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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best File Format of All Time

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    1

    Forsyth-Edwards Notation

    Forsyth–Edwards Notation (FEN) is a standard notation for describing a particular board position of a chess game. The purpose of FEN is to provide all the necessary information to restart a game from a particular position. FEN is based on a system developed by the Scottish newspaper journalist, David Forsyth. Forsyth's system became popular in the 19th century; Steven J. Edwards extended it to support use by computers. FEN is an integral part of the Portable Game Notation for chess games, since FEN is used to define initial positions other than the standard one. FEN does not represent sufficient information to decide on a draw by threefold repetition; for that, a different format such as Extended Position Description is needed. A FEN "record" defines a particular game position, all in one text line and using only the ASCII character set. A text file with only FEN data records should have the file extension ".fen". A FEN record contains six fields. The separator between fields is a space. The fields are: Here is the FEN for the starting position: Here is the FEN after the move 1. e4: And then after 1. ... c5: And then after 2. Nf3: FEN notation is critical for recording games in
    7.57
    7 votes
    2

    Jhead

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Jhead is a command line tool for manipulating the non-image portions of jpeg photo files. Jhead runs on *nix, Mac OS X, and Windows operating systems.
    8.50
    6 votes
    3

    Xara Flare

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Xara Flare Open Vector File Format is a format that was introduced in 1997 by XARA to compete with the Macromedia Flash format. The format was open and developers could export from their products to this format, royalty free and without the need of any permission. The key characteristic and design goal was for a file format that was very compact for fast download over the internet. It supports a rich set of vector graphic primitives including a wide variety of graduated shading and graduated transparency. The Xara Flare format was also the native file format used in the Xara X vector graphics software. In 2004 it was updated and renamed the Xar file format.
    7.29
    7 votes
    4

    Windows Media Audio

    • MIME Type: audio/x-ms-wma
    • Genre: Audio file format
    Windows Media Audio (WMA) is an audio data compression technology developed by Microsoft. The name can be used to refer to its audio file format or its audio codecs. It is a proprietary technology that forms part of the Windows Media framework. WMA consists of four distinct codecs. The original WMA codec, known simply as WMA, was conceived as a competitor to the popular MP3 and RealAudio codecs. WMA Pro, a newer and more advanced codec, supports multichannel and high resolution audio. A lossless codec, WMA Lossless, compresses audio data without loss of audio fidelity (the regular WMA format is lossy). WMA Voice, targeted at voice content, applies compression using a range of low bit rates. The first WMA codec was based on earlier work by Henrique Malvar and his team which was transferred to the Windows Media team at Microsoft. Malvar was a senior researcher and manager of the Signal Processing Group at Microsoft Research, whose team worked on the MSAudio project. The first finalized codec was initially referred to as MSAudio 4.0. It was later officially released as Windows Media Audio, as part of Windows Media Technologies 4.0. Microsoft claimed that WMA could produce files that
    7.14
    7 votes
    5

    Comma-Separated Values

    • MIME Type: text/comma-separated-values
    A comma-separated values (CSV) file stores tabular data (numbers and text) in plain-text form. Plain text means that the file is a sequence of characters, with no data that has to be interpreted instead, as binary numbers. A CSV file consists of any number of records, separated by line breaks of some kind; each record consists of fields, separated by some other character or string, most commonly a literal comma or tab. Usually, all records have an identical sequence of fields. CSV is a common, relatively simple file format that is widely supported by consumer, business, and scientific applications. Among its most common uses is moving tabular data between programs that natively operate on incompatible (often proprietary and/or undocumented) formats. This works because so many programs support some variation of CSV at least as an alternative import/export format. For example, a user may need to transfer information from a database program that stores data in a proprietary format, to a spreadsheet that uses a completely different format. The database program most likely can export its data as "CSV"; the exported CSV file can then be imported by the spreadsheet program. "CSV" is not a
    7.00
    7 votes
    6

