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In the sport of cricket, batsmen often wear a helmet to protect themselves from injury by the cricket ball, which is very hard and can be bowled to them at speeds over 90 miles per hour (140 km/h).
There are recorded instances of cricketers using towels, scarves and padded caps to protect themselves throughout cricket history. Patsy Hendren was one of the first to use a self designed protective hat in the 1930s. Helmets were not in common use until the 1970s. Mike Brearley was another player who wore his own design. Tony Greig was of the opinion that they would make cricket more dangerous by encouraging bowlers to bounce the batsmen.
Graham Yallop of Australia was the first to wear a protective helmet to a test match on 17 March 1978 when playing against West Indies at Bridgetown. Later Dennis Amiss of England popularized it in Test cricket.
Helmets began to be widely worn thereafter. Nowadays it is almost unheard of for a professional cricketer to face a fast bowler without a helmet, and in under-19 cricket they are compulsory for all batsmen and any fielder within 15 yards (14 m) of the bat.
Cricket helmets cover the whole of the skull, and have a grill or perspex visor to
A jerkin is a man's short close-fitting jacket, made usually of light-colored leather, and often without sleeves, worn over the doublet in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The term is also applied to a similar sleeveless garment worn by the British Army in the twentieth century.
The stock phrase, buff jerkin, refers to an oiled oxhide jerkin, as worn by soldiers.
The origin of the word is unknown. The Dutch word jurk, a child's frock, often taken as the source, is modern, and represents neither the sound nor the sense of the English word.
Leather jerkins of the sixteenth century were often slashed and punched, both for decoration and to improve the fit.
Jerkins were worn closed at the neck and hanging open over the peascod-bellied fashion of doublet. At the turn of the seventeenth century, the fashion was to wear the jerkin buttoned at the waist and open above to reflect the fashionable narrow-waisted silhouette.
By the mid-seventeenth century, jerkins were high-waisted and long-skirted like doublets of the period.
During the First World War, the British army issued brown leather jerkins to the troops as a measure to protect against the cold but to allow freedom of
A girdle is a garment that encircles the lower torso, perhaps extending below the hips, and worn often for support. The word girdle originally meant a belt. In modern English, the term girdle is most commonly used for a form of women's foundation wear that replaced the corset in popularity. In sports, a girdle may be similar to compression shorts.
Historically and in anthropology, the girdle can be a scanty belt-shaped textile for men and/or women, worn on its own, not holding a larger garment in place, and less revealing than the loin-cloth, as was used by Minoan pugilists.
Constructed of elasticized fabric and sometimes fastened with hook and eye closures, the modern girdle is designed to enhance a woman's figure. Most open-bottom girdles extend from the waist to the upper thighs. In the 1960s, these models fell from favor and were to a great extent replaced by the panty girdle. The panty girdle resembles a tight pair of athletic shorts. Both models of girdles usually include suspender clips to hold up stockings.
Girdles were considered essential garments by many women from about 1920 to the late 1960s. They created a rigid, controlled figure that was seen as eminently
Frock has been used since Middle English as the name for an article of clothing for men and women (see also clothing terminology). It is sometimes synonymously used for skirt.
Originally, a frock was a loose, long garment with wide, full sleeves, such as the habit of a monk or priest, commonly belted. (This is the origin of the modern term defrock or unfrock, meaning "to eject from the priesthood".)
The term has been continually applied to various types of clothing, generally denoting a loosely fitted garment:
The precise historical evolution of the frock after the second half of the eighteenth century is obscure, however it is likely that the frock was gradually supplanted by the frock coat in the early nineteenth century, eventually being relegated to evening dress. The frock coat in turn became cut away into the modern coat, giving us the two modern coats with tails.
A frock coat is a men's coat style of the nineteenth century, characterized by full skirts reaching to the lower thigh or knee. Despite the similarity in the name, the frock coat should be regarded as being a distinct garment quite separate from the frock. In the French language the frock coat is called 'une
Garters are articles of clothing: narrow bands of fabric fastened about the leg, used to keep up stockings, and sometimes socks. Normally just a few inches in width, they are usually made of leather or heavy cloth, and adorned with small bells and/or ribbons. In the eighteenth to twentieth centuries, they were tied just below the knee, where the leg was slenderest, to keep the stocking from slipping. The advent of elastic has made them less necessary from this functional standpoint, although they are still often worn for fashion. Garters are worn by men and women.
There is a European wedding tradition for a bride to wear a garter to her wedding. As part of this tradition, towards the end of the reception, the groom will remove his new wife's garter, which he tosses to the unmarried male guests. The symbolism to deflowering is unambiguous. Historically, this tradition relates to the belief that taking an article of the bride's clothing would bring good luck. In the Middle Ages, the groom's men would rush at the new bride to take her garters off her as a prize. As this often resulted in the destruction of the bride's dress, the tradition arose for the bride to surrender articles of
Pajamas, also spelled pyjamas (see also spelling differences) and often shortened to PJs, can refer to several related types of clothing. The original paijama are loose, lightweight trousers fitted with drawstring waistbands and worn in South and West Asia by both sexes. In many English-speaking nations, pyjamas are loose-fitting, two-piece garments derived from the original garment and worn chiefly for sleeping, but sometimes also for lounging, also by both sexes. More generally, pajamas may refer to several garments, for both daywear and nightwear, derived from traditional pajamas and involving variations of style and material.
The word "pyjama" or "pajama", which originally derives from the Persian word پايجامه (Peyjama meaning "leg garment"), was incorporated into the English language during the British Raj through the Hindustani (the progenitor language of modern-day Urdu and Hindi).
Traditional pajamas consist of a jacket-and-trousers combination made of soft fabric, such as flannel; the jacket has a placket front and its sleeves have no cuffs. In colloquial speech, these are called PJs, jim jams, or jammies; in South Asia, and sometimes in South Africa, they are known as
Valenki (Russian: ва́ленки; IPA: [ˈvalʲɪnkʲɪ]; sg valenok (Russian: ва́ленок; IPA: [ˈvalʲɪnək])) are traditional Russian winter footwear, essentially felt boots: the name valenok literally means "made by felting". Valenki are made of wool felt. They are not water-resistant, and are often worn with galoshes to keep water out and protect the soles from wear and tear. Valenki were once the footwear of choice for many Russians, but in the second half of the 20th century they lost most of their appeal in cities, due to their association with rustic dress.
Valenki (synonymic and semantic related expressions which mean the same – vа́lenukhi (pl.), vа́lezhki, vа́leni, vа́lentsi, kа́tanki) – warm felted highboots made from dried sheep’s wool; they are usually hard by their form, but there are soft types which are made for a corresponding footwear.
Valenki are a kind of traditional Russian footwear which is usually worn for walking on dry snow when the weather is frosty. Valenki wear out most quickly from the bottom and very often is soled with leather or other durable material to prevent this, so they are often worn with galoshes. Also, to protect from getting wet – they use a rubber sole,
A hoodie (also called a hooded sweatshirt or hoody) is a sweatshirt with a hood. They often include a muff sewn onto the lower front, a hood, and (usually) a drawstring to adjust the hood opening, and may have a vertical zipper down the center similar to a windbreaker style jacket.
The garment's style and form can be traced back to Medieval Europe when the formal wear for monks included a long, decorative hood called cowl worn a tunic or robes. The hooded sweatshirt was first produced in the United States starting in the 1930s. The modern clothing style was first produced by Champion in the 1930s and marketed to laborers working who endured freezing temperatures while working in upstate New York. The term hoodie entered popular usage in the 1990s.
The hoodie took off in the 1970s, with several factors contributing to its success. Hip hop culture developed in New York City around this time, and the hoodie's element of instant anonymity, provided by the accessible hood, appealed to those with criminal intent. High fashion also contributed during this era, as Norma Kamali and other high-profile designers embraced and glamorized the new clothing. Most critical to the hoodie's
Culottes is a word that originated in the French language. Historically, "culottes" referred to the knee-breeches commonly worn by gentlemen of the European upper-classes from the late Middle Ages or Renaissance through the early nineteenth century. This style of tight pants ending just below the knee was first popularized in France during the reign of Henry III (1574–1589). Culottes were normally closed and fastened about the leg, to the knee, by either buttons, a strap and buckle, or by a draw-string. During the French Revolution of 1789–1799, working-class revolutionaries were known as the "sans-culottes" – literally, "without culottes" – a name derived from their rejection of aristocratic apparel. In the United States, only the first five presidents, from George Washington through James Monroe, wore culottes according to the old-fashioned style of the eighteenth century.
Military uniforms incorporated culottes as a standard uniform article, the lower leg being covered by either stockings, leggings, or knee-high boots. Culottes were a common part of military uniforms during the European wars of the eighteenth-century (the Great Northern War, the War of the Spanish Succession,
A vest is a garment covering the upper body. The term has different meanings around the world:
The term vest derives from French veste "jacket, sport coat", Italian vesta, veste "robe, gown" and Latin vestis. The sleeveless garment worn by men beneath a coat may have been first popularised by King Charles II of England, since a diary entry by Pepys (October 8, 1666) records that "[t]he King hath yesterday, in Council, declared his resolution of setting a fashion for clothes.... It will be a vest, I know not well how; but it is to teach the nobility thrift."
A sari or saree is a strip of unstitched cloth, worn by females, ranging from four to nine yards in length that is draped over the body in various styles which is native to the Indian Subcontinent. The word Sari is also supposedly derived from chati or shati – an aboriginal Indian word. The term for female bodice, the choli is derived from another ruling clan from south, the Cholas. Rajatarangini (meaning the 'river of kings'), a tenth century literary work by Kalhana, states that the Choli from the Deccan was introduced under the royal order in Kashmir. The concept of Pallava, the end piece in the sari, originated during the Pallavas period and named after the Pallavas, another ruling clan of Ancient Tamilakam.
It is popular in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Burma, Malaysia, and Singapore. The most common style is for the sari to be wrapped around the waist, with one end then draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff.
The sari is usually worn over a petticoat (called lahaṅgā or lehenga in the north; langa, pavada, or pavadai in the south; chaniyo, parkar, ghaghra, or ghagaro in the west; and shaya in eastern India), with a blouse known as a choli or
A ball gown is worn for ballroom dancing and only the most formal social occasions according to rules of etiquette. It is traditionally a full-skirted gown reaching at least to the ankles, made of luxurious fabric, delicately and exotically trimmed. Most versions are cut off the shoulder with decollete necklines. Such gowns are typically worn with a stole (a formal shawl in expensive fabric), cape or cloak in lieu of a coat, "good" (couture or vintage) jewellery and opera-length gloves. Standard accessories are dancing shoes and a clutch style evening bag. Where "state decorations" are to be worn, they are on a bow pinned to the chest, and married women wear a tiara if they have one. The ball-gown shape has changed little since the mid-19th century. Although artificial fabrics are now sometimes used, the most common fabrics are satin, silk, taffeta and velvet with trimmings of lace, pearls, sequins, embroidery, ruffles and ruching.
According to rules of etiquette and attire, ladies must wear a ball gown to events where men are required to wear white tie attire. The elements of ladies' white tie attire could include:
For their debuts, debutantes wear long white ball gowns.
The Brogue is a style of low-heeled shoe or boot traditionally characterized by multiple-piece, sturdy leather uppers with decorative perforations (or "broguing") and serration along the pieces' visible edges. Modern brogues trace their roots to a rudimentary shoe originating in Scotland and Ireland that was constructed using untanned hide with perforations that allowed water to drain from the shoes when the wearer crossed wet terrain such as a bog. Brogues were traditionally considered to be outdoor or country footwear not otherwise appropriate for casual or business occasions, but brogues are now considered appropriate in most contexts. Brogues are most commonly found in one of four toe cap styles (full or "wingtip", semi-, quarter and longwing) and four closure styles (oxford, derby, ghillie, and monk). Today, in addition to their typical form of sturdy leather shoes or boots, brogues may also take the form of business dress shoes, sneakers, high-heeled women's shoes, or any other shoe form that utilizes or evokes the multi-piece construction and perforated, serrated piece edges characteristic of brogues.
Modern brogues trace their roots to a rudimentary shoe originating in
A Christening gown or christening robe is a very long, white infants' garment now made especially for the ceremony of christening and usually only worn then. They are in fact the normal, or at least "best", outer clothing of Western babies until about the 19th century. The moment of progression to shorter dresses (for both boys and girls) was known as "shortcoating", which presumably coincided with the beginning of walking, which was impossible in a long robe.
Christening gowns are usually made of fine white linen or cotton fabric, and may be trimmed with tucks, lace, whitework embroidery, and other handwork.
Christening gowns often have matching bonnet, and may become family heirlooms, used generation after generation.
A sash is a large and usually colorful ribbon or band of material worn around the body, draping from left shoulder to right hip (or right shoulder to left hip) or else running around the waist. The sash around the waist may be worn in daily attire, but the sash from shoulder to hip is worn on ceremonial occasions only. Ceremonial sashes are also found in a V-shaped format, draping from both shoulders to the stomach like a large necklace.
Sashes traditionally form part of formal military attire (compare the sword-belt known as a baldric, and the cummerbund). Most of the European Royal families wear sashes as a part of their royal (and/or military) regalia. Some orders such as the Légion d'honneur include sashes as part of the seniormost grades' insignia. In Latin America and some countries of Africa, a special presidential sash indicates a president's authority. In France and Italy, sashes, featuring the national flag tricolours and worn on the right shoulder, are used by public authorities and local officials; likewise Italian military officers wear light blue sashes over the right shoulder on ceremonial occasions.
Sashes are a distinctive feature of some regiments of the modern
The bowler hat, also known as a coke hat, derby (US), billycock or bombín, is a hard felt hat with a rounded crown originally created in 1849 for the British soldier and politician Edward Coke, the younger brother of the 2nd Earl of Leicester. The bowler hat was popular with the working class during the Victorian era though it came to form the official work uniform of bankers. Later in the United Kingdom, it would come to be worn as work dress by the officers of the Queen's Guards.
The bowler once defined British civil servants and bankers, and later American workingmen. It was devised in 1849 by the London hatmakers Thomas and William Bowler to fulfil an order placed by the firm of hatters Lock & Co. of St James's. Lock & Co. had been commissioned by a customer to design a close-fitting, low-crowned hat to protect his gamekeepers' heads from low-hanging branches while on horseback. The keepers had previously worn top hats, which were easily knocked off and damaged. Lock & Co. then commissioned the Bowler brothers to solve the problem.
Most accounts agreed that the customer (and designer of the hat) was William Coke, especially in Great Britain.
Later, a nephew of the 1st Earl of
In clothing, a collar is the part of a shirt, dress, coat or blouse that fastens around or frames the neck. Among clothing construction professionals, a collar is differentiated from other necklines such as revers and lapels, by being made from a separate piece of fabric, rather than a folded or cut part of the same piece of fabric used for the main body of the garment.
A collar may be permanently attached to the main body of the garment (e.g. by stitching) or detachable.
The Oxford English Dictionary traces collar in its modern meaning to c. 1300. Today's shirt collars descend from the ruffle created by the drawstring at the neck of the medieval chemise, through the Elizabethan ruff and its successors, the whisk collar and falling band. Separate collars exist alongside attached collars since the mid-16th century, usually to allow starching and other fine finishing.
During the Edwardian period and sporadically thereafter, ornamental collars were worn as a form of jewelry.
Collars can be categorized as:
Collars may also be stiffened, traditionally with starch; modern wash-and-wear shirt collars may be stiffened with interfacing or may include metal or plastic collar stays. Shirt
Tam O'Shanter (often abbreviated TOS or Tam) is a 19th century nickname for the traditional Scottish bonnet worn by men. It is named after Tam o' Shanter, the eponymous hero of the poem by Robert Burns.
Taking the form of the brimless, bonnet cap that began to be worn throughout northwestern Europe during the 15th century, the 'Tam O'Shanter' is usually made of wool and has a toorie (pom-pom) in the centre. This distinguishes it from other folk bonnets such as the beret, for instance. Although brimless, examination shows that the TOS has an external hatband which passes around the head's circumference, and this, too, distinguishes it from the beret: berets are either band-less where the beret meets the head, or have an internal hatband.
Formerly, the Scottish bonnet was made only in blue cloth due to the lack of chemical dyes ("blue bonnets")., now it is available in a wide variety of colors, as well as tartan. Women have also adopted a form of this hat known as a “Tammy” or “Tam.” The original form of the Balmoral and the Glengarry in Highland dress, the 'Tam o' Shanter' is now best known as the headgear of a number of Scottish infantry regiments and those with Scottish
A batting helmet is the protective headgear worn by batters in the game of baseball or softball. It is meant to protect the batter's head from errant pitches thrown by the pitcher. A batter who is "hit by pitch", due to an inadvertent wild pitch or a pitcher's purposeful attempt to hit him, may be seriously, even fatally, injured.
In 1905, Frank Mogridge created the first crude protective head gear and was granted patent No. 780899 for a "head protector." This first attempt at a batting helmet was said to look like an “inflatable boxing glove that wrapped around the hitters head." Roger Bresnahan, a Hall of Famer who was injured after being struck in the head with a pitch, developed a leather-batting helmet in 1908 which he began using. The helmets were not so much helmets as they were protective earmuffs. They did not protect the actual head of the batter but rather protected the ear and temple region.
In 1908, Freddie Parent wore a head protector of some sort and Frank Chance did the same thing in 1913, though Chance’s headgear was "little more than a sponge wrapped in a bandage." That same year, Joe Bosk wore a protector after being severely injured when he was struck in the
Boxer briefs (or tight boxers) are a type of men's undergarment which are long in the leg, like boxer shorts but tighter-fitting, like briefs; a hybrid between the two main types of male underpants in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and the United States. Depending on the manufacturer, boxer briefs may also be spelled as one word: boxerbriefs. They are sometimes called "trunks" in Australia
While some may find regular briefs too restrictive, others may find boxer shorts too loose. A pouch or "over sized" pouch may be built in to add space and position the testicles forward and give the penis more room. Boxer briefs are commonly used in athletics instead of, or in addition to a jockstrap, but are common for everyday usage as well.
The boxer brief design provides form-fitting coverage for the midsection from the waist to the thighs and are worn on the waist. They are usually made of a combination of cotton and spandex or a soft, woven flannel material. Boxer brief designs can have either a keyhole fly, button (snap) front, pouch, or no fly at all. The waistband is usually a separate band of elastic material, often in a contrasting color to the cotton or flannel material that
Waders refers to a waterproof boot extending from the foot to the chest, traditionally made from vulcanised rubber, but available in more modern PVC, neoprene and Gore-Tex variants. Waders are generally distinguished from counterpart waterproof boots by shaft height; the hip boot extending to the thigh and the Wellington boot to the knee. They are therefore sometimes referred to as Chest Waders for emphasis. Waders are available with boots attached or can have attached stocking feet (usually made of the wader material), to wear inside boots.
Waders have a wide range of applications. Regarding leisure purposes, they are worn while angling, water gardening, playing with model boats, waterfowl hunting, and off-road riding of All-terrain vehicles. Industrially, heavy-duty waders are used by predominantly in the chemical industry, agriculture and in the maintenance of water supply, sewerage and other utilities. Waders are frequently worn by pastors during full immersion baptism and have an important application during flooding, while walking along the streets or indoor.
There are two main types of waders: stocking-foot and boot-foot. Stocking-foot is separate from the boot and connects
Plus fours are breeches or trousers that extend 4 inches (10 cm) below the knee (and thus four inches longer than traditional knickerbockers, hence the name). As they allow more freedom of movement than knickerbockers, they have been traditionally associated with sporting attire from the 1860s and onward, and are also particularly associated with golf.
Less known are plus twos, plus sixes and plus eights, of similar definitions.
An "extravagant, careless style that fit right in with the looser fashions and lifestyles of the 1920s", plus fours were introduced to America by Edward, Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII of the United Kingdom), during a diplomatic trip in 1924. They are often seen on golf courses, and frequently worn with argyle socks, silk neckties, and dress shirts/sweaters. Some plus fours even came as complete suits.
They were later brought back to prominence by the professional golfer Payne Stewart who wore them on the PGA Tour.
The fictional comic book character Tintin was also usually seen wearing them.
Plus fours are featured in André Benjamin's Benjamin Bixby clothing line, which is based on clothing worn by Ivy League athletes in the 1930s.
An apron is an outer protective garment that covers primarily the front of the body. It may be worn for hygienic reasons as well as in order to protect clothes from wear and tear. The apron is commonly part of the uniform of several work categories, including waitresses, nurses, and domestic workers. Many homemakers also wear them. It is also worn as a decorative garment by women. Aprons are also worn in many commercial establishments to protect workers clothes from damage, mainly bib aprons, but also others such as blacksmith or farrier aprons.
In addition to cloth, aprons can be made from a variety of materials. Rubber aprons are commonly used by persons working with dangerous chemicals, and lead aprons are commonly worn by persons such as X-ray technicians who work near radiation. Aprons, such as those used by carpenters, may have many pockets to hold tools. Waterproof household aprons, made of oilcloth or PVC are suitable for cooking and washing dishes.
The word apron is from the metanalysis of the term "a napron" to "an apron". The original spelling of napron has been lost (from the Old French naperon; Modern French napperon).
There are many different apron forms depending on
A dress shoe (U.S. English) is a shoe to be worn at smart casual or more formal events. A dress shoe is typically contrasted to an athletic shoe.
Dress shoes are worn by many as their standard daily shoes, and are widely used in dance, for parties, and for special occasions.
Men's dress shoes are most commonly black or brown. Other possible colors include: burgundy, oxblood, chestnut, cordovan or white. Cordovan or oxblood shoes are worn sometimes in the United States, while the other colours are worn by men of many nationalities. They are all made of leather, usually entirely, including the outers, lining, and sole, though for more durability at the expense of elegance, many shoes are made with rubber soles.
Shoes are usually made with many pieces of leather, and the seams can be decorated in various ways; most revolve around some type of brogueing. Brogues have rows of decorative punching in patterns: full brogues, or wingtips (the standard American name), have a toe cap in a wavy shape, with punched patterns on various sections of the shoe; half brogues have a normal straight edged toe cap and less punching; finally, other terms such as quarter-brogue etc. may be used to
The Aloha shirt, commonly referred to as a Hawaiian shirt, is a style of shirt originating in Hawaii. It is currently the premier textile export of the Hawaii manufacturing industry . The shirts are printed, mostly short-sleeved, and collared. They usually have buttons, sometimes for the entire length of the shirt, and sometimes just down to the chest (pullover). Aloha shirts usually have a left chest pocket sewn in, often with attention to ensure the printed pattern remains continuous. Aloha shirts may be worn by men or women; women's aloha shirts usually have a lower-cut, v-neck style. The lower hem is straight, as the shirts are not meant to be tucked in.
Aloha shirts exported to the mainland United States and elsewhere are called Hawaiian shirts and often brilliantly colored with floral patterns or generic Polynesian motifs and are worn as casual, informal wear.
Traditional men's aloha shirts manufactured for local Hawaiian residents are usually adorned with traditional Hawaiian quilt designs, tapa designs, and simple floral patterns in more muted colors. Contemporary aloha shirts may have prints that do not feature any traditional Hawaiian quilt or floral designs and instead
A uniform is a type of clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organization's activity. Modern uniforms are most often worn by armed forces and paramilitary organizations such as police, emergency services, security guards, in some workplaces and schools and by inmates in prisons. In some countries, some other officials also wear uniforms in their duties; such is the case of the Commissioned Corps of the United States Public Health Service or the French prefects. For some public groups, such as police, it is illegal for non members to wear the uniform. Other uniforms are trade dresses (such as the brown uniforms of UPS).
Workers sometimes wear uniforms or corporate clothing of one nature or another. Workers required to wear a uniform include retailer workers, bank and post office workers, public security and health care workers, blue collar employees, personal trainers in health clubs, instructors in summer camps, lifeguards, janitors, public transit employees, towing and truck drivers, airline employees and holiday operators, and bar, restaurant and hotel employees. The use of uniforms by these organizations is often an effort in branding and
Knee highs are hosiery that covers the feet and legs up to the knee. Typically worn by women in western and other societies, they are sometimes worn with modern semi-formal dress. Unlike ordinary socks, they are generally made of nylon or other stocking materials.
Knee highs became popular during the 1960s and 1970s with the increase in popularity of the miniskirt. Knee highs at times form a part of girls' school uniforms. They come in many colors and patterns and transparency levels. They are more popular in cold weather, because they keep the feet and lower legs warm. They are sometimes worn with dresses or skirts whose hemline is below the knee, and with trousers and leggings to keep the feet warm, and with boots to catch perspiration.
The epigonation (Greek: ἐπιγονάτιον, literally meaning "over the knee"), or palitza (Russian: палица, "club"), is a vestment used in some Eastern Christian churches.
In Eastern Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite the palitza is worn by all bishops, and as an ecclesiastical award for some priests. Its origin is traced to the practice of Byzantine Emperors awarding ceremonial swords to their military commanders in recognition of their valour in defending the empire. Such swords were often accompanied by elaborate thigh-shields which were suspended from the belt and protected the leg from bruising caused by the constant bumping of the sword against the thigh. When the emperors began to give awards to the clergy, the thigh-shield alone was awarded.
The vestment is a stiff, lozenge shaped cloth that hangs on the right side of the body below the waist, suspended by one corner from a strap drawn over the left shoulder. In the Russian tradition it is an award for service; in the Greek tradition it is usually a sign that the priest has an advanced academic degree and a blessing to hear confessions. If a Russian priest has been awarded both the nabedrennik
Breeches (/ˈbrɪtʃɨz/breeches or britches) are an item of clothing covering the body from the waist down, with separate coverings for each leg, usually stopping just below the knee, though in some cases reaching to the ankles. The breeches were normally closed and fastened about the leg, along its open seams at varied lengths, and to the knee, by either buttons or by a draw-string, or by one or more straps and buckle or brooches. Formerly a standard item of Western men's clothing, had fallen out of use by the early 19th Century in favor of pantaloons and then trousers. Modern athletic garments used for English riding and fencing called breeches differ substantially from breeches as discussed in this article.
Breeches is a double plural known since c. 1205, from Old English (and before Old French) brēc, the plural of brōc "garment for the legs and trunk", from the Proto-Germanic word *brōkiz, whence also the Old Norse word brók, which shows up in the epithet of the Viking king Ragnar Loðbrók, Ragnar "Hairy-breeches". The Proto-Germanic word also gave rise, via a Celtic language, to the Latin word bracca; the Romans, who did not generally wear pants, referred to Germanic tribes as
The Nehru jacket is a hip-length tailored coat for men or women, with a mandarin collar, and with its front modeled on the South Asian achkan or sherwani, an apparel worn by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1964. However, unlike the achkan, which falls somewhere below the knees of the wearer, the Nehru jacket is not only shorter, but also, in all respects other than the collar, resembles the suit jacket. Nehru, notably, never wore the Nehru jacket himself.
The apparel was created in India in the 1940s as Band Gale Ka Coat (Hindi/Urdu: "Closed Neck Coat") and has been popular on the Indian subcontinent since, especially as the top half of a suit worn on formal occasions. It began to be marketed as the Nehru jacket in the West in the mid-1960s; it was briefly popular there in the late 1960s and early 1970s, its popularity spurred by growing awareness of foreign cultures, by the minimalism of the Mod lifestyle, and, in particular, by the Monkees and the Beatles, who popularized the garment.
Shorts are a bifurcated garment worn by both men and women over their pelvic area, circling the waist, and covering the upper part of the legs, sometimes extending down to or even below the knee, but not covering the entire length of the leg. They are called "shorts" because they are a shortened version of trousers, which cover the entire leg. Shorts are typically worn in warm weather or in an environment where comfort and airflow are more important than the protection of the legs.
In British English the term "short trousers" is used, but only for shorts that are a short version of real trousers, e.g. tailored shorts, often lined, as typically worn as part of school uniform for boys up to their early-to-middle teens from roughly 1920 to 1980 (and still in Australia, Singapore, New Zealand and South Africa), and by servicemen and policemen posted overseas to tropical climates. The American-English term "short pants" is probably the nearest equivalent. In the US, these might nowadays be called "dress shorts" or "walk shorts", terms which have not gained currency in Britain. A somewhat similar garment worn by men in Australia is called "stubbies". "Shorts" is used unqualified in
The American term sneakers is a synonym for athletic shoes. More specifically, sneakers refer to footwear made of flexible material, typically featuring a sole made of rubber and an upper part made of leather or canvas. Sneakers were originally sporting apparel, but are today worn much more widely as casual footwear. They are now widely popular. Many children choose to wear sneakers to school because of their comfort and versatility.
