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The Prime Minister (Finnish: pääministeri, Swedish: statsminister) is the Head of Government of Finland. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President, who is the Head of State. The current Prime Minister is Jyrki Katainen of the National Coalition Party.
Under the provisions of the new Constitution of Finland (enacted in 2000), the President nominates a Prime Minister after the parties in the Eduskunta/Riksdag (Parliament) have negotiated the distribution of seats in the new Council of State and the government's programme. Parliament must ratify the nominated Prime Minister with an absolute majority in a vote without other candidates. If the nominee doesn't receive sufficient support, then a new round of negotiations and a second nomination by the President follows. If the second nominee also fails to gain an absolute majority, then a third vote occurs, in which any member of Parliament can nominate a candidate; in this round a plurality is sufficient for election. The President's formal appointment follows Parliament's election.
The above procedure was first used to elect Anneli Jäätteenmäki to the Prime Ministership in 2003. Previously it was assumed that the President would
The Prime Minister of Kosovo (Albanian: Kryeministri i Kosovës, Serbian: Премијер Косова, Premijer Kosova) is Head of Government of the disputed Republic of Kosovo .
The Prime Minister and the Government of Kosovo, which he or she heads, are responsible for their actions to the Assembly of Kosovo, of which they must all be members. The current Prime Minister of the Government of Kosovo is Hashim Thaçi.
The Duke of Normandy is the title of the reigning monarch of the crown dependencies of the Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Bailiwick of Jersey. The title traces its roots to the Duchy of Normandy (of which the Channel Islands are remnants). Whether the reigning sovereign is male or female, the title remains "Duke of Normandy".
The fiefdom of Normandy was created in 911 for the Viking leader Rollo (also known as Rolf).
After participating in many Viking incursions along the Seine, culminating in the siege of Paris in 886, Rollo was finally defeated by King Charles the Simple. With the Treaty of St.-Claire-sur-Epte, Rollo accepted to become a vassal to Charles III of France, converted to Christianity and was baptized with the name Robert. Charles then granted Rollo territories around Rouen, which came to be called Normandy after the Northmen (Latin Normanni).
Rollo and his immediate successors were styled as "counts" of Normandy. Some later medieval sources refer to them by the title dux, the Latin word from which the English word "duke" is derived; however, Rollo's great-grandson Richard II was the first to assuredly be styled "Duke of Normandy".
Although certain titles were used
A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king. An empress regnant is a female monarch who reigns in her own right over an empire.
A queen regnant possesses and exercises sovereign powers. The husband of a queen regnant does not usually share his wife's rank, title or sovereignty. A queen consort shares her husband's rank and titles, but does not share the sovereignty of her husband.
A queen dowager is the widow of a king who reigned in his own right. A queen mother is a queen dowager who is also the mother of a reigning sovereign.
In Ancient Egypt, Pacific cultures, and European countries, as noted below, female monarchs have been given the title king or its equivalent, such as pharaoh, when gender is irrelevant to the office. Also the Byzantine Empress Irene sometimes called herself basileus (βασιλεύς), 'emperor', rather than basilissa (βασίλισσα), 'empress' and Jadwiga of Poland was crowned as Rex Poloniae, King of Poland.
Among the Davidic Monarchs of the Kingdom of Judah, there is mentioned a single queen regnant, Athaliah, though the Hebrew Bible regards her
The President of Dáil Éireann was the leader of the revolutionary Irish Republic of 1919–1921. The office, also known as Príomh Aire (Irish pronunciation: [ˈpʲrʲiːv ˈarʲə]), was created in the Dáil Constitution adopted by Dáil Éireann, the parliament of the Republic, at its first meeting in January 1919. This provided that the President was elected by the Dáil as head of a cabinet called the 'Ministry'. During the period of the Republic there were two office-holders, Cathal Brugha (on a provisional basis) and Éamon de Valera.
The Irish text of the Dáil Constitution referred to the leader of the state as the Príomh Aire. In English this was translated as both Prime Minister and President of the Ministry. President of Dáil Éireann was also used, interchangeably with these terms, despite the fact that it did not appear in the constitution, and it was the title preferred by de Valera during his visit to the United States in 1920–1921. Contrary to what the title might suggest, the President of Dáil Éireann was not its chairman, this was the role of a separate official: the Ceann Comhairle. In some senses the office exercised a role that combined that of Prime Minister and Leader of the
The President of India is the head of state of the Republic of India, the largest democracy in the world. The President is the formal head of the executive, legislature and judiciary of India and is the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
The President is indirectly elected by the people through elected members of the Parliament of India (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) as well as of the state legislatures (Vidhan Sabhas), and serves for a term of five years. Historically, ruling party (majority in the Lok Sabha) nominees (for example, United Progressive Alliance nominee Shri Manish Abhang) have been elected or largely elected unanimously. Incumbent presidents are permitted to stand for re-election. A formula is used to allocate votes so there is a balance between the population of each state and the number of votes assembly members from a state can cast, and to give an equal balance between State Assembly members and the members of the Parliament of India. If no candidate receives a majority of votes, then there is a system by which losing candidates are eliminated from the contest and their votes are transferred to other candidates, until one gains a majority. The
During two periods in the political history of Brazil was a parliamentary system of Government put in place, with a prime minister heading the Cabinet.
The first parliamentary system was created by Emperor Pedro II and was maintained for the last forty two years of the imperial period.
The second occasion in which a parliamentary system was put in place was during the administration of President João Goulart in 1961, due to a constitutional amendment passed by his opponents before his inauguration. The experience of parliamentary government was very brief, as the system of presidential government was restored in a referendum in 1963.
The political position of Prime Minister of Brazil existed during the era of the Empire of Brazil, first being created in 1847, during the reign of Dom Pedro II.
Officially, the title of the Prime Minister was President of the Council of Ministers and he was referred to by the press and the people as President of the Cabinet. Often, the title President of the Council, a shortened version of the official style, was also employed.
The written Constitution of the Brazilian Empire did not require the Emperor to appoint a prime minister; nor did it provide
Assistant Secretary of the Navy (ASN) is the title given to certain civilian senior officials in the United States Department of the Navy.
From 1861 to 1954, the Assistant Secretary of the Navy was the second highest civilian office in the Department of the Navy (reporting to the United States Secretary of the Navy). That role has since been supplanted by the office of Under Secretary of the Navy and the office of Assistant Secretary of the Navy has been abolished. There have, however, been a number of offices bearing the phrase "Assistant Secretary of the Navy" in their title (see below for details).
At present, there are four Assistant Secretaries of the Navy, each of whom reports to and assists the Secretary of the Navy and the Under Secretary of the Navy:
The Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy was established in 1861, to provide a senior deputy to the Secretary. The Assistant Secretary was responsible for the Navy's civilian personnel, as well as for administration of shore facilities (such as naval bases and shipyards). Gustavus Fox was the first to hold the post, serving throughout the Civil War. The office was disestablished in 1869, during Reconstruction, but was
The Mayor of Warsaw, or more properly the President of Warsaw (the customary title in Polish is "Prezydent Miasta Stołecznego Warszawy") is the head of the capital of Poland.
Following the Warsaw Act (Ustawa warszawska) of 27 October 2002, the Mayor of Warsaw carries over most of the executive duties in the city. His or her prerogative is, among others, governing the city-owned property that still constitutes a major part of the city.
Between 1950 and 1973 the highest representative of the government in Warsaw was named the "Head of the Presidium of the National Council of the Capital City of Warsaw" (Przewodniczący Prezydium Rady Narodowej miasta stołecznego Warszawy).
The Governor-General of the Philippines was the title of the government executive during the colonial period of the Philippines, governed mainly by Spain and the United States, and briefly by Great Britain and Japan, from 1565 to 1935.
From 1565 to 1898, Spain governed the Philippines. The governor was appointed by the Viceroyalty of New Spain (until Mexico separated from Spain in 1821) upon recommendation of the Spanish Cortes, governed in behalf of the King of Spain. In case of vacancy (i.e. sudden death of the governor-general, or transitional period between the previous and upcoming governor from other parts of the Spanish Empire), the Royal Audiencia in Manila appoints the temporary governor among its members until the next governor serve in full capacity.
Great Britain occupied Manila and the naval port of Cavite as part of the Seven Years' War.
The American military government was established following the defeat of Spain in the Spanish-American War. During the transition period, executive authority in all civil affairs in the Philippine government was exercised by the military governor.
On July 4, 1901, executive authority over the islands was transferred to the president
The President of Turkey (Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state of the Republic of Turkey. The presidency is largely a ceremonial office but has some important functions. In this capacity he represents the Republic of Turkey, and the unity of the Turkish nation; he ensures the implementation of the Turkish constitution, and the organized and harmonious functioning of the organs of state. The articles from 101 to 106 of the constitution establish all the requirements, election, duties and responsibilities for the office of the President. The office of the President of Turkey was established with the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. The current office-holder is the 11th president, Abdullah Gül since August 28, 2007.
In order to become the President of Turkey, the candidate must have completed higher education, be at least forty years of age, and be a member of the Turkish Grand National Assembly or a Turkish citizen eligible to be a deputy.
The president-elect has to sever his relations, if any, with his political party, and his status as a member of the Turkish Grand National Assembly must cease.
The election of the President must begin at least 30 days
Governmental body (if any):Senate of the Philippines
The President Pro-Tempore of the Senate of the Philippines is the second highest-ranking official of the Senate of the Philippines. During the absence of the Senate President, the Senate President pro tempore presides over the Senate.
The Senate President pro tempore of the Senate is Jinggoy Estrada.
Currently there are six living former Senate Presidents pro tempore:
The President pro tempore ( /ˌproʊ ˈtɛmpəriː/ or /ˌproʊ ˈtɛmpəreɪ/), also president pro tem, is the second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate. The United States Constitution states that the Vice President of the United States is the President of the Senate, despite not being a member of the body, and that the Senate must choose a president pro tempore. By a long-standing tradition which has been observed consistently since the 81st Congress, the president pro tempore is the most senior senator in the majority party.
During the Vice President's absence, the president pro tempore is empowered to preside over Senate sessions but usually appoints another senator to do so. In practice, neither the Vice President nor the President pro tempore usually presides; instead, the duty of presiding officer is rotated among junior senators of the majority party to give them experience in parliamentary procedure.
The president pro tempore is third in the line of succession to the presidency, after the vice president and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. In the draft version of the Constitution, there was no Vice President, and the President of the Senate was to be the
The Governor of the Department of Atlantico heads the executive branch of the government of the Colombian Department of Atlántico. He or she is the highest ranking official in the department and is elected by popular vote. The current governor is Eduardo Verano De la Rosa, a Liberal and businessman.
The Lord Mayor is the title of the Mayor of a major city, with special recognition.
In The Beatles's movie Yellow Submarine, the fictional utopia of Pepperland has a lord mayor. It is the lord mayor who sends Old Fred to find help after the Blue Meanies attack.
The President of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Предćедник Црне Горе, Predśednik Crne Gore) is the head of state of Montenegro. The current president is Filip Vujanović, who was reelected in the first round of the 2008 presidential election with 51.9% of the vote. The official residence of the President is located in the former royal capital Cetinje.
This section is according to the Constitution of Montenegro, Article 86
Each president has a term of 5 years in office. Each president can have two terms in office. The President is elected through direct and secret ballots. In the event of a state of war during term of office of the President of Montenegro shall be extended for as long as the state of war exists.
This section is according to the Constitution of Montenegro, Article 87
The term of office of the President shall cease when the term of office for which he has been elected expires, in the event of recall or by his resignation. The President may be recalled by the Assembly, only in case the Constitutional Court should decide that he has breached the provisions of the Constitution. The procedure to determine the breach of Constitution shall be instigated by the Assembly.
The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. Although at one time the position was usually held by the Prime Minister, in recent years, the post has usually been combined with that of Lord President of the Council (i.e., of the Privy Council); from 2003 it has been combined instead with the office of Lord Privy Seal.
The House of Commons devotes approximately three quarters of its time to Government business, such as bills introduced by the government and ministerial statements. The Leader of the House, with the parties' chief whips ("the usual channels"), is responsible for organising the government business and providing time for non-government business to be put before the House, and announces the next week's schedule in the Business Statement each Thursday.
When there is no Deputy Prime Minister, or the Deputy Prime Minister is unavailable, the Leader of the House may stand in for an absent Prime Minister at Prime Minister's Questions.
Jointly administered by the Office of the Leader of the House of Commons and the Cabinet Office are the Osmotherly Rules, which
Governmental body (if any):Foreign and Commonwealth Office
The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, commonly referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior member of Her Majesty's Government heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and regarded as one of the Great Offices of State. The Secretary of State's remit includes: relations with foreign countries, matters pertaining to the Commonwealth of Nations and the overseas territories in addition to the promotion of British interests abroad. The Foreign Secretary also has responsibility for the Secret Intelligence Service MI6, who are directly accountable to the Foreign Secretary.
The position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs was created in the British governmental reorganisation of 1782, in which the Northern and Southern Departments became the Home and Foreign Offices respectively. The position of Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs came into existence in 1968 with the merger of the functions of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Secretary of State for Commonwealth Affairs into a single Department of State. The India Office was a predecessor department of the Foreign Office.
The Foreign Secretary is a member of the Cabinet, and
The Secretary of the Treasury of the United States is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, which is concerned with financial and monetary matters, and, until 2003, also with some issues of national security and defense. This position in the Federal Government of the United States is analogous to the Minister of Finance in many other countries. Most of the Department's law enforcement agencies such as the U.S. Customs Service, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), and the U.S. Secret Service were reassigned to other Departments in 2003 in conjunction with the creation of the Department of Homeland Security. The Secretary of the Treasury is a member of the President's Cabinet, and since the Clinton Administration, has been a member of the U.S. National Security Council. By law and by tradition, the Secretary of the Treasury is fifth in the United States presidential line of succession, in case of some extreme calamity in the United States.
From the U.S. Department of the Treasury website:
The Secretary along with the Treasurer must sign Federal Reserve notes before they can become legal tender. The Secretary also manages the United States
The Mayor of Chicago is the chief executive of Chicago, Illinois, the third largest city in the United States. He or she is charged with directing city departments and agencies, and with the advice and consent of the Chicago City Council, appoints department and agency leaders.
The Mayor appoints the Commissioner of the Chicago Fire Department and Superintendent of the Chicago Police Department. He or she is also responsible for appointing the heads of city departments, the largest of which are the Water Management Department (formed by the consolidation of the former Water Department and Sewer Department under Richard M. Daley) and the Streets & Sanitation Department. He or she additionally appoints members to the boards of several special purpose municipalities including the Chicago Park District, Chicago Public Library, Chicago Housing Authority, Chicago Transit Authority, the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority, et al. Under Richard M. Daley, the Illinois legislature granted the mayor power to appoint the Chief Executive Officer of the Chicago Public Schools and subordinated the district under the mayor's authority; the district had long been an independent political
The Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan is the head of government of Kyrgyzstan. Until 2010, the President was in a stronger position than the Prime Minister in Kyrgyzstan, but after the 2010 constitutional referendum, the state transitioned to a parliamentary system, placing greater power in parliament and the cabinet at the expense of the president.
The president is allowed to appoint the Prime Minister temporarily, and his appointment is known as the acting Prime Minister. The acting Prime Minister becomes a full Prime Minister by being confirmed by the Supreme Council (parliament). The Prime Minister then forms the cabinet.
Under the current constitution of Cameroon, the Prime Minister of Cameroon is a relatively powerless executive. While the Prime Minister is officially appointed to be the head of government, the President retains most of the executive power and can fire the Prime Minister at will.
The position has existed in the eastern part of Cameroon since it gained its independence from France in 1960. When the western part gained independence from the British in 1961, the two halves of the Cameroon federation maintained their autonomy and each had a separate Prime Minister. In 1972, Cameroon became a unitary state and the position of Prime Minister was temporarily unfilled. In 1975, Paul Biya was appointed as Prime Minister for all of Cameroon. After Biya's succession to the Presidency, the post of Prime Minister did not exist from 1984 to 1991.
The Prime Minister of Malta (Maltese: Prim Ministru ta' Malta) is the Head of Government of Malta.
The office of "Head of Ministry" was created as soon as Malta was granted autonomous government in 1921. The 1921 constitution was suspended twice before being revoked. On the first occasion (1930–33) the Head of Ministry (at the time Gerald Strickland) and his cabinet were retained. Following the second suspension in 1934 the cabinet was dismissed.
The constitution was revoked in 1936 and the post did not exist for as long as Malta was under direct colonial administration. The office was re-established with the grant of self-government in 1947 with the post being renamed as "Prime Minister of Malta". The post was again suppressed when the 1947 constitution was again suspended between 1958 and 1962 but was retained largely unchanged in the 1964 Independence constitution and the subsequent amendments of 1974 which transformed the form of government into a republic.
The President of Malta, who nominally heads the Executive branch, appoints as Prime Minister the member of parliament who, in the opinion of the President, is best able to command a majority of the members of the House of
The Prime Minister of Greece (Greek: Πρωθυπουργός της Ελλάδος), officially the Prime Minister of the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Πρωθυπουργός της Ελληνικής Δημοκρατίας), is the head of government of the Hellenic Republic and the leader of the Greek cabinet. The current Prime Minister is Antonis Samaras, who took office on 20 June 2012. The Prime Minister's official seat (but not residence) is the Maximos Mansion in the centre of Athens. The office is described in the Constitution either as Prime Minister or President of the Government (Πρόεδρος της Κυβερνήσεως). This is the reason why the Prime Minister is also addressed as "Mr. President".
The Prime Minister is officially appointed by the President of Greece.
According to the Article 37 of the Greek Constitution, the President shall appoint the leader of the political party with the absolute majority of seats in the Parliament as Prime Minister. If no party has the absolute majority, the President shall give the leader of the party with a relative majority an exploratory mandate in order to ascertain the possibility of forming a Government enjoying the confidence of the Parliament. If this possibility cannot be ascertained, the
The President of Iran is the head of government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The President is the highest popularly elected official in Iran, although the office is subordinate to the Supreme Leader of Iran, who functions as the country's head of state. Chapter IX of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran sets forth the qualifications for presidential candidates and procedures for election, as well as the President's powers and responsibilities as "functions of the executive". These include signing treaties and other agreements with foreign countries and international organizations; administering national planning, budget, and state employment affairs; and appointing ministers, governors, and ambassadors subject to the approval of Parliament.
Unlike the executive in other countries, the President of Iran does not have full control over Iran's foreign policy, the armed forces, or nuclear policy, as these are ultimately under the control of the Supreme Leader.
The President of Iran is elected for a four-year term by the direct vote of the people and may not serve for more than two consecutive terms.
The President of Iran is the only President of a state that is not Head
The Kings of the Lombards or reges Langobardorum (singular rex Langobardorum) ruled that Germanic people from early in the sixth century until the Lombardic identity became lost in the ninth and tenth centuries. After 568, the Lombard kings sometimes styled themselves Kings of Italy (rex totius Italiae). After 774, they were not Lombards, but Franks. The Iron Crown of Lombardy (Corona Ferrea) was used for the coronation of the Lombard kings and the kings of Italy thereafter for centuries.The primary sources for the Lombard kings before the Frankish conquest are the anonymous 7th-century Origo Gentis Langobardorum and the 8th-century Historia Langobardorum of Paul the Deacon. The earliest kings (the pre-Lethings) listed in the Origo are almost certainly legendary. They purportedly reigned during the Migration Period. The first ruler attested independently of Lombard tradition is Tato.
The Prime Minister of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Прем'єр-міністр України, Prem'ier-ministr Ukrayiny) is Ukraine's head of government presiding over the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, which is the highest body of the executive branch of the Ukrainian government.
While in office, the Prime Minister is granted full legal immunity from all prosecutions and legal proceedings. The Prime Minister's office is headquartered in the Cabinet of Ministries building in central Kiev. The Prime Minister was paid a yearly salary of 202,776 UAH (US$26,770) in 2005.
Since Ukrainian independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, there have been 15 Prime Ministers (19 counting acting PMs). Mykola Azarov is the incumbent Prime Minister as of March 11, 2010.
The Prime Minister is appointed by the President with the consent of Verkhovna Rada. The consent is deemed granted by the parliament when a simple majority of its constitutional membership votes in favour of the candidate nominated by the President. The highest parliamentary approval to this date was received by Yulia Tymoshenko who was appointed the Prime Minister on February 4, 2005 with 373 votes in the Verkhovna Rada. Other prime ministers who received
The governor of Virginia serves as the chief executive of the Commonwealth of Virginia for a four-year term. The position is currently held by Republican Bob McDonnell, who was inaugurated on January 16, 2010, as the 71st governor of Virginia.
Candidates for governor must be United States citizens who have resided in Virginia for five years prior to the election in which they are running. The candidates must be at least 30 years of age. Also, Virginia does not allow an incumbent Governor to succeed himself, so the incumbent Governor is barred from running in the election. However, a former governor may run again in subsequent gubernatorial elections (the most recent governor to serve multiple terms was Mills Godwin, 1966–70 and 1974–78). As of 2011, Virginia is the only state in the U.S. in which governors cannot serve consecutive terms.
The Governor is required to live in the seat of government of Virginia. At every regular session, he or she must report the state of the Commonwealth to the General Assembly, Virginia's legislature. He or she must convene the legislature when two-thirds of each house calls for a special session. The governor must ensure that the laws of the
The office of President of Belarus (Belarusian: Прэзідэнт Рэспублікі Беларусь, Russian: Президент Республики Беларусь) is the head of state of Belarus. The office was created in 1994 with the passing of the Constitution of Belarus by the Supreme Soviet. This replaced the office of Chairman of the Supreme Soviet as the head of state. The tasks of the president including executing foreign and domestic policy, defend the rights and general welfare of citizens and residents and to uphold the Constitution. The president is mandated by the Constitution to serve as a leader in the social affairs of the country and to act as its main representative abroad. The duties, responsibilities and other transitional clauses dealing with the presidency are listed in Chapter Three, Articles 79 through 89, of the Constitution.
The term for the president is five years, but due to a 1996 referendum, the election that was supposed to occur in 1999 was pushed back to 2001. Under the 1994 constitution, the president could only serve for two terms as president, but due to a change in the constitution, term limits were eliminated. During the course of the office, three elections were held in 1994, 2001 and
The Prime Minister of Timor-Leste is the head of government in East Timor. The President is the head of state. The Prime Minister is chosen by the political party or alliance of political parties with a majority in the national legislature and is formally appointed by the President. The Prime Minister oversees the activities of the government and chairs the Council of Ministers.
Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (FRETILIN)
Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (FRETILIN)
National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction (CNRT)
Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era (when the country was internationally known as Persia) until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.
In the Qajar era, prime ministers were known by different titles. The post itself was mainly known as ataabak or ataabak-e a'zam (grand ataabak), or sometimes sadr-e a'zam (premier) at the beginning, but became ra'is ol-vozaraa (head of ministers) at the end. The title of nakhost vazir (prime minister) was rarely used. The prime minister was usually called by the honorific title hazrat-e ashraf. Reza Khan Sardar Sepah became the last prime minister of the Qajar dynasty in 1923.
For a list of Iranian 'prime ministers' prior to 1907 see List of Premiers of Iran (1699-1907).
In 1925, Reza Shah became Shah of Iran. He installed Mohammad-Ali Foroughi as the prime minister. In 1941 his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi became Shah. He installed Mohammad-Ali Foroughi as the prime minister too. In 1951, Mohammed Mosaddeq became Prime Minister but was overthrown in a coup d'état in 1953. Amir-Abbas Hoveida became Prime minister
This page lists the holders of the office of Prime Minister of Tunisia. The office was created in May 1922. Mustapha Dinguizli was thus Tunisia's first Prime Minister in the modern sense. Prior to that, Tunisia had traditional Muslim-style viziers. Hamadi Jebali, in office since 24 December 2011, is the current Prime Minister of Tunisia.
