An Honorary Degree Recipient is a person who has been awarded an honorary degree by a degree awarding academic institution.
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Stephen Tyrone Colbert ( /koʊlˈbɛər/ or /ˈkoʊlbərt/; born May 13, 1964) is an American political satirist, writer, comedian, television host, and actor. He is the host of Comedy Central's The Colbert Report, a satirical news show in which Colbert portrays a caricatured version of conservative political pundits.
Colbert originally studied to be an actor, but became interested in improvisational theatre when he met famed Second City director Del Close while attending Northwestern University. He first performed professionally as an understudy for Steve Carell at Second City Chicago; among his troupe mates were comedians Paul Dinello and Amy Sedaris, with whom he developed the critically acclaimed sketch comedy series Exit 57.
Colbert also wrote and performed on the short-lived Dana Carvey Show before collaborating with Sedaris and Dinello again on the cult television series Strangers with Candy. He gained considerable attention for his role on the latter as closeted gay history teacher Chuck Noblet. It was his work as a correspondent on Comedy Central's news-parody series The Daily Show, however, that first introduced him to a wide audience.
In 2005, he left The Daily Show with Jon
Dame Muriel Spark, DBE (1 February 1918 – 13 April 2006) was an award-winning Scottish novelist. In 2008 The Times newspaper named Spark in its list of "the 50 greatest British writers since 1945", at #8.
She was born Muriel Sarah Camberg in Edinburgh, the daughter of Sarah Elizabeth Maud (née Uezzell) and Bernard Camberg, an engineer. Her father was Jewish and her mother had been raised a Presbyterian, as was Spark. She was educated at James Gillespie's High School for Girls (1923 – 1935). The family lived in the Bruntsfield area of Edinburgh. In 1934–35 she took a course in "Commercial correspondence and précis writing" at Heriot-Watt College. She taught English for a brief time and then worked as a secretary in a department store.
On 3 September 1937 she married Sidney Oswald Spark, and soon followed him to Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). Their son Robin was born in July 1938. Within months she discovered that her husband was manic depressive and prone to violent outbursts. In 1940 Muriel left Sidney and Robin. She returned to the United Kingdom in early 1944, taking residence at the Helena Club in London; years later the club would be her inspiration for the fictional May of Teck Club
Sir Thomas Sean Connery, (born 25 August 1930) is a Scottish actor and producer who has won an Academy Award, two BAFTA Awards (one of them being a BAFTA Academy Fellowship Award) and three Golden Globes (including the Cecil B. DeMille Award and a Henrietta Award).
Connery is best known for portraying the character James Bond, starring in seven Bond films between 1962 and 1983 (six Eon Productions films and the non-canonical Thunderball remake, Never Say Never Again). In 1988, Connery won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in The Untouchables. His film career also includes such films as Marnie, The Name of the Rose, The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, The Hunt for Red October, Highlander, Murder on the Orient Express, Dragonheart, and The Rock. He was knighted in July 2000. Connery has been polled as "The Greatest Living Scot" and "Scotland's Greatest Living National Treasure". In 1989, he was proclaimed "Sexiest Man Alive" by People magazine and in 1999, at age 69, he was voted "Sexiest Man of the Century".
Thomas Sean Connery, named Thomas after his grandfather, was born in Fountainbridge, Edinburgh, Scotland to
Carl Everett invests time as an active advisor and board member to new
technology companies. During his career at Intel and Dell, Carl
sponsored many new start up projects inside the companies and also
reached outside to champion corporate venture investments such as
Rambus (NASDAQ: RMBS) at Intel, and the Chinese internet portal
Sina.com (NASDAQ: SINA) at Dell. Carl enjoys bringing his experience
and industry insights to focus on creating business models and
launching products that achieve the number one position in the markets
they serve. He has been actively involved with Accel portfolio
companies in applications software, high end communications and
semiconductor technology sectors.
Carl is a member of the Board of Directors at FormFactor
(NASDAQ: FORM) a publicly traded company and the leader in advanced
silicon wafer probe technology. In addition Carl serves as a Board
Member in the following Accel investments: Primarion, a mixed signal semiconductor company leading the adoption of digital power management in the voltage regulation space, Transitive,
the innovator of “Rosetta” the dynamic binary translation software
freeing applications written in one environment to run in another, and NetXen, a silicon valley start up focused in high performance networking and protocol processing. In addition, he serves as independent Board of Director member at two
privately held companies, Cooligy and Topspin Communications an Accel
Carl served as senior vice president of Dell Computer Corporation's
Personal Systems Group. He was responsible for worldwide development
and marketing of all Dell desktop, workstation and notebook product
lines, as well as the strategic technology direction for Dell's
award-winning client systems. During his tenure, Dell captured the
number one worldwide position in workstations, as well as desktop and
notebook personal computers.
Prior to Dell, Carl enjoyed a 20-year career with Intel Corporation
leading many of Intel's strategic efforts in setting industry and
technology directions. He became an Intel vice president in 1989,
overseeing North American sales and later all worldwide sales and
marketing organizations. In 1994, he became senior vice president and
general manager of Intel's successful Microprocessor Products Group. In
that role, Carl oversaw the rapid adoption of Intel's Pentium processor
in the marketplace and introduced Intel's P6 technology, the foundation
of Intel's product roadmap into the late 1990s. His many
accomplishments while at Intel include: the unprecedented support of
the Intel Inside brand campaign throughout the Personal Computer
industry, the adoption of PCI system bus technology across all PC
manufacturers, the launch of major reseller and branding efforts to
open up China and other Asian markets to Intel Architecture-based
systems, and the creation of the Intel Architecture-based workstation
Carl holds a bachelor's degree in business administration from New
Mexico State University. In 1992, he was named NMSU's Distinguished
Alumni and in 1997 he was inducted into the university's College of
Business Hall of Fame. In 2005 NMSU recognized Carl with an honorary
Doctor of Laws degree.
Eric Carle (born June 25, 1929) is a children's book author and illustrator who is most famous for his book The Very Hungry Caterpillar, which has been translated into over 50 languages. Since The Very Hungry Caterpillar was published in 1969, Eric Carle has illustrated more than 70 books, many best sellers, most of which he also wrote, and more than 103 million copies of his books have been sold around the world.
