Top List Curated by Listnerd
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  • Nov 27th 2012
  • 2.915 views
  • 624 votes
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Best Industry of All Time

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Best Industry of All Time is a public top list created by Listnerd on rankly.com on November 27th 2012. Items on the Best Industry of All Time top list are added by the rankly.com community and ranked using our secret ranking sauce. Best Industry of All Time has gotten 2.915 views and has gathered 624 votes from 624 voters. O O

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    7.29
    7 votes
    2
    Microfinance

    Microfinance

    • Organizations in this industry: Grameen Foundation
    Microfinance is usually understood to entail the provision of financial services to micro-entrepreneurs and small businesses, which lack access to banking and related services due to the high transaction costs associated with serving these client categories. The two main mechanisms for the delivery of financial services to such clients are (1) relationship-based banking for individual entrepreneurs and small businesses; and (2) group-based models, where several entrepreneurs come together to apply for loans and other services as a group. In some regions, for example Southern Africa, microfinance is used to describe the supply of financial services to low-income employees, which however is closer to the retail finance model prevalent in mainstream banking. For some, microfinance is a movement whose object is "a world in which as many poor and near-poor households as possible have permanent access to an appropriate range of high quality financial services, including not just credit but also savings, insurance, and fund transfers." Many of those who promote microfinance generally believe that such access will help poor people out of poverty. For others, microfinance is a way to
    9.00
    5 votes
    3
    8.80
    5 votes
    4

    Search

    • Organizations in this industry: Zigtag Inc.
    • Parent Industry: Computer software
    7.17
    6 votes
    5
    8.20
    5 votes
    6

    Consumer electronics

    • Organizations in this industry: Sony
    • Parent Industry: Manufacturing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 334
    Consumer electronics (abbreviated CE) are electronic equipment intended for everyday use, most often in entertainment, communications and office productivity. Radio broadcasting in the early 20th century brought the first major consumer product, the broadcast receiver. Later products include personal computers, telephones, MP3 players, audio equipment, televisions, calculators, GPS automotive electronics, digital cameras and players and recorders using video media such as DVDs, VCRs or camcorders. Increasingly these products have become based on digital technologies, and have largely merged with the computer industry in what is increasingly referred to as the consumerization of information technology. Consumer electronics are manufactured throughout the world, although there is a particularly high concentration of headquarters, factories, research and development activity in East Asia, especially in Japan. The latest consumer electronics are previewed yearly at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Nevada, at which many industry pioneers speak. One overriding characteristic of consumer electronic products is the trend of ever-falling prices. This is driven by gains in
    7.00
    6 votes
    7
    7.00
    6 votes
    8
    7.00
    6 votes
    9
    7.80
    5 votes
    10
    7.60
    5 votes
    11

    Mobile

    • Organizations in this industry: Alcatel-Lucent
    • Parent Industry: Telecom Equipment
    8.75
    4 votes
    12

    Semiconductor industry

    • Organizations in this industry: Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory
    The semiconductor industry is the aggregate collection of companies engaged in the design and fabrication of semiconductor devices. It formed around 1960, once the fabrication of semiconductors became a viable business. It has since grown to be the $249 billion dollar industry it is today. The global semiconductor industry is dominated by USA, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, and European Union. The U.S. industry faces challenges to development by some forms of government regulation. The U.S. government regulates exports and certain uses of some types of semiconductors due to their potential dual use in military applications. Based on KPMG report it was a $304 billion market in 2010. Source : iSuppli Corporation supplied rankings for 2010 (Semiconductor foundries are excluded) This industry features a number of distinct characteristics that position it uniquely in the economy and in the global competitive arena. These include:
    8.75
    4 votes
    13
    Software Engineering

    Software Engineering

    • Organizations in this industry: Acutely Obtuse, Inc.
    Software engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the design, development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches; that is, the application of engineering to software. The term software engineering first appeared in the 1968 NATO Software Engineering Conference, and was meant to provoke thought regarding the perceived "software crisis" at the time. Software development, a much used and more generic term, does not necessarily subsume the engineering paradigm. The field's future looks bright according to Money Magazine and Salary.com, which rated Software Engineer as the best job in the United States in 2006. In 2012, software engineering was again ranked as the best job in the United States, this time by CareerCast.com. When the first modern digital computers appeared in the early 1940s, the instructions to make them operate were wired into the machine. Practitioners quickly realized that this design was not flexible and came up with the "stored program architecture" or von Neumann architecture. Thus the division between "hardware" and "software" began with abstraction being used to deal with the
    10.00
    3 votes
    14
    Advertising

    Advertising

    • Organizations in this industry: Google
    • Parent Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
    • NAICS 2007 code: 5418
    Advertising is a form of communication for marketing and used to encourage or persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners; sometimes a specific group) to continue or take some new action. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common. The purpose of advertising may also be to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various traditional media; including mass media such as newspaper, magazines, television commercial, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or direct mail; or new media such as blogs, websites or text messages. Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding," which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate certain qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and
    6.50
    6 votes
    15
    Recruitment

    Recruitment

    • Organizations in this industry: RGA Associates
    Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening, and selecting a qualified person for a job. At the strategic level it may involve the development of an employer brand which includes an 'employee offering'. The stages of the recruitment process include: job analysis and developing a person specification; the sourcing of candidates by networking, advertising, or other search methods; matching candidates to job requirements and screening individuals using testing (skills or personality assessment); assessment of candidates' motivations and their fit with organisational requirements by interviewing and other assessment techniques. The recruitment process also includes the making and finalising of job offers and the induction and onboarding of new employees. Depending on the size and culture of the organisation recruitment may be undertaken in-house by managers, human resource generalists and / or recruitment specialists. Alternatively parts of all of the process might be undertaken by either public sector employment agencies, or commercial recruitment agencies, or specialist search consultancies. The starting point to a recruitment effort is to perform a job analysis and/or
    8.50
    4 votes
    16
    9.67
    3 votes
    17
    7.20
    5 votes
    18
    7.20
    5 votes
    19
    Commercialization of space

    Commercialization of space

    • Organizations in this industry: LiftPort Group
    Commercialization of space is the use of equipment sent into or through outer space to provide goods or services of commercial value, either by a corporation or state. Examples of the commercial use of space include satellite navigation systems, satellite television and satellite radio. In 2004, global investment in all space sectors was estimated to be $50.8 billion. The first commercial use of satellites may have been the Telstar 1 satellite, launched in 1962, which was the first privately-sponsored space launch, funded by AT&T and Bell Telephone Laboratories. Telstar 1 was capable of relaying television signals across the Atlantic Ocean, and was the first satellite to transmit live television, telephone, fax, and other data signals. Two years later, the Hughes Aircraft Company developed the Syncom 3 satellite, a geosynchronous communications satellite, leased to the Department of Defense. Commercial possibilities of satellites were further realized when the Syncom 3, orbiting near the International Date Line, was used to telecast the 1964 Olympic Games from Tokyo to the United States. Between 1960 and 1966, NASA launched a series of early weather satellites known as Television
    8.25
    4 votes
    20

    Consumer finance

    • Organizations in this industry: Progreso Financiero
    • Parent Industry: Other Nondepository Credit Intermediation
    • NAICS 2007 code: 522291
    Alternative financial services in the United States refers to a particular type of financial service, namely sub-prime lending (that is lending to people with relatively poor credit) by non-bank financial institutions. This branch of the financial services industry is more extensive in the United States than in some other countries, because the major banks in the U.S. are less willing to lend to people with marginal credit ratings than their counterparts in many other countries. Examples of these companies include American General Finance, Inc.,Duvera Financial, Inc., Lendmark Financial Services, Inc., HSBC Finance, CIT, CitiFinancial, Wells Fargo Financial, and Monterey Financial Services, Inc. The more generic name "consumer finance" is also used, although more properly the term applies to financing for any type of consumer. The Consumer Finance industry (meaning branch-based subprime lenders) mainly came to fruition in the middle of the twentieth century. At that time, these companies were all stand-alone companies not owned by banks and an alternative to banks. However, at that time, the companies were not focused on subprime lending. Instead, they attempted to lend to everyone
    8.25
    4 votes
    21
    Broadcasting

    Broadcasting

    • Organizations in this industry: Time Warner
    • Parent Industry: Media
    • NAICS 2007 code: 513
    Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via any audio or visual mass communications medium, but usually one using electromagnetic radiation (radio waves). The receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively large subset thereof. Broadcasting has been used for purposes of private recreation, non-commercial exchange of messages, experimentation, self-training, and emergency communication such as amateur (ham) radio and amateur television (ATV) in addition to commercial purposes like popular radio or TV stations with advertisements. The term broadcast was first adopted by early radio engineers from the Midwestern United States, treating broadcast sowing as a metaphor for the dispersal inherent in omnidirectional radio signals.Broadcasting is a very large and significant segment of the mass media. Originally all broadcasting was composed of analog signals using analog transmission techniques and more recently broadcasters have switched to digital signals using digital transmission. The world's technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks more than quadrupled during the two decades from 1986
    8.00
    4 votes
    22
    Health care

    Health care

    • Organizations in this industry: Hospital Corporation of America
    • Parent Industry: Service industries
    • NAICS 2007 code: 62
    Health care (or healthcare) is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans. Health care is delivered by practitioners in medicine, chiropractic, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, allied health, and other care providers. It refers to the work done in providing primary care, secondary care and tertiary care, as well as in public health. Access to health care varies across countries, groups and individuals, largely influenced by social and economic conditions as well as the health policies in place. Countries and jurisdictions have different policies and plans in relation to the personal and population-based health care goals within their societies. Health care systems are organizations established to meet the health needs of target populations. Their exact configuration varies from country to country. In some countries and jurisdictions, health care planning is distributed among market participants, whereas in others planning is made more centrally among governments or other coordinating bodies. In all cases, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), a well-functioning health care system requires a
    8.00
    4 votes
    23
    8.00
    4 votes
    24
    Wiki

    Wiki

    • Organizations in this industry: Socialtext, Inc.
    • Parent Industry: Collaborative software
    A wiki (/ˈwɪkiː/ WIK-ee) is a website which allows its users to add, modify, or delete its content via a web browser usually using a simplified markup language or a rich-text editor. Wikis are powered by wiki software. Most are created collaboratively. Wikis serve many different purposes, such as knowledge management and notetaking. Wikis can be community websites and intranets, for example. Some permit control over different functions (levels of access). For example, editing rights may permit changing, adding or removing material. Others may permit access without enforcing access control. Other rules may also be imposed for organizing content. Ward Cunningham, the developer of the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb, originally described it as "the simplest online database that could possibly work." "Wiki" (pronounced [ˈwiti] or [ˈviti]) is a Hawaiian word meaning "fast" or "quick". Ward Cunningham and co-author Bo Leuf, in their book The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, described the essence of the Wiki concept as follows: A wiki enables communities to write documents collaboratively, using a simple markup language and a web browser. A single page in a wiki website is
    8.00
    4 votes
    25
    Entertainment

    Entertainment

    • Organizations in this industry: The Walt Disney Company
    Entertainment is an action, event or activity that aims to entertain, amuse and interest an audience of one or more people. The audience may have a passive role, as in the case of persons watching a play, opera, television show or movie, or the audience role may be active, as in the case of games. Entertainment can be public or private, involving formal, scripted performance, as in the case of theatre or concerts; or unscripted and spontaneous, as in the case of children's games. While many forms of entertainment have persisted over centuries, others, such as films and video games, have come about as the result of technological developments. Some activities that once were considered entertaining, particularly public punishments, have been removed from the public arena. Other activities, such as fencing or archery, once necessary skills for some, have become serious sports and even professions for the participants, at the same time developing into entertainments for their audiences. What is an entertainment for one group or individual may be regarded as work by another. Furthermore, the difference in perspective between the participant and the audience may be the difference between
    6.80
    5 votes
    26
    Meat packing industry

    Meat packing industry

    • Organizations in this industry: Nortura
    • Parent Industry: Animal Slaughtering and Processing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 311612
    The meat packing industry handles the slaughtering, processing, packaging, and distribution of animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep and other livestock. The industry is primarily focused on producing meat for human consumption, but it also yields a variety of by-products including hides, feathers, dried blood, and, through the process of rendering, fat such as tallow and protein meals such as meat & bone meal. In the U.S. and some other countries, the facility where the meat packing is done is called a meat packing plant; in New Zealand, where most of the products are exported, it is called a freezing works. An abattoir is a place where animals are slaughtered for food. The meat packing industry grew with the construction of the railroads and methods of refrigeration. Railroads made possible the transport of stock to central points for processing, and the transport of products throughout the nation. In the early part of the century, they used the most recent immigrants and migrants as strikebreakers in labor actions taken by other workers, also usually immigrants or early descendants. The publication of the Upton Sinclair novel The Jungle in the US in 1906, shocked the public with
    6.80
    5 votes
    27
    6.80
    5 votes
    28
    Solar power

    Solar power

    • Organizations in this industry: Konarka Technologies, Inc.
    • Parent Industry: Green energy
    Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar energy technologies include solar heating, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal electricity and solar architecture, which can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most urgent problems the world now faces. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable, inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits. It will increase countries’ energy security through reliance on an indigenous, inexhaustible and mostly import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the
    6.80
    5 votes
    29
    6.80
    5 votes
    30
    Biopharmaceutical

    Biopharmaceutical

    • Organizations in this industry: Xoma Corporation
    Biopharmaceutics is the field of study concerning biopharmaceuticals, medical drugs (see pharmacology) produced using biotechnology. They include proteins (including antibodies), nucleic acids (DNA, RNA or antisense oligonucleotides) and living microorganisms like virus and bacteria where the virulence of viruses and bacteria is reduced by the process of attenuation, they can be used for therapeutic or in vivo diagnostic purposes, and are produced by means other than direct extraction from a native (non-engineered) biological source. The first such substance approved for therapeutic use was biosynthetic 'human' insulin made via recombinant DNA technology. Sometimes referred to as rHI, under the trade name Humulin, was developed by Genentech, but licensed to Eli Lilly and Company, who manufactured and marketed the product starting in 1982. The large majority of biopharmaceutical products are pharmaceuticals that are derived from life forms. Small molecule drugs are not typically regarded as biopharmaceutical in nature by the industry. However members of the press and the business and financial community often extend the definition to include pharmaceuticals not created through
    9.00
    3 votes
    31

    Web development

    • Organizations in this industry: Net2u_
    Web development is a broad term for the work involved in developing a web site for the Internet (World Wide Web) or an intranet (a private network). This can include web design, web content development, client liaison, client-side/server-side scripting, web server and network security configuration, and e-commerce development. However, among web professionals, "web development" usually refers to the main non-design aspects of building web sites: writing markup and coding. Web development can range from developing the simplest static single page of plain text to the most complex web-based internet applications, electronic businesses, or social network services. For larger organizations and businesses, web development teams can consist of hundreds of people (web developers). Smaller organizations may only require a single permanent or contracting webmaster, or secondary assignment to related job positions such as a graphic designer and/or information systems technician. Web development may be a collaborative effort between departments rather than the domain of a designated department. Since the mid-1990s, web development has been one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In
    9.00
    3 votes
    32
    7.75
    4 votes
    33
    Newspaper

    Newspaper

    • Organizations in this industry: The New York Times Company
    • Parent Industry: Newspaper, Periodical, Book, and Directory Publishing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 51111
    A newspaper is a scheduled publication containing news of current events, informative articles, diverse features, editorials, and advertising. It usually is printed on relatively inexpensive, low-grade paper such as newsprint. By 2007, there were 6,580 daily newspapers in the world selling 395 million copies a day. The worldwide recession of 2008, combined with the rapid growth of web-based alternatives, caused a serious decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers closed or sharply retrenched operations. General-interest newspapers typically publish stories on local and national political events and personalities, crime, business, entertainment, society and sports. Most traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and columns that express the personal opinions of writers. The newspaper is typically funded by paid subscriptions and advertising. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers, including editorial opinions, criticism, persuasion and op-eds; obituaries; entertainment features such as crosswords, sudoku and horoscopes; weather news and forecasts; advice, food and other columns; reviews of radio,
    7.75
    4 votes
    34
    5.83
    6 votes
    35

    Film sound

    • Organizations in this industry: Talking Dog Studios
    Film sound specifically refers to the sound track that accompanies the visual images on a single continuous reel of motion picture film. It dates back to the earliest days in which sound was added to moving pictures and is somewhat out of date since most film audio track are delivered digitally today. -- Also see --
    6.60
    5 votes
    36

    Telephony

    • Organizations in this industry: Tellme Networks
    • Parent Industry: Telecom Equipment
    In telecommunications, telephony ( /təˈlɛfəni/ tə-LEF-ə-nee) encompasses the general use of equipment to provide communication over distances, specifically by connecting telephones to each other. The technology is associated with the electronic transmission of voice, fax, or other information between distant parties using systems historically associated with the telephone, a hand-held device containing both a speaker or transmitter and a receiver. It is commonly referred to as the construction or operation of telephones or telephonic systems and as a system of telecommunications in which telephonic equipment is employed in the transmission of speech or other sound between points, with or without the use of wires. To break the term down into further detail, telephony is the science of translating sound into electrical signals, transmitting them, and then converting them back to sound; that is, the science of telephones. The term is used frequently to refer to computer hardware and software that performs functions traditionally performed by telephone equipment. For example, telephony software can combine with your modem to turn your computer into a sophisticated answering service. A
    6.60
    5 votes
    37

    Consulting

    • Organizations in this industry: Web Koncept Ltd.
    • Parent Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
    • NAICS 2007 code: 5416
    5.67
    6 votes
    38
    7.50
    4 votes
    39
    Private equity

