky islands of the group are barren of soil, and the only wildlife consists of about sixteen species of birds, including eight species of seabirds, and a scarce population of feral goats, rabbits, and rodents, brought from Portugal by the mariners who first touched the rocky shores. Native species of tarantula, as well as reptiles, also exist in the fragile and arid ecosystem.
The only inhabitable
The collective name of the Gymnesian Islands (Catalan: Illes Gimnèsies, IPA: [ˈiʎəz ʒimˈnɛziəs]; Spanish: Islas Gimnesias) or Gymnesic Islands (Catalan: Illes Gimnèsiques) distinguishes the two largest (and easternmost) Balearic islands (Majorca and Minorca), from the Pine Islands (Catalan Illes Pitiüses; Spanish Islas Pitiusas: Ibiza and Formentera).
The word Gymnesian (from the Greek γυμνήτες gymnetes) means "naked". The Ancient Greeks recruited the local inhabitants of these islands, the Talayotics, as slingers. According to some researchers, this does not mean that they fought naked, but that they used much lighter armament than the hoplites.
Later the Phoenicians referred to both Majorca and Minorca as the Baliarides. After the whole archipelago (the Pitiusas and Gymnesias) came under Roman rule, the islands gained the overall Latin name insulae baliares or Baleares insulae; and the collective concept has continued in use in modern languages, hence ultimately the English name "Balearic islands".
In recent years the Catalan terms Illes Gimnèsies and Illes Pitiüses have come back to use in academic and scientific circles, because of the use of Greek-language sources for
Islands of Four Mountains is an island grouping of the Aleutian Islands in Alaska, United States. The chain includes, from west to east, Amukta, Chagulak, Yunaska, Herbert, Carlisle, Chuginadak, Uliaga, and Kagamil Islands. This island chain is located between Amukta Pass and the Andreanof Islands to the west, and Samalga Pass and the Fox Islands to the east. These islands have a total land area of 210.656 sq mi (545.596 km²) and have no permanent population. The two largest islands are Yunaska and Chuginadak. Chuginadak is mainly made up of the active volcano Mount Cleveland.
The name is translated from Russian Четырехсопочные Острова (Ostrova Chetyre Soposhnye) meaning "Islands of Four Volcanoes" (Sarichev, 1826, map 3) and was applied by the early Russian explorers because of four prominent volcanoes located on four of the islands. The Aleut name "Unigun" (Uniiĝun in the modern Aleut orthography) was reported in 1940 by Father Veniaminov. There appears to be confusion regarding the names of these islands, possibly because only four of the five are on most early maps and charts. The present names were gathered in 1894 by a field party on the USS Concord and published in 1895 by
The Lamu Archipelago is located in the Indian Ocean close to the northern coast of Kenya, to which it belongs. The islands lie between the towns of Lame and Kiunga, close to the border with Somalia, and is a part of Lamu District.
The largest of the islands are Pate Island, Manda Island and Lamu Island. Smaller islands include Kiwayu, which lies in the Kiunga Marine National Reserve, and Manda Toto. Today the largest town in the archipelago is Lamu Town, on Lamu Island. The town is on the World Heritage List.
The archipelago contains several archaeological/historical sites of great significance, such as Takwa and Manda Town (both on Manda Island) and Shanga (on Pate Island). Some have been partially excavated in later years, shedding important new light on Swahili history and culture.
The islands are reputed to be one of the westernmost ports of call of the great Chinese fleet of Zheng He, or even to be the resting place of a wreck of one of his ships. No direct evidence has yet been discovered of his visit, although it is known that he visited Mombasa, further down the Kenyan coast, in around 1415.
Langkawi, officially known as Langkawi, the Jewel of Kedah (Malay: Langkawi Permata Kedah) is an archipelago of 104 islands in the Andaman Sea, some 30 km off the mainland coast of northwestern Malaysia. The islands are a part of the state of Kedah, which is adjacent to the Thai border. On July 15, 2008, Sultan Abdul Halim of Kedah had consented to the change of name to Langkawi Permata Kedah in conjunction with his Golden Jubilee Celebration. By far the largest of the islands is the eponymous Pulau Langkawi with a population of some 64,792, the only other inhabited island being nearby Pulau Tuba. Langkawi is also an administrative district with the town of Kuah as largest town. Langkawi is a duty-free island.
Langkawi means reddish brown eagle in colloquial Malay. The Malay word for eagle is helang - shortened is "lang". Kawi means the colour reddish brown. It was given the title of "Langkawi, the Jewel of Kedah" in 2008 by Kedah's Sultan Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah as part of his golden jubilee to impress on tourists that it was part of Kedah.
Langkawi was traditionally thought to be cursed. However, in 1986 then Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad decided to transform it into a
The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning "Islands of Thieves") are an arc-shaped archipelago made up by the summits of fifteen volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean between the 12th and 21st parallels north and along the 145th meridian east. They are south of Japan and north of New Guinea, and form the eastern limit of the Philippine Sea. The islands were named after Spanish Queen Mariana of Austria in the 17th century, when Spain started the colonization of the archipelago. They form the northern part of the western Pacific subregion of Micronesia, and are composed of two U.S. jurisdictions: the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and, at the southern end of the chain of islands, the territory of Guam.
The islands are part of a geologic structure known as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc system, and range in age from 5 million years old in the north to 30 million years old in the south (Guam). The island chain arises as a result of the western edge of the Pacific Plate moving westward and plunging downward below the Mariana plate, a region which is the most
The Sotavento islands (literally, the Leeward), is the southern island group of Cape Verde archipelago.
There are four main islands: Brava, Fogo and Santiago are rocky and volcanic agricultural islands, with the longest histories of human habitation and densest populations in the Cape Verdes. Maio lies to the east and is a flat desert island whose economy was primarily based on salt, giving it more in common with Sal and Boa Vista among the Barlavento.
The islets Ilhéu Grande, Ilhéu de Cima, and the minor islets Ilhéu do Rei, Ilhéu Sapado and Ilhéu Luís Carneiro make up the Ilhéus Secos (or Ilhéus do Rombo) islets group north of Brava. The little Ilhéu de Santa Maria lies off Santiago.
The Canton and Enderbury Islands consist of the coral atolls of Canton (now Kanton) and Enderbury in the northeastern part of the Phoenix Islands, about 1,850 miles (3,000 km) south of Hawaii in the central Pacific Ocean. The islands were vital naval and air bases on the route between the Americas and the Philippines and Australia and were claimed by both the United Kingdom and the United States. From 1939 to 1979, they formed an Anglo–American condominium, with administration jointly exercised by the U.S. and the UK. This arrangement only covered Canton and Enderbury islands; the remaining Phoenix Islands, though still claimed by the U.S., remained under exclusive British control until 1979.
The United States and Great Britain relinquished control over the islands to the government of newly-independent Kiribati under the Treaty of Tarawa in 1979, and the Canton and Enderbury Islands Condominium ceased to exist. Today the islands form part of the Phoenix Islands administrative group within the Republic of Kiribati (pronunciation: kiribas).
Canton Island is currently populated by 41 Kiribati citizens, relocated from the densely-populated Gilbert Islands. Enderbury is uninhabited. In
Southern Thule is a collection of the three southernmost islands in the South Sandwich Islands: Bellingshausen, Cook, and Thule (Morrell). Southern Thule is British territory, though claimed by Argentina. The island group is barren, windswept, bitterly cold, and uninhabited. It has an extensive EEZ rich in marine living resources managed as part of the SGSSI fisheries. The Admiralty's Antarctic Pilot says that Southern Thule is part of an old sunken volcano, and is covered with ash and penguin guano. There are seals, petrels, and a bank of kelp just offshore, especially around a small inlet on Morrell called Ferguson Bay.
The island group was first sighted by in 1775 by the expedition of James Cook, who named it Southern Thule because it seemed to lie at very much the extreme end of the world (see Ultima Thule). It was further explored in 1820 by Bellingshausen who established that it consisted of three separate islands.
In November 1976, a party from the Argentine Air Force landed on Thule, and, without informing the British Government, constructed a small military base complete with barracks and a small concrete helicopter landing pad. They set up a weather station, a radio
The Torres Strait Islands are a group of at least 274 small islands which lie in Torres Strait, the waterway separating far northern continental Australia's Cape York Peninsula and the island of New Guinea.
The islands are mostly part of Queensland, a constituent State of the Commonwealth of Australia, with a special status fitting the native (Melanesian) land rights, administered by the Torres Strait Regional Authority. A few islands very close to the coast of mainland New Guinea belong to the Western Province of Papua New Guinea, most importantly Daru Island with the provincial capital, Daru.
Only 14 of the islands are inhabited, with many of the islands threatened by rising sea levels.
It was at Possession Island that Lieutenant James Cook first claimed British sovereignty over the eastern part of Australia in 1770. The London Missionary Society led by Rev. Samuel Macfarlane arrived on Erub (Darnley Island) on 1 July 1871. This is referred to by the Islanders as "The Coming of the Light" and is celebrated annually by all Island communities on 1 July. The Torres Strait Islands were annexed in 1879 by Queensland. They thus became part of the British colony of Queensland and after
The Belcher Islands (Inuit: Sanikiluaq) are an archipelago in Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada. Located in Hudson Bay, the Belcher Islands are spread out over almost 3,000 square kilometres (1,160 sq mi). The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island and is the southernmost in Nunavut. Along with Flaherty Island, the other large islands are Kugong Island, Tukarak Island, and Innetalling Island. Other major islands in the 1,500 island archipelago are Moore Island, Wiegand Island, Split Island, Snape Island and Mavor Island.
Before 1914, English-speaking cartographers knew very little about the Belcher Islands, which they showed on maps as specks, much smaller than their true extent. In that year a map showing them, drawn by George Weetaltuk, came into the hands of Robert Flaherty, and cartographers began to represent them more accurately.
The geology of the Belcher Islands is Proterozoic; the exposed clastic sedimentary rocks, as well as volcanic igneous and carbonate units record rifting and subsidence of the Superior craton during this period. There are two main volcanic sequences on the Belcher Islands called the Eskimo and overlying Flaherty volcanics.
The Formigas Islet (Portuguese pronunciation: [fuɾˈmiɡɐʃ]) and Dollabarat Reef, sometimes referred to as the Formigas Bank, are a remote group of rock outcroppings in the eastern group of the Azores archipelago, an autonomous region of Portugal. The bank is located 43 kilometres (27 mi) northeast of Santa Maria Island and southeast of São Miguel Island covering a surface area of approximately 9 square kilometres (3.5 sq mi). The bank is only disturbed by a lighthouse located on the largest mound.
The Formigas were first discovered by Diogo de Silves and Gonçalo Velho Cabral in 1431, during their journey to Madeira. They quickly became an afterthought in the history of the Azores when the larger islands of Santa Maria and São Miguel were found in the following years. Gaspar Frutuoso, the Portuguese chronicler, later reported of the rich marine life in the 16th century. The first scientific vessel arrived in 1886: the Italian ship Corsaro visited the Formigas islets; the first scientific dredging being made then. The Princess Alice expedition also stopped in 1895, as did several others, mostly to investigate the marine life: scientifically and commercially.
On 2 March 1895, at the
The Gulf Islands are the islands in the Strait of Georgia (also known as Salish Sea or the Gulf of Georgia), between Vancouver Island and the mainland of British Columbia, Canada.
According to BC Geographical Names (BCGNIS) the name "Gulf Islands" was originally intended and commonly understood to refer to the archipelago at the southern end of the Strait of Georgia—from Gabriola Island in the north to Saturna Island in the southeast and D'Arcy Island in the southwest. During the 1990s, however, the name began to be applied to all the islands in the Strait of Georgia, resulting in the introduction of the term "Southern Gulf Islands", which BCGNIS calls a misnomer, to distinguish the original "Gulf Islands" from the rest, which are sometimes called the "Northern Gulf Islands". BCGNIS further notes that Quadra Island is increasingly described as the "northermost of the Gulf Islands".
The division of the Gulf Islands into two groups, the Southern and Northern Gulf Islands, is relatively common. The dividing line is approximately that formed by the city of Nanaimo on Vancouver Island, and the mouth of the Fraser River on the mainland. The larger populated islands are served by BC
The Inner Hebrides (Scottish Gaelic: Na h-Eileanan a-staigh, "the inner isles") is an archipelago off the west coast of Mainland Scotland, to the south east of the Outer Hebrides. Together these two island chains form the Hebrides, which experience a mild oceanic climate. There are 36 inhabited islands and a further 43 uninhabited Inner Hebrides with an area greater than 30 hectares (74 acres). The main commercial activities are tourism, crofting, fishing, and whisky distilling. In modern times the Inner Hebrides have formed part of two separate local government jurisdictions, one to the north and the other to the south. Combined, the islands have an area of approximately 412,850 hectares (1,594 sq mi), and had a population of 18,257 people in 2001. The population density is therefore a little over 4 persons per km (11 persons per square mile).
There are various important prehistoric structures, many of which pre-date the first written references to the islands by Roman and Greek authors. In the historic period the earliest known settlers were Picts to the north and Gaels in the southern kingdom of Dalriada prior to the islands becoming part of the Suðreyjar kingdom of the Norse,
The Kai Islands (also Kei Islands) of Indonesia are in the south-eastern part of the Maluku Islands, in Maluku Province.
Inhabitants called the islands Nuhu Evav (Evav Islands) or Tanat Evav (Evav Land), but known as Kei for people from neighbourhood islands. "Kai" is actually a Dutch colonial era spelling, still persisting in books based on old resources. The islands are on the edge of the Banda Sea, south of the Bird's Head Peninsula of New Guinea, west of the Aru Islands, and northeast of the Tanimbar Islands. The small group called Tayandu Islands (also Tahayad) is just west.
The Kei islands are made up of numerous islands, including
The Kei Islands' total land area is 1438 km² (555 sq mi).
Kei Besar is mountainous and densely forested. Kei Kecil has the biggest population, and is flat. Actually it is a lifted coral reef. The capital is the town of Tual, mostly inhabited by Muslims. Nearby Langgur is the center for Christians. Kei is famous for the beauty of its beaches, e.g. Pasir Panjang.
The Kei islands are part of Wallacea, the group of Indonesian islands that are separated by deep water from both the Asian and Australian continental shelves, and were never linked to either
The Nightingale Islands are a group of three islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, part of the Tristan da Cunha territory. They consist of Nightingale Island, Middle Island and Stoltenhoff Island. The islands are administered by the United Kingdom as part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. The Nightingale Islands are uninhabited.
Nightingale Island is the smallest of the four main islands of the Tristan da Cunha Group, measuring only 4 square kilometres (1.5 sq mi), and lies 30 kilometres (18.6 mi) away from Tristan and 22 kilometres (13.7 mi) from Inaccessible. Stoltenhoff and Alex (also known as Middle Island), are really two large islets rather than conventional islands.
Originally named "Gebrooken (Broken) island" by the Dutch under Jan Jacobszoon in January 1656, they found no safe anchorage and did not make the first landing until 1696 (most likely by Willem de Vlamingh in August of that year). Frenchman D'Etchevery also visited the island in September 1767. Nightingale was renamed after British captain Gamaliel Nightingale in 1760.
Jonathan Lambert temporarily changed the name to "Lovel Island" in his 1811 proclamation in the "Boston
The Solentiname Islands (Spanish pronunciation: [solentiˈname]) are an archipelago towards the southern end of Lake Nicaragua (also known as Lake Cocibolca) in the Nicaraguan department of Río San Juan. They are made up of four larger islands, each a few kilometres across, named, from west to east, Mancarroncito, Mancarrón, San Fernando and La Venada, along with some 32 smaller islands with rocky headlands which afford shelter to numerous aquatic birds. The islands’ origins are volcanic. The highest point in the islands is found on Mancarrón; it is 257 m above sea level. The Solentiname Islands are a National Monument. They constitute one of the 78 protected areas of Nicaragua.
The Solentiname Islands are tropical in every sense. They are covered in tropical tree species, transitional between wet and dry tropical, and are home to various colourful bird species, including various kinds of parrot and toucans; there are 76 species in all. The waters about the islands contain plentiful fish. There are about 46 species, including tarpon, freshwater sharks, sawfish, and swordfish. The island of La Venada is known for its deer, and also named for them (venado is Spanish for "deer").
The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, also known as the Arctic Archipelago, is a Canadian archipelago north of the Canadian mainland in the Arctic. Situated in the northern extremity of North America and covering about 1,424,500 km (550,000 sq mi), this group of 36,563 islands comprises much of the territory of Northern Canada – most of Nunavut and part of the Northwest Territories.
British claims on the islands were based on the explorations in the 1570s by Martin Frobisher. Canadian sovereignty, originally (1870–80) only over island portions that drained into Foxe Basin, Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait, over all of them was not established until the 1880 transfer by Britain to Canada of the remaining islands; the District of Franklin was established in 1895, which comprised almost all of the archipelago; the district was dissolved upon the creation of Nunavut in 1999. Canada claims all the waterways of the Northwestern Passages as Canadian Internal Waters; however the United States and most other maritime countries view these as international waters. Disagreement over the passages' status has raised Canadian concerns about environmental enforcement, national security, and general
The East Frisian Islands (German: Ostfriesische Inseln) are a chain of islands in the North Sea, off the coast of East Frisia in Lower Saxony, Germany. The islands extend for some 90 kilometres (56 mi) from west to east between the mouths of the Ems and Jade / Weser rivers and lie about 3.5 to 10 km offshore. Between the islands and the mainland are extensive mudflats, known locally as Watten, which form part of the Wadden Sea. In front of the islands are Germany's territorial waters, which occupy a much larger area than the islands themselves. The islands, the surrounding mudflats and the territorial waters (The Küstenmeer vor den ostfriesischen Inseln nature reserve) form a close ecological relationship. The island group makes up about 5% of the Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park.