The powers of the Prime Minister are established by the current Constitution of Tunisia, adopted on 1 June 1959 and amended in 1988 and 2002. Under Article 60, the Prime Minister directs and coordinates the activities of the government. It is responsible for:
Now, according to the law on the provisional organization of public authorities, the Prime Minister can create or abolish departments as well as define the tasks and responsibilities of each institution under the supervision of the government. It is he who appoints senior civil servants, with the help of the Minister of the sector. He appoints the governor of the Central Bank after consultation with the President. He can also dissolve municipal councils, regional councils and local councils after seeking the advice of the President.
Prime Minister, together with the President, represents
This is a list of ambassadors from the United States to Canada. The ambassador is the head of the Embassy of the United States in Ottawa.
Prior to 1943, the head of the U.S. diplomatic mission to Canada bore the title of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. The U.S. mission to Canada was upgraded from legation to embassy status in June 1943, and Ray Atherton was the first chief of mission to hold ambassadorial rank.
The Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Gibraltar is the representative of the British monarch in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. The Governor is appointed by the British Monarch on the advice of the British Government. The role of the Governor is to act as the de facto head of state, and he or she is responsible for formally appointing the Chief Minister of Gibraltar, along with other members of the Government of Gibraltar after a general election. The Governor also has sole responsibility for defence and security.
The incumbent Governor is Vice Admiral Sir Adrian Johns KCB, CBE, ADC, who succeeded his predecessor Lieutenant General Sir Robert Fulton KBE on 26 October 2009
To date there has been no female Governor of Gibraltar, other than in an acting position.
The Governor has his own flag in Gibraltar, the Union Flag defaced with the territory's coat of arms. However at his official residence (The Convent), the Union flag and the flag of Gibraltar are flown.
(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)
The Governor General of Canada (French [masculine]: Gouverneur général du Canada, or [feminine]: Gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II. As the sovereign is shared equally with 15 other independent countries in a form of personal union, as well as with the ten other jurisdictions of Canada, and resides predominantly in her oldest realm, the United Kingdom, she, on the advice of her Canadian prime minister only, appoints the governor general to carry out most of her constitutional and ceremonial duties for an unfixed period of time—known as serving at Her Majesty's pleasure—though five years is the normal convention. Beginning in 1959, it is also traditional to rotate between anglophone and francophone incumbents. Once in office, the governor general maintains direct contact with the Queen, wherever she may be at the time.
The office has its roots in the 16th and 17th century colonial governors of New France and British North America, and thus is the oldest continuous institution in Canada. The present incarnation of the position emerged with Canadian Confederation and the British North America Act in 1867,
The Governor of Vermont is the governor (chief executive, head of government) of the U.S. state of Vermont. The governor is elected in even numbered years by direct voting for a term of two years; Vermont and bordering New Hampshire are the only states to hold gubernatorial elections every two years, instead of every four. There is no limit on the number of terms a governor can serve.
The incumbent governor is Peter Shumlin. In his election he was endorsed by the Vermont Democratic and Working Families Party. He is the 81st governor of the State of Vermont. (Two others, Thomas Chittenden and Moses Robinson, served as governor of the Vermont Republic before Vermont's admission to the Union in 1791.)
The governor's working offices are located in The Pavilion in the state capital of Montpelier, Vermont. The governor's ceremonial office, used during the legislative session of the General Assembly, is located in the Vermont State House, also in Montpelier.
The Constitution of Vermont details the powers of the governor:
There is a separately-elected Lieutenant Governor of Vermont, who assumes the powers of the Governor in case there is a vacancy in the office of Governor or the Governor
The Governor-General of Papua New Guinea is the viceregal representative of Queen Elizabeth II, known in Tok Pisin as 'Missis Kwin', Papua New Guinea's head of state, performing the duties of the Queen in her absence. The current Governor-General of Papua New Guinea is Sir Michael Ogio.
Unlike other Commonwealth realms, the Governor-General of Papua New Guinea is nominated by the country's Parliament, rather than by its Prime Minister, as is the convention almost everywhere else. The appointment is made by the Head of State of Papua New Guinea, Queen Elizabeth II, following a simple majority vote of the National Parliament. For a second term, a two-thirds majority is required. No person may serve for more than two terms.
If the office of Governor-General becomes vacant, the Speaker of the National Parliament becomes acting Governor-General until a new appointment is made.
The Governor-General may be dismissed by either a decision of the National Executive Council or an absolute majority of the National Parliament. No Governor-General has been dismissed from office, although Sir Serei Eri resigned from office, due to his dismissal being instructed to the Queen by Prime Minister
The President of Burma is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, and leads the executive branch of the Burmese government, and heads the Cabinet of Burma. The president is elected by members of parliament, not by the general population. The Presidential Electoral College, a three committee body, elects the president. Each of the three committees, made up of Amyotha Hluttaw, Pyithu Hluttaw members of parliament, or military-appointed lawmakers, nominates a candidate for presidency. The candidate with the highest number of votes from the Electoral College is elected president, while the two other candidates become vice-presidents.
The incumbent President is Thein Sein, who has held the post since 30 March 2011.
According to the Constitution of Burma, the President:
Moreover, upon taking oath in office, the President is constitutionally forbidden from taking part in any political party activities (Chapter III, 64).
The President is not directly elected by Burmese voters; instead, he is indirectly elected by the Presidential Electoral College (သမ္မတရွေးချယ်တင်မြှောက်ရေးအဖွဲ့), an electoral body made of three separate committees. One committee
The Governor of Hawaii is the chief executive of the state of Hawaii and its various agencies and departments, as provided in the Hawaii State Constitution Article V, Sections 1 through 6. It is a directly elected position, votes being cast by popular suffrage of residents of the state. The governor is responsible for enforcing laws passed by the Hawaii State Legislature and upholding rulings of the Hawaii State Judiciary. The role includes being commander-in-chief of the armed forces of Hawaii and having the power to use those forces to execute laws, suppress insurrection and violence and repel invasion. The Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii becomes acting governor upon the governor's absence from the state or disability from discharging duties. Historically, the Governor of Hawaii has been from either the Democratic Party of Hawaii or Hawaii Republican Party.
The current Governor of Hawaii is Democrat Neil Abercrombie, who assumed the position on December 6, 2010.
The Governor of Hawaii is limited to two four-year terms. Inauguration takes place on the first Monday in December following a gubernatorial election. A single term ends at noon four years later. There is no lifetime limit
The Governor-General of Ceylon was the representative of the Ceylonese monarch, and head of state, who held the title of Queen/King of Ceylon (as of 1952, Queen Elizabeth II) from 1948 when the country became independent as a Dominion until the country became the republic of Sri Lanka in 1972.
The monarch, on the advice of the Prime Minister, appointed a Governor-General to be his/her representative in Ceylon. Neither the monarch nor the Governor-General had any real authority in conducting the administration of the country (however, both possessed reserve powers under the constitution which would allow them full control of the nation's governance whenever in their opinion a case of emergency requiring such action arises). Real legislative and executive responsibilities rested with the elected representatives of the people. During several periods when a state of emergency was declared the Governor-General used his reserved powers.
The Governor-General represented the Monarch on ceremonial occasions such as the opening of Parliament, the presentation of honours and military parades. Under the Constitution, he was given authority to act in some matters, for example in appointing and
The Governor of Maryland heads the executive branch of the government of Maryland, and he is the commander-in-chief of the state's National Guard units. The Governor is the highest-ranking official in the state, and he has a broad range of appointive powers in both the State and local governments, as specified by the Maryland Constitution. Because of the extent of these constitutional powers, the Governor of Maryland has been ranked as being among the most powerful Governors in the United States.
The current Governor is Martin O'Malley, a Democrat and a former mayor of Baltimore who defeated the Republican incumbent Robert Ehrlich in the November 2006 election. O'Malley won reelection in November 2010, in a rematch against Ehrlich.
Like most state chief executives in the United States, the Governor of Maryland is elected by the citizens of Maryland to serve a four-year term. The Constitution of Maryland prohibits a Governor from serving more than two consecutive terms. However, there is a possibility for a Governor to run again for re-election after remaining out of office for at least one term. An eligible candidate for Governor must be at least 30 years old, and also a resident
The Prime Minister of Denmark (Danish: statsminister; literally "Minister of State") is the head of government in the Kingdom of Denmark. Before the creation of the modern office, Denmark did not have a head of government separate from its head of state, namely the King, in whom the executive authority was vested. The Constitution of 1849 established a constitutional monarchy by limiting the powers of the Monarch and creating the office of premierminister. The inaugural holder of the office is Adam Wilhelm Moltke.
The Prime Minister presides over a cabinet that is formally appointed by the Monarch. In practice, the appointment of the Prime Minister is determined by their support in the Folketing (the national parliament). Since the beginning of the 20th century no single party has held a majority in the Folketing, so the Prime Minister must head a coalition of political parties, as well as their own party. Additionally, only four coalition governments since World War II have enjoyed a majority in the Folketing, so the coalitions (and the Prime Minister) must also gain loose support from other minor parties.
The current Prime Minister of Denmark is Helle Thorning-Schmidt, the first
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (German: Kurfürst) ( listen (help·info)), pl. Kurfürsten, Latin: Princeps Elector were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the King of the Romans or, from the middle of the 16th century onwards, directly the Holy Roman Emperor.
The heir-apparent to a lay prince-elector was known as an electoral prince (German: Kurprinz). The dignity of Elector carried great prestige and was second only to King or Emperor.
The Holy Roman Empire was in theory an elective monarchy, but from the 15th century onwards the electors often merely formalised what was a dynastic succession within the Austrian House of Habsburg, with the title usually passing to the eldest surviving son of the deceased Emperor. Despite this, the office was not legally hereditary, and the heir could not title himself "Emperor" without having been personally elected.
Formally the Prince-Electors elected a King of the Romans, who was elected in Germany but became Holy Roman Emperor only when crowned by the Pope. Charles V was the last to be a crowned Emperor (elected 1519, crowned 1530); his successors were
The President of Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian: Predsednik Srbije i Crne Gore) was the head of state of Serbia and Montenegro. From its establishment in 1992 until 2003, when the country was reconstituted as a confederacy (state union) via constitutional reform, the head of state was known as the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbian: Predsednik Savezne Republike Jugoslavije). With the constitutional reforms of 2003 and the merging of the offices of head of government and head of state, the full title of the president was President of Serbia and Montenegro and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian: Predsednik Srbije i Crne Gore i Predsednik Saveta ministara Srbije i Crne Gore). In 2006 the office was abolished as the state union was dissolved, with Serbia and Montenegro becoming independent countries.
As head of state, the President had the power to
In 2003, the powers of the president were extended to include the right to chair the Council of Ministers and propose the composition of the Council of Ministers to the parliament, effectively merging the powers of the head of government into the office.
From 1992 to 2000, the
Governmental body (if any):Senate of the Philippines
The President of the Senate of the Philippines, or more popularly known as the Senate President, is the presiding officer and the highest ranking-official of the Senate of the Philippines. He/she is elected by the entire body to be their leader. The current Senate President is Juan Ponce Enrile.
The Senate President is second in line in succession for the presidency, behind the Vice President and in front of the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
The Senate President is elected by the majority of the members of the Senate; since there are 24 senators, thirteen votes are needed to win the senate presidency, including any vacant seats or senators not attending the session. Although Senate presidents are elected at the start of each Congress, there had been numerous instances of Senate coups in which a sitting president is unseated in the middle of session.
Unlike most Senate Presidents that are the symbolic presiding officers of the upper house, the Senate President of the Philippines wields considerate power by influencing the legislative agenda and has the ability to vote not just in order to break ties, although the Senate President is traditionally the last senator to vote.
The Prime Minister (Swedish: statsminister, literally "Minister of the State") is the head of government in the Kingdom of Sweden. Before the creation of the office of a Prime Minister in 1876, Sweden did not have a head of government separate from its head of state, namely the King, in whom the executive authority was vested. Louis De Geer, the architect behind the new bicameral Parliament of 1866 that replaced the centuries old Riksdag of the Estates, became the first officeholder in 1876.
The current Prime Minister of Sweden is Fredrik Reinfeldt, leader of the Moderate Party.
Before 1876, when the office of a single prime minister was created, Sweden did not have a head of government separate from the King. Historically though, the most senior member of the Privy Council (during the absolute rule this was the Lord High Chancellor) had certain similarities to the office of a head of government. This was most evident during the so called Age of Liberty from 1718 to 1772, when powers of the Monarch were greatly reduced and the President of the Privy Council became the most powerful political figure in Sweden.
At the adoption of the new Instrument of Government of 1809, the two
According to the Political Constitution of the Free and Sovereign State of Colima, the exercise of the Executive Power of this Mexican entity is placed in a single individual, called the Constitutional Governor of the Free and Sovereign State of Colima who is chosen for a period of 6 years and is not eligible for reelection. The term of governor begins November 1 of the year of the election and finishes October 31 after six years have elapsed.
The state of Colima was created in the year 1853, before during diverse periods of its history was a federal territory or department, by which the denomination of the holder of the Executive Power of the entity suffered various changes.
The individuals that have occupied the Governorship of the State of Colima, have been the following:
For the period 1973–1979 was chosen Antonio Barbosa Heldt that died before taking on the job.
The Office of United States Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was the head of the United States Central Intelligence Agency, the principal intelligence advisor to the President and the National Security Council, and the coordinator of intelligence activities among and between the various United States intelligence agencies (collectively known as the Intelligence Community since 1981).
The office existed from January 1946 to April 2005 and was replaced by Director of National Intelligence (DNI) and Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA).
The post of DCI was established by President Harry Truman on January 23, 1946, with Admiral Sidney Souers being the first DCI, followed by General Hoyt Vandenberg who served as DCI from June 1946 to May 1947. The DCI then ran the Central Intelligence Group (CIG), a predecessor of the CIA. The office of DCI thus predates the establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency. The CIA was created by the National Security Act of 1947, which formally defining the duties of the Director of Central Intelligence. This 1947 Act also created the National Security Council.
Until April 2005, the DCI also served as the de facto director of the
The President of the Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavallan presidentti, Swedish: Republiken Finlands president) is the nation's head of state. Under the Finnish constitution, executive power is vested in the President and the government, with the President possessing only residual powers. The President is elected directly by the people of Finland for a term of six years. Since 1991, no President may be elected for more than two consecutive terms. The President must be a native-born Finnish citizen. The office was established by the Constitution Act of 1919. The current office-holder is Sauli Niinistö.
Officially the head of state is known as the President of the Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavallan presidentti; Swedish: Republiken Finlands president) or, more often, the President of the Republic (tasavallan presidentti, republikens president). This is in contrast to the former presidents, who retain the title "President". In other contexts, the generic term for "President" is puheenjohtaja – except for appeals courts and supreme courts where the term presidentti is used.
Candidates for president can be nominated by registered parties which have received at
The President of Georgia (Georgian: საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი, sakartvelos prezidenti) is the head of state, supreme commander-in-chief and holder of the highest office within the Government of Georgia. Executive power is split between the President and the Prime Minister, who is the head of government. The office was first introduced by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia on April 14, 1991, 5 days after Georgia's declaration of independence from the Soviet Union. The President serves a five-year term. The incumbent is Mikheil Saakashvili.
The President of Georgia is Head of State and the head of executive power. The President directs and implements domestic and foreign policy, ensures the unity and territorial integrity of the country, and supervises the activities of state bodies in accordance, with the Constitution. The President is the supreme representative of Georgia in foreign relations.
The President of Georgia is elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot, for a period of five years. The President may not be elected for more than two consecutive terms. Any citizen of Georgia who has the right to vote and who has attained the age
The President of the Soviet Union (Russian: Президент Советского Союза), officially called President of the USSR (Russian: Президент СССР) or President of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Президент Союза Советских Социалистических Республик) was the Head of State of the USSR from 15 March 1990 to 25 December 1991. Mikhail Gorbachev was the only person to occupy the office. Gorbachev was also General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union between March 1985 and August 1991. He derived an increasingly greater share of his power from his position as president until he finally resigned as General Secretary after the Soviet coup d'état attempt of 1991.
From the mid-1970s on, all effective executive political power was in the hands of the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, with the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet exercising largely symbolic and figurehead duties. Starting with Leonid Brezhnev in 1977, the last four General Secretaries simultaneously served as Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet during their time in office.
During the election of the president several candidates were nominated, among leading
The United States Ambassador to the United Nations is the leader of the U.S. delegation, the U.S. Mission to the United Nations. The position is more formally known as the "Permanent Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, and Representative of the United States of America in the Security Council of the United Nations"; it is also known as the U.S. Permanent Representative, or "Perm Rep", to the United Nations.
The U.S. Permanent Representative, currently Susan Rice, is charged with representing the United States on the U.N. Security Council and during almost all plenary meetings of the General Assembly, except in the rare situation in which a more senior officer of the United States (such as the U.S. Secretary of State or the President of the United States) is present. Like all United States ambassadors, he or she must be nominated by the U.S. President and confirmed by the Senate.
Many prominent U.S. politicians and diplomats have held the post, including Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., Adlai Stevenson, George H. W. Bush, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Andrew Young, Dr. Jeane Kirkpatrick,
The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative in Australia at federal/national level of the Australian monarch (currently Queen Elizabeth II). He or she also exercises the supreme executive power of the Commonwealth. The functions and roles of the Governor-General include appointing ambassadors, ministers and judges, giving Royal Assent to legislation, issuing writs for elections and bestowing honours. The Governor-General is President of the Federal Executive Council and Commander-in-Chief of the Australian Defence Force. All these things are done and all these posts are held under the authority of the Australian Constitution. Further, the Governor-General acts as vice-regal representative to the Australian Capital Territory.
The Constitution provides that a "Governor-General appointed by the Queen shall be Her Majesty's representative in the Commonwealth . . ." The Constitution grants the Governor-General a wide range of powers, but in practice he or she follows the conventions of the Westminster system and (with rare exceptions) acts only on the advice of the Prime Minister of Australia or other ministers. Even in the appointment of the prime
The United States Attorney General (AG) is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. § 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. The attorney general is considered to be the chief lawyer of the U.S. government. The attorney general serves as a member of the president's cabinet, and is one of only two cabinet department heads who are not given the title secretary, besides the now independent postmaster general.
The attorney general is nominated by the President of the United States and takes office after confirmation by the United States Senate. He or she serves at the pleasure of the president and can be removed by the president at any time; the attorney general is also subject to impeachment by the House of Representatives and trial in the Senate for "treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors."
The office of Attorney General was established by Congress by the Judiciary Act of 1789. The original duties of this officer were "to prosecute and conduct all suits in the Supreme Court in which the United States shall be concerned, and to give his advice and opinion upon questions of
Governmental body (if any):State Council of the People's Republic of China
The Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China (simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国国务院总理; traditional Chinese: 中華人民共和國國務院總理; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Guówùyuàn Zŏnglĭ), sometimes also referred to as the "Prime Minister" informally, is the Leader of the State Council of the People's Republic of China (the "Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China" after 1954), who is the head of government and holds the highest-ranking (Level 1) of the Civil service of the People's Republic of China. This position was originally known as Premier of the Government Administration Council of the Central People's Government (Chinese: 中央人民政府政务院总理) and changed to its current name in 1954. The Premier is formally approved by the National People's Congress upon the apparent nomination of the President. In practice, the candidate is recommended by the Politburo of the Communist Party of China. Both the President and the Premier are selected once every five years. The Premier has always been a member of the powerful Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China.
The Premier is the highest administrative position in the Government of the People's
The President of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi President) is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia.
Estonia is a parliamentary republic, therefore the President is mainly a symbolic figurehead and holds no executive power. The President is obliged to suspend his (or her) membership in any political party for the term in office. Upon assuming office, the authority and duties of the President in all other elected or appointed offices terminate automatically. These measures should theoretically help the President to function in a more independent and impartial manner.
The President is elected by the Riigikogu or a special electoral body for a five-year term. The electoral body is convened in case no candidate secures a two-third-majority in the Riigikogu after three rounds of balloting. The electoral body, which consists of all members of the Riigikogu and elected representatives of all local self-governments (at least one representative per each municipality, but not more than 10 representatives depending on the number of citizens with voting rights residing in the municipality), elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest
The Prime Minister of India, as addressed to in the Constitution of India, is the chief of government, chief advisor to the President of India, head of the Council of Ministers and the leader of the majority party in parliament. The Prime Minister leads the executive branch of the Government of India.
The prime minister is the senior member of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. The prime minister selects and can dismiss other members of the cabinet; allocates posts to members within the Government; is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet and is responsible for bringing proposal of legislation. The resignation or death of the Prime Minister dissolves the cabinet.
The Prime Minister is appointed by the President to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive. The incumbent prime minister is Manmohan Singh, in office since 22 May 2004.
India follows a parliamentary system of government. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of the government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state or the head of
Vice President of Iran is defined by article 124 of the Iranian constitution, as anyone appointed by the President to lead an organization related to Presidential affairs. As of July 2009, there are 12 Vice Presidents in Iran. The First Vice President is the most important as he or she leads cabinet meetings in the absence of the president.
While the Constitution of Iran allows for vice presidents, their existence is not obligatory. The President may or may not choose vice presidents. The president may even not have a First Vice President.
The role of First Vice President was created in the revision of the Constitution of Iran in 1989. It took over some of the responsibilities of Prime Minister. According to Article 124, First Vice President will be chairing the board of ministers and coordinate the other vice presidencies, if let by the President. According to Article 131, First Vice President takes over as acting President in cases where the President in incapacitated, but only if permitted by the Supreme Leader. According to the same Article, First Vice President (or anyone serving as acting President) must make sure that a new president is elected in fifty days.
The Governor of Western Australia is the representative in Western Australia of Australia's Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II. The Governor performs important constitutional, ceremonial and community functions, including:
Furthermore, all Bills passed by the Parliament of Western Australia require the Governor's signature before they become Acts and pass into law.
The current Governor of Western Australia is Malcolm McCusker, who was sworn in on 1 July 2011.
The first Australian- (and Western Australian-) born Governor of Western Australia was Sir James Mitchell (appointed 1948). His two successors were British; then came two Australians; but in 1980, another Briton was appointed, Rear-Admiral Sir Richard Trowbridge. His term ended in 1983. He was the last British governor of any Australian state.
For further information on the office of Governor, see Governors of the Australian states.
This is a list of Governors and Lieutenant-Governors of Western Australia.
Stirling was in fact only commissioned as Governor of Western Australia from 4 March 1831, rectifying the absence of a legal instrument providing the authority detailed in Stirling's Instructions of 30 December 1828. Stirling had
Afghanistan has only been a republic between 1973 and 1992 and from 2001 onwards. Before 1973, it was a monarchy that was governed by a variety of kings, emirs or shahs. From 1992 to 2001, during the civil war, the country was recognized as the Islamic State of Afghanistan and the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
The constitution of Afghanistan grants the president wide powers over military and legislative affairs, with a relatively weak national parliament. These were a subject of considerable controversy when debated by the country's loya jirga in December 2003. However, they were seen by the interim administration and its Western backers as being essential to securing the stability of Afghanistan.
