This type is for classifications of diseases used in the ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification).
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Includes classifications:Vitamin A deficiency with conjunctival xerosis
Vitamin A deficiency is a lack of vitamin A in humans. It is common in developing countries but rarely seen in developed countries. Night blindness is one of the first signs of vitamin A deficiency. Xerophthalmia, keratomalacia, and complete blindness can also occur since Vitamin A has a major role in phototransduction. Approximately 250,000 to 500,000 malnourished children in the developing world go blind each year from a deficiency of vitamin A, approximately half of whom die within a year of becoming blind. The United Nations Special Session on Children in 2002 set the elimination of vitamin A deficiency by 2010. The prevalence of night blindness due to vitamin A deficiency is also high among pregnant women in many developing countries. Vitamin A deficiency also contributes to maternal mortality and other poor outcomes in pregnancy and lactation.
Vitamin A deficiency also diminishes the ability to fight infections. In countries where children are not immunized, infectious disease like measles have higher fatality rates. As elucidated by Dr. Alfred Sommer, even mild, subclinical deficiency can also be a problem, as it may increase children's risk of developing respiratory and
Color blindness or color vision deficiency is the inability or decreased ability to see color, or perceive color differences, under normal lighting conditions. Color blindness affects a significant percentage of the population. There is no actual blindness but there is a deficiency of color vision. The most usual cause is a fault in the development of one or more sets of retinal cones that perceive color in light and transmit that information to the optic nerve. This type of color blindness is usually a sex-linked condition. The genes that produce photopigments are carried on the X chromosome; if some of these genes are missing or damaged, color blindness will be expressed in males with a higher probability than in females because males only have one X chromosome (in females, a functional gene on only one of the two X chromosomes is sufficient to yield the needed photopigments).
Color blindness can also be produced by physical or chemical damage to the eye, the optic nerve, or parts of the brain. For example, people with achromatopsia suffer from a completely different disorder, but are nevertheless unable to see colors.
The English chemist John Dalton published the first
Listeriosis is a bacterial infection caused by a Gram-positive, motile bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes. Listeriosis occurs primarily in newborn infants, elderly patients, and patients who are immunocompromised. Listeriosis kills at least 1 in 5 persons it infects. Its wide range of temperature tolerance necessitates extra care in food processing and storage. Meat and dairy products must be handled carefully to prevent contamination and growth of the pathogen. Vegetables and fruit that have contacted the soil must be carefully washed before refrigeration.
The symptoms of listeriosis usually last 7–10 days, with the most common symptoms being fever, muscle aches, and vomiting. Diarrhea is another, but less common symptom. If the infection spreads to the nervous system it can cause meningitis, an infection of the covering of the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms of meningitis are headache, stiff neck, confusion, loss of balance, and convulsions.
Listeriosis has a low incidence in humans. However, pregnant women are much more likely than the rest of the population to contract it. Infected pregnant women may have only mild, flulike symptoms. However, infection in a pregnant woman can
Zygomycosis is the broadest term to refer to infections caused by bread mold fungi of the zygomycota phylum. However, because zygomycota has been identified as polyphyletic, and is not included in modern fungal classification systems, the diseases that Zygomycosis can refer to are better called by their specific names: mucormycosis (after Mucorales), phycomycosis (after Phycomycetes) and basidiobolomycosis (after Basidiobolus). These rare yet serious and potentially life-threatening fungal infections, usually affect the face or oropharyngeal (nose/mouth) cavity. Zygomycosis type infections are most often caused by common fungi found in soil and decaying vegetation. While most individuals are exposed to the fungi on a regular basis, those with immune disorders (immunocompromised) are more prone to fungal infection. These types of infections are also common after natural disasters, such as tornadoes or earthquakes, where people have open wounds that have become filled with soil or vegetative matter.
The condition may affect the gastrointestinal tract or the skin. In non-trauma cases, it usually begins in the nose and paranasal sinuses and is one of the most rapidly spreading fungal
Anthrax is an acute disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Most forms of the disease are lethal, and it affects both humans and other animals. There are effective vaccines against anthrax, and some forms of the disease respond well to antibiotic treatment.
Like many other members of the genus Bacillus, Bacillus anthracis can form dormant endospores (often referred to as "spores" for short, but not to be confused with fungal spores) that are able to survive in harsh conditions for decades or even centuries. Such spores can be found on all continents, even Antarctica. When spores are inhaled, ingested, or come into contact with a skin lesion on a host, they may become reactivated and multiply rapidly.
Anthrax commonly infects wild and domesticated herbivorous mammals that ingest or inhale the spores while grazing. Ingestion is thought to be the most common route by which herbivores contract anthrax. Carnivores living in the same environment may become infected by consuming infected animals. Diseased animals can spread anthrax to humans, either by direct contact (e.g., inoculation of infected blood to broken skin) or by consumption of a diseased animal's flesh.
Includes classifications:Narcolepsy, without cataplexy
Parent Classification:Cataplexy and narcolepsy
Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder, or dyssomnia, characterized by excessive sleepiness and sleep attacks at inappropriate times, such as while at work. People with narcolepsy often experience disturbed nocturnal sleep and an abnormal daytime sleep pattern, which often is confused with insomnia. Narcoleptics, when falling asleep, generally experience the REM stage of sleep within 5 minutes; whereas most people do not experience REM sleep until an hour or so later.
Another one of the many problems that some narcoleptics experience is cataplexy, a sudden muscular weakness brought on by strong emotions (though many people experience cataplexy without having an emotional trigger). It often manifests as muscular weaknesses ranging from a barely perceptible slackening of the facial muscles to the dropping of the jaw or head, weakness at the knees (often referred to as "knee buckling"), or a total collapse. Usually speech is slurred and vision is impaired (double vision, inability to focus), but hearing and awareness remain normal. In some rare cases, an individual's body becomes paralyzed and muscles become stiff. Some narcolepsy affected persons also experience heightened senses of
Tinea versicolor (also known as Dermatomycosis furfuracea, Pityriasis versicolor, and Tinea flava) is a condition characterized by a rash on the trunk and proximal extremities. Recent research has shown that the majority of Tinea versicolor is caused by the Malassezia globosa fungus, although Malassezia furfur is responsible for a small number of cases. These yeasts are normally found on the human skin and only become troublesome under certain circumstances, such as a warm and humid environment, although the exact conditions that cause initiation of the disease process are poorly understood.
The condition pityriasis versicolor was first identified in 1846.
The symptoms of this condition include:
These spots commonly affect the back, underarm, upper arm, chest, lower legs, and neck. Occasionally it can also be present on the face. The yeasts can often be seen under the microscope within the lesions and typically have a so called "spaghetti and meat ball appearance" as the round yeasts produce filaments.
In people with dark skin tones, pigmentary changes such as hypopigmentation (loss of color) are common, while in those with lighter skin color, hyperpigmentation (increase in skin
Parent Classification:Other and unspecified disorders of metabolism
Metabolic syndrome is a combination of medical disorders that, when occurring together, increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Some studies have shown the prevalence in the USA to be an estimated 25% of the population , and prevalence increases with age.
Metabolic syndrome is also known as metabolic syndrome X, cardiometabolic syndrome, syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, Reaven's syndrome (named for Gerald Reaven), and CHAOS (in Australia).
Currently, two sets of defining criteria for metabolic syndrome are set out by two different sources: the International Diabetes Federation and the revised National Cholesterol Education Program. These are very similar and they identify individuals with a given set of symptoms as having metabolic syndrome. There are two differences, however: the IDF definition states that if body mass index (BMI) is greater than 30 kg/m, central obesity can be assumed, and waist circumference does not need to be measured. However, this potentially excludes any subject without increased waist circumference if BMI is less than 30. Conversely, the NCEP definition indicates that metabolic syndrome can be diagnosed based on other
Parent Classification:Filarial infection and dracontiasis
Loa loa filariasis (also known as loiasis, loaiasis, Calabar swellings, Fugitive swelling, Tropical swelling and African eyeworm) is a skin and eye disease caused by the nematode worm, loa loa. Humans contract this disease through the bite of a Deer fly or Mango fly (Chrysops spp), the vectors for Loa loa. The adult Loa loa filarial worm migrates throughout the subcutaneous tissues of humans, occasionally crossing into subconjunctival tissues of the eye where it can be easily observed. Loa loa does not normally affect one's vision but can be painful when moving about the eyeball or across the bridge of the nose. The disease can cause red itchy swellings below the skin called "Calabar swellings". The disease is treated with the drug diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and when appropriate, surgical methods may be employed to remove adult worms from the conjunctiva.
Synonyms for the disease include African eye worm, Loaiasis, Loaina, Loa loa filariasis, Filaria loa, Filaria lacrimalis, Filaria subconjunctivalis, Calabar swellings, Fugitive swellings, Loaina, and Microfilaria diurnal. Loa loa, the scientific name for the infectious agent, is an indigenous term itself and it is likely that there
Includes classifications:Acute alcoholic intoxication in alcoholism, unspecified drinking behavior
Acute alcohol intoxication can result from a high level of alcohol in the bloodstream, accompanied by extreme drunkenness. The term acute alcohol intoxication is used by healthcare providers, often in emergencies. Toxicologists also speak of alcohol intoxication to discriminate from other toxins researched in the field.
The condition is frequently found in either young people who are being exposed to commonly available alcoholic beverages like beer, wine, and distilled liquor for the first time, and don't know their limits, or by people suffering from alcoholism who ingest much more than they usually do.
Ethanol is metabolised to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is found in many tissues, including the gastric mucosa. Acetaldehyde is metabolised to acetate by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which is predominantly found in liver mitochondria. Acetate is used by the muscle cells to produce Acetyl-CoA using the enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase, and the Acetyl-CoA is then used in the Citric Acid Cycle. It takes roughly 90 minutes for a healthy liver to metabolize a single ounce, approximately one hour per standard unit.
Ethanol's acute effects are largely due to its
Includes classifications:Schistosomiasis due to schistosoma haematobium
Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia, bilharziosis or snail fever) is a parasitic disease caused by several species of trematodes (platyhelminth infection, or "flukes"), a parasitic worm of the genus Schistosoma. Snails serve as the intermediary agent between mammalian hosts. Individuals within developing countries who cannot afford proper water and sanitation facilities are often exposed to contaminated water containing the infected snails.
Although it has a low mortality rate, schistosomiasis often is a chronic illness that can damage internal organs and, in children, impair growth and cognitive development. The urinary form of schistosomiasis is associated with increased risks for bladder cancer in adults. Schistosomiasis is the second most socioeconomically devastating parasitic disease after malaria.
This disease is most commonly found in Asia, Africa, and South America, especially in areas where the water contains numerous freshwater snails, which may carry the parasite.
The disease affects many people in developing countries, particularly children who may acquire the disease by swimming or playing in infected water. When children come into contact with a contaminated
Friedreich's ataxia is an inherited disease that causes progressive damage to the nervous system, resulting in symptoms ranging from gait disturbance to speech problems; it can also lead to heart disease and diabetes.
The ataxia of Friedreich's ataxia results from the degeneration of nerve tissue in the spinal cord, in particular sensory neurons essential (through connections with the cerebellum) for directing muscle movement of the arms and legs. The spinal cord becomes thinner and nerve cells lose some of their myelin sheath (the insulating covering on some nerve cells that helps conduct nerve impulses). Mentation is spared in this condition.
The condition is named after the German physician Nikolaus Friedreich, who first described it in the 1860s.
Symptoms typically begin sometime between the ages of 5 to 15 years, but in Late Onset FA may occur in the 20s or 30s. Symptoms include any combination, but not necessarily all, of the following:
It presents before 25 years of age with progressive staggering or stumbling gait and frequent falling. Lower extremities are more severely involved. The symptoms are slow and progressive. Long-term observation shows that many patients reach a
Includes classifications:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Parent Classification:Anterior horn cell disease
The motor neuron diseases (MND) are a group of neurological disorders that selectively affect motor neurons, the cells that control voluntary muscle activity including speaking, walking, breathing, swallowing and general movement of the body. They are generally progressive in nature, and cause progressive disability and death.
Terms used to describe the motor neuron diseases can be confusing; in the UK "motor neuron disease" (with "neuron" sometimes spelt "neurone") refers to both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (the most common form of disease) and to the broader spectrum of motor neuron diseases including progressive muscular atrophy, primary lateral sclerosis, and progressive bulbar palsy. In the United States the most common terms used are ALS (both specifically for ALS and as a blanket term) or "Lou Gehrig's disease". To avoid confusion, the annual scientific research conference dedicated to the study of MND is called the International ALS/MND Symposium. Although MND refers to a specific subset of pathologically similar diseases; there are numerous other afflictions of motor neurons that are pathologically distinct from MND and have a different clinical course. Examples of other
Includes classifications:Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
Cardiac dysrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia and irregular heartbeat) is any of a large and heterogeneous group of conditions in which there is abnormal electrical activity in the heart. The heartbeat may be too fast or too slow, and may be regular or irregular. A heart beat that is too fast is called tachycardia and a heart beat that is too slow is called bradycardia.
Some arrhythmias are life-threatening medical emergencies that can result in cardiac arrest. In fact, cardiac arrythmias are one of the most common causes of death when travelling to a hospital. Others cause symptoms such as an abnormal awareness of heart beat (palpitations), and may be merely uncomfortable. These palpitations have also been known to be caused by atrial/ventricular fibrillation, wire faults, and other technical or mechanical issues in cardiac pacemakers/defibrillators. Still others may not be associated with any symptoms at all, but may predispose the patient to potentially life threatening stroke or embolism.
The term sinus arrhythmia refers to a normal phenomenon of mild acceleration and slowing of the heart rate that occurs with breathing in and out. It is usually quite pronounced in children,
Infectious mononucleosis (IM; also known as EBV infectious mononucleosis, Pfeiffer's disease, Filatov's disease, and sometimes colloquially as the kissing disease from its oral transmission or simply as mono in North America and as glandular fever in other English-speaking countries) is an infectious, widespread viral disease caused by the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), one type of herpes virus, to which more than 90% of adults have been exposed. Occasionally, the symptoms can recur at a later period. Most people are exposed to the virus as children, when the disease produces no noticeable or only flu-like symptoms. In developing countries, people are exposed to the virus in early childhood more often than in developed countries. As a result, the disease in its observable form is more common in developed countries. It is most common among adolescents and young adults.
Especially in adolescents and young adults, the disease is characterized by fever, sore throat and fatigue, along with several other possible signs and symptoms. It is primarily diagnosed by observation of symptoms, but suspicion can be confirmed by several diagnostic tests.
The syndrome was described as an infectious
Parent Classification:Other diseases due to viruses and Chlamydiae
Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes, sometimes called water warts. It is caused by a DNA poxvirus called the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). MCV has no animal reservoir, infecting only humans. There are four types of MCV, MCV-1 to -4; MCV-1 is the most prevalent and MCV-2 is seen usually in adults and often sexually transmitted. This common viral disease has a higher incidence in children, sexually active adults, and those who are immunodeficient, and the infection is most common in children aged one to ten years old. MC can affect any area of the skin but is most common on the trunk of the body, arms, and legs. It is spread through direct contact or shared items such as clothing or towels.
The virus commonly spreads through skin-to-skin contact. This includes sexual contact or touching or scratching the bumps and then touching the skin. Handling objects that have the virus on them (fomites), such as a towel, can also result in infection. The virus can spread from one part of the body to another or to other people. The virus can be spread among children at day care or at school. Molluscum contagiosum is contagious
Includes classifications:Attention deficit disorder of childhood
Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental or neurobehavioral disorder characterized by either significant difficulties of inattention or hyperactivity and impulsiveness or a combination of the two. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), symptoms emerge before seven years of age. There are three subtypes of the disorder which consist of it being predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI or ADHD-I), predominately hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI or ADHD-H), or the two combined (ADHD-C). Oftentimes people refer to ADHD-PI as "Attention deficit disorder" (ADD), however, the term was revised in the 1994 version of the DSM.
ADHD impacts school-aged children and results in restlessness, acting impulsively, and lack of focus which impairs their ability to learn properly. It is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children, affecting about 3 to 5 percent of children globally and diagnosed in about 2 to 16 percent of school-aged children. It is a chronic disorder with 30 to 50 percent of those individuals diagnosed in childhood continuing to have symptoms into adulthood. Adolescents and adults with ADHD tend to
Parent Classification:Anxiety, dissociative and somatoform disorders
Hypochondriasis or hypochondria (sometimes referred to as health phobia or health anxiety) refers to excessive preoccupation or worry about having a serious illness. This debilitating condition is the result of an inaccurate perception of the body’s condition despite the absence of an actual medical condition. An individual suffering from hypochondriasis is known as a hypochondriac. Hypochondriacs become unduly alarmed about any physical symptoms they detect, no matter how minor the symptom may be. They are convinced that they have or are about to be diagnosed with a serious illness. Even sounds produced by organs in the body, such as those made by the intestines, seem like symptoms of a very serious illness to patients dealing with hypochondriasis. Often, hypochondria persists even after a physician has evaluated a person and reassured them that their concerns about symptoms do not have an underlying medical basis or, if there is a medical illness, their concerns are far in excess of what is appropriate for the level of disease. Many hypochondriacs focus on a particular symptom as the catalyst of their worrying, such as gastro-intestinal problems, palpitations, or muscle fatigue.
Parent Classification:Suppurative and unspecified otitis media
Otitis media (Latin) is inflammation of the middle ear, or middle ear infection.
It occurs in the area between the tympanic membrane and the inner ear, including a duct known as the eustachian tube. It is one of the two most common causes of earache - the other being otitis externa. Diseases other than ear infections can also cause ear pain, including cancers of any structure that shares nerve supply with the ear and shingles which can lead to herpes zoster oticus. Though painful, otitis media is not threatening and usually heals on its own within 2–6 weeks.
When the middle ear becomes acutely infected, pressure builds up behind the eardrum (tympanic membrane), frequently causing intense pain. It may result in bullous myringitis (myring means "eardrum"), which means that the tympanic membrane is blistered and inflamed.
In severe or untreated cases, the tympanic membrane may rupture, allowing the pus in the middle ear space to drain into the ear canal. If there is enough of it, this drainage may be obvious. Even though the rupture of the tympanic membrane suggests a highly painful and traumatic process, it is almost always associated with the dramatic relief of pressure and pain.
Multiple sclerosis (MS), also known as "disseminated sclerosis" or "encephalomyelitis disseminata", is an inflammatory disease in which the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord are damaged, leading to demyelination and scarring as well as a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms. Disease onset usually occurs in young adults, and it is more common in women. It has a prevalence that ranges between 2 and 150 per 100,000. MS was first described in 1868 by Jean-Martin Charcot.
MS affects the ability of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord to communicate with each other effectively. Nerve cells communicate by sending electrical signals called action potentials down long fibers called axons, which are contained within an insulating substance called myelin. In MS, the body's own immune system attacks and damages the myelin. When myelin is lost, the axons can no longer effectively conduct signals. The name multiple sclerosis refers to scars (scleroses—better known as plaques or lesions) particularly in the white matter of the brain and spinal cord, which is mainly composed of myelin. Although much is known about the mechanisms involved in the disease process,
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (or autoimmune haemolytic anaemia; AIHA) occurs when antibodies directed against the person's own red blood cells (RBCs) cause them to burst (lyse), leading to insufficient plasma concentration. The lifetime of the RBCs is reduced from the normal 100–120 days to just a few days in serious cases. The intracellular components of the RBCs are released into the circulating blood and into tissues, leading to some of the characteristic symptoms of this condition. The antibodies are usually directed against high-incidence antigens, therefore they also commonly act on allogenic RBCs (RBCs originating from outside the person themselves, e.g. in the case of a blood transfusion) AIHA is a relatively rare condition, affecting one to three people per 100,000 per year.
The terminology used in this disease is somewhat ambiguous. Although MeSH uses the term "autoimmune hemolytic anemia", some sources prefer the term "immunohemolytic anemia" so drug reactions can be included in this category. The National Cancer Institute considers "immunohemolytic anemia", "autoimmune hemolytic anemia", and "immune complex hemolytic anemia" to all be synonyms.
AIHA is classified as
Includes classifications:Epilepsy, unspecified, without mention of intractable epilepsy
Parent Classification:Epilepsy and recurrent seizures
Epilepsy (from Ancient Greek ἐπιληψία) is a common and diverse set of chronic neurological disorders characterized by seizures. Some definitions of epilepsy require that seizures be recurrent and unprovoked, but others require only a single seizure combined with brain alterations which increase the chance of future seizures.
Epileptic seizures result from abnormal, excessive or hypersynchronous neuronal activity in the brain. About 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy, and nearly 90% of epilepsy occurs in developing countries. Epilepsy becomes more common as people age. Onset of new cases occurs most frequently in infants and the elderly. As a consequence of brain surgery, epileptic seizures may occur in recovering patients.
Epilepsy is usually controlled, but not cured, with medication. However, over 30% of people with epilepsy do not have seizure control even with the best available medications. Surgery may be considered in difficult cases. Not all epilepsy syndromes are lifelong – some forms are confined to particular stages of childhood. Epilepsy should not be understood as a single disorder, but rather as syndromic with vastly divergent symptoms, all involving episodic
Fasciolopsiasis results from an infection by the trematode Fasciolopsis buski, the largest intestinal fluke of humans (up to 7.5 cm in length).
Most infections are light and asymptomatic. In heavy infections, symptoms can include abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea, anemia, ascites, toxemia, allergic responses, sensitization caused by the absorption of the worms' allergenic metabolites (may eventually cause death of patient), and intestinal obstruction.
Microscopic identification of eggs, or more rarely of the adult flukes, in the stool or vomitus is the basis of specific diagnosis. The eggs are indistinguishable from those of Fasciola hepatica.
The parasite infects an amphibic snail (Segmentina nitidella, Segmentina hemisphaerula, Hippeutis schmackerie, Gyraulus, Lymnaea, Pila, Planorbis (Indoplanorbis)) after being released by infected feces; from this intermediate host, metacercaria infest on aquatic plants, which are eaten raw by pigs and humans. Also, the water is possibly infective when drunk unheated ("Encysted cercariae exist not only on aquatic plants, but also on the surface of the water.")
Prevention can be easily achieved by immersion of vegetables in boiling water for a
Pneumonic plague, a severe type of lung infection, is one of three main forms of plague, all of which are caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. It is more virulent and rare than bubonic plague. The difference between the versions of plague is simply the location of the infection in the body; the bubonic plague is an infection of the lymphatic system, the pneumonic plague is an infection of the respiratory system, and the septicemic plague is an infection in the blood stream.
Typically, pneumonic form is due to a spread from infection of an initial bubonic form. Primary pneumonic plague results from inhalation of fine infective droplets and can be transmitted from human to human without involvement of fleas or animals. Untreated pneumonic plague has a very high fatality rate.
Since 2002, the World Health Organization (WHO) has reported seven plague outbreaks, though some may go unreported because they often happen in remote areas. Between 1998 and 2009, nearly 24,000 cases have been reported, including about 2,000 deaths, in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Eastern Europe. 98 percent of the world's cases occur in Africa. May cause AIDS.
Pneumonic plague can be caused in two ways:
Q fever is a disease caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium that affects humans and other animals. This organism is uncommon, but may be found in cattle, sheep, goats and other domestic mammals, including cats and dogs. The infection results from inhalation of a spore-like small cell variant, and from contact with the milk, urine, feces, vaginal mucus, or semen of infected animals. Rarely, the disease is tick borne. The incubation period is 9–40 days. A human being can be infected by a single bacterium. The bacterium is an obligate intracellular pathogen.
It was first described by Edward Holbrook Derrick in abattoir workers in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The "Q" stands for "query" and was applied at a time when the causative agent was unknown; it was chosen over suggestions of "abattoir fever" and "Queensland rickettsial fever", to avoid directing negative connotations at either the cattle industry or the state of Queensland.
The pathogen of Q fever was discovered in 1937, when Frank Macfarlane Burnet and Mavis Freeman isolated the bacterium from one of Derrick’s patients. It was originally identified as a species of Rickettsia. H.R. Cox and Gordon Davis
Yellow fever (also known as Yellow Jack and Bronze John) is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease. The virus is a 40 to 50 nm enveloped RNA virus with positive sense of the Flaviviridae family.
The yellow fever virus is transmitted by the bite of female mosquitoes (the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and other species) and is found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa, but not in Asia. The only known hosts of the virus are primates and several species of mosquito. The origin of the disease is most likely to be Africa, from where it was introduced to South America through the slave trade in the 16th century. Since the 17th century, several major epidemics of the disease have been recorded in the Americas, Africa, and Europe. In the 19th century, yellow fever was deemed one of the most dangerous infectious diseases.
Yellow fever presents in most cases with fever, nausea, and pain, and it generally subsides after several days. In some patients, a toxic phase follows, in which liver damage with jaundice (inspiring the name of the disease) can occur and lead to death. Because of the increased bleeding tendency (bleeding diathesis), yellow fever belongs to the
Mental retardation (MR) is a generalized disorder appearing before adulthood, characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors. It has historically been defined as an Intelligence Quotient score under 70. Once focused almost entirely on cognition, the definition now includes both a component relating to mental functioning and one relating to individuals' functional skills in their environment. As a result, a person with a below-average intelligence quotient (BAIQ) may not be considered mentally retarded. Syndromic mental retardation is intellectual deficits associated with other medical and behavioral signs and symptoms. Non-syndromic mental retardation refers to intellectual deficits that appear without other abnormalities.
The terms used to describe this condition are subject to a process called the euphemism treadmill. This means that whatever term is chosen for this condition, it eventually becomes perceived as an insult. The terms mental retardation and mentally retarded were invented in the middle of the 20th century to replace the previous set of terms, which were deemed to have become offensive. By the end of the
Parent Classification:Disorders of optic nerve and visual pathways
Papilledema (or papilloedema) is optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure. The swelling is usually bilateral and can occur over a period of hours to weeks. Unilateral presentation is extremely rare. Papilledema is mostly seen as a symptom resulting from another pathophysiological process.
In intracranial hypertension, papilledema most commonly occurs bilaterally. When papilledema is found on fundoscopy, further evaluation is warranted as vision loss can result if the underlying condition is not treated. Further evaluation with a CT or MRI of the brain and/or spine is usually performed. Unilateral papilledema can suggest orbital pathology, such as an optic nerve glioma.
Papilledema may be asymptomatic or present with headache in the early stages. However it may progress to enlargement of the blind spot, blurring of vision, visual obscurations (inability to see in a particular part of the visual field for a period of time) and ultimately total loss of vision may occur.
The signs of papilledema that are seen using an ophthalmoscope include
On visual field examination, the physician may elicit an enlarged blind spot; the visual acuity may remain relatively
Parent Classification:Special symptoms or syndromes, not elsewhere classified
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by immoderate food restriction and irrational fear of gaining weight, as well as a distorted body self-perception. It typically involves excessive weight loss. Anorexia nervosa usually develops during adolescence and early adulthood. Due to the fear of gaining weight, people with this disorder restrict the amount of food they consume. This restriction of food intake causes metabolic and hormonal disorders. Outside of medical literature, the terms anorexia nervosa and anorexia are often used interchangeably; however, anorexia is simply a medical term for lack of appetite and people with anorexia nervosa do not in fact, lose their appetites.
People suffering from anorexia have extremely high levels of ghrelin (the hunger hormone that tells the brain when it is time to eat) in their blood. The high levels of ghrelin suggests that their bodies are trying to desperately switch the hunger aspect on, however, that hungers call is being suppressed, ignored, or overridden. Nevertheless, one small single-blind study found that intravenous administration of ghrelin to anorexia nervosa patients increased food intake by 12–36% over the trial
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common female endocrine disorders. PCOS is a complex, heterogeneous disorder of uncertain etiology, but there is strong evidence that it can to a large degree be classified as a genetic disease.
PCOS produces symptoms in approximately 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age (12–45 years old). It is thought to be one of the leading causes of female subfertility and the most frequent endocrine problem in women of reproductive age.
The principal features are anovulation, resulting in irregular menstruation, amenorrhea, ovulation-related infertility, and polycystic ovaries; excessive amounts or effects of androgenic hormones, resulting in acne and hirsutism; and insulin resistance, often associated with obesity, Type 2 diabetes, and high cholesterol levels. The symptoms and severity of the syndrome vary greatly among affected women.
The World Health Organization criteria for classification of anovulation include the determination of oligomenorrhea (menstrual cycle >35 days) or amenorrhea (menstrual cycle > 6 months) in combination with concentration of prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol. Almost 80% of
Erythema infectiosum or fifth disease is one of several possible manifestations of infection by erythrovirus, previously called parvovirus B19. The disease is also referred to as slapped cheek syndrome, slapcheek, slap face or slapped face. In Japan the disease is called 'apple sickness' or 'ringo-byou' (りんご病）in reference to the symptom of facial redness. In Hungary it is called "butterfly pox" as the red cheeks look like the wings of a butterfly.
Bright red cheeks are a defining symptom of the infection in children (hence the name "slapped cheek disease"). Occasionally the rash will extend over the bridge of the nose or around the mouth. In addition to red cheeks, children often develop a red, lacy rash on the rest of the body, with the upper arms and legs being the most common locations. The rash typically lasts a couple of days and may itch; some cases have been known to last for several weeks. Patients are usually no longer infectious once the rash has appeared.
