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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best Internet Protocol of All Time

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    1

    TELNET

    • Software used by: Welly
    Telnet is a network protocol used on the Internet or local area networks to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection. User data is interspersed in-band with Telnet control information in an 8-bit byte oriented data connection over the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Telnet was developed in 1969 beginning with RFC 15, extended in RFC 854, and standardized as Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Internet Standard STD 8, one of the first Internet standards. Historically, Telnet provided access to a command-line interface (usually, of an operating system) on a remote host. Most network equipment and operating systems with a TCP/IP stack support a Telnet service for remote configuration (including systems based on Windows NT). Because of security issues with Telnet, its use for this purpose has waned in favor of SSH. The term telnet may also refer to the software that implements the client part of the protocol. Telnet client applications are available for virtually all computer platforms. Telnet is also used as a verb. To telnet means to establish a connection with the Telnet protocol, either with command line
    7.57
    7 votes
    2
    Hypertext Transfer Protocol

    Hypertext Transfer Protocol

    • Software used by: Pylons web framework
    The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. Hypertext is a multi-linear set of objects, building a network by using logical links (the so-called hyperlinks) between the nodes (e.g. text or words). HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext. The standards development of HTTP was coordinated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), culminating in the publication of a series of Requests for Comments (RFCs), most notably RFC 2616 (June 1999), which defines HTTP/1.1, the version of HTTP in common use. HTTP functions as a request-response protocol in the client-server computing model. A web browser, for example, may be the client and an application running on a computer hosting a web site may be the server. The client submits an HTTP request message to the server. The server, which provides resources such as HTML files and other content, or performs other functions on behalf of the client, returns a response message to the client. The response contains completion status
    7.43
    7 votes
    3
    Address Resolution Protocol

    Address Resolution Protocol

    Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a telecommunications protocol used for resolution of network layer addresses into link layer addresses, a critical function in multiple-access networks. ARP was defined by RFC 826 in 1982. It is Internet Standard STD 37. It is also the name of the program for manipulating these addresses in most operating systems. ARP has been implemented in many combinations of network and overlaying internetwork technologies, such as IPv4, Chaosnet, DECnet and Xerox PARC Universal Packet (PUP) using IEEE 802 standards, FDDI, X.25, Frame Relay and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), IPv4 over IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.11 being the most common cases. In Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) networks, the functionality of ARP is provided by the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP). The Address Resolution Protocol is a request and reply protocol that runs encapsulated by the line protocol. It is communicated within the boundaries of a single network, never routed across internetwork nodes. This property places ARP into the Link Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite, while in the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, it is often described as residing between Layers 2 and
    9.00
    5 votes
    4

    Post Office Protocol

    • Software used by: KMail
    In computing, the Post Office Protocol (POP) is an application-layer Internet standard protocol used by local e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection. POP and IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) are the two most prevalent Internet standard protocols for e-mail retrieval. Virtually all modern e-mail clients and servers support both. The POP protocol has been developed through several versions, with version 3 (POP3) being the current standard. Most webmail service providers such as Hotmail, Gmail and Yahoo! Mail also provide IMAP and POP3 service. POP supports simple download-and-delete requirements for access to remote mailboxes (termed maildrop in the POP RFC's). Although most POP clients have an option to leave mail on server after download, e-mail clients using POP generally connect, retrieve all messages, store them on the user's PC as new messages, delete them from the server, and then disconnect. Other protocols, notably IMAP, (Internet Message Access Protocol) provide more complete and complex remote access to typical mailbox operations. Many e-mail clients support POP as well as IMAP to retrieve messages; however, fewer Internet
    7.33
    6 votes
    5
    7.17
    6 votes
    6

    Secure Real-time Transport Protocol

    The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (or SRTP) defines a profile of RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol), intended to provide encryption, message authentication and integrity, and replay protection to the RTP data in both unicast and multicast applications. It was developed by a small team of IP protocol and cryptographic experts from Cisco and Ericsson including David Oran, David McGrew, Mark Baugher, Mats Naslund, Elisabetta Carrara, James Black, Karl Norman, and Rolf Blom. It was first published by the IETF in March 2004 as RFC 3711. Since RTP is closely related to RTCP (Real Time Control Protocol) which can be used to control the RTP session, SRTP also has a sister protocol, called Secure RTCP (or SRTCP); SRTCP provides the same security-related features to RTCP, as the ones provided by SRTP to RTP. Utilization of SRTP or SRTCP is optional to the utilization of RTP or RTCP; but even if SRTP/SRTCP are used, all provided features (such as encryption and authentication) are optional and can be separately enabled or disabled. The only exception is the message authentication feature which is indispensably required when using SRTCP. For encryption and decryption of the data flow
    8.20
    5 votes
    7

    Rsync

    • Software used by: Git
    rsync is a software application and network protocol for Unix-like systems with ports to Windows that synchronizes files and directories from one location to another while minimizing data transfer by using delta encoding when appropriate. Quoting the official website: "rsync is a file transfer program for Unix systems. rsync uses the 'rsync algorithm' which provides a very fast method for bringing remote files into sync." An important feature of rsync not found in most similar programs/protocols is that the mirroring takes place with only one transmission in each direction. rsync can copy or display directory contents and copy files, optionally using compression and recursion. In daemon mode, rsync listens on the default TCP port of 873, serving files in the native rsync protocol or via a remote shell such as RSH or SSH. In the latter case, the rsync client executable must be installed on the remote machine as well as on the local machine. Released under the GNU General Public License version 3, rsync is free software. It is widely used. Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras wrote the original rsync. Tridgell discusses the design, implementation and performance of rsync in chapters 3
    6.83
    6 votes
    8
    L2TP

    L2TP

    In computer networking, Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is a tunneling protocol used to support virtual private networks (VPNs) or as part of the delivery of services by ISPs. It does not provide any encryption or confidentiality by itself; it relies on an encryption protocol that it passes within the tunnel to provide privacy. Published in 1999 as proposed standard RFC 2661, L2TP has its origins primarily in two older tunneling protocols for Point-to-Point communication: Cisco's Layer 2 Forwarding Protocol (L2F) and USRobotics Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). A new version of this protocol, L2TPv3, was published as proposed standard RFC 3931 in 2005. L2TPv3 provides additional security features, improved encapsulation, and the ability to carry data links other than simply PPP over an IP network (e.g., Frame Relay, Ethernet, ATM, etc.). The entire L2TP packet, including payload and L2TP header, is sent within a User Datagram Protocol (UDP) datagram. It is common to carry Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) sessions within an L2TP tunnel. L2TP does not provide confidentiality or strong authentication by itself. IPsec is often used to secure L2TP packets by providing
    7.80
    5 votes
    9
    DIAMETER

    DIAMETER

    Diameter is an authentication, authorization, and accounting protocol for computer networks and an alternative to RADIUS. Diameter Applications extend the base protocol by adding new commands and/or attributes, such as those for use of the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). The name is a pun on the RADIUS protocol, which is the predecessor (a diameter is twice the radius). Diameter is not directly backwards compatible but provides an upgrade path for RADIUS. The main differences are the following: A Diameter Application is not a software application but is a protocol based on the Diameter base protocol (defined in RFC 3588). Each application is defined by an application identifier and can add new command codes and/or new mandatory AVPs. Adding a new optional AVP does not require a new application. Examples of Diameter applications: (Generic Bootstrapping Architecture): Bootstrapping Server Function The Diameter protocol was initially developed by Pat R. Calhoun, Glen Zorn, and Ping Pan in 1998 to provide an Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) framework that could overcome the limitations of RADIUS. RADIUS had issues with reliability, scalability, security and
    9.00
    4 votes
    10

    IL Protocol

    The Internet Link protocol or IL is a connection-based transport layer protocol designed at Bell Labs originally as part of the Plan 9 operating system and is used to carry 9P. It is assigned the Internet Protocol number of 40. It is similar to TCP but much simpler. Its main features are: As of the Fourth Edition of Plan 9, 2003, IL is deprecated in favor of TCP/IP because it doesn't handle long-distance connections well.
    9.00
    4 votes
    11

    JSON-RPC

    • Software used by: ZFN
    JSON-RPC is a remote procedure call protocol encoded in JSON. It is a very simple protocol (and very similar to XML-RPC), defining only a handful of data types and commands. JSON-RPC allows for notifications (info sent to the server that does not require a response) and for multiple calls to be sent to the server which may be answered out of order. JSON-RPC works by sending a request to a server implementing this protocol. The client in that case is typically software wanting to call a single method of a remote system. Multiple input parameters can be passed to the remote method as an array or object, whereas the method itself can return multiple output data as well. (This depends on the implemented version.) A remote method is invoked by sending a request to a remote service using HTTP or a TCP/IP socket (starting with version 2.0). When Using HTTP, the content-type may be defined as application/json. All transfer types are single objects, serialized using JSON. A request is a call to a specific method provided by a remote system. It must contain three certain properties: The receiver of the request must reply with a valid response to all received requests. A response must contain
    6.67
    6 votes
    12
    RS-232

    RS-232

    In telecommunications, RS-232 is the traditional name for a series of standards for serial binary single-ended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment). It is commonly used in computer serial ports. The standard defines the electrical characteristics and timing of signals, the meaning of signals, and the physical size and pinout of connectors. The current version of the standard is TIA-232-F Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange, issued in 1997. An RS-232 port was once a standard feature of a personal computer for connections to modems, printers, mice, data storage, uninterruptible power supplies, and other peripheral devices. However, the low transmission speed, large voltage swing, and large standard connectors motivated development of the universal serial bus, which has displaced RS-232 from most of its peripheral interface roles. Many modern personal computers have no RS-232 ports and must use an external converter to connect to older peripherals. Some RS-232 devices are still found, especially in industrial
    6.67
    6 votes
    13

    Trivial File Transfer Protocol

    Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is a file transfer protocol notable for its simplicity. It is generally used for automated transfer of configuration or boot files between machines in a local environment. Compared to FTP, TFTP is extremely limited, providing no authentication, and is rarely used interactively by a user. Due to its simple design, TFTP could be implemented using a very small amount of memory. It is therefore useful for booting computers such as routers which may not have any data storage devices. It is an element of the Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) network boot protocol, where it is implemented in the firmware ROM / NVRAM of the host's network card. It is also used to transfer small amounts of data between hosts on a network, such as IP phone firmware or operating system images when a remote X Window System terminal or any other thin client boots from a network host or server. The initial stages of some network based installation systems (such as Solaris Jumpstart, Red Hat Kickstart, Symantec Ghost and Windows NT's Remote Installation Services) use TFTP to load a basic kernel that performs the actual installation. It was used for saving router
    6.67
    6 votes
    14

    Simple Gateway Control Protocol

    Simple Gateway Control Protocol (SGCP) is a communications protocol used within a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) system. It has been superseded by MGCP, an implementation of the Media Gateway Control Protocol Architecture. The Simple Gateway Control Protocol was published in 1998 by Christian Huitema and Mauricio Arango, as part of the development of the "Call Agent Architecture" at Telcordia Technologies (formerly Bellcore). In this architecture a call-control elements, Media Gateway Controllers (MGCs) or the Call Agent, controls trunking, residential, and access-type VoIP "media gateways" and receives telephony signaling requests through a "signalling gateway".Although these gateways target different market segments, all of them convert time-division multiplexing (TDM) voice to packet voice. Later implementation of the architecture refer to the "Call Agent" as a "Softswitch". SGCP was intended to be compatible with the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), enabling the Call Agent to relay calls between a Voice over IP network using SIP and a traditional telephone network. The SGCP commands are encoded with a syntax somewhat comparable to the SIP or HTTP headers. They carry a
    7.60
    5 votes
    15
    T.38

    T.38

    T.38 is an ITU recommendation for allowing transmission of fax over IP networks in real time. The T.38 fax relay standard was devised in 1998 as a way to permit faxes to be transported across IP networks between existing Group 3 (G3) fax terminals. T.4 and related fax standards were published by the ITU in 1980, before the rise of the internet. In the late 90s, VoIP, or Voice over IP, began to gain ground as an alternative to the conventional Public Switched Telephone Network. However, because most VoIP systems are optimized (through their use of aggressive lossy bandwidth-saving compression) for voice rather than data calls, conventional fax machines worked poorly or not at all on them due to the network impairments such as delay, jitter, packet loss, and so on. Thus, some way of transmitting fax over IP was needed. In practical scenarios, a T.38 fax call has at least part of the call being carried over PSTN, although this is not required by the T.38 definition, and two T.38 devices can send faxes to each other. This particular type of device is called Internet-Aware Fax device, or IAF, and it is capable of initiating or completing a fax call towards the IP network. The typical
    7.60
    5 votes
    16

    NAT-T

    NAT-T (NAT traversal in the IKE) is a method of enabling IPsec-protected IP datagrams to pass through network address translation (NAT). RFC 3947 defines the negotiation during the Internet key exchange (IKE) phase and RFC 3948 defines the UDP encapsulation. An IP packet is modified while passing through a network address translator device in a manner that is incompatible with Internet Protocol Security (IPsec). NAT-T protects the original IPsec encoded packet by encapsulating it with another layer of UDP and IP headers. Most major networking vendors support NAT-T for IKEv1 in their devices. In Microsoft Windows XP with Service Pack 2 the feature can be enabled but is disabled in default settings when the VPN server itself is behind a network address translator because of security issues. Enabling it needs a simple registry key change.
    7.40
    5 votes
    17

    Endpoint Handlespace Redundancy Protocol

    The Endpoint Handlespace Redundancy Protocol is used by the Reliable server pooling (RSerPool) framework for the communication between Pool Registrars to maintain and synchronize a handlespace. It is allocated on the application layer like the Aggregate Server Access Protocol. It is a work in progress within the IETF.
    7.20
    5 votes
    18

    Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

    Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a distance vector interior routing protocol (IGP) invented by Cisco. It is used by routers to exchange routing data within an autonomous system. IGRP is a proprietary protocol. IGRP was created in part to overcome the limitations of RIP (maximum hop count of only 15, and a single routing metric) when used within large networks. IGRP supports multiple metrics for each route, including bandwidth, delay, load, MTU, and reliability; to compare two routes these metrics are combined together into a single metric, using a formula which can be adjusted through the use of pre-set constants. The maximum hop count of IGRP-routed packets is 255 (default 100), and routing updates are broadcast every 90 seconds (by default). IGRP is considered a classful routing protocol. Because the protocol has no field for a subnet mask, the router assumes that all subnetwork addresses within the same Class A, Class B, or Class C network have the same subnet mask as the subnet mask configured for the interfaces in question. This contrasts with classless routing protocols that can use variable length subnet masks. Classful protocols have become less popular as they
    7.20
    5 votes
    19

    Netconf

    The Network Configuration Protocol, NETCONF, is an IETF network management protocol. It was developed in the NETCONF working group and published in December 2006 as RFC 4741 and later revised in June 2011 and published as RFC 6241. The NETCONF protocol specification is an Internet Standards Track document. NETCONF provides mechanisms to install, manipulate, and delete the configuration of network devices. Its operations are realized on top of a simple Remote Procedure Call (RPC) layer. The NETCONF protocol uses an Extensible Markup Language (XML) based data encoding for the configuration data as well as the protocol messages. This in turn is realized on top of the transport protocol. The NETCONF protocol can be conceptually partitioned into four layers: SVG format: File:NETCONF-layers.svg The base protocol includes the following protocol operations: , , , , , , , , . Basic NETCONF functionality can be extended by the definition of NETCONF capabilities. The set of additional protocol features that an implementation supports is communicated between the server and the client during the
    7.20
    5 votes
    20

    Xpress Transport Protocol

    Xpress Transport Protocol (XTP) is a transport layer protocol for high-speed networks promoted by the XTP Forum developed to replace TCP. XTP provides protocol options for error control, flow control, and rate control. Instead of separate protocols for each type of communication, XTP controls packet exchange patterns to produce different models, e.g. reliable datagrams, transactions, unreliable streams, and reliable multicast connections. Long latency is one of the major problems in satellite communications. Couple this with possible environmental variables and sometimes asymmetrical bandwidth conditions, the quality of service in satellite communications is sometimes lacking. XTP addresses these issues in a variety of ways such as a Selective Retransmission algorithm that deals with loss recovery. This works by the receiver detecting missing data packets and transmitting a list of those missing packets to the sender, who then is able to quickly resend missing packets as needed. As stated, XTP also provides rate control in which the maximum bandwidth can be specified as well as what size burst data can be accepted. XTP also offers a reliable multicast protocol, and the flexibility
    7.20
    5 votes
    21

    Reverse Address Resolution Protocol

    The Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is an obsolete computer networking protocol used by a host computer to request its Internet Protocol (IPv4) address from an administrative host, when it has available its Link Layer or hardware address, such as a MAC address. RARP is described in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) publication RFC 903. It has been rendered obsolete by the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) and the modern Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), which both support a much greater feature set than RARP. RARP requires one or more server hosts to maintain a database of mappings of Link Layer addresses to their respective protocol addresses. Media Access Control (MAC) addresses needed to be individually configured on the servers by an administrator. RARP was limited to serving only IP addresses. Reverse ARP differs from the Inverse Address Resolution Protocol (InARP) described in RFC 2390, which is designed to obtain the IP address associated with a local Frame Relay data link connection identifier. InARP is not used in Ethernet. Q.What determines network addresses when data link addresses are known? A: Ping B: ICMP C: ARP D: RARP Correct Answer: D Reverse
    8.25
    4 votes
    22

    RWhois

    RWhois is Referral Whois, an application protocol for querying of distributed databases of Internet domain names, address allocations, and other directory information. In this regard it is similar to Whois, however, RWhois extends the concepts of Whois in a scalable, hierarchical fashion, potentially creating a system with a tree-like architecture analogous to that of the Domain Name System. Queries are deterministically routed to servers based on hierarchical labels, referring the client to the primary repository of information. RWhois should not be confused with the feature of a Whois server to refer responses to another server, although RWhois has the same feature. In the case of IP allocation queries with RWhois (or Whois), look-ups of IP address space is often limited to the larger CIDR blocks (i.e. /24, /22, /16 and such), because usually only the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) and Domain Registrars run RWhois (or Whois) servers. For example, finding out what specific customer of Sprint's owns a particular IP would normally require directly contacting Sprint and requesting the information. But if Sprint ran a RWhois server, a RWhois client could be used to look-up the
    8.25
    4 votes
    23
    Google Sitemaps

    Google Sitemaps

    • Software used by: Shopify
    The Sitemaps protocol allows a webmaster to inform search engines about URLs on a website that are available for crawling. A Sitemap is an XML file that lists the URLs for a site. It allows webmasters to include additional information about each URL: when it was last updated, how often it changes, and how important it is in relation to other URLs in the site. This allows search engines to crawl the site more intelligently. Sitemaps are a URL inclusion protocol and complement robots.txt, a URL exclusion protocol. Sitemaps are particularly beneficial on websites where: Sitemaps supplement and do not replace the existing crawl-based mechanisms that search engines already use to discover URLs. Using this protocol does not guarantee that web pages will be included in search indexes, nor does it influence the way that pages are ranked in search results. Google first introduced Sitemaps 0.84 in June 2005 so web developers could publish lists of links from across their sites. Google, MSN and Yahoo announced joint support for the Sitemaps protocol in November 2006. The schema version was changed to "Sitemap 0.90", but no other changes were made. In April 2007, Ask.com and IBM announced
    8.00
    4 votes
    24
    High-Level Data Link Control

    High-Level Data Link Control

    High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented code-transparent synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The original ISO standards for HDLC are: The current standard for HDLC is ISO 13239, which replaces all of those standards. HDLC provides both connection-oriented and connectionless service. HDLC can be used for point to multipoint connections, but is now used almost exclusively to connect one device to another, using what is known as Asynchronous Balanced Mode (ABM). The original master-slave modes Normal Response Mode (NRM) and Asynchronous Response Mode (ARM) are rarely used. HDLC is based on IBM's SDLC protocol, which is the layer 2 protocol for IBM's Systems Network Architecture (SNA). It was extended and standardized by the ITU as LAP, while ANSI named their essentially identical version ADCCP. Derivatives have since appeared in innumerable standards. It was adopted into the X.25 protocol stack as LAPB, into the V.42 protocol as LAPM, into the Frame Relay protocol stack as LAPF and into the ISDN protocol stack as LAPD. HDLC was the inspiration for the IEEE 802.2 LLC protocol, and it is the basis for
    8.00
    4 votes
    25

    Real Time Messaging Protocol

    • Software used by: Flash Media Server
    Real Time Messaging Protocol (RTMP) was initially a proprietary protocol developed by Macromedia for streaming audio, video and data over the Internet, between a Flash player and a server. Macromedia is now owned by Adobe, which has released an incomplete version of the specification of the protocol for public use. The RTMP protocol has multiple variations: While the primary motivation for RTMP was to be a protocol for playing Flash video, it is also used in some other applications, such as the Adobe LiveCycle Data Services ES. RTMP (except RTMFP) is a TCP-based protocol which maintains persistent connections and allows low-latency communication. To deliver streams smoothly and transmit as much information as possible, it splits streams into fragments and their size is negotiated dynamically between the client and server while sometimes it is kept unchanged: the default fragment sizes are 64-bytes for audio data, and 128 bytes for video data and most other data types. Fragments from different streams may then be interleaved, and multiplexed over a single connection. With longer data chunks the protocol thus carries only a one-byte header per fragment, so incurring very little
    6.80
    5 votes
    26

    Modem standards

    The CCITT, an international committee that specifies the way modems and fax machines transmit information to ensure compatibility among modems, has classified dial-up modems according to the following modulation standards:
    9.00
    3 votes
    27
    7.75
    4 votes
    28

    OLE DB

    • Software used by: Virtuoso Universal Server
    OLE DB (Object Linking and Embedding, Database, sometimes written as OLEDB or OLE-DB), an API designed by Microsoft, allows accessing data from a variety of sources in a uniform manner. The API provides a set of interfaces implemented using the Component Object Model (COM); it is otherwise unrelated to OLE. Microsoft originally intended OLE DB as a higher-level replacement for, and successor to, ODBC, extending its feature set to support a wider variety of non-relational databases, such as object databases and spreadsheets that do not necessarily implement SQL. OLE DB separates the data store from the application that needs access to it through a set of abstractions that include the datasource, session, command, and rowsets. This was done because different applications need access to different types and sources of data, and do not necessarily want to know how to access functionality with technology-specific methods. OLE DB is conceptually divided into consumers and providers. The consumers are the applications that need access to the data, and the providers are the software components that implement the interface and thereby provides the data to the consumer. OLE DB is part of the
    7.75
    4 votes
    29

    Online Certificate Status Protocol

    The Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) is an Internet protocol used for obtaining the revocation status of an X.509 digital certificate. It is described in RFC 2560 and is on the Internet standards track. It was created as an alternative to certificate revocation lists (CRL), specifically addressing certain problems associated with using CRLs in a public key infrastructure (PKI). Messages communicated via OCSP are encoded in ASN.1 and are usually communicated over HTTP. The "request/response" nature of these messages leads to OCSP servers being termed OCSP responders. An OCSP responder may return a signed response signifying that the certificate specified in the request is 'good', 'revoked' or 'unknown'. If it cannot process the request, it may return an error code. The OCSP request format supports additional extensions. This enables extensive customization to a particular PKI scheme. OCSP can be vulnerable to replay attacks, where a signed, 'good' response is captured by a malicious intermediary and replayed to the client at a later date after the subject certificate may have been revoked. OCSP overcomes this by allowing a nonce to be included in the request that must be
    7.75
    4 votes
    30

    SOCKS

    • Software used by: socat
    SOCKet Secure (SOCKS) is an Internet protocol that routes network packets between a client and server through a proxy server. SOCKS5 additionally provides authentication so only authorized users may access a server. Practically, a SOCKS server will proxy TCP connections to an arbitrary IP address as well as providing a means for UDP packets to be forwarded. SOCKS performs at Layer 5 of the OSI model—the session layer (an intermediate layer between the presentation layer and the transport layer). The protocol was originally developed by David Koblas, a system administrator of MIPS Computer Systems. After MIPS was taken over by Silicon Graphics in 1992, Koblas presented a paper on SOCKS at that year's Usenix Security Symposium and SOCKS became publicly available. The protocol was extended to version 4 by Ying-Da Lee of NEC. The SOCKS reference architecture and client are owned by Permeo Technologies a spin-off from NEC. (Blue Coat Systems bought out Permeo Technologies). The SOCKS5 protocol was originally a security protocol that made firewalls and other security products easier to administer. It was approved by the IETF in 1996. The protocol was developed in collaboration with
    7.75
    4 votes
    31

    SSH file transfer protocol

    • Software used by: OpenSSH
    In computing, the SSH File Transfer Protocol (also Secret File Transfer Protocol, Secure FTP, or SFTP) is a network protocol that provides file access, file transfer, and file management functionalities over any reliable data stream. It was designed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as an extension of the Secure Shell protocol (SSH) version 2.0 to provide secure file transfer capability, but is also intended to be usable with other protocols. The IETF of the Internet Draft states that even though this protocol is described in the context of the SSH-2 protocol, it could be used in a number of different applications, such as secure file transfer over Transport Layer Security (TLS) and transfer of management information in VPN applications. This protocol assumes that it is run over a secure channel, such as SSH, that the server has already authenticated the client, and that the identity of the client user is available to the protocol. Compared to the earlier SCP protocol, which allows only file transfers, the SFTP protocol allows for a range of operations on remote files – it is more like a remote file system protocol. An SFTP client's extra capabilities compared to an SCP
    7.75
    4 votes
    32
    Ident

    Ident

    The Ident Protocol, specified in RFC 1413, is an Internet protocol that helps identify the user of a particular TCP connection. One popular daemon program for providing the ident service is identd. The Ident Protocol is designed to work as a server daemon, on a user's computer, where it receives requests to a specified port, generally 113. In a query, a client specifies a pair of ports (a local and a remote port). The server will then send a specially designed response that identifies the username of the user who runs the program that uses the specified pair of ports. Dialup hosts or shared shell servers often provide ident to enable abuse to be tracked back to specific users. In the case that abuse is handled on this host the concern about trusting the ident daemon is mostly irrelevant. Spoofing of the service and privacy concerns can be avoided by providing varying cryptographically strong tokens instead of real usernames. If abuse is to be handled by the administrators of the service users connect to using the ident providing host, then the ident service must provide information identifying each user. Usually it is impossible for the administrators of the remote service to know
    6.60
    5 votes
    33

    Web Services Description Language

    • Software used by: IBM DB2
    The Web Services Description Language is an XML-based language that is used for describing the functionality offered by a Web service. A WSDL description of a web service (also referred to as a WSDL file) provides a machine-readable description of how the service can be called, what parameters it expects, and what data structures it returns. It thus serves a roughly similar purpose as a method signature in a programming language. The current version of WSDL is WSDL 2.0. The meaning of the acronym has changed from version 1.1 where the D stood for Definition. The WSDL describes services as collections of network endpoints, or ports. The WSDL specification provides an XML format for documents for this purpose. The abstract definitions of ports and messages are separated from their concrete use or instance, allowing the reuse of these definitions. A port is defined by associating a network address with a reusable binding, and a collection of ports defines a service. Messages are abstract descriptions of the data being exchanged, and port types are abstract collections of supported operations. The concrete protocol and data format specifications for a particular port type constitutes a
    6.60
    5 votes
    34
    BitTorrent