The President of Kyrgyzstan is the head of state and the highest official of Kyrgyzstan. The President, according to the constitution, "is the symbol of the unity of people and state power, and is the guarantor of the Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic, and of an individual and citizen." The President is directly elected for no more than two five-year terms by the Kyrgyz electorate. The office of President was established in 1990 replacing the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet that existed, in different forms, from 1927 whilst the country was known as the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic.
The first popularly-elected office-holder was Askar Akayev, who served from October, 1990 until March 24, 2005. In July 2005, Kurmanbek Bakiyev was elected. He was re-elected in 2009, but large riots in April 2010 forced him to resign and flee the country. Roza Otunbayeva was selected in April 2010 to head the interim government. She was officially inaugurated on July 3, 2010 as President, but term limited. Her successor, Almazbek Atambayev, was elected in the Kyrgyzstani presidential election, 2011 and took over on 1 December 2011.
The office of President is open to all citizens of Kyrgyzstan, who
The United States Secretary of Transportation is the head of the United States Department of Transportation, a member of the President's Cabinet, and fourteenth in the Presidential line of succession. The post was created with the formation of the Department of Transportation on October 15, 1966, by President Lyndon B. Johnson's signing of the Department of Transportation Act. The Department's mission is "to develop and coordinate policies that will provide an efficient and economical national transportation system, with due regard for need, the environment, and the national defense." The Secretary of Transportation oversees eleven agencies, including the Federal Aviation Administration, the Federal Highway Administration, and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. In April 2008, Mary Peters launched the official blog of the Secretary of Transportation called The Fast Lane.
The first Secretary of Transportation was Alan Stephenson Boyd, nominated to the post by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson. Ronald Reagan's second Secretary of Transportation, Elizabeth Dole, was the first female holder, and Mary Peters was the second. Gerald Ford's nominee William Thaddeus
The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. The Secretary is a member of the Cabinet and the highest-ranking cabinet secretary both in line of succession and order of precedence. The current Secretary of State is Hillary Rodham Clinton, the 67th person, and third woman to hold the post. The specific duties of the Secretary of State include:
The original duties of the Secretary of State include some domestic duties, such as:
Most of the domestic functions of the Department of State have been transferred to other agencies. Those that remain include storage and use of the Great Seal of the United States, performance of protocol functions for the White House, and the drafting of certain proclamations. The Secretary also negotiates with the individual States over the extradition of fugitives to foreign countries. Under Federal Law , the resignation of a President or of a Vice-President is only valid if declared in writing, in an instrument delivered to the office of the Secretary of State. Accordingly, the resignations of President Nixon and of Vice-President Spiro Agnew, domestic issues, were formalized in
The California Attorney General is the State Attorney General of California. The officer's duty is to ensure that "the laws of the state are uniformly and adequately enforced" (California Constitution, Article V, Section 13.) The Attorney General carries out the responsibilities of the office through the California Department of Justice.
The Attorney General is elected to a four-year term, with a maximum of two terms. The election is held at the same statewide election as the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Controller, Secretary of State, Treasurer, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Insurance Commissioner. The current Attorney General is Kamala Harris, a former San Francisco District Attorney, who has made mortgage relief a significant priority.
According to the state Constitution and the California Government Code, the Attorney General:
For a comprehensive list, see List of Attorneys General of California.
The President of the United States of America (acronym: POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.
Article II of the U.S. Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president and charges him with the execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic, regulatory, and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. Since the founding of the United States, the power of the president and the federal government have grown substantially and each modern president, despite possessing no formal legislative powers beyond signing or vetoing congressionally passed bills, is largely responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of his party and the foreign and domestic policy of the United States. The president is frequently described
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two houses of the United States Congress (bicameral legislature). It is frequently referred to as 'the House'. The other house is the Senate.
The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the United States Constitution. The major power of the House is to pass federal legislation that affects the entire country although its bills must also be passed by the Senate and further agreed to by the U.S. President before becoming law (unless both the House and Senate re-pass the legislation with a two-thirds majority in each chamber). The House has several exclusive powers: the power to initiate revenue bills, to impeach officials, and to elect the U.S. President in case there is no majority in the Electoral College.
Each U.S. state is represented in the House in proportion to its population but is entitled to at least one representative. The most populous state, California, currently has 55 representatives. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. Each representative serves for a two-year term. The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, who presides over the
The Vice President of the People's Republic of China (simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国副主席; traditional Chinese: 中華人民共和國副主席; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Fù Zhǔxí), formerly called Vice Chairman of the People's Republic of China from 1954 to 1975, or abbreviated Guójiā Fù Zhǔxí 国家副主席, literally State Vice-chairman) is a senior position in the government of the People's Republic of China.
The office was created by the 1982 constitution. Formally, the Vice President is elected by the National People's Congress in accordance with Article 62 of the Constitution. In practice, this election falls into the category of 'single-candidate' elections. The candidate is recommended by the Presidium of the National People's Congress, which also theoretically has the power to recall the Vice President.
By law, the Vice President must be a Chinese citizen of 45 years of age or older. He or she cannot serve for over two terms, a term being the equivalent of one session of the NPC, which is five years.
The Vice President's duties include assisting the President, and replacing him should he resign or die in office. In reality the position of the Vice-President is basically ceremonial, and only until
The Governor of the State of New York is the chief executive of the state of New York. The governor is the head of the executive branch of New York's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military and naval forces. The officeholder is afforded the courtesy title of His/Her Excellency while in office.
The current governor is Andrew Cuomo, a Democrat. Cuomo won the November 2010 gubernatorial election and was sworn in as the 56th governor of the state of New York on January 1, 2011.
The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the New York State Legislature, to convene the legislature, and to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.
The governor of New York is often considered a potential candidate for President. Ten governors have been major-party candidates for president, and six - including Martin Van Buren, Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, and Franklin D. Roosevelt - have won. Six New York governors have gone on to serve as vice president. Additionally two Governors of New York, John Jay and Charles Evans Hughes, have served as Chief Justice of the United States.
The office of
The governor of the Argentine province of Santa Fe is the highest executive officeholder of the province.
According to the provincial constitution (sanctioned in 1962), the governor is elected by the simple majority of the popular vote, along with a vice governor, for a four-year term, and cannot be reelected consecutively. He or she must be a native Argentine citizen or the child of a native citizen, and must either have been born in the province or resided there continuously during the two years prior to the election.
The current governor of Santa Fe is the socialist Hermes Binner, who was elected on September 3, 2007. See Governors of Santa Fe for other governors.
Former Formula One driver Carlos Reutemann was governor in two terms from 1991-1995 and also from 1999-2003.
The Governor of South Dakota is the head of the executive branch of the government of South Dakota. They are elected to a four year term on even years when there is no Presidential election. The current governor is Dennis Daugaard, a Republican elected in 2010.
The governor holds numerous powers and duties, which in many ways are analogous to those held by the President of the United States:
From 1889 until 1974, the governor served a two-year term. Until the 1940s, the governor was allowed to serve unlimited terms; since that time, governors have been limited to two consecutive terms. Beginning in 1974, the governor is elected to a four-year term, and may serve two consecutive terms. The governor is elected on a ticket with the Lieutenant Governor.
The first governor of South Dakota was Arthur C. Mellette, who was also the last governor of the Dakota Territory.
Two of South Dakota's governors have left office before their term expired. In 1978, Richard F. Kneip resigned office six months before the expiration of his term to accept an appointment as United States Ambassador to Singapore. On April 19, 1993, George S. Mickelson was killed in a plane crash near Dubuque, Iowa;
The Governor of Tasmania is the representative in the Australian state of Tasmania of Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. The Governor performs the same constitutional and ceremonial functions at the state level as the Governor-General of Australia does at the national level.
In accordance with the conventions of the Westminster system of parliamentary government, the Governor nearly always acts solely on the advice of the head of the elected government, the Premier of Tasmania. Nevertheless, the Governor retains the reserve powers of the Crown, and has the right to dismiss the Premier.
See Governors of the Australian states for a description and history of the office of Governor.
The official residence of the Governor is Government House located at the Queens Domain.
Two internationally famous Governors of Tasmania were Captain Sir John Franklin (the British mariner who would later die trying to find the North West Passage), and former UNSCOM weapons inspector Richard Butler.
The first Australian-born Governor of Tasmania was Sir Stanley Burbury (appointed 1973). The first Tasmanian-born governor was Sir Guy Green (appointed 1995). Since Burbury, all Tasmanian governors have been
The president of the Xunta of Galicia (Galician: Presidente da Xunta de Galicia, Spanish: Presidente de la Xunta de Galicia), usually known in English as the Galician regional president, is the head of government of Galicia. The president leads the executive branch of the regional government.
The current office is established under the Galician Statute of Autonomy. It is presently occupied by Alberto Núñez Feijóo.
The President of the Republic of China (traditional Chinese: 中華民國總統; simplified Chinese: 中华民国总统; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Zǒngtǒng) is the head of state and commander-in-chief of the government of the Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as Taiwan. The Republic of China was founded on January 1, 1912, to govern all of China. As a consequence of the World War II and the Chinese Civil War, however, the ROC lost control of mainland China to the Chinese communist party which founded the People's Republic of China (PRC) while gaining and maintaining control of Taiwan island, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other islands. The People's Republic of China has repeatedly attempted to claim Taiwan as its own territory and refuses to recognize its government and president. In response, this claim is rejected by the government of the Republic of China, which views itself as an independent sovereign country and equally refuses to recognize the existence of the mainland People's Republic of China.
The existing office was created in 1948 under the 1947 Constitution of the Republic of China.
When the Republic of China was founded in 1912, Sun Yat-sen was elected as the first "provisional president"
The Prime Minister of Burma was the head of government of Burma, also called Myanmar, from 1948 to 2011.
The position of Prime Minister was created in 1948, when Burma gained independence from the United Kingdom. Since then, eleven people have held the office (with two of them doing so on multiple occasions). Due to the country's long period of military rule, it has not been uncommon for the Prime Minister to be a serving (or recently retired) military officer.
The actual power of the Prime Minister has considerably varied over time, differing based on who holds the office. In 2004, a power struggle between the then head of state, Senior General Than Shwe, Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council, and his Prime Minister General Khin Nyunt resulted in the Prime Minister being dismissed and arrested.
The position was abolished on 30 March 2011, according to the current Constitution (adopted in 2008). It provided that the President is both the head of state and head of government.
(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)
The position of Secretary of State for War, commonly called War Secretary, was a British cabinet-level position, first held by Henry Dundas (appointed in 1794). In 1801 the post became that of Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. The position was re-instated in 1854. In 1946, with the creation of a cabinet level Minister of Defence separate from the prime minister, it ceased to be a cabinet position, and the office was abolished (along with that of First Lord of the Admiralty and Secretary of State for Air) on 1 April 1964, when the cabinet position was replaced by the Secretary of State for Defence - in charge of a new united Ministry of Defence.
The Secretary of State headed the War Office and was assisted by a Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for War, a Parliamentary Private Secretary who was also a Member of Parliament, and a Military Secretary, who was a general.
For 1801-1854 see Secretary of State for War and the Colonies.
Governmental body (if any):Supreme Court of the United States
The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the United States federal court system (the judicial branch of the federal government of the United States) and the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States. The Chief Justice is one of nine Supreme Court justices; the other eight are the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. From 1789 until 1866, the office was known as the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
The Chief Justice is the highest judicial officer in the country, and acts as a chief administrative officer for the federal courts and appoints the director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts. The Chief Justice also serves as a spokesperson for the judicial branch.
The Chief Justice leads the business of the Supreme Court. He or she presides over oral arguments before the Court. When the Court renders an opinion, the Chief Justice—when in the majority—decides who writes the Court's opinion. The Chief Justice also has significant agenda-setting power over the Court's meetings. In the case of an impeachment of a President of the United States, which has occurred twice, the Chief Justice presides over the trial in
The Deputy Prime Minister of Australia is the second-most senior officer in the Government of Australia. The office of Deputy Prime Minister was created as a ministerial portfolio in 1968. The Deputy Prime Minister is appointed by the Governor-General on the advice of the Prime Minister.
The current Deputy Prime Minister is Labor politician Wayne Swan.
The sworn office of Deputy Prime Minister was created in January 1968, as an honour for John McEwen, the long-serving leader of the Country Party (later renamed the National Party) and the immediately preceding caretaker Prime Minister. Prior to that time the term was used unofficially for the second-highest ranking minister in the government.
In Labor governments, the Deputy Prime Minister is the party's deputy leader. In Liberal-National Coalition governments, the position has been held by the Leader of the National Party or its predecessors.
In November 2007, the Australian Labor Party won government and Julia Gillard became Australia's first female, and first foreign-born, Deputy Prime Minister.
Since the formalisation of the office only two Deputy Prime Ministers have gone on to become Prime Minister: Paul Keating and Julia
The President of the Philippines (Filipino: Pangulo ng Pilipinas) is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The President of the Philippines in Filipino is referred to as Ang Pangulo or Pangulo (or informally, "Presidente").
Depending on the definition chosen for these terms, a number of persons could alternatively be considered the inaugural holder of the office. Andres Bonifacio is considered by some historians to be the de facto first President of the Philippines. He was the third Supreme President (Spanish: Presidente Supremo; Tagalog: Kataastaasang Pangulo) of the Katipunan secret society. Its Supreme Council, led by the Supreme President, coordinated provincial and district councils. When the Katipunan went into open revolt in August 1896, Bonifacio had transformed it into a de facto revolutionary government with him as President. While the term Katipunan remained, Bonifacio's government was also known as the Tagalog Republic (Spanish: República Tagala). Although the word Tagalog refers to a specific ethnicity,
President of Zimbabwe Rhodesia was a short-lived office in the Republic of Zimbabwe Rhodesia. It was never internationally recognized.
The only President of Zimbabwe Rhodesia was Josiah Zion Gumede who ruled from 1 June 1979 until 12 December 1979 when the country was taken into administration.
United African National Council
The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (Russian: Председатель Правительства Российской Федерации), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister (Russian: Премьер-министр) is the second most powerful official of the Russian Federation, who, under Article 24 of the Federal Constitutional Law On the Government of the Russian Federation, "heads the Government of the Russian Federation".
The use of the term "Prime Minister" is strictly informal and is not allowed for by the Russian Constitution and other laws.
Due to the central role of the President of Russia in the political system, the activities of the executive branch (including the Prime Minister) are significantly influenced by the head of state (for example, it is the President who appoints and dismisses the Prime Minister and other members of the Government; the President may chair the meetings of the cabinet and give obligatory orders to the Prime Minister and other members of the Government, the President may also revoke any act of the Government).
During the Imperial era, the Chairman of the Russian Council of Ministers, referred to as the prime minister, was appointed by the Emperor; his precursor, the
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore is the head of the government of the Republic of Singapore. The President of Singapore appoints as Prime Minister a Member of Parliament (MP) who, in his opinion, is most likely to command the confidence of a majority of MPs.
The office of Prime Minister dates back to 1959 and was appointed at first by the Governor of Singapore then the Yang di-Pertuan Negara (vice-regal head of state), when Singapore achieved self-governance as the State of Singapore within the British Empire. The title of Prime Minister remained unchanged after the merger with the Federation of Malaya, Sarawak and British North Borneo, while Singapore was a state in the Federation of Malaysia from 1963 to 1965, and after independence in 1965.
Lee Kuan Yew was the first prime minister of Singapore from 1959 to 1990 and retired on 26 November 1990. Lee was succeeded by Goh Chok Tong and was conferred the title of Senior Minister in the Prime Minister's Office. Goh retired on 12 August 2004 and was succeeded by Lee Kuan Yew's son Lee Hsien Loong. Goh was appointed Senior Minister, and the elder Lee Minister Mentor.
The role of Deputy Prime Minister is the second
The Prime Minister of Spain, known in Spanish politics as the President of the Government of Spain (Spanish: Presidente del Gobierno de España), is the head of Government of Spain. The current office is established under the Constitution of 1978. The King of Spain nominates a candidate for the presidency who stands before the Congress of Deputies for a Vote of Confidence in a process known as a Congressional Investiture, effectively an indirect election of the head of government by the elected Congressional delegates.
Mariano Rajoy Brey of the People's Party has been the prime minister since he was sworn in on December 21, 2011, after winning the 2011 general election.
The Spanish head of government is known, in Spanish, as the Presidente del Gobierno de España. Literally translated, the title is "President of the Government of Spain" or alternatively "Chairman of the Government", but nevertheless the office-holder is commonly referred to in English as the "prime minister", the usual term for the head of government in a parliamentary system. However the Spanish for 'prime minister' is primer ministro; thus, for example, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the Primer
The Vice President of the Republic of Liberia is the second-highest executive official in Liberia, and one of only two elected executive offices along with the President. The Vice President is elected on the same ticket with the president to a six-year term. In the event of the death, resignation or removal of the president, the Vice President ascends to the presidency, which he or she holds for the remainder of their predecessor's term. The Vice President also serves as the President of the Senate and may cast a vote in the event of a tie. The current Vice President is Joseph Boakai, serving under President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. He began his term on January 16, 2006.
Article 52 of the Constitution lays out the qualifications for candidates for vice president. To be eligible for office under the current Constitution, a vice presidential candidate must:
Additionally, the vice president may not reside in the same county as the president.
Under Article 63(b), the Vice President ascends to the presidency in the event of president's death, resignation, impeachment, or when the president is declared incapable of carrying out the duties of the office. In the event of ascension, the Vice
The Governor of Michigan is the chief executive of the U.S. State of Michigan. The current Governor is Rick Snyder, a member of the Republican Party.
From statehood until the election of 1966, governors were elected to two-year terms. Elections are held in November and the governor assumes office the following January, except in the case of death or resignation. From statehood until 1851, elections were held in odd-numbered years. A new state constitution was drafted in 1850 and took effect in 1851. As part of the process bringing the constitution into effect, there was a single one-year term of governor in 1851. Thereafter elections were held on even years.
The constitution adopted in 1963 changed the governor's term to four years, starting in 1967. Since then, gubernatorial elections have been offset by two years from U.S. Presidential elections (e.g., Presidential elections were in 2000 and 2004, gubernatorial elections were in 1998 and 2002). The winner of the gubernatorial election takes office at noon on January 1 of the year following the election.
In 1992, an amendment to the Michigan constitution imposed a lifetime term limit of two four-year terms for the office of
The governor of Nebraska holds the "supreme executive power" of the state of Nebraska as provided by the fourth article of the Nebraska Constitution. The current governor is Dave Heineman, a Republican, who assumed office on January 20, 2005, upon the resignation of Mike Johanns (who had been appointed United States Secretary of Agriculture). He won a full term in 2006. The current lieutenant governor is Rick Sheehy.
Governors of Nebraska must be at least 30 years old and have been citizens and residents of the state for five years before being elected. Before 1966, the governor was elected to a two-year term. The state constitution was amended in a 1962 referendum so that beginning with the 1966 election, the governor would be elected to a four-year term; in 1966, this was further amended to place a term limit of two consecutive terms. The lieutenant governor is subject to the same limitations and runs on a combined ticket with the governor. Governors are limited to two consecutive terms but there is no limit on the total number of terms one may serve.
If the governor becomes incapacitated or is out of the state, the Lieutenant Governor acts as Governor; if there is a vacancy or
The Minister for Justice and Equality (Irish: An tAire Dlí agus Cirt agus Comhionannais) is the senior minister at the Department of Justice and Equality in the Government of Ireland.
The current Minister for Justice and Equality is Alan Shatter, TD. He is assisted by:
The Minister has overall responsibility for law and order in Ireland. From 1919 until 1923 the holder of the justice portfolio was known as the Minister for Home Affairs. In 1997, the portfolio of the then-Minister for Justice was amalgamated with that of the Minister for Equality and Law Reform to create a Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform, a position which was retained until 2010.
The Minister's and the Department's main areas of responsibility include:
The President of the French Republic (French: Président de la République française ; French pronunciation: [pʁe.zi.dɑ̃.d(ə).la.ʁe.py.blik.fʁɑ̃'sɛz]) colloquially referred to in English as the President of France, is the head of state, supreme commander-in-chief of the French Armed Forces and holder of the highest office within the Republic of France.
Four of France's five republics have had presidents as their heads of state, making the French presidency the oldest presidency in Europe still to exist in some form. In each of the republics' constitutions, the president's powers, functions and duties, and their relation with French governments differed.
The president of France is also the ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra, Grand Master of the Légion d'honneur and the Ordre national du Mérite and honorary proto-canon of the Basilica of St. John Lateran in Rome.
The current President of the Republic is François Hollande, who took office on 15 May 2012.
Since the Referendum on the Direct Election of the President of the French Republic, 1962, the President has been directly elected by universal suffrage; he or she was previously elected by an electoral college.
After the Referendum on the
The Vice President of the Confederate States of America was an office held by Alexander Stephens of Georgia, who served under President Jefferson Davis of Mississippi from February 18, 1861 to May 11, 1865. Having first been elected by the Confederate Congress, both were considered provisional office-holders until they won the general election of November 6, 1861 without opposition.
According to the Confederate States Constitution, the Vice President's office was almost entirely identical to that of the Vice President of the United States .
The Vice President was elected by an electoral college (closely modeled after the U.S. Electoral College) along with the President. If no candidate won a majority in the Electoral College, the Confederate Senate would elect the Vice President from the top two vote-getters. Candidates for President and Vice President could not be citizens of the same state. Like the President, the Vice President had to be a natural-born citizen of the Confederacy or a natural-born citizen of the U.S. born prior to December 20, 1860, and a resident in the Confederacy for over 14 years.
The major difference between the U.S. and the Confederate Vice Presidencies
The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, United States. The current Governor is Democrat Deval Patrick. The next election will be 2014.
Part the Second, Chapter II, Section I, Article I of the Massachusetts Constitution reads,
The Governor of Massachusetts is the chief executive of the Commonwealth, and is supported by a number of subordinate officers. He, like most other state officers, senators, and representatives, was originally elected annually. In 1918 this was changed to a two-year term, and since 1966 the office of Governor has carried a four-year term. The Governor of Massachusetts does not receive a palace, other official residence, or housing allowance. Instead, he resides in his own private residence. The title "His Excellency" is a throwback to the royally-appointed Governors of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. The first Governor to use the title was Richard Coote, 1st Earl of Bellomont in 1699; since he was an Earl, it was thought proper to call him "Your Excellency." The title was retained until 1742, when an order from King George II forbade its further use. However, the framers of the
The Mayor of the City and County of San Francisco is the head of the executive branch of the San Francisco city and county government. The mayor has the duty to enforce city laws, and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, the legislative branch. The mayor serves a four-year term and is limited to two successive terms. Because of San Francisco's status as a consolidated city–county, the mayor also serves as the head of government of the county; both entities have been governed together by a combined set of governing bodies since 1856.
There have been 42 individuals sworn into office. John W. Geary, elected in 1850, was the first mayor of the city. Charles James Brenham, who served as mayor during the 1850s, is the only person who has served two non-consecutive terms. The previous mayor, Gavin Newsom resigned to become the Lieutenant Governor of California on January 10, 2011. Ed Lee was appointed by the Board of Supervisors on the following day to finish out Newsom's term. Lee was elected to his own term on November 8, 2011
The mayor of San Francisco is elected every four years; elections take place one year before United States
The President of the State of Israel (Hebrew: נשיא המדינה, Nesi HaMedina, lit. President of the State; Arabic: رئيس الدولة) is the head of state of Israel. The position is largely an apolitical ceremonial figurehead role, with the real executive power lying in the hands of the Prime Minister. The current president is Shimon Peres who took office on 15 July 2007. Presidents are elected by the Knesset for a seven year term, and are limited to a single term.