Born in Syracuse, New York, in 1929 to German immigrants Johanna and Erich Carle, Eric moved back to Germany with his parents in the mid 1930s when he was six years old; his mother, homesick for Germany, took the family back to Stuttgart. He was educated there, and graduated from the Akademie der Bildenden Künste Stuttgart. Eric's father was drafted into the German army in 1939 at the beginning of the World War II and was taken prisoner of war by the Soviet Forces when Germany capitulated in in the Sping of 1945. He returned home in late 1947, weighing 85 pounds. "When he came back, he was a broken man." He was, in Eric Carle's own words in a Guardian interview a "sick man, psychologically, physically devastated." Eric had been sent to the small town of Schwenningen to
Roderick "Rory" Keith Ogilvy Bremner, FKC (born 6 April 1961) is a Scottish impressionist, playwright and comedian, noted for his work in political satire and impressions of prominent British politicians. He is also known for his work on Mock the Week as a panellist (for Series 1 and 2), award-winning show Rory Bremner...Who Else? and sketch comedy series Bremner, Bird and Fortune, which features veteran comedians John Bird and John Fortune.
Born in Edinburgh, Rory Bremner was born to Major Donald Stuart Ogilvy Bremner (December 1907–1979) (who was 53 years old at Rory's birth) and his second wife Ann Simpson (1922–2001). He has an older brother and an older half-sister (from his father's first marriage). Bremner was educated at Clifton Hall School and Wellington College and then studied Modern Languages at King's College London, graduating with a degree in French and German in 1984.
While at university, Bremner worked in the cabaret circuit in the evenings and was involved in the drama club. He first came into the limelight in 1985, when his single, N-N-Nineteen Not Out (released under the name, "The Commentators") was a big hit in the British charts. It was a parody of Paul
Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. He was also one of the most influential and widely read writers of popular science of his generation. Gould spent most of his career teaching at Harvard University and working at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. In the latter years of his life, Gould also taught biology and evolution at New York University near his home in SoHo.
Gould's most significant contribution to science was the theory of punctuated equilibrium, which he developed with Niles Eldredge in 1972. The theory proposes that most evolution is marked by long periods of evolutionary stability, which is punctuated by rare instances of branching evolution. The theory was contrasted against phyletic gradualism, the popular idea that evolutionary change is marked by a pattern of smooth and continuous change in the fossil record.
Most of Gould's empirical research was based on the land snail genera Poecilozonites and Cerion. He also contributed to evolutionary developmental biology, and has received wide praise for his book Ontogeny and Phylogeny. In evolutionary theory
Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 [O.S. January 6, 1705] – April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, musician, inventor, satirist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. He invented the lightning rod, bifocals, the Franklin stove, a carriage odometer, and the glass 'armonica'. He facilitated many civic organizations, including a fire department and a university.
Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity; as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies, then as the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation. Franklin was foundational in defining the American ethos as a marriage of the practical values of thrift, hard work, education, community spirit, self-governing institutions, and opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and
Zackie Achmat (born Abdurazzack Achmat in 1962) is a South African activist, most widely known as founder and chairman of the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) and for his work on the behalf of people living with HIV and AIDS in South Africa.
Achmat was born and grew up in the so-called "Coloured" community in Johannesburg during apartheid, in a Cape Malay Muslim family. As a young student, he once set a fire in his school to force students to join anti-apartheid protests occurring at the time. Achmat joined the ANC and considered himself a Trotskyist.
A TAC Newsletter dated 28 March 2005 reported that Achmat suffered a heart attack four days earlier, but that he was recovering well and would take time off before returning to his work. He has since resumed his work as an activist.
Achmat publicly refused to take AIDS medications until all who needed them had access to them, and held firm in his pledge until August 2003 when a national congress of TAC activists voted to urge him to begin taking his medicines; he finally announced that he would start shortly before the government announced that it would make antiretrovirals available in the public sector. TAC is unique among AIDS
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger ( /ˈʃwɔrtsənɛɡər/; German: [ˈaɐnɔlt ˈalɔʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənˌʔɛɡɐ]; born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian and American former professional bodybuilder, actor, businessman, investor, and politician. Schwarzenegger served as the 38th Governor of California from 2003 until 2011. Schwarzenegger began weight training at the age of 15 years old. He won the Mr. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest seven times. Schwarzenegger has remained a prominent presence in bodybuilding and has written many books and articles on the sport. Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon. He was nicknamed the "Austrian Oak" and the "Styrian Oak" in his bodybuilding days, "Arnie" during his acting career and more recently "The Governator" (a portmanteau of "Governor" and "The Terminator" - one of his most well-known movie roles).
As a Republican, he was first elected on October 7, 2003, in a special recall election to replace then-Governor Gray Davis. Schwarzenegger was sworn in on November 17, 2003, to serve the remainder of Davis's term. Schwarzenegger was then re-elected on November 7, 2006, in California's 2006 gubernatorial
Jock Clear, born 1963 in Portsmouth, Hampshire, is a senior race engineer working for Nico Rosberg. Previously he has been race engineer for Rubens Barrichello from (2006 to 2009) and Takuma Sato (from 2003 to 2005).
Clear attended The Portsmouth Grammar School and graduated in 1987 with a degree in mechanical engineering from Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh.
His career in motorsport began at Lola Cars, where he worked as a design engineer before moving to the position of head of composite design at Benetton Formula in 1989. In 1992 he worked as senior designer at Leyton House Racing, then joined Team Lotus where he became Johnny Herbert's race engineer in 1994. When Lotus collapsed at the end of the year, he transferred to Williams F1 and engineered David Coulthard, who won his first Grand Prix in Portugal and finished third in the drivers' championship.
Jacques Villeneuve joined Williams in 1996 and Clear was his race engineer; the Canadian won the world championship the following year under Clear's guidance. When Villeneuve moved to British American Racing for the 1999 season, his engineer followed suit. The relationship continued until the 2003 Japanese Grand Prix, when
Sir Kenneth James Dover, FRSE, FBA (11 March 1920 – 7 March 2010) was a distinguished British Classical scholar and academic, who was head of an Oxford college and from 1981 until his retirement in December 2005 was Chancellor of the University of St Andrews. He was the author of Greek Homosexuality, a key text on the subject.