    X3D

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    X3D is the ISO standard XML-based file format for representing 3D computer graphics, the successor to the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). X3D features extensions to VRML (e.g. Humanoid animation, NURBS, GeoVRML etc.), the ability to encode the scene using an XML syntax as well as the Open Inventor-like syntax of VRML97, or binary formatting, and enhanced application programming interfaces (APIs). X3D extension supports multi-stage and multi-texture render, it also supports shader with lightmap and normalmap. In 2010 X3D supports deferred rendering architecture. Now X3D can import SSAO, CSM and Realtime Environment Reflection/Lighting, but doesn’t need care much about polygon counts. The user can also use optimizations like BSP/QuadTree/OctTree or culling in the X3D scene. X3D also benefits from other open source standards like XML, DOM and XPath. The user can easily develop content tools like an exporter and editor which make content creation and optimization tasks easy. X3D defines several profiles (sets of components) for various levels of capability including X3D Core, X3D Interchange, X3D Interactive, X3D CADInterchange, X3D Immersive, and X3D Full. Browser makers can
    7.67
    6 votes
    7

    ICER

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    ICER is a wavelet-based image compression file format used by the NASA Mars Rovers. ICER has both lossy and lossless compression modes. The Mars Exploration Rovers “Spirit” (MER-A) and “Opportunity” (MER-B) both use ICER. Onboard image compression is used extensively to make best use of the downlink resources. The Mars Science Lab supports the use of ICER for its navigation cameras (but all other cameras use other file formats). Most of the MER images are compressed with the ICER image compression software. The remaining MER images that are compressed make use of modified Low Complexity Lossless Compression (LOCO) software, a lossless submode of ICER. ICER is a wavelet-based image compressor that allows for a graceful trade-off between the amount of compression (expressed in terms of compressed data volume in bits/pixel) and the resulting degradation in image quality (distortion). ICER has some similarities to JPEG2000, with respect to select wavelet operations. The development of ICER was driven by the desire to achieve high compression performance while meeting the specialized needs of deep space applications. To control the image quality and amount of compression in ICER, the
    7.33
    6 votes
    8

    EXE

    • Genre: Executable
    EXE is the common filename extension denoting an executable file (a program) in the DOS, OpenVMS, Microsoft Windows, Symbian, and OS/2 operating systems. Besides the executable program, many EXE files contain other components called resources, such as bitmaps and icons which the executable program may use for its graphical user interface. There are several main executable file formats: Besides these, there are also many custom EXE formats, such as W3 (a collection of LE files, only used in WIN386.EXE), W4 (a compressed collection of LE files, only used in VMM32.VXD), DL, MP, P2, P3 (last three used by Phar Lap extenders), and probably more. When a 16-bit or 32-bit Windows executable is run by Windows, execution starts at either the NE or the PE, and ignores the MZ code. On the other hand, DOS cannot execute these files (except using HX DOS Extender, which supports PE files only). To prevent DOS from crashing, all Windows executable files should and usually do start with a "working" DOS program called a stub., simply displaying the message "This program cannot be run in DOS mode" (or similar) before exiting cleanly. A few dual-mode programs (MZ-NE or MZ-PE) (such as regedit and some
    6.43
    7 votes
    9
    BSAVE

    BSAVE

    A BSAVE Image (aka "BSAVED Image") as it is referenced in a graphics program is an image file format created usually by saving raw video memory to disk (sometimes but not always in a BASIC program using the BSAVE command). This format was in general use when the IBM PC was introduced. It was also in general use on the Apple II in the same time period. The Commodore 128 followed with the addition of the BSAVE and BLOAD Commands a short time later. On the IBM, BSaved graphics and text images could be created for any video mode, with more complexity for the newer modes. On the Apple II and Commodore 128 BSaved Graphics were generally all that was used. The BSAVED format is a device-dependent raster image format; the file header stores information about the display hardware address, and the size of the graphics data. The graphics data follows the header directly and is stored as raw data in the format of the native adapter's addressable memory. There is no file compression, and therefore these load very quickly and without much programming when displayed in native mode. No additional information such as (screen resolution, color depth and palette information, bit planes and so on) is
    8.20
    5 votes
    10