The president is elected by an absolute majority in the Knesset. If no candidate has received an absolute majority by the third round of voting, a simple majority is sufficient. When electing the president, Knesset members vote by secret ballot. The president is elected to a term of seven years, and cannot be re-elected for a second term. Until recently, the president was elected for a five-year term, and was allowed to serve up to two terms in office.
Any Israeli citizen who is a resident of the State is eligible to run for President. The office falls vacant upon completion of a term, resignation, or the decision of three-quarters of the Knesset to remove the president on grounds of misconduct or incapacity. Presidential tenure
Governmental body (if any):Australian House of Representatives
The Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of Australia is the highest minister of the Crown, leader of the Cabinet and head of government, holding office on commission from the Governor-General of Australia. The office of Prime Minister is, in practice, the most powerful political office in Australia. Despite being at the apex of executive government in the country, the office is not mentioned in the Constitution of Australia specifically and exists through an unwritten political convention.
Barring exceptional circumstances, the prime minister is always the leader of the political party or coalition with majority support in the House of Representatives. The only case where a senator was appointed prime minister was that of John Gorton, who subsequently resigned his Senate position and was elected as a member of the House of Representatives (Senator George Pearce was acting prime minister for seven months in 1916 while Billy Hughes was overseas).
Julia Gillard is the current Prime Minister, leader of the Australian Labor Party, and the first female Prime Minister of Australia.
The Prime Minister of Australia is appointed by the Governor-General of Australia under Section 64 of the
The president of the Czech Republic is the head of state of the Czech Republic. Unlike his counterparts in Austria and Hungary, who are generally considered figureheads, the Czech president has a considerable role in political affairs. Because many of his powers can only be exercised with the signatures of both himself and the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, responsibility over some political issues is effectively shared between the two offices.
The framers of the Constitution of the Czech Republic intended to set up a parliamentary system, with the prime minister as the country's leading political figure and de facto chief executive and the president as a ceremonial head of state. However, the stature of the first president, Vaclav Havel, was such that the office acquired greater influence than the framers intended.
The President of the Czech Republic has the authority to act independently in a number of substantive areas. One of his strongest powers is that of veto, by which he can return a bill to parliament. Although his veto may be overridden by parliament, his ability to refuse to sign legislation acts as a check on the power of the legislature. The only kind of bills a
The Governor (Russian: градоначальник) of Taganrog was the head of the Taganrog borough or governorate (incorporated municipality with privileges given by royal charter), between October 8, 1802 and May 19, 1887.
Taganrog was also the center of uezd (including the cities of Rostov on Don, Nakhichevan on Don and Mariupol) from 1816 to 1834. Rostov was subordinated to Yekaterinoslav Governorate in 1834, while Nakhichevan and Mariupol remained within Taganrog's governorate until 1859.
By the end of the 18th century, Taganrog lost its importance as a military base with Crimea and Azov Sea being under command of Imperial Russia. The cities on Black Sea and Azov Sea transformed into important trade centers. The trade development demanded new measures and Alexander I of Russia introduced the office of governors (градоначальник) who were in direct contact with H.I.M. The governorships (in different periods of time) were introduced in four Russian cities: Odessa, Taganrog, Feodosiya and Kerch. The emperor appointed to this post dynamic people with initiative. The post co-existed with the Head of the City or mayor (Russian: городской голова) and helped to develop trade and raise well-being
The Governor-General of New Zealand (Māori: 'Te Kāwana Tianara o Aotearoa') is the representative of the monarch of New Zealand (currently Queen Elizabeth II). The governor-general acts as the Queen's vice-regal representative in New Zealand and is often viewed as the de facto head of state.
The Constitution Act 1986 provides that a "Governor-General appointed by the Sovereign is the Sovereign's representative in New Zealand." There is no specific term, but by convention the Governor-General usually serves for approximately five years. The office's full title is: the Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Realm of New Zealand.
The functions and roles of the governor-general are set out in letters patent issued in 1983 (amended in 2006) and include: appointing ministers and judges, dissolving parliament, granting Royal Assent to legislation, issuing writs for elections and bestowing honours. All the governor-general's duties are carried out in the name of the Queen. As of 1 April 2011, the governor-general is paid a salary of NZ$210,309.00.
Beyond constitutional functions, the governor-general has an important ceremonial role. He or she travels widely throughout New Zealand
The Lord President of the Council is the fourth of the Great Officers of State of the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord High Treasurer and above the Lord Privy Seal. The Lord President usually attends each meeting of the Privy Council, presenting business for the monarch's approval. In the modern era, the holder is by convention always a member of one of the houses of Parliament and the office is a Cabinet post. The current Lord President is Nick Clegg MP, who is also Deputy Prime Minister.
The Privy Council meets once a month, wherever the Sovereign may be residing at the time, to give formal approval to Orders in Council. Only a few Privy Counsellors need attend such meetings, and only when invited to do so at the Government's request. As the duties of the Lord President are not onerous, the post has often been given to a government minister whose responsibilities are not department-specific. In recent years it has been most usual for the Lord President to also serve as Leader of the House of Commons or Leader of the House of Lords.
Prior to the 2010 change of government, the Lord President was Lord Mandelson, who was also First Secretary of State and Secretary of State
The President of Iraq is the head of state of Iraq and "safeguards the commitment to the Constitution and the preservation of Iraq's independence, sovereignty, unity, the security of its territories in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution." The President is elected by the Council of Representatives by a two-thirds majority, and is limited to two four-year terms. The President ratifies treaties and laws passed by the Council of Representatives, issues pardons on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, and performs the "duty of the Higher Command of the armed forces for ceremonial and honorary purposes."
The Prime Minister of Laos is the head of government of the People's Democratic Republic of Laos.
Between December 1959 to December 1960, Laos had six different Prime Ministers, who were ousted by six successive political coups.
The Prime Minister of South Africa (Afrikaans: Premier or Eerste Minister van Suid-Afrika) was the head of government in South Africa between 1910 and 1984, as the leader of the largest party in the House of Assembly.
The South African monarch was the head of state, until 1961, when the non-executive State President of South Africa assumed that role, following South Africa's departure from the Commonwealth of Nations, and the establishment of a republic.
The position of Prime Minister was abolished in 1984, when the State President was given executive powers after a new constitution was adopted. After 1994, the President's position was infused with many of the dependencies of the former Prime Minister's position.
In post-Apartheid South Africa, the Inkatha Freedom Party has called for a return to Westminster-style split executive with a Prime Minister, as part of its overarching goal of avoiding a single party South African state.
South African Party
The office of United States Ambassador (or formerly Minister/Envoy Extraordinary) to the United Kingdom (known formally as Ambassador to the Court of St. James's) was traditionally, and still is very much so today due to the Special Relationship, the most prestigious position in the United States Foreign Service. The ambassadorship has been held by various notable politicians, including five who would later become presidents: John Adams, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Martin Van Buren and James Buchanan.
The ambassador and the embassy staff at large work at the American Embassy in Grosvenor Square, London. The official residence of the Ambassador of the United States of America to the Court of St. James's is Winfield House in Regent's Park.
Note: John Adams became so frustrated with his cool reception at the court that he closed the legation in 1788 and the post remained vacant for four years.
Note: The United States severed relations with the United Kingdom on the outbreak of the War of 1812 – Normal relations were restored in 1815.
The Vice President of India is the second-highest office in India, after the President. The Vice President is elected indirectly by an electoral college consisting members of both houses of the Parliament. The Vice President would ascend to the Presidency upon the death, resignation, impeachment, or other situations leading to the vacancy in the Office of President. The normal function of the Vice President is to serve as the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
The current Vice President of India is Hamid Ansari, since 11 August 2007, and re-elected on 7 August 2012 with the appointment by the President of India Pranab Mukherjee.
The Constitution provides that should "there occur a vacancy in the office of the President by reason of his death, resignation, removal or otherwise, the Vice President shall act as President until a new President is elected and enters upon his office" (Article 65(1)). After 1957,as per revised protocol the second highest post in India is of vice president which previously belonged to the prime minister of India. If the vacancy is going to be caused by a regular expiration of the term of the President, elections have to be completed before the term expires. Even
The Governor of Oregon is the top executive of the government of the U.S. state of Oregon. The title of governor was also applied to the office of Oregon's chief executive during the provisional and U.S. territorial governments.
The current governor of Oregon is John Kitzhaber, a Democrat, who also served two terms from 1995 to 2003. The Governor's current salary was set by the 2001 Oregon Legislature at $93,600 annually, seventh lowest in the nation.
Article V of the Oregon State Constitution sets up the legal framework of the Oregon Executive Branch.
Article V, Section 1 states that the governor must be a U.S. citizen, at least 30 years old, and a resident of Oregon for at least three years before the candidate's election. Section 2 extends ineligibility to the following:
Article V, sections 4-7, outline the formal gubernatorial election procedures such as publishing the winner, ties, disputed elections, and terms of office.
Governors are elected by popular ballot and serve terms of four years, limited to two consecutive terms in office, with no limit on the number of total terms.
The formal process of certification of results of a gubernatorial election ends when the Secretary
The Prime Minister of Zimbabwe is the head of government in Zimbabwe. From 1980 to 1987, Robert Mugabe was the first person to hold the position following independence from the United Kingdom. He took office when Rhodesia became the Republic of Zimbabwe on 18 April 1980. This position was abolished when the constitution was amended in 1987 and Mugabe became President of Zimbabwe, both the head of state and the head of government.
In the wake of the electoral violence and controversy surrounding the 2008 presidential election and later run-off, negotiations between Mugabe's ZANU-PF and rival candidate Morgan Tsvangirai's MDC-T led to a power-sharing agreement in September 2008, providing for the restoration of the office of Prime Minister. Mr Tsvangirai was sworn into the office of Prime Minister on 11 February 2009. The post will hold executive powers, but not the full executive powers it held during the 1980s. For instance, the prime minister will chair the council of ministers and is the Deputy Chairperson of Cabinet and also oversees the formulation of government policies by the Cabinet, but the president will remain head of the cabinet. In addition, the prime minister is a
The Australian Minister for Climate Change and Energy Efficiency is Greg Combet. Penny Wong was the first minister with this title, appointed on 3 December 2007 and amended on 26 February 2010. The Minister administers his portfolio through the Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency.
The President of Croatia (Croatian: Predsjednik Hrvatske), officially styled the President of the Republic (Croatian: Predsjednik Republike) represents the Republic of Croatia in the country and abroad as the head of state, maintains the regular and coordinated operation and stability of the national government system, and safeguards the independence and territorial integrity of the country. The president calls elections for the Parliament of Croatia (Croatian: Hrvatski Sabor) as well as referenda. The president also appoints prime ministers on the basis of the balance of power in the parliament, grants pardons and awards decorations and other state awards. The President of Croatia and the government cooperate in the area of foreign policy, and the president is the commander-in-chief of the Croatian armed forces while directing the operation of the Croatian security and intelligence system jointly with the government. The president may dissolve the parliament as provided by the constitution. Although enjoying immunity, the president is impeachable for any violation of the constitution. In case of incapacitation to discharge duties of office, the Speaker of the parliament assumes
The Deputy Secretary of Defense (acronym: DEPSECDEF) is a statutory office (10 U.S.C. § 132) and the second-highest ranking official in the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Deputy Secretary is the principal civilian deputy to the Secretary of Defense, and is appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Deputy Secretary, by statute, must be a civilian, at least seven years removed from service as a commissioned officer on active-duty at the date of appointment.
The Deputy Secretary of Defense position is currently held by Ashton B. Carter.
Public Law 81-36, 2 April 1949, originally established this position as the Under Secretary of Defense, however Public Law 81-2 16, August 10, 1949, a.k.a. the 1949 Amendments to the National Security Act of 1947, changed the title to Deputy Secretary of Defense. Former Assistant to President Franklin D. Roosevelt Stephen Early became the first officer holder when he was sworn-in on May 2, 1949.
Public Law 92-596, October 27, 1972, established a Second Deputy Secretary of Defense position, with both deputies performing duties as prescribed by the Secretary of Defense. The second deputy
The Vice President of the Philippines (Filipino: Pangalawang Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally, "Ang Pangalawang Pangulo" or "Bise Presidente" derived from Spanish. It is the second-highest executive official of the government of the Philippines, after the President. The official residence and office of the Vice President of the Philippines is the Coconut Palace, CCP Complex, Pasay.
The Vice President is the first in the Philippine line of succession, assuming the Presidency upon the death, resignation, or removal by impeachment and subsequent conviction of the incumbent. The position was abolished by Martial Law in 1972, and was not included in the original text of the 1973 Constitution. Amendments to this version restored the position in time for the "snap" elections of 1986. The present constitution retains the position.
Unlike other countries, the Vice President has no official responsibilities other than those assigned by the incumbent President. Traditions governing the position date back to the Commonwealth of the Philippines, and its inaugural holder, Sergio Osmeña (while there was a similarly named position in governments prior to the First Philippine Republic, the
The governor of the state of Oklahoma is the head of state for the state of Oklahoma, United States. Under the Oklahoma Constitution, the governor is also the head of government, serving as the chief executive of the Oklahoma executive branch, of the government of Oklahoma. The governor is the ex officio Commander-in-Chief of the Oklahoma National Guard when not called into federal use. Despite being an executive branch official, the governor also possesses legislative and judicial powers. The governor's responsibilities include making yearly "State of the State" addresses to the Oklahoma Legislature, submitting the annual state budget, ensuring that state laws are enforced, and that the peace is preserved.
The office was created in 1907 when Oklahoma was officially admitted to the United States as the 46th state. Prior to statehood in 1907, the office was preceded by a Presidential appointed Governor of Oklahoma Territory with similar powers.
The 27th and current Governor of Oklahoma is Mary Fallin.
Before statehood in 1907, modern day Oklahoma was composed of Oklahoma and Indian Territories. While Indian Territory remained under the semi-independence of the Indian nations,
The President of Romania is the head of state of Romania. The President is directly elected by a two-round system for a five-year term (since 2004, after the Constitution was modified in 2003). An individual may serve two terms. During his/her term in office, the President may not be a member of any political party. The President of Romania names the Prime Minister after consulting the political parties in the Parliament; if his proposal is turned down by the Parliament twice in 60 days, the President can dissolve the Parliament and call for early elections, unless he is in the final 6 months of his term. The President only names the Prime Minister and cannot dismiss him from office, but can refuse naming of members of the cabinet once.
The current President of Romania is Traian Băsescu, since 20 December 2004. On 20 April 2007 he was suspended. He re-assumed the office on 23 May 2007 after the Referendum held on 19 May 2007. He was re-elected on 6 December 2009 for a second 5-year term that started on 21 December 2009, and suspended again on 6 July 2012, with President of the Senate Crin Antonescu assuming acting presidency. The referendum on Traian Basescu's dismissal was held on
The Office of the Secretary of State of Vermont is located at 128 State Street.
The Secretary of State of Vermont is one of five cabinet-level constitutional officers in the U.S. state of Vermont which are elected every two years. The Office of the Secretary of State is located at 128 State St. in Montpelier. The current Secretary of State is James C. Condos, a Democrat.
The agency, headed by the Vermont Secretary of State, manages several divisions and departments including:
The Secretary of State's Office is also responsible for the filing and publication of administrative rules by all state agencies.
The Holy Roman Emperor (German: Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser, "Roman-German Emperor"; Latin: Imperator Romanus Sacer) is a term used by historians to denote a medieval ruler who had also received the title of "Emperor of the Romans" from the Pope. After the 16th century, this elected monarch governed the Holy Roman Empire (later called Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation), a Central European union of territories of the Medieval and Early Modern period. A medieval Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares (first among equals) among the other medieval Roman Catholic monarchs; he was the "Senior Monarch in (Catholic) Christendom" and the "secular arm of the Catholic Church".
The title of Emperor (Imperator) carried with it an important role as protector of the Catholic Church. As the papacy's power grew during the Middle Ages, Popes and emperors came into conflict over church administration. The best-known and bitterest conflict was that known as the Investiture Controversy, fought during the 11th century between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII.
After Charlemagne was crowned Roman Emperor by the Pope, his successors maintained the title until the death of Berengar I of Italy in 924. No
The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the Home Office of the United Kingdom, and one of the country's four Great Offices of State. The Home Secretary is responsible for internal affairs within England and Wales, and for immigration and citizenship for the whole of the United Kingdom: that is Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The remit of the department also includes policing and matters of national security, as the Security Service, MI5, is directly accountable to the Home Secretary. Until 2005, the Home Secretary was the minister responsible for prisons and probation, however that was transferred to the newly-created Ministry of Justice. The current Home Secretary is The Rt Hon. Theresa May, MP appointed on 12 May 2010 to serve in the Conservative-Liberal Democratic coalition government.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater") is the highest-ranking officer in the municipal government of a town or a large urban city.
In many municipal systems the mayor serves as chief executive officer and/or ceremonial official of many types of municipalities. Worldwide, there is a wide variance in local laws and customs regarding the powers and responsibilities of a mayor, as well as the means by which a mayor is elected or otherwise mandated.
In England, the mayor is the later descendant of the feudal lord's bailiff or reeve (see borough). The chief magistrate of London bore the title of portreeve for considerably more than a century after the Norman Conquest. This official was elected by popular choice, a privilege secured from King John. By the beginning of the 12th century, the title of portreeve gave way to that of mayor as the designation of the chief officer of London. The adoption of the title by other boroughs followed at various intervals. In the 19th century, in the United Kingdom, the Municipal Corporations Act 1882, Section 15, regulated the election of mayors. He was to be a fit person elected annually on 9 November by the council of the
The President of the Republic of Kosovo (Albanian: Kryetari i Kosovës; Serbian Cyrillic: председник Косова) is Head of State of the disputed Republic of Kosovo. The President of Kosovo is elected by the Assembly of Kosovo. The first post-war president, who served until his death in January 2006, was Ibrahim Rugova. His successor was Fatmir Sejdiu. When Sejdiu resigned from his post on 27 September 2010, Jakup Krasniqi served as acting president. On 22 February 2011, Behgjet Pacolli was elected as a president of Kosovo, which was quickly evaluated as unconstitutional move. On 6 April 2011 Behgjet Pacolli stepped down, but that another candidate would be elected to serve for up to a year. A constitutional reform will be undertaken to allow for a popular vote for the president in 2012. Atifete Jahjaga, General Major of the Kosovo Police, was announced as a candidate for the office.
The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under South Africa's Constitution. From 1961 to 1994, the head of state was called the State President.
The President is elected by members of the National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, and is usually the leader of the largest party, which has been the African National Congress since the first non-racial elections were held on 27 April 1994. The role was originally founded to be distinct from the now defunct role of prime minister, but the two roles were merged in the 1983 constitution which specified a four-year term of office. The 1993 and later constitutions limits the president's time in office to two five-year terms. The first President to be elected under the new constitution was Nelson Mandela, and the incumbent president is Jacob Zuma.
Under the interim Constitution (valid from 1994 to 1996), there was a Government of National Unity, in which an MP from the largest opposition party was entitled to a position as Deputy President. Along with Mbeki, the last State President, F.W. De Klerk also served as Deputy President, in his capacity as the leader of the National Party which
The President of the Confederate States of America was the head of state and head of government of the Confederate States of America, which was formed from the states which declared their secession from the United States, thus precipitating the American Civil War. The only person to hold the office was Jefferson Davis. He was President from February 18, 1861, to May 10, 1865, and his Vice President was Alexander Stephens. Howell Cobb, as president of the Provisional Confederate Congress, was the highest ranking Confederate official before the election of Davis, but he was not titled President of the Confederate States.
According to the Confederate States Constitution, the President's office was almost entirely the same as that of the President of the United States. The President was to be:
Like the Oath of office of the President of the United States, the oath or affirmation of office of the President of the Confederate States was established in the Confederate States Constitution and was mandatory for a President upon beginning a term of office. The wording, almost an exact copy of the United States' version, was prescribed by the Constitution (Article II, Section 1, Clause 10),
The Prime Minister of the Netherlands is the chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Netherlands. He is the de facto head of government of the Netherlands and coordinates the policy of the government. The current prime minister is Mark Rutte.
Although he is the most important political figure in the Netherlands, the Prime Minister is not as powerful as his British and German counterparts. This is mainly because it is nearly impossible for one party to get a majority of seats in the House of Representatives (lower house), so the government is always a coalition between two or more parties. Because of his limited powers, the prime minister is described as primus inter pares (first among equals).
As a result of the constitutional review of 1983, the position of Prime Minister was inscribed into the Dutch constitution for the first time. According to the constitution, the Government is constituted by the King and the ministers. The constitution stipulates the prime minister chairs the council of ministers (article 45) and is appointed by royal decree (article 43). The royal decree of their own appointment and those of the other ministers are to be contra-signed by the prime
The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior.
The US Department of the Interior should not be confused with the concept of Ministries of the Interior as used in other countries. Ministries of the Interior correspond primarily to the Department of Homeland Security in the US cabinet and secondarily to the Department of Justice.
The Department of the Interior oversees such agencies as the Bureau of Land Management, the United States Geological Survey, and the National Park Service. The Secretary also serves on and appoints the private citizens on the National Park Foundation board. The Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet.
Because the policies and activities of the Department of the Interior and many of its agencies have a substantial impact in the western United States, the Secretary of the Interior has typically come from a western state; only one of the individuals to hold the office since 1949 is not identified with a state lying west of the Mississippi River. The Secretary of the Interior is eighth in the United States presidential line of succession.
The current Secretary of the Interior in Barack Obama's
The Governor of the State of New Hampshire is the supreme executive magistrate of the U.S. state of New Hampshire.
The governor is elected at the biennial state general election in November of even-numbered years. New Hampshire is one of only two states, along with bordering Vermont, to hold gubernatorial elections every two years as opposed to every four. Currently, the governor is Democrat John Lynch from Hopkinton, who has served since 2005 and is the state's eightieth governor. In New Hampshire, the governor has no term limit of any kind, but no governor had served more than three terms since the 18th century (when the term was for only one year) until John Lynch won an unprecedented fourth two-year term on November 2, 2010. John Taylor Gilman was the last governor to serve longer than six years, serving 14 one-year terms as governor between 1794 and 1816.
Unlike in many other states in which Executive Councils are merely advisory, the Executive Council of New Hampshire has a strong check on the governor's power. The five-member Executive Council has a veto over many actions of the governor. Together, the Governor and Executive Council approve contracts with a value of $5,000
The President of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, shorter form: Prezydent RP) is the Polish head of state. His or her rights and obligations are determined in the Constitution of Poland.
The President of the Republic of Poland is the head of state, the supreme representative of Poland in the international arena. He has executive authority. He has a right to dissolve the parliament in certain cases (e.g. when it fails to form a Council of Ministers or to adopt the budget).
The President of Poland is elected directly by the people to serve for 5 years and can be reelected only once. Pursuant to the provisions of the Constitution, the President is elected by an absolute majority of valid votes. If no candidate succeeds in passing this threshold, a second round of voting is held with the participation of the two candidates who received the largest and second largest number of votes respectively.
In order to be registered as a candidate in the presidential election, one must be a Polish citizen, be at least 35 years old on the day of the first round of the election and collect at least 100,000 signatures of voters.
The President has a free choice in
The United States Secretary of Energy is the head of the United States Department of Energy, a member of the President's Cabinet, and fifteenth in the presidential line of succession. The position was formed on October 1, 1977 with the creation of the Department of Energy when President Jimmy Carter signed the Department of Energy Organization Act. Originally the post focused on energy production and regulation. The emphasis soon shifted to developing technology for better, more efficient energy sources as well as energy education. After the end of the Cold War, the department's attention also turned toward radioactive waste disposal and maintenance of environmental quality.
