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Best Hormone of All Time

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    1
    Parathyroid hormone

    Parathyroid hormone

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH), parathormone or parathyrin, is secreted by the chief cells of the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. It acts to increase the concentration of calcium (Ca) in the blood, whereas calcitonin (a hormone produced by the parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid gland) acts to decrease calcium concentration. PTH acts to increase the concentration of calcium in the blood by acting upon the parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (high levels in bone and kidney) and the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (high levels in the central nervous system, pancreas, testis, and placenta). PTH half-life is approximately 4 minutes. It has a molecular mass of 9.4 kDa. hPTH-(1-34) crystallizes as a slightly bent, long helical dimer. Analysis reveals that the extended helical conformation of hPTH-(1-34) is the likely bioactive conformation. The N-terminal fragment 1-34 of parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been crystallized and the structure has been refined to 0.9 Å resolution. Parathyroid hormone regulates serum calcium through its effects on the following tissues: PTH was one of the first hormones to be shown to use the G-protein, adenylyl cyclase second
    8.40
    5 votes
    2
    Erythropoietin

    Erythropoietin

    Erythropoietin, also known as erythropoetin or erthropoyetin (/ɨˌrɪθrɵˈpɔɪ.ɨtɨn/, /ɨˌrɪθrɵˈpɔɪtən/, and /ɨˌriːθrɵ-/) or EPO, is a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production. It is a cytokine (protein signaling molecule) for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. Human EPO has a molecular weight of 34,000. Also called hematopoietin or hemopoietin, it is produced by interstitial fibroblasts in the kidney in close association with peritubular capillary and tubular epithelial cells. It is also produced in perisinusoidal cells in the liver. While liver production predominates in the fetal and perinatal period, renal production is predominant during adulthood. Erythropoietin is the hormone that regulates red blood cell production. It also has other known biological functions. For example, erythropoietin plays an important role in the brain's response to neuronal injury. EPO is also involved in the wound healing process. When exogenous EPO is used as a performance-enhancing drug, it is classified as an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA). Exogenous EPO can often be detected in blood, due to slight difference from the endogenous
    7.60
    5 votes
    3

    Inhibin

    Inhibin is a peptide that is an inhibitor of FSH synthesis and secretion, and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Inhibin contains an alpha and beta subunit linked by disulfide bonds. Two forms of inhibin differ in their beta subunits (A or B), while their alpha subunits are identical. Inhibin belongs to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. In both females and males, inhibin inhibits FSH production and GnRH release in the anterior pituitary. However, the overall mechanism differs between the genders: In women, FSH stimulates the secretion of inhibin from the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles in the ovaries. In turn, inhibin suppresses FSH. Inhibin secretion is diminished by GnRH, and enhanced by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Inhibin is produced in the gonads, pituitary gland, placenta and other organs. In men, it is a hormone that inhibits FSH by negative feedback. It is secreted from the Sertoli cells, located in the seminiferous tubules inside the testes. Androgens stimulate inhibin production; this peptide may also help to locally regulate spermatogenesis. Activin is a related peptide that counteracts inhibin. Quantification of
    8.50
    4 votes
    4
    Thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body. It is a glycoprotein hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland, which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete the hormone thyroxine (T4), which has only a slight effect on metabolism. T4 is converted to triiodothyronine (T3), which is the active hormone that stimulates metabolism. About 80% of this conversion is in the liver and other organs, and 20% in the thyroid itself. The hypothalamus, in the base of the brain, produces thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). TRH stimulates the pituitary gland to produce TSH. Somatostatin is also produced by the hypothalamus, and has an opposite effect on the pituitary production of TSH, decreasing or inhibiting its release. The concentration of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) in the blood regulates the pituitary release of TSH; when T3 and T4 concentrations are low, the production of TSH is increased, and,
    7.75
    4 votes
    5
    Gastrin

    Gastrin

    In humans, gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility. It is released by G cells in the antrum of the stomach, duodenum, and the pancreas. It binds to cholecystokinin B receptors to stimulate the release of histamines in enterochromaffin-like cells, and it induces the insertion of K/H ATPase pumps into the apical membrane of parietal cells (which in turn increases H release). Its release is stimulated by peptides in the lumen of the stomach. Its existence was first suggested in 1905 by the British physiologist John Sydney Edkins, and gastrins were isolated in 1964 by Roderic Alfred Gregory and Tracy at the University of Liverpool. In 1964 the structure of Gastrin was determined. The GAS gene is located on the long arm of the seventeenth chromosome (17q21). Gastrin is a linear peptide hormone produced by G cells of the duodenum and in the pyloric antrum of the stomach. It is secreted into the bloodstream. Gastrin is found primarily in three forms: Also, pentagastrin is an artificially synthesized, five amino acid sequence identical to the last five amino acid sequence at the
    7.50
    4 votes
    6
    Melatonin

    Melatonin

    Melatonin /ˌmɛləˈtoʊnɪn/, also known chemically as N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is a naturally occurring compound found in animals, plants, and microbes. In animals, circulating levels of the hormone melatonin vary in a daily cycle, thereby allowing the entrainment of the circadian rhythms of several biological functions. Many biological effects of melatonin are produced through activation of melatonin receptors, while others are due to its role as a pervasive and powerful antioxidant, with a particular role in the protection of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Products containing melatonin have been available over-the-counter in the United States since the mid-1990s. In many other countries, the sale of this neurohormone is not permitted or requires a prescription. Melatonin has been identified in many plants including Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), and St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). The physiological roles of melatonin in plants involve regulation of their response to photoperiod, defense against harsh environments, and the function of an antioxidant. The latter may be the original function of melatonin in organisms with the others being added during evolution. Melatonin
    7.50
    4 votes
    7

    Ghrelin

    Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid hunger-stimulating peptide and hormone that is produced mainly by P/D1 cells lining the fundus of the human stomach and epsilon cells of the pancreas. Ghrelin levels increase before meals and decrease after meals. It is considered the counterpart of the hormone leptin, produced by adipose tissue, which induces satiation when present at higher levels. In some bariatric procedures, the level of ghrelin is reduced in patients, thus causing satiation before it would normally occur. Ghrelin is a potent stimulator of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland. The ghrelin receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor, known as the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin binds to the GHSR1a splice-variant of this receptor which is present in high density in the hypothalamus, pituitary as well as vagal afferent cell bodies and vagal afferent endings throughout the gastro-intestinal tract. Ghrelin plays a significant role in neurotrophy, particularly in the hippocampus, and is essential for cognitive adaptation to changing environments and the process of learning. Ghrelin has been shown to activate the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase in a
    5.80
    5 votes
    8
    Cholecystokinin

    Cholecystokinin

    Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; from Greek chole, "bile"; cysto, "sac"; kinin, "move"; hence, move the bile-sac (gallbladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. Cholecystokinin, previously called pancreozymin, is synthesized by I-cells in the mucosal epithelium of the small intestine and secreted in the duodenum, the first segment of the small intestine, and causes the release of digestive enzymes and bile from the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively. It also acts as a hunger suppressant. Recent evidence has suggested that it also plays a major role in inducing drug tolerance to opioids like morphine and heroin, and is partly implicated in experiences of pain hypersensitivity during opioid withdrawal. CCK is composed of varying numbers of amino acids depending on post-translational modification of the CCK gene product, preprocholecystokinin. Thus CCK is actually a family of hormones identified by number of amino acids, e.g., CCK58, CCK33, and CCK8. CCK58 assumes a helix-turn-helix configuration. Its existence was first suggested in 1905 by the British physiologist Joy Simcha Cohen. CCK is very
    6.75
    4 votes
    9
    Estradiol