Teenagers and adults may present with a self-limited arthritis. It manifests in painful swelling of the joints that feels similar to arthritis. Older children and adults with fifth disease may have difficulty in walking
Herpes simplex (Greek: ἕρπης herpēs, "creeping" or "latent") is a viral disease from the herpesviridae family caused by both Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). Infection with the herpes virus is categorized into one of several distinct disorders based on the site of infection. Oral herpes, the visible symptoms of which are colloquially called cold sores or fever blisters, is an infection of the face or mouth. Oral herpes is the most common form of infection. Genital herpes, known simply as herpes, is the second most common form of herpes. Other disorders such as herpetic whitlow, herpes gladiatorum, ocular herpes, cerebral herpes infection encephalitis, Mollaret's meningitis, neonatal herpes, and possibly Bell's palsy are all caused by herpes simplex viruses.
Herpes viruses cycle between periods of active disease—presenting as blisters containing infectious virus particles—that last 2–21 days, followed by a remission period. Genital herpes, however, is often asymptomatic, though viral shedding may still occur. After initial infection, the viruses are transported along sensory nerves to the sensory nerve cell bodies, where they become latent and reside lifelong.
Parent Classification:Overweight, obesity and other hyperalimentation
Hypervitaminosis A refers to the effects of excessive vitamin A (specifically retinoid) intake.
Signs of acute toxicity include nausea and vomiting, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, and loss of muscular coordination.
Hypervitaminosis A occurs when the maximum limit for liver stores of retinoids is exceeded. The excess vitamin A enters the circulation causing systemic toxicity. Betacarotene, a precursor form of vitamin A typical of vegetable sources such as carrots, is selectively converted into retinoids, so it does not cause toxicity; however, overconsumption can cause carotenosis, a benign condition in which the skin turns orange.
Although hypervitaminosis A can occur when large amounts of liver (including cod liver oil and other fish oils) are regularly consumed, most cases of vitamin A toxicity result from an excess intake of vitamin A in the form of vitamin supplements. Toxic symptoms can also arise after consuming very large amounts of preformed vitamin A over a short period of time. (See Polar-bear liver below.) The U.S. Institute of Medicine says that the Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) for vitamin A, when taken over an extended period of
Trichuriasis is a parasitic infection primarily in the tissue of the cecum, appendix, colon and rectum that is caused by Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), an intestinal parasitic nematode (roundworm).
The phylum of Trichuris trichiura is Aschelminthes, while its class is Adenophorea, its order is Stichosmida, and its family is Trichocephaloidea. Its genus, Trichocephalus, was recorded as a more accurate name, however the generic name trichuris, which means “hair tail” (which implies that the posterior end of the worm is the attenuated section), remains the dominant name form used today.
Human Whipworm, Trichocephaliasis, and Tricuriasis are all synonyms for Trichuriasis, human infection of the Trichuris trichiura intestinal nematode. In Spanish, trichuriasis is called “Tricuriasis,” while in it is known as “Trichuriose” in French and “Peitschenwurmbefall” in German.
The first written record of Trichuris trichiura was made by Morgani, an Italian scientist, who identified the presence of the parasite in a case of worms residing in the colon in 1740. Exact Morphological description and figures were first recorded in 1761 by Roedere, a German physicist. Soon after morphology and visual
Includes classifications:Cauda equina syndrome without mention of neurogenic bladder
Parent Classification:Other paralytic syndromes
Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a serious neurologic condition in which there is acute loss of function of the lumbar plexus, neurologic elements (nerve roots) of the spinal canal below the termination (conus medullaris) of the spinal cord.
After the conus medullaris, the canal contains a mass of nerves (the cauda equina or "horse-tail") that branches off the lower end of the spinal cord and contains the nerve roots from L1-5 and S1-5. The nerve roots from L4-S4 join in the sacral plexus which affects the sciatic nerve, which travels caudally (toward the feet). Compression, trauma or other damage to this region of the spinal cord can result in cauda equina syndrome.
Any lesion which compresses or disturbs the function of the cauda equina may disable the nerves although the most common is a central disc prolapse. Metastatic disease may also be a cause.
Direct trauma from a bad lumbar puncture can also cause cauda equina syndrome. Other trauma-related causes include burst fractures resulting in posterior migration of fragments of the vertebral body, severe disc herniations, spinal anaesthesia involving trauma from catheters and high local anaesthetic concentrations around the cauda
Parent Classification:Corneal opacity and other disorders of cornea
Keratoconus (from Greek: kerato- horn, cornea; and konos cone) is a degenerative disorder of the eye in which structural changes within the cornea cause it to thin and change to a more conical shape than its normal gradual curve.
Keratoconus can cause substantial distortion of vision, with multiple images, streaking and sensitivity to light all often reported by the patient. It is typically diagnosed in the patient's adolescent years and attains its most severe state between the ages of 20 and 40. If afflicting both eyes, the deterioration in vision can affect the patient's ability to drive a car or read normal print.
In most cases, corrective lenses fitted by a specialist are effective enough to allow the patient to continue to drive legally and likewise function normally. Further progression of the disease may require surgery, for which several options are available, including intrastromal corneal ring segments, cross-linking, mini asymmetric radial keratotomy and, in 25% of cases, corneal transplantation.
Keratoconus affects around one person in a thousand; difficulties with differential diagnosis cause uncertainty as to its prevalence. It seems to occur in populations
A pinworm infection or enterobiasis is a human parasitic disease and one of the most common childhood parasitic worm infections in the developed world. It is caused by infestation with the parasitic roundworm Enterobius vermicularis, commonly called the human pinworm. Infection usually occurs through the ingestion of pinworm eggs, either through contaminated hands, food, or less commonly, water. The chief symptom is itching in the anal area. The incubation time from ingestion of eggs to the first appearance of new eggs around the anus is 4 to 6 weeks. Pinworms are usually considered a nuisance rather than a serious disease. Treatment is straightforward in uncomplicated cases, however, elimination of the parasite from a family group or institution often poses significant problems—either due to an incomplete cure or reinfection. Pinworm infection has no association with any socioeconomic level, race or culture.
One third of individuals with pinworm infection are totally asymptomatic. The main symptoms are pruritus ani and perineal pruritus, i.e., itching in and around the anus and around the perineum. The itching occurs mainly during the night, and is caused by the female pinworms
Includes classifications:Diabetes mellitus type II [non-insulin dependent type] [NIDDM type] [adult-onset type] or unspecified type, not stated as uncontrolled, with renal manifestations
Parent Classification:Diabetes mellitus
Diabetic nephropathy (nephropatia diabetica), also known as Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome, or nodular diabetic glomerulosclerosis and intercapillary glomerulonephritis, is a progressive kidney disease caused by angiopathy of capillaries in the kidney glomeruli. It is characterized by nephrotic syndrome and diffuse glomerulosclerosis. It is due to longstanding diabetes mellitus, and is a prime indication for dialysis in many Western countries.
The syndrome was discovered by British physician Clifford Wilson (1906–1997) and German-born American physician Paul Kimmelstiel (1900–1970) and was published for the first time in 1936.
The syndrome can be seen in patients with chronic diabetes (usually less than 15 years after onset) after about 5 years in type 1 diabetes. Clinical nephropathy secondary to glomerular disease usually manifests 15–25 years after diagnosis of diabetes and affects 25-35% of patients under the age of 30 years. It is the leading cause of premature death in young diabetic patients.(between 50 and 70 years old). The disease is progressive and may cause death two or three years after the initial lesions, and is more frequent in men. Diabetic nephropathy is the most
Whipple's disease is a rare, systemic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei. First described by George Hoyt Whipple in 1907 and commonly considered a gastrointestinal disorder, Whipple's disease primarily causes malabsorption but may affect any part of the body including the heart, lungs, brain, joints, skin, and the eyes. Weight loss, diarrhea, joint pain, and arthritis are common presenting symptoms, but the presentation can be highly variable and approximately 15% of patients do not have these classic signs and symptoms. Whipple's disease is significantly more common in men, with 87% of the patients being male. When recognized and treated, Whipple's disease can usually be cured with long-term antibiotic therapy; untreated the disease is ultimately fatal.
The most common symptoms are diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss and joint pains. Sometimes, the joint pains occur many years before any digestive tract symptoms develop; they tend to involve the large joints but can occur in any pattern and tend not to damage the joint surface to the point that the joint becomes deformed. Fever and chills occur in a small proportion of people.
In its more advanced
Marasmus is a form of severe malnutrition characterized by energy deficiency. A child with marasmus looks emaciated. Body weight may be reduced to less than 80% of the average weight that corresponds to the height. Marasmus occurrence increases prior to age 1, whereas kwashiorkor occurrence increases after 18 months. It can be distinguished from kwashiorkor in that kwashiorkor is protein wasting with the presence of edema.
The prognosis is better than it is for kwashiorkor.
The word “marasmus” comes from the Greek μαρασμός marasmos ("decay").
The malnutrition associated with marasmus leads to extensive tissue and muscle wasting, as well as variable edema. Other common characteristics include dry skin, loose skin folds hanging over the buttocks (glutei) and armpit (axillae), etc. There is also drastic loss of adipose tissue (body fat) from normal areas of fat deposits like buttocks and thighs. The afflicted are often fretful, irritable, and voraciously hungry.
Marasmus is generally known as the gradual wasting away of the body due to severe malnutrition or inadequate absorption of food. Marasmus is a form of severe protein deficiency and is one of the forms of protein-energy
Includes classifications:Infantile, juvenile, and presenile cataract
A cataract is a clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelope (lens capsule), varying in degree from slight to complete opacity and obstructing the passage of light. Early in the development of age-related cataract, the power of the lens may be increased, causing near-sightedness (myopia), and the gradual yellowing and opacification of the lens may reduce the perception of blue colors. Cataracts typically progress slowly to cause vision loss, and are potentially blinding if untreated. The condition usually affects both eyes, but almost always one eye is affected earlier than the other.
A senile cataract, occurring in the elderly, is characterized by an initial opacity in the lens, subsequent swelling of the lens and final shrinkage with complete loss of transparency. Moreover, with time the cataract cortex liquefies to form a milky white fluid in a Morgagnian cataract, which can cause severe inflammation if the lens capsule ruptures and leaks. Untreated, the cataract can cause phacomorphic glaucoma. Very advanced cataracts with weak zonules are liable to dislocation anteriorly or posteriorly. Such spontaneous posterior dislocations (akin to the
Strongyloidiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by the nematode (roundworm) Strongyloides stercoralis, or sometimes S. fülleborni. It can cause a number of symptoms in people, principally skin symptoms, abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. In some people, particularly those who require corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medication, Strongyloides can cause a hyperinfection syndrome that can lead to death if untreated. The diagnosis is made by blood and stool tests. The drug ivermectin is widely used in the treatment of strongyloidiasis.
It is thought to affect 30–100 million people worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical countries. Worldwide efforts are aimed at eradicating the infection in high-risk groups. Strongyloidiasis was first described in France in 1876.
Strongyloides infection occurs in five forms. On acquiring the infection, there may be respiratory symptoms (Löffler's syndrome). The infection may then become chronic with mainly digestive symptoms. On reinfection (when larvae migrate through the body), there may be respiratory, skin and digestive symptoms. Finally, the hyperinfection syndrome causes symptoms in many organ systems, including the
Cardiomyopathy (literally "heart muscle disease") is the measurable deterioration of the function of the myocardium (the heart muscle) for any reason, usually leading to heart failure; common symptoms are dyspnea (breathlessness) and peripheral edema (swelling of the legs). People with cardiomyopathy are often at risk of dangerous forms of irregular heart beat and sudden cardiac death. The most common form of cardiomyopathy is dilated cardiomyopathy.
Although in theory the term "cardiomyopathy" could apply to almost any disease affecting the heart, in practice it is usually reserved for "severe myocardial disease leading to heart failure". Cardiomyopathies can be categorized as extrinsic or intrinsic.
It is also possible to classify cardiomyopathies functionally, as involving dilation, hypertrophy, or restriction.
Symptoms and signs may mimic those of almost any form of heart disease. Chest pain is common. Mild myocarditis or cardiomyopathy is frequently asymptomatic; severe cases are associated with heart failure, arrhythmias, and systemic embolization. Manifestations of the underlying disease (e.g., Chagas' disease) may be prominent. Most patients with biopsy-proven myocarditis
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), also known as disseminated intravascular coagulopathy or consumptive coagulopathy, is a pathological activation of coagulation (blood clotting) mechanisms that happens in response to a variety of diseases. DIC leads to the formation of small blood clots inside the blood vessels throughout the body. As the small clots consume coagulation proteins and platelets, normal coagulation is disrupted and abnormal bleeding occurs from the skin (e.g. from sites where blood samples were taken), the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract and surgical wounds. The small clots also disrupt normal blood flow to organs (such as the kidneys), which may malfunction as a result.
DIC can occur acutely but also on a slower, chronic basis, depending on the underlying problem. It is common in the critically ill, and may participate in the development of multiple organ failure, which may lead to death.
Under homeostatic conditions, the body is maintained in a finely tuned balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis. The activation of the coagulation cascade yields thrombin that converts fibrinogen to fibrin; the stable fibrin clot being the final product of
Fasciolosis also known as Fascioliasis, Fasciolasis, distomatosis and liver rot, is an important helminth disease caused by two trematodes Fasciola hepatica (the common liver fluke) and Fasciola gigantica. This disease belongs to the plant-borne trematode zoonoses. In Europe, the Americas and Oceania only F. hepatica is a concern, but the distributions of both species overlap in many areas of Africa and Asia.
The definitive host range is very broad and includes many herbivorous mammals, including humans. The life cycle includes freshwater snails as an intermediate host of the parasite. Recently, worldwide losses in animal productivity due to fasciolosis were conservatively estimated at over US$3.2 billion per annum. In addition, fasciolosis is now recognized as an emerging human disease: the World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that 2.4 million people are infected with Fasciola, and a further 180 million are at risk of infection.
Fasciolosis is caused by two digenetic trematodes F. hepatica and F. gigantica. Adult flukes of both species are localized in the bile ducts of the liver or gallbladder. F. hepatica measures 2 to 3 cm and has a cosmopolitan distribution. F.
Cryptococcosis, or cryptococcal disease, is a potentially fatal fungal disease. It is caused by one of two species; Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. These were all previously thought to be subspecies of C. neoformans, but have now been identified as distinct species.
Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. Although the exact nature of the infectious propagule is unknown, the leading hypothesis is the basidiospore created through sexual or asexual reproduction.
Cryptococcosis is a defining opportunistic infection for AIDS. Other conditions which pose an increased risk include certain lymphomas (e.g. Hodgkin's lymphoma), sarcoidosis, liver cirrhosis and patients on long-term corticosteroid therapy.
Distribution is worldwide in soil. The prevalence of cryptococcosis has been increasing over the past 20 years for many reasons, including the increase in incidence of AIDS and the expanded use of immunosuppressive drugs.
In humans, C. neoformans causes three types of infections:
Cryptococcal meningitis (infection of the meninges, the tissue covering the brain) is believed to result from dissemination of the
Parent Classification:Other and unspecified anemias
Anemia (/əˈniːmiə/; also spelled anaemia and anæmia; from Ancient Greek: ἀναιμία anaimia, meaning lack of blood, from ἀν- an-, "not" + αἷμα haima, "blood") is a decrease in number of red blood cells (RBCs) or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. However, it can include decreased oxygen-binding ability of each hemoglobin molecule due to deformity or lack in numerical development as in some other types of hemoglobin deficiency.
Because hemoglobin (found inside RBCs) normally carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, anemia leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in organs. Since all human cells depend on oxygen for survival, varying degrees of anemia can have a wide range of clinical consequences.
Anemia is the most common disorder of the blood. The several kinds of anemia are produced by a variety of underlying causes. It can be classified in a variety of ways, based on the morphology of RBCs, underlying etiologic mechanisms, and discernible clinical spectra, to mention a few. The three main classes include excessive blood loss (acutely such as a hemorrhage or chronically through low-volume loss), excessive blood cell destruction (hemolysis) or deficient red blood
Thyroiditis is the inflammation of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located on the front of the neck below the laryngeal prominence, and makes hormones that control metabolism.
Thyroiditis is a group of disorders that all cause thyroidal inflammation. Forms of the disease are Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the most commom cause of hypothyroidism in the US, postpartum thyroiditis, subacute thyroiditis, silent thyroiditis, drug-induced thyroiditis, radiation-induced thyroiditis, acute thyroiditis, and Riedel's thyroiditis.
Each different type of this disease has its own causes, clinical features, diagnoses, durations, resolutions, conditions and risks.
There are many different symptoms for thyroiditis, none of which are exclusively limited to this disease. Many of the signs imitate symptoms of other diseases, so thyroiditis can sometimes be difficult to diagnose. Common hypothyroid symptoms manifest when thyroid cell damage is slow and chronic, and may include fatigue, weight gain, feeling "fuzzy headed," depression, dry skin, and constipation. Other, rarer symptoms include swelling of the legs, vague aches and pains, decreased concentration and so on. When conditions become more
Includes classifications:Urogenital trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis, sometimes referred to as "trich", is a common cause of vaginitis. It is a sexually transmitted disease, and is caused by the single-celled protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis producing mechanical stress on host cells and then ingesting cell fragments after cell death. Trichomoniasis is primarily an infection of the urogenital tract; the most common site of infection is the urethra and the vagina in women.
Typically, only women experience symptoms associated with Trichomonas infection. Symptoms include inflammation of the cervix (cervicitis), urethra (urethritis), and vagina (vaginitis) which produce an itching or burning sensation. Discomfort may increase during intercourse and urination. There may also be a yellow-green, itchy, frothy, foul-smelling ("fishy" smell) vaginal discharge. In rare cases, lower abdominal pain can occur. Symptoms usually appear in women within 5 to 28 days of exposure. In many cases, men may hold the parasite for some years without any signs (dormant). Some sexual health specialists have stated that the condition can probably be carried in the vagina for years, despite standard tests being negative. While symptoms are most common in
Parent Classification:Other diseases due to viruses and Chlamydiae
A wart is generally a small, rough growth, typically on a human’s hands or feet but often other locations, that can resemble a cauliflower or a solid blister. They are caused by a viral infection, specifically by one of the many types of human papillomavirus (HPV). There are as many as 10 varieties of warts, the most common considered to be mostly harmless. It is possible to get warts from others; they are contagious and usually enter the body in an area of broken skin. They typically disappear after a few months but can last for years and can recur.
A range of types of wart have been identified, varying in shape and site affected, as well as the type of human papillomavirus involved. These include:
Warts are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). There are about 130 known types of human papilloma viruses. HPV infects the squamous epithelium, usually of the skin or genitals, but each HPV type is typically only able to infect a few specific areas on the body. Many HPV types can produce a benign growth, often called a "wart" or "papilloma", in the area they infect. Many of the more common HPV and wart types are as follows:
Common warts have a characteristic appearance under the
Tabes dorsalis is a slow degeneration (specifically, demyelination) of the sensory neurons that carry afferent information. The degenerating nerves are in the dorsal columns (posterior columns) of the spinal cord (the portion closest to the back of the body) and carry information that help maintain a person's sense of position (proprioception), vibration, and discriminative touch.
Tabes dorsalis is caused by demyelination secondary to an untreated syphilis infection.
Symptoms may not appear for some decades after the initial infection and include: weakness, diminished reflexes, paresthesias (shooting and burning pains, pricking sensations, and formication), hypoesthesias (abnormally diminished cutaneous, especially tactile, sensory modalities), tabetic gait (locomotor ataxia), progressive degeneration of the joints, loss of coordination, episodes of intense pain and disturbed sensation (including glossodynia), personality changes, urinary incontinence, dementia, deafness, visual impairment, positive Romberg's test, and impaired response to light (Argyll Robertson pupil). The skeletal musculature is hypotonic due to destruction of the sensory limb of the spindle reflex. The deep
Includes classifications:Unspecified disorder of calcium metabolism
Parent Classification:Disorders of mineral metabolism
Disorders of calcium metabolism occur when the body has too little or too much calcium. The serum level of calcium is closely regulated within a fairly limited range in the human body. In a healthy physiology, extracellular calcium levels are maintained within a tight range through the actions of parathyroid hormone, vitamin D and the calcium sensing receptor. Disorders in calcium metabolism can lead to hypocalcemia, decreased plasma levels of calcium or hypercalcemia, elevated plasma calcium levels.
Hypocalcemia is common and can occur unnoticed with no symptoms or, in severe cases, can have dramatic symptoms and be life-threatening. Hypocalcemia can be parathyroid related or vitamin D related. Parathyroid related hypocalcemia includes post-surgical hypoparathyroidism, inherited hypoparathyroidism, pseudohypoparathyroidism, and pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism. Post-surgical hypoparathyroidism is the most common form, and can be temporary (due to suppression of tissue after removal of a malfunctioning gland) or permanent, if all parathyroid tissue has been removed. Inherited hypoparathyroidism is rare and is due to a mutation in the calcium sensing receptor.
Parent Classification:Strabismus and other disorders of binocular eye movements
Exotropia (from Greek εξοτρὀπια, εξο "exo" meaning "to exit" or "move out of" and τρὀπειν "tropein" meaning "to turn") is a form of strabismus where the eyes are deviated outward. It is the opposite of esotropia. People with exotropia often experience crossed diplopia. Intermittent exotropia is a fairly common condition. "Sensory exotropia" occurs in the presence of poor vision. Infantile exotropia (sometimes called "congenital exotropia") is seen during the first year of life, and is less common than "essential exotropia" which usually becomes apparent several years later.
The brain's ability to see three-dimensional objects depends on proper alignment of the eyes. When both eyes are properly aligned and aimed at the same target, the visual portion of the brain fuses the forms into a single image. When one eye turns inward, outward, upward, or downward, two different pictures are sent to the brain. This causes loss of depth perception and binocular vision.
The causes of exotropia are not fully understood. There are six muscles that control eye movement, four that move the eye up and down and two that move it side to side. All these muscles must be coordinated and working properly
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by protists (a type of microorganism) of the genus Plasmodium. It begins with a bite from an infected female mosquito, which introduces the protists via its saliva into the circulatory system, and ultimately to the liver where they mature and reproduce. The disease causes symptoms that typically include fever and headache, which in severe cases can progress to coma or death. Malaria is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions in a broad band around the equator, including much of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas.
Five species of Plasmodium can infect and be transmitted by humans. The vast majority of deaths are caused by P. falciparum while P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae cause a generally milder form of malaria that is rarely fatal. The zoonotic species P. knowlesi, prevalent in Southeast Asia, causes malaria in macaques but can also cause severe infections in humans. Malaria is prevalent in tropical regions because the significant amounts of rainfall, consistently high temperatures and high humidity, along with stagnant waters in which mosquito larvae readily mature, provide them
Parent Classification:Disorders of carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Galactosemia (British Galactosaemia) is a rare genetic metabolic disorder that affects an individual's ability to metabolize the sugar galactose properly. Although the sugar, lactose, metabolizes to galactose, galactosemia is not related to and should not be confused with lactose intolerance. Galactosemia follows an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance that confers a deficiency in an enzyme responsible for adequate galactose degradation.
Goppert first described the disease in 1917, with its cause as a defect in galactose metabolism being identified by a group led by Herman Kalckar in 1956.
Its incidence is about 1 per 60,000 births for Caucasians. In other populations the incidence rate differs. Galactosemia is also very common within the Irish Traveller population.
Lactose in food (such as dairy products) is broken down by the enzyme lactase into glucose and galactose. In individuals with galactosemia, the enzymes needed for further metabolism of galactose are severely diminished or missing entirely, leading to toxic levels of galactose 1-phosphate in various tissues as in the case of classic galactosemia, resulting in hepatomegaly (an enlarged liver), cirrhosis, renal failure,
Parent Classification:Purpura and other hemorrhagic conditions
Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP, also known as anaphylactoid purpura, purpura rheumatica, and Schönlein–Henoch purpura) is a disease of the skin and other organs that most commonly affects children. In the skin, the disease causes palpable purpura (small hemorrhages); often with joint and abdominal pain. With kidney involvement, there may be a loss of small amounts of blood and protein in the urine, but this usually goes unnoticed; in a small proportion of cases, the kidney involvement proceeds to chronic kidney disease. HSP is often preceded by an infection, such as pharyngitis.
HSP is a systemic vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels) and is characterized by deposition of immune complexes containing the antibody IgA; the exact cause for this phenomenon is presently unknown. It usually resolves within several weeks and requires no treatment apart from symptom control, but may relapse in a third of the cases and cause irreversible kidney damage in about one in a hundred cases.
Purpura, arthritis and abdominal pain are known as the "classic triad" of Henoch–Schönlein purpura. Purpura occur in all cases, joint pains and arthritis in 80%, and abdominal pain in 62%. Some include
Includes classifications:Simple type schizophrenia
Schizophrenia (/ˌskɪtsɵˈfrɛniə/ or /ˌskɪtsɵˈfriːniə/) is a mental disorder characterized by a breakdown of thought processes and by poor emotional responsiveness. It most commonly features auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, or disorganized speech and thinking, and it is accompanied by significant social or occupational dysfunction. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in young adulthood, with a global lifetime prevalence of about 0.3–0.7%. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior and the patient's reported experiences.
Genetics, early environment, neurobiology, and psychological and social processes appear to be important contributory factors; some recreational and prescription drugs appear to cause or worsen symptoms. Current research is focused on the role of neurobiology, although no single isolated organic cause has been found. The many possible combinations of symptoms have triggered debate about whether the diagnosis represents a single disorder or a number of discrete syndromes. Despite the etymology of the term from the Greek roots skhizein (σχίζειν, "to split") and phrēn, phren- (φρήν, φρεν-; "mind"), schizophrenia does not imply a "split
Dwarfism ( /ˈdwɔrfɪzəm/) occurs when an individual person or animal is short in stature resulting from a medical condition caused by abnormal (slow or delayed) growth. In humans, dwarfism is sometimes defined as an adult height of less than 147 cm (58 inches),.
Dwarfism can be caused by about 200 distinct medical conditions, such that the symptoms and characteristics of individuals with dwarfism vary greatly. Disproportionate dwarfism is characterized by one or more body parts being relatively large or small in comparison to those of an average-sized adult, with growth variations in specific areas being apparent. In cases of proportionate dwarfism, the body appears normally proportioned, but is unusually small.
There is no single treatment for dwarfism. Individual differences, such as bone-growth disorders, sometimes can be treated through surgery, some hormone disorders can be treated through medication, and by hormone replacement therapy; this treatment must be done before the child’s' growth plates fuse. Individual accommodations, such as specialized furniture, are often used by people with dwarfism. Many support groups provide services to aid individuals with dwarfism in facing
Scrub typhus or Bush typhus is a form of typhus caused by the intracellular parasite Orientia tsutsugamushi, a gram-negative α-proteobacterium of family Rickettsiaceae first isolated and identified in 1930 in Japan.
Although the disease is similar in presentation to other forms of typhus, its pathogen is not anymore included in genus Rickettsia with the typhus bacteria proper, but in Orientia. The disease is thus frequently classified separately from the other typhi.
Scrub typhus is transmitted by some species of trombiculid mites ("chiggers", particularly Leptotrombidium deliense), which are found in areas of heavy scrub vegetation. The bite of this mite leaves a characteristic black eschar that is useful to the doctor for making the diagnosis.
Scrub typhus is endemic to a part of the world known as the tsutsugamushi triangle (after O. tsutsugamushi). This extends from northern Japan and far-eastern Russia in the north, to the territories around the Solomon Sea into northern Australia in the south, and to Pakistan and Afghanistan in the west.
The precise incidence of the disease is unknown, as diagnostic facilities are not available in much of its large native range which spans
Chancroid (also known as soft chancre and "ulcus molle") is a bacterial sexually transmitted infection characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. Chancroid is known to spread from one individual to another solely through sexual contact.
After an incubation period of one day to two weeks, chancroid begins with a small bump that becomes an ulcer within a day of its appearance. The ulcer characteristically:
In more specific terms, the CDC's standard clinical definition for a probable case of chancroid includes all of the following:
About half of infected men have only a single ulcer. Women frequently have four or more ulcers, with fewer symptoms. The ulcers appear in specific locations, such as the coronal sulcus of the uncircumcised glans penis in men, or the fourchette and labia minora in women.
In women, the most common location for ulcers is the labia majora. "Kissing ulcers" may develop. These are ulcers that occur on opposing surfaces of the labia. Other areas such as the labia minora, perineal area, and inner thighs may also be involved. The most common symptoms in women are dysuria (pain with urination) and dyspareunia (pain with intercourse).
The initial ulcer may be
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the clinical syndrome caused by degeneration of the frontal lobe of the brain. The degeneration may extend to the temporal lobe. FTD is the clinical manifestation of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and the second most common pre-senile dementia after Alzheimer's disease.