    BitTorrent

    • Software used by: TorrentFlux
    BitTorrent is a protocol that underpins the practice of peer-to-peer file sharing and is used for distributing large amounts of data over the Internet. BitTorrent is one of the most common protocols for transferring large files and it has been estimated that, collectively, peer-to-peer networks have accounted for approximately 43% to 70% of all Internet traffic (depending on geographical location) as of February 2009. Programmer Bram Cohen designed the protocol in April 2001 and released the first available version on July 2, 2001. Currently, numerous BitTorrent clients are available for a variety of computing platforms. As of January 2012, BitTorrent is utilized by 150 million active users (according to BitTorrent, Inc.). Based on this figure, the total number of monthly BitTorrent users can be estimated at more than a quarter of a billion. At any given instant, BitTorrent has, on average, more active users than YouTube and Facebook combined (this refers to the number of active users at any instant and not to the total number of unique users). Research has also shown that, since 2010, more than 200,000 users of the protocol have been sued. The BitTorrent protocol can be used to
    5.67
    6 votes
    35

    CHARGEN

    The Character Generator Protocol (CHARGEN) is a service of the Internet Protocol Suite defined in RFC 864 in 1983 by Jon Postel. It is intended for testing, debugging, and measurement purposes. A host may connect to a server that supports the Character Generator Protocol on either Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port number 19. Upon opening a TCP connection, the server starts sending arbitrary characters to the connecting host and continues until the host closes the connection. In the UDP implementation of the protocol, the server sends a UDP datagram containing a random number (between 0 and 512) of characters every time it receives a datagram from the connecting host. Any data received by the server is discarded. On most UNIX-like operating systems a CHARGEN server is built into the inetd (or xinetd) daemon. The CHARGEN service is usually not enabled by default. It may be enabled by adding the following lines to the file /etc/inetd.conf and telling inetd to reload its configuration: The CHARGEN service may be used as a source of a byte-stream for debugging TCP network code for proper bounds checking and buffer management. It may also be a
    7.50
    4 votes
    36

    Secure Neighbor Discovery

    The SEcure Neighbor Discovery (SEND) protocol is a security extension of the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) in IPv6. SEND is defined in RFC 3971 (2005). The Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) is responsible in IPv6 for discovery of other network nodes on the local link, to determine the link layer addresses of other nodes, and to find available routers, and maintain reachability information about the paths to other active neighbor nodes (RFC 4861). This protocol is insecure and susceptible to malicious interference. It is the intent of SEcure Neighbor Discovery to provide an alternate mechanism for securing NDP with a cryptographic method that is independent of IPsec, the original and inherent method of securing IPv6 communications. SEND protocol uses Cryptographically Generated Addresses. RFC 6494 updates SEND to use the Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI).
    7.50
    4 votes
    37

    Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol

    • Software used by: Pidgin
    Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is a communications protocol for message-oriented middleware based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). The protocol was originally named Jabber, and was developed by the Jabber open-source community in 1999 for near-real-time, instant messaging (IM), presence information, and contact list maintenance. Designed to be extensible, the protocol has also been used for publish-subscribe systems; signalling for VoIP, video, and file transfer; gaming; Internet of Things applications such as the smart grid; and Social networking services. Unlike most instant messaging protocols, XMPP is defined in an open standard and uses an open systems approach of development and application, by which anyone may implement an XMPP service and interoperate with other organizations' implementations. Because XMPP is an open protocol, implementations can be developed using any software license; although many server, client, and library implementations are distributed as free and open-source software, numerous freeware and commercial software implementations also exist. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) formed an XMPP working group in 2002 to
    10.00
    2 votes
    38

    Comma-Separated Values

    • Software used by: Weka
    A comma-separated values (CSV) file stores tabular data (numbers and text) in plain-text form. Plain text means that the file is a sequence of characters, with no data that has to be interpreted instead, as binary numbers. A CSV file consists of any number of records, separated by line breaks of some kind; each record consists of fields, separated by some other character or string, most commonly a literal comma or tab. Usually, all records have an identical sequence of fields. CSV is a common, relatively simple file format that is widely supported by consumer, business, and scientific applications. Among its most common uses is moving tabular data between programs that natively operate on incompatible (often proprietary and/or undocumented) formats. This works because so many programs support some variation of CSV at least as an alternative import/export format. For example, a user may need to transfer information from a database program that stores data in a proprietary format, to a spreadsheet that uses a completely different format. The database program most likely can export its data as "CSV"; the exported CSV file can then be imported by the spreadsheet program. "CSV" is not a
    6.40
    5 votes
    39

    Media Gateway Control Protocol

    The Media Gateway Control Protocol is an architecture for controlling media gateways on Internet Protocol (IP) networks and the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The Media Gateway Control Protocol architecture and its methodologies and programming interfaces are described in RFC 2805. Two implementations of the Media Gateway Control Protocol are in common use. The names of both are abbreviations of the protocol group: Although similar in architecture, MGCP and Megaco are distinctly different protocols and are not interoperable. February 2008
    7.25
    4 votes
    40

    RFB Protocol

    • Software used by: VMware Fusion
    RFB (“remote framebuffer”) is a simple protocol for remote access to graphical user interfaces. Because it works at the framebuffer level it is applicable to all windowing systems and applications, including X11, Windows and Macintosh. RFB is the protocol used in Virtual Network Computing (VNC) and its derivatives. By default a viewer/client use TCP port 5900 to connect to a server (or 5800 for browser access). Alternatively, a server can connect to a viewer in "listening mode" on port 5500. One advantage of listening mode is that the server site does not have to configure its firewall/NAT to allow access on port 5900 (or 5800); the burden is on the viewer, which is useful if the server site has no computer expertise, while the viewer user would be expected to be more knowledgeable. Although RFB started as a relatively simple protocol it has been enhanced with additional features (such as file transfers) and more sophisticated compression and security techniques as it has developed. To maintain seamless cross-compatibility between the many different VNC client and server implementations, the clients and servers negotiate a connection using the best RFB version, and the most
    7.25
    4 votes
    41

    Syslog

    Syslog is a standard for computer data logging. It separates the software that generates messages from the system that stores them and the software that reports and analyzes them. Syslog can be used for computer system management and security auditing as well as generalized informational, analysis, and debugging messages. It is supported by a wide variety of devices (like printers and routers) and receivers across multiple platforms. Because of this, syslog can be used to integrate log data from many different types of systems into a central repository. Messages refer to a facility (auth, authpriv, daemon, cron, ftp, lpr, kern, mail, news, syslog, user, uucp, local0, ... , local7 ) and are assigned a severity (Emergency, Alert, Critical, Error, Warning, Notice, Info or Debug) by the sender of the message. Configuration allows directing messages to various local devices (console), files (/var/log/) or remote syslog daemons. Care must be taken when updating the configuration as omitting or misdirecting message facilities or severities can cause important messages to be ignored by syslog or overlooked by the administrator. logger is a command line utility that can send messages to the
    7.25
    4 votes
    42

    Transport Layer Security

    • Software used by: Twisted
    Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols that provide communication security over the Internet. TLS and SSL encrypt the segments of network connections at the Application Layer for the Transport Layer, using asymmetric cryptography for key exchange, symmetric encryption for confidentiality, and message authentication codes for message integrity. Several versions of the protocols are in widespread use in applications such as web browsing, electronic mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging and voice-over-IP (VoIP). TLS is an IETF standards track protocol, last updated in RFC 5246, and is based on the earlier SSL specifications developed by Netscape Communications. The TLS protocol allows client-server applications to communicate across a network in a way designed to prevent eavesdropping and tampering. Since most protocols can be used either with or without TLS (or SSL) it is necessary to indicate to the server whether the client is making a TLS connection or not. There are two main ways of achieving this; one option is to use a different port number for TLS connections (for example port 443 for HTTPS). The other is
    7.25
    4 votes
    43

    Xerox Network Services

    Xerox Network Services (XNS) is a protocol suite developed by Xerox within the Xerox Network Systems Architecture. It provided general purpose network communications, internetwork routing and packet delivery, including higher level functions such as a reliable stream, and remote procedure calls. XNS predated and influenced the development of the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) networking model. XNS was developed at Xerox PARC in the early 1980s, based heavily on the earlier (and extremely influential) PARC Universal Packet (PUP) protocol suite done there in the late 1970s; some of the protocols in the XNS suite were lightly modified versions of the ones in the PUP suite. XNS was intended to be a commercial descendant of the research/development oriented PUP. The protocol suite specifications were placed in the public domain. Being in the public domain, XNS became a canonical local area networking protocol in the 1980s, copied to various degrees by practically all networking systems in use into the 1990s. It had little impact on TCP/IP, however. During the 1980s XNS was used by 3Com and, with modifications, by a number of other commercial systems which became more common than XNS
    7.25
    4 votes
    44

    DICT

    DICT is a dictionary network protocol created by the DICT Development Group. It is described by RFC 2229. Its goal is to surpass the Webster protocol and to allow clients to access more dictionaries during use. Dict servers and clients use TCP port 2628. Combined, they make up the Free Internet Lexicon and Encyclopedia. The standard dictd server made by the DICT Development Group uses a special DICT file format, although other dictd servers (such as GNU Dico) may optionally use other file formats. Dictionaries in the standard DICT file format are made up of two files, a .index file and a .dict file (or .dict.dz if compressed). These files are not usually written manually but are compiled by a program called dictfmt. For example, the Unix command: will compile a Unicode-compatible DICT file called mydict, with heading My Dictionary, from mydict.txt which is in Jargon File format i.e.: Once the dictionary file has been produced, installing it in the server is normally a matter of typing something like: A dictd server can be used from Telnet. For example, to connect to the DICT server on localhost, on a Unix system one can normally type: and then enter the command "help" to see the
    8.33
    3 votes
    45

    Java Database Connectivity

    • Software used by: Virtuoso Universal Server
    JDBC is a Java-based data access technology (Java Standard Edition platform) from Sun Microsystems. It is an acronym as it is unofficially referred to as Java Database Connectivity, with DB being universally recognized as the abbreviation for database. This technology is an API for the Java programming language that defines how a client may access a database. It provides methods for querying and updating data in a database. JDBC is oriented towards relational databases. A JDBC-to-ODBC bridge enables connections to any ODBC-accessible data source in the JVM host environment. Sun Microsystems released JDBC as part of JDK 1.1 on February 19, 1997. It has since formed part of the Java Standard Edition. The JDBC classes are contained in the Java package java.sql and javax.sql. Starting with version 3.1, JDBC has been developed under the Java Community Process. JSR 54 specifies JDBC 3.0 (included in J2SE 1.4), JSR 114 specifies the JDBC Rowset additions, and JSR 221 is the specification of JDBC 4.0 (included in Java SE 6). The latest version, JDBC 4.1, is specified by a maintenance release of JSR 221 and is included in Java SE 7. JDBC allows multiple implementations to exist and be used
    8.33
    3 votes
    46

    LLDP-MED

    The Link Layer Discovery Protocol-Media Endpoint Discovery or LLDP-MED is an enhancement to the Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) that is designed to allow for things such as: The LLDP-MED protocol was formally approved and published as the standard ANSI/TIA-1057 by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) in April 2006.
    8.33
    3 votes
    47

    Common Indexing Protocol

    The Common Indexing Protocol (CIP) was an attempt in the IETF working group FIND during the mid-1990s to define a protocol for exchanging index information between directory services. In the X.500 Directory model, searches scoped near the root of the tree (e.g. at a particular country) were problematic to implement, as potentially hundreds or thousands of directory servers would need to be contacted in order to handle that query. The indexes contained summaries or subsets of information about individuals and organizations represented in a white pages schema. By merging subsets of information from multiple sources, it was hoped that an index server holding that subset could be able to process a query more efficiently by chaining it only to some of the sources: those sources which did not hold information would not be contacted. For example, if a server holding the base entry for a particular country were provided with a list of names of all the people in all the entries in that country subtree, then that server would be able to process a query searching for a person with a particular name by only chaining it to those servers which held data about such a person. The protocol evolved
    9.50
    2 votes
    48
    File Transfer Protocol

    File Transfer Protocol

    • Software used by: Mozilla Firefox
    File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host or to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet. FTP is built on a client-server architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server. FTP users may authenticate themselves using a clear-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission that hides (encrypts) the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS ("FTPS"). SSH File Transfer Protocol ("SFTP") is sometimes also used instead. The first FTP client applications were command-line applications developed before operating systems had graphical user interfaces, and are still shipped with most Windows, Unix, and Linux operating systems. Dozens of FTP clients and automation utilities have since been developed for desktops, servers, mobile devices, and hardware, and FTP has been incorporated into hundreds of productivity applications, such as web page editors. The protocol is specified in RFC 959, which is summarized here. The
    9.50
    2 votes
    49
    National Transportation Communications for Intelligent Transportation System Protocol

    National Transportation Communications for Intelligent Transportation System Protocol

    The National Transportation Communications for Intelligent Transportation System Protocol (NTCIP) is a family of standards designed to achieve interoperability and interchangeability between computers and electronic traffic control equipment from different manufacturers. The protocol is the product of a joint standardization project guided by the Joint Committee on the NTCIP, which is composed of six representatives each from the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), and the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE). The Joint Committee has in turn formed 14 technical working groups to develop and maintain the standards, and has initiated or produced over 50 standards and information reports. The project receives funding under a contract with the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) and is part of a wider effort to develop a comprehensive family of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) standards. NEMA initiated the development of the NTCIP in 1992. In early 1993, the US Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) brought together transportation industry representatives to
    9.50
    2 votes
    50
    Secure Shell

    Secure Shell

    • Software used by: OpenSSH
    Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for secure data communication, remote shell services or command execution and other secure network services between two networked computers that it connects via a secure channel over an insecure network: a server and a client (running SSH server and SSH client programs, respectively). The protocol specification distinguishes two major versions that are referred to as SSH-1 and SSH-2. The best-known application of the protocol is for access to shell accounts on Unix-like operating systems (it can be used in a similar fashion for accounts on Windows, though that is not a very popular option due to RDP/Terminal Server). It was designed as a replacement for Telnet and other insecure remote shell protocols such as the Berkeley rsh and rexec protocols, which send information, notably passwords, in plaintext, rendering them susceptible to interception and disclosure using packet analysis. The encryption used by SSH is intended to provide confidentiality and integrity of data over an unsecured network, such as the Internet. SSH uses public-key cryptography to authenticate the remote computer and allow it to authenticate the user, if
    5.33
    6 votes
    51

    HTCP

    The Hyper Text Caching Protocol (HTCP) is a protocol published in 2000 for querying, managing and discovering HTTP cache servers. It is defined in RFC 2756, and was designated as an "experimental" protocol (that is, not on the standards track). HTCP was designed as a successor to the Internet Cache Protocol.
    7.00
    4 votes
    52

    Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol

    • Software used by: Safari
    Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (S-HTTP) is a little-used alternative to the HTTPS URI scheme for encrypting web communications carried over HTTP. S-HTTP is defined in RFC 2660. It was developed by Eric Rescorla and Allan M. Schiffman. Web browsers typically use HTTP to communicate with web servers, sending and receiving information without encrypting it. For sensitive transactions, such as Internet e-commerce or online access to financial accounts, the browser and server must encrypt this information. HTTPS and S-HTTP were both defined in the mid-1990s to address this need. Netscape and Microsoft supported HTTPS rather than S-HTTP, leading to HTTPS becoming the de facto standard mechanism for securing web communications. S-HTTP encrypts only the served page data and submitted data like POST fields, leaving the initiation of the protocol unchanged. Because of this, S-HTTP could be used concurrently with HTTP (unsecured) on the same port, as the unencrypted header would determine whether the rest of the transmission is encrypted. In contrast, HTTPS wraps the entire communication within SSL, so the encryption starts before any protocol data is sent. This creates a "chicken and
    7.00
    4 votes
    53
    Simple Network Management Protocol

    Simple Network Management Protocol

    Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an "Internet-standard protocol for managing devices on IP networks." Devices that typically support SNMP include routers, switches, servers, workstations, printers, modem racks, and more." It is used mostly in network management systems to monitor network-attached devices for conditions that warrant administrative attention. SNMP is a component of the Internet Protocol Suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It consists of a set of standards for network management, including an application layer protocol, a database schema, and a set of data objects. SNMP exposes management data in the form of variables on the managed systems, which describe the system configuration. These variables can then be queried (and sometimes set) by managing applications. In typical SNMP uses, one or more administrative computers, called managers, have the task of monitoring or managing a group of hosts or devices on a computer network. Each managed system executes, at all times, a software component called an agent which reports information via SNMP to the manager. Essentially, SNMP agents expose management data on the managed systems as
    7.00
    4 votes
    54
    TCP-Illinois

    TCP-Illinois

    TCP-Illinois is a variant of TCP congestion control protocol, developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. It is especially targeted at high-speed, long-distance networks. A sender side modification to the standard TCP congestion control algorithm, it achieves a higher average throughput than the standard TCP, allocates the network resource fairly as the standard TCP, is compatible with the standard TCP, and provides incentives for TCP users to switch. TCP-Illinois is a loss-delay based algorithm, which uses packet loss as the primary congestion signal to determine the direction of window size change, and uses queuing delay as the secondary congestion signal to adjust the pace of window size change. Similarly to the standard TCP, TCP-Illinois increases the window size W by for each acknowledgment, and decreases by for each loss event. Unlike the standard TCP, and are not constants. Instead, they are functions of average queuing delay : , where is decreasing and is increasing. There are numerous choices of and . One such class is: We let and be continuous functions and thus , and . Suppose is the maximum average queuing delay and we denote , then we also
    7.00
    4 votes
    55

    TCPMUX

    The TCP Port Service Multiplexer (TCPMUX) is a little-used Internet protocol defined in RFC 1078. The specification describes a multiplexing service that may be accessed with a network protocol to contact any one of a number of available TCP services of a host on a single, well-known port number. A host may connect to a server that supports the TCPMUX protocol on TCP port 1. The host then sends a name of the service required, followed by the carriage return and line feed characters (CRLF). The server replies with a "+" or "-" character and an optional message, followed by CRLF. In case of a positive reply ("+"), the protocol or service requested is started, otherwise the connection is closed. This service also features a reserved name, "HELP". If the remote server receives this message it will output a multi-line message listing the names of all supported services, one service name per line. Enabling TCPMUX on a server enables an attacker to easily find out the services running on the host, either by using the "HELP" command or by requesting a large number of services. This has the same effect as port scanning the host for available services iteratively. Because TCPMUX allows
    6.00
    5 votes
    56

    IPsec

    Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a protocol suite for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and encrypting each IP packet of a communication session. IPsec also includes protocols for establishing mutual authentication between agents at the beginning of the session and negotiation of cryptographic keys to be used during the session. IPsec is an end-to-end security scheme operating in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite. It can be used in protecting data flows between a pair of hosts (host-to-host), between a pair of security gateways (network-to-network), or between a security gateway and a host (network-to-host). Some other Internet security systems in widespread use, such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Secure Shell (SSH), operate in the upper layers of the TCP/IP model. In the past, the use of TLS/SSL had to be designed into an application to protect the application protocols. In contrast, since day one, applications did not need to be specifically designed to use IPsec. Hence, IPsec protects any application traffic across an IP network. This holds true now for SSL as well with the rise of SSL based
    8.00
    3 votes
    57

    Bidirectional Forwarding Detection

    Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) is a network protocol used to detect faults between two forwarding engines connected by a link. It provides low-overhead detection of faults even on physical media that don't support failure detection of any kind, such as Ethernet, virtual circuits, tunnels and MPLS Label Switched Paths. BFD establishes a session between two endpoints over a particular link. If more than one link exists between two systems, multiple BFD sessions may be established to monitor each one of them. The session is established with a three-way handshake, and is torn down the same way. Authentication may be enabled on the session. A choice of simple password, MD5 or SHA1 authentication is available. BFD does not have a discovery mechanism; sessions must be explicitly configured between endpoints. BFD may be used on many different underlying transport mechanisms and layers, and operates independently of all of these. Therefore, it needs to be encapsulated by whatever transport it uses. For example, monitoring MPLS LSPs involves piggybacking session establishment on LSP-Ping packets. Protocols that support some form of adjacency setup, such as OSPF or IS-IS, may also
    9.00
    2 votes
    58
    Gnutella

    Gnutella

    • Software used by: Gtk-gnutella
    Gnutella ( /nʌˈtɛlə/ with a silent g, but often /ɡnʌˈtɛlə/) (possibly by analogy with the GNU Project) is a large peer-to-peer network which, at the time of its creation, was the first decentralized peer-to-peer network of its kind, leading to other, later networks adopting the model. It celebrated a decade of existence on March 14, 2010 and has a user base in the millions for peer-to-peer file sharing. In June 2005, gnutella's population was 1.81 million computers increasing to over three million nodes by January 2006. In late 2007, it was the most popular file sharing network on the Internet with an estimated market share of more than 40%. The first client was developed by Justin Frankel and Tom Pepper of Nullsoft in early 2000, soon after the company's acquisition by AOL. On March 14, the program was made available for download on Nullsoft's servers. The event was prematurely announced on Slashdot, and thousands downloaded the program that day. The source code was to be released later, under the GNU General Public License (GPL). The next day, AOL stopped the availability of the program over legal concerns and restrained Nullsoft from doing any further work on the project. This
    9.00
    2 votes
    59

    Link Layer Discovery Protocol

    The Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is a vendor-neutral Link Layer protocol in the Internet Protocol Suite used by network devices for advertising their identity, capabilities, and neighbors on a IEEE 802 local area network, principally wired Ethernet. The protocol is formally referred to by the IEEE as Station and Media Access Control Connectivity Discovery specified in standards document IEEE 802.1AB. LLDP performs functions similar to several proprietary protocols, such as the Cisco Discovery Protocol, Extreme Discovery Protocol, Nortel Discovery Protocol (also known as SONMP), and Microsoft's Link Layer Topology Discovery (LLTD). LLDP information is sent by devices from each of their interfaces at a fixed interval, in the form of an Ethernet frame. Each frame contains one LLDP Data Unit (LLDPDU). Each LLDPDU is a sequence of type-length-value (TLV) structures. The Ethernet frame used in LLDP has its destination MAC address typically set to a special multicast address that 802.1D-compliant bridges do not forward Other multicast and unicast destination addresses are permitted. The EtherType field is set to 0x88cc. Each LLDP frame starts with the following mandatory TLVs:
    9.00
    2 votes
    60
    Synchronous optical networking

    Synchronous optical networking

    Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) are standardized protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers or highly coherent light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). At low transmission rates data can also be transferred via an electrical interface. The method was developed to replace the Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) system for transporting large amounts of telephone calls and data traffic over the same fiber without synchronization problems. SONET generic criteria are detailed in Telcordia Technologies Generic Requirements document GR-253-CORE. Generic criteria applicable to SONET and other transmission systems (e.g., asynchronous fiber optic systems or digital radio systems) are found in Telcordia GR-499-CORE. SONET and SDH, which are essentially the same, were originally designed to transport circuit mode communications (e.g., DS1, DS3) from a variety of different sources, but they were primarily designed to support real-time, uncompressed, circuit-switched voice encoded in PCM format. The primary difficulty in doing this prior to SONET/SDH was that the synchronization sources of these various
    9.00
    2 votes
    61

    Abstract Syntax Notation One

    Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) is a standard and flexible notation that describes rules and structures for representing, encoding, transmitting, and decoding data in telecommunications and computer networking. The formal rules enable representation of objects that are independent of machine-specific encoding techniques. Formal notation makes it possible to automate the task of validating whether a specific instance of data representation abides by the specifications. In other words, software tools can be used for the validation. ASN.1 is a joint standard of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), and International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector ITU-T, originally defined in 1984 as part of CCITT X.409:1984. ASN.1 moved to its own standard, X.208, in 1988 due to wide applicability. The substantially revised 1995 version is covered by the X.680 series. The latest available version is dated 2008, and is backward compatible with the 1995 version. Data generated at various sources of observation need to be transmitted to one or more locations that process it to generate useful
    7.67
    3 votes
    62

    FTPS

    • Software used by: FileZilla
    FTPS (also known as FTP-ES, FTP-SSL and FTP Secure) is an extension to the commonly used File Transfer Protocol (FTP) that adds support for the Transport Layer Security (TLS) and the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) cryptographic protocols. FTPS should not be confused with the SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP), an incompatible secure file transfer subsystem for the Secure Shell (SSH) protocol. It is also different from Secure FTP, the practice of tunneling FTP through an SSH connection. The File Transfer Protocol was drafted in 1971 for use with the scientific and research network, ARPANET. Access to the ARPANET during this time was limited to a small number of military sites and universities and a narrow community of users who could operate without data security or privacy requirements within the protocol. As the ARPANET gave way to the NSFnet and then the Internet, a broader population potentially had access to the data as it traversed increasingly longer paths from client to server. The opportunity for unauthorized third parties to eavesdrop on data transmissions increased proportionally. In 1994, the internet browser company Netscape developed and released the application layer
    7.67
    3 votes
    63

    KA9Q

    KA9Q, also called KA9Q NOS or simply NOS, was a popular early implementation of TCP/IP and associated protocols for amateur packet radio systems and smaller personal computers connected via serial lines. It was named after the amateur radio callsign of Phil Karn, who first wrote the software for a CP/M system and then ported it to DOS on the IBM PC. As the KA9Q code was open-source, many radio amateurs modified it, so many different versions were available at the same time. KA9Q was later maintained by Anthony Frost (callsign G8UDV) and Adam Goodfellow. It was ported to the Acorn Archimedes by Jonathan Naylor (G4KLX). Until 1995 it was the standard access software provided by British dial-up internet service provider Demon Internet. Most modern operating systems provide a built-in implementation of TCP/IP protocol. Especially Linux includes all the necessary kernel functions and support utilities for TCP/IP over amateur radio systems. Therefore NOS is regarded as obsolete by its original developer. It still may have its uses for embedded systems that are too small for Linux. KA9Q is also a name for the IP-over-IP Tunneling protocol. This article is based on material taken from the
    7.67
    3 votes
    64
    OpenID

    OpenID

    • Software used by: Dreamwidth
    OpenID is an open standard that describes how users can be authenticated in a decentralized manner, eliminating the need for services to provide their own ad hoc systems and allowing users to consolidate their digital identities. Users may create accounts with their preferred OpenID identity providers, and then use those accounts as the basis for signing on to any website which accepts OpenID authentication. The OpenID standard provides a framework for the communication that must take place between the identity provider and the OpenID acceptor (the "relying party"). An extension to the standard (the OpenID Attribute Exchange) facilitates the transfer of user attributes, such as name and gender, from the OpenID identity provider to the relying party (each relying party may request a different set of attributes, depending on its requirements). The OpenID protocol does not rely on a central authority to authenticate a user's identity. Moreover, neither services nor the OpenID standard may mandate a specific means by which to authenticate users, allowing for approaches ranging from the common (such as passwords) to the novel (such as smart cards or biometrics). The term OpenID may also
    7.67
    3 votes
    65

    Portable Document Format

    • Software used by: Lasso
    Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format used to represent documents in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems. Each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a fixed-layout flat document, including the text, fonts, graphics, and other information needed to display it. In 1991, Adobe Systems co-founder John Warnock outlined a system called "Camelot" that evolved into PDF. While Adobe Systems made the PDF specification available free of charge in 1993, PDF remained a proprietary format, controlled by Adobe, until it was officially released as an open standard on July 1, 2008, and published by the International Organization for Standardization as ISO 32000-1:2008. In 2008, Adobe published a Public Patent License to ISO 32000-1 granting royalty-free rights for all patents owned by Adobe that are necessary to make, use, sell and distribute PDF compliant implementations. PDF was developed in the early 1990s as a way to share documents, including text formatting and inline images, among computer users of disparate platforms who may not have access to mutually-compatible application software. It was among a number of competing formats
    7.67
    3 votes
    66