The largest island by surface area is Borkum, located at the western end of the chain; the other six inhabited islands are from west to east: Juist, Norderney with the largest town in the islands, Baltrum, Langeoog, Spiekeroog and Wangerooge. There are also four other small, uninhabited islands: Lütje Hörn east of Borkum, Memmert and Kachelotplate southwest of Juist, Minsener Oog, a dredged island
The Galápago Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón ; other Spanish names: Islas de Colón or Islas Galápagos) are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed around the equator in the Pacific Ocean, 972 km (525 nmi) west of continental Ecuador, of which they are a part.
The Galápagos Islands and its surrounding waters form an Ecuadorian province, a national park, and a biological marine reserve. The principal language on the islands is Spanish. The islands have a population of slightly over 25,000.
The islands are geologically young and famed for their vast number of endemic species, which were studied by Charles Darwin during the voyage of the Beagle. His observations and collections contributed to the inception of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection.
The first crude navigation chart of the islands was made by the buccaneer Ambrose Cowley in 1684. He named the individual islands after some of his fellow pirates or after the British noblemen who helped the privateer's cause. More recently, the Ecuadorian government gave most of the islands Spanish names. While the Spanish names are official, many users (especially ecological researchers) continue to use the
The Îles d'Hyères (pronounced: [il də jɛːʁ]; or Îles d'Or, [il dɔːʁ]) are a group of four Mediterranean islands off Hyères in the Var département of south-east France. With a combined area of 29 square kilometers, they comprise:
Kong Karls Land or King Charles Land is an island group in the Svalbard archipelago, in Arctic Ocean. The island group covers an area of 332 km (128 sq mi) and is made up of the islands of Kongsøya, Svenskøya, Abeløya, Helgolandøya and Tirpitzøya.
The islands, which have the largest concentration of Polar bear in Svalbard, are part of the Nordaust-Svalbard Nature Reserve, along with Nordaustlandet and Kvitøya. There is a ban on traffic to the islands, which includes the areas of the sea up to 500 meters away from shore and the airspace up to 500 meters above the area.
Kong Karls Land was discovered by an expedition sent by the Muscovy Company in 1617, probably from a high point on Barentsøya. They named the group Wiche Islands.
The Polar bear is found during portions of the year at Kong Karls Land; this bear feeds on local Harp Woods and Ring tailed Marmots. The sub-population of Polar bears found here is a genetically distinct set of Polar Bears specifically associated with the Barents Sea region.
The Outer Banks (also known as OBX) is a 200-mile (320-km) long string of narrow barrier islands off the coast of North Carolina and a small portion of Virginia, beginning in the southeastern corner of Virginia Beach on the east coast of the United States. They cover most of the North Carolina coastline, separating the Currituck Sound, Albemarle Sound, and Pamlico Sound from the Atlantic Ocean.
The Outer Banks is a major tourist destination and is known for its temperate climate and wide expanse of open beachfront. The Cape Hatteras National Seashore has four campgrounds where visitors may camp.
The Wright brothers' first flight in a powered, heavier-than-air vehicle took place on the Outer Banks on December 17, 1903, at Kill Devil Hills near the seafront town of Kitty Hawk. The Wright Brothers National Monument commemorates the historic flights, and First Flight Airport is a small, general-aviation airfield located there.
The English Roanoke Colony—where the first person of English descent, Virginia Dare, was born on American soil—vanished from Roanoke Island in 1587. The Lost Colony, written and performed to commemorate the original colonists, is the longest running outdoor drama
The Sulu Archipelago is a chain of islands in the southwestern Philippines. This archipelago is considered to be part of the Moroland by the local rebel independence movement. This island group forms the northern limit of the Celebes Sea.
The archipelago is not, as is often supposed, the remains of a land bridge between Borneo and the Philippines. Rather, it is the exposed edge of small submarine ridges produced by tectonic tilting of the sea bottom Basilan, Jolo, and other islands in the group are extinct volcanic cones rising from the southernmost ridge. Tawi-Tawi, the southernmost island of the group, has a serpentine basement-complex core with a limestone covering. This island chain is an important migration route for birds.
The largest cities or towns in the area are on Maimbung and Jolo of the Sulu Archipelago, plus the larger island of Palawan to its north, the coastal regions of the westward-extending Zamboanga Peninsula of Mindanao, and the northern part of the island of Borneo were formerly parts of the thalassocratic Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo.
The archipelago is the home of the indigenous Tausug people; various group of Samal (or Sama) people including the
The Malay Archipelago refers to the archipelago between mainland Southeastern Asia and Australia. The name was derived from the anachronistic concept of a Malay race.
It has also been called the Indo-Australian Archipelago, East Indies, Indonesian Archipelago, and other names over time. The term is largely synonymous with the term Maritime Southeast Asia. Situated between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, the group of over 25,000 islands is the largest archipelago by area, and fourth by number of islands in the world. It includes Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore, Brunei, East Malaysia and East Timor. The island of New Guinea or islands of Papua New Guinea are not always included in definitions of the Malay Archipelago.
The term was derived from the concept of a Malay race, which included the peoples of the modern-day nations of Indonesia (excluding western New Guinea), Malaysia, Brunei, East Timor and the Philippines. The racial concept was proposed by European explorers based on their observations of the influence of the ethnic Malay empire (Indonesia), Srivijaya.
The 19th century naturalist Alfred Wallace used the term "Malay Archipelago" as the title of his influential book
The Babuyan Islands (/bɑːbuˈjɑːn/ / bah-bə-YAHN) form an archipelago located in the Luzon Strait north of Luzon island in the Philippines. It is separated from Luzon by the Babuyan Channel and from the Batanes Islands to its north by the Balintang Channel.
The Babuyan Islands consist of five major islands: Babuyan Island, Calayan, Camiguin, Dalupiri, and Fuga. Note that the Camiguin island here is different from the island-province of Camiguin in Mindanao.
Geologically the islands are part of the Luzon Volcanic Arc.
Politically, the Babuyan Islands are part of the Philippine province of Cagayan.
In the 19th century, sailors stumbled on the islands and started a backyard civilization.
In the mid-20th century Christian Missionaries introduced Christianity to the islands.
In 1942, Japanese troops landed in the Babuyan Islands.
In 1945, during World War II, the Allied Philippine Commonwealth troops landed in Babuyan Islands and attacked the Japanese forces in the Battle of the Babuyan Islands.
The Dodecanese (/doʊdɪkəˈniːz/; Greek: Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, [ðoðeˈkanisa]; literally 'twelve islands') are a group of 12 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, of which 26 are inhabited. Τhis island group generally defines the eastern limit of the Sea of Crete. They belong to the Southern Sporades island group. They have a rich history, and many of even the smallest inhabited islands boast dozens of Byzantine churches and medieval castles.
The most historically important and well-known is Rhodes (Rodos), which, for millennia, has been the island from which the region is controlled. Of the others, Kos and Patmos are historically more important; the remaining nine are Astipalea, Kalimnos, Karpathos, Kasos, Leros, Nisyros, Symi, Tilos and Kastelorizo (which actually lies in the eastern Mediterranean). Other islands in the chain include Agathonisi, Alimia, Arkoi, Chalki, Farmakonisi, Gyali, Kinaros, Levitha, Lipsi, Nimos, Pserimos, Saria, Syrna and Telendos.
The Dodecanese have been inhabited since prehistoric times. In the Neopalatial period on Crete, the islands were heavily Minoanized (contact beginning in the second millennium BC). Following the downfall of the
The Furneaux Group (indigenous name: Tayaritja) is a group of 52 islands, at the eastern end of Bass Strait, between Victoria and Tasmania, Australia. The islands were named, after British navigator Tobias Furneaux who sighted the eastern side of these Island after leaving Adventure Bay in 1773 on his way to New Zealand to rejoin Captain James Cook. Navigator Matthew Flinders explored the Furneaux Islands group first in the Francis in 1798 and later that year in the Norfolk.
The largest islands in the group are Flinders Island, Cape Barren Island and Clarke Island. The region contains five settlements Killiecrankie, Emita, Lady Barron, Cape Barren Island and Whitemark on Flinders Island which serves as the administrative center of the Municipality of Flinders local government area.
The historically notable Aboriginal woman Dolly Dalrymple was born in the area.
King Island, at the western end of Bass Strait, is not a part of the group.
The group of islands to the north west is the Kent Group. Smaller islands in the group include Anderson Island, Babel Island, Badger Island, Billy Goat Reefs, Big Green Island, Briggs Islet, Cat Island, Chalky Island, Cooties Reef, Doughboy Island,
Greater Tunb and Lesser Tunb (Persian: تنب بزرگ و تنب کوچک , Tonb-e Bozorg and Tonb-e Kuchak; Arabic: طنب الكبرى و طنب الصغرى , Tonb al-Kubra and Tonb al-Sughra) are two small islands in the eastern Persian Gulf, close to the Strait of Hormuz. They lie at 26°15′N 55°16′E / 26.25°N 55.267°E / 26.25; 55.267 and 26°14′N 55°08′E / 26.233°N 55.133°E / 26.233; 55.133 respectively, some 12 kilometers from each other and 20 kilometers south of the Iranian island of Qeshm. The islands are administered by Iran as part of its province of Hormozgan, but are also claimed by UAE as a territory of the Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah.
Greater Tunb has a surface of 10.3 km². It is known for its red soil. There are conflicting descriptions about its population: While some sources state there are between a few dozen and a few hundred inhabitants, others describe the island as having no native civilian population. There is reported to be an Iranian garrison and naval station, a fish storage facility and a red-soil mine. Lesser Tunb has a surface of 2 km² and is uninhabited with the exception of a small airfield, harbor, and entrenched Iranian military unit.
The toponymy of Tonb is in all likelihood
The Chafarinas Islands (Spanish: Islas Chafarinas IPA: [ˈizlas tʃafaˈɾinas], Berber: Igumamen Iceffaren or Takfarinas, Arabic: جزر الشفارين or الجزر الجعفرية), also spelled Zafarin, Djaferin or Zafarani, are a group of three small islets located in the Alboran Sea off the coast of Morocco with an aggregate area of 0.525 km², 45 km to the east of Nador and 3.3 km off the Moroccan town of Ras Elma.
The Chafarinas Islands are one of the Spanish ruled territories on North Africa off the Moroccan coast known as plazas de soberanía.
The Chafarinas Islands are made up of three islands (with areas in hectares):
Under Spanish control since 1847, there is a 190-man military garrison on Isla Isabel II, the only stable population on the small archipelago, down from 426 people in 1900 and 736 people in 1910.
The islands had a certain relevance in Spanish environmentalist circles during the 1980s and 1990s as the very last individual of Mediterranean Monk Seal in Spanish territory lived there, until it disappeared in the 1990s. Nine out of 11 marine invertebrates considered endangered species and the second largest colony in the world of the endangered Audouin's gull inhabit the islands.
The Isles of Shoals are a group of small islands and tidal ledges situated approximately 6 miles (10 km) off the east coast of the United States, straddling the border of the states of New Hampshire and Maine.
Some of the islands were used for seasonal fishing camps by Native Americans and first settled by Europeans in the early 17th century. They became an important fishing area for the young British and French colonies. The Isles of Shoals were named by English explorer Capt. John Smith after sighting them in 1614. The first recorded landfall of an Englishman was that of explorer Capt. Christopher Levett, whose 300 fishermen in six ships discovered that the Isles of Shoals were largely abandoned in 1623.
"The first place I set my foot upon in New England was the Isle of Shoals, being islands in the sea about two leagues from the main," Levett wrote later. "Upon these islands I neither could see one good timber-tree nor so much good ground as to make a garden. The place is found to be a good fishing-place for six ships, but more can not be well there, for want of convenient stage room, as this year's experience hath proved."
The first township, Appledore, included all of the Isles
The Nicobar Islands are an archipelagic island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean. They are located in Southeast Asia, 150 km north of Aceh on Sumatra, and separated from Thailand to the east by the Andaman Sea. Located 1,300 km southeast of the Indian subcontinent, across the Bay of Bengal, they form part of the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.
Southern Group (Sambelong):
Indira Point (6°45’10″N and 93°49’36″E) is the southernmost point of the Great Nicobar Island and India itself, about 150 km north of Sumatra, Indonesia.
The Nicobar Islands are part of a great island arc created by the collision of the Indo-Australian Plate with Eurasia. The collision lifted the Himalayas and most of the Indonesian islands, and created a long arc of highlands and islands, which includes the Arakan Yoma range of Burma, the Andaman and Nicobar islands, and the islands off the west coast of Sumatra, including the Banyak Islands and Mentawai Islands.
The climate is warm and tropical, with temperatures ranging from 22 to 30°C. Rainfall is heavy due to annual monsoons and measures around 3000 to 3800 mm each year. The vegetation of the Nicobars is
The Yaeyama Islands (八重山諸島 Yaeyama-shotō Yaeyama: Yaima Okinawan: Eema) are a group of islands in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.
The isles are the remotest part of Japan from the main islands and contains Japan's most southern (Hateruma) and most western (Yonaguni) inhabited islands.
The islands form the southern part of the volcanic Ryukyu Islands. The administrative division of Yaeyama District covers all of the Yaeyama Islands except Ishigaki and the disputed Senkaku Islands.
The Yonaguni language is the indigenous language of the island of Yonaguni, the location of the mysterious undersea Yonaguni monument. The Yaeyama language is the indigenous language of the rest of the islands.
Japanese is widely spoken as a second language.
14 July: Mushaama Festival. On Hateruma Island, this harvest festival is celebrated during Obon. It features a parade of the local fertility god Miruku and his children (the local children), shishi ("lion") dances, and staff dances.
Balboa Island is an area of Newport Beach, California, actually comprising three modified or artificial islands in Newport Harbor: Balboa Island (33°36′23″N 117°53′40″W / 33.60639°N 117.89444°W / 33.60639; -117.89444), the largest; the smaller Little Balboa Island (33°36′23″N 117°53′16″W / 33.60639°N 117.88778°W / 33.60639; -117.88778) to the east of Balboa Island, joined by a two-lane bridge; and the smallest Collins Island (33°36′31″N 117°54′1″W / 33.60861°N 117.90028°W / 33.60861; -117.90028) to the northwest of Balboa Island, joined by a one-lane bridge. The Balboa Island community is joined to the mainland by a short two-lane bridge on the northeast of Balboa Island, and a privately operated fleet of three, three-car ferryboats (Balboa Island Ferry) which provide access across the harbor to the Balboa Peninsula which lies to the south.
Originally, Balboa Island was little more than a mudflat surrounded by swampland. Today's Newport Harbor emerged only after dredging millions of tons of silt. In the late 1860s, James McFadden and his brother, Robert, purchased a large portion of the future site of Newport, including the oceanfront of Newport Beach, much of Balboa
The Barlavento islands (literally, the Windward), is the northern island group of Cape Verde archipelago.
It can be divided in to two groups: Santo Antão, São Vicente, São Nicolau, Santa Luzia islands and Branco and Raso islets lie to the west and are rocky, volcanic, agricultural islands.
Sal and Boa Vista lie to the east and are flat, desert islands with economies once based on salt and now turning to tourism, having more in common with Maio among the Sotavento.
Minor islets include Ilhéu de Sal-Rei and Ilhéu do Baluarte (or Ilhéu do Roque) off Boa Vista, Ilhéu dos Pássaros off São Vicente and Ilhéu Rabo de Junco off Sal.
The Cíes Islands are an archipelago off the coast of Pontevedra in Galicia (Spain), in the mouth of the Ría de Vigo. They belong to the parish of San Francisco de Afora, in the municipality of Vigo. They were declared a Nature Reserve in 1980 and are included in the Atlantic Islands of Galicia National Park (Parque Nacional Marítimo-Terrestre das Islas Atlánticas de Galicia) created in 2002.
In February 2007 the British newspaper The Guardian chose the beach of Rodas, on the island of Monteagudo, as "the best beach in the world."
The Cíes consist of three islands, Monteagudo ("Sharp Mount" or North Island), do Faro ("Lighthouse Island", or Isla do Medio, "Middle Island") and San Martiño ("Saint Martin" or South Island).
Monteagudo is separated from the Morrazo peninsula by the North Canal while San Martiño is separated from the coast of Santoulo cape (mount Ferro) by the Freu da Porta Strait. The Do Faro island is linked to the North island by an accumulation of sand 1,200 m (3,937 ft) long known as Rodas beach, in the Eastern side of the island. During high tide the sea flows between the islands in the Western side and, blocked by the beach it fills the lagoon between the sandy
The Leeward Islands (French: Îles Sous-le-vent; Tahitian: Fenua Raro Mata’i, literally "Islands Under-the-Wind") are the western part of the Society Islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the South Pacific. They lie south of the Line Islands (part of Kiribati), east of the Cooks and north of the Austral Islands (also part of French Polynesia). Their area is 395 km² with a population of over 33,000. The islands to the west comprise a three atoll group: Manuae (aka Scilly Atoll), Motu One atoll (aka Bellinghausen), lying most northerly of the Leeward Islands, and to the southeast Maupihaa atoll (aka Mopelia). More to the east lies a mainly high island cluster consisting of Maupiti (Tahitian name: Maurua), Tupai atoll, Bora Bora (Tahitian name: Vava'u), the most known of the Leeward Islands in the western world due to its World War II USA naval base and subsequent tourism industry, Tahaa (Tahitian name: Uporu), lying just north of the largest island of the group, Raiatea (Tahitian names: Hava'i, Ioretea) which possesses the largest city and local capital of the Leeward Islands, namely Uturoa, as well as the highest elevation, the just over 1,000 m mount
The Saronic Islands or Argo-Saronic Islands is an archipelago in Greece, named after the Saronic Gulf in which they are located, just off the Greek mainland. The main inhabited islands of this group are Salamis (where the ancient Greek navy defeated the Persians in the Battle of Salamis), Aegina, Angistri, and Poros. The islands of Hydra and Dokos, which lie off the northeast tip of the Peloponnese (technically between the Saronic Gulf and the Argolic Gulf), are sometimes included as part of the Saronic Islands.