    Estradiol

    Estradiol (E2 or 17β-estradiol, also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. Estradiol is abbreviated E2 as it has two hydroxyl groups in its molecular structure. Estrone has one (E1) and estriol has three (E3). Estradiol is about 10 times as potent as estrone and about 80 times as potent as estriol in its estrogenic effect. Except during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, its serum levels are somewhat higher than that of estrone during the reproductive years of the human female. Thus it is the predominant estrogen during reproductive years both in terms of absolute serum levels as well as in terms of estrogenic activity. During menopause, estrone is the predominant circulating estrogen and during pregnancy estriol is the predominant circulating estrogen in terms of serum levels. Estradiol is also present in males, being produced as an active metabolic product of testosterone. The serum levels of estradiol in males (14 - 55 pg/mL) are roughly comparable to those of postmenopausal women (
    6.75
    4 votes
    10

    Lipotropin

    Lipotropin is a hormone produced by the cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). The anterior pituitary gland produces the pro-hormone POMC, which undergoes cleavage to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and β-lipotropin (β-LPH). β-Lipotropin is a 90-amino acid polypeptide that is the carboxy-terminal fragment of POMC. It stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin, and can also be cleaved into smaller peptides. In humans, γ-lipotropin, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH, α-endorphin, β-endorphin, γ-endorphin, and met-enkephalin are all possible fragments of β-lipotropin. β-Lipotropin also performs lipid-mobilizing functions such as lipolysis and steroidogenesis. γ-lipotropin is the amino-terminal peptide fragment of β-lipotropin. In humans, it has 56 amino acids.
    8.33
    3 votes
    11
    Thromboxane

    Thromboxane

    Thromboxane is a member of the family of lipids known as eicosanoids. The two major thromboxanes are thromboxane A2 and thromboxane B2. The distinguishing feature of thromboxanes is a 6-membered ether-containing ring. Thromboxane is named for its role in clot formation (thrombosis). Thromboxane-A synthase, an enzyme found in platelets, converts the arachidonic acid derivative prostaglandin H2 to thromboxane. Thromboxane acts by binding to any of the thromboxane receptors, G-protein-coupled receptors coupled to the G protein Gq. Thromboxane is a vasoconstrictor and a potent hypertensive agent, and it facilitates platelet aggregation. It is in homeostatic balance in the circulatory system with prostacyclin, a related compound. The mechanism of secretion of thromboxanes from platelets is still unclear. Thromboxane A2 (TXA2), produced by activated platelets, has prothrombotic properties, stimulating activation of new platelets as well as increasing platelet aggregation. Platelet aggregation is achieved by mediating expression of the glycoprotein complex GP IIb/IIIa in the cell membrane of platelets. Circulating fibrinogen binds these receptors on adjacent platelets, further
    8.33
    3 votes
    12
    Follicle-stimulating hormone

    Follicle-stimulating hormone

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone found in humans and other animals. It is synthesized and secreted by gonadotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland. FSH regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body. FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) act synergistically in reproduction. Specifically, an increase in FSH secretion by the anterior pituitary causes ovulation. FSH is a glycoprotein. Each monomeric unit is a protein molecule with a sugar attached to it; two of these make the full, functional protein. Its structure is similar to those of LH, TSH, and hCG. The protein dimer contains 2 polypeptide units, labeled alpha and beta subunits. The alpha subunits of LH, FSH, TSH, and hCG are identical, and contain 92 amino acids. The beta subunits vary. FSH has a beta subunit of 111amino acids (FSH β), which confers its specific biologic action and is responsible for interaction with the FSH-receptor. The sugar part of the hormone is composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, galactosamine, glucosamine, and sialic acid, the latter being critical for its biologic half-life. The half-life of FSH is 3–4 hours. The 92-amino-acid-long FSH alpha
    6.50
    4 votes
    13
    Brain natriuretic peptide

    Brain natriuretic peptide

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), now known as B-type natriuretic peptide (also BNP) or GC-B, is a 32 amino acid polypeptide secreted by the ventricles of the heart in response to excessive stretching of heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes).The release of BNP is modulated by calcium ions. BNP is named as such because it was originally identified in extracts of porcine brain, although in humans it is produced mainly in the cardiac ventricles. BNP is secreted along with a 76 amino acid N-terminal fragment (NT-proBNP) which is biologically inactive. BNP binds to and activates the atrial natriuretic factor receptors NPRA, and to a lesser extent NPRB, in a fashion similar to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) but with 10-fold lower affinity. The biological half-life of BNP, however, is twice as long as that of ANP, and that of NT-proBNP is even longer, making these peptides better targets than ANP for diagnostic blood testing. The physiologic actions of BNP are similar to ANP and include decrease in systemic vascular resistance and central venous pressure as well as an increase in natriuresis. Thus, the net effect of BNP and ANP is a decrease in blood volume which lowers systemic blood
    8.00
    3 votes
    14

    Leukotriene

    Leukotrienes are fatty signaling molecules. They were first found in leukocytes (hence their name). One of their roles (specifically, leukotriene D4) is to trigger contractions in the smooth muscles lining the trachea; their overproduction is a major cause of inflammation in asthma and allergic rhinitis. Leukotriene antagonists are used to treat these diseases by inhibiting the production or activity of leukotrienes. Leukotrienes produced within a cell convey signals that act either on the cell producing them (autocrine signalling) or on vicinal cells (paracrine signalling) to regulate the immune response. Leukotrienes are naturally produced eicosanoid lipid mediators. They are produced in the body from arachidonic acid by the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase. Their production usually accompanies the production of histamine. Examples of leukotrienes are LTA4, LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, LTE4, and LTF4. LTC4, LTD4, LTE4 and LTF4 are often called cysteinyl leukotrienes due to the presence of the amino acid cysteine in their structure. Together, the cysteinyl leukotrienes make up the slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A). LTF4 is, like LTD4, a metabolyte of LTC4. Instead of lacking the glutaminic
    7.67
    3 votes
    15
    Norepinephrine

    Norepinephrine

    Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
    7.67
    3 votes
    16
    Orexin

    Orexin

    Orexin, also called hypocretin, is a neurotransmitter that regulates arousal, wakefulness, and appetite. The most common form of narcolepsy, in which the sufferer briefly loses muscle tone (cataplexy), is caused by a lack of orexin in the brain due to destruction of the cells that produce it. The brain contains very few cells that produce orexin: in a human brain, about 10,000 to 20,000 neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the axons from these neurons extend throughout the entire brain and spinal cord, where there are also receptors for orexin. Orexin was discovered almost simultaneously by two independent groups of rat-brain researchers. One group named it orexin, from orexis, meaning "appetite" in Greek; the other group named it hypocretin, because it is produced in the hypothalamus and bears a weak resemblance to secretin, a hormone found in the gut. The scientific community has not yet settled on a consensus for which word to use. There are two types of orexin: orexin-A and -B (hypocretin-1 and -2). They are excitatory neuropeptide hormones with approximately 50% sequence identity, are produced by cleavage of a single precursor protein. Orexin-A is 33 amino acid residues long
    7.33
    3 votes
    17
    Triiodothyronine