Sneaker can also refer to an athletic shoe such as basketball shoes, tennis shoes or cross trainers. These shoes are sport specific shoes worn for various sports.
The British English equivalent of "sneaker" is a "trainer" in its modern meaning; however, the traditional "sneaker" (pictured) is closer to the British "plimsoll". In some urban areas in the United States, the slang for sneakers is kicks. In Hiberno-English, Canadian English and Australian English the term is runners or sneakers. In South African English the term used is tekkies.
Sneakers take their name from the sound that they make, or rather, lack thereof. The name came to be on account of how quiet the rubber soles are on the ground when walked in as opposed to the standard hard-soled
A tracksuit is an article of clothing consisting of two parts: trousers and a jacket usually with front zipper. It was originally intended for use in sports, mainly as what athletes wore over competition clothing (such as running shirt and shorts or a swimsuit) and would take off before competition. In modern times, it has become commonly worn in other contexts. The tracksuit was one of the earliest uses of synthetic fibers in sportswear.
A descendant of the tracksuit, the shell suit, which arrived in the late 1980s, was popular with the hip hop and breakdancing scene of the era. They were manufactured from a mix of cellulose triacetate and polyester making them shiny on the outside, with distinctive combinations of colours.
Most tracksuits have a mesh interior which allows the user to wear them without any undergarment such as underwear. This is much like a bathing suit. Many people wear it for physical exercise sessions. A sauna suit is a specialized form of tracksuit made of a waterproof fabric such as coated nylon or PVC that is designed to make the wearer sweat profusely. Sauna suits are primarily used for temporary weight loss.
Tracksuit trousers remain popular, although in
The Uniforms of the United States Marine Corps serve to distinguish Marines from members of other services. Among current uniforms in the United States Armed Forces, the Marines' uniforms have been in service the longest. The Marine Dress Blue uniform has, with few changes, been worn in essentially its current form since the 19th century.
The Marine Corps dress uniform is an elaborate uniform worn for formal or ceremonial occasions. Its basic form of a blue jacket with red trim dates back to the 19th century. It is the only U.S. military uniform that incorporates all three colors of the U.S. Flag. There are three different variations of the Dress uniform: Evening Dress, Blue Dress, and Blue-White Dress; only officers and staff non-commissioned officers (SNCOs) are authorized to wear the Evening Dress. Until 2000, there was a White Dress uniform, similar in appearance to the U.S. Navy's Dress White uniforms, but worn by officers only (in a manner similar to that of the Dress White uniforms worn in the U.S. Coast Guard). This uniform has since been replaced with the Blue/White Dress uniform for officers and SNCOs.
The most recognizable uniform of the Marine Corps is the Blue Dress
A coat is a long garment worn by both men and women, for warmth or fashion. Coats typically have long sleeves and are open down the front, closing by means of buttons, zippers, hook-and-loop fasteners, toggles, a belt, or a combination of some of these. Other possible features include collars and shoulder straps.
The Persians, based in what is now Iran, introduced two garments to the history of clothing: trousers and seamed fitted coats.
Coat is one of the earliest clothing category words in English, attested as far back as the early Middle Ages. (See also Clothing terminology.)
An early use of coat in English is coat of mail (chainmail), a tunic-like garment of metal rings, usually knee- or mid-calf length.
The medieval and renaissance coat (generally spelled cote by costume historians) is a midlength, sleeved men's outer garment, fitted to the waist and buttoned up the front, with a full skirt in its essentials, not unlike the modern coat.
By the eighteenth century, overcoats had begun to supplant capes and cloaks as outer wear, and by the mid-twentieth century the terms jacket and coat became confused for recent styles; the difference in use is still maintained for older
A shoe is an item of footwear intended to protect and comfort the human foot while doing various activities. Shoes are also used as an item of decoration. The design of shoes has varied enormously through time and from culture to culture, with appearance originally being tied to function. Additionally fashion has often dictated many design elements, such as whether shoes have very high heels or flat ones. Contemporary footwear varies widely in style, complexity and cost. Basic sandals may consist of only a thin sole and simple strap. High fashion shoes may be made of very expensive materials in complex construction and sell for thousands of dollars a pair. Other shoes are for very specific purposes, such as boots specially designed for mountaineering or skiing.
Shoes have traditionally been made from leather, wood or canvas, but are increasingly made from rubber, plastics, and other petrochemical-derived materials.
The foot contains more bones than any other single part of the body. Though it has evolved over hundreds of thousands of years in relation to vastly varied terrain and climate conditions, the foot is still vulnerable to environmental hazards such as sharp rocks and hot
A kippah or kipa ( /kɪˈpɑː/ ki-PAH; Hebrew: כִּפָּה or כִּיפָּה; plural: kippot כִּפוֹת or כִּיפּוֹת), also known as a yarmulke (/ˈjɑrməlkə/ YAR-məl-kə or /ˈjɑːməkə/ YAH-mə-kə from Yiddish: יאַרמולקע), kapele (Yiddish: קאפעלע), is a hemispherical or platter-shaped cap, usually made of cloth, often worn by Orthodox Jewish men to fulfill the customary requirement held by some orthodox halachic authorities that their head be covered at all times, and usually worn by men and, less frequently, women in Conservative and Reform communities at times of prayer.
There is considerable debate among the Halachic authorities as to whether or not wearing a Kippa is required by law.
Jewish law dictates that a man is required to cover his head during prayer. Originally, wearing a head covering outside of the synagogue for Orthodox males was a custom.
Today, according to some halacha authorities it has since taken on "the force of law" because it is an act of Kiddush Hashem. The 17th-century authority David HaLevi Segal suggested that the reason was to distinguish Jews from their non-Jewish counterparts, especially while at prayer.
Others, however, including the Taz (commentary to the Shulchan
A T-shirt (T shirt or tee) is a style of shirt. A T-shirt's defining characteristic is the T shape made with the body and sleeves. It is normally associated with short sleeves, a round neck line, and no collar. However, it may also include long sleeves, buttons, collars, or v-necks.
T-shirts are typically made of cotton fibers (sometimes others), knitted together in a jersey stitch that gives a T-shirt its distinctive soft texture. T-shirts can be decorated with text and/or pictures, and they are often used to advertise (see human billboard), promoting products, companies, films and websites.
T-shirt fashions include many styles for both men and women, and for all age groups, including baby, youth, teen, adult and elderly sizes.
The T-shirt evolved from undergarments used in the 19th century, through cutting the one-piece "union suit" underwear into separate top and bottom garments, with the top long enough to tuck under the waistband of the bottoms. T-shirts, with and without buttons, were adopted by miners and stevedores during the late 19th century as a convenient covering for hot environments.
T-shirts, as a slip-on garment without buttons, originally became popular in the
Headgear, headwear or headdress is the name given to any element of clothing which is worn on one's head.
Headgear serve a variety of purposes:
Bonnets, as worn by women and girls, were hats worn outdoors which were secured by tying under the chin, and often which had some kind of peak or visor. Some styles of bonnets had peaks so large that they effectively prevented women from looking right or left without turning their heads. Bonnets worn by men and boys are generally distinguished from hats by being soft and having no brim—this usage is now rare (they would normally be called caps today, except in Scotland where the "bunnet" is common in both civilian life and in the Royal Regiment of Scotland).
Caps are generally soft and often have no brim or just a peak (like on a baseball cap). For many centuries women wore a variety of head-coverings which were called caps. For example, in the 18th and 19th centuries a cap was a kind of head covering made of a flimsy fabric such as muslin; it was worn indoors or under a bonnet by married women, or older unmarried women who were "on the shelf" (e.g. mob-cap). An ochipok is part of traditional Ukrainian costume.
Some headgear, such as the
A shawl (Persian: شال, Shāl, from Sanskrit: साडी śāṭī) is a simple item of clothing, loosely worn over the shoulders, upper body and arms, and sometimes also over the head. It is usually a rectangular or square piece of cloth, that is often folded to make a triangle but can also be triangular in shape. Other shapes include oblong shawls.
Kashmir is a disputed territory between India and Pakistan. Kashmir was a pivotal point through which the wealth, knowledge, and products of ancient India passed to the world. Perhaps the most widely known woven textiles are the famed Kashmir shawls. The Kanikar, for instance, has intricately woven designs that are formalized imitations of Nature. The Chenar leaf (plane tree leaf), apple and cherry blossoms, the rose and tulip, the almond and pear, the nightingale—these are done in deep mellow tones of maroon, dark red, gold yellow and browns. Yet another type of Kashmir shawl is the Jamiavr, which is a brocaded woolen fabric sometimes in pure wool and sometimes with a little cotton added.
The floral designing appears like heavy close embroidery-like weave in dull silk or soft pashmina wool, and usually comprises small or large flowers delicately
A sweater, jumper, pullover or jersey is a knit garment intended to cover the torso and arms, popular with both men, women and children of all ages. It is often worn over a shirt, blouse, T-shirt, or other top, but may also be worn next to the skin. Sweaters were traditionally made from wool, but can now be made of cotton, synthetic fibers, or any combination thereof. Sweaters are maintained by washing or dry cleaning, and the use of a lint roller or pill razor.
The term "sweater" is a catch-all for a variety of knit garments. Although the term often refers to a pullover, it can also refer to a cardigan, a garment that opens and fastens down the front. Within either group, there is a great variety of design. Various necklines are found, although the V-neck, turtleneck and the crew neck are the most popular. The waistline is typically at hip height or slightly longer, just overlapping the waist of one's pants or skirt, but can vary significantly. It can range from just below the bust in women's garments to mid-thigh in either sex, or even longer in a knitted variation of the shirtdress. The sleeve length is also variable, ranging from full-length or three-quarters to short-sleeved,
Halterneck is a style of strap which holds up women's clothing which features a single strap or material which runs from the front of the garment around the back of the wearer's neck, and which enables most of the wearer's back to be uncovered. The term is derived from the halter, which is placed around an animal's neck.
The halter style is commonly used with swimsuits, which enables the wearer to maximize sun tan exposure on the back and minimize tan lines. The halter style is also used with dresses or shirts, to create a backless dress or top. The neck strap can itself be covered by the wearer's hair, leaving the impression from behind that nothing is holding the dress or shirt up.
If a bra is worn with a halter top, it is generally either strapless or of halterneck construction itself, so as to avoid exposing the back straps of a typical bra.
A halter top is a type of sleeveless shirt similar to a tank top (by the American English definition) but with the straps being tied behind the neck. In another style of the halter top, there is only a narrow strap behind the neck and a narrow strap behind the middle of the back, so that it is mostly backless. This design resembles many
Boy shorts, also known as boy short panties, boys' cut, booty shorts, shorties, tap panties or boyleg briefs are a kind of women's underwear that goes all the way down the hips, named for their similarity in looks to men's knit boxer shorts, which themselves are a variation on traditional boxer shorts. Some even resemble men's briefs, complete with fly and contrast trim. Unlike men's briefs, however, this style is usually lower cut, and is designed to fit and flatter a woman's figure. Boy shorts often cover most of the buttocks area.
Boy shorts have become a popular choice, since they avoid displaying a prominent visible panty line, and are a modest and comfortable alternative to thongs and conventional panties. They are also popularly matched with a camisole top and worn as loungewear. Cotton-spandex blends and lace are the most popular materials for boy shorts.
The term boy shorts can also refer to bathing suit bottoms in the same style.
Media related to Boyshorts at Wikimedia Commons
Cycling shorts (also known as bike shorts, bicycling shorts or knicks) are short, skin-tight legwear designed to improve comfort and efficiency while cycling. They:
Historically, cycling shorts were made of knit black wool, which hides oil and grease stains, with a chamois leather patch inside the shorts in the crotch area, which reduces chafing from the bicycle saddle. Modern cycling shorts are often made of spandex (Lycra) with a synthetic chamois lining and are produced in a variety of shapes and styles to suit the needs of different riders. For example, the patterns used for the chamois on women's cycling shorts tend to be quite different from those used for men's. The hem of each leg is usually lined with elastic and/or silicone that clings to the skin, keeping it in a fixed position.
Cycling shorts are designed to be worn alone with no undergarments, or as an undergarment. Shorts made from several panels (or cuts of fabric) fit better, but cost more.
Short-legged elastic tights commonly worn as street wear, under school uniform skirts or for gymnastics and ballet practice, are sometimes also referred to as bike shorts, but they are typically simpler and lighter garments than
Briefs are a type of short, tight underwear and swimwear, as opposed to styles where the material extends down the legs.
A main difference between male briefs and female briefs is that male briefs are often designed with a seam or much larger pouch in the crotch area to accommodate a bulge. This is because men and boys have larger external genitals in comparison to women or girls, thus requiring more fabric in the crotch area.
See swim briefs for the case of briefs as swimwear.
Briefs were first sold on January 19, 1935 by Coopers, Inc., in Chicago, Illinois. They dubbed the new undergarment the "Jockey" because it offered a similar degree of support as the jockstrap (one style of which is also called Jock brief or Support briefs). Thirty-thousand pairs were sold within three months of their introduction. In North America, "Jockey shorts" or "Jockeys" is often used as a generic term for men's briefs.
In the UK, briefs were first sold in 1938. Soon, shops were selling 3,000 briefs per week. They were so popular that in 1948, every member of the British Olympic team was given a free pair of briefs.
In Britain, the term "jockeys" has not caught on and briefs are often referred to as
Hiking boots are footwear specifically designed for the sport of hiking. They are considered the most important hiking gear since their quality and durability can determine a hiker's ability to move farther, faster, and more safely. Hiking boots are constructed to provide comfort for miles of walking over rough terrains, and protect the hiker's feet against water, mud, rocks, and other wilderness obstacles. Most hiking boots are also designed for other outdoor activities such as backpacking, climbing, mountaineering, trail running, hunting, and casual outdoor wear.
Hiking boots support the ankle to avoid twisting but should not restrict the ankle's movement much. They also must be fairly stiff to support the foot. A properly fitted boot and/or friction-reducing patches applied to troublesome areas can ensure protection against blisters and other discomforts associated with long hikes on rugged terrain. Some suggest a leather-lined boot over synthetic lining because it is less likely to cause blisters during a long hike.
Hiking boots are intended for the uneven trails one will encounter in a hiking activity. Here are several reasons why wearing hiking boots is beneficial to the
Knickerbockers are men's or boys' breeches or baggy-kneed trousers particularly popular in the early twentieth century USA. Golfers' plus twos and plus fours were breeches of this type. Before World War II, skiers often wore knickerbockers too, usually ankle-length.
Until after World War I, in many anglophone countries, boys customarily wore short pants in summer and knickerbockers or "knickers" (or "knee pants") in winter. At the onset of puberty, they graduated to long trousers. In that era, the transition to "long pants" was a major rite of passage. See, for example, the classic song Blues in the Night by Johnny Mercer: "My mammy done told me, when I was in knee-pants, my mammy done told me, son...".
Baseball players wear a stylized form of knickerbockers, although the pants have become less baggy in recent decades and some modern ballplayers opt to pull the trousers close to the ankles. The white trousers worn by American football officials are knickerbockers, and while they have become less baggy, they are still worn ending shortly below the knee. In recent years, the NFL has equipped its officials with long trousers rather than knickers in cold weather.
A straw hat is a brimmed hat that is woven out of straw or reeds. The hat is designed to protect the head from the sun and against heatstroke, but straw hats were also used in fashion and as a decorative element of a uniform.
There are several styles of straw hats, but all of them are woven using some form of plant fibre. Many of these hats are formed in a similar way to felt hats; they are softened by steam or by submersion in hot water, and then formed by hand or over a hat block. Finer and more expensive straw hats have a tighter and more consistent weave. Since it takes much more time to weave a larger hat than a smaller one, larger hats are more expensive.
Straw hats have been worn consistently in Europe and Asia in the Summer since before the middle ages, and arguably are the least-changed form of headgear, since many medieval examples would draw no special attention if worn today. Many are to be seen in the famous calendar miniatures of the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, worn by all classes, mostly by men.
The mokorotlo, a local design of a straw hat, is the national symbol of the Basotho and Lesotho peoples, and of the nation of Lesotho. It is also displayed on the
A school uniform is an outfit—a set of standardized clothes—worn primarily for an educational institution. They are common in primary and secondary schools in various countries (see list of countries below). When used, they form the basis of a school's dress code. Traditionally school uniforms have been largely subdued and professional. Boys' uniforms often consist of dark short or long trousers and light-colored shirt, often with a tie. Girls' uniforms vary greatly between countries and schooling systems, but typically consist of a dress or a blouse worn either with a skirt or culottes or under a pinafore; some countries allow girls to wear trousers. The use of a blazer or suit-like jacket for either gender is also fairly common, especially in countries with relatively cold weather. While some countries have school uniforms that are essentially standard in all schools using it, others have each school with an individual uniform, varying in and often making use of badges.
The efficacy of uniforms, in improving academic performance and student attitudes, is often debated.
A study published in The Journal of Educational Research by David L. Brunsma, of the University of Alabama, and
A denim skirt, erroneously referred to as a 'jean skirt' or 'jeans skirt', is a skirt made of denim, the same material as blue jeans. Denim skirts come in a variety of styles and lengths to suit different populations and occasions. For example, full-length denim skirts are commonly worn by women whose religious beliefs prohibit them from wearing trousers, including Orthodox Jews, some Muslims, Mennonites, and Pentecostals, among others. Shorter skirts made of denim are commonly worn by teenagers and young adults.
Some are modeled after an exact style of jeans, with a front fly, belt loops, and back pockets. Others are constructed more like other types of skirts, with a column of front button, closures on the side or back, or elastic waists. Like jeans, denim skirts vary in shades of blue, ranging from very pale to very dark, or occasionally in other colors.
Denim skirts were first introduced in mainstream fashion lines in the 1970s, and since then, have grown in popularity. Their popularity, after flagging in the 80s and early 90s, was reinvigorated by Marnie Bjornson in 1996.
In the sixties, hippies first came up with the idea of recycling old denim jeans into long denim skirts,
A boot is a type of footwear and a specific type of shoe. Most boots mainly cover the foot and the ankle and extend up the leg, sometimes as far as the knee or even the hip. Most boots have a heel that is clearly distinguishable from the rest of the sole, even if the two are made of one piece. Traditionally made of leather or rubber, modern boots are made from a variety of materials. Boots are worn both for their functionality – protecting the foot and leg from water, snow, mud or hazards or providing additional ankle support for strenuous activities – and for reasons of style and fashion. High-top athletic shoes are generally not considered boots, even though they do cover the ankle, primarily due to the absence of a distinct heel.
Early boots consisted of separate leggings, soles, and uppers worn together to provide greater ankle protection than shoes or sandals. Around 1000 B.C. these components were more permanently joined to form a single unit that covered the feet and lower leg, often up to the knee. A type of soft leather ankle boots were worn by nomads in eastern Asia, and carried to China to India and Russia around 1200 to 1500 A.D by Mongol invaders. The Inuit and Aleut
A corset is a garment worn to hold and shape the torso into a desired shape for aesthetic or medical purposes (either for the duration of wearing this item, or with a more lasting effect). Both men and women are known to wear corsets, though women are more common wearers.
In recent years, the term "corset" has also been borrowed by the fashion industry to refer to tops which, to varying degrees, mimic the look of traditional corsets without actually acting as one. While these modern corsets and corset tops often feature lacing or boning and generally mimic a historical style of corsets, they have very little if any effect on the shape of the wearer's body. Genuine corsets are usually made by a corsetmaker and should be fitted to the individual wearer.
The word corset is derived from the Old French word corps and the diminutive of body, which itself derives from corpus—Latin for body. The craft of corset construction is known as corsetry, as is the general wearing of them. (The word corsetry is sometimes also used as a collective plural form of corset.) Someone who makes corsets is a corsetier or corsetière (French terms for a man and for a woman, respectively), or sometimes simply
More specialized forms:Burke Short Finger Leather Sailing Glove
A glove (Middle English from Old English glof) is a garment covering the whole hand. Gloves have separate sheaths or openings for each finger and the thumb; if there is an opening but no covering sheath for each finger they are called "fingerless gloves". Fingerless gloves with one large opening rather than individual openings for each finger are sometimes called gauntlets. Gloves which cover the entire hand or fist but do not have separate finger openings or sheaths are called mittens. Mittens are warmer than gloves made of the same material because fingers maintain their warmth better when they are in contact with each other. Reduced surface area reduces heat loss.
A hybrid of glove and mitten also exists, which contains open-ended sheaths for the four fingers (as in a fingerless glove, but not the thumb) and also an additional compartment encapsulating the four fingers as a mitten would. This compartment can be lifted off the fingers and folded back to allow the individual fingers ease of movement and access while the hand remains covered. The usual design is for the mitten cavity to be stitched onto the back of the fingerless glove only, allowing it to be flipped over (normally
Tap pants are a form of lingerie worn mostly by women. It is also known by the names of French knickers, side-cut shorts, and dance shorts. As the name implies, they are a type of shorts, in that they cover the pelvic area and the upper part of the upper legs.
Tap pants look much like track shorts, allow freedom of movement, and can be worn as an outer garment over other types of underwear (e.g., g-strings). However, most wearers may wear them as innerwear or leisurewear with nothing underneath. From a distance, one could mistakenly identify tap pants as a half slip.
The name "tap pants" originates from shorts worn by tap dancers during the 1930s, while practicing their routines.
Tap pants are mostly manufactured using materials like lace, silk, satin, polyester, rayon and cotton voile. Some pairs may be trimmed in ruffles.
Tap pants have been losing popularity to slimmer versions of underwear since the mid 20th Century, as loose undergarments do not mix with figure hugging dresses, and especially with pants.
Thigh-high boots, known also as thigh-length boots or simply thigh boots, are boots that extend above the knees. Other synonyms include over-the-knee boots (OTK boots), and especially when cuffed, pirate boots. Lengths vary from reaching just over the knee to reaching almost to the crotch (referred to as crotch boots).
Like all boots, thigh boots are made of different materials ranging from various leathers, to various synthetic materials (vinyl, polyurethane, or latex), to various fabrics (silk, polyester microfiber). Many are constructed with zippers for ease of entry, but some are constructed as pull-on boots. Heel heights vary, but the majority are sold either as flats or with heels greater than three inches (7.5 cm). Heel styles vary from metal spikes to chunky. Like other boots, they can also have platform soles.
Thigh boots are considered by many to be erotic or kinky. They are used as fetish clothing in boot fetishism and shoe fetishism. Cheaper thigh boots are often worn by prostitutes and professional dominatrices, so many people consider them icons of such trades. Because of the latter they are often associated with sadomasochism. Nevertheless, they are frequently sold
Bermuda Shorts, also known as walking shorts or dress shorts, are a particular type of short trousers, now widely worn as semi-casual attire by both men and women. The hem can be cuffed or un-cuffed, around one inch above the knee.
They are so-named because of their popularity in Bermuda, a British Overseas Territory, where they are considered appropriate business attire for men when made of suit-like material and worn with knee-length socks, a dress shirt, tie, and blazer. In addition, many businesses in the West that have a business casual policy similarly allow this kind of clothing in appropriate weather. They are available in a variety of colours, including many pastel shades as well as darker shades.
True Bermuda shorts are not to be confused with "clam diggers" or "capri pants" extending below the knee. Cargo shorts may be a similar length, but are typically baggy or less "tailored" than Bermuda shorts.
Bermuda shorts originated with the British Army for wear in tropical and desert climates, and they are still worn by the Royal Navy. During the 2nd World War, there was a shortage of clothing in Bermuda. According to Jack Lightbourn, former Executive Vice President of the
Sandals are an open type of outdoor footwear, consisting of a sole held to the wearer's foot by straps passing over the instep and, sometimes, around the ankle. While the distinction between sandals and other types of footwear can sometimes be blurry (as in the case of huaraches—the woven leather footwear seen in Mexico—and peep-toe pumps), the common understanding is that a sandal leaves most of the upper part of the foot exposed, particularly the toes. People may choose to wear sandals for several reasons, among them economy (sandals tend to require less material than shoes and are usually easier to construct), comfort in warm weather, and as a fashion choice.
Usually, people wear sandals in warmer climates or during warmer parts of the year in order to keep their feet cool and dry. The risk of developing athlete's foot is lower than with enclosed shoes, and the wearing of sandals may be part of the treatment regimen for such an infection.
The oldest known sandals (and the oldest known footwear of any type) were discovered in Fort Rock Cave in the U.S. state of Oregon; radiocarbon dating of the sagebrush bark from which they were woven indicates an age of at least 10,000 years.
The cravat is a neckband, the forerunner of the modern tailored necktie and bow tie, originating from 17th-century Croatia.
From the end of the 16th century, the term band applied to any long-strip neckcloth that was not a ruff. The ruff, a starched, pleated white linen strip, originated earlier in the 16th century as a neckcloth (readily changeable, to minimize the soiling of a doublet), as a bib, or as a napkin. A band could be either a plain, attached shirt collar or a detachable "falling band" that draped over the doublet collar. It is possible that cravats were initially worn to hide shirts which were not immaculately clean.
The cravat originated in the 1630s; like most men's fashions between the 17th century and World War I, it was of military origin. In the reign of Louis XIII of France, Croatian mercenaries were enlisted into a regiment supporting the King and Cardinal Richelieu against the Duke of Guise and the Queen Mother, Marie de' Medici. The traditional Croat military kit aroused Parisian curiosity about the unusual, picturesque scarves distinctively knotted at the Croats' necks; the cloths that were used ranged from the coarse cloths of enlisted soldiers to the fine
A ski helmet or snowboard helmet is a protective head covering specifically designed and constructed for wintersports, often insulated against cold weather. Design includes the ability to withstand multiple impacts. This protective gear comes in different styles and types - full shell, short shell, and full face models. A ski helmet must be properly fitted to provide maximum protection, performance and comfort.
In addition to providing protection, some newer helmets come with built-in earpad speakers for listening to portable music devices.
Certification standards include ASTM, CEN 1077, Snell Memorial Foundation (Snell) RS-98 and S-98. ASTM and Snell's ski helmet standards are similar, Snell tests helmets obtained by purchase from randomly chosen retailers, testing the characteristics of the helmet as manufactured.
An average of 40.6 people per year have died while skiing or snowboarding in the US during the past 10 years, 0.64 deaths per million skier/snowboarder visits." Most head injuries (74%) occur when skiers hit their head on the snow, 10% when they collided with other skiers, and 13% when they collided with fixed objects. In 188 skiing and snowboarding related deaths, 108
The abaya "cloak" (colloquially and more commonly, Arabic: عباية ʿabāyah , especially in Literary Arabic: عباءة ʿabāʾah ; plural عبايات ʿabāyāt , عباءات ʿabāʾāt ), sometimes also called an aba, is a simple, loose over-garment, essentially a robe-like dress, worn by some women in parts of the Islamic world including in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Traditional abayat are black and may be either a large square of fabric draped from the shoulders or head or a long caftan. The abaya covers the whole body except the face, feet, and hands. It can be worn with the niqāb, a face veil covering all but the eyes. Some women choose to wear long black gloves, so their hands are covered as well.
The Indonesian and Malaysian women's traditional dress kebaya gets its name from the abaya.
The rationale behind the abaya is dealt with at greater length in the article Niqab.
Often the Quranic quote, "O Prophet, tell your wives and daughters, and the believing women, to cover themselves with a loose garment. They will thus be recognised and no harm will come to them" Qur'an 33:59 (Translated by Ahmed Ali)] is given as the argument for wearing the abaya.
The abaya is most common in countries
Boxer shorts (also known as loose boxers or as simply boxers) are a type of undergarment typically worn by men. The term has been used in English since 1944 for all-around-elastic shorts, so named after the shorts worn by boxers, for whom unhindered leg movement ("footwork") is very important.
Reasons for a preference for boxers can be attributed to their variety of styles and design as well as the way boxers look on the wearer. Unlike traditional briefs or the more modern boxer briefs, boxers allow for more freedom in the selection of a fabric type and print design.
In 1925, Jacob Golomb, founder of Everlast, designed elastic-waist trunks to replace the leather-belted trunks then worn by boxers. These trunks, now known as "boxer trunks", immediately became famous, but were later eclipsed by the popular Jockey-style briefs beginning in the late 1930s. Around 1947, boxer shorts started to gain in popularity again. The two styles, briefs and boxer shorts, had varying ratios of sales for the following forty years, with strong regional and generational preferences.