Many mainland Greeks have vacation homes in the Saronic Islands, which are regularly served by ferries from Piraeus and the Peloponnese.
The Sunda Islands are a group of islands that form part of the Malay archipelago.
They are further divided into the Greater Sunda Islands and the Lesser Sunda Islands.
The islands are divided up between four countries, Brunei, East Timor, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Much of the islands are the territory of Indonesia. The island of Borneo is divided up between Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia. The island of Timor is divided between East Timor and Indonesia. Two small islands also belong to East Timor.
Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds allied to the procellariids, storm-petrels and diving-petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses). They range widely in the Southern Ocean and the North Pacific. They are absent from the North Atlantic, although fossil remains show they once occurred there too and occasional vagrants are found.
Albatrosses are among the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses (genus Diomedea) have the largest wingspans of any extant birds, reaching up to 12 feet. The albatrosses are usually regarded as falling into four genera, but there is disagreement over the number of species.
Albatrosses are highly efficient in the air, using dynamic soaring and slope soaring to cover great distances with little exertion. They feed on squid, fish and krill by either scavenging, surface seizing or diving. Albatrosses are colonial, nesting for the most part on remote oceanic islands, often with several species nesting together. Pair bonds between males and females form over several years, with the use of 'ritualised dances', and will last for the life of the pair. A breeding season can take over a year from laying to
The Banda Islands (Indonesian: Kepulauan Banda) are a volcanic group of ten small volcanic islands in the Banda Sea, about 140 km (87 mi) south of Seram Island and about 2,000 km (1,243 mi) east of Java, and are part of the Indonesian province of Maluku. The main town and administrative centre is Bandanaira, located on the island of the same name. They rise out of 4–6 km deep ocean and have a total land area of approximately 180 km. They have a population of about 15,000. Until the mid-19th century the Banda Islands were the world's only source of the spices nutmeg and mace, produced from the nutmeg tree. The islands are also popular destinations for scuba diving and snorkeling.
Before the arrival of Europeans, Banda had an oligarchic form of government led by orang kaya ('rich men') and the Bandanese had an active and independent role in trade throughout the archipelago. Banda was the world's only source of nutmeg and mace, spices used as flavourings, medicines, preserving agents, that were at the time highly valued in European markets; sold by Arab traders to the Venetians for exorbitant prices. The traders did not divulge the exact location of their source and no European was
The Nggela Islands, also known as the Florida Islands, are a small island group in the Central Province of the Solomon Islands, a state in the southwest Pacific Ocean.
The chain is composed of the main island, Nggela Sule, as well as a number of smaller islands, including Tulagi, Gavutu and Tanambogo. The name Florida Island is sometimes also used to refer to Nggela Sule.
The Nggela Islands group lies immediately north of the more famous island of Guadalcanal, the scene of the Battle of Guadalcanal during World War II; however, Nggela Sule itself was garrisoned by the Japanese in April 1942 in connection with their efforts to establish a seaplane base on neighboring Gavutu. On 7 August of the same year, the United States 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment landed on the island to provide cover for the assault on the neighboring Tulagi islet. Florida Island would never become as famous as Guadalcanal, although it did serve as a small, very secondary base of operations for the US & Australian war effort in the Pacific for the duration of the war. Following the American liberation of the island from the Japanese, it became the site of a US seaplane base. The island subsequently served
The Florida Keys are a coral archipelago in southeast United States. They begin at the southeastern tip of the Florida peninsula, about 15 miles (24 km) south of Miami, and extend in a gentle arc south-southwest and then westward to Key West, the westernmost of the inhabited islands, and on to the uninhabited Dry Tortugas. The islands lie along the Florida Straits, dividing the Atlantic Ocean to the east from the Gulf of Mexico to the west, and defining one edge of Florida Bay. At the nearest point, the southern tip of Key West is just 90 miles (140 km) from Cuba. The Florida Keys are between about 23.5 and 25.5 degrees North latitude, in the subtropics. The climate of the Keys, however, is defined as tropical according to Köppen climate classification. More than 95 percent of the land area lies in Monroe County, but a small portion extends northeast into Miami-Dade County, such as Totten Key. The total land area is 137.3 square miles (356 km). As of the 2000 census the population was 79,535, with an average density of 579.27 per square mile (223.66 /km), although much of the population is concentrated in a few areas of much higher density, such as the city of Key West, which has
The Houtman Abrolhos (often informally called the Abrolhos Islands) is a chain of 122 islands, and associated coral reefs, in the Indian Ocean off the west coast of Australia. Nominally located at 28°43′S 113°47′E / 28.717°S 113.783°E / -28.717; 113.783, it lies about eighty kilometres (50 mi) west of Geraldton, Western Australia. It is the southernmost true coral reef in the Indian Ocean, and one of the highest latitude reef systems in the world. It is one of the world's most important seabird breeding sites, and is the centre of Western Australia's largest single species fishery, the Western Rock Lobster fishery. It has a small seasonal population of fishermen, and a limited number of tourists are permitted for day trips, but most of the land area is off limits as conservation habitat. It is well known as the site of numerous shipwrecks, the most famous being the Dutch ships Batavia, which was wrecked in 1629, and Zeewijk, wrecked in 1727.
The Houtman Abrolhos is made up of three island groups, the Wallabi Group, Easter Group and Pelsaert Group.
The most northerly group, the Wallabi Group, consists of an island clump about 17 kilometres (10 mi) by 10 kilometres (6 mi), and
The Karimata Islands are a chain of small islands off the west coast of Indonesian Borneo, the largest of which is (Pulau) Karimata, being about 20 km across (east-west), and situated at 1°37′S 108°53′E / 1.617°S 108.883°E / -1.617; 108.883. Karimata has a wide range of ecosystems, from mangroves and tropical rain forest in the lowlands to montane shrubland on the summit of the c.1000 metre mountain (a spectacular example of the Massenerhebung effect). The mountain is composed of granite. A substantial population of cave swiftlets has historically been the source of birds nests for birds nest soup, but has decreased recently to near extirpation, due to over harvesting by non-indigenous collectors who have been arriving from the mainland.
A number of small villages are situated on the coast, the largest of which is Padang, on the eastern tip of the island. The island is renowned by inhabitants of the west coast of Kalimantan to have a serious malaria problem.
Dutch explorers visited the island a number of times, and there have been at least two recent visits by biologists. The island is classified as a nature reserve by the Indonesian government, but there has been no management
Koufonisia (Greek: Κουφονήσια) is a former community in the Cyclades, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Naxos and Lesser Cyclades, of which it is a municipal unit. It consists of three main islands.
There are two versions, as far as the name of the island is concerned. According to the first one, Koufonisia was the ancient name of the gulf which is between Koufonisia and Glaronisi. As a matter of fact, the full name was "Koufos Limin", which means lee port, where ships can anchor.
According to the second version, which is supported by Manesis, this name was chosen because of the large number of caves and sediments without boisterous rocks that are found on the island. Anthony Miliarakis, in contrast with these two theories, wrote in his book in 1920 that Pano Koufonisi was known as "Fakousa" and Kato Koufonisi as "Pino".
According to archaeological findings, Koufonisia were inhabited since prehistoric times. Excavations in Epano Mili brought to light important findings that date back to the first years of Cycladic civilization. One of the most important findings from this period is a fryer-shaped vessel with a nine-ray star on it,
The Loyalty Islands (French: Îles Loyauté) are an archipelago in the Pacific. They are part of the French territory of New Caledonia, whose mainland is 100 km (62 mi) away. They form the Loyalty Islands Province (province des îles Loyauté), one of the three provinces of New Caledonia. The native inhabitants are the Kanak people and the Tavu'avua' people. The first Western contact on record is attributed to the British Captain William Raven from the London trading ship Britannia, who in 1793 was on his way from Norfolk Island to Batavia. It is very likely however that the discovery and naming of the islands goes back to the London ship Loyalty (also Loyalist, Jethro Daggett master), being on a South Sea trading voyage from 1789 till 1790.
The archipelago consists of six inhabited islands: Lifou Island, Maré Island, Tiga Island, Ouvéa Island, Mouli Island, and Faiava Island, as well as several smaller uninhabited islands and islets. Their combined land area is 1,981 km (765 sq mi). The highest elevation is at 138 m (453 ft) above sea-level on Maré Island.
The Loyalty Islands Province is divided into three communes (municipalities):
The people of the Loyalty Islands are of mixed
The Outer Hebrides (Scottish Gaelic: Na h-Eileanan Siar, IPA: [nə ˈhelanən ˈʃiəɾ]) also known as the Western Isles and the Long Island, is an island chain off the west coast of mainland Scotland. The islands are geographically coterminous with Comhairle nan Eilean Siar, one of the 32 unitary council areas of Scotland. They form part of the Hebrides, separated from the Scottish mainland and from the Inner Hebrides by the waters of the Minch, the Little Minch and the Sea of the Hebrides. Scottish Gaelic is the predominant spoken language, although in a few areas English speakers form a majority.
Most of the islands have a bedrock formed from ancient metamorphic rocks and the climate is mild and oceanic. The 15 inhabited islands have a total population of about 26,500 and there are more than 50 substantial uninhabited islands. From Barra Head to the Butt of Lewis is roughly 210 kilometres (130 mi).
There are various important prehistoric structures, many of which pre-date the first written references to the islands by Roman and Greek authors. The Western Isles became part of the Norse kingdom of the Suðreyjar, which lasted for over 400 years until sovereignty was transferred to
Ritchie's Archipelago is a cluster of smaller islands which lie some 25–30 km (16–19 mi) east of Great Andaman, the main island group of the Andaman Islands. the Andamans are located in the Bay of Bengal, bordering with the Andaman Sea and are some 200 km (120 mi) south of the nearest Asian mainland, Cape Negrais in Myanmar.
The archipelago comprises some 4 larger islands, 7 smaller islands and several islets, extending in a roughly north-south chain, parallel to the main Great Andaman group. Baratang Island and South Andaman Island lie to the west across Diligent Strait; the active volcano Barren Island is some 75 km (47 mi) further to the east.
The islands were originally populated by the indigenous Great Andamanese peoples, in particular the tribal and linguistic grouping known as Aka-Bale. However, as the populations of the various Andamanese indigenous peoples declined greatly in the decades following the establishment of colonial settlements by the British Raj (and later, independent India), the indigenous communities of these islands have vanished. The present population of the islands consists of immigrant Indian and a few Karen (Burmese) settlers.
Together with the rest of
The Russell Islands are two small islands (Pavuvu and Mbanika), as well as several islets, of volcanic origin, in the Central Province of the Solomon Islands. They are located approximately 48 km (30 mi.) northwest from Guadalcanal. The islands are partially covered in coconut plantations, and have a copra and oil factory at Yandina. Yandina also has basic services, including a store, post office, and airport. The Lavukal people live on these islands. Their language is Lavukaleve. There is also a settlement of Polynesians, resettled from Tikopia, that lives in Nukufero on the west side of the larger island, Pavuvu. In Yandina, people from all over the Solomon Islands have come to work for the plantation. In addition to their native languages, they speak Solomon Island Pijin, the Lingua franca of the Solomon Islands.
In 1943, as part of American military operations during World War II, the islands were occupied by U.S. troops. Remnants of the U.S. presence, such as concrete slabs and large metal storage sheds, still exist.
The Yandina police station was the scene of one of the opening events of recent ethnic tensions, where a group of men raided the armoury and stole some
The Stockholm archipelago (Swedish: Stockholms skärgård) is the largest archipelago of Sweden, and the second largest archipelago of the Baltic Sea.
The archipelago extends from Stockholm roughly 60 kilometers to the east. In a north-south direction, it mainly follows the coastline of the provinces Södermanland and Uppland, reaching roughly from Öja island, south of Nynäshamn to Väddö north of Norrtälje. It is separated from Åland by a stretch of water named South Kvarken. A separate group of islands lies further north, near the town of Öregrund. There are approximately 30,000 islands and islets. Some of its more well known islands are Dalarö, Finnhamn, Grinda, Husarö, Ingarö, Isö, Ljusterö, Möja, Nämdö, Rödlöga, Tynningö, Utö, Svartsö and Värmdö.
The biggest towns of the archipelago, apart from Stockholm, are Nynäshamn, Vaxholm and Norrtälje. The village of Ytterby, famous among chemists for naming no fewer than four chemical elements (erbium, terbium, ytterbium and yttrium), is situated on Resarö in the Stockholm Archipelago.
The shipping routes from the Baltic to Stockholm pass through the archipelago. There are three main entrances suitable for deep-draught craft, namely, those
The Lesser Sunda Islands or Nusa Tenggara ("Southeast Islands") are a group of islands in the southern Maritime Southeast Asia, north of Australia. Together with the Greater Sunda Islands to the west they make up the Sunda Islands. The islands are part of a volcanic arc, the Sunda Arc, formed by subduction along the Java Trench in the Java Sea.
The Lesser Sundas consist of many islands, mostly part of Indonesia. Some of the islands, notably part of Timor, are the territory of the state of East Timor since its independence in 2002.
The Indonesian part of the Lesser Sunda Islands now make up of four provinces:
The Lesser Sunda Islands consist of two geologically distinct archipelagos. The northern archipelago, which includes Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores and Wetar, is volcanic in origin, a number of these, like Mount Rinjani on Lombok, are still active while others, such as Kelimutu on Flores with its three multi-coloured crater lakes, are extinct. It began to be formed during the Pliocene, about 15 million years ago, as a result of the collision between the Australian and the Asian plates. The islands of the southern archipelago, including Sumba, Timor and Babar, are non-volcanic
The Andaman Islands are a group of Indian Ocean archipelagic islands in the Bay of Bengal, between the Indian peninsula to the west and Burma to the north and east. Most of the islands are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India, while a small number in the north of the archipelago belong to Burma.
The Andaman islands have been inhabited for several thousand years, at the very least. The earliest archaeological evidence yet documented goes back some 2,200 years; however, the indications from genetic, cultural and isolation studies suggests that it may have been in the Middle Paleolithic. The indigenous Andamanese people appear to have lived on the islands in substantial isolation from that time until the 18th century CE.
The Andamans are theorized to be a key stepping stone in a great coastal migration of humans from Africa via the Arabian peninsula, along the coastal regions of the Indian mainland and towards Southeast Asia, Japan and Oceania.
The name of the Andaman Islands is ancient. A theory that became prevalent since the late nineteenth century is that it derives from Handuman, the Malay form of Hanuman, the Sanskrit name of the Indian
The Diomede Islands (Russian: острова Диомида , ostrová Diomída), also known in Russia as Gvozdev Islands (Russian: острова Гвоздева, ostrová Gvozdjeva), consist of two rocky, tuya-like islands:
The Diomede Islands are located in the middle of the Bering Strait between mainland Alaska and Siberia, with the Chukchi Sea to the north and the Bering Sea to the south. 9.3 km (5.8 mi) to the southeast is Fairway Rock, which is generally not considered part of the Diomede Islands. The islands are sometimes called Tomorrow Island (Big Diomede) and Yesterday Isle (Little Diomede) because the time in Big Diomede is 20 hours (approximately a day) ahead of Little Diomede.
The islands are separated by an international border, which is also part of the International Date Line, approximately 2 km (1 mi) from each island, at 168°58'37"W. At the closest distance between Little Diomede and Big Diomede, the two islands are about 3.8 km (2.4 mi) apart. The small habitation on Little Diomede Island is centered on the west side of the island at the village of Diomede.
The Big Diomede Island is considered the easternmost point of Russia.
The Diomede Islands are often mentioned as likely intermediate
The Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian: Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and undersea seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1,500 miles (2,400 kilometres) from the island of Hawaiʻi in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll (the northwesternmost island in Hawaii is Green Island, which is joined to the Kure Atoll). Excluding Midway, which is an unincorporated territory within the United States Minor Outlying Islands, the Hawaiian Islands form the U.S. state of Hawaii. Once known as the "Sandwich Islands", the archipelago now takes its name from the largest island in the cluster.
The islands are the exposed peaks of a great undersea mountain range known as the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain, formed by volcanic activity over a hotspot in the Earth's mantle. The Hawaiian islands are about 1,860 miles (3,000 km) from the nearest continent.
Captain James Cook visited the islands on January 18, 1778 and named them the "Sandwich Islands" in honor of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, who was one of his sponsors as the First Lord of the Admiralty. This name was in use until the 1840s, when the local name "Hawaii"
The Izu Islands (伊豆諸島, Izu-shotō) are a group of volcanic islands stretching south and east from the Izu Peninsula of Honshū, Japan. Administratively, they form two towns and six villages; all part of Tokyo. The largest is Izu Ōshima, usually called simply Ōshima.
