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Veszprém (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈvɛspreːm]; German: Weißbrunn, Slovene: Belomost) is one of the oldest urban areas in Hungary, and a city with county rights. It lies approximately 15 km (9 mi) north of the Lake Balaton. It is the administrative center of the county (comitatus or 'megye') of the same name.
Veszprém lies on both sides of the Séd creek, approximately 110 km (68 mi) from Budapest (via the M7 highway and Road 8). It can also be reached from Győr via Road 82 and from Székesfehérvár via Road 8.
According to local legend, Veszprém was founded on seven hills. The seven hills are Várhegy (Castle Hill), Benedek-hegy (St. Benedict Hill), Jeruzsálem-hegy (Jerusalem Hill), Temetőhegy (Cemetery Hill), Gulyadomb (Herd Hill), Kálvária-domb (Calvary Hill), and Cserhát.
Anonymus, the notary of King Béla III wrote that a castle already stood here when the Hungarians first occupied the area. The castle was probably a 9th century Frankish fortress. The castles of Veszprém, Esztergom and Székesfehérvár, were the earliest Hungarian stone castles, which had already been built during the reign of High Prince Géza, a time when motte castles were much more common.
The name of the city
Nagykanizsa (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈnɒɟkɒniʒɒ]; Croatian: Kan(j)iža, Velika Kan(j)iža; German: Großkirchen, Groß-Kanizsa, Slovene: Velika Kaniža , Turkish: Kanije) is a medium-sized city in Zala County in southwestern Hungary. It is also known in Hungarian as Kanizsa.
It lies not far from Lake Balaton at the meeting point of five routes. For centuries the town has been a connecting link. Goods from Slovenia were transported to Graz via Nagykanizsa, and the town played an important role in the trade from the Adriatic Sea to the Alpine region, Vienna, and Budapest.
The city's oldest Roman era ruins were uncovered in the 1960s. Later, during the Middle Ages, it became one of the most important strongholds of the Hungarian Kingdom. The fortress had a significant role in the southern shield line of Hungary, keeping the whole of Western Europe safe from the attacks of the Ottoman Empire. Instead of conquerors, today Nagykanizsa attracts thousands of dental tourists as the modern age's invaders. The name Kanizsa is of Slavic origin (Knysa), and means "belonging to a prince". It refers to the fact that the region was the property of an aristocrat.
The name Kanizsa was first mentioned
Szeged (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈsɛɡɛd] ( listen); German: Szegedin; Romanian: Seghedin; Croatian: Segedin; Serbian: Сегедин; see also other alternative names) is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county town of Csongrád county. The University of Szeged is one of the most distinguished universities in Hungary.
The famous Open Air Plays of Szeged (first held in 1931) are one of the main attractions; they are held every summer. Szeged celebrates the Day of the city on May 21.
The name Szeged might come from an old Hungarian word for corner (szeg), pointing to the turn of the river Tisza that flows through the city. Others say it derives from the Hungarian word sziget which means 'island'. Others still contend that szeg means 'dark blond' (sötétszőkés) – a reference to the color of the water where the rivers Tisza and Maros merge.
The city has its own name in a number of foreign languages: Croatian, Segedin; Romanian, Seghedin; Bulgarian, Belarusian, Russian and Ukrainian, Сегед (Seged); German, Szegedin / Segedin; Italian, Seghedino; Latin, Partiscum; Latvian, Segeda; Lithuanian, Segedas; Polish, Segedyn;
Szombathely (Hungarian pronunciation: [sombɒt.hɛj], German: Steinamanger) is the 10th largest city in Hungary. It is the administrative centre of Vas county in the west of the country, located near the border with Austria. The oldest city in Hungary, it is known as the birthplace of Saint Martin of Tours and the Duke of Armbrust.
Szombathely lies by the streams Perint and Gyöngyös (literally 'pearly'), at 47°14′N 16°38′E / 47.233°N 16.633°E / 47.233; 16.633, where the Alpokalja (Lower Alps) mountains meet the Little Hungarian Plain.
The name Szombathely is from Hungarian szombat, "Saturday" and hely, "place", referring to the fact that medieval markets were held on Saturday every week.
The Latin name Savaria or Sabaria comes from Sibaris, the Latin name for the stream Gyöngyös. The root of the word is the Proto-Indo-European word seu, meaning "wet". The Austrian reach of the stream is still called Zöbern, a variation of its Latin name. Other languages: in Croatian Sambotel, in Slovene Sombotel.