In more recent decades, boxer shorts got a fashion boost in 1985 when English model and musician Nick Kamen stripped to
The term chemise or shift can refer to the classic smock, or else can refer to certain modern types of women's undergarments and dresses. In the classical usage it is a simple garment worn next to the skin to protect clothing from sweat and body oils, the precursor to the modern shirts commonly worn in Western nations.
Chemise is a French term (which today simply means shirt). This is a cognate of the Italian word camicia, and the Spanish / Portuguese language word camisa (subsequently borrowed as kameez by Hindi / Urdu / Hindustani), all deriving ultimately from the Latin camisia, itself coming from Celtic. (The Romans avidly imported cloth and clothes from the Celts.) The English called the same shirt a smock and the Irish called it a léine (Irish pronunciation: [l̠ʲeːnʲə]). For an alternative etymology from Persian via Arabic and ultimately Greek, rather than Latin roots, refer entry under Kameez.
In modern usage, a chemise is generally a woman's garment that vaguely resembles the older shirts but is typically more delicate, and usually provocative. Most commonly the term refers to a loose-fitting, sleeveless undergarment or type of lingerie which is unfitted at the waist. It
Pumps (American English) or court shoes (British English) are shoes with a low-cut front and usually without a fastening. However, some have ankle straps. They are usually worn by women, but are still traditional menswear in some formal situations, when they are sometimes called opera slippers or patent pumps.
Pumps for women are usually heeled. The shape is as dictated by the fashion of the time. In the UK, in 2007 a closed toe and wide (non-stiletto) heel were worn by the very fashion-conscious, but most still wore stilettos of mainly 'kitten' height to medium height. Outside the fashion trade in the UK, the term "pumps" would normally imply flat or low-heel dancing or ballerina pumps, or even rubber-soled canvas plimsolls.
Pumps can be made from any material, but traditional patent leather is popular. Pumps are mostly worn with a suit or a uniform, but are also worn with formal and informal dresses, skirts, trousers, and jeans. White, stiletto-heeled Pumps are the standard attire with swimsuits in beauty pageants.
Pumps are also part of the costume of a ballroom dancer. They are made of satin, usually tan, though other colors are made as well, and worn on both the competition
A shirt, or dress shirt in American English, (also button-front, or button-up shirt) is a garment with a collar, a full-length opening at the front from the collar to the hem, and sleeves with cuffs. Shirts are predominantly used by men, since women usually wear blouses. The front opening is fastened using buttons or studs, and the cuffs close with buttons or cuff links. Shirts are normally made from woven cloth, and are often accompanied by a jacket and tie, for example with a suit or formalwear, but shirts are also worn more casually. In British English, dress shirt means specifically the more formal evening garment worn with black- or white- tie, also discussed below. Some of these formal shirts have stiff fronts and detachable collars attached with collar studs. "Button-down" is sometimes used incorrectly with "button-up" to describe the front buttoning of a shirt; a "button-down" refers to a shirt with an American "button-down" collar introduced by Brooks Brothers in 1896, discussed below.
A shirt has several components: A one-piece back, which is usually pleated, gathered, or eased into a section of fabric in the upper part of the back behind the neck and over the shoulders
The Episcopal gloves or Pontifical gloves (chirothecœ, called also at an earlier date manicœ, wanti) are a Roman Catholic pontifical vestment worn a by bishop when celebrating Solemn Pontifical Mass. The Episcopal gloves are worn from the beginning of the Mass until the offertory, when they are removed. The gloves can be elaborately embroidered, and they generally match the liturgical color of the Mass, except that they are not worn for Good Friday or Requiem Masses. While the episcopal gloves are normally reserved for bishops, other prelates that are entitled to use pontificals, including abbots, may use them as well without a special papal privilege.
While the use of the Episcopal gloves is still permitted, they are very rarely seen except in celebrations of the 1962 form of the Roman Rite or yet earlier forms. The gloves are considered symbolic of purity, the performance of good works and carefulness in procedure.
The Caeremoniale Episcoporum, as revised in 1984, no longer imposes on bishops of the Roman Catholic Church the use of episcopal gloves when celebrating Mass solemnly, but they are still used in such celebrations of the Tridentine Mass form of the Roman Rite.
Farthingale is a term applied to any of several structures used under Western European women's clothing in the late 15th and 16th centuries to support the skirts into the desired shape. It originated in Spain.
The Spanish vertugado, from which "farthingale" derives, was a hoop skirt originally stiffened with the subtropical Giant Cane; later designs in the temperate climate zone were stiffened with osiers (willow cuttings), rope, or (from about 1580) whalebone. The name vertugado comes from the Spanish verdugo, "green wood", although it also means "executioner" and in modern times that's the more common meaning of the term.
The earliest sources indicate that Princess Joan of Portugal started to use verdugadas with hoops in Spain. Joan had provoked much criticism as she allegedly wore dresses that displayed too much décolletage, and her wanton behaviour was considered scandalous. When she started to use farthingales, court fashion followed suit. As Joan had two illegitimate children by Pedro de Castilla y Fonseca, rumors abounded that she used the farthingale to cover up a pregnancy. The earliest images of Spanish farthingales show hoops prominently displayed on the outer surfaces
A frock coat is a man's coat characterised by knee-length skirts all around the base, popular during the Victorian and Edwardian periods. The double-breasted style is sometimes called a Prince Albert (after the consort to Queen Victoria). The frock coat is a fitted, long-sleeved coat with a centre vent at the back, and some features unusual in post-Victorian dress. These include the reverse collar and lapels, where the outer edge of the lapel is cut from a separate piece of cloth to the main body, and also a high degree of waist suppression, where the coat's diameter round the waist is much less than round the chest. This is achieved by a high horizontal waist seam with side bodies, which are extra panels of fabric above the waist used to pull in the naturally cylindrical drape.
The frock coat was widely worn in much the same situations as modern lounge suits and formalwear, with different variations. One example is that a frock coat for formalwear was always double-breasted with peaked lapels; as informal wear, the single-breasted frock coat often sported the step, or notched, lapel (the cause of its informality), and was more common in the early nineteenth century than the formal
A hat is a head covering. It can be worn for protection against the elements, for ceremonial or religious reasons, for safety, or as a fashion accessory. In the past, hats were an indicator of social status. In the military, they may denote nationality, branch of service, rank and/or regiment.
One of the first pictorial depictions of a hat appears in a Thebes tomb painting which shows a man wearing a conical straw hat. Other early hats were the Pileus, a simple skull cap; the Phrygian cap, worn by freed slaves in Greece and Rome; and the Greek petasos, the first known hat with a brim. Women wore veils, kerchiefs, hoods, caps and wimples. St. Clement, the patron saint of felt hatmakers, is said to have discovered wool felt when he filled his sandals with flax fibers to protect his feet. Structured hats for women similar to those of male courtiers began to be worn in the late 16th century. The term ‘milliner’ comes from the Italian city of Milan, where the best quality hats were made in the 18th century. Millinery was traditionally a woman’s occupation, with the milliner not only creating hats and bonnets but also choosing lace, trimmings and accessories to complete an outfit.
Jump boots, also known as paratrooper boots, or "Corcorans" after The Corcoran And Matterhorn Company, a division of Cove Shoe Company, which had the exclusive Department of Defense contract to artifice and supply them for years, are a type of combat boot typically associated with soldiers (called paratroopers) assigned to parachute units. Jump boots are fully laced from the instep to the top and give more support to the ankle whereas ordinary combat boots during World War II were laced just above the ankle and had to be worn with leggings or puttees to prevent mud and dirt from entering the boot.
Jump boots were originally designed by William P. Yarborough in 1941 for use in the 501st Parachute Test Battalion. In modern times, nearly all combat boots are fully laced, therefore modern jump boots are mainly worn as dress and parade boots. It is a tradition to have Jump Boots laced a particular way. While these boots are sometimes worn by non-paratroopers in Portugal, only paratroopers wear them with surplus green paracord instead of the usual black string. On parade, they are usually worn with white paracord. They are generally made of smooth leather with toe-caps and heel counters
A nursing bra is a specialized brassiere that provides additional support to women who are lactating and permits comfortable breastfeeding without the need to remove the bra. This is accomplished by specially designed bra cups that include flaps which can be opened with one hand to expose the nipple. The flap is usually held closed with a simple clasp or hook.
Like its sister the maternity bra, a nursing bra is a practical bra designed with fuller cups, comfortable fabrics, and wider shoulder straps for increased comfort. It is designed to support a woman's increased breast size during lactation and provide ready access to her breasts for nursing. The nursing bra aids breastfeeding by providing flaps or panels that form the bra cup that can be unclipped and folded down or to the side with one hand, exposing the nipple. Some nursing bras are designed so the entire brassiere can be easily pulled upward over the breast to allow an infant to nurse. All nursing bras are designed to allow the mother to easily hold her infant and initiate breastfeeding with a minimum of effort. When in public, this also enables a mother to nurse her infant with minimal effort, minimizing undue or unwanted
This article examines dress uniforms, daily service uniforms, working uniforms, special situations, and the history of uniforms of the United States Navy. For simplicity in this article, Officers refers to both commissioned officers and warrant officers.
The United States Navy has three categories of dress uniforms, from least to most formal: service, full, and dinner dress.
Service dress uniforms are worn for official functions not rising to the level of full or dinner dress. They are also commonly worn when traveling in official capacity, or when reporting to a command. They are seasonal, with the white uniform worn in summer and the blue in winter. Service Dress Blue may be worn year round for travel only. The civilian equivalent is a business suit. Ribbons are worn over the left breast pocket in all variations of the service dress uniform. The All-Weather Coat, Overcoat, or Reefer may be worn with Service Dress uniforms in cold or inclement weather.
The Service Dress Blue uniform consists of a black suit coat, trousers (or optional skirt for women), white shirt, and four-in-hand necktie (women substitute a neck tab). The material is generally wool or a wool blend, depending on
A bicycle helmet is designed to attenuate impacts to the head of a cyclist in falls while minimizing side effects such as interference with peripheral vision. There is an active scientific debate, with no consensus, on whether helmets are useful for cyclists in general, and on whether any benefits are outweighed by their disadvantages. The debate on whether helmet use should be enforced by law is intense and occasionally bitter, often based not only on differing interpretations of the academic literature, but also on differing assumptions and interests on the two sides.
A cycle helmet should generally be light in weight and provide ample ventilation, because cycling can be an intense aerobic activity which significantly raises body temperature, and the head in particular needs to be able to regulate its temperature. The dominant form of helmet up to the 1970s was the leather "hairnet" style. This offered acceptable protection from scrapes and cuts, but only minimal impact protection, and was mainly used by racing cyclists. More widespread use of helmets began in the U.S. in the 1970s. After many decades, when bicycles were regarded only as children's toys, many American adults took
A cummerbund (sometimes spelled cumberbund) is a broad waist sash, usually pleated, which is often worn with single-breasted dinner jackets (or tuxedos). The cummerbund was first adopted by British military officers in colonial India as an alternative to a waistcoat, and later spread to civilian use. The modern use of the cummerbund is as a component of black tie.
The word Cummerband which entered English vocabulary in 1616 via Afghanistan and the use of cummerbands by tribal warriors and later adopted by the languages of the Indian subcontinent such as Hindi and Urdu, is originally a Persian genitive phrase (Persian: کمربند) comprising kamar (waist) + band (band).
The word cummerband (see below), and less commonly the German spelling kummerbund (a phonetic translation of the English word), are often used synonymously with cummerbund in English. Today, the word kamarband in Persian simply refers to anything which is or works like a typical clothing belt.
The form of the cummerbund is a wide band around the waist, and its origin as part of black tie determined the acceptable colours. Once it was adopted as civilian dress, beginning as a largely summer option with informal dinner
The football helmet is a piece of protective equipment used mainly in American football and Canadian football. It consists of a hard plastic top with thick padding on the inside, a face mask made of one or more rubber coated metal bars, and a chinstrap. Each position has a different type of face mask to balance protection and visibility, and some players add polycarbonate visors to their helmets, which are used to protect their eyes from glare and impacts. Helmets are a requirement at all levels of organized football, except for non-tackle variations such as flag football. Although they are protective, players can and do still suffer head injuries such as a concussion.
One of the first instances of football headgear dates to 1896 when Lafayette College halfback George "Rose" Barclay began to use straps and earpieces to protect his ears. It is not certain who invented the football helmet. Many sources give credit for the creation of the helmet to James Naismith, while other sources credit U.S. Naval Academy Midshipman Joseph M. Reeves (later to become the "Father of Carrier Aviation"), who had a protective device for his head made out of mole skin to allow him to play in the 1893
Pantalettes are undergarments covering the legs worn by women, girls, and very young boys (before they were breeched) in the early- to mid-19th century.
Pantalettes originated in France in the early 19th century, and quickly spread to Britain and America. Pantalettes were a form of leggings or long drawers. They could be one-piece or two separate garments, one for each leg, attached at the waist with buttons or laces. The crotch was left open for hygiene reasons. They were most often of white linen fabric and could be decorated with tucks, lace, cutwork or broderie anglaise.
Ankle-length pantalettes for women were worn under the crinoline and hoop skirt to ensure that the legs were modestly covered should they become exposed. Pantalettes for children and young girls were mid-calf to ankle-length and were intended to show under their shorter skirts. Until the mid-19th century, very young boys were commonly dressed in dresses, gowns and pantalettes, though there were commonly associated with girls' clothing, until the boys were breeched at any age between 2 and 8 years of age, and sometimes older. Young boys would be dressed in this fashion until at least they were toilet-trained.
A poodle skirt is a wide swing felt skirt of a solid bold color (often pink and powder blue) displaying a design appliquéd or transferred to the fabric. The design was often a coiffed French poodle. Later substitutes for the poodle patch included flamingos, flowers, and hot rod cars. Hemlines were to the knee or just below it.
The skirt originated in the 1950s in the United States, designed by Juli Lynne Charlot. It quickly became very popular with teenage girls, who wore them at sock hops (school dances), and as everyday wear. The skirt was easy and fun for people to make at home, since the design was simple and the materials easily available. Movie stars commonly wore this skirt, and it featured widely in magazines and advertising, and many were eager to keep up with Hollywood's fashions, adding to its popularity.
The poodle skirt remains one of the most memorable symbols of 1950s Americana and is frequently worn as a novelty retro item, part of a nostalgic outfit. A similar design of these skirts became popular in the years 2009-2010. The skirts have been shortened, and the band has stayed.
A polo shirt, also known as a golf shirt and tennis shirt, is a T-shaped shirt with a collar, a placket with typically two or three buttons, and an optional pocket. Polo shirts are usually made of knitted cloth (rather than woven cloth), usually piqué cotton or, less commonly, silk, merino wool, or synthetic fibers.
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, tennis players ordinarily wore "tennis whites" consisting of long-sleeved white button-up shirts (worn with the sleeves rolled up), flannel trousers, and ties. This attire presented problems for ease of play and comfort.
René Lacoste, the French 7-time Grand Slam tennis champion, decided that the stiff tennis attire was too cumbersome and uncomfortable. He designed a white, short-sleeved, loosely-knit piqué cotton (he called the cotton weave jersey petit piqué) shirt with an unstarched, flat, protruding collar, a buttoned placket, and a longer shirt-tail in back than in front (known today as a "tennis tail"; see below), which he first wore at the 1926 U.S. Open championship. Beginning in 1927, Lacoste placed a crocodile emblem on the left breast of his shirts, as the American press had begun to refer to him as "The Crocodile", a
A tippet is a stole or scarf-like narrow piece of clothing, worn over the shoulders. They evolved in the fourteenth century from long sleeves and typically had one end hanging down to the knees. In later fashion, a tippet is often any scarf-like wrap, usually made of fur, such as the sixteenth century zibellino or the fur-lined capelets worn in the mid-18th century.
The ceremonial scarf worn by Anglican presbyters is called a tippet. The tippet is worn with choir dress and hangs straight down at the front. Ordained clergy wear a black tippet, while licensed readers wear a blue one. In some countries it is normally simply referred to as a preaching scarf, black scarf, or blue scarf. The tippet is different from the stole, which although often worn like a scarf is a Eucharistic vestment, usually made of richer material, and varying according to the liturgical colour of the day. Clergy who are entitled to wear medals, orders or awards may fix them to the upper left side of the tippet on suitable occasions (Remembrance Sunday for example). Sometimes the right end of the tippet is embroidered with the coat of arms of the ecclesiastical institution of which the cleric is a member, but
A tuxedo (American English) or dinner suit or dinner jacket (British English) is a semi-formal evening suit distinguished primarily by satin or grosgrain facings on the jacket’s lapels and buttons and a similar stripe along the outseam of the trousers. The suit is typically black (though may be midnight blue) and commonly worn with a formal shirt, shoes and other accessories, most traditionally in the form prescribed by the black tie dress code.
Although many etiquette and sartorial experts have insisted for a century that tuxedo is less correct than dinner jacket, the first written reference to tuxedo predates dinner jacket by two years: tuxedo first appeared in 1889 while dinner jacket is dated only to 1891. But see below, where the Prince of Wales apparently ordered a "tailless dinner jacket" from his tailors in 1885. Today, the terms are variously used in different parts of the world. Tuxedo (or, colloquially, tux) sees most use in North America. In Britain it is sometimes used to refer to the white version of the suit jacket. Conversely, this white jacket is generally known as a dinner jacket in North America.
In French, Italian, Portuguese, German, Spanish, Polish, Russian
Combat boots are military boots designed to be worn by soldiers during actual combat or combat training as opposed to during parades and other ceremonial duties. Modern combat boots are designed to provide a combination of grip, ankle stability, and foot protection suitable to a rugged environment. They are traditionally made of hardened, sometimes waterproofed leather. Today, many combat boots incorporate many technologies originating in civilian hiking boots, such as Gore-Tex nylon side panels, which improve ventilation and comfort. They are also often specialized for certain climates and conditions, such as jungle boots, desert boots, and cold weather boots as well as specific uses, such as tanker boots and jump boots.
The first soldiers to have been issued boots were the foot soldiers of the Assyrians. The soldiers of the Roman legions wore hobnail boots, called caligae.
During the English Civil War each soldier of the New Model Army was issued three shoes or ankle boots. After every march the soldier would change them round to ensure they received even wear. Following the Restoration shoes and uniforms followed the civilian pattern: shoes with buckles were used by most armies
The stola was the traditional garment of Roman women, corresponding to the toga, or the pallium, that was worn by men.
Originally, women wore togas as well, but after the 2nd century BC, the toga was worn exclusively by men, and women were expected to wear the stola. At that point, it was considered disgraceful for a woman to wear a toga; wearing the male garment was associated with prostitution and adultery.
Although the stola was a Roman garment, it was inspired by the clothing of ancient Greece. It was a staple of fashion in ancient Rome spanning from the early Roman Republic through the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire into the first millennium. Probably the most noted image of the stola resides on the fact that it is the garment that the Statue of Liberty in New York City wears.
The stola was a long, pleated dress, worn over an undergarment called a tunic or tunica intima (the Roman version of a slip). The stola was generally sleeveless but versions of it did have short or long sleeves. These sleeves could belong to the stola itself or be a part of the tunic. The traditional sleeveless stola was fastened by clasps at the shoulder called fibulae. The stola was typically girt
Creepers or brothel creepers are a type of shoe.
They found their beginnings in the years following World War II, as soldiers based in the deserts in North Africa wore suede boots with hard-wearing crepe (rubber) soles because of the climate and environment. Having left the army, many of these ex-soldiers found their way to the nightspots of London wearing the same crepe-soled shoes and these became known as "brothel creepers".
In the late 1950s, these shoes were taken up by the Teddy Boys along with drainpipe trousers, draped jackets, bolo ties, quiff and pompadour haircuts, and velvet or electric blue clothes. This style of shoe was developed in 1949 by George Cox and marketed under the "Hamilton" name, based on George Cox Jr.'s middle name.
The brothel creeper regained popularity in the early 1970s when Malcolm McLaren sold them from his "Let it Rock" shop in London's Kings Road. Teddy Boys were the obvious customers, but the brothel creeper still proved to be popular among regular customers when McLaren and his partner Vivienne Westwood changed the shop to more rocker-oriented fashion.
The shoe has since been adopted by subcultures such as indie, ska, punk, new wavers,
Ice skates are boots with blades attached to the bottom, used to propel the bearer across a sheet of ice. They are worn as footwear in many sports, including ice hockey, bandy and figure skating. The first ice skates were made from leg bones of horse, ox or deer, and were attached to feet with leather straps. A pole with a sharp metal spike was used for pushing the skater forward.
According to a study done by Federico Formenti, University of Oxford, and Alberto Minetti, University of Milan, Finns were the first to develop ice skates some 5,000 years ago from animal bones. This was important for the Finnish populations to save energy in harsh winter conditions when hunting in Finnish Lakeland. The first skate to use a metal blade was found in Scandinavia and was dated to 200 and was fitted with a thin strip of copper folded and attached to the underside of a leather shoe.
William Fitzstephen, writing in the 12th century, described the use of bone skates in London:
The bottom of a modern ice skate blade, unlike the blade of a knife, has a crescent-shaped hollow, creating two sharp edges on each skate. Ideally, the two edges of a blade are parallel, but poor maintenance practices,
A tie (British English) or necktie (American English) is a long piece of cloth worn for decorative purposes around the neck or shoulders, resting under the shirt collar and knotted at the throat. Variants include the ascot tie, bow tie, bolo tie, zipper tie, cravat and the clip-on tie. The modern necktie, ascot, and bow tie are descended from the cravat. Neck ties are generally unsized, but may be available in a longer size. Men and boys wear neckties as part of regular office attire or formal wear. Neckties can also be worn as part of a uniform (e.g. military, school and waitstaff), whereas some choose to wear them as everyday clothing attire. Neckties are traditionally worn with the top shirt button fastened, and the tie knot resting comfortably between the collar points. However, it has become common in recent times for neckties to be worn as a casual item, tied loosely around the neck, nearly always with one or several buttons unfastened.
There is a long history of neckwear worn by soldiers (Chinese and Roman), whether as part of a uniform or as a symbol of belonging to a particular group. Some form of neckwear other than the outdoor scarf can be traced intermittently through
A shirt is a cloth garment for the upper body. Originally an undergarment worn exclusively by men, it has become, in American English, a catch-all term for almost any garment other than outerwear such as sweaters, coats, jackets, or undergarments such as bras, vests or base layers. In British English, a shirt is more specifically a garment with a collar, sleeves with cuffs and a full vertical opening with buttons or snaps. (North Americans would call that a "dress shirt", a specific type of "collared shirt"). A shirt can also be worn with a necktie under the shirt collar.
The world's oldest preserved garment, discovered by Flinders Petrie, is a "highly sophisticated" linen shirt from a First Dynasty Egyptian tomb at Tarkan, ca. 3000B.C. : "the shoulders and sleeves have been finely pleated to give form-fitting trimness while allowing the wearer room to move. The small fringe formed during weaving along one edge of the cloth has been placed by the designer to decorate the neck opening and side seam."
The shirt was an item of men's underwear until the twentieth century. Although the woman's chemise was a closely related garment to the man's, it is the man's garment that became the
Kinky boots are boots with extreme characteristics which are intended to present a dramatic sexy appearance, such as by a prostitute or dominatrix. Extreme characteristics might include very high heels, thigh- or crotch-high length, or unusual colors or materials. They can be related to boot fetishism, a kind of shoe fetishism which thus make them a form of fetish clothing. The term is ambiguous, since what can be considered kinky by some can be seen as elegant fashion by others.
Boots of this type, and specifically the thigh-high leather boots worn by Honor Blackman in her role as Cathy Gale in The Avengers, are referred to in the 1964 song "Kinky Boots" by Blackman and her Avengers co-star Patrick Macnee. Usually, nowadays the term is connected to the type of thigh-length boots used by Julia Roberts in the 1990 movie Pretty Woman and by Madonna in her Re-Invention Tour in 2004.
The term "kinky boots" was coined in the UK in the early 1960s when high boots, which had previously been worn in the "underground" fetish and sadomasochistic world of the dominatrix and her clients, broke into mainstream female fashion. The term "sexual kink", meaning not entirely straight, was used,
Slip-ons are typically low, lace-less shoes. The style most commonly seen, known as a loafer or slippers in American culture, has a moccasin construction. First appearing in the mid-1930s from Norway, Aurlandskoen (Aurland Shoe), they began as casual shoes, but have increased in popularity to the point of being worn in America with city lounge suits. They are worn in many situations in a wide variety of colours and designs, often featuring tassels on the front, or metal decorations (the 'Gucci' loafer).
A less casual, earlier type of slip-on is made with side gussets (sometimes called a dress loafer). Made in the same shape as lace-up Oxfords, only lacking the laces, elasticated inserts on the side allow the shoe to be easily removed, but remain snug when worn. This cut has its greatest popularity in Britain.
Shoemaker Nils Gregoriusson Tveranger (1874-1953) in Aurland, Norway, introduced his first design around 1908. At age 13 Tveranger went to North America where he learned the craft of shoemaking and returned to Norway age 20. Around 1930 Tveranger introduced a new design called the "Aurland moccasin", later renamed the "Aurland shoe". This design resembles the moccasins used by
The robe à la polonaise or polonaise is a woman's garment of the later 1770s and 1780s or a similar revival style of the 1870s inspired by Polish national costume, consisting of a gown with a cutaway, draped and swagged overskirt, worn over an underskirt or petticoat. From the late nineteenth century, the term polonaise also described a fitted overdress which extended into long panels over the underskirt, but was not necessarily draped or swagged.
As early as the 1720s, English painters had begun to portray fashionable ladies dressed in romanticized versions of the costume of a century earlier, as depicted in portraits by Van Dyck and Rubens. By the 1770s, elements of this style began to appear in fashionable dress, including the wide-brimmed hat (dubbed the "Rubens hat" in the Fashionable Magazine of 1786) and bunched-up skirts.
About the same time, French fashion adopted a number of styles of English origin, such as the close-bodied gown which they called robe à l'anglaise, and the fullness of the skirts at the back waist and over the hips. One way to "create the fashionable bulk at the back and sides of the dress was to kilt up the overskirt by means of interior or exterior
Tabi (足袋) are traditional Japanese socks. Ankle-high and with a separation between the big toe and other toes, they are worn by both men and women with zori, geta, and other traditional thonged footwear. Tabi are also essential with traditional clothing—kimono and other wafuku as well as being worn by samurai in the feudal era. The most common colour is white, and white tabi are worn in formal situations such as at tea ceremonies. Men sometimes wear blue or black tabi for travelling. Patterned and coloured tabi are also available and are worn most often by women, though they are gaining popularity among men as well.
In contrast to socks that, when pulled on, fit the foot snugly because of their elastic weave, tabi are sewn from cloth cut to form. They are open at the back so they can be slipped on and have a row of fasteners along the opening so they can be closed.
Construction workers, farmers and gardeners, rickshaw-pullers, and other workmen often wear a type of tabi called jika-tabi (地下足袋, tabi that contact the ground). Made of heavier, tougher material and often having rubber soles, jika-tabi resemble boots and are outer footwear rather than socks. Like other tabi, jika-tabi
A veil is an article of clothing, worn almost exclusively by women, that is intended to cover some part of the head or face.
One view is that as a religious item, it is intended to show honor to an object or space. The actual sociocultural, psychological, and sociosexual functions of veils have not been studied extensively but most likely include the maintenance of social distance and the communication of social status and cultural identity. In Islamic society, various forms of the veil have been adopted from the Arab culture in which Islam arose.
The first recorded instance of veiling for women is recorded in an Assyrian legal text from the 13th century BC, which restricted its use to noble women and forbade prostitutes and common women from adopting it. The Mycenaean Greek term a-pu-ko-wo-ko meaning "craftsman of horse veil" written in Linear B syllabic script is also attested since ca. 1300 BC. Ancient Greek texts have also spoken of veiling and seclusion of women being practiced among the Persian elite. Statues from Persepolis depict women both veiled and unveiled.
Classical Greek and Hellenistic statues sometimes depict Greek women with both their head and face covered by a
An ascot tie, or ascot, is a narrow neckband with wide pointed wings, traditionally made of pale grey patterned silk. This wide, formal tie is usually patterned, folded over, and fastened with a stickpin or tie tack. It is usually reserved for wear with morning dress for formal daytime weddings and worn with a cutaway morning coat and striped grey trousers. This type of dress cravat is made of a thicker, woven type of silk similar to a modern tie and is traditionally either grey or black.