FTD is traditionally difficult to diagnose due to the heterogeneity of the condition. This heterogeneity means the signs and symptoms can vary dramatically between patients. Symptoms are classified into three groups which underlie the functions of the frontal and temporal lobes:
Executive function is the cognitive skill of planning and organizing. Most FTD patients become unable to perform skills that require complex planning or sequencing. In addition to the characteristic cognitive dysfunction, a number of primitive reflexes known as frontal release signs are often able to be elicited. Usually the first of these frontal release signs to appear is the palmomental reflex which appears relatively early in the disease course whereas the palmar grasp reflex and rooting reflex appear late in the disease course.
FTD can occur in patients with motor neuron disease (typically
Giardiasis — popularly known as beaver fever — is a disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Giardia lamblia (also sometimes called Giardia intestinalis and Giardia duodenalis). The giardia organism inhabits the digestive tract of a wide variety of domestic and wild animal species, as well as humans. It is a common cause of gastroenteritis in humans, infecting approximately 200 million people worldwide.
Giardiasis is passed via the fecal-oral route. Primary routes are personal contact and contaminated consumables. The more susceptible are institutional or day-care workers, travelers, those eating improperly treated food or drink, and people who have contact with individuals already infected.
It is a particular danger to people hiking or backpacking in wilderness areas worldwide, especially if they have no immediate access to medical supplies. Giardia is also suspected to be zoonotic—communicable between humans and other animals. Major reservoir hosts include beavers, dogs, cats, horses, humans, cattle and birds.
Symptoms include loss of appetite, fever, explosive diarrhea, hematuria (blood in urine), loose or watery stool, stomach cramps, upset stomach, projectile vomiting
Includes classifications:Acute miliary tuberculosis
Miliary tuberculosis (also known as "disseminated tuberculosis", "tuberculosis cutis acuta generalisata", and "Tuberculosis cutis disseminata") is a form of tuberculosis that is characterized by a wide dissemination into the human body and by the tiny size of the lesions (1–5 mm). Its name comes from a distinctive pattern seen on a chest X-ray of many tiny spots distributed throughout the lung fields with the appearance similar to millet seeds—thus the term "miliary" tuberculosis. Miliary TB may infect any number of organs, including the lungs, liver, and spleen. It is a complication of 1–3% of all TB cases.
Miliary tuberculosis is a form of tuberculous infection in the lung that is the result of erosion of the infection into a pulmonary vein. Once the bacteria reach the left side of the heart and enter the systemic circulation, the result may be to seed organs such as the liver and spleen with said infection. Alternatively, the bacteria may enter the lymph node(s), drain into a systemic vein and eventually reach the right side of the heart. From the right side of the heart, the bacteria may seed—or re-seed as the case may be—the lungs, causing the eponymous "miliary" appearance.
Parent Classification:Nerve root and plexus disorders
A phantom limb is the sensation that an amputated or missing limb (even an organ, like the appendix) is still attached to the body and is moving appropriately with other body parts. Approximately 60 to 80% of individuals with an amputation experience phantom sensations in their amputated limb, and the majority of the sensations are painful. Phantom sensations may also occur after the removal of body parts other than the limbs, e.g. after amputation of the breast, extraction of a tooth (phantom tooth pain) or removal of an eye (phantom eye syndrome). The missing limb often feels shorter and may feel as if it is in a distorted and painful position. Occasionally, the pain can be made worse by stress, anxiety, and weather changes. Phantom limb pain is usually intermittent. The frequency and intensity of attacks usually declines with time.
Although not all phantom limbs are painful, patients will sometimes feel as if they are gesturing, feel itches, twitch, or even try to pick things up. For example, Ramachandran and Blakeslee describe that some people's representations of their limbs do not actually match what they should be, for example, one patient reported that her phantom arm was
Smallpox was an infectious disease unique to humans, caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. The disease is also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera, which is a derivative of the Latin varius, meaning "spotted", or varus, meaning "pimple". The term "smallpox" was first used in Britain in the 15th century to distinguish variola from the "great pox" (syphilis). The last naturally occurring case of smallpox (Variola minor) was diagnosed on 26 October 1977.
Smallpox localizes in small blood vessels of the skin and in the mouth and throat. In the skin it results in a characteristic maculopapular rash and, later, raised fluid-filled blisters. V. major produces a more serious disease and has an overall mortality rate of 30–35%. V. minor causes a milder form of disease (also known as alastrim, cottonpox, milkpox, whitepox, and Cuban itch) which kills about 1% of its victims. Long-term complications of V. major infection include characteristic scars, commonly on the face, which occur in 65–85% of survivors. Blindness resulting from corneal ulceration and scarring, and limb deformities due to arthritis and osteomyelitis are less common
Tetanus (from Ancient Greek: τέτανος tetanos "taut", and τείνειν teinein "to stretch")is a medical condition characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. The primary symptoms are caused by tetanospasmin, a neurotoxin produced by the Gram-positive, rod-shaped, obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani.
Infection generally occurs through wound contamination and often involves a cut or deep puncture wound. As the infection progresses, muscle spasms develop in the jaw (thus the name "lockjaw") and elsewhere in the body. Infection can be prevented by proper immunization and by post-exposure prophylaxis.
Tetanus often begins with mild spasms in the jaw muscles (lockjaw). The spasms can also affect the chest, neck, back, and abdominal muscles. Back muscle spasms often cause arching, called opisthotonos. Sometimes the spasms affect muscles that help with breathing, which can lead to breathing problems.
Prolonged muscular action causes sudden, powerful, and painful contractions of muscle groups. This is called tetany. These episodes can cause fractures and muscle tears. Other symptoms include drooling, excessive sweating, fever, hand or foot spasms,
Actinomycosis is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Actinomyces species such as Actinomyces israelii or A. gerencseriae. It can also be caused by Propionibacterium propionicus, and the condition is likely to be polymicrobial aerobic anaerobic infection.
Actinomycosis occurs rarely in humans but rather frequently in cattle as a disease called lumpy jaw. This name refers to the large abscesses that grow on the head and neck of the infected animal. It can also affect swine, horses, and dogs, and less often wild animals and sheep.
The disease is characterized by the formation of painful abscesses in the mouth, lungs, or gastrointestinal tract. Actinomycosis abscesses grow larger as the disease progresses, often over months. In severe cases, they may penetrate the surrounding bone and muscle to the skin, where they break open and leak large amounts of pus. The purulent leakage via the sinus cavities contains "sulfur granules," not actually sulfur-containing but resembling such particles. These granules contain progeny bacteria.
Actinomycosis is primarily caused by any of several members of the bacterial genus Actinomyces. These bacteria are generally anaerobes. In animals, they
Parent Classification:Other and unspecified disorders of metabolism
In medicine, amyloidosis refers to a variety of conditions wherein amyloid proteins are abnormally deposited in organs or tissues and cause harm. A protein is described as being amyloid if, due to an alteration in its secondary structure, it takes on a particular aggregated insoluble form, similar to the beta-pleated sheet. Symptoms vary widely depending upon where in the body amyloid deposits accumulate. Amyloidosis may be inherited or acquired.
The modern classification of amyloid disease tends to use an abbreviation of the protein that makes the majority of deposits, prefixed with the letter A. For example, amyloidosis caused by transthyretin is termed "ATTR". Deposition patterns vary between patients but are almost always composed of just one amyloidogenic protein. Deposition can be systemic (affecting many different organ systems) or organ-specific. Many amyloidoses are inherited, due to mutations in the precursor protein.
Other forms are due to different diseases causing overabundant or abnormal protein production - such as with overproduction of immunoglobulin light chains in multiple myeloma (termed AL amyloidosis), or with continuous overproduction of acute phase proteins
Parent Classification:Thiamine and niacin deficiency states
Beriberi ( /bɛriˈbɛri/) is a nervous system ailment caused by a thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the diet. Thiamine is involved in the breakdown of molecules such as glucose and is also found on the membranes of neurons. Symptoms of beriberi include severe lethargy and fatigue, together with complications affecting the cardiovascular, nervous, muscular, and gastrointestinal systems.
The origin of the term is unclear, although several hypotheses have been suggested. One hypothesis is that it comes from a Sinhalese phrase meaning "weak, weak" or "I cannot, I cannot", the word being reduplicated for emphasis. Another hypothesis is that it is from the Arabic "bhur-bhari", meaning "sailor's asthma." In 1630, a Dutch physician named Jacob Bonitus encountered the disease while working in Java. In the first known description of beriberi, he wrote, "A certain very troublesome affliction, which attacks men, is called by the inhabitants beriberi (which means sheep). I believe those, whom this same disease attacks, with their knees shaking and the legs raised up, walk like sheep. It is a kind of paralysis, or rather tremor: for it penetrates the motion and sensation of the hands and
Includes classifications:Herpes zoster with meningitis
Herpes zoster (or simply zoster), commonly known as shingles and also known as zona, is a viral disease characterized by a painful skin rash with blisters in a limited area on one side of the body, often in a stripe. The initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes the acute (short-lived) illness chickenpox which generally occurs in children and young people. Once an episode of chickenpox has resolved, the virus is not eliminated from the body but can go on to cause shingles—an illness with very different symptoms—often many years after the initial infection. Herpes zoster is not the same disease as herpes simplex despite the name similarity (both the varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus belong to the same viral subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae).
Varicella zoster virus can become latent in the nerve cell bodies and less frequently in non-neuronal satellite cells of dorsal root, cranial nerve or autonomic ganglion, without causing any symptoms. Years or decades after a chickenpox infection, the virus may break out of nerve cell bodies and travel down nerve axons to cause viral infection of the skin in the region of the nerve. The virus may spread from one or
Parent Classification:Other disorders of pancreatic internal secretion
Hypoglycemia, hypoglycæmia (not to be confused with hyperglycemia) is an abnormally diminished content of glucose in the blood. The term literally means "low sugar blood" (Gr. ὑπογλυκαιμία, from hypo-, glykys, haima). It can produce a variety of symptoms and effects but the principal problems arise from an inadequate supply of glucose to the brain, resulting in impairment of function (neuroglycopenia). Effects can range from mild dysphoria to more serious issues such as seizures, unconsciousness, and (rarely) permanent brain damage or death.
The most common forms of hypoglycemia occur as a complication of treatment of diabetes mellitus with insulin or oral medications. Hypoglycemia is less common in non-diabetic persons, but can occur at any age. Among the causes are excessive insulin produced in the body (hyperinsulinemia), inborn error of metabolism, medications and poisons, alcohol, hormone deficiencies, prolonged starvation, alterations of metabolism associated with infection, and organ failure.
Hypoglycemia is treated by restoring the blood glucose level to normal by the ingestion or administration of dextrose or carbohydrate foods. In more severe circumstances it is treated
Includes classifications:Iron deficiency anemia secondary to blood loss (chronic)
Iron-deficiency anemia (or iron-deficiency anaemia) is a common anemia (low red blood cell level) caused by insufficient dietary intake and absorption of iron, and/or iron loss from intestinal bleeding.
Iron deficiency causes approximately half of all anemia cases worldwide, and affects women more often than men. World estimates of iron deficiency occurrence are somewhat vague, but the true number probably exceeds one billion persons. Anemia occurs when a person's blood contains insufficient red blood cells. This could result if:
The most significant cause of iron-deficiency anemia in third world children is parasitic worms: hookworms, whipworms, and roundworms. Worms cause intestinal bleeding, which is not always noticeable in faeces, and is especially damaging to growing children. Malaria, hookworms and vitamin A deficiency contribute to anemia during pregnancy in most underdeveloped countries. In women over 50 years old, the most common cause of iron-deficiency anemia is chronic gastrointestinal bleeding from nonparasitic causes, such as gastric ulcers, duodenal ulcers or gastrointestinal cancer.
Anemia is one result of advanced-stage iron deficiency. When the body has
Includes classifications:Superficial keratitis without conjunctivitis
Keratitis is a condition in which the eye's cornea, the front part of the eye, becomes inflamed. The condition is often marked by moderate to intense pain and usually involves impaired eyesight.
Superficial keratitis involves the superficial layers of the cornea. After healing, this form of keratitis does not generally leave a scar.
Deep keratitis involves deeper layers of the cornea, and the natural course leaves a scar upon healing that impairs vision if on or near the visual axis. This can be reduced or avoided with the use of topical corticosteroid eyedrops.
Keratitis has multiple causes, one of which is an infection of a present or previous herpes simplex virus secondary to an upper respiratory infection, involving cold sores.
Effective diagnosis is important in detecting this condition and subsequent treatment as keratitis is sometimes mistaken for an allergic conjunctivitis.
Treatment depends on the cause of the keratitis. Infectious keratitis can progress rapidly, and generally requires urgent antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral therapy to eliminate the pathogen. Treatment is usually carried out by an ophthalmologist and can involve prescription eye medications,
Includes classifications:Optic atrophy, unspecified
Parent Classification:Disorders of optic nerve and visual pathways
Optic atrophy is the loss of some or most of the fibers of the optic nerve. In medicine, "atrophy" usually means "shrunken but capable of regrowth", so some argue that "optic atrophy" as a pathological term is somewhat misleading and use "optic neuropathy" instead.
The optic nerve is part of the brain and has no capability for regeneration. Hence, there can be no recovery from optic atrophy and the term may refer to serious or mild, but always irreversible visual loss due to damage to the optic nerve. Three types of degeneration are seen: transsynaptic, anterograde, and retrograde.
There may be symptoms associated with loss of vision (although there may be a particular difficulty with colour vision).
Bilateral Optic Atrophy: Loss of vision and discoloration of discs in both eyes. This is a genetic form and can be inherited.
symptoms will be extremely varied. some people will have near to normal vision, whereas others will have very poor vision
Optic atrophy can be congenital or acquired.
If congenital, it is usually hereditary with an onset of deterioration in childhood and may be accompanied by nystagmus. Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, (LHON) or Leber Optic Atrophy is
Includes classifications:Schizoid personality disorder, unspecified
Parent Classification:Personality disorder
Schizoid personality disorder (SPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, and apathy. Affected individuals may also demonstrate a simultaneous rich, elaborate, and exclusively internal fantasy world, although this is often more suggestive of schizotypal personality disorder.
SPD is not the same as schizophrenia, although they share some similar characteristics, such as detachment or blunted affect. However, there is increased prevalence of the disorder in families with schizophrenia.
The term schizoid was coined in 1908 by Eugen Bleuler to designate a human tendency to direct attention toward one's inner life and away from the external world, a concept akin to introversion in that it was not viewed in terms of psychopathology. Bleuler also labeled the exaggeration of this tendency the “schizoid personality.”
Studies on the schizoid personality have developed along two distinct paths; (1) the descriptive psychiatry tradition which focuses on overtly observable, behavioral, and describable symptoms (finding its clearest exposition in the DSM-IV revised); and
Sickle-cell disease (SCD), or sickle-cell anaemia (or anemia, SCA) or drepanocytosis, is an autosomal recessive genetic blood disorder with overdominance, characterized by red blood cells that assume an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape. Sickling decreases the cells' flexibility and results in a risk of various complications. The sickling occurs because of a mutation in the hemoglobin gene. Life expectancy is shortened. In 1994, in the US, the average life expectancy of persons with this condition was estimated to be 42 years in males and 48 years in females, but today, thanks to better management of the disease, patients can live into their 50s or beyond. In the UK, the current life expectancy is estimated to be 53–60 years of age.
Sickle-cell disease occurs more commonly in people (or their descendants) from parts of tropical and sub-tropical regions where malaria is or was common. In areas where malaria is common, there is a fitness benefit in carrying only a single sickle-cell gene (sickle cell trait). Those with only one of the two alleles of the sickle-cell disease, while not totally resistant, are more tolerant to the infection and thus show less severe symptoms when
Trachoma (Greek: τράχωμα, ‘roughness’) is an infectious disease caused by the Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium which produces a characteristic roughening of the inner surface of the eyelids. Also called granular conjunctivitis and Egyptian ophthalmia, it is the leading cause of infectious blindness in the world. Globally, 41 million people suffer from active infection and nearly 8 million people are visually impaired as a result of this disease. It belongs to a group of diseases known as neglected tropical diseases, and a number of global health organizations are working together to eliminate blinding trachoma by year 2020.
The bacterium has an incubation period of 5 to 12 days, after which the affected individual experiences symptoms of conjunctivitis, or irritation similar to "pink eye." Blinding endemic trachoma results from multiple episodes of reinfection that maintains the intense inflammation in the conjunctiva. Without reinfection, the inflammation will gradually subside.
The conjunctival inflammation is called “active trachoma” and usually is seen in children, especially pre-school children. It is characterized by white lumps in the undersurface of the upper eyelid
Parent Classification:Other diseases due to viruses and Chlamydiae
Foot-and-mouth disease or hoof-and-mouth disease (Aphthae epizooticae) is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild bovids. The virus causes a high fever for two or three days, followed by blisters inside the mouth and on the feet that may rupture and cause lameness.
Foot-and-mouth disease is a severe plague for animal farming, since it is highly infectious and can be spread by infected animals through aerosols, through contact with contaminated farming equipment, vehicles, clothing or feed, and by domestic and wild predators. Its containment demands considerable efforts in vaccination, strict monitoring, trade restrictions and quarantines, and occasionally the elimination of millions of animals.
Susceptible animals include cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, pigs, antelope, deer, and bison. It has also been known to infect hedgehogs, elephants, llama, and alpaca may develop mild symptoms, but are resistant to the disease and do not pass it on to others of the same species. In laboratory experiments, mice and rats and chickens have been successfully infected by artificial means, but it is not believed that they
Includes classifications:Ornithosis with pneumonia
In medicine (pulmonology), psittacosis — also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosis — is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Chlamydophila psittaci (formerly Chlamydia psittaci) and contracted from parrots, such as macaws, cockatiels and budgerigars, and pigeons, sparrows, ducks, hens, gulls and many other species of bird. The incidence of infection in canaries and finches is believed to be lower than in psittacine birds.
In certain contexts, the word "psittacosis" is used when the disease is carried by any species of bird belonging to the Psittacidae family, whereas "ornithosis" is used when other birds carry the disease.
In humans, after an incubation period of 5–14 days, the symptoms of the disease range from inapparent illness to systemic illness with severe pneumonia. It presents chiefly as an atypical pneumonia. In the first week of psittacosis the symptoms mimic typhoid fever: prostrating high fevers, arthralgias, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, epistaxis and leukopenia. Rose spots can appear and these are called Horder's spots. Splenomegaly is frequent toward the end of first week. Diagnosis can be suspected in case of respiratory infection
St. Louis Encephalitis is a disease caused by the Culex mosquito borne St. Louis Encephalitis virus. St. Louis encephalitis virus is related to Japanese encephalitis virus and is a member of the Flaviviridae subgroup. This disease mainly affects the United States. Occasional cases have been reported from Canada and Mexico.
The name of the virus goes back to 1933 when within five weeks in autumn an encephalitis epidemic of explosive proportions broke out in the vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri and the neighboring St. Louis County. Over 1,000 cases were reported to the local health departments and the newly constituted National Institute of Health was appealed to for epidemiological and investigative expertise. The previously unknown virus that caused the epidemic was isolated by the NIH team first in monkeys and then in white mice.
Mosquitoes, from the genus Culex, become infected by feeding on birds infected with the St. Louis encephalitis virus. Infected mosquitoes then transmit the St. Louis encephalitis virus to humans and animals during the feeding process. The St. Louis encephalitis virus grows both in the infected mosquito and the infected bird, but does not make either one
Parent Classification:Inflammatory and toxic neuropathy
Alcoholic polyneuropathy is a neurological disorder in which multiple peripheral nerves throughout the body malfunction simultaneously. It is defined by axonal degeneration in neurons of both the sensory and motor systems and initially occurs at the distal ends of the longest axons in the body. This nerve damage causes an individual to experience pain and motor weakness, first in the feet and hands and then progressing centrally. Alcoholic polyneuropathy is caused primarily by chronic alcoholism; however, vitamin deficiencies are also known to contribute to its development. This disease typically occurs in chronic alcoholics who have some sort of nutritional deficiency. Treatment may involve abstaining from alcohol, nutritional supplementation, and pain management.
Alcoholic polyneuropathy usually has a gradual onset over months or even years although axonal degeneration often begins before an individual experiences any symptoms. An early warning sign (prodrome) of the possibility of developing alcoholic polyneuropathy, specially in a chronic alcoholic, would be weight loss because this usually signifies a nutritional deficiency that can lead to the development of the disease.
Parent Classification:Specific diseases due to Coxsackie virus
Bornholm disease or epidemic pleurodynia or epidemic myalgia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie B virus or other viruses.
It is named after the Danish island Bornholm where early cases occurred.
Symptoms may include fever and headache, but the distinguishing characteristic of this disease is attacks of severe pain in the lower chest, often on one side. The slightest movement of the rib cage causes a sharp increase of pain, which makes it very difficult to breathe, and an attack is therefore quite a frightening experience, although it generally passes off before any actual harm occurs. The attacks are unpredictable and strike "out of the blue" with a feeling like an iron grip around the rib cage. The colloquial names for the disease, such as 'The Devil's grip' (see also "other names" below) reflect this symptom.
Inoculation of throat washings taken from people with pleurodynia into the brains of newborn mice revealed that enteroviruses in the Coxsackie B virus group were likely to be the cause of pleurodynia, and those findings were supported by subsequent studies of IgM antibody responses measured in serum from people with pleurodynia. Other viruses in the enterovirus family,
Includes classifications:Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Parent Classification:Slow virus infections and prion diseases of central nervous system
Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease ( /ˈkrɔɪtsfɛlt ˈjɑːkoʊb/ KROITS-felt YAH-kohb) or CJD is a degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is incurable and invariably fatal. CJD is at times called a human form of mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy or BSE) even though classic CJD is not related to BSE; however, given that BSE is believed to be the cause of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob (vCJD) disease in humans, the two are often confused.
In CJD, the brain tissue develops holes and takes on a sponge-like texture. This is due to a type of infectious protein called a prion. Prions are misfolded proteins which replicate by converting their properly folded counterparts.
Types of CJD include:
The first symptom of CJD is rapidly progressive dementia, leading to memory loss, personality changes and hallucinations. This is accompanied by physical problems such as speech impairment, jerky movements (myoclonus), balance and coordination dysfunction (ataxia), changes in gait, rigid posture, and seizures. The duration of the disease varies greatly, but sporadic (non-inherited) CJD can be fatal within months or even weeks (Johnson, 1998). In some people, the symptoms can continue
Parent Classification:Filarial infection and dracontiasis
Dracunculiasis ( /drəˌkʌŋkjəˈlaɪ.əsɪs/), also called guinea worm disease (GWD), is a nodular dermatosis produced by the development of Dracunculus parasite in the subcutaneous tissue of mammals. Dracunculus medinensis has been reported in humans, dogs, cats, horses, cattle, and other animals in Africa and Asia. A similar species of the Dracunculus genus, D. insignis, is a parasite which causes Dracunculiasis in dogs, raccoons, mink, fox, otter, and skunks of North America. Dracunculus medinensis is a long and very thin nematode (roundworm). The parasite enters a host by way of host ingestion of stagnant water contaminated with copepods infested with guinea worm larvae. Approximately one year later, the disease presents with a painful, burning sensation as the female worm forms a blister, usually on the lower limb.
Once prevalent in 20 nations in Asia and Africa, the disease remains endemic among humans in only four countries in Africa.
The guinea worm is one of the best historically documented human parasites, with tales of its behaviour reaching as far back as the 2nd century BC in accounts penned by Greek chroniclers. It is also mentioned in the Egyptian medical Ebers Papyrus,
Measles (also sometimes known as English measles), also known as morbilli, is an infection of the respiratory system caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. Morbilliviruses, like other paramyxoviruses, are enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses. Symptoms include fever, cough, runny nose, red eyes and a generalized, maculopapular, erythematous rash.
Measles is spread through respiration (contact with fluids from an infected person's nose and mouth, either directly or through aerosol transmission), and is highly contagious—90% of people without immunity sharing living space with an infected person will catch it. An asymptomatic incubation period occurs nine to twelve days from initial exposure and infectivity lasts from two to four days prior, until two to five days following the onset of the rash (i.e. four to nine days infectivity in total).
The classical signs and symptoms of measles include four-day fevers and the three Cs — cough, coryza (head cold), conjunctivitis (red eyes), fever, anorexia, and rashes. The fever may reach up to 40 °C (104 °F). Koplik's spots seen inside the mouth are pathognomonic (diagnostic) for measles,
Includes classifications:Viral hepatitis A with hepatic coma
Viral hepatitis is liver inflammation due to a viral infection. It may present in acute (recent infection, relatively rapid onset) or chronic forms. The most common causes of viral hepatitis are the five unrelated hepatotropic viruses Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, and Hepatitis E. In addition to the hepatitis viruses, other viruses that can also cause hepatitis include Herpes simplex, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or Yellow fever though the term "viral hepatitis" does not include aforementioned virus except Hepatitis viruses A to E.
A virus previously called Hepatitis G virus is now classified as GB virus C because it does not appear to cause hepatitis.
Hepatitis caused by viral means is the most common cause of the disease. Although they are classified under the disease hepatitis, these viruses are not all related.
Hepatitis A or infectious jaundice is caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV), a picornavirus transmitted by the fecal-oral route often associated with ingestion of contaminated food. It causes an acute form of hepatitis and does not have a chronic stage. The patient's immune system makes antibodies against HAV that confer immunity against future
Yaws (also frambesia tropica, thymosis, polypapilloma tropicum, pian or parangi, "Bouba," "Frambösie," and "Pian") is a tropical infection of the skin, bones and joints caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum pertenue. Other treponemal diseases are bejel (Treponema pallidum endemicum), pinta (Treponema pallidum carateum), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum pallidum).
Examination of ancient remains has led to the suggestion that yaws has affected hominids for the last 1.5 million years. The current name is believed to be of Carib origin, "yaya" meaning sore. It is believed to have originated in tropical areas of Africa, and spread to other tropical areas of the world via immigration and slave trade.
Yaws is found in humid tropical regions in South America, Africa, Asia and Oceania. Mass treatment campaigns in the 1950s reduced the worldwide prevalence from 50–150 million to fewer than 2.5 million; however during the 1970s there were outbreaks in south-east Asia and there have been continued sporadic cases in South America. It is unclear how many people worldwide are infected at present.
The disease is transmitted by skin-to-skin contact with an infective lesion, with the
Aspergillosis is the name given to a wide variety of diseases caused by infection by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. The most common forms are allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, pulmonary aspergilloma, and invasive aspergillosis. Most humans inhale Aspergillus spores every day. Aspergillosis develops mainly in individuals who are immunocompromised, either from disease or from immunosuppressive drugs, and is a leading cause of death in acute leukemia and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The most common cause is Aspergillus fumigatus.
A fungus ball in the lungs may cause no symptoms and may be discovered only with a chest X-ray, or it may cause repeated coughing up of blood and occasionally severe, even fatal, bleeding. A rapidly invasive Aspergillus infection in the lungs often causes cough, fever, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
Aspergillosis affecting the deeper tissues makes a person very ill. Symptoms include fever, chills, shock, delirium, and blood clots. The person may develop kidney failure, liver failure (causing jaundice), and breathing difficulties. Death can occur quickly.
Aspergillosis of the ear canal causes itching and occasionally pain. Fluid
Parent Classification:Sexual and gender identity disorders
Zoophilia, from the Greek ζῷον (zṓion, "animal") and φιλία (philia, "friendship" or "love") is the practice of sexual activity between humans and non-human animals (bestiality), or a preference for or fixation on such practice. People who practice zoophilia are known as zoophiles, zoosexuals, or simply "zoos". Zoophilia may also be known as zoosexuality. Zoophilia is a paraphilia.
Although sex with animals is not outlawed in some countries, it is not explicitly condoned anywhere. In most countries, bestiality is illegal under animal abuse laws or laws dealing with crimes against nature.
There are three terms that are most commonly used in regards to the subject: zoophilia, bestiality, and zoosexuality. The terms are usually relatively interchangeable. Zoosadism, sodomy, zooerasty and zooerastia are other terms closely related to the subject but are less synonymous with the former terms and/or are not commonly used. "Bestiosexuality" was discussed briefly by Allen (1979), but never became established.
The term "zoophilia" was introduced into the field of research on sexuality in Psychopathia Sexualis (1886) by Krafft-Ebing, who described a number of cases of "violation of animals
Candidiasis or thrush is a fungal infection (mycosis) of any of the Candida species (all yeasts), of which Candida albicans is the most common. Also commonly referred to as a yeast infection, candidiasis is also technically known as candidosis, moniliasis, and oidiomycosis.
Candidiasis encompasses infections that range from superficial, such as oral thrush and vaginitis, to systemic and potentially life-threatening diseases. Candida infections of the latter category are also referred to as candidemia and are usually confined to severely immunocompromised persons, such as cancer, transplant, and AIDS patients, as well as nontrauma emergency surgery patients.
Superficial infections of skin and mucosal membranes by Candida causing local inflammation and discomfort are common in many human populations. While clearly attributable to the presence of the opportunistic pathogens of the genus Candida, candidiasis describes a number of different disease syndromes that often differ in their causes and outcomes.