    Triiodothyronine

    Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone. It affects almost every physiological process in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, body temperature, and heart rate. Production of T3 and its prohormone thyroxine (T4) is activated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is released from the pituitary gland. This pathway is regulated via a closed-loop feedback process: Elevated concentrations of T3, and T4 in the blood plasma inhibit the production of TSH in the pituitary gland. As concentrations of these hormones decrease, the pituitary gland increases production of TSH, and by these processes, a feedback control system is set up to regulate the amount of thyroid hormones that are in the bloodstream. As the true hormone, the effects of T3 on target tissues are roughly four times more potent than those of T4. Of the thyroid hormone that is produced, just about 20% is T3, whereas 80% is produced as T4. Roughly 85% of the circulating T3 is later formed in the thyroid by removal of the iodine atom from the carbon atom number five of the outer ring of T4. In any case, the concentration of T3 in the human blood plasma is about one-fortieth that of T4.
    7.33
    3 votes
    18
    Adrenocorticotropic hormone

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), also known as corticotropin, is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. It is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its precursor corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus). Its principal effects are increased production and release of corticosteroids. A deficiency of ACTH is a cause of secondary adrenal insufficiency and an excess of it is a cause of Cushing’s syndrome. ACTH is synthesized from pre-pro-opiomelanocortin (pre-POMC). The removal of the signal peptide during translation produces the 241-amino acid polypeptide POMC, which undergoes a series of post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and glycosylation before it is proteolytically cleaved by endopeptidases to yield various polypeptide fragments with varying physiological activity. These fragments include NPP, Melanotropin Gamma (γ-MSH), Potential Peptide, Corticotropin (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, or ACTH), Melanotropin Alpha (Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone, or α-MSH), Corticotropin-like Intermediate Peptide (CLIP),
    7.00
    3 votes
    19
    Leptin

    Leptin

    Leptin (Greek λεπτός (leptos) meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including appetite and metabolism. It is one of the most important adipose derived hormones. The Ob(Lep) gene (Ob for obese, Lep for leptin) is located on chromosome 7 in humans. The effects of leptin were observed by studying mutant obese mice that arose at random within a mouse colony at the Jackson Laboratory in 1950. These mice were massively obese and excessively voracious. Ultimately, several strains of laboratory mice have been found to be homozygous for single-gene mutations that cause them to become grossly obese, and they fall into two classes: "ob/ob", those having mutations in the gene for the protein hormone leptin, and "db/db", those having mutations in the gene that encodes the receptor for leptin. When ob/ob mice are treated with injections of leptin, they lose their excess fat and return to normal body weight. Leptin itself was discovered in 1994 by Jeffrey M. Friedman at the Rockefeller University and Douglas L. Coleman through the study of such mice. Human leptin is a protein of 167 amino acids. It is manufactured
    7.00
    3 votes
    20
    Androstenedione

    Androstenedione

    Androstenedione (also known as 4-androstenedione and 17-ketoestosterone) is a 19-carbon steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads as an intermediate step in the biochemical pathway that produces the androgen testosterone and the estrogens estrone and estradiol. Androstenedione is the common precursor of male and female sex hormones. Some androstenedione is also secreted into the plasma, and may be converted in peripheral tissues to testosterone and estrogens. Androstenedione can be synthesized in one of two ways. The primary pathway involves conversion of 17-hydroxypregnenolone to dehydroepiandrosterone by way of 17,20-lyase, with subsequent conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione via the enzyme 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The secondary pathway involves conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, most often a precursor to cortisol, to androstenedione directly by way of 17,20-lyase. Thus, 17,20-lyase is required for the synthesis of androstenedione, whether immediately or one step removed. Androstenedione is further converted to either testosterone or estrogen. Conversion of androstenedione to testosterone requires the enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid
    6.67
    3 votes
    21
    Argipressin

    Argipressin

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as vasopressin, argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a neurohypophysial hormone found in most mammals. Vasopressin is responsible for regulating the body's retention of water by acting to increase water absorption in the collecting ducts of the kidney nephron. Vasopressin increases water permeability of the kidney's collecting duct and distal convoluted tubule by inducing translocation of aquaporin-CD water channels in the kidney nephron collecting duct plasma membrane. Vasopressin is a peptide hormone that controls the reabsorption of molecules in the tubules of the kidneys by affecting the tissue's permeability. It also increases peripheral vascular resistance, which in turn increases arterial blood pressure. It plays a key role in homeostasis, by the regulation of water, glucose, and salts in the blood. It is derived from a preprohormone precursor that is synthesized in the hypothalamus and stored in vesicles at the posterior pituitary. Most of it is stored in the posterior pituitary to be released into the bloodstream. However, some AVP may also be released directly into the brain, and accumulating evidence suggests it plays an
    6.67
    3 votes
    22
    Endothelin

    Endothelin

    Endothelins are proteins that constrict blood vessels and raise blood pressure. They are normally kept in balance by other mechanisms, but when they are over-expressed, they contribute to high blood pressure (hypertension) and heart disease. Endothelins are 21-amino acid vasoconstricting peptides produced primarily in the endothelium having a key role in vascular homeostasis. Among the strongest vasoconstrictors known, endothelins are implicated in vascular diseases of several organ systems, including the heart, general circulation and brain. There are three isoforms (identified as ET-1, -2, -3) with varying regions of expression and two key receptor types, ETA and ETB (see EDN1, EDN2, EDN3). Widely distributed in the body, receptors for endothelin are present in blood vessels and cells of the brain, choroid plexus and peripheral nerves. When applied directly to the brain of rats in picomolar quantities as an experimental model of stroke, endothelin-1 caused severe metabolic stimulation and seizures with substantial decreases in blood flow to the same brain regions, both effects mediated by calcium channels. A similar strong vasoconstrictor action of endothelin-1 was demonstrated
    6.67
    3 votes
    23
    Progesterone

    Progesterone

    Progesterone also known as P4 (pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione) is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. Progesterone belongs to a class of hormones called progestogens, and is the major naturally occurring human progestogen. Progesterone was independently discovered by four research groups. Willard Myron Allen co-discovered progesterone with his anatomy professor George Washington Corner at the University of Rochester Medical School in 1933. Allen first determined its melting point, molecular weight, and partial molecular structure. He also gave it the name Progesterone derived from Progestational Steroidal ketone. Like other steroids, progesterone consists of four interconnected cyclic hydrocarbons. Progesterone contains ketone and oxygenated functional groups, as well as two methyl branches. Like all steroid hormones, it is hydrophobic. Progesterone is produced in the ovaries (by the corpus luteum), the adrenal glands (near the kidney), and, during pregnancy, in the placenta. Progesterone is also stored in adipose (fat) tissue. In humans, increasing amounts of progesterone are produced
    6.67
    3 votes
    24
    Renin

    Renin

    Renin ( /ˈriːnɨn/ REE-nin), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an enzyme that participates in the body's renin-angiotensin system (RAS)—also known as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis—that mediates extracellular volume (i.e., that of the blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction. Thus, it regulates the body's mean arterial blood pressure. The primary structure of renin precursor consists of 406 amino acids with a pre- and a pro-segment carrying 20 and 46 amino acids, respectively. Mature renin contains 340 amino acids and has a mass of 37 kDa. The peptide hormone renin is secreted by the kidney from specialized cells called granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus via 3 responses: Human renin is secreted by at least 2 cellular pathways: a constitutive pathway for the secretion of prorenin and a regulated pathway for the secretion of mature renin. The renin enzyme circulates in the blood stream and breaks down (hydrolyzes) angiotensinogen secreted from the liver into the peptide angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is further cleaved in the lungs by endothelial-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) into angiotensin II, the most
    6.67
    3 votes
    25

