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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best Ingredient of All Time

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Best Ingredient of All Time is a public top list created by Listnerd on Rankly.com on November 27th 2012. Items on the Best Ingredient of All Time top list are added by the Rankly.com community and ranked using our secret ranking sauce. Best Ingredient of All Time has gotten 1.684 views and has gathered 623 votes from 623 voters. Only owner can add items. Just members can vote.

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    1
    Parsley

    Parsley

    • Typically used in dishes: Tabouli
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Herb
    Parsley (Petroselinum hortense) is a species of Petroselinum in the family Apiaceae, native to the central Mediterranean region (southern Italy, Algeria and Tunisia), naturalized elsewhere in Europe, and widely cultivated as an herb, a spice and a vegetable. Garden parsley is a bright green, hairless, biennial, herbaceous plant in temperate climates, or an annual herb in subtropical and tropical areas. Where it grows as a biennial, in the first year, it forms a rosette of tripinnate leaves 10–25 cm long with numerous 1–3 cm leaflets, and a taproot used as a food store over the winter. In the second year, it grows a flowering stem to 75 cm tall with sparser leaves and flat-topped 3–10 cm diameter umbels with numerous 2 mm diameter yellow to yellowish-green flowers. The seeds are ovoid, 2–3mm long, with prominent style remnants at the apex. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. The plant normally dies after seed maturation. Parsley grows best in moist, well drained soil, with full sun. It grows best between 22–30 °C, and is usually grown from seed. Germination is slow, taking four to six weeks, and often difficult because of furanocoumarins in its seed coat. Plants
    7.86
    7 votes
    2
    Cabbage

    Cabbage

    • Typically used in dishes: Larb
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Vegetable
    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea or variants) is a leafy green biennial, grown as an annual vegetable for its densely-leaved heads. Closely related to other cole crops such as broccoli, cauliflower and brussels sprouts, it descends from B. oleracea var. oleracea, a wild field cabbage. Cabbage heads generally range from 1 to 8 pounds (0.45 to 3.6 kg), and can be green, purple and white. Smooth-leafed firm-headed green cabbages are the most common, with smooth-leafed red and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colors seen more rarely. It is difficult to trace the exact history of cabbage, but it was most likely domesticated somewhere in Europe before 1000 BC. By the Middle Ages it was a prominent part of European cuisine, although savoys were not developed until the 16th century. Cabbage heads are generally picked during the first year of the plants' life cycles, but those intended for seed are allowed to grow a second year, and must be kept separated from other cole crops to prevent cross pollination. Cabbage is prone to several nutrient deficiencies, as well as multiple pests, bacteria and fungal diseases. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) reports that
    6.86
    7 votes
    3
    Baking powder

    Baking powder

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Baking powder is a dry chemical leavening agent used to increase the volume and lighten the texture of baked goods. Baking powder works by releasing carbon dioxide gas into a batter or dough through an acid-base reaction, causing bubbles in the wet mixture to expand and thus leavening the mixture. It is used instead of yeast for end-products where fermentation flavors would be undesirable or where the batter lacks the elastic structure to hold gas bubbles for more than a few minutes. Because carbon dioxide is released at a faster rate through the acid-base reaction than through fermentation, breads made by chemical leavening are called quick breads. Most commercially available baking powders are made up of an alkaline component (typically sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda), one or more acid salts (like Tartaric Acid), and an inert starch (cornstarch in most cases, though potato starch may also be used). Baking soda is the source of the carbon dioxide, and the acid-base reaction can be generically represented as The inert starch serves several functions in baking powder. Primarily it is used to absorb moisture, and thus prolong shelf life by keeping the powder's alkaline
    7.50
    6 votes
    4
    Kulcha

    Kulcha

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Kulcha (Urdu: کلچه, Hindi: कुलचा; Punjabi: ਕੁਲਚਾ) kulcā is a type of leavened Indian flatbread made from maida (wheat flour). It is particularly popular in India and Pakistan, and is usually eaten with chole. Kulcha is a typical Punjabi recipe, although originally originating in Central Asia. Amritsar is known for its Amritsari kulchas or Amritsari naan. Flour dough is rolled into a flat, round shape and baked in an earthen clay oven until golden brown. When baked, it is usually rubbed with butter, and then eaten with spicy chole (chickpea curry).
    7.50
    6 votes
    5
    Egg

    Egg

    • Typically used in dishes: Quiche
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Eggs are laid by females of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have probably been eaten by mankind for millennia. Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell, albumen (egg white), and vitellus (egg yolk), contained within various thin membranes. Popular choices for egg consumption are chicken, duck, quail, roe, and caviar, but the egg most often consumed by humans is the chicken egg, by a wide margin. Egg yolks and whole eggs store significant amounts of protein and choline, and are widely used in cookery. Due to their protein content, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) categorizes eggs as Meats within the Food Guide Pyramid. Despite the nutritional value of eggs, there are some potential health issues arising from egg quality, storage, and individual allergies. Chickens and other egg-laying creatures are widely kept throughout the world, and mass production of chicken eggs is a global industry. In 2009, an estimated 62.1 million metric tons of eggs were produced worldwide from a total laying flock of approximately 6.4 billion hens. There are issues of regional variation in demand and expectation, as well as
    8.40
    5 votes
    6
    Arborio rice

    Arborio rice

    • Typically used in dishes: Risotto
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Rice
    Arborio rice is an Italian short-grain rice. It is named after the town of Arborio, in the Po Valley, where it is grown. When cooked, the rounded grains are firm, creamy, and chewy, due to its higher amylopectin starch content; thus it has a starchy taste but blends well with other flavours. It is used to make risotto, although Carnaroli , Maratelli and Vialone Nano are sometimes used to prepare the dish. Arborio rice is also used for rice pudding. Arborio is a cultivar of the Japonica group of varieties of Oryza sativa.
    7.17
    6 votes
    7
    Back bacon

    Back bacon

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Bacon
    Back bacon is a traditional British cut of bacon sliced to include one piece of pork loin and one piece of pork belly combined into the same cut. The name refers to the cut of meat, which is from the back, and distinguishes it from other bacon made from pork belly or other cuts. Like other bacon, back bacon can be brined, cured, boiled, or smoked. It is much leaner than streaky bacon, and is sometimes sold in the US as Irish bacon or Canadian bacon, owing to the popularity of back bacon in those countries. "Canadian bacon" sold in the US can also mean a round, sliced and usually smoked ham product sold in many parts of the US. In much of Canada, "Canadian Bacon", often referred to there as "Peameal Bacon", is not smoked but rather set in a brine. The name reflects the historic practice of rolling the bacon in ground dried yellow peas, although nowadays, it is generally rolled in yellow cornmeal.
    8.20
    5 votes
    8
    Cavatelli

    Cavatelli

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Cavatelli are a type of pasta. The term cavatelli has two meanings: the most common meaning is small pasta shells that look like miniature hot dog buns. It is similar in shape to casarecci, but shorter in length. The name is less frequently used for a type of dumpling made with ricotta. In Italy, cavatelli are especially popular in the Avellino province.
    7.00
    6 votes
    9
    Lemon verbena

    Lemon verbena

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Aloysia citrodora is a species of flowering plant in the verbena family Verbenaceae, native to Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay, Chile, Bolivia, and Peru. Common names include lemon verbena and lemon beebrush. It was brought to Europe by the Spanish and the Portuguese in the 17th century. Lemon verbena is a perennial shrub or subshrub growing to 2 –3 m high. The 8 cm long glossy, pointed leaves are slightly rough to the touch and emit a powerful scent reminiscent of lemon when bruised. Sprays of tiny lilac or white flowers appear in late Spring or early Summer. It is sensitive to cold, losing leaves at temperatures below 0°C although the wood is hardy to -10°C. Due to its many culinary uses, it is widely listed and marketed as a plant for the herb garden. Lemon verbena leaves are used to add a lemon flavor to fish and poultry dishes, vegetable marinades, salad dressings, jams, puddings, greek yogurt and beverages. It also is used to make herbal teas, or added to standard tea in place of actual lemon (as is common with Moroccan tea). It can also be used to make a sorbet. In addition, it has anti-Candida albicans activity. In the European Union, Verbena essential oils (Lippia
    7.00
    6 votes
    10
    Mango

    Mango

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to the Indian subcontinent from where it was distributed worldwide to become one of the most cultivated fruits in the tropics. While other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, M. foetida) are also grown on a more localized basis, Mangifera indica – the 'common mango' or 'Indian mango' – is the only mango tree commonly cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions. It is the national fruit of India, Philippines and Pakistan. In several cultures, its fruit and leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings, public celebrations and religious ceremonies. The English word "mango" (plural "mangoes" or "mangos") originated from the Tamil word māṅgai or mankay (Tamil: மாங்காய்) or Malayalam māṅṅa (Malayalam: മാങ്ങ; from the Dravidian root word for the same), via Portuguese (also manga). The word's first recorded attestation in a European language was a text by Ludovico di Varthema in Italian in 1510, as manga; the first recorded occurrences in languages such as French and post-classical Latin
    9.00
    4 votes
    11
    Yam

    Yam

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Yam is the common name for some species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae). These are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean and Oceania. There are many cultivars of yam. Although the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) has traditionally been referred to as a yam in parts of the United States and Canada, it is not part of the Dioscoreaceae family. Yam is a versatile vegetable. It can be barbecued; roasted; fried; grilled; boiled; baked; smoked and when grated it is processed into a dessert recipe. Yams are the staple crop of the Igbo people of Nigeria, in their language it is known as ji, and they commemorate it by having yam festivals known as Iri-ji or Iwa-Ji depending on the dialect. Yams are a primary agricultural and culturally important commodity in West Africa, where over 95 percent of world's yam crop is harvested. Yams are still important for survival in these regions. Some varieties of these tubers can be stored up to six months without refrigeration, which makes them a valuable resource for the yearly period of food scarcity at the beginning of the wet season. Yam cultivars are
    9.00
    4 votes
    12
    Rice

    Rice

    • Typically used in dishes: Nasi goreng
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Cereal
    Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice). As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia and the West Indies. It is the grain with the second-highest worldwide production, after maize (corn), according to data for 2010. Since a large portion of maize crops are grown for purposes other than human consumption, rice is the most important grain with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by the human species. There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally. For example in India, there is a saying that "grains of rice should be like two brothers, close but not stuck together", while in the Far East there is a preference for softer, stickier varieties. Because of its importance as a staple food, rice has considerable cultural importance. For example, rice is first mentioned in the Yajur Veda and then is frequently referred to in Sanskrit texts. Rice is often directly associated with prosperity and fertility, therefore there is the custom of throwing
    6.67
    6 votes
    13
    Cranberry

    Cranberry

    • Typically used in dishes: Cape Cod
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium. In some methods of classification, Oxycoccus is regarded as a genus in its own right. They can be found in acidic bogs throughout the cooler regions of the northern hemisphere. Cranberries are low, creeping shrubs or vines up to 2 metres (7 ft) long and 5 to 20 centimetres (2 to 8 in) in height; they have slender, wiry stems that are not thickly woody and have small evergreen leaves. The flowers are dark pink, with very distinct reflexed petals, leaving the style and stamens fully exposed and pointing forward. They are pollinated by bees. The fruit is a berry that is larger than the leaves of the plant; it is initially white, but turns a deep red when fully ripe. It is edible, with an acidic taste that can overwhelm its sweetness. Cranberries are a major commercial crop in certain American states and Canadian provinces (see cultivation and uses below). Most cranberries are processed into products such as juice, sauce, jam, and sweetened dried cranberries, with the remainder sold fresh to consumers. Cranberry sauce is regarded as an indispensable part of traditional
    7.60
    5 votes
    14
    Tomatillo

    Tomatillo

    • Typically used in dishes: Salsa
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    The tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica) is a plant of the nightshade family, related to the cape gooseberry, bearing small, spherical and green or green-purple fruit of the same name. Tomatillos originated in Mexico, and are a staple of that country's cuisine. Tomatillos are grown as annuals throughout the Western Hemisphere. The tomatillo fruit is surrounded by an inedible, paper-like husk formed from the calyx. As the fruit matures, it fills the husk and can split it open by harvest. The husk turns brown, and the fruit can be several colors when ripe, including yellow, red, green, or even purple. Tomatillos are the key ingredient in fresh and cooked Latin American green sauces. The freshness and greenness of the husk are quality criteria. Fruit should be firm and bright green, as the green color and tart flavor are the main culinary contributions of the fruit. Purple and red-ripening cultivars often have a slight sweetness, unlike the green- and yellow-ripening cultivars, and are therefore somewhat more suitable for fruit-like uses like jams and preserves. Like their close relatives cape gooseberries, tomatillos have a high pectin content. Another characteristic is they tend to
    10.00
    3 votes
    15
    Mustard Greens

    Mustard Greens

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Brassica juncea, also known as mustard greens, Indian mustard, Chinese mustard, and leaf mustard, is a species of mustard plant. Subvarieties include southern giant curled mustard, which resembles a headless cabbage such as kale, but with a distinct horseradish-mustard flavor. It is also known as green mustard cabbage. The leaves, the seeds, and the stem of this mustard variety are edible. The plant appears in some form in African, Italian, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and soul food cuisine. Cultivars of B. juncea are grown as greens, and for the production of oilseed. In Russia this is the main variety grown for production of mustard oil, which after refining is considered one of the best vegetable oils around and is widely used in canning, baking and margarine production; and the majority of table mustard there is also made from this species of mustard plant. The leaves are used in African cooking, and leaves, seeds, and stems are used in Indian cuisine, particularly in mountain regions of Nepal, Punjab cuisine of India and Pakistan, where a famous dish called sarson da saag (mustard greens) is prepared. B. juncea subsp. tatsai, which has a particularly thick stem, is used
    6.50
    6 votes
    16
    Meringue

    Meringue

    • Typically used in dishes: Lemon meringue pie
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Meringue, ( /məˈræŋ/, mə-RANG; French pronunciation: [meˈʁɛ̃g]) is a type of dessert, often associated with Swiss and French cuisine, made from whipped egg whites and sugar, and occasionally an acid such as cream of tartar or a small amount of vinegar. A binding agent such as cornstarch or gelatin may also be added. The addition of powdered sugar, which usually contains corn starch, to the uncooked meringue produces a pavlova, a national dish of Australia and New Zealand. The key to the formation of a good meringue is the formation of stiff peaks formed by denaturing the protein ovalbumin (a protein in the egg whites) via mechanical shear. Meringues are often flavoured with vanilla and a small amount of almond or coconut extract although if these extracts are based on an oil infusion then this, if used in excess, may inhibit the egg whites into forming a foam due to the fat from the oil. They are light, airy and sweet confections. Homemade meringues are often chewy and soft with a crisp exterior, although a uniform crisp texture may be achieved at home, whilst commercial meringues are crisp throughout. The notion that meringue was invented in the Swiss town of Meiringen and
    7.40
    5 votes
    17
    Pineapple

    Pineapple

    • Typically used in dishes: Canh chua
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    Pineapple (Ananas comosus), a tropical plant with edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, named for resemblance to the pine cone, is the most economically important plant in the Bromeliaceae family. Pineapples may be cultivated from a crown cutting of the fruit, possibly flowering in 20–24 months and fruiting in the following six months. Pineapple may be consumed fresh, canned, juiced, and are found in a wide array of food stuffs – dessert, fruit salad, jam, yogurt, ice cream, candy, and as a complement to meat dishes. In addition to consumption, in the Philippines the pineapple's leaves are used as the source of a textile fiber called piña, and is employed as a component of wall paper and furnishings, amongst other uses. The word "pineapple" in English was first recorded in 1398, when it was originally used to describe the reproductive organs of conifer trees (now termed pine cones). The term "pine cone" for the reproductive organ of conifer trees was first recorded in 1694. When European explorers discovered this tropical fruit in the Americas, they called them "pineapples" (first so referenced in 1664 due to resemblance to what is now known as the pine cone). In
    8.25
    4 votes
    18
    Collard greens

    Collard greens

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Collard greens are various loose-leafed cultivars of Brassica oleracea (Acephala Group), the same species as cabbage and broccoli. The plant is grown for its large, dark-colored, edible leaves and as a garden ornamental, mainly in Brazil, Portugal, the southern United States, many parts of Africa, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, southern Croatia, northern Spain and in India. They are classified in the same cultivar group as kale and spring greens, to which they are genetically similar. The name "collard" is a corrupted form of the word "colewort" (cabbage plant). The plant is also called couve in Brazil, couve-galega or "couve portuguesa" (among several other names) in Portugal, kovi or kobi in Cape Verde, berza in Spanish-speaking countries, raštika in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia and raštan in Montenegro and Serbia. In Kashmir, it is called haak. In Congo, Tanzania and Kenya (East Africa), the plant is called sukuma wiki. The cultivar group name Acephala ("without a head" in Greek) refers to the fact that this variety of B. oleracea does not have the usual close-knit core of leaves (a "head") like cabbage. The plant is a biennial where winter frost occurs, and perennial
    7.00
    5 votes
    19
    Chinese cabbage

    Chinese cabbage

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Vegetable
    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa, subspecies pekinensis and chinensis) can refer to two distinct varieties (see below) of Chinese leaf vegetables used often in Chinese cuisine. These vegetables are both related to the Western cabbage, and are of the same species as the common turnip. Both have many variations in name, spelling and scientific classification–especially the "bok choy" or chinensis variety. The Ming Dynasty herbalist Li Shizhen studied the Chinese cabbage for its medicinal qualities. Before this time the Chinese cabbage was largely confined to the Yangtze River Delta region. The Chinese cabbage as it is known today is very similar to a variant cultivated in Zhejiang around the 14th century. During the following centuries, it became popular in northern China and the northern harvest soon exceeded the southern one. Northern cabbages were exported along the Grand Canal of China to Zhejiang and as far south as Guangdong. They were introduced to Korea, where it became the staple vegetable for making kimchi. In the early 20th century, it was taken to Japan by returning soldiers who had fought in China during the Russo-Japanese War. The Chinese cabbage is now commonly found in
    9.33
    3 votes
    20
    Damper

    Damper

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Damper is a traditional Australian soda bread prepared by swagmen, drovers, stockmen and other travelers. It consists of a wheat flour based bread, traditionally baked in the coals of a campfire. Damper is an iconic Australian dish. It is also made in camping situations in New Zealand, and has been for many decades. Damper was originally developed by stockmen who travelled in remote areas for weeks or months at a time, with only basic rations of flour, sugar and tea, supplemented by whatever meat was available. The basic ingredients of damper were flour, water, and sometimes milk. Baking soda could be used for leavening. The damper was normally cooked in the ashes of the camp fire. The ashes were flattened and the damper was placed in there for ten minutes to cook. Following this, the damper was covered with ashes and cooked for another 20 to 30 minutes until the damper sounded hollow when tapped. Alternatively, the damper was cooked in a greased camp oven. Damper was eaten with dried or cooked meat or golden syrup, also known as "cocky's joy". Damper is also a popular dish with Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal women had traditionally made bush bread from seasonal grains and
    9.33
    3 votes
    21
    Peanut

    Peanut

    • Typically used in dishes: Pecel
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    The peanut, or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), is a species in the legume or "bean" family (Fabaceae). The peanut was probably first domesticated and cultivated in the valleys of Paraguay. It is an annual herbaceous plant growing 30 to 50 cm (1.0 to 1.6 ft) tall. The leaves are opposite, pinnate with four leaflets (two opposite pairs; no terminal leaflet), each leaflet 1 to 7 cm (⅜ to 2¾ in) long and 1 to 3 cm (⅜ to 1 inch) broad. The flowers are a typical peaflower in shape, 2 to 4 cm (0.8 to 1.6 in) (¾ to 1½ in) across, yellow with reddish veining. Hypogaea means "under the earth"; after pollination, the flower stalk elongates causing it to bend until the ovary touches the ground. Continued stalk growth then pushes the ovary underground where the mature fruit develops into a legume pod, the peanut – a classical example of geocarpy. Pods are 3 to 7 cm (1.2 to 2.8 in) long, containing 1 to 4 seeds. Peanuts are known by many other local names such as earthnuts, ground nuts, goober peas, monkey nuts, pygmy nuts and pig nuts. Despite its name and appearance, the peanut is not a nut, but rather a legume. The domesticated peanut is an amphidiploid or allotetraploid, meaning that it has
    8.00
    4 votes
    22
    Tuna

    Tuna

    • Typically used in dishes: Niçoise salad
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Fish
    A tuna is a saltwater finfish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae), which includes the bonito (Sardini) and mackerel (Scombrini) tribes. Thunnini comprises fifteen species across five genera, the sizes of which vary greatly, ranging from the bullet tuna (max. length: 50 cm (1.6 ft), weight: 1.8 kg (4.0 lb)) up to the Atlantic bluefin tuna (max. length: 458 cm (15.03 ft), weight: 684 kg (1,510 lb); the bluefin averages 200 cm (6.6 ft), and is believed to live for up to 50 years. Their circulatory and respiratory systems are unique among fish, enabling them to maintain a body temperature slightly higher than the surrounding water. An active and agile predator, the tuna has a sleek, streamlined body, and is among the fastest-swimming pelagic fish – the yellowfin tuna, for example, is capable of speeds of up to 75 km/h (47 mph). Found in warm seas, it is extensively fished commercially and is popular as a game fish. As a result of over-fishing, stocks of some tuna species have been reduced dangerously close to the point of extinction. The term tuna derives from Latin 'thunnus' and from Ancient Greek 'θύννος' or 'thunnos', from 'θύνω' or
    8.00
    4 votes
    23
    Cucumber

    Cucumber

    • Typically used in dishes: Greek salad
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Vegetable
    The cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family Cucurbitaceae. It is a creeping vine which bears cylindrical edible vegetable when ripe. There are three main varieties of cucumber: "slicing", "pickling", and "burpless". Within these varieties, several different cultivars have emerged. The cucumber is originally from India but is now grown on most continents. Many different varieties are traded on the global market. The cucumber is a creeping vine that roots in the ground and grows up trellises or other supporting frames, wrapping around supports with thin, spiraling tendrils. The plant has large leaves that form a canopy over the fruit. The fruit of the cucumber is roughly cylindrical, elongated with tapered ends, and may be as large as 60 centimeters (24 in) long and 10 centimeters (3.9 in) in diameter. Having an enclosed seed and developing from a flower, botanically speaking, cucumbers are classified as Accessory fruits. However, much like tomatoes and squash they are often perceived, prepared and eaten as vegetables. Cucumbers are usually more than 90% water. A few varieties of cucumber are parthenocarpic, the blossoms creating seedless fruit
    7.75
    4 votes
    24
    Edible mushroom

    Edible mushroom

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of fungi. Mushrooms belong to the macrofungi, because their fruiting structures are large enough to be seen with the naked eye. They can appear either below ground (hypogeous) or above ground (epigeous) where they may be picked by hand. Edibility may be defined by criteria that include absence of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma. Edible mushrooms are consumed by humans as comestibles for their nutritional value and they are occasionally consumed for their supposed medicinal value. Mushrooms consumed by those practicing folk medicine are known as medicinal mushrooms. While hallucinogenic mushrooms (e.g. Psilocybin mushrooms) are occasionally consumed for recreational or religious purposes, they can produce severe nausea and disorientation, and are therefore not commonly considered edible mushrooms. Edible mushrooms include many fungal species that are either harvested wild or cultivated. Easily cultivatable and common wild mushrooms are often available in markets, and those that are more difficult to obtain (such as the prized truffle and matsutake) may be collected on a smaller scale
    7.75
    4 votes
    25
    Veal

    Veal

    • Typically used in dishes: Weißwurst
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Veal is the meat of young cattle (calves), as opposed to beef from older cattle. Though veal can be produced from a calf of either sex and any breed, most veal comes from male calves (bull calves) of dairy cattle breeds. There are five types of veal: The veal industry's support for the dairy industry goes beyond the purchase of surplus calves. It also buys large amounts of milk byproducts. Almost 70% of veal feeds (by weight) are milk products. Most popular are whey and whey protein concentrate (WPC), byproducts of the manufacture of cheese. Milk byproducts are sources of protein and lactose. Skimmed milk powder, casein, buttermilk powder and other forms of milk byproducts are used from time to time. Veal has been an important ingredient in Italian and French cuisine from ancient times. The veal is often in the form of cutlets, such as the Italian cotoletta or the famous Austrian dish Wiener Schnitzel. Some classic French veal dishes include: fried escalopes, fried veal grenadines (small thick fillet steaks), stuffed paupiettes, roast joints and blanquettes. As veal is lower in fat than many meats, care must be taken in preparation to ensure that it does not become tough. Veal is
    7.75
    4 votes
    26
    Mafaldine

    Mafaldine

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Mafaldine, also known as Reginette (Italian for little queens), is a type of ribbon-shaped pasta. It is flat and wide, usually about 1 cm (½ inch) in width, with wavy edges on both sides. It is prepared similarly to other ribbon-based pasta such as linguine and fettuccine. It is usually served with a more delicate sauce. Mafaldine were named in honor of Princess Mafalda of Savoy (thus the alternative name "little queens").
    6.60
    5 votes
    27
    Meat analogue

    Meat analogue

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    A meat analogue, also called a meat substitute, mock meat, faux meat, or imitation meat, approximates the aesthetic qualities (primarily texture, flavor, and appearance) and/or chemical characteristics of specific types of meat. Many analogues are soy-based (see: tofu, tempeh). Generally, meat analogue is understood to mean a food made from non-meats, sometimes without other animal products, such as dairy. The market for meat imitations includes vegetarians, vegans, non-vegetarians seeking to reduce their meat consumption for health or ethical reasons, and people following religious dietary laws, such as Kashrut or Halal. Hindu cuisine features the oldest known use of meat analogues. Meat analogue may also refer to a meat-based and/or less-expensive alternative to a particular meat product, such as surimi. Some vegetarian meat analogues are based on centuries-old recipes for seitan (wheat gluten), rice, mushrooms, legumes, tempeh, or pressed-tofu, with flavoring added to make the finished product taste like chicken, beef, lamb, ham, sausage, seafood, etc. Yuba is another soy-based meat analogue, made by layering the thin skin which forms on top of boiled soy milk. Some more recent
    6.60
    5 votes
    28
    Vermicelli

    Vermicelli

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Vermicelli (Italian: [vermiˈtʃɛlli], lit. "little worms") is a traditional type of pasta round in section that is thicker than spaghetti. In USA, the National Pasta Association, founded in 1904, that has no links with its Italian counterpart, the Unione Industriali Pastai Italiani, lists vermicelli as a thinner type of spaghetti. In 14th-century Italy, long pasta shapes had varying local names. Barnabas de Reatinis of Reggio notes in his Compendium de naturis et proprietatibus alimentorum (1338) that the Tuscan vermicelli are called orati in Bologna, minutelli in Venice, fermentini in Reggio, and pancardelle in Mantua. The first mention of a vermicelli recipe is in the book De arte Coquinaria per vermicelli e maccaroni siciliani (The Art of Cooking Sicilian Macaroni and Vermicelli), compiled by the famous Maestro Martino da Como, unequalled in his field at the time and perhaps the first "celebrity chef," who was the chef at the Roman palazzo of the papal chamberlain ("camerlengo"), the Patriarch of Aquileia. In Martino's Libro de arte coquinaria, there are several recipes for vermicelli, which can last two or three years (doi o tre anni) when dried in the sun. In English, the
    6.60
    5 votes
    29
    Globe artichoke

    Globe artichoke

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) is a perennial thistle of the genus Cynara originating in Southern Europe around the Mediterranean. It grows to 1.4–2 m (4.6–6.6 ft) tall, with arching, deeply lobed, silvery, glaucous-green leaves 50–82 cm (20–32 in) long. The flowers develop in a large head from an edible bud about 8–15 cm (3.1–5.9 in) diameter with numerous triangular scales; the individual florets are purple. The edible portions of the buds consist primarily of the fleshy lower portions of the involucral bracts and the base, known as the "heart"; the mass of immature florets in the center of the bud is called the "choke" or beard. These are inedible in older, larger flowers. In the Maghreb (North Africa), where they are still found in the wild state, the seeds of artichokes, probably cultivated, were found during the excavation of Roman-period Mons Claudianus in Egypt. Names for the artichoke in many European languages come from the Arabic الخرشوف al-khurshūf. The Arabic term ardi-shoki (أرض شوكي), which means "ground thorny" is a false etymology of the English name. The cardoon (Cynara cardunculus), a naturally occurring variant of the same species, is
    7.50
    4 votes
    30
    Kimchi

    Kimchi

    Kimchi (Korean: 김치;  /ˈkɪmtʃi/), also spelled gimchi, kimchee, or kim chee, is a traditional fermented Korean dish made of vegetables with a variety of seasonings. It is Korea's national dish, and there are hundreds of varieties made with a main vegetable ingredient such as napa cabbage, radish, scallion, or cucumber. Kimchi is also a main ingredient for many Korean dishes such as kimchi stew (김치찌개; kimchi jjigae), kimchi soup (김칫국; kimchiguk), and kimchi fried rice (김치볶음밥; kimchi bokkeumbap). The earliest references to pickled vegetables in East Asia is found in the Xin Nan Shan 信南山 poem of the Shi Jing (詩經), which uses the character 菹 (Korean "jeo", Mandarin Chinese "zu"). The term ji was used until the pre-modern terms chimchae (hanja: 沈菜, lit. soaked vegetables), dimchae, and timchae were adopted in the period of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. The word then was modified into jimchi, and is currently kimchi. Early kimchi was made of cabbage and beef stock only. Red chili, a New World vegetable not found in Korea before European contact with the Americas, was introduced to Korea from Japan after the Japanese invasions (1592–1598) and became a staple ingredient in kimchi. Red chili
    7.50
    4 votes
    31
    Meat

    Meat

    • Typically used in dishes: Pasty
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Generally, this means the skeletal muscle and associated fat and other tissues, but it may also describe other edible tissues such as offal. Often, meat is used in a more restrictive sense – the flesh of mammalian species (pigs, cattle, lambs, etc.) raised and prepared for human consumption, to the exclusion of fish and other seafood, poultry, and other animals. Usage varies worldwide, depending on cultural or religious preferences. The word meat comes from the Old English word mete, which referred to food in general. The term is related to mad in Danish, mat in Swedish and Norwegian, and matur in Icelandic and Faroese, which also mean 'food'. The word "mete" also exists in Old Frisian (and to a lesser extent, modern West Frisian) to denote important food, differentiating it from "swiets" (sweets) and "dierfied" (animal feed). One definition that refers to meat as not including fish developed over the past few hundred years and has religious influences. The distinction between fish and "meat" is codified by the Jewish dietary law of kashrut, regarding the mixing of milk and meat, which does not forbid the mixing of milk and fish. Modern
    7.50
    4 votes
    32
    Shahe fen