Candidiasis may be divided into the following types:
Symptoms of candidiasis vary depending on the area affected. Most candidial infections result in minimal complications such as
Myiasis ( /ˈmaɪ.əsɨs/ or /maɪˈaɪ.əsɨs/) is the infestation of a human being's or other vertebrate animal's body by fly larvae that feed on its tissue. When the attack is directed against dead or necrotic tissue, the condition is not necessarily harmful and the effects may be of value as maggot therapy. Colloquialisms for myiasis include flystrike, blowfly strike, and fly-blown. In Greek, "myia" means fly.
Because animals cannot react as effectively as humans to the causes and effects of myiasis, such conditions present a serious problem for livestock industries, causing severe economic losses worldwide. Although infestation by fly larvae is much more serious and more prevalent in animals, it is relatively frequent in humans in rural, tropical and subtropical regions, and often may require medical attention.
Myiasis varies widely in the forms it takes and its effects on the victims. Such variations depend largely on the fly species and where the larvae are located. Some flies lay eggs in open wounds, other larvae may invade unbroken skin or enter the body through the nose or ears, and still others may be swallowed if the eggs are deposited on the lips or on food.
Includes classifications:Encephalopathy, unspecified
Parent Classification:Other conditions of brain
Encephalopathy /ɛnˌsɛfəˈlɒpəθi/ means disorder or disease of the brain. In modern usage, encephalopathy does not refer to a single disease, but rather to a syndrome of global brain dysfunction; this syndrome can be caused by many different illnesses.
In some contexts it refers to permanent (or degenerative) brain injury, and in others it is reversible. It can be due to direct injury to the brain, or illness remote from the brain. In medical terms it can refer to a wide variety of brain disorders with very different etiologies, prognoses and implications. For example, prion diseases, all of which cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are invariably fatal, but other encephalopathies are reversible and can be caused by nutritional deficiencies, toxins, and several other causes.
There are many types of encephalopathy. Some examples include:
The hallmark of encephalopathy is an altered mental state. Depending on the type and severity of encephalopathy, common neurological symptoms are loss of cognitive function, subtle personality changes, inability to concentrate, lethargy, and depressed consciousness. Other neurological signs may include myoclonus (involuntary twitching of
Parent Classification:Disorders of carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Glycogen storage disease (GSD, also glycogenosis and dextrinosis) is the result of defects in the processing of glycogen synthesis or breakdown within muscles, liver, and other cell types. GSD has two classes of cause: genetic and acquired. Genetic GSD is caused by any inborn error of metabolism (genetically defective enzymes) involved in these processes. In livestock, acquired GSD is caused by intoxication with the alkaloid castanospermine.
Overall, according to a study in British Columbia, approximately 2.3 children per 100 000 births (1 in 43,000) have some form of glycogen storage disease. In the United States, they are estimated to occur in 1 per 20,000-25,000 births. A Dutch study estimated it to be 1 in 40,000.
There are eleven (11) distinct diseases that are commonly considered to be glycogen storage diseases (some previously thought to be distinct have been reclassified). (Although glycogen synthase deficiency does not result in storage of extra glycogen in the liver, it is often classified with the GSDs as type 0 because it is another defect of glycogen storage and can cause similar problems.)
Parent Classification:Other extrapyramidal disease and abnormal movement disorders
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination and leads to cognitive decline and psychiatric problems. It typically becomes noticeable in mid-adult life. HD is the most common genetic cause of abnormal involuntary writhing movements called chorea, which is why the disease used to be called Huntington's chorea.
It is much more common in people of Western European descent than in those of Asian or African ancestry. The disease is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation in either of an individual's two copies of a gene called Huntingtin, which means any child of an affected person typically has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease. Physical symptoms of Huntington's disease can begin at any age from infancy to old age, but usually begin between 35 and 44 years of age. Through genetic anticipation, the disease may develop earlier in life in each successive generation. About 6% of cases start before the age of 21 years with an akinetic-rigid syndrome; they progress faster and vary slightly. The variant is classified as juvenile, akinetic-rigid or Westphal variant HD.
The Huntingtin gene provides the genetic information for a protein
Parent Classification:Diseases of white blood cells
Neutropenia, from Latin prefix neutro- (neither, for neutral staining) and Greek suffix -πενία (deficiency), is a granulocyte disorder characterized by an abnormally low number of neutrophils. Neutrophils usually make up 50-70% of circulating white blood cells and serve as the primary defense against infections by destroying bacteria in the blood. Hence, patients with neutropenia are more susceptible to bacterial infections and, without prompt medical attention, the condition may become life-threatening (neutropenic sepsis).
Neutropenia can be acute or chronic depending on the duration of the illness. A patient has chronic neutropenia if the condition lasts for longer than three months. It is sometimes used interchangeably with the term leukopenia ("deficit in the number of white blood cells"), as neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes, but neutropenia is more properly considered a subset of leukopenia as a whole.
There are numerous causes of neutropenia that can roughly be divided between either problems in the production of the cells by the bone marrow and destruction of the cells elsewhere in the body. Treatment depends on the nature of the cause, and emphasis is placed on
Sarcoidosis (from sarc meaning "flesh", -oid, "like", and -osis, "diseased or abnormal condition"), also called sarcoid, Besnier-Boeck disease or Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease, is a disease in which abnormal collections of chronic inflammatory cells (granulomas) form as nodules in multiple organs. The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown. The granulomas that appear are usually not of the necrotizing variety and are most often located in the lungs or the lymph nodes, but virtually any organ can be affected. Normally, the onset is gradual. Sarcoidosis may be asymptomatic or chronic. It commonly improves or clears up spontaneously. More than two-thirds of people with lung sarcoidosis have no symptoms after 9 years. About 50% have relapses. About 10% develop serious disability. Lung scarring or infection may lead to respiratory failure and death. Chronic patients may deal with waxing and waning symptoms over many years.
Sarcoidosis, as a systemic inflammatory disease, can affect any organ. Common symptoms are vague, such as fatigue unchanged by sleep, lack of energy, weight loss, aches and pains, arthritis, dry eyes, swelling of the knees, blurry vision, shortness of breath, a dry,
Swimmer’s itch, also known as lake itch, duck itch, cercarial dermatitis, and Schistosome cercarial dermatitis, is a short-term, immune reaction occurring in the skin of humans that have been infected by water-borne schistosomatidae. Symptoms, which include itchy, raised papules, commonly occur within hours of infection and do not generally last more than a week.
A number of different flatworm parasites in the family Schistosomatidae are what cause swimmer’s itch. These parasites use both freshwater snails and vertebrates as hosts in their parasitic life cycles. Mostly waterfowl are used as the vertebrate host. During one of their life stages, the larvae of the parasite, cercaria, leave the water snails and swim freely in the freshwater, attempting to encounter water birds. These larvae can accidentally come into contact with the skin of a swimmer. The cercaria penetrates the skin and dies in the skin immediately. The cercaria larvae cannot infect humans, but they cause an inflammatory immune reaction. This reaction causes initially mildly itchy spots on the skin. Within hours, these spots become raised papules which are intensely itchy. Each papule corresponds to the penetration
Taeniasis is a form of tapeworm infection which is caused by tapeworms of the genus Taenia.
The two most important human pathogens in the genus are Taenia solium (the pork tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the beef tapeworm). Infection is acquired by eating undercooked contaminated meat. However, the number of infections resulting from consumption of food products contaminated with larvae of these helminths, such as vegetables, is also significant. The adult worms live in the lumen of the intestine where it causes very few symptoms. Taeniasis is generally asymptomatic and is diagnosed when a portion of the worm is passed in the stool. Oral antiparasitic drugs are the treatment of choice.
Includes classifications:Ptosis of eyelid, unspecified
Parent Classification:Other disorders of eyelids
Ptosis ( /ˈtoʊsɪs/) (from Greek Ptosis or πτῶσις, to "fall") is a drooping or falling of the upper or lower eyelid. The drooping may be worse after being awake longer, when the individual's muscles are tired. This condition is sometimes called "lazy eye", but that term normally refers to amblyopia. If severe enough and left untreated, the drooping eyelid can cause other conditions, such as amblyopia or astigmatism. This is why it is especially important for this disorder to be treated in children at a young age, before it can interfere with vision development.
Ptosis is derived from the Greek wording (πτῶσις) “fall,” and is defined as the “abnormal lowering or prolapse of an organ or body part."
Ptosis occurs when the muscles that raise the eyelid (levator and Müller's muscles) are not strong enough to do so properly. It can affect one eye or both eyes and is more common in the elderly, as muscles in the eyelids may begin to deteriorate. One can, however, be born with ptosis. Congenital ptosis is hereditary in three main forms. Causes of congenital ptosis remain unknown. Ptosis may be caused by damage/trauma to the muscle which raises the eyelid, damage to the superior cervical
Parent Classification:Strabismus and other disorders of binocular eye movements
Esotropia is a form of strabismus, or "squint", in which one or both eyes turns inward. The condition can be constantly present, or occur intermittently, and can give the affected individual a "cross-eyed" appearance. Esotropia is sometimes erroneously called "lazy eye", which describes the condition of amblyopia—a reduction in vision of one or both eyes that is not the result of any pathological lesion of the visual pathway and cannot be resolved by the use of corrective lenses. Amblyopia can, however, arise as a result of esotropia occurring in childhood: In order to relieve symptoms of diplopia or double vision, the child's brain will ignore or "suppress" the image from the esotropic eye, which when allowed to continue untreated will lead to the development of amblyopia. Treatment options for esotropia include glasses to correct refractive errors (see accommodative esotropia below), the use of prisms and/or orthoptic exercises and/or eye muscle surgery.
1. Right, left or alternating
Someone with esotropia will squint with either the right or the left eye but never with both eyes simultaneously. In a left esotropia, the left eye 'squints', and in a right esotropia the right eye
A herpetic whitlow is a lesion (whitlow) on a finger or thumb caused by the herpes simplex virus. It is a painful infection that typically affects the fingers or thumbs. Occasionally infection occurs on the toes or on the nail cuticle. Herpes whitlow can be caused by infection by HSV-1 or HSV-2. HSV-1 whitlow is often contracted by health care workers that come in contact with the virus; it is most commonly contracted by dental workers and medical workers exposed to oral secretions. It is also often observed in thumb-sucking children with primary HSV-1 oral infection (autoinoculation) prior to seroconversion, and in adults aged 20 to 30 following contact with HSV-2-infected genitals. Symptoms of herpetic whitlow include swelling, reddening and tenderness of the skin of infected finger. This may be accompanied by fever and swollen lymph nodes. Small, clear vesicles initially form individually, then merge and become cloudy. Associated pain often seems large relative to the physical symptoms. The herpes whitlow lesion usually heals in two to three weeks.
In children the primary source of infection is the orofacial area, and it is commonly inferred that the virus (in this case commonly
Migraine is a chronic disorder characterized by recurrent moderate to severe headaches often in association with a number of autonomic nervous system symptoms. The word derives from the Greek ἡμικρανία (hemikrania), "pain on one side of the head", from ἡμι- (hemi-), "half", and κρανίον (kranion), "skull".
Typically the headache is unilateral (affecting one half of the head) and pulsating in nature, lasting from 2 to 72 hours. Associated symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, photophobia (increased sensitivity to light), phonophobia (increased sensitivity to sound) and the pain is generally aggravated by physical activity. Up to one-third of people with migraine headaches perceive an aura: a transient visual, sensory, language, or motor disturbance which signals that the headache will soon occur.
Migraines are believed to be due to a mixture of environmental and genetic factors. About two-thirds of cases run in families. Fluctuating hormone levels may also play a role: migraine affects slightly more boys than girls before puberty, but about two to three times more women than men. Propensity for migraines usually decreases during pregnancy. The exact mechanisms of migraines are not
Parent Classification:Disorders of refraction and accommodation
Myopia (Greek: μυωπία, muōpia, from myein "to shut" + ops (gen. opos) "eye"), commonly known as being nearsighted (American English) and shortsighted (British English). A condition of the eye where the light that comes in does not directly focus on the retina but in front of it. This causes the image that one sees when looking at a distant object to be out of focus but in focus when looking at a close object.
Eye care professionals most commonly correct myopia through the use of corrective lenses, such as glasses or contact lenses. It may also be corrected by refractive surgery, though there are cases of associated side effects. The corrective lenses have a negative optical power (i.e. are concave) which compensates for the excessive positive diopters of the myopic eye.
Myopia has been classified in various manners.
Borish and Duke-Elder classified myopia by cause:
Elevation of blood-glucose levels can also cause edema (swelling) of the crystalline lens (hyperphacosorbitomyopicosis) as a result of sorbitol (sugar alcohol) accumulating in the lens. This edema often causes temporary myopia (nearsightedness). A common sign of hyperphacosorbitomyopicosis is blurring of distance vision
Includes classifications:Otosclerosis involving oval window, nonobliterative
Otosclerosis is an abnormal growth of bone near the middle ear. It can result in hearing loss.
Otosclerosis can result in conductive and/or sensorineural hearing loss. The primary form of hearing loss in otosclerosis is conductive hearing loss (CHL) whereby sounds reach the ear drum but are incompletely transferred via the ossicular chain in the middle ear, and thus partly fail to reach the inner ear (cochlea). This usually will begin in one ear but will eventually affect both ears with a variable course. On audiometry, the hearing loss is characteristically low-frequency, with higher frequencies being affected later. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) has also been noted in patients with otosclerosis; this is usually a high-frequency loss, and usually manifests late in the disease. The causal link between otosclerosis and SNHL remains controversial.
Approximately 0.5% of the population will eventually be diagnosed with otosclerosis. Post mortem studies show that as many as 10% of people may have otosclerotic lesions of their temporal bone, but apparently never had symptoms warranting a diagnosis. Caucasians are the most affected race, with the prevalence in the Black and Asian
Includes classifications:Androgen insensitivity, unspecified
Parent Classification:Other endocrine disorders
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a condition that results in the partial or complete inability of the cell to respond to androgens. The unresponsiveness of the cell to the presence of androgenic hormones can impair or prevent the masculinization of male genitalia in the developing fetus, as well as the development of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty, but does not significantly impair female genital or sexual development. As such, the insensitivity to androgens is clinically significant only when it occurs in genetic males (i.e. individuals with a Y-chromosome, or more specifically, an SRY gene). Clinical phenotypes in these individuals range from a normal male habitus with mild spermatogenic defect or reduced secondary terminal hair, to a full female habitus, despite the presence of a Y-chromosome.
AIS is divided into three categories that are differentiated by the degree of genital masculinization: complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) is indicated when the external genitalia are that of a normal female; mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS) is indicated when the external genitalia are that of a normal male, and partial androgen
Clonorchiasis is an infectious disease caused by the Chinese liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis. Clonorchiasis is a known risk factor for the development of cholangiocarcinoma, a neoplasm of the biliary system.
Symptoms of opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini and by Opisthorchis felineus are indistinguishable from clonorchiasis caused by Clonorchis sinensis, so the disease by these three parasites should be referred as clonorchiasis.
Clonorchiasis sinensis is a trematode (fluke) which is part of the phylum Platyhelminthes. It is a hermaphroditic fluke that requires two intermediate hosts. The parasitic worm is as long as 10 to 25mm and lives in the bile ducts of the liver. The eggs of the worms are passed through fecal matter which are then ingested by mollusks. One becomes infected by eating undercooked, smoked, pickled or salted freshwater fish. Freshwater fish are a second intermediate host for the parasitic worm. They become infected when the larvae (cercaria) of the worm penetrates the flesh of the fish. The water snail is the first intermediate host in which a miracidium (an embryonated egg discharged in stool) goes through its developmental stages of (sporocyst,
Includes classifications:Cocaine dependence, unspecified use
Parent Classification:Drug Dependence
Cocaine dependence (or addiction) is a psychological desire to use cocaine regularly. Cocaine use can result in cardiovascular and brain damage such as constricting blood vessels in the brain, causing strokes and constricting arteries in the heart, causing heart attacks specifically in the central nervous system.
The use of cocaine can cause mood swings, paranoia, insomnia, psychosis, high blood pressure, tachycardia, panic attacks, cognitive impairments and drastic changes in the personality that can lead to aggressive, compulsive, criminal and/or erratic behaviors.
The symptoms of cocaine withdrawal (also known as comedown or crash) range from moderate to severe: dysphoria, depression, anxiety, psychological and physical weakness, pain and compulsive craving.
Historically, the addiction was known as cocainism.
According to a study of 1081 US residents aged over 11 years who had used cocaine for the first time within 24 months prior to assessment, the risk of becoming cocaine-dependent within 2 years of first use (recent-onset) is 5-6%; after 10 years, it increases to 15-16%. These are the aggregate rates for all types of use considered, i.e., smoking, snorting, injecting. Among
Dengue fever (UK /ˈdɛŋɡeɪ/ or US /ˈdɛŋɡiː/), also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs.
Dengue is transmitted by several species of mosquito within the genus Aedes, principally A. aegypti. The virus has four different types; infection with one type usually gives lifelong immunity to that type, but only short-term immunity to the others. Subsequent infection with a different type increases the risk of severe complications. As there is no vaccine, prevention is sought by reducing the habitat and the number of mosquitoes and limiting exposure to bites.
Treatment of acute dengue is supportive, using either oral or intravenous rehydration for mild or moderate disease, and intravenous fluids and blood transfusion for more severe cases. The incidence of dengue fever has
Parent Classification:Other demyelinating diseases of central nervous system
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), also known as Devic's disease or Devic's syndrome, is an autoimmune, inflammatory disorder in which a person's own immune system attacks the optic nerves and spinal cord. This produces an inflammation of the optic nerve (optic neuritis) and the spinal cord (myelitis). Although inflammation may also affect the brain, the lesions are different from those observed in the related condition, multiple sclerosis. Spinal cord lesions lead to varying degrees of weakness or paralysis in the legs or arms, loss of sensation (including blindness), and/or bladder and bowel dysfunction.
Devic's disease is a rare disorder which resembles multiple sclerosis (MS) in several ways, but requires a different course of treatment for optimal results. It has also been suggested to be a variant form of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.. The likely target of the autoimmune attack, at least in some patients with NMO, has been identified as a protein of the nervous system cells called aquaporin 4.
The main symptoms of Devic's disease are loss of vision and spinal cord function. Optic neuritis may manifest as visual impairment with decreased visual acuity, although visual field
Diphyllobothriasis is the infection caused by the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium.
Diphyllobothriasis occurs in areas where lakes and rivers coexist with human consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish. Such areas are found in Europe, newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, North America, Asia, Uganda, Peru (because of Ceviche), and Chile. It is particularly common in Japan, because of Sushi or Sashimi.
Around the middle of the 20th century in Japan, before advancements in refrigeration, many sushi/sashimi connoisseurs suffered great morbidity and mortality from Diphyllobothrium after eating unrefrigerated sashimi. Through research in parasitology, scientists came to realize that the primary cause was the relatively favorable parasite-breeding conditions that raw fish offered.
The disease is rare in the United States. It was, however, once more common and was referred to as "Jewish housewife's disease" because Jewish housewives preparing the traditional "gefilte fish" frequently tasted the fish before it was cooked.
Diphyllobothriasis can last for decades if untreated. Most infections are asymptomatic. Manifestations may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea,
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a substance (drug) in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods neither approved nor supervised by medical professionals. Substance abuse/drug abuse is not limited to mood-altering or psycho-active drugs. If an activity is performed using the objects against the rules and policies of the matter (as in steroids for performance enhancement in sports), it is also called substance abused. Therefore, mood-altering and psychoactive substances are not the only types of drug abuse. Using illicit drugs – narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, cannabis, even glues and paints, are also considered to be classified as drug/substance abuse. Substance abuse often includes problems with impulse control and impulsive behaviour.
The term "drug abuse" does not exclude dependency, but is otherwise used in a similar manner in nonmedical contexts. The terms have a huge range of definitions related to taking a psychoactive drug or performance enhancing drug for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. All of these definitions imply a negative judgment of the drug use in question (compare with
Parent Classification:Diseases of white blood cells
Eosinophilia is a condition in which the eosinophil count in the peripheral blood exceeds 0.45×10/L (450/μl). A marked increase in non-blood tissue eosinophil count noticed upon histopathologic examination is diagnostic for tissue eosinophilia. Several causes are known, with the most common being some form of allergic reaction or parasitosis. Diagnosis of eosinophilia is via a complete blood count (CBC), but diagnostic procedures directed at the underlying cause vary depending on the suspected condition(s). An absolute eosinophil count is not generally needed if the CBC shows marked eosinophilia. The location of the causal factor can be used to classify eosinophilia into two general types: extrinsic, in which the factor lies outside of the eosinophil cell lineage; and intrinsic eosinophilia, which denotes etiologies within the eosiniphil cell line. Specific treatments are dictated by the causative condition, though in idiopathic eosinophilia, the disease may be controlled with corticosteroids. Eosinophilia is not a disorder, unless it is idiopathic.
Eosinophilia can be idiopathic (primary) or, more commonly, secondary to another disease. In the United States, allergic or atopic
Parent Classification:Overweight, obesity and other hyperalimentation
Hypervitaminosis D is a state of vitamin D toxicity.
The recommended daily allowance is 15 µg/d (600 IU per day). Overdose has been observed at 1,925 µg/d (77,000 IU per day). Acute overdose requires between 15,000 µg/d (600,000 IU per day) and 42,000 µg/d (1,680,000 IU per day) over a period of several days to months, with a safe intake level being 250 µg/d (10,000 IU per day). Foods contain low levels, and have not been known to cause overdose.
Symptoms of vitamin D poisoning include:
An excess of vitamin D causes abnormally high blood concentrations of calcium (hypercalcemia), which can cause overcalcification of the bones, soft tissues, heart and kidneys. It can also damage the kidney and produce kidney stones. In addition, hypertension can result . Ongoing research indicates antagonism with oil soluble menatetrenone, MK-4, an internally transported natural form of vitamin K2, which is associated with bone formation and calcium retention in the bones.
Note: Hypervitaminosis D symptoms appear several months after excessive doses of vitamin D are administered. In almost every case, a low calcium diet combined with corticosteroid drugs will allow for a full recovery within a
Psychosis (from the Ancient Greek ψυχή "psyche", for mind/soul, and -ωσις "-osis", for abnormal condition or derangement) refers to an abnormal condition of the mind, and is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a "loss of contact with reality". People suffering from psychosis are described as psychotic. Psychosis is given to the more severe forms of psychiatric disorder, during which hallucinations and delusions and impaired insight may occur.
The term psychosis is very broad and can mean anything from relatively normal aberrant experiences through to the complex and catatonic expressions of schizophrenia and bipolar type 1 disorder. Moreover a wide variety of central nervous system diseases, from both external poisons and internal physiologic illness, can produce symptoms of psychosis. This led many professional to say that psychosis is not specific enough as a diagnostic term. Despite this, "psychosis" is generally given to noticeable deficits in normal behavior (negative signs) and more commonly to diverse types of hallucinations or delusional beliefs (positive signs).
An excess in dopaminergic, and a deficit in glutamate(specifically NMDA)
Parent Classification:Other and unspecified helminthiases
Toxocariasis is an illness of humans caused by a larvae (immature worms) of either the dog roundworm (Toxocara canis), the cat roundworm (Toxocara cati) or the fox (Toxocara canis). Toxocariasis is often called visceral larva migrans (VLM). Depending on geographic location, degree of eosinophilia, eye and/or pulmonary signs the terms ocular larva migrans (OLM), Weingarten's disease, Frimodt-Moller's syndrome, and eosiniphilic pseudoleukemia are applied to Toxocariasis. Other terms sometimes or rarely used include nematode opthalmitis, toxocaral disease, toxocarose, and covert toxocariasis,). This zoonotic, helminthic infection is a major cause of blindness and may provoke rheumatic, neurologic, or asthmatic symptoms . Humans normally become infected by ingestion of embryonated eggs (each containing a fully developed larva, L2) from contaminated sources (soil, fresh or unwashed vegetables, or improperly cooked paratenic hosts.
Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are perhaps the most ubiquitous gastrointestinal worms (helminths) of domestic dogs and cats and foxes. There are many 'accidental' or paratenic hosts including humans, birds, pigs, rodents, goats, monkeys, and rabbits. . In
An adrenal gland disease is a condition that interferes with the normal functioning of the adrenal gland. It may cause hyperfunction or hypofunction, and it may be congenital or acquired.
Examples include Addison's disease and Cushing's syndrome.
Includes classifications:Senile dementia, uncomplicated
Dementia (taken from Latin, originally meaning "madness", from de- "without" + ment, the root of mens "mind") is a serious loss of global cognitive ability in a previously unimpaired person, beyond what might be expected from normal aging. It may be static, the result of a unique global brain injury, or progressive, resulting in long-term decline due to damage or disease in the body. Although dementia is far more common in the geriatric population, it can occur before the age of 65, in which case it is termed "early onset dementia".
Dementia is not a single disease, but rather a non-specific illness syndrome (i.e., set of signs and symptoms) in which affected areas of cognition may be memory, attention, language, and problem solving. It is normally required to be present for at least 6 months to be diagnosed; cognitive dysfunction that has been seen only over shorter times, in particular less than weeks, must be termed delirium. In all types of general cognitive dysfunction, higher mental functions are affected first in the process.
Especially in the later stages of the condition, affected persons may be disoriented in time (not knowing what day of the week, day of the month, or
Includes classifications:Background diabetic retinopathy
Parent Classification:Other retinal disorders
Diabetic retinopathy, ([ˌrɛtnˈɑpəθi]) is retinopathy (damage to the retina) caused by complications of diabetes, which can eventually lead to blindness. It is an ocular manifestation of systemic disease which affects up to 80% of all patients who have had diabetes for 10 years or more. Despite these intimidating statistics, research indicates that at least 90% of these new cases could be reduced if there was proper and vigilant treatment and monitoring of the eyes. The longer a person has diabetes, the higher his or her chances of developing diabetic retinopathy.
Diabetic retinopathy often has no early warning signs. Even macular edema, which may cause vision loss more rapidly, may not have any warning signs for some time. In general, however, a person with macular edema is likely to have blurred vision, making it hard to do things like read or drive. In some cases, the vision will get better or worse during the day.
As new blood vessels form at the back of the eye as a part of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), they can bleed (ocular hemorrhage) and blur vision. The first time this happens, it may not be very severe. In most cases, it will leave just a few specks of blood,
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a member of the retrovirus family) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive.
HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4 T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4 T cells through three main mechanisms: First, direct viral killing of infected cells; second, increased rates of apoptosis in infected cells; and third, killing of infected CD4 T cells by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. When CD4 T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections.
HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus, part of the family of Retroviridae. Lentiviruses have many morphologies and biological properties in common. Many species are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period. Lentiviruses are transmitted
Meralgia paraesthetica (UK spelling), or meralgia paresthetica (US spelling) (me-ral'-gee-a par-es-thet'-i-ka) — also called Bernhardt-Roth syndrome — is numbness or pain in the outer thigh not caused by injury to the thigh, but by injury to a nerve that extends from the thigh to the spinal column.
This chronic neurological disorder involves a single nerve, namely the lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh (also called the Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve). The term meralgia paraesthetica comprises four Greek roots, which together denote "thigh pain with anomalous perception".
The lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh most often becomes injured by entrapment or compression where it passes between the upper front hip bone (ilium) and the inguinal ligament near the attachment at the anterior superior iliac spine (the upper point of the hip bone). Less commonly, the nerve may be entrapped by other anatomical or abnormal structures, or damaged by diabetic or other neuropathy or trauma such as from seat belt injury in an accident.
The nerve may become painful over a period of time as weight gain makes underwear, belting or the waistband of pants gradually exert higher levels of pressure. The
Parent Classification:Retinal detachments and defects
Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. Initial detachment may be localized, but without rapid treatment the entire retina may detach, leading to vision loss and blindness. It is a medical emergency.
The retina is a thin layer of light sensitive tissue on the back wall of the eye. The optical system of the eye focuses light on the retina much like light is focused on the film or sensor in a camera. The retina translates that focused image into neural impulses and sends them to the brain via the optic nerve. Occasionally, posterior vitreous detachment, injury or trauma to the eye or head may cause a small tear in the retina. The tear allows vitreous fluid to seep through it under the retina, and peel it away like a bubble in wallpaper.
A minority of retinal detachments result from trauma, including blunt blows to the orbit, penetrating trauma, and concussions to the head. A retrospective Indian study of more than 500 cases of rhegmatogenous detachments found that 11% were due to trauma, and that gradual onset was the norm, with over 50% presenting more than one month after the inciting injury.
Includes classifications:Acute amebic dysentery without mention of abscess
Amoebiasis, or Amebiasis, refers to infection caused by the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica. The term Entamoebiasis is occasionally seen but is no longer in use; it refers to the same infection. Likewise amoebiasis is sometimes incorrectly used to refer to infection with other amoebae, but strictly speaking it should be reserved for Entamoeba histolytica infection. Other amoebae infecting humans include:
Except for Dientamoeba, the parasites above are not thought to cause disease.