The ascot is descended from the earlier type of cravat widespread in the early 19th century, most notably during the age of Beau Brummell, made of heavily starched linen and elaborately tied around the neck. Later in the 1880s, amongst the upper-middle-class in Europe men began to wear a more loosely tied version for formal daytime events with daytime full dress in frock coats or with morning coats. It remains a feature of morning dress for weddings today. The Royal Ascot race meeting at the Ascot Racecourse gave the ascot its name, although such dress cravats were no longer worn with morning dress at the Royal Ascot races by the Edwardian era. The ascot was still commonly worn for business with
Figure skates are a type of ice skate used by figure skaters. The skates consist of a boot and a blade that is attached with screws to the sole of the boot. Inexpensive sets for recreational skaters are available, but most figure skaters purchase boots and blades separately and have the blades mounted by a professional skate technician.
Ice skates have a history dating back thousands of years, originating in Scandinavia among other cold North European regions in 3000 BC. Amongst the several inventions up until today, the first development of ice skates were made out of bone. 'Bone skates' were typically gathered using bones found from animals such as horses and cows, but more commonly in horses. Depending on the size of the skater's feet, different types of bones were used to match the length of their shoes. In order for the bone to attach to the skater's shoe, leather straps were strung through holes that were pierced horizontally into the bone and fastened to the skater's feet. During the thirteenth and fourteenth century, the first wooden skates with metal blades were made. This has effectively evolved from bone skates, as wood was easy to work with and metal lasted longer.
A wedding dress or wedding gown is the clothing worn by a bride during a wedding ceremony. Color, style and ceremonial importance of the gown can depend on the religion and culture of the wedding participants. In Western cultures, brides often choose a white wedding dress, which was made popular by Queen Victoria in the 19th century. In eastern cultures, brides often choose red to symbolize auspiciousness.
Weddings performed during and immediately following the Middle Ages were often more than just a union between two people. They could be a union between two families, two businesses or even two countries. Many weddings were more a matter of politics than love, particularly among the nobility and the higher social classes. Brides were therefore expected to dress in a manner that cast their families in the most favorable light and befitted their social status, for they were not representing only themselves during the ceremony. Brides from wealthy families often wore rich colors and exclusive fabrics. It was common to see them wearing bold colors and layers of furs, velvet and silk. Brides dressed in the height of current fashion, with the richest materials money could buy. The
The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a cloth of perhaps 20 ft (6 m) in length which was wrapped around the body and was generally worn over a tunic. The toga was made of wool, and the tunic under it often was made of linen. After the 2nd century BC, the toga was a garment worn exclusively by men, and only Roman citizens were allowed to wear the toga. After this time, women were expected to wear the stola.
The toga was based on a dress robe used by native people, the Etruscans. The toga was the dress clothing of the Romans, a thick woolen cloak worn over a loincloth or apron. It is believed to have been established around the time of Numa Pompilius, the second King of Rome. It was taken off indoors, or when hard at work in the fields, but it was considered the only decent attire out-of-doors. This is evident from the story of Cincinnatus: he was ploughing in his field when the messengers of the Senate came to tell him that he had been made dictator, and on seeing them he sent his wife to fetch his toga from the house so that they could be received appropriately. While the truth of the story may be doubtful, it nevertheless expresses the Roman sentiment on the
An Australian work boot (or generically elastic-sided boot) is a style of work shoe, typically constructed with a leather upper bound together with elastic sides and pull tabs on the front and back of the boot. The shoe lacks a tongue, and laces, and often contains a steel toe cap for occupational health and safety reasons. When the shoe contains a steel cap they are often known as "safety boots" or "steel toe boots". The boots generally lack an inner lining. The sole is generally polyurethane and the leather uppers are treated to be resistant to hot water, fats and mild alkaline and acid solutions.
The elasticated side design allows the wearer to easily slip their boots on and off without the hassle of laces, but with the firm fit of lace-up boots. There are several Australian companies manufacturing boots in this classic style today. Some of the more popular brands are Blundstone (perhaps the original dating back to 1870),Rossi Boots (established in 1910 and still manufactured in Australia) and R. M. Williams. In Australian English, the manufacturer's brand name is often associated generically with this style of boot, leading to the names Blundstones, RMs or Rossis.
The shoes are
A banyan (through Portuguese banian and Arabic بنيان, banyān, from the Gujarati વાણિયો, vāṇiyo, meaning 'merchant') is a garment worn by men in the 18th century influenced by Persian and Asian clothing.
Banyan is also commonly used in present day Indian English and Pakistani English to mean vest (undershirt in American English).
Also called a morning gown, robe de chambre or nightgown, the banyan was a loose, T-shaped or kimono-like cotton, linen, or silk gown worn at home as a sort of dressing gown or informal coat over the shirt and breeches. The typical banyan was cut en chemise, with the sleeves and body cut as one piece. It was usually paired with a soft, turban-like cap worn in place of the formal periwig. An alternative style of banyan was cut like a coat, fitted, with set-in sleeves, and was closed with buttons and buttonholes.
In the humid climate of Colonial Virginia, gentlemen wore lightweight banyans as informal street wear in summer.
It was fashionable for men of an intellectual or philosophical bent to have their portraits painted while wearing banyans. Benjamin Rush wrote:
Despite the name "nightgown", the banyan was not worn for sleeping.
A bodice, historically, is an article of clothing for women, covering the body from the neck to the waist. In modern usage it typically refers to a specific type of upper garment common in Europe during the 16th to the 18th century, or to the upper portion of a modern dress to distinguish it from the skirt and sleeves. The term comes from pair of bodies (because the garment was originally made in two pieces that fastened together, frequently by lacing).
In historical usage, particularly in Victorian and early 20th century fashion, a bodice (in earlier sources, body) indicates the upper part of a dress that was constructed in two parts (i.e., with separate skirt and bodice, such as a ballet tutu), but of matching or coordinating fabric with the intention of wearing the two parts as a unit. In dressmaking, the term waist (sometimes given as "dress waist" to distinguish it from a shirtwaist) was also used. During wear, the parts might be connected by hooks and eyes. This construction was standard for fashionable garments from the 18th century until the late 19th century, and had the advantages of allowing a voluminous skirt to be paired with a close-fitting bodice, and of allowing two
A smock-frock or smock is an outer garment traditionally worn by rural workers, especially shepherds and waggoners, in parts of England and Wales from the early eighteenth century. Today, the word smock refers to a loose overgarment worn to protect one's clothing, for instance by a painter.
The traditional smock-frock is made of heavy linen or wool and varies from thigh-length to mid-calf length. Characteristic features of the smock-frock are fullness across the back, breast, and sleeves folded into "tubes" (narrow unpressed pleats) held in place and decorated by smocking, a type of surface embroidery in a honeycomb pattern across the pleats that controls the fullness while allowing a degree of stretch.
It is uncertain whether smock-frocks are "frocks made like smocks" or "smocks made like frocks"—that is, whether the garment evolved from the smock, the shirt or underdress of the medieval period, or from the frock, an overgarment of equally ancient origin. What is certain is that the fully developed smock-frock resembles a melding of the two older garments.
From the earlier eighteenth century, the smock-frock was worn by waggoners and carters; by the end of that century, it had
A swimsuit, bathing suit, swimming costume, tog, bather, or cossie (short for "costume") is an item of clothing designed to be worn by men, women or children while they are engaging in a water-based activity or water sports, such as swimming, water polo, diving, surfing, water skiing, or during activities in the sun, such as sun bathing.
A swimsuit can be worn as an undergarment in sports that require a wetsuit such as water skiing, scuba diving, surfing, and wakeboarding. Swimsuits are also worn when there is a need to display the body, as in the case of beauty pageants or bodybuilding contests. Glamour photography and magazines like the annual Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue feature models and sports personalities in swimsuits.
There is a very wide range of styles of modern swimsuits, which vary in relation to body coverage and materials. The choice of style of swimsuit is dependent on current fashions and community standards of modesty, as well as on personal preferences.
In western culture, men's swimsuit styles include boardshorts, jammers, swim trunks, briefs or "speedos", thongs, and g-strings, in order of decreasing lower body coverage.
Women's swimsuits are generally
The Wellington boot is a type of boot based upon leather Hessian boots. They were worn and popularised by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. This novel "Wellington" boot became a staple of hunting and outdoor wear for the British aristocracy in the early 19th century.
Wellington boots are also known as rubber boots, wellies, wellingtons, topboots, billy-boots, gumboots, gumbies, gummies, and rainboots.
Wellington boots are waterproof and are most often made from rubber or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) a halogenated polymer. They are usually worn when walking on wet or muddy ground, or to protect the wearer from heavy showers and puddles. They are generally just below knee-high although shorter boots are available.
The "Wellington" in contemporary society is a very common and necessary safety or hygiene shoe for vastly diverse industrial settings: for heavy industry with an integrated reinforced toe; protection from mud and grime in mines, chemical spills in chemical plants to highest standard hygiene requirements from food processing plants, operating theatres state-of-the-art, dust-free clean rooms for electronics manufacture and Gardening/Horticulture Work - wet,mud and soil
A zoot suit (occasionally spelled zuit suit) is a men's suit with high-waisted, wide-legged, tight-cuffed, pegged trousers, and a long coat with wide lapels and wide padded shoulders. This style of clothing became popular within the Chicano and African American community during the 1940s. In Britain the bright-coloured suits with velvet lapels worn by Teddy Boys bore a slight resemblance to zoot suits in the length of the jacket.
Zoot suiters often wear a fedora hat color-coordinated with the suit and occasionally with a long feather as decoration, and pointy, French-style shoes.
A young Malcolm X described the zoot suit as: "a killer-diller coat with a drape shape, reet pleats and shoulders padded like a lunatic's cell". Zoot suits usually featured a watch chain dangling from the belt to the knee or below, then back to a side pocket. Zoot suit wearers' dates often wore flared skirts and long coats.
The amount of material and tailoring required made them luxury items, so much so that the U.S. War Production Board said that they wasted materials that should be devoted to the World War II war effort. When Life published photographs of zoot suiters in 1942, the magazine joked that
A miniskirt (sometimes hyphenated as "mini-skirt") is a skirt with a hemline well above the knees, generally halfway up the thighs – normally no longer than 10 cm (4 in) below the buttocks; and a minidress is a dress with such a hemline. A micro-miniskirt or microskirt is a miniskirt with its hemline at the upper thigh, at or just below crotch level; and short shorts--often better known as hot pants and "Daisy Dukes"--are women's shorts with leg hemlines at the upper thigh.
The popularity of miniskirts peaked in the "Swinging London" of the 1960s, but its popularity is since still commonplace among many women, mostly teenagers, preteens, and young adults. Before that time, short skirts were only seen in sport clothing, such as skirts worn by female tennis players, figure skaters, and cheerleaders.
From the ancient Greek tunic until the military tunic of Roman times, the very short tunic was exclusively worn by slaves and fighters. In the Middle Ages they were worn under the armour.
During her theatre performances in the Folies Bergère in Paris in 1926, Josephine Baker wore a sort of miniskirt made from bananas.
In the 1950s, they could be seen in the science fiction films Devil
A Panama hat (sometimes informally among hat enthusiasts, just a Panama - see Isthmus of Panama) is a traditional brimmed hat of Ecuadorian origin that is made from the plaited leaves of the toquilla straw plant (Carludovica palmata). Straw hats woven in Ecuador, like many other 19th and early 20th century South American goods, were shipped first to the Isthmus of Panama before sailing for their destinations in Asia, the rest of the Americas and Europe. For some products, the name reflects their point of international sale rather than their place of domestic origin; hence "Panama hats". The 49ers picked up these hats in Panama, and when President Theodore Roosevelt visited the Panama Canal construction, he wore such a hat, which increased its popularity. They're also known as a Jipijapa, named for a town in Ecuador. The Oxford English Dictionary cites a use of the term as early as 1834.
Glorified during the 19th century, the Panama has since been considered the prince of straw hats. The Ecuadorian national hero and emblematic figure Eloy Alfaro helped finance his liberal revolution of Ecuador through the export of panamas. The reputation of the hat was established by Napoleon III,
A swim brief, budgie smugglers, or racing brief, refers to any briefs style male swimsuit such as those worn in competitive swimming and diving. The popularity of the Australian Speedo (est. 1928) brand racing brief has led to the use of its name in some countries (e.g. the United States) to refer to any racing brief, regardless of the maker. Occasionally, the Speedo genericized trademark also applies to square cut swimsuit, but in general the generic term is used in reference to swim briefs. Swim briefs are also referred to as competition briefs, bathers, racer bathers, posing briefs, racing briefs, and colloquially in Australia as "budgie smugglers".
Like underwear briefs, swim briefs feature a V-shape front and a solid back providing form-fitting coverage. They typically are worn below the lower waist. They are generally secured by thin banding at the upper thighs and either a drawstring around the waist or an elastic waistband. Swim briefs are most often made of a nylon and spandex (Lycra) composite, while some longer lasting suits are made from polyester and still others from other materials. Most swim briefs have a beige or white front lining made of a similar fabric.
Suspenders (American English) or braces (non-US English speaking countries) are fabric or leather straps worn over the shoulders to hold up trousers. Straps may be elasticated, either entirely or only at attachment ends and most straps are of woven cloth forming an X or Y shape at the back. Braces are typically attached to trousers with buttons using leather tabs at the ends or with clips. Outside the US the term suspenders or suspender belt refers to a garment used to hold up stockings, what in American English is called a garter belt.
There have been several precursors to suspenders throughout the past 300 years, but the modern type were first invented in 1822 by Albert Thurston and were once almost universally worn due to the high cut of mid-nineteenth and early twentieth century trousers, a cut that made a belt impractical. After losing popularity during World War I, as men became accustomed to uniform belts, suspenders were still standard throughout the 1920s. Because of their image as underwear, men switched to belts during the 1930s as the waistcoats which had hidden braces became worn less. This also signaled the switch of position of the buttons from the outside of the
The U.S. Army service uniform is the military uniform worn by personnel in situations where formal dress is called for. It is worn in most workday situations in which business dress would be called for. It can be worn at most public and official functions.
The green service uniform is slowly being replaced by the blue uniform.
The blue Army Service Uniform (ASU) is the "new" service uniform, and was adopted for optional wear in 2008. It was issued to new soldiers starting in the fall of 2010, and must be worn army-wide after October 2015. The ASU is replacing two uniforms already in use – the "Army Green" service uniform and the "Army White" service uniform. It will be based on the current dress uniform known as the "dress blue" uniform. It has its roots in the "Army Blue" uniform, which dates back to the Revolutionary War, in which the Continental Army outfitted its soldiers in blue to distinguish them from the red uniform coats of the British Army. It also recalls the Civil War Union Army's blue uniforms.
While Washington was in Philadelphia, one hundred neighbors in Fairfax County (VA), under the tutelage of George Mason, had organized themselves into a voluntary
A blazer is a type of jacket resembling a suit coat cut more casually, typically with metal buttons. A blazer's cloth is usually durable (14oz.), as it is intended as an outdoor jacket. Stylistically, blazers often are uniform garments, e.g. for airline, school, and yachting, and rowing clubs.
A blazer is generally distinguished from a sportcoat as a more formal garment and tailored from solid color fabrics. Blazers are often made with naval-style metal buttons, reflecting their historic boating club association.
Blazers are worn with wide variety of other clothes, ranging from a shirt and tie to an open-necked polo shirt. They are seen with trousers of all colours, from the classic white cotton or linen, to grey flannel, to brown or beige chinos as well as jeans.
A fitted, classically-cut, double-breasted navy blue blazer with navy-style buttons is a popular design and sometimes referred to as "reefer" blazer. Particularly in North America and the United Kingdom, it is now frequently used in business casual and business informal wear and by some as suitable attire for any situation.
Blazers are worn as part of school uniform by many schools across the Commonwealth, and in a wide
A bustle is a type of framework used to expand the fullness or support the drapery of the back of a woman's dress, occurring predominantly in the mid-to-late 19th century. Bustles were worn under the skirt in the back, just below the waist, to keep the skirt from dragging. Heavy fabric tended to pull the back of a skirt down and flatten it. Thus, a woman's petticoated or crinolined skirt would lose its shape during everyday wear (from merely sitting down or moving about). The word "bustle" has become synonymous with the fashion to which the bustle was integral.
As the fashion for crinolines wore on, their shape changed. Instead of the large bell-like silhouette previously in vogue, they began to flatten out at the front and sides, creating more fullness at the back of the skirts. One type of crinoline, the crinolette, created a shape very similar to the one produced by a bustle. The excess skirt fabric created by this alteration in shape was looped around to the back, again creating increased fullness.
The bustle later developed into a feature of fashion on its own after the overskirt of the late 1860s was draped up toward the back and some kind of support was needed for the new
A corselet, or corselette, is a type of foundation garment, sharing elements of both brassieres and girdles. It may incorporate lace in front or in back. The term originated by the addition of the diminutive suffix "-ette" to the word corset.
The corselet was originally a piece of armor, covering the torso; the origin of the English word comes from cors, an Old French word meaning "bodice". The corselet as an item of women's clothing began to gain traction in 1914, as a substitute for wearing two separate pieces (a brassiere with either a girdle or a corset). The bust uplift cups were first introduced in 1933, but did not become common until 1943.
A corselet was released by Warner's in 1955, named after The Merry Widow, a 1905 operetta that has been adapted several times into feature-length films. This new design featured demi-cups and a shorter girdle than its predecessors. This type of lingerie is also known as a torsolette, and is used in bridal lingerie, much like the bustier.
The original merry widow was a corselet incorporating slim panels of black, elastic yarn netting. A heavy-duty zipper was inserted behind a velvet-backed hook-and-eye flange, and the entire garment was
A justacorps or justaucorps is a long, knee-length coat worn by men in the latter half of the 17th century, and throughout the 18th century. The garment is of French origin, and was introduced in England as a component of a three-piece ensemble, also consisting of breeches and a long vest or waistcoat. This ensemble served as the prototype of the modern-day three-piece suit. The fabric selection and styling of the justacorps varied throughout time periods, as fashions frequently altered.
In 1666, Charles II of England declared to reset men’s fashion by introducing a new garment, referred to as a vest, or a waistcoat. The vest was knee-length, worn in conjunction with breeches and an overcoat of equal length. The coat became known as the justacorps, and this outfit is thought to be the prototype of the modern day men’s three-piece suit.
Despite the outfit introduced by Charles II in 1666, the justacorps did not establish itself as a popular component of men’s dress until around 1680. It replaced the doublet, a previously popular shorter style of coat. The justacorps was worn to the knee, covering an equal length vest and breeches underneath. It opened center front, typically having
Motorcycle boots are associated with motorcycle riders and range from above ankle to below knee boots. They have an outside of a typical boot but a low heel to control the motorcycle. To improve motorcycle safety, motorcycle boots are generally made from a thick, heavy leather and may include energy absorbing and load spreading padding, metal, plastic and/or composite materials to protect the motorcycle rider's feet, ankles and legs in an accident. For use in wet weather, some boots have a waterproof membrane lining such as Gore-Tex or SympaTex.
Similar to touring boots, racing boots are designed for riding a motorcycle on hard pavement (either the street or a race track) and are usually between 10 and 14 inches in height and made from a combination of leather, metal, plastic and/or man-made composite materials to create a form-fitting, but comfortable boot. The amount of armored protection provided by racing boots is usually greater than touring boots due to the increased potential for injury at the high speeds needed for racing.
Depending upon how form-fitting the boot is, to allow a rider to easily get the boot on or off, the shaft may be designed to open lengthwise. If so,
The redingote is a type of coat that has had several forms over time. The name is derived from a French alteration of the English "riding coat", an example of reborrowing.
The first form of the redingote was in the 18th century, when it was used for travel on horseback. This coat was a bulky, utilitarian garment. It would begin to evolve into a fashionable accessory in the last two decades of the 18th century, when women began wearing a perfectly tailored style of the redingote, which was inspired by men's fashion of the time. Italian fashion also picked it up (the redingotte), adapting it for more formal occasions.
The redingote à la Hussar was trimmed with parallel rows of horizontal braid in the fashion of Hussars' uniforms.
The style continued to evolve through the late 19th century, until it took a form similar to today's redingote. The newer form is marked by a close fit at the chest and waist, a belt, and a flare toward the hem.
The men's redingote was an 18th century or early 19th century long coat or greatcoat, derived from the country garment with a wide, flat collar called a frock In French, redingote is the usual term for a fitted frock coat. The form a men's redingote
Scrubs are the shirts and trousers or gowns worn by nurses (perioperative nurse), surgeons, and other operating room personnel when "scrubbing in" for surgery. In the United Kingdom, they are sometimes known as Theatre Blues. They are designed to be simple with minimal places for dirt to hide, easy to launder, and cheap to replace if damaged or stained irreparably. The wearing of scrubs has been extended outside of surgery in many hospitals. Originally issued as replacement clothing if street clothing was contaminated, scrubs are now worn by any hospital personnel in any clean environment. The spread of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has increased the use of scrubs but can give wearers a false sense of security that they are 'clean' when in fact are as easily contaminated as any other clothing. They have also been mandated in some American prisons as a prison uniform. The television show Scrubs is partly named for this garment.
In contrast to the uniforms long required of nurses, surgeons did not wear any kind of specialized garments until well into the 20th century. Surgical procedures were conducted in an operating theater. The surgeon wore his own clothes,
A toque ( /ˈtoʊk/ or /ˈtɒk/) is a type of hat with a narrow brim or no brim at all. They were popular from the 13th to the 16th century in Europe, especially France. Now, it is primarily known as the traditional headgear for professional cooks.
The word Toque is Arabic "طوق" for "Round" and "طاقية" "Taqia" for "Hat" originally for something "Round" that has an opening. The word has been known in English since 1505. It came through the Medieval French toque (15th century), presumably by the way of the Spanish toca "woman's headdress", from Arabic *taqa'طاقة' 'Opening'.
A toque blanche (French for "white hat"), often shortened to toque, is a tall, round, pleated, starched white hat worn by chefs. The many folds on a toque blanche are believed to signify the many ways that an egg can be cooked..
The toque most likely originated as the result of the gradual evolution of head coverings worn by cooks throughout the centuries. Their roots are sometimes traced to the casque a meche (stocking cap) worn by 18th-century French chefs. The colour of the casque a meche denoted the rank of the wearer. Boucher, the personal chef of the French statesman Talleyrand, was the first to insist on white
A tunic is any of several types of garment for the body, usually simple in style, reaching from the shoulders to a length somewhere between the hips and the ankles. The name derives from the Latin tunica, the basic garment worn by both men and women in Ancient Rome, which in turn was based on earlier Greek garments.
The Roman tunica was worn by citizens and non-citizens alike; citizens, though, might wear it under the toga, especially at formal occasions. The length of the garment, the presence or lack of stripes, as well as their width and ornamentation, would indicate the wearer's status in Roman society. Soldiers, slaves and manual workers generally had tunics to a little above the knee; those in more sedentary occupations to about the ankle (unless they were expecting to ride a horse, when a shorter one would be worn).
The tunic or chiton was worn as a shirt or gown by both genders among the ancient Romans. The body garment was loose-fitting for males, usually beginning at the neck and ending above the knee. A woman's garment could be either close fitting or loose, beginning at the neck and extending over a skirt or skirts.
The tunic was also worn by the ancient and Byzantine
Cargo pants (cargo trousers) are loosely cut pants designed for tough, outdoor activities distinguished by one or more cargo pockets.
A cargo pocket is a form of a patch pocket, often with accordion folds for increased capacity closed with a flap secured by snap, button, or Velcro common on battledress and hunting clothing. Variously, cargo pockets may be hidden within the legs.
Cargo pants are made of hard wearing fabric and ruggedly stitched. Increasingly they are made of quick-drying sythetic or cotton-synthetic blends, and often feature oversized belt loops to accommodate wide webbing belts. The largest pair of cargo pants ever made contained over 75 pockets.
The garments are characteristically designed to allow bending at the knee and hip and sewn with felled seams.
Cargo shorts are cargo pants shortened at the knee. Some cargo pants are made with removable lower legs allowing conversion into shorts.
EMT pants are cargo pants which have 6-Way cargo/scissor pockets on one or both legs each with a Hidden zippered pocket on top of cargo pocket, a bellowed flap pocket with increased carrying capacity, Besom pockets on calves for glove storage, and 3 slots for scissors (2 two
Espadrilles (aka Alpargatas) are normally casual flat, but sometimes high heeled shoes originating from the Pyrenees. They usually have a canvas or cotton fabric upper and a flexible sole made of rope or rubber material moulded to look like rope. The jute rope sole is the defining characteristic of an espadrille; the uppers vary widely in style. In French Canada, however, espadrille is the usual term for running shoes or sneakers.
The term espadrille is French and derives from the word in Occitan language, which comes from espardenya, in Catalan. In Catalan it meant a type of shoes made with espart, the Catalan name for esparto, a tough, wiry Mediterranean grass used in making rope.
Espadrilles have been made in Pyrennean Occitania and Catalonia since the 14th century at least, and there are shops in the Basque country still in existence that have been making espadrilles for over a century. Traditional espadrilles have a canvas upper with the toe and vamp cut in one piece, and seamed to the rope sole at the sides. Often they would have laces at the throat that would be wrapped around the ankle to hold the shoes securely in place. Traditional espadrilles are worn by both men and
A one-piece swimsuit is a usually skin-tight one-piece swimsuit worn by women and girls when swimming in the sea or in a swimming pool, or for any activity in the sun, such as sun bathing. The one-piece swimsuit usually covers a female's torso. Some women wear a one-piece swimsuit because they consider it to be more modest than a two-piece bikini.
Before the popularity of the two-piece swimsuit, and then the bikini, virtually all female swimsuits were one piece, and men also wore similar swimsuits that covered their whole torso.
The most common type of one-piece suit is the maillot or tank suit, which resembles a sleeveless leotard or bodysuit. Variants of this include halterneck and plunge front swimsuits, as well as wrap-round ("surplice") and bandeau styles. The pretzel suit is another special case of the one-piece swimsuit.
Recently, athletic swimsuits have used a variety of new shoulder strap styles, including the racerback, fastback, and flyback styles, some of which have also been used on other athletic wear.
Another recent innovation in one-piece swimsuits is the bodyskin, which superficially resembles a unitard or wetsuit. Although these cover the entire torso, arms and
A scarf, also known as a muffler, warmstrangler or neck-wrap is a piece of fabric worn around the neck, or near the head or around the waist for warmth, cleanliness, fashion or for religious reasons. They can come in a variety of different colours.
Ancient Rome is one of the first origins of the scarf, where it was not used to keep warm, but to keep clean. It was called the sudarium, which translates from Latin to English as "sweat cloth", and was used to wipe the sweat from the neck and face in hot weather. They were originally worn by men around their neck or tied to their belt. Soon women started using the scarves, which were made of cloth and not made of wool, pashmina, or silk, and ever since the scarf has been fashionable among women.
Historians believe that during the reign of the Chinese Emperor Cheng, scarves made of cloth were used to identify officers or the rank of Chinese warriors.
In later times scarves were also worn by soldiers of all ranks in Croatia around the 17th century. The only difference in the soldiers' scarves that designated a difference in rank was that the officers had silk scarves whilst the other ranks were issued with cotton scarves. The men's
Slip is a woman's undergarment worn beneath a dress or skirt to help it hang smoothly and to prevent chafing of the skin from coarse fabrics such as wool. Slips are also worn for warmth, and to protect fine fabrics from perspiration. A full slip hangs from the shoulders, usually by means of narrow straps, and extends from the breast to the fashionable skirt length. A half slip hangs from the waist. It may also be called a waist slip or more rarely a petticoat.
Slips are often worn to prevent the show through of intimate undergarments such as panties or a brassiere. A slip may also be used to prevent a silhouette of the legs showing through clothing when standing in front of a bright light source. Other uses for slips are to make a dress or skirt hang properly, the prevention of chafing to the skin, to protect the outer garment from damage due to perspiration, or for warmth, especially if the dress or skirt is lightweight and thin. In very warm and/or humid climates a slip made from 100% cotton may be desired.
Slips fall into two major categories. A full slip is hung from the shoulders by straps that extend down to the top of the breast area. Full slips come in a variety of lengths;
An undershirt is an article of underwear worn underneath a dress shirt intended to protect them from body sweat and odors. It can have short sleeves or be sleeveless. The term most commonly refers to upper-body wear worn by males.
It also makes dress shirts less transparent. It can also be worn during winter months as an extra layer of warmth.
Factory mass produced undershirts became common in the West in the early 20th century, with innovations turning the union suit into two pieces, for upper and lower body.