The German name Steinamanger means "stones on a field" (Stein am Anger). The name was coined by German settlers who encountered the ruins of the Roman city of Savaria.
Szombathely is the
Tatabánya (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈtɒtɒbaːɲɒ]) is a city of 69,988 inhabitants in northwestern Hungary, in the Central Transdanubian region. It is the capital of Komárom-Esztergom County.
The city is located in the valley between the Gerecse and Vértes Mountains, some 55 km (34 mi) from the capital. By virtue of its location, the city is a railway and road junction. The M1 (also European routes E60, E75) motorway from Vienna to Budapest passes through the outer city limits, and the Vienna-Budapest railway line also passes through the city.
Archaeological findings prove that humans have been living here since the Stone Age. The three historic predecessor settlements of Tatabánya are Alsógalla, Felsőgalla and Bánhida. Bánhida is the earliest settlement, it was first mentioned in 1288.
In the 16th century the Ottoman Turks, occupied the area. Around this time the inhabitants became Protestants. Later, its feudal lords, the Esterházys populated the area with Roman Catholic German and Slovak settlers.
According to the 1787 census Alsógalla had 580, Felsőgalla had 842 inhabitants. The coal resources of the area were discovered around this time. The population began to grow, and a new
Győr (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈɟøːr] ( listen); German: Raab, Slovak: Ráb, names in other languages) is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron county and Western Transdanubia region, and — halfway between Budapest and Vienna — lies on one of the important roads of Central Europe. The city is the sixth largest in Hungary, and one of the seven main regional centres of the country.
The area has been inhabited since ancient times. The first large settlement dates back to the 5th century BCE; the inhabitants were Celts. They called the town Arrabona, a name that was used for eight centuries and whose shortened form is still used as the German (Raab) and Slovak (Ráb) names of the city.
Roman merchants moved to Arrabona during the 1st century BCE, and around 10 CE the Roman army occupied the northern part of Western Hungary, which they called Pannonia. Although the Roman Empire abandoned the area in the 4th century due to constant attacks by the tribes living to the east, the town remained inhabited.
Around 500 the territory was settled by Slavs, in 547 by the Lombards, in 568-c.800 by the Avars, at that time under Frankish and Slavic influence,
Hódmezővásárhely (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈhoːdmɛzøːvaːʃaːrhɛj] ( listen); Croatian: Vašarhelj, Romanian: Ioneşti) is a city in south-east Hungary, on the Great Hungarian Plain, at the meeting point of the Békés-Csanádi Ridge and the clay grassland surrounding the river Tisza. The name of the town means "beaver field market place."
There is evidence of human habitation close to the modern town dating back 6000 years, and archaeological evidence suggests that the area has been continuously inhabited since then by a variety of different cultures. Neolithic dwellings recessed into the ground stored domestic items such as plates, as well as the Kökénydombi Vénusz fertility symbol. Remains have also been found from the Copper Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age and the great migrations period. The town's archaeological treasures can now be seen at the permanent archaeological exhibition of the Tornyai János Museum.
At the end of the 8th century, the settling Hungarians found mostly remnants of the nomadic population and of the agrarian and animal-breeding Slavs who were escaping from the Bulgarians.
Before the Mongol invasion of Hungary, at least seven villages with churches existed in the
Salgótarján (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈʃɒlɡoːtɒrjaːn]) is a city with county rights in Nógrád county, north-eastern Hungary.
At the foot of Karancs mountain, in the Cserhát hills, 250 meters above sea level, 120 km (75 mi) north-east from Budapest, 70 km (43 mi) west from Miskolc. Salgótarján is surrounded by beautiful forests and hills topped with castle ruins, which are accessible by bus that may be taken from the center of town.
The town already existed in the Middle Ages, but information on it is scarce, it is likely that it was a small village. The word salgó means "shining" in Old Hungarian, while Tarján was the name of one of the Hungarian tribes conquering the area.
The castle of Salgó was built in the 13th century on a mountain of volcanic origin. In the 13th century the town already had a church.
After the 1682 siege of the nearby Castle of Fülek (today Fiľakovo, Slovakia) the town was deserted, and new settlers arrived only ten years later, but remained a small village.