A gastrointestinal infection that may or may not be symptomatic and can remain latent in an infected person for several years, amoebiasis is estimated to cause 70,000 deaths per year world wide. Symptoms can range from mild diarrhea to dysentery with blood and mucus in the stool. E. histolytica is usually a commensal organism. Severe amoebiasis infections (known as invasive or fulminant amoebiasis) occur in two major forms. Invasion of the intestinal lining causes amoebic dysentery or amoebic colitis. If the parasite reaches the bloodstream it can spread through the body, most frequently ending up in the liver where it causes amoebic liver abscesses. Liver abscesses can occur without previous development of
Parent Classification:Disorders involving the immune mechanism
Humoral immune deficiencies are conditions which cause impairment of humoral immunity, which can lead to immunodeficiency. It can be mediated by insufficient number or function of B cells, the plasma cells they differentiate into (with these two potentially being caused by B cell lymphocytopenia), or the antibody secreted by the plasma cells.
They are associated with increased vulnerability to infection, but can be difficult to detect (or asymptomatic) in the absence of infection.
They can be associated with increased risk of gastric cancer.
One way of classifying humoral immune deficiencies are into primary (or hereditary) versus secondary (or acquired) ones.
The International Union of Immunological Societies classifies primary immune deficiencies of the humoral system (here termed "Predominantly antibody deficiencies") as follows:
Secondary (or acquired) forms of humoral immune deficiency are mainly:
The signs and symptoms of humoral immune deficiency depend on the cause, but generally include signs of hypogammaglobulinemia (decrease of one or more types of antibodies) with presentations including repeated mild respiratory infections, and/or agammaglobulinemia (lack of all or
Bell's palsy is a form of facial paralysis resulting from a dysfunction of the cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) that results in the inability to control facial muscles on the affected side. Several conditions can cause facial paralysis, e.g., brain tumor, stroke, and Lyme disease. However, if no specific cause can be identified, the condition is known as Bell's palsy. Named after Scottish anatomist Charles Bell, who first described it, Bell's palsy is the most common acute mononeuropathy (disease involving only one nerve) and is the most common cause of acute facial nerve paralysis.
Bell's palsy is defined as an idiopathic unilateral facial nerve paralysis, usually self-limiting. The hallmark of this condition is a rapid onset of partial or complete palsy that often occurs overnight. In rare cases (
Parent Classification:Other diseases due to viruses and Chlamydiae
Cat scratch disease (CSD) (also known as "Cat scratch fever", "Teeny's Disease", "Inoculation lymphoreticulosis", and "Subacute regional lymphadenitis") is a usually benign infectious disease caused by the intracellular bacterium Bartonella henselae. It is most commonly found in children following a scratch or bite from a cat by about one to two weeks. It was first discovered in 1889 by Henri Parinaud.
Manifestations of cat scratch disease can be divided into classic and atypical.
Classic cat scratch disease presents as tender and swollen regional lymph nodes, a condition referred to as regional lymphadenopathy. There may be a papule at the site of initial infection. While some patients have fever and other systemic symptoms, many do not. Other associated complaints include headache, chills, backache and abdominal pain. It may take 7 to 14 days, or as long as two months, before symptoms appear. Most cases are benign and self-limiting, but lymphadenopathy may persist for several months after other symptoms disappear. In general, the prognosis is favorable. In temperate climates, most cases occur in autumn and winter. The disease usually resolves spontaneously, with or without
Cerebral edema or cerebral œdema is an excess accumulation of water in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain.
Four types of cerebral edema have been distinguished:
Due to a breakdown of tight endothelial junctions which make up the blood–brain barrier (BBB). This allows normally excluded intravascular proteins and fluid to penetrate into cerebral parenchymal extracellular space. Once plasma constituents cross the BBB, the edema spreads; this may be quite fast and widespread. As water enters white matter it moves extracellularly along fiber tracts and can also affect the gray matter. This type of edema is seen in response to trauma, tumors, focal inflammation, late stages of cerebral ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy.
Some of the mechanisms contributing to BBB dysfunction are: physical disruption by arterial hypertension or trauma, tumor-facilitated release of vasoactive and endothelial destructive compounds (e.g. arachidonic acid, excitatory neurotransmitters, eicosanoids, bradykinin, histamine, and free radicals). Some of the special subcategories of vasogenic edema include:
In this type of edema the BBB remains intact. This edema is due to the derangement
Includes classifications:Primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis
Coccidioidomycosis ( /kɒkˌsɪdiɔɪdoʊmaɪˈkoʊsɪs/, commonly known as "Valley fever", as well as "California fever", "Desert rheumatism", and "San Joaquin Valley fever") is a fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or C. posadasii. It is endemic in certain parts of Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Utah and northwestern Mexico.
C. immitis resides in the soil in certain parts of the southwestern United States, northern Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. It is dormant during long dry spells, then develops as a mold with long filaments that break off into airborne spores when the rains come. The spores, known as arthroconidia, are swept into the air by disruption of the soil, such as during construction, farming, or an earthquake.
Infection is caused by inhalation of the particles. The disease is not transmitted from person to person. The infection ordinarily resolves leaving the patient with a specific immunity to re-infection.C. immitis is a dimorphic saprophytic organism that grows as a mycelium in the soil and produces a spherule form in the host organism.
The disease is usually mild, with flu-like symptoms and rashes. The Mayo Clinic estimates that
Includes classifications:Echinococcus granulosus infection of liver
Echinococcosis, which is often referred to as hydatid disease or echinococcal disease, is a parasitic disease that affects both humans and other mammals, such as sheep, dogs, rodents and horses. There are three different forms of echinococcosis found in humans, each of which is caused by the larval stages of different species of the tapeworm of genus Echinococcus. The first of the three and also the most common form found in humans is cystic echinococcosis (also known as unilocular echinococcosis), which is caused by Echinococcus granulosus. The second is alveolar echinococcosis (also known as alveolar colloid of the liver, alveolar hydatid disease, alveolococcosis, multilocular echinococcosis, “small fox tapeworm”), which is caused by Echinococcus multilocularis and the third is polycystic echinococcosis (also known as human polycystic hydatid disease, neotropical echinococcosis), which is caused by Echinococcus vogeli and very rarely, Echinococcus oligarthus. Alveolar and polycystic echinococcosis are rarely diagnosed in humans and are not as widespread as cystic echinococcosis, but polycystic echinococcosis is relatively new on the medical scene and is often left out of
Hymenolepiasis is infestation by one of two species of tapeworm:
Alternative names are:
Hymenolepis worms live in the intestines of rats and are common in warm climates. Hymenolepis is generally found in the feces of rats which is consumed by its secondary hosts: beetles. The worms mature into a life form referred to as a "cysticercoid" in the insect; in H. nana, the insect is always a beetle. Humans and other animals become infected when they intentionally or unintentionally eat material contaminated by insects. In an infected person, it is possible for the worm's entire life-cycle to be completed in the bowel, so infection can persist for years if left untreated. Hymenolepis nana infections are much more common than Hymenolepis diminuta infections in humans because, in addition to being spread by insects, the disease can be spread directly from person to person by eggs in feces. When this happens, H. nana oncosphere larvae encyst in the intestinal wall and develop into cysticercoids and then adults. These infections were previously common in the southeastern USA, and have been described in crowded environments and individuals confined to institutions. However, the disease occurs
Includes classifications:Myasthenia gravis without (acute) exacerbation
Parent Classification:Neuromuscular disease
Myasthenia gravis (from Greek μύς "muscle", ἀσθένεια "weakness", and Latin: gravis "serious"; abbreviated MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disease leading to fluctuating muscle weakness and fatiguability. It is an autoimmune disorder, in which weakness is caused by circulating antibodies that block acetylcholine receptors at the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction, inhibiting the excitatory effects of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine on nicotinic receptors throughout neuromuscular junctions. Myasthenia is treated medically with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or immunosuppressants, and, in selected cases, thymectomy. The disease incidence is 3–30 cases per million per year and rising as a result of increased awareness. MG must be distinguished from congenital myasthenic syndromes that can present similar symptoms but offer no response to immunosuppressive treatments.
The most widely accepted classification of myasthenia gravis is the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America Clinical Classification:
The hallmark of myasthenia gravis is fatigability. Muscles become progressively weaker during periods of activity and improve after periods of rest. Muscles that control eye and
Pappataci fever (also known as Phlebotomus fever and, somewhat confusingly, sandfly fever and three-day fever) is a vector-borne febrile arboviral infection caused by three serotypes of Phlebovirus. Occurs in subtropical regions of the Eastern Hemisphere. The name, pappataci fever, comes from the Italian word for sandfly, it is the union of the word "pappa" (food) and taci (silent) which distinguish these insect from mosquitoes which produce a typical noise while flying.
Three serotypes of Phlebovirus, Naples virus, Sicilian virus and Toscana virus are known causative agents.
Pappataci fever is prevalent in the subtropical zone of the Eastern Hemisphere between 20°N and 45°N, particularly in Southern Europe, North Africa, the Balkans, Eastern Mediterranean, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan and India.
The disease is transmitted by the bites of phlebotomine sandflies of the Genus Phlebotomus, in particular, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus perfiliewi. The sandfly becomes infected when biting an infected human in the period between 48 hours before the onset of fever and 24 hours after the end of the fever, and remains infected for its lifetime. Besides
Parent Classification:Other and unspecified disorders of metabolism
The porphyrias are a group of rare inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes that normally participate in the production of porphyrins and heme. They manifest with either neurological complications or skin problems, or occasionally both.
Porphyrias are classified in two ways, by symptoms and by pathophysiology. Symptomatically, acute porphyrias primarily present with nervous system involvement, often with severe abdominal pain, vomiting, neuropathy and mental disturbances. Cutaneous porphyrias present with skin manifestations often after exposure to sun due to the accumulation of excess porphyrins near the surface of the skin. Physiologically, porphyrias are classified as hepatic or erythropoietic based on the sites of accumulation of heme precursors, either in the liver or bone marrow and red blood cells.
The term "porphyria" is derived from the Greek πορφύρα, porphyra, meaning "purple pigment". The name is likely to have been a reference to the purple discolouration of feces and urine when exposed to light in patients during an attack. Although original descriptions are attributed to Hippocrates, the disease was first explained biochemically by Felix Hoppe-Seyler in
Athlete's foot (also known as ringworm of the foot and tinea pedis) is a fungal infection of the skin that causes scaling, flaking, and itch of affected areas. It is caused by fungi in the genus Trichophyton and is typically transmitted in moist areas where people walk barefoot, such as showers or bathhouses, however in order to incubate it requires the foot to remain moist and so is only seen in approximately 0.75% of habitually (always) barefoot people. Although the condition typically affects the feet, it can infect or spread to other areas of the body, including the groin, particularly areas of skin that are kept hot and moist, such as with insulation, body heat, and sweat in a shoe, for long periods of time. While the fungus is generally picked up through walking barefoot in an infected area or using an infected towel, infection can be prevented by remaining barefoot as this allows the feet to dry properly and removes the fungus' primary incubator - the warm moist interior of a shoe. Athlete's foot can be treated by a number of pharmaceuticals (including creams) and other treatments.
Athlete's foot causes scaling, flaking, and itching of the affected skin. Blisters and cracked
Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) or necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is a sub-classification of necrotizing periodontal disease, an infection of the gum tissue. This presents as an acute infection of the gingiva without involvement of the other tissues of the periodontium. If the infection has progressed deeper into the periodontal tissues, it is subclassified as "necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis" (NUP).
The condition is also commonly referred to as "trench mouth" and "Vincent's angina", named after French physician Jean Hyacinthe Vincent (1862–1950). Other synonyms include "acute membranous gingivitis", "fusospirillary gingivitis", " fusospirillosis", "fusospirochetal gingivitis", "necrotizing gingivitis", "phagedenic gingivitis", "ulcerative gingivitis", "Vincent stomatitis", "Vincent gingivitis", and "Vincent infection".
Necrotizing periodontal disease is caused by a bacterial infection that includes anaerobes such as P. intermedia and Fusobacterium as well as spirochetes, such as Borrelia and Treponema.
In the late 1980s-early 1990s, it was originally thought that necrotizing periodontal diseases were strictly a sequela of HIV, and it was even called
Parent Classification:Disorders of plasma protein metabolism
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (α1-antitrypsin deficiency, A1AD or simply Alpha-1) is a genetic disorder that causes defective production of alpha 1-antitrypsin (A1AT), leading to decreased A1AT activity in the blood and lungs, and deposition of excessive abnormal A1AT protein in liver cells. There are several forms and degrees of deficiency, principally depending on whether the sufferer has one or two copies of the affected gene because it is a codominant trait. Severe A1AT deficiency causes panacinar emphysema or COPD in adult life in many people with the condition (especially if they are exposed to cigarette smoke), as well as various liver diseases in a minority of children and adults, and occasionally more unusual problems. It is treated by avoidance of damaging inhalants, by intravenous infusions of the A1AT protein, by transplantation of the liver or lungs, and by a variety of other measures, but it usually produces some degree of disability and reduced life expectancy.
Symptoms of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency include shortness of breath, wheezing, rhonchi, and rales. The patient's symptoms may resemble recurrent respiratory infections or asthma that does not respond to
Ascariasis is a disease of humans caused by the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. Perhaps as many as one quarter of the world's population are infected, with a prevalence of 45% in Latin America and 95% in parts of Africa. Ascariasis is particularly prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical regions where hygiene is poor. Other species of the genus Ascaris can cause disease in domestic animals, such as Ascaris suum which infects pigs. Some genes have been identified in humans that may increase susceptibility to infection.
Infection occurs by swallowing food contaminated with Ascaris eggs from feces. The larvae hatch in the intestine, burrow through the gut wall, and migrate to the lungs through the blood system. There they break into the alveoli and pass up the trachea and oesophagus where they are coughed up and swallowed. The larvae pass through the stomach for a second time into the intestine where they mature into adult worms. They maintain their position by swimming against the intestinal flow caused by peristalsis. Adult worms have a life-span of 1-2 years which means that individuals may be infected all their lives as worms die and new worms are acquired.
Includes classifications:Malignant essential hypertension
Essential hypertension (also called primary hypertension or idiopathic hypertension) is the form of hypertension that by definition, has no identifiable cause. It is the most common type of hypertension, affecting 95% of hypertensive patients, it tends to be familial and is likely to be the consequence of an interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Prevalence of essential hypertension increases with age, and individuals with relatively high blood pressure at younger ages are at increased risk for the subsequent development of hypertension. Hypertension can increase the risk of cerebral, cardiac, and renal events.
A recent classification recommends blood pressure criteria for defining normal blood pressure, prehypertension, hypertension (stages I and II), and isolated systolic hypertension, which is a common occurrence among the elderly. These readings are based on the average of seated blood pressure readings that were properly measured during 2 or more office visits. In individuals older than 50 years, hypertension is considered to be present when a person's blood pressure is consistently at least 140 mmHg systolic or 90 mmHg diastolic. Patients with blood pressures
Cyclosporiasis is an infection with the protozoan Cyclospora cayetanensis, a pathogen transmitted by feces or feces-contaminated fresh produce and water. Outbreaks have been reported due to contaminated raspberries. It is not spread from person to person. It can be a cause of diarrhea for travelers.
When an oocyst of Cyclospora cayetanensis enters the small intestine and invades the mucosa it incubates for about one week. After incubation the person begins to experience severe watery diarrhea, bloating, fever, stomach cramps, and muscle aches.
Oocysts can be present due to using contaminated water or human feces as fertilizer. This infection primarily affects humans and other primates.
Diagnosis can be difficult due to the lack of recognizable oocysts in the feces. Using tests like PCR-based DNA tests and acid-fast staining can help with identification. The infection is often treated with Co-trimoxazole, because traditional anti-protozoan drugs are not sufficient. To prevent transmission through food, cook food and try to avoid drinking stream water while outdoors.
Haiti is one of the countries that is known to be highly endemic for the parasite Cyclospora. Symptoms of
Parent Classification:Anxiety, dissociative and somatoform disorders
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts that produce uneasiness, apprehension, fear, or worry, by repetitive behaviors aimed at reducing the associated anxiety, or by a combination of such obsessions and compulsions. Symptoms of the disorder include excessive washing or cleaning; repeated checking; extreme hoarding; preoccupation with sexual, violent or religious thoughts; relationship-related obsessions; aversion to particular numbers; and nervous rituals, such as opening and closing a door a certain number of times before entering or leaving a room. These symptoms can be alienating and time-consuming, and often cause severe emotional and financial distress. The acts of those who have OCD may appear paranoid and potentially psychotic. However, OCD sufferers generally recognize their obsessions and compulsions as irrational, and may become further distressed by this realization.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder affects children and adolescents as well as adults. Roughly one third to one half of adults with OCD report a childhood onset of the disorder, suggesting the continuum of anxiety disorders across the life span. The phrase
Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson disease, Parkinson's, idiopathic parkinsonism, primary parkinsonism, PD, hypokinetic rigid syndrome/HRS, or paralysis agitans) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease result from the death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain; the cause of this cell death is unknown. Early in the course of the disease, the most obvious symptoms are movement-related; these include shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait. Later, cognitive and behavioural problems may arise, with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep and emotional problems. PD is more common in the elderly, with most cases occurring after the age of 50.
The main motor symptoms are collectively called parkinsonism, or a "parkinsonian syndrome". Parkinson's disease is often defined as a parkinsonian syndrome that is idiopathic (having no known cause), although some atypical cases have a genetic origin. Many risk and protective factors have been investigated: the clearest evidence is for an
Parent Classification:Slow virus infections and prion diseases of central nervous system
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection measles virus (which can be a result of a mutation of the virus itself). No cure for SSPE exists, but the condition can be managed by medication if treatment is started at an early stage. Much of the work on SSPE has been performed by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).
SSPE is also known as Dawson Disease, Dawson encephalitis and measles encephalitis. It should not be confused with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis which has a similar etiology but very different timing and course.
Characterized by a history of primary measles infection usually before the age of 2 years, followed by several asymptomatic years (6–15 on average), and then gradual, progressive psychoneurological deterioration, consisting of personality change, seizures, myoclonus, ataxia, photosensitivity, ocular abnormalities, spasticity, and coma.
A large number of nucleocapsids are produced in the neurons and the glial cells. In these cells the viral genes that encode envelope proteins have restricted expression.
Trichinosis, also called trichinellosis, or trichiniasis, is a parasitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked pork or wild game infected with the larvae of a species of roundworm Trichinella spiralis, commonly called the trichina worm. There are eight Trichinella species; five are encapsulated and three are not. Only three Trichinella species are known to cause trichinosis: T. spiralis, T. nativa, and T. britovi.
Between 2002-2007, 11 cases were reported to CDC each year on average in the United States which were mostly the result of eating undercooked game, bear meat, or home-reared pigs. It is common in developing countries where meat fed to pigs is raw or undercooked, but many cases also come from developed countries in Europe and North America, where raw or undercooked pork and wild game may be consumed as delicacies.
The disease-causing agents include the eight species of Trichinella, but T. spiralis is the most important to humans due to its worldwide distribution and high pathogenicity.
The circumstances surrounding the first observation and identification of Trichinella spiralis are controversial due to a lack of medical records. In 1835, James Paget, a first-year
Parent Classification:Other and unspecified infectious and parasitic diseases
Behçet's disease (BEH-chets), sometimes called Behçet's syndrome, Morbus Behçet, or Silk Road disease, is a rare immune-mediated systemic vasculitis that often presents with mucous membrane ulceration and ocular problems. Behçet's disease (BD) was named in 1937 after the Turkish dermatologist Hulusi Behçet, who first described the triple-symptom complex of recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, and uveitis. As a systemic disease, it can also involve visceral organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and neurological systems. This syndrome can be fatal due to ruptured vascular aneurysms or severe neurological complications.
Nearly all patients present with some form of painful oral mucocutaneous ulcerations in the form of aphthous ulcers or non-scarring oral lesions. The oral lesions are similar to those found in inflammatory bowel disease and can be relapsing. Painful genital ulcerations usually develop around the anus, vulva, or scrotum and cause scarring in 75% of the patients. Additionally, patients may present with erythema nodosum, cutaneous pustular vasculitis, and lesions similar to pyoderma gangrenosum.
Parent Classification:Specific diseases due to Coxsackie virus
Herpangina, also called mouth blisters, is the name of a painful mouth infection caused by coxsackieviruses. Usually, herpangina is produced by one particular strain of coxsackie virus A (and the term "herpangina virus" refers to coxsackievirus A) but it can also be caused by coxsackievirus B or echoviruses. Most cases of herpangina occur in the summer, affecting mostly children. However, it occasionally occurs in adolescents and adults. It was first characterized in 1920.
Though herpangina can be asymptomatic, symptoms usually associated are high fever and sore throat.
A small number of lesions (usually 2 - 6) form in the back area of the mouth, particularly the soft palate or tonsillar pillars. The lesions progress initially from red macules to vesicles and lastly to ulcerations which can be 2 - 4 mm in size. The lesions heal in 7 – 10 days.
Histologically, the epithelial cells show signs of intracellular and extracellular edema.
The term is derived from the Greek herp, creeping, snake like, and Latin angina, a sore throat, literally "a choking."
Symptoms include sudden fever with sore throat, headache, loss of appetite, and often neck pain. Within two days of onset an average of
Includes classifications:Hyperparathyroidism, unspecified
Parent Classification:Parathyroid disease
Hyperparathyroidism is overactivity of the parathyroid glands resulting in excess production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). The parathyroid hormone regulates calcium and phosphate levels and helps to maintain these levels. Excessive PTH secretion may be due to problems in the glands themselves, in which case it is referred to as primary hyperparathyroidism and which leads to hypercalcaemia (raised calcium levels). It may also occur in response to low calcium levels, as encountered in various situations such as vitamin D deficiency or chronic kidney disease; this is referred to as secondary hyperparathyroidism. In all cases, the raised PTH levels are harmful to bone, and treatment is often needed..
Primary hyperparathyroidism results from a hyperfunction of the parathyroid glands themselves. There is oversecretion of PTH due to adenoma, hyperplasia or, rarely, carcinoma of the parathyroid glands.
In a minority of cases this occurs as part of a multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome, either type 1 (caused by a mutation in the gene MEN1) or type 2a (caused by a mutation in the gene RET). Other mutations that have been linked to parathyroid neoplasia include mutations in the genes
Lobomycosis also known as (Jorge) Lobo's disease or lacaziosis, is a blastomycosis, a fungal infection of the skin caused by Lacazia loboi (formerly named Loboa loboi), and discovered by Brazilian dermatologist Jorge Lobo. Other names which were given to the disease are: keloidal blastomycosis, Amazonian blastomycosis, blastomycoid granuloma, miraip and piraip. These last two names were given by natives of the Amazon and mean that which burns.
This disease is usually found in humans and bottle-nosed dolphins.
The disease is endemic in rural regions in South America and Central America.
Infection most commonly develops after minor scratches or insect bites, but many patients cannot recall any skin trauma. Human-to-human transmission does not occur, and the disease is only acquired from the environment. The appearances are of a chronic keloidal nodular lesions occur on the face, ears, or extremities.
Diagnosis of Lobo's Disease is made by taking a sample of the infected skin (a skin biopsy) and examining it under the microscope. Lacazia loboi is characterized by long chains of spherical cells interconnected by tubules. The cells appear to be yeast-like with a diameter of 5 to 12 μm.
Balantidiasis is a protozoan infection caused by infection with Balantidium coli.
Symptoms can be local due to involvement of the intestinal mucosa, or systemic in nature and include either diarrhea or constipation.
Balantidiasis can be treated with tetracycline, carbarsone, metronidazole, or diiodohydroxyquin.
The first study to generate Balantidiasis in humans was undertaken by Cassagrandi and Barnagallo in 1896. However, this experiment was not successful in creating an infection and it was unclear whether Balantidium coli was the actual parasite used. The first case of Balantidiasis in the Philippines, where it is the most common, was reported in 1904. Currently, Balantidium coli is distributed worldwide but less than 1% of the human population is infected. Pigs are a major reservoir of the parasite, and infection of humans occurs more frequently in areas where pigs comingle with people. This includes places like the Philippines, as previously mentioned, but also includes countries such as Bolivia and Papua New Guinea. But pigs are not the only animal where the parasite is found. In a Japanese study that analyzed the fecal samples in 56 mammalian species, Balantidium coli was
Blepharitis ( /blɛfərˈaɪtɨs/ BLEF-ər-EYE-tis) is an ocular condition characterized by chronic inflammation of the eyelid, the severity and time course of which can vary. Onset can be acute, resolving without treatment within 2–4 weeks (this can be greatly reduced with lid hygiene), but more generally is a long standing inflammation varying in severity. It may be classified as seborrhoeic, staphylococcal, mixed, posterior or meiobomitis, or parasitic.
Signs and symptoms that are associated with the chronic inflammation can be:
Common signs and symptoms of blepharitis also include itching, irritation and burning as well as a foreign body sensation. Some patients experience eye dryness, which can cause a certain degree of discomfort.
People who wear contact lenses usually have more trouble in coping with their symptoms because although they need contact lenses, they cannot wear them. Many such patients complain of being unable to wear their lenses for long periods of time or that the lenses are causing them even more irritation of the eye.
Also, the lids may become red and may have ulcerative, non-healing areas which may actually bleed. Blepharitis does not tend to cause problems with
Parent Classification:Disorders of the pituitary gland and its hypothalamic control
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, with reduction of fluid intake having no effect on the concentration of the urine. There are several different types of DI, each with a different cause. The most common type in humans is central DI, caused by a deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The second common type of DI is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which is caused by an insensitivity of the kidneys to ADH. It can also be an iatrogenic artifact of drug use.
Although they have a common name, diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus are two entirely separate conditions with unrelated mechanisms. Both cause large amounts of urine to be produced (polyuria), and the term "diabetes" is derived from the Greek name for this symptom. However, diabetes insipidus is either a problem with the production of antidiuretic hormone (central diabetes insipidus) or kidney's response to antidiuretic hormone (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus), whereas diabetes mellitus causes polyuria via a process called osmotic diuresis, due to the high blood sugar leaking into the
Includes classifications:type II diabetes mellitus [non-insulin dependent type] [NIDDM type] [adult-onset type] or unspecified type, not stated as uncontrolled, with ketoacidosis
Parent Classification:Diabetes mellitus
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients with diabetes mellitus. It happens predominantly in those with type 1 diabetes, but it can occur in those with type 2 diabetes under certain circumstances. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids and producing acidic ketone bodies that cause most of the symptoms and complications.
DKA may be the first symptom of previously undiagnosed diabetes, but it may also occur in people known to have diabetes as a result of a variety of causes, such as intercurrent illness or poor compliance with insulin therapy. Vomiting, dehydration, deep gasping breathing, confusion and occasionally coma are typical symptoms. DKA is diagnosed with blood and urine tests; it is distinguished from other, rarer forms of ketoacidosis by the presence of high blood sugar levels. Treatment involves intravenous fluids to correct dehydration, insulin to suppress the production of ketone bodies, treatment for any underlying causes such as infections, and close observation to prevent and identify complications.
DKA is a medical emergency, and without treatment it can lead to
Granuloma inguinale is a bacterial disease caused by Klebsiella granulomatis characterized by ulcerative genital lesions. It is endemic in many less developed regions. It is also known as donovanosis, granuloma genitoinguinale, granuloma inguinale tropicum, granuloma venereum, granuloma venereum genitoinguinale, lupoid form of groin ulceration, serpiginous ulceration of the groin, ulcerating granuloma of the pudendum and ulcerating sclerosing granuloma.
The disease often goes untreated because of the scarcity of medical treatment in the countries in which it is found. In addition, the painless genital ulcers can be mistaken for syphilis. The ulcers ultimately progress to destruction of internal and external tissue, with extensive leakage of mucus and blood from the highly vascular lesions. The destructive nature of donovanosis also increases the risk of superinfection by other pathogenic microbes.
The first known name for this condition was "serpiginous ulcer", which dates to 1882. The proper clinical designation for donovanosis is now "granuloma inguinale". A granuloma is a nodular type of inflammatory reaction, and inguinale refers to the inguinal region, which is commonly
Includes classifications:Borderline glaucoma [glaucoma suspect]
Glaucoma is an eye disease in which the optic nerve is damaged in a characteristic pattern. This can permanently damage vision in the affected eye(s) and lead to blindness if left untreated. It is normally associated with increased fluid pressure in the eye (aqueous humour). The term "ocular hypertension" is used for people with consistently raised intraocular pressure (IOP) without any associated optic nerve damage. Conversely, the term 'normal tension' or 'low tension' glaucoma is used for those with optic nerve damage and associated visual field loss, but normal or low IOP.
The nerve damage involves loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern. The many different subtypes of glaucoma can all be considered to be a type of optic neuropathy. Raised intraocular pressure (above 21 mmHg or 2.8 kPa) is the most important and only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma. However, some may have high eye pressure for years and never develop damage, while others can develop nerve damage at a relatively low pressure. Untreated glaucoma can lead to permanent damage of the optic nerve and resultant visual field loss, which over time can progress to blindness.
Glaucoma can be roughly
Hemophilia A is an inherited deficiency in clotting factor VIII, which causes increased bleeding and usually affects males.
Hemophilia A is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, and thus occurs in males and in homozygous females. However, mild hemophilia A (and B) is known to occur heterozygous females due to X-inactivation, so it is recommended that levels of factor VIII and IX be measured in all known or potential carriers prior to surgery and in the event of clinically-significant bleeding.