    Somatotropin

    A recombinant form of endogenous human growth hormone (GH), a polypeptide produced by the anterior lobe of the human pituitary gland. GH exhibits growth-promoting effects and metabolic effects on carbohydrate, fat, protein and bone metabolism. GH stimulates protein synthesis and the uptake of amino acids into cells, and induces lipolysis in adipose tissues. The secretion of GH increases with sexual maturation and then declines steadily.
    8.00
    2 votes
    26
    Calcitriol

    Calcitriol

    Calcitriol (INN) (US /ˌkælsɨˈtraɪ.ɒl/; UK /kælˈsɪtri.ɒl/), also called 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is the hormonally active form of vitamin D with three hydroxyl groups (abbreviated 1,25-(OH)2D3 or simply 1,25(OH)2D), which was identified by Michael F. Holick. It increases the level of calcium (Ca) in the blood by (1) increasing the uptake of calcium from the gut into the blood, and (2) possibly increasing the release of calcium into the blood from bone. Calcitriol usually refers specifically to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, but may also sometimes include 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (when specified). Because cholecalciferol already has one hydroxyl group, only two are further specified in the nomenclature. Calcitriol is marketed under various trade names including Rocaltrol (Roche), Calcijex (Abbott), Decostriol (Mibe, Jesalis) and Vectical (Galderma). Calcitriol increases blood calcium levels ( [Ca] ) by promoting absorption of dietary calcium from the gastrointestinal tract and increasing renal tubular reabsorption of calcium thus reducing the loss of calcium in the urine. Calcitriol also stimulates release of calcium from bone by its action on
    6.33
    3 votes
    27
    Thyroxine

    Thyroxine

    Thyroxine, or 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4), a form of thyroid hormones, is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination and covalent bonding of the phenyl portions of tyrosine residues found in an initial peptide, thyroglobulin, which is secreted into thyroid granules. These iodinated diphenyl compounds are cleaved from their peptide backbone upon being stimulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone. T4 is transported in blood, with 99.95% of the secreted T4 being protein-bound, principally to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), and, to a lesser extent, to transthyretin and serum albumin. The half-life of thyroxine once released into the blood circulatory system is about 1 week. T4 is involved in controlling the rate of metabolic processes in the body and influencing physical development. Administration of thyroxine has been shown to significantly increase the concentration of nerve growth factor in the brains of adult mice. Thyroxine is a prohormone and a reservoir for the active thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3), which is about four times more potent. T4 is converted in the tissues by
    6.33
    3 votes
    28
    Atrial natriuretic peptide

    Atrial natriuretic peptide

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH), Cardionatrine, Cardiodilatine (CDD) or atriopeptin, is a powerful vasodilator, and a protein (polypeptide) hormone secreted by heart muscle cells. It is involved in the homeostatic control of body water, sodium, potassium and fat (adipose tissue). It is released by muscle cells in the upper chambers (atria) of the heart (atrial myocytes) in response to high blood pressure. ANP acts to reduce the water, sodium and adipose loads on the circulatory system, thereby reducing blood pressure. ANP is a 28-amino acid peptide with a 17-amino acid ring in the middle of the molecule. The ring is formed by a disulfide bond between two cysteine residues at positions 7 and 23. ANP is closely related to BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) and CNP (C-type natriuretic peptide), which all share the same amino acid ring. ANP was discovered in 1981 by a team in Kingston, Ontario, Canada lead by Adolfo J. de Bold after they made the seminal observation that injection of atrial (but not ventricular) tissue extracts into rats caused copious natriuresis. The ANP-gene has 3 exons and 2 introns, it codes 151
    6.00
    3 votes
    29
    Enkephalin

    Enkephalin

    An enkephalin is a pentapeptide involved in regulating nociception in the body. The enkephalins are termed endogenous ligands, or specifically endorphins, as they are internally derived and bind to the body's opioid receptors. Discovered in 1975, two forms of enkephalin were revealed, one containing leucine ("leu"), and the other containing methionine ("met"). Both are products of the proenkephalin gene. There are three well-characterized families of opioid peptides produced by the body: enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The met-enkephalin peptide sequence is coded for by the enkephalin gene; the leu-enkephalin peptide sequence is coded for by both the enkephalin gene and the dynorphin gene. The proopiomelanocortin gene (POMC) also contains the met-enkephalin sequence on the N-terminus of beta-endorphin, but the endorphin peptide is not processed into enkephalin. The receptors for enkephalin are the delta opioid receptors. Opioid receptors are a group of G-protein-coupled receptors, with other opioids as ligands as well. The other endogenous opioids are dynorphins (that bind to kappa receptors), endorphins (mu receptors), endomorphins, and nociceptin/orphanin FQ. The opioid
    6.00
    3 votes
    30
    Estriol

    Estriol

    Estriol (also oestriol or E3) is one of the three main estrogens produced by the human body. Estriol is only produced in significant amounts during pregnancy as it is made by the placenta from 16-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (16-OH DHEAS), an androgen steroid made in the fetal liver and adrenal glands. The human placenta produces pregnenolone and progesterone from circulating cholesterol. Pregnenolone is converted in the fetal adrenal gland into dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a C19 steroid, then subsequently sulfonated to dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). DHEAS is converted to 16-OH DHEAS in the fetal liver. The placenta converts 16-OH DHEAS to estriol, and is the predominant site of estriol synthesis. Levels of estriol in non-pregnant women do not change much after menopause, and levels are not significantly different from levels in men. In pregnant women with multiple sclerosis, estriol reduces the disease's symptoms noticeably, according to researchers at UCLA's Geffen Medical School. Estriol can be a weak or strong estrogen depending on if it is given acutely or chronically when given to immature animals, but is an antagonist when given in combination with
    6.00
    3 votes
    31
    Thrombopoietin

    Thrombopoietin

    Thrombopoietin (THPO) also known as megakaryocyte growth and development factor (MGDF) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the THPO gene. Thrombopoietin is a glycoprotein hormone produced mainly by the liver and the kidney that regulates the production of platelets by the bone marrow. It stimulates the production and differentiation of megakaryocytes, the bone marrow cells that fragment into large numbers of platelets. Megakaryocytopoiesis is the cellular development process that leads to platelet production. The protein encoded by this gene is a humoral growth factor that is necessary for megakaryocyte proliferation and maturation, as well as for thrombopoiesis. This protein is the ligand for MLP/C_MPL, the product of myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene. The thrombopoietin gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 3 (q26.3-27). Abnormalities in this gene occur in some hereditary forms of thrombocytosis (high platelet count) and in some cases of leukemia. The first 155 amino acids of the protein share homology with erythropoietin. In the liver it is produced by parenchymal cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells. In the kidney it is made by proximal convoluted
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    3 votes
    32
    Calcitonin

    Calcitonin

    Calcitonin (also known as thyrocalcitonin) is a 32-amino acid linear polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular cells (also known as C-cells) of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body. It acts to reduce blood calcium (Ca), opposing the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Calcitonin has been found in fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Its importance in humans has not been as well established as its importance in other animals, as its function is usually not significant in the regulation of normal calcium homeostasis. It belongs to calcitonin-like protein family. Calcitonin is formed by the proteolytic cleavage of a larger prepropeptide, which is the product of the CALC1 gene (CALCA). The CALC1 gene belongs to a superfamily of related protein hormone precursors including islet amyloid precursor protein, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and the precursor of adrenomedullin. Secretion of calcitonin is stimulated by: The hormone participates in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus metabolism. In many ways, calcitonin counteracts parathyroid hormone (PTH). More specifically, calcitonin lowers blood Ca levels in three ways: However,
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    2 votes
    33
    Dehydroepiandrosterone