    Private equity

    • Organizations in this industry: Evercore Partners
    In finance, private equity is an asset class consisting of equity securities in operating companies that are not publicly traded on a stock exchange. A private equity investment will generally be made by a private equity firm, a venture capital firm or an angel investor. Each of these categories of investor has its own set of goals, preferences and investment strategies; each however providing working capital to a target company to nurture expansion, new product development, or restructuring of the company’s operations, management, or ownership. Bloomberg BusinessWeek has called private equity a rebranding of leveraged buyout firms after the 1980s. Among the most common investment strategies in private equity are: leveraged buyouts, venture capital, growth capital, distressed investments and mezzanine capital. In a typical leveraged buyout transaction, a private equity firm buys majority control of an existing or mature firm. This is distinct from a venture capital or growth capital investment, in which the investors (typically venture capital firms or angel investors) invest in young or emerging companies, and rarely obtain majority control. Private equity is also often grouped
    7.50
    4 votes
    40
    Logistics

    Logistics

    • Organizations in this industry: Aramex
    • Parent Industry: Freight Transportation Arrangement
    • NAICS 2007 code: 48851
    Logistics is the management of the flow of resources, between the point of origin and the point of destination in order to meet some requirements, for example of customers or corporations. The resources managed in logistics can include physical items as food, materials, equipment, liquids and staff as well as abstract items as information, particles and energy. The logistics of physical items usually involves the integration of information flow, material handling, production, packaging, inventory, transportation, warehousing and oftentimes security. Furthermore the complexity of logistics can be modeled, analyzed, visualized and optimized by dedicated simulation software. Minimizing time and use of resources, are common goals. The term logistics comes from the late 19th century: from French logistique, from loger 'to lodge'. Logistics is considered to have originated in the military's need to supply themselves with arms, ammunition and rations as they moved from their base to a forward position. In ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine empires, military officers with the title Logistikas were responsible for financial and supply distribution matters. The Oxford English Dictionary
    8.67
    3 votes
    41
    10.00
    2 votes
    42
    10.00
    2 votes
    43
    Business-to-business

    Business-to-business

    • Organizations in this industry: Penton Media
    Business-to-business (B2B) describes commerce transactions between businesses, such as between a manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer. Contrasting terms are business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-government (B2G). B2B (Business to Business) Branding is a term used in marketing. The volume of B2B (Business-to-Business) transactions is much higher than the volume of B2C transactions. The primary reason for this is that in a typical supply chain there will be many B2B transactions involving sub components or raw materials, and only one B2C transaction, specifically sale of the finished product to the end customer. For example, an automobile manufacturer makes several B2B transactions such as buying tires, glass for windscreens, and rubber hoses for its vehicles. The final transaction, a finished vehicle sold to the consumer, is a single (B2C) transaction. B2B is also used in the context of communication and collaboration. Many businesses are now using social media to connect with their consumers (B2C); however, they are now using similar tools within the business so employees can connect with one another. When communication is taking place amongst
    7.25
    4 votes
    44

    Ecommerce 2.0

    • Organizations in this industry: JadedPixel
    A few years ago, Tim O’Reilly introduced the concept of Web 2.0 to make sense out of what was next for software solutions. Web 2.0 explains how the realities of tomorrow will change how software solutions are designed, created, and used. By examining and extrapolating Web 2.0 principles, I began to see that they had important implications for online retailing. This is ultimately where the concept of eCommerce 2.0, and the Six Principles of eCommerce 2.0, comes from. Understanding the new possibilities for software—and what principles are applied in creating it—is the foundation for understanding the future of eCommerce. It is also the foundation for taking advantage of eCommerce 2.0 principles and the new trends they drive. The Six Principles of eCommerce 2.0 Just as Web 2.0 is altering the software development landscape, the principles of eCommerce 2.0 will define how eTailers do business online. Below is an introduction to the Six Principles of eCommerce 2.0. 1. Sell Everywhere – Be Seen and Be Shopped Customer expectations for how and when they buy products have changed substantially over the past few years. Multi-channel selling was once limited to managing direct sales, a call
    7.25
    4 votes
    45
    7.25
    4 votes
    46
    Airline

    Airline

    • Organizations in this industry: UAL Corporation
    • Parent Industry: Scheduled Air Transportation
    • NAICS 2007 code: 481111
    An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines lease or own their aircraft with which to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for mutual benefit. Generally, airline companies are recognized with an air operating certificate or license issued by a governmental aviation body. Airlines vary from those with a single aircraft carrying mail or cargo, through full-service international airlines operating hundreds of aircraft. Airline services can be categorized as being intercontinental, intra-continental, domestic, regional, or international, and may be operated as scheduled services or charters. American aviation pioneers, such as Rufus Porter and Frederick Marriott, attempted to start airlines using airships in the mid-19th century, focusing on the New York–California route. Those attempts floundered due to such mishaps as the airships catching fire and the aircraft being ripped apart by spectators. DELAG, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft was the world's first airline. It was founded on November 16, 1909 with government assistance, and operated airships manufactured by
    8.33
    3 votes
    47
    Financial Services

    Financial Services

    • Organizations in this industry: Merrill Lynch
    • Parent Industry: Finance, insurance, and real estate
    • NAICS 2007 code: 52
    Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of organizations that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit card companies, insurance companies, consumer finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds and some government sponsored enterprises. As of 2004, the financial services industry represented 20% of the market capitalization of the S&P 500 in the United States. The term "financial services" became more prevalent in the United States partly as a result of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of the late 1990s, which enabled different types of companies operating in the U.S. financial services industry at that time to merge. Companies usually have two distinct approaches to this new type of business. One approach would be a bank which simply buys an insurance company or an investment bank, keeps the original brands of the acquired firm, and adds the acquisition to its holding company simply to diversify its earnings. Outside the U.S. (e.g., in Japan), non-financial services companies are permitted within the holding company. In this scenario, each company still looks independent, and has its own
    8.33
    3 votes
    48
    Service

    Service

    • Organizations in this industry: Automattic
    In economics, a service is an intangible commodity. More specifically, services are an intangible equivalent of economic goods. Service provision is often an economic activity where the buyer does not generally, except by exclusive contract, obtain exclusive ownership of the thing purchased. The benefits of such a service, if priced, are held to be self-evident in the buyer's willingness to pay for it. Public services are those society as a whole pays for through taxes and other means. By composing and orchestrating the appropriate level of resources, skill, ingenuity, and experience for effecting specific benefits for service consumers, service providers participate in an economy without the restrictions of carrying inventory (stock) or the need to concern themselves with bulky raw materials. On the other hand, their investment in expertise does require consistent service marketing and upgrading in the face of competition which has equally few physical restrictions. Many so-called services, however, require large physical structures and equipment, and consume large amounts of resources, such as transportation services and the military. Providers of services make up the tertiary
    8.33
    3 votes
    49
    Space tourism (Personal Spaceflight)

    Space tourism (Personal Spaceflight)

    • Organizations in this industry: Virgin Galactic
    Space tourism is space travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. A number of startup companies have sprung up in recent years, hoping to create a space tourism industry. Orbital space tourism opportunities have been limited and expensive, with only the Russian Space Agency providing transport to date. The publicized price for flights brokered by Space Adventures to the International Space Station aboard a Russian Soyuz spacecraft have been US$20–35 million, during the period 2001–2009. Some space tourists have signed contracts with third parties to conduct certain research activities while in orbit. Russia halted orbital space tourism in 2010 due to the increase in the International Space Station crew size, using the seats for expedition crews that would be sold to paying spaceflight participants. However, tourist flights are tentatively planned to resume in 2013, when the number of single-use three-person Soyuz launches could rise to five a year. As an alternative term to "tourism", some organizations such as the Commercial Spaceflight Federation use the term "personal spaceflight". The Citizens in Space project uses the term "citizen space exploration". As of
    8.33
    3 votes
    50
    Telecommunications

    Telecommunications

    • Organizations in this industry: TELUS
    • Parent Industry: Communications
    • NAICS 2007 code: 517
    Telecommunication is the science and practice of transmitting information by electromagnetic means. Communication is talking to someone or thing not necessarily through technological means. Telecommunication, however, is talking through technology meaning phones, Internet, radio etc... In earlier times, telecommunications involved the use of visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs, or audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, and loud whistles. In modern times, telecommunications involves the use of electrical devices such as the telegraph, telephone, and teleprinter, as well as the use of radio and microwave communications, as well as fiber optics and their associated electronics, plus the use of the orbiting satellites and the Internet. A revolution in wireless telecommunications began in the 1900s (decade) with pioneering developments in wireless radio communications by Nikola Tesla and Guglielmo Marconi. Marconi won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909 for his efforts. Other highly notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications include
    8.33
    3 votes
    51
    6.20
    5 votes
    52

    Enterprise software

    • Organizations in this industry: Kalido
    Enterprise software, also known as enterprise application software (EAS), is software used in organizations, such as in a business or government, contrary to software chosen by individuals. Enterprise software is an integral part of a (computer based) Information System. Services provided by enterprise software are typically business-oriented tools such as online shopping and online payment processing, interactive product catalogue, automated billing systems, security, enterprise content management, IT service management, customer relationship management, enterprise resource planning, business intelligence, project management, collaboration, human resource management, manufacturing, enterprise application integration, and enterprise forms automation. Due to the cost of building or buying what is often non-free proprietary software, only large enterprises employ a software that models their entire business system. As enterprises have similar departments and systems in common, enterprise software is often available as a suite of customizable programs. Generally, the complexity of these tools requires specialist capabilities and specific knowledge. Enterprise software describes a
    9.50
    2 votes
    53

    Electronic media

    • Organizations in this industry: Bhaskar Group
    Electronic media are media that use electronics or electromechanical energy for the end-user (audience) to access the content. This is in contrast to static media (mainly print media), which today are most often created electronically, but don't require electronics to be accessed by the end-user in the printed form. The primary electronic media sources familiar to the general public are better known as video recordings, audio recordings, multimedia presentations, slide presentations, CD-ROM and online content. Most new media are in the form of digital media. However, electronic media may be in either analog or digital format. Although the term is usually associated with content recorded on a storage medium, recordings are not required for live broadcasting and online networking. Any equipment used in the electronic communication process (e.g. television, radio, telephone, desktop computer, game console, handheld device) may also be considered electronic media. Electronic media are ubiquitous in most of the developed world. As of 2005, there are reports of satellite receivers being present in some of the most remote and inaccessible regions of China. Electronic media devices have
    7.00
    4 votes
    54
    7.00
    4 votes
    55

    Pharmaceutics

    • Organizations in this industry: Bayer
    Pharmaceutics is the discipline of pharmacy that deals with the process of turning a new chemical entity (NCE) into a medication to be used safely and effectively by patients. It is also called the science of dosage form design. There are many chemicals with pharmacological properties, but need special measures to help them achieve therapeutically relevant amounts at their sites of action. Pharmaceutics helps relate the formulation of drugs to their delivery and disposition in the body. Pharmaceutics deals with the formulation of a pure drug substance into a dosage form. Branches of pharmaceutics include: Pure drug substances are usually white crystalline or amorphous powders. Historically before the advent of medicine as a science it was common for pharmacists to dispense drugs as is, most drugs today are administered as parts of a dosage form. The clinical performance of drugs depends on their form of presentation to the patient. http://sop.washington.edu/pharmaceutics/about/what-is-pharmaceutics.html Modern Pharmaceutics, Volume 121. Gilbert S. Banker, Christopher T. Rhodes
    7.00
    4 votes
    56
    7.00
    4 votes
    57

    Wireless Communication

    • Organizations in this industry: Research In Motion
    • Parent Industry: Wireless Telecommunications Carriers (except Satellite)
    • NAICS 2007 code: 517210
    7.00
    4 votes
    58
    Wireless LAN

    Wireless LAN

    • Organizations in this industry: Ruckus Wireless
    A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices using some wireless distribution method (typically spread-spectrum or OFDM radio), and usually providing a connection through an access point to the wider internet. This gives users the mobility to move around within a local coverage area and still be connected to the network. Most modern WLANs are based on IEEE 802.11 standards, marketed under the Wi-Fi brand name. Wireless LANs have become popular in the home due to ease of installation, and in commercial complexes offering wireless access to their customers; often for free. Large wireless network projects are being put up in many major cities: New York City, for instance, has begun a pilot program to provide city workers in all five boroughs of the city with wireless Internet access. Norman Abramson, a professor at the University of Hawaii, developed the world’s first wireless computer communication network, ALOHAnet, using low-cost ham-like radios. The system included seven computers deployed over four islands to communicate with the central computer on the Oahu Island without using phone lines. "In 1979, F.R. Gfeller and U. Bapst published a paper in the IEEE
    7.00
    4 votes
    59
    8.00
    3 votes
    60
    6.75
    4 votes
    61

    Natural language processing

    • Organizations in this industry: Language and Computing
    Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science, artificial intelligence, and linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages. As such, NLP is related to the area of human–computer interaction. Many challenges in NLP involve natural language understanding -- that is, enabling computers to derive meaning from human or natural language input. The history of NLP generally starts in the 1950s, although work can be found from earlier periods. In 1950, Alan Turing published his famous article "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" which proposed what is now called the Turing test as a criterion of intelligence. This criterion depends on the ability of a computer program to impersonate a human in a real-time written conversation with a human judge, sufficiently well that the judge is unable to distinguish reliably — on the basis of the conversational content alone — between the program and a real human. The Georgetown experiment in 1954 involved fully automatic translation of more than sixty Russian sentences into English. The authors claimed that within three or five years, machine translation would be a solved problem.
    6.75
    4 votes
    62

    Microelectronics

    • Organizations in this industry: IMEC
    Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics. As the name suggests, microelectronics relates to the study and manufacture (or microfabrication) of very small electronic designs and components. Usually, but not always, this means micrometre-scale or smaller. These devices are made from semiconductor materials. Many components of normal electronic design are available in a microelectronic equivalent. These include transistors, capacitors, inductors, resistors, diodes and (naturally) insulators and conductors can all be found in microelectronic devices. Unique wiring techniques such as wire bonding are also often used in microelectronics because of the unusually small size of the components, leads and pads. This technique requires specialized equipment and is expensive. Digital integrated circuits (ICs) consist mostly of transistors. Analog circuits commonly contain resistors and capacitors as well. Inductors are used in some high frequency analog circuits, but tend to occupy large chip area if used at low frequencies; gyrators can replace them in many applications. As techniques improve, the scale of microelectronic components continues to decrease. At smaller scales, the relative
    9.00
    2 votes
    63
    Mining

    Mining

    • Organizations in this industry: Antofagasta plc
    • NAICS 2007 code: Mining
    Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an orebody, lode, vein, (coal) seam or reef, which forms the mineralized horizon and package of economic interest to the miner. To gain access to the mineralised package within the lease area (aka Mining Rights Lease) it is often necessary to mine through (to create access, shafts, addits, ramps) or remove to the side waste material which is not of immediate interest to the miner. The total movement of ore and waste, which also includes the removal of soil in some cases, is referred to as the mining process. Depending on the nature, attitude, and grade of the orebody, it is often the case that more waste than ore is mined during the course of the life of a mine. The waste removal and placement is a major cost to the mining operator and to facilitate detailed planning the detailed geological and mineralisation characterization of the waste material forms an essential part of the geological exploration programme. The waste is classified as either sterile or mineralised (with acid generating potential) and the movement and stacking (or dumping) of this material forms a major part of the
    9.00
    2 votes
    64
    Retail

    Retail

    • Organizations in this industry: Gap Inc.
    • NAICS 2007 code: 45
    Retail is the sale of goods and services from individuals or businesses to the end-user. Retailers are part of an integrated system called the supply chain. A retailer purchases goods or products in large quantities from manufacturers directly or through a wholesaler, and then sells smaller quantities to the consumer for a profit. Retailing can be done in either fixed locations or online. Retailing includes subordinated services, such as delivery. The term "retailer" is also applied where a service provider services the needs of a large number of individuals, such as a public utility, like electric power. Shops may be on residential streets, streets with few or no houses or in a shopping mall. Shopping streets may be for pedestrians only. Sometimes a shopping street has a partial or full roof to protect customers from precipitation. Online retailing, a type of electronic commerce used for business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions and mail order, are forms of non-shop retailing. Shopping generally refers to the act of buying products. Sometimes this is done to obtain necessities such as food and clothing; sometimes it is done as a recreational activity. Recreational shopping often
    9.00
    2 votes
    65
    Sports

    Sports

    • Organizations in this industry: Rocket Racing League
    Sport (or, in the United States, sports) is all forms of competitive physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and provide entertainment to participants. Hundreds of sports exist, from those requiring only two participants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. Sport is generally recognised as activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition, and other organisations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports. However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee (through ARISF) recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, and SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports, although limits the amount of mind games which can be admitted as sports. Sports are usually governed by a set of rules
    9.00
    2 votes
    66
    Marketing

    Marketing

    • Organizations in this industry: Athena Wissenschaftsmarketing
    • Parent Industry: Management consulting
    • NAICS 2007 code: 541613
    Marketing is the process of communicating the value of a product or service to customers. Marketing might sometimes be interpreted as the art of selling products, but selling is only a small fraction of marketing. From a societal point of view, marketing is the link between a society’s material requirements and its economic patterns of response. Marketing satisfies these needs and wants through exchange processes and building long term relationships. The process of communicating the value of a product or service through positioning to customers. Marketing can be looked at as an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, delivering and communicating value to customers, and managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its shareholders. Marketing is the science of choosing target markets through market analysis and market segmentation, as well as understanding consumer buying behavior and providing superior customer value. There are five competing concepts under which organizations can choose to operate their business; the production concept, the product concept, the selling concept, the marketing concept, and the holistic marketing
    5.80
    5 votes
    67
    Design