Development came in the mid-19th century, when a coal mine was opened nearby. The job opportunities provided by the mine and the developing industry began to attract people. The village grew quickly and
Békéscsaba (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈbeːkeːʃˌtʃɒbɒ]; German: Tschabe, Romanian: Bichişciaba, Slovak: Békešská Čaba) is a city in Southeast Hungary, the capital of the county Békés.
According to the 2001 census, the city has a total area of 193.94 km (75 sq mi).
The name of the city comes from the word "Békés", which means "peaceful" in Hungarian, and "Csaba", a popular Hungarian male given name of Turkish origin.
The area has been inhabited since the ancient times. In the Iron Age the area had been conquered by the Scythians, by the Celts, then by the Huns. After the Hungarian Conquest, there were many small villages in the area.
The village of Csaba was first mentioned in the 1330s. Besides Csaba, eight other villages stood where now the town stands. When the Turks conquered the southern and central parts of Hungary, and these territories became part of the Ottoman Empire, the town survived, but it became extinct during the fights against the Turks in the 17th century.
In 1715 Csaba is mentioned as a deserted place, but only one year later its name can be found in a document mentioning the tax-paying towns. It is likely that the new Csaba was founded by János György Harruckern,
Kaposvár (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈkɒpoʃvaːr]; Croatian: Kapošvar, Kapuš(ar), Kapušvar, German: Kopisch, Ruppertsberg, Ruppertsburg, Slovene: Rupertgrad, Turkish: Kapoşvar, Serbian: Капошвар, Kapošvar) is the capital of the county of Somogy in Hungary. It lies 186 km (116 mi) south‐west of Budapest, on both sides of the Kapos River.
According to legend, the city was founded on seven hills (like Rome). The area had already been inhabited by 5000 BCE. From around 400 BCE, Celtic tribes inhabited the area.
The city was identified as "Kapos" in the founding document of the Episcopate of Pécs in 1009. The rectangular motte castle was reconstructed as a stone castle in the 15th century. The castle was destroyed in 1702 at the order of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor.
The Ottomans occupied the city after a five-day siege in 1555, and stayed for 131 years. The city and area were freed from Ottoman rule in 1686.
In 1749 Kaposvár was designated the county seat. During the 1800s the city developed considerably, due to the importance of the railway line between Budapest and Zagreb. Kaposvár became an important industrial city.
In the early 20th century, the city became the center of an
Dunaújváros, known as Sztálinváros from its construction in 1951 to 1961, is an industrial city in Hungary's Central Transdanubia region lying along the Danube river. It is in Fejér county. The city was built around the village of Dunapentele. Residents are Magyars, with minority of Serbs.
Dunaújváros is one of the newest cities of the country. It was built in the 1950s during the industrialization of the country under Socialist rule, as a new city next to an already existing village, Dunapentele.
Dunapentele was not built on until the 1950s. The construction started on the Danube's right side. The area has been inhabited since ancient times. When Western Hungary was a Roman province under the name Pannonia, a military camp and a town called Intercisa stood in this place, at the border of the province. The Hungarians conquered the area in the early 10th century. The village Pentele, named after the medieval Greek saint, Pantaleon, was founded shortly after.
Between 1541 and 1688 the village was under Ottoman rule, and during the 15-year war it was completely destroyed. During the freedom fight led by Prince Francis II Rákóczi the place was deserted again. In the 18th century the
Miskolc (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈmiʃkolts] ( listen), Slovak: Miškovec) is a city in northeastern Hungary, mainly with heavy industrial background. With a population close to 170,000 (2010) Miskolc is the fourth largest city of Hungary (behind Budapest, Debrecen and Szeged; second-largest with agglomeration.) It is also the county capital of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén and the regional centre of Northern Hungary.
Miskolc is located at 48°6′15″N 20°47′30″E / 48.10417°N 20.79167°E / 48.10417; 20.79167.
The city lies at the meeting point of different geographical regions – east from the Bükk mountains, in the valley of the river Sajó and the streams Hejő and Szinva. According to the 2001 Census the city has a total area of 236.68 km (91.38 sq mi). The ground level slopes gradually; the difference between the highest and lowest area is about 800 m (2,600 ft).