Former Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger was the first Secretary of Energy, who was a Republican nominated to the post by Democratic President Jimmy Carter, the only time a president has appointed someone of another party to the post. Schlesinger is also the only secretary to be dismissed from the post. Hazel O'Leary, Bill Clinton's first Secretary of Energy, was first female and African-American holder, as well as the longest to hold the position. The first Hispanic to serve as Energy Secretary was
The Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Wakil Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the first in the line of succession in the Republic of Indonesia.
The Indonesian Vice Presidency was established during the formulation of the 1945 constitution by the Researching Body for the Preparation of the Indonesian Independence (BPUPKI). The office was first filled on 18 August 1945 when Mohammad Hatta was elected by acclamation. The election was conducted by the Committee for the Preparation of Indonesian Independence (PPKI) because the body responsible for the Vice Presidential elections, the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR), had not been formed yet. In the early days of the Republic, the office of Vice President showed how important it can be. On 16 October 1945, Hatta announced a Vice Presidential decree which turned the Central National Committee of Indonesia (KNIP) equal status with that of the President. As a result of this decree, the KNIP was able to separate the role of Head of State and Head of Government on 11 November 1945. Although a new constitution had not been set up yet, Indonesia was now a de facto Parliamentary Democracy.
During the Indonesian National
The President of the Republic of Singapore is Singapore's head of state. In a Westminster parliamentary system, as which Singapore governs itself, the prime minister is the head of the government while the position of president is largely ceremonial. Before 1993, the President of Singapore was chosen by Parliament. Following amendments to the constitution enacted in 1991, the Presidency became a popularly-elected office. The first President elected by the majority of the people was Ong Teng Cheong, who served from 1 September 1993 to 31 August 1999. The current President of Singapore is Tony Tan Keng Yam.
The President of the Republic of Singapore is a ceremonial head of state broadly analogous to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, but the 1991 constitutional amendments gave the President certain reserve powers over government expenditure of financial reserves and appointments to key public offices. The President's official residence is the Istana.
The office of President was created in 1965 after Singapore became a republic upon its secession from the Federation of Malaysia that year. It replaced the office of Yang di-Pertuan Negara, which had been created when Singapore
The Chief Executive of Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港行政長官) is the President of the Executive Council of Hong Kong and head of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The position was created to replace the Governor of Hong Kong, who was the head of the Hong Kong government during British rule. The office, stipulated by the Hong Kong Basic Law, formally came into being on 1 July 1997 when the sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China. The chief executive holds the title "The Honourable", and ranks first in the Hong Kong order of precedence. The current chief executive is Leung Chun-ying who took office on 1 July 2012.
According to Article 44 of the Basic Law, the Chief Executive must be a Chinese citizen as defined by the HKSAR passport ordinance. The individual must be at least 40 years old, who is a permanent resident of the HKSAR with no right of abode in any foreign country, and has ordinarily resided in Hong Kong for a continuous period of no less than 20 years. Article 47 further requires that the Chief Executive be a person of integrity, dedicated to his or her duties. In addition, according to electoral
The Governor-General of Jamaica represents the Jamaican monarch, and head of state, who holds the title of King or Queen of Jamaica (as of 1952, Queen Elizabeth II).
The Queen, on the advice of the Prime Minister, appoints a Governor-General to be her representative in Jamaica. Both the Queen and the Governor-General hold much power of the country it is rarely used, it is usually only used in emergencies and in some cases war. The Governor-General represents the Queen on ceremonial occasions such as the opening of Parliament, the presentation of honors and military parades. Under the Constitution, he is given authority to act in some matters, for example in appointing and disciplining officers of the civil service, in proroguing Parliament and so on, but only in a few cases is he empowered to act entirely on his own discretion.
The President of Germany (German: Bundespräsident) is the head of state of Germany.
As Germany has a parliamentary system of government with the Chancellor running the government, the President has mainly ceremonial and supervisory duties. He gives direction to important political and societal debates and has some important "reserve powers" in case of political instability (such as those provided for by Article 81 of the Basic Law).
Furthermore all federal laws must be signed by the President before they can come into effect. Theoretically the President thereby has a power of veto, but no President since World War II has ever openly used this theoretically given veto power. Within the frame of Germany's constitutional reality the presidents have only refused to sign laws that they believed to violate the constitution, or at least they justified their refusal to sign a law with concerns regarding the constitutionality of the concerned law.
The President is elected by the Federal Convention, a body established solely for that purpose. The first official residence of the president is the Bellevue Palace in Berlin. The President's second official residence is the Hammerschmidt Villa in
The President of Tynwald is the presiding officer at the sittings of Tynwald in Douglas and is elected by the members of Tynwald from amongst their number. The first elected President, Sir Charles Kerruish OBE LLD CP, was elected in 1990 and held office until his retirement in 2000.
The presiding officer remains impartial but has, in the case of a tied vote in the Legislative Council on a division, a casting vote. The President authorises the Order Paper for sittings, is responsible for controlling the procedure of Tynwald Court and for the authoritative interpretation of its Standing Orders. This is mostly mirrored in the office of the Speaker of the House of Keys.
Prior to 1990 the post was held ex officio by the Lieutenant Governor. The office is now held jointly with the President of the Legislative Council.
Are generally the same as the Speaker of the House of Keys.
The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Президент України, Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the Ukrainian head of state. The President represents the nation in international relations, administers the foreign political activity of the state, conducts negotiations and concludes international treaties.
The President is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Ukrainian Army and heads the National Security and Defense Council, which advises the President, co-ordinates and controls the activity of bodies of executive power in the sphere of national security and defense. According to the Constitution of Ukraine, the president is the guarantor of the state's sovereignty, territorial indivisibility, the observance of the Constitution of Ukraine and human and citizens' rights and freedoms.
As with the separation of powers, the President has checks on the authority of parliament and the judicial system. For instance, any law passed by the parliament can be vetoed by the President; however, parliament can override his veto with a 2/3 constitutional majority vote.
The President has limited authority to disband the Verkhovna Rada (parliament), and nominates candidates for the Minister of Foreign Affairs and
The Prime Minister is the head of government of Algeria.
The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of Algeria, along with other ministers and members of the government that the new Prime Minister recommends. The People's National Assembly must approve the legislative program of the new government or the Assembly is dissolved and the Prime Minister must resign. There are no constitutional limits on a Prime Minister's term but the longest-serving was Mohamed Ben Ahmed Abdelghani, who served from 1979 to 1984.
The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the Prime Minister head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Assembly of the Republic. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Prime Minister must control a majority of parliament in order to govern.
There have been six Prime Ministers of Northern Cyprus since 1983. The premiership's precursor was a post known as the "President of the Turkish Cypriot Communal Chamber". The only man to occupy this post was Rauf Denktaş from December 29, 1969 to July 5, 1976. There were three prime ministers before the Northern Cypriot community's unilateral declaration of independence in 1983.
Governmental body (if any):United States Department of Defense
The Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the head and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense, an Executive Department of the Government of the United States of America. This position corresponds to what is generally known as a Defense Minister in many other countries. The Secretary of Defense is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, and is by custom a member of the Cabinet and by law a member of the National Security Council.
Secretary of Defense is a statutory office, and the general provision in 10 U.S.C. § 113 provides that the Secretary of Defense has "authority, direction and control over the Department of Defense", and is further designated by the same statute as "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense." Ensuring civilian control of the military, an individual may not be appointed as Secretary of Defense within seven years after relief from active duty as a commissioned officer of a regular (i.e., non-reserve) component of an armed force.
The Secretary of Defense is in the chain of command and exercises command and control, subject only to the orders of the President, over all
The Secretary of the Air Force (SECAF, or SAF/OS) is the Head of the Department of the Air Force, a component organization within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Secretary of the Air Force is appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Secretary reports to the Secretary of Defense and/or the Deputy Secretary of Defense, and is by statute responsible for and has the authority to conduct all the affairs of the Department of the Air Force.
The Secretary works closely with his/her civilian deputy, the Under Secretary of the Air Force; and his/her military deputy, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who is the senior ranked uniformed officer in the United States Air Force.
The first Secretary of the Air Force, Stuart Symington, was sworn-in on September 18, 1947 upon the re-organization of the Army Air Forces into a military department and a military service of its own, independent of the War Department/Army, with the enactment of the National Security Act. The salary of SECAF IS $179,700, Level II.
The Secretary is the head of the Department of the Air Force, analogous to that of a chief executive
The Vice President of Colombia is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of Colombia upon leaves of absence or death, resignation, or removal of the President, as designated by the Colombian Constitution of 1991 which also reinstated the vice president figure after almost a century of being abolished during the presidency of Rafael Núñez. The Vice President can not assume Presidential functions on temporary absences of the President such as official trips abroad or vacations. In these cases, the President delegates functions to a cabinet member, usually the Minister of the Interior. The current Vice President of Colombia is Angelino Garzon.
The vice president must be a natural-born citizen of Colombia, at least 30 years of age. The Colombian Constitution of 1991 requires the vice president to meet the same eligibility requirements as the president that can be re-elected. It is also eligible for an unlimited number of terms as vice president.
The Vice President has the same period of functions that the President of Colombia and will replace him in case of temporary or complete absences. The Vice President can also be authorized by the President
The president of Brazil (officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil or simply the President of the Republic) is both the head of state and head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The presidential system was established in 1889, upon the proclamation of the republic in a military coup d'état against the Emperor Dom Pedro II. Since then, Brazil had six constitutions, two dictatorships and three democratic periods. During these democratic periods, voting has always been compulsory. The Brazilian Constitution of 1988, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements, powers, and responsibilities of the president, as well as the term of office and method of election.
According to the 1988 Constitution, the president must be a native-born citizen of Brazil, be at least 35 years of age, be a resident in Brazil, be an elector, have all the electoral rights, and be inscribed in a political party (write-in candidates are forbidden).
The presidential term of office is currently four years. The current
The Prime Minister of New Zealand (in Māori: Te Pirimia o Aotearoa) is New Zealand's head of government consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. Since 19 November 2008, the Prime Minister has been John Key of the National Party.
The title "Prime Minister" had made its first formal appearance in the 1873 Schedule of the Civil List Act, but originally the Prime Minister was entitled Colonial Secretary or First Minister. This was formally changed in 1869 to "Premier". However, this title too did not last, being informally changed by Richard Seddon to "Prime Minister" in 1901 during his tenure in office. Following the declaration of New Zealand as a Dominion in 1907, the term "Prime Minister" has been used exclusively.
The role of the Prime Minister is not formally defined, being based on constitutional convention rather than specific legislation. According to these conventions, the Prime Minister is leader of Cabinet (itself a body existing by convention), and takes a co-ordinating role.
The Prime Minister is regarded by convention as "first among equals". He or she does indeed hold the most senior post in the
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister and Cabinet (consisting of all the most senior ministers, who are government department heads) are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party and ultimately to the electorate. The current Prime Minister, David Cameron, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 11 May 2010.
The office is not established by any constitution or law but exists only as per long-established convention, which stipulates that the monarch must appoint as prime minister the person most likely to command the confidence of the House of Commons; this individual is typically the leader of the political party or coalition of parties that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber. The position of Prime Minister was not created; it evolved slowly and erratically over three hundred years due to numerous acts of Parliament, political developments, and accidents of history. The office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective. The origins of the
The Governor of Wisconsin is the highest executive authority in the government of the U.S. state of Wisconsin. The position was first filled by Nelson Dewey on June 7, 1848, the year Wisconsin became a state. Prior to statehood, there were four Governors of Wisconsin Territory.
The current governor is Republican Scott Walker.
The Governor of Wisconsin is responsible for ensuring that the laws of Wisconsin are carried out, and is also required to "communicate to the legislature, at every session, the condition of the state, and recommend such matters to them for their consideration as he may deem expedient."
Any bill passed by the Wisconsin State Legislature must be presented to the governor, who either signs it into law, or vetoes it. In the event of a veto, the bill is returned the legislature, who may then vote to override the veto. In 1930, the Wisconsin Constitution was amended to give the governor line-item veto power, with which portions of appropriations bills may be vetoed; the partial veto may still be overridden by the legislature. In 1990, a further amendment specified that the line-item veto does not give the governor power to veto individual letters of appropriations
The President of Pakistan (Urdū: صدر مملكت 'Sadr-e-Mumlikat') is designated as the figurehead, ceremonial head of state of the State of Pakistan. The President holds an important title de jure, but the true executive powers, the powers to make decisions and executive authorizations on key matters requires the both consultation and final confirmation from the Prime Minister of Pakistan who is designated as the Chief Executive of the country.
The official residence and principal workplace of the president is the "Presidency" (presidential palace) in north east Islamabad. Since the eighteenth amendment to the constitution, Pakistan has been shifted back to the parliamentary democratic republic. Under this parliamentary system, the president has limited ruling powers, and performed ceremonial duties while the Prime minister enjoys more powers to execute decisions and operations.
The president is the ceremonial head of the state, is the civilian commander-in-chief of the Pakistan Armed Forces (with Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee as its principle military adviser), but military appointments and key confirmations in the armed forces are made by the Prime minister after reviewing
The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣, Naikaku-sōri-daijin) is the head of government of Japan. He is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the Diet from among its members, and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office. He is the head of the Cabinet and appoints and dismisses the Ministers of State; the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Minister for the Comprehensive Administration of the Cabinet or Minister that Presides over the Cabinet.
The office was created in 1885, four years before the enactment of the Meiji Constitution. It took its current form with the adoption of the current constitution in 1947.
The current Prime Minister is Yoshihiko Noda, who took the post on 2 September 2011.
The Prime Minister is designated by both houses of the Diet, before the conduct of any other business. For that purpose, each conducts a ballot under the run-off system. If the two houses choose different individuals, then a joint committee of both houses is appointed to agree on a common candidate. Ultimately, however, if the two houses do not agree within ten days, the decision of the House of Representatives is
Governmental body (if any):Government of the Republic of Ireland
Category:Deputy Prime Minister
The Tánaiste (Irish pronunciation: [ˈt̪ˠaːnəʃtʲə]) is the second-most senior officer in the Government of Ireland, and acts as the deputy head of government. The Tánaiste is appointed by the President of Ireland on the advice of the Taoiseach. The current office holder is the leader of the Labour Party, Eamon Gilmore TD who was appointed on 9 March 2011.
Tánaiste was originally the Irish word for the heir of the chief (taoiseach) or king (rí), under the Gaelic system of tanistry. Before independence, the British Viceroy was sometimes referred to in the Irish language as An Tánaiste-Rí, literally 'the deputy king'.
The office was created in the 1937 Constitution of Ireland, replacing the previous office of Vice-President of the Executive Council that had existed under the Free State constitution.
The Taoiseach nominates a member of Dáil Éireann, who will also be a member of the government, to the office. The nominee then receives his seal of office from the President of Ireland in recognition of his appointment. The Tánaiste acts in the place of the Taoiseach during his or her temporary absence. In the event of the Taoiseach's death or permanent incapacitation, the Tánaiste acts in
Governmental body (if any):Government of the Republic of Ireland
The Taoiseach (/ˈtiːʃəx/; Irish: [ˈt̪ˠiːʃəx] ( listen)) is the head of government or prime minister of Ireland. The Taoiseach is appointed by the President upon the nomination of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament), and must, in order to remain in office, retain the support of a majority in the Dáil. The current Taoiseach is Enda Kenny, TD who was appointed on 9 March 2011.
The earliest known use of the term is from a 5th- or 6th-century ogham inscription in both the Gaelic and Brythonic languages. The plural of taoiseach is taoisigh (Irish: [t̪ˠiːʃiː] or [t̪ˠiːʃəɟ]).
Under the Constitution of Ireland, the Taoiseach must be appointed from among the members of Dáil Éireann. He is nominated by a simple majority of the chamber's members, and formally appointed to office by the President. Since the President is required to appoint whomever the Dáil nominates without the right to decline appointment, it is often said that the Taoiseach is "elected" by the Dáil.
In the event that the Taoiseach loses the support of a majority in Dáil Éireann, he is not automatically removed from office but, rather, is compelled to either resign or persuade the President to
The White House Counsel is a staff appointee of the President of the United States.
The Counsel's role is to advise the President on all legal issues concerning the President and the White House. The current White House Counsel is Kathryn Ruemmler.
The Office of Counsel to the President was created in 1943, and is responsible for advising on all legal aspects of policy questions, legal issues arising in connection with the President's decision to sign or veto legislation, ethical questions, financial disclosures, and conflicts of interest during employment and post employment. The Counsel's Office also helps define the line between official and political activities, oversees executive appointments and judicial selection, handles Presidential pardons, reviews legislation and Presidential statements, and handles lawsuits against the President in his role as President, as well as serving as the White House contact for the Department of Justice.
Although the White House Counsel offers legal advice to the President, the Counsel does so in the President's official capacity, and does not serve as the President's personal attorney. Therefore, controversy has emerged over the scope of the
The Governor of Illinois is the chief executive of the State of Illinois and the various agencies and departments over which the officer has jurisdiction, as prescribed in the state constitution. It is a directly elected position, votes being cast by popular suffrage of residents of the state. The governor is responsible for enacting laws passed by the Illinois General Assembly. Illinois is one of 14 states with no gubernatorial term-limit. The current Governor of Illinois is Pat Quinn, a Democrat who became governor upon the vote of the Illinois Senate to remove Rod Blagojevich from office, and then was elected to a full term in 2010.
Four Illinois governors in recent memory have gone to prison, according to The New York Times.
The term of office of Governor of Illinois is four years, and there is no limit on the number of terms a governor may serve. Inauguration takes place on the second Monday in January following a gubernatorial election. A single term ends four years later. A Governor is required to be:
The Governor of Illinois resides in the Illinois Executive Mansion at 410 East Jackson in Springfield. Its first occupant was Governor Joel Aldrich Matteson. He took residence
Governmental body (if any):Government of the Republic of Ireland
The Minister for Finance (Irish: An tAire Airgeadais) is the title held by the Irish government minister responsible for all financial and monetary matters. The office-holder controls the Department of Finance and is considered one of the most important members of the Government of Ireland.
The current Minister for Finance is Michael Noonan, TD. He is assisted by:
The department and minister are occasionally called the Irish Exchequer (or simply Exchequer, or in Irish Státchiste); a term previously used under the Chancellor of the Exchequer of Ireland.
The Minister for Finance holds the second most important ministerial position in the Irish Cabinet after that of the Taoiseach. He or she is in charge of the Department of Finance responsible for all financial matters in the Republic of Ireland. Due to the importance of the cabinet post, the Minister for Finance must be a member of Dáil Éireann. Many Ministers who have held the Finance portfolio have gone on to become Taoiseach, including Jack Lynch, Charles Haughey, Albert Reynolds, John Bruton, Bertie Ahern and Brian Cowen.
One of the most important aspects of the Minister's work is the creation of the annual Budget which is
The President of the Republic of Korea (대한민국의 대통령; 大韓民國大統領) is, according to the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, chief executive of the government, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and the head of state of the Republic of Korea. The Constitution and the amended Presidential Election Act of 1987 provide for election of the president by direct, secret ballot, ending sixteen years of indirect presidential elections under the preceding two governments. The President is directly elected to a five-year term with no possibility of re-election. If a presidential vacancy should occur, a successor must be elected within sixty days, during which time presidential duties are to be performed by the prime minister or other senior cabinet members in the order of priority as determined by law. While in office, the chief executive lives in Cheong Wa Dae and is exempt from criminal liability except for insurrection or treason.
Since February 25, 2008, Lee Myung-Bak (pronounced /ˌliː ˌmjʌŋ ˈbɑːk/, Korean: [i mjʌŋbak̚]; born 19 December 1941) is the incumbent President of South Korea.
Chapter 4 of the Constitution of the Republic of Korea state the duties and the powers of the President
The President of Tajikistan is the Head of State and highest position within the Government of Tajikistan. The position of President was created in November 1990 while Tajikistan was still a Soviet Republic. The president of Tajikistan lives in the capital, Dushanbe.
The first president of Tajikistan was Qahhor Mahkamov, who held the position of First Secretary of the Communist Party of Tajikistan and was appointed President of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic in November 1990. Mahkamov served both as First Secretary and President but was forced to resign in August 1991 due to the unpopularity of his support for the August Coup of 1991 in Moscow and the resulting street demonstrations in Dushanbe. From 1991 to 1992 the post of the president changed hands several times due to the political changes and uncertainly following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and ensuing social unrest and violence in the Tajikistan Civil War. Since 1992 Emomali Rahmonov has held the position of the presidency. The last presidential elections were last held in 2006. Presidential elections in Tajikistan have consistently been criticized by international observers as unfair and favoring the ruling
The President of the Australian Senate is the presiding officer of the Australian Senate, the upper house of the Parliament of Australia. The presiding officer of the lower house is the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
The Australian Senate occupies a different position in the Australian Parliament from that of the House of Lords in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, on which the Australian Parliament is partly modelled, because the Senate has always been a popularly-elected body.
The President is elected by the Senate in a secret ballot. The Clerk conducts the election. The Presidency has always been a partisan office and the nominee of the government party has nearly always been elected—although this cannot be guaranteed since the government of the day does not necessarily have a majority in the Senate. The President is assisted by an elected Deputy President. The traditional practice has been that the government nominates a Senator to be elected as President, and the Opposition nominates a Senator to be Deputy President. If there are no other nominations, no election is required, however the Australian Greens in 2005 and again in 2007 put forward Senator Kerry Nettle
The President of the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the head of state and the head of government of the Republic of Indonesia.
The first president was Sukarno and the current president is Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.
The Indonesian Presidency was established during the formulation of the 1945 Constitution by the Committee for Preparatory Work for Indonesian Independence (BPUPKI). The office was first filled on 18 August 1945 when Sukarno was elected by acclamation by the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) because the body responsible for the Presidential elections, the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR), had not yet been formed. On 16 October 1945, Vice President Mohammad Hatta announced a Vice Presidential decree which turned the Central National Committee of Indonesia (KNIP) equal status with that of the President. On 11 November 1945, the KNIP made the decision to separate the role of Head of State with that of Head of Government. Although a new constitution had not been set up yet, Indonesia was now a de facto Parliamentary Democracy with the President as a ceremonial Head of State whose function was to ask the Prime
The President is the Head of State of the United Arab Emirates. Because the current ruler of Abu Dhabi customarily also holds the presidency of the UAE, the office is de facto hereditary. The President is also Supreme Commander of the UAE Armed Forces and Chairman of the Supreme Council and Supreme Petroleum Council.
The current President is Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan. Nahyan became president on 3 November 2004, following the death of his father, Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan.
The President of the United Nations General Assembly is a position voted for by representatives in the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) on a yearly basis. The President presides over the sessions of the General Assembly.
The session of the assembly is scheduled for every year starting in September - any special, or emergency special, assemblies over the next year will be headed by the president of UNGA.
The presidency rotates annually between the five geographic groups: African, Asian, Eastern European, Latin American and Caribbean, and Western European and other States.
Because of their powerful stature globally, some of the largest, most powerful countries have never held the presidency, such as the People's Republic of China, France, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In particular, it is customary that a national of a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council never serves as General Assembly president.
The only country that had a national elected as President of the United Nations General Assembly twice is Argentina; all the other member states had been represented only once by their nationals holding this office.
Clear and appropriate
The Prime Minister of Iceland (Icelandic: Forsætisráðherra Íslands) is Iceland's head of government. The prime minister is appointed formally by the President and exercises executive authority along with the cabinet subject to parliamentary support.