    Design

    • Organizations in this industry: Schematic
    Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawing, business process, circuit diagrams and sewing patterns). Design has different connotations in different fields (see design disciplines below). In some cases the direct construction of an object (as in pottery, engineering, management, cowboy coding and graphic design) is also considered as design. More formally design has been defined as follows. Another definition for design is a roadmap or a strategic approach for someone to achieve a unique expectation. It defines the specifications, plans, parameters, costs, activities, processes and how and what to do within legal, political, social, environmental, safety and economic constraints in achieving that objective. Here, a "specification" can be manifested as either a plan or a finished product, and "primitives" are the elements from which the design object is composed. With such a broad denotation, there is no universal language or unifying institution for designers of all disciplines. This allows for many differing philosophies and approaches toward the subject (see Philosophies and
    7.67
    3 votes
    68
    Geomatics

    Geomatics

    • Organizations in this industry: Geofoto
    Geomatics (also known as geospatial technology or geomatics engineering) is the discipline of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering geographic information, or spatially referenced information. Geomatics is a relatively new scientific term, coined by Pollock and Wright in 1969, with the intention of combining the terms geodesy and geoinformatics. It includes the tools and techniques used in land surveying, remote sensing, cartography, geographic information systems (GIS), global navigation satellite systems (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, Compass), photogrammetry, geography and related forms of earth mapping. The term was originally used in Canada, because it is similar in origin to both French and English, but has since been adopted by the International Organization for Standardization, the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, and many other international authorities, although some (especially in the United States) have shown a preference for the term geospatial technology . The related field of hydrogeomatics covers the area associated with surveying work carried out on, above or below the surface of the sea or other areas of water. The older term of hydrographics was
    7.67
    3 votes
    69
    7.67
    3 votes
    70

    Mortgage

    • Organizations in this industry: Valuation Exchange
    • Parent Industry: Mortgage and Nonmortgage Loan Brokers
    • NAICS 2007 code: 522310
    A mortgage is a security interest in real property held by a lender as a security for a debt, usually a loan of money. A mortgage in itself is not a debt, it is the lender's security for a debt. It is a transfer of an interest in land (or the equivalent) from the owner to the mortgage lender, on the condition that this interest will be returned to the owner when the terms of the mortgage have been satisfied or performed. In other words, the mortgage is a security for the loan that the lender makes to the borrower. The word is a Law French term meaning "dead pledge," originally only referring to the Welsh mortgage (see below), but in the later Middle Ages was applied to all gages and reinterpreted by folk etymology to mean that the pledge ends (dies) either when the obligation is fulfilled or the property is taken through foreclosure. In most jurisdictions mortgages are strongly associated with loans secured on real estate rather than on other property (such as ships) and in some jurisdictions only land may be mortgaged. A mortgage is the standard method by which individuals and businesses can purchase real estate without the need to pay the full value immediately from their own
    7.67
    3 votes
    71
    Real Estate

    Real Estate

    • Organizations in this industry: Brookfield Properties
    • Parent Industry: Real Estate and Rental and Leasing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 531
    Real estate is "Property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals, or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this; (also) an item of real property; (more generally) buildings or housing in general. Also: the business of real estate; the profession of buying, selling, or renting land, buildings or housing." It is a legal term used in jurisdictions such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia. In the laws of the United States of America, the 'real' in 'real estate' means relating to a thing (res/'rei', thing, from O.Fr. 'reel', from L.L. 'realis' 'actual', from Latin. 'res', 'matter, thing'), as distinguished from a person. Thus the law broadly distinguishes between 'real' property (land and anything affixed to it) and 'personal' property or chattels (everything else, e.g., clothing, furniture, money). The conceptual difference was between 'immovable property', which would transfer title along with the land, and 'movable property', which a person could lawfully take and would retain title to on disposal of the land. In British usage, "real property", often shortened to just
    7.67
    3 votes
    72
    Road bicycle

    Road bicycle

    • Organizations in this industry: Pinarello
    The term road bicycle is used to describe bicycles built for traveling at speed on paved roads. Some sources use the term to mean racing bicycle. Other sources specifically exclude racing bicycles from the definition, using the term to mean a bicycle of a similar style but built more for endurance and less the fast bursts of speed desired in a racing bicycle; as such, they usually have more gear combinations and fewer hi-tech racing features. Certain of these bicycles have been referred to as 'sportive' bicycles to distinguish them from racing bicycles. Compared to other styles of bicycle, road bicycles share common features: The term road bicycle can also describe any type of bike used primarily on paved roads, in contrast to bikes primarily intended for off-road use, such as mountain bikes. Several variations of road bikes include:
    7.67
    3 votes
    73

    Virtual airline

    • Organizations in this industry: Swiss Virtual Air Lines
    A virtual airline (VA) is a dedicated hobby organization that uses flight simulation to model the operations of an airline. Virtual airlines generally have a presence on the Internet, similar to a real airline. Many hundreds of virtual airlines of significance currently active, with tens of thousands of participants involved at any one time. Virtual airlines (VA's) were started to give a sense of purpose to activities conducted within a flight simulator program, the first being SubLogic's Flight Assigment: A.T.P., released in 1990. As time has passed, the most common flight simulator used is Microsoft's Flight Simulator. This basic premise has evolved over time, along with available technology, to provide increasing levels of immersion but always with the same core purpose. When combined with increasingly powerful personal computers, advancing flight simulation software, and communications networks, virtual airlines are often able to provide compelling, realistic, experiences similar to operations inside a real airline. Virtual airlines also provide an avenue for members to gain access to additional content, such as aircraft and scenery, for use with their simulator. The appeal
    7.67
    3 votes
    74
    10.00
    1 votes
    75

    Business networking

    • Organizations in this industry: Spoke
    Business networking is a socioeconomic activity by which groups of like-minded businesspeople recognize, create, or act upon business opportunities. A business network is a type of social network whose reason for existing is business activity. There are several prominent business networking organizations that create models of networking activity that, when followed, allow the business person to build new business relationships and generate business opportunities at the same time. A professional network service is an implementation of information technology in support of business networking. Many businesspeople contend business networking is a more cost-effective method of generating new business than advertising or public relations efforts. This is because business networking is a low-cost activity that involves more personal commitment than company money. As an example, a business network may agree to meet weekly or monthly with the purpose of exchanging business leads and referrals with fellow members. To complement this activity, members often meet outside this circle, on their own time, and build their own one-to-one relationship with the fellow member. Business networking can
    10.00
    1 votes
    76

    Knowledge Management System

    • Organizations in this industry: BrainBank Inc
    Knowledge Management System (KM System) refers to a (generally generated via or through to an IT based program/department or section) system for managing knowledge in organizations for supporting creation, capture, storage and dissemination of information. It can comprise a part (neither necessary nor sufficient) of a Knowledge Management initiative. The idea of a KM system is to enable employees to have ready access to the organization's documented base of facts, sources of information, and solutions. For example a typical claim justifying the creation of a KM system might run something like this: an engineer could know the metallurgical composition of an alloy that reduces sound in gear systems. Sharing this information organization wide can lead to more effective engine design and it could also lead to ideas for new or improved equipment. A KM system could be any of the following: KMS systems deal with information (although Knowledge Management as a discipline may extend beyond the information centric aspect of any system) so they are a class of information system and may build on, or utilize other information sources. Distinguishing features of a KMS can include: A KMS offers
    10.00
    1 votes
    77
    Luggage

    Luggage

    • Organizations in this industry: Tumi
    • Parent Industry: Other Leather and Allied Product Manufacturing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 316991
    Baggage is any number of bags, cases and containers which hold a traveller's articles during transit. Luggage is more or less the same concept as "baggage", but is normally used in relation to the personal baggage of a specific person or persons (e.g. I have lost my luggage, he has prepared his luggage, but not normally I have lost my baggage, he has prepared his baggage). The modern traveller can be expected to have packages containing clothing, toiletries, small possessions, trip necessities, and on the return-trip, souvenirs. For some, luggage and the style thereof is representative of the owner's wealth. Baggage (not luggage), or baggage train, can also refer to the train of people and goods, both military and of a personal nature, which commonly followed pre-modern armies on campaign. Luggage has changed over time. Historically the most common types of luggage were Chests or trunks made of wood or other heavy materials. These would be shipped by professional movers. Since the Second World War smaller and more lightweight suitcases and bags that can be carried by an individual have become the main form of luggage. With more and more passengers travelling by air the baggage
    10.00
    1 votes
    78

    Mobile network operator

    • Organizations in this industry: Vodafone Group Plc
    • Parent Industry: Provider (Operator)
    A mobile network operator or MNO (also known as a wireless service provider, wireless carrier, cellular company, or mobile network carrier) is a provider of wireless communications services that owns or controls all the elements necessary to sell and deliver services to an end user including radio spectrum allocation, wireless network infrastructure, back haul infrastructure, billing, customer care and provisioning computer systems and marketing, customer care, provisioning and repair organizations. In addition to obtaining revenue by offering retail services under its own brand, an MNO may also sell access to network services at wholesale rates to mobile virtual network operators or MVNO's. A key defining characteristic of a mobile network operator is that an MNO must own or control access to a radio spectrum license from a regulatory or government entity. A second key defining characteristic of an MNO is that an MNO must own or control the elements of the network infrastructure that are necessary to provide services to subscribers over the licensed spectrum. A mobile network operator typically also has the necessary provisioning, billing and customer care computer systems and the
    10.00
    1 votes
    79

    Web-based email

    • Organizations in this industry: Zimbra
    The term Webmail (or Web-based email) is used to describe two things. One use of the word is to describe a Webmail client: an email client implemented as a web application accessed via a web browser. This article focuses on this use of the term. The other use of the word is to describe a Web-based email service: an email service offered through a web site (a webmail provider) such as Gmail, Yahoo! Mail, Hotmail and AOL Mail. Practically every webmail provider offers email access using a webmail client, and many of them also offer email access by a desktop email client using standard email protocols, while many internet service providers provide a webmail client as part of the email service included in their internet service package. As with any web application, webmail's main advantage over the use of a desktop email client is the ability to send and receive email anywhere from a web browser. Its main disadvantage is the need to be connected to the internet while using it (Gmail offers offline use of its webmail client through the installation of Gears.). There exist also other software tools to integrate parts of the webmail functionality into the OS (e.g. creating messages
    10.00
    1 votes
    80

    Crop Production

    • Organizations in this industry: ML Macadamia Orchards L.P.
    • Parent Industry: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
    • NAICS 2007 code: 111
    6.50
    4 votes
    81

    Data Storage Technology

    • Organizations in this industry: Gear6
    Data Storage Technology (DST) is a 19 mm (3/4") wide magnetic tape data storage format created by Ampex in 1992. The DST format was also made by Ampex as a digital videotape format, DCT, using the same design of cassette. DST is relatively high capacity and high speed, especially compared to other tape technologies available in the 1990s. There are 3 standard tape cartridge sizes compatible with each generation, "Small", "Medium", and "Large".
    6.50
    4 votes
    82

    Broadband Networks

    • Organizations in this industry: Dilithium
    The ideal telecommunication network has the following characteristics: broadband, multi-media, multi-point, multi-rate and economical implementation for a diversity of services (multi-services) [1][2]. The Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN) provides these characteristics in today's networks. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a target technology for meeting these requirements and is widely deployed as a broadband network [2]. Personal computing facilitates easy access, manipulation, storage, and exchange of information, and these processes require reliable data transmission. Communicating documents by images and the use of high-resolution graphics terminals provide a more natural and informative mode of human interaction than do voice and data alone. Video teleconferencing enhances group interaction at a distance. High-definition entertainment video improves the quality of pictures, but requires much higher transmission rates. These new data transmission requirements may require new transmission means other than the present overcrowded radio spectrum [3][4]. A modern telecommunications network (such as the broadband network) must provide all these different
    8.50
    2 votes
    83
    8.50
    2 votes
    84
    8.50
    2 votes
    85

    Software Testing

    • Organizations in this industry: Klocwork
    Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. Software testing can also provide an objective, independent view of the software to allow the business to appreciate and understand the risks of software implementation. Test techniques include, but are not limited to, the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs (errors or other defects). Software testing can be stated as the process of validating and verifying that a computer program/application/product: Software testing, depending on the testing method employed, can be implemented at any time in the development process. Traditionally most of the test effort occurs after the requirements have been defined and the coding process has been completed, but in the Agile approaches most of the test effort is on-going. As such, the methodology of the test is governed by the chosen software development methodology. Different software development models will focus the test effort at different points in the development process. Newer development models, such as Agile, often employ test-driven development
    8.50
    2 votes
    86
    Business Process Management

    Business Process Management

    • Organizations in this industry: Appian
    Business process management (BPM) is a holistic management approach focused on aligning all aspects of an organization with the wants and needs of clients. It promotes business effectiveness and efficiency while striving for innovation, flexibility, and integration with technology. BPM attempts to improve processes continuously. It can therefore be described as a "process optimization process." It is argued that BPM enables organizations to be more efficient, more effective and more capable of change than a functionally focused, traditional hierarchical management approach. An empirical study by Kohlbacher (2009) indicates that BPM helps organizations to gain higher customer satisfaction, product quality, delivery speed and time-to-market speed. An empirical study by Vera & Kuntz (2007) conducted in the German hospital sector indicates that BPM has a positive impact on organizational efficiency. A business process comprises a "series or network of value-added activities, performed by their relevant roles or collaborators, to purposefully achieve the common business goal." These processes are critical to any organization, as they can generate revenue and often represent a
    7.33
    3 votes
    87
    7.33
    3 votes
    88

    IT Services

    • Organizations in this industry: Eduserv Technologies Ltd
    • Parent Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
    • NAICS 2007 code: 5414
    7.33
    3 votes
    89
    Manufacturing

    Manufacturing

    • Organizations in this industry: Nike, Inc.
    • NAICS 2007 code: 31
    Manufacturing is the production of goods for use or sale using labor and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users – the "consumers". Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems. In a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more frequently directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In mixed market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required for the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers
    7.33
    3 votes
    90

    Online shop

    • Organizations in this industry: Oh! Toys
    Online shopping or online retailing is a form of electronic commerce whereby consumers directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet without an intermediary service. An online shop, eshop, e-store, Internet shop, webshop, webstore, online store, or virtual store evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a bricks-and-mortar retailer or shopping centre. The process is called business-to-consumer (B2C) online shopping. When a business buys from another business it is called business-to-business (B2B) online shopping. The largest online retailing corporations are EBay and Amazon.com, both of which are US-based. In 1990 Tim Berners-Lee created the first World Wide Web server and browser. It opened for commercial use in 1991. In 1994 other advances took place, such as online banking and the opening of an online pizza shop by Pizza Hut. During that same year, Netscape introduced SSL encryption of data transferred online, which has become essential for secure online shopping. Also in 1994 the German company Intershop introduced its first online shopping system. In 1995 Amazon launched its online shopping site, and in 1996 eBay appeared. Online customers
    7.33
    3 votes
    91
    Web design

    Web design

    • Organizations in this industry: Medium
    Web design is a broad term covering many different skills and disciplines that are used in the production and maintenance of websites. The different areas of web design include; web graphic design, interface design, authoring; including standardised code and proprietary software, user experience design and search engine optimization. Often many individuals will work in teams covering different aspects of the design process, although some designers will cover them all. The term web design is normally used to describe the design process relating to the front-end (client side) design of a website including writing mark up, but this is a grey area as this is also covered by web development. Web designers are expected to have an awareness of usability and if their role involves creating mark up then they are also expected to be up to date with web accessibility guidelines. Although web design has a fairly recent history, it can be linked to other areas such as graphic design. However web design is also seen as a technological standpoint. It has become a large part of people’s everyday lives. It is hard to imagine the Internet without animated graphics, different styles of typography,
    7.33
    3 votes
    92

    File hosting service

    • Organizations in this industry: Box.net
    A file hosting service, cloud storage service, online file storage provider, or cyberlocker is an Internet hosting service specifically designed to host user files. It allows users to upload files that could then be accessed over the internet from a different computer, tablet, smart phone or other networked device, by the same user or possibly by other users, after a password or other authentication is provided. Typically, the services allow HTTP access, and sometimes FTP access. Related services are content-displaying hosting services (i.e. video, image, audio/music), virtual storage, and remote backup. Personal file storage services are aimed at private individuals, offering a sort of "network storage" for personal backup, file access, or file distribution. Users can upload their files and share them publicly or keep them password-protected. Prior to the advent of personal file storage services, off-site backup services were not typically affordable for individual and small office computer users. Sometimes people prefer hosting their files on a publicly accessible HTTP server. In this case, they generally choose paid hosting, and use their hosting for this purpose. Many free
    6.25
    4 votes
    93

    Financial Administration

    • Organizations in this industry: Broadridge Financial Solutions
    • Parent Industry: Financial Transactions Processing, Reserve, and Clearinghouse Activities
    • NAICS 2007 code: 522320
    6.25
    4 votes
    94
    Online dating service

    Online dating service

    • Organizations in this industry: Baihe
    Online dating (OD) or Internet dating is a dating system which allows individuals, couples and groups to make contact and communicate with each other over the Internet, usually with the objective of developing a personal, romantic, or sexual relationship. Online dating services usually provide unmoderated matchmaking over the Internet, through the use of personal computers or cell phones. Online dating services generally require a prospective member to provide personal information, before they can search the service provider's database for other individuals using criteria they set, such as age range, gender and location. Online dating sites use market metaphor to properly match people up. Most sites allow members to upload photos of themselves and browse the photos of others. Sites may offer additional services, such as webcasts, online chat, telephone chat (VOIP), and message boards. Some sites provide free registration, but may offer services which require a monthly fee. Other sites depend on advertising for their revenue. And some sites such as Badoo are free and then offer additional paid services in a freemium revenue model. Many sites are broad-based, with members coming from
    6.25
    4 votes
    95
    7.00
    3 votes
    96
    Gas turbine