Although traditionally referred to as the "Izu Seven" (伊豆七島, Izu Shichitō), there are in fact more than a dozen islands and islets. Nine among them are currently inhabited.
The Izu islands stretch south-east from the Izu Peninsula on Honshu and cover an area of approximately 301.56 km (116.43 sq mi). There are nine populated islands with a total population of 24,645 people (as of 2009) spread over 296.56 km (114.50 sq mi). The largest of them is Izu Oshima (8,346 inhabitants, 91.06 km (35.16 sq mi)), the smallest Toshima (292 inhabitants, 4.12 km (1.59 sq mi).) Of the inhabited islands, seven are traditionally referred to as the "Izu Seven": Oshima, Toshima, Niijima, Kozujima, Miyakejima, Hachijojima, and Mikurajima, though Shikinejima and Aogashima are sometimes included as well.
Each of the island has its unique character: Oshima is noted for its active volcano Mt Mihara and camellias, Hachijojima for its former penal
The Kodiak Archipelago is an archipelago, or group of islands, south of main land mass of the state of Alaska (United States), about 405 km (252 mi) by air south of Anchorage in the Gulf of Alaska. The largest island in the archipelago is Kodiak Island, the second largest island in the United States. The archipelago is about 285 km (177 mi) long and 108 km (67 mi) across, from the Barren Islands on the north to Chirikof Island and the Semidi Islands group on the south. The Archipelago contains 13,890 km (5,360 sq mi) of land. The Kodiak Archipelago contains about 40 small glaciers, numerous streams and hundreds of species of land and marine animals. Much of its land is forested.
The Kodiak Island Borough contains all of the Kodiak Archipelago and some lands on the mainland. The Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge encompasses a large percentage of the land in the archipelago.
"The archaeological record contains several seemingly abrupt changes suggesting population replacements to some, but the current view, followed here, is that there has been long-term cultural continuity." (Ames et al., p.61)
The Late Holocene contains four cultural periods: the Early Kachemak, the Late Kachemak,
The outer barrier, also known as the Long Island and New York City barrier islands, refers to the string of barrier islands that divide the lagoons south of Long Island from the Atlantic Ocean.
These islands include Coney Island, Long Beach Barrier Island, Jones Beach Island, Fire Island and Westhampton Island. The outer barrier extends seventy-five miles 120 km along the south shore of Long Island, New York, from Rockaway Beach on the NYC/Nassau County border from Long Beach barrier Islands western edge, to Suffolk County's east end of Shinnecock Bay.
The lagoons enclosed by the barrier islands are Jamaica Bay, Brosewere Bay, Hewlett Bay, Reynolds Channel, Middle Bay, East Bay, South Oyster Bay, Great South Bay, and arms of the Great South Bay that have their own geographic names: Great Cove, Nicoll Bay, Patchogue Bay, Bellport Bay, Narrow Bay, Moriches Bay, Quantuck Bay, Tiana Bay, and Shinnecock Bay. East Rockaway Inlet, Jones Inlet, Fire Island Inlet, Moriches Inlet, and Shinnecock Inlet pierce the barrier, forming the individual sandy islands. The resort communities of Atlantic Beach, Long Beach, and Westhampton Beach; the Fire Island National Seashore, Robert Moses State
Tierra del Fuego ( /tiːˈɛərə dɛl ˈfweɪɡoʊ/, Spanish: [ˈtjera ðel ˈfweɣo]; Spanish for "Fireland" or "Land of Fire") is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan. The archipelago consists of a main island Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego divided between Chile and Argentina with an area of 48,100 km (18,572 sq mi), and a group of smaller islands including Cape Horn. While initially discovered by Europeans in 1520 (Ferdinand Magellan's expedition), they did not settle the islands until the second half of the 19th century at the height of the sheep farming and gold rush booms. Today, petroleum extraction dominates economic activity in the north of Tierra del Fuego, while tourism, manufacturing and Antarctic logistics are important in the south.
The native population of Selk'nam and Yaghans was greatly reduced by unequal conflict and disease brought by settlers. Today only a few Selk'nam remain. Some of the few remaining Yaghans have settled in Villa Ukika in Navarino Island, others have scattered across Chile and Argentina. Tierra del Fuego hosts large areas protected as national parks and reserves, most of them in the
The Commander Islands or Komandorski Islands (Russian: Командо́рские острова́, Komandorskiye ostrova) are a group of treeless, sparsely-populated Russian islands located 175 kilometres (109 mi) east of the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East, in the Bering Sea. The islands consist of Bering Island (95 kilometres (59 mi) by 15 kilometres (9.3 mi)), Medny Island (55 kilometres (34 mi) by 5 kilometres (3.1 mi)), and fifteen smaller ones (islets and rocks), the largest of which are Kamen Toporkov ("Tufted Puffin Rock", 15 hectares (37 acres), sometimes referred to as Ostrov Toporkov) and Kamen Ariy, which are between 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) and 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) west of the only settlement, Nikolskoye. Administratively, they compose Aleutsky District of Kamchatka Krai.
The Commander Islands are the westernmost extension of the Aleutian Islands, though they are separated from the rest of the chain by 207 miles (333 km). The relief is somewhat diverse, encompassing folded-block mountains, volcanic plateaus, terraced plains, and low mountains. The geologic origins are long-extinct volcanoes on the edge of the Pacific and North American Plates. The highest point is Steller Peak
The Weepecket Islands are a group of three islands which are part of the Elizabeth Islands of Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States. They are located off the north shore of Naushon Island, the largest of the Elizabeth Islands. Together the three Weepeckets have a land area of 0.051 km² (0.02 sq mi, or 12.6 acres). The islands were used as practice target for bombs, rockets, and machine guns from 1941 to 1957. There are no signs on the islands anymore due to a bonfire in the summer of 2005.
Today, the islands are uninhabited. and are a popular breeding ground for double-crested Cormorants.
The Aegadian Islands (Sicilian: Ìsuli Ègadi, Italian: Isole Egadi; Latin: Aegates Insulae, Greek: Aegatae Nisoi, Αιγάται Νήσοι, meaning the islands of goats), are a group of small mountainous islands in the Mediterranean Sea off the northwest coast of Sicily, Italy, near the city of Trapani, with a total area of 14.46 square miles (37.45 km).
Favignana (Aegusa), the largest, lies 10 miles (16 km) south west of Trapani; Levanzo (Phorbantia) 8 miles (13 km) west; while Marettimo, the ancient Iera Nesos, 15 miles (24 km) west of Trapani, is now reckoned as a part of the group. There are also two minor islands, Formica and Maraone, lying between Levanzo and Sicily. For administrative purposes the archipelago constitutes the comune of Favignana in the Province of Trapani.
The overall population in 1987 was estimated at about 5,000. Though winter frost is unknown, rainfall is low. The main occupation of the islanders is fishing and this is where the largest tuna fishery in Sicily can be found.
There is evidence of Neolithic and even Paleolithic paintings in caves on Levanzo, and to a lesser extent on Favignana.
The islands were the scene of the Battle of the Aegates Islands of 241 BC, in
The Archipelago of the Azores (UK /əˈzɔrz/ ə-ZORZ, US /ˈeɪzɔrz/ AY-zorz; Portuguese: Açores, IPA: [ɐˈsoɾɨʃ]) is composed of nine volcanic islands situated in the North Atlantic Ocean, and is located about 1,500 km (930 mi) west of Lisbon and about 1,900 km (1,200 mi) southeast of Newfoundland. The islands, and their Exclusive Economic Zone, form the Autonomous Region of the Azores, one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal. Its main industries are agriculture, dairy farming (for cheese and butter products primarily), livestock ranching, fishing, and tourism, which is becoming the major service activity in the region. In addition to this, the government of the Azores employs a large percentage of the population directly or indirectly in many aspects of the service and tertiary sectors.
There are nine major Azores islands and an islet cluster, in three main groups. These are Flores and Corvo, to the west; Graciosa, Terceira, São Jorge, Pico, and Faial in the centre; and São Miguel, Santa Maria, and the Formigas Reef to the east. They extend for more than 600 km (370 mi) and lie in a northwest-southeast direction.
The vast extent of the islands defines an immense exclusive
The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands ( /ˈkʊərɪl/, /ˈkjʊərɪl/, or /kjʊˈriːl/; Russian: Кури́льские острова́, tr. Kuril'skie ostrova; IPA: [kʊˈrʲilʲskʲɪjə ɐstrɐˈva]; Japanese: Chishima rettō (千島列島)), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately 1,300 km (810 mi) northeast from Hokkaidō, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean. There are 56 islands and many more minor rocks. It consists of Greater Kuril Ridge and Lesser Kuril Ridge. The total land area is about 15,600 square kilometres (6,000 sq mi) and total population about 19,000.
All of the islands are under the Russian jurisdiction, but Japan claims the two southernmost large islands (Iturup and Kunashir) as part of its territory, as well as Shikotan and the Habomai islets, which has led to the ongoing Kuril Islands dispute.
The name Kuril originates from the autonym of the aboriginal Ainu, the islands' original inhabitants: "kur", meaning man. It may also be related to names for other islands that have traditionally been inhabited by the Ainu people, such as Kuyi or Kuye for Sakhalin and Kai for Hokkaidō. In Japanese, the Kuril Islands
Sgat Mòr and Sgat Beag are two small islands that lie off the Cowal peninsula on the west coast of Scotland.
Sgat Mòr lies at grid reference NR930666 at the mouth of Loch Fyne. The island rises just 11 metres (36 ft) above sea level and is home to a small lighthouse. The area to the south of the island is the deepest area of water in the Clyde area. Sgat Mòr is sometimes corrupted into English as Skate Island.
Sgat Beag is a similar but slightly smaller island that lies 1 kilometre to the east.
The Pelham Islands is a historical name for a group of islands in western Long Island Sound that once belonged to Thomas Pell. The main islands in the group are City Island, Hart Island, Hunters Island, Twin Island, Goose Island, Davids' Island, High Island, Rat Island, the Chimney Sweeps, the Blauzes and Travers Island.
City Island is by far the largest, and the only one currently populated. The 235-acre (0.95 km) island was originally known as "Great Minnefords" before the Revolutionary War. Benjamin Palmer renamed it "City Island" as part of his plans to create a great port city. The onset of the Revolutionary War brought an end to those plans. It remained part of the Town of Pelham until June 6, 1895, when the present boundary line between the borough of the Bronx and the rest of Westchester County was established, placing City Island within New York City.
Hart Island, which is the second largest, formerly housed a prison, but is now uninhabited, and is currently used as a potters field. Along with David's Island, it has had a variety of military uses over the years, including its use as the site of Fort Slocum.
Pell purchased the islands and much of the surrounding area from
The Trobriand Islands (today officially known as the Kiriwina Islands) are a 450 km² archipelago of coral atolls off the eastern coast of New Guinea. They are part of the nation of Papua New Guinea and are situated in Milne Bay Province. Most of the population of 12,000 indigenous inhabitants live on the main island of Kiriwina, which is also the location of the government station, Losuia. Other major islands in the group are Kaileuna, Vakuta and Kitava. The group is considered to be an important tropical rainforest ecoregion in need of conservation.
The Trobriands consist of four main islands, the largest being Kiriwina island, and the others being Kaileuna, Vakuta and Kitava. Kiriwina is 25 miles long, and varies in width from 2 to 8 miles. In the 1980s, there were around sixty villages upon the island, containing around 12,000 people, whilst the other islands were restricted to a population of hundreds. Other than some elevation on Kiriwina, the islands are flat coral atolls and "remain hot and humid throughout the year, with frequent rainfall."
The people of the area are mostly subsistence horticulturalists who live in traditional settlements. The social structure is based on
The Buccaneer Archipelago is a group of islands off the coast of Western Australia near the town of Derby in the Kimberley region. The closest inhabited place is Bardi located about 54 kilometres (34 mi) from the western end of the island group.
The Archipelago, covering over 50 square kilometres (19 sq mi). is located at the head of King Sound and is composed of about 800 islands found between King Sound and Collier Bay near Yampi Sound. The area experiences a huge tidal range, of over 12 metres (39 ft), which once wreaked havoc on the pearling fleet that operated in the area last century. The islands' rocks are over 2 billion years old, as is the surrounding coastline. The islands themselves were formed more recently as a result of rising sea levels, creating a drowned coastline. The rocks are ancient pre-cambrian sandstones. The islands are generally rocky, many with high cliffs. The islands are in almost pristine condition as a result of their isolation and difficulty of access. Some are sparsely vegetated with patches of rain-forest, and areas fringed with mangroves where silt has built up.
The archipelago was named after the English buccaneer and privateer William Dampier,
Chonos Archipelago (Spanish: Archipiélago de los Chonos) is a series of low mountainous elongated islands with deep bays, traces of a submerged Chilean Coast Range. Most of the islands are forested with little or no human settlement. The deep Moraleda Channel separates the islands of the Chonos Archipelago from the mainland of Chile and from Magdalena Island.
The largest islands are Melchor Island, Benjamin Island, Traiguen Island, Riveros Island, Cuptana Island, James Island, Victoria Island, Simpson Island, Level Island, Luz Island.
Far out in the Pacific is Guamblin Island with the Isla Guamblin National Park. The National park comprises about 106 km². Blue whales can often be seen here.
Some groups of islands are grouped into minor archipelagoes such as the Guaitecas Archipelago. Guaitecas Archipelago have its own municipality and possesses the only settlement in the archipelago, Melinka. All islands are part of the Aisén Region.
The Disappointment Islands (French: Îles du Désappointement) are a subgroup of the Tuamotu Archipelago in French Polynesia. They are located towards the northeast, away from the main Tuamotu group.
The Disappointment Islands are a small group of coral islands, which includes the island of Tepoto and the atoll of Napuka. Puka-Puka, 180 miles (300 km) to their southeast, is often included in this subgroup.
These islands are dry, and not especially conducive to human habitation.
The Disappointment Islands are sparsely populated. The inhabitants are overwhelmingly native Polynesians. According to the 2002 census, the population of the islands is as follows:
Administratively Tepoto Island belongs to the commune of Napuka, while Puka-Puka has its own commune.
The western Disappointment Islands, Tepoto and Napuka, were colonized by voyagers from the neighboring Tuamotus, but Puka-Puka was colonized by settlers from the Marquesas Islands, several hundred miles to the northeast.
It is said that these islands were given their name by Ferdinand Magellan, who could not find a water source there from which to replenish his ship's supplies, while en route to the Philippine Islands.
The Guayaneco Archipelago (Spanish: Archipiélago Guayaneco) is an archipelago in southern Chile (located at 48°0′S 75°0′W / 48°S 75°W / -48; -75). It was heavily glaciated during the most recent ice age. These glaciers dissected these mountain islands into a series of deep river valleys and glacial troughs. Today these glacial troughs are deep channels and fjords. The islands of the Guayaneco Archipelago comprise a series of elongated islands and deep bays that are the traces of a drowned coastal range. A number of deep channels are traversing generally north to south through the islands. These include the Messier Channel in the lower left portion of the image, and the Fallos Channel near the center of the image. Forests cover the lower slopes of the mountains throughout the many islands. Human settlement on these islands is scarce.
The Louisiade Archipelago is a string of ten larger volcanic islands frequently fringed by coral reefs, and 90 smaller coral islands located 200 km southeast of New Guinea, stretching over more than 160 kilometres (99 mi) and spread over an ocean area of 26,000 square kilometres (10,000 sq mi) between the Solomon Sea to the north and the Coral Sea to the south. The aggregate land area of the islands is about 1,790 square kilometres (690 sq mi), with Vanatinai (Tagula) being the largest.
Sideia Island and Basilaki Island lie closest to New Guinea, while Misima, Vanatinai, and Rossel islands lie further east.
The archipelago is divided into the Local Level Government (LLG) areas Louisiade Rural (western part, with Misima), and Yaleyamba (eastern part, with Rossell and Vanatinai islands). The LLG areas are part of Samarai-Murua District district of Milne Bay. The seat of the Louisiade Rural LLG is Bwagaoia on Misima Island, the population center of the archipelago.
The Louisiade Archipelago consists of the following island groups and islands :
The islands were most likely observed by Luis Váez de Torres in 1606, but Malay and Chinese sailors may have visited the islands earlier. Louis
The Prince Edward Islands are two small islands in the sub-antarctic Indian Ocean that are part of South Africa. The islands are named Marion Island and Prince Edward Island.
The islands in the group have been declared Special Nature Reserves under the South African Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, No. 57 of 2003, and activities on the islands are therefore restricted to research and conservation management. The only human inhabitants of the islands are the staff of a meteorological and biological research station run by the South African National Antarctic Programme on Marion Island.
The island group is about 955 nmi (1,769 km; 1,099 mi) south-east of Port Elizabeth in mainland South Africa. Marion Island (46°54′45″S 37°44′37″E / 46.9125°S 37.74361°E / -46.9125; 37.74361 (Marion Island)), the larger of the two, is 25.03 km (15.55 mi) long and 16.65 km (10.35 mi) wide with an area of 290 km (112 sq mi) and a coastline of some 72 km (45 mi), most of which is high cliffs. The highest point on Marion Island is Mascarin Peak (formerly State President Swart Peak), reaching 1,242 m (4,075 ft) above sea level. Boot Rock is about 150 metres (492 ft) off the northern
The Ralik Chain (Marshallese: Rālik, broadly /rˠaɦʲlʲɨk/ or narrowly [r̴ɑ͡ææ̯li͡ɯk]) is a chain of islands within the island nation of the Marshall Islands. Ralik means "sunset". It lies just to the west of the country's other island chain, the Ratak Chain. As of 1999, the total population of the Ralik islands is 19,915.