Kenneth Dover was born in London, the only child of Percy Dover and Dorothy Healey. He was educated at St Paul's School and Balliol College, Oxford. He served with the Royal Artillery during the Second World War and was mentioned in dispatches for his service in Italy.
After military service, Dover returned to Oxford and became Fellow and tutor at his old college in 1948. In 1955, Dover was appointed Professor of Greek at the University of St Andrews, and was twice Dean of the university's Faculty of Arts during his twenty-one years there.
He was elected to the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1975. Dover received a knighthood two years later for services to Greek scholarship. In 1976, Dover became President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, a post he held for ten years. During this tenure a fellow of the College, Trevor Henry Aston (1925–1985), who suffered
Sir David Frederick Attenborough ( /ˈætənbərə/) OM, CH, CVO, CBE, FRS, FZS, FSA (born 8 May 1926) is a British broadcaster and naturalist.
His career as the face and voice of natural history programmes has endured for more than 50 years. He is best known for writing and presenting the nine Life series, in conjunction with the BBC Natural History Unit, which collectively form a comprehensive survey of all life on the planet. He is also a former senior manager at the BBC, having served as controller of BBC Two and director of programming for BBC Television in the 1960s and 1970s. He is the only person to have won a BAFTA in black and white, colour, HD and 3D.
Attenborough is widely considered a national treasure in Britain, although he himself does not care for the term. In 2002 he was named among the 100 Greatest Britons following a UK-wide vote. He is a younger brother of director, producer and actor Richard Attenborough.
Attenborough was born in Isleworth, west London, but grew up in College House on the campus of the University College, Leicester, where his father, Frederick, was principal. He is the middle of three sons (his elder brother, Richard, became an actor and his
Adam Crozier (born 26 January 1964) is a Scottish businessman, and the current chief executive officer of media company ITV plc, operator of the television channel ITV in England and Wales. After a career at Saatchi & Saatchi culminating with the post of joint chief executive 1995, he came to wide public prominence as the new chief executive of The Football Association in 2000 at the age of 35, before in 2003 becoming the chief executive of the Royal Mail Group, the United Kingdom's mail delivery service, where he oversaw a controversial modernisation programme. In January 2010 he was announced as the new chief executive of ITV plc, where he arrived on 26 April 2010.
Crozier was born and raised on the Isle of Bute on the west coast of Scotland in 1964. His father was a manager for Lord Bute, and his mother was secretary to the Managing Director of The Scotsman. Crozier went to a school in Ayr, before moving to Graeme High School, a comprehensive school in Falkirk. He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree (BA) in Business Organisation from Edinburgh's Heriot-Watt University. While at school, Crozier had trials with both Hibernian and Stirling Albion football clubs.
Sir Jonathan Paul "Jony" Ive, KBE (born February 1967) is an English designer and the senior vice president of industrial design at Apple Inc. He is the lead designer and conceptual mind behind many of Apple's products, including the MacBook Pro, iMac, MacBook Air, iPod, iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad.
Jonathan Ive was born in Chingford, London. His father was a silversmith who taught at the local college, "He's a fantastic craftsman, his Christmas gift to me would be one day of his time in his college workshop, during the Christmas break when no one else was there, helping me make whatever I dreamed up."
Ive attended the Chingford Foundation School then Walton High School in Stafford, before studying industrial design at Northumbria University (Newcastle Polytechnic at the time). Once enrolled in Walton, it became clear that he attained many technical and drawing skills through his father.
Ive was interested in "drawing and making stuff" since he was about 14. Design was always in his mind, but he was unsure about exactly what, since his interests were very broad – from furniture and jewellery to boats and cars. However, meeting with various design experts he was drawn to product
Sir Clive Marles Sinclair (born 30 July 1940) is an English entrepreneur and inventor, most commonly known for his work in consumer electronics in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
After spending several years as assistant editor of Practical Wireless and Instrument Practice, Sinclair founded Sinclair Radionics in 1961, where he produced the first slim-line electronic pocket calculator in 1972 (the Sinclair Executive). Sinclair later moved into the production of home computers and produced the Sinclair ZX80, the UK's first mass-market home computer for less than GB£100, and later, with Sinclair Research, the ZX81 and ZX Spectrum; the latter is widely recognised for its importance in the early days of the British home computer industry. Sinclair stated in 2010 that he does not use computers himself, using the telephone in preference to email.
Knighted in 1983, Sinclair formed Sinclair Vehicles and released the Sinclair C5, a battery electric vehicle that was a commercial failure. Since then Sinclair has concentrated on personal transport, including the A-bike, a folding bicycle for commuters that weighs 5.5 kilograms (12 lb) and folds down small enough to be carried on public
Henry Franklin Winkler, Hon. OBE (born October 30, 1945) is an American actor, director, producer and author.
Winkler is best known for his role as Fonzie on the 1970s American sitcom Happy Days. "The Fonz", a leather-clad greaser and auto mechanic, started out as a minor character at the show's beginning, but had achieved top billing by the time the show ended. He currently stars as Sy Mittleman on Childrens Hospital.
Henry Winkler was born in Manhattan, New York City, the son of Ilse Anna Maria (née Hadra) and Harry Irving Winkler, a lumber company executive. Winkler's Jewish parents emigrated from Germany to the United States in 1939, before the beginning of World War II.
Winkler attended the McBurney School, received his bachelor's degree from Emerson College in 1967, and earned his MFA from the Yale School of Drama in 1970. In 1978, Emerson gave Winkler an honorary doctorate of humane letters. Winkler has also received a Doctor of Humane Letters from Austin College.