    Dehydroepiandrosterone

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; brand name Fidelin), also known as androstenolone or prasterone (INN), as well as 3β-hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one or 5-androsten-3β-ol-17-one, is an important endogenous steroid hormone. It is the most abundant circulating steroid in humans, in whom it is produced in the adrenal glands, the gonads, and the brain, where it functions predominantly as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the androgen and estrogen sex steroids. However, DHEA also has a variety of potential biological effects in its own right, binding to an array of nuclear and cell surface receptors, and acting as a neurosteroid. In women with adrenal insufficiency and the healthy elderly there is insufficient evidence to support the use of DHEA. Evidence is inconclusive in regards to the effect of DHEA on strength in the elderly. In middle-aged men, no statistically significant effect of DHEA supplementation on lean body mass, strength, or testosterone levels was found in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. DHEA supplementation has not been found to be useful for memory function in normal middle aged or older adults. It has been studied as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease,
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    1 votes
    34

    Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

    The melanocyte-stimulating hormones (collectively referred to as MSH or intermedins) are a class of peptide hormones that are produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. Synthetic analogs of these naturally occurring hormones have also been developed and researched. They stimulate the production and release of melanin (melanogenesis) by melanocytes in skin and hair. MSH signals to the brain have effects on appetite and sexual arousal. In some animals (such as the claw-toed frog Xenopus laevis) production of MSH is increased when the animal is in a dark location. This causes pigment to be dispersed in pigment cells in the toad's skin, making it become darker, and harder for predators to spot. The pigment cells are called melanophores and therefore, in amphibians, the hormone is often called melanophore-stimulating hormone. An increase in MSH will cause a darkening in humans too. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone increases in humans during pregnancy. This, along with increased estrogens, causes increased pigmentation in pregnant women. Cushing's syndrome due to excess adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) may also result in hyperpigmentation, such as acanthosis
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    1 votes
    35
    Adiponectin

    Adiponectin

    Adiponectin (also referred to as GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene. It is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown. Adiponectin is a 244-amino-acid-long polypeptide. There are four distinct regions of adiponectin. The first is a short signal sequence that targets the hormone for secretion outside the cell; next is a short region that varies between species; the third is a 65-amino acid region with similarity to collagenous proteins; the last is a globular domain. Overall this gene shows similarity to the complement 1Q factors (C1Q). However, when the 3-dimensional structure of the globular region was determined, a striking similarity to TNFα was observed, despite unrelated protein sequences. Adiponectin is a protein hormone that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid catabolism. Adiponectin is exclusively secreted from adipose tissue (and also from the placenta in pregnancy) into the bloodstream and is very abundant in plasma relative to many hormones. Levels of the hormone are inversely correlated with body fat percentage in adults, while the
    5.67
    3 votes
    36

    Growth hormone releasing hormone

    Growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as growth-hormone-releasing factor (GRF, GHRF), somatoliberin or somatocrinin, is a releasing hormone for growth hormone. It is a 44-amino acid peptide hormone produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. GHRH first appears in the human hypothalamus between 18 and 29 weeks of gestation, which corresponds to the start of production of growth hormone and other somatotropes in fetuses. GHRH is released from neurosecretory nerve terminals of these arcuate neurons, and is carried by the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system to the anterior pituitary gland where it stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion by stimulating the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor. GHRH is released in a pulsatile manner, stimulating similar pulsatile release of GH. In addition, GHRH also promotes slow-wave sleep directly. Growth hormone is required for normal postnatal growth, bone growth, regulatory effects on protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism. GHRH stimulates GH production and release by binding to the GHRH Receptor (GHRHR) on cells in the anterior pituitary. The GHRHR is a member of the secretin family of G protein-coupled
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    2 votes
    37

    Human placental lactogen

    Human placental lactogen (HPL), also called human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS), is a polypeptide placental hormone. Its structure and function is similar to that of human growth hormone. It modifies the metabolic state of the mother during pregnancy to facilitate the energy supply of the fetus. HPL has anti-insulin properties. HPL is a hormone secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast during pregnancy. Like human growth hormone, HPL is encoded by genes on chromosome 17q22-24. It was identified in 1963. HPL molecular mass is 22,125 and contains single chain consisting of 191 amino acid residues that are linked by two disulfide bonds and the structure contains 8 helices. A crystal structure of HPL was determined by X-ray diffraction to a resolution of 2.0 Å. HPL is present only during pregnancy, with maternal serum levels rising in relation to the growth of the fetus and placenta. Maximum levels are reached near term, typically to 5–7 mg/L. Higher levels are noted in patients with multiple gestation. Little HPL enters the fetal circulation. Its biological half-life is 15 minutes. In a bioassay HPL mimics the action of prolactin, yet it is unclear whether HPL has any role in human
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    2 votes
    38
    Somatostatin

    Somatostatin

    Somatostatin (also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or somatotropin release-inhibiting factor (SRIF)) or somatotropin release-inhibiting hormone is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G-protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones. Somatostatin has two active forms produced by alternative cleavage of a single preproprotein: one of 14 amino acids, the other of 28 amino acids. In all vertebrates, there exists six different somatostatin genes that have been named SS1, SS2, SS3, SS4, SS5, and SS6. The six different genes along with the five different somatostatin receptors allows somatostatin to possess a large range of functions. Humans have only one somatostatin gene, SST. Somatostatin is secreted in several locations in the digestive system: Somatostatin is produced by neuroendocrine neurons of the periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These neurons project to the median eminence, where somatostatin is released from neurosecretory nerve endings into the hypothalamo-hypophysial system through neuron axons.
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    2 votes
    39
    Glucagon

    Glucagon

    Glucagon, a peptide hormone secreted by the pancreas, raises blood glucose levels. Its effect is opposite that of insulin, which lowers blood glucose levels. The pancreas releases glucagon when blood sugar (glucose) levels fall too low. Glucagon causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream. High blood glucose levels stimulate the release of insulin. Insulin allows glucose to be taken up and used by insulin-dependent tissues. Thus, glucagon and insulin are part of a feedback system that keeps blood glucose levels at a stable level. Glucagon belongs to a family of several other related hormones. The hormone is synthesized and secreted from alpha cells (α-cells) of the islets of Langerhans, which are located in the endocrine portion of the pancreas. In rodents, the alpha cells are located in the outer rim of the islet. Human islet structure is much less segregated, and alpha cells are distributed throughout the islet. Secretion of glucagon is stimulated by: Secretion of glucagon is inhibited by: Glucagon generally elevates the amount of glucose in the blood by promoting gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Glucose is stored in the
    5.33
    3 votes
    40
    Human chorionic gonadotropin

    Human chorionic gonadotropin

    In molecular biology, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced during pregnancy that is made by the developing placenta after conception, and later by the placental component syncytiotrophoblast. Some cancerous tumors produce this hormone; therefore, elevated levels measured when the patient is not pregnant can lead to a cancer diagnosis. However, it is not known whether this production is a contributing cause or an effect of tumorigenesis. The pituitary analogue of hCG, known as luteinizing hormone (LH), is produced in the pituitary gland of males and females of all ages. As of December 6, 2011 (2011 -12-06), the FDA has prohibited the sale of "homeopathic" and over the counter hCG diet products and declared them fraudulent and illegal. Human chorionic gonadotropin is a glycoprotein composed of 244 amino acids with a molecular mass of 36.7 kDa. It is heterodimeric, with an α (alpha) subunit identical to that of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and β (beta) subunit that is unique to hCG. The two subunits create a small hydrophobic core surrounded by a high surface area-to-volume ratio: 2.8 times that of
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    2 votes
    41
    Neuropeptide Y