Christopher Loeak, who would become President of the Marshall Islands in 2012, served as Minister for the Ralik Chain in an earlier part of his political career.
List of atolls and isolated islands in the chain:
The Torres Islands are in the Torba Province of Vanuatu, the northernmost island group in the country. The chain of islands that make up this micro-archipelago straddle the broader cultural boundary that distinguishes Island Melanesia from several Polynesian outliers located in the neighbouring Solomon Islands. To the north is Temotu Province of the Solomon Islands, to the south Espiritu Santo, and to the southeast the Banks Islands. To the west, in the ocean, is the deep Torres Trench, the subduction zone between the Australian and Pacific Plates.
The seven islands in the Torres group, from north to south, are Hiw or Hiu (the largest), Metoma, Tegua, Ngwel (an uninhabited islet), Linua, Lo or Loh, and Toga. This chain stretches 42 km (26 mi). The highest point of the chain is only 200 m (656 ft) above sea level. They are less rugged than the country's islands further south. Contrary to popular belief, only a few stretches of the Torres Islands' coastline are graced with white sand beaches; in reality, much of the shore is composed of rocky coral uplift.
As of mid-2004, the Torres Islands sustained a total population of approximately 950 people, dispersed across at least ten
The Fox Islands are a group of islands in the eastern Aleutian Islands of the U.S. state of Alaska. The Fox Islands are the closest to mainland North America in the Aleutian chain, and just east of Samalga Pass and the Islands of Four Mountains group.
Inhabited by the Aleut for centuries, the islands, along with the rest of the Aleutians, were first visited by Europeans in 1741, when a Danish navigator employed by the Russian navy, Vitus Bering, was searching for new sources of fur for Russian fur trappers.
Foggy almost all year round, the islands are difficult to navigate due to constantly adverse weather and numerous reefs. As with the other Aleutian islands, the Fox Islands are prone to frequent earthquakes year-round.
The larger Fox Islands are, from west to east, Umnak, Unalaska, Amaknak, Akutan, Akun, Unimak and Sanak. Islands lying west of Akutan are in the Aleutians West Census Area. From Akutan eastward they are in the Aleutians East Borough.
Fox Islands is the English translation of the name given to the islands in the 18th century by Russian explorers and fur traders.
The Fox Islands were the setting for the video game Metal Gear Solid and its remake Metal Gear Solid:
Daitō Islands (大東諸島 Daitō Shotō or 大東島地方 Daitō-jima Chihō) are three islands that lie about 217 miles (349 km) east of Okinawa. From north to south, the islands are:
Although these islands have long been known in Okinawa as Ufuagari (the Great East), all of the islands were uninhabited until the Meiji period, when people from other parts of Japan arrived.
Kita, minami, and oki means, respectively, "north," "south," and "offshore" while daitō means "great east."
The Daitō Islands form two municipalities of the Shimajiri District (島尻郡; -gun) of Okinawa Prefecture:
Uninhabited Oki Daitō island is part of Kitadaitō municipality, although located closer to Minami Daitō island.
The Echinades (Greek: αἱ Ἐχινάδες νῆσοι per Herodotus, Thucydides, and Strabo, per Homer Echinae (αἱ Ἐχῖναι νῆσοι, Italian: Curtzolari) are a group of islands in the Ionian Sea, off the coast of Acarnania, Greece. The archipelago is commonly subdivided into three groups: the Drakoneres in the north, the Modia in the middle and the Ouniades in the south. Administratively, the Echinades form part of two regional units: Ithaca and Cephalonia. Many of the islands are privately owned and periodically one comes up for sale. The Battle of the Echinades in 1427 and the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 were fought at or near the islands.
Several of the islands have been joined to the mainland by alluvial deposits. Herodotus says that half of the islands had been already united to the mainland in his time (ii. 10); and Thucydides expected that this would be the case with all of them before long, since they lay so close together as to be easily connected by the alluvium brought down by the Achelous River (ii. 102.). This expectation, however, has not been fulfilled, which Pausanias attributed (viii. 24. § 11) to the Achelous bringing down less alluvium in consequence of the uncultivated condition of
The Greater Antilles are one of the island groups in the Caribbean. Comprising the islands of Cuba, Hispaniola (containing the Dominican Republic and Haiti), Puerto Rico, and Jamaica, the Greater Antilles constitute almost 90% of the land mass of the entire West Indies, as well as almost 90% of its population. The other island group is the Lesser Antilles.
Rogonzinski, Jan. A Brief History of the Caribbean. New York: Facts on File, 1992.
The Îles des Saintes (literally, "Islands of the Saints"), also called simply Les Saintes French: [lesɛ̃t] ( listen), is a small archipelago of French Antilles located in the South of Basse-Terre Island, on the West of Marie-Galante and in the North of Dominica in the arc of Lesser Antilles. It is a dependency of Guadeloupe, which in turn is an overseas department and Region of France.
Les Saintes is a volcanic archipelago fully encircled by shallow reefs. It arise from the recent volcanic belt of the Lesser Antilles from the Pliocene Epoch. It is composed of rocks appeared on the Tertiary age between (4.7 to 2 million years ago). By origin, it was a unique island that the Tectonic and Volcanic earthquakes separate to create an archipelago due to the subduction zone between the South American plate, the North American plate and the caribbean plate.
Les Saintes is composed of two very mountainous inhabited islands, Terre-de-Haut Island and Terre-de-Bas Island, with seven other uninhabited îlets:
The total surface is 12.8 km (4.9 sq mi). The archipelago has approximately 22 km (14 mi) of coast and its highest hill, Chameau ( literally, "Camel" ), reaches about 309 metres (1,014 ft).
The Marquesas Islands (French: Îles Marquises or Archipel des Marquises or Marquises; Marquesan: Te Henua (K)enana (North Marquesan) and Te Fenua `Enata (South Marquesan), both meaning "The Land of Men") are a group of volcanic islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southern Pacific Ocean. The Marquesas are located at 9° 00S, 139° 30W. The highest point is the peak of Mount Oave (French: Mont Oave) on Ua Pu island at 1,230 m (4,035 ft) above sea level.
The Marquesas Islands form one of the five administrative divisions (subdivisions administratives) of French Polynesia. The capital of the Marquesas Islands administrative subdivision is the settlement of Taiohae on the island of Nuku Hiva. The population of the Marquesas Islands was 8,632 at the August 2007 census.
The first recorded settlers of the Marquessa were Polynesians, who, from archæological evidence, are believed to have arrived before 100 AD. Ethnological and linguistic evidence suggests that they likely arrived from the region of Tonga and Samoa.
The islands were given their name by the Spanish explorer Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira who reached them on 21 July 1595. He named them after his
The Pearl Islands (Spanish: Archipiélago de las Perlas or Islas de las Perlas) are a group of 100 or more islands (many tiny and uninhabited) lying about 30 miles (48 km) off the Pacific coast of Panama in the Gulf of Panama.
The most notable island is Contadora Island (or Isla Contadora in Spanish), known for its resorts. Contadora was said to be used by the Spanish conquistadors as a stop for taking inventory of booty prior to returning to Spain, hence the name (contador means counter or bookkeeper in Spanish). Contadora is a resort island, with many homes owned by wealthy Panamanians. There is a large hotel and other cabins available. Most of the resort workers live on nearby Isla Saboga. In 1979, the Shah of Iran briefly took exile on Isla Contadora. Domestic airlines Air Panama and Aero Perlas run frequent flights between Panama City and Contadora, Isla San Jose and Isla del Rey.
The largest island, at 234 square kilometres (90 sq mi), is Isla del Rey ("Island of the King"), its name probably a religious reference rather than a reference to a secular king. Isla del Rey has several towns, most notably San Miguel. It is easily larger than the other Pearl Islands combined, and is
The Ryukyu Islands /riˈuːkjuː/ (琉球諸島, Ryūkyū-shotō), known in Japanese as the Nansei Islands (南西諸島, Nansei-shotō, lit. "Southwest Islands") and also known as the Ryukyu Arc (琉球弧, Ryūkyū-ko), are a chain of volcanic Japanese islands that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the southernmost. The largest of the islands is Okinawa.
The islands have a subtropical climate with mild winters and hot summers. Precipitation is very high, and is affected by the rainy season and typhoons. Except the outlying Daitō Islands, the island chain has two major geologic boundaries, the Tokara Strait between the Tokara and Amami Islands, and the Kerama Gap between the Okinawa and Miyako Islands. The islands beyond the Tokara Strait are characterized by their coral reefs.
The Ōsumi and Tokara Islands, the northernmost of the islands, fall under the cultural sphere of the Kyushu region of Japan; the people are ethnically Japanese and speak a variation of the Kagoshima dialect of Japanese. The Amami, Okinawa, Miyako, and Yaeyama Islands have a native population collectively
The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands, lying about 120 kilometres (75 mi) north of the Antarctic Peninsula, with a total area of 3,687 square kilometres (1,424 sq mi). By the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, the Islands' sovereignty is neither recognized nor disputed by the signatories and they are free for use by any signatory for non-military purposes.
The islands have been claimed by the United Kingdom since 1908 and have been part of the British Antarctic Territory since 1962. They are also claimed by the governments of Chile (since 1940, as part of the Antártica Chilena Province) and by Argentina (since 1943, as part of Argentine Antarctica, Tierra del Fuego Province).
Several countries maintain research stations on the Islands. Most of them are situated on King George Island, benefitting from the airfield of the Chilean base Eduardo Frei.
There are sixteen research stations to date in different parts of the islands, with Chilean stations being the greatest in number. Research is often a shared duty of nations, with Chilean-American Shirreff Base being an example of this.
The Dutchman Dirck Gerritsz in 1599, or the Spaniard Gabriel de Castilla in 1603 supposedly
The Aeolian Islands or Lipari Islands (Italian: Isole Eolie, pronounced [ˈiːzole eˈɔːlje], Sicilian: Ìsuli Eoli) are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus. The locals residing on the islands are known as Eolians (Italian: Eoliani). The Aeolian Islands are a popular tourist destination in the summer, and attract up to 200,000 visitors annually.
The largest island is Lipari. The other islands include Vulcano, Salina, Stromboli, Filicudi, Alicudi, Panarea and Basiluzzo.
The present shape of the Aeolian Islands is the result of volcanic activity over a period of 260,000 years. There are two active volcanoes - Stromboli and Vulcano. The volcanic activity of steaming fumaroles and thermal waters are on most of the islands. Only the one on Stromboli, the northernmost island, is still active.
Scientifically the archipelago is defined as a "volcanic arc". Geology explains the origin of the Aeolian Islands is due to movement of the Earth's crust as a result of plate tectonics. The African continental shelf is in constant movement towards Europe. The resulting collision has created a volcanic area with ruptures in the Earth's
Kwajalein Atoll (/ˈkwɑːdʒɨlɨn/; Marshallese: Kuwajleen broadly /kʷɨɦˠʷatʲlʲɜɦʲɜnʲ/ or narrowly [kʷuwɒ͡æʑælɛɛ̯ɛn]), is part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The southernmost and largest island in the atoll is named Kwajalein Island, which English-speaking residents often call by the shortened name, Kwaj (/ˈkwɑːdʒ/).
The atoll lies in the Ralik Chain, 2,100 nautical miles (3900 km) southwest of Honolulu, Hawaii, at 8°43′N 167°44′E / 8.717°N 167.733°E / 8.717; 167.733.
Kwajalein is one of the world's largest coral atolls as measured by area of enclosed water. Comprising 97 islands and islets, it has a land area of 16.4 km² (6.33 mi²), and surrounds one of the largest lagoons in the world, with an area of 2174 km² (839 mi²). The average height above sea level for all the islands is about 1.8 metres (5 ft 11 in).
Kwajalein Island is the southernmost, and the largest, of the islands in the Kwajalein atoll. The northernmost, and second largest, island is Roi-Namur.
The island is about 1.2 square miles (3.1 km). It is 2.5 miles (4.0 km) long and averages about 800 yards (730 m) wide.
The population of Kwajalein Island is currently around 1,000 individuals, mostly Americans
The Mergui Archipelago (also Myeik Archipelago or Myeik Kyunzu; Burmese: မြိတ်ကျွန်းစု) is an archipelago in far southern Myanmar (Burma) and is part of the Tanintharyi Region. It consists of more than 800 islands, varying in size from very small to hundreds of square kilometres, all lying in the Andaman Sea off the western shore of the Malay Peninsula near its landward (northern) end where it joins the rest of Indochina. Occasionally the islands are referred to as the Pashu Islands because the Malay inhabitants are locally called Pashu. A five-star casino and golf resort, the Andaman Club now operates on Thahtay Kyun Island.
Geologically, the islands are characterized mainly by limestone and granite. They are generally covered with thick tropical growth, including rainforest, and their shorelines are punctuated by beaches, rocky headlands, and in some places, mangrove swamps. Offshore are extensive coral reefs.
The archipelago's virtual isolation from most of mankind's influence on the natural environment has given the islands and the surrounding waters of the Andaman Sea a great diversity of flora and fauna, contributing to the region's growing popularity as a diving
The Andreanof Islands (Aleut: Niiĝuĝin tanangis) are a group of islands in the Aleutian Islands in southwest Alaska. They are located between Amchitka Pass and the Rat Islands group to the west, and Amukta Pass and the Islands of Four Mountains group to the east, at about 57° North and 172°57' to 179°09' West. The islands extend about 275 miles (440 km). The total land area of all islands (including the Delarof Islands) is 1,515.349 sq mi (3,924.737 km²). The total population was 412 persons as of the 2000 census, the vast majority in the city of Adak on Adak Island.
The Delarof Islands, a subgroup of the Andreanof Islands, constitute the westernmost islands of the latter group.
The largest islands in the group are, from west to east, Gareloi, Tanaga, Kanaga, Adak, Kagalaska, Great Sitkin, Atka, Amlia, and Seguam.
The islands are usually foggy and are treeless because of the almost constant wind. They were named for the Russian navigator, Andreyan Tolstykh, who was the first to explore the islands in 1761.
There were several United States military bases on the islands during World War II. The bases on Adak were enlarged and made permanent after the war but were closed in 1995.
Fournoi Korseon (Greek: Φούρνοι Κορσέων or Greek: Φούρνοι Ικαρίας - Fournoi Ikarias), more commonly simply Fournoi, is a complex or archipelago of small Greek islands that lie between Ikaria, Samos and Patmos in Ikaria regional unit, North Aegean region. The two largest islands of the complex, the main isle of Fournoi (31 km²) and the isle of Thymaina (10 km²), are inhabited, as is Agios Minas Island (2.3 km²) to the east. On the main isle Fournoi (town) is the largest settlement and then Chrysomilia in the north the second largest (and third largest overall, after Thymaina). Fournoi (town) proper is the main ferry harbour, with ferries also landing on Thymaina.
Many of the inhabitants are fishermen, although during the summer season the population is also occupied in tourist activities, mostly room rentals and catering. On the main island are a number of beaches such as Vlychada, Vitsilia, Petrokopio, Elidaki, and Bali.
The climate is arid and hot during summers. Winters are rather mild with average rainfall but constant strong archipelagic winds prevail.
Communication is often interrupted during the winter period (mostly from November to April) due to bad weather, mainly strong
Great Andaman is the main archipelago of the Andaman Islands of India. It comprises five major islands. From north to south, these are North Andaman, Middle Andaman, South Andaman, Baratang and Rutland Island. The three northern islands are the largest of the entire island group, and the islands' capital, Port Blair, also lies in the archipelago.
Great Andaman is often considered the counterpart to Little Andaman, another island in the Andamans.
The Kermadec Islands ( /kərˈmædɛk/) are a subtropical island arc in the South Pacific Ocean 800–1,000 km (500–620 mi) northeast of New Zealand's North Island, and a similar distance southwest of Tonga. The islands are part of New Zealand, 33 km (12.7 sq mi) in total area and nowadays uninhabited, except for the permanently manned Raoul Island Station, the northernmost outpost of New Zealand.
Polynesian people settled the Kermadec Islands in around the 14th century (and perhaps previously in the 10th century), but the first Europeans to reach the area—the Lady Penrhyn in May 1788—found no inhabitants. The islands were named for the French captain Jean-Michel Huon de Kermadec, who visited the islands as part of the d'Entrecasteaux expedition in the 1790s. European settlers, initially the Bell family, lived on the islands from the early nineteenth century until 1937, as did whalers. One of the Bell daughters, Elsie K. Morton, recounted the family's experience there in her memoir, Crusoes of Sunday Island.
The Station comprises a government meteorological and radio station, and a hostel for Department of Conservation officers and volunteers, that has been maintained since 1937. It lies
The Okinawa Islands (沖縄諸島, Okinawa Shotō) are a group of islands that belongs to Okinawa Prefecture. Okinawa Prefecture makes up a portion of the Ryukyu Islands. The prefectural capital Naha, as well as most of the population, exists on the largest island, Okinawa Island. Historically, the rule of Ryūkyū Kingdom roughly overlapped these islands and Amami Ōshima.