Note about Magnús Guðmundsson: Jón Magnússon died 23 June 1926. Magnús Guðmundsson acted as PM until Jón Þorláksson could be reached. Officially the third cabinet of Jón Magnússon is said to have been in office until 8 July 1926, but as the PM was dead, it seemed proper to include the acting PM in the list.
The Prime Minister of Rhodesia (before 1964, of Southern Rhodesia) was the head of government in Rhodesia. Rhodesia, which became a self-governing colony of Britain in 1923, unilaterally declared independence on 11 November 1965, and was thereafter an unrecognised state in practice until 1979. In December 1979, the country came under temporary British control, and in April 1980 the country gained recognised independence as Zimbabwe.
Rhodesia's political system was modelled on the Westminster system, and the Prime Minister's role was similar to that of the same position in other countries with similar constitutional histories – Canada, for example, or Australia.
The British self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia—simply Rhodesia from October 1964—was created on 1 October 1923, from land previously governed by the British South Africa Company. The British government annexed the land, then immediately sold it to the newly-formed responsible government of Southern Rhodesia for £2 million.
From 1953 to 1963, Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland—equivalent to today's Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi, respectively—were joined in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, also
There is no Prime Minister of the United States, but the term "Prime Minister" has sometimes been applied, either as a pejorative term, a bon mot, or through ignorance, to an official within the government of the United States. The United States employs a presidential system; the President of the United States is both head of state and head of government. The leader of the majority party in the lower house of the legislature, a position commonly synonymous with "prime minister" in parliamentary systems, is the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, who does not execute policy and may be of a party in opposition to the Administration.
During and after the American Revolutionary War, many Americans saw government as deceitful and untrustworthy. The British political system, especially, was considered tyrannical. The men around the King, namely the prime minister were thought to have achieved complete control through corruption. It was also generally believed that the men around the King utilized the British financial system to destroy its once balanced political system. When, under the Washington administration, Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton established the
The Treasurer of Australia is the minister in the Government of Australia responsible for government expenditure and revenue raising. He is the head of the Department of the Treasury. The Treasurer plays a key role in the economic policy of the government. By strong Constitutional convention, the Treasurer is always a member of the Parliament of Australia with a seat in the House of Representatives. In some other countries the equivalent role is the Minister for Finance, although Australia has a separate office of that name responsible for regulating government spending.
Each year in May, the Treasurer presents the Federal Budget to the Parliament. The Treasurer is a very senior government post; traditionally, the holder of this office is the Deputy Prime Minister or in the case of the Liberal/National coalition, the deputy leader of the dominant political party holding government. Being Treasurer is often seen by the Canberra Press Gallery and the public as a necessary stepping-stone to the Prime Ministership; however, only six Prime Ministers had previously served as Treasurer.
Wayne Swan is the current Treasurer of Australia. The immediately preceding Treasurer, Peter Costello,
The Vice President of Nigeria is the second-in-command to the President of Nigeria in the Government of Nigeria. Officially styled Vice President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.The Vice President is elected alongside the President in national elections. The office is currently held by Namadi Sambo.
A person shall be eligible for the office of Vice President if he or she is a citizen of Nigeria by birth, at least 40 years of age, is a member of a political party and is sponsored by that political party.
The Constitution of Nigeria specifies an oath of office for the Vice President of the federation. The oath is administered by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Nigeria or the person for the time being appointed to exercise the functions of that office. It is the same oath recited by Deputy State Governors, Ministers, Commissioners and Special Advisers to the President:
The executive functions of the Nigerian vice president includes participation in all cabinet meetings and, by statute, membership in the National Security Council, the National Defence Council, Federal Executive Council, and the Chairman of National Economic Council. Although the vice president may take an
The Vice President of the United States is the holder of a public office created by the United States Constitution. The Vice President, together with the President of the United States, is indirectly elected by the people through the Electoral College to a four-year term of office. The Vice President is the first person in the presidential line of succession, and would ascend to the Presidency upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President.
Under the Constitution, the Vice President is President of the United States Senate. In that capacity, he or she is allowed to vote in the Senate when necessary to break a tie. While Senate customs have created supermajority rules that have diminished this Constitutional power, the Vice President still retains the ability to influence legislation (e.g. the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005). Pursuant to the Twelfth Amendment, the Vice President presides over the joint session of Congress when it convenes to count the vote of the Electoral College.
While the Vice President's only constitutionally prescribed functions aside from Presidential succession relate to his role as President of the Senate, the office is commonly viewed as a
The President of Nauru is elected by Parliament from amongst its members. He is both the head of state and head of government of Nauru. Nauru's unicameral Parliament has 18 members, with an electoral term of 3 years. Political parties only play a minor role in Nauru politics, and there has often been significant periods of instability in the Presidential office. The even number of seats in the Parliament and shifting allegiances amongst a small number of individuals can leading to frequent changes in the makeup of the government of the day, including the Presidential position itself.
The President of the Republic of Macedonia is the head of state of the Republic of Macedonia. The institution of the Presidency of the modern Republic of Macedonia began after the Macedonian declaration of independence on 8 September 1991. Its first president was Kiro Gligorov, the oldest president in the world until his resignation in 1999. The Macedonian presidency is a non-executive office. The head of the executive is the Prime Minister of the Republic of Macedonia. The president must be a citizen of the Republic of Macedonia, be over 40 years of age and have lived in Macedonia for at least ten of the previous fifteen years.
During the period of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, there was a collective presidency which was abolished in 1991. Its first president was Metodija Andonov Čento elected at ASNOM, when the modern Macedonian state was formed, while the last one was Vladimir Mitkov. Following the transition from socialist system to parliamentary democracy in 1990, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia changed the collective leadership with a single-president post in 1991. Kiro Gligorov became the first democratically elected president of the Socialist Republic of
The President of Trinidad and Tobago is the head of state of Trinidad and Tobago, and the commander in chief of its armed forces. The office was established when the country became a republic in 1976, before which the head of state was Queen Elizabeth II. The last Governor-General, Sir Ellis Clarke, was sworn in as the first President on August 1 of that year, under a transitional arrangement. He was formally chosen as President by an electoral college consisting of members of both houses of Parliament on September 24, 1976, which is now celebrated as Republic Day.
Under the 1976 Constitution, the President is the nominal source of executive power. Like the British Sovereign (and heads of state in other Westminster Systems), he or she "reigns but does not rule". In practice, executive authority is exercised by the Prime Minister and his or her Cabinet, on behalf of the President. The President appoints as Prime Minister the leader of the largest party in the House of Representatives, and also appoints members of the Senate on the recommendation of the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition. The President must be at least 35 years old (although no President has been younger
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Yemen is the head of government in that country. The current Prime Minister, Mohammed Basindawa, has held the position since 10 December 2011. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President. The position of Prime Minister of Yemen was created when the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and the Yemen Arab Republic merged in 1990.
The Governor of Delaware is the executive officer of the U.S. state of Delaware. The current incumbent is Jack Markell of Centreville, Delaware. He is Delaware's first Jewish governor and is serving in his first term. The offices of the Governor are at the state capital of Dover, Delaware, as is the official residence Woodburn. Delaware's governor is elected every four years (leap years) and is prevented from seeking a third term.
The office of the Governor of Delaware was established in the state constitution of 1792. Prior to this, the chief executive of the state was known as the President. The President was elected by a joint ballot of both houses of the General Assembly.
The President of Austria (German: Österreichischer Bundespräsident, literally "Austrian Federal President") is the federal head of state of Austria. Though theoretically entrusted with great power by the constitution, in practice the President acts, for the most part, merely as a ceremonial figurehead. The President of Austria is directly elected by universal adult suffrage once in every six years. His or her offices are located in the Leopoldine Wing of the Hofburg Imperial Palace, in Vienna.
Many former Presidents have gained tremendous popularity while in office, and no incumbent has ever lost a bid for re-election. Since 2004 the office has been occupied by Heinz Fischer.
Prior to the collapse of the multinational Austro-Hungarian empire towards the end of World War I, what now is the Republic of Austria had been part of a monarchy with an emperor as its head of state and chief executive. The empire noticeably began to fracture in late 1917 and manifestly disintegrated into a number of independent nation states over the course of the following year. Effective 21 October 1918, the Imperial Council parliamentarians representing the empire's ethnically German provinces formed a
The President of Iceland (Icelandic: Forseti Íslands) is Iceland's elected head of state. The president is elected to a four-year term by universal adult suffrage and has limited powers. The constitution does not limit the number of terms the president is allowed to serve. The president is not the head of government; the prime minister is the head of government. There have been five presidents since Iceland became independent from Denmark in 1944. The incumbent is Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson, who is now in his fifth term as president, first elected in 1996, and most recently re-elected in 2012.
The presidential residence is situated in Bessastaðir in Álftanes, near the capital city Reykjavík. The nation's constitution specifies that when the president cannot perform the duties of the office, such as when he or she is abroad or under anesthesia, the prime minister, the president of the parliament, and the president of the supreme court collectively assume the power of the office. The three vote on any presidential decisions that must be made during that time. The president is also the designated grand master of the Order of the Falcon.
Term: appointed · died in office · uncontested
The function of President of the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: Predsednik Republike Slovenije) was established on 23 December 1991, when the National Assembly of Slovenia passed a new constitution as a result of independence from Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Although entrusted with limited power by the Constitution, in practice the position is mostly ceremonial. Among other things the President is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Slovenian Armed Forces. The office of the President is the Presidential Palace in Ljubljana. The President of Slovenia is directly elected by universal adult suffrage once every five years. Any Slovenian citizen can run for President, but can hold only two consecutive terms in office.
KPS/ZKS SDP Non-party
The Prime Minister of Poland (Polish: Prezes Rady Ministrów) heads the Polish Council of Ministers (the Cabinet) and directs their work, supervises territorial self-government within the guidelines and in ways described in the Constitution and other legislation, and acts as the superior for all government administration workers (heading the public service corps).
The full name of the office is the "Chairman of the Council of Ministers" (in Polish Prezes Rady Ministrów), but this version is very rarely used in English. In Polish the office is usually called Premier. Until 1922, the Prime Minister was called "President of the Ministers" (Prezydent Ministrów).
At the same time, the Prime Minister may fulfil the duties of a department head or a committee chairman. The Prime Minister may also be a Representative at the Sejm of the Republic of Poland. He cannot, however, hold the post of the President of the RP or any other high state office such as the Chairman of the NIK (Supreme Chamber of Control), Chairman of the NBP (National Bank of Poland) or a Civil Rights Spokesman (Ombudsman).
Designated Prime Minister is free to select his co-workers - members of the Council of Ministers. The
United States Deputy Attorney General is the second-highest-ranking official in the United States Department of Justice. In the United States federal government, the Deputy Attorney General oversees the day-to-day operation of the Department of Justice, and may act as Attorney General during the absence of the Attorney General. The Deputy Attorney General is appointed by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the United States Senate. The position was created in 1950.
Since December 2010 the office is held by James M. Cole, who received a recess appointment by President Obama and subsequently was confirmed by the Senate in June 2011.
On May 14, 2007 Paul McNulty, then Deputy Attorney General, announced his resignation in a letter to Attorney General Alberto Gonzales. At the time, McNulty was considered "the highest-ranking Bush administration casualty in the furor over the firing of U.S. attorneys." Later, Gonzales himself would resign.
On July 18, 2007 President Bush announced his appointment of Craig S. Morford as acting Deputy Attorney General. Morford had been serving as the U.S. attorney in Nashville, Tennessee, and was known for his successful
The Governor-General (Irish: Seanascal) was the official representative of the King of the United Kingdom in the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1937. By convention, the office of Governor-General was largely ceremonial. Nonetheless, it was controversial, as many nationalists saw it as offensive to republican principles and a symbol of continued Irish subservience to the United Kingdom. For this reason the office had its role increasingly diminished until it was abolished entirely in 1937, retroactively applied to 1936.
The first two Governors-General lived in an official residence, the Viceregal Lodge, now known as Áras an Uachtaráin (and now the official residence of the President of Ireland). The last Governor-General resided in a specially hired private residence in Booterstown, County Dublin.
The Governor-General was officially referred to as His Excellency. However, unlike all the other Governors-General within the British Empire in the 1920s and 1930s, none of the Governors-General of the Irish Free State were ever sworn in as members of the Imperial Privy Council.
Although formally appointed by the King, the Governor-General was in practice chosen by politicians. Initially,
The Minister of National Revenue (French: Ministre du Revenu national) is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible for the Canada Revenue Agency and the administration of taxation law and collection.
The Department of National Revenue was established in 1927 by expanding the former Department of Customs and Excise with a new facility for the collection of income tax which had formerly been the responsibility of the Department of Finance.
The Department became known as Revenue Canada in the 1970s. In the 1990s the department became the Canada Customs and Revenue Agency. In 2003 the department was split into the Canada Revenue Agency and the Canada Border Services Agency with the Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness taking responsibility for the latter agency.
The current Minister of National Revenue is Gail Shea.
The office of Minister of Customs and Excise was abolished and the office of Minister of National Revenue created on March 31, 1927.
The President of the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Πρόεδρος της Ελληνικής Δημοκρατίας), colloquially referred to in English as the President of Greece, is the head of state of Greece. The office of the President of the Republic was established after the Greek republic referendum, 1974 and formally by the Constitution of Greece in 1975. The incumbent is Karolos Papoulias.
The President is the nominal Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces and occupies the first place in the Greek order of precedence. His position however is largely ceremonial, as the President's powers were limited under the current Greek Constitution of 1974, and again curtailed in the Constitutional amendment of 1986. The Prime Minister of Greece is the active chief executive of the Greek government.
The President of the Republic is elected for five years by the Parliament (not through direct popular vote). Article 32 of the Greek Constitution provides that a President should be elected by roll call by a special session of Parliament and at least a month before the incumbent President is due to leave office in either one or two stages. The tenure of the President may be extended in the event of War or if the voting
The Prime Minister of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Premijer Crne Gore) (Premier of Montenegro), is the head of the Government of Montenegro. The role of the Prime Minister is to direct the work of the Government, and to submit to the Parliament the Government's Program, including a list of proposed ministers. The resignation of the Prime Minister will cause the fall of the Government.
The current Prime Minister is Igor Lukšić, who took office on 29 December 2010.
The first modern Montenegrin government was established on March 20, 1879, during the Principality of Montenegro. The title of the head of government was President of the Ministerial Council. On August 28, 1910 Montenegro was proclaimed a Kingdom. During the existence of both Principality and Kingdom, the office was of no major importance or influence and depended solely on the will of the Prince (later King) Nikola I.
After the capitulation of Montenegro to the Central Powers on January 15, 1916 during the World War I, the Government went into exile and remained abroad for the rest of its continuation.
After the Podgorica Assembly decided to unify Montenegro with Serbia on November 26, 1918 and the subsequent formation of the
Governmental body (if any):United States House of Representatives
The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives (or Speaker of the House) is the presiding officer of the chamber. The office was established in 1789 by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states in part, "The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker..." The current speaker is John Boehner, a Republican who represents Ohio's 8th congressional district. The Constitution does not require that the Speaker be an elected Member of Congress, but no non-member has ever been elected to the office.
The Speaker is second in the United States presidential line of succession, after the Vice President and ahead of the President pro tempore of the U.S. Senate. Unlike some Westminster system parliaments, in which the office of speaker is considered non-partisan, in the United States the speakership of the House is a leadership position in the majority party and the office-holder actively works to set that party's legislative agenda; the office is therefore endowed with considerable political power. The Speaker does not usually personally preside over debates, instead delegating the duty to freshman members of the House from the majority party.
The Office of the Governor of New Jersey is the executive branch for the U.S. state of New Jersey. The office of Governor is an elected position, for which elected officials serve four year terms. While individual politicians may serve as many terms as they can be elected to, Governors cannot be elected to more than two consecutive terms. The official residence for the Governor is Drumthwacket, a mansion located in Princeton, New Jersey, but the office of the Governor is at the New Jersey State House. The current Governor is Chris Christie, who assumed office on January 19, 2010.
The governor is directly elected by the voters to become the political and ceremonial head of the sovereign state. The governor performs the executive functions of the state, and is not directly subordinate to the federal authorities. The governor assumes additional roles, such as being the Commander-in-Chief of the New Jersey National Guard forces (when they are not federalized).
The Governor of New Jersey is considered one of the most powerful governorships in the nation as it is currently the only state-wide (non-federal) elected executive office in the state. Thus, unlike many other states that have
The title Lord of Mann (Manx: Çhiarn Vannin) is used on the Isle of Man to refer to Queen Elizabeth II, who is the island's Lord Proprietor and head of state.
The title is not correctly used on its own. Since 1399, the Kings and Lords of Mann existed in a position of feudality as vassals of the reigning King of England, and subsequently of Great Britain and the United Kingdom, who was the ultimate sovereign of the island. This right of 'Lord Proprietor' was revested into the Crown by the Isle of Man Purchase Act 1765 and hence ceased to exist separately. King George III became the first British monarch to rule the Isle of Man as 'Lord of Mann' in 1769. However, for reasons of culture and tradition, the title Lord of Mann continues to be used. For these reasons, the correct formal usage, as used on the Isle of Man for the Loyal Toast, is The Queen, Lord of Mann.
The title is now Lord of Mann regardless of gender. However, during her reign Queen Victoria was styled as Lady of Mann.
The formal Latin style is Dominus Manniae.
Analogously, the British monarch (whether male or female) is "Duke of Lancaster."
In 1598, a succession dispute between the daughters of Ferdinando Stanley, 5th
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian: Претседател на Владата на Република Македонија) is the head of government of the Republic of Macedonia. He or she is the leader of a political coalition in the Macedonian parliament (the Собрание) and the leader of the cabinet. The current Prime Minister is Nikola Gruevski, who has served since 27 August 2006.
Non-partisan SDSM VMRO–DPMNE
Governmental body (if any):Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Генеральный секретарь ЦК КПСС) was the title given to the leader of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. With some exceptions, the office was synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union. Throughout its history the office had four other names; Technical Secretary (1917–1918), Chairman of the Secretariat (1918–1919), Responsible Secretary (1919–1922) and First Secretary (1953–1966). Joseph Stalin elevated the office to overall command of the Communist Party and by extension the whole Soviet Union.
In its first two incarnations the office performed mostly secretarial work. The post of Responsible Secretary was then established in 1919 to perform administrative work.. In 1922 the office of General Secretary followed as a purely administrative and disciplinary position, whose role was to do no more than determine party membership composition. Stalin, its first incumbent, used the principles of democratic centralism to transform his office into that of party leader, and later leader of the Soviet Union. In 1934, the 17th Party Congress did not elect a General Secretary and Stalin was an
The Governor of the Commonwealth of Kentucky is the head of the executive branch of government in the U.S. state of Kentucky. Fifty-six men and one woman have served as Governor of Kentucky. The governor's term is four years in length; since 1992, incumbents have been able to seek re-election once before becoming ineligible for four years. Throughout the state's history, four men have served two non-consecutive terms as governor, and two others have served two consecutive terms. Kentucky is one of only five U.S. states that hold gubernatorial elections in odd-numbered years immediately before the United States Presidential Election. The current governor is Steve Beshear, who was first elected in 2007 and was re-elected in 2011. He is term-limited, and cannot seek re-election in 2015.
The governor's powers are enumerated in the state constitution. There have been four constitutions of Kentucky—adopted in 1792, 1799, 1850, and 1891 respectively—and each has enlarged the governor's authority. Among the powers appropriated to the governor in the constitution are the ability to grant pardons, veto legislation, and call the legislature into session. The governor serves as
The President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is the head of state and head of the national executive of Nigeria. The President of Nigeria is also the commander-in-chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces. The current President of Nigeria is Goodluck Jonathan, who was sworn into office in May 2010.
On October 1, 1960, Nigeria gained independence from Britain. An all-Nigerian Executive Council was headed by a Prime Minister, Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. On November 16, 1960, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, became the first Governor-General of a Federation of three Regions of the North, East and West, with Lagos as the Federal Capital. Each of the Regions was headed by a Premier with a Governor as Ceremonial Head. On October 1, 1963, Nigeria became a Federal Republic and severed whatever ties were left with Britain. Nigeria decided, however, to remain in the British Commonwealth of Nations. The Governor-General's position was, therefore, re-designated as President.
In January 1966, a group of army officers, led by Major Chukwuma Nzeogwu, overthrew the central and regional governments, killed the prime minister, tried to take control of the government in a failed coup d'état. Nzeogwu was
The president of the Continental Congress (Inclusive of the First, Second and Confederation Congresses) was the presiding officer of the Continental Congress, the convention of delegates that emerged as the first national government of the United States during the American Revolution. The president was a member of Congress elected by the other delegates to serve as an impartial moderator during meetings of Congress.
George Washington referred to the office as "the most important seat in the United States".
The first president of Congress was Peyton Randolph, who was elected on September 5, 1774. The last president, Cyrus Griffin, resigned in November 1788. Because of the limited role of the office, the presidents of Congress are among the lesser known leaders of the American Revolution. The best-known president of Congress is John Hancock, remembered for his large, bold signature on the Declaration of Independence, which was adopted and signed during his presidency.
The presiding officer of the Continental Congress was usually styled "President of the Congress" or "President of Congress". After the Articles of Confederation were adopted on March 1, 1781, the Continental Congress,
The Prime Minister of Jamaica is Jamaica's head of government, currently Portia Simpson Miller. Simpson Miller, as leader of the governing People's National Party (PNP), was sworn in as Prime Minister on 5 January 2012, succeeding Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) leader Andrew Holness. This was a result of the PNP's victory in Jamaica's December 29, 2011 general election.
The Prime Minister is formally appointed into office by the Governor General of Jamaica, who represents Elizabeth II, the Queen of Jamaica (Jamaica's Head of State).
Note: (*) Died in office
The Prime Minister or the President of the Federal Executive Council of Yugoslavia was the head of government of the Yugoslav state, from the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918 until the end of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992.
The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was created by the unification of the Kingdom of Serbia and the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs on 1 December 1918. It was renamed Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929. Yugoslavia was defeated and occupied after the German invasion on 17 April 1941. The monarchy was formally abolished on 29 November 1945.
In 1945 there were ten living former prime ministers. Out of these, Nikola Uzunović, Dušan Simović, Miloš Trifunović and Ivan Šubašić lived in the Democratic Federal Republic of Yugoslavia while Petar Živković, Bogoljub Jevtić, Milan Stojadinović, Dragiša Cvetković, Slobodan Jovanović and Božidar Purić remained in exile.
Yugoslav National Party People's Radical Party Yugoslav Radical Union Croatian Peasant Party Democratic Party Slovene People's Party Non-party
After the German invasion and fragmentation of the Kingdom of
The Governor-General of the Union of South Africa was the representative of the British (1910–1931) and later South African Crown (1931–1961) in the Union of South Africa between 31 May 1910 and 31 May 1961. The Union of South Africa was a Commonwealth Realm in which Queen Elizabeth II was given the title Queen of South Africa, although she never visited the country in that capacity.
Some of the first holders of the post were members of the British Royal Family including Prince Arthur of Connaught, between 1920 and 1924, and the Earl of Athlone, who served between 1924 and 1931, before becoming the Governor General of Canada. As in other Dominions, this would change, with only local South African citizens holding the office.
The office was established by the South Africa Act 1909.