    Gas turbine

    • Organizations in this industry: Flexfab Niagara Inc.
    A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of internal combustion engine. It has an upstream rotating compressor coupled to a downstream turbine, and a combustion chamber in-between. Energy is added to the gas stream in the combustor, where fuel is mixed with air and ignited. In the high pressure environment of the combustor, combustion of the fuel increases the temperature. The products of the combustion are forced into the turbine section. There, the high velocity and volume of the gas flow is directed through a nozzle over the turbine's blades, spinning the turbine which powers the compressor and, for some turbines, drives their mechanical output. The energy given up to the turbine comes from the reduction in the temperature and pressure of the exhaust gas. Energy can be extracted in the form of shaft power, compressed air or thrust or any combination of these and used to power aircraft, trains, ships, generators, or even tanks. In 1930, having found no interest from the RAF for his idea, Frank Whittle patented the design for a centrifugal gas turbine for jet propulsion. The first successful use of his engine was in April 1937. Gases passing through an ideal gas
    7.00
    3 votes
    97

    Lumber industry

    • Organizations in this industry: Lumber Country
    • Parent Industry: Manufacturing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 321
    Lumber or timber industry.
    7.00
    3 votes
    98

    Market research

    • Organizations in this industry: Dolcera
    • Parent Industry: Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
    • NAICS 2007 code: 54191
    Market research is any organized effort to gather information about markets or customers. It is a very important component of business strategy. The term is commonly interchanged with marketing research; however, expert practitioners may wish to draw a distinction, in that marketing research is concerned specifically about marketing processes, while market research is concerned specifically with markets. Market research is a key factor to get advantage over competitors. Market research provides important information to identify and analyze the market need, market size and competition. Market research, includes social and opinion research, [and] is the systematic gathering and interpretation of information about individuals or organizations using statistical and analytical methods and techniques of the applied social sciences to gain insight or support decision making. Market research began to be conceptualized and put into formal practice during the 1920s, as an offshoot of the advertising boom of the Golden Age of radio in the United States. Advertisers began to realize the significance of demographics revealed by sponsorship of different radio programs. Market research is for
    7.00
    3 votes
    99

    Optoelectronics

    • Organizations in this industry: Sarnoff Corporation
    Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics. In this context, light often includes invisible forms of radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet and infrared, in addition to visible light. Optoelectronic devices are electrical-to-optical or optical-to-electrical transducers, or instruments that use such devices in their operation. Electro-optics is often erroneously used as a synonym, but is in fact a wider branch of physics that deals with all interactions between light and electric fields, whether or not they form part of an electronic device. Optoelectronics is based on the quantum mechanical effects of light on electronic materials, especially semiconductors, sometimes in the presence of electric fields. Important applications of optoelectronics include:
    7.00
    3 votes
    100

    Conglomerate

    • Organizations in this industry: Textron
    A conglomerate is a combination of two or more corporations engaged in entirely different businesses that fall under one corporate structure (a corporate group), usually involving a parent company and several (or many) subsidiaries. Often, a conglomerate is a multi-industry company. Conglomerates are often large and multinational. Conglomerates were popular in the 1960s due to a combination of low interest rate(s) and a repeating bear/bull market, which allowed the conglomerates to buy companies in leveraged buyouts, sometimes at temporarily deflated values. Famous examples from the 1960s include Ling-Temco-Vought, ITT Corporation, Litton Industries, Textron, Teledyne, Gulf+Western,, AT&T, and Transamerica. As long as the target company had profits greater than the interest on the loans, the overall return on investment (ROI) of the conglomerate appeared to grow. Also, the conglomerate had a better ability to borrow in the money market, or capital market, than the smaller firm at their community bank. For many years this was enough to make the company's stock price rise, as companies were often valued largely on their ROI. The aggressive nature of the conglomerators themselves was
    8.00
    2 votes
    101
    8.00
    2 votes
    102
    8.00
    2 votes
    103
    Space station

    Space station

    • Organizations in this industry: Excalibur Almaz Ltd
    A space station (or orbital station) is a spacecraft capable of supporting a crew which is designed to remain in space (most commonly in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time, and to which other spacecraft can dock. A space station is distinguished from other spacecraft used for human spaceflight by lack of major propulsion or landing systems. Instead other vehicles transport people and cargo to and from the station. As of October 2011 two space stations are in orbit; the International Space Station, and China's Tiangong 1. Previous stations include the Almaz and Salyut series, Skylab and most recently Mir. Space stations are used to study the effects of long-term space flight on the human body as well as to provide platforms for greater number and length of scientific studies than available on other space vehicles. All space stations have been designed with the intention of rotating multiple crews, with each crew member staying aboard the station for weeks or months, but rarely more than a year. Since the ill-fated flight of Soyuz 11 to Salyut 1, all manned spaceflight duration records have been set aboard space stations. The duration record for a single spaceflight is
    8.00
    2 votes
    104
    8.00
    2 votes
    105
    8.00
    2 votes
    106
    9.00
    1 votes
    107

    Cafe / Coffee Shop

    • Organizations in this industry: Caffe Trieste
    • Parent Industry: Limited-Service Eating Places
    • NAICS 2007 code: 722213
    9.00
    1 votes
    108
    9.00
    1 votes
    109

    Motorcycle

    • Organizations in this industry: Yamaha Motor Company
    • Parent Industry: Other Transportation Equipment Manufacturing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 336991
    9.00
    1 votes
    110

    Organizational learning

    • Organizations in this industry: Insights México
    Organizational learning is an area of knowledge within organizational theory that studies models and theories about the way an organization learns and adapts. In Organizational development (OD), learning is a characteristic of an adaptive organization, i.e., an organization that is able to sense changes in signals from its environment (both internal and external) and adapt accordingly. (see adaptive system). OD specialists endeavor to assist their clients to learn from experience and incorporate the learning as feedback into the planning process. Argyris and Schön were the first to propose models that facilitate organizational learning; others have followed in the tradition of their work: Some of this knowledge can be termed technical – knowing the meaning of technical words and phrases, being able to read and make sense of data and being able to act on the basis of generalizations. Scientific knowledge is ‘propositional’; it takes the form of causal generalizations – whenever A, then B. For example, whenever water reaches the temperature of 100 degrees, it boils; whenever it boils, it turns into steam; steam generates pressure when in an enclosed space; pressure drives engines. A
    9.00
    1 votes
    111
    Private spaceflight

    Private spaceflight

    • Organizations in this industry: Benson Space Company
    Private spaceflight is flight above 100 km (62 mi) Earth altitude conducted by and paid for by an entity other than a government. In the early decades of the Space Age, the government space agencies of the Soviet Union and United States pioneered space technology augmented by collaboration with affiliated design bureaus in the USSR and private companies in the US. The European Space Agency was formed in 1975, largely following the same model of space technology development. Later on, large defense contractors began to develop and operate space launch systems, derived from government rockets and commercial satellites. Private spaceflight in Earth orbit includes communications satellites, satellite television, satellite radio, astronaut transport and sub-orbital and orbital space tourism. Recently, entrepreneurs have begun designing and deploying competitive space systems to the national-monopoly governmental systems of the early decades of the space age. Successes to date include flying suborbital spaceplanes and launching lightweight orbital rockets. Planned private spaceflights beyond Earth orbit include personal spaceflights around the Moon. Two private orbital habitat prototypes
    9.00
    1 votes
    112
    9.00
    1 votes
    113

    User experience design

    • Organizations in this industry: Schematic
    • Parent Industry: Service design
    User Experience Design (UXD or UED) is a broad term used to explain all aspects of a person’s experience with the system including the interface, graphics, industrial design, physical interaction, and the manual. It also refers to the application of user-centered design practices to generate cohesive, predictive and desirable designs based on holistic consideration of users’ experience. In most cases, User Experience design fully encompasses traditional Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) design and extends it by addressing all aspects of a product or service as perceived by users. The field of User Experience Design has roots in human factors and ergonomics, a field that since the late 1940s has been focusing on the interaction between human users, machines and the contextual environments to design systems that address the user's experience. The term specifically “User Experience” came in to existence in early 90’s with the proliferation of computers at work places. It was Donald Norman, User Experience Architect, who coined and brought this term to wider knowledge. The term also has a more recent connection to user-centered design, Human-Computer Interaction, and principles and
    9.00
    1 votes
    114

    Website

    • Organizations in this industry: Shopzilla
    A website, also written as Web site, web site, or simply site, is a set of related web pages containing content such as text, images, video, audio, etc. A website is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via a network such as the Internet or a private local area network through an Internet address known as a Uniform Resource Locator. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web. A webpage is a document, typically written in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML, XHTML). A webpage may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors. Webpages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user of the webpage content. The user's application, often a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. The pages of a website can usually be accessed from a simple Uniform Resource Locator (URL) called the web address. The URLs of the pages organize them into a hierarchy, although hyperlinking between
    9.00
    1 votes
    115
    Artificial intelligence

    Artificial intelligence

    • Organizations in this industry: True Knowledge
    • Parent Industry: Computer software
    Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents" where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines." AI research is highly technical and specialized, deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also divided by several technical issues. There are subfields which are focused on the solution of specific problems, on one of several possible approaches, on the use of widely differing tools and towards the accomplishment of particular applications. The central problems of AI include such traits as reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence (or "strong AI") is
    5.00
    5 votes
    116

    Access

    • Organizations in this industry: ECI Telecom
    • Parent Industry: Telecom Equipment
    6.67
    3 votes
    117
    6.67
    3 votes
    118

    Aluminum

    • Organizations in this industry: Alcoa
    • Parent Industry: Primary Metal Manufacturing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 3313
    6.67
    3 votes
    119
    Free software

    Free software

    • Organizations in this industry: Drupal Association
    • Parent Industry: Computer software
    Free software, software libre or libre software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions that only ensure that further recipients have the same rights under which it was obtained and that manufacturers of consumer products incorporating free software provide the software as source code. The word free in the term free software refers to freedom (liberty) and is not at all related to monetary cost. The Free Software Foundation advises people to "avoid using terms like 'give away' or 'for free,' because those terms imply that the issue is about price, not freedom." Free software is generally available without charge but is not bound to such a restriction. Fees are usually charged for distribution on compact discs and bootable USB drives, or for services of installing or maintaining the operation of free software. Development of large, commercially used free software is often funded by a combination of user donations, corporate contributions, and tax money. The SELinux project at the United States National Security Agency is an
    6.67
    3 votes
    120
    Printing

    Printing

    • Organizations in this industry: Paris Printing
    • Parent Industry: Printing and Related Support Activities
    • NAICS 2007 code: 32311
    Printing is a process for reproducing text and images, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing. The development of printing was preceded by the use of cylinder seals in Mesopotamia developed in 3500 B.C., and other related stamp seals. The earliest form of printing was woodblock printing, with existing examples from China dating to before 220 A.D. and Egypt to the fourth century. Later developments in printing include the movable type, first developed by Bi Sheng in China, and the printing press, a more efficient printing process for western languages with their more limited alphabets, developed by Johannes Gutenberg in the fifteenth century. Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns that was used widely throughout East Asia. It originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later on paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to before 220 A.D. and examples from Roman Egypt date to the fourth century. The earliest surviving woodblock printed
    6.67
    3 votes
    121
    Publishing

    Publishing

    • Organizations in this industry: Penton Media
    • Parent Industry: Media
    • NAICS 2007 code: 511
    Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature, music, or information — the activity of making information available to general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning: originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display the content for the same. Also, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or imprint or to a person who owns a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books (the "book trade") and newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources, such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing, websites, blogs, video game publishers and the like. Publishing includes the stages of the development, acquisition, copyediting, graphic design, production – printing (and its electronic equivalents), and marketing and distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works, musical works, software and other works dealing with information, including the electronic media. Publication is also
    6.67
    3 votes
    122
    6.67
    3 votes
    123

    Advocacy

    • Organizations in this industry: VECCI
    • Parent Industry: Religious, Grantmaking, Civic, Professional, and Similar Organizations
    • NAICS 2007 code: 8133
    Advocacy is a political process by an individual or a large group for example social workers which normally aims to influence public-policy and resource allocation decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions; it may be motivated from moral, ethical or faith principles or simply to protect an asset of interest. Advocacy can include many activities that a person or organization undertakes including media campaigns, public speaking, commissioning and publishing research or poll or the 'filing of friend of the court briefs'. Lobbying (often by lobby groups) is a form of advocacy where a direct approach is made to legislators on an issue which plays a significant role in modern politics. Research is beginning to explore how advocacy groups use social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action. There are several forms of advocacy, which each represent a different approach in the way change is brought into society. One of the most popular forms is social justice advocacy. Although it is true, the initial definition does not encompass the notions of power relations, people’s participation and a vision of a just society as promoted by social
    5.75
    4 votes
    124

    Business process outsourcing

    • Organizations in this industry: IQ Resource Pvt. Ltd.
    Business process outsourcing (BPO) is a subset of outsourcing that involves the contracting of the operations and responsibilities of specific business functions (or processes) to a third-party service provider. Originally, this was associated with manufacturing firms, such as Coca Cola that outsourced large segments of its supply chain. BPO is typically categorized into back office outsourcing - which includes internal business functions such as human resources or finance and accounting, and front office outsourcing - which includes customer-related services such as contact centre services. BPO that is contracted outside a company's country is called offshore outsourcing. BPO that is contracted to a company's neighboring (or nearby) country is called nearshore outsourcing. Often the business processes are information technology-based, and are referred to as ITES-BPO, where ITES stands for Information Technology Enabled Service. Knowledge process outsourcing (KPO) and legal process outsourcing (LPO) are some of the sub-segments of business process outsourcing industry. An advantage of BPO is the way in which it helps to increase a company’s flexibility. However, several sources
    7.50
    2 votes
    125
    7.50
    2 votes
    126

    Social Networking Software

    • Organizations in this industry: Jaxtr
    • Parent Industry: Computer software
    Social Networking Software is a software platform, generally open source and heavily modulated. It is used to administer a social network service.
    7.50
    2 votes
    127
    Spacecraft

    Spacecraft

    • Organizations in this industry: SpaceDev, Inc.
    A spacecraft (or spaceship) is a vehicle, vessel or machine designed to fly in space. Spacecraft are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, earth observation, meteorology, navigation, planetary exploration and transportation of humans and cargo. On a sub-orbital spaceflight, a spacecraft enters space and then returns to the surface, without having gone into an orbit. For orbital spaceflights, spacecraft enter closed orbits around the Earth or around other celestial bodies. Spacecraft used for human spaceflight carry people on board as crew or passengers from start or on orbit (space stations) only, while those used for robotic space missions operate either autonomously or telerobotically. Robotic spacecraft used to support scientific research are space probes. Robotic spacecraft that remain in orbit around a planetary body are artificial satellites. Only a handful of interstellar probes, such as Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager 1 and 2, and New Horizons, are currently on trajectories that leave our Solar System. Orbital spacecraft may be recoverable or not. By method of reentry to Earth they may be divided in non-winged space capsules and winged spaceplanes. Currently,
    7.50
    2 votes
    128

    Transportation

    • Organizations in this industry: Vueling Airlines
    • NAICS 2007 code: 48
    Companies in this industry provide transportation of goods and people over rail, water, air, and road.
    7.50
    2 votes
    129

    Information technology consulting

    • Organizations in this industry: Imola Informatica
    • Parent Industry: Consulting
    Information technology consulting (also called IT consulting, Computer consultancy, Computing consultancy, technology consulting business and technology services or IT advisory) is a field that focuses on advising businesses on how best to use information technology to meet their business objectives. In addition to providing advice, IT consultancies often estimate, manage, implement, deploy, and administer IT systems on businesses' behalf, known as Outsourcing. The IT consulting industry can be viewed as a Four-tier system: There are different reasons why consultants are called in: Five basic principles of IT consulting are: Once a business owner defined the needs to take a business to the next level, a decision maker will define a scope, cost and a time-frame of the project . The role of the IT consultancy company is to support and nurture the company from the very beginning of the project till the end, and deliver the project not only in the scope, time and cost but also with complete customer satisfaction. The usual problem is that a business owner doesn't know the detail of what the project is going to deliver until it starts the process. In many cases, the incremental effort
    5.50
    4 votes
    130
    5.50
    4 votes
    131
    6.33
    3 votes
    132

    Electronic Contract Manufacturing

    • Organizations in this industry: Sienna Corporation
    Electronic Contract Manufacturing (ECM) is a term used for companies that offer contracts for electronic assembly for another company. For instance, instead of attempting to manufacture complex circuit boards themselves OEM companies often outsource their manufacturing operations to ECM companies. In effect Contract manufacturing providers do not post their brand name on any product, and both design and the brand name belongs to the OEM. The birth of the CM industry was marked by IBM's entry into the PC market in 1981, which started a trend to outsource what was considered outside core competence. This sparked a feedback cycle of outsourcing, giving the ECM companies a way to obtain better economies of scale. Also, many OEMs sold off their production units to ECMs. For instance Swedish telecommunications manufacturer Ericsson sold seven plants in Sweden to Flextronics and Solectron in 1997. It is believed that this development has in general led to a shift in market power from OEMs to large ECMs, and has led to a rapid centralization of the CM industry. The key ECM companies today are Foxconn, Solectron, Flextronics, Tresmine (Australia), Sanmina-SCI, Celestica, EE Technologies,
    6.33
    3 votes
    133
    6.33
    3 votes
    134
    Recycling