Winkler started acting by appearing in a number of television commercials. He also appeared in an episode of The Mary Tyler Moore Show. In October 1973, he was cast for the role of Arthur Herbert Fonzarelli,
Nkosazana Clarice Dlamini-Zuma (born 27 January 1949) is a South African politician and former anti-apartheid activist. She was South Africa's Minister of Health from 1994 to 1999, under President Nelson Mandela, then Minister of Foreign Affairs from 17 June 1999 to 10 May 2009, under Presidents Thabo Mbeki and Kgalema Molanthe. She was moved to the position of Minister of Home Affairs in the Cabinet of President Jacob Zuma, her ex-husband, on 10 May 2009 a capacity in which she served until her resignation on 2 October 2012.
On 15 July 2012, Dlamini-Zuma was elected by the African Union Commission as its chairperson, making her the first woman to lead the organisation (including its predecessor, the Organisation of African Unity).
Dlamini-Zuma, a Zulu, was born in Natal, the eldest of eight children. She completed high school at the Amanzimtoti Training College in 1967. In 1971, she started her studies in Zoology and Botany at the University of Zululand, from where she obtained a Bachelor's Degree in Science (BSc). She subsequently started her medical studies at the University of Natal.
During her studies in the early 1970s, Dlamini-Zuma became an active underground member of the
Leena Peltonen-Palotie (16 June 1952 – 11 March 2010) was a Finnish geneticist who contributed to the identification of 15 genes for Finnish heritage diseases, including arterial hypertension, schizophrenia, lactose intolerance, arthrosis and multiple sclerosis. She was considered one of the world's leading molecular geneticists.
Born in Helsinki, Finland, Peltonen-Palotie received her license (Licentiate of Medicine) in 1976 and in 1978, presented her dissertation to graduate to Doctor of Science in Medicine from the University of Oulu.
Peltonen-Palotie worked at the National Public Health Institute of Finland 1987–1998. From 1998 to 2002 she helped found the UCLA Department of Human Genetics. She had a professorial position in the Academy of Finland since 2003. In April 2005 Peltonen-Palotie was employed in the University of Helsinki and the National Public Health Institute of Finland. She was also the project director in the EU project GenomEUtwin that was formed to define and characterize the genetic components in the background of different diseases. In 2004 she became a member of the Board of Directors of Orion Corporation, the largest Finnish pharmaceutical company. In
Bruce Swedien is a Grammy Award-winning audio engineer and music producer. He is known for his work with Quincy Jones.
Swedien is a five-time Grammy winner and has been nominated 13 times. He recorded, mixed, and assisted in producing the best-sold album in the world, Thriller by Michael Jackson. He was the primary sound engineer for Jackson's studio recordings from 1978 to 2001.
He also recorded and mixed for jazz artists such as Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Dizzy Gillespie, Lionel Hampton, Quincy Jones, Oscar Peterson, Herbie Hancock and Jeff Oster. His pop work includes Patti Austin, Natalie Cole, Roberta Flack, Mick Jagger, Jennifer Lopez, Paul McCartney, Diana Ross, Rufus, Chaka Khan, Barbra Streisand, Donna Summer, Sarah Vaughan, and the zouk band Kassav'. He worked on the scores for Night Shift, The Color Purple and Running Scared.
On 10 November 2001, he was awarded an honorary doctorate in philosophy from the Luleå University of Technology, Sweden for his achievements as a sound engineer. Swedien also held "masterclasses" at the Swedish National Radio for practicing sound engineers.
Swedien is notable for pioneering the 'Acusonic Recording Process' which involves pairing
Fortunée Chouraki Messouda Benguigui was born in 1904 in Oran, Algeria. She was arrested in Marseilles in 1943, believing her three sons to be safe at Izieu; her baby daughter Yvette was entrusted to local farmers and survived the raid. She lost her sons—Jacques (12), Richard (7), and Jean-Claude (6)—in the raid, which took place while she was a prisoner in Auschwitz. Having survived brutal medical experiments, she was assigned to a sorting shed where she learned of her children’s deaths by finding her son’s hand-knit sweater on the shoulders of a camp doctor’s teenage boy.
Although Fortunée had been declared seventy-five percent incapacitated at the end of the war, she agreed to go to Munich in September 1971, to join Beate Klarsfeld in protesting against the German government’s dismissal of criminal proceedings against the former Lyons Gestapo head. The two women sat on the steps of the Palace of Justice with Mme Benguigui holding a sign in one hand: “I will continue my hunger strike until the Munich prosecutor’s office reopens proceedings against Klaus Barbie, the murderer of my three children.” In the other hand she held a photo of her three little boys.
The women’s success resulted in both a renewed effort to prosecute the war criminal and an important lead as to his whereabouts in La Paz, Bolivia. At Barbie’s trial some sixteen years later, Fortunée would state that she testified “to honor the memory of my three sons; ... I survived [the medical] tests because I was sure my children were safe. ... [When I saw the sweater in Auschwitz] I realized something had happened and started crying.” Benguigui died less than two years later, in December 1988, on the day that she was awarded the Legion of Honor medal.
Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas George Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma KG GCB OM GCSI GCIE GCVO DSO PC FRS (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979), was a British statesman and naval officer, an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and second cousin once removed to Elizabeth II. He was the last Viceroy of India (1947) and the first Governor-General of the independent Union of India (1947–48), from which the modern Republic of India emerged in 1950. From 1954 until 1959 he was the First Sea Lord, a position that had been held by his father, Prince Louis of Battenberg, some forty years earlier. Thereafter he served as Chief of the Defence Staff until 1965, making him the longest serving professional head of the British Armed Forces to date. During this period Mountbatten also served as Chairman of the NATO Military Committee for a year.
In 1979 Mountbatten was assassinated by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA), who planted a bomb in his yacht, the Shadow V, at Mullaghmore, County Sligo, in the Republic of Ireland.
From the time of his birth through 1917, when he and several other British royals dropped their
Benjamin Lawson Hooks (January 31, 1925 – April 15, 2010) was an American civil rights leader. A Baptist minister and practicing attorney, he served as executive director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) from 1977 to 1992, and throughout his career was a vocal campaigner for civil rights in the United States.
Benjamin Hooks was born in Memphis, Tennessee. He was the fifth of seven children of Robert B. Hooks and Bessie White Hooks. His father was a photographer and owned a photography studio with his brother Henry known at the time as Hooks Brothers, and the family was fairly comfortable by the standards of black people for the day. Still, he recalls that he had to wear hand-me-down clothes and that his mother had to be careful to make the dollars stretch to feed and care for the family.