The Quirimbas Islands lie in the Indian Ocean off northeastern Mozambique, close to Pemba, the capital of the province of Cabo Delgado. The archipelago consists of about 27 islands, including Ibo, Matemo, Medjumbe, Quirimba,Metundo,Quisiva and Rolas Island.
Originally home to fishing settlements, the islands' population grew around Arab trading posts and thrived under the Portuguese trading routes when it was known as the Ilhas de Sao Lazaro (Islands of St. Lazarus). Today, many of the islands are uninhabitated.
These islands are known for their high-quality diving sites, including phenomenal drop-offs, some up to 400 meters. The Quirimbas National Park, spanning an area of 7 500 km², includes the 11 most southerly islands, which are partly surrounded by mangroves. The park was established in 2002.
The Lucayan Archipelago, as defined by Julian Granberry, consists of the islands of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas and of the Turks and Caicos Islands (a British Overseas Territory). The archipelago is located in the western North Atlantic Ocean east of Florida and north of the Greater Antilles.
William Keegan states that the Bahama archipelago (the Bahama Islands in a generic sense) includes the territories of both the Commonwealth of the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands, adding: "Modern political considerations aside, the islands form a single archipelago with common geological, ecological, and cultural roots.". Because the nations of the Lucayan Archipelago do not border the Caribbean Sea, they are technically part of the West Indies but not the Caribbean, but they are sometimes grouped with Caribbean nations for convenience.
The leaders of the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands discussed the possibility of forming a federation in 2010.
The Tuscan Archipelago is a chain of islands between the Ligurian Sea and Tyrrhenian Sea, west of Tuscany, Italy.
The archipelago contains the islands of Gorgona, Capraia, Elba (the largest island of the group), Pianosa, Montecristo, Giglio, and Giannutri; all of which are protected as part of the Tuscan Archipelago National Park.
The islands' proximity to several major cities has made them a favourite tourist location. History and literature has ensured that most people are familiar with the islands of Elba and Montecristo.
Moreover, to the Archipelago belong several islets, as the Scoglio d'Africa and the Formiche di Grosseto.
Shetland (/ˈʃɛtlənd/) (from Middle Scots Ȝetland) is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies north-east of mainland Britain. The islands lie some 80 km (50 mi) to the northeast of Orkney and 280 km (170 mi) southeast of the Faroe Islands and form part of the division between the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the North Sea to the east. The total area is 1,468 km (567 sq mi) and the population totalled 22,210 in 2009. Comprising the Shetland constituency of the Scottish Parliament, Shetland is also one of the 32 council areas of Scotland; the islands' administrative centre and only burgh is Lerwick.
The largest island, known simply as "Mainland", has an area of 967 km (373 sq mi), making it the third-largest Scottish island and the fifth-largest of the British Isles. There are an additional 15 inhabited islands. The archipelago has an oceanic climate, a complex geology, a rugged coastline and many low, rolling hills.
Humans have lived there since the Mesolithic period, and the earliest written references to the islands date back to Roman times. The early historic period was dominated by Scandinavian influences, especially Norway, and the islands did not become part of
The Brothers is a group of small islands in Cook Strait, New Zealand, off the east coast of Arapawa Island. It comprises two main islands and a number of smaller islets.
North Brother island in this small chain is a sanctuary for the rare reptile species, the Brothers Island tuatara and is the site of the Brothers Island Lighthouse.
The Aegean Islands (Greek: Νησιά Αιγαίου, transliterated: Nisiá Aigaíou; Turkish: Ege Adaları) are the group of islands in the Aegean Sea, with mainland Greece to the west and north and Turkey to the east; the island of Crete delimits the sea to the south, those of Rhodes, Karpathos and Kasos to the southeast. The ancient Greek name of the Aegean Sea, Archipelago (ἀρχιπέλαγος) was later applied to the islands it contains and is now used more generally, to refer to any island group.
The Aegean Islands belong to Greece, being split among nine administrative peripheries. The only sizable possessions of Turkey in the Aegean Sea are Imbros (Gökçeada) and Tenedos (Bozcaada), in the northeastern end of the Sea. Turkish islands also include various smaller islets off Turkey's western coast.
The Aegean Islands are traditionally subdivided into seven groups, from north to south:
The term Italian Aegean Islands (Italian: Isole Italiane dell-’Egeo) is sometimes used to refer to the Aegean islands conquered by Italy during the Italo-Turkish War in 1912 and annexed (through the Treaty of Lausanne) from 1923 until 1947: the Dodecanese, including Rhodes and Kastelorizo.
The Bissagos Islands, also spelled Bijagós Islands as in its Portuguese name (Arquipélago dos Bijagós) are a group of about 88 islands and islets located in the Atlantic Ocean and are part of the African nation of Guinea-Bissau. The archipelago was formed from the ancient delta of the Rio Geba and the Rio Grande and spans an area of 2,624 km (1,184 sq. miles).
Location coordinates: 11°40' to 14°43'N; 15°20' to 17°00'W
Only some 20 islands islands are populated year-round, namely Bubaque which is where the Bissagos administrative capital is situated and is the most populated island, Bolama, Carache, Caravela, Enu, Formosa, Galinhas, João Vieira, Maio, Meneque, Orango, Orangozinho, Ponta, Roxa, Rubane, Soga, Unhacomo, Uno, and Uracane.
There is a high diversity of ecosystems: mangroves with intertidal zones, palm forests, dry and semi-dry forests, secondary and degraded forests, coastal savanna, sand banks and aquatic zones. The archipelago was declared in 1996 a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve--Boloma Bijagós Biosphere Reserve, known for animals including marine turtles, hippopotamus and the southern islands are today a nature reserve.
The population is estimated at about 30,000 (2006)
The Caroline Islands (Islas Carolinas in Spanish, Karolinen in German) are a widely scattered archipelago of tiny islands in the western Pacific Ocean, to the north of New Guinea. Politically they are divided between the Federated States of Micronesia in the eastern part of the group, and Palau at the extreme western end. Historically, this area was also called Nuevas Filipinas or New Philippines as they were part of the Spanish East Indies and governed from Manila in the Philippines.
The group consists of about 500 small coral islands, east of the Philippines, in the Pacific Ocean; the distance from Manila to Yap, one of the larger islands of the group, is 1,200 miles (1,900 km).
Most of the islands comprise low, flat coral atolls, but some rise high above sea level.
The native inhabitants speak a variety of Micronesian languages including Yapese, Pohnpeian, Chuukese, Carolinian and Kosraean, as well as the Western Malayo-Polynesian language Palauan. Other significant populations include Filipinos and Japanese.
The natives live mainly on horticulture and fishing, also supplementing their diet with many different varieties of bananas and taro, either of the "swamp" or "purple"
The Chincha Islands (Spanish Islas Chincha) are a group of three small islands 21 kilometres (13 mi) off the southwest coast of Peru, to which they belong, near the town of Pisco. They were of interest for their extensive guano deposits, but the supplies were mostly exhausted by 1874.
The largest of the islands, Isla Chincha Norte, is 0.8 miles (1.3 km) long and up to 0.6 miles (0.97 km) wide, and rises to a height of 34 m (113 ft). Isla Chincha Centro is almost the same size as its neighbour to the north, while Isla Chincha Sur is half the size of its neighbours. The islands are mostly granite, and bordered with cliffs on all sides, upon which great numbers of seabirds nest.
The islands were once the residence of the Chincha people, but only a few remains are to be found today. Peru began the export of guano in 1840. Spain, not having recognized Peru's independence (it was not to do so until 1879) and desiring the guano profits, occupied the islands in April 1864, setting off the Chincha Islands War (1864–1866).
The Leeward Antilles are a chain of islands in the Caribbean – specifically, the southerly islands of the Lesser Antilles (and, in turn, the Antilles and the West Indies) along the southeastern fringe of the Caribbean Sea, just north of the Venezuelan coast of the South American mainland. The Leeward Antilles, while among the Lesser Antilles, are not to be confused with the Leeward Islands (also of the Lesser Antilles) to the northeast.
Largely lacking in volcanic activity, the Leeward Antilles island arc occurs along the deformed southern edge of the Caribbean Plate and was formed by the plate's subduction under the South American Plate. Recent studies indicate that the Leeward Antilles are accreting to South America.
The Leeward Antilles comprise (roughly from west to east):
The Maluku Islands, also known as the Moluccas /məˈlʌkəz/, are an archipelago within Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi (Celebes), west of New Guinea, and north and east of Timor. The islands were also historically known as the "Spice Islands" by the Chinese and Europeans, but this term has also been applied to other islands outside Indonesia.
Most of the islands are mountainous, some with active volcanoes, and enjoy a wet climate. The vegetation of the small and narrow islands, encompassed by the sea, is very luxuriant; including rainforests, sago, rice and the famous spices - nutmeg, cloves and mace, among others. Though originally Melanesian, many island populations, especially in the Banda Islands, were killed off in the 17th century during the Spice wars. A second influx of Austronesian immigrants began in the early twentieth century under the Dutch and continues in the Indonesian era.
The Maluku Islands formed a single province since Indonesian independence until 1999 when it was split into two provinces. A new province, North Maluku, incorporates the area
The Mentawai Islands are a chain of about seventy islands and islets off the western coast of Sumatra in Indonesia. Siberut (4,030 km²) is the largest of the islands. The other major islands are Sipura, North Pagai (Pagai Utara) and South Pagai (Pagai Selatan). The islands lie approximately 150 km off the Sumatran coast, across the Mentawai Strait. The indigenous inhabitants of the islands are known as the Mentawai people. The Mentawai Islands have become a noted destination for surfing.
The Mentawai Islands have been administered as a regency within the West Sumatra (Sumatera Barat) province since 1999. The regency seat is Tua Pejat, located on the island of Sipura. Padang, the capital of the province, lies on the Sumatran mainland opposite Siberut. The regency is divided in ten subdistricts (kecamatan), from north to south these comprise:
The islands have been separated from Sumatra since the mid-Pleistocene period, which has allowed at least twenty endemic species to develop amongst its flora and fauna. This includes five endemic primates: the Mentawai or Kloss Gibbon (Hylobates klossii), Mentawai Macaque (Macaca pagensis), Siberut Macaque ("Macaca siberu"), Mentawai leaf-monkey
The Samoan Islands or Samoa Islands is an archipelago covering 3,030 km (1,170 sq mi) in the central South Pacific, forming part of Polynesia and the wider region of Oceania. The population of the Samoan Islands is approximately 250,000, sharing a common language, Samoan, a culture, known as fa'a Samoa and an indigenous form of governance called fa'amatai.
Today, the islands have two jurisdictions, the independent country of Samoa in the western half of the islands, and the territory of American Samoa comprising the islands to the east. The two regions are separated by 64 km of ocean. Most Samoans are full-blooded and are one of the largest Polynesian populations in the world.
The oldest date so far from prehistoric remains in the Samoan Islands has been calculated from archaeology in Samoa to a likely true age of circa 1,050 BCE from a Lapita site at Mulifanua wharf on Upolu island.
In 1768, the eastern islands were visited by French explorer Bougainville, who named them the Navigator Islands, a name used by missionaries until about 1845 and in official European dispatches until about 1870.
Politically the two jurisdictions of the Samoa Islands are;
In the late 1800s, rivalry
The Shepherd Islands (coordinates 16°48′S 168°30′E / 16.8°S 168.5°E / -16.8; 168.5) are a group of islands lying between the larger islands of Epi and Éfaté, in the Shefa province of Vanuatu. The aggregate land area is 88 km². At the 2009 census the population numbered 3634.
From north to south, the principal islands are: Laika, Tongoa (Kuwaé), Buniga [mbining]Tongariki, Émaé (Mai), Makura (Emwae), Mataso (Matah), and Monument (Étarik). Émaé and Tongoa are the largest ones islands in the group.
The region includes two submarine volcanoes, Kuwae, and Makura. The islands are principally in the outlines of the calderas of these volcanoes.
The highest of the islands is Émaé, at 644 m (2,113 ft) above sea level, Tongariki is also above 500 m (1,640 ft).
Most of the islands are inhabited by Melanesians like most of Vanuatu, but Émaé is a Polynesian outlier. Other than Emae, on which is spoken a Futunic language, there are, according to Ethnologue, two languages spoken on the other islands: North Éfaté, spoken on Tongoa; and Namakura, spoken on Mataso, Makura, Tongoa, and Tongariki. These are all also spoken on the island of Éfaté, and are closely related to one another and the other
Tristan da Cunha ( /ˈtrɪstən də ˈkuːnə/) is part of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha which also includes Saint Helena 2,430 kilometres (1,510 mi) to its north, and equatorial Ascension Island even farther removed.
Tristan da Cunha is a remote volcanic group of islands in the south Atlantic Ocean and the main island of that group. It is the most remote inhabited archipelago in the world, lying 2,816 kilometres (1,750 mi) from the nearest land, South Africa, and 3,360 kilometres (2,088 mi) from South America. The territory consists of the main island of Tristan da Cunha itself, which measures about 11.27 kilometres (7.0 mi) across and has an area of 98 square kilometres (37.8 sq mi), along with the uninhabited Nightingale Islands and the wildlife reserves of Inaccessible Island and Gough Island. It has a permanent population of 275 (2009 figures).
The islands were first sighted in 1506 by Portuguese explorer Tristão da Cunha, although rough seas prevented a landing. He named the main island after himself, Ilha de Tristão da Cunha, which was later anglicised to Tristan da Cunha Island.
In 1643 the crew of the Heemstede, captained by Claes
Heligoland (German: Helgoland; Heligolandic: deät Lun ["the Land"]) is a small German archipelago in the North Sea.
Formerly Danish and British possessions, the islands (population 1,127) are located in the Heligoland Bight (part of the German Bight) in the south-eastern corner of the North Sea. They are the only German islands not in the immediate vicinity of the mainland and are approximately three hours' sailing time from Cuxhaven at the mouth of the River Elbe.
In addition to German, the local population, who are ethnic Frisians, speak the Heligolandic dialect of the North Frisian language called Halunder. Heligoland was formerly called Heyligeland, or "holy land", possibly due to the island's long association with the god Forseti.
Heligoland is located 46 kilometres (29 mi) off the German coastline and consists of two islands: the populated triangular 1 km (0.4 sq mi) main island (Hauptinsel) to the west, and the Düne ("dune," Heligolandic: de Halem) to the east. The former is what the place name "Heligoland" normally is used to refer to. Düne is somewhat smaller at 0.7 km (0.27 sq mi), lower, and surrounded by sand beaches. It is not permanently inhabited, but is today the
The Ratak Chain (Marshallese: Ratak, /rˠaɦˠtˠak/ or [r̴ɑʕd̴ɑk]) is a chain of islands within the island nation of the Marshall Islands. Ratak means "sunrise". It lies just to the east of the country's other main island chain, the Ralik Chain. As of 1999, the total population of the Ratak islands is 30,925.
The atolls and isolated islands in the chain are:
The Ratak Chain forms a continuous chain of seamounts with the Gilbert Islands to the south, which are part of Kiribati.
The Senkaku Islands (尖閣諸島, Senkaku-shotō, variants: 尖閣群島 Senkaku-guntō and 尖閣列島 Senkaku-rettō), also known as the Diaoyu Islands (Chinese: 钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿; pinyin: Diàoyúdǎo jí qí fùshǔ dǎoyǔ; also simply 钓鱼岛) in Mainland China or Tiaoyutai Islands (Chinese: 釣魚台列嶼; pinyin: Diàoyútái liè yǔ) in Taiwan, or the Pinnacle Islands, are a group of uninhabited islands controlled by Japan in the East China Sea. They are located roughly due east of Mainland China, northeast of Taiwan, west of Okinawa Island, and north of the southwestern end of the Ryukyu Islands.
After it was discovered in 1968 that oil reserves might be found under the sea near the islands, Japan's sovereignty over them has been disputed by the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC, commonly known as Taiwan) following the transfer of administration from the United States to Japan in 1971. The Chinese claim the discovery and control of the islands from the 14th century. Japan controlled the islands from 1895 until its surrender at the end of World War II. The United States administered them as part of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands from 1945 until 1972, when the islands
The Alor Archipelago is located at the easternmost end of the Lesser Sunda Islands.
Alor is the largest island in the archipelago which is located at its eastern end. Other islands in the archipelago include Pantar, Kepa, Buaya, Ternate (Alor) (not to be confused with Ternate, North Moluccas), Pura and Tereweng. Administratively, the Alor archipelago forms its own regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) within the province of East Nusa Tenggara. The Regency is divided into seventeen subdistricts and 158 villages, and has a population estimated in 2008 at 180,487.
To the east of the archipelago is the Ombai Strait, which separates it from the islands of Wetar and Atauro, the latter belonging to East Timor. To the south, across the Strait of Alor, lies the western part of Timor. To the north lies the Banda Sea. To the west lies the rest of the Sunda Islands.
The Chagos Archipelago ( /ˈtʃɑːɡoʊs/ or /ˈtʃɑːɡəs/; formerly Bassas de Chagas and later also Oil Islands, known as Foalhavahi (ފޯޅަވަހި) in Dhivehi, as Phehandweep (फेहंद्वीप) in Hindi and other North Indian languages, and as Paeikaana Theevukal (பேகான தீவுகள்) in Tamil), is a group of seven atolls comprising more than 60 individual tropical islands in the Indian Ocean; situated some 500 kilometres (310 mi) due south of the Maldives archipelago. This chain of islands are the southernmost archipelago of the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge, a long submarine mountain range in the Indian Ocean. The Chagos also form a terrestrial ecoregion together with the Maldives and the Lakshadweep. The islands and their surrounding waters are also a vast oceanic Environment Preservation and Protection Zone (EPPZ) (Fisheries Conservation and Management Zone (FCMZ) of 544,000 square kilometres (210,000 sq mi)), an area twice the size of the UK's land surface.