    Multimedia Container Format

    Multimedia Container Format, abbreviated MCF, is an unfinished container format specification and a predecessor of Matroska. The project has been abandoned since early 2004, but many of its innovative features found their way into Matroska. MCF was the first project to create an open and flexible media container format that could encapsulate multiple video, audio and subtitle streams in one file. The project was started in 2000 by the developer Lasse Kärkkäinen (Tronic) as an attempt to improve the aging AVI format. The first draft specification was published in 2001. At first the project generated some confusion about its intended goals. This was solved when the lead developer created a simple player for the format which supported embedded subtitles, which sparked interest and the community began to grow. Several new features were added and the specification refined. The crucial event in the project's history was the invention of EBML in the fall of 2002, a binary meta-format inspired by XML, by the programmer Steve Lhomme, quickly followed by a six months long coding break by Kärkkäinen due to military service. Since MCF was deemed nearly release-ready at the time, EBML was not
    8.20
    5 votes
    11

    Silicon Graphics Image

    • MIME Type: image/sgi
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Silicon Graphics Image (SGI) or the RGB file format is the native raster graphics file format for Silicon Graphics workstations. Common file extensions are: It can be run-length encoded (RLE). The format was invented by Paul Haeberli.
    8.20
    5 votes
    12

    DjVu

    • MIME Type: image/vnd.djvu
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    • Read By: Djvu
    DjVu (/ˌdeɪʒɑːˈvuː/DAY-zhah-VOO, like French: déjà vu [deʒavy]) is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned documents, especially those containing a combination of text, line drawings, indexed color images, and photographs. It uses technologies such as image layer separation of text and background/images, progressive loading, arithmetic coding, and lossy compression for bitonal (monochrome) images. This allows for high-quality, readable images to be stored in a minimum of space, so that they can be made available on the web. DjVu has been promoted as an alternative to PDF, promising smaller files than PDF for most scanned documents. The DjVu developers report that color magazine pages compress to 40–70 kB, black and white technical papers compress to 15–40 kB, and ancient manuscripts compress to around 100 kB; a satisfactory JPEG image typically requires 500 kB. Like PDF, DjVu can contain an OCR text layer, making it easy to perform copy and paste and text search operations. Free browser plug-ins and desktop viewers from different developers are available from the djvu.org website. DjVu is supported by a number of multi-format document viewers and e-book reader
    8.00
    5 votes
    13

    Interchange File Format

    Interchange File Format (IFF), is a generic container file format originally introduced by the Electronic Arts company in 1985 (in cooperation with Commodore-Amiga) in order to ease transfer of data between software produced by different companies. IFF files do not have any common extension. Most files with .iff extension are in fact ILBM files, wrongly named so because they are the most common IFF files and most assume that they are the only type of IFF files (on many systems that generate IFF files, file extensions are not important). Resource Interchange File Format is a format developed by Microsoft and IBM in 1991 that is based on IFF, except the byte order has been change to little endian to match the x86 processor architecture. Apple Computer's AIFF is a big endian audio file format developed from IFF. The TIFF image file format is unrelated. An IFF file is built up from chunks. Each chunk begins with what the specification calls a "Type ID" (what the Macintosh called an OSType and Windows developers might call a FourCC). This is followed by a 32-bit unsigned integer (all integers in IFF files' structure are big-endian) specifying the size of the following data (the chunk
    7.80
    5 votes
    14
    DPCM