    Neuropeptide Y

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid neuropeptide that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain and in the autonomic nervous system of humans; slight variations of the peptide are found in many other animals. In the autonomic system it is mainly produced by neurons of the sympathetic nervous system and serves as a strong vasoconstrictor and also causes growth of fat tissue. In the brain it is produced in various locations including the hypothalamus, and is thought to have several functions, including: increasing food intake and storage of energy as fat, reducing anxiety and stress, reducing pain perception, affecting the circadian rhythm, reducing voluntary alcohol intake, lowering blood pressure and controlling epileptic seizures. Following the isolation of neuropeptide-y (NPY) from the porcine hypothalamus in 1982, researchers began to speculate about the involvement of NPY in hypothalamic-mediated functions. In a 1983 study, NPY-ergic axon terminals were located in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, and the highest levels of NPY immunoreactivity was found within the PVN of the hypothalamus. Six years later, in 1989, Morris et al. homed in on the location of
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    2 votes
    42
    Testosterone

    Testosterone

    Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group and is found in mammals, reptiles, birds, and other vertebrates. In mammals, testosterone is primarily secreted in the testicles of males and the ovaries of females, although small amounts are also secreted by the adrenal glands. It is the principal male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid. In men, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as the testis and prostate as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle, bone mass, and the growth of body hair. In addition, testosterone is essential for health and well-being as well as the prevention of osteoporosis. On average, in adult human males, the plasma concentration of testosterone is about 7-8 times as great as the concentration in adult human females' plasma, but as the metabolic consumption of testosterone in males is greater, the daily production is about 20 times greater in men. Females also are more sensitive to the hormone. Testosterone is observed in most vertebrates. Fish make a slightly different form called 11-ketotestosterone. Its counterpart in insects is ecdysone. These ubiquitous steroids
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    2 votes
    43

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF), thyroliberin or protirelin, is a tropic, tripeptidal hormone that stimulates the release of TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and prolactin from the anterior pituitary. TRH has been used clinically for the treatment of spinocerebellar degeneration and disturbance of consciousness in humans. TRH is produced by the hypothalamus in medial neurons of the paraventricular nucleus. At the beginning, it is synthesized as a 242-amino acid precursor polypeptide that contains 6 copies of the sequence -Glu-His-Pro-Gly-, flanked by di-basic peptides that are later processed through proteolysis to give the mature TRH molecule. It travels across the median eminence to the anterior pituitary gland via the hypophyseal portal system where it stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone from cells called thyrotropes and excess levels inhibit dopamine which will then stimulate the release of prolactin which in turn decreases GnRH. TRH can also be detected in other areas of the body including the gastrointestinal system and pancreatic islets, as well as in the brain. The sequence of TRH was first determined,
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    2 votes
    44

    Estrone

    Estrone (E1, and also oestrone) is an estrogenic hormone secreted by the ovary as well as adipose tissue. Estrone is one of several natural estrogens, which also include estriol and estradiol. Estrone is the least abundant of the three hormones; estradiol is present almost always in the reproductive female body, and estriol is abundant primarily during pregnancy. Estrone is relevant to health and disease states because of its conversion to estrone sulfate, a long-lived derivative. Estrone sulfate acts as a reservoir that can be converted as needed to the more active estradiol. Estrone is the predominant estrogen in postmenopausal women. Estrone is synthesized via aromatase from androstenedione, a derivative of progesterone. The conversion consists of the de-methylation of C-19 and the aromaticity of the 'A' ring. This reaction is similar to the conversion of testosterone to estradiol.
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    1 votes
    45
    Prostacyclin

    Prostacyclin

    Prostacyclin (or PGI2) is a member of the family of lipid molecules known as eicosanoids. It inhibits platelet activation and is also an effective vasodilator. As a drug, it is also known as "epoprostenol". The terms are sometimes used interchangeably. During the 1960s, a U.K. research team, headed by Professor John Vane, began to explore the role of prostaglandins in anaphylaxis and respiratory diseases. Working with a team from the Royal College of Surgeons, Sir John discovered that aspirin and other oral anti-inflammatory drugs work by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins. This critical finding opened the door to a broader understanding of the role of prostaglandins in the body. Sir John and a team from the Wellcome Foundation, had identified a lipid mediator they called “PG-X,” which inhibits platelet aggregation. PG-X, which later would become known as prostacyclin, is 30 times more potent than any other then-known anti-aggregatory agent. By 1976, Sir John and fellow researchers Salvador Moncada, Ryszard Gryglewski and Stuart Bunting published the first paper on prostacyclin, in the scientific journal Nature. The collaboration produced a synthesized molecule, which was
    8.00
    1 votes
    46
    Prolactin

    Prolactin

    Prolactin (PRL) also known as luteotropic hormone (LTH) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRL gene. Prolactin is a peptide hormone discovered by Oscar Riddle and important later work was done by Henry Friesen. Although it is perhaps best known for its role in lactation, prolactin already existed in the oldest known vertebrates—fish—where its most important functions were probably related to control of water and salt balance. Prolactin also acts in a cytokine-like manner and as an important regulator of the immune system. Prolactin has important cell cycle related functions as a growth-, differentiating- and anti-apoptotic factor. As a growth factor binding to cytokine like receptors it has also profound influence on hematopoiesis, angiogenesis and is involved in the regulation of blood clotting through several pathways. In summary, "more than 300 separate actions of PRL have been reported in various vertebrates, including effects on water and salt balance, growth and development, endocrinology and metabolism, brain and behavior, reproduction, and immune regulation and protection". Prolactin acts in endocrine, autocrine, and paracrine manner through the prolactin
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    2 votes
    47
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), originally named corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and also called corticoliberin, is a peptide hormone and neurotransmitter involved in the stress response. It belongs to corticotropin-releasing factor family. Its main function is the stimulation of the pituitary synthesis of ACTH. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a 41-amino acid peptide derived from a 191-amino acid preprohormone. CRH is secreted by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in response to stress. Marked reduction in CRH has been observed in association with Alzheimer's disease, and autosomal recessive hypothalamic corticotropin deficiency has multiple and potentially fatal metabolic consequences including hypoglycemia and hepatitis. In addition to being produced in the hypothalamus, CRH is also synthesized in peripheral tissues, such as T lymphocytes, and is highly expressed in the placenta. In the placenta, CRH is a marker that determines the length of gestation and the timing of parturition and delivery. A rapid increase in circulating levels of CRH occurs at the onset of parturition, suggesting that, in addition to its metabolic functions, CRH may
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    3 votes
    48
    Dopamine