    Resource Reservation Protocol

    The Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) is a Transport Layer protocol designed to reserve resources across a network for an integrated services Internet. RSVP operates over an IPv4 or IPv6 Internet Layer and provides receiver-initiated setup of resource reservations for multicast or unicast data flows with scaling and robustness. It does not transport application data but is similar to a control protocol, like Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) or Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP). RSVP is described in RFC 2205. RSVP can be used by either hosts or routers to request or deliver specific levels of quality of service (QoS) for application data streams or flows. RSVP defines how applications place reservations and how they can relinquish the reserved resources once the need for them has ended. RSVP operation will generally result in resources being reserved in each node along a path. RSVP is not a routing protocol and was designed to inter-operate with current and future routing protocols. RSVP by itself is rarely deployed in telecommunications networks today but the traffic engineering extension of RSVP, or RSVP-TE, is becoming more widely accepted nowadays in many
    7.67
    3 votes
    67
    Routing Information Protocol

    Routing Information Protocol

    The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance-vector routing protocol, which employs the hop count as a routing metric. RIP prevents routing loops by implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from the source to a destination. The maximum number of hops allowed for RIP is 15. This hop limit, however, also limits the size of networks that RIP can support. A hop count of 16 is considered an infinite distance and used to deprecate inaccessible, inoperable, or otherwise undesirable routes in the selection process. RIP implements the split horizon, route poisoning and holddown mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated. These are some of the stability features of RIP. It is also possible to use the so called RMTI (Routing Information Protocol with Metric-based Topology Investigation) algorithm to cope with the count-to-infinity problem. With its help, it is possible to detect every possible loop with a very small computation effort. Originally each RIP router transmitted full updates every 30 seconds. In the early deployments, routing tables were small enough that the traffic was not significant. As networks grew in size, however,
    7.67
    3 votes
    68

    Session Announcement Protocol

    Session Announcement Protocol (SAP) is an experimental protocol for broadcasting multicast session information. SAP was published by the IETF as RFC 2974. SAP typically uses Session Description Protocol (SDP) as the format for Real-time Transport Protocol session descriptions. Announcement data is sent using IP multicast and User Datagram Protocol. Under SAP, senders periodically broadcast SDP descriptions to a well-known multicast address and port. A SAP listening application can listen to the SAP multicasts and construct a guide of all advertised multicast sessions. The announcement interval is cooperatively modulated such that all SAP announcements in the multicast delivery scope, be default, consume 4000 bits per second. Regardless, the maximum announce interval is 300 seconds (5 minutes). Announcements automatically expire after 10 times the announcement interval or one hour, whichever is greater. Announcements may also be explicitly withdrawn by the original issuer. SAP features separate methods for authenticating and encrypting announcements. Use of encryption is not recommended. Authentication prevents unauthorized modification and other DoS attacks. Authentication is
    7.67
    3 votes
    69
    Session Initiation Protocol

    Session Initiation Protocol

    • Software used by: truphone
    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an IETF-defined signaling protocol widely used for controlling communication sessions such as voice and video calls over Internet Protocol (IP). The protocol can be used for creating, modifying and terminating two-party (unicast) or multiparty (multicast) sessions. Sessions may consist of one or several media streams. Other SIP applications include video conferencing, streaming multimedia distribution, instant messaging, presence information, file transfer and online games. The SIP protocol is an Application Layer protocol designed to be independent of the underlying Transport Layer; it can run on Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP), or Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP). It is a text-based protocol, incorporating many elements of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). SIP was originally designed by Henning Schulzrinne and Mark Handley in 1996. In November 2000, SIP was accepted as a 3GPP signaling protocol and permanent element of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) architecture for IP-based streaming multimedia services in cellular systems. The latest
    7.67
    3 votes
    70

    StarLAN

    StarLAN was the first implementation of 1 megabit per second (1Mbit/s) Ethernet over twisted pair wiring. It was standardized by the standards association of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) as 802.3e in 1986, as the 1BASE5 version of Ethernet. StarLAN was developed by AT&T Corporation around 1984. The name comes from using a star topology for a local area network. The standard known as 1BASE5 was adopted as 802.3e in 1986 by members of the IEEE 802.3 standards committee as the Twisted Pair Medium Specification in section 12. StarLAN ran at a speed of 1 Mbit/s. A major design goal in StarLAN was the reuse of existing telephony on-premises wiring and compatibility with analog telephone signals in the same cable bundle. The signal modulation and wire pairing used by StarLAN were carefully chosen so that they would not affect or be affected by either the analog signal of a normal call, on hook and off hook transients, or the 20 Hz high-voltage analog ring signal. Reuse of existing wires was critical in many buildings where rewiring was cost prohibitive, or where running new wire would disturb asbestos within the building infrastructure. The TIA-568B wiring
    7.67
    3 votes
    71

    T/TCP

    T/TCP (Transactional TCP) is a variant of the TCP protocol. It is an experimental TCP extension for efficient transaction-oriented (request/response) service. It was developed to fill the gap between TCP and UDP, by Bob Braden in 1994. Its definition can be found in RFC 1644 (that obsoletes RFC 1379). This protocol is faster than TCP and delivery reliability is comparable to that of TCP. Unfortunately, T/TCP suffers from several major security problems as described by Charles Hannum in September 1996. It has not gained widespread popularity. RFC 1379 and RFC 1644 that define T/TCP were moved to Historic Status in May 2011 by RFC 6247 for security reasons.
    7.67
    3 votes
    72

    Internet Fibre Channel Protocol

    Internet Fibre Channel Protocol (iFCP) is a gateway-to-gateway network protocol standard, officially ratified by the Internet Engineering Task Force, which provides Fibre Channel fabric functionality to fibre channel devices over an IP network. Currently the most common comes in 1 Gbit/s, 2 Gbit/s, 4 Gbit/s, 8 Gbit/s, 10 Gbit/s variants. The iFCP protocol enables the implementation of fibre channel functionality over an IP network, within which the fibre channel switching and routing infrastructure is replaced by IP components and technology. Congestion control, error detection and recovery are provided through the use of TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). The primary objective of iFCP is to allow existing fibre channel devices to be networked and interconnected over an IP based network at wire speeds. The method of address translation defined and the protocol permit fibre channel storage devices and host adapters to be attached to an IP-based fabric using transparent gateways. The iFCP protocol layer's main function is to transport Fibre Channel frame images between Fibre Channel ports attached both locally and remotely. iFCP encapsulates and routes the fibre channel frames that
    10.00
    1 votes
    73

    ISDN User Part

    The ISDN User Part or ISUP is part of the Signaling System #7 which is used to set up telephone calls in Public Switched Telephone Networks. It is specified by the ITU-T as part of the Q.76x series. When a telephone call is set up from one subscriber to another, many telephone exchanges will be involved, possibly across international boundaries. To allow a call to be set up correctly, where ISUP is supported, a switch will signal call-related information like called or calling party number to the next switch in the network using ISUP messages. The telephone exchanges are connected via E1 or T1 trunks which transport the speech from the calls. These trunks are divided into 64 kbit/s timeslots, and one timeslot can carry exactly one call. Each timeslot between two switches is uniquely identified by a Circuit Identification Code (CIC) that is included in the ISUP messages. The exchange uses this information along with the received signalling information (especially the Called Party Number) to determine which inbound CICs and outbound CICs should be connected together to provide an end to end speech path. In addition to call related information, ISUP is also used to exchange status
    10.00
    1 votes
    74

    Simple Authentication and Security Layer

    • Software used by: Mutt
    Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) is a framework for authentication and data security in Internet protocols. It decouples authentication mechanisms from application protocols, in theory allowing any authentication mechanism supported by SASL to be used in any application protocol that uses SASL. Authentication mechanisms can also support proxy authorization, a facility allowing one user to assume the identity of another. They can also provide a data security layer offering data integrity and data confidentiality services. DIGEST-MD5 provides an example of mechanisms which can provide a data-security layer. Application protocols that support SASL typically also support Transport Layer Security (TLS) to complement the services offered by SASL. In 1997 John Gardiner Myers wrote the original SASL specification (RFC 2222) while at Carnegie Mellon University. In 2006 that document was made obsolete by RFC 4422, edited by Alexey Melnikov and Kurt Zeilenga. SASL is an IETF Standard Track protocol and is, as of 2010, a Proposed Standard. A SASL mechanism implements a series of challenges and responses. Defined SASL mechanisms include: The GS2 family of mechanisms supports
    10.00
    1 votes
    75

    UDP Data Transport

    • Software used by: Freenet
    UDT (acronym for UDP Data Transport) is a protocol developed by the National Center for Data Mining (NCDM) at University of Illinois at Chicago. The protocol was designed to sit on top of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) to facilitate large data transfers over modern high-speed fiber optic computer networks. In October, 2003 the NCDM achieved a 6.8 gigabits per second transfer from Chicago, USA to Amsterdam, Netherlands. During the 30-minute test they transmitted approximately 1.4 terabytes of data.
    10.00
    1 votes
    76
    Ethernet physical layer

    Ethernet physical layer

    The Ethernet physical layer is the physical layer component of the Ethernet family of computer network standards. The Ethernet physical layer evolved over a considerable time span and encompasses quite a few physical media interfaces and several magnitudes of speed. The speed ranges from 1 Mbit/s to 100 Gbit/s while the physical medium can range from bulky coaxial cable to twisted pair to optical fiber. In general, network protocol stack software will work similarly on all physical layers. 10 Gigabit Ethernet is becoming more popular in both enterprise and carrier networks, with 40 Gbit/s and 100 Gbit/s Ethernet ratified. Higher speeds are under development. Robert Metcalfe, one of the co-inventors of ethernet, now believes commercial applications using terabit Ethernet may occur by 2015 though he says existing Ethernet standards may have to be overthrown to reach terabit Ethernet. Many Ethernet adapters and switch ports support multiple speeds, using autonegotiation to set the speed and duplex for the best values supported by both connected devices. If auto-negotiation fails, a multiple speed device will sense the speed used by its partner, but will assume half-duplex. A 10/100
    6.50
    4 votes
    77

    IPX

    Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) is the OSI-model Network layer protocol in the IPX/SPX protocol stack. The IPX/SPXM protocol stack is supported by Novell's NetWare network operating system. Because of Netware's popularity through the late 1980s into the mid 1990s, IPX became a popular internetworking protocol. Novell derived IPX from Xerox Network Systems' IDP. IPX did not scale enough for large networks such as the internet and as such, IPX usage decreased as the boom of the Internet made TCP/IP nearly universal. Computers and networks can run multiple network protocols, so almost all IPX sites will be running TCP/IP as well to allow for Internet connectivity. It has also been possible to run Novell products without IPX for some time, as they have supported both IPX and TCP/IP since NetWare reached version 5 in late 1998. The IPX network address is conceptually identical to the network part of the IP address (the parts with netmask bits set to 1); the node address then has the same meaning as the bits of IP address with netmask bits set to 0. As the node address is usually identical to the MAC address of the network adapter, the Address Resolution Protocol is not needed. For
    6.50
    4 votes
    78

    NetWare Core Protocol

    The NetWare Core Protocol (NCP) is a network protocol used in some products from Novell, Inc. It is usually associated with the NetWare operating system, but parts of it have been implemented on other platforms such as Linux, Windows NT and various flavors of Unix. It is used to access file, print, directory, clock synchronization, messaging, remote command execution and other network service functions. TCP/IP and IPX/SPX (obsoleted, technical support is provided only for NetWare platform) are the supported underlying protocols. TCP/IP implementations use TCP/UDP port 524 and rely on SLP for name resolution. Novell eDirectory uses NCP for synchronizing data changes between the servers in a directory service tree.
    6.50
    4 votes
    79

    RSS

    • Software used by: Shopify
    RSS Rich Site Summary (originally RDF Site Summary, often dubbed Really Simple Syndication) is a family of web feed formats used to publish frequently updated works—such as blog entries, news headlines, audio, and video—in a standardized format. An RSS document (which is called a "feed", "web feed", or "channel") includes full or summarized text, plus metadata such as publishing dates and authorship. RSS feeds benefit publishers by letting them syndicate content automatically. A standardized XML file format allows the information to be published once and viewed by many different programs. They benefit readers who want to subscribe to timely updates from favorite websites or to aggregate feeds from many sites into one place. RSS feeds can be read using software called an "RSS reader", "feed reader", or "aggregator", which can be web-based, desktop-based, or mobile-device-based. The user subscribes to a feed by entering into the reader the feed's URI or by clicking a feed icon in a web browser that initiates the subscription process. The RSS reader checks the user's subscribed feeds regularly for new work, downloads any updates that it finds, and provides a user interface to monitor
    6.50
    4 votes
    80
    EDonkey network

    EDonkey network

    • Software used by: EMule
    The EDonkey Networks (also known as the eDonkey2000 network or eD2k) is a decentralized, mostly server-based, peer-to-peer file sharing network best suited to share big files among users, and to provide long term availability of files. Like most sharing networks, it is decentralized, as there is not any central hub for the network; also, files are not stored on a central server but are exchanged directly between users based on the peer-to-peer principle. Currently, the eD2k network is not supported by any organization (in the past it was supported by the MetaMachine Corporation, its creator, which now is out of business) and development and maintenance is being fully provided by its community and client developers. The server part of the network is proprietary freeware. There are two families of server software for the eD2k network: the original one from MetaMachine, written in C++, closed-source and proprietary, and no longer maintained; and eserver, written from scratch by a person named Lugdunum in pure C, also closed-source and proprietary, although available free of charge and for several operating systems and computer architectures. The eserver family is currently in active
    8.50
    2 votes
    81

    Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

    • Software used by: KMail
    Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for electronic mail (e-mail) transmission across Internet Protocol (IP) networks. SMTP was first defined by RFC 821 (1982, eventually declared STD 10), and last updated by RFC 5321 (2008) which includes the extended SMTP (ESMTP) additions, and is the protocol in widespread use today. SMTP uses TCP port 25. The protocol for new submissions (MSA) is effectively the same as SMTP, but it uses port 587 instead. SMTP connections secured by SSL are known by the shorthand SMTPS, though SMTPS is not a protocol in its own right. While electronic mail servers and other mail transfer agents use SMTP to send and receive mail messages, user-level client mail applications typically only use SMTP for sending messages to a mail server for relaying. For receiving messages, client applications usually use either the Post Office Protocol (POP) or the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) or a proprietary system (such as Microsoft Exchange or Lotus Notes/Domino) to access their mail box accounts on a mail server. Various forms of one-to-one electronic messaging were used in the 1960s. People communicated with one another using systems
    8.50
    2 votes
    82

    CalDAV

    • Software used by: Chandler
    Calendaring Extensions to WebDAV, or CalDAV, is an Internet standard allowing a client to access scheduling information on a remote server. It extends WebDAV (HTTP-based protocol for data manipulation) specification and uses iCalendar format for the data. The protocol is defined by RFC 4791. It allows multiple client access to the same information thus allowing cooperative planning and information sharing. Many server and client applications support the protocol. The CalDAV specification was first published in 2003 as an Internet Draft submitted to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) by Lisa Dusseault. In March 2007, the CalDAV specification was described in the RFC 4791. CalDAV is designed for implementation by any collaborative software, client or server, that needs to maintain, access or share collections of events. It is developed as an open standard to foster interoperability between software from different implementers. The architecture of CalDAV (partially inherited from the underlying specifications) organizes the data (events, tasks, free-busy info, notes) in directories (collections), where multiple items (resources) reside. The resources and collections can be
    7.33
    3 votes
    83

    Datagram Transport Layer Security

    In information technology, the Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) protocol provides communications privacy for datagram protocols. DTLS allows datagram-based applications to communicate in a way that is designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, or message forgery. The DTLS protocol is based on the stream-oriented TLS protocol and is intended to provide similar security guarantees. The datagram semantics of the underlying transport are preserved by the DTLS protocol — the application will not suffer from the delays associated with stream protocols, but will have to deal with packet reordering, loss of datagram and data larger than a datagram packet size. DTLS is defined in RFC 6347 for use with UDP, in RFC 5238 for use with DCCP, and in RFC 6083 for use with SCTP encapsulation. This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later.
    7.33
    3 votes
    84

    Digital Audio Access Protocol

    • Software used by: iTunes
    The Digital Audio Access Protocol (DAAP) is the proprietary protocol introduced by Apple in its iTunes software to share media across a local network. DAAP addresses the same problems for Apple as the UPnP AV standards address for members of the Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA). "iTunes Server" is a technical specification that some network-attached storage (NAS) drive manufacturers have included on their devices if they are DAAP enabled. This means the device allows the user to store their iTunes media folder remotely onto the NAS device, whether over a wired connection (such as USB 2.0/3.0, FireWire 400/800, Thunderbolt, etc.), or wirelessly (i.e. over a Wi-Fi connection). However, the DAAP functionality can be limited, as different device manufacturers often will not support all file formats currently supported in iTunes software, when working remotely using DAAP. The DAAP protocol was originally introduced in iTunes version 4.0. Initially, Apple did not officially release a protocol description, but it has been reverse-engineered to a sufficient degree that reimplementations of the protocol for non-iTunes platforms have been possible. Recently, however, Apple has begun to
    7.33
    3 votes
    85
    Integrated Services Digital Network

    Integrated Services Digital Network

    Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communications standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. It was first defined in 1988 in the CCITT red book. Prior to ISDN, the telephone system was viewed as a way to transport voice, with some special services available for data. The key feature of ISDN is that it integrates speech and data on the same lines, adding features that were not available in the classic telephone system. There are several kinds of access interfaces to ISDN defined as Basic Rate Interface (BRI), Primary Rate Interface (PRI) and Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN). ISDN is a circuit-switched telephone network system, which also provides access to packet switched networks, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in potentially better voice quality than an analog phone can provide. It offers circuit-switched connections (for either voice or data), and packet-switched connections (for data), in increments of 64 kilobit/s. A major market application for ISDN in some countries
    7.33
    3 votes
    86

    MIME

    • Software used by: Mutt
    Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet standard that extends the format of email to support: MIME's use, however, has grown beyond describing the content of email to describe content type in general, including for the web (see Internet media type) and as a storage for rich content in some commercial products (e.g., IBM Lotus Domino and IBM Lotus Quickr). Virtually all human-written Internet email and a fairly large proportion of automated email is transmitted via SMTP in MIME format. Internet email is so closely associated with the SMTP and MIME standards that it is sometimes called SMTP/MIME email. The content types defined by MIME standards are also of importance outside of email, such as in communication protocols like HTTP for the World Wide Web. HTTP requires that data be transmitted in the context of email-like messages, although the data most often is not actually email. MIME is specified in six linked RFC memoranda: RFC 2045, RFC 2046, RFC 2047, RFC 4288, RFC 4289 and RFC 2049, which together define the specifications. The basic Internet email transmission protocol, SMTP, supports only 7-bit ASCII characters (see also 8BITMIME). This effectively limits
    7.33
    3 votes
    87
    Internet Message Access Protocol

    Internet Message Access Protocol

    • Software used by: KMail
    Internet message access protocol (IMAP) is one of the two most prevalent Internet standard protocols for e-mail retrieval, the other being the Post Office Protocol (POP). Virtually all modern e-mail clients and mail servers support both protocols as a means of transferring e-mail messages from a server. The Internet Message Access Protocol (commonly known as IMAP) is an Application Layer Internet protocol that allows an e-mail client to access e-mail on a remote mail server. The current version, IMAP version 4 revision 1 (IMAP4rev1), is defined by RFC 3501. An IMAP server typically listens on well-known port 143. IMAP over SSL (IMAPS) is assigned well-known port number 993. IMAP supports both on-line and off-line modes of operation. E-mail clients using IMAP generally leave messages on the server until the user explicitly deletes them. This and other characteristics of IMAP operation allow multiple clients to manage the same mailbox. Most e-mail clients support IMAP in addition to POP to retrieve messages; however, fewer e-mail services support IMAP. IMAP offers access to the mail storage. Clients may store local copies of the messages, but these are considered to be a temporary
    6.25
    4 votes
    88
    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

    The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network protocol that is used to configure network devices so that they can communicate on an IP network. A DHCP client uses the DHCP protocol to acquire configuration information, such as an IP address, a default route and one or more DNS server addresses from a DHCP server. The DHCP client then uses this information to configure its host. Once the configuration process is complete, the host is able to communicate on the internet. The DHCP server maintains a database of available IP addresses and configuration information. When it receives a request from a client, the DHCP server determines the network to which the DHCP client is connected, and then allocates an IP address or prefix that is appropriate for the client, and sends configuration information appropriate for that client. Because the DHCP protocol must work correctly even before DHCP clients have been configured, the DHCP server and DHCP client must be connected to the same network link. In larger networks, this is not practical. On such networks, each network link contains one or more DHCP relay agents. These DHCP relay agents receive messages from DHCP clients and
    7.00
    3 votes
    89

    Network File System

    • Software used by: Konqueror
    Network File System (NFS) is a distributed file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network in a manner similar to how local storage is accessed. NFS, like many other protocols, builds on the Open Network Computing Remote Procedure Call (ONC RPC) system. The Network File System is an open standard defined in RFCs, allowing anyone to implement the protocol. The implementation details are defined in RFC 1094. Sun used version 1 only for in-house experimental purposes. When the development team added substantial changes to NFS version 1 and released it outside of Sun, they decided to release the new version as v2, so that version interoperation and RPC version fallback could be tested. Version 2 of the protocol (defined in RFC 1094, March 1989) originally operated entirely over UDP. Its designers meant to keep the protocol stateless, with locking (for example) implemented outside of the core protocol. People involved in the creation of NFS version 2 include Rusty Sandberg, Bob Lyon, Bill Joy, and Steve Kleiman. NFSv2 only allowed the first 2 GB of a file to be read. Version 3 (RFC 1813, June
    7.00
    3 votes
    90

    Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting

    • Software used by: Fedora Repository
    OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) is a protocol developed by the Open Archives Initiative. It is used to harvest (or collect) the metadata descriptions of the records in an archive so that services can be built using metadata from many archives. An implementation of OAI-PMH must support representing metadata in Dublin Core, but may also support additional representations. The protocol is usually just referred to as the OAI Protocol. OAI-PMH uses XML over HTTP. The current version is 2.0, updated in 2008. In the late 1990s, Herbert Van de Sompel (Ghent University) was working with researchers and librarians at Los Alamos National Laboratory (US) and called a meeting to address difficulties related to interoperability issues of e-print servers and digital repositories. The meeting was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, in October 1999. A key development from the meeting was the definition of an interface that permitted e-print servers to expose metadata for the papers it held in a structured fashion so other repositories could identify and copy papers of interest with each other. This interface/protocol was named the "Santa Fe Convention". Several
    7.00
    3 votes
    91

    QOTD

    The Quote Of The Day (QOTD) service is a member of the Internet protocol suite, defined in RFC 865. As indicated there, the QOTD concept predated the specification, when QOTD was used by mainframe sysadmins to broadcast a daily quote on request by a user. It was then formally codified both for prior purposes as well as for testing and measurement purposes in RFC 865. A host may connect to a server that supports the RFC 865 QOTD protocol, on either TCP or UDP port 17. In order to keep the quotes at a reasonable length, RFC 865 specified a maximum length of 512 characters for the quote. Although some sources indicate that the QOTD service is rarely enabled, and is in any case often firewalled to avoid 'pingpong' attacks, interest continues in the pre-existing purpose of serving quotes as can be seen with web engine searches. Current testing and measurement of IP networks is more commonly done with ping and traceroute, which are more robust adaptations of the echo protocol (RFC 862), which predated the attempt at QOTD standardization.
    7.00
    3 votes
    92

    Rlogin

    rlogin is a software utility for Unix-like computer operating systems that allows users to log in on another host via a network, communicating via TCP port 513. It was first distributed as part of the 4.2BSD release. rlogin is also the name of the application layer protocol used by the software, part of the TCP/IP protocol suite. Authenticated users can act as if they were physically present at the computer. RFC 1282, in which it was defined, states that: "The rlogin facility provides a remote-echoed, locally flow-controlled virtual terminal with proper flushing of output." rlogin communicates with a daemon, rlogind, on the remote host. rlogin is similar to the Telnet command, but has the disadvantage of not being as customizable and being able to connect only to Unix hosts. rlogin is most commonly deployed on corporate or academic networks, where user account information is shared between all the Unix machines on the network (often using NIS). These deployments essentially trust ALL other machines (and the network infrastructure itself) and the rlogin protocol relies on this trust. rlogind allows logins without password (where rlogind trusts a remote rlogin client) if the remote
    7.00
    3 votes
    93

    TIME protocol

    The Time Protocol is a network protocol in the Internet Protocol Suite defined in 1983 in RFC 868. Its purpose is to provide a site-independent, machine readable date and time. The Time Protocol may be implemented over the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). A host connects to a server that supports the Time Protocol on port 37. The server then sends the time as a 32-bit unsigned integer in binary format and in network byte order, representing the number of seconds since 00:00 (midnight) 1 January, 1900 GMT, and closes the connection. Operation over UDP requires the sending of any datagram to the server port, as there is no connection setup for UDP. The fixed 32-bit data format means that the timestamp rolls over approximately every 136 years, with the first such occurrence on 7 February 2036. Programs that use the Time Protocol must be carefully designed to use context-dependent information to distinguish these dates from those in 1900. Many Unix-like operating systems used the Time Protocol to monitor or synchronize their clocks using the rdate utility, but this functionality was superseded by the Network Time Protocol (NTP) and the
    7.00
    3 votes
    94
    WAP

    WAP

    Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a technical standard for accessing information over a mobile wireless network. A WAP browser is a web browser for mobile devices such as mobile phones (called "cellular phones" or "mobile phones") that uses the protocol. Before the introduction of WAP, mobile service providers had limited opportunities to offer interactive data services, but needed interactivity to support Internet and Web applications such as: The Japanese i-mode system offers another major competing wireless data protocol. The WAP standard described a protocol suite allowing the interoperability of WAP equipment and software with different network technologies, such as GSM and IS-95 (also known as CDMA). The bottom-most protocol in the suite, the WAP Datagram Protocol (WDP), functions as an adaptation layer that makes every data network look a bit like UDP to the upper layers by providing unreliable transport of data with two 16-bit port numbers (origin and destination). All the upper layers view WDP as one and the same protocol, which has several "technical realizations" on top of other "data bearers" such as SMS, USSD, etc. On native IP bearers such as GPRS, UMTS
    7.00
    3 votes
    95

    Password authentication protocol

    A password authentication protocol (PAP) is an authentication protocol that uses a password. PAP is used by Point to Point Protocol to validate users before allowing them access to server resources. Almost all network operating system remote servers support PAP. PAP transmits unencrypted ASCII passwords over the network and is therefore considered insecure. It is used as a last resort when the remote server does not support a stronger authentication protocol, like CHAP or EAP (the latter is actually a framework). Password-based authentication is the protocol that two entities share a password in advance and use the password as the basis of authentication. Existing password authentication schemes can be categorized into two types: weak-password authentication schemes and strong-password authentication schemes. In general, strong-password authentication protocols have the advantages over the weak-password authentication schemes in that their computational overhead are lighter, designs are simpler, and implementation are easier, and therefore are especially suitable for some constrained environments. PAP packet embedded in a PPP frame. The protocol field has a value of C023 (hex).
    5.20
    5 votes
    96