    Recycling

    • Organizations in this industry: Anglo Felt Industries
    Recycling is processing used materials (waste) into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production. Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" waste hierarchy. There are some ISO standards relating to recycling such as ISO 15270:2008 for plastics waste and ISO 14001:2004 for environmental management control of recycling practice. Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, paper, metal, plastic, textiles, and electronics. Although similar in effect, the composting or other reuse of biodegradable waste – such as food or garden waste – is not typically considered recycling. Materials to be recycled are either brought to a collection center or picked up from the curbside, then sorted, cleaned, and reprocessed into new materials bound for manufacturing. In the strictest sense, recycling of a material would produce a fresh
    6.33
    3 votes
    135
    6.33
    3 votes
    136
    6.33
    3 votes
    137

    Fashion accessory

    • Organizations in this industry: Framenti
    A fashion accessory is an item which is used to contribute, in a secondary manner, to the wearer's outfit. The term came into use in the 19th century. Accessories are often used to complete an outfit and are chosen to specifically complement the wearer's look. Fashion accessories are categorized into two areas: those that are carried and those that are worn. Carried accessories include canes, hand fans, swords, handbags, parasols and umbrellas. Accessories that are worn may include, jackets, boots and shoes, cravats, ties, hats, sunglasses, belts, gloves, muffs, jewellery, watches, shawls, scarves, socks, bonnets and stockings. Detachable accessories can also be included, aigrettes and lapel pins. One of the most favored forms of semiotic distinction is fashion, because fashionable clothes, accessories, and body adornment are easy for others to observe at glance. Incidental items, particularly branded specific handbags, footwear, jewelry, accessories, and new hairstyles act also as important status symbols. Certain items of clothing, such as hats, were particularly important, sending instant signals or ascribed or aspired social status. As communications improved, styles also
    8.00
    1 votes
    138

    Management consulting

    • Organizations in this industry: Bain & Company
    • Parent Industry: Consulting
    • NAICS 2007 code: 54161
    Management consulting is the practice of helping organizations to improve their performance, primarily through the analysis of existing organizational problems and development of plans for improvement. Organizations may draw upon the services of management consultants for a number of reasons, including gaining external (and presumably objective) advice and access to the consultants' specialised expertise. As a result of their exposure to and relationships with numerous organizations, consulting firms are also said to be aware of industry "best practices", although the transferability of such practices from one organization to another may be limited by the specific nature of situation under consideration. Consultancies may also provide organizational change management assistance, development of coaching skills, technology implementation, strategy development, or operational improvement services. Management consultants often bring their own proprietary methodologies or frameworks to guide the identification of problems, and to serve as the basis for recommendations for more effective or efficient ways of performing work tasks. Management consulting grew with the rise of management as
    8.00
    1 votes
    139
    Record label

    Record label

    • Organizations in this industry: Ninja Tune
    A record label is a brand and a trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. Often, a record label is also a company that manages such brands and trademarks; coordinates the production, manufacture, distribution, marketing, promotion, and enforcement of copyright for sound recordings and music videos; conducts talent scouting and development of new artists ("artists and repertoire" or "A&R"); and maintains contracts with recording artists and their managers. The term "record label" derives from the circular label in the center of a vinyl record which prominently displays the manufacturer's name, along with other information. Within the music industry; most recording artists have become increasingly reliant upon record labels to broaden their consumer base, market their albums, and be both promoted and heard on mp3, radio, etc. and of course television also, with publicists that assist performers in positive media reports to market their merchandise, and make it available via stores and other media outlets. The Internet has increasingly been a way that some artists avoid costs and gain new audiences, as well as the use of videos in some cases, to
    8.00
    1 votes
    140
    8.00
    1 votes
    141
    Aerospace

    Aerospace

    • Organizations in this industry: Excalibur Almaz Ltd
    • Parent Industry: Transportation Equipment Manufacturing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 3364
    Aerospace comprises the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Typically, aerospace industries combine aeronautics and astronautics to research, design, manufacture, operate, or maintain vehicles moving through air and space. Aerospace is a very diverse field, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. Aerospace is not the same as airspace, which is the physical air space directly above a location on the floor. In most industrial countries, the aerospace industry is a cooperation of public and private industries. For example, several countries have a civilian space program funded by the government through tax collection, such as NASA in the United States, ESA in Europe, the Canadian Space Agency in Canada, Indian Space Research Organisation in India, JAXA in Japan, RKA in Russia, China National Space Administration in China, SUPARCO in Pakistan, Iranian Space Agency in Iran, and Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) in South Korea. Along with these public space programs, many companies produce technical tools and components such as spaceships and satellites. Some known companies involved in space programs include Boeing, EATS, Lockheed Martin,
    5.25
    4 votes
    142
    5.25
    4 votes
    143

    Recording

    • Organizations in this industry: Heaven Music
    • Parent Industry: Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries
    • NAICS 2007 code: 5122
    Recording is the process of capturing data or translating information to a recording format stored on some storage medium, which is often referred to as a record or, if an auditory medium, a recording. Historical records of events have been made for thousands of years in one form or another. Amongst the earliest are cave painting, runic alphabets and ideograms. Ways of recording text suitable for direct reading by humans includes writing it on paper. Other forms of data storage are easier for automatic retrieval, but humans need a tool to read them. Printing a text stored in a computer allows keeping a copy on the computer and having also a copy that is human-readable without a tool. Technology continues to provide and expand means for human beings to represent, record and express their thoughts, feelings and experiences. Analog recording records analog signals only. Digital recording records both analog signals and digital signals.
    5.25
    4 votes
    144

    Beverages

    • Organizations in this industry: Veryfine
    • Parent Industry: Beverage and Tobacco Product Manufacturing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 3121
    7.00
    2 votes
    145
    Clothing

    Clothing

    • Organizations in this industry: Nordstrom
    • Parent Industry: Manufacturing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 315
    Clothing is fiber and textile material worn on the body. The wearing of clothing is mostly restricted to human beings and is a feature of nearly all human societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depends on physical, social and geographic considerations. Physically, clothing serves many purposes: it can serve as protection from the elements, and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking. It protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, splinters, thorns and prickles by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions. Further, they can provide a hygienic barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body. Clothing also provides protection from harmful UV radiation. There is no easy way to determine when clothing was first developed, but some information has been inferred by studying lice. The body louse specifically lives in clothing, and diverge from head lice about 107,000 years ago, suggesting that clothing existed at that time. Another theory is that modern humans are the only survivors of several species of primates who may have worn
    7.00
    2 votes
    146
    Computer Science

    Computer Science

    • Organizations in this industry: Lovely Systems
    Computer science or computing science (abbreviated CS or CompSci) is the scientific approach to computation and its applications. A computer scientist specialises in the theory of computation and the design of computers or computational systems. Its subfields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines. Some fields, such as computational complexity theory (which explores the fundamental properties of computational problems), are highly abstract, whilst fields such as computer graphics emphasise real-world applications. Still other fields focus on the challenges in implementing computation. For example, programming language theory considers various approaches to the description of computation, whilst the study of computer programming itself investigates various aspects of the use of programming language and complex systems. Human-computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable, and universally accessible to humans. The earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed
    7.00
    2 votes
    147
    Computer security

    Computer security

    • Organizations in this industry: F-Secure
    Computer security is a branch of computer technology known as information security as applied to computers and computer networks. The objective of computer security includes protection of information and property from theft, corruption, or natural disaster, while allowing the information and property to remain accessible and productive to its intended users. The term computer system security means the collective processes and mechanisms by which sensitive and valuable information and services are protected from publication, tampering or collapse by unauthorized activities or untrustworthy individuals and unplanned events respectively. The strategies and methodologies of computer security often differ from most other computer technologies because of its somewhat elusive objective of preventing unwanted computer behavior instead of enabling wanted computer behavior. The technologies of computer security are based on logic. As security is not necessarily the primary goal of most computer applications, designing a program with security in mind often imposes restrictions on that program's behavior. There are 4 approaches to security in computing, sometimes a combination of approaches is
    7.00
    2 votes
    148

    Knowledge process outsourcing

    • Organizations in this industry: Dolcera
    Knowledge process outsourcing (KPO) describes the outsourcing of core business activities, which often are competitively important or form an integral part of a company's value chain. Therefore KPO requires advanced analytical and technical skills as well as a high degree of proprietary domain expertise. Reasons behind KPO include an increase in specialized knowledge and expertise, additional value creation, the potential for cost reductions, and a shortage of skilled labor. KPO services include all kinds of research and information gathering, e.g. intellectual property research for patent applications; equity research, business and market research, legal and medical services; training, consultancy, and research and development in fields such as pharmaceuticals and biotechnology; and animation and design. The Indian National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM) estimated the total market size of the KPO sector in India in 2006 to be $1.5 billions. The year before, 2005, it had been $1.3 billions, with Evalueserve predicting that by 2010 it would be some $10 to $15 billions. The Indian government was predicting that by 2010 India would have 15% of the global KPO
    7.00
    2 votes
    149
    Launch vehicle

    Launch vehicle

    • Organizations in this industry: Rocketplane Kistler
    In spaceflight, a launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from the Earth's surface into outer space. A launch system includes the launch vehicle, the launch pad and other infrastructure. Usually the payload is an artificial satellite placed into orbit, but some spaceflights are sub-orbital while others enable spacecraft to escape Earth orbit entirely. A launch vehicle which carries its payload on a suborbital trajectory is often called a sounding rocket. Expendable launch vehicles are designed for one-time use. They usually separate from their payload, and may break up during atmospheric reentry. Reusable launch vehicles, on the other hand, are designed to be recovered intact and used again for subsequent launches. For orbital spaceflights, the Space Shuttle was the only launch vehicle with components which have been used for multiple flights. Non-rocket spacelaunch alternatives are at the planning stage. Launch vehicles are often characterized by the amount of mass they can lift into orbit. For example, a Proton rocket has a launch capacity of 22,000 kilograms (49,000 lb) into low Earth orbit (LEO). Launch vehicles are also characterized by the number
    7.00
    2 votes
    150

    Non-profit organization

    • Organizations in this industry: Icelandic Institute for Intelligent Machines
    A nonprofit organization (US) or not-for-profit organisation (UK and elsewhere) (NPO) is an organization that uses surplus revenues to achieve its goals rather than distributing them as profit or dividends. States in the United States defer to the IRS designation conferred under United States Internal Revenue Code Section 501(c), when the IRS deems an organization eligible. While not-for-profit organizations are permitted to generate surplus revenues, they must be retained by the organization for its self-preservation, expansion, or plans. NPOs have controlling members or boards. Many have paid staff including management, while others employ unpaid volunteers and even executives who work with or without compensation (occasionally nominal). Where there is a token fee, in general, it is used to meet legal requirements for establishing a contract between the executive and the organization. Designation as a nonprofit and an intent to make money are not related in the United States. This means nothing can be conferred by the declaration. It is unclear whether or not this holds outside of the U.S. In the United States, such inference is the purpose of the Internal Revenue Code, Section
    7.00
    2 votes
    151
    7.00
    2 votes
    152
    7.00
    2 votes
    153

    Retail banking

    • Organizations in this industry: First International Bank
    • Parent Industry: Finance
    Retail banking is banking in which banking institutions execute transactions directly with consumers, rather than corporations or other banks. Services offered include savings and transactional accounts, mortgages, personal loans, debit cards, and credit cards. Retail Banking services are also termed as Personal Banking services
    7.00
    2 votes
    154
    Search engine

    Search engine

    • Organizations in this industry: Technorati
    A search engine is an information retrieval system designed to help find information stored on a computer system. The search results are usually presented in a list and are commonly called hits. Search engines help to minimize the time required to find information and the amount of information which must be consulted, akin to other techniques for managing information overload. The most public, visible form of a search engine is a Web search engine which searches for information on the World Wide Web. Search engines provide an interface to a group of items that enables users to specify criteria about an item of interest and have the engine find the matching items. The criteria are referred to as a search query. In the case of text search engines, the search query is typically expressed as a set of words that identify the desired concept that one or more documents may contain. There are several styles of search query syntax that vary in strictness. It can also switch names within the search engines from previous sites. Whereas some text search engines require users to enter two or three words separated by white space, other search engines may enable users to specify entire documents,
    7.00
    2 votes
    155
    Video game

    Video game

    • Organizations in this industry: Epyx
    • Parent Industry: Computer software
    A video game is an electronic game that involves human interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. The word video in video game traditionally referred to a cathode ray tube (CRT) display device, but it now implies any type of display device that can produce two or three dimensional images. The electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms; examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles. These platforms range from large mainframe computers to small handheld devices. Specialized video games such as arcade games, while previously common, have gradually declined in use. Video games have gone on to become an art form and industry. The input device used to manipulate video games is called a game controller, and varies across platforms. For example, a controller might consist of only a button and a joystick, while another may feature a dozen buttons and one or more joysticks. Early personal computer games often needed a keyboard for gameplay, or more commonly, required the user to buy a separate joystick with at least one button. Many modern computer games allow or require the player to use a keyboard and a mouse
    7.00
    2 votes
    156
    6.00
    3 votes
    157
    Orbital spaceflight

    Orbital spaceflight

    • Organizations in this industry: Excalibur Almaz Ltd
    An orbital spaceflight (or orbital flight) is a spaceflight in which a spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least one orbit. To do this around the Earth, it must be on a free trajectory which has an altitude at perigee (altitude at closest approach) above 100 kilometers (62 mi) (this is, by at least one convention, the boundary of space). To remain in orbit at this altitude requires an orbital speed of ~7.8 km/s. Orbital speed is slower for higher orbits, but attaining them requires higher delta-v. The expression "orbital spaceflight" is mostly used to distinguish from sub-orbital spaceflights, which are flights where apogee of a spacecraft reaches space but perigee is too low. Orbital spaceflight from Earth has only been achieved by launch vehicles that use rocket engines for propulsion. To reach orbit, the rocket must impart to the payload a delta-v of about 9.3–10 km/s. This figure is mainly (~7.8 km/s) for horizontal acceleration needed to reach orbital speed, but allows for atmospheric drag (approximately 300 m/s with the ballistic coefficient of a 20 m long dense fuelled vehicle), gravity losses (depending on burn time and details of the
    6.00
    3 votes
    158

    Video game development

    • Organizations in this industry: Team17 Software
    • Parent Industry: Video game
    A video game developer is a software developer (a business or an individual) that creates video games. A developer may specialize in a certain video game console, such as Nintendo's Wii, Microsoft's Xbox 360, Sony's PlayStation 3, or may develop for a variety of systems, including personal computers. Most developers also specialize in certain types of games, such as role-playing video games or first-person shooters. Some focus on porting games from one system to another. Some focus on translating games from one language to another. An unusual few do other kinds of software development work in addition to games. Most video game publishers maintain development studios, such as Electronic Arts's EA Canada, Square Enix's studios, Activision's Radical Entertainment, Nintendo EAD and Sony's Polyphony Digital and Naughty Dog. However, as publishing is still their primary activity, they are generally described as "publishers" rather than "developers". Developers can be private as well, such as Bungie, which created the Halo franchise. In the video game industry, a first-party developer is part of a company that manufactures a video game console, and develops exclusively for it. First-party
    6.00
    3 votes
    159
    6.00
    3 votes
    160
    Recreational vehicle

    Recreational vehicle

    • Organizations in this industry: Harley-Davidson Motor Company
    Recreational vehicle or RV is, in North America, the usual term for a motor vehicle or trailer equipped with living space and amenities found in a home. A recreational vehicle normally includes a kitchen, a bathroom, a bedroom and a living room. In other countries the terms caravan, camper van or motorhome are more common, and the vehicles themselves vary, although typically being smaller than those in North America. A recreational vehicle is any vehicle, whether towed or driven that has a kitchen, bathroom, bedroom and living area. Recreational vehicles include: motorhome (class A, B, and C), travel trailer, fifth wheel trailer, popup trailer, and slide-in camper. RVs are intended for everything from brief leisure activities such as vacations and camping, to full-time living. RVs are usually found in RV Parks or campgrounds although they are sometimes parked in special trailer parks. (However, many trailer parks are reserved just for mobile homes, not to be confused with RVs and motorhomes.) RVs can also be rented in most major cities and tourist areas. They are occasionally used as mobile offices for business travelers and often include customizations such as extra desk space, an
    5.00
    4 votes
    161
    Collaborative software

    Collaborative software

    • Organizations in this industry: Vialect Inc.
    • Parent Industry: Computer software
    Collaborative software (also referred to as groupware) is computer software designed to help people involved in a common task achieve goals. One of the earliest definitions of “collaborative software” is, "intentional group processes plus software to support them." (Peter and Trudy Johnson-Lenz ). The design intent of collaborative software (groupware) is to transform the way documents and rich media are shared to enable more effective team collaboration. Collaboration, with respect to information technology, seems to have several definitions. Some are defensible but others are so broad they lose meaningful application. Understanding the differences in human interactions is necessary to ensure that appropriate technologies are employed to meet interaction needs. Collaboration requires individuals working together in a coordinated fashion, towards a common goal. Accomplishing the goal is the primary purpose for bringing the team together. Collaborative software helps facilitate action-oriented teams working together over geographic distances by providing tools that aid communication, collaboration and the process of problem solving. Additionally, collaborative software may support
    5.67
    3 votes
    162
    Petroleum