    DPCM

    Differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM) is a signal encoder that uses the baseline of pulse-code modulation (PCM) but adds some functionalities based on the prediction of the samples of the signal. The input can be an analog signal or a digital signal. If the input is a continuous-time analog signal, it needs to be sampled first so that a discrete-time signal is the input to the DPCM encoder. Applying one of these two processes, short-term redundancy (positive correlation of nearby values) of the signal is eliminated; compression ratios on the order of 2 to 4 can be achieved if differences are subsequently entropy coded, because the entropy of the difference signal is much smaller than that of the original discrete signal treated as independent samples. DPCM was invented by C. Chapin Cutler at Bell Labs in 1950; his patent includes both methods. The encoder makes the role of differentiation; a quantizer precedes the differencing of adjacent quantized samples; the decoder is an accumulator, which if correctly initialized exactly recovers the quantized signal. The incorporation of the decoder inside the encoder allows quantization of the differences, including nonlinear
    8.75
    4 votes
    15
    X-FEN

    X-FEN

    X-FEN is an extension of Forsyth-Edwards Notation (FEN). The traditional Forsyth-Edwards Notation is not sufficient to represent all possible positions in 8x8 Chess960 (aka Fischer Random Chess) or 10x8 Capablanca random chess (CRC). Consequently, an extension of FEN was needed, with the requirement of being fully backward compatible. X-FEN (formerly FRC-FEN), introduced by Reinhard Scharnagl in 2003, accomplishes this. X-FEN is based on traditional FEN. It differs only in the way that castling and en passant tags are used. Moreover, 10x8 positions, which rely on José Raúl Capablanca's extended piece set (additional pieces Chancellor and Archbishop), are supported. Games are translated into PGN format (Portable Game Notation). Each game's starting position must be stored in the PGN for Chess960 and Capablanca random chess(CRC) (but not for traditional chess). Storing the starting position is accomplished with a SetUp tag and an FEN string using the definitions for traditional chess games. The specification of an en passant target differs slightly from standard Forsyth-Edwards Notation. FEN records the en passant square field as the square just behind a pawn that has made a
    8.75
    4 votes
    16

    ART image file format

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    ART is a proprietary image file format used mostly by the America Online (AOL) service and client software. The ART format (file extension ".art") holds a single still image that has been highly compressed. The format was designed to facilitate the quick downloading of images, among other things. Originally, the compression was developed by the Johnson-Grace Company, which was then acquired by AOL. When an image is converted to the ART format, the image is analyzed and the software decides what compression technique would be best. The ART format has similarities to the progressive JPEG format, and certain attributes of the ART format can lead to image quality being sacrificed for the sake of image compression (for instance, the image's color palette can be limited.) The AOL service can automatically convert images obtained from the Internet to the compressed ART format. This conversion, which can be turned off, can reduce the download time for image files. The Graphic Workshop Professional software from Alchemy Mindworks Corp. supports ART files. (With later versions of the Graphic Workshop Professional software, an ART plugin from Alchemy Mindworks is required for this support.)
    8.50
    4 votes
    17

    Browser Helper Object

    A Browser Helper Object (BHO) is a DLL module designed as a plugin for Microsoft's Internet Explorer web browser to provide added functionality. BHOs were introduced in October 1997 with the release of version 4 of Internet Explorer. Most BHOs are loaded once by each new instance of Internet Explorer. However, in the case of Windows Explorer, a new instance is launched for each window. Each time a new instance of Internet Explorer starts, it checks the windows registry for the following key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\Browser Helper Objects If Internet Explorer finds this key in the registry, it looks for a CLSID key listed below the key. The CLSID keys under Browser Helper Objects tell the browser which BHOs to load. Removing the registry key prevents the BHO from being loaded. For each CLSID that is listed below the BHO key, Internet Explorer calls CoCreateInstance to start the instance of the BHO in the same process space as the browser. If the BHO is started and implements the IObjectWithSite interface, it can control and receive events from Internet Explorer. BHOs can be created in any language that supports COM. Some modules enable
    8.50
    4 votes
    18
    Piano roll