    Cisco Discovery Protocol

    The Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a proprietary Data Link Layer network protocol developed by Cisco Systems. It is used to share information about other directly connected Cisco equipment, such as the operating system version and IP address. CDP can also be used for On-Demand Routing, which is a method of including routing information in CDP announcements so that dynamic routing protocols do not need to be used in simple network. Cisco devices send CDP announcements to the multicast destination address 01-00-0c-cc-cc-cc, out each connected network interface. These multicast packets may be received by Cisco switches and other networking devices that support CDP into their connected network interface. This multicast destination is also used in other Cisco protocols such as VTP. By default, CDP announcements are sent every 60 seconds on interfaces that support Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP) headers, including Ethernet, Frame Relay and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). Each Cisco device that supports CDP stores the information received from other devices in a table that can be viewed using the show cdp neighbors command. This table is also accessible via snmp. The CDP table
    6.00
    4 votes
    97

    Secure remote password protocol

    • Software used by: Codeville
    The Secure Remote Password protocol (SRP) is an augmented password-authenticated key agreement (PAKE) protocol, specifically designed to work around existing patents. Like all augmented PAKE protocols, an eavesdropper or man in the middle cannot obtain enough information to be able to brute force guess a password without further interactions with the parties for each guess. This means that strong security can be obtained using weak passwords. Furthermore the server does not store password-equivalent data. This means that an attacker who steals the server data cannot masquerade as the client unless they first perform a brute force search for the password. The SRP protocol has a number of desirable properties: it allows a user to authenticate themselves to a server, it is resistant to dictionary attacks mounted by an eavesdropper, and it does not require a trusted third party. It effectively conveys a zero-knowledge password proof from the user to the server. In revision 6 of the protocol only one password can be guessed per connection attempt. One of the interesting properties of the protocol is that even if one or two of the cryptographic primitives it uses are attacked, it is
    6.00
    4 votes
    98

    Universal Description Discovery and Integration

    • Software used by: IBM DB2
    Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI, pronounced Yu-diː) is a platform-independent, Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based registry by which businesses worldwide can list themselves on the Internet, and a mechanism to register and locate web service applications. UDDI is an open industry initiative, sponsored by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), for enabling businesses to publish service listings and discover each other, and to define how the services or software applications interact over the Internet. UDDI was originally proposed as a core Web service standard. It is designed to be interrogated by SOAP messages and to provide access to Web Services Description Language (WSDL) documents describing the protocol bindings and message formats required to interact with the web services listed in its directory. UDDI was written in August 2000, at a time when the authors had a vision of a world in which consumers of web services would be linked up with providers through a public or private dynamic brokerage system. In this vision, anyone needing a service, such as credit card authentication, would go to their service
    6.00
    4 votes
    99

    BACnet

    BACnet is a communications protocol for building automation and control networks. It is an ASHRAE, ANSI, and ISO standard protocol. BACnet was designed to allow communication of building automation and control systems for applications such as heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning control, lighting control, access control, and fire detection systems and their associated equipment. The BACnet protocol provides mechanisms for computerized building automation devices to exchange information, regardless of the particular building service they perform. The development of the BACnet protocol began in June, 1987, in Nashville, Tennessee, at the inaugural meeting of the Standard Project Committee (SPC). The committee worked at reaching consensus using working groups to divide up the task of creating a standard. The working groups focused on specific areas and provided information and recommendations to the main committee. The first three working groups were the Data Type and Attribute Working Group, Primitive Data Format Working Group, and the Application Services Working Group. BACnet became ASHRAE/ANSI Standard 135 in 1995, and ISO 16484-5 in 2003. The Method of Test for Conformance
    8.00
    2 votes
    100

    Generic Routing Encapsulation

    Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) is a tunneling protocol developed by Cisco Systems that can encapsulate a wide variety of network layer protocols inside virtual point-to-point links over an Internet Protocol internetwork. Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE), defined by RFC 2784, is a simple IP packet encapsulation protocol. A GRE tunnel is used when packets need to be sent from one network to another, without being parsed or treated like IP packets by any intervening routers. GRE tunnels are designed to be completely stateless. This means that none of the end-point tunnels keep information about the state or availability of the remote tunnel end-point. A consequence of this is that the local tunnel end-point router does not have the ability to bring the line protocol of the GRE tunnel interface down if the remote end-point is unreachable. In such a case, a network administrator can manually bring the interface down in order to remove any routes (specifically static routes) in the routing table that use that interface as the outbound interface. This allows for an alternate route with a higher metric (where a higher metric means a lower priority) or for policy-based routing (PBR)
    8.00
    2 votes
    101

    Real-time Transport Protocol

    The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) defines a standardized packet format for delivering audio and video over IP networks. RTP is used extensively in communication and entertainment systems that involve streaming media, such as telephony, video teleconference applications, television services and web-based push-to-talk features. RTP is used in conjunction with the RTP Control Protocol (RTCP). While RTP carries the media streams (e.g., audio and video), RTCP is used to monitor transmission statistics and quality of service (QoS) and aids synchronization of multiple streams. RTP is originated and received on even port numbers and the associated RTCP communication uses the next higher odd port number. RTP is one of the technical foundations of Voice over IP and in this context is often used in conjunction with a signaling protocol which assists in setting up connections across the network. RTP was developed by the Audio-Video Transport Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and first published in 1996 as RFC 1889, superseded by RFC 3550 in 2003. RTP is designed for end-to-end, real-time, transfer of stream data. The protocol provides facility for jitter
    8.00
    2 votes
    102

    Remote File System

    Remote File Sharing (RFS) was a distributed file system developed by AT&T in the 1980s. It was first delivered with UNIX System V Release 3 (SVR3). It was also included in AT&T's UNIX System V Release 4, but as that also included NFS which was more interoperable, RFS was little used. Some licencees of AT&T's UNIX System V Release 4 didn't include the RFS support in their SVR4 distributions, and Sun Microsystems removed it from Solaris 2.4. Compared to NFS it made quite different design decisions. Instead of focusing on reliable operation in the presence of failures, it focused on preserving UNIX file system semantics across the network. Unlike NFS (before version 4), the RFS server maintains state to keep track of how many times a file has been opened, if any process has locked the file, etc. RFS was a product from Bell Laboratories.
    8.00
    2 votes
    103

    Fibre Channel over IP

    Fibre Channel over IP (FCIP or FC/IP, also known as Fibre Channel tunneling or storage tunneling) is an Internet Protocol (IP) created by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for storage technology. An FCIP entity functions to encapsulate Fibre Channel frames and forward them over an IP network. FCIP entities are peers that communicate using TCP/IP. FCIP technology overcomes the distance limitations of native Fibre Channel, enabling geographically distributed storage area networks to be connected using existing IP infrastructure, while keeping fabric services intact. The Fibre Channel Fabric and its devices remain unaware of the presence of the IP Network. A competing technology to FCIP is known as iFCP. It uses routing instead of tunneling to enable connectivity of Fibre Channel networks over IP.
    9.00
    1 votes
    104
    Frame relay

    Frame relay

    Frame Relay is a standardized wide area network technology that specifies the physical and logical link layers of digital telecommunications channels using a packet switching methodology. Originally designed for transport across Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) infrastructure, it may be used today in the context of many other network interfaces. Network providers commonly implement Frame Relay for voice (VoFR) and data as an encapsulation technique, used between local area networks (LANs) over a wide area network (WAN). Each end-user gets a private line (or leased line) to a Frame Relay node. The Frame Relay network handles the transmission over a frequently-changing path transparent to all end-user extensively-used WAN protocols. It is less expensive than leased lines and that is one reason for its popularity. The extreme simplicity of configuring user equipment in a Frame Relay network offers another reason for Frame Relay's popularity. With the advent of Ethernet over fiber optics, MPLS, VPN and dedicated broadband services such as cable modem and DSL, the end may loom for the Frame Relay protocol and encapsulation. However many rural areas remain lacking DSL and cable
    9.00
    1 votes
    105
    IPv4

    IPv4

    • Software used by: OpenBSD
    Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth revision in the development of the Internet Protocol (IP) and the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. Together with IPv6, it is at the core of standards-based internetworking methods of the Internet. As of 2012 IPv4 is still the most widely deployed Internet Layer protocol. IPv4 is described in IETF publication RFC 791 (September 1981), replacing an earlier definition (RFC 760, January 1980). IPv4 is a connectionless protocol for use on packet-switched Link Layer networks (e.g., Ethernet). It operates on a best effort delivery model, in that it does not guarantee delivery, nor does it assure proper sequencing or avoidance of duplicate delivery. These aspects, including data integrity, are addressed by an upper layer transport protocol, such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). IPv4 uses 32-bit (four-byte) addresses, which limits the address space to 4294967296 (2) addresses. Addresses were assigned to users, and the number of unassigned addresses decreased. IPv4 address exhaustion occurred on February 3, 2011. It had been significantly delayed by address changes such as classful network design, Classless
    9.00
    1 votes
    106

    Kad Network

    • Software used by: EMule
    The Kad network is a peer-to-peer (P2P) network which implements the Kademlia P2P overlay protocol. The majority of users on the Kad Network are also connected to servers on the eDonkey network, and Kad Network clients typically query known nodes on the eDonkey network in order to find an initial node on the Kad network. The Kad network uses a UDP-based protocol to: Note that the Kad network is not used to actually transfer files across the P2P network. Instead, when a file transfer is initiated, clients connect directly to each other (using the standard public IP network). This traffic is susceptible to blocking/shaping/tracking by your ISP or any other opportunistic middle-man. As with all decentralized networks, the Kad network requires no official or common servers. As such, it cannot be disabled by shutting down a given subset of key nodes. While the decentralization of the network prevents a simple shut-down, traffic analysis and deep packet inspection will more readily identify the traffic as P2P due to the high variable-destination packet throughput. The large packet volume typically causes a reduction in available CPU and/or network resources usually associated with P2P
    9.00
    1 votes
    107

    Common Open Policy Service

    The Common Open Policy Service (COPS) Protocol is part of the internet protocol suite as defined by the IETF's RFC 2748. COPS specifies a simple client/server model for supporting policy control over Quality of Service (QoS) signaling protocols (e.g. RSVP). Policies are stored on servers, and acted upon by Policy Decision Points (PDP), and are enforced on clients, also known as Policy Enforcement Points (PEP). There are two models of COPS: The Outsourcing Model and the Provisioning Model, considered from the view of the client or PEP. The Outsourcing Model is the simplest COPS implementation. In this model, all policies are stored at the PDP. Whenever the PEP needs to make a decision, it sends all relevant information to the PDP. The PDP analyzes the information, makes the decision, and relays it to the PEP. The PEP then simply enforces the decision. In the Provisioning Model, see RFC 3084 COPS Usage for Policy Provisioning (COPS-PR), the PEP reports its decision-making capabilities to the PDP. The PDP then downloads relevant policies on to the PEP. The PEP can then make its own decisions based on these policies. The Provisioning Model uses the Policy Information Base as a
    6.67
    3 votes
    108

    Econet

    Econet was Acorn's low-cost local area network system, intended for use by schools and small businesses. Econet is rumoured to be an abbreviation of Economy Network, but Acorn were always careful to stress the Greek root, oikos, meaning "house". Econet was first introduced for use with the Acorn Atom and Acorn System 2/3/4 computers in 1981. It became popular as a networking system for the BBC Micro and Archimedes computers. The Econet system was eventually supported on all post-Atom Acorn machines except the Electron, the A3010 and the eventually-cancelled Phoebe 2100. The system was supported by Acorn MOS, RISC OS and RISC iX. Acorn received an offer from Commodore International to license the technology, which it refused. An "Ecolink" interface card for IBM PCs was available. It used Microsoft's MS-NET Redirector for MS-DOS to provide file and printer sharing with the NET USE command. Acorn Universal Networking (AUN) was an early 1990s implementation of Econet protocols and addressing over TCP/IP, to provide legacy support for Econet on Ethernet-connected machines. The Econet protocol was also supported by the Linux kernel until May 18, 2012. Econet is a 5-wire bus network. One
    6.67
    3 votes
    109

    Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

    Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol - (EIGRP) is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol loosely based on their original IGRP. EIGRP is an advanced distance-vector routing protocol, with optimizations to minimize both the routing instability incurred after topology changes, as well as the use of bandwidth and processing power in the router. Routers that support EIGRP will automatically redistribute route information to IGRP neighbors by converting the 32 bit EIGRP metric to the 24 bit IGRP metric. Most of the routing optimizations are based on the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) work from SRI, which guarantees loop-free operation and provides a mechanism for fast convergence. EIGRP stores data in three tables: Unlike most other distance vector protocols, EIGRP does not rely on periodic route dumps in order to maintain its topology table. Routing information is exchanged only upon the establishment of new neighbor adjacencies, after which only changes are sent. Also, it uses route tagging. EIGRP associates six (6) different vector metrics with each route and considers only four (4) of the vector metrics in computing the Composite
    6.67
    3 votes
    110

    GENA

    GENA stands for General Event Notification Architecture. GENA Base defines an HTTP notification architecture that transmits notifications between HTTP resources. An HTTP resource could be any object which might need to send or receive a notification, for example a distribution list, buddy list, print job, etc. It was defined in Internet-Draft draft-cohen-gena-p-base-01.txt (now expired). GENA Base Client to Arbiter provides for the ability to send and receive notifications using HTTP over TCP/IP and administratively scoped unreliable multicast UDP. Provisions are made for the use of intermediary arbiters, called subscription arbiters, which handle routing notifications to their intended destination. It was defined in http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-cohen-gena-client (now expired). During July 13–14, 1998 the University of California Irvine convened WISEN: the Workshop on Internet-Scale Event Notification. This event brought together a number of experts of various fields and included a presentation on GENA by Josh Cohen of Microsoft. Delegates showcased their event notification architectures and haggled over requirements of the same. Josh's final slide includes the bullet points
    6.67
    3 votes
    111

    Message Transfer Part

    The Message Transfer Part (MTP) is part of the Signaling System 7 (SS7) used for communication in Public Switched Telephone Networks. MTP is responsible for reliable, unduplicated and in-sequence transport of SS7 messages between communication partners. MTP is formally defined primarily in ITU-T recommendations Q.701, Q.702, Q.703, Q.704 and Q.705. Tests for the MTP are specified in the ITU-T recommendations Q.781 for MTP2 and in Q.782 for MTP3. These tests are used to validate the correct implementation of the MTP protocol. Different countries use different variants of the MTP protocols. In North America, the formal standard followed is ANSI T1.111. In Europe, national MTP protocols are based on ETSI EN 300-008-1. The SS7 stack can be separated into four functional levels: Level 1 through Level 3 comprise the MTP, and Level 4 the MTP user. MTP Level 3 is sometimes abbreviated MTP3; MTP Level 2, MTP2. MTP and SCCP are together referred to as the Network Service Part (NSP). There is no one-to-one mapping of MTP Levels 1 through 3 onto the OSI model. Instead, MTP provides the functionality of layers 1, 2 and part of layer 3 in the OSI model. The part of layer 3 of the OSI model that
    6.67
    3 votes
    112

    Neighbor Discovery Protocol

    The Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) is a protocol in the Internet Protocol Suite used with Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6). It operates in the Internet Layer of the Internet model (RFC 1122) and is responsible for address autoconfiguration of nodes, discovery of other nodes on the link, determining the Link Layer addresses of other nodes, duplicate address detection, finding available routers and Domain Name System (DNS) servers, address prefix discovery, and maintaining reachability information about the paths to other active neighbor nodes (RFC 4861). The protocol defines five different ICMPv6 packet types to perform functions for IPv6 similar to the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Router Discovery and Router Redirect protocols for IPv4. However, it provides many improvements over its IPv4 counterparts (RFC 4861, section 3.1). For example, it includes Neighbor Unreachability Detection (NUD), thus improving robustness of packet delivery in the presence of failing routers or links, or mobile nodes. NDP defines the following five ICMPv6 packet types: These messages are used to provide the following functionality: Some routers have
    6.67
    3 votes
    113
    Real Time Streaming Protocol

    Real Time Streaming Protocol

    The Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) is a network control protocol designed for use in entertainment and communications systems to control streaming media servers. The protocol is used for establishing and controlling media sessions between end points. Clients of media servers issue VCR-like commands, such as play and pause, to facilitate real-time control of playback of media files from the server. The transmission of streaming data itself is not a task of the RTSP protocol. Most RTSP servers use the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) in conjunction with Real-time Control Protocol (RTCP) for media stream delivery, however some vendors implement proprietary transport protocols. The RTSP server from RealNetworks, for example, also features RealNetworks' proprietary Real Data Transport (RDT). RTSP was developed by the Multiparty Multimedia Session Control Working Group (MMUSIC WG) of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and published as RFC 2326 in 1998. RTSP using RTP and RTCP allows for the implementation of rate adaption. While similar in some ways to HTTP, RTSP defines control sequences useful in controlling multimedia playback. While HTTP is stateless, RTSP has state;
    6.67
    3 votes
    114

    SPARQL

    • Software used by: Virtuoso Universal Server
    SPARQL (pronounced "sparkle", a recursive acronym for SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language) is an RDF query language, that is, a query language for databases, able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in Resource Description Framework format. It was made a standard by the RDF Data Access Working Group (DAWG) of the World Wide Web Consortium, and considered as one of the key technologies of semantic web. On 15 January 2008, SPARQL 1.0 became an official W3C Recommendation . SPARQL allows for a query to consist of triple patterns, conjunctions, disjunctions, and optional patterns. Implementations for multiple programming languages exist. "SPARQL will make a huge difference" according to Sir Tim Berners-Lee in a May 2006 interview. There exist tools that allow one to connect and semi-automatically construct a SPARQL query for a SPARQL endpoint, for example ViziQuer. In addition, there exist tools that translate SPARQL queries to other query languages, for example to SQL and to XQuery. SPARQL allows users to write unambiguous queries. For example, the following query returns names and emails of every person in the dataset: This query can be distributed to multiple SPARQL endpoints
    6.67
    3 votes
    115

    Traversal Using Relay NAT

    Traversal Using Relays around NAT (TURN) is a protocol that allows for an element behind a network address translator (NAT) or firewall to receive incoming data over TCP or UDP connections. It is most useful for elements behind symmetric NATs or firewalls that wish to be on the receiving end of a connection to a single peer. TURN does not allow for users to run servers on well known ports if they are behind a NAT; it supports the connection of a user behind a NAT to only a single peer. In that regard, its role is to provide the same security functions provided by symmetric NATs and firewalls, but to turn the tables so that the element on the inside can be on the receiving end, rather than the sending end, of a connection that is requested by the client. TURN is specified by RFC 5766. An update to TURN for IPv6 is specified in RFC 6156. NATs, while providing many benefits, also come with many drawbacks. The most troublesome of those drawbacks is the fact that they break many existing IP applications, and make it difficult to deploy new ones. Guidelines have been developed that describe how to build "NAT friendly" protocols, but many protocols simply cannot be constructed according
    6.67
    3 votes
    116

    Application Exchange

    Application Exchange (APEX) was an early proposal to the IETF of a standard protocol for instant messaging. It was based on XML, but is no longer being considered for use. Today, SIP and SIMPLE, and XMPP are currently being discussed for use as an instant messaging protocol. Proponents of APEX have now mostly put their support behind XMPP as it is also based on XML.
    7.50
    2 votes
    117

    ARCNET

    ARCNET (also CamelCased as ARCnet, an acronym from Attached Resource Computer NETwork) is a local area network (LAN) protocol, similar in purpose to Ethernet or Token Ring. ARCNET was the first widely available networking system for microcomputers and became popular in the 1980s for office automation tasks. It has since gained a following in the embedded systems market, where certain features of the protocol are especially useful. ARCNET was developed by principal development engineer John Murphy at Datapoint Corporation in 1976 under Victor Poor, and announced in 1977. It was originally developed to connect groups of their Datapoint 2200 terminals to talk to a shared 8" floppy disk system. As microcomputers took over from the Datapoint, ARCNET was re-purposed as LAN. It was the first loosely-coupled LAN-based clustering solution, making no assumptions about the type of computers that would be connected. This was in contrast to contemporary larger and more expensive computer systems such as DECnet or SNA, where a homogeneous group of similar or proprietary computers were connected as a cluster. The token-passing bus protocol of that I/O device-sharing network was subsequently
    7.50
    2 votes
    118

    E-carrier

    In digital telecommunications, where a single physical wire pair can be used to carry many simultaneous voice conversations by time-division multiplexing, worldwide standards have been created and deployed. The European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) originally standardized the E-carrier system, which revised and improved the earlier American T-carrier technology, and this has now been adopted by the International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T). This is now widely used in almost all countries outside the USA, Canada, and Japan. The E-carrier standards ·  · form part of the Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) where groups of E1 circuits may be bundled onto higher capacity E3 links between telephone exchanges or countries. This allows a network operator to provide a private end-to-end E1 circuit between customers in different countries that share single high capacity links in between. In practice, only E1 and E3 versions are used. Physically E1 is transmitted as 32 timeslots and E3 512 timeslots, but one is used for framing and sometimes one allocated for signalling call setup and tear down. Unlike
    7.50
    2 votes
    119

    Gopher protocol

    • Software used by: Mosaic
    The Gopher protocol ( /ˈɡoʊfər/) is a TCP/IP application layer protocol designed for distributing, searching, and retrieving documents over the Internet. Strongly oriented towards a menu-document design, the Gopher protocol presented an alternative to the World Wide Web in its early stages, but ultimately HTTP became the dominant protocol. The Gopher ecosystem is often regarded as the effective predecessor of the World Wide Web. Invented by a team led by Mark P. McCahill at the University of Minnesota, the protocol offers some features not natively supported by the Web and imposes a much stronger hierarchy on information stored on it. Its text menu interface is easy to use, and well-suited to computing environments that rely heavily on remote text-oriented computer terminals, which were still common at the time of its creation in 1991, and the simplicity of its protocol facilitated a wide variety of client implementations. More recent Gopher revisions and graphical clients added support for multimedia. Gopher was preferred by many network administrators for using fewer network resources than Web services. With its hierarchical structure, Gopher provided a useful platform for the
    7.50
    2 votes
    120

    Open Network Computing Remote Procedure Call

    Open Network Computing (ONC) Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is a widely deployed remote procedure call system. ONC was originally developed by Sun Microsystems as part of their Network File System project, and is sometimes referred to as Sun ONC or Sun RPC. ONC is considered "lean and mean", but has limited appeal as a generalized RPC system for WANs or heterogeneous environments. Systems such as DCE, CORBA and SOAP are generally used in this wider role. ONC is based on calling conventions used in Unix and the C programming language. It serializes data using the XDR, which has also found some use to encode and decode data in files that are to be accessed on more than one platform. ONC then delivers the XDR payload using either UDP or TCP. Access to RPC services on a machine are provided via a port mapper that listens for queries on a well-known port (number 111) over UDP and TCP. Implementations of ONC RPC exist in most Unix-like systems. Microsoft supplies an implementation for Windows in their Microsoft Windows Services for UNIX product; in addition, a number of third-party implementation of ONC RPC for Windows exist, including versions for C/C++, Java, and .NET (see external
    7.50
    2 votes
    121

    Parallel Line Internet Protocol

    The Parallel Line Internet Protocol (PLIP) is a computer networking protocol for direct computer-to-computer communications using the parallel port normally used for connections to a printer. The Parallel Line Internet Protocol provides Link Layer services for the Internet Protocol, the protocol used for forming small local area networks and large computer networks, such as the Internet, enabling computers without standard dedicated networking hardware, such as Ethernet, but with older parallel port devices, to communicate. The Internet Protocol Suite is the standards-based networking model and software specification for forming small and large computer networks, from local area networks to global communication systems, such as the Internet. It is usually implemented by software and hardware features that use Ethernet network interface cards, cabling, and networking switches or hubs. Early personal computers did not have Ethernet hardware included in their design and bus adapters were initially expensive. A solution to was to use the, at the time, standard parallel port, typically used for connection to a printer or similar output device. The ports on two computers are connected
    7.50
    2 votes
    122

    Stream Control Transmission Protocol

    In computer networking, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a transport layer protocol, serving in a similar role to the popular protocols Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). It provides some of the same service features of both: it is message-oriented like UDP and ensures reliable, in-sequence transport of messages with congestion control like TCP. The protocol was defined by the IETF Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN) working group in 2000, and is maintained by the IETF Transport Area (TSVWG) working group. RFC 4960 defines the protocol. RFC 3286 provides an introduction. In the absence of native SCTP support in operating systems it is possible to tunnel SCTP over UDP, as well as mapping TCP API calls to SCTP ones. SCTP applications submit their data to be transmitted in messages (groups of bytes) to the SCTP transport layer. SCTP places messages and control information into separate chunks (data chunks and control chunks), each identified by a chunk header. A message can be fragmented over a number of data chunks, but each data chunk contains data from only one user message. SCTP bundles the chunks into SCTP packets. The SCTP packet,
    7.50
    2 votes
    123
    Systems Network Architecture

    Systems Network Architecture

    Systems Network Architecture (SNA) is IBM's proprietary networking architecture created in 1974. It is a complete protocol stack for interconnecting computers and their resources. SNA describes the protocol and is, in itself, not a single piece of software. The implementation of SNA takes the form of various communications packages, most notably Virtual telecommunications access method (VTAM) which is the mainframe package for SNA communications. SNA was made public as part of IBM's "Advanced Function for Communications" announcement in September, 1974, which included the implementation of the SNA/SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control) protocols on new communications products: They were supported by IBM 3704/3705 communication controllers and their Network Control Program, and by System/370 and their VTAM and other software such as CICS and IMS. This announcement was followed by another announcement in July, 1975, which introduced the IBM 3760 data entry station, the IBM 3790 communication system, and the new models of the IBM 3270 display system. SNA was mainly designed by the IBM Systems Development Division laboratory in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, helped by other
    7.50
    2 votes
    124

    XMODEM

    • Software used by: V-Term
    XMODEM is a simple file transfer protocol developed as a quick hack by Ward Christensen for use in his 1977 MODEM.ASM terminal program. XMODEM became extremely popular in the early bulletin board system (BBS) market, largely because it was so simple to implement. It was also fairly inefficient, and as modem speeds increased this problem led to the development of a number of modified versions of XMODEM to improve performance or address other problems with the protocol. Chuck Forsberg collected a number of these into his YMODEM protocol, but poor implementation led to a further fracturing before they were re-unified by his later ZMODEM protocol. XMODEM, like most file transfer protocols, breaks up the original data into a series of "packets" that are sent to the receiver, along with additional information allowing the receiver to determine whether that packet was correctly received. The original XMODEM used a 128-byte data packet, the basic block size used on CP/M floppy disks. The packet was prefixed by a simple 3-byte header containing a character, a "block number" from 0-255, and the "inverse" block number—255 minus the block number. Block numbering starts with 1 for the
    7.50
    2 votes
    125
    Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol

    Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol

    The Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol (HTCPCP for short) is a communications protocol for controlling, monitoring, and diagnosing coffee pots. It is specified in RFC 2324, published on 1 April 1998 as part of an April Fools prank. The wording of the protocol made it clear that it wasn't entirely serious; noting, for example, "there is a strong, dark, rich requirement for a protocol designed espressoly [sic] for the brewing of coffee" that included a pun on the word "espresso." Despite the joking nature of its origins, or perhaps because of it, the protocol has remained as a minor presence online. The editor Emacs includes a fully functional implementation of it, and a number of bug reports exist complaining about Mozilla’s lack of support for the protocol. Ten years after the publication of HTCPCP, the Web-Controlled Coffee Consortium (WC3) published a first draft of "HTCPCP Vocabulary in RDF" in analogy of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) "HTTP Vocabulary in RDF". The possibility and practicality of the HTCPCP and coffee pots implementing it are now rising back into the notice of the industry, as the Internet of Things rose into fame. HTCPCP is an extension of HTTP.
    5.50
    4 votes
    126