Young Benjamin’s paternal grandmother, Julia Britton Hooks (1852–1942), graduated from Berea College in Kentucky in 1874 and was only the second American black woman to graduate from college. She was a musical prodigy who began playing piano publicly at age five, and at age 18 joined Berea’s faculty, teaching instrumental music 1870–72. Her sister, Dr. Mary
Sir Eduardo Luigi Paolozzi, KBE, RA (7 March 1924 – 22 April 2005), was a Scottish sculptor and artist. He was a major figure in the international art sphere, while, working on his own interpretation and vision of the world. Paolozzi investigated how we can fit into the modern world to resemble our fragmented civilization through imagination and fantasy. By the dramatic juxtaposition of ideas in his work, he lets us see the confusion as well as the inspiration.
Paolozzi was born 7 March 1924, in Leith in north Edinburgh, Scotland and was the eldest son of Italian immigrants. In June 1940, when Italy declared war on Britain, Paolozzi was interned (along with most other Italian men in Britain). During his three-month internment at Saughton prison his father, grandfather and uncle, who had also been detained, were among the 446 Italians who drowned when the ship carrying them to Canada, the Arandora Star, was sunk by a German U-boat.
Paolozzi studied at the Edinburgh College of Art in 1943, briefly at the St Martin's School of Art in 1944, and then at the Slade School of Fine Art at University College London from 1944 to 1947, after which he worked in Paris, France. While in Paris
Arnold Loxam was a professional concert organist. He was a native of Bradford, Yorkshire and gave his first broadcast there as a child pianist in 1925. Loxam made his first appearance on the keyboard of the Wurlitzer organ at the then New Victoria cinema in Bradford. Arnold Loxam first visited the New Victoria Cinema, Bradford, which later became the Odeon, when he was a 14-year-old member of the audience on the opening night of the theatre on 22 September 1930.
In 1946 he began playing regularly for New Victoria audiences and broadcasting from the theatre for BBC Radio.He was appointed deputy organist playing every Sunday and deputised for Norman Briggs until 1948. From December 1948 Arnold also played full weeks or odd days as well as Sundays. He was famous for his bouncey style. He gave his first solo broadcast on the BBC Theatre Organ on 29 November 1947. The association with Bradford continued until 1962 when the BBC switched its broadcasts to the Leeds Odeon. Dr Loxam was invited back in 1968 to make a final broadcast from what had by then become the Gaumont before the Wurlitzer organ was taken to the North East Theatre Organ's headquarters in Howden-le-Wear, County
Carol Ann Duffy, CBE, FRSL (born 23 December 1955) is a British poet and playwright. She is Professor of Contemporary Poetry at Manchester Metropolitan University, and was appointed Britain's poet laureate in May 2009. She is the first woman, the first Scot, and the first openly LGBT person to hold the position.
Her collections include Standing Female Nude (1985), winner of a Scottish Arts Council Award; Selling Manhattan (1987), which won a Somerset Maugham Award; Mean Time (1993), which won the Whitbread Poetry Award; and Rapture (2005), winner of the T. S. Eliot Prize. Her poems address issues such as oppression, gender, and violence, in an accessible language that has made them popular in schools.
Carol Ann Duffy was born to a Roman Catholic family in the Gorbals, a very poor part of Glasgow, the first child of Frank Duffy, an electrical fitter, and Mary Black. The couple went on to have another four children, all boys, the family moving to Stafford, England, when Duffy was six years old. Her father worked for English Electric. He was also a trade unionist, and stood unsuccessfully as a parliamentary candidate for the Labour Party in 1983; he also managed Stafford Rangers
Susan Adele Greenfield, Baroness Greenfield, CBE (born 1 October 1950) is a British scientist, writer, broadcaster, and member of the House of Lords. Greenfield, whose specialty is the physiology of the brain, has worked to research and bring attention to Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.
Greenfield is Professor of Synaptic Pharmacology at Lincoln College, Oxford. On 1 February 2006, she was installed as Chancellor of Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh. Until 8 January 2010, she was director of the Royal Institution of Great Britain.
Baroness Greenfield was born in the west London borough of Hammersmith to Doris (Thorp), a dancer, and Reginald Myer Greenfield, an electrician. Greenfield attended the private Godolphin and Latymer School, and was the first member of her family to go on to university, at St Hilda's College, Oxford. Greenfield completed her Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1977 under the supervision of Anthony David Smith on the Origins of acetylcholinesterase in cerebrospinal fluid.
Greenfield's research is focused on brain physiology, particularly the etiology of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, but she is best known as a populariser of science.
Ann L. Winblad (born on November 1, 1950 in Red Wing, Minnesota) is a partner of Hummer Winblad Venture Partners.
Ann L. Winblad was born on November 1, 1950 in Red Wing, Minnesota. She learned "that patience and focus is a very good balance with overall efficiency; and that’s served me well as an entrepreneur."
In 1989 with John Hummer, she co-founded the venture capital firm Hummer Winblad Venture Partners.
To be a successful venture capitalist, she says, "we have to look at the glass as half full….we have to slurp up that Kool-Aid for an instant, but we can’t get addicted."
Lambert, Laura. (2005). "Ann Winblad." in The Internet: A Historical Encyclopedia. Part 1, Biographies. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 238-242.
Dame Vivienne Westwood, DBE, RDI (born Vivienne Isabel Swire on 8 April 1941) is an English fashion designer and businesswoman, largely responsible for bringing modern punk and new wave fashions into the mainstream.
Westwood was born Vivienne Isabel Swire in the village of Tintwistle, Derbyshire on 8 April 1941, the daughter of Gordon Swire and Dora Swire (née Ball), who had married two years previously, two weeks after the outbreak of World War II. At the time of Vivienne's birth, her father was employed as a storekeeper in an aircraft factory; he had previously worked as a greengrocer.