More specialized forms:Burke Pacific Coastal Jacket
A jacket hip- or waist-length garment for the upper body. A jacket typically has sleeves, and fastens in the front. A jacket is generally lighter, tighter-fitting, and less insulating than a coat, which is outerwear. Some jackets are fashionable, while others serve as protective clothing.
The word jacket comes from the French jaquette. Speakers of American English sometimes informally use the words jacket and coat interchangeably.
The term comes from the Middle French noun jaquet, which refers to a small or lightweight tunic. In Modern French, jaquette is synonymous with jacket.
A shtreimel (Yiddish: שטרײַמל, pl. שטרײַמלעך shtreimlech) is a fur hat worn by many married haredi Jewish men, particularly (although not exclusively) members of Hasidic groups, on Shabbat and Jewish holidays and other festive occasions. In Jerusalem, the shtreimel is also worn by 'Yerushalmi' Jews (non-Hasidim who belong to the original Ashkenazi community of Jerusalem, also known as Perushim). The shtreimel is generally worn only after marriage, except in many Yerushalmi communities, where boys wear it from their bar mitzvah.
While there is strong religious custom for Jewish males to cover their heads, from the standpoint of Jewish law there is no special religious significance to the shtreimel as compared to other head coverings. However, the wearing of two head coverings is considered to add additional spiritual merit, plus the presence of beautiful craftship adds beautification and honor to the custom. The shtreimel is always worn over a kippah.
There is much speculation surrounding the origin of the shtreimel. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, it is of Tatar origin.
A traditional story has it that an anti-Semitic political figure once issued a decree that male Jews must
Winklepickers or winkle pickers are a style of shoe or boot worn from the 1950s onward by male and female British rock and roll fans. The feature which gives both the boot and shoe their name is the very sharp and quite long pointed toe, reminiscent of medieval footwear and approximately the same as the long pointed toes on some women's high fashion shoes and boots in the late 2000s. The pointed toe was called the winkle picker toe because in England periwinkle snails or winkles are or were a popular seaside snack, which is eaten using a pin or other pointed object to carefully extract the soft parts out of the coiled shell, hence the phrase: "to winkle something out", and from that, winklepickers as a humorous name for shoes with a very pointed tip.
Winklepicker shoes, inspired by the Poulaines worn by the medieval French nobility, were a conspicuous contrast to the brothel creepers worn by Teddy Boys. The male shoes were lace-up Oxford style with a low heel and an exaggerated pointed toe. A Chelsea Boot style (elastic-sided with a two-inch, and later as much as two and one half inch, Cuban heel) was notably worn by the Beatles, but although it had a pointed toe, was not
A skort, sometimes called a scooter or 'skant', is a pair of women's shorts with a fabric panel resembling a skirt covering the front.
Some skorts are essentially skirts with a pair of shorts hidden underneath, though most resemble a pair of shorts with a panel of fabric over the front.
The term "skort" (a portmanteau of skirt and shorts) is used idiomatically in some regions. While some garments sold as culottes resemble short trousers, to be a skort they need to look like skirts. They are distinguished from trousers or shorts by a fuller cut at the bottom (hem) than at the waist.
Skorts were developed to provide more freedom to do activities such as gardening, cleaning, or bike riding, and give the appearance of a skirt.
Skorts are popular in sports such as field hockey, tennis, golf and camogie, and are often part of girls' athletic uniforms.
Women began to play golf in large numbers in the 1960s which led to the development of the famous Leon Levin "Q" skirt or "skort" which offered the freedom of shorts and soft lines of a skirt. The article became an immediate favorite on the Ladies Professional Golf Tour. Professional golfers famously known for wearing skorts are Natalie
In clothing, a suit is a set of garments made from the same cloth, usually consisting of at least a jacket and trousers. Lounge suits are the most common style of Western suit, originating in the United Kingdom as country wear. Other types of suit still worn today are the dinner suit, part of black tie, which arose as a lounging alternative to dress coats in much the same way as the day lounge suit came to replace frock coats and morning coats; and, rarely worn today, the morning suit. This article discusses the lounge suit (including business suits), elements of informal dress code.
The variations in design, cut, and cloth, such as two- and three- piece, or single- and double- breasted, determine the social and work suitability of the garment. Often, suits are worn, as is traditional, with a collared shirt and necktie. Until around the 1960s, as with all men's clothes, a hat would have been also worn when the wearer was outdoors. Suits also come with different numbers of pieces: a two-piece suit has a jacket and the trousers; a three piece adds a waistcoat; further pieces might include a matching flat cap.
Originally, as with most clothes, a tailor made the suit from his client's
A belt is a flexible band or strap, typically made of leather or heavy cloth, and worn around the waist. A belt supports trousers or other articles of clothing.
Belts have been documented for male clothing since the Bronze Age. Both genders used them off and on, depending on the current fashion. In the western world, belts were more common for men, with the exception of the early Middle Ages, late 17th century Mantua, and skirt/blouse combinations between 1900 and 1910. Art Nouveau belt buckles are now collector's items.
In the period of the latter-half of the 19th century and up until the first World War, the belt was a decorative as well as utilitarian part of the uniform, particularly among officers. In the armed forces of Prussia, Tsarist Russia, and other Eastern European nations, it was common for officers to wear extremely tight, wide belts around the waist, on the outside of the uniform, both to support a saber as well as for aesthetic reasons. These tightly cinched belts served to draw in the waist and give the wearer a trim physique, emphasizing wide shoulders and a pouting chest. Often the belt served only to emphasize waist made small by a corset worn under the uniform,
A chiton (Greek: χιτών, khitōn) was a form of clothing and is a sewn garment, unlike the peplos, a draped garment held on the shoulders by a fibula.
There are two forms of chiton, the Doric chiton and the later Ionic chiton. The "Doric" style was simpler and had no "sleeves", being simply pinned, sewn, or buttoned at the shoulder. The "Ionic" style was made of a much wider piece of fabric, and was pinned, sewn, or buttoned all the way from the neck to the wrists and the excess fabric gathered by the zone or girdled at the waist. By the late Archaic, Ionic chitons had become less common, especially for men.
The Doric chiton is a single rectangle of woolen or linen fabric. It can be worn plain or with an overfold called an apotygma which is more common to women. It can be draped and fastened at the shoulder by pins (fibulae) or sewing, or by buttons. The Ionic chiton could also be made from linen or wool and was draped without the fold and held in place from neck to wrist by several small pins. A large belt called a zoster could be worn over the chiton, usually under the breast ("high-girdled") or around the waist ("low-girdled") or a narrower "zone" or girdle could be used. The
Hosiery, also referred to as legwear, describes garments worn directly on the feet and legs. The term originated as the collective term for products of which a maker or seller is termed a hosier; and those products are also known generically as hose. The term is also used for all types of knitted fabric, and its thickness and weight is defined in terms of denier or opacity. Lower denier measurements of 5 to 15 describe a hose which may be sheer in appearance, whereas styles of 40 and above are dense, with little to no light able to come through on 100 denier items.
The first references to hosiery can be found in works of Hesiod, where Romans are said to have used leather or cloth in forms of strips to cover their lower body parts. Even the Egyptians are speculated to have used hosiery as socks have been found in certain tombs.
Most hosiery garments are made by knitting methods. Modern hosiery is usually tight-fitting by virtue of stretchy fabrics and meshes. Older forms include binding to achieve a tight fit. Due to its close fit, most hosiery can be worn as an undergarment, but it is more commonly worn as a combined under/outer garment.
A plimsoll shoe, plimsoll or plimsole (British English; see other names below) is a type of athletic shoe with a canvas upper and rubber sole, developed as beachwear in the 1830s by the Liverpool Rubber Company. The shoe was originally, and often still is in parts of the United Kingdom, called a 'sand shoe' and acquired the nickname 'plimsoll' in the 1870s. This name derived, according to Nicholette Jones' book The Plimsoll Sensation, because the coloured horizontal band joining the upper to the sole resembled the Plimsoll line on a ship's hull, or because, just like the Plimsoll line on a ship, if water got above the line of the rubber sole, the wearer would get wet.
In the UK plimsolls were compulsory in schools' physical education lessons. Regional terms are common: in Northern Ireland and central Scotland they are sometimes known as gutties; "sannies" (from 'sand shoe') is also used in Scotland. In parts of the West Country and Wales they are known as "daps" or "dappers". In London, the home counties, much of the West Midlands, and north west of England they are known as "pumps". There is a widespread belief that "daps" is taken from a factory sign - "Dunlop Athletic Plimsoles"
A shrug is a cropped, cardigan-like garment with short or long sleeves, typically knitted. Generally, a shrug covers less of the body than a vest would, but it is more tailored than a shawl. Shrugs are typically worn as the outermost layer of an outfit, with a full shirt, tank top, or dress beneath.
A shrug covers a small portion of the upper body. Some shrugs are tied together just below the bustline. Another style is cut off at the sides and thus little more than a pair of sleeves joined at the back.
A bolero jacket or bolero (pronounced /bollero/) is a more formal garment of similar construction, essentially a short tailored jacket.
A slipper or houseshoe is a semi-closed type of indoor/outdoor shoe, consisting of a sole held to the wearer's foot by a strap running over (or between) the toes or instep. Slippers are soft and lightweight compared to other types of footwear. They are mostly made of soft or comforting materials that allow a certain level of comfort for the wearer. This can range from faux fur to leather.
Most slippers are worn in late autumn and winter and on occasion in other seasons.Slippers are cosy and most popular in cold countries.
There are many different types of slippers in the world today, each with varying styles, materials and purposes.
Slip on slippers; These slippers are usually made with a fabric upper layer that encloses the top of the foot and the toes, but leaves the heel open, allowing the wearer to slip into them casually. They are most likely the most common type of slipper as they are quite easy to put on.
Slipper boots; These slippers are made to look like boots. often favoured by females, they are typically furry boots with a fleece or soft lining, and a soft rubber sole. These slippers sometimes are worn outside of the house, as they resemble the sheepskin boots that have
The uniform and insignia of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) gives a Scout visibility and creates a level of identity within both the unit and the community. The uniform is used to promote equality while showing individual achievement. While all uniforms are similar in basic design, they do vary in color and detail to identify the different membership divisions of Cub Scouting, Boy Scouting and Venturing. Many people collect BSA insignia such as camporee and jamboree emblems, council shoulder strips and historical badges.
Early Boy Scout uniforms were copies of the U.S. Army uniforms of the time. Scouts generally wore knickers with leggings, a button-down choke-collar coat and the campaign hat. Adults wore a Norfolk jacket with knickers or trousers. In 1916, Congress banned civilians from wearing uniforms that were similar in appearance to those of the armed forces with the exception of the BSA. The uniform was redesigned in 1923—the coat and leggings were dropped and the neckerchief standardized. In the 1930s, shorts replaced knickers and their wear was encouraged by the BSA. The garrison (flat) cap was introduced in 1943. In 1965, the uniform's material was changed from wool and
The blanket sleeper (also known by many other synonyms and trade names) is a type of especially warm sleeping garment worn primarily during the winter in the United States and Canada. The garment is worn especially by infants and young children.
Typically, but not always, the blanket sleeper consists of a loose-fitting, one-piece garment of blanket-like material, enclosing the entire body except for the head and hands. It represents an intermediate step between regular pajamas, and bag-like coverings for infants such as buntings or infant sleeping bags (Terminology and Variations sections below). Like bag-like coverings, the blanket sleeper is designed to be sufficiently warm as to make regular blankets or other bed covers unnecessary, even in colder weather. Unlike such coverings, the blanket sleeper has bifurcated legs to allow unhindered walking (or crawling).
While no single feature is universal (see Terminology), distinguishing a blanket sleeper from regular pajamas usually include:
Although any sleeping garment with some or all of these characteristics could be called a blanket sleeper, the term is most commonly applied to a range of styles that deviate relatively little from
The chlamys (Ancient Greek: χλαμύς, gen.: χλαμύδος; also known as the ephaptis [ἐφαπτίς]) was an ancient Greek piece of clothing, a type of cloak.
The chlamys was made from a seamless rectangle of woolen material about the size of a blanket, usually bordered. It was normally pinned with a fibula at the right shoulder. Originally it was wrapped around the waist like a loincloth, but by the end of the 5th century BC it was worn over the elbows. It could be worn over another item of clothing, but was often the sole item of clothing for young soldiers and messengers, at least in Greek art. As such, the chlamys is the characteristic garment of Hermes (Roman Mercury), the messenger god usually depicted as a young man.
The chlamys was typical Greek military attire from the 5th to the 3rd century BCE. As worn by soldiers, it could be wrapped around the arm and used as a light shield in combat.
The chlamys continued into the Byzantine period, when it was often much larger and worn sideways. It was held on with a clasp at the shoulder, and nearly reached the ground at front and back.
Battledress, is a type of uniform used as combat uniforms, as opposed to dress uniforms or formal uniform worn at parades and functions. In American English, the term fatigues are often used, originally being a term for soldiers' work uniforms. The battledress may be either monochrome (often a shade of green or brown) or in a camouflage pattern. Contrary to dress uniforms, the battledress is usually made from cotton (or in modern times a cotton blend), and to a more loose and comfortable cut. British forces in India in the mid 19th century was the first to use drab cotton uniforms for battle. The first purpose-made and widely issued camouflage fabric was for half-shelters by the Italian Army after the First World War. Germany was the first to use such shelter fabric for uniforms for their paratroopers, and by the war's end both various German as well as the older Italian fabric was widely used for camouflage uniforms. Most nations developed camouflage uniforms during the Second World War, though in many cases they were issued widely only among "elite" units.
Currently, Australian troops wear a camouflage uniform called Disruptive Pattern Combat Uniform (more commonly called DPCU or
Headscarves or head scarves or scarves are scarves covering most or all of the top of a woman's hair and her head. Headscarves may be worn for a variety of purposes, such as for warmth, for sanitation, for fashion or social distinction; with religious significance, to hide baldness, out of modesty, or other forms of social convention.
Headscarves may have specific religious significance. Observant married Jewish women, for example, are required to cover their hair, often employing scarves, known as tichels or snoods, in compliance with the code of modesty known as tzniut.
Headscarves were also worn by married Christian women in medieval Europe, and even by some of the unmarried. This headcovering habit is better known as a wimple in English.
Headscarves and veils are most commonly used by Observant Muslim women. The Muslim religious dress include burqa, chador, niqab, dupatta, and others. The Arabic word hijab, which refers to modest behaviour or dress in general, is often used to describe the headscarf worn by Muslim women. The hijab is worn for religious purposes. Some reasons for Muslim women wearing the hijab would be for modesty and allowing a woman to be judged by her morals,
A hobble skirt is a skirt with a narrow enough hem to significantly impede the wearer's stride. A knee-long corset is also used to achieve this effect. A dress consisting of such skirt is called a hobble dress. The name was given in reference to the device used to restrain, or hobble, horses.
Although restrictive skirts first appeared in Western fashion in 1880s, the term was first used in reference to a short-lived trend of narrow skirts in around 1910-1913. The Parisian fashion designer Paul Poiret is sometimes credited with the design, inspired by the widespread Oriental influence on Western culture, but in fact the extreme hobble skirt is an evolution of the narrowing skirt seen in fashion since the turn of the century. Poiret may also have been influenced by observing the behavior of Mrs. Hart O. Berg upon the first aeroplane flight she took in October 1908 with Wilbur Wright, whereon she tied a rope around the bottom of her skirt to keep it from blowing up during the flight. After Wilbur and Mrs. Berg landed she walked away from the plane undaunted, being seen to 'hobble' around until removal of the rope from her skirt.
To prevent tearing of the skirt when women attempted to
Panniers or side hoops are women's undergarments worn in the 18th century to extend the width of the skirts at the side while leaving the front and back relatively flat. This provided a panel where woven patterns, elaborate decorations and rich embroidery could be displayed and fully appreciated.
The style originated in Spanish court dress of the 17th century, familiar in portraits by Velázquez. The fashion spread to France and from there to the rest of Europe after c. 1718–1719, when some Spanish dresses had been displayed in Paris.
The earlier form of the pannier took the shape similar to a 19th century crinoline. They were wide and domed in circumference.
By mid-18th century it had been developed into the robe à la française, which ensured that a woman took up three times as much space as a man and always presented an imposing spectacle. At their most extreme, in the French court of Marie Antoinette, panniers could extend the skirt several feet at each side. By the 1780s, panniers were normally worn only to very formal gowns and within court fashion.
The name comes from panniers, a French term for wicker baskets (paniers in current French) slung on either side of a pack animal.
Tights are a kind of cloth leg garment, most often sheathing the body from above the waist to the feet with a tight fit, hence the name. Wearing of tights has a history going back several centuries, when they were worn by men. Today, they are worn primarily by women and girls and some men and boys, as well as infants and toddlers of both sexes. In recent years, they have been sometimes offered as men's fashion. Athletic tights are already considered unisex.
In American English, the difference between pantyhose and tights is determined in the weight of the yarn used and the thickness to which the garment is knitted. Generally, anything up to 40 denier is known as pantyhose and anything over can be classified as tights, as for example 'running tights' and 'cycling tights'. In the United Kingdom, the word "tights" is used in all cases when referring to pantyhose, and "leggings" for footless tights of heavier, normally opaque material. Tights can be sheer yet solid in colour, whereas leggings are almost or absolute opaque, not sheer. Thus the almost opaque tights are not suited as pants.
There are many sub-classifications of tights or pantyhose that describe the precise construction
Bell-bottoms are trousers that become wider from the knees downward. Related styles include flare, loon pants and boot-cut/leg trousers. Hip-huggers are bell-bottomed, flare, or boot-cut pants that are fitted tightly around the hips and thighs.
Bell-bottoms' precise origins are uncertain. In the early 19th century, very wide trousers ending in a bell began to be worn in the U.S. Navy; however, at this time clothing varied from ship to ship. In one of the first recorded descriptions of sailors' uniforms, Commodore Stephen Decatur wrote in 1813 that the men on the frigates United States and Macedonia were wearing "glazed canvas hats with stiff brims, decked with streamers of ribbon, blue jackets buttoned loosely over waistcoats and blue trousers with bell bottoms." Though the British Royal Navy usually was the leader in nautical fashion, bell-bottoms did not become regulation wear for the Royal Navy until the mid-19th century. These "bell-bottoms" were often just very wide-legged trousers, unlike modern versions cut with a distinct bell. While many reasons to explain sailors' wearing of this style have been cited over the years, most theories have little credibility because there is
The fez (Turkish: fes, plural fezzes or fezes), or tarboosh (Arabic: طربوش / Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [tˤɑɾˤˈbuːʃ], ALA-LC: ṭarbūsh), is a felt hat of two types: either in the shape of a truncated cone made of red felt, or a short cylinder made of kilim fabric, both usually with a tassel attached to the top. The fez is largely believed to be Ottoman origin where it was popularized.
The fez was developed to fashionable heights by Andalusian Arabs in the city of Fes, Morocco by the 17th century. The artisans involved in their making were the most selective members of the city's Souqs.
In 1826 Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire suppressed the Janissaries and began sweeping reforms of the military. His modernized military adopted Western style uniforms and, as hats, the fez with a cloth wrapped around it. In 1829, the Sultan ordered his civil officials to wear the plain fez, and also banned the wearing of turbans. The intention was to coerce the populace at large to update to the Fez, and the plan was successful. This was a radically egalitarian measure which replaced the elaborate sumptuary laws which signaled rank, religion, and occupation, allowing prosperous non-Muslims
A G-string (alternatively gee-string or gee string) is a type of thong underwear or swimsuit, a narrow piece of cloth, leather, or plastic, that covers or holds the genitals, passes between the buttocks, and is attached to a band around the hips, worn as swimwear or underwear mostly by women, but also by men. The two terms G-string and thong are often used interchangeably; however, they can refer to different pieces of clothing. It is usually worn on beaches, especially in South America and tropical countries.
The origin of the term "G-string" is obscure. Since the 19th century, the term geestring referred to the string which held the loincloth of Native Americans and later referred to the narrow loincloth itself. William Safire in his Ode on a G-String quoted the usage of the word "G-string" for loincloth by Harper's Magazine 15 years after John Hanson Beadle's 1877 usage and suggested that the magazine confused the word with the musical term G-string (i.e., the string for the G note). Safire also mentions the opinion of linguist Robert Hendrickson that G (or gee) stands for groin, which was a taboo word at the time.
A kolpik is a type of traditional headgear worn in families of some Chassidic Rebbes (Hasidic rabbis), by unmarried children on Shabbat, and by some Rebbes on special occasions which are not Sabbath or major holidays. It is made from brown fur, as opposed to a spodik, worn by Polish chassidic dynasties, which is fashioned out of black fur.
The days that some Rebbes would don a kolpik would include:
The Lyozner Rebbe in Boro Park wears a kolpik on Shabbos, following a previous minhag of the Rebbes of Chabad.
The word originated from a Turkic word for this kind of hats, kalpak.
A little black dress is an evening or cocktail dress, cut simply and often quite short. Fashion historians ascribe the origins of the little black dress to the 1920s designs of Coco Chanel, intended to be long-lasting, versatile, affordable, accessible to the widest market possible and in a neutral color. Its ubiquity is such that it is often simply referred to as the "LBD."
The "little black dress" is considered essential to a complete wardrobe by many women and fashion observers, who believe it a "rule of fashion" that every woman should own a simple, elegant black dress that can be dressed up or down depending on the occasion: for example, worn with a jacket and pumps for daytime business wear or with more ornate jewelry and accessories for evening. Because it is meant to be a staple of the wardrobe for a number of years, the style of the little black dress ideally should be as simple as possible: a short black dress that is too clearly part of a trend would not qualify because it would soon appear dated.
Prior to the 1920s black was often reserved for periods of mourning and considered indecent when worn outside such circumstances, such as depicted in John Singer Sargent's
Tanker boots are military boots closely associated with soldiers who serve on tanks and tracked vehicles in general. It is said the idea was borrowed from the French crewmen encountered during World War I when then-Captain George S. Patton, Jr. established the United States Tank Corps. Whereas regular combat boots are laced through metal eyelets in the leather upper, the tanker boots are fastened with leather straps which wrap around the upper and buckle near the top. This benefits the wearer in several ways:
Tanker boots have a significant disadvantage over traditional lace up combat boots in that they provide comparatively little ankle support; however for troops that fight sitting in an armoured vehicle, this is relatively unimportant.
Tanker boots are said to have originated somewhat by accident. The story claims that there was once a tank crew member whose boot's laces were burnt by an ejected casing. Another member of the crew took off his belt and wrapped it around the damaged boot as a sort of temporary fix, making it the first tanker boot.
Another story mentions that when soldiers had to get out of the tank, their boots became wet with snow and after the fight they froze,
Underoos is a brand of underwear for children, produced by the Fruit of the Loom company. The packages include a matching top and bottom for either boys or girls, featuring a character from popular entertainment media, especially superhero comics, animated programs, and fantasy/science fiction. In many cases, the garment mimics the distinctive costume of the character, encouraging the wearer to pretend to be the character. In others it features an image of the character and/or logo on the undershirt. Children often enjoy these due to the stark coloring and the imaginative design behind it.
Underoos were developed as a product idea in 1977 by an independent entrepreneur, Larry Weiss, who obtained licenses for the four major comic character groups (DC Comics, Marvel Comics, Hanna-Barbera, Archie Comics) which included Superman, Batman, Shazam, Wonder Woman, Supergirl, and Captain America. The product idea was first offered to Hanes, but was rejected. Scott Paper company pursued development, but ultimately decided to not market the product. Fruit of the Loom had been engaged as supplier of the blank underwear and another vendor engaged to apply transfers. Informed of Scott Paper
Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religion, especially among the Eastern Orthodox, Catholics (Latin Rite and others), Anglicans, and Lutherans. Many other groups also make use of vestments, but this was a point of controversy in the Protestant Reformation and sometimes since - notably during the Ritualist controversies in England in the 19th century.
For other garments worn by clergy, see also clerical clothing.
The rubrics (regulations) for the type of vestments to be worn vary between the various communions and denominations. In some, clergy are directed to wear special clerical clothing in public at all, most, or some times. This generally consists of a clerical collar, clergy shirt, and (on certain occasions) a cassock. In the case of members of religious orders, non-liturgical wear includes a religious habit. This ordinary wear does not constitute liturgical vestment, but simply acts as a medium of identifying the wearer as a member of the clergy or a religious order.
A distinction is often made between the type of vestment worn for Holy Eucharist or Holy Communion and that worn for other services. Non-Eucharistic vestments
Wife beater, also wifebeater, and sometimes abbreviated as simply beater, is a sometimes insulting slang term used in parts of North America, Scotland, Australia, New Zealand and various other places to refer to a sleeveless undershirt, such as an A-shirt, tank top, singlet, or 'muscle shirt' when worn as a sole, outer layer as opposed to being worn under another shirt. This term is demeaning and is often associated with the similarly derogatory phrase "white trash". 'Guinea-Tee' is a colloquialism for wifebeater used in the NYC area; this term is also demeaning as it references a slur for Italian-Americans.
The origin of the term is from the stereotype that the shirts are worn predominantly by men who beat their wives. In the 1951 film A Streetcar Named Desire, the character Stanley Kowalski (played by Marlon Brando) who is frequently seen wearing tank tops, violently rapes his sister-in-law Blanche (see below). In the 1980 movie Raging Bull, the main character, a boxer, is commonly seen wearing tank tops around the house, including in one scene where he beats his wife. The wifebeater is also seen in the New Zealand movie Once Were Warriors, where Jake the Muss, a stereotypical
An infant bodysuit is a garment designed to be worn by infants much like a t-shirt; they are distinguished from t-shirts by an extension below the waist, with snaps or Velcro that allow it to be closed over the crotch. The purpose of the opening at the crotch is to facilitate access to the infant's diaper. Like t-shirts, infant bodysuits come in a wide variety of designs and may be worn as undergarments or as outer shirts. Other names include Onesies (a registered trademark often used in the United States as if it were generic; see below), creepers, diaper shirts, babygro, babygrow, mameluco, or snapsuits.
One of the more popular brands of infant bodysuits is Onesies ( /ˈwʌnziːz/ WUN-zeez), manufactured by Gerber Childrenswear (formerly part of Gerber Products Company). The terms "Onesie" or "Onesies" are sometimes used in the United States as if they were a genericized trademark; however, "Onesies" is a registered trademark of Gerber Childrenswear, which objects to both the usage of the term as a generic name and the usage of the singular form "Onesie". Gerber Childrenswear continues to enforce and defend its trademark, most of the times with out even warning users that were not
A spodik (or spodek) is a tall fur hat worn by some Hasidic Jews, particularly members of sects originating in Congress Poland. Spodiks are to be distinguished from shtreimels, which are a similar type of fur hat worn by Hasidim. Shtreimels are shorter in height, wider, and circular-shaped, while spodiks are taller, thinner in bulk, and of cylindrical shape.
Ger Hasidim, being the largest Hasidic community of Polish origin, are the most famous for wearing spodiks. Virtually all married men among the Gerer Hasidim wear a spodik. Due to an edict by the Grand Rabbi of Ger designed to stop the extravagance of the hats, Gerrer Hasidim are only allowed to purchase fake fur spodiks that cost less than $600.
Other groups that wear Spodiks include Alexander, Amshinov, Ashlag, Kotzk, Lublin, Modzitz, Ozrov-Henzin, and Radzin.
A similar hat called a "kolpik" (or "kolpak") is worn exclusively by the Rebbe of many Hasidic sects on certain occasions or by the unmarried sons and grandsons of the Rebbes on the Sabbath. These hats are often a lighter shade of brown. Included in these sects are Bobov, Belz, Munkacz and Rizhin.
Capri pants (also known as Capris, Crop pants, long or three-quarter shorts, and clam diggers) are mid-calf pants worn in warm weather. Variants end below the knee and calf. Though widely popular with women they are also worn by men in many countries, especially in Europe, Latin America and Asia.
Capri pants were introduced by European fashion designer Sonja de Lennart in 1948. The pants' name derives from the Italian isle of Capri, where they rose to popularity in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The American actress Grace Kelly was among the first movie stars who wore capris on the island.
Capris' acceptance in the United States was influenced by the 1960s television series The Dick Van Dyke Show. The character of Laura Petrie, the young housewife played by Mary Tyler Moore, caused a fashion sensation – and some mild controversy – by wearing snug-fitting capri pants during the show's run. After a drop in popularity during the 1970s through the 1990s capris returned to favor during the 2000s. Spanish tennis player Rafael Nadal wore capris in the majority of his matches before 2009.
A Chemisette (from French, "little chemise") is an article of women's clothing worn to fill in the front and neckline of any garment. Chemisettes give the appearance of a blouse or shirt worn under the outer garment without adding bulk at the waist or upper arm.