    Modbus

    Modbus is a serial communications protocol published by Modicon in 1979 for use with its programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Simple and robust, it has since become a de facto standard communication protocol, and it is now amongst the most commonly available means of connecting industrial electronic devices. The main reasons for the use of Modbus in the industrial environment are: Modbus allows for communication between many (approximately 240) devices connected to the same network, for example a system that measures temperature and humidity and communicates the results to a computer. Modbus is often used to connect a supervisory computer with a remote terminal unit (RTU) in supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Many of the data types are named from its use in driving relays: a single-bit physical output is called a coil, and a single-bit physical input is called a discrete input or a contact. The development and update of Modbus protocols are managed by the Modbus Organization, formed of independent users and suppliers of Modbus compliant devices. Versions of the Modbus protocol exist for serial port and for Ethernet and other networks that support the
    5.50
    4 votes
    127

    DCE Distributed File System

    The DCE Distributed File System (DCE/DFS) is the remote file access protocol used with the Distributed Computing Environment. It was based on the AFS Version 3.0 protocol that was developed commercially by Transarc Corporation. AFS Version 3.0 was in turn based on the Andrew File System Version 2.0 protocol (also used by the Coda disconnected file system) originally developed at Carnegie Mellon University. DCE/DFS consisted of multiple cooperative components that provided a network file system with strong file system semantics, attempting to mimic the behavior of POSIX local file systems while taking advantage of performance optimizations when possible. A DCE/DFS client system utilized a locally managed cache that would contain copies (or regions) of the original file. The client system would coordinate with a server system where the original copy of the file was stored to ensure that multiple clients accessing the same file would re-fetch a cached copy of the file data when the original file had changed. The advantage of this approach is that it provided very good performance even over slow network connections because most of the file access was actually done to the local cached
    6.33
    3 votes
    128

    Host Identity Protocol

    The Host Identity Protocol (HIP) is a host identification technology for use on Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet. The Internet has two main name spaces, IP addresses and the Domain Name System. HIP separates the end-point identifier and locator roles of IP addresses. It introduces a Host Identity (HI) name space, based on a public key security infrastructure. The Host Identity Protocol provides secure methods for IP multihoming and mobile computing. In networks that implement the Host Identity Protocol, all occurrences of IP addresses in applications are eliminated and replaced with cryptographic host identifiers. The cryptographic keys are typically, but not necessarily, self-generated. The effect of eliminating IP addresses in application and transport layers is a decoupling of the transport layer from the internetworking layer (Internet Layer) in TCP/IP. HIP was specified in the IETF HIP working group. An Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) HIP research group looks at the broader impacts of HIP. The working group is chartered to produce Requests for Comments on the "Experimental" track, but it is understood that their quality and security properties should
    6.33
    3 votes
    129

    Uniform Resource Identifier

    • Software used by: The Vazaar Project
    In computing, a uniform resource identifier (URI) is a string of characters used to identify a name or a resource. Such identification enables interaction with representations of the resource over a network (typically the World Wide Web) using specific protocols. Schemes specifying a concrete syntax and associated protocols define each URI. URIs can be classified as locators (URLs), as names (URNs), or as both. A uniform resource name (URN) functions like a person's name, while a uniform resource locator (URL) resembles that person's street address. In other words: the URN defines an item's identity, while the URL provides a method for finding it. The ISBN system for uniquely identifying books provides a typical example of the use of URNs. ISBN 0-486-27557-4 (urn:isbn:0-486-27557-4) cites, unambiguously, a specific edition of Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet. To gain access to this object and read the book, one needs its location: a URL address. A typical URL for this book on a Unix-like operating system would be a file path such as file:///home/username/books/, identifying the electronic book library saved on a local hard disk. So URNs and URLs have complementary purposes. A
    6.33
    3 votes
    130

    XML-RPC

    • Software used by: ICARUS
    XML-RPC is a remote procedure call (RPC) protocol which uses XML to encode its calls and HTTP as a transport mechanism. "XML-RPC" also refers generically to the use of XML for remote procedure call, independently of the specific protocol. This article is about the protocol named "XML-RPC". XML-RPC, the protocol, was created in 1998 by Dave Winer of UserLand Software and Microsoft. As new functionality was introduced, the standard evolved into what is now SOAP. The generic use of XML for remote procedure call (RPC) was patented by Phillip Merrick, Stewart Allen, and Joseph Lapp in April 2006, claiming benefit to a provisional application filed in March 1998. The patent is assigned to webMethods, located in Fairfax, VA. XML-RPC works by sending a HTTP request to a server implementing the protocol. The client in that case is typically software wanting to call a single method of a remote system. Multiple input parameters can be passed to the remote method, one return value is returned. The parameter types allow nesting of parameters into maps and lists, thus larger structures can be transported. Therefore XML-RPC can be used to transport objects or structures both as input and as
    6.33
    3 votes
    131

    Atom

    • Software used by: Shopify
    The name Atom applies to a pair of related standards. The Atom Syndication Format is an XML language used for web feeds, while the Atom Publishing Protocol (AtomPub or APP) is a simple HTTP-based protocol for creating and updating web resources. Web feeds allow software programs to check for updates published on a website. To provide a web feed, a site owner may use specialized software (such as a content management system) that publishes a list (or "feed") of recent articles or content in a standardized, machine-readable format. The feed can then be downloaded by programs that use it, like websites that syndicate content from the feed, or by feed reader programs that allow Internet users to subscribe to feeds and view their content. A feed contains entries, which may be headlines, full-text articles, excerpts, summaries, and/or links to content on a website, along with various metadata. The Atom format was developed as an alternative to RSS. Ben Trott, an advocate of the new format that became Atom, believed that RSS had limitations and flaws—such as lack of on-going innovation and its necessity to remain backward compatible— and that there were advantages to a fresh
    8.00
    1 votes
    132
    Multiprotocol Label Switching

    Multiprotocol Label Switching

    Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in high-performance telecommunications networks that directs data from one network node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing table. The labels identify virtual links (paths) between distant nodes rather than endpoints. MPLS can encapsulate packets of various network protocols. MPLS supports a range of access technologies, including T1/E1, ATM, Frame Relay, and DSL. MPLS is a highly scalable, protocol agnostic, data-carrying mechanism. In an MPLS network, data packets are assigned labels. Packet-forwarding decisions are made solely on the contents of this label, without the need to examine the packet itself. This allows one to create end-to-end circuits across any type of transport medium, using any protocol. The primary benefit is to eliminate dependence on a particular OSI model data link layer technology, such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Frame Relay, Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) or Ethernet, and eliminate the need for multiple layer-2 networks to satisfy different types of traffic. MPLS belongs to the family of packet-switched
    8.00
    1 votes
    133

    Open Shortest Path First

    Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an link-state routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing algorithm and falls into the group of interior routing protocols, operating within a single autonomous system (AS). It is defined as OSPF Version 2 in RFC 2328 (1998) for IPv4. The updates for IPv6 are specified as OSPF Version 3 in RFC 5340 (2008). OSPF is perhaps the most widely used interior gateway protocol (IGP) in large enterprise networks. IS-IS, another link-state dynamic routing protocol, is more common in large service provider networks. The most widely used exterior gateway protocol is the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), the principal routing protocol between autonomous systems on the Internet. OSPF is an interior gateway protocol that routes Internet Protocol (IP) packets solely within a single routing domain (autonomous system). It gathers link state information from available routers and constructs a topology map of the network. The topology determines the routing table presented to the Internet Layer which makes routing decisions based solely on the destination IP address found in IP packets. OSPF was designed to support variable-length
    8.00
    1 votes
    134

    Representational State Transfer

    • Software used by: Fedora Repository
    REpresentational State Transfer (REST) is a style of software architecture for distributed systems such as the World Wide Web. REST has emerged as a predominant Web service design model. The term representational state transfer was introduced and defined in 2000 by Roy Fielding in his doctoral dissertation. Fielding is one of the principal authors of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) specification versions 1.0 and 1.1. Conforming to the REST constraints is generally referred to as being "RESTful". The REST architectural style was developed in parallel with HTTP/1.1, based on the existing design of HTTP/1.0. The largest implementation of a system conforming to the REST architectural style is the World Wide Web. REST exemplifies how the Web's architecture emerged by characterizing and constraining the macro-interactions of the four components of the Web, namely origin servers, gateways, proxies and clients, without imposing limitations on the individual participants. As such, REST essentially governs the proper behavior of participants. REST-style architectures consist of clients and servers. Clients initiate requests to servers; servers process requests and return appropriate
    8.00
    1 votes
    135

    Samba

    • Software used by: EXo WebOS
    Samba is a free software re-implementation of the SMB/CIFS networking protocol, originally developed by Andrew Tridgell. As of version 3, Samba provides file and print services for various Microsoft Windows clients and can integrate with a Windows Server domain, either as a Primary Domain Controller (PDC) or as a domain member. It can also be part of an Active Directory domain. Samba runs on most Unix and Unix-like systems, such as Linux, Solaris, AIX and the BSD variants, including Apple's Mac OS X Server (which was added to the Mac OS X client in version 10.2). Samba is standard on nearly all distributions of Linux and is commonly included as a basic system service on other Unix-based operating systems as well. Samba is released under the GNU General Public License. The name Samba comes from SMB (Server Message Block), the name of the standard protocol used by the Microsoft Windows network file system. Andrew Tridgell developed the first version of Samba Unix in December 1991 and January 1992, as a PhD student at the Australian National University, using a packet sniffer to do network analysis of the protocol used by DEC Pathworks server software. At the time of the first
    8.00
    1 votes
    136
    Border Gateway Protocol

    Border Gateway Protocol

    • Software used by: OpenBGPD
    Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the protocol which makes core routing decisions on the Internet. It maintains a table of IP networks or 'prefixes' which designate network reach-ability among autonomous systems (AS). It is described as a path vector protocol. BGP does not use traditional Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) metrics, but makes routing decisions based on path, network policies and/or rule-sets. For this reason, it is more appropriately termed a reach-ability protocol rather than routing protocol. BGP was created to replace the Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) to allow fully decentralized routing in order to transition from the core ARPAnet model to a decentralized system that included the NSFNET backbone and its associated regional networks. This allowed the Internet to become a truly decentralized system. Since 1994, version four of the BGP has been in use on the Internet. All previous versions are now obsolete. The major enhancement in version 4 was support of Classless Inter-Domain Routing and use of route aggregation to decrease the size of routing tables. Since January 2006, version 4 is codified in RFC 4271, which went through more than 20 drafts based on the earlier
    7.00
    2 votes
    137

    Datagram Congestion Control Protocol

    The Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) is a message-oriented transport layer protocol. DCCP implements reliable connection setup, teardown, Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN), congestion control, and feature negotiation. DCCP was published as RFC 4340, a proposed standard, by the IETF in March, 2006. RFC 4336 provides an introduction. FreeBSD had an implementation for the for 5.1. Linux also had an implementation of DCCP first released in Linux kernel version 2.6.14 (released October 28, 2005). DCCP provides a way to gain access to congestion control mechanisms without having to implement them at the application layer. It allows for flow-based semantics like in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), but does not provide reliable in-order delivery. Sequenced delivery within multiple streams as in the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is not available in DCCP. DCCP is useful for applications with timing constraints on the delivery of data. Such applications include streaming media, multiplayer online games and Internet telephony. The primary feature of these applications is that old messages quickly become stale so that getting new messages is preferred to
    7.00
    2 votes
    138

    DAYTIME

    The Daytime Protocol is a service in the Internet Protocol Suite, defined in 1983 in RFC 867. It is intended for testing and measurement purposes in computer networks. A host may connect to a server that supports the Daytime Protocol on either Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port 13. The server returns an ASCII character string of the current date and time in an unspecified format. On UNIX-like operating systems a daytime server is usually built into the inetd (or xinetd) daemon. The service is usually not enabled by default. It may be enabled by adding the following lines to the file /etc/inetd.conf and telling inetd to reload its configuration: An example output may be:
    7.00
    2 votes
    139

    Extensible Name Service

    eXtensible Name Service (often shortened to XNS) is an open protocol for universal addressing and automated data exchange. It is an XML-based digital identity architecture. The development of XML in 1998 led to the XNS project, and the establishment of an international non-profit governance organization, XNS Public Trust Organization (XNSORG), in early 2000. In 2002, the XNS specifications were contributed by XNSORG to OASIS, where they became part of the XRI (Extensible Resource Identifier) and XDI (XRI Data Interchange) Technical Committees. Together these two standards, XRI and XDI, form the basis for the formation of the Dataweb. XNSORG has since evolved into XDI.ORG, and now offers community-based XRI/XDI infrastructure.
    7.00
    2 votes
    140
    Fiber distributed data interface

    Fiber distributed data interface

    Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) provides a 100 Mbit/s optical standard for data transmission in a local area network that can extend in range up to 200 kilometers (120 mi). Although FDDI logical topology is a ring-based token network, it does not use the IEEE 802.5 token ring protocol as its basis; instead, its protocol is derived from the IEEE 802.4 token bus timed token protocol. In addition to covering large geographical areas, FDDI local area networks can support thousands of users. As a standard underlying medium it uses optical fiber, although it can use copper cable, in which case it may be referred to as CDDI (Copper Distributed Data Interface). FDDI offers both a Dual-Attached Station (DAS), counter-rotating token ring topology and a Single-Attached Station (SAS), token bus passing ring topology. FDDI was considered an attractive campus backbone technology in the early to mid 1990s since existing Ethernet networks only offered 10 Mbit/s transfer speeds and Token Ring networks only offered 4 Mbit/s or 16 Mbit/s speeds. Thus it was the preferred choice of that era for a high-speed backbone, but FDDI has since been effectively obsolesced by fast Ethernet which offered
    7.00
    2 votes
    141

    GroupDAV

    GroupDAV is a computer protocol used to connect Open Source groupware clients with Open Source groupware servers. It is a lightweight protocol whose primary design goal is to be as simple as possible to implement, focusing more on real world issues with open source applications than on an extremely extensive command set. It is based on a subset of WebDAV. Client side GroupDAV implementations exist for KDE Kontact, Novell Evolution, Thunderbird and Outlook, work on the Mozilla Calendar Project is in progress. Servers include OpenGroupware.org, SOGo, the Citadel system and eGroupWare. In addition every WebDAV (and therefore CalDAV/CardDAV) server is implicitly a GroupDAV v2 server. GroupDAV's relationship to CalDAV varies from developer to developer. Some of the earliest implementors intended it as a protocol complementary to the CalDAV effort, because CalDAV provides more extensive operations on calendar folders. Others have positioned GroupDAV as the leading protocol, citing CalDAV's excessive complexity as a source of interoperability bugs. This dichotomy is likely to become irrelevant in the future, however, as it is straightforward for a server to simultaneously support all
    7.00
    2 votes
    142

    Internet Cache Protocol

    The Internet Cache Protocol (ICP) is a protocol used for coordinating web caches. Its purpose is to find out the most appropriate location to retrieve a requested object from in the situation where multiple caches are in use at a single site. The goal is to use the caches as efficiently as possible, and to minimize the number of remote requests to the originating server. Hierarchically, a queried cache can either be a parent or a sibling. Parents usually sit closer to the internet connection than the child. If a child cache cannot find an object, the query usually will be sent to the parent cache, which will fetch, cache, and pass on the request. Siblings are caches of equal hierarchical status, whose purpose is to distribute the load amongst the siblings. When a request comes into one cache in a cluster of siblings, ICP is used to query the siblings for the object being requested. If the sibling has the object, it will usually be transferred from there, instead of being queried from the original server. This is often called a "near miss"—the object was not found in the cache (a “miss”) but it was loaded from a nearby cache, instead of from a remote server. The ICP protocol was
    7.00
    2 votes
    143

    JSON

    • Software used by: Evergreen
    JSON ( /ˈdʒeɪsən/ JAY-sun,  /ˈdʒeɪsɒn/ JAY-sawn), or JavaScript Object Notation, is a text-based open standard designed for human-readable data interchange. It is derived from the JavaScript scripting language for representing simple data structures and associative arrays, called objects. Despite its relationship to JavaScript, it is language-independent, with parsers available for many languages. The JSON format was originally specified by Douglas Crockford, and is described in RFC 4627. The official Internet media type for JSON is application/json. The JSON filename extension is .json. The JSON format is often used for serializing and transmitting structured data over a network connection. It is used primarily to transmit data between a server and web application, serving as an alternative to XML. Douglas Crockford was the first to specify and popularize the JSON format. JSON was used at State Software, a company co-founded by Crockford, starting around 2001. The JSON.org website was launched in 2002. In December 2005, Yahoo! began offering some of its web services in JSON. Google started offering JSON feeds for its GData web protocol in December 2006. Although JSON was based on
    7.00
    2 votes
    144

    SOAP

    • Software used by: Shibboleth
    SOAP, originally defined as Simple Object Access Protocol, is a protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of Web Services in computer networks. It relies on Extensible Markup Language (XML) for its message format, and usually relies on other Application Layer protocols, most notably Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), for message negotiation and transmission. SOAP can form the foundation layer of a web services protocol stack, providing a basic messaging framework upon which web services can be built. This XML based protocol consists of three parts: an envelope, which defines what is in the message and how to process it, a set of encoding rules for expressing instances of application-defined datatypes, and a convention for representing procedure calls and responses. SOAP has three major characteristics: Extensibility (security and WS-routing are among the extensions under development), Neutrality (SOAP can be used over any transport protocol such as HTTP, SMTP, TCP, or JMS) and Independence (SOAP allows for any programming model). As an example of how SOAP procedures can be used, a SOAP message could
    7.00
    2 votes
    145

    Transaction Capabilities Application Part

    Transaction Capabilities Application Part, from ITU-T recommendations Q.771-Q.775 or ANSI T1.114 is a protocol for Signalling System 7 networks. Its primary purpose is to facilitate multiple concurrent dialogs between the same sub-systems on the same machines, using Transaction IDs to differentiate these, similar to the way TCP ports facilitate multiplexing connections between the same IP addresses on the Internet. TCAP is used to transport INAP in Intelligent Networks and MAP in mobile phone networks. TCAP messages are sent over the wire between machines. TCAP primitives are sent between the application and the local TCAP stack, all TCAP messages are primitives but there are primitives that are not messages, i.e. some are only transferred inside the local machine. A TCAP primitive is made up of one or more TCAP components. An ITU-T TCAP primitive may be one of the following types: A Begin primitive has an Originating Transaction ID (up to 4 bytes). Continues have an Originating Transaction ID and a Destination Transaction ID. Ends and Aborts only have a Destination Transaction ID. Each primitive has both an optional component and (required) dialogue portions. The component portion
    7.00
    2 votes
    146

    XHTML

    • Software used by: Shopify
    XHTML (Extensible HyperText Markup Language) is a family of XML markup languages that mirror or extend versions of the widely used Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), the language in which web pages are written. While HTML (prior to HTML5) was defined as an application of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), a very flexible markup language framework, XHTML is an application of XML, a more restrictive subset of SGML. Because XHTML documents need to be well-formed, they can be parsed using standard XML parsers—unlike HTML, which requires a lenient HTML-specific parser. XHTML 1.0 became a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Recommendation on January 26, 2000. XHTML 1.1 became a W3C Recommendation on May 31, 2001. XHTML5 is undergoing development as of September 2009, as part of the HTML5 specification. XHTML 1.0 is "a reformulation of the three HTML 4 document types as applications of XML 1.0". The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) also continues to maintain the HTML 4.01 Recommendation, and the specifications for HTML5 and XHTML5 are being actively developed. In the current XHTML 1.0 Recommendation document, as published and revised to August 2002, the W3C commented that, "The XHTML
    7.00
    2 votes
    147

    XML Enabled Directory

    XML Enabled Directory (XED) is a framework for managing objects represented using the Extensible Markup Language (XML). XED builds on X.500 and LDAP directory services technologies. XED was originally designed in 2003 by Steven Legg of eNitiatives (formerly of eB2Bcom and Adacel Technologies) and Daniel Prager (formerly of Deakin University). The XML Enabled Directory (XED) framework leverages existing Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) and X.500 directory technology to create a directory service that stores, manages and transmits Extensible Markup Language (XML) format data, while maintaining interoperability with LDAP clients, X.500 Directory User Agents (DUAs), and X.500 Directory System Agents (DSAs). The main features of XED are: The XML Enabled Directory allows directory entries to contain XML formatted data as attribute values. Furthermore, the attribute syntax can be specified in any one of a variety of XML schema languages that the directory understands. The directory server is then able to perform data validation and semantically meaningful matching of XML documents, or their parts, on behalf of client applications, making the implementation of XML-based
    7.00
    2 votes
    148

    XSL Transformations

    • Software used by: Virtuoso Universal Server
    XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations) is a language for transforming XML documents into other XML documents, or other objects such as HTML for web pages, plain text or into XSL Formatting Objects which can then be converted to PDF, PostScript and PNG. Typically, input documents are XML files, but anything from which the processor can build an XQuery and XPath Data Model can be used, for example relational database tables, or geographical information systems. The original document is not changed; rather, a new document is created based on the content of an existing one. As a language, XSLT is influenced by functional languages, and by text-based pattern matching languages in the tradition of SNOBOL and awk. Its most direct predecessor is DSSSL, a language that performed the same function for full SGML that XSLT performs for XML Some members of the standards committee that developed XSLT, including James Clark, had previously worked on DSSSL. Unlike DSSSL, however, XSLT code uses the syntax of its target language, XML, which means that it can also be viewed as a Turing-complete template processor. XSLT was part of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)'s Extensible
    7.00
    2 votes
    149
    MSN Direct

    MSN Direct

    MSN Direct was an FM radio-based digital service which allowed 'SPOT' portable devices to receive information from MSN services. Devices that supported MSN Direct included wristwatches, desktop clocks, in-car GPS satellite navigation units, and even small appliances such as coffee makers. Information available through paid "channels" included weather, horoscopes, stocks, news, sports results and calendar notifications. The service also allowed users to receive short messages from Windows Live Messenger. Some Garmin GPS units, such as the nüvi 680, allowed traffic notifications, weather forecasts, movie schedules and local gas prices to be received through MSN Direct. As a radio-based service, MSN Direct did not have universal coverage, but was available in populated parts of the United States and Canada. It was not launched in other areas. Microsoft's latest expansion of MSN Direct was to the Windows Mobile platform. MSN Direct for Windows Mobile took advantage of both cellular and Wi-Fi connections, and allowed Microsoft devices to better compete with the information services available on other mobile phone platforms. There were three versions of the MSN Direct software for Garmin
    6.00
    3 votes
    150
    Point-to-Point Protocol

    Point-to-Point Protocol

    In networking, the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a data link protocol commonly used in establishing a direct connection between two networking nodes. It can provide connection authentication, transmission encryption (using ECP, RFC 1968), and compression. PPP is used over many types of physical networks including serial cable, phone line, trunk line, cellular telephone, specialized radio links, and fiber optic links such as SONET. PPP is also used over Internet access connections (now marketed as "broadband"). Internet service providers (ISPs) have used PPP for customer dial-up access to the Internet, since IP packets cannot be transmitted over a modem line on their own, without some data link protocol. Two encapsulated forms of PPP, Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) and Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM (PPPoA), are used most commonly by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to establish a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Internet service connection with customers. PPP is commonly used as a data link layer protocol for connection over synchronous and asynchronous circuits, where it has largely superseded the older Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and telephone company
    6.00
    3 votes
    151
    RADIUS

    RADIUS

    Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) is a networking protocol that provides centralized Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) management for computers to connect and use a network service. RADIUS was developed by Livingston Enterprises, Inc., in 1991 as an access server authentication and accounting protocol and later brought into the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards. Because of the broad support and the ubiquitous nature of the RADIUS protocol, it is often used by ISPs and enterprises to manage access to the Internet or internal networks, wireless networks, and integrated e-mail services. These networks may incorporate modems, DSL, access points, VPNs, network ports, web servers, etc. RADIUS is a client/server protocol that runs in the application layer, using UDP as transport. The Remote Access Server, the Virtual Private Network server, the Network switch with port-based authentication, and the Network Access Server (NAS), are all gateways that control access to the network, and all have a RADIUS client component that communicates with the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server is usually a background process running on a UNIX or Microsoft
    6.00
    3 votes
    152

    Serial Line Internet Protocol

    The Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) is an encapsulation of the Internet Protocol designed to work over serial ports and modem connections. It is documented in RFC 1055. On personal computers, SLIP has been largely replaced by the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), which is better engineered, has more features and does not require its IP address configuration to be set before it is established. On microcontrollers, however, SLIP is still the preferred way of encapsulating IP packets due to its very small overhead. SLIP modifies a standard TCP/IP datagram by appending a special "SLIP END" character to it, which distinguishes datagram boundaries in the byte stream. SLIP requires a serial port configuration of 8 data bits, no parity, and either EIA hardware flow control, or CLOCAL mode (3-wire null-modem) UART operation settings. SLIP does not provide error detection, being reliant on upper layer protocols for this. Therefore SLIP on its own is not satisfactory over an error-prone dial-up connection. It is however still useful for testing operating systems' response capabilities under load (by looking at flood-ping statistics). SLIP is also currently used in the BlueCore Serial
    6.00
    3 votes
    153

    Domain name system

    • Software used by: HAppS
    The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities. A Domain Name Service resolves queries for these names into IP addresses for the purpose of locating computer services and devices worldwide. By providing a worldwide, distributed keyword-based redirection service, the Domain Name System is an essential component of the functionality of the Internet. An often-used analogy to explain the Domain Name System is that it serves as the phone book for the Internet by translating human-friendly computer hostnames into IP addresses. For example, the domain name www.example.com translates to the addresses 192.0.43.10 (IPv4) and 2620:0:2d0:200::10 (IPv6). Unlike a phone book, however, DNS can be quickly updated and these updates distributed, allowing a service's location on the network to change without affecting the end users, who continue to use the same hostname. Users take advantage of this when they recite meaningful Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and e-mail addresses without
    5.00
    4 votes
    154

    Link Access Procedures, D channel

    In Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) telecommunications, Link Access Procedures, D channel is part of the network's communications protocol which ensures that messages are error free and executed in the right sequence. LAPD is the second layer protocol on the ISDN protocol stack in the D channel (the ISDN channel in which the control and signalling information is carried). LAPD standards are specified in ITU-T Q.920 and Q.921. Its development was heavily based on High-Level Data Link Control.
    5.67
    3 votes
    155

    Musical Instrument Digital Interface

    • Software used by: Pure Data
    MIDI ( /ˈmɪdi/; short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is an electronic musical instrument industry specification that enables a wide variety of digital musical instruments, computers and other related devices to connect and communicate with one another. It is a set of standard commands that allows electronic musical instruments, performance controllers, computers and related devices to communicate, as well as a hardware standard that guarantees compatibility between them. MIDI equipment captures note events and adjustments to controls such as knobs and buttons, encodes them as digital messages, and sends these messages to other devices where they control sound generation and other features. This data can be recorded into a hardware or software device called a sequencer, which can be used to edit the data and to play it back at a later time. MIDI carries note event messages that specify notation, pitch and velocity, control signals for parameters such as volume, vibrato, audio panning and cues, and clock signals that set and synchronize tempo between multiple devices. A single MIDI link can carry up to sixteen channels of information, each of which can be routed to a
    5.67
    3 votes
    156