    Piano roll

    • Genre: Audio file format
    A piano roll is a music storage medium used to operate a player piano, piano player or reproducing piano. A piano roll is a continuous roll of paper with perforations (holes) punched into it. The perforations represent note control data. The roll moves over a reading system known as a 'tracker bar' and the playing cycle for each musical note is triggered when a perforation crosses the bar and is read. The majority of piano rolls play on three distinct musical scales. The 65-note (with a playing range of A-1 to C#7) format was introduced in 1896 in the USA specifically for piano music. In 1900 a USA format playing all 88-notes of the standard piano scale was introduced. In 1902 a German 72-note scale (F-1, G-1 to E7) was introduced. All of these scales were subject to being operated by piano rolls of varying dimensions. The 1909 Buffalo Convention of US manufacturers standardized the US industry to the 88-note scale and fixed the physical dimensions for that scale. Piano rolls were in continuous mass production from around 1896 to 2008, and are still available today, with QRS Music claiming to have 45,000 titles available with "new titles being added on a regular basis". Largely
    8.50
    4 votes
    19
    Bitmap

    Bitmap

    In computing, a bitmap is a mapping from some domain (for example, a range of integers) to bits, that is, values which are zero or one. It is also called a bit array or bitmap index. In computer graphics, when the domain is a rectangle (indexed by two coordinates), a bitmap gives a way to store a binary image, that is, an image in which each pixel is either black or white (or any two colors). The more general term pixmap refers to a map of pixels, where each one may store more than two colors, thus using more than one bit per pixel. Often bitmap is used for this as well. In some contexts, the term bitmap implies one bit per pixel, while pixmap is used for images with multiple bits per pixel. It is a type of memory organization or image file format used to store digital images. The term bitmap comes from the computer programming terminology, meaning just a map of bits, a spatially mapped array of bits. Now, along with pixmap, it commonly refers to the similar concept of a spatially mapped array of pixels. Raster images in general may be referred to as bitmaps or pixmaps, whether synthetic or photographic, in files or memory. Many graphical user interfaces use bitmaps in their
    6.33
    6 votes
    20

    Self mounting image

    • Genre: Disk image
    A self mounting image is a disk image format, commonly found on the Macintosh Classic platform, that is encapsulated in an application that mounts it as a file system. When downloaded from the Internet, they are often in a BIN, BinHex or StuffIt file. Despite being an application, they often have a .smi file extension. Disk Copy, the application commonly used to handle disk images in Mac OS was an optional program not part of the standard installation. Self mounting images have fallen out of favor with the arrival of Mac OS X. All copies of Mac OS X have DiskImageMounter, the utility for mounting disk images.
    7.20
    5 votes
    21

    Boot image

    • Genre: Disk image
    A boot image is a type of disk image (a computer file containing the complete contents and structure of a Computer storage media). When it is transferred onto a boot device it allows the associated hardware to boot. This usually includes the operating system, utilities and diagnostics, as well as boot and data recovery information. It also includes those "applications" used organization-wide. A specialized image for a particular type of user or department is called typically a departmental boot image. Building such an image can take days or weeks, and involve complex decisions about licensing and permissions - including which passwords to store in the boot image and which to require users to type in - and requires experts in software integration to do. However, once built, the boot image can be simply copied onto devices, patched within reasonable limits, and remains disposable in case of any problems (viruses in particular). This is possible because unlike other hard drive images (which may contain any data, et al.), pure boot images contain no mission-critical data. By definition a pure boot image contains no data that cannot be reproduced from configurations or off-the-shelf
    8.25
    4 votes
    22

    Text file

    A text file (sometimes spelled "textfile": an old alternate name is "flatfile") is a kind of computer file that is structured as a sequence of lines of electronic text. A text file exists within a computer file system. The end of a text file is often denoted by placing one or more special characters, known as an end-of-file marker, after the last line in a text file. "Text file" refers to a type of container, while plain text refers to a type of content. Text files can contain plain text, but they are not limited to such. At a generic level of description, there are two kinds of computer files: text files and binary files. Because of their simplicity, text files are commonly used for storage of information. They avoid some of the problems encountered with other file formats, such as endianness, padding bytes, or differences in the number of bytes in a machine word. Further, when data corruption occurs in a text file, it is often easier to recover and continue processing the remaining contents. A disadvantage of text files is that they usually have a low entropy, meaning that the information occupies more storage than is strictly necessary. A simple text file needs no additional
    8.25
    4 votes
    23