    Petroleum

    • Organizations in this industry: Gulf Oil
    • Parent Industry: Energy
    • NAICS 2007 code: 211
    Petroleum (L. petroleum, from Latin: 'petra' (rock) + Latin: oleum (oil)) or crude oil is a naturally occurring flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. A fossil fuel, it is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and undergo intense heat and pressure. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling. This comes after the studies of structural geology (at the reservoir scale), sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterization (mainly in terms of porosity and permeable structures). It is refined and separated, most easily by boiling point, into a large number of consumer products, from petrol (or gasoline) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals. Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, and it is estimated that the world consumes about 88 million barrels each day. The use of fossil fuels such as petroleum can have a negative impact on Earth's biosphere, releasing pollutants
    5.67
    3 votes
    163
    5.67
    3 votes
    164
    5.67
    3 votes
    165
    5.67
    3 votes
    166
    5.67
    3 votes
    167
    Computer hardware

    Computer hardware

    • Organizations in this industry: IBM
    • Parent Industry: Computers
    • NAICS 2007 code: 3341
    Computer hardware is the collection of physical elements that comprise a computer system. Computer hardware refers to the physical parts or components of computer such as monitor, keyboard, hard disk, mouse, etc. Refers to objects that you can actually touch, like disks, disk drives, display screens, keyboards, printers, boards, and chips. In contrast, software is untouchable. Software exists as ideas,application, concepts, and symbols, but it has no substance. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system.
    6.50
    2 votes
    168
    6.50
    2 votes
    169
    Enterprise resource planning

    Enterprise resource planning

    • Organizations in this industry: SAP AG
    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems integrate internal and external management information across an entire organization, embracing finance/accounting, manufacturing, sales and service, customer relationship management, etc. ERP systems automate this activity with an integrated software application. The purpose of ERP is to facilitate the flow of information between all business functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connections to outside stakeholders. ERP systems can run on a variety of computer hardware and network configurations, typically employing a database as a repository for information. In 1990 Gartner Group first employed the acronym ERP as an extension of material requirements planning (MRP), later manufacturing resource planning and computer-integrated manufacturing. Without supplanting these terms, ERP came to represent a larger whole, reflecting the evolution of application integration beyond manufacturing. Not all ERP packages were developed from a manufacturing core. Vendors variously began with accounting, maintenance and human resources. By the mid–1990s ERP systems addressed all core functions of an enterprise. Beyond
    6.50
    2 votes
    170
    Fast food

    Fast food

    • Organizations in this industry: Burger King
    • Parent Industry: Food
    Fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a packaged form for take-out/take-away. The term "fast food" was recognized in a dictionary by Merriam–Webster in 1951. Outlets may be stands or kiosks, which may provide no shelter or seating, or fast food restaurants (also known as quick service restaurants). Franchise operations which are part of restaurant chains have standardized foodstuffs shipped to each restaurant from central locations. The concept of ready-cooked food for sale is closely connected with urban development. In Ancient Rome cities had street stands that sold bread, sausages and wine. In the cities of Roman antiquity, much of the urban population living in insulae, multi-story apartment blocks, depended on food vendors for much of their meals. In the mornings, bread soaked in wine was eaten as a quick snack and cooked vegetables and stews later in the day at a popina, a simple type of eating establishment. In the Middle
    6.50
    2 votes
    171
    Furniture

    Furniture

    • Organizations in this industry: Content by Conran
    • Parent Industry: Manufacturing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 337
    Furniture is the mass noun for the movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating and sleeping. Furniture is also used to hold objects at a convenient height for work (as horizontal surfaces above the ground), or to store things. Furniture can be a product of design and is considered a form of decorative art. In addition to furniture's functional role, it can serve a symbolic or religious purpose. It can be made from many materials, including metal, plastic, and wood. Furniture can be made using a variety of woodworking joints which often reflect the local culture. Furniture in fashion has been a part of the human experience since the development of non-nomadic cultures. Evidence of furniture survives from the Neolithic Period and later in antiquity in the form of paintings, such as the wall Murals discovered at Pompeii; sculpture, and examples have been excavated in Egypt and found in tombs in Ghiordes, in modern day Turkey. A range of unique stone furniture has been excavated in Skara Brae, a Neolithic village located in Orkney. The site dates from 3100–2500 BC and due to a shortage of wood in Orkney, the people of Skara Brae were forced to build
    6.50
    2 votes
    172

    Geospatial technology

    • Organizations in this industry: Giswebsite LLP
    Geospatial Technology, commonly known as geomatics, refers to technology used for visualization, measurement, and analysis of features or phenomena that occur on the earth. This terminology has become common in the United States, and is synonymous with Spatial Information Technology. Geospatial technology includes three different technologies that are all related to mapping features on the surface of the earth. These three technology systems are GPS (global positioning systems), GIS (geographical information systems), and RS (remote sensing).
    6.50
    2 votes
    173
    Investment banking

    Investment banking

    • Organizations in this industry: Evercore Partners
    • Parent Industry: Financial Services
    • NAICS 2007 code: 523
    An investment bank is a financial institution that assists individuals, corporations and governments in raising capital by underwriting and/or acting as the client's agent in the issuance of securities. An investment bank may also assist companies involved in mergers and acquisitions, and provide ancillary services such as market making, trading of derivatives, fixed income instruments, foreign exchange, commodities, and equity securities. Unlike commercial banks and retail banks, investment banks do not take deposits. From 1933 (Glass–Steagall Act) until 1999 (Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act), the United States maintained a separation between investment banking and commercial banks. Other industrialized countries, including G8 countries, have historically not maintained such a separation. There are two main lines of business in investment banking. Trading securities for cash or for other securities (i.e., facilitating transactions, market-making), or the promotion of securities (i.e., underwriting, research, etc.) is the "sell side", while dealing with pension funds, mutual funds, hedge funds, and the investing public (who consume the products and services of the sell-side in order to
    6.50
    2 votes
    174
    6.50
    2 votes
    175
    Text mining

    Text mining

    • Organizations in this industry: ClearForest
    Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text data mining, roughly equivalent to text analytics, refers to the process of deriving high-quality information from text. High-quality information is typically derived through the devising of patterns and trends through means such as statistical pattern learning. Text mining usually involves the process of structuring the input text (usually parsing, along with the addition of some derived linguistic features and the removal of others, and subsequent insertion into a database), deriving patterns within the structured data, and finally evaluation and interpretation of the output. 'High quality' in text mining usually refers to some combination of relevance, novelty, and interestingness. Typical text mining tasks include text categorization, text clustering, concept/entity extraction, production of granular taxonomies, sentiment analysis, document summarization, and entity relation modeling (i.e., learning relations between named entities). Text analysis involves information retrieval, lexical analysis to study word frequency distributions, pattern recognition, tagging/annotation, information extraction, data mining techniques
    6.50
    2 votes
    176

    Bookstore

    • Organizations in this industry: The Other Change of Hobbit
    • Parent Industry: Book Stores and News Dealers
    • NAICS 2007 code: 451211
    A bookstore or bookshop is a retailer that primarily sells book. Bookstores can range in size from local independent bookstores offering several hundred titles to large brick-and-mortar chains offering upwards of 200,000 titles; online bookstores may offer many times more titles. Bookstores often sell items related to books such as newspapers and maps; additional product lines may vary enormously, particularly among independents. College and universities often have their own student bookstore on campus that focuses on providing course textbook, although some on-campus bookstores are owned by large chains such as Barnes & Noble College Bookstores, which is a subsidiary of Barnes & Noble. Another common type of bookstore is the used bookstore or second-hand bookshop which buys and sells used copies of books, often for prices much cheaper than new copies. However, sometimes with rare books, especially certain first editions, these prices are much higher. Book collector tend to frequent used book stores. Large online bookstores offer used books for sale, too. Individuals wishing to sell their used books using online bookstores agree to terms outlined by the bookstore(s):
    7.00
    1 votes
    177
    Cable television

    Cable television

    • Organizations in this industry: Oxygen media
    • NAICS 2007 code: 51321
    Cable television is a system of distributing television programs to subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables or digital light pulses through hybrid fibre coaxial (HFC) networks. This contrasts with traditional broadcast television (terrestrial television) in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone service, and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables. The abbreviation CATV is often used for cable television. It originally stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in 1948: in areas where over-the-air reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, and cable was run from them to individual homes. The origins of cable broadcasting are even older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924. In order to receive cable television at a given location, cable distribution lines must be available on
    7.00
    1 votes
    178
    7.00
    1 votes
    179
    Human spaceflight

    Human spaceflight

    • Organizations in this industry: Benson Space Company
    Human spaceflight (or manned spaceflight or crewed spaceflight) is space travel with humans on the spacecraft. When a spacecraft is manned, it can be piloted directly, as opposed to machine or robotic space probes controlled remotely by humans or through automatic methods on board the spacecraft. The first manned spaceflight was launched by the Soviet Union on April 12, 1961 as a part of the Vostok programme of space exploration, with a cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on board. Currently, only Russia and China maintain human spaceflight capability independent of international cooperation. As of 2011, human spaceflights are being actively launched by the Soyuz programme conducted by the Russian Federal Space Agency and the Shenzhou program conducted by the China National Space Administration. This does not account for private non-government activities. The U.S. lost human spaceflight launch capability upon retirement of the Space Shuttle on July 21, 2011. Under the Bush administration, the Constellation Program included plans for canceling the Shuttle and replacing it with the capability for spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit. In the 2011 United States federal budget, the Obama
    7.00
    1 votes
    180

    Open-source software

    • Organizations in this industry: Alfresco
    • Parent Industry: Computer software
    Open-source software (OSS) is computer software that is available in source code form: the source code and certain other rights normally reserved for copyright holders are provided under an open-source license that permits users to study, change, improve and at times also to distribute the software. Open source software is very often developed in a public, collaborative manner. Open-source software is the most prominent example of open-source development and often compared to (technically defined) user-generated content or (legally defined) open content movements. A report by the Standish Group states that adoption of open-source software models has resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year to consumers. The free software movement was launched in 1983. In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open source software (OSS) as an expression which is less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate world. Software developers may want to publish their software with an open source license, so that anybody may also develop the same software or understand its internal functioning. With open source software, generally anyone is
    7.00
    1 votes
    181
    Risk management

    Risk management

    • Organizations in this industry: Det Norske Veritas
    Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives, whether positive or negative) followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities. Risks can come from uncertainty in financial markets, project failures (at any phase in design, development, production, or sustainment life-cycles), legal liabilities, credit risk, accidents, natural causes and disasters as well as deliberate attack from an adversary, or events of uncertain or unpredictable root-cause. Several risk management standards have been developed including the Project Management Institute, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, actuarial societies, and ISO standards. Methods, definitions and goals vary widely according to whether the risk management method is in the context of project management, security, engineering, industrial processes, financial portfolios, actuarial assessments, or public health and safety. The strategies to manage risk typically include transferring
    7.00
    1 votes
    182

    Valuation

    • Organizations in this industry: Valuation Exchange
    In finance, valuation is the process of estimating what something is worth. Items that are usually valued are a financial asset or liability. Valuations can be done on assets (for example, investments in marketable securities such as stocks, options, business enterprises, or intangible assets such as patents and trademarks) or on liabilities (e.g., bonds issued by a company). Valuations are needed for many reasons such as investment analysis, capital budgeting, merger and acquisition transactions, financial reporting, taxable events to determine the proper tax liability, and in litigation. Valuation of financial assets is done using one or more of these types of models: Common terms for the value of an asset or liability are fair market value, fair value, and intrinsic value. The meanings of these terms differ. For instance, when an analyst believes a stock's intrinsic value is greater (less) than its market price, an analyst makes a "buy" ("sell") recommendation. Moreover, an asset's intrinsic value may be subject to personal opinion and vary among analysts. Businesses or fractional interests in businesses may be valued for various purposes such as mergers and acquisitions, sale
    7.00
    1 votes
    183

    Agricultural Chemicals

    • Organizations in this industry: DuPont
    • Parent Industry: Chemical Manufacturing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 3253
    Agrochemical (or agrichemical), a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a generic term for the various chemical products used in agriculture. In most cases, agrichemical refers to the broad range of pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. It may also include synthetic fertilizers, hormones and other chemical growth agents, and concentrated stores of raw animal manure. Many agrichemicals are toxic, and agrichemicals in bulk storage may pose significant environmental and/or health risks, particularly in the event of accidental spills. In many countries, use of agrichemicals is highly regulated. Government-issued permits for purchase and use of approved agrichemicals may be required. Significant penalties can result from misuse, including improper storage resulting in spillage. On farms, proper storage facilities and labeling, emergency clean-up equipment and procedures, and safety equipment and procedures for handling, application and disposal are often subject to mandatory standards and regulations. Usually, the regulations are carried out through the registration process.
    5.33
    3 votes
    184
    Coffee Roasting Supply

    Coffee Roasting Supply

    • Organizations in this industry: Sweet Marias

    Home roasting of coffee is a tradition that has enjoyed  a modern renaissance.   Improvements in home roasting equipment and the availability of quality green (unroasted) coffee make this possible.
     
    5.33
    3 votes
    185
    4.50
    4 votes
    186

    Auto lease

    • Organizations in this industry: The Lease Outlet
    • Parent Industry: Passenger Car Rental and Leasing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 532112
    6.00
    2 votes
    187

    Enterprise content management

    • Organizations in this industry: Open Text Corporation
    Enterprise content management (ECM) is a formalized means of organizing and storing an organization's documents, and other content, that relate to the organization's processes. The term encompasses strategies, methods, and tools used throughout the lifecycle of the content. The Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM) International, the worldwide association for enterprise content management, defined the term Enterprise Content Management in 2000. AIIM has refined the abbreviation ECM several times to reflect the expanding scope and importance of information management: The latest definition encompasses areas that have traditionally been addressed by records management and document management systems. It also includes the conversion of data between various digital and traditional forms, including paper and microfilm. ECM is an umbrella term covering document management, web content management, search, collaboration, records management, digital asset management (DAM), work-flow management, capture and scanning. ECM is primarily aimed at managing the life-cycle of information from initial publication or creation all the way through archival and eventually disposal. ECM
    6.00
    2 votes
    188
    6.00
    2 votes
    189
    Textile industry

    Textile industry

    • Organizations in this industry: Anglo Felt Industries
    The textile industry is primarily concerned with the production of yarn, and cloth and the subsequent design or manufacture of clothing and their distribution. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry. Cotton is the world's most important natural fiber. In the year 2007, the global yield was 25 million tons from 35 million hectares cultivated in more than 50 countries. There are five stages Artificial fibers can be made by extruding a polymer, through a spinneret into a medium where it hardens. Wet spinning (rayon) uses a coagulating medium. In dry spinning (acetate and triacetate), the polymer is contained in a solvent that evaporates in the heated exit chamber. In melt spinning (nylons and polyesters) the extruded polymer is cooled in gas or air and then sets. All these fibers will be of great length, often kilometers long. Artificial fibers can be processed as long fibers or batched and cut so they can be processed like a natural fiber. Natural fibers are either from animals (sheep, goat, rabbit, silk-worm) mineral (asbestos) or from plants (cotton, flax, sisal). These vegetable fibers can come from the seed (cotton), the stem (known
    6.00
    2 votes
    190

    Video game publishing

    • Organizations in this industry: Ubisoft
    • Parent Industry: Video game
    A video game publisher is a company that publishes video games that they have either developed internally or have had developed by a video game developer. As with book publishers or publishers of DVD movies, video game publishers are responsible for their product's manufacturing and marketing, including market research and all aspects of advertising. They usually finance the development, sometimes by paying a video game developer (the publisher calls this external development) and sometimes by paying an internal staff of developers called a studio. The large video game publishers also distribute the games they publish, while some smaller publishers instead hire distribution companies (or larger video game publishers) to distribute the games they publish. Other functions usually performed by the publisher include deciding on and paying for any license that the game may utilize; paying for localization; layout, printing, and possibly the writing of the user manual; and the creation of graphic design elements such as the box design. Large publishers may also attempt to boost efficiency across all internal and external development teams by providing services such as sound design and
    6.00
    2 votes
    191
    6.00
    2 votes
    192

    Public opinion

    • Organizations in this industry: SES Research
    Public opinion is the aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs held by the adult population. Public opinion can also be defined as the complex collection of opinions of many different people and the sum of all their views. Since the 1950s, television has been the main medium for molding public opinion. Public opinion as a concept gained credence with the rise of "public" in the eighteenth century. The English term "public opinion" dates back to the eighteenth century and has derived from the French l’opinion, which was first used in 1588 by Montaigne. This concept came about through the process of urbanization and other political and social forces. For the first time, it became important what people thought, as forms of political contention changed. Adam Smith, one of the earliest classical economists, refers to public opinion in his Theory of Moral Sentiments, but it was Jeremy Bentham, the famous utilitarian Philosopher, who fully developed theories of public opinion. He opined that public opinion had the power to ensure that rulers would rule for the greatest happiness of the greater number. He brought in Utilitarian philosophy in order to define theories of public opinion.
    5.00
    3 votes
    193

    Fast casual restaurant

    • Organizations in this industry: Red Robin
    • Parent Industry: Restaurant
    • NAICS 2007 code: 7222
    A fast casual restaurant is a type of restaurant which is similar to a fast-food restaurant in that it does not offer full table service, but promises a somewhat higher quality of food and atmosphere. It is a growing concept to fill the space between fast-food and casual dining. The typical cost per guest is in the $6-$10 range. Counter service accompanied by handmade food (often visible via an open kitchen) is typical. Alcohol may be served. Dishes like steak may be offered. The menu is usually limited to an extended over-counter display, and options in the way the food is prepared are emphasized. Health-conscious items have a larger than normal portion of the menu, and some restaurants may emphasize high quality ingredients like free range chicken and freshly made salsas; Overall, the quality of the food is presented as much higher than conventional factory-made fast food. While full table service is not offered, conveniences like non-plastic utensils and plates are common. The moderate volume music and nontraditional decor pioneered by Starbucks are fully embraced by fast casual restaurants - approximately half of the customers eat in the establishment, compared with a
    5.50
    2 votes
    194
    Film