    Shahe fen

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Rice noodles
    Shahe fen or he fen is a type of wide Chinese noodle made from rice. While shahe fen and he fen are transliterations based on Mandarin, there are numerous other transliterations based on Cantonese, which include ho fen, hofen, ho-fen, ho fun, ho-fun, hofoen (a Dutch transliteration in Suriname), hor fun, hor fen, sar hor fun, etc. In addition, shahe fen is often synonymously called kway teow (粿條), literally "ricecake strips", transliteration based on Min Nan Chinese, POJ: kóe-tiâu) or guotiao (pinyin: guǒtiáo; the corresponding transliteration of Mandarin), as in the name of a dish called char kway teow. However, shahe fen and kway teow are strictly and technically not the same (the latter being essentially ricecakes sliced into strips) and the Min Nans in general still consciously make a distinction between shahe fen and kway teow in their speech. Original ricecakes or its strips are very stiff in texture (even after cooking), making them unpopular with modern consumers. It is also known in Sabah as da fen (大粉), means "wide vermicelli", due to its similarity of colour and texture to vermicelli. These noodles are called guay tiew sen yai (Thai: เส้นใหญ่, meaning "large rice
    7.50
    4 votes
    33
    Asparagus

    Asparagus

    Asparagus is a genus in the plant family Asparagaceae, subfamily Asparagoideae. It comprises up to 300 species. Most are evergreen long-lived perennial plants growing from the understory as lianas, bushes or climbing plants. The best-known species is the edible Asparagus officinalis, commonly referred to as just asparagus. Other members of the genus are grown as ornamental plants. The genus includes a variety of living forms, occurring from rainforest to semi-desert habitats; many are climbing plants. The differences among them came from the communities and ecosystems in which they occur, and the ecological and evolutionary processes that keep them functioning, yet ever changing and adapting. Most are dispersed by birds. Ornamental species such as Asparagus plumosus, Asparagus aethiopicus, Asparagus setaceus, and Asparagus virgatus are finely branched and are misleadingly known as "asparagus fern". In the Macaronesian Islands, several species (such as Asparagus umbellatus and Asparagus scoparius) grow in moist laurel forest habitat, and preserve the original form of a leafy vine. In the drier Mediterranean climate the asparagus genus evolved in the Tertiary into thorny,
    8.67
    3 votes
    34
    Cantaloupe

    Cantaloupe

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    Cantaloupe (also canteloupe, cantaloup, mushmelon, muskmelon, rockmelon, Persian melon, spanspek (South Africa), or Garma گرما) refers to a variety of Cucumis melo, a species in the family Cucurbitaceae. Cantaloupes range in size from 500 g to 5 kg (1 to 10 lb). Originally, cantaloupe referred only to the non-netted, orange-fleshed melons of Europe. However, in more recent usage, it has come to mean any orange-fleshed melon (C. melo). Cantaloupe is the most popular variety of melon in the United States. The name is derived, via French, from the Italian Cantalupo which was formerly a papal county seat near Rome. Tradition has it, that this is where it was first cultivated in Europe, on its introduction from Ancient Armenia. Its first known usage in English dates from 1739 in The Gardeners Dictionary Vol. II by Scottish botanist Philip Miller (1691–1771). The European cantaloupe is lightly ribbed, with a gray-green skin that looks quite different from that of the North American cantaloupe. The North American cantaloupe, common in the United States, Mexico, and in some parts of Canada, is actually a muskmelon, a different variety of Cucumis melo, and has a net-like (or reticulated)
    8.67
    3 votes
    35
    Cumin

    Cumin

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Spice
    Cumin ( /ˈkjuːmɨn/ or UK /ˈkʌmɨn/, US /ˈkuːmɨn/; sometimes spelled cummin; Cuminum cyminum) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native from the east Mediterranean to India. Its seeds (each one contained within a fruit, which is dried) are used in the cuisines of many different cultures, in both whole and ground form. The English "cumin" derives from the Old English cymen (or Old French cumin), from Latin cuminum, which is the latinisation of the Greek κύμινον (kuminon), cognate with Hebrew כמון (kammon) and Arabic كمون (kammun). Forms of this word are attested in several ancient Semitic languages, including kamūnu in Akkadian. The ultimate source is the Sumerian word gamun. The earliest attested form of the word κύμινον (kuminon) is the Mycenaean Greek ku-mi-no, written in Linear B syllabic script. Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum, a member of the parsley family. The cumin plant grows to 30–50 cm (0.98–1.6 ft) tall and is harvested by hand. It is an herbaceous annual plant, with a slender branched stem 20–30 cm tall. The leaves are 5–10 cm long, pinnate or bipinnate, thread-like leaflets. The flowers are small, white or pink, and borne in umbels. The
    8.67
    3 votes
    36
    Butternut squash

    Butternut squash

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata), also known in Australia and New Zealand as butternut pumpkin, is a type of winter squash. It has a sweet, nutty taste similar to that of a pumpkin. It has yellow skin and orange fleshy pulp. When ripe, it turns increasingly deep orange, and becomes sweeter and richer. It grows on a vine. The most popular variety, the Waltham Butternut, originated in Waltham, Massachusetts, where it was developed at the Waltham Experiment Station by Robert E. Young. In actuality, the Waltham Butternut squash was developed by Charles Leggett in Stow, Massachusetts. Leggett introduced researchers at the Waltham Field Station to the squash at that location. Butternut squash is a fruit that can be roasted, toasted, puréed for soups, or mashed and used in casseroles, breads, and muffins. In Australia it is regarded as a pumpkin, and is used interchangeably with other types of pumpkin. Butternut squash finds common use in South Africa. It is often prepared as soup or grilled whole. Grilled butternut is typically seasoned with spices such as nutmeg and cinnamon, or stuffed with other vegetables (e.g. example Spinach and Feta before wrapped in foil and then grilled.
    7.25
    4 votes
    37
    Fennel

    Fennel

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). It is a member of the family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). It is a hardy, perennial, umbelliferous herb, with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean, but has become widely naturalized in many parts of the world, especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on riverbanks. It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses, and, along with the similar-tasting anise, is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen, bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the mouse moth and the anise swallowtail. The word fennel developed from the Middle English fenel or fenyl. This came from the Old English fenol or finol, which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum, the diminutive of fenum or faenum, meaning "hay". The Latin word for the plant was ferula, which is now used as the genus name of a related plant. As Old English
    7.25
    4 votes
    38
    Garlic chives

    Garlic chives

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Garlic chives, Allium tuberosum, (also known as kow choi) is a vegetable related to onion. It is also sometimes called "green nira grass" where "nira" is Romanization of the Japanese word "ニラ" which means garlic chives. The plant has a distinctive growth habit with strap-shaped leaves unlike either onion or garlic, and straight thin white-flowering stalks that are much taller than the leaves. The flavor is more like garlic than chives. It grows in slowly expanding perennial clumps, but also readily sprouts from seed. Both leaves and the stalks of the flowers are used as a flavoring in a similar way to chives, green onions or garlic and are used as a stir fry ingredient. In China, they are often used to make dumplings with a combination of egg, shrimp and pork. They are a common ingredient in Chinese jiaozi dumplings and the Japanese and Korean equivalents. The flowers may also be used as a spice. In Vietnam, the leaves of garlic chives are cut up into short pieces and used as the only vegetable in a broth with sliced pork kidneys. A Chinese flatbread similar to the green onion pancake may be made with garlic chives instead of scallions; such a pancake is called a jiucai bing (韭菜饼)
    7.25
    4 votes
    39
    Soba

    Soba

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Soba (そば or 蕎麦) is the Japanese name for buckwheat. It is synonymous with a type of thin noodle made from buckwheat flour, and in Japan can refer to any thin noodle (unlike thick wheat noodles, known as udon). Soba noodles are served either chilled with a dipping sauce, or in hot broth as a noodle soup. It takes three months for buckwheat to be ready for harvest, so it can be harvested four times a year, mainly in spring, summer, and autumn. In Japan, buckwheat is produced mainly in Hokkaido. Soba that is made with newly harvested buckwheat is called "shin-soba". It is sweeter and more flavorful than regular soba. In Japan, soba noodles are served in a variety of settings: they are a popular inexpensive fast food at train stations throughout Japan, but are also served by expensive specialty restaurants. Markets sell dried noodles and men-tsuyu, or instant noodle broth, to make home preparation easy. Some establishments, especially cheaper and more casual ones, may serve both soba and udon as they are often served in a similar manner. Soba is the traditional noodle of choice for Tokyoites. This tradition originates from the Tokugawa period, when the population of Edo (Tokyo), being
    7.25
    4 votes
    40
    Strawberry

    Strawberry

    • Typically used in dishes: Pimm's Cup
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    Fragaria ( /frəˈɡɛəriə/) is a genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, commonly known as strawberries for their edible fruits. Although it is commonly thought that strawberries get their name from straw being used as a mulch in cultivating the plants, the etymology of the word is uncertain. There are more than 20 described species and many hybrids and cultivars. The most common strawberries grown commercially are cultivars of the garden strawberry, a hybrid known as Fragaria × ananassa. Strawberries have a taste that varies by cultivar, and ranges from quite sweet to rather tart. Strawberries are an important commercial fruit crop, widely grown in all temperate regions of the world. Strawberries are not true berries. The fleshy and edible part of the fruit is a receptacle, and the parts that are sometimes mistakenly called "seeds" are achenes. There are more than 20 different Fragaria species worldwide. Numbers of other species have been proposed, some of which are now recognized as subspecies. Key to the classification of strawberry species is recognizing that they vary in the number of chromosomes. There are seven basic types of chromosomes that they all have in
    7.25
    4 votes
    41
    Cheese

    Cheese

    • Typically used in dishes: Quesadilla
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms. Cheese consists of proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep. It is produced by coagulation of the milk protein casein. Typically, the milk is acidified and addition of the enzyme rennet causes coagulation. The solids are separated and pressed into final form. Some cheeses have molds on the rind or throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature. Hundreds of types of cheese are produced. Their styles, textures and flavors depend on the origin of the milk (including the animal's diet), whether they have been pasteurized, the butterfat content, the bacteria and mold, the processing, and aging. Herbs, spices, or wood smoke may be used as flavoring agents. The yellow to red color of many cheeses, such as Red Leicester, is formed from adding annatto. For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as vinegar or lemon juice. Most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid, then the addition of rennet completes the curdling. Vegetarian alternatives
    8.33
    3 votes
    42
    Potato

    Potato

    • Typically used in dishes: Irish stew
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae family (also known as the nightshades). The word may refer to the plant itself as well as the edible tuber. In the region of the Andes, there are some other closely related cultivated potato species. Potatoes were introduced outside the Andes region four centuries ago, and have become an integral part of much of the world's cuisine. It is the world's fourth-largest food crop, following rice, wheat and maize. Long-term storage of potatoes requires specialised care in cold warehouses. Wild potato species occur throughout the Americas, from the United States to southern Chile. The potato was originally believed to have been domesticated independently in multiple locations, but later genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species proved a single origin for potatoes in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia (from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex), where they were domesticated 7,000–10,000 years ago. Following centuries of selective breeding, there are now over a thousand different types of potatoes. Of these subspecies, a variety
    8.33
    3 votes
    43
    Tamarind

    Tamarind

    • Typically used in dishes: Canh chua
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) (from Arabic: تمر هندی‎, romanized tamar hind, "Indian date") is a tree in the family Fabaceae indigenous to tropical Africa. The genus Tamarindus is a monotypic taxon, having only a single species. The tamarind tree produces edible, pod-like fruit which are used extensively in cuisines around the world. Tamarindus indica is indigenous to tropical Africa, particularly in Sudan, where it continues to grow wild; it is also cultivated in Cameroon, Nigeria and Tanzania. In Arabia, it is found growing wild in Oman, especially Dhofar, where it grows on the sea-facing slopes of mountains. It reached South Asia likely through human transportation and cultivation several thousand years prior to the Common Era. It is widely distributed throughout the tropical belt, from Africa to South Asia, Northern Australia, and throughout South East Asia, Taiwan and China. In the 16th century, it was heavily introduced to Mexico, and to a lesser degree to South America, by Spanish and Portuguese colonists, to the degree that it became a staple ingredient in the region's cuisine. Today, South Asia and Mexico remain the largest consumers and producers of tamarind. The tamarind
    8.33
    3 votes
    44
    Cellentani

    Cellentani

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Cellentani, also called cavatappi or double elbows, is macaroni formed in a spiral tube shape. The noodles are usually rigati (grooved on the outside surface).
    9.50
    2 votes
    45
    Dill

    Dill

    • Typically used in dishes: Pickled cucumber
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Herb
    Dill (Anethum graveolens), depending on where it is grown, is either a perennial or annual herb. It is the sole species of the genus Anethum, though classified by some botanists in a related genus as Peucedanum graveolens (L.) C.B.Clarke. Dill grows to 40–60 cm (16–24 in), with slender stems and alternate, finely divided, softly delicate leaves 10–20 cm (3.9–7.9 in) long. The ultimate leaf divisions are 1–2 mm (0.039–0.079 in) broad, slightly broader than the similar leaves of fennel, which are threadlike, less than 1 mm (0.039 in) broad, but harder in texture. The flowers are white to yellow, in small umbels 2–9 cm (0.79–3.5 in) diameter. The seeds are 4–5 mm (0.16–0.20 in) long and 1 mm (0.039 in) thick, and straight to slightly curved with a longitudinally ridged surface. Dill originated within an area around the Mediterranean and the South of Russia. Zohary and Hopf remark, "wild and weedy types of dill are widespread in the Mediterranean basin and in West Asia." Although several twigs of dill were found in the tomb of Amenhotep II, they reported the earliest archeological evidence for its cultivation comes from late Neolithic lakeshore settlements in Switzerland. Traces have
    9.50
    2 votes
    46
    Romaine lettuce

    Romaine lettuce

    • Typically used in dishes: Caesar salad
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Vegetable
    Romaine or cos lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) is a variety of lettuce which grows in a tall head of sturdy leaves with a firm rib down the center. Unlike most lettuces, it is tolerant of heat. The name cos lettuce derives from the Greek island of Kos, where it originated. The day of 22 Germinal in the French Republican Calendar is dedicated to this lettuce. The thick ribs, especially on the older outer leaves, should have a milky fluid which gives the romaine the typically fine-bitter herb taste. Romaine is the usual lettuce used in Caesar salad. Romaine lettuce is commonly used in Middle Eastern cuisine. Romaine lettuce may be used in the Passover Seder as a type of bitter herb, to symbolise the bitterness inflicted by the Egyptians while the Israelites were slaves in Egypt. As with other dark leafy greens, the antioxidants contained within romaine lettuce are believed to help prevent cancer. According to the 2011 edition of the Old Farmer's Almanac, the chlorophyll pigment in dark leafy greens, such as Romaine lettuce, may reduce levels of colon and liver cancer carcinogens.
    9.50
    2 votes
    47
    Tagliatelle

    Tagliatelle

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Tagliatelle (Italian pronunciation: [taʎʎaˈtɛlle]) and tagliolini (from the Italian tagliare, meaning "to cut") is a traditional type of pasta from Emilia-Romagna and Marches, regions of Italy. Individual pieces of tagliatelle are long, flat ribbons that are similar in shape to fettuccine and are typically about 0.65 cm to 1 cm (0.25 to 0.375 inches) wide. Tagliatelle can be served with a variety of sauces, though the classic is a meat sauce or Bolognese sauce. Tagliolini is another variety of tagliatelle that is long and cylindrical in shape, not long and flat. Bavette are also available, and are thinner than tagliatelle; an even thinner version is bavettine. Legend has it that tagliatelle was created by a talented court chef, who was inspired by Lucrezia d'Este's hairdo on the occasion of her marriage to Annibale II Bentivoglio, in 1487. In reality, this was a joke invented by humorist Augusto Majani in 1931. The recipe was called tagliolini di pasta e sugo, alla maniera di Zafiran (tagliolini of pasta and sauce in the manner of Zafiran) and it was served on silver plates. Over the years, tagliatelle has become considered a more common food. A glass case in the Bologna Chamber of
    9.50
    2 votes
    48
    Water Chestnut

    Water Chestnut

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    The Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis; synonyms E. equisetina, E. indica, E. plantaginea, E. plantaginoides, E. tuberosa, E. tumida), more often called simply the water chestnut, is a grass-like sedge grown for its edible corms. The water chestnut is actually not a nut at all, but an aquatic vegetable that grows in marshes, underwater in the mud. It has tube-shaped, leafless green stems that grow to about 1.5 metres. The water caltrop, which is also referred to by the same name, is unrelated and often confused with the water chestnut. The small, rounded corms have a crisp white flesh and can be eaten raw, slightly boiled, grilled, and are often pickled or tinned. They are a popular ingredient in Chinese dishes. In China, they are most often eaten raw, sometimes sweetened. They can also be ground into a flour form used for making water chestnut cake, which is common as part of dim sum cuisine. They are unusual among vegetables for remaining crisp even after being cooked or canned, because their cell walls are cross-linked and strengthened by certain phenolic compounds, like oligomers of ferulic acid. This property is shared by other vegetables that remain crisp in this
    9.50
    2 votes
    49
    Blueberry

    Blueberry

    • Typically used in dishes: Blueberry pie
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with indigo-colored berries in the section Cyanococcus within the genus Vaccinium (a genus that also includes cranberries and bilberries). Species in the section Cyanococcus are the most common fruits sold as "blueberries" and are native to North America (commercially cultivated highbush blueberries were not introduced into Europe until the 1930s). They are usually erect, but sometimes prostrate shrubs varying in size from 10 centimeters (3.9 in) to 4 meters (13 ft) tall. In commercial blueberry production, smaller species are known as "lowbush blueberries" (synonymous with "wild"), and the larger species are known as "highbush blueberries". The leaves can be either deciduous or evergreen, ovate to lanceolate, and 1–8 cm (0.39–3.1 in) long and 0.5–3.5 cm (0.20–1.4 in) broad. The flowers are bell-shaped, white, pale pink or red, sometimes tinged greenish. The fruit is a berry 5–16 millimeters (0.20–0.63 in) in diameter with a flared crown at the end; they are pale greenish at first, then reddish-purple, and finally dark blue when ripe. They have a sweet taste when mature, with variable acidity. Blueberry bushes typically bear fruit in the
    7.00
    4 votes
    50
    Common sage

    Common sage

    • Typically used in dishes: Roast chicken
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Herb
    Salvia officinalis (garden sage, common sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. It is a member of the family Lamiaceae and is native to the Mediterranean region, though it has naturalized in many places throughout the world. It has a long history of medicinal and culinary use, and in modern times as an ornamental garden plant. The common name "sage" is also used for a number of related and unrelated species. Salvia officinalis was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. It has been grown for centuries in the Old World for its food and healing properties, and was often described in old herbals for the many miraculous properties attributed to it. The specific epithet, officinalis, refers to the plant's medicinal use—the officina was the traditional storeroom of a monastery where herbs and medicines were stored. S. officinalis has been classified under many other scientific names over the years, including six different names since 1940 alone. Cultivars are quite variable in size, leaf and flower color, and foliage pattern, with many variegated leaf types. The Old World type grows to approximately 2 ft (0.61 m) tall and
    7.00
    4 votes
    51
    Anchovy

    Anchovy

    • Typically used in dishes: Caesar salad
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Fish
    Anchovies are a family (Engraulidae) of small, common salt-water forage fish. There are 144 species in 17 genera, found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. Anchovies are usually classified as an oily fish. Anchovies are small, green fish with blue reflections due to a silver longitudinal stripe that runs from the base of the caudal fin. They range from 2 centimetres (0.79 in) to 40 centimetres (16 in) in adult length, and the body shape is variable with more slender fish in northern populations. The snout is blunt with tiny, sharp teeth in both jaws. The snout contains a unique rostral organ, believed to be sensory in nature, although its exact function is unknown. The mouth is larger than that of herrings and silversides, two fish anchovies closely resemble in other respects. The anchovy eats plankton and fry (recently-hatched fish). Anchovies are found in scattered areas throughout the world's oceans, but are concentrated in temperate waters, and are rare or absent in very cold or very warm seas. They are generally very accepting of a wide range of temperatures and salinity. Large schools can be found in shallow, brackish areas with muddy bottoms, as in estuaries and
    8.00
    3 votes
    52
    Chickpea

    Chickpea

    • Typically used in dishes: Hummus
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    The chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. Its seeds are high in protein. It is one of the earliest cultivated legumes: 7,500-year-old remains have been found in the Middle East. Other common names for the species include garbanzo bean, ceci bean, chana, sanagalu, and Bengal gram. The name "chickpea" traces back through the French chiche to cicer, Latin for ‘chickpea’ (from which the Roman cognomen Cicero was taken). The Oxford English Dictionary lists a 1548 citation that reads, "Cicer may be named in English Cich, or ciche pease, after the Frenche tonge." The dictionary cites "Chick-pea" in the mid-18th century; the original word in English taken directly from French was chich, found in print in English in 1388 and became obsolete in the 18th century. The word garbanzo came to English as "calavance" in the 17th century, from Old Spanish (perhaps influenced by Old Spanish garroba or algarroba), though it came to refer to a variety of other beans (cf. Calavance). The Portuguese (?) arvanço has suggested to some that the origin of the word garbanzo is in the Greek erebinthos. But the Oxford English Dictionary notes that some scholars
    8.00
    3 votes
    53
    Lamb

    Lamb

    • Typically used in dishes: Irish stew
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Lamb, mutton, and hogget (UK, New Zealand and Australia) are the meat of domestic sheep. The meat of a sheep in its first year is lamb; that of a juvenile sheep older than one year is hogget; and the meat of an adult sheep is mutton. Distinct from the meat, a lamb (singular with the indefinite article) or lambs (plural) also describes live juvenile sheep (species Ovis aries), which may or may not be used for meat. In Australia, the term prime lamb is often used to refer to lambs raised for meat. The definitions for lamb, hogget and mutton vary considerably between countries. In New Zealand, they are defined as follows: In Australia and Saudi Arabia the definitions are extended to include ewes and rams, as well as being stricter on the definition for lamb, which is: Under current United States federal regulations, only the term 'lamb' is used: The term 'mutton' is rare and 'hogget' unknown in the United States. Keens steakhouse in New York City is one restaurant with a "mutton chop" on its menu. Younger lambs are smaller and more tender. Mutton is meat from a sheep over two years old, and has less tender flesh. In general, the darker the colour, the older the animal. Baby lamb meat
    8.00
    3 votes
    54
    Table salt

    Table salt

    • Typically used in dishes: Hummus
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Salt
    Salt, also known as table salt, or rock salt, is a crystalline mineral that is composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of ionic salts. It is essential for animal life in small quantities, but is harmful to animals and plants in excess. Salt is one of the oldest, most ubiquitous food seasonings and salting is an important method of food preservation. The taste of salt (saltiness) is one of the basic human tastes. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt), refined salt (table salt), and iodized salt. It is a crystalline solid, white, pale pink or light gray in color, normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content. Chloride and sodium ions, the two major components of salt, are needed by all known living creatures in small quantities. Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. The sodium ion itself is used for electrical signaling in the nervous system. Because of its importance to survival, salt has often been considered a valuable commodity during human history.
    8.00
    3 votes
    55
    Farfalle

    Farfalle

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Farfalle are a type of pasta. Commonly known as "bow-tie pasta", the name is derived from the Italian word farfalla (butterfly). The "e" at the end of the word is the Italian feminine plural ending, making the meaning of the word "butterflies". Farfalle date back to the 16th century. It originated in Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna in Northern Italy. Farfalle come in several sizes, but have a distinctive bow tie shape. Usually, the farfalla is formed from a rectangle or oval of pasta with two sides trimmed in a ruffled edge, and the center pinched together to make the unusual shape. They are sometimes ridged, known as farfalle rigate. Different varieties are available: plain, tomato, and spinach. These are often sold together in a mix, often with chicken. Though usable with most sauces, farfalle are best suited to cream and tomato dishes. A larger variation of farfalle is known as farfallone, while there is a miniature version called farfalline. In Modena, farfalle are known as strichetti, also known as radicannatini cudipus. Farfalle are not related to the similar-sounding farfel, a kind of egg-barley pasta in Jewish cuisine.
    6.75
    4 votes
    56
    Marjoram

    Marjoram

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Herb
    Marjoram (Origanum majorana, syn. Majorana hortensis Moench, Majorana majorana (L.) H. Karst) is a somewhat cold-sensitive perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavors. In some Middle-eastern countries, marjoram is synonymous with oregano, and there the names sweet marjoram and knotted marjoram are used to distinguish it from other plants of the genus Origanum. The name marjoram (Old French majorane, Medieval Latin majorana) does not directly derive from the Latin word maior (major). Marjoram is indigenous to the Mediterranean area, and was known to the Greeks and Romans as a symbol of happiness. Considered a tender perennial (USDA Zones 7-9), marjoram can sometimes prove hardy even in zone 5. Marjoram is cultivated for its aromatic leaves, either green or dry, for culinary purposes; the tops are cut as the plants begin to flower and are dried slowly in the shade. It is often used in herb combinations such as herbes de Provence and za'atar. The flowering leaves and tops of marjoram are steam-distilled to produce an essential oil that is yellowish in color (darkening to brown as it ages). It has many chemical components, some of which are borneol, camphor and
    6.75
    4 votes
    57
    Almond

    Almond

    • Typically used in dishes: Bakewell tart
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Nut
    The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus Batsch., Amygdalus communis L., Amygdalus dulcis Mill.), is a species of tree native to the Middle East and South Asia. "Almond" is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree. Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated shell (endocarp) surrounding the seed. The fruit of the almond is a drupe, consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed or "nut" (which is not a true nut) inside. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed. Almonds are sold shelled (i.e., after the shells are removed), or unshelled (i.e., with the shells still attached). Blanched almonds are shelled almonds that have been treated with hot water to soften the seedcoat, which is then removed to reveal the white embryo. The almond is a small deciduous tree, growing 4–10 metres (13–33 ft) in height, with a trunk of up to 30 centimetres (12 in) in diameter. The young twigs are green at first, becoming purplish where exposed to sunlight, then grey in their second year. The leaves are 3–5 inches long, with a serrated
    9.00
    2 votes
    58
    Brioche

    Brioche

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Brioche (pronounced: [bʁi.ɔʃ]) is a highly enriched bread of French origin, whose high egg and butter content give it a rich and tender crumb. It is "light and slightly puffy, more or less fine, according to the proportion of butter and eggs" It has a dark, golden, and flaky crust, frequently accentuated by an egg wash applied after proofing. Brioche is considered a Viennoiserie. It is made in the same basic way as bread, but has the richer aspect of a pastry because of the extra addition of eggs, butter, liquid (milk, water, cream, and, sometimes, brandy) and occasionally a bit of sugar. Brioche, along with pain au lait and pain aux raisins — which are commonly eaten at breakfast or as a snack — form a leavened subgroup of Viennoiserie. Brioche is often cooked with fruit or chocolate chips and served as a pastry or as the basis of a dessert with many local variations in added ingredients, fillings or toppings. "Brioche is eaten with dessert or tea, but also has numerous uses in cuisine. Common brioche dough is suitable for coulibiac and fillet of beef en croute. Brioche mousseline surrounds foie gras, sausage, cervelat lyonnais; . . . individual brioches serve as containers for
    9.00
    2 votes
    59
    Fusilli

    Fusilli

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Fusilli are long, thick, corkscrew shaped pasta. The word fusilli presumably comes from fusile, archaic or dialectal word for "rifle" (fucile in modern Italian), referring to the spiral-grooved barrel of the latter. In addition to plain and whole wheat varieties, as with any pasta, other colours can be made by mixing other ingredients into the dough, which also affects the flavour, for example, beetroot for red, spinach for green, and cuttlefish ink for black. Fusilli may be solid or hollow. Hollow fusilli are also called fusilli bucati. Fusilli are often confused with the short, flattened, twisted pasta known as rotini.
    9.00
    2 votes
    60
    Kiwifruit

    Kiwifruit

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    The kiwifruit, often shortened to kiwi in many parts of the world, is the edible berry of a woody vine in the genus Actinidia. The most common cultivar group of kiwifruit ('Hayward') are oval, about the size of a large hen’s egg (5–8 centimetres (2.0–3.1 in) in length and 4.5–5.5 centimetres (1.8–2.2 in) in diameter). It has a fibrous, dull brown-green skin and bright green or golden flesh with rows of tiny, black, edible seeds. The fruit has a soft texture and a sweet but unique flavor, and today is a commercial crop in several countries, such as Italy, New Zealand, Chile, Greece and France. Also known as the Chinese gooseberry, the fruit was renamed for export marketing reasons in the 1950s; briefly to melonette, and then later by New Zealand exporters to kiwifruit. The name "kiwifruit" comes from the kiwi—a brown flightless bird and New Zealand's national symbol. Kiwi is also a colloquial name for New Zealanders. The fruit had a long history before it was commercialized as kiwifruit, and therefore had many other names. In Chinese: In Japanese, the wild kiwifruit vine is called 猿梨 サルナシ sarunashi, which has the same meaning as Chinese 獼猴梨 míhóu lí ("macaque pear"). The fuzzy
    9.00
    2 votes
    61
    Vegetable

    Vegetable

    • Typically used in dishes: Tamil pachadi
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    A vegetable is an edible plant or part of a plant, but usually excludes seeds and most sweet fruit. This typically means the leaf, stem, or root of a plant. The non-biological definition of a vegetable is largely based on culinary and cultural tradition. Therefore, the application of the word is somewhat arbitrary, based on cultural and/or personal views. For example, some people consider mushrooms to be vegetables even though they are not biologically plants, while others consider them a separate food category; Some cultures group potatoes with cereal products such as noodles or rice, while most English speakers would consider them vegetables. Some vegetables can be consumed raw, some may be eaten cooked, and some must be cooked in order to be edible. Vegetables are most often cooked in savory or salty dishes. However, a few vegetables can be used in desserts and other sweet dishes, such as pumpkin pie and carrot cake. A number of processed food items available on the market contain vegetable ingredients and can be referred to as "vegetable derived" products. These products may or may not maintain the nutritional integrity of the vegetable used to produce them. "Vegetable" comes
    9.00
    2 votes
    62
    Capellini