    Point-to-point tunneling protocol

    The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a method for implementing virtual private networks. PPTP uses a control channel over TCP and a GRE tunnel operating to encapsulate PPP packets. The PPTP specification does not describe encryption or authentication features and relies on the PPP protocol being tunneled to implement security functionality. However the most common PPTP implementation, shipping with the Microsoft Windows product families, implements various levels of authentication and encryption natively as standard features of the Windows PPTP stack. The intended use of this protocol is to provide similar levels of security and remote access as typical VPN products. A specification for PPTP was published as RFC 2637 and was developed by a vendor consortium formed by Microsoft, Ascend Communications (today part of Alcatel-Lucent), 3Com, and others. PPTP has not been proposed nor ratified as a standard by the IETF. A PPTP tunnel is instantiated by communication to the peer on TCP port 1723. This TCP connection is then used to initiate and manage a second GRE tunnel to the same peer. The PPTP GRE packet format is non standard, including an additional acknowledgement field
    5.67
    3 votes
    157

    STUN

    STUN is a standardized set of methods, including a network protocol, used in NAT traversal for applications of real-time voice, video, messaging, and other interactive IP communications. STUN is an acronym for Session Traversal Utilities for NAT, and is documented in RFC 5389. RFC 5389 obsoletes the previous specification, entitled Simple Traversal of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) through Network Address Translators (NATs), documented in RFC 3489. The obsolete version of STUN, sometimes referred to as Classic STUN, was intended as a complete solution for NAT traversal, and featured an algorithm to allow endpoints to determine NAT behaviour. The current version of STUN is presented as a tool to be used by other protocols, such as ICE. STUN removes the NAT classification algorithm and defines an extensible packet format. The STUN protocol allows applications operating behind a network address translator (NAT) to discover the presence of the network address translator and to obtain the mapped (public) IP address (NAT address) and port number that the NAT has allocated for the application's User Datagram Protocol (UDP) connections to remote hosts. The protocol requires assistance from a
    5.67
    3 votes
    158

    AppleTalk Echo Protocol

    AEP (AppleTalk Echo Protocol) is a transport layer protocol in the AppleTalk protocol suite designed to test the reachability of network nodes. AEP generates packets to be sent to the network node and is identified in the Type field of a packet as an AEP packet. The packet is first passed to the source DDP. After it is identified as an AEP packet, it is forwarded to the node where the packet is examined by the DDP at the destination. After the packet is identified as an AEP packet, the packet is then copied and a field in the packet is altered to create an AEP reply packet, and is then returned to the source node.
    6.50
    2 votes
    159

    Directory Assistance Service

    The Directory Assistance Service (DAS) is an obsolete protocol and service for accessing X.500 directory services. DAS was intended to provide a lightweight means for clients to access X.500 directory services via a split-Directory User Agent model. Here the Directory User Agent (DUA) (the directory client) is split into a Directory Assistance (DA) client and a Directory Assistant. The directory user would interact with the DA-client, the DA-Client would communicate with the Directory Assistant using the DA protocol, and the Directory Assistant would communicate with the Directory Service using the X.500 Directory Access Protocol (DAP). That is, the Directory Assistant is a Directory Assistance protocol to DAP gateway. This design allows the DA-client to access the directory without requiring it to support the cumbersome Open Systems Interconnection protocol stack. The Directory Assistance Service was created in 1990 by Marshall T. Rose while at Performance Systems International, Inc., and formally specified in RFC 1202 (published in 1991). These and related efforts, such as DIXIE, lead to the development of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. LDAP replaced the Directory
    6.50
    2 votes
    160

    File eXchange Protocol

    File eXchange Protocol (FXP) and (FXSP) is a method of data transfer which uses FTP to transfer data from one remote server to another (inter-server) without routing this data through the client's connection. Conventional FTP involves a single server and a single client; all data transmission is done between these two. In the FXP session, a client maintains a standard FTP connection to two servers, and can direct either server to connect to the other to initiate a data transfer. The advantage of using FXP over FTP is evident when a high-bandwidth server demands resources from another high-bandwidth server, but only a low-bandwidth client, such as a network administrator working away from location, has the authority to access the resources on both servers. Enabling FXP support can make a server vulnerable to an exploit known as FTP bounce. As a result of this, FTP server software often has FXP disabled by default. Some FTP Servers such as glFTPd, cuftpd, RaidenFTPD, drftpd, and wzdftpd support negotiation of a secure data channel between two servers using either of the FTP protocol extension commands; CPSV or SSCN. This normally works by the client issuing CPSV in lieu of the PASV
    6.50
    2 votes
    161
    Internet Group Management Protocol

    Internet Group Management Protocol

    The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is a communications protocol used by hosts and adjacent routers on IP networks to establish multicast group memberships. IGMP is an integral part of the IP multicast specification. IGMP can be used for online streaming video and gaming, and allows more efficient use of resources when supporting these types of applications. IGMP is used on IPv4 networks. Multicast management on IPv6 networks is handled by Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) which uses ICMPv6 messaging in contrast to IGMP's bare IP encapsulation. A network designed to deliver a multicast service using IGMP might use this basic architecture: IGMP operates between the client computer and a local multicast router. Switches featuring IGMP snooping derive useful information by observing these IGMP transactions. Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) is then used between the local and remote multicast routers, to direct multicast traffic from the multicast server to many multicast clients. IGMP operates above the network layer, though it does not actually act as a transport protocol. There are three versions of IGMP, as defined by Request for Comments (RFC) documents of the
    6.50
    2 votes
    162

    Internet Relay Chat

    • Software used by: SeaMonkey
    Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a protocol for real-time Internet text messaging (chat) or synchronous conferencing. It is mainly designed for group communication in discussion forums, called channels, but also allows one-to-one communication via private message as well as chat and data transfer, including file sharing. IRC was created in 1988. Client software is available for every major operating system that supports Internet access. As of April 2011, the top 100 IRC networks served more than half a million users at a time, with hundreds of thousands of channels operating on a total of roughly 1,500 servers out of roughly 3,200 servers worldwide. IRC was created by Jarkko Oikarinen in August 1988 to replace a program called MUT (MultiUser Talk) on a BBS called OuluBox in Finland. Oikarinen found inspiration in a chat system known as Bitnet Relay, which operated on the BITNET. IRC was used to report on the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt throughout a media blackout. It was previously used in a similar fashion during the Gulf War. Logs of these and other events are kept in the ibiblio archive. IRC is an open protocol that uses TCP and, optionally, TLS. An IRC server can connect to
    6.50
    2 votes
    163

    Multicast Source Discovery Protocol

    Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP) is a Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) family multicast routing protocol defined by Experimental RFC 3618. MSDP interconnects multiple IPv4 PIM Sparse-Mode (PIM-SM) domains which enables PIM-SM to have Rendezvous Point (RP) redundancy and inter-domain multicasting. MSDP uses TCP as its transport protocol. Each multicast tree has to have its own RP. All of the RPs are peers (directly or through other MSDP peers). Messages contain Source of Data, Group Address The Data Source Sends To (S,G). If an RP on its own domain receives a message it determines if there are group members on this domain interested in a multicast. If someone is interested it triggers a join towards the data source (into the source domain) in the way of (S, G). In a peering relationship, one MSDP peer listens for new TCP connections on the well-known port 639.
    6.50
    2 votes
    164

    Network Information Service

    The Network Information Service, or NIS (originally called Yellow Pages or YP) is a client–server directory service protocol for distributing system configuration data such as user and host names between computers on a computer network. Sun Microsystems developed the NIS; the technology is licensed to virtually all other Unix vendors. Because British Telecom PLC owned the name "Yellow Pages" as a registered trademark in the United Kingdom for its paper-based, commercial telephone directory, Sun changed the name of its system to NIS, though all the commands and functions still start with “yp”. An NIS/YP system maintains and distributes a central directory of user and group information, hostnames, e-mail aliases and other text-based tables of information in a computer network. For example, in a common UNIX environment, the list of users for identification is placed in /etc/passwd, and secret authentication hashes in /etc/shadow. NIS adds another “global” user list which is used for identifying users on any client of the NIS domain. Administrators have the ability to configure NIS to serve password data to outside processes to authenticate users using various versions of the Unix
    6.50
    2 votes
    165
    Network Time Protocol

    Network Time Protocol

    • Software used by: OpenNTPD
    Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a networking protocol for clock synchronization between computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks. In operation since before 1985, NTP is one of the oldest Internet protocols in use. NTP was originally designed by David L. Mills of the University of Delaware, who still develops and maintains it with a team of volunteers. NTP provides Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) including scheduled leap second adjustments. No information about time zones or daylight saving time is transmitted; this information is outside its scope and must be obtained separately. NTP uses Marzullo's algorithm and is designed to resist the effects of variable latency. NTP can usually maintain time to within tens of milliseconds over the public Internet, and can achieve 1 millisecond accuracy in local area networks under ideal conditions. As of June 2010, the current reference implementation is version 4 (NTPv4), which is a proposed standard as documented in RFC 5905. It succeeds version 3, specified in RFC 1305. The protocol uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) on port number 123. A less complex implementation of NTP, using the same protocol but without
    6.50
    2 votes
    166

    Remote Shell

    The remote shell (rsh) is a command line computer program that can execute shell commands as another user, and on another computer across a computer network. The remote system to which rsh connects runs the rsh daemon (rshd). The daemon typically uses the well-known Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) port number 514. Rsh originated as part of the BSD Unix operating system, along with rcp, as part of the rlogin package on 4.2BSD in 1983. rsh has since been ported to other operating systems. The rsh command has the same name as another common UNIX utility, the restricted shell, which first appeared in PWB/UNIX; in System V Release 4, the restricted shell is often located at /usr/bin/rsh. As described in the rlogin article, the rsh protocol is not secure for network use, because it sends unencrypted information over the network, among other reasons. Some implementations also authenticate by sending unencrypted passwords over the network. rsh has largely been replaced with the secure shell (ssh) program, even on local networks. As an example of rsh use, the following executes the command mkdir testdir as user remoteuser on the computer host.example.com running a UNIX-like
    6.50
    2 votes
    167

    Echo protocol

    The Echo Protocol is a service in the Internet Protocol Suite defined in RFC 862. It was originally proposed for testing and measurement of round-trip times in IP networks. A host may connect to a server that supports the Echo Protocol using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) on the well-known port number 7. The server sends back an identical copy of the data it received. The functionality of the Echo Protocol was superseded by the echo request of the Internet Control Message Protocol and the corresponding ping utility. On UNIX-like operating systems an echo server is built into the inetd daemon. The echo service is usually not enabled by default. It may be enabled by adding the following lines to the file /etc/inetd.conf and telling inetd to reload its configuration:
    5.33
    3 votes
    168
    HOTP

    HOTP

    HOTP is an HMAC-based One Time Password algorithm. It is a cornerstone of Initiative For Open Authentication (OATH). HOTP was published as an informational IETF RFC 4226 in December 2005, documenting the algorithm along with a Java implementation. Since then, the algorithm was adopted by many companies worldwide (see below) and became the world's leading standard for event-based OTP authentication. The HOTP algorithm is a freely available open standard. Let: Then HOTP(K,C) is mathematically defined by The mask is to disregard the most significant bit to provide better interoperability between processors. For HOTP to be useful for an individual to input to a system, the result must be converted into a HOTP value, a 6–8 digits number that is implementation dependent. HOTP can be used to authenticate a user in a system via an authentication server. Also, if some more steps are carried out (the server calculates subsequent OTP value and sends/displays it to the user who checks it against subsequent OTP value calculated by his token), the user can also authenticate the validation server. Both hardware and software tokens are available from various vendors, for some of them see
    5.33
    3 votes
    169

    Server Message Block

    In computer networking, Server Message Block (SMB), also known as Common Internet File System (CIFS, /ˈsɪfs/) operates as an application-layer network protocol mainly used for providing shared access to files, printers, serial ports, and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network. It also provides an authenticated inter-process communication mechanism. Most usage of SMB involves computers running Microsoft Windows, where it was known as "Microsoft Windows Network" before the subsequent introduction of Active Directory. Corresponding Windows services are the "Server Service" (for the server component) and "Workstation Service" (for the client component). The Server Message Block protocol can run atop the Session (and lower) network layers in several ways: Barry Feigenbaum originally designed SMB at IBM with the aim of turning DOS "Interrupt 33" (21h) local file access into a networked file system. Microsoft has made considerable modifications to the most commonly used version. Microsoft merged the SMB protocol with the LAN Manager product which it had started developing for OS/2 with 3Com c. 1990, and continued to add features to the protocol in Windows for Workgroups
    5.33
    3 votes
    170

    Business Process Execution Language

    • Software used by: Virtuoso Universal Server
    Business Process Execution Language (BPEL), short for Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) is an OASIS standard executable language for specifying actions within business processes with web services. Processes in BPEL export and import information by using web service interfaces exclusively. Web service interactions can be described in two ways: executable business processes and abstract business processes. Executable business processes model actual behavior of a participant in a business interaction. Abstract business processes are partially specified processes that are not intended to be executed. An Abstract Process may hide some of the required concrete operational details. Abstract Processes serve a descriptive role, with more than one possible use case, including observable behavior and/or process template. WS-BPEL is meant to be used to model the behavior of both Executable and Abstract Processes. WS-BPEL provides a language for the specification of Executable and Abstract business processes. By doing so, it extends the Web Services interaction model and enables it to support business transactions. WS-BPEL defines an interoperable integration model that
    7.00
    1 votes
    171

    DIXIE

    DIXIE is an obsolete protocol for accessing X.500 directory services. DIXIE was intended to provide a lightweight means for clients to access X.500 directory services. DIXIE allowed TCP/IP clients to connect a DIXIE-to-DAP gateway which would provide access to the X.500 Directory Service. This design allows the client to access the directory without requiring it to support the cumbersome Open Systems Interconnection protocol stack. DIXIE was created in 1990 at the University of Michigan by Tim Howes, Mark Smith, and Bryan Beecher. DIXIE was formally specified in RFC 1249, published in 1991. The university offered a completed UNIX implementation of the protocol, including a DIXIE server, an application development library, and DIXIE clients. A DIXIE client for Apple Macintosh was also provided. These efforts led to the development of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. LDAP replaced DIXIE. When created, the acronym DIXIE did not stand for anything, however later it become known to stand for Directory Interface to X.500 Implemented Efficiently.
    7.00
    1 votes
    172
    IPv6

    IPv6

    • Software used by: OpenBSD
    IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) is the latest revision of the Internet Protocol (IP), the primary communications protocol upon which the entire Internet is built. It is intended to replace the older IPv4, which is still employed for the vast majority of Internet traffic as of 2012. IPv6 was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to deal with the long-anticipated problem of IPv4 running out of addresses. Each device on the Internet, such as a computer or mobile telephone, must be assigned a number called an IP address, a binary number with a certain number of digits (each presented by one bit), in order to communicate with other devices. With the ever-increasing number of new devices being connected to the Internet, there is a need for more addresses than IPv4 can accommodate. IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses, allowing for 2, or approximately 3.4×10 addresses — more than 7.9×10 times as many as IPv4, which uses 32-bit addresses. IPv4 allows for only 4,294,967,296 unique addresses worldwide (or less than one address per person alive in 2012), but IPv6 allows for around 4.8×10 addresses per person — a number unlikely ever to run out. However, this means the two
    7.00
    1 votes
    173

    Remote Job Entry

    Remote job entry is the process of sending jobs to Mainframe computers from remote workstations, and by extension the process of receiving output from mainframe jobs at a remote workstation. The RJE workstation is called a remote because it usually is located some distance from the host computer. The workstation connects to the host through a modem or local area network (LAN). The terms Remote Batch, Remote Job System, and Remote Job Processing are also used for RJE facilities. Remote Job Entry (RJE) is also the name of an OS/360 component that provided RJE services. An RJE workstation operator may have complete console control of the job flow between the workstation and mainframe, depending on local configuration and policy. NETRJS is the protocol developed by the Campus Computing Network at UCLA to deliver batch jobs to their IBM 360 Model 91. This protocol was originally assigned to ARPANET Initial Connection Protocol sockets 71, 73, and 75, and later reassigned to Internet ports 71-74.
    7.00
    1 votes
    174

    ROIP

    Radio over Internet Protocol, or RoIP, is similar to VoIP, but augments two-way radio communications rather than telephone calls. From the system point of view, it is essentially VoIP with PTT (Push To Talk). To the user it can be implemented like any other radio network. With RoIP, at least one node of a network is a radio (or a radio with an IP interface device) connected via IP to other nodes in the radio network. The other nodes can be two-way radios, but could also be dispatch consoles either traditional (hardware) or modern (software on a PC), POTS telephones, softphone applications running on a computer such as Skype phone, PDA, smartphone, or some other communications device accessible over IP. RoIP can be deployed over private networks as well as the public Internet. It is useful in land mobile radio systems used by public safety departments and fleets of utilities spread over a broad geographic area. Like other centralized radio systems such as trunked radio systems, issues of delay or latency and reliance on centralized infrastructure can be impediments to adoption by public safety agencies. RoIP is not a proprietary or protocol-limited construct but a basic concept that
    7.00
    1 votes
    175
    User Datagram Protocol

    User Datagram Protocol

    • Software used by: Twisted
    The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core members of the Internet protocol suite, the set of network protocols used for the Internet. With UDP, computer applications can send messages, in this case referred to as datagrams, to other hosts on an Internet Protocol (IP) network without requiring prior communications to set up special transmission channels or data paths. The protocol was designed by David P. Reed in 1980 and formally defined in RFC 768. UDP uses a simple transmission model with a minimum of protocol mechanism. It has no handshaking dialogues, and thus exposes any unreliability of the underlying network protocol to the user's program. As this is normally IP over unreliable media, there is no guarantee of delivery, ordering or duplicate protection. UDP provides checksums for data integrity, and port numbers for addressing different functions at the source and destination of the datagram. UDP is suitable for purposes where error checking and correction is either not necessary or performed in the application, avoiding the overhead of such processing at the network interface level. Time-sensitive applications often use UDP because dropping packets is preferable to
    7.00
    1 votes
    176

    ICQ

    • Software used by: Miranda IM
    ICQ is an instant messaging computer program that was first developed and popularized by the Israeli company Mirabilis, then bought by America Online, and since April 2010 owned by Mail.ru Group. The first version of the program was released in November 1996 and ICQ became the first Internet-wide instant messaging service, later patenting the technology. AOL acquired Mirabilis on June 8, 1998, for US$287 million in cash up front and $120 million in additional payments over three years. In 2001, ICQ had over 100 million accounts registered. In April 2010, AOL sold ICQ to Digital Sky Technologies for $187.5 million. Mirabilis was first established in June 1996 by five Israelis: Yair Goldfinger, Sefi Vigiser, Amnon Amir, Arik Vardi, and Arik's father Yossi Vardi. They recognized that many people were online accessing the Internet through a non-UNIX operating system, and that there was no software that enabled an immediate connection between them. What was missing was the technology for locating and connecting the users of the Windows operating system. The technology Mirabilis developed for ICQ was distributed free of charge. The technology's success caused AOL to acquire Mirabilis on
    6.00
    2 votes
    177
    Internet protocol suite

    Internet protocol suite

    • Software used by: OpenSSH
    The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and similar networks, and generally the most popular protocol stack for wide area networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP, because of its most important protocols: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first networking protocols defined in this standard. It is occasionally known as the DoD model due to the foundational influence of the ARPANET in the 1970s (operated by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of Defense). TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be formatted, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination. It has four abstraction layers, each with its own protocols. From lowest to highest, the layers are: The TCP/IP model and related protocols are maintained by the (IETF) or Internet Engineering Task Force. The Internet protocol suite resulted from research and development conducted by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the early 1970s. After initiating the pioneering ARPANET in 1969, DARPA started work on a number of other data transmission technologies. In 1972,
    6.00
    2 votes
    178
    IP address

    IP address

    An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing. Its role has been characterized as follows: "A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there." The designers of the Internet Protocol defined an IP address as a 32-bit number and this system, known as Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is still in use today. However, due to the enormous growth of the Internet and the predicted depletion of available addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits for the address, was developed in 1995. IPv6 was standardized as RFC 2460 in 1998, and its deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s. IP addresses are binary numbers, but they are usually stored in text files and displayed in human-readable notations, such as 172.16.254.1 (for IPv4), and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 (for IPv6). The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) manages the IP address space allocations globally
    6.00
    2 votes
    179
    6.00
    2 votes
    180
    VT100

    VT100

    • Software used by: V-Term
    The VT100 is a video terminal that was made by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). Its detailed attributes became the de facto standard for terminal emulators to emulate. It was introduced in August 1978, following its predecessor, the VT52, and communicated with its host system over serial lines using the ASCII character set and control sequences (a.k.a. escape sequences) standardized by ANSI. The VT100 was also the first Digital mass-market terminal to incorporate "graphic renditions" (blinking, bolding, reverse video, and underlining) as well as a selectable 80 or 132 column display. All setup of the VT100 was accomplished using interactive displays presented on the screen; the setup data was stored in non-volatile memory within the terminal. The VT100 also introduced an additional character set that allowed the drawing of on-screen forms. The control sequences used by the VT100 family are based on the ANSI X3.64 standard, also known as ECMA-48 and ISO/IEC 6429. These are sometimes referred to as ANSI escape codes. The VT100 was not the first terminal to be based on X3.64—The Heath Company had a microprocessor-based video terminal, the Heathkit H-19 (H19), that implemented a
    6.00
    2 votes
    181
    Controller-area network

    Controller-area network

    CAN bus (for controller area network) is a vehicle bus standard designed to allow microcontrollers and devices to communicate with each other within a vehicle without a host computer. CAN bus is a message-based protocol, designed specifically for automotive applications but now also used in other areas such as industrial automation and medical equipment. Development of CAN bus started originally in 1983 at Robert Bosch GmbH. The protocol was officially released in 1986 at the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) congress in Detroit, Michigan. The first CAN controller chips, produced by Intel and Philips, came on the market in 1987. Bosch published the CAN 2.0 specification in 1991. CAN bus is one of five protocols used in the OBD-II vehicle diagnostics standard. The OBD-II standard has been mandatory for all cars and light trucks sold in the United States since 1996, and the EOBD standard has been mandatory for all gasoline vehicles sold in the European Union since 2001 and all diesel vehicles since 2004. A modern automobile may have as many as 70 electronic control units (ECU) for various subsystems. Typically the biggest processor is the engine control unit (also engine control
    5.00
    3 votes
    182

    IEEE 802.16

    IEEE 802.16 is a series of Wireless Broadband standards authored by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The IEEE Standards Board established a working group in 1999 to develop standards for broadband for Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. The Workgroup is a unit of the IEEE 802 local area network and metropolitan area network standards committee. Although the 802.16 family of standards is officially called WirelessMAN in IEEE, it has been commercialized under the name “WiMAX” (from "Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access") by the WiMAX Forum industry alliance. The Forum promotes and certifies compatibility and interoperability of products based on the IEEE 802.16 standards. The 802.16e-2005 amendment version was announced as being deployed around the world in 2009. The version IEEE 802.16-2009 was amended by IEEE 802.16j-2009. Projects publish draft and proposed standards with the letter "P" prepended, which gets dropped and replaced by a dash and year when the standards are ratified and published. IEEE 802.16 standardizes the air interface and related functions associated with wireless local loop. The charter originally envisioned that three
    5.00
    3 votes
    183

    SILC

    SILC (Secure Internet Live Conferencing protocol) is a protocol that provides secure synchronous conferencing services (very much like IRC) over the Internet. The SILC protocol can be divided in three main parts: SILC Key Exchange (SKE) protocol, SILC Authentication protocol and SILC Packet protocol. SILC protocol additionally defines SILC Commands that are used to manage the SILC session. SILC provides channels (groups), nicknames, private messages, and other common features. However, SILC nicknames, in contrast to many other protocols (e.g. IRC), are not unique; a user is able to use any nickname, even if one is already in use. The real identification in the protocol is performed by unique Client ID . The SILC protocol uses this to overcome nickname collision, a problem present in many other protocols. All messages sent in a SILC network are binary, allowing them to contain any type of data, including text, video, audio, and other multimedia data. The SKE protocol is used to establish session key and other security parameters for protecting the SILC Packet protocol. The SKE itself is based on the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm (a form of asymmetric cryptography) and the
    5.00
    3 votes
    184

    AOL Instant Messenger

    • Software used by: Miranda IM
    AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) is an instant messaging and presence computer program which uses the proprietary OSCAR instant messaging protocol and the TOC protocol to allow registered users to communicate in real time. It was released by AOL in May 1997. Stand-alone official AIM client software includes advertisements and is available for Microsoft Windows, Windows Mobile, Mac OS, Mac OS X, Android, iOS, BlackBerry OS. The software, maintained by AOL, Inc., at one time had the largest share of the instant messaging market in North America, especially in the United States (with 52% of the total reported as of 2006). This does not include other instant messaging software related to or developed by AOL, such as ICQ and iChat. As of June 2011, one reported market share had collapsed to 0.73%. However, this number only reflects installed IM applications, and not active users. The standard protocol that AIM clients use to communicate is called Open System for CommunicAtion in Realtime (OSCAR). Most AOL-produced versions of AIM and popular third party AIM clients use this protocol. However, AOL also created a simpler protocol called TOC that lacks many of OSCAR's features but is sometimes
    5.50
    2 votes
    185

    Exterior Gateway Protocol

    The Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) is a now obsolete routing protocol for the Internet originally specified in 1982 by Eric C. Rosen of Bolt, Beranek and Newman, and David L. Mills. It was first described in RFC 827 and formally specified in RFC 904 (1984). Not to be confused with exterior gateway protocols in general (of which EGP and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) are examples), EGP is a simple reachability protocol, and, unlike modern distance-vector and path-vector protocols, it is limited to tree-like topologies. During the early days of the Internet, EGP version 3 (EGP3) was used to interconnect autonomous systems. Currently, BGP version 4 is the accepted standard for Internet routing and has essentially replaced the more limited EGP3.
    5.50
    2 votes
    186
    FastTrack

    FastTrack

    • Software used by: Kazaa
    FastTrack is a peer-to-peer (P2P) protocol that was used by the Kazaa, Grokster, iMesh, and Morpheus file sharing programs. FastTrack was the most popular file sharing network in 2003, and used mainly for the exchange of music mp3 files. The network had approximately 2.4 million concurrent users in 2003. It is estimated that the total number of users was greater than that of Napster at its peak. The FastTrack protocol and Kazaa were created and developed by Estonian programmers of BlueMoon Interactive headed by Jaan Tallinn, the same team that later created Skype. After selling it to Niklas Zennström from Sweden and Janus Friis from Denmark, it was introduced in March 2001 by their Dutch company Consumer Empowerment. It appeared during the end of the first generation of P2P networks – Napster shut down in July of that year. There are three FastTrack-based networks, and they use mutually incompatible versions of the protocol. The most popular clients on each are Kazaa (and its variations), Grokster, and iMesh. For more information about the various lawsuits surrounding Kazaa and Sharman Networks, see Kazaa. FastTrack uses supernodes to improve scalability. To allow downloading from
    5.50
    2 votes
    187
    IEEE 802.11

    IEEE 802.11

    IEEE 802.11 is a set of standards for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication in the 2.4, 3.6 and 5 GHz frequency bands. They are created and maintained by the IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee (IEEE 802). The base version of the standard IEEE 802.11-2012 has had subsequent amendments. These standards provide the basis for wireless network products using the Wi-Fi brand. The 802.11 family consists of a series of half-duplex over-the-air modulation techniques that use the same basic protocol. The most popular are those defined by the 802.11b and 802.11g protocols, which are amendments to the original standard. 802.11-1997 was the first wireless networking standard, but 802.11b was the first widely accepted one, followed by 802.11g and 802.11n. 802.11n is a new multi-streaming modulation technique. Other standards in the family (c–f, h, j) are service amendments and extensions or corrections to the previous specifications. 802.11b and 802.11g use the 2.4 GHz ISM band, operating in the United States under Part 15 of the US Federal Communications Commission Rules and Regulations. Because of this choice of frequency band, 802.11b and g equipment may
    5.50
    2 votes
    188