Aged 17, Vivienne and her family moved to Harrow, London. She studied at the Harrow School of Art - University of Westminster, taking fashion and silversmithing, but she left after one term saying, "I didn't know how a working-class girl like me could possibly make a living in the art world". After taking up a job in a factory and studying at a teacher-training college, she became a primary school teacher. During this period, she also created her own jewellery, which she would sell at a stall on Portobello Road.
In 1961, Vivienne Swire met Derek Westwood, a Hoover factory apprentice, in Harrow.
Charles "Chad" O. Holliday, Jr. is an American businessman, currently the chairman of Bank of America and former Chairman, former Chief Executive Officer and a former director of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (DuPont). He is Chairman Emeritus of the U.S. Council on Competitiveness and Chairman of the Business Roundtable's Task Force for Environment, Technology and Economy. Holliday is also a founding member of the International Business Council and serves on the Board of Advisors of the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions.
Holliday was born in 1948 and grew up in Nashville, Tennessee. He graduated from John Overton High where he met his future wife, Ann. Holliday earned his B.S. in industrial engineering from the University of Tennessee in 1970. He was a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity Zeta Chapter. Holliday started at DuPont in the summer of 1970 at DuPont's Old Hickory site. He then turned a summer job at DuPont into a full-time position as an engineer. He advanced through manufacturing and supervisory positions around the world until he was named CEO in 1998.
Holliday was the 18th CEO of DuPont in more than 200 years of DuPont history. Under
Paul Adolph Volcker, Jr. (born September 5, 1927) is an American economist. He was the Chairman of the Federal Reserve under United States Presidents Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan from August 1979 to August 1987. He is widely credited with ending the high levels of inflation seen in the United States in the 1970s and early 1980s. He was the Chairman of the Economic Recovery Advisory Board under President Barack Obama from February 2009 until January 2011.
Volcker was born in Cape May, New Jersey, the son of Alma Louise (née Klippel) and Paul Adolph Volcker. His grandparents were all German immigrants. Volcker grew up in Teaneck, New Jersey, where his father was the township's first municipal manager. As a child, he attended his mother's Lutheran church, while his father went to an Episcopal church. Volcker graduated from Teaneck High School in 1945.
Volcker's undergraduate education was at Princeton University; he graduated in 1949. He earned his M.A. in political economy from Harvard University's Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and Graduate School of Public Administration in 1951 and then attended the London School of Economics from 1951 to 1952 as a Rotary Foundation
Christopher James "Chris" Christie (born September 6, 1962) is the 55th and current Governor of New Jersey. Upon his election to the governorship in November 2009, Christie became the first Republican to win a statewide election in New Jersey in 12 years. Christie, an attorney, previously served as United States Attorney for the District of New Jersey and as a Morris County, New Jersey Freeholder. In 2011, he considered entering the race for the Republican Presidential nomination but ultimately decided not to run.
Christie delivered the keynote address at the 2012 Republican National Convention.
Chris Christie was born in Newark, New Jersey, the son of Sondra A. (née Grasso) and Wilbur James "Bill" Christie, a certified public accountant. His father is of Scottish and Irish descent and his mother was of Sicilian ancestry. He was raised in Livingston, graduating from Livingston High School. Christie graduated from the University of Delaware with a Bachelor of Arts in political science in 1984 and Seton Hall University School of Law with a Juris Doctor in 1987. Christie was admitted to the New Jersey State Bar Association and the Bar of the United States District Court, District of
Ben Michael Goldacre (born 1974) is a British science writer, physician and psychiatrist. He is the author of The Guardian newspaper's Bad Science column and a book of the same title, published by Fourth Estate in September 2008.
Goldacre is the son of Australians Michael Goldacre, professor of public health at the University of Oxford, and the pop singer Susan Traynor, aka Noosha Fox, the nephew of science journalist Robyn Williams, and the great-great-grandson of Sir Henry Parkes.
Goldacre was educated at Magdalen College School, Oxford then studied medicine at Magdalen College, Oxford where he obtained a first class degree in his preclinical studies in 1995. While at Oxford he also edited the student magazine Isis. He was a visiting researcher in cognitive neuroscience at the University of Milan, working on fMRI brain scans of language and executive function, and then he went on to study clinical medicine at UCL Medical School and qualified as a medical doctor in 2000. He received a master's degree in philosophy (funded by the British Academy) from King's College London. He passed the MRCPsych Part II examinations in December 2005 and became a member of the Royal College of
Sir Steven Geoffrey Redgrave, CBE, DL (born on 23 March 1962) is a retired British rower who won gold medals at five consecutive Olympic Games from 1984 to 2000 as well as a bronze medal at the 1988 Summer Games. He has also won three Commonwealth Games gold medals and nine World Rowing Championships gold medals. He has carried the British flag at the opening of the Olympic Games on two occasions. In 2011 he received the BBC Sports Personality of the Year Lifetime Achievement Award.
Redgrave was born in Marlow, Buckinghamshire, and educated at Great Marlow School, a comprehensive school there. He is the only Olympian to have won gold medals at five different Olympic Games in an endurance sport. This achievement has led to him being hailed as Britain's greatest Olympian.
In 2002, Redgrave was ranked number 36 in the BBC poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. He was the first British athlete to have won five Olympic gold medals, a feat surpassed only by Chris Hoy at the 2012 Summer Olympics, and is the third most decorated British Olympian with six medals, after the seven of Hoy and the seven of cyclist Bradley Wiggins.
Redgrave stands 1.95 metres (6 ft 5 inches) tall. In his prime, he
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton ( /ˈhɪləri daɪˈæn ˈrɒdəm ˈklɪntən/; born October 26, 1947) is the 67th United States Secretary of State, serving in the administration of President Barack Obama. She was a United States Senator for New York from 2001 to 2009. As the wife of the 42nd President of the United States, Bill Clinton, she was the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001. In the 2008 election, Clinton was a leading candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination.