The lowest areas are the banks of the river Sajó, with an altitude of 110–120 m (360–390 ft). The area belongs to the Great Plain region and is made up of sedimentary rocks. Between the Avas hill and Diósgyőr lies the hilly area of the Lower Bükk (250–300 m/820–980 ft) consisting of sandstone, marl, clay, layers of coal, from the
Zalaegerszeg (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈzɒlɒɛɡɛrsɛɡ] ( listen); Croatian: Jegersek; Slovene: Jageršek; German: Egersee) is the administrative center of Zala county in western Hungary.
Zalaegerszeg lies on the banks of the Zala River, close to the Slovenian and Austrian borders and 220 km west-southwest of Budapest by road.
The area was already inhabited in the Upper Paleolithic, according to archaeological findings (the oldest ones in Zala county.) Later the area has been inhabited by Celts.
The first written mentions of the town are as Egerscug (1247) and Egerszeg (1293); the name means "alder-tree corner" and is probably a reference to the town's situation in the angle where two rivers meet. King Béla IV donated the town to the diocese of Veszprém in 1266, so that it became church property. As Egerszeg lay somewhat distant from Veszprém, however, the taxes paid by the town often ended up in the pockets of such local oligarchs as the Kőszegi family.
In the 14th century Egerszeg was the largest town of the area. Between 1368 and 1389 it was a royal town for a short time, then Sigismund I donated it to the Kanizsai family who traded it for another town with the bishop of Veszprém.
Kecskemét (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈkɛtʃkɛmeːt]) is a city in the central part of Hungary. It is the 8th largest city in the country, and the county seat of Bács-Kiskun.
Kecskemét lies halfway between the capital Budapest and the country's third-largest city, Szeged, 86 kilometres from both of them and almost equal distance from the two big rivers of the country, the Danube and the Tisza. It is the northern of two centres of the Hungarian Southern Great Plain (Hungarian: Del-Alföld) region (comprising the three counties Bács-Kiskun, Békés and Csongrád); the southern centre is Szeged, the seat of Csongrád county.
The name of the city stems from the Hungarian word kecske, meaning "goat".
Kecskemét was established at the meeting point of a large sandy region and a sandy yellow soil; its altitude is 120 meters above sea level. The territory west of the city is covered by wind-blown sand, characterized by the almost parallel northern-southern sand dunes and the plain between them. At the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries, the pastures had become depleted. Overgrazing by cattle had destroyed the natural vegetation cover, and the movement of sand seriously
Nyíregyháza (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈɲiːrɛɟhaːzɒ] ( listen)) is a city in North-east Hungary and the county capital of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg. With a population of 118,000 it is the seventh-largest city in Hungary and is one of the leading cities of Northern Hungary and of the northern part of the Great Hungarian Plain (Alföld). Its dynamic and spectacular development has been incessant since the 18th century, being the economical and cultural center of the region. Its zoo exhibiting more than 300 species including real rarities is recognized throughout Europe.
Nyíregyháza is located in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county in the northern Plain region (Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, Hajdú-Bihar county, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county). It is the most important city of North Hungary, in all aspects of the center of the region. It is located in the center of Nyírség, as an agricultural town. The boundaries of the city are often understood as a very broad frame, because generally the near boondocks are listed here. It is located at the intersections of routes 4, 41, 36 and 38, therefore the city is easy to approach. The way to Sub-Carpathia and Transylvania is inevitable without passing the
Pécs (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈpeːtʃ] ( listen); known by alternative names) is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia. It is the administrative and economical centre of Baranya county. Pécs is also the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Pécs.
The city Sopianae was founded by Romans at the beginning of the 2nd century, in an area peopled by Celts and Pannoni tribes. By the 4th century it became the capital of Valeria province and a significant early Christian center. The early Christian necropolis is from this era which became an UNESCO World Heritage Site in December 2000.
Its episcopate was founded in 1009 by Steven I, and the first university in Hungary was founded in Pécs in 1367 by Louis I the Great. (The largest university still resides in Pécs with about 34,000 students). Pécs was formed into one of the cultural and arts center of the country by bishop Janus Pannonius, the great, Hungarian, humanist poet. Pécs has a rich heritage from the age of a 150 year long Ottoman occupation, like the mosque of Pasha Qasim the Victorious on Széchenyi square.