Chemisettes of linen or cotton were often worn with day dresses in the mid-19th century, and could be decorated with tucks, embroidery (especially whitework), or lace.
When wide pagoda sleeves were fashionable (1850s), chemisettes might have matching engageantes (false undersleeves).
A crop top (also cropped top, belly shirt, half shirt, midriff shirt, tummy top, short shirt, and cutoff shirt) is a T-shirt or blouse with the lower part cut off, showing off some of the abdomen. The half shirt (or belly shirt) is a kind of shirt that is cut off from the bottom of the chest.
During the mid-1980s, pop star Madonna caused a controversy when she gyrated in a mesh crop top in her video for the song "Lucky Star." Also during this decade, cutoff crop tops became a popular fashion item thanks to the aerobic craze and popularity of the movie Flashdance. It became common for girls to crop off sections of their workout wear, such as sleeves, collars, and the hem of the shirt to create a loose-fitting top which was often worn over a body suit or tank top. Crop tops were also often paired with low-slung belts in the 1980s, angled at the side of the hip.As mesh fabrics and oversized aerobics gear went out of fashion by the 1990s, the crop top reappeared in the form of the bustier, a lingerie-styled shirt which revealed the midriff and was typically worn under a blazer or shirt. By the mid-1990s, the crop top took on the form of the baby doll shirt, a cropped, tight-fitting
A hoop skirt or hoopskirt is a women's undergarment worn in various periods to hold the skirt extended into a fashionable shape.
Hoop skirts typically consist of a fabric petticoat with casings to hold a stiffening material, variously rope, osiers, whalebone, steel, or nylon.
Hoop skirts are called by various names in different periods:
Lightweight hoop skirts, usually with nylon hoops, are worn today under very full-skirted wedding gowns. They can sometimes be seen in the gothic fashion scene. Reproduction hoop skirts are an essential part of living history costuming, including American Civil War reenactment.
Leg warmers are coverings for the lower legs, similar to socks but thicker and generally footless. They were originally used as dancewear by ballet and other classic dancers in order to keep the leg muscles warm and to prevent cramping or other muscle injuries.
Traditionally knitted from pure wool, modern variants are more typically made of cotton, synthetic fibers, or both. Some are made of other materials, such as chenille.
Leg warmers can vary in length, though not in width, due to the material's stretchiness. They are commonly worn to just below the knee, though many dancers prefer it to extend to cover the lower parts of the thigh. Some cover the entire foot; these warmers usually have a pad that grips the floor so the dancer does not slip - however this has been known to cause career-ending injury. Some leg warmers are particularly short and made of thinner material; these are also known as 'ankle warmers'.
Originally worn by dancers to keep their muscles from cramping after stretching, in the early 1980s leg warmers became a fad and wearing them was fashionable among teenage girls. Their popularity was partly due to the influence of the films Fame and Flashdance and the
Parachute pants are a style of trousers characterised by the use of nylon, especially ripstop nylon. In the original loose-fitting, extraneously zippered style of the late 70s/early 80s, "parachute" referred to the pants' synthetic nylon material. In the later 80s, "parachute" may have referred to the extreme bagginess of the pant. They are typically worn as menswear and are often brightly colored. Parachute pants became a fad in US culture in the 1980s as part of an increased cultural appropriation of breakdancing. Parachute pants played a pivotal role in the 1980s in fashion.
Early breakdancers occasionally used heavy nylon to construct jumpsuits or trousers that would be able to endure contact with the break dancing surface while at the same time decreasing friction with the same, allowing speedy and intricate "downrock" routines without fear of friction burns or wear in clothing. Some, possibly apocryphal, sources attribute the use of genuine parachute nylon having been cut to make such trousers possible. In the early part of the 80s, parachute pants were more tight-fitting and only later became looser. In the later 80s, the term "parachute pants" was used to describe any pants
Platform shoes (also known as disco boots) are shoes, boots, or sandals with thick soles at least four inches in height. They are often made of cork, plastic, rubber, or wood (wooden-soled platform shoes are, technically, also clogs). Platform shoes have been worn, for reasons such as fashion or added height, in various cultures since the Ancient era.
After their use in Ancient Greece for raising the height of important characters in the Greek theatre and their similar use by high-born prostitutes or courtesans in Venice in the sixteenth century, platform shoes are thought to have been worn in Europe in the eighteenth century to avoid the muck of urban streets. Of the same practical origins are Japanese geta. There may also be a connection to the buskins of Ancient Rome, which frequently had very thick soles to give added height to the wearer. In ancient China men wore black boots with very thick sole made from layers of white clothes, this style of boots are often worn today on stage for Peking opera. During the Qing dynasty, aristocrat Manchu women wore a form of platform shoe with a separate high heel, a style that was later adopted in Europe during the 1590s.
A sleeveless shirt is a shirt manufactured without sleeves, or one whose sleeves have been cut off. Sleeveless shirts are worn by either sex, depending on the style. They are often used as undershirts by males, and are often worn by athletes in sports such as track and field and triathlon, and are regarded as acceptable public casual dress in most warm weather locales.
The term "A-shirt" is short for "athletic shirt" because it is often worn in sports, such as basketball and track-and-field events. In the United States, it is also known colloquially as a tank top, or, disparagingly, a wife-beater. In British English an A-shirt is known as a vest (Compare the American usage of "vest"). Another term, used in Britain, Ireland, Australia, Nigeria and New Zealand, is singlet. It is known as Banian in India.
In addition to athletic usage, A-shirts have traditionally been used as undershirts, especially with suits and dress shirts. They are sometimes worn alone without a dress shirt or top shirt during very warm and or humid weather, mainly in North America where the climate is warmer and more humid in the summer. A-shirts may be worn alone under very casual settings, as lounge wear, and
A waistcoat or vest is a sleeveless upper-body garment worn over a dress shirt and necktie (if applicable) and below a coat as a part of most men's formal wear, and as the third piece of the three-piece male business suit.
A waistcoat has a full vertical opening in the front which fastens with buttons or snaps. Both single-breasted and double-breasted waistcoats exist, regardless of the formality of dress, but single-breasted ones are more common. In a three piece suit, the cloth used matches the jacket and trousers.
Before wristwatches became popular, gentlemen kept their pocket watches in the front waistcoat pocket, with the watch on a watch chain threaded through a buttonhole. Sometimes an extra hole was made in line with the buttonholes for this use. A bar on the end of the chain held the chain in place to catch it if it were dropped or pulled. Now waistcoats are worn less, so the pocket watch may be more likely be stored in a trouser pocket.
Wearing a belt with a waistcoat (and indeed any suit) is not traditionally correct. The waistcoat instead covers a pair of braces (suspenders in the U.S.) underneath it, to give a more comfortable hang to the trousers.
A custom still
A babydoll is a short, sometimes sleeveless, loose fitting nightgown or negligee intended as nightwear for women. It sometimes has formed cups called a bralette for cleavage with an attached loose fitting skirt falling in length usually between the upper thigh and the belly button. The garment is often trimmed with lace, ruffles, appliques, marabou fur, bows and ribbons, optionally with spaghetti straps. Sometimes it is made of sheer or translucent fabric like nylon or chiffon or silk.
The name was popularized by the 1956 movie Baby Doll starring Carroll Baker in the title role as a 19-year old nymphet, which essentially marked the beginning of the enduring popularity of the style for adults.
Short daywear dresses of a similar style are sometimes called babydoll dresses; the name is sometimes two words, baby doll, and sometimes hyphenated, baby-doll. Some styles are similar to what is worn by dolls in the form of infants, and by some infants; the gown is short enough that diapers are easily changed. However, there may be an alternative origin for the style, if one considers the lineage of lace-trimmed shortie bedjackets and bed-capes of the 1930s and 1940s.
It is now a highly
A bustier (alternately bustiere) is a form-fitting garment for women, which is traditionally worn as lingerie. Its primary purpose is to push up the bust by tightening against the upper midriff and forcing the breasts up, while gently shaping the waist. Nowadays, it might also be worn as a push-up bra under a low-backed dress, or as a camisole for outer wear. The bustier can also be worn as a half-slip under diaphanous upper garments if a bold display of the midriff is not desired.
A bustier resembles a basque, but is shorter. It reaches down only to the ribs or waist.
Modern bustiers are often made with mesh panels rather than the traditional boning.
The conical Asian hat, sedge hat, rice hat, paddy hat, and formerly known by the derogatory term coolie hat, is a simple style of conical hat originating in East and Southeast Asia, particularly China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Philippines, and Vietnam. It is kept on the head by a cloth (often silk) chin strap; an internal band of the same material keeps the hat itself from resting on the wearer's head. This style of hat is used primarily as protection from the sun and rain. When made of straw or matting, it can be dipped in water and worn as an impromptu evaporative-cooling device.
Because of its distinctive shape, it is often used in the depiction of East Asians. Recently, as part of international one day cricket matches in Australia, the conical hat has been a fashion phenomenon amongst spectators, with many decorated in Australian green and gold livery. Given that spectators are exposed for long periods in direct sunlight, the conical hat is a logical sunsafe device.
In mainland China and Taiwan, it is called dǒulì (斗笠; literally, a one-dǒu bamboo hat, 笠帽, 竹笠). In Japan, the hat is called sugegasa (菅笠). In Indonesia, the hat is called caping, and in Korea it is called satgat
More specialized forms:Traditional leather fire helmets
For centuries, firefighters have worn helmets to protect them from heat, cinders and falling objects.
Modern structural helmets (that is, intended especially for structure fires) are worn in the United States and Canada, as well as Britain, Australia and in parts of Asia (notably Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan and Guangzhou). Structural helmets are made of either thermoplastic or composite material. The brim at the rear of the helmet is longer than the front and a face shield(s) is usually attached to the front. Newer "Metro" - The name given by several leading helmet manufacturers - helmets are also much lighter than both leather and composite traditional helmets.
The leatherhead is a term describing an old style leather helmet used by many firefighters in the US and Canada. Leatherhead is also slang for a firefighter who uses the leather helmet. The leather helmet is also an international symbol of firefighters from the earlier years of firefighting. Almost always, traditional leather helmets have a brass eagle adornment affixed to the top front of the helmet that secures a leather shield to the front of the helmet.
The brass eagle or beaver which holds the top of the front piece to
The maillot is the fashion designer's name for a woman's one-piece swimsuit, also called a tank suit. A maillot swimsuit generally consists of a tank-style torso top with high-cut legs. However, a maillot may also include a plunging neckline, turtleneck-style top, or revealing cutouts.
In addition to describing women’s one-piece swimsuits, the word maillot has also been used to refer to tights or leotards made of stretchable, jersey fabric, generally used for dance or gymnastics. The term maillot was first used to describe tight-fitting, one-piece swimsuits in the 1920s, as these swimsuits had been manufactured from a similar stretchable, jersey fabric.
In the present day, the phrase one-piece swimsuit has almost completely replaced the term maillot in colloquial language. While the word has now become somewhat obsolete in common language, fashion designers and consumers used it quite often in the early days of the modern swimsuit. It is now most often used to distinguish between several different types of one-piece swimsuits, including the tank maillot and the pretzel maillot.
The term maillot was inducted into the English dictionary in 1928; it derived from the French phrase for
Ballet flats or Dolly shoes are derived from a woman's soft ballet slipper, with a very thin heel or the appearance of no heel at all. The style sometimes features a ribbon-like binding around the low tops of the slipper and may have a slight gathering at the top-front of the vamp (toe box) and a tiny, decorative string tie. Ballet slippers can be adjusted and tightened to the wearer's foot by means of this string tie.
The essence of the ballet flat has existed since at least the 16th century, in which men wore a similar shoe, then known as pompes. In medieval times ballet flats were popular with both men and women. They only came out of fashion in the 17th and 18th centuries when the high-heeled shoe came into fashion after Catherine de' Medici requested that her cobbler add two inches to her wedding shoes. Heels went out of fashion quickly after Marie Antoinette walked to the guillotine in a pair of heels. Functional shoes: sandals, boots, and flat shoes prevailed in the 19th century. Ballet flats took off again when Audrey Hepburn wore them with skinny jeans in Funny Face in 1957.
More recently, variations of ballet flats have returned as a current fashion trend, often referred
A clog is a type of footwear made in part or completely from wood. Clogs are used worldwide and although the form may vary by culture, within a culture the form often remained unchanged for centuries.
Traditional clogs were often worn in heavy labor. Today they remain in use as protective clothing in agriculture and in some factories and mines. Although clogs are sometimes negatively associated with cheap and folkloric footwear of farmers and the working class, some types of clogs are considered as fashion wear today, such as Swedish clogs or Japanese geta.
Clogs are also used in several different styles of dance. When worn for dancing an important feature is the sound of the clog against the floor. This is one of the fundamental roots of tap, but with the tap shoes the taps are free to click against each other and produce different sound to clogs.
The Oxford English Dictionary defines a clog as a "thick piece of wood", and later as a "wooden soled overshoe" and a "shoe with a thick wooden sole".
Clogs are found in three main varieties: whole foot, wooden soled and overshoes (see illustrations on the right for typical forms).
These divisions are not fixed: some overshoes look more
A rugby shirt, often referred to as a rugby jersey, is a shirt worn by players of rugby union or rugby league. It usually has short sleeves, though long sleeves are common as well.
Rugby shirts have a buttoned opening at the top, in a similar style to polo shirts but with a stiffer collar. Modern rugby shirts often have a very small collar so as to provide less material for a potential tackler to latch onto (even though such an action is illegal in a game). Rugby shirts traditionally have rubber buttons so that they would, if pulled on in a game, come undone rather than pop off.
Rugby shirts, like most sports jerseys, will usually have a logo on the chest and a number on the back, though shirts not meant for competitive play will usually forgo the number. Labels of sponsorship are common, and generally appear on the abdominal area of the shirt. A traditional design of rugby shirt consists of five or six horizontal stripes or "hoops" in alternating colours. A number of football teams have adopted this pattern, such as Celtic, Queens Park Rangers, Reading, Flamengo, Sporting Lisbon and, formerly, Parma. Football shirts by contrast traditionally have vertical stripes.
A bodysuit, body-liner, or body is a one-piece form-fitting garment that covers the torso and the crotch. The bodysuit often has sleeves and varying collars. A bodysuit is distinguished from the similar leotard by the use of snaps or hooks at the crotch. A bodysuit may be worn as a top for the smooth line it gives or because it cannot become untucked from trousers or a skirt. They may also be worn generally by women as underwear, activewear, or foundation garments. Unlike a leotard, a bodysuit is not usually considered a form of athletic wear.
Azzedine Alaia and Donna Karan helped make the bodysuit a defining item of eighties fashion for both men and women.
Onesies (or snapsuits) are bodysuits for younger children, toddlers and some adults which help keep diapers (or nappies) in place. The purpose of the opening at the crotch is to facilitate access to the wearer's diaper (or nappy).
There are also bodyshirts, like the counterpart to the bodysuit, they are loose-fitting garments that cover the whole torso, with sleeves in short to long lengths and crotch snaps. The difference is that they look like a shirt on the top portion of the garment, and may have a different stretch fabric
A brassiere (pronounced UK: /ˈbræzɪər/, US: /brəˈzɪər/; commonly referred to as a bra /ˈbrɑː/) is a woman's undergarment that supports her breasts. Bras are typically form-fitting and perform a variety of functions and have also evolved into a fashion item. The primary purpose of a bra is to enhance the wearer's comfort by supporting her breasts.
Women commonly wear bras to conform to social norms, such as a dress code. In Western countries, it is estimated that 75% to 90% of women wear a bra. A minority do not wear one, sometimes for health or comfort reasons, or because they believe they do not need it. Some garments, such as camisoles, tank tops and backless dresses, have built-in breast support, alleviating the need to wear a separate bra.
Changing social trends and novel materials have increased the variety of available designs, and allowed manufacturers to make bras that are in some instances more fashionable than functional. Manufacturers' standards and sizes vary widely worldwide, making it difficult for women to find a bra that fits them correctly. Even methods of bra-measurement vary, such that even professional fitters can disagree on the correct size for the same woman.
The clip-on tie is a bow tie or four-in-hand tie which is permanently tied, with a dimple just below the knot, and which is fixed to the front of the shirt collar by a metal clip. Alternately, the tie may have a band around the neck fastened with a hook and eye.
People in white collar occupations are often mocked for wearing a clip-on tie in lieu of a standard necktie, the implication being that refusal to learn how to tie a "proper" tie reflects a wider lack of sophistication. Pre-tied bow ties are especially disliked in formal circles; according to one writer, "The quirky irregularities of a self-tied bow give it personality and flair... while the cookie-cutter precision of a pre-tied model diminishes it to an assembly-line commodity." Because child-sized ties are often clip-ons, some consider clip-ons juvenile. Finally, clip-on ties are generally available in limited styles, sizes, and prints relative to their conventional counterparts.
A doublet is a man's snug-fitting buttoned jacket that is shaped and fitted to the man's body which was worn in Western Europe from the Middle Ages through to the mid-17th century. The doublet was hip length or waist length and worn over the shirt or drawers. Until the end of the 15th century the doublet was worn under another layer of clothing such as a gown, mantle, or overtunic. The term also refers to a formal jacket worn with highland dress, a variation of which is called an Argyll jacket or Prince Charlie jacket (or coatee).
Originally it was a mere stitched and quilted lining ("doubling"), worn under a hauberk or cuirass to prevent bruising and chafing. Doublets were frequently opened to the waistline in a deep V. The edges might be left free or laced across the shirt front. If there was space left it might be filled with a stomacher. By the 1520s, the edges of the doublet met at the center front. Then, like many other originally practical items in the history of men's wear, from the late 15th century onward it became elaborated enough to be seen on its own. A similar jacket, the sherwani, is worn today in India.
Throughout the 300 years of its use, the doublet served the
A Norfolk jacket is a loose, belted, single-breasted jacket with box pleats on the back and front, with a belt or half-belt. The style was long popular for boys' jackets and suits, and is still used in some (primarily military and police) uniforms. It was originally designed as a shooting coat that did not bind when the elbow was raised to fire. It was named either after the Duke of Norfolk or after the county of Norfolk and was made fashionable after the 1860s in the sporting circle of the Prince of Wales, later Edward VII, whose country residence was Sandringham House in Norfolk.
A pantsuit or pant suit, also known as a trouser suit outside the USA, is a woman's suit of clothing consisting of trousers and a matching or coordinating coat or jacket.
Formerly, the prevailing fashion for women included some form of coat, but paired with a skirt or dress—hence the name pantsuit.
The pantsuit was introduced in the 1920s, when a small number of women adopted a masculine style, including pantsuits, hats, and even canes and monocles.
André Courrèges introduced long trousers for women as a fashion item in the late 1960s, and over the next 40 years pantsuits gradually became acceptable business wear for women. In 1966, designer Yves Saint-Laurent introduced his Le Smoking, an evening pantsuit for women that mimicked a man's tuxedo.
Pantsuits were often deprecated as inappropriately masculine clothing for women. For example, until the 1990s, women were not permitted to wear pantsuits in the United States Senate.
Proponents name several advantages, including comfort and reducing the need for pantyhose. The most prominent advantage cited, however, is modesty: a woman wearing a pantsuit cannot be a victim of upskirt photography or accidentally expose herself by leaning
Go-go boots are a low-heeled style of women's fashion boot worn since the mid-sixties when fashion silhouettes focused on accentuating the leg. They first appeared in the 1960s.
In modern parlance, "go-go boot" can be used to describe any style of knee-high boots regardless of heel height.
The term Go-Go is derived from the French expression à gogo, meaning "in abundance, galore", which is in turn derived from the ancient French word la gogue for "joy, happiness". The term "go-go" has also been explained as a 1964 back construction of the 1962 slang term "go", meaning something that was "all the rage"; the term "go-go dancer" first appeared in print in 1965.
In 1958, the first Whisky a Go-Go in North America opened in Chicago, Illinois, on the corner of Rush Street and Chestnut Street. It has been called the first real American discothèque. In Paris, the original accented Whisky à Go-Go opened in 1947.
Go-go boots are either calf-, knee- or above knee-high boots with a low or flat heel. The style is very simple in shape with a chiseled, rounded, or pointed toe. The boot is usually fastened with a side or back zipper, although by the Seventies it was not uncommon to find lace-up
A motorcycle helmet is a type of protective headgear used by motorcycle riders. The primary goal of a motorcycle helmet is motorcycle safety - to protect the rider's head during impact, thus preventing or reducing head injury or saving the rider's life. Some helmets provide additional conveniences, such as ventilation, face shields, ear protection, intercom etc.
Motorcyclists are at high risk in traffic crashes. A 2008 systematic review examined studies on motorcycle riders who had crashed and looked at helmet use as an intervention. The review concluded that helmets reduce the risk of head injury by around 69% and death by around 42%. Some studies have suggested that helmets may protect against facial injury but they have no effect on neck injury, more research is required for a conclusive answer.
T. E. Lawrence (known as Lawrence of Arabia) had a crash on a Brough Superior SS100 on a narrow road near his cottage near Wareham. The accident occurred because a dip in the road obstructed his view of two boys on bicycles. Swerving to avoid them, Lawrence lost control and was thrown over the handlebars. He was not wearing a helmet, and suffered serious head injuries which left him in a
A sock is an item of clothing worn on the feet. The foot is among the heaviest producers of sweat in the body, as it is able to produce over 1 US pint (0.47 l) of perspiration per day. Socks help to absorb this sweat and draw it to areas where air can evaporate the perspiration. In cold environments, socks decrease the risk of frostbite. Its name is derived from the loose-fitting slipper, called a soccus in Latin, worn by Roman comic actors.
The modern English word sock is derived from the Old English word socc, meaning "light slipper". This comes from the Latin soccus, a term to describe a "light, low-heeled shoe", and deriving from the Ancient Greek word sykchos.
Socks have evolved over the centuries from the earliest models which were made from animal skins gathered up and tied around the ankles. In the 8th century BC, the Ancient Greeks wore socks from matted animal hair for warmth. The Romans also wrapped their feet with leather or woven fabrics. By the 5th century AD, socks called "puttees" were worn by holy people in Europe to symbolise purity. By 1000 AD, socks became a symbol of wealth among the nobility. From the 16th century onwards, an ornamental design on the ankle or
A prairie skirt is an American style of skirt, an article of women's and girls' clothing.
Prairie skirts are slightly flared to very full, with one or more flounces (deep ruffles) or tiers, and are often worn over a ruffled eyelet or lace-trimmed petticoat. They were introduced to fashion by Ralph Lauren in his fall 1978 Western-themed collection.
Prairie skirts are so-called after their resemblance to the home-sewn skirts worn by pioneer women in the mid-19th century, which in turn are a simplified version of the flared, ruffled skirts characteristic of high-fashion dresses of the 1820s.
In keeping with their design inspiration, traditional prairie skirts are usually made of "country" fabrics such as denim and flowered calico. Prairie skirts are a staple of women's western wear, and very full prairie skirts are worn for square dancing.
Mid-calf length, button-front denim prairie skirts with a single flounce, worn with a petticoat that was slightly longer than the skirt, became a mainstream fashion in the 1970s and early 1980s following Lauren's introduction.
Short, many-tiered prairie skirts of voile, chiffon or other lightweight fabrics were a fashion trend in 2005. Some wear
Trousers are an item of clothing worn from the waist to the ankles, covering both legs separately (rather than with cloth stretching across both as in skirts and dresses). The word trousers is used in the UK and Ireland, but some other English-speaking countries such as Canada, South Africa, and the United States often refer to such items of clothing as pants, a shortening of the historic term pantaloons. Australia is known to differentiate between pants and trousers. Additional synonyms include slacks, strides, kegs or kex, breeches (sometimes britches /ˈbrɪtʃɨz/), or breeks. Shorts are similar to trousers, but with legs that come down only to around the area of the knee, higher or lower than the knee depending on the style of the garment.
In most of the Western world, trousers have been worn since ancient times and throughout the Medieval period, becoming the most common form of lower body clothing for males in the modern period, although shorts are also widely worn, and kilts and other garments may be worn in various regions and cultures. Since the 20th century, trousers have become prevalent for females as well. Shorts are often preferred in hot weather or for some sports, and
A white coat or laboratory coat (often abbreviated to lab coat) is a knee-length overcoat/smock worn by professionals in the medical field or by those involved in laboratory work. The coat protects their street clothes and also serves as a simple uniform. The garment is made from white or light-colored cotton, linen, or cotton polyester blend, allowing it to be washed at high temperature and make it easy to see if it is clean. Similar coats are a symbol of learning in Argentina, where they are worn by students. In Tunisia, teachers wear white coats to protect their street clothes from chalk.
When used in the laboratory, they protect against accidental spills, e.g. acids. In this case they usually have long sleeves and are made of an absorbent material, such as cotton, so that the user can be protected from the chemical. Some lab coats have buttons at the end of the sleeves, to secure them around the wrist so that they do not hang into beakers of chemicals. Short-sleeved lab coats also exist where protection from substances such as acid is not necessary, and are favoured by certain scientists, such as microbiologists, avoiding the problem of hanging sleeves altogether, combined with
Corsage refers to the bodice of a dress. In the 19th century, corsage was a common term for a woman's bodice or jacket. Its origin is French.
In modern usage, corsage is often confused with a corset, but a corset is tighter. A bridal corset is often a corsage.
Originally, a bouquet of flowers, flower bud, or a bow was worn on the corsage between the breasts, hence the name corsage for a cluster of flowers worn on the breast, waist or wrist.
Recently, it is a cluster of flowers given to one's date at a prom or formal dance to wear on either a dress or a wrist.
A kitten heel is a short, slender heel, usually from 3.5 centimeters (1.5 inches) to 4.75 centimeters (1.75 inches) high with a slight curve setting the heel in from the edge of the shoe. The style was popularized by Audrey Hepburn.
Kitten heels, sometimes called short stilettos, are shoes with a tapered heel of approximately 1 inch height. They are on the shorter end of stiletto shoes, which can have heels as tall as 5 inches.
They were introduced in the late 1950s as formal fashion attire for young adolescent teenage girls as higher heels would have been considered unseemly for girls as young as 13 because of the sexual connotations and unease of walk. They were sometimes referred to as "trainer heels" in the US, indicating their use in getting young girls used to wearing high heels. However, by the early 1960s, they became fashionable for older teenagers and eventually for women of all ages until the demise of the stiletto heel in the late 1960s. They emerged again in the 1980s along with wedge heels and have become once again fashionable since 2003, but are not made in abundance due to the preference for Stiletto heels by women during this time period. Manolo Blahnik has added
A peplos (Greek: πέπλος) is a body-length garment established as typical attire for women in ancient Greece by 500 BC (the Classical period). It was a tubular cloth folded inside-out from the top about halfway down, altering what was the top of the tube to the waist and the bottom of the tube to ankle-length. The garment was then gathered about the waist and the open top (at the fold) pinned over the shoulders. The top of the tube (now inside-out) draped over the waist, providing the appearance of a second piece of clothing. (The Caryatid statues show atypical drapery.)
The peplos was draped and open on one side of the body, like the Doric chiton. It should not be confused with the Ionic chiton, which was a piece of fabric folded over and sewn together along the longer side to form a tube. The Classical garment is represented in Greek vase painting from the 5th century BC and in the metopes of temples in Doric order.
Spartan women continued to wear the peplos much later in history than other Greek cultures, causing other Greeks to call them phainomērídes (φαινομηρίδες) the "thigh-showers."
On the last day of the Pyanepsion, the priestess of Athena Polias and the Arrephoroi, a group
Mule, a French word, is a style of shoe that is backless and often closed-toed. Mules can be any heel height - from flat to high. The style is predominantly (but not exclusively) worn by women.
The term derives from the Ancient Roman mulleus calceus a red or purple shoe worn by the three highest magistrates, although there is little indication of any structural resemblance.
High-heeled mules were a popular indoor shoe style of the 18th century, influenced by the patten, a backless overshoe of the 16th century. By the early twentieth century, mules were often associated with prostitutes.
In the early 1950s, Marilyn Monroe popularized the shoe and helped to break its poor reputation.
Mules experienced some popularity in the 1950s and early 1960s, and were seen in 1970s almost exclusively in the form of open-back Scandinavian clogs, but then re-emerged in the early 1990s, especially in its open-toed form (the "slide"), and began to dominate the shoe market for women.