    L2TPv3

    Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Version 3 is an IETF standard related to L2TP that can be used as an alternative protocol to Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) for encapsulation of multiprotocol Layer 2 communications traffic over IP networks. Like L2TP, L2TPv3 provides a ‘pseudo-wire’ service, but scaled to fit carrier requirements. L2TPv3 can be regarded as being to MPLS what IP is to ATM: a simplified version of the same concept, with much of the goodness achieved with a fraction of the effort, at the cost of losing some technical features considered less important in the market. In the case of L2TPv3, the features lost are teletraffic engineering features considered important in MPLS. The protocol overhead of L2TPv3 is also significantly bigger than MPLS. However, there is no reason why these features could not be re-engineered in or on top of L2TPv3 in later products.
    5.50
    2 votes
    189

    MS-CHAP

    MS-CHAP is the Microsoft version of the Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol, CHAP. The protocol exists in two versions, MS-CHAPv1 (defined in RFC 2433) and MS-CHAPv2 (defined in RFC 2759). MS-CHAPv2 was introduced with Windows NT 4.0 SP4 and was added to Windows 98 in the "Windows 98 Dial-Up Networking Security Upgrade Release" and Windows 95 in the "Dial Up Networking 1.3 Performance & Security Update for MS Windows 95" upgrade. Windows Vista dropped support for MS-CHAPv1. MS-CHAP is used as one authentication option in Microsoft's implementation of the PPTP protocol for virtual private networks. It is also used as an authentication option with RADIUS servers which are used for WiFi security using the WPA-Enterprise protocol. It is further used as the main authentication option of the Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol (PEAP). Compared with CHAP, MS-CHAP: MS-CHAPv2 provides mutual authentication between peers by piggybacking a peer challenge on the Response packet and an authenticator response on the Success packet. Several weaknesses have been found in MS-CHAPv2, some of which severely reduce the complexity of brute-force attacks making them feasible with modern
    5.50
    2 votes
    190
    Peg DHCP

    Peg DHCP

    Peg DHCP is a method defined in RFC 2322 to assign IP addresses in a context where regular DHCP wouldn't work. The "server" hands out wooden clothes-pegs numbered with the IPs to allocate and an additional leaflet with network information. The "client", typically the user, then configures his device accordingly. Even though this RFC, "Management of IP numbers by peg-dhcp" was published on the first of April 1998, it describes, unlike most other April Fools' Day RFCs, a regularly used protocol with a serious purpose. During the preparation of Hacking in Progress 1997, the organizers were looking for a robust way to assign IP addresses to the participants. The obvious first choice, DHCP, almost completely defenseless against rogue servers, was not retained considering the traditionally creative use of the network. Instead, for every IP to allocate, the variable (host) part is written on a wooden peg with waterproof marker. The user would then attach it to the cable connecting that device to the network. The peg is accompanied by a leaflet with further information such as the static (net) part of the IP address, the netmask, the default gateway, DNS-servers, and often also their MAC
    5.50
    2 votes
    191

    Reliable server pooling

    Reliable server pooling (RSerPool) is a computer protocol framework for management of and access to multiple, coordinated (pooled) servers. RSerPool is an IETF standard, which has been developed by the IETF RSerPool Working Group and documented in RFC 5351, RFC 5352, RFC 5353, RFC 5354, RFC 5355 and RFC 5356. In the terminology of RSerPool a server is denoted as a Pool Element (PE). In its Pool, it is identified by its Pool Element Identifier (PE ID), a 32-bit number. The PE ID is randomly chosen upon a PE's registration to its pool. The set of all pools is denoted as the Handlespace. In older literature, it may be denoted as Namespace. This denomination has been dropped in order to avoid confusion with the Domain Name System (DNS). Each pool in a handlespace is identified by a unique Pool Handle (PH), which is represented by an arbitrary byte vector. Usually, this is an ASCII or Unicode name of the pool, e.g. "DownloadPool" or "WebServerPool". Each handlespace has a certain scope (e.g. an organization or company), denoted as Operation Scope. It is explicitly not a goal of RSerPool to manage the global Internet's pools within a single handlespace. Due to the localisation of
    5.50
    2 votes
    192
    FIX protocol

    FIX protocol

    The Financial Information eXchange (FIX) protocol is an electronic communications protocol initiated in 1992 for international real-time exchange of information related to the securities transactions and markets. With trillions of dollars traded annually on the NASDAQ alone, financial service entities are investing heavily in optimizing electronic trading and employing direct market access (DMA) to increase their speed to financial markets. Managing the delivery of trading applications and keeping latency low increasingly requires an understanding of the FIX protocol. The FIX Protocol specification was originally authored in 1992 by Chris Morstatt and Robert "Bob" Lamoureux to enable electronic communication of equity trading data between Fidelity Investments and Salomon Brothers. FIX has become the de facto messaging standard for pre-trade and trade communication in the global equity markets, and is expanding into the post-trade space to support straight-through processing, as well as continuing to expand into foreign exchange, fixed income and derivatives markets. FIX Protocol, Ltd. is the company established for the purpose of ownership and maintenance of the specification. It
    4.67
    3 votes
    193

    UDP hole punching

    • Software used by: Freenet
    UDP hole punching is a commonly used technique employed in network address translator (NAT) applications for maintaining User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packet streams that traverse the NAT. NAT traversal techniques are typically required for client-to-client networking applications on the Internet involving hosts connected in private networks, especially in peer-to-peer and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) deployments. UDP hole punching establishes connectivity between two hosts communicating across one or more network address translators. Typically, third party hosts on the public transit network are used to establish UDP port states that may be used for direct communications between the communicating hosts. Once port state has been successfully established and the hosts are communicating, port state may be maintained by either normal communications traffic, or in the prolonged absence thereof, by so called keep-alive packets, usually consisting of empty UDP packets or packets with minimal non-intrusive content. UDP hole punching is a method for establishing bidirectional UDP connections between Internet hosts in private networks using network address translators. The technique
    4.67
    3 votes
    194

    Yahoo! Messenger Protocol

    • Software used by: Miranda IM
    The Yahoo! Messenger Protocol is the underlying network protocol used by the Yahoo! Messenger instant messaging client, for Yahoo!. Yahoo! Instant Messager supports many features beyond just messaging, including off-line messaging, file transfer, chat, conferencing, voice chat, webcam and avatar. The purpose of the YMSG protocol is to provide a language and series of conventions for software communicating with Yahoo!'s Instant Messaging service. In essence YMSG performs the same role for IM as HTTP does for the World Wide Web. Unlike HTTP, however, YMSG is a proprietary standard, aligned only with a single messaging service provider (namely, Yahoo!). Rival messaging services have their own protocols, some based on open standards, others proprietary, each effectively fulfilling the same role with different mechanics. One of the fundamental tenets of instant messaging is the notion that users can see when someone is connected to the network known in the jargon as 'presence'. Yahoo!'s protocol uses the mechanics of a standard internet connection to achieve presence, the same connection it uses to send and receive data. In order for each user to remain 'visible' to other users on
    4.67
    3 votes
    195

    CLNS

    Connectionless-mode Network Service (CLNS) or simply Connectionless Network Service is an OSI Network Layer datagram service that does not require a circuit to be established before data is transmitted and routes messages to their destinations independently of any other messages. As such it is a "best-effort" rather than a "reliable" delivery service. CLNS is not an Internet service, but provides capabilities in an OSI network environment similar to those provided by the Internet Protocol (IP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). In an OSI protocol deployment, CLNS is the service provided by the Connectionless-mode Network Protocol (CLNP). CLNP is widely used in many telecommunications networks around the world because IS-IS (an OSI layer 3 protocol) is mandated by the ITU-T as the protocol for management of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) elements. From August 1990 to April 1995 the NSFNET backbone supported CLNP in addition to TCP/IP. However, CLNP usage remained low compared to TCP/IP. CLNS is used by ISO Transport Protocol Class 4 (TP4), one of the five transport layer protocols in the OSI suite. TP4 offers error recovery, performs segmentation and reassembly, and supplies
    6.00
    1 votes
    196

    MSN Messenger

    • Software used by: Miranda IM
    MSN Messenger, now called Windows Live Messenger, is a freeware instant messaging client that was developed and distributed by Microsoft in 1999 to 2005 and in 2007 for computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system (except Windows Vista), and aimed towards home users. It was renamed Windows Live Messenger in February 2006 as part of Microsoft's Windows Live series of online services and software. MSN Messenger is often used to refer to the .NET Messenger Service (the protocols and server that allow the system to operate) rather than any particular client. The first product release, released July 22, 1998. It included only basic features, such as plain text messaging and a simplistic contact list. When MSN Messenger was first released it featured support for access to America Online's AIM Network. America Online continually tried to block Microsoft from having access to their service until eventually the feature was removed, and has not re-surfaced in any later versions of the software. Now the software only allows connections to the .NET Messenger Service, requiring a Microsoft Passport Network account to connect, as well as limited contact with Yahoo Messenger. Released
    6.00
    1 votes
    197
    5.00
    2 votes
    198

    Mobile Status Notification Protocol

    Microsoft Notification Protocol (MSNP, also known as the Mobile Status Notification Protocol) is an instant messaging protocol developed by Microsoft for use by the Microsoft Messenger service and the instant messaging clients that connect to it, such as Windows Live Messenger, its earlier incarnations MSN Messenger and Windows Messenger, and Microsoft Messenger for Mac. Third-party clients such as Pidgin and Trillian can also communicate using the protocol. MSNP was first used in a publicly available product with the first release of MSN Messenger in 1999. Any major change made to the protocol, such as a new command or syntax changes, results in a version-number incremented by one in the format of MSNP#. During October 2003, Microsoft started blocking access to Messenger service using versions below MSNP8. Starting on 2007-09-11, Microsoft forces most current users of MSN Messenger to upgrade to Windows Live Messenger 8.1 due to security considerations. Noticing that Microsoft may end support for the older versions of MSNP in the near future, open source implementations of the protocol (mostly based on MSNP8) now have to consider changing to MSNP13-15. This will require lots of
    5.00
    2 votes
    199
    Transmission Control Protocol

    Transmission Control Protocol

    • Software used by: Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing
    The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. TCP is one of the two original components of the suite, complementing the Internet Protocol (IP), and therefore the entire suite is commonly referred to as TCP/IP. TCP provides reliable, ordered delivery of a stream of octets from a program on one computer to another program on another computer. TCP is the protocol used by major Internet applications such as the World Wide Web, email, remote administration and file transfer. Other applications, which do not require reliable data stream service, may use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which provides a datagram service that emphasizes reduced latency over reliability. In May 1974 the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) published a paper entitled "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication." The paper's authors, Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn, described an internetworking protocol for sharing resources using packet-switching among the nodes. A central control component of this model was the Transmission Control Program that incorporated both connection-oriented links and datagram services between hosts. The
    5.00
    2 votes
    200

    YMODEM

    • Software used by: V-Term
    YMODEM is a protocol for file transfer used between modems. YMODEM was developed by Chuck Forsberg as the successor to XMODEM and MODEM7, and was first implemented in his CP/M YAM program. It was formally given the name "YMODEM" in 1985 by Ward Christensen. The original YMODEM was essentially the same as XMODEM except that it sent the file's name, size, and timestamp in a regular XMODEM block, "block 0", before actually transferring the file. Sending the file size solved XMODEM's problem of superfluous padding at the end of the file. Forsberg built the standard with a number of optional features, believing that programmers would want to implement as many as possible on any given platform. He was dismayed to find that the majority of implementations were actually providing nothing more than 1 kilobyte block size with CRC-16, while continuing to use the "YMODEM" name. The result was a large number of mutually incompatible YMODEMs. YMODEM-1K uses a block size of one kilobyte instead of the standard 128 bytes. 1K blocks were an option in the original YMODEM standard, but this variant is missing the rest of the features, and is best described as a 1k variant of XMODEM. YMODEM-g is a
    5.00
    2 votes
    201

    9P

    9P (or the Plan 9 Filesystem Protocol or Styx) is a network protocol developed for the Plan 9 from Bell Labs distributed operating system as the means of connecting the components of a Plan 9 system. Files are key objects in Plan 9. They represent windows, network connections, processes, and almost anything else available in the operating system. Unlike NFS, 9P encourages caching and also serving synthetic files (e.g. /proc to represent processes). 9P was revised for the 4th edition of Plan 9 under the name 9P2000 that contained various fundamental improvements. The latest version of the Inferno operating system also uses 9P2000. The Inferno file protocol was originally called Styx, but technically it has always been a variant of 9P. A server implementation of 9P for Unix, called u9fs, is included in the Plan 9 distribution. A kernel client driver for Linux is part of the v9fs project. 9P and its derivatives have also found application in embedded environments, such as the Styx on a Brick project. Many of Plan 9's applications take the form of 9P servers. Noteworthy examples include: 9P sends the following messages between clients and servers. These messages correspond to the entry
    5.00
    1 votes
    202
    ADO.NET

    ADO.NET

    • Software used by: Virtuoso Universal Server
    ADO.NET () is a set of computer software components that programmers can use to access data and data services based on disconnected DataSets and XML. It is a part of the base class library that is included with the Microsoft .NET Framework. It is commonly used by programmers to access and modify data stored in relational database systems, though it can also access data in non-relational sources. ADO.NET is sometimes considered an evolution of ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) technology, but was changed so extensively that it can be considered an entirely new product. ADO.NET is conceptually divided into consumers and data providers. The consumers are the applications that need access to the data, and the providers are the software components that implement the interface and thereby provides the data to the consumer. Functionality exists in the Visual Studio IDE to create specialized subclasses of the DataSet classes for a particular database schema, allowing convenient access to each field through strongly typed properties. This helps catch more programming errors at compile-time and makes the IDE's Intellisense feature more beneficial. The ADO.NET Entity Framework is a set of
    5.00
    1 votes
    203

    Apple Filing Protocol

    The Apple Filing Protocol (AFP), formerly AppleTalk Filing Protocol, is a proprietary network protocol that offers file services for Mac OS X and original Mac OS. In Mac OS X, AFP is one of several file services supported including Server Message Block (SMB), Network File System (NFS), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and WebDAV. AFP currently supports Unicode file names, POSIX and access control list permissions, resource forks, named extended attributes, and advanced file locking. In Mac OS 9 and earlier, AFP was the primary protocol for file services. AFP versions 3.0 and greater rely exclusively on TCP/IP (port 548 or 427) for establishing communication, supporting AppleTalk only as a service discovery protocol. The AFP 2.x family supports both TCP/IP (using Data Stream Interface) and AppleTalk for communication and service discovery. Many third-party AFP implementations use AFP 2.x, thereby supporting AppleTalk as a connection method. Still earlier versions rely exclusively on AppleTalk. For this reason, some older literature refers to AFP as "AppleTalk Filing Protocol". Other literature may refer to AFP as "AppleShare," the name of the Mac OS 9 (and earlier) AFP client. Notable
    5.00
    1 votes
    204

    Asynchronous Layered Coding

    Asynchronous Layered Coding (ALC) is an Internet protocol for content delivery in a reliable, massively scalable, multiple-rate, and congestion-controlled manner. Specified in RFC 5775, it is an IETF proposed standard. The protocol is specifically designed to provide massive scalability using IP multicast as the underlying network service. Massive scalability in this context means the number of concurrent receivers for an object is potentially in the millions, the aggregate size of objects to be delivered in a session ranges from hundreds of kilobytes to hundreds of gigabytes, each receiver can initiate reception of an object asynchronously, the reception rate of each receiver in the session is the maximum fair bandwidth available between that receiver and the sender, and all of this can be supported using a single sender. Because ALC is focused on reliable content delivery, the goal is to deliver objects as quickly as possible to each receiver while at the same time remaining network friendly to competing traffic. Thus, the congestion control used in conjunction with ALC should strive to maximize use of available bandwidth between receivers and the sender while at the same time
    5.00
    1 votes
    205

    FLIP

    The Fast-Local-Internet-Protocol is a Suite of Internet Protocols, which provide transparency, security and network management. (Tanenbaum et al., Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
    5.00
    1 votes
    206
    IBM token ring

    IBM token ring

    Token ring local area network (LAN) technology is a protocol which resides at the data link layer (DLL) of the OSI model. It uses a special three-byte frame called a token that travels around the ring. Token-possession grants the possessor permission to transmit on the medium. Token ring frames travel completely around the loop. Initially used only in IBM computers, it was eventually standardized with protocol IEEE 802.5. The data transmission process goes as follows: The token scheme can also be used with bus topology LANs. Stations on a token ring LAN are logically organized in a ring topology with data being transmitted sequentially from one ring station to the next with a control token circulating around the ring controlling access. This token passing mechanism is shared by ARCNET, token bus, and FDDI, and has theoretical advantages over the stochastic CSMA/CD of Ethernet. Physically, a token ring network is wired as a star, with 'hubs' and arms out to each station and the loop going out-and-back through each. Cabling is generally IBM "Type-1" shielded twisted pair, with unique hermaphroditic connectors, commonly referred to as IBM data connectors in formal writing or
    5.00
    1 votes
    207

    Internet Content Adaptation Protocol

    The Internet Content Adaptation Protocol (ICAP) is a lightweight HTTP-like protocol specified in RFC 3507 which is used to extend transparent proxy servers, thereby freeing up resources and standardizing the way in which new features are implemented. ICAP is generally used to implement virus scanning and content filters (including censorware) in transparent HTTP proxy caches. Content Adaptation refers to performing the particular value added service (content manipulation) for the associated client request/response. ICAP concentrates on leveraging edge-based devices (caching proxies) to help deliver value-added services. At the core of this process is a cache that will proxy all client transactions and will process them through ICAP Web servers. These ICAP servers are focused on a specific function, for example, ad insertion, virus scanning, content translation, language translation, or content filtering. Off-loading value-added services from Web servers to ICAP servers allows those same web servers to be scaled according to raw HTTP throughput versus having to handle these extra tasks. ICAP was proposed in late 1999 by Peter Danzig and John Schuster from Network Appliance. Don
    5.00
    1 votes
    208

    IS-IS

    Intermediate System To Intermediate System (IS-IS), usually called is-is, is a routing protocol designed to move information efficiently within a computer network, a group of physically connected computers or similar devices. It accomplishes this by determining the best route for datagrams through a packet-switched network. The protocol was defined in ISO/IEC 10589:2002 as an international standard within the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference design. Though originally an ISO standard, the IETF republished the protocol as an Internet Standard in RFC 1142. IS-IS has been called "the de facto standard for large service provider network backbones." IS-IS (pronounced "i-s i-s") is an interior gateway protocol, designed for use within an administrative domain or network. This is in contrast to Exterior Gateway Protocols, primarily Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), which is used for routing between autonomous systems (RFC 1930). IS-IS is a link-state routing protocol, operating by reliably flooding link state information throughout a network of routers. Each IS-IS router independently builds a database of the network's topology, aggregating the flooded network information. Like
    5.00
    1 votes
    209
    Kerberos protocol

    Kerberos protocol

    Kerberos ( /ˈkɛərbərəs/) is a computer network authentication protocol which works on the basis of "tickets" to allow nodes communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one another in a secure manner. Its designers aimed primarily at a client–server model, and it provides mutual authentication—both the user and the server verify each other's identity. Kerberos protocol messages are protected against eavesdropping and replay attacks. Kerberos builds on symmetric key cryptography and requires a trusted third party, and optionally may use public-key cryptography by utilizing asymmetric key cryptography during certain phases of authentication. Kerberos uses port 88 by default. MIT developed Kerberos to protect network services provided by Project Athena. The protocol was named after the character Kerberos (or Cerberus) from Greek mythology which was a monstrous three-headed guard dog of Hades. Several versions of the protocol exist; versions 1–3 occurred only internally at MIT. Steve Miller and Clifford Neuman, the primary designers of Kerberos version 4, published that version in the late 1980s, although they had targeted it primarily for Project Athena. Version
    5.00
    1 votes
    210

    NetBIOS

    NetBIOS ( /ˈnɛtbaɪ.oʊs/) is an acronym for Network Basic Input/Output System. It provides services related to the session layer of the OSI model allowing applications on separate computers to communicate over a local area network. As strictly an API, NetBIOS is not a networking protocol. Older operating systems ran NetBIOS over IEEE 802.2 and IPX/SPX using the NetBIOS Frames (NBF) and NetBIOS over IPX/SPX (NBX) protocols, respectively. In modern networks, NetBIOS normally runs over TCP/IP via the NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT) protocol. This results in each computer in the network having both an IP address and a NetBIOS name corresponding to a (possibly different) host name. NetBIOS was developed in 1983 by Sytek Inc. as an API for software communication over IBM PC Network LAN technology. On PC-Network, as an API alone, NetBIOS relied on proprietary Sytek networking protocols for communication over the wire. Because PC Network only supported up to 80 devices in its most accommodating mode (baseband), NetBIOS was itself designed with limited nodes in mind. In 1985, IBM went forward with the token ring network scheme and a NetBIOS emulator was produced to allow NetBIOS-aware applications
    5.00
    1 votes
    211
    Service-oriented architecture

    Service-oriented architecture

    • Software used by: TOSCA Testsuite
    In software engineering, a service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a set of principles and methodologies for designing and developing software in the form of interoperable services. These services are well-defined business functionalities that are built as software components (discrete pieces of code and/or data structures) that can be reused for different purposes. SOA design principles are used during the phases of systems development and integration. SOA generally provides a way for consumers of services, such as web-based applications, to be aware of available SOA-based services. For example, several disparate departments within a company may develop and deploy SOA services in different implementation languages; their respective clients will benefit from a well-defined interface to access them. XML is often used for interfacing with SOA services, though this is not required. JSON is also becoming increasingly common. SOA defines how to integrate widely disparate applications for a Web-based environment and uses multiple implementation platforms. Rather than defining an API, SOA defines the interface in terms of protocols and functionality. An endpoint is the entry point for such
    5.00
    1 votes
    212

    Spanning tree protocol

    The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a network protocol that ensures a loop-free topology for any bridged Ethernet local area network. The basic function of STP is to prevent bridge loops and the broadcast radiation that results from them. Spanning tree also allows a network design to include spare (redundant) links to provide automatic backup paths if an active link fails, without the danger of bridge loops, or the need for manual enabling/disabling of these backup links. Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is standardized as IEEE 802.1D. As the name suggests, it creates a spanning tree within a mesh network of connected layer-2 bridges (typically Ethernet switches), and disables those links that are not part of the spanning tree, leaving a single active path between any two network nodes. STP is based on an algorithm invented by Radia Perlman while working for Digital Equipment Corporation. The collection of bridges in a local area network (LAN) can be depicted as a graph whose nodes are bridges and LAN segments (or cables), and whose edges are the interfaces connecting the bridges to the segments. To break loops in the LAN while maintaining access to all LAN segments, the bridges
    5.00
    1 votes
    213

    ICMP Router Discovery Protocol

    ICMP Internet Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP) uses Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) router advertisements and router solicitation messages to allow a host to discover the addresses of operational routers on the subnet. It basically consists of 2 Message-Types (see this list) used for discovering local routers. The message type 9 is sent periodically or on request (using a message of type 10) to the local subnet from the local router(s) to propagate themselves. On boot, the client may send a ICMP-Message of type 10 to ask for local routers. When a client receives a message type 9, they add the router to their local routing table.
    4.00
    2 votes
    214

    JavaServer Pages

    • Software used by: OpenLink Data Space
    JavaServer Pages (JSP) is a technology that helps software developers create dynamically generated web pages based on HTML, XML, or other document types. Released in 1999 by Sun Microsystems, JSP is similar to PHP, but it uses the Java programming language. To deploy and run JavaServer Pages, a compatible web server with a servlet container, such as Apache Tomcat or Jetty, is required. Architecturally, JSP may be viewed as a high-level abstraction of Java servlets. JSPs are translated into servlets at runtime; each JSP's servlet is cached and re-used until the original JSP is modified. JSP can be used independently or as the view component of a server-side model–view–controller design, normally with JavaBeans as the model and Java servlets (or a framework such as Apache Struts) as the controller. This is a type of Model 2 architecture. JSP allows Java code and certain pre-defined actions to be interleaved with static web markup content, with the resulting page being compiled and executed on the server to deliver a document. The compiled pages, as well as any dependent Java libraries, use Java bytecode rather than a native software format. Like any other Java program, they must be
    4.00
    2 votes
    215

    Ajax

    • Software used by: OpenLink Data Space
    Ajax (also AJAX; /ˈeɪdʒæks/; an acronym for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a group of interrelated web development techniques used on the client-side to create asynchronous web applications. With Ajax, web applications can send data to, and retrieve data from, a server asynchronously (in the background) without interfering with the display and behavior of the existing page. Data can be retrieved using the XMLHttpRequest object. Despite the name, the use of XML is not required (JSON is often used instead), and the requests do not need to be asynchronous. Ajax is not a single technology, but a group of technologies. HTML and CSS can be used in combination to mark up and style information. The DOM is accessed with JavaScript to dynamically display, and to allow the user to interact with the information presented. JavaScript and the XMLHttpRequest object provide a method for exchanging data asynchronously between browser and server to avoid full page reloads. In the 1990s, most web sites were based on complete HTML pages; each user action required that the page be re-loaded from the server (or a new page loaded). This process is inefficient, as reflected by the user experience:
    4.00
    1 votes
    216

    FAST TCP

    FAST TCP (also written "FastTCP") is a TCP congestion avoidance algorithm especially targeted at long-distance, high latency links, developed at the Netlab, California Institute of Technology and now being commercialized by FastSoft. It is compatible with existing TCP algorithms, requiring modification only to the computer which is sending data. The name FAST is a recursive acronym for FAST AQM Scalable TCP, where AQM stands for Active Queue Management, and TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol. The role of congestion control is to moderate the rate at which data is transmitted, according to the capacity of the network and the rate at which other users are transmitting. Like TCP Vegas, FAST TCP uses queueing delay instead of loss probability as a congestion signal. Most current congestion control algorithms detect congestion and slow down when they discover that packets are being dropped, so that the average sending rate depends on the loss probability. This has two drawbacks. First, low loss probabilities are required to sustain high data rates; in the case of TCP Reno, very low loss probabilities are required, but even new congestion avoidance algorithms such as H-TCP,
    4.00
    1 votes
    217

    Finger protocol

    • Software used by: The Morris Worm
    In computer networking, the Name/Finger protocol and the Finger user information protocol are simple network protocols for the exchange of human-oriented status and user information. The Name/Finger protocol, written by David Zimmerman, is based on Request for comments document RFC 742 (December 1977) as an interface to the name and finger programs that provide status reports on a particular computer system or a particular person at network sites. The finger program was written in 1971 by Les Earnest who created the program to solve the need of users who wanted information on other users of the network. Information on who is logged-in was useful to check the availability of a person to meet. This was probably the earliest form of presence information for remote network users. Prior to the finger program, the only way to get this information was with a who program that showed IDs and terminal line numbers for logged-in users. Earnest named his program after the idea that people would run their fingers down the who list to find what they were looking for. The finger daemon runs on TCP port 79. The client will (in the case of remote hosts) open a connection to port 79. An RUIP (Remote
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    218