    WavPack

    WavPack is a free, open source lossless audio compression format developed by David Bryant. WavPack compression (.WV files) can compress (and restore) 8-, 16-, 24-, and 32-bit fixed-point, and 32-bit floating point audio files in the .WAV file format. It also supports surround sound streams and high frequency sampling rates. Like other lossless compression schemes, the data reduction rate varies with the source, but it is generally between 30% and 70% for typical popular music and somewhat better than that for classical music and other sources with greater dynamic range. WavPack also incorporates a "hybrid" mode which still provides the features of lossless compression, but it creates two files: a relatively small, high-quality, lossy file (.wv) that can be used by itself; and a "correction" file (.wvc) that, when combined with the lossy file, provides full lossless restoration. This allows the use of lossy and lossless codecs together. A similar "hybrid" feature is also offered by OptimFROG DualStream and MPEG-4 SLS. David Bryant started development on WavPack in mid-1998 with the release of version 1.0 (1998-08-15). This first version compressed and decompressed audio losslessly,
    8.25
    4 votes
    24

    NTF

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    • Read By: Lotus Notes
    The National Transfer Format (NTF) is a file format designed in 1988 specifically for the transfer of spatial information; it is administered by the British Standards Institution. It is now the standard transfer format for Ordnance Survey digital data. The present version (2.0) conforms to BS 7567. (Source:- Ordnance Survey (GB) web site)
    7.00
    5 votes
    25

    PDF/X

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    PDF/X is an umbrella term for several ISO standards that define a subset of the PDF standard. The purpose of PDF/X is to facilitate graphics exchange, and it therefore has a series of printing related requirements which do not apply to standard PDF files. For example, in PDF/X-1a all fonts need to be embedded and all images need to be CMYK or spot colors. PDF/X-3 accepts calibrated RGB and CIELAB colors, while retaining most of the other restrictions of PDF/X-1a. PDF/X files must not only follow certain restrictions, they also must contain a special file identification, inside the PDF, which says which PDF/X version they are. This means that a file can only conform to a single specific PDF/X standard, even if all other requirements are met. The printing conditions or output intent need to be specified in the file. This can be specified in the form of standard profiles using codes, like "CGATS TR 001 SWOP". In a PDF/X file that has color managed data each color managed graphic gets its own color profile, so even though the file as a whole is CMYK, individual graphics may be RGB (with calibration information). Various boxes must be defined. The MediaBox which defines the size of the
    6.80
    5 votes
    26

    M2V

    M2V is a filename extension commonly used for an MPEG-2 Video (MPEG-2 Part 2/H.262) Packetized Elementary Stream. It contains only video related data. It is commonly used only in a video editing process (and not for playback). MPEG-2 video stream files are normally destined to be multiplexed (muxed), which is the process of adding audio data and perhaps other streams such as subtitles, before use. MPEG-2 elementary streams are commonly multiplexed in a container format, such as MPEG transport stream or MPEG program stream (e.g. VOB). MPEG-2 video and audio elementary streams are usually created by demultiplexing (demuxing) an existing container format, or by converting another video elementary stream to MPEG-2 Video elementary stream. The file extension .m2v is sometimes also used for:
    9.00
    3 votes
    27

    NetCDF

    NetCDF (Network Common Data Form) is a set of software libraries and self-describing, machine-independent data formats that support the creation, access, and sharing of array-oriented scientific data. The project homepage is hosted by the Unidata program at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). They are also the chief source of netCDF software, standards development, updates etc. The format is an open standard. The project is actively supported. The recently released (2008) version 4.0 greatly enhances the data model by allowing the use of the HDF5 data file format. The format was originally based on the conceptual model of the NASA CDF but has since diverged and is not compatible with it. The data format is "self-describing". This means that there is a header which describes the layout of the rest of the file, in particular the data arrays, as well as arbitrary file metadata in the form of name/value attributes. The format is platform independent, with issues such as endianness being addressed in the software libraries. The data arrays are rectangular, not ragged, and stored in a simple and regular fashion that allows efficient subsetting. The new 4.0 version
    9.00
    3 votes
    28