Officially part of the British Indian Ocean Territory, the Chagos were home to the Chagossians for more than a century and a half until the United Kingdom evicted them in the early 1970s in order to allow the United States to build a military base on
The Japanese archipelago (日本列島, Nihon Rettō), which forms the country of Japan, extends roughly from northeast to southwest along the northeastern coast of the Eurasia mainland, washing upon the northwestern shores of the Pacific Ocean. It is composed of islands from the Sakhalin island arc and the Northeastern Japan arc.
The term Home Islands was used at the end of World War II to define the area of Japan to which its sovereignty and the constitutional rule of the Emperor would be restricted. The term is also commonly used today to distinguish the archipelago from Japan's colonies and other territories in the first half of the 20th century, but is not used in reference to the country as it exists today.
The archipelago consists of 6,852 islands ("island" defined as land more than 100 m in circumference), of which 430 are inhabited. The four main islands, listed from north to south, are as followed:
Changes to the Japanese archipelago over time:
37°30′52″N 137°42′44″E / 37.514444°N 137.712222°E / 37.514444; 137.712222 center of mass
Islands In Group:Saddle Island, South Orkney Islands
The South Orkney Islands are a group of islands in the Southern Ocean, about 604 kilometres (375 mi) north-east of the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. They have a total area of about 620 square kilometres (240 sq mi).
The islands have been part of the British Antarctic Territory since 1962 (previously they were a Falkland Islands Dependency), and the British Antarctic Survey operates a base on Signy Island. The islands are also claimed by Argentina as part of the province of Tierra del Fuego, and the Argentine Navy has maintained a permanent base on Laurie Island since 1904. Apart from base personnel, there are no inhabitants. Under the 1959 Antarctic Treaty, the Islands' sovereignty is neither recognized nor disputed by the signatories and they are open to any signatory for non-military use.
The South Orkney Islands were discovered in 1821 by two sealers, Nathaniel Brown Palmer and George Powell. The Islands were originally named Powell's Group, with the main island named Coronation Island as it was the year of the coronation of King George IV. In 1823, James Weddell visited the Islands, gave the archipelago its present name (after the Orkney Islands, Scotland) and also renamed
Vaitupu is an atoll, which is part of the nation of Tuvalu. Vaitupu, the largest atoll of Tuvalu is located at 7.48 degrees south and 178.83 degrees west. The capital is Asau.
The exact date of Vaitupu's first settlement is unknown. According to oral history, the founder of the Vaitupuan community was a Samoan by the name of Telematua, who arrived in the 16th or 17th century. However, it is possible that Tongans may have first reached the atoll during the mid-13th century. Vaitupu has maintained contacts with Tonga throughout its history, both peaceful (marriage alliances) and hostile (visits by Tongan slave-seekers). Vaitupu was also visited by I-Kiribati, and was thus far from isolated.
Obed Starbuck, a whaling captain, visited Vaitupu on the Loper in 1825, naming it 'Tracy Island’. The United States Exploring Expedition under Charles Wilkes visited Vaitupu in 1841.
Samoan pastors from the London Missionary Society successfully introduced Christianity in the 1860s. The pastors implemented religious regulations, outlawing many customary practices. They also introduced the Samoan language, as their Bibles were written in Samoan. Vaitupuans became literate in Samoan rather than in
The Aleutian Islands (English pronunciation: /əˈl(j)uːʃən/; possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones, forming part of the Aleutian Arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900 km) westward from the Alaska Peninsula toward the Kamchatka Peninsula, thus marking a line between the Bering Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Crossing longitude 180°, they are the westernmost part of the United States (and by one definition the easternmost; see Extreme points of the United States). Nearly all the archipelago is part of Alaska and usually considered as being in the "Alaskan Bush", but at the extreme western end the small, geologically related, and remote Commander Islands are in Russia. The islands, with their 57 volcanoes, are in the northern part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. The Alaska Marine Highway (a ferry service) passes through the islands.
Physiographically, they are a distinct section of the larger Pacific Border province, which in turn is part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division.
The islands, known before 1867 as the Catherine
The Apostle Islands are a group of 22 islands in Lake Superior, off the Bayfield Peninsula in northern Wisconsin. The majority of the islands are located in Ashland County—only Sand, York, Eagle, and Raspberry Islands are located in Bayfield County. All the islands except for Madeline Island are part of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore.
The islands are the spiritual home for the Lake Superior Chippewa. The islands were named the Apostle Islands by New France historian Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix, who named them after the 12 apostles (for the 12 largest islands).
"The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore provides regionally diverse and unique plant communities." "Over 800 plant species occur within the lakeshore, including Wisconsin listed endangered and threatened species." The Apostles are dominated by boreal forest, composed largely of white spruce (Picea glauca) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea), often mixed with white birch (Betula papyrifera), white cedar (Thuja occidentalis), white pine (Pinus strobus), balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides). On Madeline Island, Stockton Island, and several other islands, a unique bog-dune
The Desventuradas Islands, also known as Islas de los Desventurados, (Spanish: Unfortunate Islands) is a group of four small islands located 850 kilometres (530 mi) off the coast of Chile, northwest of Santiago in the Pacific Ocean. The islands together have a total land area of 4 square kilometres (1.5 sq mi).
The vegetation is a miniature mosaic of matorral, barren rock, various size trees, and shrubs mixed with ferns and perennial herbs. There are no permanent sources of fresh water on the islands. Vertebrates inhabiting both islands are exclusively limited to birds. Ten species of marine birds and one land bird species, some of them endangered, make their nests on or visit the islands.
Because of their isolation and difficulty of access, there are no human settlements on these islands, but a detachment of the Chilean Navy is stationed on Isla San Félix, which also hosts a 2,000-metre (6,600 ft) runway (ICAO code for the airfield: SCFX).
The islands were sighted by Juan Fernández in 1574, and perhaps earlier by Ferdinand Magellan in 1520. Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa wrote in 1579 that "they are now called after St Felix and St Ambor (i.e. Felix and Nabor)". However, by linguistic
Ireland (local and American pronunciation: [ˈaɪrlənd] ( listen); RP: [ˈʌɪələnd]; Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] ( listen); Ulster-Scots: Airlann or Airlan) is an island to the north-west of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth. To its east is the larger island of Great Britain, from which it is separated by the Irish Sea.
Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers just under five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom, which covers the remainder and is located in the north-east of the island. The population of Ireland is approximately 6.4 million. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just under 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland.
Relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain epitomise Ireland's geography with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild but changeable oceanic climate, which avoids extremes in temperature. Thick woodlands covered the island until the 17th century. Today, it is one of the most deforested areas in Europe. There are twenty-six extant mammal
Karimunjawa or Karimun Jawa is an archipelago of 27 islands in the Java Sea, Indonesia, approximately 80 kilometres northwest of Jepara. The islands' name means 'a stone's throw from Java' in Javanese. They have a total land area of 78 km. The main island is known as Karimun (2,700 ha), while the second-largest island is Kemujan (1,400 ha).
In 2011, the islands' population is about 9,000, inhabiting five of the islands. The population is largely Javanese, with pockets of Bugis and Madurese too. Javanese culture dominates the islands, which are the only islands off Java where Javanese language is the lingua franca.
Twenty-two of the islands have been declared 2001 as a marine reserve, the Karimunjawa National Park. Five more islands are either privately owned or are under the control of the Indonesian Navy.
The Karimunjawa islands are sub district, comprising five villages (Karimun, Kamagin, Kemujan, Digimon, and Parang) administratively part of Jepara district (kabupaten) of Central Java province. The island of Bawean lies east of this group, as part of Gresik District, East Java Province.
Apart from use as a pirate base, the islands are believed to have been uninhabited until a
The Pitiusic Islands, often referenced simply as the Pityuses, or commonly but informally (and ambiguously) as the Pine Islands (officially in Catalan: Illes Pitiüses, IPA: [ˈiʎəs pitiˈuzəs]; Spanish: Islas Pitiusas; from the Greek πιτύα pitýa, pine tree) is the name given collectively to the Balearic Islands of Ibiza (Catalan: Eivissa), Formentera, S'Espalmador and other small islets in the Mediterranean Sea.
The islands are situated approximately 100 km southwest of the island of Majorca, and approximately 80 km east of the Cap de la Nau in the Iberian Peninsula.
In antiquity they were known as the Pityusa islands, listed in Claudius Ptolemy's Geography, under the names Ophiusis and Ebyssus, which had a town of the same name. The islands were used by Cilician pirates as a base. The Roman general Annius drove them out with a large fleet and with them the Roman renegade general Quintus Sertorius, who was seeking refuge there.
The Pine Islands are sometimes grouped together as part of the Balearic Islands, or else considered separate with the Balearics proper being Majorca and Minorca (which together with their islets, are forming the Gymnesian Islands). Politically, they are part
Haida Gwaii ("Islands of the People"), also referred to as the Queen Charlotte Islands, is an archipelago on the North Coast of British Columbia, Canada. Haida Gwaii consists of two main islands: Graham Island in the north, and Moresby Island in the south, along with approximately 150 smaller islands with a total landmass of 10,180 km (3,931 sq mi). Other major islands include Anthony, Langara, Louise, Lyell, Burnaby, and Kunghit Islands.
The islands are separated from the British Columbia mainland to the east by Hecate Strait. Vancouver Island lies to the south, across Queen Charlotte Sound, while the U.S. state of Alaska is to the north, across the disputed Dixon Entrance.
Some of the islands are protected under federal legislation as Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve and Haida Heritage Site, which is mostly Moresby Island and adjoining islands and islets (Gwaii Haanas is the Haida name for Moresby Island). Also protected, but under provincial legislation, are several provincial parks, the largest of which is Naikoon Provincial Park on northeastern Graham Island. The islands are home to an abundance of wildlife, including the largest subspecies of black bear, and also the
The Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean (French: Îles Éparses or Îles éparses de l'océan indien) consist of four small coral islands, an atoll, and a reef in the Indian Ocean, and have constituted the 5th district of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (TAAF) since February 2007. They have no permanent population. Three of the islands — the Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova and Europa — and the Bassas da India atoll lie in the Mozambique Channel west of Madagascar, while the fourth island, Tromelin, lies about 450 kilometres (280 mi) east of Madagascar. Also in the Mozambique Channel is the Banc du Geyser, a reef which was annexed by Madagascar in 1976. France continues to view the Banc du Geyser as part of the Îles Éparses.
The islands have been classified as nature reserves. Except for Bassas da India, they all support meteorological stations: those on the Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova and Europa Island are automated. The station on Tromelin Island, in particular, provides warning of cyclones threatening Madagascar, Réunion or Mauritius. Each of the islands, except Bassas da India and Banc du Geyser, has an airstrip of more than 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). Mauritius, the
The Windward Islands are the southern, generally larger islands of the Lesser Antilles, within the West Indies. They lie south of the Leeward Islands.
The Windward Islands are called such because they were more windward to sailing ships arriving in the New World than the Leeward Islands, given that the prevailing trade winds in the West Indies blow east to west. The trans-Atlantic currents and winds that provided the fastest route across the ocean brought these ships to the rough dividing line between the Windward and Leeward islands. Vessels in the Atlantic slave trade departing from the African Gold Coast and Gulf of Guinea would first encounter the southeasternmost islands of the Lesser Antilles in their west-northwesterly heading to final destinations in the Caribbean and North and Central America. The chain of islands form a part of the easternmost boundary of the Caribbean Sea.
The Antillean Windward Islands from north to south are:
Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago do not consider themselves part of the Windward Islands. In addition, Barbados sits at 59 degrees (outside of 60–62 west definition), and Tobago at 11.9 degrees north (therefore south of the 12–16 degrees north
Amwaj Islands (Arabic: جزر أمواج; transliterated: Juzur Amwaj) are a group of man-made islands located in the northeast of Bahrain, near the coast of Muharraq island. It covers roughly 2 790 000 m² (30 million square feet).
Amwaj Islands are a pioneering project in Bahrain, the first to offer 100% freehold land ownership to expatriates living in the Kingdom of Bahrain. It also increases the supply of waterfront property which is in low supply in this small island nation. With the completion of infrastructure such as electricity, roads, water, sewerage and telecoms, Amwaj recently became fit for residential use.
From an engineering perspective Amwaj introduced a number of new technologies to the region including geotubes for the reclamation phase of these islands, vacuum sewerage and fibre optic "Smart City" technology among others.
The Amwaj Islands were reclaimed from the relatively shallow seas to the northeast of Muharraq Island, which is the northernmost island in the Kingdom of Bahrain.The Islands contain residential, commercial (highrise) and hotel and retail buildings, as well as a 240 m diameter circular marina with over 140 berths.
The project is connected to the main
Cargados Carajos Shoals (also known as the Saint Brandon Rocks) are a group of about 16 small islands and islets on an extended reef in the Indian Ocean northeast of Mauritius. The islands have a total land area of 1.3 km². The reef measures more than 50 km from north to south, and is 5 km wide, cut by three passes. The reef area is 190 km². The islands have a small transient population, mostly fishermen, 63 in number on census night (Census of 2000). They are rich in flora and fauna. The islands are classified as a dependency of Mauritius, which is more than 300 km south, and are administered from Port Louis. The islands are part of the Mascarene Islands.
In the past, Cargados Carajos was a large, volcanic island (part of the Mascarenes, caused by the Réunion hotspot). Over time however, the island eroded until it became submerged and a coral atoll was left behind.
The formation might be considered an atoll. Individual islets on the reef include, from north to south, with their respective locations:
A number of unnamed islands and sand cays complete the Cargados. The total number of islands on the reef is close to 40.
Siren Island, Pearl Island (Île Perle), Frigate Island (Île
The Corn Islands (Spanish: Las Islas del Maíz) are two islands about 70 kilometers (43 mi) east off the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, constituting one of 12 municipalities of the Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur department. The official name of the municipality is Corn Island (the English name is officially used in Spanish-speaking Nicaragua).
The Corn Islands consist of the Big Corn Island (Isla Grande del Maíz; often simply referred to as Corn Island; Isla del Maíz), with an area of 10 square kilometers (3.9 sq mi), and Little Corn Island (Isla Pequeña del Maíz), with an area of 2.9 square kilometers (1.1 sq mi). The total area is 12.9 square kilometers (5.0 sq mi). Mount Pleasant Hill in the north of Big Corn Island, is the highest elevation of the islands, at 113 meters (371 ft). Little Corn Island reaches a height of 38 meters (125 ft) at Lookout Point in the northern part of the island.
The Corn Islands, along with the eastern half of present-day Nicaragua, was a British protectorate from 1655 until 1894, a period when the region was called the Mosquito Coast. At one time, the islands were frequented by Caribbean pirates. In 1894, the Nicaraguan government claimed the area.
The Gambier Islands or Mangareva Islands (French: Îles Gambier or Archipel des Gambier) are a small group of islands in French Polynesia, located at the southeast terminus of the Tuamotu archipelago. They are generally considered a separate island group from Tuamotu both because their culture and language (Mangarevan) are much more closely related to those of the Marquesas Islands, and because, while the Tuamotus comprise several chains of coral atolls, the Gambiers are of volcanic origin. Because of their proximity, the Acteon Group, and the nearby atoll of Temoe (23°20′46″S 134°28′28″W / 23.34611°S 134.47444°W / -23.34611; -134.47444) are sometimes included among the Gambiers.
The commune of Gambier is made up of the Gambier Islands (with uninhabited Temoe Atoll 40 km east of the main Gambier group), the uninhabited Acteon Group to the west (Matureivavao, Tenararo, Tenarunga, Vahanga), and the atolls of Marutea Sud, Maria Est and Morane. This group of islands and atolls covers an area of 35 km².
Although these archipelagos are administered as a single municipality (commune), the main village is Rikitea, on the largest island of Mangareva.
The Gambier Islands comprises:
The Green Islands are a small group of islands in Papua New Guinea. They are located at 4°30′S 154°10′E / 4.5°S 154.167°E / -4.5; 154.167, about 200 km (124 mi) east of Rabaul on New Britain and about 200 km (124 mi) northwest of Bougainville. The Green Islands are administered as part of Bougainville Province (also known as North Solomons Province).
Nissan is the largest island of the group. Other islands include: Pinipel, Sau, Barahun and Sirot.
The Hawar Islands (Arabic: جزر حوار; transliterated: Juzur Ḩawār) are a group of islands situated off the west coast of Qatar in the Gulf of Bahrain of the Persian Gulf. It is also a Ramsar site.
Despite their proximity to Qatar (Suwād al Janūbīyah is only 1.4 km from the Qatari mainland at the peninsula of Ras Abruq, while Rubud Al Gharbiyah, the island closest to the main island of Bahrain, lies at a distance of 19.7 km to it), the islands belong to Bahrain but were the subject of a dispute between Bahrain and Qatar. A Hawari separatist movement exists in Europe but there is little evidence of support for their movement in the Hawar Islands. The islands were formerly coincident with municipality or Minţaqat Juzur Ḩawār (مِنْطَقَة جُزُر حَوَار) and are now administered as part of the Southern Governorate of Bahrain. The area is 50.6 km². At the census of 2001, the population numbered 3,875.