A native of Illinois, Hillary Rodham first attracted national attention in 1969 for her remarks as the first student commencement speaker at Wellesley College. She embarked on a career in law after graduating from Yale Law School in 1973. Following a stint as a Congressional legal counsel, she moved to Arkansas in 1974 and married Bill Clinton in 1975. Rodham cofounded the Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families in 1977 and became the first female chair of the Legal Services Corporation in 1978. Named the first female partner at Rose Law Firm in 1979, she was twice listed as one of the 100 most influential lawyers in America. First Lady of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 and 1983 to 1992 with husband Bill
Jim Swartz has been active in venture capital for four decades. Experienced in the operating needs of young companies, he particularly enjoys working with start-up teams that are defining new industries. He has served as a Director for over fifty successful companies and has been closely involved as lead investor with the emergence of numerous industry pioneering firms including Avici Systems, BroadBand Technologies, FastForward/Inktomi, FVC.com, Illustra/Informix, Medical Care America, Netopia, PictureTel, Polycom, Remedy Corporation, Riverbed Technology and Ungermann-Bass.
Current private company directorships include Gen3 Partners, Ingenuity Systems, Leapstone, MetraTech, RGB Networks , and Transera Communications. In addition, Jim works with the Accel Europe team as a founder/mentor of Accel's European business.
Before founding Accel Partners, Jim was founding General Partner of Adler & Company, which he started with Fred Adler in 1978 after his tenure as a Vice President of Citicorp Venture Capital. Early in his career Jim worked as a management consultant, entering the venture capital industry in 1972.
Active in industry affairs, Jim is former Chairman of the National Venture Capital Association and a former President of the New York Venture Capital Forum. He is a graduate of Harvard University with a concentration in Engineering Sciences and Applied Physics (he mostly remembers something about playing football) and holds an M.S. in Industrial Administration from Carnegie Mellon University.
Outside interests include serving as Chairman of the Swartz Foundation and the Christian Community Center of Park City and as a Board Member and Chairman of the Investment Committee of the U.S. Ski and Snowboard Foundation. He is also a member of the Board of Advisors to Pacific Community Ventures, Board Member and Founder of the Deer Valley Music Festival, and Chairman of the Major Gifts Committee for the YMCA of Martha's Vineyard. From 1999 to 2002, he served on the Management Committee of the Salt Lake Organizing Committee for the Winter Olympics of 2002 (SLOC). He is the recipient of a Merit Award from Carnegie Mellon University and an Honorary Doctorate Degree from the Western Governors University.
Jim is also skipper of the champion yacht Moneypenny, winner of the 2006 Swan World Cup (Porto Cervo, Italy), the 2006 US IRC National Championship (Key West, FL) and the 2005 Swan North American Championship (Newport, RI).
Jim and Susan Swartz reside in Park City, Utah. Susan Swartz is an accomplished painter with a particular love for landscapes and nature. Son Scott is President and CEO of MetraTech, daughter Karin is a medical doctor, and daughter Kristin is a teacher of learning disabled children. Jim and Susan are proud contributors to nine wonderful grandchildren.
Olav V (Alexander Edward Christian Frederik; 2 July 1903 – 17 January 1991) was the King of Norway from 1957 until his death. A member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, Olav was born in the United Kingdom as the son of King Haakon VII of Norway and Queen Maud of Norway.
He became Crown Prince and heir apparent to the throne of Norway when his father was elected king in 1905. He was the first heir to the Norwegian throne to be brought up in Norway since Olav IV, and his parents made sure he was given as Norwegian an upbringing as possible. In preparation for his royal duties, he attended both civilian and military schools. In 1929, he married his first and second cousin Princess Märtha of Sweden. During World War II his leadership was much appreciated and he was appointed Norwegian Chief of Defence in 1944. At his death, he was the last surviving grandchild of Edward VII of the United Kingdom and Alexandra of Denmark.
Due to his considerate, down-to-earth style, King Olav was immensely popular, resulting in the nickname Folkekongen ("The People's King"). In a 2005 poll by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation, Olav was voted "Norwegian of the century".
Sir Michael Terence Wogan, KBE, DL (born 3 August 1938) is an Irish radio and television broadcaster who holds dual Irish and British citizenship. Wogan has worked for the BBC in the United Kingdom for most of his career. Before he retired from the weekday breakfast programme Wake Up to Wogan on BBC Radio 2 on 18 December 2009, it had a regular 8 million listeners, making Wogan the most listened-to radio broadcaster of any European nation. He began his career at Raidió Teilifís Éireann where he presented shows such as Jackpot in the 1960s.
Wogan has been a leading media personality in the UK since the late 1960s and is often referred to as a national treasure. He is perhaps best known in the United Kingdom for his BBC1 chat show Wogan, for his work presenting Children in Need, as the host of Wake Up to Wogan, the original host of the BBC game show Blankety Blank (before being replaced by Les Dawson), a presenter of Come Dancing in the 1970s, and as the BBC's commentator for the Eurovision Song Contest on radio and television from 1971 to 2008. Wogan currently hosts a two hour Sunday morning show, Weekend Wogan on Radio 2.
Wogan, the son of a grocery store manager in Limerick City,
Nicola Benedetti (born 19 July 1987) is a Scottish classical violinist.
Benedetti was born in West Kilbride, North Ayrshire to an Italian father and a Scottish mother. She started learning to play the violin at the age of four. At age eight, she became the leader of the National Children's Orchestra of Great Britain. By the age of nine, she had already passed the eight grades of musical examinations while attending the independent Wellington School, Ayr, and in September 1997 began to study at the Yehudi Menuhin School for young musicians under Lord Menuhin and Natasha Boyarskaya in rural Surrey, England.
At the end of her first year (1998), she played solo in the school's annual concert at Wigmore Hall, and performed in London and Paris as a soloist in Bach's Double Violin Concerto (together with Alina Ibragimova). She played in a memorial concert at Westminster Abbey celebrating the life and work of Yehudi Menuhin.
In 1999, Benedetti performed for the anniversary celebrations at Holyrood Palace with the National Youth Orchestra of Scotland in the presence of HRH The Prince Edward.
In 2000, Benedetti performed with the Royal Scottish National Orchestra and the Scottish Opera.
Ashok Kumar (28 May 1956 – 15 March 2010) was an Indian-born British Labour Party politician who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland from 1997 until his death shortly before the 2010 general election.