The bow tie is a type of men's necktie. It consists of a ribbon of fabric tied around the collar in a symmetrical manner such that the two opposite ends form loops. Ready-tied bow ties are available, in which the distinctive bow is sewn into shape and the band around the neck incorporates a clip. Some "clip-ons" dispense with the band altogether, instead clipping to the collar. The traditional bow tie, consisting of a strip of cloth which the wearer has to tie by hand, may be known as a "self-tie," "tie-it-yourself," or "freestyle" bow tie to distinguish it from these.
Bow ties may be made of any fabric material, but most are made from silk, polyester, cotton, or a mixture of fabrics. Some fabrics (e.g., wool) are much less common for bow ties than for ordinary four-in-hand neckties.
A modern bow tie is tied using a common shoelace knot.
The bow tie originated among Croatian mercenaries during the Prussian wars of the 17th century: the Croat mercenaries used a scarf around the neck to hold together the opening of their shirts. This was soon adopted (under the name cravat, derived from the French for "Croat") by the upper classes in France, then a leader in fashion, and flourished
The chasuble is the outermost liturgical vestment worn by clergy for the celebration of the Eucharist in Western-tradition Christian Churches that use full vestments, primarily in the Roman Catholic, Anglican and Lutheran churches, as well as in some parts of the United Methodist Church. In the Eastern Churches of Byzantine Rite, the equivalent vestment is the phelonion.
"The vestment proper to the priest celebrant at Mass and other sacred actions directly connected with Mass is, unless otherwise indicated, the chasuble, worn over the alb and stole" (General Instruction of the Roman Missal, 337). Like the stole, it is normally of the liturgical colour of the Mass being celebrated.
The chasuble originated as a sort of conical poncho, called in Latin a "casula" or "little house," that was the common outer traveling garment in the late Roman Empire. It was simply a roughly oval piece of cloth, with a round hole in the middle through which to pass the head, that fell below the knees on all sides. It had to be gathered up on the arms to allow the arms to be used freely.
As the casula became a liturgical garment in the West, it was folded up from the sides. Strings were sometimes used to
A dress (also known as a frock or a gown) is a garment consisting of a skirt with an attached bodice (or a matching bodice giving the effect of a one-piece garment). In Western culture, dresses are usually considered to be items of women's and girls' apparel.
The hemline of dresses can be as high as the upper thigh or as low as the ground, depending on the whims of fashion and the modesty or personal taste of the wearer.
Dresses increased dramatically to the hoopskirt and crinoline-supported styles of the 1860s; then fullness was draped and drawn to the back. Dresses had a "day" bodice with a high neckline and long sleeves, and an "evening" bodice with a low neckline (decollete) and very short sleeves.
Throughout this period, the length of fashionable dresses varied only slightly, between ankle-length and floor-sweeping.
In Europe and America, dresses are worn by females of all ages as an alternative to a separate skirt and blouse or trousers.
Dresses however can be cooler and less confining than many trouser styles, and they are very popular for special occasions such as proms or weddings.
Fundoshi (褌) is the traditional Japanese undergarment for adult males, made from a length of cotton. Before World War II, the fundoshi was the main form of underwear for Japanese adult males. However it fell out of use quickly after the war with the introduction of new underwear to the Japanese market, such as briefs and trunks.
Nowadays, the fundoshi is mainly used not as underwear but as festival (matsuri) clothing at Hadaka Matsuri or, sometimes, as swimwear.
There are several types of fundoshi, including rokushaku, kuroneko, mokko and etchū.
The rokushaku fundoshi is a length of cloth, the dimensions being one shaku (34 cm / 14 inches) wide and six shaku (2.3 m / 92 to 96 inches) long; roku is Japanese for six, hence roku-shaku. The fundoshi is often twisted to create a thong effect at the back.
Etchū fundoshi is also a length of cloth, however it has a strip of material at the waist to form a fastening or string. The dimensions are 14 inches width by about 40 inches length, and it is tied with the material strip in front of the body. Etchū fundoshi was the form of fundoshi most popular among Japanese adult males as underwear from early 1900s to the end of World War
A guernsey, or gansey, is a seaman's knitted woollen sweater, similar to a jersey, which originated in the Channel Island of the same name.
The guernsey is the mainstay of Guernsey's knitting industry which can be dated back to the late 15th century when a royal grant was obtained to import wool from England and re-export knitted goods to Normandy and Spain. Peter Heylin described the manufacture and export of "wast-cotes" during the reign of Charles I. The first use of the name "guernsey" outside of the island is in the 1851 Oxford Dictionary, but the garment was in use in the bailiwick before that.
The guernsey came into being as a garment for fishermen who required a warm, hard wearing, yet comfortable item of clothing that would resist the sea spray. The hard twist given to the tightly packed wool fibres in the spinning process and the tightly knitted stitches, produced a finish that would "turn water" and is capable of repelling rain and spray.
The guernsey was traditionally knitted by the fishermen's wives and the pattern passed down from mother to daughter through the generations. This is a practice which still exists today with the final finishing of the machine-knit parts
Lingerie (UK /ˈlændʒ.ər.i/ or US /ˌlɑːndʒ.əˈreɪ/) are fashionable and possibly alluring undergarments.
Lingerie may include undergarments incorporating flexible, stretchy, sheer, or decorative materials like Lycra, nylon (nylon tricot), polyester, satin, lace, silk and sheer fabric or simply be functional, cotton or synthetic undergarments.
The term in the French language (French pronunciation: [lɛ̃.ʒʁi]) applies to all undergarments for either gender. In English it is applied specifically to those undergarments designed to be visually appealing or erotic.
The word derives from the French word linge, "washables"—as in faire le linge, "do the laundry"—and ultimately from lin for washable linen, the fabric from which European undergarments were made before the general introduction of cotton from Egypt and then from India. It is commonly pronounced in English with a faux French pronunciation, such as UK /ˈlɒnʒəriː/ or US /lɒnʒərˈeɪ/ in the doubly non-French American pronunciation. The true French pronunciation is [lɛ̃ʒʁi]....
The concept of lingerie as a visually appealing undergarment was developed during the late nineteenth century. Lady Duff-Gordon of Lucile was a pioneer in
More specialized forms:Burke Pacific Coastal Jacket
A raincoat or slicker is a waterproof or water-resistant coat worn to protect the body from rain. The term rain jacket is sometimes used to refer to raincoats that are waist length. A rain jacket may be combined with a pair of rain pants to make a rain suit.
Modern raincoats are often constructed of breathable, waterproof fabrics such as Gore-Tex or Tyvek and coated nylons. These fabrics allow some air to pass through, allowing the garment to 'breathe' so that sweat vapour can escape. The amount of pouring rain a raincoat can handle is sometimes meassured in the unit millimeters, water gauge.
Important styles of raincoat include:
The square academic cap, graduate cap, or mortarboard (because of its similarity in appearance to the hawk used by bricklayers to hold mortar) or Oxford cap, is an item of academic head dress consisting of a horizontal square board fixed upon a skull-cap, with a tassel attached to the center. In the UK and the US, it is commonly referred to informally in conjunction with an academic gown worn as a cap and gown. It is also often termed a square, trencher, or corner-cap in Australia. The adjective academical is also used. In the US and UK, it is usually referred to more generically as a mortarboard, or (in the U.S.) simply cap.
The cap, together with the gown and (sometimes) a hood, now form the customary uniform of a university graduate, in many parts of the world, following a British model.
The mortarboard is generally believed by scholars to have developed from the biretta, a similar-looking hat worn by Roman Catholic clergy. The biretta itself may have been a development of the Roman pileus quadratus, a type of skullcap with superposed square and tump. A reinvention of this type of cap is known as the Bishop Andrewes cap. The Italian biretta is a word derived from berretto, which
Ballerina skirt is a full skirt that reaches to mid-calf or just above the ankles, often made up of multiple layers of fabric. It was a popular style during the 1950s. It is based on the romantic tutu length.
Ballerina skirts have been a consistently popular length for ball gowns, especially for young women.
In geophysics, the term is used to refer to a wavy almost-circular region produced by perturbing the equatorial current sheet in a magnetic field whose shape resembles a tutu sticking out from a ballerina's waist.
A camisole is a sleeveless undergarment for women, normally extending to the waist. The camisole is usually made of satin, nylon, or cotton.
Historically, camisole referred to jackets of various kinds, including overshirts (worn under a doublet or bodice), women's négligées and sleeved jackets worn by men.
In modern usage a camisole or cami is a loose-fitting sleeveless woman's undergarment which covers the top part of the body but is shorter than a chemise. A camisole normally extends to the waist but is sometimes cropped to expose the midriff, or extended to cover the entire pelvic region. Camisoles are manufactured from light materials, commonly cotton-based, occasionally satin or silk, or stretch fabrics such as lycra, nylon, or spandex.
A camisole typically has thin "spaghetti straps" and can be worn over a brassiere or without one. Since 1989, some camisoles have come with a built-in underwire bra or other support which eliminates the need for a bra among those who prefer one. Recently, camisoles have been known to be used as outerwear.
A variety of sleeveless body shaping undergarments have been derived from the camisole shape, offering medium control of the bust, waist
Custodian helmet or centurion helmet, technically known as a 'Home Office pattern helmet', is a helmet worn by many policemen in England and Wales.
The helmet is the traditional headgear of the "bobby on the beat", worn by male constables and sergeants on foot patrol in England and Wales (a peaked cap is worn by officers on mobile patrol in cars). Its design is based on the late Victorian British Army Home Service helmet, which was itself based on the Pickelhaube. It was adopted by the Metropolitan Police in 1863 to replace the top hat formerly worn, and other forces soon followed suit, although often introducing their own particular styles. In the 1930s the Home Office attempted (somewhat unsuccessfully) to encourage forces to abandon their own helmet designs and use the Metropolitan Police rosetop style of the helmet with a Brunswick star plate (badge), this became known as the "Home Office pattern". In practice many forces continued to use their own style of helmet & plate. The terms "custodian" & "centurion" are trade names introduced by the manufacturer Compton Webb and others, but have recently been taken by some to collectively refer to all British police helmets in general.
A helmet is a form of protective gear worn on the head to protect it from injuries.
Ceremonial or symbolic helmets (e.g., English policeman's helmet) without protective function are sometimes used. The oldest known use of helmets was by Assyrian soldiers in 900BC, who wore thick leather or bronze helmets to protect the head from blunt object and sword blows and arrow strikes in combat. Soldiers still wear helmets, now often made from lightweight plastic materials.
In civilian life, helmets are used for recreational activities and sports (e.g., jockeys in horse racing, American football, ice hockey, cricket, baseball, and rock climbing); dangerous work activities (e.g., construction, mining, riot police); and transportation (e.g., Motorcycle helmets and bicycle helmets). Since the 1990s, most helmets are made from resin or plastic, which may be reinforced with fibers such as aramids.
All helmets attempt to protect the user's head by absorbing mechanical energy and protecting against penetration. Their structure and protective capacity are altered in high-energy impacts. Beside their energy-absorption capability, their volume and weight are also important issues, since higher volume
An overall, coverall, over all, or dungarees, is a type of garment which is usually used as protective clothing when working. Some people call an overall a "pair of overalls" by analogy with "pair of trousers".
The 1989 issue of the Oxford English Dictionary lists:
The first mention of boilersuits known here is in a special rule for manufacturing explosives, laid down in 1891: "Overall suits and head covering shall be supplied to all workers…"
The one-piece work overall arrived in 1891-1916, in tough cotton or in linen, to fit over a shirt or vest and trousers. (The cloth cap began to spread through the working class, and some women wore them too.)
In the beginning of the 20th century, coveralls came in as protective garments for mechanics in the USA.
Women wore overalls in factories in England during the First World War in 1916.
Rules were implemented in match factories: "Suitable overalls are required for all workers employed in the phosphorus process, except for people who only put the matches in boxes".
During the Spanish Civil War, the Communist soldiers used boilersuits as their uniform. Early aeronauts also wore specially designed one-piece suits.
In the 1930s, overalls were
Pantyhose (called tights in the United Kingdom and a few other countries) are sheer, close-fitting legwear, covering the wearer's body from the waist to the feet. Mostly considered to be a woman's and girl's garment, pantyhose appeared in the 1960s, and they provided a convenient alternative to stockings. People of both sexes often find pantyhose to be comfortable for wearing during frigid weather or while horseback riding.
Like stockings or knee highs, pantyhose are usually made of nylon, or of other fabrics blended with nylon. Pantyhose are designed to:
Besides being worn as fashion, in Western society pantyhose are sometimes worn by women when formal dress is required. For example, the dress code of some companies and schools require pantyhose or fashion tights to be worn when skirts or shorts are worn or as part of a uniform.
The term "pantyhose" originated in the United States to refer to the combination of panties (an American English term) with sheer nylon hosiery. In British English, these garments are called "tights", a term that refers to all such garments regardless of whether they are sheer lingerie or sturdy outerwear.
In American English the term "tights" refers to
A riding boot is a boot made to be used for horse riding. The classic boot comes high enough up the leg to prevent the leathers of the saddle from pinching the leg of the rider, has a sturdy toe to protect the rider's foot when on the ground, and has a distinct heel to prevent the foot from sliding through the stirrup. The sole is smooth or lightly textured to avoid being caught on the tread of the stirrup in the event of a fall.
The modern riding boot is relatively low-heeled, with a heel of less than one inch, though historically a higher heel was common, as it has always been critically important for riding boots to prevent the foot from slipping through the stirrup. Today, only some styles of cowboy boot retain a higher heel than other modern riding boots.
For the riding disciplines that fall into the category of English riding, there are a number of different styles of riding boots, intended for different styles of riding, from horse shows, to pleasure riding. Tall boots, which end just below the knee of the rider, include field, dress, and hunt boots. These are standard show apparel, worn by all competitors in the hunter/jumper and dressage disciplines. A lower, paddock boot
A stocking (also known as hose, especially in a historical context) is a close-fitting, variously elastic garment covering the foot and lower part of the leg. Stockings vary in color, design and transparency. By analogy, the term is also used to describe a type of horse marking in which the white coloring extends from the horse's hoof to just above the knee.
Today, stockings are primarily worn by women for fashion and aesthetics, usually in association with mid-length skirts. They can also be worn for increased warmth. They are also sometimes worn by men, and in cross-dressing and fetishism.
Historically, even though the word sock is at least as ancient in origin, what men normally wore were often referred to as stockings, probably especially when referring to longer hose at times when they were the fashion for men. The word stock used to refer to the bottom "stump" part of the body, and by analogy the word was used to refer to the one-piece covering of the lower trunk and limbs of the 15th century—essentially tights consisting of the upper-stocks (later to be worn separately as knee breeches) and nether-stocks (later to be worn separately as stockings). (See Hose.)
A temple garment (also referred to as garments, or Mormon underwear) is a type of underwear worn by a vast majority of adherents of the Latter Day Saint movement, after they have taken part in the Endowment ceremony. Garments are worn both day and night and are required for any previously endowed adult to enter a temple. The undergarments are viewed as a symbolic reminder of the covenants made in temple ceremonies and are seen as either a symbolic or literal source of protection from the evils of the world.
The garment is given as part of the washing and anointing portion of the endowment. Today, the temple garment is worn primarily by members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and by members of some Mormon fundamentalist churches. Adherents consider them to be sacred and not suitable for public display. Anti-Mormon activists have occasionally publicly displayed or defaced temple garments to advance their opposition to the LDS Church.
Temple garments are sometimes derided as "magic underwear" by non-Mormons, but Mormons view this terminology to be misleading and derogatory.
According to the LDS Church, the temple garments serve a number of purposes.
A trench coat or trenchcoat is a raincoat made of waterproof heavy-duty cotton drill or poplin, wool gabardine, or leather. It generally has a removable insulated lining, and it is usually knee-length.
The trench coat was developed as an alternative to the heavy serge greatcoats worn by British and French soldiers in the First World War. Invention of the trench coat is claimed by both Burberry and Aquascutum, with Aquascutum's claim dating back to the 1850s. Thomas Burberry, the inventor of gabardine fabric, submitted a design for an army officer's raincoat to the United Kingdom War Office in 1901.
The trench coat became an optional item of dress in the British Army, and was obtained by private purchase by officers and Warrant Officers Class I who were under no obligation to own them. No other ranks were permitted to wear them. Another optional item was the British Warm, a wool coat similar to the greatcoat that was shorter in length, also worn by British officers and Warrant Officers Class I as an optional piece.
During the First World War, the design of the trenchcoat was modified to include shoulder straps and D-rings. The shoulder straps were for the attachment of epaulettes or
The alb (from the Latin Albus, meaning white), one of the liturgical vestments of the Roman Catholic, Anglican and many Protestant churches, is an ample white garment coming down to the ankles and is usually girdled with a cincture. It is simply the long linen tunic used by the Romans. In early Medieval Europe it was also normally worn by secular clergy in non-liturgical contexts.
It is the twelfth oldest liturgical vestment, and was adopted very early by Christians, and especially by the clergy for the Eucharistic liturgy. Nowadays, the alb is the common vestment for all ministers at Mass, both clerics and laypersons, and is worn over the cassock and under any other special garments, such as the stole, dalmatic or chasuble. If the alb does not completely cover the collar, an amice is often worn underneath the alb. The shortening of the alb for use outside a church has given rise to the surplice, and its cousin the rochet, worn by canons and bishops. Post-Tridentine albs often were made with lace. Since then, this detail has fallen out of style, except in parts of the Anglo-Catholic movement and some very traditional Roman Catholic parishes. In many Anglican parishes, the alb is
A boater (also straw boater, basher, skimmer, cady, katie, somer, sennit hat, or in Japan, can-can hat) is a kind of men's formal summer hat.
It is normally made of stiff sennit straw and has a stiff flat crown and brim, typically with a solid or striped grosgrain ribbon around the crown. Boaters were popular as casual summer headgear in the late 19th century and early 20th century, especially for boating or sailing, hence the name. They were supposedly worn by FBI agents as a sort of unofficial uniform in the pre-war years. It was also worn by women as well, often with hatpins to keep it in place. Nowadays they are rarely seen except at sailing or rowing events, period theatrical and musical performances (e.g. barbershop music) or as part of old-fashioned school uniform, such as at Harrow School. Since 1952, the straw boater hat has been part of the uniform of the Princeton University Band, notably featured on the cover of Sports Illustrated Magazine in October, 1955. Recently, soft, thin straw hats with the approximate shape of a boater have been in fashion among women.
Inexpensive foam or plastic skimmers are sometimes seen at political rallies in the United States.
A burqa (Arabic pronunciation: [ˈbʊrqʊʕ, ˈbʊrqɑʕ]; also transliterated burkha, burka or burqu' from Arabic: برقع burquʻ or burqaʻ) is an enveloping outer garment worn by women in some Islamic traditions to cover their bodies when in public.
A speculative and unattested etymology connects b-r-q-ʿ with the Arabic root r-q-ʿ, which means "to patch up" or "to sew up". The objection to this etymology is that there is no derivational process that adds an initial b- to a root.
The face-veil portion is usually a rectangular piece of semi-transparent cloth whose top side is sewn to corresponding portion of the head-scarf, so that the veil hangs down loose from the scarf, and it can be turned up if the woman wishes to reveal her face (otherwise the whole face would be covered). In other cases, the niqāb part can be a side-attached cloth that covers the face below the eyes' region.
Many Muslims believe that the Islamic holy book, the Qur'an, and the collected traditions of the life of Muhammed, or hadith, require both men and women to dress and behave modestly in public. However, this requirement, called hijab, has been interpreted in many different ways by Islamic scholars (ulema) and
A cardigan is a type of knit shirt than has an open front. Often, cardigans can be tied, buttoned, or zipped. By contrast, a pullover does not open in front but must be "pulled over" the head to be worn. It may be machine- or hand-knitted. The cardigan was named after James Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan, a British Army Major General who led the Charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaclava during the Crimean War. It is modelled after the knitted wool waistcoat that British officers supposedly wore during the war. The legend of the event and the fame that Brudenell achieved after the war led to the rise of the garment's popularity. The term originally referred only to a knitted sleeveless vest, but expanded to other types of garment over time. Cardigans were adopted by male fishermen to keep warm, but spread to academic circles, and are now popular with women as well. Plain cardigans are often worn over shirts and inside suit jackets as a less formal version of the waistcoat or vest that restrains the necktie when the jacket has been removed. Its versatility means it can be worn in casual or formal settings and in any season, but it is most popular during cool weather.
A "hijab" or "ḥijāb" (/hɪˈdʒɑːb/, /hɪˈdʒæb/, /ˈhɪ.dʒæb/ or /hɛˈdʒɑːb/; Arabic: حجاب, pronounced [ħiˈdʒæːb] ~ [ħiˈɡæːb]) is a veil which covers the hair and neck. It is worn by Muslim women particularly in the presence of non-related adult males.
According to Islamic scholarship, hijab is given the wider meaning of modesty, privacy, and morality. The Qur'an mentions the use of covering and veiling with the words khimār (خمار) and jilbāb (جلباب), not hijab. Still another definition is metaphysical, where al-hijab refers to "the veil which separates man or the world from God."
According to the Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, the meaning of hijab has evolved over time:
The Arabic word literally means curtain or cover (noun). Most Islamic legal systems define this type of modest dressing as covering everything except the face and hands in public. Some interpretations say that a veil is not compulsory in front of blind, asexual or gay men.
The Qur'an instructs both Muslim men and women to dress in a modest way.
The clearest verse on the requirement of the hijab is surah 24:30–31, asking women to draw their khimār over their bosoms.
In the following verse, the wives of the
A himation was a type of clothing in ancient Greece. It was usually worn over a chiton, but was made of heavier drape and played the role of a cloak.
The himation was markedly less voluminous than the Roman toga.
When the himation was used alone (without a chiton), and served both as a chiton and as a cloak, it was called an achiton.
The himation continued into the Byzantine era, especially as iconographic dress for Christ and other figures from Biblical times, although it appears still to have been worn in real life, especially by older men of relatively low status.
In sumo, a mawashi (廻し) is the belt (loincloth) that the rikishi (or sumo wrestler) wears during training or in competition. Upper ranked professional wrestlers wear a keshō-mawashi (see below) as part of the ring entry ceremony or dohyō-iri.
For top- (sekitori-) ranked professional rikishi, it is made of silk and comes in a variety of colors. It is approximately 30 feet (9.1 m) in length when unwrapped, about two feet wide and weighs between eight and eleven pounds. It is wrapped several times around the rikishi and fastened in the back by a large knot. A series of matching colour, stiffened silk fronds, called sagari are inserted into the front of the mawashi. Their number varies from 13 to 25, and is always an odd number. If these fall out during competition the gyoji (or referee) will throw them from the ring at the first opportunity.
Sometimes a rikishi may wear his mawashi in such a way as to give him some advantage over his opponent. He may wear it loosely to make it more difficult to be thrown or he may wrap it tightly and splash a little water on it to help prevent his opponent from getting a good grip on it. His choice will depend on the type of techniques he prefers to
The bikini is typically a women's two-piece swimsuit. One part of the attire covers the breasts and the other part covers the groin and part of or the entire buttocks, leaving an uncovered area between the two. Merriam–Webster describe the bikini as "a woman's scanty two-piece bathing suit" or "a man's brief swimsuit." It is often worn in hot weather, while swimming or sunbathing. The shapes of both parts of a bikini resemble women's underwear, and the lower part can range from revealing thong or g-string to briefs.
While two-piece bathing suits had been worn on the beach before, the modern bikini was invented by French engineer Louis Réard in 1946. He named it after Bikini Atoll in the Pacific, the site of the Operation Crossroads nuclear weapon tests in July that year.
The bikini is perhaps the most popular female beachwear around the globe, according to French fashion historian Olivier Saillard due to "the power of women, and not the power of fashion". As he explains, "The emancipation of swimwear has always been linked to the emancipation of women." By the mid 2000s, bikinis had become a $811 million business annually, according to the NPD Group, a consumer and retail
The ditto suit is an early precursor of the lounge suit but often had a coat more akin to a frock coat or morning coat. That the waistcoat and trousers were matching made the suit more informal than those with silk faced lapels worn with formal striped trousers.
An evening gown is a long flowing women's dress usually worn to a semi-formal or formal affair. It ranges from tea and ballerina to full-length. Evening gowns are usually made of luxurious fabrics such as chiffon, velvet, satin, organza, etc. Silk is a popular fibre for many evening gowns. Although the terms are used interchangeably, ball gowns and evening gowns differ in that a ball gown will always have a full, flared skirt and a strapless bodice; in contrast, an evening gown can be any silhouette—sheath, mermaid, A-line or trumpet shaped—and may have straps, halters or even sleeves.
It corresponds to men's semi-formal wear for black tie events.
Evening wear, sometimes also known as court dress due to its creation at royal courts, for women has its origins in the 15th century with the rise of the Burgundian court and its fashionable and fashion-conscious ruler Philip the Good. Wool, in various weaves, was the most dominant fabric for dresses, and the ladies of the court often simply added a train to their kirtle for formal occasions. Rich fabrics and fibres were usually the domain of the nobility, and clothing was still used as an identifier of social rank and status. The dawn of
Flip-flops (also called zōri, thongs, jandals, or a variety of other names throughout the world) are a type of open-toed sandal typically worn in casual situations, such as outside or at the beach. They consist of a flat sole held loosely on the foot by a Y-shaped strap that passes between the first and second toes and around either side of the foot. They may also be held to the foot with a single strap over the front of the foot rather than a thong. The name "flip-flop" originated because of the sound that is made by slapping between the sole of the foot and the floor when walking.
This style of footwear has been worn by the people of many cultures throughout the world, originating as early as the ancient Egyptians in 4,000 B.C. The modern flip-flop descends from the Japanese zōri, which became popular after World War II when soldiers returning to the United States brought them back. They became popular in casual settings during the 1960s, 1990s, and 2000s, and some varieties have even found their way into more formal attire, despite criticism.
The use of flip-flops can result in many pains and injuries, including ankle sprains and broken bones. Some individuals who walk for long
Footwear consists of garments worn on the feet, for fashion, protection against the environment, and adornment. Being barefoot is commonly associated with poverty, but some cultures chose not to wear footwear at least in some situations.
Socks and other hosiery are usually worn between the feet and other footwear, less often with sandals and flip flops (thongs). Footwear is sometimes associated with fetishism, particularly in some fashions in shoes, including boots.
Durable shoes are a relatively recent invention, though many ancient civilizations wore ornamental footwear. Many ancient civilizations saw no need for footwear. The Romans saw clothing and footwear as signs of power and status in society, and most Romans wore footwear, while slaves and peasants remained barefoot. The Middle Ages saw the rise of high-heeled shoes, also associated with power, and the desire to look larger than life, and artwork often depicted someone barefoot as a symbol of poverty. Bare feet are also seen as a sign of humility and respect, and adherents of many religions worship or mourn barefoot, or remove their shoes as a sign of respect towards someone of higher standing.
In some cultures, it is
An Oxford is a style of laced shoe characterized by shoelace eyelet tabs that are stitched underneath the vamp, a construction method that is also sometimes referred to as "closed lacing". Oxfords first appeared in Scotland and Ireland, where they are occasionally called Balmorals after the Queen's castle in Scotland, Balmoral. Most shoe stores in U.S. will refer to Oxfords as bal-type opposed to blucher-type. In France, Oxfords are better known under the name of Richelieu.
Oxfords are traditionally constructed of leather and were historically plain, formal shoes but are now available in a range of styles and materials that complement both casual and formal forms of dress. It is derived from the Oxonian, a half-boot with side slits that gained popularity at Oxford University in 1800. The side slit evolved into a side lace that eventually moved to the instep, as students rebelled against knee-high and ankle-high boots. The toe cap can either be lined with two narrow rows of stitching, perforated holes along the end cap stitching (quarter-brogue), perforated holes along the end cap stitching and on the toe cap (semi-brogue), or a semi-brogue with the classical wingtip design
A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment. A robe is distinguished from a cape or cloak by the fact that it usually has sleeves. The English word robe derives from Middle English robe ("garment"), borrowed from Old French robe ("booty, spoils"), itself taken from the Frankish word *rouba ("spoils, things stolen, clothes"), and is related to the word rob. There are various types of robes, including:
Undergarments or underwear are clothes worn under other clothes, often next to the skin. They keep outer garments from being soiled by bodily secretions and discharges, shape the body, and provide support for parts of it. In cold weather, long underwear is sometimes worn to provide additional warmth. Some undergarments are intended for erotic effect. Special types of undergarments have religious significance. Some items of clothing are designed as underwear, while others, such as T-shirts and certain types of shorts, are appropriate both as undergarments and as outer clothing. If made of suitable material, some undergarments can serve as nightwear or swimsuits.