    Capellini

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Capellini (Italian pronunciation: [kapelˈliːni], literally "thin hair") with its diameter between 0.85 mm and 0.92 mm is a very thin variety of Italian pasta. Like spaghetti, it is rod-shaped, in the form of long strands. Capelli d'angelo ([kaˈpelli ˈdandʒelo], literally angel hair -- hence, "angel hair pasta" in English) with a diameter between 0.78 and 0.88 mm is an even thinner variant of capellini. They are often sold in a nest-like shape. Capelli d'angelo has been popular in Italy since at least the 14th century. As a very light pasta, it goes well in soups or as "pasta asciutta" with a seafood other light sauces.
    5.80
    5 votes
    63
    Jícama

    Jícama

    • Typically used in dishes: Chả giò
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Pachyrhizus erosus, commonly known as Jícama ( /ˈhɪkəmə/; Spanish pronunciation: [ˈxikama]; from Nahuatl xicamatl, [ʃiˈkamatɬ]), Mexican Yam, or Mexican Turnip, is the name of a native Mexican vine, although the name most commonly refers to the plant's edible tuberous root. Jícama is a species in the genus Pachyrhizus in the bean family (Fabaceae). Plants in this genus are commonly referred to as yam bean, although the term "yam bean" can be another name for jícama. The other major species of yam beans are also indigenous within the Americas. The jícama vine can reach a height of 4–5 metres given suitable support. Its root can attain lengths of up to 2 m and weigh up to 20 kilograms. The heaviest jícama root ever recorded weighed 23 kilograms and was found in 2010 in the Philippines (where they are called 'singkamas'). The root's exterior is yellow and papery, while its inside is creamy white with a crisp texture that resembles raw potato or pear. The flavor is sweet and starchy, reminiscent of some apples or raw green beans, and it is usually eaten raw, sometimes with salt, lemon, or lime juice and chili powder. It is also cooked in soups and stir-fried dishes. Jícama is often
    5.80
    5 votes
    64
    Chili pepper

    Chili pepper

    • Typically used in dishes: Larb
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Capsicum
    The chili pepper (also chile pepper or chilli pepper, from Nahuatl chīlli ['t͡ʃiːlːi]) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The term in British English and in Australia, New Zealand, India, Malaysia and other Asian countries is just chilli without pepper. Chili peppers originated in the Americas. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used in both food and medicine. Chili peppers have been a part of the human diet in the Americas since at least 7500 BC. There is archaeological evidence at sites located in southwestern Ecuador that chili peppers were domesticated more than 6000 years ago, and is one of the first cultivated crops in the Central and South Americas that is self-pollinating. Christopher Columbus was one of the first Europeans to encounter them (in the Caribbean), and called them "peppers" because they, like black and white pepper of the Piper genus known in Europe, have a spicy hot taste unlike other foodstuffs. Upon their introduction into Europe chilis were grown as botanical curiosities in the gardens of Spanish and Portuguese monasteries. But the monks
    7.67
    3 votes
    65
    Crouton

    Crouton

    • Typically used in dishes: Caesar salad
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    A crouton is a piece of sautéed or rebaked bread, often cubed and seasoned, that is used to add texture and flavor to salads, notably the Caesar salad, as an accompaniment to soups, or eaten as a snack food. The word crouton is derived from the French croûton, itself derived from croûte, meaning "crust". Most people consider croutons to come invariably in the shape of small cubes, but they can actually be of any size, up to a very large slice. Making croutons is relatively simple. Typically the cubes of bread are coated in oil or butter (which may be seasoned or flavored for variety) and then baked. Alternatively, they may be fried lightly in butter or vegetable oil, until crisp and brown to give them a buttery flavor and crunchy texture. Nearly any type of unsweetened bread, in a loaf or pre-sliced, with or without crust, may be used to make croutons. Dry or stale leftover bread is usually used instead of fresh bread. Once prepared, the croutons will remain fresh far longer than unprepared bread. A dish prepared à la Grenobloise (in the Grenoble manner) has a garnish of small croutons along with brown butter, capers, parsley, and lemon. French onion soup is usually topped with
    7.67
    3 votes
    66
    Orecchiette

    Orecchiette

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Orecchiette (singular: orecchietta) is a kind of home-made pasta typical of Puglia or Apulia, a region of southern Italy. Its name comes from its shape, which reminds one of a small ear. In Italian orecchio means ear, and the suffix 'etto' means 'small'. In the vernacular of Taranto it is called recchietedd, or chiancaredd. A slightly flatter version is called cencioni, while in the vernacular of Bari, strascinate are more similar to cavatelli. In China a similar type of pasta is called maoerdo (cat's ears). The Italian cookbook Il cucchiaio d'argento (with an English translation The Silver Spoon, 2005, Phaidon) suggests that orecchiette are ideal for vegetable sauces.
    7.67
    3 votes
    67
    Anellini

    Anellini

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Anellini is a variety of pasta. The word "anellini" means "small rings" in Italian. Anellini is one of the three types of pasta used to make the canned spaghetti product SpaghettiOs.
    10.00
    1 votes
    68
    Cicely

    Cicely

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Cicely or Sweet Cicely (Myrrhis odorata) is a plant belonging to the family Apiaceae, native to Central Europe; it is the sole species in the genus Myrrhis. It is a tall herbaceous perennial plant, depending on circumstances growing to 2 m [6 ft 6 in] tall. The leaves are finely divided, feathery, up to 50 cm long. The flowers are white, about 2-4 mm across, produced in large umbels. The seeds are slender, 15-25 mm long and 3-4 mm broad. Its leaves are sometimes used as a herb, either raw or cooked, with a rather strong taste reminiscent of anise; it is used mainly in Germany and Scandinavia. Like its relatives anise, fennel, and caraway, it can also be used to flavour akvavit. Its essential oils are dominated by anethole. The roots and seeds also are edible. Additionally, it has a history of use as a medicinal herb.
    10.00
    1 votes
    69
    Mantı

    Mantı

    Manti ( Armenian: մանթի; Kazakh: мәнті; Turkish: mantı) are a type of dumpling in Armenian, Turkish and various Central Asian, Northwest Chinese, and Caucasian cuisines, closely related to the east Asian mantou, baozi, and mandu and the Nepali momo. Manti dumplings typically consist of a spiced meat mixture, usually lamb or ground beef, in a dough wrapper, either boiled or steamed. 'Manti' indicates either singular or plural. Mantu were carried across Central Asia to Anatolia by migrating Turks in the Chingizid-Timurid periods. According to Holly Chase, "Turkic and Mongol horsemen on the move are supposed to have carried frozen or dried manti, which could be quickly boiled over a camp-fire". In Turkey it is also called Tatar böregi (Tatar bureks), which indicates its relation to nomadic peoples. A mid-15th century Ottoman recipe survives, with the manti filled with pounded lamb and crushed chickpeas, steamed, and served topped with yogurt mixed with crushed garlic and sprinkled with sumac. Manti are popular throughout the former Soviet Union, where the dish spread from the Central Asian republics. Armenian manti is distinctly different than manti of other cultures, as it is most
    10.00
    1 votes
    70
    Star anise

    Star anise

    • Typically used in dishes: Beef noodle soup
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Illicium verum, commonly called Star anise, star aniseed, or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn" or "eight-corners") is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a medium-sized native evergreen tree of northeast Vietnam and southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. In Persian, star anise is called badian ",بادیان رومی, hence its French name badiane. In northern India it is called badian khatai. It is said that its origin is a place called Khata in China. In Malay it is called "Bunga Lawang". It is widely used in Malay cooking. In Tamil it is called as"அன்னாசி மொக்கு" ("Annachi mokku") and in Malayalam it is called "thakolam". Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient that gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe. Star anise enhances the flavour of meat. It is used as a spice in
    10.00
    1 votes
    71
    Tomato

    Tomato

    • Typically used in dishes: Niçoise salad
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    The word "tomato" may refer to the plant (Solanum lycopersicum) or the edible, typically red, fruit that it bears. Originating in South America, the tomato was spread around the world following the Spanish colonization of the Americas, and its many varieties are now widely grown, often in greenhouses in cooler climates. The tomato fruit is consumed in diverse ways, including raw, as an ingredient in many dishes and sauces, and in drinks. While it is botanically a fruit, it is considered a vegetable for culinary purposes (as well as by the United States Supreme Court, see Nix v. Hedden), which has caused some confusion. The fruit is rich in lycopene, which may have beneficial health effects. The tomato belongs to the nightshade family. The plants typically grow to 1–3 meters (3–10 ft) in height and have a weak stem that often sprawls over the ground and vines over other plants. It is a perennial in its native habitat, although often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. The tomato is native to South America. Genetic evidence shows the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green vegetable and a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. One
    10.00
    1 votes
    72
    Wheat

    Wheat

    • Typically used in dishes: Gundrook-Dheedo
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Wheat (Triticum spp.) is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East and Ethiopian Highlands, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2010 world production of wheat was 651 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize (844 million tons) and rice (672 million tons). In 2009, world production of wheat was 682 million tons, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize (817 million tons), and with rice as close third (679 million tons). This grain is grown on more land area than any other commercial crop and is the most important staple food for humans. World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. Globally, wheat is the leading source of vegetable protein in human food, having a higher protein content than either maize (corn) or rice, the other major cereals. In terms of total production tonnages used for food, it is currently second to rice as the main human food crop and ahead of maize, after allowing for maize's more extensive use in animal feeds. Wheat was a key factor enabling the emergence of city-based societies at the start of civilization because it was one of the first crops that could be easily cultivated
    10.00
    1 votes
    73
    Chives

    Chives

    • Typically used in dishes: Clapshot
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    The chive (Allium schoenoprasum) is the smallest species of the edible onions. A perennial plant, it is native to Europe, Asia and North America. A. schoenoprasum is the only species of Allium native to both the New and the Old Worlds. The name of the species derives from the Greek skhoínos (sedge) and práson (leek). Its English name, chive, derives from the French word cive, from cepa, the Latin word for onion. Chives are a commonly used herb and can be found in grocery stores or grown in home gardens. In culinary use, the scapes are diced and used as an ingredient for fish, potatoes, soups, and other dishes. Chives have insect-repelling properties that can be used in gardens to control pests. The chive is a bulb-forming herbaceous perennial plant, growing to 30–50 cm tall. The bulbs are slender, conical, 2–3 cm long and 1 cm broad, and grow in dense clusters from the roots. The scapes (or stems) are hollow and tubular, up to 50 cm long, and 2–3 mm in diameter, with a soft texture, although, prior to the emergence of a flower, they may appear stiffer than usual. The flowers are pale purple, and star-shaped with six petals, 1–2 cm wide, and produced in a dense inflorescence of
    6.50
    4 votes
    74
    Fish

    Fish

    • Typically used in dishes: Sashimi
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    A fish is any member of a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish, as well as various extinct related groups. Most fish are ectothermic ("cold-blooded"), allowing their body temperatures to vary as ambient temperatures change, though some of the large active swimmers like white shark and tuna can hold a higher core temperature. Fish are abundant in most bodies of water. They can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams (e.g., char and gudgeon) to the abyssal and even hadal depths of the deepest oceans (e.g., gulpers and anglerfish). At 32,000 species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any other group of vertebrates. Fish are an important resource worldwide, especially as food. Commercial and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries (see fishing) or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean (see aquaculture). They are also caught by recreational fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers, and exhibited in public aquaria. Fish have had a role in culture through
    6.50
    4 votes
    75
    Kale

    Kale

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Kale or borecole is a form of cabbage (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group), with green or purple leaves, in which the central leaves do not form a head. It is considered to be closer to wild cabbage than most domesticated forms. The species Brassica oleracea contains a wide array of vegetables, including broccoli, cauliflower, collard greens, and brussels sprouts. The cultivar group Acephala also includes spring greens and collard greens, which are extremely similar genetically. The name borecole most likely originates from the Dutch boerenkool (farmer's cabbage). Some varieties can reach a height of six or seven feet; others are compact and symmetrical and of good quality for eating. Many, however, are coarse, possess an undesirable coloring, and are unappealing and indigestible. Most kale are either annuals or biennials, and are raised from seeds, which, in size, form, and color, resemble those of the cabbage. Kale is very high in beta carotene, vitamin K, vitamin C, lutein, zeaxanthin, and reasonably rich in calcium. Kale, as with broccoli and other brassicas, contains sulforaphane (particularly when chopped or minced), a chemical with potent anti-cancer properties. Boiling
    6.50
    4 votes
    76
    Ketchup

    Ketchup

    • Typically used in dishes: Barbecue sauce
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Ketchup (also catsup, tomato sauce, or red sauce) is a sweet and tangy food sauce, typically made from tomatoes, vinegar, a sweetener, and assorted seasonings and spices. The sweetener is most commonly sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. Seasonings vary by recipe, but commonly include onions, allspice, cloves, cinnamon, garlic, and celery. Ketchup is often used as a condiment with various, usually hot, dishes including french fries (chips), hamburgers, sandwiches and grilled or fried meat. Ketchup is sometimes used as a basis or ingredient for other sauces and dressings. In the 1690s the Chinese mixed a concoction of pickled fish and spices and called it (in the Amoy dialect) kôe-chiap or kê-chiap (鮭汁, Mandarin guī zhī) meaning the brine of pickled fish (鮭, carp; 汁, juice) or shellfish. By the early 18th century, the table sauce had made it to the Malay states (present day Malaysia and Singapore), where it was discovered by British explorers. The Indonesian-Malay word for the sauce was kĕchap. That word evolved into the English word "ketchup". Many variations of ketchup were created, but the tomato-based version did not appear until about a century after other types. By 1801, a
    6.50
    4 votes
    77
    Seaweed

    Seaweed

    • Typically used in dishes: Sushi
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Seaweed is a loose colloquial term encompassing macroscopic, multicellular, benthic marine algae. The term includes some members of the red, brown and green algae. Seaweeds can also be classified by use (as food, medicine, fertilizer, industrial, etc.). A seaweed may belong to one of several groups of multicellular algae: the red algae, green algae, and brown algae. As these three groups are not thought to have a common multicellular ancestor, the seaweeds are a polyphyletic group. In addition, some tuft-forming bluegreen algae (Cyanobacteria) are sometimes considered as seaweeds — "seaweed" is a colloquial term and lacks a formal definition. Seaweeds' appearance somewhat resembles non-arboreal terrestrial plants. The stipe and blade are collectively known as the frond. Two specific environmental requirements dominate seaweed ecology. These are the presence of seawater (or at least brackish water) and the presence of light sufficient to drive photosynthesis. Another common requirement is a firm attachment point. As a result, seaweeds most commonly inhabit the littoral zone and within that zone more frequently on rocky shores than on sand or shingle. Seaweeds occupy a wide range of
    6.50
    4 votes
    78
    Spam

    Spam

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Spam (shortened from spiced ham) is a canned precooked meat product made by the Hormel Foods Corporation, first introduced in 1937. The labeled ingredients in the classic variety of Spam are chopped pork shoulder meat, with ham meat added, salt, water, modified potato starch as a binder, and sodium nitrite as a preservative. Spam's gelatinous glaze, or aspic, forms from the cooling of meat stock. The product has become part of many jokes and urban legends about mystery meat, which has made it part of pop culture and folklore. Through a Monty Python sketch, in which Spam is portrayed as ubiquitous and inescapable, its name has come to be given to electronic spam, including spam email. In 2007, the seven billionth can of Spam was sold. On average, 3.8 cans are consumed every second in the United States. Spam is typically sold in cans with a net weight of 340 grams (12 ounces). A 100-gram (3.5-ounce) serving of original Spam provides 1,300kJ (310 Calories or kilocalories), 13 grams of protein (26% DV), 3 grams of carbohydrates (1% DV), 27 grams of total fat (41% DV), including 10 grams of saturated fat (49% DV). The cholesterol content of Spam is 70 milligrams (23% DV). A serving also
    5.60
    5 votes
    79
    Agnolotti

    Agnolotti

    Agnolotti is a kind of ravioli typical of the Piedmont region of Italy, made with small pieces of flattened pasta dough, folded over with a roast beef meat and vegetable stuffing. Agnolotti is the plural form of the Italian word agnolotto. The origin of the name may come from the name 'Angelot' from Montferrat, who is said to be the inventor of the recipe, or from the Latin word 'anellus', which refers to the ring-shaped material within the pasta, per 'The Word Origin Calendar 2009' compiled by Gregory McNamee and published by Accord Publishing. Traditionally agnolotti are of a square shape, side of about 1 inch. However, they can also be of a rectangular smaller shape when they are called 'Agnolotti al Plin'. 'Plin' means a 'pinch' because you pinch with thumb and forefinger between each mound of filling to close and seal the little pasta packets. Agnolotti al Plin are almost always made by hand and are typical of Langhe and Monferrato. Agnolotti are prepared by immersion in boiling water. Typically, they are dressed in a beef broth and a little melted butter or in a fresh sage and melted butter sauce, as a complex sauce would detract from the flavours in the agnolotti pockets. In
    8.50
    2 votes
    80
    Banana

    Banana

    • Typically used in dishes: Banana bread
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants. They are native to tropical South and Southeast Asia, and are likely to have been first domesticated in Papua New Guinea. Today, they are cultivated throughout the tropics. They are grown in at least 107 countries, primarily for their fruit, and to a lesser extent to make fiber, banana wine and as ornamental plants. Its fruits, rich in starch, grow in clusters hanging from the top of the plant. They come in a variety of sizes and colors when ripe, including yellow, purple, and red. Almost all modern edible parthenocarpic bananas come from two wild species – Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. The scientific names of bananas are Musa acuminata, Musa balbisiana or hybrids Musa acuminata × balbisiana, depending on their genomic constitution. The old scientific names Musa sapientum and Musa paradisiaca are no longer used. Banana is also used to describe Enset and Fe'i bananas, neither of which belong to the aforementioned species. Enset bananas belong to the genus Ensete while the taxonomy of Fe'i-type cultivars is uncertain. In popular culture
    8.50
    2 votes
    81
    Cashew

    Cashew

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Nut
    The cashew is a tree in the family Anacardiaceae. Its English name derives from the Portuguese name for the fruit of the cashew tree, caju, which in turn derives from the indigenous Tupi name, acajú. Originally native to Northeast Brazil, it is now widely grown in tropical climates for its cashew seeds and cashew apples. The name Anacardium refers to the shape of the fruit, which looks like an inverted heart (ana means "upwards" and -cardium means "heart"). In the Tupian languages acajú means "nut that produces itself". The tree is small and evergreen, growing to 10-12m (~32 ft) tall, with a short, often irregularly shaped trunk. The leaves are spirally arranged, leathery textured, elliptic to obovate, 4 to 22 cm long and 2 to 15 cm broad, with a smooth margin. The flowers are produced in a panicle or corymb up to 26 cm long, each flower small, pale green at first then turning reddish, with five slender, acute petals 7 to 15 mm long. The largest cashew tree in the world covers an area of about 7,500 square metres (81,000 sq ft). The fruit of the cashew tree is an accessory fruit (sometimes called a pseudocarp or false fruit). What appears to be the fruit is an oval or pear-shaped
    8.50
    2 votes
    82
    Cinnamon

    Cinnamon

    • Typically used in dishes: Pumpkin pie
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Spice
    Cinnamon ( /ˈsɪnəmən/ SIN-ə-mən) is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus Cinnamomum that is used in both sweet and savoury foods. While native only to the island of Sri Lanka, cinnamon trees are now naturalized in South East Asia. Cinnamon is the name for perhaps a dozen species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae. Only a few of them are grown commercially for spice. In Sri Lanka, the major production region, only Cinnamomum verum (synonym Cinnamomum zeylanicum) is cultivated. According to the International Herald Tribune, in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon, followed by China, India, and Vietnam. According to the FAO, Indonesia produces 40% of the world's cassia type of cinnamon. The name cinnamon comes through the Greek kinnámōmon from Phoenician. In Sri Lanka, in Sinhala, cinnamon is known as kurundu (කුරුඳු), recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda. In Indonesia, where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra, it is called kayu manis ("sweet wood") and sometimes cassia vera, the "real" cassia. In several European languages,
    8.50
    2 votes
    83
    Papaya

    Papaya

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, the sole species in the genus Carica of the plant family Caricaceae. It is native to the tropics of the Americas, perhaps from southern Mexico and neighboring Central America. It was first cultivated in Mexico several centuries before the emergence of the Mesoamerican classical civilizations. The papaya is a large, tree-like plant, with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 m (16 to 33 ft) tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large, 50–70 cm (20–28 in) in diameter, deeply palmately lobed, with seven lobes. The tree is usually unbranched, unless lopped. The flowers are similar in shape to the flowers of the Plumeria, but are much smaller and wax-like. They appear on the axils of the leaves, maturing into large fruit - 15–45 cm (5.9–18 in) long and 10–30 cm (3.9–12 in) in diameter. The fruit is ripe when it feels soft (as soft as a ripe avocado or a bit softer) and its skin has attained an amber to orange hue. Carica papaya was the first transgenic fruit tree to have its
    8.50
    2 votes
    84
    Caraway

    Caraway

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Caraway (Carum carvi), also known as meridian fennel, or Persian cumin, is a biennial plant in the family Apiaceae, native to western Asia, Europe and Northern Africa. The plant is similar in appearance to other members of the carrot family, with finely divided, feathery leaves with thread-like divisions, growing on 20–30 cm stems. The main flower stem is 40–60 cm tall, with small white or pink flowers in umbels. Caraway fruits (erroneously called seeds) are crescent-shaped achenes, around 2 mm long, with five pale ridges. The plant prefers warm, sunny locations and well-drained soil rich in organic matter. In warmer regions it is planted in the winter months as an annual. In temperate climates it is planted as a summer annual or biennial. There is however a polyploid variant (with four haploid sets=4n) of this plant that was found to be perennial. Caraway, like many umbellifers, is a useful companion plant. It can hide the scent of neighboring crops from pest insects, as well as attracting beneficial insects like predatory wasps and predatory flies to its flowers. The fruits, usually used whole, have a pungent, anise-like flavor and aroma that comes from essential oils, mostly
    7.33
    3 votes
    85
    Guava

    Guava

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Guavas (singular Guava, English pronunciation: /ˈgwɑː.və/) are plants in the Myrtle family (Myrtaceae) genus Psidium (meaning "pomegranate" in Latin), which contains about 100 species of tropical shrubs and small trees. They are native to Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Guavas are now cultivated and naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics in Africa, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, subtropical regions of North America, and Australia. The most frequently encountered species, and the one often simply referred to as "the guava", is the Apple Guava (Psidium guajava). Guavas are typical Myrtoideae, with tough dark leaves that are opposite, simple, elliptic to ovate and 5–15 centimetres (2.0–5.9 in) long. The flowers are white, with five petals and numerous stamens. The genera Accara and Feijoa (= Acca, Pineapple Guava) were formerly included in Psidium. The term "guava" appears to derive from Arawak guayabo "guava tree", via the Spanish guayaba. It has been adapted in many European and Asian languages, having a similar form. Another term for guavas is pera, derived from pear. It is common around the western Indian Ocean and probably derives from Spanish or
    7.33
    3 votes
    86
    Pici

    Pici

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Pici is a thick, hand-rolled pasta, like a fat spaghetti. It originates in the province of Siena in Tuscany; in the Montalcino area it is also referred to as pinci. The dough is typically made from flour and water only. The addition of egg is optional, being determined by family traditions. The dough is rolled out in a thick flat sheet, then cut into strips. In some families, the strip of dough is rolled between one palm and the table, while the other hand is wrapped with the rest of the strip. It can also be formed by rolling the strip between the palms. Either method forms a thick pasta, slightly thinner than a common pencil. Unlike spaghetti or macaroni, this pasta is not uniform in size and has variations of thickness along its length. It is eaten with a variety of foods, particularly:
    7.33
    3 votes
    87
    Ziti

    Ziti

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Ziti are macaroni tubes sized smaller than rigatoni but larger than mezzani. The addition of the word rigati (e.g. ziti rigati) denotes lines or ridges on the pasta's surface. The same shape is also called penne and mostaccioli. Zito is Italian for "bridegroom." (Ziti is plural). Although the common form of modern ziti is about two inches long, the name makes more sense when considering the classic form of ziti, which was over 18 inches long.
    7.33
    3 votes
    88
    Perilla frutescens

    Perilla frutescens

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. (syn. Perilla nankinensis (Lour.) Decne., etc.) is a cultivated plant of the mint family Lamiaceae. It is the species identification encompassing two distinct varieties of traditional crop in East Asia: The genus name perilla is also a frequently used as the common plant name, but that may be confusing since it is applicable to both varieties. The two cultivated varietal groups have a history of being treated as two species, though it was recognized that they readily cross pollinated. Though now lumped into a single species of polytypic character, the two cultigens continue to be regarded as two distinct commodities in the Asian market where they are most exploited. While they are morphologically similar, the modern strains are readily distinguishable. Accordingly description should be given separately or comparatively for the cultivars. As a case in point, both varieties have foliage that outwardly look similar: broad ovate leaves which are serrate, arranged opposite. But the green shiso leaf (pictured top left) is easily differentiated from "sesame leaf" of the same color (Korean: Hangul: 깻잎; RR: ggaenip; MR: kkaenip; pictured left) by taste and
    6.25
    4 votes
    89
    Udon

    Udon

    Udon (饂飩, usually written as うどん) is a type of thick wheat-flour noodle of Japanese cuisine. Udon is usually served hot as noodle soup in its simplest form as kake udon, in a mildly flavoured broth called kakejiru which is made of dashi, soy sauce (shōyu), and mirin. It is usually topped with thinly chopped scallions. Other common toppings include tempura, often prawn or kakiage (a type of mixed tempura fritter), or aburaage, a type of deep-fried tofu pockets seasoned with sugar, mirin, and soy sauce. A thin slice of kamaboko, a halfmoon-shaped fish cake, is often added. Shichimi can be added to taste. The flavor of broth and topping vary from region to region. Usually, dark brown broth, made from dark soy sauce (koikuchi shōyu) is used in eastern Japan, and light brown broth, made from light soy sauce (usukuchi shōyu) is used in western Japan. This is even noticeable in packaged instant noodles, which are often sold in two different versions for east and west. In China, similar thick wheat flour noodles are called cū miàn (粗麵). This original udon was 2 to 3 cm in diameter, a flat pancake-shaped "noodle" added to miso-based soup. The Sino-Japanese characters for udon (饂飩) is
    6.25
    4 votes
    90
    Milk

    Milk

    • Typically used in dishes: Quiche
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to the baby and can reduce the risk of many diseases in the baby. Milk is an important food with many nutrients. World's dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011. India is the world's largest producer and consumer of milk, yet neither exports nor imports milk. New Zealand, the European Union's 27 member states, Australia, and the United States are the world's largest exporters of milk and milk products. China and Russia are the world's largest importers of milk and milk products. Throughout the world, there are more than 6 billion consumers of milk and milk products, the majority of them in developing countries. Over 750 million people live within dairy farming households. Milk is a key contributor to improving nutrition and food security particularly in developing countries. Improvements in livestock and dairy technology offer significant promise in reducing poverty and malnutrition in the world. There are two
    5.40
    5 votes
    91
    Annatto

    Annatto

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Annatto, sometimes called roucou or achiote, is derived from the seeds of the achiote trees of tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The seeds are sourced to produce a carotenoid-based yellow to orange food coloring and flavor. Its scent is described as "slightly peppery with a hint of nutmeg" and flavor as "slightly nutty, sweet and peppery". In commercial processing, annatto coloring is extracted from the reddish pericarp which surrounds the seed of the achiote (Bixa orellana L.). Historically, it has been used as coloring in many cheeses (e.g., Cheddar, Gloucester, Red Leicester), cheese products (e.g. American cheese, Velveeta), and dairy spreads (e.g. butter, margarine). Annatto can also be used to color a number of non-dairy foods such as rice, custard powder, baked goods, seasonings, processed potatoes, snack foods, breakfast cereals and smoked fish. It has been linked to cases of food-related allergies. Annatto is commonly used in Latin American and Caribbean cuisines as both a coloring and flavoring agent. Central and South American natives use the seeds to make body paint and lipstick. For this reason, the achiote is sometimes called the "lipstick-tree".
    7.00
    3 votes
    92
    Corn syrup

    Corn syrup

    • Typically used in dishes: Pecan pie
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Syrup
    Corn syrup is a food syrup, which is made from the starch of maize and contains varying amounts of maltose and higher oligosaccharides, depending on the grade. Corn syrup is used in foods to soften texture, add volume, prevent crystallization of sugar, and enhance flavor. Corn syrup is distinct from high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), which is created when corn syrup undergoes enzymatic processing, producing a sweeter compound that contains higher levels of fructose. The more general term glucose syrup is often used synonymously with corn syrup, since glucose syrup is in the United States most commonly made from corn starch. Technically, glucose syrup is any liquid starch hydrolysate of mono-, di-, and higher-saccharides and can be made from any source of starch; wheat, tapioca and potatoes are the most common other sources. Historically, corn syrup was produced by combining corn starch with dilute hydrochloric acid, and then heating the mixture under pressure. Currently, corn syrup is mainly produced by first adding the enzyme α-amylase to a mixture of corn starch and water. α-amylase is secreted by various species of the bacterium Bacillus; the enzyme is isolated from the liquid in
    7.00
    3 votes
    93
    Foglie d'ulivo

    Foglie d'ulivo

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Foglie d'ulivo (also spelled foglie di ulivo) is a variety of handmade pasta made in the shape of olive leaves.
    7.00
    3 votes
    94
    Horseradish