    Dopamine

    Dopamine (abbreviated as DA), a simple organic chemical in the catecholamine family, is a monoamine neurotransmitter which plays a number of important physiological roles in the bodies of animals. In addition to being a catecholamine and a monoamine, dopamine may be classified as a substituted phenethylamine. Its name derives from its chemical structure, which consists of an amine group (NH2) linked to a catechol structure called dihydroxyphenethylamine, the decarboxylated form of dihydroxyphenylalanine (acronym DOPA). In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other nerve cells. The human brain uses five known types of dopamine receptors, labeled D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5. Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. Dopamine plays a major role in the brain system that is responsible for reward-driven learning. Every type of reward that has been studied increases the level of dopamine transmission in the brain, and a variety of highly addictive drugs, including stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, act directly on the dopamine system. There
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    2 votes
    49
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and luliberin, is a trophic peptide hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary. GnRH is synthesized and released from neurons within the hypothalamus. The peptide belongs to gonadotropin-releasing hormone family. The gene, GNRH1, for the GnRH precursor is located on chromosome 8. In mammals, the linear decapeptide end-product is synthesized from a 92-amino acid preprohormone in the preoptic anterior hypothalamus. The identity of GnRH was clarified by the 1977 Nobel Laureates Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally: pyroGlu-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Arg-Pro-Gly-NH2 GnRH is considered a neurohormone, a hormone produced in a specific neural cell and released at its neural terminal. A key area for production of GNRH is the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, which contains most of the GnRH-secreting neurons. GnRH neurons originate in the nose and migrate into the brain, where they are scattered throughout the medial septum and hypothalamus and connected by very long >1-millimeter-long dendrites. These bundle
    5.50
    2 votes
    50
    Insulin

    Insulin

    Insulin is a peptide hormone, produced by beta cells of the pancreas, and is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, skeletal muscles, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood. In the liver and skeletal muscles, glucose is stored as glycogen, and in adipocytes it is stored as triglycerides. Insulin stops the use of fat as an energy source by inhibiting the release of glucagon. With the exception of the metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, insulin is provided within the body in a constant proportion to remove excess glucose from the blood, which otherwise would be toxic. When blood glucose levels fall below a certain level, the body begins to use stored sugar as an energy source through glycogenolysis, which breaks down the glycogen stored in the liver and muscles into glucose, which can then be utilized as an energy source. As a central metabolic control mechanism, its status is also used as a control signal to other body systems (such as amino acid uptake by body cells). In addition, it has several other anabolic effects throughout the body. When control of insulin levels fails, diabetes
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    2 votes
    51
    Luteinizing hormone

    Luteinizing hormone

    Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin ) is a hormone produced by gonadotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland. In females, an acute rise of LH ("LH surge") triggers ovulation and development of the corpus luteum. In males, where LH had also been called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH), it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone. It acts synergistically with FSH. LH is a heterodimeric glycoprotein. Each monomeric unit is a glycoprotein molecule; one alpha and one beta subunit make the full, functional protein. Its structure is similar to that of the other glycoprotein hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The protein dimer contains 2 glycopeptidic subunits, labeled alpha and beta subunits, that are non-covalently associated (i.e., without any disulfide bridge linking them): The 92-amino acid long LH alpha subunit in humans has the following sequence: NH2 – Ala – Pro – Asp – Val – Gln – Asp – Cys – Pro – Glu – Cys – Thr – Leu – Gln – Glu – Asn – Pro – Phe – Phe – Ser – Gln – Pro – Gly – Ala – Pro – Ile – Leu – Gln – Cys – Met – Gly – Cys –
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    2 votes
    52
    Pancreatic polypeptide

    Pancreatic polypeptide

    Pancreatic polypeptide is a polypeptide secreted by PP cells in the endocrine pancreas predominantly in the head of the pancreas. It consists of 36 amino acids and has molecular weight about 4200 Da. The function of PP is to self regulate pancreatic secretion activities (endocrine and exocrine), it also has effects on hepatic glycogen levels and gastrointestinal secretions. Its secretion in humans is increased after a protein meal, fasting, exercise, and acute hypoglycemia and is decreased by somatostatin and intravenous glucose. Plasma PP has been shown to be reduced in conditions associated with increased food intake and elevated in anorexia nervosa. In addition peripheral administration of PP has been shown to decrease food intake in rodents. PP is secreted by PP pancreatic cells of Langherhans islets. It stimulates the gastric juice secretion, but inhibits the gastric secretion induced by pentagastrine. It is the antagonist of cholecystokinin and inhibits the pancreatic secretion which was stimulated by cholecystokinin. On fasting, PP seric concentration is 80 pg/ml; After the meal,it raises up from 8 to 10 times more; Glucose and fats, also induce PP's level increase, but on
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    2 votes
    53
    Calcidiol

    Calcidiol

    Calcifediol (INN), also known as calcidiol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (abbreviated 25(OH)D), is a prehormone that is produced in the liver by hydroxylation of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) by the enzyme cholecalciferol 25-hydroxylase which was isolated by Michael F. Holick. This metabolite is being measured by physicians worldwide to determine a patient's vitamin d status. Calcifediol is then converted in the kidneys (by the enzyme 25(OH)D-1α-hydroxylase) into calcitriol (1,25-(OH)2D3), a secosteroid hormone that is the active form of vitamin D. It can also be converted into 24-hydroxycalcidiol in the kidneys via 24-hydroxylation. In medicine, a 25-hydroxy vitamin D (calcidiol) blood test is used to determine how much vitamin D is in the body. The blood concentration of calcidiol is considered the best indicator of vitamin D status. It is the most sensitive measure, though experts have called for improved standardization and reproducibility across different laboratories. According to MedlinePlus, the normal range of calcidiol is 30.0 to 74.0 ng/mL. The normal range varies widely depending on several factors, including age and geographic location. A broad
    6.00
    1 votes
    54
    Epinephrine

    Epinephrine

    Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline or adrenalin) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. Epinephrine has many functions in the body, regulating heart rate, blood vessel and air passage diameters, and metabolic shifts; epinephrine release is a crucial component of the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system. In chemical terms, epinephrine is one of a group of monoamines called the catecholamines. It is produced in some neurons of the central nervous system, and in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. This chemical is widely referred to as "adrenaline" outside the United States; however, its United States Adopted Name and International Nonproprietary Name is epinephrine. Epinephrine was chosen as the generic name in the United States because John Abel, who prepared extracts from the adrenal glands in 1897, used that name for his extracts. In 1901, Jokichi Takamine patented a purified adrenal extract, and called it "adrenalin", which was trademarked by Parke, Davis & Co in the U.S. In the belief that Abel's extract was the same as Takamine's, a belief since disputed, epinepherine became the generic name in the
    6.00
    1 votes
    55
    Growth hormone

    Growth hormone

    Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals. Growth hormone is a 191-amino acid, single-chain polypeptide that is synthesized, stored, and secreted by somatotropic cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland. Somatotropin (STH) refers to the growth hormone 1 produced naturally in animals, whereas the term somatropin refers to growth hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology, and is abbreviated "HGH" in humans. Growth hormone is used as a prescription drug in medicine to treat children's growth disorders and adult growth hormone deficiency. In the United States, it is only available legally from pharmacies, by prescription from a doctor. In recent years in the United States, some doctors have started to prescribe growth hormone in GH-deficient older patients (but not on healthy people) to increase vitality. While legal, the efficacy and safety of this use for HGH has not been tested in a clinical trial. At this time, HGH is still considered a very complex hormone, and many of its functions are still unknown. In its role as an anabolic agent, HGH has been abused by competitors
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    2 votes
    56
    Aldosterone

    Aldosterone

    Aldosterone is a yellow steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. It acts mainly on the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephron, the functional unit of the kidney, to cause the conservation of sodium, secretion of potassium, increased water retention, and increased blood pressure. The overall effect of aldosterone is to increase reabsorption of ions and water in the kidney -- increasing blood volume and, therefore, increasing blood pressure. Drugs that interfere with the secretion or action of aldosterone are in use as antihypertensives. One example is spironolactone, which lowers blood pressure by blocking the aldosterone receptor; its net effect is to reduce sodium and water retention, but increase retention of potassium. Aldosterone is part of the renin-angiotensin system. Its activity is reduced in Addison's disease and increased in Conn's syndrome. It was first isolated by Simpson and Tait in 1953. The corticosteroids are synthesized from cholesterol within the adrenal cortex. Most steroidogenic reactions are catalysed by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family. They are
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    Hydrocortisone