Undergarments are generally of two types, those that are worn to cover the torso and those that are worn below the waist, though garments which cover both also are available. Different styles of undergarments are generally worn by women and men. Undergarments commonly worn by women today include brassieres and panties (known in the United Kingdom as knickers), while men often wear briefs or boxers. Items commonly worn by both sexes include T-shirts, sleeveless shirts (also called singlets or tank tops), bikini underwear,
A duffle coat, or duffel coat, is a coat made from duffle, a coarse, thick, woollen material. The name derives from Duffel, a town in the province of Antwerp in Belgium where the material originates. Duffle bags were originally made from the same material.
There are many varying styles to the duffle coat, although the original British style would be composed of the following features:
The wooden toggle-fastenings were made to be easily fastened and unfastened while wearing gloves in cold weather at sea. Current designs have toggles made of buffalo horn, wood or plastic. The oversized hood offered enough room to wear over a Naval cap. After rain, a duffle coat has a characteristic smoky smell.
The duffle coat owes its popularity to the British Royal Navy, who issued a camel-coloured variant of it as an item of warm clothing during World War I. The design of the coat was modified slightly and widely issued during World War II. In the Navy, it was referred to as a "convoy coat". Field Marshal Montgomery was a famous wearer of the coat, as a means of identifying himself with his troops, leading to another nickname, "Monty coat". Large stocks of post-war military surplus coats available
A petticoat or underskirt is an article of clothing for women; specifically an undergarment to be worn under a skirt or a dress. The petticoat is a separate garment hanging from the waist (unlike the chemise).
In historical contexts (sixteenth to mid-nineteenth centuries), petticoat refers to any separate skirt worn with a gown, bedgown, bodice or jacket; these petticoats are not strictly speaking underwear as they were made to be seen. In both historical and modern contexts, petticoat refers to skirt-like undergarments worn for warmth or to give the skirt or dress the desired fashionable shape. In this context a petticoat may be called a waist slip or underskirt (UK) or half slip (US), with petticoat restricted to extremely full garments. Petticoat can also refer to a full-length slip in the UK, although this usage is somewhat old-fashioned.
Petticoat is the standard name in English for any underskirt worn as part of non-Western clothing, most significantly, the lehenga with the sari.
The practice of wearing petticoats as undergarments was well established by 1585. Petticoats were worn throughout history by women who wanted to have the currently fashionable shape created by their
A beanie or skully is a head-hugging brimless cap with or without a visor. The term beanie is also sometimes used to refer to a Jewish yarmulke.
In the United States, beanies are made by triangular sections of cloth joined by a button at the crown and seamed together around the sides. They can also be made from leather and silk. In other English-speaking countries, a beanie is a knitted cap often woollen, known in the United States as a stocking cap and in Canada as a tuque.
The cloth covered button on the crown is about the size of a bean and may be the origin of the term "beanie," though some academics believe that the term is derived from a type of headgear worn in some medieval universities. The yellow hats ("bejaunus," that is, "yellowbill" later "beanus," a term used for both the hats and the new students) evolved into the college beanies of later years. According to the Oxford Dictionary, the etymology is uncertain, but probably derives from the slang term "bean", meaning "head". In New Zealand, Australia, the term "beanie" is normally applied to a knit cap known as a tuque in Canada and parts of the US. The non-knitted variety is normally simply a "cap" in other countries.
A cocktail dress or cocktail gown is a woman's dress worn at cocktail parties, and semi-formal, or "black tie" occasions.
The length of a cocktail dress is long, often touching the ankle. When it is about 5 cm (2 inches) above the ankle it is called tea length and when it is almost touching the ankle it is called ballerina length, although ballerina length dresses usually fall into the evening gown category.
At semi-formal occasions, a less elaborate, shorter-length cocktail dress may be worn. Prior to the mid 20th century this type of dress was known as 'late afternoon'. When gentlemen are in business suits, ladies also wear dress suits or "good" afternoon skirt and dresses.
By the 1980s the criteria by which a garment was considered a cocktail dress was not its length, but its level of sumptuousness.
In the mid-20th century, some couturiers began describing full-skirted cocktail gowns as "dancing costumes". These are suitable for formal dances but not for balls, or other white tie affairs, where ball gowns are worn.
Christian Dior was the first to use the term "cocktail dress" to refer to early evening wear, in the late 1940s.
Diving helmets are worn mainly by professional divers engaged in surface supplied diving, though many models can be adapted for use with scuba equipment.
The helmet seals the whole of the diver's head from the water, allows the diver to see clearly underwater, provides the diver with breathing gas, protects the diver's head when doing heavy or dangerous work, and usually provides voice communications with the surface (and possibly other divers). If a helmeted diver becomes unconscious but is still breathing, the helmet will remain in place and continue to deliver breathing gas until the diver can be rescued. In contrast, the scuba regulator typically used by recreational divers must be held in the mouth, otherwise it will usually fall out of an unconscious diver's mouth and result in drowning.
Before the invention of the demand regulator, all diving helmets used a free-flow design. Gas was delivered at a constant rate, regardless of the diver's breathing, and flowed out through an exhaust valve. Most modern helmets incorporate a demand valve so the helmet only delivers breathing gas when the diver inhales. Free-flow helmets use much larger quantities of gas than demand helmets,
A jockstrap (also known as a jock, jock strap, strap, supporter, or athletic supporter) is an undergarment originally designed for supporting the male genitalia during sports or other vigorous physical activity. More recently, 'fashion jockstraps' have become popular as regular underwear worn by men as an alternative to other styles.
A jockstrap consists of a waistband (usually elastic) with a support pouch for the genitalia and two elastic straps affixed to the base of the pouch and to the left and right sides of the waistband at the hip. The pouch, in some varieties, may be fitted with a pocket to hold an impact resistant cup to protect the testicles and/or the penis from injury, such as penile fracture. Fashion jockstraps follow the design of sports models but appear in a variety of colours and fabrics.
The word jockstrap has purportedly been in use at least since 1888, a likely contraction of 'jockey strap', as the garment was first designed for bicycle riders, or 'bike jockeys'. The Bike Jockey Strap was the first jockstrap manufactured in America in 1874.
Jockey meaning 'rider', primarily a race horse rider, has been in use since 1670. Jockey itself is the diminutive form of
The kilt is a knee-length garment with pleats at the rear, originating in the traditional dress of men and boys in the Scottish Highlands of the 16th century. Since the 19th century it has become associated with the wider culture of Scotland in general, or with Celtic (and more specifically Gaelic) heritage even more broadly. It is most often made of woollen cloth in a tartan pattern.
Although the kilt is most often worn on formal occasions and at Highland games and sports events, it has also been adapted as an item of fashionable informal male clothing in recent years, returning to its roots as an everyday garment.
The kilt first appeared as the great kilt, the breacan or belted plaid, is most likely Norse in origin and not Celtic as many assume. The Irish, known as Scotti, who migrated to Scotland and gave the region of north Britain its name, never wore kilts prior to their arrival in northern Britain, nor did their kinsmen, the Brythonic speaking tribes of Britain, nor their Goidelic speaking kinsmen in Ireland. It has been documented in historical accounts Celtic tribes wore trousers, which the Romans called bracae, as did many other neighboring peoples to the Romans. The
Mary Jane is an American term (formerly trademarked) for a closed, low-cut shoe with one or more straps across the instep.
Classic Mary Janes for children are typically made of black leather or patent leather, have one thin strap fastened with a buckle or button, a broad and rounded toebox, low heels, and thin outsoles. Among girls, Mary Janes are traditionally worn with pantyhose or socks, and a dress or a skirt and blouse. Among boys (less common), Mary Janes are traditionally worn with socks, short trousers, and a shirt.
Although generally associated with child girls nowadays, and to a lesser extent teenage girls and women, Mary Janes have also been worn by males throughout history. To cite a few examples:
Children's shoes secured by a strap over the instep and fastened with a buckle or button appeared in the early 19th century. Originally worn by both sexes, they began to be perceived as being mostly for girls in the 1930s in North America and the 1940s in Europe. They were also popular with women in the 1920s
Today, Mary Janes for children, particularly the more classic styles, are often considered semi-formal or formal shoes, appropriate for school (many schools worldwide
Panties are a form of underwear designed to be worn by women and girls in the crotch area below the waist. Typical components include an elastic waistband, a crotch panel to cover the genital area (usually lined with absorbent material such as cotton), a pair of leg openings which, like the waistband, are often made of elastic, and constructed with material that is breathable. Whilst panties were originally designed to cover the entire lower half of the female form, the modern version (since the 1970s) has either no legs or, in some cases, very short ones, and has become progressively more revealing over time.
"Panties" (plural form) is usually used to denote more than one "pair of panties" (singular), whilst "panty" is used in such derivatives as "panty liner" and "panty hose". The term is usually applied only to female underwear, with "underpants" used as the term for the male counterpart.
Women first wore underwear below the waist during the French Revolution. In the 18th century, a Parisian police ordinance reportedly required women who appeared on stage to wear shorts. However, it is Cancan dancers who are credited with stitching the two leggings together. The invention of
A polo neck, roll-neck (UK) or turtleneck (US) or skivvy (Australia) is a garment—usually a sweater—with a close-fitting, round, and high collar that folds over and covers the neck. It can also refer to type of neckline, the style of collar itself, or be used as an adjective ("polo necked").
A simpler variant of the standard polo neck is the mock polo neck (or mock turtleneck), that resembles the polo neck with the soft fold at its top and the way it stands up around the neck, but both ends of the tube forming the collar are sewn to the neckline. This is mainly used to achieve the appearance of a polo neck where the fabric would fray, roll, or otherwise behave badly unless sewn. The mock polo neck clings to the neck smoothly, is easy to manufacture, and works well with a zip closure.
Turtleneck-like garments have been worn for hundreds of years, dating to the 15th century at least.
From the late 19th century on, turtlenecks were commonly worn by menial workers, athletes, sailors and naval officers. Since the middle of the 20th century black polo necks have been closely associated with radical academics, philosophers, artists and intellectuals. Polo necks also became a big fashion
A sports bra is a bra that provides additional support to female breasts during physical exercise. Sturdier than typical bras, they minimize breast movement, alleviate discomfort, and reduce potential damage to chest ligaments. Many women wear sports bras to reduce pain, and physical discomfort caused by breast movement during exercise. Some sports bras are designed to be worn as outerwear during exercise such as jogging. Larger breasted women may be prevented from taking part in sports or exercise when their breasts move excessively.
The first commercially available sports bra was the "Free Swing Tennis Bra" introduced by Glamorise Foundations, Inc. in 1975. The first general exercise bra, initially called a "jockbra", was invented in 1977 by Lisa Lindahl and costume designer Polly Smith with the help of Smith's assistant, Hinda Schreiber (later Hinda Miller). Lindahl's sister, Victoria Woodrow, complained about her bad experience exercising in ordinary bras, having experienced runaway straps, chafing and sore breasts. During the course of Lindahl and Smith's exploration for a better alternative, Lindahl's husband suggested that a jockstrap would be a good model for what they were
Athletic shoe is a generic name for the footwear primarily designed for sports or other forms of physical exercise but in recent years has come to be used for casual everyday activities.
They are also known as kicks (american english) trainers (British English and Hong Kong English), trabs (British English), daps (Welsh English), sandshoes, gym boots or joggers (Australian English), running shoes, runners or gutties (American English, Canadian English, Hiberno-English), sneakers (American English, Australian English, and Indian English), tennis shoes (British English and American English), gym shoes, tennies, sports shoes, sneaks, tackies (South African English and Hiberno-English), rubber shoes (Philippine English) or canvers (Nigerian English).
The British English term "trainer" derives from "training shoe." There is evidence that this usage of "trainer" originated as a genericized tradename for a make of training shoe made in 1968 by Gola.
Plimsolls (English English) are indoor athletic shoes, and are also called Ryan's Spongies or sneakers or matthews squares in American English and daps in Welsh English and West Country English. The word "sneaker" is often attributed to Henry
A baldric (also baldrick, bawdrick, bauldrick as well as some other, mostly rare or obsolete, variations) is a belt worn over one shoulder that is typically used to carry a weapon (usually a sword) or other implement such as a bugle or drum. The word may also refer to any belt in general, but this usage is poetic and not considered standard.
Baldrics have been used since ancient times, usually as part of military dress. The design offers more support for weight than a standard waist belt, without restricting movement of the arms, and allowing easy access to the object carried. For example, the late 18th-century British Army's distinctive "lobsterback" uniform pattern featured a pair of white baldrics crossed at the chest, with a soldier's bayonet sheath suspended from one and his canteen suspended from the other. Alternatively, and especially in modern times, the baldric may fill a ceremonial role rather than a practical one.
Many non-military or paramilitary organizations include baldrics as part of ceremonial dress. The Knights of Columbus 4th Degree Color Corps uses a baldric as part of their uniform; it supports a ceremonial sword.
The University of Illinois marching band, the
A baseball cap is a type of soft cap with a rounded crown and a stiff bill eyeshade projecting in front. The front of the cap typically contains designs or logos of sports teams (namely baseball teams), (or names of relevant companies, when used as a commercial marketing technique). The back of the cap may be "fitted" to the wearer's head size or it may have a plastic, Velcro, or elastic adjuster so that it can be quickly adjusted to fit different wearers.
The baseball cap is a part of the traditional baseball uniform worn by players, with the brim pointing forward to shield the eyes from the sun. The cap is often seen in everyday casual wear.
In 1860, the Brooklyn Excelsiors wore the ancestor of the modern rounded-top baseball cap, and by 1900, the "Brooklyn style" cap became popular. During the 1940s, latex rubber became the stiffening material inside the hat and the modern baseball cap was born. The "bill" or "brim" was designed to protect a player's eyes from the sun. Typically, the brim was much shorter in the earlier days of the baseball hat. Also, the hat has become more structured, versus the overall "floppy" cap of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The baseball cap was
A blouse is a loose-fitting upper garment that was formerly worn by workmen, peasants, artists, women and children. It is typically gathered at the waist (by a waistband or belt) so that it hangs loosely ("blouses") over the wearer's body. Today, the word most commonly refers to a woman's shirt but can also refer to a man's shirt if it is a loose-fitting style (e.g. poet shirts and Cossack shirts). Traditionally, the term has been used to refer to a shirt which blouses out or has an unmistakably feminine appearance.
The term is also used for some men's military uniform jackets.
Blouse is a loanword to English from French: blouse means "dust coat". It should be a small present French Crusaders. They moved on their armor a so-called "p(e)lusisian shirt", a blue-colored gowns to the dust, which had its name from the Egyptian town of Pelusium. The derivation may also be from "wool", blouso "short wool" and blos, blouse "deprived, naked" taken off (Provençal dialect). It is first officially noted in 1828, from French blouse ("a workman's or peasant's smock"), of obscure Occitan route.
Blouses (pronounced blause or blooze) are historically a cask style, mostly mail-like garment, that
A bolo tie (sometimes bola tie or shoestring necktie) is a type of necktie consisting of a piece of cord or braided leather with decorative metal tips or aglets (aiguillettes) secured with an ornamental clasp or slide.
Bolos are easy to make, using attractive flat objects such as lady's pins, coins, plastic netsuke reproductions, polished stones, Christmas tree ornaments, refrigerator magnets, etc. Cords of leather and cordage stock, clips and tips, called "findings" are widely available from jewelry supply firms. A hot-melt glue "gun" quickly and easily joins the parts.
In the United States, bolo ties are widely associated with Western wear, and are generally most common in the western areas of the country. Bolo tie slides and tips in silver have been part of Hopi, Navajo, and Zuni silversmithing traditions since the mid-20th century.
The bolo tie was made the official neckwear of Arizona in 1971. New Mexico passed a non-binding measure to designate the bolo as the state's official neckwear in 1987. On March 13, 2007, New Mexico Gov. Bill Richardson signed into law that the bolo tie is now the state's official tie. Also in 2007, the Bolo tie was named the official tie of Texas.
A gown, from medieval Latin gunna, is a usually loose outer garment from knee- to full-length worn by men and women in Europe from the early Middle Ages to the 17th century, and continuing today in certain professions; later, gown was applied to any full-length woman's garment consisting of a bodice and attached skirt. A long, loosely-fitted gown called a Banyan was worn by men in the 18th century as an informal coat.
The gowns worn today by academics, judges, and some clergy derive directly from the everyday garments worn by their medieval predecessors, formalized into a uniform in the course of the 16th and 17th centuries.
In women's fashion, gown was used in English for any one-piece garment, but more often through the 18th century for an overgarment worn with a petticoat – called in French a robe. Compare this to the short gowns or bedgowns of the later 18th century.
Before the Victorian period, the word "dress" usually referred to a general overall mode of attire for either men or women, such as in the phrases "Evening Dress", "Morning Dress", "Travelling Dress", "Full Dress" and so on, rather than to any specific garment, and the most often English word for a woman's skirted
A greatcoat, (Russian: Шинель, translit. Shinel) also known as a watchcoat, is a large overcoat typically made of wool designed for warmth and protection against the weather. Its collar and cuffs can be turned out to protect the face and hands from cold and rain, and the short cape around the shoulders provides extra warmth and repels rainwater (if made of a waterproof material). It was popular in the 19th century as a military uniform and casual wear for the wealthy, and is still issued for inclement weather by many armed forces around the world. During the 17th and 18th centuries and the Industrial Revolution, greatcoats became available for all social classes.
The coat generally hangs down below the knees and the cape is kept short, normally just above or below the elbows. It also sports deep pockets for keeping letters and food dry. It is typically coloured grey, though other colours may be used (e.g. black, brown, navy blue). One type of greatcoat is the Petersham (after Petersham in Surrey).
An Equestrian helmet is worn by the rider, when riding horses. This type of helmet is specially designed to protect the rider's head during falls off a horse, especially from striking a hard object while falling or being accidentally struck in the head by a horse's hoof.
Certified helmets are required headgear for many competitive riding events, particularly where horse and rider must jump or work at high speed. Helmets are worn more often by English-style riders and are gaining acceptance as required headgear for children. They are most widely accepted in fields such as horse racing, eventing or show jumping. They are required in eventing, in endurance riding and other types of competitions. People who take their horses hacking or trail riding sometimes wear helmets, though there are tremendous variations in helmet use in different regions and cultures. In the United States, the record is particularly dismal, with use by fewer than 1 in 8 riders. Some states, such as Florida and New York, are starting to require by law that riders under the age of 14 wear helmets at all times they are riding.
An equestrian helmet has a hard shell on the outside of an impact-resistant resin or
A houppelande or houpelande is an outer garment, with a long, full body and flaring sleeves, that was worn by both men and women in Europe in the late Medieval period. Sometimes the houppelande was lined with fur. The garment was later worn by professional classes, and has remained in Western civilization as the familiar academic and legal robes of today.
The houppelande appeared around 1380 and was to remain fashionable well into the next century. The edges of the houppelande were often dagged, or cut into decorative scallops.
Jeans are trousers made from denim or dungaree cloth. Often the term "jeans" refers to a particular style of pants called "blue jeans" and invented by Jacob Davis and Levi Strauss in 1873. Starting in the 1950s, jeans, originally designed for cowboys, became popular among teenagers, especially members of the greaser subculture. Historic brands include Levi's, Lee, and Wrangler. Jeans come in various fits, including skinny, tapered, straight, boot cut and flare.
Jeans are now a very popular article of casual dress around the world. They come in many styles and colors; however, "blue jeans" are particularly identified with American culture, especially the American Old West.
The story of jeans begins in the city of Genoa, in Italy, famous for its cotton corduroy, called either jean or jeane; the jeans fabric from Genoa (at that time) was in fact very similar to corduroy. During the Republic of Genoa, the jeans were exported by sailors of Genoa throughout Europe. In the French city of Nimes, weavers tried to reproduce the fabric exactly, but without success. However, with experimentation, and through trial and error, they developed another twill fabric that became known as denim,
A jumper is any shoulder-to-thigh women's dress that a woman "jumps into," i.e., it is stepped into and pulled up. It is typically sleeveless, collarless, and intended to be worn over a blouse, shirt or sweater. It closely approximates a "bib and brace" overall, which is typically worn on a farm.
In British English, the term jumper describes what is called a sweater in American English.
A kerchief (from the French couvre-chef, "cover the head"; also Bandana) is a triangular or square piece of cloth tied around the head or around the neck for protective or decorative purposes. The popularity of head kerchiefs may vary by culture or religion, as among Orthodox Christian women, Amish women, Orthodox Jewish women and Muslim women.
A "handkerchief" or "hanky" primarily refers to a napkin made of cloth, used to dab away perspiration, clear the nostrils, or, in Victorian times, as a means of flirtation. A woman could intentionally drop a dainty square of lacy or embroidered fabric to give a favored man a chance to pick it up as an excuse to speak to her while returning it. Handkerchiefs were sometimes scented to be used like a nosegay or tussy-mussy, a way of protecting those who could afford them from the obnoxious scents in the street.
A bandanna or bandana (from the Sanskrit: बन्धन bandhana, "to tie") is a type of large, usually colorful, kerchief, usually worn on the head or around the neck of a person or pet and is not considered to be a hat. Bandannas are frequently printed in a paisley pattern. Bandanas are most often used to hold hair back, either as a
Leggings are a type of skin-tight clothing covering the legs, which can be worn by both men and women.
Originally leggings were two separate garments, one for each leg.
Modern leggings are typically made from a blend of lycra, spandex, nylon, cotton, or polyester blend, but they can also be made from wool, silk and other materials. Leggings are available in a multitude of colours and decorative designs.
Leggings are sometimes worn fully exposed, and are more traditionally worn partially covered by a garment such as a skirt, a large t-shirt or shorts, or fully covered by an outer garment, such as a full length skirt. Leggings are typically ankle-length, and some are stirrupped or encase the feet. Some are shorter. Leggings are worn to keep a person's legs warm, as protection from chafing during an activity such as exercise or as a decorative or fashion garment. Leggings are worn by both men and women when exercising, but usually only by women at other times.
In contemporary usage, leggings refers to tight, form-fitting trousers that extend from the waist to the ankles. In the United States, they are sometimes referred to as tights. However, the two words are not synonymous as the
Long underwear, also called long johns, or thermal underwear, is a style of two-piece underwear with long legs and long sleeves that is normally worn during cold weather. It offers an advantage over the one-piece union suit in that the wearer can choose to wear either the top, bottom or both parts depending on the weather. Long underwear is also less commonly known as long handles. It is commonly worn by people in cold countries.
Modern long underwear has largely supplanted the union suit. In the United States, it is usually made from a cotton or cotton-polyester-blend fabric with a box-weave texture, although some varieties are also made from flannel, particularly the union suit, while many newer varieties are made from polyester, such as the Capilene trade name.
European manufacturers use wool blends or even 100% wool, usually Merino or other high-quality wool. Some models might include a thin layer of polyester to transport moisture away from the skin. Wool, in addition to being fire retardant, provides highly effective insulation and will keep its insulating properties even when wet, as opposed to cotton.
The type known as "thermal underwear" is made from two-ply fabric of
Military uniform is the standardised dress worn by members of the armed forces and paramilitaries of various nations. Military dress and military styles have gone through great changes over the centuries from colourful and elaborate to extremely utilitarian. Military uniforms in the form of standardised and distinctive dress, intended for identification and display, are typically a sign of organised military forces equipped by a central authority.
A distinction should be made between uniforms and ethnic dress. If a particular people or culture favoured a distinctive dress style this could easily create the impression of uniformly dressed warriors. The issue is further complicated by the fact that the distinctive features of particularly effective warrior classes were often copied - weapons, armour, fighting style and native dress. Thus the distinctive and colourful clothing of the Hungarian hussars became a model for hussar units all over Europe. The kilts and sporrans of Scottish highland clans were distilled into regimental dress when the British Army started to recruit from these tribal groups.
Mercenary or irregular fighters could also develop their own fashions, which set them
The negligee or négligée, from the French: négligé, literally meaning "neglected", is a form of women's clothing consisting of a sheer usually long dressing gown. It is a form of nightgown intended for wear at night and in the bedroom. It was first introduced in France in the 18th-century, where it mimicked the heavy head-to-toe style of women's day dresses of the time.
By the 1920s it began to mimic women's satin single-layer evening dresses of the period. The term "negligee" was used of a Royal Doulton run of ceramic figurines in 1927, showing women wearing what appears to be a one-piece knee-length silk or rayon slip, trimmed with lace. Although the evening-dresses style of nightwear made moves towards the modern negligee style—translucent bodices, lace trimming, bows, exemplified in 1941 by a photo of Rita Hayworth in Life—it was only after World War II that nightwear changed from being primarily utilitarian to being primarily sensual or even erotic; the negligee emerged strongly as a form of lingerie.
Modern negligees are often much looser and made of sheer and semi-translucent fabrics and trimmed with lace or other fine material, and bows. Multiple layers of fabric are often
An overcoat is a type of long coat intended to be worn as the outermost garment. Overcoats usually extend below the knee, but are sometimes mistakenly referred to as topcoats, which are short coats that end at or above the knees. Topcoats and overcoats together are known as outercoats. Unlike overcoats, topcoats are usually made from lighter weight cloth such as gabardine or covert, while overcoats are made from heavier cloth or fur, because overcoats are more commonly used in winter when warmth is more important.
In many countries, coats and gowns reaching below the knee have been worn for centuries, often for formal uses, establishing either social status or as part of a professional or military uniform. In the 17th century, the overcoat became widely stylised and available to the different classes.
In the West, the general profile of overcoats has remained largely unchanged for a long time. During the Regency, the fashion was to have very form-fitting clothes, with sidebodies, waist seams, and a flared skirt. Examples of this included the frock overcoat and paletot. This gradually shifted to the looser styles more common now, typified by the Chesterfield coat, which became
A peignoir (pronounced: [pɛ.ɲwaːʁ]) is a long outer garment for women which is frequently sheer and made of chiffon or other translucent fabrics. The word comes from French peigner, to comb the hair (from Latin pectināre, from pecten, pectin-, comb) describing a garment worn while brushing ones hair, originally referring to a dressing gown or bathrobe.
Very high-end peignoirs were occasionally sold with sheer long gloves and stockings made of the same material as the peignoir itself for wear to bed or on occasions where the wearer would be seen in her nightclothes; such as visiting or while sharing accommodations during travel. Contemporary peignoirs are usually sold with matching nightgown, negligee or panties.
A peignoir is notably featured in the opening stanza of the poem "Sunday Morning" by Wallace Stevens and in opening chapters of the novel Tender Is the Night by F. Scott Fitzgerald, where it is described in the context of beach attire. In Fawlty Towers a flirty Frenchwoman has the character name "Mrs. Peignoir".
A pelise was originally a short fur lined or fur trimmed jacket that was usually worn hanging loose over the left shoulder of hussar light cavalry soldiers, ostensibly to prevent sword cuts. It was fastened there using a lanyard. In cold weather it was worn over a stable jacket or shell jacket, but at all other times it was worn loose over the left shoulder over a jacket of similar style - but without the fur lining or trim - called a dolman jacket. The appearance of the pelise jacket was characteristically very short, extremely tight fitting (when worn), with patterns sewn with bullion lace on the back, cuffs, and collar. The front distinctively featured several rows of parallel frogging and loops, and either three or 5 lines of buttons. For officers of British Hussars this frogging, regimentally differentiated, was generally of gold or silver bullion lace, to match either gold (gilt) or silver buttons. Other ranks had either yellow lace with brass buttons or white lace with 'white-metal' buttons. Lacing varied from unit to unit and country to country. The style originated with the Hussar mercenaries of Hungary in the 17th Century. As this type of light cavalry unit became
A religious habit is a distinctive set of garments worn by members of a religious order. Traditionally some plain garb recognisable as a religious habit has also been folded by those leading the religious eremitic and anachoritic life, although in their case without conformity to a particular uniform style.
In the typical Roman Catholic or Anglican orders, the habit consists of a tunic covered by a scapular and cowl, with a hood for monks and a veil for nuns; in other orders it may be a distinctive form of cassock for men, or a distinctive habit and veil for women. Modern habits are sometimes eschewed in favour of a simple business suit. Catholic Canon Law requires only that it be in some way identifiable so that the person may serve as a witness to Gospel values. This requires flexibility and creativity. For instance in Turkey, where religious garb is not allowed in public, a Franciscan might wear street clothes.
In many orders, the conclusion of postulancy and the beginning of the novitiate is marked by a ceremony, during which the new novice is accepted then clothed in the community's habit by the superior. In some cases the novice's habit will be somewhat different from the