Hemophilia occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 males. Of these, 85% have hemophilia A and 15% have hemophilia B.
5-10% of patients with hemophilia A are affected because they make a dysfunctional version of the factor VIII protein (qualitative deficiency), while the remainder are affected because they produced factor VIII in insufficient amounts (quantitative deficiency). Of those who have severe deficiency (defined as
Kwashiorkor ( /kwɑːʃiˈɔrkər/) is an acute form of childhood protein-energy malnutrition characterized by edema, irritability, anorexia, ulcerating dermatoses, and an enlarged liver with fatty infiltrates. The insufficient protein consumption, but with sufficient calorie intake, distinguishing it from marasmus. Kwashiorkor cases occurs in areas of famine or poor food supply. Cases in the developed world are rare.
Jamaican pediatrician Dr. Cicely Williams introduced the name into the medical community in her 1935 Lancet article. The name is derived from the Ga language of coastal Ghana, translated as "the sickness the baby gets when the new baby comes", and reflecting the development of the condition in an older child who has been weaned from the breast when a younger sibling comes. Breast milk contains proteins and amino acids vital to a child's growth. In at-risk populations, kwashiorkor may develop after a mother weans her child from breast milk, replacing it with a diet high in carbohydrates, especially starches, but deficient in protein.
The defining sign of kwashiorkor in a malnourished child is pedal oedema (swelling of the feet). Other signs include a distended abdomen, an
Many conditions are associated with disorders of the function of the parathyroid gland. Parathyroid diseases can be divided into those causing hyperparathyroidism, and those causing hypoparathyroidism.
The single major disease of parathyroid glands is overactivity of one or more of the parathyroid lobes, which make too much parathyroid hormone, causing a potentially serious calcium imbalance. This is called hyperparathyroidism; it leads to hypercalcemia, kidney stones, osteoporosis, and various other symptoms. Hyperparathyroidism was first described in 1925 and the symptoms have collectively become known as "moans, groans, stones, and bones." By far, the most common symptom is fatigue, but depression, memory loss, and bone aches are also very common. The primary treatment for this disease is the surgical removal of the faulty gland.
If a patient has elevated calcium, several different types of tests can be used to locate the abnormal glands. The most common and most accurate test to find a parathyroid tumor is the Sestamibi scan. This scan requires some expertise to perform, and, many times, the scan is negative because of lack of experience and poor technique. These tests are
Rabies (pronounced /ˈreɪbiːz/. From Latin: rabies, "madness") is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in warm-blooded animals. The disease is zoonotic, meaning it can be transmitted from one species to another, such as from dogs to humans, commonly by a bite from an infected animal. For a human, rabies is almost invariably fatal if postexposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system, ultimately causing disease in the brain and death.
The rabies virus travels to the brain by following the peripheral nerves. The incubation period of the disease is usually a few months in humans, depending on the distance the virus must travel to reach the central nervous system. Once the rabies virus reaches the central nervous system and symptoms begin to show, the infection is virtually untreatable and usually fatal within days.
Early-stage symptoms of rabies are malaise, headache and fever, progressing to acute pain, violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, depression, and hydrophobia. Finally, the patient may experience periods of mania and lethargy, eventually leading to
Parent Classification:Other and unspecified anemias
Sideroblastic anemia or sideroachrestic anemia is a disease in which the bone marrow produces ringed sideroblasts rather than healthy red blood cells (erythrocytes). It may be caused either by a genetic disorder or indirectly as part of myelodysplastic syndrome, which can evolve into hematological malignancies (especially acute myelogenous leukemia). In sideroblastic anemia, the body has iron available but cannot incorporate it into hemoglobin, which red blood cells need to transport oxygen efficiently.
Sideroblasts are atypical, abnormal nucleated erythroblasts (precursors to mature red blood cells) with granules of iron accumulated in perinuclear mitochondria. Sideroblasts are seen in aspirates of bone marrow.
Ring sideroblast are named so because of the arrangement of the iron granules in a ring form around the nucleus. However it does not take the ring to be complete in order to count a cell as a ring sideroblast. According to the 2008 WHO classification of the tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, it only needs 5 or more iron granules encircling one third or more of the nucleus.
The WHO International Working Group on Morphology of MDS (IWGM-MDS) defined three types
Parent Classification:Other and unspecified syphilis
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The primary route of transmission is through sexual contact; it may also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth, resulting in congenital syphilis. Other human diseases caused by related Treponema pallidum include yaws (subspecies pertenue), pinta (subspecies carateum), and bejel (subspecies endemicum).
The signs and symptoms of syphilis vary depending in which of the four stages it presents (primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary). The primary stage classically presents with a single chancre (a firm, painless, non-itchy skin ulceration), secondary syphilis with a diffuse rash which frequently involves the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, latent syphilis with little to no symptoms, and tertiary syphilis with gummas, neurological, or cardiac symptoms. It has, however, been known as "the great imitator" due to its frequent atypical presentations. Diagnosis is usually via blood tests; however, the bacteria can also be visualized under a microscope. Syphilis can be effectively treated with antibiotics, specifically the preferred
Includes classifications:Trans-sexualism with unspecified sexual history
Parent Classification:Sexual and gender identity disorders
Transsexualism describes the condition in which an individual identifies with a gender inconsistent or not culturally associated with their assigned sex, i.e. in which a person's assigned sex at birth conflicts with their psychological gender. A medical diagnosis can be made if a person experiences discomfort as a result of a desire to be a member of the opposite sex, or if a person experiences impaired functioning or distress as a result of that gender identification. Transsexualism is stigmatized in many parts of the world but has become more widely known in Western culture in the mid to late 20th century, concurrently with the sexual revolution and the development of sex reassignment surgery (SRS). Discrimination or negative attitudes towards transsexualism often accompany certain religious beliefs or cultural values. There are cultures that have no difficulty integrating people who change gender roles, often holding them with high regard, such as the traditional role for "two-spirit" people found among certain native American tribes.
Transsexualism appears in the two major diagnostic manuals used by mental health professionals worldwide, the American Psychiatric Association's
Blastomycosis (also known as "North American blastomycosis," "Blastomycetic dermatitis," and "Gilchrist's disease") is a fungal infection caused by the organism Blastomyces dermatitidis. Endemic to portions of North America, blastomycosis causes clinical symptoms similar to histoplasmosis.
Blastomycosis can present in one of the following ways:
Infection occurs by inhalation of the fungus from its natural soil habitat. Once inhaled in the lungs, they multiply and may disseminate through the blood and lymphatics to other organs, including the skin, bone, genitourinary tract, and brain. The incubation period is 30 to 100 days, although infection can be asymptomatic.
Once suspected, the diagnosis of blastomycosis can usually be confirmed by demonstration of the characteristic broad based budding organisms in sputum or tissues by KOH prep, cytology, or histology. Tissue biopsy of skin or other organs may be required in order to diagnose extra-pulmonary disease. Blastomycosis is histologically associated with granulomatous nodules. Commercially available urine antigen testing appears to be quite sensitive in suggesting the diagnosis in cases where the organism is not readily detected.
Parent Classification:Filarial infection and dracontiasis
Filariasis (philariasis) is a parasitic disease (usually an infectious tropical disease) that is caused by thread-like nematodes (roundworms) belonging to the superfamily Filarioidea, also known as "filariae". These are transmitted from host to host by blood-feeding arthropods, mainly black flies and mosquitoes.
Eight known filarial nematodes use humans as their definitive hosts. These are divided into three groups according to the niche within the body they occupy: 'lymphatic filariasis', 'subcutaneous filariasis', and 'serous cavity filariasis'.
The adult worms, which usually stay in one tissue, release early larvae forms known as microfilariae into the host's bloodstream. These circulating microfilariae can be taken up with a blood meal by the arthropod vector; in the vector they develop into infective larvae that can be transmitted to a new host.
Individuals infected by filarial worms may be described as either "microfilaraemic" or "amicrofilaraemic", depending on whether or not microfilaria can be found in their peripheral blood. Filariasis is diagnosed in microfilaraemic cases primarily through direct observation of microfilaria in the peripheral blood. Occult filariasis is
Includes classifications:Leptospirosis icterohemorrhagica
Leptospirosis (also known as Weil's syndrome, canicola fever, canefield fever, nanukayami fever, 7-day fever, Rat Catcher's Yellows, Fort Bragg fever, black jaundice, and Pretibial fever) is caused by infection with bacteria of the genus Leptospira and affects humans as well as other animals.
Leptospirosis is among the world's most common diseases transmitted to people from animals. The infection is commonly transmitted to humans by allowing water that has been contaminated by animal urine to come in contact with unhealed breaks in the skin, the eyes, or with the mucous membranes. Outside of tropical areas, leptospirosis cases have a relatively distinct seasonality with most cases occurring in spring and autumn.
Leptospirosis is caused by a spirochaete bacterium called Leptospira spp. There are at least five serotypes of importance in the United States and Canada, all of which cause disease in dogs (Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Pomona, Grippotyphosa, and Bratislava).
There are other (less common) infectious strains. Genetically different leptospira organisms may be identical serologically and vice versa. Hence, an argument exists on the basis of strain identification. The
Paracoccidioidomycosis (also known as "Brazilian blastomycosis," "South American blastomycosis,","Lutz-Splendore-de Almeida disease" and "Paracoccidioidal granuloma") is a mycosis caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Sometimes called South American blastomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis is caused by a different fungus than that which causes blastomycosis.
P. brasiliensis is a thermally-dimorphic fungus distributed in Brazil and South America. The habitat of the infectious agent is not known but appears to be aquatic. In biopsies the fungus appears as a polygemulating yeast with a pilot's wheel-like appearance.
Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides. It frequently involves mucous membranes, lymph nodes, bone and lungs. Unlike other systemic mycoses, it can cause disease in immunocompetent hosts, although immunosuppression increases the aggressiveness of the fungus. Also uniquely, it rarely causes disease in fertile-age women, probably due to a protective effect of estradiol.
Primary infection is thought to be autolimited and almost asymptomatic as histoplasmosis or coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever). In young people,
Parent Classification:Anxiety, dissociative and somatoform disorders
A phobia (from the Greek: φόβος, Phóbos, meaning "fear" or "morbid fear") is, when used in the context of clinical psychology, a type of anxiety disorder, usually defined as a persistent fear of an object or situation in which the sufferer commits to great lengths in avoiding, typically disproportional to the actual danger posed, often being recognized as irrational. In the event the phobia cannot be avoided entirely, the sufferer will endure the situation or object with marked distress and significant interference in social or occupational activities.
The terms distress and impairment as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TR) should also take into account the context of the sufferer's environment if attempting a diagnosis. The DSM-IV-TR states that if a phobic stimulus, whether it be an object or a social situation, is absent entirely in an environment - a diagnosis cannot be made. An example of this situation would be an individual who has a fear of mice (Suriphobia) but lives in an area devoid of mice. Even though the concept of mice causes marked distress and impairment within the individual, because the individual does
Rhinosporidiosis is an infection caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi.
This organism was previously considered to be a fungus, and rhinosporidiosis is classified as a fungal disease under ICD-10.
It is now considered to be a parasite, classified under Mesomycetozoea.
Authors of detailed studies have revealed superficial similarities between Dermocystidium and Rhinosporidium when using light microscopy, but substantial morphological differences between the groups exist.
There is some evidence that DNA extracted from purified uncontaminated round bodies (Rhinosporidium seeberi) is of cyanobacterium origin.
Rhinosporidiosis is a granulomatous disease affecting the mucous membrane of nasopharynx, oropharynx, conjunctiva, rectum and external genitalia. Though the floor of the nose and inferior turbinate are the commonest sites, the lesions may appear in elsewhere too. Traumatic inoculation from one site to others is common. Laryngeal rhinosporidiosis too has been described and may be due to inoculation from the nose during endotracheal intubation. After inoculation the organism replicate locally resulting in the hyperplasia of host tissue and localised immune response.
Disease endemic in
Parent Classification:Other and unspecified helminthiases
Helminthiasis is a macroparasitic disease of humans and animals in which a part of the body is infected with parasitic worms such as pinworm, roundworm, or tapeworm. Worms often live in the gastrointestinal tract, but may also burrow into the liver, lymphatic system, or other organs.
Several soil-transmitted helminthiases are considered neglected diseases.
Helminthiasis can have immunomodulatory effects on the host, with implications for any coinfecting pathogens.
Onychomycosis (also known as "dermatophytic onychomycosis," "ringworm of the nail," and "tinea unguium") means fungal infection of the nail. It is the most common disease of the nails and constitutes about a half of all nail abnormalities.
This condition may affect toenails or fingernails, but toenail infections are particularly common. The prevalence of onychomycosis is about 6-8% in the adult population.
There are four classic types of onychomycosis:
The most common symptom of a fungal nail infection is the nail becoming thickened and discoloured: white, black, yellow or green. As the infection progresses the nail can become brittle, with pieces breaking off or coming away from the toe or finger completely. If left untreated, the skin can become inflamed and painful underneath and around the nail. There may also be white or yellow patches on the nailbed or scaly skin next to the nail. There is usually no pain or other bodily symptoms, unless the disease is severe. People with onychomycosis may experience significant psychosocial problems due to the appearance of the nail, particularly when fingers – which are always visible – rather than toenails are affected.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also known in medical literature as Alzheimer disease, is the most common form of dementia. There is no cure for the disease, which worsens as it progresses, and eventually leads to death. It was first described by German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him. Most often, AD is diagnosed in people over 65 years of age, although the less-prevalent early-onset Alzheimer's can occur much earlier. In 2006, there were 26.6 million sufferers worldwide. Alzheimer's is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people globally by 2050.
Although Alzheimer's disease develops differently for every individual, there are many common symptoms. Early symptoms are often mistakenly thought to be 'age-related' concerns, or manifestations of stress. In the early stages, the most common symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events. When AD is suspected, the diagnosis is usually confirmed with tests that evaluate behaviour and thinking abilities, often followed by a brain scan if available. As the disease advances, symptoms can include confusion, irritability and aggression, mood swings, trouble with language, and long-term memory loss. As
Boutonneuse fever (also called Mediterranean spotted fever, fièvre boutonneuse, or Marseilles fever or ' tick bite fever') is a fever as a result of a Rickettsia infection caused by the bacterium Rickettsia conorii and transmitted by the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Boutonneuse fever can be seen in many places around the world, although it is endemic in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. This disease was first described in Tunisia in 1910 by Conor and Bruch and was named boutonneuse (French for "spotty") due to its papular skin rash characteristics.
After an incubation period of around seven days, the disease manifests abruptly with chills, high fevers, muscular and articular pains, severe headache and photophobia. The location of the bite forms a black ulcerous crust (tache noire). Around the fourth day of the illness an exanthem (widespread rash) appears, first macular and then maculopapular and sometimes petechial.
The diagnosis is made with serologic methods, either the classic Weil-Felix test (agglutination of Proteus OX strains ), ELISA or immunofluorescence assays in the bioptic material of the primary lesion.
The illness can be treated with tetracyclines
Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral disease, a zoonosis of domestic animals and wild animals, that may affect humans. The pathogenic virus, especially common in East and West Africa, is a member of the Bunyaviridae family of RNA viruses. Clinical disease is rare in infected mammals, but commonly severe in infected humans, with a 30% mortality rate. Outbreaks of illness are usually attributable to handling infected animals or people.
Typically, after a 1–3 day incubation period following a tick bite (5–6 days after exposure to infected blood or tissues), flu-like symptoms appear, which may resolve after one week. In up to 75% of cases, however, signs of hemorrhage appear within 3–5 days of the onset of illness in case of bad containment of the first symptoms: first mood instability, agitation, mental confusion and throat petechiae, then soon nosebleeds, bloody urine and vomiting, and black stools. The liver becomes swollen and painful. Disseminated intravascular coagulation may occur as well as acute kidney failure and shock, and sometimes acute respiratory distress syndrome. Patients usually begin to show signs of recovery after 9–10 days from
Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, or diagonally (i.e. both vertically and horizontally) in relation to each other. It is usually the result of impaired function of the extraocular muscles (EOM's), where both eyes are still functional but they cannot converge to target the desired object. Problems with EOM's may be due to mechanical problems, disorders of the neuromuscular junction, disorders of the cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) that stimulate the muscles, and occasionally disorders involving the supranuclear oculomotor pathways or ingestion of toxins.
Diplopia is often one of the first signs of a systemic disease, particularly to a muscular or neurological process, and it may disrupt a person’s balance, movement, and/or reading abilities.
Binocular diplopia is double vision arising as a result of the misalignment of the two eyes relative to each other, such as occurs in esotropia or exotropia. In such a case while the fovea of one eye is directed at the object of regard, the fovea of the other is directed elsewhere, and the image of the object of regard falls
Erysipelas (Greek ἐρυσίπελας—red skin; also known as "Ignis sacer", "holy fire", and "St. Anthony's fire" in some countries) is an acute streptococcus bacterial infection of the upper dermis and superficial lymphatics.
This disease is most common among the elderly, infants, and children. People with immune deficiency, diabetes, alcoholism, skin ulceration, fungal infections and impaired lymphatic drainage (e.g., after mastectomy, pelvic surgery, bypass grafting) are also at increased risk.
Patients typically develop symptoms including high fevers, shaking, chills, fatigue, headaches, vomiting, and general illness within 48 hours of the initial infection. The erythematous skin lesion enlarges rapidly and has a sharply demarcated raised edge. It appears as a red, swollen, warm, hardened and painful rash, similar in consistency to an orange peel. More severe infections can result in vesicles, bullae, and petechiae, with possible skin necrosis. Lymph nodes may be swollen, and lymphedema may occur. Occasionally, a red streak extending to the lymph node can be seen.
The infection may occur on any part of the skin including the face, arms, fingers, legs and toes, but it tends to favor the
Includes classifications:Leishmaniasis visceral [kala-azar]
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites that belong to the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by the bite of certain species of sand fly (subfamily Phlebotominae). Although the majority of the literature mentions only one genus transmitting Leishmania to humans (Lutzomyia) in America, a 2003 study by Galati suggested a new classification for American sand flies, elevating several subgenera to the genus level. Elsewhere in the world, the genus Phlebotomus is considered the vector of leishmaniasis.
Most forms of the disease are transmissible only from animals (zoonosis), but some can be spread between humans. Human infection is caused by about 21 of 30 species that infect mammals. These include the L. donovani complex with three species (L. donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi); the L. mexicana complex with four main species (L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, and L. venezuelensis); L. tropica; L. major; L. aethiopica; and the subgenus Viannia with four main species (L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, and L. (V.) peruviana). The different species are morphologically indistinguishable, but they can be differentiated by isoenzyme analysis, DNA
Malnutrition is the condition that results from taking an unbalanced diet in which certain nutrients are lacking, in excess (too high an intake), or in the wrong proportions. A number of different nutrition disorders may arise, depending on which nutrients are under or overabundant in the diet. In most of the world, malnutrition is present in the form of undernutrition, which is caused by a diet lacking adequate calories and protein. While malnutrition is more common in developing countries, it is also present in industrialized countries. In wealthier nations it is more likely to be caused by unhealthy diets with excess energy, fats, and refined carbohydrates. A growing trend of obesity is now a major public health concern in lower socio-economic levels and in developing countries as well.
The World Health Organization cites malnutrition as the greatest single threat to the world's public health. Improving nutrition is widely regarded as the most effective form of aid. Nutrition-specific interventions, which address the immediate causes of undernutrition, have been proven to deliver among the best value for money of all development interventions. Emergency measures include
Mumps (epidemic parotitis) is a viral disease of the human species, caused by the mumps virus. Before the development of vaccination and the introduction of a vaccine, it was a common childhood disease worldwide. It is still a significant threat to health in the third world, and outbreaks still occur sporadically in developed countries.
Painful swelling of the salivary glands (classically the parotid gland) is the most typical presentation. Painful testicular swelling (orchitis) and rash may also occur. The symptoms are generally not severe in children. In teenage males and men, complications such as infertility or subfertility are more common, although still rare in absolute terms. The disease is generally self-limiting, running its course before receding, with no specific treatment apart from controlling the symptoms with pain medication.
The more common symptoms of mumps are:
Other symptoms of mumps can include dry mouth, sore face and/or ears and occasionally in more serious cases, loss of voice. In addition, up to 20% of persons infected with the mumps virus do not show symptoms, so it is possible to be infected and spread the virus without knowing it.
Fever and headache are
Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic infection caused by the lung fluke, most commonly Paragonimus westermani. It infects an estimated 22 million people worldwide. It is particularly common in East Asia. More than 30 species of trematodes (flukes) of the genus Paragonimus have been reported; among the more than 10 species reported to infect humans, the most common is P. westermani, the oriental lung fluke.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has a detailed description and an explanatory image of the Paragonimus lifecycle:
Species of Paragonimus are widely distributed in Asia, Africa, and North and South America. Paragonimus westermani is found in southeast Asia and Japan, while Paragonimus kellicotti is endemic to North America.
Paragonimiasis can commonly be misdiagnosed as Tuberculosis.
The drug of choice to treat paragonimiasis is Praziquantel, although Bithionol may also be used. Both are anti-parasitics.
Parent Classification:Disorders of carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Renal glycosuria, also known as renal glucosuria, is a rare condition in which the simple sugar glucose is excreted in the urine despite normal or low blood glucose levels. With normal kidney (renal) function, glucose is excreted in the urine only when there are abnormally elevated levels of glucose in the blood. However, in those with renal glycosuria, glucose is abnormally elevated in the urine due to improper functioning of the renal tubules, which are primary components of nephrons, the filtering units of the kidneys.
A doctor normally can diagnose renal glycosuria when a routine urine test (Urinalysis) detects glucose in the urine, while a blood test indicates that the blood glucose level is normal.
In most affected individuals, the condition causes no apparent symptoms (asymptomatic) or serious effects. When renal glycosuria occurs as an isolated finding with otherwise normal kidney function, the condition is thought to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.
It is associated with SLC5A2, coding the sodium glucose cotransporter 2.
Rhinoscleroma, or simply Scleroma, is a chronic granulomatous bacterial disease of the nose that can sometimes infect the upper respiratory tract. It most commonly affects the nasal cavity—the nose is involved in 95-100 per cent of cases—however, it can also affect the nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi. Slightly more females than males are affected and patients are usually 10 to 30 years of age. Rhinoscleroma is considered a tropical disease and is mostly endemic to Africa and Central America, less common in the United States.
It is caused by Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis—subspecies of Klebsiella pneumoniae— a gram-negative, encapsulated, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacillus (diplobacillus), member of the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is sometimes referred to as the "Frisch bacillus," named for Anton von Frisch who identified the organism in 1882. It is contracted directly by droplets or by contamination of material that is subsequently inhaled.
Rhinoscleroma has been divided into 3 stages: catarrhal/atrophic, granulomatous, and sclerotic stages. The catarrhal stage begins with a nonspecific rhinitis, which progresses into purulent, fetid rhinorrhea, and crusting, which can last
Sporotrichosis (also known as "Rose gardener's disease") is a disease caused by the infection of the fungus Sporothrix schenckii. This fungal disease usually affects the skin, although other rare forms can affect the lungs, joints, bones, and even the brain. Because roses can spread the disease, it is one of a few diseases referred to as rose-thorn or rose-gardeners' disease.
Because S. schencki is naturally found in soil, hay, sphagnum moss, and plants, it usually affects farmers, gardeners, and agricultural workers. It enters through small cuts and abrasions in the skin to cause the infection. In case of sporotrichosis affecting the lungs, the fungal spores enter through the respiratory pathways. Sporotrichosis can also be acquired from handling cats with the disease; it is an occupational hazard for veterinarians.
Sporotrichosis progresses slowly - the first symptoms may appear 1 to 12 weeks (average 3 weeks) after the initial exposure to the fungus. Serious complications can also develop in patients who have a compromised immune system.
Sporotrichosis can be diagnosed in domestic and wild mammals. In veterinary medicine it is most frequently seen in cats and horses. Cats have a
Parent Classification:Streptococcal sore throat and scarlet fever
Streptococcal pharyngitis, streptococcal tonsillitis, or streptococcal sore throat (known colloquially as strep throat) is a type of pharyngitis caused by a group A streptococcal infection. It affects the pharynx including the tonsils and possibly the larynx. Common symptoms include fever, sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes. It is the cause of 37% of sore throats among children and 5-15% in adults.
Strep throat is a contagious infection, spread through close contact with an infected individual. A definitive diagnosis is made based on the results of a throat culture. However, this is not always needed as treatment may be decided based on symptoms. In highly likely or confirmed cases, antibiotics are useful to both prevent complications and speed recovery.
The typical symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis are a sore throat, fever of greater than 38 °C (100 °F), tonsillar exudates (pus on the tonsils), and large cervical lymph nodes.
Other symptoms include: headache, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain,, muscle pain,, or a scarlatiniform rash or palatal petechiae, the latter being an uncommon but highly specific finding. The incubation period and thus the start of symptoms for
Brucellosis, also called Bang's disease, Crimean fever, Gibraltar fever, Malta fever, Maltese fever, Mediterranean fever, rock fever, or undulant fever, is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unsterilized milk or meat from infected animals or close contact with their secretions. Transmission from human to human, through sexual contact or from mother to child, is rare but possible.
Brucella spp. are small, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod shaped (coccobacilli) bacteria. They function as facultative intracellular parasites causing chronic disease, which usually persists for life. Symptoms include profuse sweating and joint and muscle pain. Brucellosis has been recognized in animals including humans since the 20th century.
Under the name Malta fever, the disease now called brucellosis first came to the attention of British medical officers in the 1850s in Malta during the Crimean War. The causal relationship between organism and disease was first established in 1887 by Dr. David Bruce.
In 1897, Danish veterinarian Bernhard Bang isolated Brucella abortus as the agent; and the additional name Bang's disease was assigned.
Maltese doctor and archaeologist
Includes classifications:Postvaricella encephalitis
Chickenpox (or chicken pox) is a highly contagious disease caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). It usually starts with vesicular skin rash mainly on the body and head rather than at the periphery and becomes itchy, raw pockmarks, which mostly heal without scarring. On examination, the observer typically finds lesions at various stages of healing.
Chickenpox is an airborne disease spread easily through coughing or sneezing of ill individuals or through direct contact with secretions from the rash. A person with chickenpox is infectious one to two days before the rash appears. They remain contagious until all lesions have crusted over (this takes approximately six days). Immunocompromised patients are contagious during the entire period as new lesions keep appearing. Crusted lesions are not contagious.
Chickenpox has been observed in other primates, including chimpanzees and gorillas.
There are several theories regarding the origin of the term chicken pox. It is often stated to be a modification of chickpeas (based on resemblance of the vesicles to chickpeas), or due to the rash resembling chicken pecks. Other theories include the designation chicken for a
Parent Classification:Specific diseases due to Coxsackie virus
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a human syndrome caused by intestinal viruses of the picornaviridae family. The most common strains causing HFMD are coxsackie A virus and enterovirus 71 (EV-71).
HFMD usually affects infants and children, and is quite common. It is moderately contagious and is spread through direct contact with the mucus, saliva, or feces of an infected person. It typically occurs in small epidemics in nursery schools or kindergartens, usually during the summer and autumn months. The usual incubation period is 3–7 days.
It is less common in adults, but those with immune deficiencies are very susceptible. HFMD is not to be confused with foot-and-mouth disease (also called hoof-and-mouth disease), which is a separate disease affecting sheep, cattle, and swine (both are caused by members of the picornaviridae family, but are not trans-communicable between humans and livestock).
Symptoms of HFMD include:
The common incubation period (the time between infection and onset of symptoms) is from three to seven days.
Early symptoms are likely to be fever often followed by a sore throat. Loss of appetite and general malaise may also occur. Between one and two days after
Osteomalacia is the softening of the bones caused by defective bone mineralization secondary to inadequate amounts of available phosphorus and calcium, or because of overactive resorption of calcium from the bone as a result of hyperparathyroidism (which causes hypercalcemia, in contrast to other aetiologies). Osteomalacia in children is known as rickets, and because of this, use of the term osteomalacia is often restricted to the milder, adult form of the disease. It may show signs as diffuse body pains, muscle weakness, and fragility of the bones. The most common cause of the disease is a deficiency in vitamin D, which is normally obtained from the diet and/or from sunlight exposure.
Osteomalacia is a generalized bone condition in which there is inadequate mineralization of the bone. Many of the effects of the disease overlap with the more common osteoporosis, but the two diseases are significantly different. There are two main causes of osteomalacia: (1) insufficient calcium absorption from the intestine because of lack of dietary calcium or a deficiency of or resistance to the action of vitamin D; and (2) phosphate deficiency caused by increased renal losses.
Parent Classification:Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic genetic disorder characterized by a mutation in the gene for the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), rendering it nonfunctional. This enzyme is necessary to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) to the amino acid tyrosine. When PAH activity is reduced, phenylalanine accumulates and is converted into phenylpyruvate (also known as phenylketone), which is detected in the urine.