    Horseradish

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana, syn. Cochlearia armoracia) is a perennial plant of the Brassicaceae family, which also includes mustard, wasabi, broccoli, and cabbages. The plant is probably native to south eastern Europe and western Asia, but is popular around the world today. It grows up to 1.5 metres (5 feet) tall and is mainly cultivated for its large, white, tapered root. The intact horseradish root has hardly any aroma. When cut or grated, however, enzymes from the damaged plant cells break down sinigrin (a glucosinolate) to produce allyl isothiocyanate (mustard oil), which irritates the sinuses and eyes. Once grated, if not used immediately or mixed in vinegar, the root darkens, loses its pungency, and becomes unpleasantly bitter when exposed to air and heat. Horseradish has been cultivated since antiquity. According to Greek mythology, the Delphic Oracle told Apollo that the horseradish was worth its weight in gold. Horseradish was known in Egypt in 1500 BC. Dioscorides listed horseradish under Thlaspi or Persicon; Cato discusses the plant in his treatises on agriculture, and a mural in Pompeii shows the plant. Horseradish is probably the plant mentioned by Pliny the
    7.00
    3 votes
    95
    Rigatoni

    Rigatoni

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Rigatoni is a form of tube-shaped pasta of varying lengths and diameters. It is larger than penne and ziti and sometimes slightly curved. Rigatoni is usually ridged, and the tube's end is square-cut like ziti, not diagonal like penne. The word rigatoni, comes from the Italian word rigato (rigatone being the augmentative and rigatoni the plural form), which means "ridged" or 'lined' and is associated with the cuisine of southern and central Italy.
    7.00
    3 votes
    96
    Roman Chamomile

    Roman Chamomile

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Chamaemelum nobile [synonym: Anthemis nobilis], commonly known as Roman camomile, chamomile, garden camomile, ground apple, low chamomile, English chamomile, or whig plant, is a low perennial plant found in dry fields and around gardens and cultivated grounds in Europe, North America, and Argentina. It has daisy-like white flowers and procumbent stems; the leaves are alternate, bipinnate, finely dissected, and downy to glabrous. The solitary, terminal flowerheads, rising 8-12 in above the ground, consist of prominent yellow disk flowers and silver-white ray flowers. The flowering time is June and July, and its fragrance is sweet, crisp, fruity and herbaceous. The plant is used to flavor foods, in tisanes, perfumes, and cosmetics. It is used to make a rinse for blonde hair, and is popular in aromatherapy; its practitioners believe it to be a calming agent to reduce stress and aid in sleep. The word chamomile comes from Greek χαμαίμηλον (chamaimēlon), "earth-apple", from χαμαί (chamai), "on the ground" + μήλον (mēlon), "apple", so-called because of the apple-like scent of the plant. (Note: The "ch-" spelling is used especially in science and pharmacology.) Chamomile is mentioned in
    7.00
    3 votes
    97
    Blackberry

    Blackberry

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by Rubus fruticosus, or any of several hybrids between that species and others of the Rubus genus in the Rosaceae family. The term 'bramble', a word meaning any impenetrable scrub, has traditionally been applied specifically to the blackberry or its products, though in the United States it applies to all members of the Rubus genus. The (usually) black fruit is not a true berry; botanically it is termed an aggregate fruit, composed of small drupelets. It is a widespread and well-known group of over 375 species, many of which are closely related apomictic microspecies native throughout the temperate Northern Hemisphere and South America. Blackberries are perennial plants which typically bear biennial stems ("canes") from the perennial root system. In its first year, a new stem, the primocane, grows vigorously to its full length of 3–6 m (in some cases, up to 9 m), arching or trailing along the ground and bearing large palmately compound leaves with five or seven leaflets; it does not produce any flowers. In its second year, the cane becomes a floricane and the stem does not grow longer, but the lateral buds break to produce flowering
    6.00
    4 votes
    98
    Cubeb

    Cubeb

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Cubeb (Piper cubeba), or tailed pepper, is a plant in genus Piper, cultivated for its fruit and essential oil. It is mostly grown in Java and Sumatra, hence sometimes called Java pepper. The fruits are gathered before they are ripe, and carefully dried. Commercial cubebs consist of the dried berries, similar in appearance to black pepper, but with stalks attached — the "tails" in "tailed pepper". The dried pericarp is wrinkled, its color ranges from grayish-brown to black. The seed is hard, white and oily. The odor of cubebs is described as agreeable and aromatic; the taste, pungent, acrid, slightly bitter and persistent. It has been described as tasting like allspice, or like a cross between allspice and black pepper. Cubeb came to Europe via India through the trade with the Arabs. The name cubeb comes from Arabic kabāba (كبابة‎), which is of unknown origin, by way of Old French quibibes. Cubeb is mentioned in alchemical writings by its Arabic name. In his Theatrum Botanicum, John Parkinson tells that the king of Portugal prohibited the sale of cubeb in order to promote black pepper (Piper nigrum) around 1640. It experienced a brief resurgence in 19th-century Europe for medicinal
    6.00
    4 votes
    99
    Grapefruit

    Grapefruit

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    The grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) is a subtropical citrus tree known for its bitter fruit, an 18th-century hybrid first bred in Barbados. When found, it was named the "forbidden fruit"; and it has also been misidentified with the pomelo or shaddock (C. maxima), one of the parents of this hybrid, the other being sweet orange (C. × sinensis). These evergreen trees usually grow to around 5–6 meters (16–20 ft) tall, although they can reach 13–15 meters (43–49 ft). The leaves are dark green, long (up to 150 mm, 6 inches) and thin. It produces 5 cm (2 in) white four-petaled flowers. The fruit is yellow-orange skinned and largely an oblate spheroid; it ranges in diameter from 10–15 cm. The flesh is segmented and acidic, varying in color depending on the cultivars, which include white, pink and red pulps of varying sweetness. The 1929 US Ruby Red (of the Redblush variety) has the first grapefruit patent. One ancestor of the grapefruit was the Jamaican sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), itself an ancient hybrid of Asian origin; the other was the Indonesian pomelo (C. maxima). One story of the fruit's origins is that a certain "Captain Shaddock" brought pomelo seeds to Jamaica and bred the
    6.00
    4 votes
    100
    Mustard seed

    Mustard seed

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants. The seeds are usually about 1 or 2 mm in diameter. Mustard seeds may be colored from yellowish white to black. They are important spices in many regional foods. The seeds can come from three different plants: black mustard (Brassica nigra), brown Indian mustard (B. juncea), and white mustard (B. hirta/Sinapis alba). The earliest reference to mustard is in India from a story of Gautama Siddhārtha (सिद्धार्थ गौतम) in the 5th century BCE. Gautama Buddha told the story of the grieving mother (Kisa Gotami) and the mustard seed. When a mother loses her only son, she takes his body to the Buddha to find a cure. The Buddha asks her to bring a handful of mustard seeds from a family that has never lost a child, husband, parent or friend. When the mother is unable to find such a house in her village, she realizes that death is common to all, and she cannot be selfish in her grief. The Buddha stated that if an individual were to pick a single mustard seed every hundred years from a seven-mile cube worth of mustard seeds, then by the time the last seed is picked, the age of the world cycle would still continue. (If a mustard
    6.00
    4 votes
    101
    Macaroni

    Macaroni

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Macaroni is a variety of dry pasta made with durum wheat. Macaroni noodles normally do not contain eggs, (although they may be an optional ingredient) and are normally cut in short, hollow shapes; however, the term refers not to the shape of the pasta, but to the kind of dough from which the noodle is made. Although home machines exist that can make macaroni shapes, macaroni is usually made commercially by large-scale extrusion. The curved shape is caused by the different speeds on either side of the pasta tube as it comes out of the machine. The name derives from Italian "maccheroni", however Italians use "maccheroni" to refer to a straight, tubular, two-inch or longer pasta, and a different name, "chifferi" is used to refer to the pasta shape of this article. According to legend, macaroni was brought to Italy by Marco Polo, returning to Venice from China in 1292. This hypothesis has long been disproved, since it seems that macaroni was already used in Italy at least a century before, like pasta in general; Moroccan geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi who lived in Sicily, witnessed the existence of macaroni in Sicily and in particular in Trabia. The academic consensus supports that the
    8.00
    2 votes
    102
    Oregano

    Oregano

    • Typically used in dishes: Greek salad
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Herb
    Oregano (UK  /ɒrɨˈɡɑːnoʊ/ or US /əˈrɛɡənoʊ/), scientifically named Origanum vulgare by Carolus Linnaeus, is a common species of Origanum, a genus of the mint family (Lamiaceae). It is native to warm-temperate western and southwestern Eurasia and the Mediterranean region. Oregano is a perennial herb, growing from 20–80 cm tall, with opposite leaves 1–4 cm long. Oregano will grow in a pH range between 6.0 (mildly acid) and 9.0 (strongly alkaline) with a preferred range between 6.0 and 8.0. The flowers are purple, 3–4 mm long, produced in erect spikes. It is sometimes called wild marjoram, and its close relative O. majorana is known as sweet marjoram. Oregano is a perennial growing to 20 inches, with purple flowers and spade-shaped, olive-green leaves. It prefers a hot, relatively dry climate, but will do well in other environments. To cultivate, it should be planted in early spring, in fairly dry soil, with full sun. The plants should be spaced 12 inches apart. Closely related to the herb marjoram, oregano is also known as wild marjoram. Oregano is a perennial, although it is grown as an annual in colder climates, as it often does not survive the winter months. The main chemical
    8.00
    2 votes
    103
    Pasta

    Pasta

    • Typically used in dishes: Carbonara
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Pasta is a type of noodle and is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, with the first reference dating to 1154. It is also commonly used to refer to the variety of pasta dishes. Typically pasta is made from an unleavened dough of a durum wheat flour mixed with water and formed into sheets or various shapes, then cooked and served in any number of dishes. It can be made with flour from other cereals or grains, and eggs may be used instead of water. Pastas may be divided into two broad categories, dried (pasta secca) and fresh (pasta fresca). Chicken eggs frequently dominate as the source of the liquid component in fresh pasta. Most dried pasta is commercially produced via an extrusion process. Fresh pasta was traditionally produced by hand, sometimes with the aid of simple machines, but today many varieties of fresh pasta are also commercially produced by large scale machines, and the products are broadly available in supermarkets. Both dried and fresh pasta come in a number of shapes and varieties, with 310 specific forms known variably by over 1300 names having been recently documented. In Italy the names of specific pasta shapes or types often vary with locale. For
    8.00
    2 votes
    104
    Aubergine

    Aubergine

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    The eggplant, brinjal eggplant, aubergine, melongene, brinjal or guinea squash (Solanum melongena) is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. It bears a fruit of the same name, commonly used in cooking. As a nightshade, it is closely related to the tomato and potato. It was domesticated in India from Solanum incanum. It is a delicate perennial often cultivated as an annual. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall, with large, coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4–8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2–4 in) broad. Semiwild types can grow much larger, to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. The stem is often spiny. The flower is white to purple, with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. The fruit is fleshy, has a meaty texture. It is less than 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter on wild plants, but much larger in cultivated forms. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry and contains numerous small, soft seeds which are edible, but have a bitter taste because they contain nicotinoid alkaloids; this is unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. The plant is native to the Indian Subcontinent.
    9.00
    1 votes
    105
    Bamboo shoot

    Bamboo shoot

    • Typically used in dishes: Aloo Tama
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Bamboo shoots or bamboo sprouts are the edible shoots (new bamboo culms that come out of the ground) of many bamboo species including Bambusa vulgaris and Phyllostachys edulis. They are used in numerous Asian dishes and broths. They are sold in various processed shapes, and are available in fresh, dried, and canned versions. Shoots of several species of bamboo are harvested for consumption: Bamboo shoot tips are called zhú sǔn jiān (竹笋尖) or simply sǔn jiān (笋尖) in Chinese, although they are mostly referred to as just sǔn (笋). This sounds similar in Korean juk sun (죽순), a commonly used form, although the native word daenamu ssak (대나무싹) is present. In Vietnamese, bamboo shoots are called măng and in Japanese as take no ko (竹の子 or 筍).In Manipur, they are called 'soibum'. In Nagaland they are called bas-tanga.In Assam, they are referred to as gaz and in Nepal as tama (Nepali: तामा). In western orissa region of India, people call it kardi and it is the most famous dish there. In Jharkhand, they are known as sandhna. In Indonesian and Malay, they are known as rebung. In the Philippines, they are most popularly known as labong or tambo. In Mizoram (India), locals name it as mautuai (mau
    9.00
    1 votes
    106
    Bean

    Bean

    • Typically used in dishes: Minestrone
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Bean ( /ˈbiːn/) is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (alternately Leguminosae) some of which are used for human food or animal feed. The term bean originally referred to the seed of the broad or fava bean, but was later expanded to include members of the New World genus Phaseolus, such as the common bean and the runner bean, and the related genus Vigna. The term is now applied generally to many other related plants such as Old World soybeans, peas, chickpeas (garbanzos), vetches, and lupins. Bean is sometimes used as a synonym of pulse, an edible legume, though the term pulses is usually reserved for leguminous crops harvested for their dry grain. The term bean usually excludes crops used mainly for oil extraction (such as soybeans and peanuts), as well as those used exclusively for sowing purposes (such as clover and alfalfa). Leguminous crops harvested green for food, such as snap peas, snow peas, and so on, are not considered beans, and are classified as vegetable crops. According to United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization the term bean should include only species of Phaseolus; however, a strict consensus definition has proven
    9.00
    1 votes
    107
    Cardamom

    Cardamom

    • Typically used in dishes: Glogg
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Spice
    Cardamom (or cardamon) refers to several plants of the similar genera Elettaria and Amomum in the ginger family Zingiberaceae. Both genera are native to India, Nepal and Bhutan; they are recognised by their small seed pods, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin, papery, outer shell and small black seeds. Today, Guatemala is the biggest producer and exporter of Cardamom in the world, followed by India. Some other countries such as Sri Lanka have also begun to cultivate it. Elettaria pods are light green while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown. It is the world's third most expensive spice by weight, outstripped in market value only by saffron and vanilla. The word "cardamom" is derived from the Latin cardamomum, itself the latinisation of the Greek καρδάμωμον (kardamomon), a compound of κάρδαμον (kardamon), "cress" + ἄμωμον (amomon), which was the name for a kind of an Indian spice plant. The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek ka-da-mi-ja, written in Linear B syllabic script in the list of flavourings on the "Spice" tablets found among palace archives in the House of the Sphinxes in Mycenae. The two main genera of the ginger family
    9.00
    1 votes
    108
    Flour

    Flour

    • Typically used in dishes: Pasty
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Flour is a powder which is made by grinding cereal grains, other seeds or roots (like Cassava). It is the main ingredient of bread, which is a staple food for many cultures, making the availability of adequate supplies of flour a major economic and political issue at various times throughout history. Wheat flour is one of the most important foods in European, North American, Middle Eastern, Indian and North African cultures, and is the defining ingredient in most of their styles of breads and pastries. Maize flour has been important in Mesoamerican cuisine since ancient times, and remains a staple in much of Latin American cuisine. Rye flour is an important constituent of bread in much of central/northern Europe. The word "flour" is originally a variant of the word "flower". Both derive from the Old French fleur or flour, which had the literal meaning "blossom," and a figurative meaning "the finest." The phrase "fleur de farine" meant "the finest part of the meal," since flour resulted from the elimination of coarse and unwanted matter from the grain during milling. It was discovered around 6000 BC that wheat seeds could be crushed between simple millstones to make flour. The
    9.00
    1 votes
    109
    Pork

    Pork

    • Typically used in dishes: Cochinita pibil
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Pork is the culinary name for meat from the domestic pig (Sus domesticus), which is eaten in many countries. It is one of the most commonly consumed meats worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC. Pork is eaten in several forms, mostly cooked. Pork can also be processed into different forms, which may also extend the shelf life of the product, with the resultant products being cured (some hams, including the Italian prosciutto) or smoked or a combination of these methods (other hams, gammon, bacon or pancetta). It is also a common ingredient in sausages. Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, many from pork. However, by some definitions, "pork" denotes only fresh pig meat. The pig is one of the oldest forms of livestock, having been domesticated as early as 5000 BC. It is believed to have been domesticated either in the Near East or in China from the wild boar. The adaptable nature and omnivorous diet of this creature allowed early humans to domesticate it much earlier than many other forms of livestock, such as cattle. Pigs were mostly used for food, but people also used their hides for shields and shoes, their bones for
    9.00
    1 votes
    110
    Pumpkin

    Pumpkin

    • Typically used in dishes: Pumpkin pie
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Vegetable
    A pumpkin is a gourd-like squash of the genus Cucurbita and the family Cucurbitaceae (which also includes gourds). It commonly refers to cultivars of any one of the species Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita mixta, Cucurbita maxima, and Cucurbita moschata, and is native to North America. They typically have a thick, orange or yellow shell, creased from the stem to the bottom, containing the seeds and pulp. Pumpkins are widely grown for commercial use, and are used both in food and recreation. Pumpkin pie, for instance, is a traditional part of Thanksgiving meals in the United States, and pumpkins are frequently carved as decorations around Halloween. A pumpkin that has a little face carved in it and hollowed out and decorated with candles inside is known as a jack o'lantern; these are often used at Halloween, for example, to decorate windows. In Australian English, the name 'pumpkin' generally refers to the broader category called winter squash in North America. The word pumpkin originates from the word pepon (πέπων), which is Greek for “large melon". The French adapted this word to pompon, which the British changed to pumpion and later American colonists changed that to the word we use
    9.00
    1 votes
    111
    Saffron

    Saffron

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Spice
    Saffron (pronounced  /ˈsæfrɒn/) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the saffron crocus. Crocus is a genus in the family Iridaceae. Each saffron crocus grows to 20–30 cm (8–12 in) and bears up to four flowers, each with three vivid crimson stigmas, which are each the distal end of a carpel. Together with the styles, or stalks that connect the stigmas to their host plant, the dried stigmas are used mainly in various cuisines as a seasoning and colouring agent. Saffron, long among the world's most costly spices by weight, is native to Southwest Asia and was first cultivated in Greece. As a genetically monomorphic clone, it was slowly propagated throughout much of Eurasia and was later brought to parts of North Africa, North America, and Oceania. The saffron crocus, unknown in the wild, likely descends from Crocus cartwrightianus, which originated in Crete or Central Asia; C. thomasii and C. pallasii are other possible precursors. The saffron crocus is a triploid that is "self-incompatible" and male sterile; it undergoes aberrant meiosis and is hence incapable of independent sexual reproduction—all propagation is by vegetative multiplication via
    9.00
    1 votes
    112
    Sauerkraut

    Sauerkraut

    • Typically used in dishes: Vareniki
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Sauerkraut ( /ˈsaʊərkraʊt/; German pronunciation: [ˈzaʊ.ɐˌkʁaʊt] ( listen); Yiddish: זויערקרויט zoyerkroyt [ˈzɔjərˌkrɔjt], French choucroute, Polish kiszona kapusta and Russian: квашеная капуста kváshenaya kapústa), directly translated: "sour cabbage", is finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus. It has a long shelf-life and a distinctive sour flavor, both of which result from the lactic acid that forms when the bacteria ferment the sugars in the cabbage. It is not to be confused with coleslaw, which consists of fresh cabbage and may receive an acidic taste from vinegar. Sauerkraut is made by a process of pickling called lacto-fermentation that is analogous to how traditional (not heat-treated) pickled cucumbers and kimchi are made. Fully cured sauerkraut keeps for several months in an airtight container stored at or below 15 °C (60 °F). Neither refrigeration nor pasteurization is required, although these treatments prolong storage life. German sauerkraut is often flavoured with juniper berries. Fermentation by lactobacilli is introduced naturally, as these air-borne bacteria culture on raw
    9.00
    1 votes
    113
    Tortilla

    Tortilla

    • Typically used in dishes: Gordita
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    In Mexico and Central America, a tortilla is a type of thin, unleavened flat bread, made from finely ground maize (usually called "corn" in the United States). In Mexico, there are three colors of maize dough for making tortillas: white maize, yellow maize and blue maize. A similar bread from South America, called arepa (though arepas are typically much thicker than tortillas), predates the arrival of Europeans to America, and was called tortilla by the Spanish from its resemblance to the traditional Spanish round, unleavened cakes and omelettes (originally made without potatoes, which are native to South America). The Aztecs and other Nahuatl-speakers call tortillas tlaxcalli [t͡ɬaʃ'kalːi]; these have become the prototypical tortillas. Maize kernels naturally occur in many colors, depending on the cultivar: from pale white, to yellow, to red and bluish purple. Likewise, corn meal and the tortillas made from it may be similarly colored. White and yellow tortillas are by far the most common, however. Tortilla, from Spanish torta, cake, plus the diminutive -illa, literally means "little cake". The corn tortilla, with many variants, has been a staple food in North American and
    9.00
    1 votes
    114
    Watermelon

    Watermelon

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.), family Cucurbitaceae) is a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) flowering plant originally from southern Africa. Its fruit, which is also called watermelon, is a special kind referred to by botanists as a pepo, a berry which has a thick rind (exocarp) and fleshy center (mesocarp and endocarp). Pepos are derived from an inferior ovary, and are characteristic of the Cucurbitaceae. The watermelon fruit, loosely considered a type of melon – although not in the genus Cucumis – has a smooth exterior rind (green, yellow and sometimes white) and a juicy, sweet interior flesh (usually deep red to pink, but sometimes orange, yellow and even green if not ripe). Watermelon is thought to have originated in southern Africa, where it is found growing wild. It reaches maximum genetic diversity there, with sweet, bland and bitter forms. In the 19th century, Alphonse de Candolle claimed the watermelon was indigenous to tropical Africa. Though Citrullus colocynthis is often considered to be a wild ancestor of watermelon and is now found native in north and west Africa, it has been suggested on the basis of chloroplast DNA investigations that the cultivated and
    9.00
    1 votes
    115
    Ginger

    Ginger

    • Typically used in dishes: Pumpkin pie
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Ginger or ginger root is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale, consumed as a delicacy, medicine, or spice. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric, cardamom, and galangal. Ginger cultivation began in South Asia and has since spread to East Africa and the Caribbean. The English name ginger comes from French: gingembre, Old English: gingifere, Medieval Latin: ginginer, Greek: zingíberis (ζιγγίβερις). Ultimately the origin is from Tamil word 'inji ver' (இஞ்சி வேர்) or Malayalam word 'inji veru' (ഇഞ്ചി വേര്). The botanical term for root in Tamil is ver (வேர்) and Malayalam is veru (വേര്), hence inji root or inji ver. Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates, ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems, about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. Traditionally, the rhizome is gathered when the stalk withers; it is immediately scalded, or washed and scraped, to kill it and prevent sprouting. The fragrant perisperm of
    5.00
    5 votes
    116
    Buddha's hand

    Buddha's hand

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Buddha's hand, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis (also known as bushukan ブッシュカン (Japanese) or fingered citron), is a fragrant citron variety whose fruit is segmented into finger-like sections. The origin of Buddha's hand plant is traced back to Northeastern India or China. Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis is a shrub or small tree with long, irregular branches covered in thorns. Its large, oblong leaves are pale green and grow about four to six inches. Its white flowers are tinted purplish from the outside and grow in fragrant clusters. Buddha's hand has a thick peel and only a small amount of acidic flesh (if any) and is juiceless and sometimes seedless. Buddha's hand fruit is very fragrant and is used predominantly by the Chinese and Japanese for perfuming rooms and personal items, such as clothing. The fruit may be given as a religious offering in Buddhist temples. According to tradition, Buddha prefers the "fingers" of the fruit to be in a position where they resemble a closed rather than open hand, as closed hands symbolize to Buddha the act of prayer. The peel of the fruit can be candied into succade. In Western cooking, it is often used for its zest. The inner white pith is
    6.67
    3 votes
    117
    Campanelle

    Campanelle

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Campanelle, Italian for little bells, is a type of pasta which is shaped like a small bell or flower. It is also sometimes referred to as gigli or riccioli. It is intended to be served with a thick sauce, or in a casserole. Campanelle is also a musical instrument (little bells).
    6.67
    3 votes
    118
    Chocolate

    Chocolate

    • Typically used in dishes: Chocolate brownie
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Chocolate /ˈtʃɒklət/ is a raw or processed food produced from the seed of the tropical Theobroma cacao tree. Cacao has been cultivated for at least three millennia in Mexico, Central and South America. Its earliest documented use is around 1100 BC. The majority of the Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including the Aztecs, who made it into a beverage known as xocolātl [ʃo'kolaːt͡ɬ], a Nahuatl word meaning "bitter water". The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste, and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried, then cleaned, and then roasted, and the shell is removed to produce cacao nibs. The nibs are then ground to cocoa mass, pure chocolate in rough form. Because this cocoa mass usually is liquefied then molded with or without other ingredients, it is called chocolate liquor. The liquor also may be processed into two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Unsweetened baking chocolate (bitter chocolate) contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, combining cocoa solids, cocoa butter or other fat, and sugar. Milk
    6.67
    3 votes
    119
    Fettuccine

    Fettuccine

    • Typically used in dishes: Fettuccine alfredo
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Fettuccine (literally "little ribbons" in Italian) is a type of pasta popular in Roman cuisine. It is a flat thick noodle made of egg and flour (usually one egg for every 100g of flour), wider than but similar to the tagliatelle typical of Bologna. It is often eaten with sugo d'umido (beef ragù) and ragù di pollo (chicken ragù). Fettuccine is traditionally made fresh (either at home or commercially) but dried fettuccine can also be bought in shops. A popular fettuccine dish in North America is fettuccine alfredo. Spinach fettuccine are made from spinach, flour, and eggs.
    6.67
    3 votes
    120
    Fruit

    Fruit

    • Typically used in dishes: Trifle
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    In botany, a fruit is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, mainly one or more ovaries. Fruits are the means by which many plants disseminate seeds. Many plants bearing edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition, respectively; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food. Fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. The section of a fungus that produces spores is also called a fruiting body. In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet and edible in the raw state, such as apples, oranges, grapes, strawberries, and bananas. On the other hand, the botanical sense of "fruit" includes many structures that are not commonly called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels, wheat grains, and tomatoes. In the culinary sense of these words, a fruit is usually any sweet-tasting plant product,
    6.67
    3 votes
    121
    Ham

    Ham

    • Typically used in dishes: Eggs Benedict
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Pork
    Ham is a cut of meat from the thigh of the hind leg of an animal, especially pigs. Nearly all hams sold today are fully cooked or cured. The word ham is derived from the Old English ham or hom meaning the hollow or bend of the knee. The "jambon d'Ardenne" is a dry-cured ham from Wallonia, rubbed with salt or immersed in a brine, which mature in a cool place; if it is smoked, it must be from wood or sawdust (softwood and reuse excluded). It has the European label Protected Geographical Indication. Elenski but is a dry-cured ham from the town of Elena in northern Bulgaria. The meat has a specific taste and can be preserved in the course of several years, owing much to the process of making and the local climatic conditions. In the coastal regions of Croatia; Istria, Dalmatia and Croatian Littoral, as well as in Lika a form of Ham known as "Pršut" is made. In Istria ham is protected by origin (only Croatian ham that is protected (PDO)), made only with natural herb (garlic,sea salt,bay leaf, black papper)and dried without smoke. It is covered with green mold and without fat and skin.Dalmatian ham is smoked and dried ham which is pressed and is very popular. The most popular pršuts come
    6.67
    3 votes
    122
    Shallot

    Shallot

    • Typically used in dishes: Hainanese Chicken Rice
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Onion
    The shallot (Allium cepa var. aggregatum, or the Aggregatum group A. cepa) is a botanical variety of the species Allium cepa, to which the multiplier onion also belongs. The shallot was formerly classified as a separate species, A. ascalonicum, a name now considered a synonym of the currently accepted name. The genus Allium, which includes onions and garlic as well as shallots, is now classified in the plant family Amaryllidaceae, but was formerly considered to belong to the separate family Alliaceae. Shallots probably originated in Central or Southeast Asia, travelling from there to India and the eastern Mediterranean. The name "shallot" comes from Ashkelon, an ancient Philistine city, where people in classical Greek times believed shallots originated. Indian names for shallots include kanda or gandana or pyaaz (Hindi, Marathi, Marwari and Punjabi), gundhun (Bengali), cheriya ulli or chuvanna ulli (Malayalam) and chinna vengayam (or sambar vengayam in the Chennai region) (Tamil). In Nepal, shallots are called chyapi (छ्यापी). In Southeastern Asia, shallots are called bawang merah kecil (small red onions) in Malay, brambang in Java, and hom (หอม, fragrant) in Thai. In Cambodian
    6.67
    3 votes
    123
    Summer Squash

    Summer Squash

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Summer squash are a subset of squashes that are harvested when immature (while the rind is still tender and edible). Summer squashes that are left to ripen are known as Pygon Squashes due to their larger size. All summer squashes are the fruits of the species Cucurbita pepo (although not all squashes of this species are considered summer squashes), but they are considered vegetables in terms of culinary use. The name "summer squash" refers to the short storage life of these squashes, unlike that of winter squashes. Summer squashes include: In the journals of Lewis and Clark, on October 12, 1804, Clark recorded that the Arikara tribe raised "great quantities of corn, beans, simlins, &c." "Simlin" and "simnel" were southern words for summer squash. He may have been referring to Cucurbita moschata Duchesne, crookneck squash.
    6.67
    3 votes
    124
    Olive

    Olive

    • Typically used in dishes: Niçoise salad
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    The olive( /ˈɑːləv/ or /ˈɒlɨv/, Olea europaea, meaning "Oil from/of Europe") is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin (the adjoining coastal areas of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa) as well as northern Iraq, and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. Its fruit, also called the olive, is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. The tree and its fruit give its name to the plant family, which also includes species such as lilacs, jasmine, Forsythia and the true ash trees (Fraxinus). The word derives from Latin olīva which is cognate with the Greek ἐλαία (elaía) ultimately from Mycenaean Greek
    5.75
    4 votes
    125
    Arugula

    Arugula

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Vegetable
    Eruca sativa (syn. E. vesicaria subsp. sativa (Miller) Thell., Brassica eruca L.), is an edible annual plant, commonly known as rocket, roquette, rucola, rugula, or arugula, not to be confused with Wild rocket. It is a species of Eruca native to the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Portugal in the west to Lebanon and Turkey in the east. It is closely related to Eruca vesicaria and included by some botanists in that either as a subspecies E. vesicaria subsp. sativa or not distinguished at all; it can be distinguished from E. vesicaria by its early deciduous sepals. It is an annual plant growing 20–100 centimetres (8–39 in) in height. The leaves are deeply pinnately lobed with four to ten small lateral lobes and a large terminal lobe. The flowers are 2–4 cm (0.8–1.6 in) in diameter, arranged in a corymb, with the typical Brassicaceae flower structure; the petals are creamy white with purple veins, and the stamens yellow; the sepals are shed soon after the flower opens. The fruit is a siliqua (pod) 12–35 millimetres (0.5–1.4 in) long with an apical beak, and containing several seeds (which are edible). The species has a chromosome number of 2n = 22. Vernacular names include
    7.50
    2 votes
    126
    Cherry