The Afrikaner-dominated National Party, which came to power in 1948, was avowedly republican, and regarded South Africa's links with the other Commonwealth realms as a relic of British imperialism. Under the National Party, the office of Governor-General was held by retired government ministers, who chose not to wear the traditional Windsor uniform composed of a blue military jacket and plumed hat. In
The office of Minister President (German: Ministerpräsident) or Prime Minister of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1702 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. When Prussia was an independent kingdom (since 1701) the Minister President or Prime Minister functioned as the King's Chief Minister and presided over the Prussian Landtag (the Prussian parliament established in 1848). After the unification of Germany in 1871 until the collapse in 1918 the office of the Prussian Prime Minister was usually held jointly by the Imperial Chancellor. Under the Weimar Republic the Prime Minister was head of the state government (a more traditional parliamentary role). The office ceased to have any real meaning except as a kind of nobility title after the Nazi dismantlement of Prussia as a state in 1935, and disappeared along with Prussia itself after World War II.
The President of Algeria is the head of state and chief executive of Algeria, as well as the Commander-in-Chief of the Algerian armed forces.
The Tripoli Program, which served as Algeria's constitution when it won its war for independence from France in 1962, established the President as the head of state with a Prime Minister assisting in the operation of government. Internal political maneuvering resulted in a new constitution in 1963 that abolished the Prime Minister position and devolved all executive power upon the office of the President. For the first four decades of independence government was controlled as a one-party state by the National Liberation Front or FLN. The presidency was held by a succession of FLN members; Ahmed Ben Bella, Houari Boumédienne and Chadli Bendjedid. The constitution written in 1976 maintained the executive power of the Presidency, but the modifications of 1979 stripped the head of government status from the office.
Towards the end of the 1980s there was a liberalization of the FLN regime. However, when the Islamic Salvation Front won parliamentary elections in 1991, the military forced Chadli Bendjedid to dissolve the parliament and resign on 11
The President of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Chủ tịch nước Việt Nam), officially styled the President of the Socialist Republic (Vietnamese: Chủ tịch nước Cộng hoà xã hội chủ nghĩa), represents the Socialist Republic of Vietnam internally and externally as the head of state, maintains the regular and coordinated operation and stability of the national government system and safeguards the independence and territorial integrity of the country. The President appoints prime ministers, vice presidents, ministers and other officials with the consent of the National Assembly. The head of state is the commander-in-chief of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces and Chairman of the Defense and Security Council. The tenure of the President is five years, and a president can only serve two terms. If the President becomes unable to discharge duties of office, the Vice President assumes the office of acting president until the President resumes duty, or until the election of a new president.
The powers and prestige of the office of President have varied over the years. For instance, while the inaugural president, Hồ Chí Minh, was the first ranking member of the Communist Party's Politburo, the highest
The United States diplomatic mission to the Netherlands consists of the embassy located in The Hague and a consular office located in Amsterdam.
In 1782, John Adams was appointed America's first Minister Plenipotentiary to Holland. According to the United States Department of State, the same year came formal recognition by the Netherlands of the United States as a separate and independent nation, along with badly needed financial help that indicated faith in its future. These loans from Friesland and the United Provinces, which have been called "the Marshall Plan in reverse," were the first the new government received.
The American Embassy building in The Hague opened on July 4, 1959. It was designed by architect Marcel Breuer. Notable Americans such as former Presidents Adams and John Quincy Adams, General Hugh Ewing and Iraq Envoy L. Paul Bremer have held the title of Ambassador.
Besides the embassy, a U.S. consulate-general is located on Curaçao which is responsible for the territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the Caribbean, but which is not part of the U.S. diplomatic mission to the Netherlands.
The President of the Republic of Angola (Presidente da República de Angola in Portuguese) is both head of state and head of government in Angola. According to the constitution adopted in 2010, the post of Prime Minister is abolished; executive authority belongs to the President who has also a degree of legislative powers, as he can govern by decree.
The position of President dates from Angola's independence from Portugal. Agostinho Neto held the position when his then Marxist Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) won control of the country from the Portuguese. When Neto died in 1979, José Eduardo dos Santos succeeded him.
Under Dos Santos's leadership, Angola became a multi-party democracy. The most recent elections, held in 1992, reelected Dos Santos with 49% of the votes. Dos Santos's opponent, Jonas Savimbi of the National Union for Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) party, claimed that the elections were fraudulent.
In January 2010 the National Assembly approved a new constitution, according to which the leader of the party with the most seats in the Assembly would become president, rather than a public vote taking place. The new constitution also limits a
The President of Malta is the constitutional head of state of Malta. The President is appointed by a resolution of the House of Representatives of Malta for a five year term, taking an oath to "preserve, protect and defend" the Constitution. The President of Malta also resides directly or indirectly in all three branches of the state. He is part of Parliament, he appoints the judiciary and the executive authority is vested in the President.
The office of the President of Malta (Maltese: President ta' Malta), came into being on 13 December 1974, when Malta became a republic within the Commonwealth. Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be head of state (Queen of Malta) (Maltese: Reġina ta' Malta), and the last Governor-General, Sir Anthony Mamo, became the first President of Malta.
A person shall not be qualified to be appointed to the office of President if:
The office of President shall become vacant:
Whenever the office of President is temporarily vacant, and until a new President is appointed, and whenever the holder of the office is absent from Malta or on vacation or is for any reason unable to perform the functions conferred upon him by this Constitution, those functions shall be
The President of the Senate is the presiding officer of the Senate of Nigeria, elected by its membership. The Senate President is second in line for succession to the Nigerian presidency, after the Vice President of Nigeria. The current President of the Senate is David Mark
The President of the Confederation (German: Bundespräsident(in), French: Président(e) de la Confédération, Italian: Presidente della Confederazione, Romansh: President(a) da la Confederaziun) is the presiding member of the seven-member Swiss Federal Council, Switzerland's executive. Elected by the Federal Assembly for one year, the President of the Confederation chairs the meetings of the Federal Council and undertakes special representational duties. Primus inter pares, the President has no powers above the other Councillors and continues to head his or her department. Traditionally the duty rotates among the members in order of seniority and the previous year's Vice President becomes President.
As first among equals, the Federal Council member serving as President of the Confederation is not considered the Swiss head of State. Rather, the entire Federal Council is considered a collective Head of State.
The constitutional provisions relating to the organisation of the Federal Government and Federal Administration are set out in section 1 of Chapter 3 of the Swiss Federal Constitution at articles 174 to 179. Article 176 specifically relates to the Presidency.
The Swiss President is
The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is a title held by the British monarch that signifies titular leadership over the Church of England. Although the monarch's authority over the Church of England is not strong, the position is still very relevant to the church and is mostly observed in a symbolic capacity. The Supreme Governor formally appoints high-ranking members of the church on the advice of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, who is in turn advised by church leaders.
By 1536 Henry VIII had broken with Rome, seized the church's assets in England and declared the Church of England as the established church with himself as its head. The Act of Supremacy 1534 confirmed the King's status as having supremacy over the church and required the nobility to swear an oath recognizing Henry's supremacy. Henry's daughter, Queen Mary I, attempted to restore the English Church's allegiance to the Pope and repealed the Act of Supremacy in 1555. Elizabeth I took the throne in 1558 and the next year Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy 1559 that restored the original act. To placate critics the Oath of Supremacy, which nobles were required to swear, gave the monarch's title as
The United States Secretary of Commerce is the head of the United States Department of Commerce concerned with business and industry; the Department states its mission to be "to foster, promote, and develop the foreign and domestic commerce". Until 1913 there was one Secretary of Commerce and Labor, uniting this department with the Department of Labor, which is now headed by a separate Secretary of Labor.
The Office of the Secretary contains a Deputy Secretary of Commerce, a Chief of Staff, a Deputy Chief of Staff for Policy, an Assistant Secretary for Commerce and Intergovernmental Affairs, a Chief Financial Officer and Assistant Secretary for Administration, a Chief Information Officer, a General Counsel, an Inspector General, an Office of Business Liaison, an Office of Policy and Strategic Planning, an Office of Public Affairs, an Office of White House Liaison, and an International IPR Enforcement Coordinator.
Gary Locke, former Commerce Secretary resigned on August 11, 2011, to become the United States Ambassador to China.
On May 31, 2011, President Obama nominated John E. Bryson to be U.S. Secretary of Commerce. He was sworn in as the 37th United States Secretary of Commerce
The Prime Minister of France (French: Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government and of the Council of Ministers of France. During the Third and Fourth Republics, the Head of Government was called President of the Council of Ministers (Président du Conseil des Ministres), generally shortened to President of the Council (Président du Conseil).
The prime minister proposes the list of other ministers to the president. Decrees and decisions of the prime minister, like almost all executive decisions, are subject to the oversight of the administrative court system. Few decrees are taken after advice from the Council of State (Conseil d'État).
All prime ministers defend the programs of their ministry, and make budgetary choices. The extent to which those decisions lie with the prime minister or president depends upon whether they are of the same party.
The prime minister is appointed by the President of the Republic. The president can choose whomever he wants — this is in contrast with parliamentary systems in which the head of state has to appoint the leader of the largest party in the legislature — and in fact, only a handful of prime ministers were the
The President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (French: Président de la République démocratique du Congo, Swahili: Rais wa Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo, Lingala: Mokonzi wa Republíki ya Kongó Demokratíki), is Congo's elected Head of State, and the ex officio "Supreme Commander" (Commander-in-Chief) of the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC).
The position of President in the DRC has existed since the first constitution - known as The Fundamental Law - of 1960. However the powers of this position have varied over the years, from a limited shared role in the executive branch, with a prime minister, to a full-blown dictatorship. Under the current constitution, the President exists as the highest institution in a semi-presidential Republic.
The current President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is Joseph Kabila.
The semi-presidential system established by the constitution is largely borrowed from the French constitution. Although it is the prime minister and parliament that oversee much of the nation's actual lawmaking, the president wields significant influence, both formally and from constitutional convention. The president holds the nation's
An Electress (German: Kurfürstin, Latin: electrix) was the consort of an Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, one of the Empire's greatest princes.
The Golden Bull of 1356 established by Emperor Charles IV settled the number of Electors at seven. However, three of these were Roman Catholic archbishops, and so had no formal consorts; while of the four secular Electors, one was King of Bohemia, and his consort was always known by the more prestigious title of "Queen of Bohemia". The consorts usually referred to as Electresses, therefore, were:
To these were added, in 1623 and 1692 respectively:
In the final years of the Empire, several Electors were added, who however only held their offices for less than three years before the Empire's final dissolution. The consorts of these last Electors were:
There was also an Elector of Baden, but the only ruler to use this title was married morganatically and so his spouse did not share his title.
The rulers of Hesse-Kassel continued to use the title of "Elector" until the annexation of the principality by Prussia in 1866.
Persons using or entitled to use the title of "Electress" are listed below. Spouses of Electors in morganatic or unequal
The Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is the head of the judiciary and President of the Courts of England and Wales. Historically, he was the second-highest judge of the Courts of England and Wales, after the Lord Chancellor, but that changed as a result of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, which removed the judicial functions from the office of Lord Chancellor. The Lord Chief Justice is also the presiding judge of the Criminal Division of the Court of Appeal. The first Lord Chief Justice to act as head of the judiciary after the Lord Chancellor relinquished that role was Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers.
Under the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, the Lord Chief Justice is chosen by a specially appointed committee, convened by the Judicial Appointments Commission. The current Lord Chief Justice is Lord Judge, who took over the role on 1 October 2008 following the promotion of Lord Phillips to the position of Senior Law Lord. In Lord Judge's case, Judge is his family's coincidental surname, not an affectation or title. Until the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 came into force on 3 April 2006, the Lord Chief Justice was also the head of the Queen's Bench Division of the High
The Lord Privy Seal (or, more formally, the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal) is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord President of the Council and above the Lord Great Chamberlain. The office is one of the traditional sinecure offices of state. Originally, its holder was responsible for the monarch's personal (privy) seal (as opposed to the Great Seal of the Realm, which is in the care of the Lord Chancellor). Today, the holder of the office is invariably given a seat in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.
Though one of the oldest offices in government anywhere, it has no particular function today; thus the office has generally been used as a kind of Minister without Portfolio. Since the premiership of Clement Attlee, the position of Lord Privy Seal has frequently been combined with that of Leader of the House of Lords or Leader of the House of Commons.
During the reign of Edward I, prior to 1307, the Privy Seal was kept by the Keeper of the Wardrobe.
The President of the Republic of Moldova is the head of state of Moldova.
According to the Article 77 of the Constitution of Moldova (1994), the President of Moldova is the head of the State and represents the State and is the guarantor of national sovereignty, independence, and the unity and territorial integrity of the nation. The President is indirectly elected by the Parliament of Moldova to a four-year term; a candidate must get at least 61 votes to be elected. Presidents are limited to two terms.
The Acting President of Moldova (Romanian: Preşedinte interimar al Republicii Moldova) is a person who fulfills the duties of President of Moldova when cases of incapacity and vacancy occur. It is a temporary post provided by the Constitution of Moldova.
According to Article 91 of the Constitution of Moldova (1994):
According to Article 89 of the Constitution of Moldova (1994):
According to Article 90 of the Constitution of Moldova (1994):
Bessarabian Peasants' Party
PDAM PCRM PL PLDM PDM Independent
The Prime Minister of Sri Lanka is the functional head of the Cabinet of Sri Lanka. However, the President is both head of state and head of government in Sri Lanka. The Prime Minister acts as the President's deputy, acting on his/her behalf in his/her absence or incapacitation, and is the first in the line of succession.
The post of Prime Minister of Ceylon was created in 1947 prior to independence from Britain and the formation of the Dominion of Ceylon in 1948. In 1972 when Sri Lanka became a republic the name of the post changed to Prime Minister of Sri Lanka. With a Westminster-based political system established the Prime Minister was the head of government therefore held the most powerful political office of the country at the time. This changed with a constitutional change in 1978, when the Executive Presidency was created, making the President both head of state and head of government. Until 1978 the Prime minister was also the Minister of Defence and External Affairs. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President as head of the cabinet of ministers. In the event the president dies in office the Prime Minister becomes the acting president until Parliament convenes to
Governmental body (if any):Executive Office of the President of the United States
The White House Chief of Staff is the highest ranking employee of the White House Office inside the Executive Office of the President of the United States and is an Assistant to the President.
The current White House Chief of Staff is Jacob Lew, who assumed the position on January 27, 2012, after William M. Daley resigned.
The duties of the White House Chief of Staff vary greatly from one administration to another, and in fact, there is no legal requirement that the President even fill the position. However, since at least 1979, all Presidents have found the need for a Chief of Staff, who typically oversees the actions of the White House staff, manages the president's schedule, and decides who is allowed to meet with the president. Because of these duties, the Chief of Staff has at various times been labeled "The Gatekeeper", "The Power Behind the Throne", and "The Co-President".
Originally, the duties now performed by the Chief of Staff belonged to the President's private secretary and was fulfilled by crucial confidants and advisers like George B. Cortelyou, Joseph Tumulty, and Louis McHenry Howe to presidents Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and Franklin Roosevelt,
The Chancellor of Germany is the head of government of Germany. The official title in German is Bundeskanzler(-in) (literally, Federal Chancellor), often shortened to Kanzler(-in).
In German politics the Chancellor is equivalent to that of a Prime Minister in many other countries. The German term directly equivalent of Prime Minister, Ministerpräsident, is used for the heads of government of most German states (referred to in German as Länder, literally "countries") as well as foreign countries.
The current Chancellor is Angela Merkel, who was re-elected in 2009 after her first election in 2005. She is the first female chancellor. In German she is thus known as Bundeskanzlerin. That particular word was never used officially before Merkel, but it is a grammatically regular formation of a noun denoting a female.
The modern office of Chancellor evolved from the position created for Otto von Bismarck in the North German Confederation in 1867; the Confederation evolved into a German nation-state with the 1871 Unification of Germany. The role of the Chancellor has varied greatly throughout Germany's modern history. Today, the Chancellor is widely considered to be the country's effective
A monarch is the person at the head of a monarchy. This is a form of government in which a state or polity is ruled or controlled by an individual who typically inherits the throne by birth and rules for life or until abdication. Monarchs may be autocrats (absolute monarchy) or ceremonial heads of state who exercise little or no power or only reserve power, with actual authority vested in a parliament or other body (constitutional monarchy).
Most states have at most one monarch at any given time, although a regent may rule when the monarch is a minor, not present, or otherwise incapable of ruling. Two monarchs have ruled simultaneously in some countries, as in the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta or the joint sovereignty of spouses or relatives (e.g., William and Mary of Kingdom of England and Scotland, Peter and Ivan of Russia, Charles and Joanna of Castile, etc.).
Monarchs have various titles — king or queen, prince or princess (e.g., Sovereign Prince of Monaco), Malik or Malikah (e.g., Maliks of Middle eastern Mamlakahs), emperor or empress (e.g., Emperor of Japan, Emperor of India), Shah of Iran, archduke, duke or grand duke (e.g., Grand Duke of Luxembourg). Prince is
The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor (abbreviated NSA, or sometimes APNSA or ANSA to avoid confusion with the abbreviation of the National Security Agency), is a senior official in the Executive Office of the President who serves as the chief advisor, stationed in the White House, to the President of the United States on national security issues. This person also participates in the meetings of the National Security Council. The National Security Advisor's office is located in the West Wing of the White House. He or she is supported by the National Security Council staff that produces research, briefings, and intelligence for the APNSA to review and present either to the National Security Council or directly to the President.
The current Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs is Thomas E. Donilon.
The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs is appointed by the President without confirmation by the United States Senate. However, the APNSA is a staff position in the Executive Office of the President and does not have line authority over either the Department of State or
The President of East Timor is the Head of state of the East Timorese republic, elected by popular vote for a five-year term. The role is largely symbolic, though he is able to veto some legislation. Following elections, the president appoints as the prime minister, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition. As head of government the prime minister presides over the Council of State or cabinet.
Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (FRETILIN)
National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction (CNRT)
Democratic Party (PD)
The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister who is responsible for all economic and financial matters. Often simply called the Chancellor, the office-holder controls HM Treasury and plays a role akin to the posts of Minister of Finance or Secretary of the Treasury in other nations. The position is considered one of the four Great Offices of State and in recent times has come to be the most powerful office in British politics after the Prime Minister. It is the only office of the four Great Offices not to have been occupied by a woman.
The Chancellor of the Exchequer is now always Second Lord of the Treasury as one of the Lords Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Treasurer. In the 18th and early 19th centuries it was common for the Prime Minister to also serve as Chancellor of the Exchequer if he sat in the Commons; the last Chancellor who was simultaneously Prime Minister & Chancellor of the Exchequer was Stanley Baldwin in 1923. Formerly, in cases when the Chancellorship was vacant, the Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench would act as Chancellor pro tempore. The last Lord Chief Justice to serve in this way was Lord Denman in
The Premier of Western Australia is the head of the executive branch of government in the Australian state of Western Australia. The Premier has similar functions in Western Australia to those performed by the Prime Minister of Australia at the national level, subject to the different Constitutions. The current premier is Colin Barnett, who was sworn into office by Governor Ken Michael on 23 September 2008.
The premier must be a member of one of the two Houses of the Parliament of Western Australia; by convention the premier is a member of the lower house, the Legislative Assembly. He or she is appointed by the governor on the advice of the lower house, and must resign if he or she loses the support of the majority of that house. Consequently, the premier is almost always the leader of the political party or coalition of parties with the majority of seats in the lower house.
The office of premier of Western Australia was first formed in 1890, after Western Australia was officially granted responsible government by Britain in 1889. The Constitution of Western Australia does not explicitly provide for a premier, and the office was not formally listed as one of the executive offices
Governmental body (if any):State Council of the People's Republic of China
The Vice Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China (simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国国务院副总理; traditional Chinese: 中華人民共和國國務院副總理; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Guówùyuàn Fùzǒnglǐ) is a high-ranking executive assistant to the Premier. Generally, the title is held by multiple individuals at one time, with each Vice-Premier holding a broad portfolio of responsibilities. The highest-ranked office holder is informally called the Executive Vice Premier. The EVP takes over duties of the Premier at the time of the latter's incapacity.
Current Vice Premiers, in order of rank, are Li Keqiang, Hui Liangyu, Zhang Dejiang and Wang Qishan.
In irregular instances, the position of a First Vice Premier (第一副总理) has been named either to indicate degree of power, nominal power, or when the Premier is incapacitated and requires a full time assistant to carry out his regular duties. The most prominent case of this is Deng Xiaoping between 1978 and 1980.
The Governor of North Carolina is the chief executive of the State of North Carolina, one of the U.S. states. The current governor is Bev Perdue, North Carolina's first woman governor.
Among other responsibilities, the governor heads the Council of State. The Governor of North Carolina was the last state chief executive to receive veto power; the Governor did not have this power until 1996. The Governor of North Carolina has extensive powers of appointment of executive branch officials, some judges, and members of boards and commissions. Nevertheless, the office has a lower-than-average amount of institutional power compared to governors in other states, according to a 2007 study.
Originally, under the first North Carolina Constitution, the office was very weak, and was elected by the legislature (the North Carolina General Assembly) for a one-year term. Edward B. Dudley became the first governor elected by the people in 1836. Governors served two-year terms from 1836 until a new constitution was adopted in 1868; since then, all governors are elected for four-year terms.
Well into the twentieth century, the North Carolina state constitution made the state's governor one of the
The Governor of Puerto Rico is the Head of Government of the United States unincorporated territory known officially as the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Since 1948, the Governor has been elected by the people of Puerto Rico. Prior to that date, the Governor of Puerto Rico was appointed by either the King of Spain (1510-1898) or the President of the United States (1898–1948).
The first Governor of Puerto Rico, Juan Ponce de León, was appointed in 1508 and assumed the post in 1510. After others served in that office, in 1579, Juan Ponce de León II became the first person born in Puerto Rico to assume, temporarily, the governorship of Puerto Rico. He served until the arrival of Jerónimo De Agüero Campuzano, who assumed the governorship of the island that same year. In 1917 Woodrow Wilson appointed the Puerto Rican Govenership to Howard Lewis Kern (Graduate of Harvard Law 1911, Born Charles City, Iowa 1887-youngest brother of John Worth Kernhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Worth_Kern&redirect=no). He served as Governor 1917 to 1924. (Who's Who 1917-1924) He authored the Jones Act of 1917 giving the protected citizens of the Territory of Puerto Rico the rights, freedoms
This page contains a list of Governors of Southern Rhodesia from 1923 to 1980, and includes the period of UDI (1965–1970) when a competing position to the legal Governor was created.
(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)
For continuation after independence, see: List of Presidents of Zimbabwe
The Mayor of London is an elected politician who, along with the London Assembly of 25 members, is accountable for the strategic government of Greater London. Conservative Boris Johnson has held the position since 4 May 2008. The position was previously held by Ken Livingstone from the creation of the role on 4 May 2000 until his succession by Johnson.
The role, created in 2000 after the London devolution referendum, was the first directly elected mayor in the United Kingdom. The Mayor of London is also referred to as the London Mayor, a form which helps to avoid confusion with the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the ancient and now mainly ceremonial role in the geographically smaller central region of the ancient City of London. The Mayor of London is the mayor of the entirety of Greater London (including the City).
The Mayor is elected by the supplementary vote method for a fixed term of four years, with elections taking place in May. As with most elected posts in the UK, there is a deposit, in this case of £10,000, returnable on the candidate's winning at least 5% of the first-choice votes cast.
The 2000 campaign was incident-filled. The eventual winner, Ken Livingstone, went
The President of the Marshall Islands is the head of government and head of state of the Marshall Islands, a Micronesian nation in the Pacific Ocean, just west of the International Date Line and just north of the Equator. He or she is elected by the Nitijela (Legislature) from among its members. Presidents pick cabinet members from the Nitijela. Amata Kabua was elected as the first president of the republic in 1979. Subsequently, he was re-elected to 4-year terms in 1983, 1987, 1991, and 1996. After Amata Kabua's death in office, his first cousin, Imata Kabua, won a special election in 1997. The current president Christopher Loeak was elected and took office in January 2012.