    Film

    • Organizations in this industry: Silicon Artists, Inc.
    • Parent Industry: Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries
    • NAICS 2007 code: 5121
    A film, also called a movie or motion picture, is a series of still or moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects. The process of filmmaking has developed into an art form and industry. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating – or indoctrinating – citizens. The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue into the language of the viewer. Films are made up of a series of individual images called frames. When these images are shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. The viewer cannot see the flickering between frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Viewers perceive motion due to a
    5.50
    2 votes
    195
    Hedge fund

    Hedge fund

    • Organizations in this industry: Citadel Investment Group
    • Parent Industry: Finance
    A hedge fund is an investment fund that can undertake a wider range of investment and trading activities than other funds, but which is only open for investment from particular types of investors specified by regulators. These investors are typically institutions, such as pension funds, university endowments and foundations, or high net worth individuals. As a class, hedge funds invest in a diverse range of assets, but they most commonly trade liquid securities on public markets. They also employ a wide variety of investment strategies, and make use of techniques such as short selling and leverage. Hedge funds are typically open-ended, meaning that investors can invest and withdraw money at regular, specified intervals. The value of an investment in a hedge fund is calculated as a share of the fund's net asset value, meaning that increases and decreases in the value of the fund's assets (and fund expenses) are directly reflected in the amount an investor can later withdraw. Most hedge fund investment strategies aim to achieve a positive return on investment whether markets are rising or falling. Hedge fund managers typically invest their own money in the fund they manage, which
    5.50
    2 votes
    196
    Hospitality

    Hospitality

    • Organizations in this industry: Hoshi Ryokan
    • Parent Industry: Accommodation and Food Services
    • NAICS 2007 code: 721
    Hospitality is the relationship between guest and host, or the act or practice of being hospitable. Specifically, this includes the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers, resorts, membership clubs, conventions, attractions, special events, and other services for travelers and tourists. The word hospitality derives from the Latin hospes, which is formed from hostis, which originally meant "to have power." In the West today hospitality is rarely a matter of protection and survival, and is more associated with etiquette and entertainment. However, it still involves showing respect for one's guests, providing for their needs, and treating them as equals. Cultures and subcultures vary in the extent to which one is expected to show hospitality to strangers, as opposed to personal friends or members of one's in-group. The hospitality service industry includes hotels, casinos, and resorts, which offer comfort and guidance to strangers, whether it be commercial (for monetary gain) or non-commercial (not for profit). The terms hospital, hospice, and hostel also derive from "hospitality," and these institutions preserve more of the connotation of personal
    5.50
    2 votes
    197
    Online marketing

    Online marketing

    • Organizations in this industry: ValueClick
    • Parent Industry: Marketing
    Online marketing is marketing on the Internet. It is a type of e-marketing, which in turn is a type of e-commerce. While at first the confusion of experiments, beta versions of websites, search engines and other online devices cause marketers to consider this world of the Internet unknowable and perhaps too unpredictable, there is now a growing body of work to which marketers are now paying attention in order to develop online marketing programs. The most known tools to marketers in the mid 2000s are currently tools grouped into 2 fields: online advertising and search engine optimization. However, marketing online is simply not offline marketing applied to a new online world. Online marketing has a slightly different character and purpose as indicated in such seminal works as The cluetrain manifesto, Purple cow, Permission marketing, and other texts of smaller nature compiled in blogs and news sites. When marketing online, the general four step process of marketing is still the guiding idea, in the online world the character of marketing becomes more deeply a conversation between a marketer and a market-of-one a concept that is central to The cluetrain manifesto. In such a
    5.50
    2 votes
    198
    5.50
    2 votes
    199
    Paper

    Paper

    • Organizations in this industry: Crown-Zellerbach
    • Parent Industry: Manufacturing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 322
    Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon, drawing or for packaging. It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets. Paper is a versatile material with many uses. Whilst the most common is for writing and printing upon, it is also widely used as a packaging material, in many cleaning products, in a number of industrial and construction processes, and even as a food ingredient – particularly in Asian cultures. Paper, and the pulp papermaking process, was said to be developed in China during the early 2nd century AD by the Han court eunuch Cai Lun, although the earliest archaeological fragments of paper derive from the 2nd century BC in China. The oldest known archaeological fragments of the immediate precursor to modern paper date to 2nd century BC in China. Papermaking is considered one of the Four Great Inventions of China, and the pulp papermaking process is ascribed to Cai Lun, a 2nd century AD Han court eunuch. With paper an effective substitute for silk in many applications, China could export silk in greater quantity, contributing to a Golden
    5.50
    2 votes
    200

    Electronic commerce

    • Organizations in this industry: Zip.ca
    • Parent Industry: Electronic Shopping and Mail-Order Houses
    • NAICS 2007 code: 454111
    'Electronic commerce', commonly known as 'e-commerce' or 'e-comm', is the buying and selling of product or service over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. Electronic commerce draws on such technologies as electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least at one point in the transaction's life-cycle, although it may encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail, mobile devices and telephones as well. E-commerce can be divided into: Originally, electronic commerce was identified as the facilitation of commercial transactions electronically, using technology such as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT). These were both introduced in the late 1970s, allowing businesses to send commercial documents like purchase orders or invoices electronically. The growth and acceptance of credit cards, automated teller machines (ATM) and telephone banking in the 1980s were also forms of electronic
    4.67
    3 votes
    201
    4.67
    3 votes
    202
    6.00
    1 votes
    203

    Hosted service provider

    • Organizations in this industry: G.ho.st
    A Hosted Service Provider (xSP) is a business that delivers a combination of traditional IT functions such as infrastructure, applications (software as a service), security, monitoring, storage, web development, website hosting and email, over the Internet or other wide area networks (WAN). An xSP combines the abilities of an application service provider (ASP) and an Internet service provider (ISP). This approach enables customers to consolidate and outsource much of their IT needs for a predictable recurring fee. xSPs that integrate web publishing give customers a central repository to rapidly and efficiently distribute information and resources among employees, customers, partners and the general public. Hosted Service Providers benefit from economies of scale and operate on a one-to-many business model, delivering the same software and services to many customers at once. Customers are charged on a subscription basis good place to start is web hosting reviews. As defined by analyst Ovum.
    6.00
    1 votes
    204
    Role-playing game

    Role-playing game

    • Organizations in this industry: TSR, Inc.
    A role-playing game (RPG and sometimes roleplaying game) is a game in which players assume the roles of characters in a fictional setting. Players take responsibility for acting out these roles within a narrative, either through literal acting, or through a process of structured decision-making or character development. Actions taken within many games succeed or fail according to a formal system of rules and guidelines. There are several forms of RPG. The original form, sometimes called the tabletop RPG, is conducted through discussion, whereas in live action role-playing games (LARP) players physically perform their characters' actions. In both of these forms, an arranger called a game master (GM) usually decides on the rules and setting to be used and acts as referee, while each of the other players plays the role of a single character. Several varieties of RPG also exist in electronic media, such as multi-player text-based MUDs and their graphics-based successors, massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Role-playing games also include single-player offline role-playing video games in which players control a character or team who undertake quests, and may
    6.00
    1 votes
    205
    Wholesale

    Wholesale

    • Organizations in this industry: Alta Praha s.r.o.
    • NAICS 2007 code: 42
    Wholesaling, jobbing, or distributing is defined as the sale of goods or merchandise to retailers, to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users, or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services. In general, it is the sale of goods to anyone other than a standard consumer. According to the United Nations Statistics Division, "wholesale" is the resale (sale without transformation) of new and used goods to retailers, to industrial, commercial, institutional or professional users, or to other wholesalers, or involves acting as an agent or broker in buying merchandise for, or selling merchandise to, such persons or companies. Wholesalers frequently physically assemble, sort and grade goods in large lots, break bulk, repack and redistribute in smaller lots. While wholesalers of most products usually operate from independent premises, wholesale marketing for foodstuffs can take place at specific wholesale markets where all traders are congregated. Traditionally, wholesalers were closer to the markets they supplied than the source from which they got the products. However, with the advent of the internet and E-procurement there are an increasing
    6.00
    1 votes
    206
    Biomedical engineering

    Biomedical engineering

    • Organizations in this industry: Epicor Medical
    Biomedical Engineering is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology. This field seeks to close the gap between engineering and medicine: It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to improve healthcare diagnosis, monitoring and therapy. Biomedical engineering has only recently emerged as its own discipline, compared to many other engineering fields. Such an evolution is common as a new field transitions from being an interdisciplinary specialization among already-established fields, to being considered a field in itself. Much of the work in biomedical engineering consists of research and development, spanning a broad array of subfields (see below). Prominent biomedical engineering applications include the development of biocompatible prostheses, various diagnostic and therapeutic medical devices ranging from clinical equipment to micro-implants, common imaging equipment such as MRIs and EEGs, regenerative tissue growth, pharmaceutical drugs and therapeutic biologicals. Sometimes, disciplines within BME are classified by their association(s) with other, more established engineering
    5.00
    2 votes
    207
    5.00
    2 votes
    208
    Information technology

    Information technology

    • Organizations in this industry: Safari Books Online
    • Parent Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
    • NAICS 2007 code: 5415
    Information technology (IT) is concerned with the development, management, and use of computer-based information systems. Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term "information technology" in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Leavitt and Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT)." Based on the storage and processing technology employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical (3000 BC – 1450 AD), mechanical (1450–1840), electromechanical (1840–1940) and electronic. This article focuses on the latter of those periods, which began in about 1940. The Information Technology Association of America has defined information technology (IT) as "the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems", but the term has also been applied more narrowly to describe a branch of engineering dealing with the use of
    5.00
    2 votes
    209
    Automobile

    Automobile

    • Organizations in this industry: Ford Motor Company
    • Parent Industry: Automobile and Light Duty Motor Vehicle Manufacturing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 336111
    An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor. Most definitions of the term specify that automobiles are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels, and to be constructed principally for the transport of people rather than goods. The term motorcar has also been used in the context of electrified rail systems to denote a car which functions as a small locomotive but also provides space for passengers and baggage. These locomotive cars were often used on suburban routes by both interurban and intercity railroad systems. It was estimated in 2010 that the number of automobiles had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, with 500 million reached in 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China and India. The word automobile comes, via the French automobile from the Ancient Greek word αὐτός (autós, "self") and the Latin mobilis ("movable"); meaning a vehicle that moves itself. The alternative name car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum ("wheeled vehicle"), or the Middle English word carre
    4.50
    2 votes
    210
    Pharmaceutical industry

    Pharmaceutical industry

    • Organizations in this industry: Quigley
    • Parent Industry: Chemical Manufacturing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 3254
    The pharmaceutical industry develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceuticals licensed for use as medications. Pharmaceutical companies are allowed to deal in generic and/or brand medications and medical devices. They are subject to a variety of laws and regulations regarding the patenting, testing and ensuring safety and efficacy and marketing of drugs. The word pharmaceutical comes from the Greek word Pharmakeia. The modern transliteration of Pharmakeia is Pharmacia. The earliest drugstores date to the Middle Ages. The first known drugstore was opened by Arabian pharmacists in Baghdad in 754, and many more soon began operating throughout the medieval Islamic world and eventually medieval Europe. By the 19th century, many of the drugstores in Europe and North America had eventually developed into larger pharmaceutical companies. Most of today's major pharmaceutical companies were founded in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Key discoveries of the 1920s and 1930s, such as insulin and penicillin, became mass-manufactured and distributed. Switzerland, Germany and Italy had particularly strong industries, with the UK, US, Belgium and the Netherlands following
    4.50
    2 votes
    211
    5.00
    1 votes
    212
    Geographic Information System

    Geographic Information System

    • Organizations in this industry: Local Knowledge Consulting
    • Parent Industry: Information technology
    Geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. The acronym GIS is sometimes used for geographical information science or geospatial information studies to refer to the academic discipline or career of working with geographic information systems. In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis, and database technology. A GIS can be thought of as a system—it digitally creates and "manipulates" spatial areas that may be jurisdictional, purpose, or application-oriented. Generally, a GIS is custom-designed for an organization. Hence, a GIS developed for an application, jurisdiction, enterprise, or purpose may not be necessarily interoperable or compatible with a GIS that has been developed for some other application, jurisdiction, enterprise, or purpose. What goes beyond a GIS is a spatial data infrastructure, a concept that has no such restrictive boundaries. In a general sense, the term describes any information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information for informing decision making. GIS applications are
    5.00
    1 votes
    213

    Oilfield Services

    • Organizations in this industry: Schlumberger
    • Parent Industry: Support Activities for Mining
    • NAICS 2007 code: 213112
    5.00
    1 votes
    214
    Photovoltaics

    Photovoltaics

    • Organizations in this industry: Konarka Technologies, Inc.
    Photovoltaics (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Materials presently used for photovoltaics include monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide/sulfide. Due to the growing demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacturing of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced considerably in recent years. By the end of 2011, a total of 67.4 GW had been installed, sufficient to generate 85 TWh/year. Solar photovoltaics is now, after hydro and wind power, the third most important renewable energy source in terms of globally installed capacity. More than 100 countries use solar PV. Installations may be ground-mounted (and sometimes integrated with farming and grazing) or built into the roof or walls of a building (either building-integrated photovoltaics or simply rooftop). Driven by advances in technology and increases in manufacturing scale and
    5.00
    1 votes
    215
    Research

    Research

    • Organizations in this industry: Translational Genomics Research Institute
    Research and experimental development is formal work undertaken systematically to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications (OECD (2002) Frascati Manual: proposed standard practice for surveys on research and experimental development, 6th edition. It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects, or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, etc. Scientific research relies on
    5.00
    1 votes
    216
    Training

    Training

    • Organizations in this industry: NIIT
    Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one's capability, capacity, and performance. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market recognize as of 2008 the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development. Compare: Physical training concentrates on mechanistic goals: training-programs in this area develop specific skills or muscles, often with a view to peaking at a particular time. Some physical training programs focus on raising overall physical fitness. In military use, training means gaining the physical ability to perform and survive in combat, and learning the many skills needed in a time of war.
    5.00
    1 votes
    217
    Research and development

    Research and development

    • Organizations in this industry: N Signals
    • Parent Industry: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
    • NAICS 2007 code: 5417
    The term R&D or research and development refers to a specific group of activities within a business. The activities that are classified as R&D differ from company to company, but there are two primary models. In one model, the primary function of an R&D group is to develop new products; in the other model, the primary function of an R&D group is to discover and create new knowledge about scientific and technological topics for the purpose of uncovering and enabling development of valuable new products, processes, and services. Under both models, R&D differs from the vast majority of a company's activities which are intended to yield nearly immediate profit or immediate improvements in operations and involve little uncertainty as to the return on investment (ROI). The first model of R&D is generally staffed by engineers while the second model may be staffed with industrial scientists. R&D activities are carried out by corporate or governmental entities. New product design and development is more often than not a crucial factor in the survival of a company. In an industry that is changing fast, firms must continually revise their design and range of products. This is necessary due to
    4.00
    2 votes
    218
    4.00
    1 votes
    219
    Board game

    Board game

    • Organizations in this industry: Games Workshop
    A board game is a game that involves counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Games can be based on pure strategy, chance (e.g. rolling dice) or a mixture of the two, and usually have a goal which a player aims to achieve. Early board games represented a battle between two armies, and most current board games are still based on defeating opposing players in terms of counters, winning position or accrual of points (often expressed as in-game currency). There are many different types and styles of board games. Their representation of real-life situations can range from having no inherent theme, as with checkers, to having a specific theme and narrative, as with Cluedo. Rules can range from the very simple, as in tic-tac-toe, to those describing a game universe in great detail, as in Dungeons & Dragons (although most of the latter are role-playing games where the board is secondary to the game, helping to visualize the game scenario). The amount of time required to learn to play or master a game varies greatly from game to game. Learning time does not necessarily correlate with the number or complexity of rules; some games,
    4.00
    1 votes
    220
    Commercial bank

    Commercial bank

    • Organizations in this industry: Zopa
    • Parent Industry: Depository Credit Intermediation
    • NAICS 2007 code: 52211
    A commercial bank (or business bank) is a type of financial institution and intermediary. It is a bank that lends money and provides transactional, savings, and money market accounts and that accepts time deposit. The name bank derives from the Italian word banco "desk/bench", used during the Renaissance era by Florentine bankers, who used to make their transactions above a desk covered by a green tablecloth. However, traces of banking activity can be found even in ancient times. In fact, the word traces its origins back to the Ancient Roman Empire, where moneylenders would set up their stalls in the middle of enclosed courtyards called macella on a long bench called a bancu, from which the words banco and bank are derived. As a moneychanger, the merchant at the bancu did not so much invest money as merely convert the foreign currency into the only legal tender in Rome – that of the Imperial Mint. Commercial banks engage in the following activities: A secured loan is a loan in which the borrower pledges some asset (e.g. a car or property) as collateral for the loan, which then becomes a secured debt owed to the creditor who gives the loan. The debt is thus secured against the
    4.00
    1 votes
    221

    Computer software

    • Organizations in this industry: Microsoft
    • Parent Industry: Computers
    • NAICS 2007 code: 5112
    Computer software, or just software, is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some reasons. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast to the old term hardware (meaning physical devices). In contrast to hardware, software "cannot be touched". Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes, and records. Computer software is so called to distinguish it from computer hardware, which encompasses the physical interconnections and devices required to store and execute (or run) the software. At the lowest level, executable
    4.00
    1 votes
    222