    Cherry

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    The cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit). The cherry fruits of commerce are usually obtained from a limited number of species, including especially cultivars of the wild cherry, Prunus avium. The name 'cherry' also refers to the cherry tree, and is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry", "cherry blossom", etc. Many cherries are members of the subgenus Cerasus, which is distinguished by having the flowers in small corymbs of several together (not singly, nor in racemes), and by having a smooth fruit with only a weak groove or none along one side. The subgenus is native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with two species in America, three in Europe, and the remainder in Asia. Other cherry fruits are members of subgenus Padus. Cherry Trees that have a low exposure to light tend to have a bigger leaf size so that they can intercept all light possible. Cherry trees that have high exposure to light tend to have thicker leaves to concentrate light and have a higher photosynthetic capacity. The majority of eating cherries are derived from
    7.50
    2 votes
    127
    Hyssop

    Hyssop

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Hyssop (Hyssopus) is a genus of about 10–12 species of herbaceous or semi-woody plants in the family Lamiaceae, native from the east Mediterranean to central Asia. They are aromatic, with erect branched stems up to 60 cm long covered with fine hairs at the tips. The leaves are narrow oblong, 2–5 cm long. The small blue flowers are borne on the upper part of the branches during summer. By far the best-known species is the Herb Hyssop (H. officinalis), widely cultivated outside its native area in the Mediterranean. Note that anise hyssop, Agastache foeniculum (also called blue giant hyssop), is a very different plant and not a close relation, although both are in the mint family. Anise hyssop is native to much of north-central and northern North America. The name hyssop can be traced back almost unchanged through the Greek ύσσωπος (hyssopos). The Book of Exodus records that the blood of the sacrifices was applied to the doorposts using hyssop on the night of Passover. Its purgative properties are also mentioned in the Book of Psalms. Jesus, on the cross, knowing that all things had now been finished said, "I thirst" and a sponge soaked in vinegar (Roman soldier wine, sour wine) was
    7.50
    2 votes
    128
    Jell-O

    Jell-O

    • Typically used in dishes: Jello salad
    Jell-O is a brand name belonging to U.S.-based Kraft Foods for a number of gelatin desserts, including fruit gels, puddings and no-bake cream pies. The brand's popularity has led to it being used as a generic term for gelatin dessert across the U.S. and Canada. Jell-O is sold prepared (ready to eat) or in powder form, and is available in many different colors and flavors. The powder contains powdered gelatin and flavorings including sugar or artificial sweeteners. It is dissolved in very hot water, then chilled and allowed to set. Fruit, vegetables, whipped cream, or other ingredients can be added to make elaborate snacks that can be molded into various shapes. Jell-O must be refrigerated until served, and once set properly, it is normally eaten with a spoon. There are also non-gelatin pudding and pie filling products under the Jell-O brand. To make pudding, these are cooked on stove top with milk, then either eaten warm or chilled until more firmly set. Jell-O also has an instant pudding product which is simply mixed with cold milk and then chilled. To make pie fillings, the same products are simply prepared with less liquid. Although the word Jell-O is a brand name, it is
    7.50
    2 votes
    129
    Rotini

    Rotini

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Rotini is a type of helix- or corkscrew-shaped pasta. The name is supposed to derive from the Italian for twists, but the word "rotini" does not exist in Italian. It is related to fusilli, but has a tighter helix, i.e. with a smaller pitch. It should not be confused with rotelle ("wagon wheel" pasta). Rotini originated from Northern Italy and the tight twists help them retain a wide variety of sauces better. They are often used in pasta salads with pesto or tomato-based sauces. Rotini is most often made from refined (white) wheat flour, although varieties made from whole wheat flour, brown rice, or other grains are also available. In the US these may also be called colloquially "Scroodle," "Scroodle Noodles", "Scrotini", "Skroodle", "Scroodle Macaroni", or "corkscrews".
    7.50
    2 votes
    130
    Trenette

    Trenette

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Trenette are a type of narrow, flat, dried pasta especially associated with Genoa and Liguria. Trenette are the most traditional form of pasta served with pesto alla genovese, a dish known as trenette al pesto, which can also include potatoes and green beans boiled in the same water.
    7.50
    2 votes
    131
    Turmeric

    Turmeric

    • Typically used in dishes: Soto ayam
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Spice
    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20 °C and 30 °C (68 °F and 86 °F) and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes, and propagated from some of those rhizomes in the following season. When not used fresh, the rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens, after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine, for dyeing, and to impart color to mustard condiments. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy, slightly bitter, slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. In medieval Europe, turmeric became known as Indian saffron since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice. India and Pakistan are significant producers of turmeric which has regional names based on language and country. The name appears to derive from the Latin, terra merita (merited earth) or turmeryte, possibly related to saffron. As turmeric is a
    7.50
    2 votes
    132
    Coconut milk

    Coconut milk

    • Typically used in dishes: Red curry
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Coconut milk is the liquid that comes from the grated meat of a coconut. The color and rich taste of the milk can be attributed to the high oil content. Two grades of coconut milk exist: thick and thin. Thick milk can be prepared by directly squeezing grated coconut meat through cheesecloth. The squeezed coconut meat is then soaked in warm water and squeezed a second or third time for thin coconut milk. Thick milk is mainly used to make desserts as well as rich and dry sauces. Thin milk is used for soups and general cooking. This distinction is usually not made in Western nations since fresh coconut milk is rare, and most consumers buy coconut milk in cans. Coconut water is the water that comes from the coconut. Coconut milk can be made at home by processing grated coconut with hot water or milk, which extracts the oil and aromatic compounds. It has a fat content of approximately 17%. When refrigerated and left to set, coconut cream will rise to the top and separate out from the milk. Manufacturers of canned coconut milk typically combine thin and thick milk, with the addition of water as a filler. Depending on the brand and age of the milk itself, a thicker, more paste-like
    6.33
    3 votes
    133
    Paprika

    Paprika

    • Typically used in dishes: Goulash
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Spice
    Paprika is a spice made from ground, dried fruits of Capsicum annuum, either bell pepper or chili pepper varieties or mixtures thereof. The seasoning is used in many cuisines to add color and flavor to dishes, but it is usually associated with Hungary, and also Greece, Serbia, Croatia, Bulgaria and Morocco, and also Spain, and Portugal, the latter countries having introduced capsicum annuum to the Old World from the Americas. The use of this plant rapidly expanded from Iberia throughout Africa and Asia and ultimately reached Central Europe through the Balkans which were under Ottoman rule, explaining the Slavic origin of the modern English term. In Spanish, Paprika has been known as Pimenton since the 1500s, when it became a typical ingredient of the western region of Extremadura. Despite its presence in Central Europe since the beginning of Ottoman conquests, it did not become popular in Hungary much more than one hundred years ago. Central European paprika was hot until the 1920s, when a Szeged breeder found one plant that produced sweet fruit. This was grafted onto other plants. Nowadays, paprika can range from mild to hot, and flavors also vary from country to country, but
    6.33
    3 votes
    134
    Broccoli

    Broccoli

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Vegetable
    Broccoli is a plant in the cabbage family, whose large flower head is used as a vegetable. The word broccoli, from the Italian plural of broccolo, refers to "the flowering top of a cabbage". Broccoli is usually boiled or steamed, but may be eaten raw and has become popular as a raw vegetable in hors d'œuvre trays. The leaves may also be eaten. Broccoli is classified in the Italica cultivar group of the species Brassica oleracea. Broccoli has large flower heads, usually green in color, arranged in a tree-like structure on branches sprouting from a thick, edible stalk. The mass of flower heads is surrounded by leaves. Broccoli most closely resembles cauliflower, which is a different cultivar group of the same species. Broccoli was derived from cultivated leafy cole crops in the Northern Mediterranean in about the 6th century BCE. Since the Roman Empire, broccoli has been considered a uniquely valuable food among Italians. Broccoli was brought to England from Antwerp in the mid-18th century by Peter Scheemakers. Broccoli was first introduced to the United States by Italian immigrants but did not become widely known there until the 1920s. Broccoli is high in vitamin C, as well as
    8.00
    1 votes
    135
    Cauliflower

    Cauliflower

    • Typically used in dishes: Aloo gobi
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Vegetable
    Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea, in the family Brassicaceae. It is an annual plant that reproduces by seed. Typically, only the head (the white curd) is eaten. The cauliflower head is composed of a white inflorescence meristem. Cauliflower heads resemble those in broccoli, which differs in having flower buds. Its name is from Latin caulis (cabbage) and flower,. Brassica oleracea also includes cabbage, brussels sprouts, kale, broccoli, and collard greens, though they are of different cultivar groups. For such a highly modified plant, cauliflower has a long history. François Pierre La Varenne employed chouxfleurs in Le cuisinier françois. They had been introduced to France from Genoa in the 16th century, and are featured in Olivier de Serres' Théâtre de l'agriculture (1600), as cauli-fiori "as the Italians call it, which are still rather rare in France; they hold an honorable place in the garden because of their delicacy", but they did not commonly appear on grand tables until the time of Louis XIV. There are four major groups of cauliflower. There are hundreds of historic and current commercial varieties used around the world. A
    8.00
    1 votes
    136
    Celery

    Celery

    • Typically used in dishes: Gumbo
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Vegetable
    Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var. dulce) or celeriac (var. rapaceum), depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten: celery refers to the former and celeriac to the latter. Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. The leaves are pinnate to bipinnate leaves with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm long and 2–4 cm broad. The flowers are creamy-white, 2–3 mm diameter, produced in dense compound umbels. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose, 1.5–2 mm long and wide. First attested in English 1664, the word "celery" derives from the French céleri, in turn from Italian seleri, the plural of selero, which comes from Late Latin selinon, the latinisation of the Greek σέλινον (selinon), "parsley". The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek se-ri-no, written in Linear B syllabic script. Celery was described by Carl von Linné in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in 1753. The closely related Apium bermejoi from the island of Minorca is one of the rarest plants in Europe, with fewer than 100 individuals left. In North America, commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. Gardeners can
    8.00
    1 votes
    137
    Grape

    Grape

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    A grape is a fruiting berry of the deciduous woody vines of the botanical genus described as Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or they can be used for making jam, juice, jelly, wine, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar, and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters. The cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East. The earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, leading to the innovation of alcoholic drinks such as wine. The earliest known production occurred around 8,000 years ago on the territory of Georgia. During an extensive gene-mapping project, archaeologists analyzed the heritage of more than 110 modern grape cultivars, and narrowed their origin to a region in Georgia, where wine residues were also discovered on the inner surfaces of 8,000-year-old ceramic storage jars. The oldest winery was found in Armenia, dating to around 4,000 BC. By the 9th century AD the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the
    8.00
    1 votes
    138
    Lentil

    Lentil

    • Typically used in dishes: Dal
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    The lentil (Lens culinaris) (International Feed Number, 5-02-506) is an edible pulse. It is a bushy annual plant of the legume family, grown for its lens-shaped seeds. It is about 40 centimetres (16 in) tall and the seeds grow in pods, usually with two seeds in each. Lentils have been part of the human diet since the aceramic (pottery nonproducing) Neolithic times, being one of the first crops domesticated in the Near East. Archeological evidence shows they were eaten 9,500 to 13,000 years ago. Lentil colors range from yellow to red-orange to green, brown and black. Lentils also vary in size (e.g. Masoor lentils, shown in photos here), and are sold in many forms, with or without the skins, whole or split. The seeds require a cooking time of 10 to 40 minutes, depending on the variety — shorter for small varieties with the husk removed, such as the common red lentil — and have a distinctive, earthy flavor. Lentils are used throughout South Asia, the Mediterranean regions and West Asia. They are frequently combined with rice, which has a similar cooking time. A lentil and rice dish is referred to in western Asia as mujaddara or mejadra. Rice and lentils are also cooked together in
    8.00
    1 votes
    139
    Radiatore

    Radiatore

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Radiatori are small, squat pasta shapes that are said to resemble radiators. They somewhat resemble rotini in shape, but are generally shorter and thicker with a ruffled edge. Radiatori are often used in similar dishes as rotelle or fusilli, since the shape works well with thicker sauces.
    8.00
    1 votes
    140
    Sirloin steak

    Sirloin steak

    • Typically used in dishes: Bistek
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Beef
    The sirloin steak is a steak cut from the rear back portion of the animal, continuing off the short loin from which T-bone, porterhouse, and club steaks are cut. The sirloin is actually divided into several types of steak. The top sirloin is the most prized of these and is specifically marked for sale under that name. The bottom sirloin, which is less tender and much larger, is typically marked for sale simply as "sirloin steak." The bottom sirloin in turn connects to the sirloin tip roast. In British and Australian butchery, the word sirloin refers to cuts of meat from the upper middle of the animal, similar to the American short loin. The word comes from the Middle English surloine, which itself was derived from the Old French word surlonge, meaning sur la longe or above the loin. In Modern French, the term evolved to become aloyau or faux-filet. An often quoted false etymology suggests that sirloin comes from the knighting by an English king (various kings are cited) of a piece of meat.
    8.00
    1 votes
    141
    Sumac

    Sumac

    Sumac ( /ˈsjuːmæk/ or /ˈʃuːmæk/; also spelled sumach) is any one of approximately 250 species of flowering plants in the genus Rhus and related genera, in the family Anacardiaceae. Sumacs grow in subtropical and temperate regions throughout the world, especially in Africa and North America. Sumacs are shrubs and small trees that can reach a height of 1–10 metres (3.3–33 ft). The leaves are spirally arranged; they are usually pinnately compound, though some species have trifoliate or simple leaves. The flowers are in dense panicles or spikes 5–30 centimetres (2.0–12 in) long, each flower very small, greenish, creamy white or red, with five petals. The fruits form dense clusters of reddish drupes called sumac bobs. The dried drupes of some species are ground to produce a tangy purple spice. Sumacs propagate both by seed (spread by birds and other animals through their droppings), and by new shoots from rhizomes, forming large clonal colonies. The word sumac traces its etymology from Old French sumac (13th century), from Medieval Latin sumach, from Arabic summāq (سماق), from Syriac summāq (ܣܘܡܩ) - meaning "red." The fruits (drupes) of the genus Rhus are ground into a deep-red or
    8.00
    1 votes
    142
    Persimmon

    Persimmon

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Persimmons are the edible fruit of a number of species of trees in the genus Diospyros. Diospyros is in the family Ebenaceae, and certain species of Diospyros are the sources of most kinds of ebony wood, and not all species bear edible fruit. In color the ripe fruit of the cultivated strains range from light yellow-orange to dark red-orange depending on the species and variety. They similarly vary in size from 1.5 to 9 cm (0.5 to 4 in) in diameter, and in shape the varieties may be spherical, acorn-, or pumpkin-shaped. The calyx generally remains attached to the fruit after harvesting, but becomes easy to remove once the fruit is ripe. The ripe fruit have a high glucose content. The protein content is low, but such as it is, it has a balanced protein profile. Persimmon fruit have been put to various medicinal and chemical uses. Like the tomato, persimmons are not popularly considered to be berries, but in terms of botanical morphology the fruit is in fact a berry. The word Diospyros comes from the ancient Greek words "Dios" (διός) and "pyros" (πυρος). In context this means more or less "divine fruit", though its literal meaning is more like "Wheat of Zeus". It is however
    5.25
    4 votes
    143
    Allspice

    Allspice

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Spice
    Allspice, also called Jamaica pepper, pepper, myrtle pepper, pimenta, or newspice, is a spice that is the dried unripe fruit ("berries") of Pimenta dioica, a mid-canopy tree native to the Greater Antilles, southern Mexico, and Central America, now cultivated in many warm parts of the world. The name allspice was coined as early as 1621 by the English, who thought it combined the flavour of cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves. Several unrelated fragrant shrubs are called "Carolina allspice" (Calycanthus floridus), "Japanese allspice" (Chimonanthus praecox) or "wild allspice" (Lindera benzoin). Allspice is also sometimes used to refer to the herb costmary (Tanacetum balsamita). Allspice is the dried fruit of the Pimenta dioica plant. The fruit are picked when green and unripe and, traditionally, dried in the sun. When dry, the fruit are brown and resemble large brown peppercorns. The whole fruit have a longer shelf life than the powdered product and produce a more aromatic product when freshly ground before use. Fresh leaves are used where available. They are similar in texture to bay leaves and are thus infused during cooking and then removed before serving. Unlike bay leaves, they lose
    7.00
    2 votes
    144
    Chayote

    Chayote

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    The chayote (Sechium edule), also known as christophene or christophine, cho-cho, mirliton or merleton (Creole/Cajun), pear squash, vegetable pear, chouchoute, choko, pipinola, güisquil (El Salvador) is an edible plant belonging to the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, along with melons, cucumbers and squash. Chayote is originally native to Brazil (chuchu [ʃuˈʃu] in Brazilian Portuguese) where it grows abundantly and has little commercial value, and it has been introduced as a crop all over Latin America, and worldwide. The main growing regions are Brazil, Costa Rica and Veracruz, Mexico. Costa Rican chayotes are predominantly exported to the European Union, whereas Veracruz is the main exporter of chayotes to the United States. The word chayote is a Spanish derivative of the Nahuatl word chayohtli (pronounced [t͡ʃaˈjoʔt͡ɬi]). Chayote was one of the many foods introduced to Europe by early explorers, who brought back a wide assortment of botanical samples. The Age of Conquest also spread the plant south from Mexico, ultimately causing it to be integrated into the cuisine of many other Latin American nations. The chayote fruit is used in mostly cooked forms. When cooked, chayote is
    7.00
    2 votes
    145
    Lemon

    Lemon

    • Typically used in dishes: Jack Rose
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    The lemon (Citrus × limon) is a small evergreen tree native to Asia, and the tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit. The fruit's juice, pulp and peel, especially the zest, are used as foods. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, which gives lemons a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade. The origin of the lemon is a mystery, though it is thought that lemons first grew in Southern India, northern Burma, and China. A study of the genetic origin of the lemon reported that it is a hybrid between sour orange and citron. Lemons entered Europe near southern Italy no later than the 1st century AD, during the time of Ancient Rome. However, they were not widely cultivated. They were later introduced to Persia and then to Iraq and Egypt around 700 AD. The lemon was first recorded in literature in a 10th century Arabic treatise on farming, and was also used as an ornamental plant in early Islamic gardens. It was distributed widely throughout the Arab world and the Mediterranean region between 1000 and 1150. The first substantial cultivation of lemons in Europe began in Genoa in the middle of the 15th
    7.00
    2 votes
    146
    Lemongrass

    Lemongrass

    • Typically used in dishes: Bun Bo Hue
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Cymbopogon (lemongrass) is a genus of about 55 species of grasses, (of which the type species is Cymbopogon citratus [a natural and soft tea Anxiolytic]) native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World and Oceania. It is a tall perennial grass. Common names include lemon grass, lemongrass, barbed wire grass, silky heads, citronella grass,cha de Dartigalongue, fever grass, tanglad, hierba Luisa or gavati chaha amongst many others. Lemongrass is native to India and tropical Asia. It is widely used as a herb in Asian cuisine. It has a subtle citrus flavor and can be dried and powdered, or used fresh. Lemongrass is commonly used in teas, soups, and curries. It is also suitable for poultry, fish, beef, and seafood. It is often used as a tea in African countries such as Togo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Latin American countries such as Mexico. Lemongrass oil is used as a pesticide and a preservative. Research shows that lemongrass oil has anti-fungal properties. Despite its ability to repel insects, its oil is commonly utilized as a "lure" to attract honey bees. "Lemongrass works conveniently as well as the pheromone created by the honeybee's nasonov gland,
    7.00
    2 votes
    147
    Linguine

    Linguine

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Linguine (also 'linguini') is a form of pasta — flat like fettuccine and trenette. It is wider than spaghetti, about 6mm to 9mm, but not as wide as fettuccine. The name linguine means "little tongues" in Italian, where it is a plural of the feminine linguina. Linguine are also called trenette or bavette. A thinner version of linguine is called linguettine. Linguine originated in Genoa and the Liguria region of Italy. Linguine alle vongole (linguine with clams) and Trenette al pesto are popular uses of this pasta. While spaghetti traditionally accompanies meat and tomato dishes, linguine are often served with seafood or pesto. Linguine is typically available in both white flour and whole-wheat versions; the latter are usually made in Italy.
    7.00
    2 votes
    148
    Nashi Pear

    Nashi Pear

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Pyrus pyrifolia is a pear tree species native to China, Japan, and Korea. The tree's edible fruit is known by many names, including: Asian pear, Chinese pear, Korean pear, Japanese pear, Taiwan pear, and sand pear. Along with cultivars of P. × bretschneideri and P. ussuriensis, the fruit is also called the nashi pear. Despite being colloquially known as an apple pear due to its appearance and texture, the fruit is not a hybrid of the two. Cultivars derived from Pyrus pyrifolia are grown throughout East Asia, and in other countries such as Australia, New Zealand, and the United States (e.g., California). Traditionally in East Asia the tree's flowers are a popular symbol of early spring, and it is a common sight in gardens and the countryside. The fruits are generally not baked in pies or made into jams because they have a high water content and a crisp, grainy texture, very different from the buttery European varieties. They are commonly served raw and peeled. The fruit tends to be quite large and fragrant, and when carefully wrapped (it has a tendency to bruise because of its juiciness), it can last for several weeks or more in a cold, dry place. Due to their relatively high price
    7.00
    2 votes
    149
    Onion

    Onion

    • Typically used in dishes: Mee Goreng
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    The onion (Allium cepa), which is also known as the bulb onion, common onion is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium. The genus Allium also contains a number of other species variously referred to as onions and cultivated for food, such as the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum), Egyptian onion (A. ×proliferum), and Canada onion (A. canadense). The name "wild onion" is applied to a number of Allium species. Onion is most frequently a biennial, although it can also be a triennial or a perennial. The vast majority of cultivars of A. cepa belong to the "common onion group" (A. cepa var. cepa) and are usually referred to simply as "onions". The Aggregatum Group of cultivars (A. cepa var. aggregatum) includes both shallots and potato onions. Allium cepa is known exclusively in cultivation, but related wild species occur in Central Asia. The most closely related species include Allium vavilovii (Popov & Vved.) and Allium asarense (R.M. Fritsch & Matin) from Iran. However, Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the A. vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop." Onions are often chopped and used as
    7.00
    2 votes
    150
    Peach

    Peach

    • Typically used in dishes: Peach Melba
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    The peach, Prunus persica, is a deciduous tree, native to China and South Asia, where it was first cultivated. It bears an edible juicy fruit also called a peach. The species name persica refers to its widespread cultivation in Persia, whence it was transplanted to Europe. It belongs to the genus Prunus which includes the cherry and plum, in the family Rosaceae. The peach is classified with the almond in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell. Peaches and nectarines are closely related, even though they are regarded commercially as different fruits. Nectarines belong to the same species as peaches, nectarines have smooth skin while peaches have fuzzy skin; genetic studies suggest nectarines are produced due to a recessive allele, whereas peaches are produced from dominant allele for fuzzy skin. China is the world's largest producer of peaches and nectarines. Prunus persica grows to 4–10 m (13–33 ft) tall and 6 in. in diameter. The leaves are lanceolate, 7–16 cm (2.8–6.3 in) long, 2–3 cm (0.79–1.2 in) broad, pinnately veined. The flowers are produced in early spring before the leaves; they are solitary or paired, 2.5–3 cm
    7.00
    2 votes
    151
    Savory

    Savory

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Herb
    Satureja is a genus of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, related to rosemary and thyme. There are about 30 species called savories, of which Summer savory and Winter savory are the most important in cultivation. Satureja species are native to warm temperate regions and may be annual or perennial. They are low-growing herbs and subshrubs, reaching heights of 15–50 cm. The leaves are 1 to 3 cm long, with flowers forming in whorls on the stem, white to pale pink-violet. Satureja species are food plants for the larva of some Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). Caterpillars of the moth Coleophora bifrondella feed exclusively on Winter savory (S. montana). Savory may be grown purely for ornamental purposes; members of the genus need sun and well-drained soil. Both summer savory and winter savory are used to flavor food. The former is preferred by cooks but as an annual is only available in summer; winter savory is an evergreen perennial. Savory plays an important part in Bulgarian and Italian cuisine, particularly when cooking beans. It is also used to season the traditional Acadian stew known as fricot. Savory is also a key ingredient in sarmale, a stuffed cabbage dish in
    7.00
    2 votes
    152
    Soy sauce

    Soy sauce

    • Typically used in dishes: Bistek
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Sauce
    Soy sauce (also called soya sauce) is a condiment produced from a fermented paste of boiled soybeans, roasted grain, brine and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds. After fermentation, the paste is pressed, producing a liquid, which is the soy sauce, and a cake of soy and cereal residue, which is usually reused as animal feed. Most commonly, a grain, often roasted, is used together with the soybeans in the fermentation process. Soy sauce is a traditional ingredient in East and Southeast Asian cuisines, where it is used in cooking and as a condiment. It originated in China in the 2nd century BCE and spread throughout Asia. In recent times, it is used in Western cuisine and prepared foods. Almost all varieties of soy sauce are salty, earthy, brownish liquids intended to season food while cooking or at the table, with exception of Indonesian sweet soy sauce. There are numerous variations of soy sauce being produced in China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Indonesia, Vietnam, Burma and other countries. Variations usually achieved as the result of different method and duration of fermentation, different on ratio of water, salt and fermented soy, different thickness or viscosity, as well
    7.00
    2 votes
    153
    Spaghetti

    Spaghetti

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Spaghetti is a long, thin, cylindrical pasta of Italian origin. Spaghetti is made of semolina or flour and water. Italian dried spaghetti is made from durum wheat semolina, but outside of Italy it may be made with other kinds of flour. Traditionally, most spaghetti was 50 cm (20 in) long, but shorter lengths gained in popularity during the latter half of the 20th century and now spaghetti is most commonly available in 25–30 cm (10–12 in) lengths. A variety of pasta dishes are based on it, from spaghetti alla Carbonara or garlic and oil to a spaghetti with tomato sauce, meat and other sauces. Spaghetti is the plural form of the Italian word spaghetto, which is a diminutive of spago, meaning "thin string" or "twine". Pasta in the West may first have been worked to long, thin forms in Southern Italy around the 12th century. The popularity of pasta spread to the whole of Italy after the establishment of pasta factories in the 19th century, enabling the mass production of pasta for the Italian market. In the United States around the end of the 19th century, spaghetti was offered in restaurants as Spaghetti Italienne (which likely consisted of noodles cooked past al dente, and a mild
    7.00
    2 votes
    154
    Bucatini

    Bucatini

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Bucatini is a thick spaghetti-like pasta with a hole running through the centre. The name comes from Italian: buco, meaning "hole", while bucato means "pierced". Bucatini is common throughout Lazio, particularly Rome. It is a tubed pasta made of hard durum wheat flour and water. Its length is 25–30 cm (10–12 in) with a 3 mm (1/8 inch) diameter. The average cooking time is nine minutes. In Italian cuisine, it is served with buttery sauces, pancetta or guanciale, vegetables, cheese, eggs, and anchovies or sardines.
    6.00
    3 votes
    155
    Cannelloni

    Cannelloni

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Cannelloni (Italian: large reeds) are a cylindrical type of pasta generally served baked with a filling and covered by a sauce. Some types of cannelloni need to be boiled beforehand, for others it is enough to use a runnier sauce or filling. If one cannot find ready made cannelloni, rolling lasagne around a filling is an alternative. The stuffing may include ricotta cheese, spinach and various kinds of meat. The sauces typically used are tomato or béchamel sauce. Cannelloni is often erroneously referred to as manicotti (Italian: sleeves; /ˌmænɨˈkɒtiː/), which is actually a filled tubes of pasta, as cooked sheet pasta which is rolled to its shape. While manicotti and cannelloni are sometimes used interchangeably in preparing non-traditional versions of some dishes, in traditional Italian cooking cannelloni are made with sheet pasta and manicotti with large ridged pasta tubes. St. Stephen's Day on December 26 is a traditional holiday in Catalonia. It is celebrated right after Christmas, with a feast including canelons. They are stuffed with ground meat from the escudella i carn d'olla, turkey or capon of the previous day (Christmas dinner). Cannoli
    6.00
    3 votes
    156
    Pecan

    Pecan

    • Typically used in dishes: Pecan pie
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Nut
    The pecan ( /pɨˈkɑːn/, /pɨˈkæn/, or /ˈpiːkæn/), Carya illinoinensis, is a species of hickory, native to south-central North America, in Mexico from Coahuila south to Jalisco and Veracruz, in the United States from southern Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, and Indiana to Virginia, southwestern Ohio, south through Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Florida, and west into New Mexico. "Pecan" is from an Algonquian word, meaning a nut requiring a stone to crack. The pecan tree is a large deciduous tree, growing to 20–40 m (66–130 ft) in height, rarely to 44 m (144 ft); taller trees to 50–55 m (160–180 ft) have been claimed but not verified. It typically has a spread of 12–23 m (39–75 ft) with a trunk up to 2 m (6.6 ft) diameter. A 10-year-old sapling will stand about 5 m (16 ft) tall. The leaves are alternate, 30–45 cm (12–18 in) long, and pinnate with 9–17 leaflets, each leaflet 5–12 cm (2.0–4.7 in) long and 2–6 cm (0.79–2.4 in) broad. The flowers are wind-pollinated, and monoecious, with staminate and pistillate catkins on the same tree; the male catkins are pendulous, up to 18 cm (7.1 in) long; the female catkins are small, with
    6.00
    3 votes
    157
    Raspberry