Untreated PKU can lead to mental retardation, seizures, and other serious medical problems. The mainstream treatment for classic PKU patients is a strict PHE-restricted diet supplemented by a medical formula containing amino acids and other nutrients. In the United States, the current recommendation is that the PKU diet should be maintained for life. Patients who are diagnosed early and maintain a strict diet can have a normal life span with normal mental development. However, recent research suggests that neurocognitive, psychosocial, quality of life, growth, nutrition, bone pathology are slightly suboptimal if diet is not supplemented with amino acids.
Phenylketonuria was discovered by the Norwegian physician Ivar Asbjørn Følling in
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN, or TGN), tic douloureux (also known as prosopalgia, the suicide disease, or Fothergill's disease) is a neuropathic disorder characterized by episodes of intense pain in the face, originating from the trigeminal nerve. It has been described as among the most painful conditions known to mankind. It is estimated that 1 in 15,000 people suffer from TN, although the actual figure may be significantly higher due to frequent misdiagnosis. In a majority of cases, TN symptoms begin appearing after the age of 50, although there have been cases with patients being as young as three years of age. It is more common in females than males.
The trigeminal nerve is a paired cranial nerve that has three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2), and the mandibular nerve (V3). One, two, or all three branches of the nerve may be affected. 10-12% of cases are bilateral (occurring on both the left and right sides of the face). Trigeminal neuralgia most commonly involves the middle branch (the maxillary nerve or V2) and lower branch (mandibular nerve or V3) of the trigeminal nerve, but the pain may be felt in the ear, eye, lips, nose, scalp, forehead,
A chalazion ( /kəˈleɪziən/; plural chalazia /kəˈleɪziə/), also known as a meibomian gland lipogranuloma, is a cyst in the eyelid that is caused by inflammation of a blocked meibomian gland, usually on the upper eyelid. Chalazia differ from styes (hordeola) in that they are subacute and usually painless nodules. They may become acutely inflamed but, unlike a stye, chalazia usually point inside the lid rather than on the lid margin.
A chalazion or meibomian cyst can sometimes be mistaken for a stye.
Topical antibiotic eye drops or ointment (e.g. chloramphenicol or fusidic acid) are sometimes used for the initial acute infection, but are otherwise of little value in treating a chalazion. Chalazia will often disappear without further treatment within a few months and virtually all will re-absorb within two years.
If they continue to enlarge or fail to settle within a few months, then smaller lesions may be injected with a corticosteroid or larger ones may be surgically removed using local anesthesia. This is usually done from underneath the eyelid to avoid a scar on the skin. If the chalazion is located directly under the eyelid's outer tissue, however, an excision from above may be
Ectropion is a medical condition in which the lower eyelid turns outwards. It is one of the notable aspects of newborns exhibiting congenital Harlequin-type ichthyosis, but ectropion can occur due to any weakening of tissue of the lower eyelid. The condition can be repaired surgically. Ectropion is also found in dogs as a genetic disorder in certain breeds.
Ectropion in dogs usually involves the lower eyelid. Often the condition has no symptoms, but tearing and conjunctivitis may be seen. Breeds associated with ectropion include the Cocker Spaniel, the Saint Bernard, the Bloodhound, the Clumber Spaniel, and the Basset Hound. It can also result from trauma or nerve damage. Treatment (surgery) is only recommended if there is chronic conjunctivitis or if there is corneal damage. A small part of the affected lid is removed and then the lid is sewn back together.
Parent Classification:Special symptoms or syndromes, not elsewhere classified
Stuttering (/ˈstʌtərɪŋ/; alalia syllabaris), also known as stammering (/ˈstæmərɪŋ/; alalia literalis or anarthria literalis), is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the stutterer is unable to produce sounds. The term stuttering is most commonly associated with involuntary sound repetition, but it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, referred to by stutterers as blocks, and the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels and semivowels. For many stutterers, repetition is the primary problem. Blocks and prolongations are learned mechanisms to mask repetition, as the fear of repetitive speaking in public is often the main cause of psychological unease. The term "stuttering", as popularly used, covers a wide spectrum of severity: it may encompass individuals with barely perceptible impediments, for whom the disorder is largely cosmetic, as well as others with extremely severe symptoms, for whom the problem can effectively prevent most oral communication. The impact of stuttering on a person's
Metagonimiasis is a disease caused by an intestinal trematode, most commonly Metagonimus yokagawai, but sometimes by M. takashii or M. miyatai. The metagonimiasis causing flukes are one of two minute flukes called the heterophyids. Metagonimiasis was described by Katsurasa in 1911-1913 when he first observed eggs of M. yokagawai in feces (date is disputed in various studies). M. takahashii was described later first by Suzuki in 1930 and then M. Miyatai was describe in 1984 by Saito.
Stained Adult Fluke Causing Metagonimiasis
Metagonimiasis is most commonly caused by one of the two smallest flukes known to infect man, Metagonimus yokagawai, also called the Japanese fluke. More rarely, metagonimiasis can arise from infection with M. takahashii or M. miyatai. Recent studies analyzing the DNA of the three agents causing metagonimiasis found that DNA sequencing supports M. yokagawai and M. takahashii be placed in the same clade, and phylogenic tree analysis supports their genetic similarity. M. miyatai, however, was found to be more genetically distinct, and the authors concluded it should be nominated as a separate species. An additional study examining karyotype data on the three
Pain is an unpleasant feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli, such as stubbing a toe, burning a finger, putting alcohol on a cut, and bumping the "funny bone." The International Association for the Study of Pain's widely used definition states: "Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage".
Pain motivates the individual to withdraw from damaging situations, to protect a damaged body part while it heals, and to avoid similar experiences in the future. Most pain resolves promptly once the painful stimulus is removed and the body has healed, but sometimes pain persists despite removal of the stimulus and apparent healing of the body; and sometimes pain arises in the absence of any detectable stimulus, damage or disease.
Pain is the most common reason for physician consultation in the United States. It is a major symptom in many medical conditions, and can significantly interfere with a person's quality of life and general functioning. Psychological factors such as social support, hypnotic suggestion, excitement, or distraction can significantly modulate pain's intensity or
Parent Classification:Other and unspecified infectious and parasitic diseases
Ainhum (from Portuguese, pronounced īn-yoom´, i´num or ān´hum) (also known as bankokerend, dactylolysis spontanea, and sukhapakla) is a painful constriction of the base of the fifth toe frequently followed by bilateral spontaneous amputation (autoamputation) a few years later. The disease occurs predominantly in black Africans and their descendants. The exact cause is still unclear.
Ainhum was first reported as a distinct disease and described in detail by J. F. da Silva Lima in 1867. He recognised a disease of the fifth toe suffered by the Nagos tribe of Bahia, Brazil. This disease was called “ainhum” by the Nagos and means “to saw”, characterising the painful loss of the fifth toe. The origin of these term was thought to be African. Due to slave trade, the Nagos were related to a native tribe in Nigeria.
Ainhum predominantly affects black people, living in West Africa, South America and India. In Nigeria it is a common disease with an incidence of 2.2%. Daccarett recorded retrospectively a rate of 1.7% in a mainly African American population in Chicago. Up to now only a few cases had been reported in Europe. Ainhum usually affects people between 20 and 50 years. The average age
Includes classifications:Infection by Histoplasma capsulatum
Histoplasmosis (also known as "Cave disease," "Darling's disease," "Ohio valley disease," "Reticuloendotheliosis," "Spelunker’s Lung" and Caver's disease) is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Symptoms of this infection vary greatly, but the disease primarily affects the lungs. Occasionally, other organs are affected; this is called disseminated histoplasmosis, and it can be fatal if left untreated. Histoplasmosis is common among AIDS patients because of their suppressed immune system. Histoplasmosis is generally contracted from contact to microscopic bacteria borne from decomposing biological fluids, most notably human excretions like urine, vomit, and feces. Cases of histoplasmosis have declined acutely since the Industrial Revolution as quality of life improved dramatically and humans were no longer living in their own squalor. Unfortunately, it is still a major killer in third world countries and can be contracted easily in the first world by living among the aforementioned human fluids.
If symptoms of histoplasmosis infection occur, they will start within 3 to 17 days after exposure; the average is 12–14 days. Most affected individuals have clinically
Japanese encephalitis (Japanese: 日本脳炎, Nihon-nōen)—previously known as Japanese B encephalitis to distinguish it from von Economo's A encephalitis—is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. The Japanese encephalitis virus is a virus from the family Flaviviridae.
Domestic pigs and wild birds (herons) are reservoirs of the virus; transmission to humans may cause severe symptoms. Amongst the most important vectors of this disease are the mosquitoes Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex vishnui. This disease is most prevalent in Southeast Asia and the Far East.
Japanese encephalitis has an incubation period of 5 to 15 days and the vast majority of infections are asymptomatic: only 1 in 250 infections develop into encephalitis.
Severe rigors mark the onset of this disease in humans. Fever, headache and malaise are other non-specific symptoms of this disease which may last for a period of between 1 and 6 days. Signs which develop during the acute encephalitic stage include neck rigidity, cachexia, hemiparesis, convulsions and a raised body temperature between 38 and 41 degrees Celsius. Mental retardation developed from this disease usually leads to coma.
Parent Classification:Sexual and gender identity disorders
Exhibitionism is the act of exposing in a public or semi-public context those parts of one's body that are not normally exposed – specifically the genitals or buttocks of a man or woman, or the breasts of a woman. The practice may arise from a desire or compulsion to expose themselves in such a manner to groups of friends or acquaintances, or to strangers for their amusement or sexual satisfaction or to shock the bystander.
Public exhibitionism by women has been recorded since classical times, often in the context of women shaming groups of men into committing, or inciting them to commit, some public action. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus gives an account of exhibitionistic behaviors from the fifth century BC in The Histories. Herodotus writes that:
When people travel to Bubastis for the festival, this is what they do. Every baris carrying them there overflows with people, a huge crowd of them, men and women together. Some of the women have clappers, while some of the men have pipes which they play throughout the voyage. The rest of the men and women sing and clap their hands. When in the course of their journey they reach a community - not the city of their destination, but
Hereditary elliptocytosis, also known as ovalocytosis, is an inherited blood disorder in which an abnormally large number of the patient's erythrocytes (i.e. red blood cells) are elliptical rather than the typical biconcave disc shape. It is one of many red-cell membrane defects. In its severe forms, this disorder predisposes to haemolytic anaemia. In camelids, elliptocytosis is normal.
Elliptocytosis was first described in 1904, and was first recognised as a hereditary condition in 1932. More recently it has become clear that the severity of the condition is highly variable, and there is much genetic variability amongst those affected.
The incidence of hereditary elliptocytosis is hard to determine, as many sufferers of the milder forms of the disorder are asymptomatic and their condition never comes to medical attention. Around 90% of those with this disorder are thought to fall into the asymptomatic population. It is estimated that its incidence is between 3 and 5 per 10,000 in the USA, and that those of African and Mediterranean descent are of higher risk. Because it can confer resistance to malaria, some subtypes of hereditary elliptocytosis are significantly more prevalent in
Opisthorchiasis is a parasitic disease caused by species in the genus Opisthorchis (specifically, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus).
Medical care and loss of wages caused by Opisthorchis viverrini in Laos and in Thailand costs about $120 million annually or $120 million per year can cost Northeast Thailand only.
Infection of Opisthorchis viverrini and of other liver flukes in Asia affect the poor and poorest people. Opisthorchiasis have received less attention in comparison of other diseases and it is a neglected disease in Asia.
Opisthorchiasis is prevalent in geographical regions where raw cyprinid fishes are a staple of the diet of humans. The prevalence of human infection can be as high as 70% in some regions, for example in Khon Kaen Province in Thailand. The parasite establishes in the bile ducts of the liver as well as extrahepatic ducts and the gall bladder of the mammalian (definitive) host.
Children under the age of 5 are rarely infected by Opisthorchis viverrini.
In the Lao People's Democratic Republic, the prevalence of opisthorchiasis was:
In Thailand, the prevalence of opisthorchiasis was:
Opisthorchis viverrini was thought to be the only species of
Includes classifications:Predominant disturbance of emotions
Acute stress reaction (also called acute stress disorder, psychological shock, mental shock, or simply shock) is a psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying or traumatic event. It should not be confused with the unrelated circulatory condition of shock.
"Acute stress response" was first described by Walter Cannon in the 1920s as a theory that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. The response was later recognized as the first stage of a general adaptation syndrome that regulates stress responses among vertebrates and other organisms.
The onset of a stress response is associated with specific physiological actions in the sympathetic nervous system, both directly and indirectly through the release of adrenaline and to a lesser extent noradrenaline from the medulla of the adrenal glands. These catecholamine hormones facilitate immediate physical reactions by triggering increases in heart rate and breathing, constricting blood vessels. An abundance of catecholamines at neuroreceptor sites facilitates reliance on spontaneous or intuitive behaviors often related to combat or escape.
Normally, when a person is in a serene,
Botulism (Latin, botulus, "sausage") (pronounced /ˈbɒtʃʉlɪsəm/) also known as botulinus intoxication is a rare but sometimes fatal paralytic illness caused by botulinum toxin which is a protein produced under anaerobic conditions by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, and affecting a wide range of mammals, birds and fish.
The toxin(s) enters the human body in one of three ways: by colonization of the digestive tract by the bacterium in children (infant botulism) or adults (adult intestinal toxemia), by ingestion of toxin from foods (foodborne botulism) or by contamination of a wound by the bacterium (wound botulism). Person to person transmission of botulism does not occur.
All forms lead to paralysis that typically starts with the muscles of the face and then spreads towards the limbs. In severe forms, it leads to paralysis of the breathing muscles and causes respiratory failure. In light of this life-threatening complication, all suspected cases of botulism are treated as medical emergencies, and public health officials are usually involved to prevent further cases from the same source.
Botulism can be prevented by killing the spores by pressure cooking or autoclaving at 121 °C
Parent Classification:Hereditary and idiopathic peripheral neuropathy
Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT), also known as Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) and peroneal muscular atrophy (PMA) — is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system characterised by progressive loss of muscle tissue and touch sensation across various parts of the body. Currently incurable, this disease is one of the most common inherited neurological disorders affecting approximately 1 in 2,500 people equating to approximately 23,000 people in the United Kingdom and 125,000 people in the USA.
CMT was previously classified as a subtype of muscular dystrophy.
Symptoms of CMT usually begin in late childhood or early adulthood. Some people do not experience symptoms until their early thirties or forties. Usually, the initial symptom is foot drop early in the course of the disease. This can also cause claw toe, where the toes are always curled. Wasting of muscle tissue of the lower parts of the legs may give rise to a "stork leg" or "inverted bottle" appearance. Weakness in the hands and forearms occurs in many people later in life as the disease progresses.
Loss of touch
Includes classifications:Cholera due to Vibrio cholerae
Cholera is an infection in the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The main symptoms are profuse, watery diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission occurs primarily by drinking water or eating food that has been contaminated by the feces of an infected person, including one with no apparent symptoms. The severity of the diarrhea and vomiting can lead to rapid dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, and death in some cases. The primary treatment is oral rehydration therapy, typically with oral rehydration solution (ORS), to replace water and electrolytes. If this is not tolerated or does not provide improvement fast enough, intravenous fluids can also be used. Antibacterial drugs are beneficial in those with severe disease to shorten its duration and severity. Worldwide, it affects 3–5 million people and causes 100,000–130,000 deaths a year as of 2010. Cholera was one of the earliest infections to be studied by epidemiological methods.
The primary symptoms of cholera are profuse, painless diarrhea and vomiting of clear fluid. These symptoms usually start suddenly, one to five days after ingestion of the bacteria. The diarrhea is frequently described as "rice water" in
Cysticercosis refers to tissue infection after exposure to eggs of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm. The disease is spread via the fecal-oral route through contaminated food and water, and is primarily a food borne disease. After ingestion the eggs pass through the lumen of the intestine into the tissues and migrate preferentially to the brain and muscles. There they form cysts that can persist for years. In some cases the cysts will eventually cause an inflammatory reaction presenting as painful nodules in the muscles and seizures when the cysts are located in the brain. Symptomatic disease from Taenia solium cysts in the brain is referred to as neurocysticercosis and is the most common helminthic (tapeworm) infection of the brain worldwide. Cysticercosis should be differentiated from taeniasis: carriage of the adult tapeworm in the intestine (which is through ingestion of cysts in an intermediate host, not the ingestion of the eggs as in cysticercosis). These represent two different stages of the parasite’s life cycle. Though both forms of infection can potentially occur in the same individual at the same time, they are distinct disease entities and have different treatments and
Includes classifications:Malignant hypertensive heart disease
Hypertensive heart disease includes a number of complications of systemic arterial hypertension or high blood pressure that affect the heart. While there are several definitions of hypertensive heart disease in the medical literature, the term is most widely used in the context of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding categories. The definition in the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) includes heart failure and other cardiac complications of hypertension when a causal relationship between the heart disease and hypertension is stated or implied on the death certificate. According to ICD-10, hypertensive heart disease (I11), and its subcategories: hypertensive heart disease with heart failure (I11.0) and hypertensive heart disease without heart failure (I11.9) are distinguished from chronic rheumatic heart diseases (I05-I09), other forms of heart disease (I30-I52) and ischemic heart diseases (I20-I25). However, since high blood pressure is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease, death rates from hypertensive heart disease provide an incomplete measure of the burden of disease due to high blood
Includes classifications:Optic neuritis, unspecified
Parent Classification:Disorders of optic nerve and visual pathways
Optic neuritis is the inflammation of the optic nerve that may cause a complete or partial loss of vision.
The optic nerve comprises axons that emerge from the retina of the eye and carry visual information to the primary visual nuclei, most of which is relayed to the occipital cortex of the brain to be processed into vision. Inflammation of the optic nerve causes loss of vision usually because of the swelling and destruction of the myelin sheath covering the optic nerve. Direct axonal damage may also play a role in nerve destruction in many cases.
The most common etiology is multiple sclerosis. Up to 50% of patients with MS will develop an episode of optic neuritis, and 20-30% of the time optic neuritis is the presenting sign of MS. The presence of demyelinating white matter lesions on brain MRI at the time of presentation of optic neuritis is the strongest predictor for developing clinically definite MS. Almost half of the patients with optic neuritis have white matter lesions consistent with multiple sclerosis. At five years follow-up, the overall risk of developing MS is 30%, with or without MRI lesions. Patients with a normal MRI still develop MS (16%), but at a lower rate
Parent Classification:Specific nonpsychotic mental disorders due to brain damage
Post-concussion syndrome, also known as postconcussive syndrome or PCS, and historically called shell shock, is a set of symptoms that may continue for weeks, months, or occasionally a year or more after a concussion – a mild form of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Symptoms of PCS, which is the most common entity to be diagnosed in people who have suffered TBI, may occur in 38–80% of mild head injuries. A diagnosis may be made when symptoms resulting from concussion last for more than three months after the injury, or it may be made starting within a week or ten days of trauma. In late, persistent, or prolonged PCS (PPCS), symptoms last for over six months, or by other standards, three.
The condition can cause a variety of symptoms: physical, such as headache; cognitive, such as difficulty concentrating; and emotional and behavioral, such as irritability. As many of the symptoms in PCS are common to, or exacerbated by, other disorders, there is a risk of misdiagnosis. Though there is no treatment for PCS itself, symptoms can be treated; medications and physical and behavioral therapy may be used, and patients can be educated about symptoms and their usual prognosis. The majority of
Tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS), also known as posterior tibial neuralgia, is a compression neuropathy and painful foot condition in which the tibial nerve is compressed as it travels through the tarsal tunnel. This tunnel is found along the inner leg behind the medial malleolus (bump on the inside of the ankle). The posterior tibial artery, tibial nerve, and tendons of the tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallucis longus muscles travel in a bundle through the tarsal tunnel. Inside the tunnel, the nerve splits into three different segments. One nerve (calcaneal) continues to the heel, the other two (medial and lateral plantar nerves) continue on to the bottom of the foot. The tarsal tunnel is delineated by bone on the inside and the flexor retinaculum on the outside.
Patients with TTS typically complain of numbness in the foot radiating to the big toe and the first 3 toes, pain, burning, electrical sensations, and tingling over the base of the foot and the heel. Depending on the area of entrapment, other areas can be affected. If the entrapment is high, the entire foot can be affected as varying branches of the tibial nerve can become involved. Ankle pain is
Includes classifications:Early congenital syphilis, symptomatic
Congenital syphilis is syphilis present in utero and at birth, and occurs when a child is born to a mother with secondary syphilis. Untreated syphilis results in a high risk of a bad outcome of pregnancy, including mulberry molars in the fetus. Syphilis can cause miscarriages, premature births, stillbirths, or death of newborn babies. Some infants with congenital syphilis have symptoms at birth, but most develop symptoms later. Untreated babies can have deformities, delays in development, or seizures along with many other problems such as rash, fever, hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, and jaundice. Sores on infected babies are infectious. Rarely, the symptoms of syphilis go unseen in infants so that they develop the symptoms of late-stage syphilis, including damage to their bones, teeth, eyes, ears, and brain.
This is a subset of cases of congenital syphilis. Newborns may be asymptomatic and are only identified on routine prenatal screening. If not identified and treated, these newborns develop poor feeding and rhinorrhea. By definition, early congenital syphilis occurs in children between 0 and 2 years old. After, they can develop late congenital syphilis.
Symptomatic newborns, if not
Diphtheria (Greek διφθέρα (diphthera) "pair of leather scrolls") is an upper respiratory tract illness caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, a facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium. It is characterized by sore throat, low fever, and an adherent membrane (a pseudomembrane) on the tonsils, pharynx, and/or nasal cavity. A milder form of diphtheria can be restricted to the skin. Less common consequences include myocarditis (about 20% of cases) and peripheral neuropathy (about 10% of cases).
Diphtheria is a contagious disease spread by direct physical contact or breathing the aerosolized secretions of infected individuals. Historically quite common, diphtheria has largely been eradicated in industrialized nations through widespread vaccination. In the United States, for example, there were 52 reported cases of diphtheria between 1980 and 2000; between 2000 and 2007, there were only three cases as the diphtheria–pertussis–tetanus (DPT) vaccine is recommended for all school-age children. Boosters of the vaccine are recommended for adults, since the benefits of the vaccine decrease with age without constant re-exposure; they are particularly recommended for those traveling to
Includes classifications:Genital herpes, unspecified
Parent Classification:Herpes simplex
Herpes genitalis (or genital herpes) refers to a genital infection by Herpes simplex virus.
Following the classification HSV into two distinct categories of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in the 1960s, it was established that "HSV-2 was below the waist, HSV-1 was above the waist". Although genital herpes is largely believed to be caused by HSV-2, genital HSV-1 infections are increasing and now exceed 50% in certain populations, and that rule of thumb no longer applies. HSV is believed to be asymptomatic in the majority of cases, thus aiding contagion and hindering containment. When symptomatic, the typical manifestation of a primary HSV-1 or HSV-2 genital infection is clusters of genital sores consisting of inflamed papules and vesicles on the outer surface of the genitals, resembling cold sores.
These usually appear 4–7 days after sexual exposure to HSV for the first time. Genital HSV-1 infection recurs at rate of about one sixth of that of genital HSV-2. In males, the lesions occur on the glans penis, shaft of the penis or other parts of the genital region, on the inner thigh, buttocks, or anus. In females, lesions appear on or near the pubis, labia, clitoris, vulva, buttocks or anus.
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a chronic disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Named after physician Gerhard Armauer Hansen, leprosy is primarily a granulomatous disease of the peripheral nerves and mucosa of the upper respiratory tract; skin lesions are the primary external sign. Left untreated, leprosy can be progressive, causing permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs and eyes. Contrary to folklore, leprosy does not cause body parts to fall off, although they can become numb or diseased as a result of secondary infections; these occur as a result of the body's defenses being compromised by the primary disease. Secondary infections, in turn, can result in tissue loss causing fingers and toes to become shortened and deformed, as cartilage is absorbed into the body.
Although the mode of transmission of Hansen's disease remains uncertain, most investigators think that M. leprae is usually spread from person to person in respiratory droplets. Studies have shown that leprosy can be transmitted to humans by armadillos. Leprosy is now known to be neither sexually transmitted nor highly infectious after treatment.
Meningitis is inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. The inflammation may be caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms, and less commonly by certain drugs. Meningitis can be life-threatening because of the inflammation's proximity to the brain and spinal cord; therefore the condition is classified as a medical emergency.
The most common symptoms of meningitis are headache and neck stiffness associated with fever, confusion or altered consciousness, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light (photophobia) or loud noises (phonophobia). Children often exhibit only nonspecific symptoms, such as irritability and drowsiness. If a rash is present, it may indicate a particular cause of meningitis; for instance, meningitis caused by meningococcal bacteria may be accompanied by a characteristic rash.
A lumbar puncture diagnoses or excludes meningitis. A needle is inserted into the spinal canal to extract a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), that envelops the brain and spinal cord. The CSF is examined in a medical laboratory. The first treatment in acute meningitis consists of promptly
Parent Classification:Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers
Typhoid fever, also known as typhoid, is a common worldwide bacterial disease, transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person, which contain the bacterium Salmonella typhi, serotype Typhi.
The disease has received various names, such as gastric fever, abdominal typhus, infantile remittant fever, slow fever, nervous fever or pythogenic fever. The name "typhoid" means "resembling typhus" and comes from the neuropsychiatric symptoms common to typhoid and typhus. Despite this similarity of their names, typhoid fever and typhus are distinct diseases and are caused by different species of bacteria.
The impact of this disease fell sharply with the application of 20th century sanitation techniques.
Classically, the course of untreated typhoid fever is divided into four individual stages, each lasting approximately one week. In the first week, the temperature rises slowly and fever fluctuations are seen with relative bradycardia, malaise, headache, and cough. A bloody nose (epistaxis) is seen in a quarter of cases and abdominal pain is also possible. There is leukopenia, a decrease in the number of circulating white blood cells, with
Parent Classification:Meningitis due to enterovirus
Viral meningitis refers to meningitis caused by a viral infection. It is sometimes referred to as "aseptic meningitis" in contrast to meningitis caused by bacteria.
An example is lymphocytic choriomeningitis.
Viral meningitis is most commonly caused by enteroviruses.
Causative organisms include:
HSV, varicella and CMV have a specific antiviral therapy; most other viruses do not. For HSV the treatment of choice is acyclovir
Includes classifications:Cystic fibrosis without mention of meconium ileus
Parent Classification:Other and unspecified disorders of metabolism
Cystic fibrosis (also known as CF or mucoviscidosis) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder affecting most critically the lungs, and also the pancreas, liver, and intestine. It is characterized by abnormal transport of chloride and sodium across an epithelium, leading to thick, viscous secretions.
The name cystic fibrosis refers to the characteristic scarring (fibrosis) and cyst formation within the pancreas, first recognized in the 1930s. Difficulty breathing is the most serious symptom and results from frequent lung infections that are treated with antibiotics and other medications. Other symptoms, including sinus infections, poor growth, and infertility affect other parts of the body.
CF is caused by a mutation in the gene for the protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). This protein is required to regulate the components of sweat, digestive juices, and mucus. CFTR regulates the movement of chloride and sodium ions across epithelial membranes, such as the alveolar epithelia located in the lungs. Although most people without CF have two working copies of the CFTR gene, only one is needed to prevent cystic fibrosis due to the disorder's recessive
Parent Classification:Filarial infection and dracontiasis
Onchocerciasis (/ˈɒŋkɵsɜrˈsaɪ.əsɨs/ or /ˈɒŋkɵsɜrˈkaɪ.əsɨs/), also known as river blindness and Robles disease, is a parasitic disease caused by infection by Onchocerca volvulus, a nematode (roundworm). Onchocerciasis is second in the world only to trachoma as an infectious cause of blindness. It is not the nematode, but its endosymbiont, Wolbachia pipientis, that causes the severe inflammatory response that leaves many blind. The parasite is transmitted to humans through the bite of a black fly of the genus Simulium. The larval nematodes spread throughout the body. When the worms die, their Wolbachia symbionts are released, triggering a host immune system response that can cause severe itching, and can destroy optical tissue in the eye.
The vast majority of infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa, although cases have also been reported in Yemen and isolated areas of Central and South America. An estimated 18 million people suffer from onchocerciasis, with approximately 270,000 cases of blindness related to the infection.
In 1915, Dr. Rodolfo Robles Valverde's study on patients with river blindness in Guatemala led to the discovery that the disease is caused by filaria of O.
Scabies (from Latin: scabere, "to scratch"), known colloquially as the seven-year itch, is a contagious skin infection that occurs among humans and other animals. It has been classified by the WHO as a water-related disease. It is caused by a tiny and usually not directly visible parasite, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, which burrows under the host's skin, causing intense allergic itching. The infection in animals (caused by different but related mite species) is called sarcoptic mange.
The disease may be transmitted from objects but is most often transmitted by direct skin-to-skin contact, with a higher risk with prolonged contact. Initial infections require four to six weeks to become symptomatic. Reinfection, however, may manifest symptoms within as little as 24 hours. Because the symptoms are allergic, their delay in onset is often mirrored by a significant delay in relief after the parasites have been eradicated. Crusted scabies, formerly known as Norwegian scabies, is a more severe form of the infection often associated with immunosuppression.