    Open Document Interchange Format

    The Open Document Interchange Format is the binary transport part of the standard document file format described in the Open Document Architecture, created by the ITU-T to replace proprietary document file formats. It is based on Abstract Syntax Notation 1.
    7.75
    4 votes
    29

    .BLP

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    .BLP files are texture files used in video games made by Blizzard Entertainment, also used in other games like Neverwinter Nights. While Blizzard provides an Interface AddOn Kit for extracting the user interface files from the World of Warcraft .MPQ archive files, they do not provide a utility to view the .BLP files contained within. Also, .BLP graphics were used for Warcraft III, and are also stored within .MPQs. The file starts with a proprietary header, followed by the texture data. The texture data are typically stored in DXT1, DXT3, uncompressed or possibly DXT5. It is important to note that the size of the image is a power of 2. Several third party applications exist that can convert .BLP files to .tga files and vice versa. Some of the programs were made for Warcraft III textures, however, and don't work for all Blizzard game textures. These converters have become very important to the Warcraft III modding community, and have been the doorway to the vast amount of customised skins available for download. Note that all types are little-endian. Only the BLP2 format is shown here; for the BLP1 format, refer to BLP version 1 format specifications.
    6.60
    5 votes
    30

    Magick Image File Format

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Not to be confused with ImageMagick The Magick Image File Format, abbreviated MIFF, is an image format used by ImageMagick. It may be used to store bitmap images platform-independently. A MIFF file consists of two sections. The headers consist of ISO-8859-1 encoded bytes, each with pairs consisting of key=value. Keys include background-color, depth, compression rows, units, and custom key/value pairs. The latter can include things like copyright or comment. The list is terminated with a NULL character. The next section contains the binary image data. The exact format is defined by the class header. Usually it is RGBA or CMYK. Magick Image File Format specification -- from ImageMagick's website
    6.60
    5 votes
    31

    COLLADA

    COLLADA is a COLLAborative Design Activity for establishing an interchange file format for interactive 3D applications. COLLADA is managed by the nonprofit technology consortium, the Khronos Group. COLLADA defines an open standard XML schema for exchanging digital assets among various graphics software applications that might otherwise store their assets in incompatible file formats. COLLADA documents that describe digital assets are XML files, usually identified with a .dae (digital asset exchange) filename extension. Originally created at Sony Computer Entertainment by Rémi Arnaud and Mark C. Barnes, it has since become the property of the Khronos Group, a member-funded industry consortium, which now shares the copyright with Sony. The COLLADA schema and specification are freely available from the Khronos Group. The COLLADA DOM uses the SCEA Shared Source License. Several graphics companies collaborated with Sony from COLLADA's beginnings to create a tool that would be useful to the widest possible audience, and COLLADA continues to evolve through the efforts of Khronos contributors. Early collaborators included Alias Systems Corporation, Criterion Software, Autodesk, Inc., and
    7.50
    4 votes
    32

    XBin

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    XBin, or eXtended Binary, is a file format for saving IBM PC text mode images. Essentially an extension to the normal raw-image BIN (raw memory copy of text mode video memory) files, it provides an enhanced means for saving console graphics superior to ANSI graphics. The format was created by Belgian programmer Tasmaniac of ACiD, partly in response to the demand for a solution to save images in the BIN image format, which offered no insight as to the size/width of the image. XBin stores its width information internally so that a programmer or user does not need to define this information more than once, an inherent problem with plain BIN files. XBin also had several notable features above and beyond that of standard text images saved in ANSI format in that it took further advantage of the text mode environment by (optionally) storing alternate palette color information, supporting modified character set fonts and its own simple compression system.
    7.50
    4 votes
    33
    Streaming media