    Raspberry

    • Typically used in dishes: Peach Melba
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the Rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus; the name also applies to these plants themselves. Raspberries are perennial with woody stems. Raspberries are an important commercial fruit crop, widely grown in all temperate regions of the World. Many of the most important modern commercial red raspberry cultivars derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus. Some botanists consider the Eurasian and American red raspberries to all belong to a single, circumboreal species, Rubus idaeus, with the European plants then classified as either R. idaeus subsp. idaeus or R. idaeus var. idaeus, and the native North American red raspberries classified as either R. idaeus subsp. strigosus, or R. idaeus var. strigosus. Recent breeding has resulted in cultivars that are thornless and more strongly upright, not needing staking. The black raspberry, Rubus occidentalis, is also occasionally cultivated in the United States, providing both fresh and frozen fruit as well as jams, preserves, and other products, all with that species' distinctive, richer flavor. Purple raspberries have been
    6.00
    3 votes
    158
    Scallion

    Scallion

    • Typically used in dishes: Beef noodle soup
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Spring onions (also known as green onions, scallions, salad onions, green shallots, onion sticks, long onions, baby onions, precious onions, yard onions, gibbons, or syboes) are the edible plants of various Allium species, all of which are "onion-like", having hollow green leaves and lacking a fully developed root bulb. The words scallion and shallot are related and can be traced back to the Greek askolonion as described by the Greek writer Theophrastus. This name, in turn, seems to originate from the name of the town of Ashkelon. The shallots themselves apparently came from farther east of Europe. The Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum) does not form bulbs even when mature, and is grown in the West almost exclusively as a scallion or salad onion, although in Asia this species is of primary importance and used both fresh and in cooking. "Scallion" is also used for young plants of the common onion (A. cepa var. cepa) and shallot (A. cepa var. aggregatum, formerly A. ascalonicum), harvested before bulbs form, or sometimes when slight bulbing has occurred. Most of the cultivars grown in the West primarily as salad onions or scallions belong to A. cepa var. cepa. Other species sometimes
    6.00
    3 votes
    159
    Split pea

    Split pea

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Split peas are an agricultural or culinary preparation consisting of the dried, peeled and split seeds of Pisum sativum. They are peeled, in that in addition to not being in the seed pod in which they grew, the splitting process also removes the dull colored outer skin of the pea. They come in yellow and green varieties. The peas are round when harvested and dried. Once dry, after the skin is removed, the natural split in the seed's cotyledon can be manually or mechanically separated, in part to encourage faster cooking due to increasing the surface area exposed to heat. Split peas are high in protein and low in fat, containing only one gram of fat per 350 calories (1,500 kJ) serving. Most of the calories come from protein and complex carbohydrates. The split pea is known to be a natural food source that contains some of the highest amounts of fiber, containing 26 grams of fiber per 100 gram portion (104% DV based on a 2,000 calories (8,400 kJ) diet). Fiber is known to help the digestive system and to make people feel full and satiated. Yellow split peas may sometimes be confused with the Indian toor dal (split pigeon peas) or chana dal (split yellow gram, desi chickpeas); while
    6.00
    3 votes
    160
    Sweet potato

    Sweet potato

    • Typically used in dishes: Sweet potato pie
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Potato
    The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. Its large, starchy, sweet-tasting, tuberous roots are an important root vegetable. The young leaves and shoots are sometimes eaten as greens. Of the approximately 50 genera and more than 1,000 species of Convolvulaceae, I. batatas is the only crop plant of major importance—some others are used locally, but many are actually poisonous. The sweet potato is only distantly related to the potato (Solanum tuberosum). Although the soft, orange sweet potato is often mislabeled a "yam" in parts of North America, the sweet potato is botanically very distinct from a genuine yam, which is native to Africa and Asia and belongs to the monocot family Dioscoreaceae. To prevent confusion, the United States Department of Agriculture requires sweet potatoes labeled as "yams" to also be labeled as "sweet potatoes". The genus Ipomoea that contains the sweet potato also includes several garden flowers called morning glories, though that term is not usually extended to Ipomoea batatas. Some cultivars of Ipomoea batatas are grown as ornamental plants; the name "tuberous morning glory" may be used in a
    6.00
    3 votes
    161
    Yeast

    Yeast

    • Typically used in dishes: Bialy
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Yeasts are eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with 1,500 species currently described (estimated to be 1% of all fungal species). Yeasts are unicellular, although some species with yeast forms may become multicellular through the formation of a string of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae, or false hyphae, as seen in most molds. Yeast size can vary greatly depending on the species, typically measuring 3–4 µm in diameter, although some yeasts can reach over 40 µm. Most yeasts reproduce asexually by mitosis, and many do so by an asymmetric division process called budding. By fermentation, the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae converts carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and alcohols – for thousands of years the carbon dioxide has been used in baking and the alcohol in alcoholic beverages. It is also extremely important as a model organism in modern cell biology research, and is one of the most thoroughly researched eukaryotic microorganisms. Researchers have used it to gather information about the biology of the eukaryotic cell and ultimately human biology. Other species of yeast, such as Candida albicans, are opportunistic pathogens and can cause
    6.00
    3 votes
    162
    Black-eyed pea

    Black-eyed pea

    • Typically used in dishes: Aloo Tama
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    The black-eyed pea or black-eyed bean, a legume, is a subspecies of the cowpea, grown around the world for its medium-sized, edible bean. The bean mutates easily, giving rise to a number of varieties. The common commercial one is called the California Blackeye; it is pale-colored with a prominent black spot. The currently accepted botanical name is Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata, although previously it was classified in the genus Phaseolus. Vigna unguiculata subsp. dekindtiana is the wild relative and Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis is the related asparagus bean. Other beans of somewhat similar appearance, such as the frijol ojo de cabra (goat's eye bean) of northern Mexico, are sometimes incorrectly called black-eyed peas, and vice versa. The first domestication occurred probably in West Africa, but the black-eyed pea is widely grown in many countries in Asia; it was introduced into the Southern United States as early as the 17th century in Virginia. Most of the black-eyed pea cultivation in the region, however, took firmer hold in Florida and the Carolinas during the 18th century, reaching Virginia in full force following the American Revolution. The crop would also
    5.00
    4 votes
    163
    Orzo

    Orzo

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Orzo (Italian for "barley", from Latin hordeum), also risoni (It.: "big rice") is a form of short-cut macaroni, shaped like a large grain of rice. Orzo can be served alone, as a soup accompaniment, or baked in a casserole. Orzo is similar to kritharáki ("little barley") and manéstra in Greek cuisine, arpa şehriye in Turkish cooking, and lisān al-`uṣfūr ("songbird tongue") in Arab cooking.
    5.00
    4 votes
    164
    Rhubarb

    Rhubarb

    • Typically used in dishes: Rhubarb pie
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Rhubarb is a group of plants that belong to the genus Rheum in the family Polygonaceae. They are herbaceous perennial plants growing from short, thick rhizomes. They have large leaves that are somewhat triangular, with long fleshy petioles. They have small flowers grouped in large compound leafy greenish-white to rose-red inflorescences. In culinary use, fresh raw stalks are crisp (similar to celery) with a strong, tart taste. Most commonly, the plant's stalks are cooked with sugar and used in pies and other desserts. A number of varieties have been domesticated for human consumption, most of which are recognised as Rheum x hybridum by the Royal Horticultural Society. Rhubarb is usually considered to be a vegetable; however, in the United States, a New York court decided in 1947 that since it was used in the United States as a fruit, it was to be counted as a fruit for the purposes of regulations and duties. A side effect was a reduction on imported rhubarb tariffs, as tariffs were higher for vegetables than fruits. Rhubarb is now grown in many areas and, thanks to greenhouse production, is available throughout much of the year. Rhubarb grown in hothouses (heated greenhouses) is
    5.00
    4 votes
    165
    Walnut

    Walnut

    • Typically used in dishes: Waldorf salad
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Nut
    A walnut is an edible seed of any tree of the genus Juglans, especially the Persian walnut, Juglans regia. Broken nutmeats of the eastern black walnut, from the tree Juglans nigra, are also commercially available in small quantities, as are foods prepared with butternut nutmeats. Walnut seeds are a high density source of nutrients, particularly proteins and essential fatty acids. Walnuts, like other tree nuts, must be processed and stored properly. Poor storage makes walnuts susceptible to insect and fungal mold infestations; the latter produces aflatoxin - a potent carcinogen. A mold infested walnut seed batch should not be screened then consumed; the entire batch should be discarded. Walnuts are rounded, single-seeded stone fruits of the walnut tree. The walnut fruit is enclosed in a green, leathery, fleshy husk. This husk is inedible. After harvest, the removal of the husk reveals the wrinkly walnut shell, which is in two halves. This shell is hard and encloses the kernel, which is also made up of two halves separated by a partition. The seed kernels - commonly available as shelled walnuts - are enclosed in a brown seed coat which contains antioxidants. The antioxidants protect
    5.00
    4 votes
    166
    Avocado

    Avocado

    • Typically used in dishes: Burrito
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree native to Central Mexico, classified in the flowering plant family Lauraceae along with cinnamon, camphor and bay laurel. Avocado or alligator pear also refers to the fruit (botanically a large berry that contains a single seed) of the tree. Avocados are commercially valuable and are cultivated in tropical and Mediterranean climates throughout the world. They have a green-skinned, fleshy body that may be pear-shaped, egg-shaped, or spherical, and ripens after harvesting. Trees are partially self-pollinating and often are propagated through grafting to maintain a predictable quality and quantity of the fruit. P. americana, or the avocado, originated in the state of Puebla, Mexico. The native, undomesticated variety is known as a criollo, and is small, with dark black skin, and contains a large seed. The oldest evidence of avocado use was found in a cave located in Coxcatlán, Puebla, Mexico, that dates to around 10,000 BC. The avocado tree also has a long history of cultivation in Central and South America; a water jar shaped like an avocado, dating to AD 900, was discovered in the pre-Incan city of Chan Chan. The earliest known written
    5.67
    3 votes
    167
    Bay Laurel

    Bay Laurel

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    The bay laurel (Laurus nobilis, of the plant family Lauraceae), also known as sweet bay, bay tree (esp. United Kingdom), true laurel, Grecian laurel, laurel tree, or simply laurel, is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glossy leaves, native to the Mediterranean region. It is the source of the bay leaf used in cooking. Under the simpler name "laurel," Laurus nobilis figures prominently in classical Greek, Roman, and Biblical culture. Worldwide, many other kinds of plants in diverse families are also called "bay" or "laurel," generally due to similarity of foliage or aroma to Laurus nobilis, and the full name is used for the California bay laurel (Umbellularia), also in the family Lauraceae. The laurel can vary greatly in size and height, sometimes reaching 10–18 metres (33–59 ft) tall. Laurus is a genus of evergreen trees belonging to the Laurel family, Lauraceae. The genus includes three species, whose diagnostic key characters often overlap (Mabberley 1997). The laurel is dioecious (unisexual), with male and female flowers on separate plants. Each flower is pale yellow-green, about 1 cm diameter, and they are born in pairs beside a leaf. The leaves are 6–12 cm
    5.67
    3 votes
    168
    Olive oil

    Olive oil

    • Typically used in dishes: Greek salad
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Cooking oil
    Olive oil is a fat obtained from the olive (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. The oil is produced by grinding whole olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. It is commonly used in cooking, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. Olive oil is used throughout the world, but especially in the Mediterranean countries. The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin; wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor in ancient Greece. It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium; along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium; or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium. A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. Archeological evidence suggest that olives were being grown in Crete as long ago as 2,500 BC. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times), though the
    5.67
    3 votes
    169
    Rutabaga

    Rutabaga

    • Typically used in dishes: Clapshot
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    The rutabaga, swede (from Swedish turnip), turnip or yellow turnip (Brassica napobrassica, or Brassica napus var. napobrassica, or Brassica napus subsp. rapifera) is a root vegetable that originated as a cross between the cabbage and the turnip; see Triangle of U. The roots are prepared for food in a variety of ways, and its leaves can also be eaten as a leaf vegetable. Brassica napobrassica has many national and regional names used globally. Rutabaga is the common American and Canadian term for the plant. It comes from the old Swedish word Rotabagge, meaning simply "root ram". In the U.S., the plant is also known as "Swedish turnip" or "yellow turnip". The term "Swede" is used instead of rutabaga in many Commonwealth Nations, including England, Wales, Australia, and New Zealand. The name turnip is also used in parts of Northern and Midland England, Ireland, Ontario and Atlantic Canada. In Scots, it is known as "turnip," "tumshie" or "neep" (from Old English næp, Latin napus). The term "turnip" is also utilized in southern English usage. Some will also refer to both types as just "turnip" (the word is also derived from næp). In North-East England, turnips and swedes are
    5.67
    3 votes
    170
    Sichuan Pepper

    Sichuan Pepper

    • Typically used in dishes: Spicy tingly beef
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Chili pepper
    Sichuan pepper or Szechuan pepper, a common spice used in Asian cuisine, is derived from at least two species of the global genus Zanthoxylum, including Z. simulans and Z. bungeanum. The botanical name of the genus is composed of two Greek words that together mean "yellow wood" (referring to the brightly coloured sapwood possessed by several of the species). The genus belongs in the rue or citrus family, and, despite its name, is not closely related to either black pepper or chili pepper. The husk or hull (pericarp) around the seeds may be used whole, especially in Szechuan cuisine, and the finely ground powder is one of the blended ingredients for the five-spice powder. It is also used in traditional Chinese medicine. The pericarp (hull or husk) is the part that is most often used, but the leaves of various species are used as well in some regions of China. Another cousin native to China is Zanthoxylum schinifolium, called xiang-jiao-zi (香椒子, lit. "aromatic peppercorn") or qing-hua-jiao (青花椒, lit. "greenish-black flower pepper"), used as spice in Hebei. Yet another Zanthoxylum species provides the African spice uzazi. Because all 250 or so species of the genus seem to possess at
    5.67
    3 votes
    171
    Cardoon

    Cardoon

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    The cardoon (Cynara cardunculus), also called the artichoke thistle, cardone, cardoni, carduni or cardi, is a thistle-like plant in the aster family Asteraceae. It is the naturally occurring form of the same species as the globe artichoke, and has many cultivated varieties. It is native to the western and central Mediterranean region, where it was domesticated in ancient times. The wild cardoon is a stout herbaceous perennial plant growing to 0.8–1.5 m tall, with deeply lobed and heavily spined green to grey-green tomentose leaves up to 50 cm long, with yellow spines up to 3.5 cm long. The flowers are violet-purple, produced in a large, globose, massively spined capitulum up to 6 cm diameter. It is adapted to dry climates, occurring wild from Morocco and Portugal east to Libya and Greece and north to France and Croatia; it may also be native on Cyprus, the Canary Islands and Madeira. In France, it only occurs wild in the Mediterranean south (Gard, Hérault, Aude, Pyrénées-Orientales, Corsica). It has become an invasive weed in the pampas of Argentina, and is also considered a weed in Australia and California. There are two main cultivar groups, the cardoon (Cynara cardunculus
    6.50
    2 votes
    172
    Chapati

    Chapati

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Chapati, Chapatti, or Chapathi (Urdu: چپاتی, Hindi: चपाती, Bengali: চাপাটি, Tamil: சப்பாத்தி, Kannada: ಚಪಾತಿ, Malayalam: ചപ്പാത്തി, Telugu: చపాతీ, Marathi: पोळी, Punjabi: ਚਪਾਤੀ [tʃəpɑt̪i]; Turkic: Çapady) is an unleavened flatbread (also known as roti) from the Indian subcontinent. It is a common staple of cuisine in South Asia as well as amongst South Asian expatriates throughout the world. Versions of the dish are also found in Central Asia and the Horn of Africa, with the laobing flatbread serving as a local variation in China. Chapati is known as doday in Pashto. The word "Chappathi" is derived from Kannada origin "Chappate thatti" meaning "flattened round". Chapati is noted in Ain-i-Akbari , a 16th century document, by Mughal Emperor, Akbar’s vizier, Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak. Chapatis are one of the most common forms in which wheat, the staple of northern South Asia, is consumed. Chapati is a form of roti or rotta (bread). The words are often used interchangeably. While roti or rotta refers to any flat unleavened bread, chapati is a roti made of whole wheat flour and cooked on a tava (flat skillet). Chapatis are made from a firm dough made from flour (whole grain common wheat),
    6.50
    2 votes
    173
    Coriander

    Coriander

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Herb
    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), also known as cilantro, Chinese parsley or dhania, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. Coriander is native to regions spanning from southern Europe and North Africa to southwestern Asia. It is a soft, hairless plant growing to 50 cm (20 in) tall. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, and slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems. The flowers are borne in small umbels, white or very pale pink, asymmetrical, with the petals pointing away from the centre of the umbel longer (5–6 mm) than those pointing towards it (only 1–3 mm long). The fruit is a globular, dry schizocarp 3–5 mm (0.12–0.20 in) in diameter. First attested in English late 14th century, the word coriander derives from the Old French coriandre, which comes from Latin coriandrum, in turn from Greek κορίαννον (koriannon). The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek ko-ri-ja-da-na (written in Linear B syllabic script, reconstructed as koriadnon), similar to the name of Minos' daughter Ariadne, and it is plain how this might later evolve to koriannon or koriandron. Cilantro is the Spanish word for coriander, also deriving from
    6.50
    2 votes
    174
    Lime

    Lime

    • Typically used in dishes: Mojito
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    Lime (from Arabic and French lim) is a term referring to a citrus fruit which is typically round, green to yellow in colour, 3–6 cm in diameter, and containing sour and acidic pulp. Limes are a good source of vitamin C. Limes are often used to accent the flavours of foods and beverages. Limes are grown all year round and are usually smaller and less sour than lemons. Limes were first grown on a large scale in southern Iraq and Persia, and the fruit was first grown commercially in what is today southern Iraq (Babylonia). In cooking, lime is valued both for the acidity of its juice and the floral aroma of its zest. It is a very common ingredient in authentic Mexican, Vietnamese and Thai dishes. It is also used for its pickling properties in ceviche. The use of dried limes (called black lime or loomi) as a flavouring is typical of Persian cuisine and Iraqi cuisine, as well as in Gulf-style baharat (a spice mixture that is also called kabsa or kebsa). Lime is an essential ingredient of any cuisine from India, and many varieties of pickles are made, e.g. sweetened lime pickle, salted pickle, and lime chutney. Lime leaves are also an herb in South, East, and Southeast Asia. Lime is
    6.50
    2 votes
    175
    Mayonnaise

    Mayonnaise

    • Typically used in dishes: Waldorf salad
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Mayonnaise (/ˌmeɪəˈneɪz/, French: [majɔnɛz] ( listen)), often abbreviated as mayo, is a thick creamy sauce often used as a condiment. It originates from Mahon, Spain. It is a stable emulsion of oil, egg yolk and either vinegar or lemon juice, with many options for embellishment with other herbs and spices. Lecithin in the egg yolk is the emulsifier. Mayonnaise varies in color but is often white, cream, or pale yellow. It may range in texture from that of light cream to thick. In countries influenced by French culture, mustard is also a common ingredient. In Spain and Italy, olive oil is used as the oil and mustard is never included. Numerous other sauces can be created from it with addition of various herbs, spices, and finely chopped pickles. Where mustard is used, it is also an emulsifier. The origin of mayonnaise is the town of Mahon in Menorca (Spain), after Armand de Vignerot du Plessis's victory over the British at the city's port in 1756. According to this version, the sauce was originally known as "salsa mahonesa" in Spanish and "maonesa" in Catalan (as it is still known in Menorca), later becoming mayonnaise as it was popularized by the French. The French Larousse
    6.50
    2 votes
    176
    Orange

    Orange

    • Typically used in dishes: Pimm's Cup
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    An orange—specifically, the sweet orange—is the citrus Citrus × ​sinensis (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and its fruit. It was the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world (as of 1987). The orange is a hybrid of ancient cultivated origin, possibly between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata). It is an evergreen flowering tree generally growing to 9–10 m high (although very old specimens have reached 15 m). The leaves are arranged alternately, are ovate in shape with crenulate margins and are 4–10 cm long. The orange fruit is a hesperidium, a type of berry. Orange trees are widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates for the sweet fruit, which is peeled or cut (to avoid the bitter rind) and eaten whole, or processed to extract orange juice, and for the fragrant peel. In 2008, 68.5 million tons of oranges were grown worldwide, primarily in Brazil and the US states California and Florida. Oranges probably originated in Southeast Asia and were cultivated in China by 2500 BC. The fruit of Citrus sinensis is called sweet orange to distinguish it from Citrus aurantium, the bitter orange. The name is thought to derive ultimately from the Sanskrit word for
    6.50
    2 votes
    177
    Roe

    Roe

    • Typically used in dishes: Taramosalata
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Roe or hard roe is the fully ripe internal egg masses in the ovaries, or the released external egg masses of fish and certain marine animals, such as shrimp, scallop and sea urchins. As a seafood, roe is used both as a cooked ingredient in many dishes and as a raw ingredient. The roe of marine animals, such as the roe of lumpsucker, hake and salmon, is an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids. The term soft roe or white roe denotes fish milt. Roe from the Ilish fish is considered a delicacy in Bangladesh. The roe is usually deep-fried, although other preparations such as mashed roe where the roe crushed along with oil, onion and pepper, or curry of roe can also be found. In many regions in China crab and urchin roes are eaten as a delicacy. Crab roe are often used as topping in dishes such as "crab roe tofu" (蟹粉豆腐). Nanxiang Steamed Bun Restaurant serves "crab roe xiaolongbao" as their special. Shrimp roes are also eaten in certain places, especially around the downstream of Yangtze River, such as Wuhu, as toppings for noodle soup. In the state of Kerala, roe is deep fried in coconut oil, and is considered a delicacy. Among the tribal populace, roe that has been deeply-roasted
    6.50
    2 votes
    178
    Sugar

    Sugar

    • Typically used in dishes: Rhubarb pie
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Sugar is the generalised name for a class of sweet-flavored substances used as food. They are carbohydrates and as this name implies, are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose, fructose and galactose. The table or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide. Other disaccharides include maltose and lactose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants but are only present in sufficient concentrations for efficient extraction in sugarcane and sugar beet. Sugarcane is a giant grass and has been cultivated in tropical climates in the Far East since ancient times. A great expansion in its production took place in the 18th century with the setting up of sugar plantations in the West Indies and Americas. This was the first time that sugar became available to the common people who had previously had to rely on honey to sweeten foods. Sugar beet is a root crop and is cultivated in cooler climates and became a major source of sugar in the 19th century when methods for extracting the sugar became available. Sugar production and trade
    6.50
    2 votes
    179
    Turnip

    Turnip

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    The turnip or white turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) is a root vegetable commonly grown in temperate climates worldwide for its white, bulbous taproot. Small, tender varieties are grown for human consumption, while larger varieties are grown as feed for livestock. In the north of England and Scotland, the turnip is called neep; the word turnip itself is an old compound of neep. Neep often also refers to the larger, yellow rutabaga root vegetable which is also known as the "swede" (from "Swedish turnip"). The most common type is mostly white-skinned apart from the upper 1–6 centimeters, which protrude above the ground and are purple, red, or greenish wherever sunlight has fallen. This above-ground part develops from stem tissue, but is fused with the root. The interior flesh is entirely white. The entire root is roughly conical, but can be occasionally global, about 5–20 centimeters in diameter, and lacks side roots. The taproot (the normal root below the swollen storage root) is thin and 10 centimeters or more in length; it is trimmed off before marketing. The leaves grow directly from the above-ground shoulder of the root, with little or no visible crown or neck (as found in
    6.50
    2 votes
    180
    Yoghurt

    Yoghurt

    • Typically used in dishes: Tamil pachadi
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Yogurt or yoghurt (US /ˈjoʊɡərt/ or UK /ˈjɒɡərt/; other spellings listed below) is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures". Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and its characteristic tang. Worldwide, cow's milk is most commonly used to make yogurt, but milk from water buffalo, goats, ewes, mares, camels, and yaks is also used in various parts of the world. Dairy yogurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus bacteria. In addition, other lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are also sometimes added during or after culturing yogurt. By food law, some countries require a certain amount of colony forming units of microorganisms to allow sour milk be named as "yogurt", e.g., Swiss Food Law: Article 56 yogurt 2 The final product must contain a total of at least 10 million colony forming units of microorganisms under paragraph 1 or 1.2 per gram. The milk is first heated to about 80 °C (176 °F) to kill any undesirable bacteria and to denature the
    6.50
    2 votes
    181
    Bacon

    Bacon

    • Typically used in dishes: Eggs Benedict
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Pork
    Bacon is a cured meat prepared from a pig. It is first cured using large quantities of salt, either in a brine or in a dry packing; the result is fresh bacon (also known as green bacon). Fresh bacon may then be further dried for weeks or months in cold air, boiled, or smoked. Fresh and dried bacon is typically cooked before eating. Boiled bacon is ready to eat, as is some smoked bacon, but may be cooked further before eating. Bacon is prepared from several different cuts of meat. It is usually made from side and back cuts of pork, except in the United States, where it is almost always prepared from pork belly (typically referred to as "streaky", "fatty", or "American style" outside of the US and Canada). The side cut has more meat and less fat than the belly. Bacon may be prepared from either of two distinct back cuts: fatback, which is almost pure fat, and pork loin, which is very lean. Bacon-cured pork loin is known as back bacon. Bacon may be eaten smoked, boiled, fried, baked, or grilled, or used as a minor ingredient to flavor dishes. Bacon is also used for barding and larding roasts, especially game, e.g. venison, pheasant. The word is derived from the Old High German bacho,
    4.75
    4 votes
    182
    Lanterne

    Lanterne

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Lanterne (singular: lanterna) are a type of pasta. The name derives from the Italian for oil lanterns. Lanterne have deep ridges and are curved in a lantern shape.
    4.75
    4 votes
    183
    Mee pok

    Mee pok

    Mee pok is a type of Chinese noodle characterized by its flat and yellow appearance, varying in thickness and width. The dish is of Teochew origin and is commonly served in a number of countries such as Chaoshan (China), Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand. Mee Pok is commonly served tossed in a sauce (often referred to as "dry", or tah in Hokkien (Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ta)), though sometimes served in a soup (where it is referred to as "soup", or terng). Meat and vegetables are added on top. Mee pok can be categorised into two variants, fish ball mee pok (yu wan mee), and mushroom minced meat mee pok (bak chor mee). Bak chor mee is usually exclusively prepared using thin noodles ("mee kia"), while yu wan mee can be cooked with other noodle varieties. Mee pok is a staple commonly offered in hawker centres and coffee shops in Singapore, together with other Chinese noodle dishes. The sauce in which the noodles are tossed in is a very important aspect of the dish, and is considered a representation of the cook's skill and experience. The importance of the sauce in mee pok can be thought of similarly as the sauces that accompany pasta. The sauce consists of 4 components: chili, oil, vinegar and
    7.00
    1 votes
    184
    Mint

    Mint

    • Typically used in dishes: Larb
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Herb
    Mentha (also known as Mint, from Greek míntha, Linear B mi-ta) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae (mint family). The species are not clearly distinct and estimates of the number of species varies from 13 to 18. Hybridization between some of the species occurs naturally. Many other hybrids as well as numerous cultivars are known in cultivation. The genus has a subcosmopolitan distribution across Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, and North America. Mints are aromatic, almost exclusively perennial, rarely annual, herbs. They have wide-spreading underground and overground stolons and erect, square, branched stems. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, from oblong to lanceolate, often downy, and with a serrate margin. Leaf colors range from dark green and gray-green to purple, blue, and sometimes pale yellow. The flowers are white to purple and produced in false whorls called verticillasters. The corolla is two-lipped with four subequal lobes, the upper lobe usually the largest. The fruit is a small, dry capsule containing one to four seeds. While the species that make up the Mentha genus are widely distributed and can be found in many environments, most Mentha
    7.00
    1 votes
    185
    Pappardelle

    Pappardelle

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Pappardelle (sg.: pappardella) are large, very broad fettuccine. The name derives from the verb "pappare", to gobble up. The fresh types are two to three centimetres (¾-1 inch) wide and may have fluted edges. Dried egg pappardelle have straight sides.
    7.00
    1 votes
    186
    Shortening

    Shortening

    • Typically used in dishes: Pumpkin pie
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Shortening is any fat that is solid at room temperature and used to make crumbly pastry. The reason it is called shortening is that it prevents cross-linkage between gluten molecules. Cross linking gives dough elasticity. In pastries such as cake, which should not be elastic, shortening is used. Although butter is solid at room temperature and is frequently used in making pastry, the term "shortening" seldom refers to butter but is more closely related to margarine. Originally, shortening was synonymous with lard, and with the invention of margarine by French chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès in 1869, margarine also came to be included in the term. Since the invention of hydrogenated vegetable oil in the early 20th century, "shortening" has come almost exclusively to mean hydrogenated vegetable oil. Vegetable shortening shares many properties with lard: both are semi-solid fats with a higher smoke point than butter and margarine. They contain less water and are thus less prone to splattering, making them safer for frying. Lard and shortening have a higher fat content compared to about 80% for butter and margarine. Cake margarines and shortenings tend to contain a few percent of
    7.00
    1 votes
    187
    Tortellini

    Tortellini

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Tortellini are ring-shaped pasta, sometimes also described as "navel shaped", hence their alternative name of "belly button" (umbellico). They are typically stuffed with a mix of meat (pork loin, prosciutto) or cheese. Originally from the Italian region of Emilia (in particular Bologna and Modena), they are usually served in broth, either of beef, chicken, or both. Tortellini are now commonly found all around the world. Packed, refrigerated or frozen, tortellini and tortelloni (similar but larger and with vegetable stuffing) appear in many locations around the world, especially where there are large Italian communities. Tortellini and tortelloni are made in special industrial lines supplied all over the world by Italian companies such as Arienti & Cattaneo, Ima, Ostoni, Zamboni, etc.; "fresh" packed tortellini usually have 7 weeks of shelf-life. Similar foods in other cultures include uszka in Poland, the German Maultasche, Chinese wonton and jiaozi, and Turkish mantı. The origin of tortellini is obscure although many legends lay claim to the origins of it. A strong local tradition has it that this dish was born in Castelfranco Emilia (province of Modena). One night during a trip,
    7.00
    1 votes
    188
    Winter squash