The characteristic symptoms of a scabies infection include intense itching and superficial burrows. The burrow tracks are often linear,
Includes classifications:Gonococcal infection (acute) of lower genitourinary tract
Gonorrhea (colloquially known as the clap) is a common human sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The usual symptoms in men are burning with urination and penile discharge. Women, on the other hand, are asymptomatic half the time or have vaginal discharge and pelvic pain. In both men and women if gonorrhea is left untreated, it may spread locally causing epididymitis or pelvic inflammatory disease or throughout the body, affecting joints and heart valves.
Treatment is commonly with ceftriaxone as antibiotic resistance has developed to many previously used medications. This is typically given in combination with either azithromycin or doxycycline, because Gonorrhea infections typically occur along with Chlamydia, ceftriaxone does not cover Chlamydia so these medications are needed to cover, Chlamydia, and these medications do not cover Gonorrhea. There have been some strains of gonorrhea showing resistance to ceftriaxone.
Half of women with gonorrhea are asymptomatic while others have vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain or pain with intercourse. Most men who are infected have symptoms such as urethritis associated with burning with
Heart failure (HF), often called congestive heart failure (CHF) or congestive cardiac failure (CCF), is an inability of the heart to provide sufficient pump action to distribute blood flow to meet the needs of the body. Heart failure can cause a number of symptoms including shortness of breath, leg swelling, and exercise intolerance. The condition is diagnosed with echocardiography and blood tests. Treatment commonly consists of lifestyle measures such as smoking cessation, light exercise including breathing protocols, decreased salt intake and other dietary changes, and medications. Sometimes it is treated with implanted devices (pacemakers or ventricular assist devices) and occasionally a heart transplant.
Common causes of heart failure include myocardial infarction and other forms of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy. The term "heart failure" is sometimes incorrectly used to describe other cardiac-related illnesses, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack) or cardiac arrest, which can cause heart failure but are not equivalent to heart failure.
Heart failure is a common, costly, disabling, and potentially deadly condition. In
Parent Classification:Thiamine and niacin deficiency states
Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency disease most commonly caused by a chronic lack of niacin (vitamin B3) in the diet. It can be caused by decreased intake of niacin or tryptophan, and possibly by excessive intake of leucine. It may also result from alterations in protein metabolism in disorders such as carcinoid syndrome. A deficiency of the amino acid lysine can lead to a deficiency of niacin, as well.
The traditional food preparation method of corn (maize), nixtamalization, by native New World cultivators who had domesticated corn required treatment of the grain with lime, an alkali. The lime treatment now has been shown to make niacin nutritionally available and reduce the chance of developing pellagra. When corn cultivation was adopted worldwide, this preparation method was not accepted because the benefit was not understood. The original cultivators, often heavily dependent on corn, did not suffer from pellagra; it became common only when corn became a staple that was eaten without the traditional treatment.
Pellagra was first described in Spain in 1735 by Gaspar Casal, who published a first clinical description in his posthumous Natural and Medical History of the Asturian
Parent Classification:Disorders of refraction and accommodation
Presbyopia is a condition where with age, the eye exhibits a progressively diminished ability to focus on near objects. Presbyopia’s exact mechanisms are not known with certainty; the research evidence most strongly supports a loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens, although changes in the lens’s curvature from continual growth and loss of power of the ciliary muscles (the muscles that bend and straighten the lens) have also been postulated as its cause. Like gray hair and wrinkles, presbyopia is a symptom caused by the natural course of aging. The first signs of presbyopia – eyestrain, difficulty seeing in dim light, problems focusing on small objects and/or fine print – are usually first noticed between the ages of 40 and 50. The ability to focus on near objects declines throughout life, from an accommodation of about 20 dioptres (ability to focus at 50 mm away) in a child, to 10 dioptres at age 25 (100 mm), and levels off at 0.5 to 1 dioptre at age 60 (ability to focus down to 1–2 meters only). The expected maximum and minimum amplitudes of accommodation for a corrected patient of a given age can be determined using Hofstetter's formulas: Expected amplitude (D) = 18.5 - 0.3
Includes classifications:Rubella with neurological complications
Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is a disease caused by the rubella virus. The name "rubella" is derived from Latin, meaning little red. Rubella is also known as German measles because the disease was first described by German physicians in the mid-eighteenth century. This disease is often mild and attacks often pass unnoticed. The disease can last one to three days. Children recover more quickly than adults. Infection of the mother by Rubella virus during pregnancy can be serious; if the mother is infected within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, the child may be born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which entails a range of serious incurable illnesses. Spontaneous abortion occurs in up to 20% of cases.
Rubella is a common childhood infection usually with minimal systemic upset although transient arthropathy may occur in adults. Serious complications are very rare. Apart from the effects of transplacental infection on the developing fetus, rubella is a relatively trivial infection.
Acquired (i.e. not congenital) rubella is transmitted via airborne droplet emission from the upper respiratory tract of active cases (can be passed along by the breath of people sick
Tinea nigra (also known as "superficial phaeohyphomycosis," and "Tinea nigra palmaris et plantaris") is a superficial fungal infection that causes dark brown to black painless patches on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.
This infection is caused by the fungus formerly classified as Exophiala werneckii but more recently classified as Hortaea werneckii.
The causative organism has also been described as Phaeoannellomyces werneckii.
Diagnosis of tinea nigra causing fungus is made on microscopic examination of skin scrapings, mixed with potassium hydroxide (KOH). The KOH lyses the nonfungal debris.
Treatment consists of topical application of dandruff shampoo, which contains selenium sulfide, over the skin. Topical antifungal imidazoles may also be used, such as Ketoconazole. This is the same treatment plan for tinea or pityriasis versicolor.
Parent Classification:Sexual and gender identity disorders
Transvestic fetishism is a psychiatric diagnosis applied to those who are thought to have an excessive sexual or erotic interest in cross-dressing; this interest is often expressed in autoerotic behavior. It differs from cross-dressing for entertainment or other purposes that do not involve sexual arousal and is categorized as a paraphilia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association. (Sexual arousal in response to donning sex-typical clothing is homeovestism.)
Transvestic fetishism refers specifically to cross-dressing; sexual arousal in response to individual garments is fetishism. Occurrence of transvestic fetishism is uncorrelated to occurrence of gender identity disorder. Most men who have transvestic fetishism do not have a problem with their assigned sex.
Some male transvestic fetishists collect women's clothing, e.g. nightgowns, babydolls, bridal gowns, slips, brassieres, and other types of nightwear, lingerie, stockings, pantyhose, shoes, and boots, items of a distinct feminine look and feel. They may dress in these feminine garments and take photographs of themselves while living out their fantasies. According to the DSM-IV, this
Cushing's syndrome describes the signs and symptoms associated with prolonged exposure to inappropriately high levels of the hormone cortisol. This can be caused by taking glucocorticoid drugs, or diseases that result in excess cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), or CRH levels.
Cushing's disease refers to a pituitary-dependent cause of Cushing's syndrome: a tumor (adenoma) in the pituitary gland produces large amounts of ACTH, causing the adrenal glands to produce elevated levels of cortisol. It is the most common non-iatrogenic cause of Cushing's syndrome, responsible for 70% of cases excluding glucocorticoid related cases.
This pathology was described by Harvey Cushing in 1932. The syndrome is also called Itsenko-Cushing syndrome, hyperadrenocorticism or hypercorticism.
Cushing's syndrome is not confined to humans and is also a relatively common condition in domestic dogs and horses. It also occurs in cats, but rarely.
It should not be confused with Cushing's triad, a disease state resulting from increased intracranial pressure.
Symptoms include rapid weight gain, particularly of the trunk and face with sparing of the limbs (central obesity). A common sign is the growth
Includes classifications:Ulceroglandular tularemia
Tularemia (also known as Pahvant Valley plague, rabbit fever, deer fly fever, and Ohara's fever) is a serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. A Gram-negative, nonmotile coccobacillus, the bacterium has several subspecies with varying degrees of virulence. The most important of those is F. tularensis tularensis (Type A), which is found in lagomorphs (rabbits and similar animals) in North America, and it is highly virulent in humans and domestic rabbits. F. tularensis palaearctica (Type B) occurs mainly in aquatic rodents (beavers, muskrats) in North America and in hares and small rodents in northern Eurasia. It is less virulent for humans and rabbits. The primary vectors are ticks and deer flies, but the disease can also be spread through other arthropods. The disease is named after Tulare County, California.
Depending on the site of infection, tularemia has six characteristic clinical symptoms: ulceroglandular (the most common type representing 75% of all forms), glandular, oropharyngeal, pneumonic, oculoglandular, and typhoidal.
The incubation period for tularemia is one to 14 days; most human infections become apparent after three to five days.
Parent Classification:Disorders of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance
Acidosis is an increased acidity in the blood and other body tissue (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration). If not further qualified, it usually refers to acidity of the blood plasma.
Acidosis is said to occur when arterial pH falls below 7.35 (except in the fetus- see below), while its counterpart (alkalosis) occurs at a pH over 7.45. Arterial blood gas analysis and other tests are required to separate the main causes.
The term acidemia describes the state of low blood pH, while acidosis is used to describe the processes leading to these states. Nevertheless, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. The distinction may be relevant where a patient has factors causing both acidosis and alkalosis, wherein the relative severity of both determines whether the result is a high or a low pH.
The rate of cellular metabolic activity affects and, at the same time, is affected by the pH of the body fluids. In mammals, the normal pH of arterial blood lies between 7.35 and 7.50 depending on the species (e.g., healthy human-arterial blood pH varies between 7.35 and 7.45). Blood pH values compatible with life in mammals are limited to a pH range between 6.8 and 7.8. Changes in the
Parent Classification:Disturbance of conduct, not elsewhere classified
Conduct disorder is a psychological disorder diagnosed in childhood that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated. These behaviors are often referred to as "antisocial behaviors." Indeed, the disorder is often seen as the precursor to antisocial personality disorder.
Conduct disorder is classified in the DSM. It is diagnosed based on a prolonged pattern of antisocial behaviour such as serious violation of laws and social norms and rules. There are no proposed revisions for the main criteria of conduct disorder in the DSM-5; there is a recommendation by the work group to add an additional specifier for callous and unemotional traits. Almost all adolescents who have a substance use disorder have conduct disorder like traits; importantly after successful treatment of the substance use disorder about half of these adolescents no longer display conduct disorder like symptoms. Therefore it is important to exclude a substance induced cause and to address any substance use disorder before making a psychiatric diagnosis of conduct disorder.
While the etiology of conduct disorder is
Parent Classification:Sexual and gender identity disorders
Ego-dystonic sexual orientation is an ego-dystonic mental disorder characterized by having a sexual orientation or an attraction that is at odds with one's idealized self-image, causing anxiety and a desire to change one's orientation or become more comfortable with one's sexual orientation.
The World Health Organization (WHO) lists ego-dystonic sexual orientation in the ICD-10, as a disorder of sexual development and orientation. The WHO diagnosis covers when gender identity or sexual orientation is clear, yet a patient has another behavioural or psychological disorder which makes that patient want to change it. F66.1 The diagnostic manual notes that a sexual orientation is not a disorder in itself.
The diagnostic category of "ego-dystonic homosexuality" was removed from the American Psychiatric Association's DSM in 1987 (with the publication of the DSM-III-R), but still potentially remains in the DSM-IV under the category of "sexual disorder not otherwise specified" including "persistent and marked distress about one’s sexual orientation”.
The Medical Council of India uses the WHO classification of ego-dystonic sexual orientation. The Chinese Classification and Diagnostic
Parent Classification:Simple and unspecified goiter
A goitre or goiter (Latin gutteria, struma), is a swelling of the thyroid gland, which can lead to a swelling of the neck or larynx (voice box). Goitre is a term that refers to an enlargement of the thyroid (thyromegaly) and can be associated with a thyroid gland that is functioning properly or not.
Worldwide, over 90% cases of goitre are caused by iodine deficiency.
Goitre associated with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism may be present with symptoms of the underlying disorder. For hyperthyroidism, the most common symptoms are weight loss despite increased appetite, and heat intolerance. However, these symptoms are often unspecific and hard to diagnose.
Regarding morphology, goitres may be classified either as the growth pattern or as the size of the growth:
Worldwide, the most common cause for goitre is iodine deficiency, usually seen in countries that do not use iodized salt. Selenium deficiency is also considered a contributing factor. In countries that use iodized salt, Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common cause.
Goitre is more common among women, but this includes the many types of goitre caused by autoimmune problems, and not only those caused by simple lack of
Hashimoto's thyroiditis or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is attacked by a variety of cell- and antibody-mediated immune processes. It was the first disease to be recognized as an autoimmune disease. It was first described by the Japanese specialist Hakaru Hashimoto in Germany in 1912.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis very often results in hypothyroidism with bouts of hyperthyroidism. Symptoms of Hashimoto's thyroiditis include Myxedematous psychosis, weight gain, depression, mania, sensitivity to heat and cold, paresthesia, fatigue, panic attacks, bradycardia, tachycardia, high cholesterol, reactive hypoglycemia, constipation, migraines, muscle weakness, cramps, memory loss, infertility and hair loss.
The thyroid gland may become firm, large, and lobulated in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, but changes in the thyroid can also be nonpalpable. Enlargement of the thyroid is due to lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis rather than tissue hypertrophy. Physiologically, antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and/or thyroglobulin cause gradual destruction of follicles in the thyroid gland. Accordingly, the disease can be detected clinically by
Hypothyroidism /ˌhaɪpɵˈθaɪərɔɪdɪzəm/ is a state in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone.
Iodine deficiency is often cited as the most common cause of hypothyroidism worldwide but it can be caused by many other factors. It can result from a lack of a thyroid gland or from iodine-131 treatment, and can also be associated with increased stress. Severe hypothyroidism in infants can result in cretinism.
A 2011 study concluded that about 8% of women over 50 and men over 65 in the UK suffer from an under-active thyroid and that as many as 100,000 of these people could benefit from treatment they are currently not receiving.
Hypothyroidism is often classified by association with the indicated organ dysfunction (see below):
Early hypothyroidism is often asymptomatic and can have very mild symptoms. Subclinical hypothyroidism is a state of normal thyroid hormone levels, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), with mild elevation of thyrotropin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). With higher TSH levels and low free T4 levels, symptoms become more readily apparent in clinical (or overt) hypothyroidism.
Hypothyroidism can be associated with the following
Parent Classification:Pediculosis and phthirus infestation
Pediculosis is an infestation of lice—blood-feeding ectoparasitic insects of the order Phthiraptera. The condition can occur in almost any species of warm-blooded animal (i.e., mammals and birds), including humans. Although "pediculosis" in humans may properly refer to lice infestation of any part of the body, the term is sometimes used loosely to refer to pediculosis capitis, the infestation of the human head with the specific head louse.
Pediculosis may be divided into the following types:
Head-lice infestation is most frequent on children aged 3–10 and their families. Approximately 3% of school children in the United States contract head lice.
Females are more frequently infested than males. Those of African descent rarely suffer infestation due to differences in hair texture.
Head lice are spread through direct head-to-head contact with an infested person. From each egg or "nit" may hatch one nymph that will grow and develop to the adult louse.
Lice feed on blood once or more often each day by piercing the skin with their tiny needle-like mouthparts. While feeding they excrete saliva, which irritates the skin and causes itching.
Lice cannot burrow into the skin.
Parent Classification:Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism
An urea cycle disorder or urea cycle defect is a genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of one of the enzymes in the urea cycle which is responsible for removing ammonia from the blood stream. The urea cycle involves a series of biochemical steps in which nitrogen, a waste product of protein metabolism, is removed from the blood and converted to urea. Normally, the urea is transferred into the urine and removed from the body. In urea cycle disorders, the nitrogen accumulates in the form of ammonia, a highly toxic substance, and is not removed from the body.
Urea cycle disorders are included in the category of inborn errors of metabolism. There is no cure.
Inborn errors of metabolism are generally considered to be rare but represent a substantial cause of brain damage and death among newborns and infants. Because many cases of urea cycle disorders remain undiagnosed and/or infants born with the disorders die without a definitive diagnosis, the exact incidence of these cases is unknown and underestimated. It is believed that up to 20% of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome cases may be attributed to an undiagnosed inborn error of metabolism such as urea cycle disorder. In April 2000,
Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. The diagnostic criteria require that symptoms become apparent before a child is three years old. Autism affects information processing in the brain by altering how nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize; how this occurs is not well understood. It is one of three recognized disorders in the autism spectrum (ASDs), the other two being Asperger syndrome, which lacks delays in cognitive development and language, and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (commonly abbreviated as PDD-NOS), which is diagnosed when the full set of criteria for autism or Asperger syndrome are not met.
Autism has a strong genetic basis, although the genetics of autism are complex and it is unclear whether ASD is explained more by rare mutations, or by rare combinations of common genetic variants. In rare cases, autism is strongly associated with agents that cause birth defects. Controversies surround other proposed environmental causes, such as heavy metals, pesticides or childhood vaccines; the vaccine hypotheses are
Parent Classification:Mononeuritis of upper limb and mononeuritis multiplex
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an entrapment median neuropathy, causing paresthesia, pain, numbness, and other symptoms in the distribution of the median nerve due to its compression at the wrist in the carpal tunnel. The pathophysiology is not completely understood but can be considered compression of the median nerve traveling through the carpal tunnel. The National Center for Biotechnology Information and highly cited literature say the most common cause of CTS is typing. Research by Lozano-Calderón has cited genetics as a factor, and has encouraged caution in ascribing causality.
The main symptom of CTS is intermittent numbness of the thumb, index, long and radial half of the ring finger. The numbness often occurs at night, with the hypothesis that the wrists are held flexed during sleep. Recent literature suggests that sleep positioning, such as sleeping on one's side, might be an associated factor. It can be relieved by wearing a wrist splint that prevents flexion. Long-standing CTS leads to permanent nerve damage with constant numbness, atrophy of some of the muscles of the thenar eminence, and weakness of palmar abduction.
Pain in carpal tunnel syndrome is primarily
Includes classifications:Diabetes mellitus without mention of complication
Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).
There are three main types of diabetes mellitus (DM). Type 1 DM results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". Type 2 DM results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. This form was previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The third main form, gestational diabetes occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital
Gas gangrene (also known as "Clostridial myonecrosis", and "Myonecrosis") is a bacterial infection that produces gas in tissues in gangrene. It is a deadly form of gangrene usually caused by Clostridium perfringens bacteria. It is a medical emergency.
Myonecrosis is a condition of necrotic damage, specific to muscle tissue. It is often seen in infections with Clostridium perfringens or any of myriad soil-borne anaerobic bacteria. Bacteria cause myonecrosis via specific exotoxins. These microorganisms are opportunistic and, in general, enter the body via significant skin breakage. Gangrenous infection by soil-borne bacteria was common in the combat injuries of soldiers well into the 20th century, due to non-sterile field surgery and the basic nature of care for severe projectile wounds.
Other causes of myonecrosis include envenomation by snakes of the Bothrops genus (family Viperidae), ischemic necrosis, caused by vascular blockage (e.g., diabetes type II), tumours that block or hoard blood supply, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) or other thromboses.
Gas gangrene can cause myonecrosis (muscle tissue death), gas production, and sepsis. Progression to toxemia and
Gout (also known as podagra when it involves the big toe) is a medical condition usually characterized by recurrent attacks of acute inflammatory arthritis—a red, tender, hot, swollen joint. The metatarsal-phalangeal joint at the base of the big toe is the most commonly affected (approximately 50% of cases). However, it may also present as tophi, kidney stones, or urate nephropathy. It is caused by elevated levels of uric acid in the blood. The uric acid crystallizes, and the crystals deposit in joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues.
Clinical diagnosis is confirmed by seeing the characteristic crystals in joint fluid. Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, or colchicine improves symptoms. Once the acute attack subsides, levels of uric acid are usually lowered via lifestyle changes, and in those with frequent attacks, allopurinol or probenecid provide long-term prevention.
Gout has increased in frequency in recent decades, affecting about 1-2% of the Western population at some point in their lives. The increase is believed due to increasing risk factors in the population, such as metabolic syndrome, longer life expectancy and changes in diet. Gout
Parent Classification:Diseases of white blood cells
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), also known as hemophagocytic syndrome, is an uncommon hematologic disorder that, typically, clinically manifests as fever, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, jaundice and rash, with laboratory findings of lymphocytosis and histiocytosis, and the pathologic finding of hemophagocytosis. Pancytopenia (anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia), markedly elevated serum ferritin levels, and abnormal liver enzymes are frequently present.
Primary HLH, also known as familial hemophagocytic lymphohistioctosis (FHL) or familial erythrophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, is a heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder found to be more prevalent with parental consanguinity. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (i.e., acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis) occurs after strong immunologic activation, such as that which can occur with systemic infection, immunodeficiency, or underlying malignancy. Both forms are characterized by the overwhelming activation of normal T lymphocytes and macrophages, invariably leading to clinical and hematologic alterations and death in the absence of treatment.
Five genetic subtypes (FHL1, FHL2, FHL3, FHL4, and
Meningococcal disease describes infections caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (also termed meningococcus). It carries a high mortality rate if untreated. While best known as a cause of meningitis, widespread blood infection (sepsis) is more damaging and dangerous. Meningitis and Meningococcemia are major causes of illness, death, and disability in both developed and under developed countries worldwide.
The disease's pathogenesis is not fully understood. The pathogen originates harmlessly in a large number of the general population, but thereafter can invade the blood stream and the brain, causing serious illness. Over the past few years, experts have made an intensive effort to understand specific aspects of meningococcal biology and host interactions, however the development of improved treatments and effective vaccines will depend on novel efforts by workers in many different fields.
The incidence of endemic meningococcal disease during the last 13 years ranges from 1 to 5 per 100,000 in developed countries, and from 10 to 25 per 100,000 in developing countries. During epidemics the incidence of meningococcal disease approaches 100 per 100,000. There are approximately
Parent Classification:Disorders of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance
In a mixed disorder of acid-base balance more than one of the four primary acid base disorders is occurring in the patient at the same time.
The four primary types are:
In a mixed disorder, more than one are combined. (Exception: A person cannot have both a respiratory acidosis and a respiratory alkalosis at the same time.)
In contrast, with a simple acid base disorder, there is only one of the four primary acid base disorders present.
The patient can have an acidosis and alkosis at the same time that partially counteract each other, or there can be two different conditions effecting the pH in the same direction. The phrase "mixed acidosis", for example, refers to metabolic acidosis in conjunction with respiratory acidosis.
Oral candidiasis (also known as "thrush") is an infection of yeast fungi of the genus Candida on the mucous membranes of the mouth. It is frequently caused by Candida albicans, or less commonly by Candida glabrata or Candida tropicalis. Oral thrush may refer to candidiasis in the mouths of babies, while if occurring in the mouth or throat of adults it may also be termed candidosis or moniliasis.
Signs and symptoms of oral infection by Candida species may not be immediately noticeable but can develop suddenly and may persist for a long time. The infection usually appears as thick white or cream-colored deposits on mucosal membranes such as the tongue, inner cheeks, gums, tonsils, and palate. The infected mucosa may appear inflamed (red and possibly slightly raised) and sometimes have a cottage cheese-like appearance. The lesions can be painful and will become tender and often bleed if rubbed or scraped. Cracking at the corners of the mouth, a cottony-like sensation inside the mouth, and even temporary loss of taste can occur.
In more severe cases, the infection can spread down the esophagus and cause difficulty swallowing - this is referred to as Esophageal candidiasis. Thrush does
Includes classifications:Whooping cough due to bordetella pertussis [B. pertussis]
Pertussis — commonly called whooping cough ( /ˈhuːpɪŋ kɒf/ or /ˈhwuːpɪŋ kɒf/) — is a highly contagious bacterial disease caused by Bordetella pertussis. In some countries, this disease is called the 100 days' cough or cough of 100 days.
Symptoms are initially mild, and then develop into severe coughing fits, which produce the namesake high-pitched "whoop" sound in infected babies and children when they inhale air after coughing. The coughing stage lasts approximately six weeks before subsiding.
Prevention by vaccination is of primary importance because treatment is of little benefit to the person infected. However, antibiotics shorten the duration of infectiousness and are thus recommended. It is estimated that the disease currently affects 48.5 million people yearly, resulting in nearly 295,000 deaths.
The classic signs of pertussis are a paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whoop, and vomiting after coughing. The cough from pertussis has been documented to cause subconjunctival hemorrhages, rib fractures, urinary incontinence, hernias, post-cough fainting, and vertebral artery dissection. If there is vomiting after a coughing spell or an inspiratory whooping sound on coughing, the
Pterygium (Surfer's Eye) most often refers to a benign growth of the conjunctiva. A pterygium commonly grows from the nasal side of the sclera. It is usually present in the palpebral fissure. It is associated with, and thought to be caused by ultraviolet-light exposure (e.g., sunlight), low humidity, and dust. The predominance of pterygia on the nasal side is possibly a result of the sun's rays passing laterally through the cornea, where it undergoes refraction and becomes focused on the limbic area. Sunlight passes unobstructed from the lateral side of the eye, focusing on the medial limbus after passing through the cornea. On the contralateral (medial) side, however, the shadow of the nose medially reduces the intensity of sunlight focused on the lateral/temporal limbus.
Pterygium in the conjunctiva is characterized by elastotic degeneration of collagen (actinic elastosis) and fibrovascular proliferation. It has an advancing portion called the head of the pterygium, which is connected to the main body of the pterygium by the neck. Sometimes a line of iron deposition can be seen adjacent to the head of the pterygium called Stocker's line. The location of the line can give an
Parent Classification:Streptococcal sore throat and scarlet fever
Scarlet fever is an infectious disease which most commonly affects 4-8 year old children. Symptoms include sore throat, fever and a characteristic red rash. It is usually spread by inhalation. There is no vaccine, but the disease is effectively treated with antibiotics.
Before the availability of antibiotics, scarlet fever was a major cause of death. It could also cause late complications such as glomerulonephritis and endocarditis leading to heart valve disease, all of which were protracted and often fatal afflictions at the time.
Scarlet fever is caused by erythrogenic toxin, a substance produced by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes when infected by a certain bacteriophage.
The term scarlatina may be used interchangeably with scarlet fever, though it is most often used to indicate the less acute form of scarlet fever seen since the beginning of the twentieth century.
This disease is most common in 4–8 year olds with males and females being equally affected. By the age of 10 years most children have acquired protective antibodies and scarlet fever at this age or older is rare.
It is usually spread by the aerosol route (inhalation) but may also be spread by skin contact or by
Includes classifications:Visual field defect, unspecified
Parent Classification:Visual disturbances
A scotoma (Greek for darkness; plural: scotomas or scotomata) is an area of partial alteration in the field of vision consisting of a partially diminished or entirely degenerated visual acuity that is surrounded by a field of normal – or relatively well-preserved – vision.
Every normal mammalian eye has a scotoma in its field of vision, usually termed its blind spot. This is a location with no photoreceptor cells, where the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve exit the retina. This location is called the optic disc. When both eyes are open, visual signals that are absent in the blind spot of one eye are provided from the opposite visual cortex for the other eye, even when the other eye is closed. The absence of visual imagery from the blind spot does not intrude into consciousness with one eye closed, because the corresponding visual field locations of the optic discs in the two eyes differ.
The presence of the scotoma can be demonstrated subjectively by covering one eye, carefully holding fixation with the open eye, and placing an object (such as one's thumb) in the lateral and horizontal visual field, about 15 degrees from fixation (see the blind spot
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and venereal diseases (VD), are illnesses that have a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of human sexual behavior, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. While in the past, these illnesses have mostly been referred to as STDs or VD, in recent years the term sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has been preferred, as it has a broader range of meaning; a person may be infected, and may potentially infect others, without having a disease. Some STIs can also be transmitted via the use of IV drug needles after its use by an infected person, as well as through childbirth or breastfeeding. Sexually transmitted infections have been well known for hundreds of years, and venereology is the branch of medicine that studies these diseases.
Until the 1990s, STIs were commonly known as venereal diseases: Veneris is the Latin genitive form of the name Venus, the Roman goddess of love. Social disease was another euphemism.
Sexually transmitted infection is a broader term than sexually transmitted disease. An infection is a colonization by a parasitic species,
Von Willebrand disease (vWD) is the most common hereditary coagulation abnormality described in humans, although it can also be acquired as a result of other medical conditions. It arises from a qualitative or quantitative deficiency of von Willebrand factor (vWF), a multimeric protein that is required for platelet adhesion. It is known to affect humans and dogs (notably Doberman Pinschers), and rarely swine, cattle, horses, and cats. There are three forms of vWD: inherited, acquired and pseudo or platelet type. There are three types of hereditary vWD: vWD Type I, vWD Type II and vWD III. Within the three inherited types of vWD there are various subtypes. Platelet type vWD is also an inherited condition.
vWD Type I is the most common type of the disorder and those that have it are typically asymptomatic or may experience mild symptoms such as nosebleeds although there may be severe symptoms in some cases. There are various factors that affect the presentation and severity of symptoms of vWD such as blood type.
vWD is named after Erik Adolf von Willebrand, a Finnish pediatrician who first described the disease in 1926.
The various types of vWD present with varying degrees of