In 2002, Bahrain applied to have the Hawar islands recognised as a World Heritage Site, due to their unique environment and habitat for endangered species. This site is home to many wildlife species and a very interesting place for birdwatchers and divers. The Hawar Islands used to be one of
Orkney (Scottish Gaelic: Arcaibh) also known as the Orkney Islands (and sometimes "the Orkneys", a name which locals disparage), is an archipelago in northern Scotland, 16 kilometres (10 mi) north of the coast of Caithness. Orkney comprises approximately 70 islands of which 20 are inhabited. The largest island, known as the "Mainland" has an area of 523.25 square kilometres (202.03 sq mi) making it the sixth largest Scottish island and the tenth-largest island in the British Isles. The largest settlement and administrative centre is Kirkwall.
The name "Orkney" dates back to the 1st century BC or earlier, and the islands have been inhabited for at least 8,500 years. Originally occupied by Mesolithic and Neolithic tribes and then by the Picts, Orkney was invaded and forcibly annexed by Norway in 875 and settled by the Norse. It was subsequently annexed to the Scottish Crown in 1472, following the failed payment of a dowry for James III's bride, Margaret of Denmark. Orkney contains some of the oldest and best-preserved Neolithic sites in Europe, and the "Heart of Neolithic Orkney" is a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Orkney is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, a
The Phoenix Islands are a group of eight atolls and two submerged coral reefs, lying in the central Pacific Ocean east of the Gilbert Islands and west of the Line Islands. They are a part of the Republic of Kiribati. During the late 1930s they became the site of the last attempted colonial expansion of the British Empire through the Phoenix Islands Settlement Scheme. The islands and surrounding areas are home to some 120 species of coral and more than 500 species of fish. On January 28, 2008, the government of Kiribati formally declared the entire Phoenix group and surrounding waters a protected area, making its 410,500 square kilometres (158,500 sq mi) the world's largest marine protected area.
The group is uninhabited except for a few families on Kanton. The United States unincorporated territories of Baker Island and Howland Island are often considered northerly outliers of the group, in the geographical sense. Howland and Baker are statistically grouped with the United States Minor Outlying Islands, however. The United States previously claimed all the Phoenix Islands under the Guano Islands Act. The Treaty of Tarawa released all American claims to Kiribati, excluding Baker and
Vegaøyan (Norwegian) or the Vega Archipelago (English) is a group of islands in the Norwegian Sea corresponding roughly to the municipality of Vega. Since 2004, it has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This cluster of around 6,500 small islands in Nordland county, just south of the Arctic circle, surrounds the main island of Vega and has been inhabited since the Stone Age.
The islands bear testimony to a distinctive frugal way of life based on fishing and the harvesting of the down of eider ducks, in an inhospitable environment. There are fishing villages, quays, eider houses (built for eider ducks to nest), farmland, and lighthouses. There is evidence of human settlement from the Stone Age onwards. By the 9th century, the islands had become an important centre for the supply of down, which appears to have accounted for around a third of the islanders' income.
The Vega archipelago reflects the way generations of fishermen/farmers have, over the past 1500 years, maintained a sustainable living in an inhospitable seascape near the Arctic Circle, based on the now unique practice of eider down harvesting, and it also celebrate the contribution made by women to the eider down process.
Northern Ari Atoll or Alifu Alifu Atoll is an administrative division of the Maldives. It was created on March 1, 1984 combining northern section of Ari Atoll, the small Rasdhukuramathi Atoll, and the isolated island of Thoddoo. Many of the islands in this atoll have been inhabited since ancient times and have arqueological remains from the Maldivian Buddhist period.
Rasdhu Atoll is also known as Ross Atoll in the Admiralty charts.
The separation of Ari Atoll (formerly Alifu Atoll) into a Northern and a Southern section has formed the two most recent administrative divisions of the Maldives, namely Alifu Alifu Atoll and Alifu Dhaalu Atoll.
The island of Maalhos is geographically the westernmost island of the Atoll (and the second most westerly inhabited island of the Maldives after Maamakunudhoo). Vajrayana Buddhist remains have been found on this island.
NOTE: Haa Alifu, Haa Dhaalu, Shaviyani, Noonu, Raa, Baa, Kaafu, etc. (including Alif Alif) are code letters assigned to the present administrative divisions of the Maldives. They are not the proper names of the natural atolls that make up these divisions. Some atolls are divided into two administrative divisions while other
Archipelago Sea (Finnish Saaristomeri, Swedish Skärgårdshavet) is a part of the Baltic Sea between the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland and the Sea of Åland, within Finnish territorial waters. By some definitions it contains the largest archipelago (island group) in the world by the number of islands, although many of the islands are very small and tightly clustered.
The larger islands are inhabited and connected by ferries and bridges. The Åland Islands, including the largest islands of the region, form an autonomous region within Finland. The rest of the islands are part of Finland Proper. The Archipelago Sea is a significant tourist destination.
The Archipelago Sea covers a roughly triangular area with the cities of Mariehamn (60°5′52″N 19°56′23″E / 60.09778°N 19.93972°E / 60.09778; 19.93972), Uusikaupunki (60°48′4″N 21°24′50″E / 60.80111°N 21.41389°E / 60.80111; 21.41389), and Hanko (59°50′0″N 22°58′15″E / 59.833333°N 22.97083°E / 59.833333; 22.97083), at the corners. The archipelago can be divided into inner and outer archipelagos, with the outer archipelago consisting mainly of smaller, uninhabited islands. The total surface area is 8300 square kilometers, of
The Aru Islands (also Aroe Islands or Kepulauan Aru) are a group of about ninety-five low-lying islands in the Maluku province of eastern Indonesia. They also form a regency of Maluku province, with a land area of 6,269 square kilometres.
The islands are the easternmost in Maluku province, and are located in the Arafura Sea southwest of New Guinea and north of Australia. The total area of the islands is 8,563 km² (3,306 sq mi). The largest island is Tanahbesar (also called Wokam); Dobo, the chief port of the islands, is on Wamar, just off Tanahbesar. Other main islands are Kola, Kobroor, Maikoor, and Trangan. The main islands rise to low hills, and are separated by meandering channels. Geologically, the group is part of the Australian continent, along with New Guinea, Tanimbar, Tasmania and Timor on the Indo-Australian Plate.
Aru is covered by a mix of tropical moist broadleaf forests, savanna, and mangroves. The Islands lie on the Australia-New Guinea continental shelf, and were connected to Australia and New Guinea by land when sea levels were lower during the ice ages. The flora and fauna of Aru are part of the Australasia ecozone, and closely related to that of New Guinea. Aru
The Banyak Islands (sometimes spelled Banjak Islands) are a group of mostly uninhabited islands located between Simeulue and Nias off the western coast of Sumatra in Indonesia's Aceh Province, consisting of 99 small land masses. The largest island in the group is Tuangku (Great Banyak), with the principal town of Alaban. Two other major islands located either side of Tuangku are Bangkaru and Bago. Tuangku is separated from Bangkaru by a fault line.
With an area of 123 square miles (319 square km), the group lies north of Nias and 18 miles (29 km) west of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean. The islands have long been noted for the existence of substantial offshore coral reefs, though problems with overharvesting, damage from explosives, and recent geological disturbances have threatened these underwater resources.
The sea turtle populations in the waters near the Banyak Islands have also suffered from overharvesting. Local people have collected turtle eggs for consumption, and turtles have also been caught by poachers from Sibolga. They hunt turtles for the lucrative export market in turtle meat. Other species in danger from overharvesting include the giant clam and the dugong.
The Bazaruto Archipelago is a group of six islands in Mozambique, near the mainland city of Vilankulo. It comprises the islands of Bazaruto, Benguerra, Magaruque, Banque, Santa Carolina (also known as Paradise Island) and Shell.
The group belongs to the Vilankulo and Inhassoro districts of Inhambane Province.
The islands were formed from sand deposited by the Save River, which has since shifted its course. Tourist attractions include sandy beaches, coral reefs, and opportunities for surfing and fishing. The archipelago became a National Park in 1971. There is a wide abundance of reef fish, Surgeon, Moorish Idols, Parrot, Angel and Butterfly fish to name but a few. Giant Turtles, Game fish and Devil rays are regularly seen and for the lucky few the elusive Dugong. All live free in this conservation paradise, proclaimed a National Park and recognised as a Gift to the Earth by the WWF.
Santa Carolina is a true rock island with deep channels and is just 3 km by 0.5 km in size. It has three beautiful beaches with coral reefs close to the shore. The island, also known as Paradise Island for obvious reasons is regarded as the ‘gem’ of the islands forming the Bazaruto Archipelago which is
The Elaphiti Islands or the Elaphites (Croatian: Elafitski otoci or Elafiti) is a small archipelago consisting of several islands stretching northwest of Dubrovnik, in the Adriatic sea. The Elaphites have a total land area of around 30 square kilometers and a population of 850 inhabitants. The islands are covered with characteristic Mediterranean evergreen vegetation and attract large numbers of tourists during the summer tourist season due to their beaches and pristine scenery.
The name comes from the Ancient Greek word for deer (Doric: ἔλαφος; elaphos), which used to inhabit the islands in large numbers. Roman author Pliny the Elder was the first to mention the islands by the name Elaphiti Islands (Croatian: Jelenski otoci or Deer Archipelago) in his work Naturalis Historia, published in the 1st century.
Only the three main islands are permanently inhabited, each of which supports a modest tourist industry. They are connected with the mainland via daily ferry lines operated out of Dubrovnik.
Media related to Elaphiti Islands at Wikimedia Commons
The Kerguelen Islands ( /ˈkɜrɡəlɛn/ or /ˈkɜrɡələn/; in French commonly Îles Kerguelen or Archipel de Kerguelen but officially Archipel des Kerguelen or Archipel Kerguelen, pronounced: [kɛʁɡeˈlɛn]), also known as the Desolation Islands, are a group of islands in the southern Indian Ocean constituting one of the two emerged parts of the mostly submerged Kerguelen Plateau. The islands, along with Adélie Land, the Crozet Islands and the Amsterdam and Saint Paul Islands are part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands and are administered as a separate district. There are no indigenous inhabitants, but France maintains a permanent presence of 50 to 100 scientists, engineers and researchers.
The main island, Grande Terre, is 6,675 km (2,577 sq mi) in area and is surrounded by a further 300 smaller islands and islets, forming an archipelago of 7,215 km (2,786 sq mi). The climate is raw and chilly with frequent high winds throughout the year. While the surrounding seas are generally rough, they remain ice-free year-round. There is no airport on the islands, so all travel and transport from the outside world is conducted by ship.
The islands were discovered by the Breton-French navigator
The Lau Islands (also called the Lau Group, the Eastern Group, the Eastern Archipelago) of Fiji are situated in the southern Pacific Ocean, just east of the Koro Sea. Of this chain of about one hundred islands and islets, about thirty are inhabited. The Lau Group covers a land area of 188 square miles (487 square km), and had a population of 10,683 at the most recent census in 2007. While most of the northern Lau Group are high islands of volcanic origin, those of the south are mostly carbonate low islands.
Administratively the islands belong to Lau Province.
The British explorer James Cook reached Vatoa in 1774. By the time of the discovery of the Ono Group in 1820, the Lau archipelago was the most mapped area of Fiji.
Political unity came late to the Lau Islands. Historically, they comprised three territories: the Northern Lau Islands, the Southern Lau Islands, and the Moala Islands. Around 1855, the renegade Tongan prince Enele Ma'afu conquered the region and established a unified administration. Calling himself the Tui Lau, or King of Lau, he promulgated a constitution and encouraged the establishment of Christian missions. The first missionaries had arrived at Lakeba in 1830,
The Outer Lands is a term denoting the prominent terminal moraine archipelagic region off the southern coast of New England in the United States. This region of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New York, comprises the peninsula of Cape Cod and the islands of Martha's Vineyard, the Elizabeth Islands, Nantucket, Block Island, and Long Island, as well as surrounding islets.
Though the existence of this archipelago is widely acknowledged by geographers, it is rarely given a specific name. "Outer Lands" is an older term used by naturalists and adopted by author Dorothy Sterling for her natural history guide of the same name.
The Massachusetts section is often called the "Cape and Islands", with the "Islands" subregion very specifically referring to Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, and other smaller islands in Dukes and Nantucket counties.
Long Island is often informally considered a part of the "New York islands", together with Staten Island and Manhattan. These islands are geographically contiguous with the broader region. (The insular Massachusetts sections were actually part of the Province of New York for most of the late 17th century.)
The Outer Lands forms the insular
The Reef Islands are a loose collection of 16 islands in the northwestern part of the Solomon Islands province of Temotu. These islands have historically also been known by the names of Swallow Islands and Matema Islands.
The islands lie about 80 km (50 mi.) north of Nendo, the largest of the Santa Cruz Islands. The center of the group is at approximately 10°12'36" S lat., 166°10'12" E. long.
The islands or atolls of the group are:
Numa Miombilou or "Great Reef" is one continuous shoal, extending about 25 km (15 mi.) west of Nifiloli. About 10 km (6 mi.) to the south of this shoal are 4 small coral reefs:
Separated from these groups are what are called the "outer islands":
This island group is unusual in that the inhabitants of the most of the islands speak the Äiwoo language, a Melanesian dialect, while on Pileni, Matema, Nupani and Nukapu, they speak Pileni, a Polynesian outlier language. The Polynesians are believed to be descendants of people from northern Tuvalu.
The total population of the Reef Islands is about 5,600 according to 2003 estimates.
The San Juan Islands are an archipelago in the northwest corner of the contiguous United States between the US mainland and Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. The San Juan Islands are part of the U.S. state of Washington.
In the archipelago, four islands are accessible by passenger ferry operated by the Washington State Ferries system.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS) defines the San Juan Islands as the archipelago north of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, west of Rosario Strait, east of Haro Strait, and south of Boundary Pass. To the north lie the open waters of the Strait of Georgia. The USGS definition coincides with San Juan County. Islands not in San Juan County are not part of the San Juan Islands, according to the USGS.
Archaeologists use the term "Gulf of Georgia Culture Area" to refer to the San Juan and Gulf Islands, the whole of which shows many archaeological commonalities. The San Juan Islands were part of the traditional area of various peoples of the Coast Salish ethnolinguistic group. Linguistically, Coast Salish groups in the area consist of the Nooksack, Northern Straits (which includes the Lummi, Klallam, Saanich, and Songhees dialects. Exploration
The Santa Cruz Islands are a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, part of Temotu Province of the Solomon Islands. They lie approximately 250 miles (400 km) to the southeast of the Solomon Islands Chain. The Santa Cruz Islands lie just north of the archipelago of Vanuatu, and are considered part of the Vanuatu rain forests ecoregion.
The largest island is Nendo, which is also known as Santa Cruz Island proper (505.5 km², highest point 549 m (1,801 ft), population over 5000). Lata, located on Nendo, is the largest town, and the capital of Temotu province.
Other islands belonging to the Santa Cruz group are Vanikoro (173.2 km², population 800, which is actually two islands, Banie and its small neighbor Teanu) and Utupua (69.0 km², highest point 380 m (1,247 ft), population 848).
The Santa Cruz Islands are less than five million years old, and were pushed upward by the tectonic subduction of the northward-moving Indo-Australian Plate under the Pacific Plate. The islands are mostly composed of limestone and volcanic ash over limestone. The highest point in the Santa Cruz Islands is on Vanikoro, 924 m (3,031 ft).
The term Santa Cruz Islands is sometimes used to encompass all of the
The Thousand Islands constitute an archipelago that straddles the Canada-U.S. border in the Saint Lawrence River as it emerges from the northeast corner of Lake Ontario. They stretch for about 50 miles (80 km) downstream from Kingston, Ontario. The Canadian islands are in the province of Ontario, the U.S. islands in the state of New York.
The 1,864 islands range in size from over 40 square miles (100 km) to smaller islands occupied by a single residence, or uninhabited outcroppings of rocks that are only home to migratory waterfowl. To count as one of the Thousand Islands these minimum criteria had to be met: 1) Above water level year round; 2) Have an area greater than 1 square foot (0.093 m); and 3) Support at least one living tree.
Large freighters frequently ply the Saint Lawrence Seaway, but the area has so many shoals and rocks that vessels sometimes hire maritime pilots to help them travel through the hazardous waterway. Under the Canadian span, a vessel just less than 25 feet (7.6 m) offshore can find itself in over 200 feet (61 m) of water. Similarly, rocks and shoals less than two feet (61 cm) underwater can be found in the center of channels 90 feet (27 m) deep.
The Venetian Islands are a chain of artificial islands in Biscayne Bay in the cities of Miami and Miami Beach, Florida. The islands are, from west to east: Biscayne Island (Miami), San Marco Island (Miami), San Marino Island (Miami Beach), Di Lido Island (Miami Beach), Rivo Alto Island (Miami Beach), and Belle Isle (Miami Beach). Flagler Monument Island remains an uninhabited picnic island, originally built in 1920 as a memorial to railroad pioneer Henry Flagler. The islands are connected by bridges from the Miami mainland to Miami Beach.
The Venetian Islands project was proposed to be much larger than what exists today. Another causeway was to be built, called "The Drive of the Campanili." The causeway would connect Hibiscus Island (south of the Venetian Islands) with Di Lido Island. The road would then continue north right up the center of Biscayne Bay, with five new islands created along its path. The roadway would then veer slightly to the northeast, where it would end at Indian Creek Village. An additional four islands would be built along two east-west roads that would connect with the causeway. One of these roads was along the current route of the Julia Tuttle Causeway and