Kumar was born in Haridwar, Uttar Pradesh, India, to Jagat Ram Saini and Santosh Kumari, who immigrated to Derby with him when he was two. He attended Rykneld Boys' Secondary Modern School (later merged with Bemrose Grammar School and now Bemrose Community School), Derby. He left at 15 with 2 O-levels. He returned to education and attended Derby & District College of Art & Technology then studied chemical engineering at Aston University, Birmingham where he was awarded a BSc in 1978, and an MSc in Process Analysis and Control Theory in 1980, and a PhD in Fluid Mechanics in 1982. The thesis title was Velocity distributions in a plate heat exchanger. He was a Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, a Chartered Engineer and a Member of the Energy Institute.
He was a Research Fellow at Imperial College London (1982–5) and worked as a research scientist at British Steel, Middlesbrough from 1985 to 1997.
He began his political career as a
Sir Christopher Andrew Hoy, MBE (born 23 March 1976) is a British track cyclist representing Great Britain at the Olympics and World Championships and Scotland at the Commonwealth Games.
Hoy is an eleven-time world champion, six-time Olympic champion and a winner of a total of seven Olympic Games medals, six gold and one silver. Hoy is the most successful Olympic cyclist of all time.
With his three gold medals in 2008 Summer Olympics, Hoy became Britain's most successful Olympian, the first Briton to win three gold medals in a single Olympic games since Henry Taylor, in 1908, and the most successful Olympic cyclist. He won a further two gold medals (in the keirin and team sprint) at the 2012 Summer Olympics, making him the most successful British Olympian of all time in terms of gold medals, and the joint most decorated athlete with Bradley Wiggins with seven medals in total.
Born in Edinburgh in Scotland, Hoy grew up in the suburb of Corstorphine in the west of Edinburgh and was educated at George Watson's College, a co-educational independent school in Edinburgh, followed by the University of St Andrews in 1996. He subsequently transferred to the University of Edinburgh, from
Harald V (born 21 February 1937) is the King of Norway. He succeeded to the throne of Norway upon the death of his father Olav V on 17 January 1991. The son of the then-Crown Prince Olaf and of Princess Märtha of Sweden, Harald was born at the Crown Prince Residence at Skaugum, Akershus, Norway.
A member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, originally from Northern Germany, Harald became the first Norwegian-born prince since Olaf IV, who was born in 1370. Harald V is the formal head of the Church of Norway and the Norwegian Armed Forces. He has two children, Crown Prince Haakon and Princess Märtha Louise. His grandchildren are Maud Angelica (2003), Leah Isadora (2005), Emma Tallulah (2008), Princess Ingrid Alexandra (2004), and Prince Sverre Magnus (2005).
Harald has two older sisters: Princess Ragnhild of Norway, Mrs. Lorentzen (Ragnhild Alexandra, born Oslo, 9 June 1930 died 16 September 2012), who lived in Brazil, and Princess Astrid of Norway, Mrs. Ferner (Astrid Maud Ingeborg, born Oslo, 12 February 1932), who lives in Oslo.
Prince Harald was born in Skaugum. The young prince was baptised in the Royal Chapel in the Royal Palace in Oslo on 31 March by
Hunter Stockton Thompson (July 18, 1937 – February 20, 2005) was an American journalist and author. Born in Louisville, Kentucky to a middle class family, Thompson went off the rails at the age of 15 after the death of his father left the family in poverty. Sentenced to 60 days in prison at the age of 18 for abetting a robbery, he never formally graduated school due to his incarceration. He subsequently joined the United States Air Force before moving into journalism. He travelled frequently, including stints in Puerto Rico and Brazil, before settling in Aspen, Colorado in the early 1960s.
Thompson became internationally famous with the publication of Hell's Angels: The Strange and Terrible Saga of the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (1967), for which he had spent a year living and riding with the Angels, experiencing their lives and hearing their stories first hand. Previously a relatively conventional journalist, with the publication in 1970 of The Kentucky Derby is Decadent and Depraved, he became a counter cultural figure, with his own brand of New Journalism he termed "Gonzo", an experimental style of journalism where reporters involve themselves in the action to such a degree that
Michelle LaVaughn Robinson Obama (born January 17, 1964) is the wife of the 44th and incumbent President of the United States, Barack Obama, and is the first African-American First Lady of the United States. Raised on the South Side of Chicago, Obama attended Princeton University and Harvard Law School before returning to Chicago and to work at the law firm Sidley Austin, where she met her future husband. Subsequently, she worked as part of the staff of Chicago mayor Richard M. Daley, and for the University of Chicago Medical Center.
Throughout 2007 and 2008, she helped campaign for her husband's presidential bid and delivered a keynote address at the 2008 Democratic National Convention. She is the mother of two daughters, Malia and Sasha, and is the sister of Craig Robinson, men's basketball coach at Oregon State University. As the wife of a Senator, and later the First Lady, she has become a fashion icon and role model for women, and an advocate for poverty awareness, nutrition and healthy eating.
Michelle LaVaughn Robinson was born on January 17, 1964, in Chicago, Illinois, to Fraser Robinson III, a city water plant employee and Democratic precinct captain, and Marian (née
Queen Sonja of Norway (née Sonja Haraldsen, born 4 July 1937) is the wife of King Harald V of Norway.
Sonja was born in Oslo on 4 July 1937 as the daughter of clothing merchant Karl August Haraldsen (1889–1959) and Dagny Ulrichsen (1898–1994).
Queen Sonja grew up at 1B Tuengen Allé in the district of Vinderen in Oslo and completed her lower secondary schooling in 1954. She received a diploma in dressmaking and tailoring at the Oslo Vocational School, as well as a diploma from École Professionelle des Jeunes Filles in Lausanne, Switzerland. There, she studied accounting, fashion design, and social science.
She returned to Norway for further studies and received an undergraduate degree (French, English and Art History) from the University of Oslo.
She became engaged to then Crown Prince Harald in March 1968. They had been dating for nine years, although this had been kept secret because of opposition to her non-royal status. The Crown Prince made it clear to his father, King Olav V, that he would remain unmarried for life unless he could marry her. This would in effect have put an end to the rule of his family and probably to the monarchy in Norway, as he was the sole heir to the