Pécs always was
Eger (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈɛɡɛr]; German: Erlau; Turkish: Eğri; Serbian: Jegar, Јегар ) is the second largest city in Northern Hungary, the county seat of Heves, east of the Mátra Mountains. Eger is best known for its castle, thermal baths, historic buildings (including the northernmost Turkish minaret), and red and white wines.
The name Eger is thought to derive from the Hungarian word égerfa (alder tree). In German, the town is known as Erlau, in Latin as Agria, in Serbian and Croatian as Jegar / Јегар or Jegra / Јегра, in Czech and Slovene as Jager, in Slovak as Jáger, in Polish as Jagier, and in Turkish as Eğri.
Eger has been inhabited since the Stone Age. Today's Eger was formed in the 10th century by St. Stephen (997–1038), the first Christian king of Hungary, who founded an episcopal see in Eger. The first cathedral of Eger was built on Castle Hill, within the present site of Eger Castle. Eger grew up around its former cathedral and has remained an important religious centre in Hungary since its foundation. The 14th-16th centuries were an age of prosperity for Eger. Winegrowing, for which the town is still famous for, began to be important around that time. The bishops
Székesfehérvár (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈseːkɛʃfɛˈheːrvaːr] ( listen)) is a city in central Hungary and is the 9th largest in the country. Located around 65 km (40 mi) southwest of Budapest. It is inhabited by 101,973 people (2010), with 136,995 in the Székesfehérvár Subregion. The city is the centre of Fejér county and the regional centre of Central Transdanubia. In the Middle Ages the city was a royal residence and was one of the most important cities of Hungary. In the Székesfehérvár Basilica, 37 kings and 39 queens consort were crowned, 15 rulers have been buried here, the diets were held and the crown jewels were kept here.
The name Székesfehérvár means "seat of the white castle" or "white castle with the seat" and the city is known by translations of this in other languages (Latin: Alba Regia, German: Stuhlweißenburg, Slovak: Stoličný Belehrad, Serbian: Столни Београд, Stolni Beograd, Croatian: Stolni Biograd, Slovene: Stolni Belograd, Czech: Stoličný Bělehrad, Polish: Białogród Stołeczny or Białogród Królewski, Turkish: İstolni Belgrad). In Hungarian, the city is known colloquially as Fehérvár.
The word szék (meaning "seat" as "throne") is related to its important role in
Szolnok (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈsolnok]) is the county seat of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county in central Hungary. Its location on the banks of the Tisza river, at the heart of the Great Hungarian Plain, has made it an important cultural and economic crossroads for centuries.
Szolnok is located in the heart of the Great Hungarian Plain, at the confluence of the Tisza and Zagyva rivers. It lies about 100 kilometres (62 mi) east-southeast from Budapest. The climate of the area is continental, with hot summers following relatively mild winters. The region is one of the sunniest in Europe; the average precipitation is about 490 millimetres (19 in) annually.
Szolnok was named for the first steward of the city, Szaunik or Zounok. The town was first officially mentioned under the name Zounok in 1075. In the following centuries it was recorded as Zounok, Saunic, Zounuc, and Zawnuch. The variety of spellings likely comes from phonetic discrepancies occurring when Hungarian sounds - originally written in runic Old Hungarian script - were recorded using the Latin alphabet. Another possibility revolves around speculation that the name Szaunik was not a personal name after all, but rather a
Sopron (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈʃopron]; German: Ödenburg, Croatian: Šopron, Latin: Scarbantia) is a city in Hungary on the Austrian border, near the Lake Neusiedl/Lake Fertő.
When the area that is today Western Hungary was a province of the Roman Empire, a city called Scarbantia stood here. Its forum was located where the main square of Sopron can be found today.
During the Migration Period Scarbantia was believed to be deserted and by the time Hungarians arrived in the area, it was in ruins. In the 9th–11th centuries Hungarians strengthened the old Roman city walls and built a castle. The town received its Hungarian name at this time from a castle steward named Suprun. In 1153 it was mentioned as an important town.
In 1273 King Otakar II of Bohemia occupied the castle. Even though he took the children of Sopron's nobility with him as hostages, the city opened its gates when the armies of King Ladislaus IV of Hungary arrived. The king rewarded Sopron by elevating it to the rank of free royal town.
During the Ottoman occupation of Hungary the Ottoman Turks ravaged the city in 1529, but did not occupy it. Many people from the occupied areas fled to Sopron, and the city's