    Gadu-Gadu

    • Software used by: Adium
    Gadu-Gadu (Polish for "chitchat"; commonly known as GG or gg) is a Polish instant messaging client using a proprietary protocol. Gadu-Gadu is the most popular IM service in Poland, with over 15 million registered accounts and approximately 6.5 million users online daily. Gadu-Gadu’s casual gaming portal had some 500,000 active users at the end of March 2009. Users send up to 300 million messages per day. Gadu-Gadu is financed by the display of advertisements. The developer is based in Warsaw, Poland but the company is wholly owned by the South African media giant Naspers. Gadu-Gadu uses its own proprietary protocol. As with ICQ, users are identified by unique serial numbers. Protocol's features include status messages, file sharing, and VoIP. Users may format and embed images in messages. Since client version 6.0, an experimental secure connection mode can be used. The official client provides over 150 emoticons, allows grouping contacts, sending SMS and integrates with other services ran by the same company: a virtual Internet dial-up, a social networking site MojaGeneracja.pl and an internet radio Open.fm. Gadu-Gadu allows its users to add personal information to a publicly
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    219

    Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer

    • Software used by: Mozilla Firefox
    Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is a widely used communications protocol for secure communication over a computer network, with especially wide deployment on the Internet. Technically, it is not a protocol in itself; rather, it is the result of simply layering the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) on top of the SSL/TLS protocol, thus adding the security capabilities of SSL/TLS to standard HTTP communications. In its popular deployment on the internet, HTTPS provides authentication of the web site and associated web server that one is communicating with, which protects against Man-in-the-middle attacks. Additionally, it provides bidirectional encryption of communications between a client and server, which protects against eavesdropping and tampering with and/or forging the contents of the communication. In practice, this provides a reasonable guarantee that one is communicating with precisely the web site that one intended to communicate with (as opposed to an impostor), as well as ensuring that the contents of communications between the user and site cannot be read or forged by any third party. Because HTTPS piggybacks HTTP entirely on top of TLS, the entirety of the
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    220
    LocalTalk

    LocalTalk

    LocalTalk is a particular implementation of the physical layer of the AppleTalk networking system from Apple Computer. LocalTalk specifies a system of shielded twisted pair cabling, plugged into self-terminating transceivers, running at a rate of 230.4 kbit/s. CSMA/CA was implemented as a random multiple access method. Networking was envisioned in the Macintosh during planning, so the Mac was given expensive RS-422 capable serial ports. The ports were driven by the Zilog SCC which could serve as either a standard UART or handle the much more complicated HDLC protocol which was a packet oriented protocol which incorporated addressing, bit-stuffing, and packet checksumming in hardware. Coupled together with the RS422 electrical connections, this provided a reasonably high-speed data connection. The 230.4 kbit/s bit rate is the highest in the series of standard serial bit rates (110, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 14400, 19200, 28800, 38400, 57600, 115200, 230400) derived from the 3.6864 MHz clock after the customary divide-by-16. This clock frequency, 3.6864 MHz, was chosen (in part) to support the common asynchronous baud rates up to 38.4 kbit/s using the SCC's internal
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    221

    Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol

    The Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) is a computer networking protocol that provides for automatic assignment of available Internet Protocol (IP) routers to participating hosts. This increases the availability and reliability of routing paths via automatic default gateway selections on an IP subnetwork. The protocol achieves this by creation of virtual routers, which are an abstract representation of multiple routers, i.e. master and backup routers, acting as a group. The default gateway of a participating host is assigned to the virtual router instead of a physical router. If the physical router that is routing packets on behalf of the virtual router fails, another physical router is selected to automatically replace it. The physical router that is forwarding packets at any given time is called the master router. VRRP provides information on the state of a router, not the routes processed and exchanged by that router. Each VRRP instance is limited, in scope, to a single subnet. It does not advertise IP routes beyond that subnet or affect the routing table in any way. VRRP can be used in Ethernet, MPLS and token ring networks with Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), as
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    222
    VTP

    VTP

    VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is a Cisco proprietary protocol that propagates the definition of Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN) on the whole local area network. To do this, VTP carries VLAN information to all the switches in a VTP domain. VTP advertisements can be sent over ISL, 802.1q, IEEE 802.10 and LANE trunks. VTP is available on most of the Cisco Catalyst Family products. The comparable IEEE standard in use by other manufacturers is GVRP or the more recent MVRP.
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    223
    Asynchronous Transfer Mode

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is, according to the ATM Forum, "a telecommunications concept defined by ANSI and ITU (formerly CCITT) standards for carriage of a complete range of user traffic, including voice, data, and video signals," and is designed to unify telecommunication and computer networks. It uses asynchronous time-division multiplexing, and it encodes data into small, fixed-sized cells. This differs from approaches such as the Internet Protocol or Ethernet that use variable sized packets or frames. ATM provides data link layer services that run over a wide range of OSI physical Layer links. ATM has functional similarity with both circuit switched networking and small packet switched networking. It was designed for a network that must handle both traditional high-throughput data traffic (e.g., file transfers), and real-time, low-latency content such as voice and video. ATM uses a connection-oriented model in which a virtual circuit must be established between two endpoints before the actual data exchange begins. ATM is a core protocol used over the SONET/SDH backbone of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), but
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    224

    Binkp

    binkp is a protocol for transferring FidoNet mail over reliable connections. Historically, Fidonet traffic was transferred mainly over serial (RS-232) modem connections which might not have an error correction layer. These dial-up-oriented protocols for transferring Fidonet traffic like EMSI or Zmodem had to implement error-recovery. When the members of Fidonet started to use TCP/IP to transfer Fidonet traffic, this error-recovery overhead became unnecessary. Assuming that the connection is reliable makes it possible to eliminate error-checking and unnecessary synchronization steps, achieving both ease of implementation and improved performance. The major advantage of binkp vs EMSI and Zmodem is achieved over connections with large delays and low bandwidth. IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) has registered the port number 24554 for binkp when used over TCP/IP connections.
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    225

    BOOTP

    In computer networking, the Bootstrap Protocol, or BOOTP, is a network protocol used by a network client to obtain an IP address from a configuration server. The BOOTP protocol was originally defined in RFC 951. BOOTP is usually used during the bootstrap process when a computer is starting up. A BOOTP configuration server assigns an IP address to each client from a pool of addresses. BOOTP uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) as a transport on IPv4 networks only. Historically, BOOTP has also been used for Unix-like diskless workstations to obtain the network location of their boot image in addition to an IP address, and also by enterprises to roll out a pre-configured client (e.g., Windows) installation to newly installed PCs. Originally requiring the use of a boot floppy disk to establish the initial network connection, manufacturers of network cards later embedded the protocol in the BIOS of the interface cards as well as system boards with on-board network adapters, thus allowing direct network booting. In 2005, users with an interest in diskless stand-alone media center PCs have shown new interest in this method of booting a Windows operating system. The Dynamic Host
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    226

    Common Address Redundancy Protocol

    The Common Address Redundancy Protocol or CARP is a protocol which allows multiple hosts on the same local network to share a set of IP addresses. Its primary purpose is to provide failover redundancy, especially when used with firewalls and routers. In some configurations CARP can also provide load balancing functionality. It is a free, non patent-encumbered alternative to Cisco's HSRP. CARP is mostly implemented in BSD operating systems. If there is a single computer running a packet filter, and it goes down, the networks on either side of the packet filter can no longer communicate with each other, or they communicate without any packet filtering. If, however, there are two computers running a packet filter, running CARP, then if one fails, the other will take over, and computers on either side of the packet filter will not be aware of the failure, so operation will continue as normal. In order to make sure the new master operates the same as the old one, pfsyncd is used to synchronize packet filter states. A group of hosts using CARP is called a "group of redundancy". The group of redundancy allocates itself an IP address which is shared or divided among the members of the
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    227
    Diameter Credit-Control Application

    Diameter Credit-Control Application

    Diameter Credit-Control Application, is a networking protocol for Diameter application used to implement real-time credit-control for a variety of end user services. It is an IETF standard defined in RFC 4006. The purpose of the diameter credit control application is to provide a framework for real-time charging, primarily meant for the communication between gateways/control-points and the back-end account/balance systems (typically an Online Charging System). The application specifies methods for: The diameter credit control application does not specify which type units are bought/used and which items are charged. This is left to the service context that have to be specified separately, as is some of the semantics. Examples of units used/bought: Examples of items charged: Diameter credit control also specifies how to handle the fairly complex issue of multiple unit types used/charged against a single user balance. For instance, a user may pay for both online time and download bytes but has only a single account balance. A session-based credit control process uses several interrogations which may include first, intermediate and last interrogation. During interrogation money is
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    228
    Digital Command Control

    Digital Command Control

    Digital Command Control (DCC) is a standard for a system to operate model railways digitally. When equipped with Digital Command Control, locomotives on the same electrical section of track can be independently controlled. The DCC protocol is defined by the Digital Command Control Working group of the National Model Railroad Association (NMRA). The NMRA has trademarked the term DCC, so while the term Digital Command Control is sometimes used to describe any digital model railway control system, strictly speaking it refers to NMRA DCC. A DCC command station, in combination with its booster, modulates the voltage on the track to encode digital messages while providing electric power. The voltage to the track is a bipolar DC signal. This results in a form of alternating current, but the DCC signal does not follow a sine wave. Instead, the command station quickly switches the direction of the DC voltage, resulting in a modulated pulse wave. The length of time the voltage is applied in each direction provides the method for encoding data. To represent a binary one, the time is short (nominally 58µs for a half cycle), while a zero is represented by a longer period (nominally at least
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    229

    DISCARD

    The Discard Protocol is a service in the Internet Protocol Suite defined in RFC 863. It is intended for testing, debugging, and measurement purposes. A host may send data to a host that supports the Discard Protocol on either Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port number 9. The data sent to the server is simply discarded. No response is returned. On most UNIX-like operating systems a discard server is built into the inetd (or xinetd) daemon. The discard service is usually not enabled by default. It may be enabled by adding the following lines to the file /etc/inetd.conf and reloading the configuration: The Discard Protocol is the TCP/UDP equivalent of the Unix filesystem node /dev/null. Such a service is guaranteed to receive what is sent to it and can be used for debugging TCP and/or UDP code requiring a guaranteed reception of payload sent.
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    230
    Ethernet

    Ethernet

    Ethernet  /ˈiːθərnɛt/ is a family of computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). Ethernet was commercially introduced in 1980 and standardized in 1985 as IEEE 802.3. Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies. The Ethernet standards comprise several wiring and signaling variants of the OSI physical layer in use with Ethernet. The original 10BASE5 Ethernet used coaxial cable as a shared medium. Later the coaxial cables were replaced by twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches. Data rates were periodically increased from the original 10 megabits per second, to 100 gigabits per second. Systems communicating over Ethernet divide a stream of data into shorter pieces called frames. Each frame contains source and destination addresses and error-checking data so that damaged data can be detected and re-transmitted. As per the OSI model Ethernet provides services up to and including the data link layer. Since its commercial release, Ethernet has retained a good degree of compatibility. Features such as the 48-bit MAC address and Ethernet frame format have influenced other networking protocols. Ethernet was developed at
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    231
    HTML

    HTML

    • Software used by: CubicWeb
    HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the main markup language for displaying web pages and other information that can be displayed in a web browser. HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags enclosed in angle brackets (like ), within the web page content. HTML tags most commonly come in pairs like
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    232
    Internet Control Message Protocol

    Internet Control Message Protocol

    The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. It is chiefly used by the operating systems of networked computers to send error messages indicating, for example, that a requested service is not available or that a host or router could not be reached. ICMP can also be used to relay query messages. It is assigned protocol number 1. ICMP differs from transport protocols such as TCP and UDP in that it is not typically used to exchange data between systems, nor is it regularly employed by end-user network applications (with the exception of some diagnostic tools like ping and traceroute). ICMP for Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is also known as ICMPv4. IPv6 has a similar protocol, ICMPv6. The Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet Protocol Suite, as defined in RFC 792. ICMP messages are typically used for diagnostic or control purposes or generated in response to errors in IP operations (as specified in RFC 1122). ICMP errors are directed to the source IP address of the originating packet. For example, every device (such as an intermediate router) forwarding an IP datagram first decrements the time to live
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    233

    IP Multicast

    • Software used by: Twisted
    IP multicast is a method of sending Internet Protocol (IP) datagrams to a group of interested receivers in a single transmission. It is often employed for streaming media applications on the Internet and private networks. The method is the IP-specific version of the general concept of multicast networking. It uses specially reserved multicast address blocks in IPv4 and IPv6. In IPv6, IP multicast addressing replaces broadcast addressing as implemented in IPv4. IP multicast is described in RFC 1112. IP multicast was first standardized in 1986. Its specifications have been augmented in RFC 4604 to include group management and in RFC 5771 to include administratively scoped addresses. IP multicast is a technique for one-to-many and many-to-many real-time communication over an IP infrastructure in a network. It scales to a larger receiver population by requiring neither prior knowledge of a receiver's identity nor prior knowledge of the number of receivers. Multicast uses network infrastructure efficiently by requiring the source to send a packet only once, even if it needs to be delivered to a large number of receivers. The nodes in the network (typically network switches and routers)
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    234
    IPTV

    IPTV

    Internet Protocol television (IPTV) is a system through which television services are delivered using the Internet protocol suite over a packet-switched network such as the Internet, instead of being delivered through traditional terrestrial, satellite signal, and cable television formats. IPTV services may be classified into three main groups: IPTV is distinguished from Internet television by its on-going standardization process (e.g., European Telecommunications Standards Institute) and preferential deployment scenarios in subscriber-based telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into end-user premises via set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment. Historically, many different definitions of IPTV have appeared, including elementary streams over IP networks, transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems. One official definition approved by the International Telecommunication Union focus group on IPTV (ITU-T FG IPTV) is: "IPTV is defined as multimedia services such as television/video/audio/text/graphics/data delivered over IP based networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience, security,
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    235

    Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

    • Software used by: Pine
    The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP;  /ˈɛldæp/) is an application protocol for accessing and maintaining distributed directory information services over an Internet Protocol (IP) network. LDAP is defined in terms of ASN.1 and transmitted using BER. Directory services may provide any organized set of records, often with a hierarchical structure, such as a corporate email directory. Similarly, a telephone directory is a list of subscribers with an address and a phone number. LDAP is specified in a series of Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Standard Track Request for Comments (RFCs). The latest version is Version 3, published as RFC 4511. Telecommunication companies' understanding of directory requirements was well developed after some 70 years of producing and managing telephone directories. These companies introduced the concept of directory services to information technology and computer networking, their input culminating in the comprehensive X.500 specification, a suite of protocols produced by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in the 1980s. X.500 directory services were traditionally accessed via the X.500 Directory Access Protocol (DAP), which
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    236

    Media Resource Control Protocol

    Media Resource Control Protocol (MRCP) is a communication protocol used by speech servers to provide various services (such as speech recognition and speech synthesis) to their clients. MRCP relies on another protocol, such as Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) or Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for establishing a control session and audio streams between the client and the server. MRCP uses a similar style of clear-text signaling as HTTP and many other Internet protocols, in which each message contains 3 sections: a first-line, a header and a body. The first line indicates the type of message as well as information such as response codes. The header contains a number of lines, each in the format : . The body, whose length is specified by the header, contains the details of the message. Like HTTP, MRCP uses a request (usually issued by the client) and response model. Responses may simply acknowledge receipt of the request or give other information regarding its processing. For example, an MRCP client may request to send some audio data for processing (say, for speech recognition), to which the server could respond with a message containing a suitable port number to
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    237

    Mobile Application Part

    The Mobile Application Part (MAP) is an SS7 protocol which provides an application layer for the various nodes in GSM and UMTS mobile core networks and GPRS core networks to communicate with each other in order to provide services to mobile phone users. The Mobile Application Part is the application-layer protocol used to access the Home Location Register, Visitor Location Register, Mobile Switching Center, Equipment Identity Register, Authentication Centre, Short message service center and Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN). The primary facilities provided by MAP are: The Mobile Application Part specifications were originally defined by the GSM Association, but are now controlled by ETSI/3GPP. MAP is defined by two different standards, depending upon the mobile network type: MAP is a Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP) user, and as such can be transported using 'traditional' SS7 protocols or over IP using Transport Independent Signalling Connection Control Part (TI-SCCP); or using SIGTRAN. In mobile cellular telephony networks like GSM and UMTS the SS7 application MAP is used. Voice connections are Circuit Switched (CS) and data connections are Packet Switched (PS)
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    238

    Network News Transfer Protocol

    • Software used by: Twisted
    The Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) is an application protocol used for transporting Usenet news articles (netnews) between news servers and for reading and posting articles by end user client applications. Brian Kantor of the University of California, San Diego and Phil Lapsley of the University of California, Berkeley authored RFC 977, the specification for the Network News Transfer Protocol, in March 1986. Other contributors included Stan O. Barber from the Baylor College of Medicine and Erik Fair of Apple Computer. Usenet was originally designed based on the UUCP network, with most article transfers taking place over direct point-to-point telephone links between news servers, which were powerful time-sharing systems. Readers and posters logged into these computers reading the articles directly from the local disk. As local area networks and Internet participation proliferated, it became desirable to allow newsreaders to be run on personal computers connected to local networks. Because distributed file systems were not yet widely available, a new protocol was developed based on the client-server model. It resembled the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), but was tailored
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    239
    RDF

    RDF

    • Software used by: CubicWeb
    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadata data model. It has come to be used as a general method for conceptual description or modeling of information that is implemented in web resources, using a variety of syntax formats. The RDF data model is similar to classic conceptual modeling approaches such as entity-relationship or class diagrams, as it is based upon the idea of making statements about resources (in particular Web resources) in the form of subject-predicate-object expressions. These expressions are known as triples in RDF terminology. The subject denotes the resource, and the predicate denotes traits or aspects of the resource and expresses a relationship between the subject and the object. For example, one way to represent the notion "The sky has the color blue" in RDF is as the triple: a subject denoting "the sky", a predicate denoting "has the color", and an object denoting "blue". Therefore RDF swaps object for subject that would be used in the classical notation of an Entity–attribute–value model within Object oriented design; object (sky), attribute (color) and value
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    240

    Reliable User Datagram Protocol

    In computer networking, the Reliable User Datagram Protocol (RUDP) is a transport layer protocol designed at Bell Labs for the Plan 9 operating system. It aims to provide a solution where UDP is too primitive because guaranteed-order packet delivery is desirable, but TCP adds too much complexity/overhead. In order for RUDP to gain higher Quality of Service, RUDP implements features that are similar to TCP with less overhead. In order to ensure quality, it extends UDP by means of adding the following features: RUDP is not currently a formal standard, however it was described in an IETF internet-draft in 1999. It has not been proposed for standardization. Cisco in its Signalling Link Terminals (either standalone or integrated in another gateway) uses RUDP for backhauling of SS7 MTP3 or ISDN signaling. The versions are mutually incompatible and differ slightly from the IETF draft. The structure of the Cisco Session Manager used on top of RUDP is also different. Microsoft has introduced another protocol which it named R-UDP and uses it in its MediaRoom product for IPTV service delivery over multicast networks. This is a proprietary protocol and very little is known about its operation.
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    241

    Service Location Protocol

    The Service Location Protocol (SLP, srvloc) is a service discovery protocol that allows computers and other devices to find services in a local area network without prior configuration. SLP has been designed to scale from small, unmanaged networks to large enterprise networks. It has been defined in RFC 2608 and RFC 3224 as Standards Track document. According to the definitions given in the RFC 2608 specification, a location is a topologically specific and named entity on a local network of any extension, and that is not any geographic or otherwise topographic or geometric location. SLP is used by devices to announce services on a local network. Each service must have a URL that is used to locate the service. Additionally it may have an unlimited number of name/value pairs, called attributes. Each device must always be in one or more scopes. Scopes are simple strings and are used to group services, comparable to the network neighborhood in other systems. A device cannot see services that are in different scopes. The URL of a printer could look like: This URL describes a queue called "myqueue" on a printer with the host name "myprinter". The protocol used by the printer is LPR. Note
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    242

    Session Description Protocol

    The Session Description Protocol (SDP) is a format for describing streaming media initialization parameters. The IETF published the original specification as an IETF Proposed Standard in April 1998, and subsequently published a revised specification as an IETF Proposed Standard as RFC 4566 in July 2006. SDP is intended for describing multimedia communication sessions for the purposes of session announcement, session invitation, and parameter negotiation. SDP does not deliver media itself but is used for negotiation between end points of media type, format, and all associated properties. The set of properties and parameters are often called a session profile. SDP is designed to be extensible to support new media types and formats. SDP started off as a component of the Session Announcement Protocol (SAP), but found other uses in conjunction with Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP), Real-time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and even as a standalone format for describing multicast sessions. A session is described by a series of fields, one per line. The form of each field is as follows. Where is a single case-significant character and value is
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    243

    Signaling Connection and Control Part

    The Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) is a network layer protocol that provides extended routing, flow control, segmentation, connection-orientation, and error correction facilities in Signaling System 7 telecommunications networks. SCCP relies on the services of MTP for basic routing and error detection. The base SCCP specification is defined by the ITU-T, in recommendations Q.711 to Q.714, with additional information to implementors provided by Q.715 and Q.716. There are, however, regional variations defined by local standards bodies. In the United States, ANSI publishes its modifications to Q.713 as ANSI T1.112. The TTC publishes as JT-Q.711 to JT-Q.714, and Europe ETSI publishes ETSI EN 300-009-1: both of which document their modifications to the ITU-T specifications. Although MTP provides routing capabilities based upon the Point Code, SCCP allows routing using a Point Code and Subsystem number or a Global Title. A Point Code is used to address a particular node on the network, whereas a Subsystem number addresses a specific application available on that node. SCCP employs a process called Global Title Translation to determine Point Codes from Global Titles so as to
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    244
    T-carrier

    T-carrier

    In telecommunications, a T-carrier, sometimes abbreviated as T-CXR, is the generic designator for any of several digitally multiplexed telecommunications carrier systems originally introduced by Bell Labs around 1960s and used in North America, Japan (Kyoto), and South Korea. The basic unit of the T-carrier system is the DS0, which has a transmission rate of 64 kbit/s, and is commonly used for one voice circuit. The T-1 channel combines 24 x 64 kbit/s channels into one single channel, using a technique known as Channel Bonding or Channel Aggregation. The E-carrier system is incompatible with the T-carrier (though cross compliant cards exist) and is used in most locations outside of North America, Japan, Korea. Existing frequency-division multiplexing carrier systems worked well for connections between distant cities, but required expensive modulators, demodulators and filters for every voice channel. For connections within metropolitan areas, Bell Labs in the late 1950s sought cheaper terminal equipment. Pulse-code modulation allowed sharing a coder and decoder among several voice trunks, so this method was chosen for the T1 system introduced into local use in 1961. In later
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    245

    VCal

    • Software used by: Lasso
    vCal is an open source calendar standard for Vision PIM. VCal can export itself to an RSS/RDF/WDP feed or publish itself to the internet using WebDAV and PHP. It can be exported to the iCalendar or vCalendar formats as well. VCal is not to be confused with the better known vCalendar format in that it is a completely different format.
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    246

    WebDAV

    • Software used by: EXo WebOS
    Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) that facilitates collaboration between users in editing and managing documents and files stored on World Wide Web servers. A working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) defines WebDAV in RFC 4918. The WebDAV protocol makes the Web a readable and writable medium. It provides a framework for users to create, change and move documents on a server; typically a web server or web share. The most important features of the WebDAV protocol include the maintenance of properties about an author or modification date, namespace management, collections, and overwrite protection. Maintenance of properties includes such things as the creation, removal, and querying of file information. Namespace management deals with the ability to copy and move web pages within a server’s namespace. Collections deals with the creation, removal, and listing of various resources. Lastly, overwrite protection handles aspects related to locking of files. The WebDAV working group concluded its work in March 2007, after the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) accepted an incremental update
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    247
    X.25

    X.25

    X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication. An X.25 WAN consists of packet-switching exchange (PSE) nodes as the networking hardware, and leased lines, plain old telephone service connections or ISDN connections as physical links. X.25 is a family of protocols that was popular during the 1980s with telecommunications companies and in financial transaction systems such as automated teller machines. X.25 was originally defined by the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT, now ITU-T) in a series of drafts and finalized in a publication known as The Orange Book in 1976. While X.25 has been, to a large extent, replaced by less complex protocols, especially the Internet protocol (IP), the service is still used and available in niche and legacy applications. X.25 is one of the oldest packet-switched services available. It was developed before the OSI Reference Model. The protocol suite is designed as three conceptual layers, which correspond closely to the lower three layers of the seven-layer OSI model. It also supports functionality not found in the OSI network layer. X.25 was developed in the ITU-T
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    XML

    XML

    • Software used by: ELML
    Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. It is defined in the XML 1.0 Specification produced by the W3C, and several other related specifications, all gratis open standards. The design goals of XML emphasize simplicity, generality, and usability over the Internet. It is a textual data format with strong support via Unicode for the languages of the world. Although the design of XML focuses on documents, it is widely used for the representation of arbitrary data structures, for example in web services. Many application programming interfaces (APIs) have been developed for software developers to use to process XML data, and several schema systems exist to aid in the definition of XML-based languages. As of 2009, hundreds of XML-based languages have been developed, including RSS, Atom, SOAP, and XHTML. XML-based formats have become the default for many office-productivity tools, including Microsoft Office (Office Open XML), OpenOffice.org and LibreOffice (OpenDocument), and Apple's iWork. XML has also been employed as the base language for communication
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    249

    XML for Analysis

    • Software used by: Virtuoso Universal Server
    XML for Analysis (abbreviated as XMLA) is an industry standard for data access in analytical systems, such as OLAP and data mining. XMLA is based on other industry standards such as XML, SOAP and HTTP. XMLA is maintained by XMLA Council with Microsoft, Hyperion and SAS being the official XMLA Council founder members. The XMLA specification was first proposed by Microsoft as a successor for OLE DB for OLAP in April 2000. By January 2001 it was joined by Hyperion endorsing XMLA. The 1.0 version of the standard was released in April 2001, and in September 2001 the XMLA Council was formed. In April 2002 SAS joined Microsoft and Hyperion as founding member of XMLA Council. With time, more than 25 companies joined with their support for the standard. XMLA consists of only two SOAP methods. It was designed in such a way to preserve simplicity. Execute method has two parameters: The result of Execute command could be Multidimensional Dataset or Tabular Rowset. Discover method was designed to model all the discovery methods possible in OLEDB including various schema rowset, properties, keywords, etc. Discover method allows users to specify both what needs to be discovered and the possible
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    250

    XQuery

    • Software used by: Virtuoso Universal Server
    XQuery is a query and functional programming language that is designed to query collections of XML data. XQuery 1.0 was developed by the XML Query working group of the W3C. The work was closely coordinated with the development of XSLT 2.0 by the XSL Working Group; the two groups shared responsibility for XPath 2.0, which is a subset of XQuery 1.0. XQuery 1.0 became a W3C Recommendation on January 23, 2007. XQuery provides the means to extract and manipulate data from XML documents or any data source that can be viewed as XML, such as relational databases or office documents. XQuery uses XPath expression syntax to address specific parts of an XML document. It supplements this with a SQL-like "FLWOR expression" for performing joins. A FLWOR expression is constructed from the five clauses after which it is named: FOR, LET, WHERE, ORDER BY, RETURN. The language also provides syntax allowing new XML documents to be constructed. Where the element and attribute names are known in advance, an XML-like syntax can be used; in other cases, expressions referred to as dynamic node constructors are available. All these constructs are defined as expressions within the language, and can be
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