    Cortisol, also known more formally as hydrocortisone (INN, USAN, BAN), is a steroid hormone, more specifically a glucocorticoid, produced by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal gland. It is released in response to stress and a low level of blood glucocorticoids. Its primary functions are to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis; suppress the immune system; and aid in fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism. It also decreases bone formation. Various synthetic forms of cortisol are used to treat a variety of diseases. Cortisol is produced in the human body by the adrenal gland in the zona fasciculata, the second of three layers comprising the adrenal cortex. The cortex is the outer "bark" of each adrenal gland, situated atop the kidneys. The release of cortisol is controlled by the hypothalamus, a part of the brain. The secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) by the hypothalamus triggers cells in the neighboring anterior pituitary to secrete another hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), into the vascular system where it is carried by blood to the adrenal cortex. It stimulates gluconeogenesis (formation, in the liver, of glucose from certain amino acids,
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    Oxytocin

    Oxytocin

    Oxytocin (Oxt) ( /ˌɒksɨˈtoʊsɪn/) is a mammalian hormone that acts primarily as a neuromodulator in the brain. Oxytocin is best known for its roles in sexual reproduction, in particular during and after childbirth. It is released in large amounts after distension of the cervix and uterus during labor, facilitating birth, and after stimulation of the nipples, facilitating breastfeeding. Recent studies have begun to investigate oxytocin's role in various behaviors, including orgasm, social recognition, pair bonding, anxiety, and maternal behaviors. For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as the "love hormone". The inability to secrete oxytocin and feel empathy is linked to sociopathy, psychopathy, narcissism, and general manipulativeness. However, there is some evidence that oxytocin promotes 'tribal' behaviour, combining trust and empathy with the in-group with suspicion and rejection of outsiders. The word oxytocin was derived from the Greek ὼκυτοκίνη, ōkytokínē, meaning “quick birth”, after its uterine-contracting properties were discovered by British pharmacologist Sir Henry Hallett Dale in 1906. The milk ejection property of oxytocin was described by Ott and Scott in 1910
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    Secretin

    Secretin is a hormone that controls the secretions into the duodenum, and also separately, water homeostasis throughout the body. It is produced in the S cells of the duodenum in the crypts of Lieberkühn. Its effect is to regulate the pH of the duodenal contents via the control of gastric acid secretion and buffering with bicarbonate from the centroacinar cells of the pancreas as well as intercalated ducts. It is notable for being the first hormone to be identified. In humans, the secretin peptide is encoded by the SCT gene. It has recently been discovered to play a role in osmoregulation in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and kidney. In 1902, William Bayliss and Ernest Starling were studying how the nervous system controls the process of digestion. It was known that the pancreas secreted digestive juices in response to the passage of food (chyme) through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum. They discovered (by cutting all the nerves to the pancreas in their experimental animals) that this process was not, in fact, governed by the nervous system. They determined that a substance secreted by the intestinal lining stimulates the pancreas after being transported via the bloodstream.
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    Histamine

    Histamine

    Histamine is an organic nitrogen compound involved in local immune responses as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter. Histamine triggers the inflammatory response. As part of an immune response to foreign pathogens, histamine is produced by basophils and by mast cells found in nearby connective tissues. Histamine increases the permeability of the capillaries to white blood cells and some proteins, to allow them to engage pathogens in the infected tissues. Histamine forms colorless hygroscopic crystals that melt at 84°C, and are easily dissolved in water or ethanol, but not in ether. In aqueous solution histamine exists in two tautomeric forms, N-H-histamine and N-H-histamine. The imidazole ring has two nitrogens. The nitrogen farthest away from the side chain is the 'tele' nitrogen and is denoted by a lowercase tau sign. The nitrogen closest to the side chain is the 'pros' nitrogen and is denoted by the pi sign. Whichever position the nitrogen, which has the hydrogen on it, is in, is how the tautomer is named. If the nitrogen with the hydrogen is in the tele position, then histamine is in the tele-tautomer form. The tele-tautomer is
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    Relaxin

    Relaxin is a protein hormone first described in 1926 by Frederick Hisaw. The relaxin-like peptide family belongs in the insulin superfamily and consists of 7 peptides of high structural but low sequence similarity; relaxin-1 (RLN1), 2 (RLN2) and 3 (RLN3), and the insulin-like (INSL) peptides, INSL3, INSL4, INSL5 and INSL6. The functions of relaxin-3, INSL4, INSL5, INSL6 remain uncharacterised. In the female, it is produced by the corpus luteum of the ovary, the breast and, during pregnancy, also by the placenta, chorion, and decidua. In the male, it is produced in the prostate and is present in human semen. Structurally, relaxin is a heterodimer of two peptide chains of 24 and 29 amino acids linked by disulfide bridges, and it appears related to insulin. Relaxin is produced from its prohormone, "prorelaxin", by splitting off one additional peptide chain. In males, relaxin enhances motility of sperm in semen. In females relaxin is produced mainly by the corpus luteum, in both pregnant and nonpregnant females; it rises to a peak within approximately 14 days of ovulation, and then declines in the absence of pregnancy, resulting in menstruation. During the first trimester of pregnancy,
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    Insulin-like growth factor 1

    Insulin-like growth factor 1

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene. IGF-1 has also been referred to as a "sulfation factor" and its effects were termed "nonsuppressible insulin-like activity" (NSILA) in the 1970s. IGF-1 is a hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. It plays an important role in childhood growth and continues to have anabolic effects in adults. A synthetic analog of IGF-1, mecasermin is used for the treatment of growth failure. IGF-1 consists of 70 amino acids in a single chain with three intramolecular disulfide bridges. IGF-1 has a molecular weight of 17,066 daltons. IGF-1 is produced primarily by the liver as an endocrine hormone as well as in target tissues in a paracrine/autocrine fashion. Production is stimulated by growth hormone (GH) and can be retarded by undernutrition, growth hormone insensitivity, lack of growth hormone receptors, or failures of the downstream signalling pathway post GH receptor including SHP2 and STAT5B. Approximately 98% of IGF-1 is always bound to one of 6 binding proteins (IGF-BP). IGFBP-3, the most abundant protein, accounts for 80% of all IGF binding. IGF-1 binds to
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    Serotonin

    Serotonin

    Serotonin ( /ˌsɛrəˈtoʊnɨn/) or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, platelets, and in the central nervous system (CNS) of animals including humans. It is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness. Approximately 90% of the human body's total serotonin is located in the enterochromaffin cells in the alimentary canal (gut) , where it is used to regulate intestinal movements. The remainder is synthesized in serotonergic neurons of the CNS, where it has various functions. These include the regulation of mood, appetite, and sleep. Serotonin also has some cognitive functions, including memory and learning. Modulation of serotonin at synapses is thought to be a major action of several classes of pharmacological antidepressants. Serotonin secreted from the enterochromaffin cells eventually finds its way out of tissues into the blood. There, it is actively taken up by blood platelets, which store it. When the platelets bind to a clot, they disgorge serotonin, where it serves as a vasoconstrictor and helps to regulate hemostasis and
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