In Bahrain, the Prime Minister is the head of government of the country. According to the Constitution of Bahrain, the Prime Minister is appointed directly by the King, and needs not be an elected member of the Council of Representatives.
Bahrain has had only one Prime Minister since the country's independence, Khalifah ibn Sulman al-Khalifah, the uncle of the reigning King Hamad ibn Isa al-Khalifah.
The Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand is second most senior officer in the Government of New Zealand, although this seniority does not necessarily translate into power.
Generally, the position is held by the deputy leader of the ruling party, but now that the MMP electoral system makes coalitions more likely, the role may increasingly go to the leader of a junior party. This occurred with Winston Peters, leader of New Zealand First, and Jim Anderton, leader of the Alliance.
The post of Deputy Prime Minister was established in 1949. Since then, sixteen people have held the position (one of them doing so twice). Of those people, only Holyoake, Marshall, Muldoon, Palmer, and Clark have eventually served as Prime Minister.
Little scholarly attention has focused on deputy prime ministers in New Zealand or elsewhere. In 2009, an article by Steven Barnes appeared in Political Science where nine 'qualities' of deputy prime ministership were identified: temperament; relationships with their Cabinet and caucus; relationships with their party; popularity with the public; media skills; achievements as Deputy Prime Minister; relationship with the Prime Minister; leadership ambition; and
The Governor of California is the chief executive of the California state government, whose responsibilities include making annual State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that state laws are enforced. The position was created in 1849, the year before California became a state.
The current governor is Jerry Brown, a Democrat who was elected on November 2, 2010, and previously served as governor of California from 1975 to 1983. If Brown serves for more than two years and nine months into his current term, he will surpass Earl Warren as the longest-serving governor in terms of cumulative service in California state history.
Governors are elected by popular ballot and serve terms of four years, with a limit of two terms, if served after November 6, 1990. Governors take office on the first Monday after January 1 after their election.
There are two methods available to remove a governor before the expiration of the gubernatorial term of office.
The governor can be impeached for "misconduct in office" by the State Assembly and removed by a two-thirds vote of the State Senate.
Petitions signed by California state voters equal in
The British Governor of Ceylon was an official who ruled Ceylon (currently Sri Lanka) during the British colonial period between 1798 and 1948.
Upon the end of British rule and the creation of Dominion of Ceylon in 1948, this office was replaced by the Governor-General, who represented the British Monarch and not the Government of the United Kingdom as did the Governor. The office of Governor-General was itself abolished in 1972 and replace by the post of President when Sri Lanka became a Republic.
The Governor, appointed by the British monarch (on the advice of the prime minister), maintained executive power in Ceylon throughout British rule. He was head of the executive council and the pre-independence government of Ceylon.
The Governor was the most powerful official in Ceylon and only during World War II when Admiral Sir Geoffrey Layton was appointed Commander-in-Chief, Ceylon with power exceeding the Governor. The Governor was the ex-offico Chancellor of the University of Ceylon.
Between 1796, when British forces first arrived on the island and the appointing of the first Governor of Ceylon in 1798, Ceylon was governed by the Governor of Madras.
The Governor of Macau (Chinese: 澳門總督; Portuguese: Governador de Macau) was a Portuguese colonial official who headed the colony of Macau, before 1623 called Captain-major (Portuguese: Capitão-mor). The post was replaced on December 20, 1999 upon the transfer of administration to the People's Republic of China by the office of the Chief Executive of the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.
The Governor of Macau was responsible for the internal and local control of the colony. External relations and military needs were dealt by the Portuguese government in Lisbon.
The date refer to the date of appointment.
A monarchical polity has existed in Ireland during three periods of its history, finally ending in 1801. The designation King of Ireland (Irish: Rí na hÉireann) and Queen (regnant) of Ireland was used during these periods. Since April 1949, the only part of Ireland that retains a monarchical system is Northern Ireland (as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland).
Gaelic Ireland consisted of as few as five and as many as nine main kingdoms, subdivided into dozens of smaller kingdoms. The primary kingdoms were Connacht, Ailech, Airgíalla, Ulster, Mide, Leinster, Osraige, Munster and Thomond. Until the end of Gaelic Ireland they continued to fluctuate, expand and contract in size, as well as dissolving entirely or being amalgamated into new entities. The role of High King of Ireland was primarily titular and rarely (if ever) absolute. Gaelic Ireland was not ruled as a unitary state.
The names of Connacht, Ulster, Leinster and Munster are still in use, now applied to the four modern provinces of Ireland. The following is a list of the main Irish kingdoms and their kings.
Maire Herbert has noted that Annal evidence from the late eighth century in Ireland
The country of Azerbaijan is a presidential republic, with the President of Azerbaijan as the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan as head of government. The current President of Azerbaijan is Ilham Aliyev.
The Constitution states that the president will be the embodiment of executive power, commander-in-chief, "representative of Azerbaijan in home and foreign policies", and that he "shall have the right of immunity [from prosecution]." The president rules through his office at Presidential Apparatus, consisting of a group of secretaries and departmental ministers. Additionally, there is a Cabinet of Ministers (regarding economic and social policy) and a Security Council (regarding foreign, military, and judicial matters).
Chief military advisors to the President of Azerbaijan have included: Turkish Air Force Brig. Gen. Yasar Demirbulak (1992–1994), Maj. Gen. Nuraddin Sadykhov (1993–1999), Col. Gen. Tofig Aghahuseynov (1997–2002) and National Security Lt. Gen. Vahid Aliyev (since April 2002).
Among the agencies directly subordinate to the President is the Special State Protection Service.
The Prime Minister of Cambodia (romanization: Nea Yuok Roth Montrei), is the head of government of the Kingdom of Cambodia. Prime Minister is appointed by the King under Article 119 of the Constitution and is responsible for leading the government of the Kingdom.
The powers of the Prime Minister are established by the current Constitution of Cambodia, adopted on 24 September 1993 and amended on 4 March 1999. They are defined by the following articles of the Constitution:
(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)
Governmental body (if any):Jabatan Perdana Menteri
The Prime Minister of Malaysia (Malay: Perdana Menteri Malaysia) is the indirectly elected head of government (executive) of Malaysia. He is officially appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the head of state, who in HM's judgment is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of that House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat), the elected lower house of Parliament. He heads the Cabinet, whose members are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the prime minister's advice. The Prime Minister and his Cabinet shall be collectively responsible to Parliament. The Prime Minister's Department (sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister's Office) is the body and ministry in which the Prime Minister exercises its functions and powers.
The current prime minister is Mohd Najib Abdul Razak.
According to the constitution, the Prime Minister must be a member of the House of Representatives and command the confidence of the majority members of Dewan Rakyat; citizen of Malaysia but not by naturalization.
The Prime Minister and his cabinet ministers shall take and subscribe in the presence of Yang di-Pertuan Agong the oath of office and allegiance and the oath of secrecy
A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature or parliament. There have been many such bodies in history, since senate means the assembly of the eldest and wiser members of the society and ruling class. Two of the first official senates were the Spartan Gerousia (Γερουσία) and the Roman Senate.
Many countries currently have an assembly named a senate, composed of senators who may be elected, appointed, have inherited the title, or gained membership by other methods, depending on the country. Modern senates typically serve to provide a chamber of "sober second thought" to consider legislation passed by a lower house, whose members are usually elected.
The modern word senate is derived from the Latin word senātus (senate), which comes from senex, "old man". The members or legislators of a senate are called senators. The Latin word senator was adopted into English with no change in spelling. Its meaning is derived from a very ancient form of simple social organization in which decision-making powers are reserved for the eldest men. For the same reason, the word senate is correctly used when referring to any powerful authority characteristically
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration. A similar position, called either "Secretary at War" or "Secretary of War," was appointed to serve the Congress of the Confederation under the Articles of Confederation between 1781 and 1789. Benjamin Lincoln and later Henry Knox held the position. When Washington was inaugurated as the first president under the Constitution, he appointed Knox to continue serving.
The Secretary of War was the head of the War Department. At first, he was responsible for all military affairs, including naval affairs. In 1798, the Secretary of the Navy was created by statute, and the scope of this office was reduced to a general concern with the Army. From 1886 onward, the Secretary of War was third in the line of succession to the presidency, after the Vice President of the United States and the Secretary of State.
In 1947, the departments were recombined under the National Military Establishment. The Secretary of War was replaced by the Secretary of the Army and the Secretary of the Air Force, which, along with the Secretary of the Navy, have since 1949 been non-Cabinet
The Vice President of the Republic of China (traditional Chinese: 中華民國副總統; simplified Chinese: 中华民国副总统) is the second-highest executive official of the Republic of China (commonly referred to as Taiwan). The office had existed between 1912 and 1917. The existing office was created in 1948 under the 1947 Constitution of the Republic of China. After the Kuomintang (KMT) lost mainland China to the Communists in the Chinese Civil War, the government, along with its presidency, retreated to Taiwan. The Communist Party has since established the People's Republic of China on the mainland. Wu Den-yih is the current Vice President of the Republic of China.
Under Article 49 the Constitution of the Republic of China, in case the office of the President should become vacant, the Vice President shall succeed until the expiration of the original presidential term. In case the office of both the President and the Vice President should become vacant, the President of the Executive Yuan shall act for the President. In case the President should be unable to attend to office due to any cause, the Vice President shall act for the President. In case both the President and the Vice President should be
The Minister of the Economy, Finances and Industry (Ministère de l'Économie, des Finances et de l'Industrie ; French pronunciation: [mi.nis'tɛʁ.d(ə).le.kɔ.nɔ'mi.de.fi'nɑ̃s.e.d(ə).lɛ̃.dys'tʁi]), called the Minister of Finance for short, is one of the most prominent positions in the cabinet of France after the Prime Minister.
It now has a colleague of equal rank: the Minister for the Budget, Public Accounts, the Civil Service and State Reform (Ministre du budget, des comptes publics, de la fonction publique et de la réforme de l'État). This ministry is responsible for the government real estate strategy through Service France Domaine.
The exact title of the minister has changed over time, and has included the terms "economy", "industry", "finances", or "employment" though history. The current title for the position has been in effect since 2010.
The Minister of Finance oversees:
By her authority above the financial assets of the State, the financial and economic national system and the taxation rules, the Minister is allowed to represent France in the European Union council of the minister of the Economy and Finance (ECOFIN).
The Governor of Colorado is the head of the executive branch of Colorado's government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Colorado General Assembly, to convene the legislature, and to grant pardons, except in cases of treason or impeachment.
Seven people served as governor of Colorado Territory over eight terms, appointed by the President of the United States. Since statehood, there have been 36 governors, serving 41 distinct terms. The longest-serving governors were Richard "Dick" Lamm and Roy Romer, who each served twelve years over three terms. The shortest term occurred on March 17, 1905, a day when the state had three governors: Alva Adams won the election, but soon after he took office, the legislature declared his opponent, James Peabody, governor, but on the condition that he immediately resign, so that his lieutenant governor, Jesse McDonald, could be governor. Thus, Peabody served only moments as governor.
The current governor is John Hickenlooper, who took office on January 11, 2011.
The self-proclaimed Provisional Government of the Territory
The Governor of Florida is the chief executive of the Government of Florida, and serves as chairman of the Florida Cabinet. The Governor has the power to execute Florida's laws and to call out the state militia to preserve the public peace, being Commander-in-Chief of the state's military forces that are not in active service of the United States. At least once every legislative session, the Governor is required to deliver an address to the Florida Legislature, referred to as the "State of the State Address", regarding the condition and operation of the state government and to suggest new legislation. The Governor is elected by popular election every four years, and may serve a maximum of two terms. The 44th and current Governor of Florida is Charlie Crist.
The Governor of Minnesota is the chief executive of the U.S. state of Minnesota, leading the state's executive branch. Forty different people have been governors of the state, though historically there were also three governors of Minnesota Territory. Alexander Ramsey, the first territorial governor, also served as state governor several years later. State governors are elected to office by popular vote, but territorial governors were appointed to the office by the United States president. The current governor of Minnesota is DFLer Mark Dayton.
Like the U.S. President, the governor has veto power over bills passed by the Minnesota State Legislature. As in most states, but unlike the U.S. President, the governor can also make line-item vetoes, where specific provisions in bills can be stripped out while allowing the overall bill to be signed into law.
The minimum required age of a candidate for the Governor of Minnesota is 25 years (having been a Minnesota resident for one year before the election).
Since a 1958 amendment to the Minnesota Constitution governors are elected to four-year terms. Previously, they served two-year terms. There is no term limit for governor of the
The Governor of the Falkland Islands is the representative of the British Crown in the Falkland Islands, acting "in Her Majesty's name and on Her Majesty's behalf" as the islands' de facto head of state in the absence of the British monarch. The role and powers of the Governor are set out in Chapter II of the Falkland Islands Constitution. The Governor in office resides at Government House, which serves as the official residence.
The history of the leadership on the islands is closely related to the history of the Falkland Islands themselves. The first settlement on the islands was at Port St. Louis and was led by Louis Antoine de Bougainville, the Administrator of the French settlement which started in 1764 and ended three years later. The first leader of a British settlement was John McBride, Captain of HMS Jason, in 1766 at Port Egmont (the settlement being established a year earlier). The French settlement of Port St. Louis was transferred to the Spanish in 1767 and renamed Puerto Soledad, the first Spanish Military Administrator being Felipe Ruíz Puente. The British chose to withdraw from many overseas settlements in 1776 due to the pressure of the American War of
According to the Political Constitution of the Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, the Executive Power is invested in one individual, called "Constitutional Governor of the Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave". The current governor is Fidel Herrera Beltrán, who assumed the position on December 1, 2004. He is a member of the Revolutionary Institutional Party.
Governors are elected to serve for 6 years and they can not hold the title under any circumstance ever again. The Governor takes office on the first day of December of the same electoral year and ends on November 30 six years after.
The State of Veracruz was created on 1824, being one of the original States of the Federation, it has experienced all the Political Systems implemented in Mexico, Federal and Central, thus it has changed its name from "State of" to "Department of" to "State of" again.
The list with all the Governors of the State since 1825 follows.
From 1834 to 1857 there are no popular-elected Governors due to the Santa Anna's centralist Siete Leyes (Seven Laws).
From 1864 to 1867.
The High Kings of Ireland (Irish: Ard Rí na hÉireann) were sometimes historical and sometimes legendary figures who had, or who are claimed to have had, lordship over the whole of Ireland. Medieval and early modern Irish literature portrays an almost unbroken sequence of High Kings, ruling from Tara over a hierarchy of lesser kings, stretching back thousands of years. Modern historians believe this scheme is artificial, constructed in the 8th century from the various genealogical traditions of politically powerful groups, and intended to justify the current status of those groups by projecting it back into the remote past. The concept of national kingship is first articulated in the 7th century, but only became a political reality in the Viking Age, and even then not a consistent one.
Until quite recently the development of the pre-Norman kingship of Ireland has been expressed in simplistic terms, with both unionist and nationalist historians—for their own respective purposes—happy to portray pre-Norman Ireland as an immutable hierarchy of kings. In unionist historiography the picture painted has been one of tribal chaos (with Norman invasion supposedly "creating order"), while
The President of Colombia (Presidente de la República de Colombia) is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of Colombia. The office of president was established upon the ratification of the Constitution of 1819, by the Congress of Angostura, convened in December 1819, when Colombia was part of "la Gran Colombia". The first president, General Simón Bolívar, took office in 1819. His position, initially self-proclaimed, was subsequently ratified by Congress.
The current president of the Republic of Colombia is Juan Manuel Santos, who took office on 7 August 2010.
==According to the Colombian Constitution of 1991, Article 188: The President of Colombia is the head of state, head of government and Supreme Administrative Authority. The President of Colombia symbolizes the National Unity and after taking an oath to the Constitution of Colombia and swearing to defend and protect the nation's laws, he is charged to guarantee and protect the Rights and Liberties of all the Colombian nationals.
The Administrative Department of the Presidency of Colombia has the commission to assist or support the President of Colombia on its constitutional mandated functions and legal
Governmental body (if any):Council of State of Cuba
The President of the Council of State of Cuba is the head of state of Cuba. According to the Cuban Constitution of 1976, the President is the chief executive of the Council of State of Cuba. The president of the Council of State is, at the same time, the president (As Premier) of Council of Ministers of Cuba, the head of government. In cases of the absence, illness or death of the president of the Council of State, the first vice president assumes the president’s duties.
The President of Cuba is invested with the power to implement the following
The President of Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (Sinhala: Sri Lankavay Janadhipathi) is the elected head of state and the head of government. The President is a dominant political figure in Sri Lanka. The office was created in 1978. The current President is Mahinda Rajapaksa.
At independence, executive power in Ceylon resided with the monarch of Ceylon, represented by the Governor-General, which was exercised on the advice of the Prime Minister. The 1972 constitution removed the monarch and replaced the governor-general with a president, but it remained a mostly ceremonial position.
The 1978 constitution moved from a Westminster-based political system into one modeled on France. As in France, a new, directly elected President with a longer term and independence from Parliament was created. The President is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, head of the Cabinet, appoints the prime minister, and could dissolve parliament (after one year has passed since the convening of parliament after a parliamentary election) The 17th constitutional amendment of 2001 reduced certain powers of the President in particular in regard to the appointment of the upper judiciary and
The President pro tempore of the Oklahoma Senate is the second-highest-ranking official of the Oklahoma Senate and the highest-ranking State Senator. The Oklahoma Constitution states the Lieutenant Governor of Oklahoma serves ex officio as President of the Senate, and is the highest-ranking official of the Senate even though he or she only votes in the case of a tie. During the Lieutenant Governor's absence from the Senate, the President pro tempore presides over its sessions. Since the Lieutenant Governor hasn't regularly presided since the 1960s, the management and political power falls to the President pro tempore.
The President pro tempore is popularly elected by the Senators, unlike the custom of the United States Senate where the most senior Senator in the majority party serves as President pro tempore. The Oklahoma Senate has rarely had the most senior senator serve as President pro tempore. The office of President pro tempore was created in 1907 by Oklahoma Constitution and the President pro tempore is selected by the Senate. While not a Constitutional requirement, every President pro tempore has been a member of the majority party.
The President pro tempore is second in
The Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Bangladesh is the Head of the Government of Bangladesh. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet (consisting of all the ministers, who are government department heads) are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Jatiya Sangsad Parliament, to their political party and ultimately to the electorate. The current Prime Minister, Sheikh Hasina Wajed, was elected on December 29, 2008. She and her cabinet was appointed on 6 January 2009 by the Chief Advisor Fakhruddin Ahmed, head of the Interim Caretaker Government of Bangladesh.
According to the Constitution the Prime Minister is appointed by the President based upon the result of the electorates choice in parliamentary general election held by the Election Commission. The Prime Minister will be the leader of the majority party (or coalition) in the Jatiya Sangsad and must have the confidence of the Jatiya Sangsad to govern. The cabinet is composed of ministers selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president. At least 90% of the ministers must be MPs. The other 10% may be non-MP experts or "technocrats" who are not otherwise disqualified from being elected MPs.
The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi peaminister) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia. The prime minister is nominated by the President after appropriate consultations with the parliamentary factions and confirmed by the Parliament. In case of disagreement, the Parliament can reject the President's nomination and choose their own candidate. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the ruling coalition. The current Prime Minister is Andrus Ansip, leader of the Reform Party.
In his role as appointed by the President and laid forth in the Constitution, the Prime Minister serves as the head of government. He does not head any specific ministry, but is, in accordance with the constitution, the supervisor of the work of the government. The Prime Minister’s significance and role in the government and his relations with other ministries often depend on the position of the party led by the prime minister in vis-à-vis the coalition partners, and on how much influence the prime minister possesses within his own party. If the prime minister has a strong position within his party, and the government is made up solely of
The Prime Minister of Romania is the head of the Government of Romania. Initially, the office was styled President of the Council of Ministers (Romanian: Preşedintele Consiliului de Miniştri), when the term "Government" included more than the Cabinet, and the Cabinet was called The Council of Ministers (Consiliul de Miniştri). The title was officially changed to Prime Minister during the communist regime.
The current Prime Minister is Victor Ponta, Leader of the PSD and of the Social Liberal Union, who took over the position on 7 May 2012 after the parliamentary dismissal of the short-lived Ungureanu Cabinet.
According to the Romanian Constitution, the President of the Republic shall designate a candidate to the office of Prime Minister, as a result of his consultation with the party which has obtained absolute majority in Parliament, or -unless such majority exists - with the parties represented in Parliament.
The candidate to the office of Prime Minister shall, within ten days of his designation, seek the vote of confidence of Parliament upon the programme and complete list of the Government. The programme and list of the Government shall be debated upon by the Chamber of
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea is appointed by the President with the National Assembly's approval. Unlike prime ministers in the parliamentary system, the Prime Minister of South Korea is not required to be a member of parliament.
The Prime Minister assists the President, supervises ministries, and recommends ministers. The Prime Minister is the first in the order of succession to discharge the duties of the office of the President as the acting-president should the president be unable to discharge his office. The last person to have served as the acting-president was Goh Kun during the impeachment trial of President Roh Moo-hyun in 2004.
The position was created in August 1948, when South Korea was founded, and was held by Lee Bum Suk until 1950. The title was Chief Cabinet Minister from 1961 until 1963.
A Prime Minister appointed by the President but not confirmed by the Assembly is known as the acting Prime Minister. The Prime Minister becomes acting president if the president dies, resigns or is impeached.
The Secretary of State of Oregon, an elected constitutional officer within the executive branch of government of the U.S. state of Oregon, is first in line of succession to the Governor. The duties of office are: auditor of public accounts, chief elections officer, and administrator of public records. Additionally, the Secretary of State serves on the Oregon State Land Board and chairs the Oregon Sustainability Board. Following every United States Census, if the Oregon Legislative Assembly cannot come to agreement over changes to legislative districting, the duty falls to the Secretary of State. The Secretary of State has performed this duty every decade since 1921.
The office is currently held by Kate Brown, a Democrat.
Five individuals served as Clerk and Recorder, the predecessor office to Secretary of State:
Oregon's first Territorial Secretary was elected by the legislature, to serve until his successors could be appointed by the President of the United States.
This article is about the United States Ambassador to France. There has been a United States Ambassador to France since the American Revolution. The United States sent its first envoys to France in 1776, towards the end of the four-centuries-old Bourbon dynasty. The American diplomatic relationship with France has continued throughout that country's five republican regimes, two periods of French empire, the Bourbon Restoration, and its July Monarchy. After the Battle of France, the United States maintained diplomatic relations with Vichy France until France severed them on the date Operation Torch was launched in November, 1942; the Embassy was reopened December, 1944.
During the Bourbon dynasty:
During the Bourbon dynasty:
During the First Republic:
During the First French Empire:
During the Bourbon Restoration and July Monarchy:
During the Second French Republic:
During the Second French Empire:
During the French Third Republic:
During Vichy France:
During the French Fourth Republic:
During the French Fourth Republic and the French Fifth Republic:
During the French Fifth Republic:
The United States Permanent Representative to NATO (commonly called the U.S. Ambassador to NATO) is the official representative of the United States to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The Representative has the rank of full ambassador and is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The full official title of the Representative is United States Permanent Representative on the Council of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. The current U.S. Ambassador to NATO is Ivo Daalder.
The first Representative was appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953.