    Winter squash

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Winter squash is a summer-growing annual vegetable, representing several species within the genus Cucurbita. It differs from summer squash in that it is harvested and eaten in the mature fruit stage, when the seeds within have matured fully and the skin has hardened into a tough rind. At this stage, most varieties of this fruit can be stored for use during the winter. It is generally cooked before eating. Because squash is a frost-tender vegetable, the seeds do not germinate in cold soil. Most squash seed require a minimum soil temperature of 15 °C to germinate. They are also easily destroyed by frost, thus they are planted after the soil is thoroughly warmed and all sign of frost has passed. Winter squash can be harvested whenever the fruits have turned a deep, solid color and the skin is hard. Most of the crop is harvested in September or October (Northern Hemisphere), before heavy frosts hit the planting area. When cutting squash from the vine, two inches of stem should remain attached if possible. Cuts and bruises should be avoided when handling. Fruits that are not fully mature, have been injured, have had their stems knocked off, or have been subjected to heavy frost do not
    7.00
    1 votes
    189
    Zucchini

    Zucchini

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Vegetable
    The zucchini or courgette is a summer squash which can reach nearly a meter in length, but which is usually harvested at half that size or less. Along with certain other squashes, it belongs to the species Cucurbita pepo. Zucchini can be dark or light green. A related hybrid, the golden zucchini, is a deep yellow or orange color. In a culinary context, the zucchini is treated as a vegetable, which means it is usually cooked and presented as a savory dish or accompaniment. Botanically, however, the zucchini is an immature fruit, being the swollen ovary of the zucchini flower. In North America, Australia, Germany and Scandinavia the plant is commonly called a zucchini (/zuːˈkiːni/; plural: zucchini or zucchinis; from Italian: zucchino [d͡zukˈkiːno], plural: zucchini). This derives from the prevalent name in Italy, zucchina (small pumpkin). The name courgette (French pronunciation: [kuʁ.ʒɛt]) is a French loan word and is commonly used in, among others, Great Britain, Ireland, New Zealand and South Africa. In South Africa the fruit is typically harvested as a baby vegetable, approximately finger size, and referred to as baby marrows. The female flower is a golden blossom on the end of
    7.00
    1 votes
    190
    Elbow macaroni

    Elbow macaroni

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Elbow macaroni is a term for pasta in the shape of a small tube curved into a semicircular shape. (See also macaroni.) Its name comes from the similarity of its shape to that of a bent elbow. Elbow macaroni is commonly used in macaroni and cheese and other dishes. Elbow macaroni is produced by extruding dough through a circular die with a pin or disk in the center that forms the tunnel. The geometry of the die forces more dough through one side of the circle than the other, forming the characteristic curve. The images show front and rear views of an elbow macaroni die which extrudes five pieces at once. In this die, more dough is directed to the outside of the circles than the inside, and the extruded macaroni curls inward.
    5.33
    3 votes
    191
    Tarragon

    Tarragon

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Tarragon, dragon's-wort, French tarragon, Russian tarragon, silky wormwood, or wild tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) is a perennial herb in the family Asteraceae related to wormwood. Corresponding to its species name, a common term for the plant is "dragon herb". It is native to a wide area of the Northern Hemisphere from easternmost Europe across central and eastern Asia to India, western North America, and south to northern Mexico. The North American populations may, however, be naturalized from early human introduction. Tarragon grows to 120–150 cm tall, with slender branched stems. The leaves are lanceolate, 2–8 cm long and 2–10 mm broad, glossy green, with an entire margin. The flowers are produced in small capitulae 2–4 mm diameter, each capitulum containing up to 40 yellow or greenish-yellow florets. (French tarragon, however, seldom produces flowers.) French tarragon is the variety generally considered best for the kitchen, but is difficult to grow from seed. It is best cultivated by root division. It is normally purchased as a plant, and some care must be taken to ensure that true French tarragon is purchased. A perennial, it normally goes dormant in winter. It likes a
    5.33
    3 votes
    192
    Beet

    Beet

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    The beet (Beta vulgaris) is a plant in the Chenopodiaceae family which is now included in Amaranthaceae family. It is best known in its numerous cultivated varieties, the most well known of which is the root vegetable known as the beetroot or garden beet. However, other cultivated varieties include the leaf vegetables chard and spinach beet, as well as the root vegetables sugar beet, which is important in the production of table sugar, and mangelwurzel, which is a fodder crop. Three subspecies are typically recognised. All cultivated varieties fall into the subspecies Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, while Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, commonly known as the sea beet, is the wild ancestor of these, and is found throughout the Mediterranean, the Atlantic coast of Europe, the Near East, and India. A second wild subspecies, Beta vulgaris subsp. adanensis, occurs from Greece to Syria. The roots are most commonly deep red-purple in color, but come in a wide variety of other shades, including golden yellow and red-and-white striped. Beta vulgaris is a herbaceous biennial or, rarely, perennial plant with leafy stems growing to 1–2 m tall. The leaves are heart-shaped, 5–20 cm long on wild
    6.00
    2 votes
    193
    Broccoflower

    Broccoflower

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Broccoflower refers to either of two edible plants of the species Brassica oleracea with light green heads. The edible portion is the immature flower head (inflorescence) of the plant. There are two forms of Brassica oleracea that may be referred to as broccoflower, both of which are considered cultivars of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) because they have inflorescence meristems rather than flower buds when harvested. One is shaped like regular cauliflower, the other has a spiky appearance. They share a curd color that is a similar hue to that of broccoli. The first form of broccoflower has the physical attributes of a white cauliflower, but the curd color is lime-green. There are several cultivars of green cauliflower on the market, with the first release being 'Green Ball' with parentage of both broccoli and cauliflower. The California firm, Tanimura & Antle, trademarked the word "Broccoflower" for the green cauliflower they market. The second form is Romanesco broccoli, which is characterised by the striking and unusual fractal patterns of its flower head. It has a yellow or vibrant green curd color. Broccoli and cauliflower are closely related and fully cross
    6.00
    2 votes
    194
    Brussels sprout

    Brussels sprout

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    The Brussels sprout is a cultivar in the Gemmifera group of cabbages (Brassica oleracea), grown for its edible buds. The leafy green vegetables are typically 2.5–4 cm (0.98–1.6 in) in diameter and look like miniature cabbages. The Brussels sprout has long been popular in Brussels, Belgium and may have originated there. Forerunners to modern Brussels sprouts were likely cultivated in ancient Rome. Brussels sprouts as we now know them were grown possibly as early as the 13th century in what is now Belgium. The first written reference dates to 1587. During the 16th century, they enjoyed a popularity in the southern Netherlands that eventually spread throughout the cooler parts of Northern Europe. Brussels sprouts grow in heat ranges of 7–24 °C (45–75 °F), with highest yields at 15–18 °C (59–64 °F). Fields are ready for harvest 90 to 180 days after planting. The edible sprouts grow like buds in helical patterns along the side of long thick stalks of approximately 60 to 120 cm (24 to 47 in) in height, maturing over several weeks from the lower to the upper part of the stalk. Sprouts may be picked by hand into baskets, in which case several harvests are made of 5 to 15 sprouts at a time
    6.00
    2 votes
    195
    Radicchio

    Radicchio

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Radicchio (pronounced ra-dee-kyoh) is a leaf chicory (Cichorium intybus, Asteraceae), sometimes known as Italian chicory and is a perennial. It is grown as a leaf vegetable which usually has white-veined red leaves. It has a bitter and spicy taste, which mellows when it is grilled or roasted. Humans have been using radicchio since ancient times. Pliny the Elder wrote of it in Naturalis Historia, praising its medicinal properties; he claimed it was useful as a blood purifier and an aid for insomniacs. In fact, radicchio contains intybin, a sedative/analgesic, as well as a type of flavonoid called anthocyanin which is used for making dye-sensitized solar cells. Modern cultivation of the plant began in the fifteenth century, in the Veneto and Trentino regions of Italy, but the deep-red radicchio of today was engineered in 1860 by the Belgian agronomist Francesco Van den Borre, who used a technique called imbianchimento (whitening), preforcing, or blanching to create the dark red, white-veined leaves. Radicchio plants are taken from the ground and placed in water in darkened sheds, where lack of light and ensuing inhibition of chlorophyll production cause the plants to lose their green
    6.00
    2 votes
    196
    Thyme

    Thyme

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Herb
    Thyme ( /ˈtaɪm/) is any of several species of culinary and medicinal herbs of the genus Thymus, most commonly Thymus vulgaris. Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing it was a source of courage. The spread of thyme throughout Europe was thought to be due to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs". In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares. In this period, women would also often give knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves, as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was also used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals, as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life. Thyme is best cultivated in a hot, sunny location with well-drained soil. It is generally planted in the spring, and thereafter grows as a perennial. It can be propagated by seed, cuttings, or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. It tolerates drought well. The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. Along the
    6.00
    2 votes
    197
    Worcestershire sauce

    Worcestershire sauce

    • Typically used in dishes: Caesar
    • More general ingredient: Sauce
    Worcestershire sauce (/ˈwʊstərʃər/ WUUS-tər-shər), or sometimes known as Worcester sauce ( /ˈwʊstər/ WUUS-tər), is a fermented liquid condiment, primarily used to flavour meat or fish dishes. First made at 60 Broad Street, Worcester, England, by two dispensing chemists, John Wheeley Lea and William Henry Perrins, the Lea & Perrins brand was commercialised in 1837 and has been produced in the current Midlands Road factory in Worcester since 16 October 1897. It was purchased by H.J. Heinz Company in 2005 who continue to manufacture and market "The Original Lea & Perrins Worcestershire Sauce", under the name Lea & Perrins, as well as Worcestershire sauce under their own name and labelling. Other companies manufacture similar products, often also called Worcestershire sauce and marketed under different brand or private label names. Additionally, in recent years recipes have begun appearing for homemade variations of the British version. Worcestershire sauce is often an ingredient in Welsh rarebit, Caesar salad, Oysters Kirkpatrick, and sometimes added to chili con carne, beef stew, hamburgers, and other beef dishes. Worcestershire sauce is also used to flavour cocktails such as a
    6.00
    2 votes
    198
    Kohlrabi

    Kohlrabi

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Kohlrabi (German turnip) (Brassica oleracea Gongylodes group) is a perennial vegetable, and is a low, stout cultivar of cabbage. The name comes from the German Kohl ("cabbage") plus Rübe ~ Rabi (Swiss German variant) ("turnip"), because the swollen stem resembles the latter, hence its Austrian name Kohlrübe. Kohlrabi is a very commonly eaten vegetable in German speaking countries. Kohlrabi has been created by artificial selection for lateral meristem growth (a swollen, nearly spherical shape); its origin in nature is the same as that of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, collard greens, and Brussels sprouts: they are all bred from, and are the same species as the wild cabbage plant (Brassica oleracea). The taste and texture of kohlrabi are similar to those of a broccoli stem or cabbage heart, but milder and sweeter, with a higher ratio of flesh to skin. The young stem in particular can be as crisp and juicy as an apple, although much less sweet. Except for the Gigante cultivar, spring-grown kohlrabi much over 5 cm in size tend to be woody, as do full-grown kohlrabi much over perhaps 10 cm in size; the Gigante cultivar can achieve great size while remaining of good eating
    5.00
    3 votes
    199
    Chorizo

    Chorizo

    • Typically used in dishes: Boliche
    Chorizo (Spanish: [tʃoˈɾiθo], Asturian: chorizu [tʃoˈɾiθu]; Basque: txorizo [tʃoˈɾis̻o]; Galician: chourizo [tʃowˈɾiθo]; Portuguese: chouriço [ʃoˈɾisu]; Catalan: xoriço [ʃuˈɾisu]) is a term encompassing several types of pork sausages originating from the Iberian Peninsula. In English, chorizo is usually pronounced /tʃɵˈriːθoʊ/, /tʃɵˈriːzoʊ/, or /tʃɵˈriːsoʊ/, but sometimes /tʃɵˈriːtsoʊ/. Chorizo can be a fresh sausage, in which case it must be cooked before eating. In Europe, it is more frequently a fermented, cured, smoked sausage, in which case it is usually sliced and eaten without cooking. Spanish chorizo and Portuguese chouriço get their distinctive smokiness and deep red color from dried smoked red peppers (pimentón/pimentão or colorau). Due to culinary tradition, and the expense of imported Spanish smoked paprika, Mexican chorizo (but not throughout Latin America) is usually made with chili peppers, which are used abundantly in Mexican cuisine. In Latin America, vinegar also tends to be used instead of the white wine usually used in Spain. Traditionally, chorizo is encased in natural casings made from intestines, a method used since the Roman times. Chorizo can be eaten as is
    5.50
    2 votes
    200
    Clove

    Clove

    • Typically used in dishes: Mulled wine
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Spice
    Cloves are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. Cloves are native to the Maluku islands in Indonesia and used as a spice in cuisines all over the world. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia, India, Madagascar, Zanzibar, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. They have a numbing effect on mouth tissues. The clove tree is an evergreen that grows to a height ranging from 8–12 m, having large leaves and sanguine flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green, after which they develop into a bright red, when they are ready for collecting. Cloves are harvested when 1.5–2 cm long, and consist of a long calyx, terminating in four spreading sepals, and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the center. The scientific name of clove is Syzygium aromaticum. It belongs to the genus Syzygium, tribe Syzygieae, and subfamily Myrtoideae of the family Myrtaceae. It is classified in the order of Myrtales, which belong to superorder Rosids, under Eudicots of Dicotyledonae. Clove is an Angiospermic plant and belongs to division of Magnoliophyta in the kingdom Plantae. The English name derives from
    5.50
    2 votes
    201
    Date Palm

    Date Palm

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its place of origin is unknown because of long cultivation, it probably originated from lands around the Persian Gulf. It is a medium-sized plant, 15–25 m tall, growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. The leaves are 4–6 m long, with spines on the petiole, and pinnate, with about 150 leaflets; the leaflets are 30 cm long and 2 cm wide. The full span of the crown ranges from 6 to 10 m. Dates contain 20-70 calories each, depending on size and species. The species name dactylifera "date-bearing" comes from Ancient Greek dáktulos "date" (also "finger") and the stem of the Latin verb ferō "I bear". Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East and parts of South Asia for thousands of years. They are believed to have originated around the Persian Gulf, and have been cultivated since ancient times from Mesopotamia to prehistoric Egypt, possibly as early as 4000 BCE. The Ancient Egyptians used the fruits to be made into date wine, and ate them at harvest. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in eastern Arabia in 6000
    5.50
    2 votes
    202
    Fregula

    Fregula

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Fregula (also fregola) is a type of pasta from Sardinia. It is similar to Israeli couscous. Fregula comes in varying sizes, but typically consists of semolina dough that has been rolled into balls 2-3 mm in diameter and toasted in an oven. A typical preparation of fregula is to simmer it in a tomato-based sauce with clams.
    5.50
    2 votes
    203
    Ground beef

    Ground beef

    • Typically used in dishes: Hamburger
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Beef
    Beef mince, ground beef, hamburger meat (in North America), hamburg (in New England) or minced meat (elsewhere) is a minced meat food, made of beef finely chopped by a meat grinder. It is used in many recipes including hamburgers and cottage pie. In some parts of the world a meat grinder is sometimes called a mincer. In many countries, food laws define specific categories of beef mince and what they can contain. For example, in the United States, beef fat may be added to hamburger, but not to ground beef if the meat is ground and packaged at a USDA-inspected plant. A maximum of 30% fat by weight is allowed in either hamburger or ground beef. Both hamburger and ground beef can have seasonings, but no water, phosphates, extenders, or binders added. Ground beef is often marketed in a range of different fat contents, to match the preferences of different customers. Beef mince is usually made from leaner, tougher and less desirable beef created when the sides of beef are carved into steaks and roasts. About 17-18% of US ground beef comes from dairy cows. In a study in the USA in 2008, eight different brands of fast food hamburgers were evaluated for water content by weight and
    5.50
    2 votes
    204
    Lamian

    Lamian

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Lamian is a type of Chinese noodle. Lamian is made by stretching and folding the dough into strands. However, the twisting and subsequent stretching of the strips of dough happens due to the weight of the dough. Depending on the number of times the dough gets folded, the strands can be made in various lengths and thicknesses. This unique method of making noodles originated in China. The Songshi yangsheng bu (宋氏養生部), which was written by Song Xu and dates back to 1504, has the earliest description of the method to make lamian. Dishes using lamian are usually served in a beef or mutton-flavored soup called tāngmiàn (湯麵), but sometimes stir-fried and served with a tomato-based sauce, this dish being called chǎomiàn (炒麵). Literally, 拉 (lā) means to pull or stretch, while 麵 (miàn) means noodle. The hand-making process involves taking a lump of dough and repeatedly stretching it to produce many strands of thin, long noodle. There are several styles of twisting the dough but they all employ the same concept: a piece of dough is repeatedly stretched and folded onto itself in order to align the glutens and warm up the dough for stretching. Then it is rolled out to a workable thickness and
    4.67
    3 votes
    205
    Nutmeg

    Nutmeg

    • Typically used in dishes: Pumpkin pie
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Spice
    The nutmeg tree is any of several species of trees in genus Myristica. The most important commercial species is Myristica fragrans, an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas (or Spice Islands) of Indonesia. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit: nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg is the seed of the tree, roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0.8 to 1.2 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0.6 to 0.7 in) wide, and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0.2 and 0.4 oz) dried, while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or aril of the seed. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7–9 years after planting, and the trees reach full production after 20 years. Nutmeg is usually used in powdered form. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees, including essential oils, extracted oleoresins, and nutmeg butter (see below). The common or fragrant nutmeg, Myristica fragrans, native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia, is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean, especially in Grenada. It also grows in Kerala, a state in southern India. Other
    4.67
    3 votes
    206
    Dried fruit

    Dried fruit

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Dried fruit is fruit where the majority of the original water content has been removed either naturally, through sun drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia, and is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value, and long shelf life. Today, dried fruit consumption is widespread. Nearly half of the dried fruits sold are raisins, followed by dates, prunes (dried plums), figs, apricots, peaches, apples and pears. These are referred to as “conventional” or “traditional” dried fruits: fruits that have been dried in the sun or in heated wind tunnel dryers. Many fruits such as cranberries, blueberries, cherries, strawberries and mangoes are infused with a sweetener (e.g. sucrose syrup) prior to drying. Some products sold as dried fruit, like papaya and pineapples are actually candied fruit. Dried fruits retain most of the nutritional value of fresh fruits. The specific nutrient content of the different dried fruits reflect their fresh counterpart and the processing method. In general, all dried fruits provide essential nutrients and an array of health protective
    6.00
    1 votes
    207
    Sambal

    Sambal

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Sambal is a chili-based sauce that is usually used as a condiment. Sambals are popular in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the southern Philippines, and Sri Lanka, as well as in the Netherlands and in Suriname, through Javanese influence. Typically made from a variety of chili peppers, it is sometimes a substitute for fresh chilis and can be extremely spicy for the uninitiated. Some ready-made sambals are available at exotic food markets or gourmet departments in supermarkets in many countries. Sambal is a Javanese origin loan-word (sambel) of Indonesian. The most common kinds of peppers used in sambal are: In the Indonesian archipelago, there are as many 300 varieties of sambal. The intensity ranges from mild to very hot. Some of the popular varieties include: Sambal can also be used as an ingredient to a dish, which uses a large amount of chili peppers. Dishes bearing the word sambal include:
    6.00
    1 votes
    208
    Croxetti

    Croxetti

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Croxetti is a type of pasta consisting of flat medallion or coin-shaped pasta disks stamped by hand or machine with intricate patterns. Croxetti originated in Liguria, in Northern Italy along the border with France, during the middle ages. In the past they were made by local peasants and used by aristocratic families as a display of wealth and status. They are similar ton another Ligurian pasta called Corzetti. Croxetti are still produced in small batches near Genoa. They are stamped and cut into circles approximately 1.75 inches (4+ cm) in diameter from flat pasta sheets with a mold to create the distinctive patterns. The combination mold/cutter may be made of hand-carved wood or a bronze die. The stamping may be done by hand or by machine, with the hand-stamped versions being more elaborate. The detail forms ridges that allow sauce to cling and add flavor. The pasta typically has patterns on both sides, with an intricate design on one side and a simpler pattern on the other. Whereas they once featured a family coat of arms, the fancier side now features a regional coat of arms or the maker's trademark. Typical symbols on the other side are a cross (from which the name croxetti
    4.33
    3 votes
    209
    Biscuit

    Biscuit

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    A biscuit ( /ˈbɪskɨt/) is a baked, commonly flour-based food product. The term is applied to two distinctly different products in North America and the Commonwealth Nations and Europe. The modern-day confusion in the English language around the word "biscuit" is created by its etymology. The Middle French word bescuit is derived from the Latin words bis (twice) and coquere, coctus (to cook, cooked), and, hence, means "twice-cooked". This is because biscuits were originally cooked in a twofold process: first baked, and then dried out in a slow oven. This term was then adapted into English in the 14th century during the Middle Ages, in the Middle English word bisquite, to represent a hard, twice-baked product. However, the Dutch language from around 1703 had adopted the word koekje, a language diminutive of cake, to have a similar meaning for a similar hard, baked product. This may be related to the Russian or Ukrainian translation, where "biscuit" has come to mean "sponge cake". The difference between the secondary Dutch word and that of Latin origin is that, whereas the koekje is a cake that rises during baking, the biscuit, which has no raising agent, in general does not (see
    5.00
    2 votes
    210
    Cream

    Cream

    • Typically used in dishes: Trifle
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Cream is a dairy product that is composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, over time, the lighter fat rises to the top. In the industrial production of cream this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called "separators". In many countries, cream is sold in several grades depending on the total butterfat content. Cream can be dried to a powder for shipment to distant markets. Cream skimmed from milk may be called "sweet cream" to distinguish it from whey cream skimmed from whey, a by-product of cheese-making. Whey cream has a lower fat content and tastes more salty, tangy and "cheesy". Cream produced by cattle (particularly Jersey cattle) grazing on natural pasture often contains some natural carotenoid pigments derived from the plants they eat; this gives the cream a slight yellow tone, hence the name of the yellowish-white color, cream. Cream from goat's milk, or from cows fed indoors on grain or grain-based pellets, is white. Different grades of cream are distinguished by their fat content, whether they have been heat-treated, whipped, and so on. In many jurisdictions there are regulations for each
    5.00
    2 votes
    211
    Curd

    Curd

    • Typically used in dishes: Tamil pachadi
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Curds are a dairy product obtained by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar, and then draining off the liquid portion. The increased acidity causes the milk proteins (casein) to tangle into solid masses, or curds. The remaining liquid, which contains only whey proteins, is the whey. In cow's milk, 80% of the proteins are caseins. Milk that has been left to sour (raw milk alone or pasteurized milk with added lactic acid bacteria or yeast) will also naturally produce curds, and sour milk cheese is produced this way. Curd products vary by region and include cottage cheese, quark (both curdled by bacteria and sometimes also rennet) and Indian paneer (milk curdled with lime juice). The word can also refer to a non-dairy substance of similar appearance or consistency, though in these cases a modifier or the word curdled is generally used. In England, curds produced from the use of rennet are referred to as junket, with true curds and whey only occurring from the natural separation of milk due to its environment (temperature, acidity). In Asia, curds are essentially a vegetarian preparation using yeast to ferment the milk. In
    5.00
    2 votes
    212
    Ugli fruit

    Ugli fruit

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    UGLI is the trademark of Cabel Hall Citrus Limited and under which it sells its Jamaican tangelo, a citrus fruit created by hybridizing a grapefruit (or pomelo), an orange and a tangerine. Its species is Citrus reticulata × Citrus paradisi. It was discovered growing wild (possibly having developed in the same way grapefruit was created) in Jamaica where it is mainly grown today. It has an unsightly appearance with rough, wrinkled, greenish-yellow rind, wrapped loosely around the orange pulpy citrus inside. The light green surface blemishes turn orange when the fruit is at its peak ripeness. A tangelo fruit is usually slightly larger than a grapefruit (but this varies) and has fewer seeds. The flesh is very juicy and tends towards the sweet side of the tangerine rather than the bitter side of its grapefruit lineage, with a fragrant rind. The taste is often described as more sour than an orange and less bitter than a tangerine, however, and is more commonly guessed to be a lemon-tangerine hybrid. The fruit is seasonal from December to April. It is distributed in the United States and Europe between November and April, and is on occasion available from July to September.
    5.00
    2 votes
    213
    Watercress

    Watercress

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Watercresses (Nasturtium officinale, N. microphyllum; formerly Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum, R. microphylla) are fast-growing, aquatic or semi-aquatic, perennial plants native to Europe and Asia, and one of the oldest known leaf vegetables consumed by humans. They are members of the family Brassicaceae, botanically related to garden cress, mustard and radish — all noteworthy for a peppery, tangy flavour. The hollow stems of watercress are floating, and the leaves are pinnately compound. Small, white and green flowers are produced in clusters. Nasturtium nasturtium-aquaticum (nomenclaturally invalid) and Sisymbrium nasturtium-aquaticum L. are synonyms of N. officinale. Nasturtium officinale var microphyllum (Boenn. ex Reich.) Thellung is a synonym of N. microphyllum (ITIS, 2004). These species are also listed in some sources as belonging to the genus Rorippa, although molecular evidence shows the aquatic species with hollow stems are more closely related to Cardamine than Rorippa. Despite their latin name, watercresses are not closely related to the flowers popularly known as nasturtiums (Tropaeolum majus). Cultivation of watercress is practical on both a large scale and a garden
    5.00
    2 votes
    214
    Butter

    Butter

    • Typically used in dishes: Quiche
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Butter is a dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk. It is generally used as a spread and a condiment, as well as in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, and pan frying. Butter consists of butterfat, milk proteins and water. Most frequently made from cows' milk, butter can also be manufactured from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats, buffalo, and yaks. Salt, flavorings and preservatives are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter produces clarified butter or ghee, which is almost entirely butterfat. Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion resulting from an inversion of the cream, an oil-in-water emulsion; the milk proteins are the emulsifiers. Butter remains a solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, and melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32–35 °C (90–95 °F). The density of butter is 911 g/L (56.9 lb/ft). It generally has a pale yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white. Its unmodified color is dependent on the animals' feed and is commonly manipulated with food colorings in the commercial manufacturing process, most commonly annatto or carotene. The word butter derives (via
    4.50
    2 votes
    215
    Penne

    Penne

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Penne (English pronunciation: /ˈpɛneɪ/) is a type of pasta with cylinder-shaped pieces. Penne is the plural form of the Italian penna, deriving from Latin penna (meaning "feather" or "quill"), and is a cognate of the English word pen. In Italy, penne are produced in two main variants: "penne lisce" (smooth) and "penne rigate" (furrowed), the latter having ridges on each penna. There is also pennoni ("big quills"), which is a wider version of penne. The same or similar shape, usually slightly larger, is also called mostaccioli (meaning "little mustache" in Italian; it can also be either smooth or ridged in texture) Penne is traditionally cooked al dente and served with pasta sauces such as pesto and marinara. Penne is a popular ingredient in pasta salads. Penne makes an excellent and versatile pasta for many applications because of its very practical design. The hollow center allows it to hold sauce, while the angular ends act as scoops. Penne rigate's ridges allow it to hold still more sauce, as well as offering an alternative textural option for certain dishes; penne lisce offers a refined sensation to the palate.
    4.50
    2 votes
    216
    Pizzoccheri

    Pizzoccheri

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Pizzoccheri are a type of short tagliatelle, a flat ribbon pasta, made with 80% buckwheat flour and 20% wheat flour. When classically prepared in Valtellina or in Graubünden, they are cooked along with greens (often Swiss Chard but also Savoy cabbage), and cubed potatoes. This mixture is layered with pieces of Valtellina Casera cheese and ground Grana Padano or Parmigiano Reggiano, and dressed with garlic and sage that are lightly fried in butter together. Pizzoccheri can be easily made by hand. They can also be found pre-made. Two pizzoccheri fairs (or sagre) take place in Teglio: La Sagra dei Pizzoccheri, celebrated in July and the festival of The Golden Pizzocchero, celebrated in September. The Pizzoccheri bianchi of the area around Chiavenna are quite distinct, being a form of gnocchetti, often made from white wheatflour and dry bread.
    4.50
    2 votes
    217
    Alphabets

    Alphabets

    • Typically used in dishes: Alphabet soup
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Alphabet pasta, also referred to as Alfabeto or Alphabetti Spaghetti, is pasta that has been mechanically cut or pressed into the letters of an alphabet. It is often served in an alphabet soup, sold in a canned, condensed broth. Another variation, Alphaghetti, consists of letter-shaped pasta in a marinara or spaghetti sauce. One common American brand of condensed-style alphabet soup is Campbell's. This soup, like its competitors', is marketed towards parents for its educational value. A similar product, Alphabetti Spaghetti, was sold by the H. J. Heinz Company for 60 years before being discontinued in 1990. Like Campbell's alphabet soup, it contains alphabet pasta canned in tomato sauce, but no cheese. It was later reintroduced by Heinz in 2005.
    5.00
    1 votes
    218
    Apple

    Apple

    • Typically used in dishes: Apple crisp
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family (Rosaceae). It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits, and the most widely known of the many members of genus Malus that are used by humans. Apples grow on small, deciduous trees. The tree originated in Western Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe, and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have been present in the mythology and religions of many cultures, including Norse, Greek and Christian traditions. In 2010, the fruit's genome was decoded, leading to new understandings of disease control and selective breeding in apple production. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and uses, including in cooking, fresh eating and cider production. Domestic apples are generally propagated by grafting, although wild apples grow readily from seed. Trees are prone to a number of fungal, bacterial and pest problems, which can be controlled by a number of organic and
    5.00
    1 votes
    219
    Cellophane noodles

    Cellophane noodles

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Cellophane noodles (also known as Chinese vermicelli, bean threads, bean thread noodles, crystal noodles, or glass noodles) are a type of transparent noodle made from starch (such as mung bean starch, yam, potato starch, cassava or canna starch), and water. They are generally sold in dried form, boiled to reconstitute, then used in soups, stir fried dishes, or spring rolls. They are called "cellophane noodles" or "glass noodles" because of their appearance when cooked, resembling cellophane, a clear material or a translucent light gray or brownish-gray color. Cellophane noodles are generally round, and are available in various thicknesses. Wide, flat cellophane noodle sheets called mung bean sheets are also produced in China. Cellophane noodles should not be confused with rice vermicelli, which are made from rice and are white in color rather than clear (after cooking in water). In Chinese, the most commonly used names are: They are also marketed under the name saifun, the Cantonese pronunciation of the Mandarin xì fěn (Chinese: 細粉; literally "slender powder"), though the name fan2 si1 (粉絲) is the term most often used in Cantonese. While by itself the character fěn (Chinese: 粉)
    5.00
    1 votes
    220
    Galangal