    Cultural movement

    • Organizations in this industry: Trax4u
    A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. This embodies all art forms, the sciences, and philosophies. Historically, different nations or regions of the world have gone through their own independent sequence of movements in culture, but as world communications have accelerated this geographical distinction has become less distinct. When cultural movements go through revolutions from one to the next, genres tend to get attacked and mixed up, and often new genres are generated and old ones fade. These changes are often reactions against the prior cultural form, which typically has grown stale and repetitive. An obsession emerges among the mainstream with the new movement, and the old one falls into neglect - sometimes it dies out entirely, but often it chugs along favored in a few disciplines and occasionally making reappearances (sometimes prefixed with "neo-"). There is continual argument over the precise definition of each of these periods, and one historian might group them differently, or choose different names or descriptions. As well, even though in many cases the popular change from one to the next can be swift and
    4.00
    1 votes
    223

    Employment agency

    • Organizations in this industry: Arbetsförmedlingen
    • Parent Industry: Employment Placement Agencies and Executive Search Services
    • NAICS 2007 code: 561311
    An employment agency is an organization which matches employers to employees. In all developed countries there is a publicly funded employment agency and multiple private businesses which also act as employment agencies. One of the oldest references to a public employment agency was in 1650, when Henry Robinson proposed an "Office of Addresses and Encounters" that would link employers to workers. The British Parliament rejected the proposal, but he himself opened such a business, although it was short-lived. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, every developed country has created a public employment agency as a way to combat unemployment and help people find work. In the United Kingdom the first agency began in London, through the Labour Bureau (London) Act 1902, and subsequently nationwide by the Liberal government through the Labour Exchanges Act 1909. The present public provider of job search help is called Jobcentre plus. In the United States, a federal programme of employment services was rolled out in the New Deal. The initial legislation was called the Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933 and more recently job services happen through one-stop centres established by the
    4.00
    1 votes
    224
    4.00
    1 votes
    225
    4.00
    1 votes
    226
    Search Engine Optimization

    Search Engine Optimization

    • Organizations in this industry: Tribal Internet Marketing
    • Parent Industry: Online marketing
    Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the visibility of a website or a web page in a search engine's "natural" or un-paid ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results. In general, the earlier (or higher ranked on the search results page), and more frequently a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine's users. SEO may target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, video search, academic search, news search and industry-specific vertical search engines. As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work, what people search for, the actual search terms or keywords typed into search engines and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content and HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks, or inbound links, is another SEO tactic. The plural of the abbreviation SEO can refer to "search engine optimizers," those who provide SEO
    4.00
    1 votes
    227

    Sub-orbital spaceflight

    • Organizations in this industry: Benson Space Company
    A sub-orbital space flight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it does not complete one orbital revolution. For example, the path of an object launched from Earth that reaches 100 km (62 mi) above sea level, and then falls back to Earth, is considered a sub-orbital spaceflight. Some sub-orbital flights have been undertaken to test spacecraft and launch vehicles later intended for orbital spaceflight. Other vehicles are specifically designed only for sub-orbital flight; examples include manned vehicles such as the X-15 and SpaceShipOne, and unmanned ones such as ICBMs and sounding rockets. Sub-orbital spaceflights are distinct from flights that attain orbit but use retro-rockets to deorbit after less than one full orbital period. Thus the flights of the Fractional Orbital Bombardment System would not be considered sub-orbital; instead these are simply considered flights to low Earth orbit. Usually a rocket is used, but experimentally a sub-orbital spaceflight has also been achieved with a space gun. By one definition a sub-orbital spaceflight
    4.00
    1 votes
    228
    Venture capital

    Venture capital

    • Organizations in this industry: Benchmark Capital
    • Parent Industry: Finance
    Venture capital (VC) is financial capital provided to early-stage, high-potential, high risk, growth startup companies. The venture capital fund makes money by owning equity in the companies it invests in, which usually have a novel technology or business model in high technology industries, such as biotechnology, IT, software, etc. The typical venture capital investment occurs after the seed funding round as growth funding round (also referred to as Series A round) in the interest of generating a return through an eventual realization event, such as an IPO or trade sale of the company. Venture capital is a subset of private equity. Therefore, all venture capital is private equity, but not all private equity is venture capital. In addition to angel investing and other seed funding options, venture capital is attractive for new companies with limited operating history that are too small to raise capital in the public markets and have not reached the point where they are able to secure a bank loan or complete a debt offering. In exchange for the high risk that venture capitalists assume by investing in smaller and less mature companies, venture capitalists usually get significant
    4.00
    1 votes
    229
    Assistive technology

    Assistive technology

    • Organizations in this industry: Origin Instruments Corporation
    Assistive Technology is an umbrella term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for people with disabilities and also includes the process used in selecting, locating, and using them. AT promotes greater independence by enabling people to perform tasks that they were formerly unable to accomplish, or had great difficulty accomplishing, by providing enhancements to, or changing methods of interacting with, the technology needed to accomplish such tasks. The term Adaptive Technology is often used as the synonym for Assistive Technology, however, they are different terms. Assistive Technology refers to “any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities”, while Adaptive Technology covers items that are specifically designed for persons with disabilities and would seldom be used by non-disabled persons. In other words, “Assistive Technology is any object or system that increases or maintains the capabilities of people with disabilities”, while Adaptive Technology is “any object or system that is specifically
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    Biotechnology

    Biotechnology

    • Organizations in this industry: Integragen SA
    • Parent Industry: Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences
    • NAICS 2007 code: 541711
    Biotechnology (sometimes shortened to "biotech") is generally accepted as the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products. For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production and medicine. The term itself is largely believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Karl Ereky. In the late 20th and early 21st century, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomics, recombinant gene technologies, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diganostic tests.. The concept of 'biotech' or 'biotechnology' encompasses a wide range of procedures (and history) for modifying living organisms according to human purposes — going back to domestication of animals, cultivation of plants, and "improvements" to these through breeding programs that employ artificial selection and hybridization. Modern usage also includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culture technologies. The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines 'biotechnology' as: "Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof,
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    Construction

    • Organizations in this industry: Morphosis
    • NAICS 2007 code: 23
    In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking. Normally, the job is managed by a project manager, and supervised by a construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or project architect. For the successful execution of a project, effective planning is essential. Involved with the design and execution of the infrastructure in question must consider the environmental impact of the job, the successful scheduling, budgeting, construction site safety, availability of building materials, logistics, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays and bidding, etc. In general, there are four types of construction: Each type of construction project requires a unique team to plan, design, construct and maintain the project. Building construction is the process of adding structure to real property. The vast majority of building construction jobs are small renovations, such as addition of a room, or renovation of a bathroom. Often, the owner of the property acts as laborer, paymaster,
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    Digital signal processing

    Digital signal processing

    • Organizations in this industry: Sarnoff Corporation
    Digital signal processing (DSP) is the mathematical manipulation of an information signal to modify or improve it in some way. It is characterized by the representation of discrete time, discrete frequency, or other discrete domain signals by a sequence of numbers or symbols and the processing of these signals. Digital signal processing and analog signal processing are subfields of signal processing. DSP includes subfields like: audio and speech signal processing, sonar and radar signal processing, sensor array processing, spectral estimation, statistical signal processing, digital image processing, signal processing for communications, control of systems, biomedical signal processing, seismic data processing, etc. The goal of DSP is usually to measure, filter and/or compress continuous real-world analog signals. The first step is usually to convert the signal from an analog to a digital form, by sampling and then digitizing it using an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which turns the analog signal into a stream of numbers. However, often, the required output signal is another analog output signal, which requires a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). Even if this process is more
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    Electronic publishing

    • Organizations in this industry: Eastgate Systems
    Electronic publishing (also referred to as ePublishing or digital publishing) includes the digital publication of e-books, EPUBs, and electronic articles, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues. Electronic publishing has become common in scientific publishing where it has been argued that peer-reviewed scientific journals are in the process of being replaced by electronic publishing. It is also becoming common to distribute books, magazines, and newspapers to consumers through tablet reading devices, a market that is growing by millions each year, generated by online vendors such as Apple's iTunes bookstore, Amazon's bookstore for Kindle, and books in the Android Market. Market research suggests that half of all magazine and newspaper circulation will be via digital delivery by the end of 2015 and that half of all reading in the United States will be done without paper by 2015. Although distribution via the Internet (also known as online publishing or web publishing when in the form of a website) is nowadays strongly associated with electronic publishing, there are many non network electronic publications such as Encyclopedias on CD and DVD, as well as technical
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    Filtration

    • Organizations in this industry: Pentair Filtration, Inc.
    Filtration is commonly the mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by interposing a medium through which only the fluid can pass. Oversize solids in the fluid are retained, but the separation is not complete; solids will be contaminated with some fluid and filtrate will contain fine particles (depending on the pore size and filter thickness). Filtration is also used to describe some biological processes, especially in water treatment and sewage treatment in which undesirable constituents are removed by absorption into a biological film grown on or in the filter medium. The remainder of this article focuses primarily on liquid filtration. There are many different methods of filtration; all aim to attain the separation of substances. Separation is achieved by some form of interaction between the substance or objects to be removed and the filter. The substance that is to pass through the filter must be a fluid, i.e. a liquid or gas. Methods of filtration vary depending on the location of the targeted material, i.e. whether it is dissolved in the fluid phase or suspended as a solid. Two main types of filter media are
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    Green energy

    Green energy

    • Organizations in this industry: Bloom Energy
    • Parent Industry: Energy
    Green energy is the term used to describe sources of energy that are considered to be environmentally friendly and non-polluting, such as geothermal, wind, solar, and hydro. Sometimes nuclear power is also considered a green energy source. Green energy sources are often considered "green" because they are perceived to lower carbon emissions and create less pollution. Green energy is commonly thought of in the context of electricity, mechanical power, heating and cogeneration. Consumers, businesses, and organizations may purchase green energy to support further development, help reduce the environmental impacts of conventional electricity generation, and increase their nation’s energy independence. Renewable energy certificates (green certificates or green tags) have been one way for consumers and businesses to support green energy. In the media, green energy is often used interchangeably with the term Renewable energy. Alternative energy and clean technologies are other terms often used instead of renewable energy. The terms suggest a non-polluting, non-fossil-fuel source. Green power is sometimes used in reference to electricity generated from "green" sources. Brown energy has
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    High intensity focused ultrasound

    • Organizations in this industry: Epicor Medical
    High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU, or sometimes FUS) is a highly precise medical procedure that applies high-intensity focused sonic energy to locally heat and destroy diseased or damaged tissue through ablation. HIFU is a hyperthermia therapy, a class of clinical therapies that use temperature to treat diseases. HIFU is also one modality of therapeutic ultrasound, involving minimally invasive or non-invasive methods to direct acoustic energy into the body. In addition to HIFU, other modalities include ultrasound-assisted drug delivery, ultrasound hemostasis, ultrasound lithotripsy, and ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis. Clinical HIFU procedures are typically performed in conjunction with an imaging procedure to enable treatment planning and targeting before applying a therapeutic or ablative levels of ultrasound energy. When Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for guidance, the technique is sometimes called Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound, often shortened to MRgHIFU or MRgFUS. When diagnostic sonography is used, the technique is sometimes called Ultrasound-guided Focused Ultrasound (USgHIFU or USgFUS). Currently, MRgHIFU is an approved therapeutic procedure
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    Internet service provider

    • Organizations in this industry: EarthLink
    An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides access to the Internet. Internet service providers can be either community-owned and non-profit, or privately owned and for-profit. Access ISPs directly connect clients to the Internet using copper wires, wireless or fiber-optic connections. Hosting ISPs lease server space for smaller businesses and other people (colocation). Transit ISPs provide large amounts of bandwidth for connecting hosting ISPs to access ISPs. The Internet started off as a closed network between government research laboratories and relevant parts of universities. As it became more popular, universities and colleges started giving more of their members access to it. As a result of its popularity, commercial Internet service providers sprang up to offer access to the Internet to anyone willing to pay for the service, mainly to those who missed their university accounts. In 1990, Brookline, Massachusetts-based The World became the first commercial ISP. ISPs employ a range of technologies to enable consumers to connect to their network. If users and small businesses, traditional options include: dial-up, DSL (typically Asymmetric Digital
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    Leasing

    Leasing

    • Organizations in this industry: Motoractive IFN S.A.
    • Parent Industry: Real Estate and Rental and Leasing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 532
    Leasing is a process by which a firm can obtain the use of a certain fixed assets for which it must pay a series of contractual, periodic, tax deductible payments. The lessee is the receiver of the services or the assets under the lease contract and the lessor is the owner of the assets. The relationship between the tenant and the landlord is called a tenancy, and can be for a fixed or an indefinite period of time (called the term of the lease). The consideration for the lease is called rent. A gross lease is when the tenant pays a flat rental amount and the landlord pays for all property charges regularly incurred by the ownership from lawnmowers and washing machines to handbags and jewellry. Under normal circumstances, a freehold owner of property is at liberty to do what they want with their property, including destroy it or hand over possession of the property to a tenant. However, if the owner has surrendered possession to another (the tenant) then any interference with the quiet enjoyment of the property by the tenant in lawful possession is unlawful. Similar principles apply to real property as well as to personal property, though the terminology would be different. Similar
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    Office supplies

    Office supplies

    • Organizations in this industry: Office 1 Superstores International
    • Parent Industry: Office Supplies and Stationery Stores
    • NAICS 2007 code: 453210
    Office supplies is the generic term that refers to all supplies regularly used in offices by businesses and other organizations, from private citizens to governments, who work with the collection, refinement, and output of information (colloquially referred to as "paper work"). The term includes small, expendable, daily use items such as paper clips, post-it notes, and staples, small machines such as hole punches, binders, staplers and laminators, writing utensils and paper, but also encompasses higher-cost equipment like computers, printers, fax machines, photocopiers and cash registers, as well as office furniture such as chairs, cubicles, filing cabinet, and armoire desks. Two very common medium-to-high-cost office equipment items before the advent of suitably priced word processing machines and PCs in the 1970s and 1980s were typewriters and adding machines. Many businesses in the office supply industry have recently expanded into related markets for businesses like copy centers, which facilitate the creation and printing of business collateral such as business cards and stationery, plus printing and binding of high quality, high volume business and engineering documents. Some
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    Rental shop

    Rental shop

    • Organizations in this industry: Video Accents
    • Parent Industry: Leasing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 5322
    A video rental shop is a brick and mortar business that rents home videos. Typically, a rental shop conducts business with customers under conditions and terms agreed upon in a rental agreement or contract, which may be implied, explicit, or written. Typically, a customer must sign up for an account with the shop and give billing information like a credit card number. If items are returned late, the shop usually charges late fees, which typically accumulate day by day. Some shops now have policies where instead of late fees, they will treat overdue items as a sale after a certain date, and charge a price equivalent to a standard sale of that object (with appropriate deductions for the rental fee already paid and for its pre-opened condition). While video rental stores primarily offer movies, many also offer music or video games. Some video rental outlets use a kiosk or vending machine to dispense and collect rentals. In 2010, a report indicated that in the United States, public libraries collectively loaned more videos than the online rental outlet Netflix. Independently-owned video rental stores started opening in the late 1970s following the end of the videotape format war. Such
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    Restaurant

    Restaurant

    • Organizations in this industry: Red Robin
    • Parent Industry: Accommodation and Food Services
    • NAICS 2007 code: 722
    A restaurant ( /ˈrɛstərənt/ or /ˈrɛstərɒnt/; French: [ʁɛs.to.ʁɑ̃] ( listen)) is an establishment which prepares and serves food and drink to customers in return for money, either paid before the meal, after the meal, or with a running tab. Meals are generally served and eaten on premises, but many restaurants also offer take-out and food delivery services. Restaurants vary greatly in appearance and offerings, including a wide variety of the main chef's cuisines and service models. While inns and taverns were known from antiquity, these were establishments aimed at travelers, and in general locals would rarely eat there. Modern restaurants are dedicated to the serving of food, where specific dishes are ordered by guests and are prepared to their request. The modern restaurant originated in 18th century France, although precursors can be traced back to Roman times. A restaurant owner is called a restaurateur ( /ˌrɛstərəˈtɜr/); both words derive from the French verb restaurer, meaning "to restore". Professional artisans of cooking are called chefs, while preparation staff and line cooks prepare food items in a more systematic and less artistic fashion. In Ancient Rome, thermopolia
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    Space exploration

    • Organizations in this industry: Excalibur Almaz Ltd
    • Parent Industry: Public Administration
    • NAICS 2007 code: 927
    *Portal:Space_Exploration
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    Sports equipment

    • Organizations in this industry: AEOsports
    • Parent Industry: Other Miscellaneous Manufacturing
    • NAICS 2007 code: 33992
    Sports equipment is a general term for any object used for sport or exercise. Examples of sports equipment include: Balls are used for ball games, including footballs. Examples for exercise include swiss balls, weights, equipment for the gym. Also protective equipment such as weight lifting belts and bench shirts for weight training and powerlifting. Flying discs are used for games such as disc golf and ultimate. Footwear for sports includes: In many games, goals are at each end of the playing field, there are two vertical posts (or uprights) supporting a horizontal crossbar. In some games, such as association football or hockey, the object is to pass the ball between the posts below the crossbar, while in others, such as those based on Rugby, the ball must pass over the crossbar instead. Nets are used for tennis, volleyball, football, basketball and badminton. A different type of net is used for various forms of fishing. Protective equipment is often worn for sports including motor sport and contact sports, such as ice hockey and American football or sports where there is a danger of injury through collision of players or other objects. Protective equipment includes: Racquets are
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