    Galangal

    • Typically used in dishes: Tom kha gai
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Galangal (galanga, blue ginger, laos) is a rhizome of plants in the ginger family Zingiberaceae, with culinary and medicinal uses originating in Indonesia. (Lao: ຂ່າ "kha"; Thai: ข่า "kha" IPA: [kʰɑː]; Indonesian/Malay: lengkuas (Alpinia galanga); Mandarin: 南薑 or 高良薑 (traditional), 南姜 or 高良姜(simplified), nán jiāng or gāo liáng jiāng (Pinyin) IPA: [nan˧˥ tɕjaŋ˥] or IPA: [kaʊ˥ ljaŋ˧˥ tɕjaŋ˥]; Cantonese: 藍薑 laam4 goeng1 (Jyutping) IPA: [lɑm˩ kœŋ˥]; Vietnamese: riềng IPA: [ziəŋ˨˩]) [For Lao and Indonesian/Malay, IPA please?]. The rhizomes are used in various Asian cuisines (for example in Thai and Lao tom yum and tom kha gai soups, Vietnamese Huế cuisine (tre) and throughout Indonesian cuisine, for example, in soto). Though it is related to and resembles ginger, there is little similarity in taste. In its raw form, galangals have a stronger taste than common ginger. They are available as a whole rhizome, cut or powdered. The whole fresh rhizome is very hard, and slicing it requires a sharp knife. A mixture of galangal and lime juice is used as a tonic in parts of Southeast Asia. In the Indonesian language, the greater galangal and lesser galangal are both called lengkuas or laos, while
    5.00
    1 votes
    221
    Juniper

    Juniper

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus ( /dʒuːˈnɪpərəs/) of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, there are between 50-67 species of juniper, widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, from the Arctic, south to tropical Africa in the Old World, and to the mountains of Central America. Junipers vary in size and shape from tall trees, 20–40 m tall, to columnar or low spreading shrubs with long trailing branches. They are evergreen with needle-like and/or scale-like leaves. They can be either monoecious or dioecious. The female seed cones are very distinctive, with fleshy, fruit-like coalescing scales which fuse together to form a "berry"-like structure, 4–27 mm long, with 1-12 unwinged, hard-shelled seeds. In some species these "berries" are red-brown or orange but in most they are blue; they are often aromatic and can be used as a spice. The seed maturation time varies between species from 6–18 months after pollination. The male cones are similar to those of other Cupressaceae, with 6-20 scales; most shed their pollen in early spring, but some species pollinate in the autumn. Many junipers (e.g. J. chinensis, J. virginiana)
    5.00
    1 votes
    222
    Lovage

    Lovage

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Lovage /ˈlʌvɨdʒ/ (Levisticum officinale) is a tall perennial plant, the sole species in the genus Levisticum, in the family Apiaceae, subfamily Apioideae, tribe Apieae. The exact native range is disputed; some sources cite it as native to much of Europe and southwestern Asia, others from only the eastern Mediterranean region in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia, and yet others only to southwestern Asia in Iran and Afghanistan, citing European populations as naturalised. It has been long cultivated in Europe, the leaves being used as a herb, the roots as a vegetable, and the seeds as a spice, especially in southern European cuisine. Lovage is an erect, herbaceous, perennial plant growing to 1.8–2.5 m tall, with a basal rosette of leaves and stems with further leaves, the flowers being produced in umbels at the top of the stems. The stems and leaves are shiny glabrous green to yellow-green. The larger basal leaves are up to 70 cm long, tripinnate, with broad triangular to rhomboidal, acutely pointed leaflets with a few marginal teeth; the stem leaves are smaller, and less divided with few leaflets. The flowers are yellow to greenish-yellow, 2–3 mm diameter, produced in
    5.00
    1 votes
    223
    Spätzle

    Spätzle

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Spätzle [ˈʃpɛtslə] ( listen) (Swabian diminutive of Spatz, thus literally "little sparrow", also Spätzli or Chnöpfli in Switzerland or Knöpfle or Hungarian nokedli or galuska) are a type of egg noodle of soft texture found in the cuisines of southern Germany and of Austria, Switzerland, Hungary, Alsace and South Tyrol. The geographic origin of spätzle is not precisely known; various regions claim to be the originators of this noodle. Written mention of Spätzle has been found in documents dating from 1725, although medieval illustrations are believed to place this noodle at an even earlier date. Noodles more generally have a history extending back 4,000 years (see Noodle and Pasta). Today, in Europe spätzle are largely considered a "Swabian speciality" and are generally associated with the German state of Baden-Württemberg. The total estimated annual commercial production of spätzle in Germany is approximately 40,000 tons. The leading German producer, Herrmann, which once produced 13,000 tons per year, ceased production as of 24 March 2012 , following a 50% reduction in demand. Pre-made spätzle are also available internationally from companies such as Maggi, a division of
    5.00
    1 votes
    224
    Blue crab

    Blue crab

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Callinectes sapidus (from the Greek calli- = "beautiful", nectes = "swimmer", and Latin sapidus = "savory"), the Chesapeake blue crab or Atlantic blue crab or simply blue crab, is a species of crab native to the waters of the western Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific coast of Central America and the Gulf of Mexico, and introduced internationally. C. sapidus is of significant culinary and economic importance in the United States, particularly in the Chesapeake Bay. It is the Maryland state crustacean and the subject of an extensive fishery. On the Pacific coast of Central America it is largely ignored as a food source as picking the meat is considered too difficult. Callinectes sapidus may grow to a carapace width of 230 mm (9.1 in). It can be distinguished from a related species that occurs in the same area by the number of frontal teeth on the carapace; C. sapidus has four, while C. ornatus has six. Male and females of C. sapidus can be distinguished by the sexual dimorphism in the shape of the abdomen (known as the "apron"). It is long and slender in males, but wide and rounded in mature females; one popular mnemonic is that the male's is shaped like the Washington Monument, while the
    4.00
    1 votes
    225
    Leek

    Leek

    • Typically used in dishes: Glamorgan sausage
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    The leek, Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum (L.), also sometimes known as Allium porrum, is a vegetable which belongs, along with the onion and garlic, to family Amaryllidaceae, subfamily Allioideae. Two related vegetables, the elephant garlic and kurrat, are also variant subspecies of Allium ampeloprasum, although different in their uses as food. The edible part of the leek plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths which is sometimes erroneously called a stem or stalk. Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion, the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths which are generally blanched by pushing soil around them (trenching). They are often sold as small seedlings in flats which are started off early in greenhouses, to be planted out as weather permits. Once established in the garden, leeks are hardy; many varieties can be left in the ground during the winter to be harvested as needed. Leek cultivars can be subdivided in several ways, but the most common types are "summer leeks", intended for harvest in the season when planted, and overwintering leeks, meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. Summer leek types are generally smaller than
    4.00
    1 votes
    226
    Salad Burnet

    Salad Burnet

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Sanguisorba minor (Salad burnet, Garden burnet, Small burnet, burnet) is a plant in the family Rosaceae that is native to western, central and southern Europe; northwest Africa and southwest Western Asia; and which has naturalized in most of North America. It is a perennial herbaceous plant growing to 40-90 cm tall, typically found in dry grassy meadows, often on limestone soils. It is drought-tolerant, and grows all year around. It is used as an ingredient in both salads and dressings, having a flavor described as "light cucumber" and is considered interchangeable with mint leaves in some recipes, depending on the intended effect. Typically, the youngest leaves are used, as they tend to become bitter as they age. Salad burnet has the same medicinal qualities as medicinal burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis). It was used as a tea to relieve diarrhea in the past. It also has a respectable history, called a favorite herb by Francis Bacon, and was brought to the New World with the first English colonists, even getting special mention by Thomas Jefferson.
    4.00
    1 votes
    227
    Stottie cake

    Stottie cake

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    A Stottie cake or stotty is a type of bread produced in North East England. It is a flat and round loaf, usually about 30 centimetres (12 inches) in diameter and 4 cm (1.6 inches) deep, with an indent in the middle produced by the baker. Elsewhere in the world, bread considered similar to the stottie is known as Oven Bottom Bread. One chief difference is the heavy and dough-like texture of the bread. Though leavened, its taste and mouth-feel is heavy and very reminiscent of dough. Stotties tend to be eaten split and filled. Common fillings include ham and pease pudding, but also bacon, egg and sausage. The heavy texture of the bread gives it its name. To 'stott' is Geordie meaning 'to bounce' because if dropped it would (in theory) bounce. Though originating in the North East, stotties can be found in most parts of Britain, but not the south, and have been offered for sale in branches of Greggs, Morrisons and Waitrose. Stotties sold by supermarkets tend to resemble stottie only in shape: The bread is lighter and more crumbly, resembling a bread roll more faithfully than a baker's stottie. Until recently in some parts of the North of England, particularly in Bishop Auckland and the
    4.00
    1 votes
    228
    Strozzapreti

    Strozzapreti

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Strozzapreti ("priest strangler" in Italian) are typically an elongated form of cavatelli, or hand-rolled pasta. In the Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany and Umbria regions of Italy as well as in the microstate of San Marino the name is used for a baked cheese and vegetable dumpling. There are several legends to explain the name "priest choker". One is that gluttonous priests were so enthralled by the savory pasta that they ate too quickly and choked themselves, sometimes to death. Another explanation involves the "azdora" ("housewife" in the Romagna's dialect), who "chokes" the dough strips to make the strozzapreti: "... in that particular moment you would presume that the azdora would express such a rage (perhaps triggered by the misery and difficulties of her life) to be able to strangle a priest!" Another legend goes that wives would customarily make the pasta for churchmen as partial payment for land rents (In Romagna, the Catholic Church had extensive land properties rented to farmers), and their husbands would be angered enough by the venal priests eating their wives' food to wish the priests would choke as they stuffed their mouth with it. The name surely reflects the diffuse
    4.00
    1 votes
    229
    Tangerine

    Tangerine

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Fruit
    The tangerine (Citrus tangerina) is an orange-colored citrus fruit which is closely related to the mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata). Taxonomically, it may be named as a subspecies or variety of Citrus reticulata; further work seems to be required to ascertain its correct scientific name. Tangerines are smaller than common oranges, and are usually easier to peel and to split into segments. The taste is considered less sour, but sweeter and stronger, than that of an orange. What can be considered by some to be a good tangerine will be firm to slightly soft, heavy for its size, and pebbly-skinned with no deep grooves, as well as orange in color. Peak tangerine season lasts from October to April in the Northern Hemisphere. Tangerines are most commonly peeled and eaten out of hand. The fresh fruit is also used in salads, desserts and main dishes. The peel is dried and used in Sichuan cuisine. Fresh tangerine juice and frozen juice concentrate are commonly available in the United States. The number of seeds in each segment (carpel) varies greatly. A popular alternative to tangerines are clementines, which are called seedless tangerines and are also a variant of the mandarin
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    Basil

    Basil

    • Typically used in dishes: Insalata Caprese
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Herb
    Basil, or Sweet Basil, is a common name for the culinary herb Ocimum basilicum (pronounced /ˈbæzɪl/ or, in the US, /ˈbeːzɪl/), of the family Lamiaceae (mints), sometimes known as Saint Joseph's Wort in some English-speaking countries. Basil, originally from India, but thoroughly familiar to Theophrastus and Dioscurides, is a half-hardy annual plant, best known as a culinary herb prominently featured in Italian cuisine, and also plays a major role in the cuisine of Taiwan and the Southeast Asian cuisines of Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. Depending on the species and cultivar, the leaves may taste somewhat like anise, with a strong, pungent, often sweet smell. There are many varieties of Ocimum basilicum, as well as several related species or species hybrids also called basil. The type used in Italian food is typically called sweet basil, as opposed to Thai basil (O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora), lemon basil (O. × citriodorum) and holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum), which are used in Asia. While most common varieties of basil are treated as annuals, some are perennial in warm, tropical climates, including holy basil and a cultivar known as 'African Blue'. Basil is
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    231
    Bell pepper

    Bell pepper

    • Typically used in dishes: Gumbo
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Capsicum
    Bell pepper, also known as sweet pepper or a pepper (in the United Kingdom) and capsicum (in India, Australia and New Zealand), is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors, including red, yellow, orange and green. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". Peppers are native to Mexico, Central America and northern South America. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European, African and Asian countries. Today, China is the world's largest pepper producer, followed by Mexico. The misleading name "pepper" (El Pepra in Spanish) was given by Christopher Columbus upon bringing the plant back to Europe. At that time peppercorns, the fruit of Piper nigrum, an unrelated plant originating from India, were a highly prized condiment; the name "pepper" was at that time applied in Europe to all known spices with a hot and pungent taste and so naturally extended to the newly discovered Capsicum genus. The most commonly used alternative name of the plant family, "chile", is of Central American origin. Bell peppers are botanically fruits, but
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    232
    Cencioni

    Cencioni

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Cencioni is a type of pasta. The name derives from the Italian for little rag. Cencioni are oval and petal-shaped, with a slight curve, larger and flatter than orecchiette, with a more irregular shape and a rough texture to one side to help sauces cling better.
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    233
    Chard

    Chard

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. cicla), is a leafy green vegetable often used in Mediterranean cooking. While the leaves are always green, chard stalks vary in color. Chard has been bred to have highly nutritious leaves at the expense of the root (which is not as nutritious as the leaves). Chard is, in fact, considered to be one of the healthiest vegetables available and a valuable addition to a healthy diet (not unlike other green leafy vegetables). Chard has been around for centuries, but because of its similarity to beets is difficult to determine the exact evolution of the different varieties of chard. Chard and the other beets are chenopods, a group which is either its own family Chenopodiaceae or a subfamily within the Amaranthaceae. Although the leaves of chard are eaten, it is in the same species as beetroot (garden beet), which is grown primarily for its edible roots. Both are cultivated descendants of the sea beet, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, but they were selected for different characteristics. Chard is also known by its many common names such as Swiss chard, silverbeet, perpetual spinach, spinach beet, crab beet, bright lights (due to the bright and vivid spring
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    234
    Chicken meat

    Chicken meat

    • Typically used in dishes: Curry chicken
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world, and is prepared as food in a wide variety of ways, varying by region and culture. The modern chicken is a descendant of Red Junglefowl hybrids along with the Grey Junglefowl first raised thousands of years ago in the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. Chicken as a meat has been depicted in Babylonian carvings from around 600 BC. Chicken was one of the most common meats available in the Middle Ages. It was widely believed to be easily digested and considered to be one of the most neutral foodstuff. It was eaten over most of the Eastern hemisphere and a number of different kinds of chicken such as capons, pullets and hens were eaten. It was one of the basic ingredients in the so-called white dish, a stew usually consisting of chicken and fried onions cooked in milk and seasoned with spices and sugar. Chicken consumption in the United States increased during World War II due to a shortage of beef and pork. In Europe, consumption of chicken overtook that of beef and veal in 1996, linked to consumer awareness of Bovine spongiform encephalopathy or B.S.E. Modern varieties of chicken such as the Cornish Cross, are bred
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    235
    Conchiglie

    Conchiglie

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Conchiglie, commonly known as "shells" or "seashells" is a type of pasta. It is usually sold in the plain durum wheat variety, and also in colored varieties which utilize natural pigments, such as tomato extract, squid ink or spinach extract. The shell shape of the pasta allows the sauce to adhere to it. It is one of the most popular pasta types in the UK.. A mini variety called Conchigliette is also available. The name derives from the Italian word for seashell (conchiglia). The Italian word Conchiglie, and the English word Conch, share the same Greek root in the form of Konkhe, which means shell.
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    236
    Culinary mustard

    Culinary mustard

    • Typically used in dishes: Deviled egg
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds of a mustard plant (white or yellow mustard, Sinapis hirta; brown or Indian mustard, Brassica juncea; or black mustard, B. nigra). The whole, ground, cracked, or bruised mustard seeds are mixed with water, salt, lemon juice, or other liquids, and sometimes other flavorings and spices, to create a paste or sauce ranging in color from bright yellow to dark brown. English mustard is among the strongest, made from only mustard flour, water, salt and, sometimes, lemon juice; but not with vinegar. French-style Dijon mustard, or moutarde de Dijon, has added vinegar, and is milder. Bavarian sweet mustard or Süsser Senf is milder still. Homemade mustards are often far hotter and more intensely flavored than commercial preparations. A strong mustard can cause the eyes to water, sting the palate, and inflame the nasal passages and throat. Mustard can also cause allergic reactions: Since 2005, products in the European Union must be labelled as potential allergens if they contain mustard. Commonly paired with meats and cheeses, mustard is a popular addition to sandwiches, hamburgers, and hot dogs. It is also used as an ingredient in many dressings,
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    237
    Endive

    Endive

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Endive ( /ˈɛndɪv/ or /ˈɛndaɪv/), Cichorium endivia, is a leaf vegetable belonging to the daisy family. Endive can be cooked or used raw in salads. Endive belongs to the chicory genus, which includes several similar bitter leafed vegetables. Species include endive (Cichorium endivia), Cichorium pumilum, and common chicory (Cichorium intybus). Common chicory includes chicory types such as radicchio, puntarelle, and Belgian endive. There is considerable confusion between Cichorium endivia and Cichorium intybus. Endive is rich in many vitamins and minerals, especially in folate and vitamins A and K, and is high in fiber. Endive is also a common name for some types of chicory (Cichorium intybus). There are two main varieties of cultivated endive:
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    238
    Fenugreek

    Fenugreek

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Herb
    Fenugreek ( /ˈfɛnjʉɡriːk/; Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant in the family Fabaceae. The plant has small round leaves is cultivated worldwide as a semi-arid crop and is a common ingredient in dishes from Pakistan and the Indian Subcontinent, where it is known as methi in Urdu, Hindi and Nepali, as menthiyam and venthayam (வெந்தயம்) in Tamil, and as menthya (ಮೆಂತ್ಯ) in Kannada uluwa in malayalam' 'menthulu in Telugu" Fenugreek leaves (per 100g of edible portion) carbohydrates: 6.0 g protein: 4.4 g Fat: 0.9 g Minerals: 1.5 g calcium: 395 mg Phosphorus: 51 mg Iron: 1.93 mg total Energy: 49 kcal Zohary and Hopf note that it is not yet certain which wild strain of the genus Trigonella gave rise to the domesticated fenugreek but they believe it was brought into cultivation in the Near East. Charred fenugreek seeds have been recovered from Tell Halal, Iraq, (radiocarbon dating to 4000 BC) and Bronze Age levels of Lachish, as well as desiccated seeds from the tomb of Tutankhamen. Cato the Elder lists fenugreek with clover and vetch as crops grown to feed cattle (De Agri Cultura, 27). Major fenugreek-producing countries are Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Argentina, Egypt,
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    239
    Green bean

    Green bean

    • Typically used in dishes: Niçoise salad
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Vegetable
    Green beans, also known as French beans (British English), string beans in the northeastern and western United States, snap beans or squeaky beans, are the unripe fruit of specific cultivated varieties of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Green bean varieties have been bred especially for the fleshiness, flavor, or sweetness of their pods. Haricots verts, French for "green beans", may refer to a longer, thinner type of green bean than the typical American green bean. It is known in some parts of the world as the squeaky bean due to the noise it makes on one's teeth whilst eating. The first "stringless" bean was bred in 1894 by Calvin Keeney, called the "father of the stringless bean", while working in Le Roy, New York. Green beans are of nearly universal distribution. They are marketed canned, frozen, and fresh. Green beans are often steamed, boiled, stir-fried, or baked in casseroles. A dish with green beans popular throughout the United States, particularly at Thanksgiving, is green bean casserole, which consists of green beans, cream of mushroom soup, and French fried onions. Some restaurants in the USA serve green beans that are battered and fried, and Japanese restaurants
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    240
    Lima bean

    Lima bean

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Phaseolus lunatus is a legume. It is grown for its seed, which is eaten as a vegetable. It is commonly known as the lima bean or butter bean. Phaseolus lunatus is of Andean and Mesoamerican origin. Two separate domestication events are believed to have occurred. The first, taking place in the Andes around 2000 BC, produced a large-seeded variety (Lima type), while the second, taking place in Mesoamerica around AD 800, produced a small-seeded variety (Sieva type). By around 1300, cultivation had spread north of the Rio Grande, and in the 1500s, the plant began to be cultivated in the Old World. The small-seeded wild form (Sieva type) is found distributed from Mexico to Argentina, generally below 1600 meters above sea level, while the large-seeded wild form (Lima type) is found distributed in the north of Peru, between 320 and 2030 meters above sea level. The Moche Culture (1-800 AD) cultivated all of the lima beans and often depicted them in their art. During the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, lima beans were exported to the rest of the Americas and Europe, and since the boxes of such goods had their place of origin labeled "Lima - Peru", the beans got named as such. The term "butter
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    241
    Maize

    Maize

    • Typically used in dishes: Gundrook-Dheedo
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Cereal
    Maize ( /ˈmeɪz/ MAYZ; Zea mays L, from Spanish: maíz after Taíno mahiz), known in many English-speaking countries as corn, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maize kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable or starch. The Olmec and Mayans cultivated it in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica, cooked, ground or processed through nixtamalization. Beginning about 2500 BC, the crop spread through much of the Americas. The region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. After European contact with the Americas in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, explorers and traders carried maize back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates. Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn are usually grown for human consumption, while field corn varieties are used for animal feed and as chemical feedstocks. Maize is the most widely grown grain crop in the Americas, with 332 million metric tons grown annually in the United States
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    242
    Mincemeat

    Mincemeat

    • Typically used in dishes: Mince pie
    Mincemeat is a mixture of chopped dried fruit, distilled spirits and spices, and sometimes beef suet, beef, or venison. Originally, mincemeat always contained meat. Many modern recipes contain beef suet, though vegetable shortening is sometimes used in its place. Variants of mincemeat are found in Australia, Brittany, Canada, northern Europe, Ireland, South Africa, the UK and the United States. In some countries the term mincemeat refers to minced or ground meat. English recipes from the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries describe a mixture of meat and fruit used as a pie filling. These early recipes included vinegars and wines, but by the 18th century, distilled spirits, frequently brandy, were being used instead. The use of spices like clove, nutmeg, mace and cinnamon was common in late medieval and renaissance meat dishes. The increase of sweetness from added sugars, and those produced from fermentation, made mincemeat less a savoury dinner course and helped to direct its use toward desserts. Pyes of mutton or beif must be fyne mynced & seasoned with pepper and salte and a lytel saffron to colour it / suet or marrow a good quantitie / a lytell vynegre / pruynes / great reasons / and
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    243
    Parmigiano Reggiano

    Parmigiano Reggiano

    • Typically used in dishes: Caesar salad
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Cheese
    Parmigiano-Reggiano (IPA: [ˌparmiˈdʒaːno redˈdʒaːno]), also known in English as Parmesan ( /ˌpɑrmɨˈzæn/ or  /ˌpɑrmɨˈʒæn/), is a hard, granular cheese, cooked but not pressed, named after the producing areas near Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, and Bologna (all in Emilia-Romagna), and Mantova (in Lombardia), Italy. Under Italian law, only cheese produced in these provinces may be labelled "Parmigiano-Reggiano", while European law classifies the name as a protected designation of origin. Parmigiano is the Italian adjective for Parma. Reggiano is the Italian adjective for Reggio Emilia. Parmesan is the French name for it and also serves as the informal term for the cheese in the English language. The name Parmesan is also used for cheeses which imitate Parmigiano-Reggiano, with phrases such as "Italian hard cheese" adopted to skirt legal constraints. The closest legitimate Italian cheese to Parmigiano-Reggiano is Grana Padano. Parmigiano-Reggiano is made from raw cow's milk. The whole milk of the morning milking is mixed with the naturally skimmed milk (it is left in large shallow tanks to allow the cream to separate) of the previous evening's milking, resulting in a part skim mixture.
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    244
    Pea

    Pea

    • Typically used in dishes: Green pea risotto
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    • More general ingredient: Vegetable
    The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum. Each pod contains several peas. Peapods are botanically a fruit, since they contain seeds developed from the ovary of a (pea) flower. However, peas are considered to be a vegetable in cooking. The name is also used to describe other edible seeds from the Fabaceae such as the pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and the seeds from several species of Lathyrus. P. sativum is an annual plant, with a life cycle of one year. It is a cool season crop grown in many parts of the world; planting can take place from winter to early summer depending on location. The average pea weighs between 0.1 and 0.36 grams. The immature peas (and in snow peas the tender pod as well) are used as a vegetable, fresh, frozen or canned; varieties of the species typically called field peas are grown to produce dry peas like the split pea shelled from the matured pod. These are the basis of pease porridge and pea soup, staples of medieval cuisine; in Europe, consuming fresh immature green peas was an innovation of Early Modern cuisine. The wild pea is restricted to the Mediterranean basin and
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    245
    Rice vermicelli

    Rice vermicelli

    • Typically used in dishes: Bun Rieu
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    Rice vermicelli are thin noodles made from rice and are a form of rice noodles. They are sometimes referred to as rice noodles or rice sticks, but they should not be confused with cellophane noodles, which is another type of vermicelli. Rice vermicelli are a part of several Asian cuisines, where they are often eaten as part of a soup dish, stir fry, or salad. One particularly well known, slightly thicker variety, is called Guilin mǐfěn (桂林米粉), comes from the southern Chinese city of Guilin, where it is a breakfast staple.
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    246
    Rotelle

    Rotelle

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    • More general ingredient: Pasta
    Rotelle are a type of pasta resembling wheels with spokes. It is similar to Fiori. The name derives from the Italian word for little wheels. They are also known as wagon wheels. Rotelle was once a popular product sold in Ohio supermarkets by the former Ippolito's Ideal Macaroni Company of Cleveland, Ohio, under the name "Choo Choo Wheels". The Ideal Choo Choo Wheels packages once had a picture of a train, and was marketed to children. On the back of the packages was a cut out of a train, which children would use Choo Choo Wheels for the train's wheels. Choo Choo Wheels are currently manufactured by San Giorgio Pasta, which is a division of Hershey Foods. The product is still sold under the "Choo Choo Wheels" name in Ohio. Rotelle should not be confused with rotini (corkscrew-shaped pasta).
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    247
    Sodium bicarbonate

    Sodium bicarbonate

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs. Since it has long been known and is widely used, the salt has many related names such as baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda, and bicarbonate of soda. In colloquial usage, its name is shortened to sodium bicarb, bicarb soda, or simply bicarb. The word saleratus, from Latin sal æratus meaning aerated salt, was widely used in the 19th century for both sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate. The term has now fallen out of common usage. The ancient Egyptians used natural deposits of natron, a mixture consisting mostly of sodium carbonate decahydrate, and sodium bicarbonate. The natron was used as a cleansing agent like soap. In 1791, a French chemist, Nicolas Leblanc, produced sodium carbonate, also known as soda ash. In 1846, two New York bakers, John Dwight and Austin
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    248
    Somen

    Somen

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Vegetarian
    Sōmen (素麺) are very thin--less than 1.3 mm in diameter--white Japanese noodles made of wheat flour. The noodles are usually served cold. The noodles' diameter is the chief distinction between sōmen and the thicker wheat noodles hiyamugi and Japanese wheat noodles udon. Somen noodles are stretched when made, as are some types of udon noodles. Sōmen are usually served cold with a light flavored dipping sauce or tsuyu. The tsuyu is usually a katsuobushi-based sauce that can be flavored with Welsh onion, ginger, or myoga. In the summer, sōmen chilled with ice is a popular meal to help stay cool. Sōmen served in hot soup is usually called "nyumen" and eaten in the winter, much like soba or udon are. Some restaurants offer "nagashi sōmen" (流しそうめん flowing noodles) in the summer. The noodles are placed in a long flume of bamboo across the length of the restaurant. The flume carries clear, ice-cold water. As the sōmen pass by, diners pluck them out with their chopsticks and dip them in tsuyu. Catching the noodles requires a fair amount of dexterity, but the noodles that are not caught by the time they get to the end usually are not eaten, so diners are pressured to catch as much as they
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    249
    Sourdough

    Sourdough

    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Veganism
    Sourdough is a bread product made by a long fermentation of dough using naturally occurring yeasts and lactobacilli. In comparison with breads made quickly with cultivated yeast, it usually has a mildly sour taste because of the lactic acid produced by the lactobacilli. Sourdough is a dough containing a Lactobacillus culture in symbiotic combination with yeasts. It is one of the principal means of biological leavening in bread baking, the others using cultivated forms of yeast (Saccharomyces). It is important in baking rye-based breads, where yeast does not produce comparable results. Compared to breads made with baker's yeast it produces a mildly sour taste because of the lactic acid produced by the lactobacilli. The preparation of sourdough begins with a pre-ferment, (the "starter" or "levain"), made of flour and water. The purpose of the starter is to produce a vigorous leaven and to develop the flavour of the bread. In practice there are several kinds. The ratio of water to flour in the starter (the "hydration") varies and a starter may be a fluid batter or a stiff dough. When wheat flour comes into contact with water, naturally occurring amylase enzymes break down the starch
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    250
    Spinach

    Spinach

    • Typically used in dishes: Eggs florentine
    • Compatible with dietary restrictions: Gluten-free diet
    • More general ingredient: Vegetable
    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family of Amaranthaceae. It is native to central and southwestern Asia. It is an annual plant (rarely biennial), which grows to a height of up to 30 cm. Spinach may survive over winter in temperate regions. The leaves are alternate, simple, ovate to triangular-based, very variable in size from about 2–30 cm long and 1–15 cm broad, with larger leaves at the base of the plant and small leaves higher on the flowering stem. The flowers are inconspicuous, yellow-green, 3–4 mm diameter, maturing into a small, hard, dry, lumpy fruit cluster 5–10 mm across containing several seeds. Common spinach, Spinacia oleracea, was long considered to be in the Chenopodiaceae family, but in 2003, the Chenopodiaceae family was combined with the Amaranthaceae family under the family name 'Amaranthaceae' in the order Caryophyllales. Within the Amaranthaceae family, Amaranthoideae and Chenopodioideae are now subfamilies, for the amaranths and the chenopods, respectively. The English word "spinach" dates to the late 14th century, and is from espinache (Fr. épinard), of uncertain origin. The traditional view derives it from O.Prov. espinarc,
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