    Streaming media

    Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. Its verb form, "to stream", refers to the process of delivering media in this manner; the term refers to the delivery method of the medium rather than the medium itself. A client media player can begin playing the data (such as a movie) before the entire file has been transmitted. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies specifically to telecommunications networks, as most other delivery systems are either inherently streaming (e.g., radio, television) or inherently nonstreaming (e.g., books, video cassettes, audio CDs). For example, in the 1930s, muzak was among the earliest popularly available streaming media; nowadays Internet television is a common form of streamed media. The term "streaming media" can apply to media other than video and audio such as live closed captioning, stock ticker, and real-time text, which are all considered "streaming text". Live streaming, delivering live over the Internet, involves a camera for the media, an encoder to digitize the content, a media publisher, and a content delivery network to
    8.67
    3 votes
    34

    TenDRA Distribution Format

    The abstract machine TDF (originally the Ten15 Distribution Format, but more recently redefined as the TenDRA Distribution Format) evolved at the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment in the UK as a successor to Ten15. Its design allowed support for the C programming language. TDF is the basis for the Architecture Neutral Distribution Format.
    8.67
    3 votes
    35

    Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    The Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group (JBIG) is a group of experts nominated by national standards bodies and major companies to work to produce standards for bi-level image coding. The 'joint' refers to its status as a committee working on both ISO and ITU-T standards. It is one of two sub-groups of ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 1 (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1), whose official title is Coding of still pictures. The Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group created the JBIG and JBIG2 standards. The group often meets jointly with the JPEG committee, which typically meets three times annually. ISO/IEC JTC1 SC29 Working Group 1 (working together with ITU-T Study Group 16 - VCEG and previously also with Study Group 8 - SG8) is responsible for both JPEG and JBIG standards. It includes two sub-groups: the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG SG) and the Joint Bi-level Image experts Group (JBIG SG). In the mid 1980s, both CCITT (now ITU-T) and ISO had standardization groups for image coding: CCITT Study Group (SG) VIII (Telematic Services) and ISO TC97 SC2 WG8 (Coding of Audio and Picture Information). They were historically targeted on image communication.
    10.00
    2 votes
    36

    PICT

    • MIME Type: image/x-pict
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    • Read By: Quickdraw
    PICT is a graphics file format introduced on the original Apple Macintosh computer as its standard metafile format. It allows the interchange of graphics (both bitmapped and vector), and some limited text support, between Mac applications, and was the native graphics format of QuickDraw. The PICT file format consists essentially of serialized QuickDraw opcodes. The original version, PICT 1, was designed to be as compact as possible while describing vector graphics. To this end, it featured single byte opcodes, many of which embodied operations such as "do the previous operation again". As such it was quite memory efficient, but not very expandable. With the introduction of the Macintosh II and Color QuickDraw, PICT was revised to version 2. This version featured 16-bit opcodes and numerous changes which enhanced its utility. PICT 1 opcodes were supported as a subset for backward compatibility. Within a Mac application, any sequence of drawing operations could be simply recorded/encoded to the PICT format by opening a "Picture", then closing it after issuing the required commands. By saving the resulting byte stream as a resource, a PICT resource resulted, which could be loaded and
    10.00
    2 votes
    37

    AIFF

    Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) is an audio file format standard used for storing sound data for personal computers and other electronic audio devices. The format was co-developed by Apple Computer in 1988 based on Electronic Arts' Interchange File Format (IFF, widely used on Amiga systems) and is most commonly used on Apple Macintosh computer systems. The audio data in a standard AIFF file is uncompressed pulse-code modulation (PCM). There is also a compressed variant of AIFF known as AIFF-C or AIFC, with various defined compression codecs. Standard AIFF is a leading format (along with SDII and WAV) used by professional-level audio and video applications, and unlike the better-known lossy MP3 format, it is non-compressed (which aids rapid streaming of multiple audio files from disk to the application), and lossless. Like any non-compressed, lossless format, it uses much more disk space than MP3—about 10MB for one minute of stereo audio at a sample rate of 44.1 kHz and a sample size of 16 bits. In addition to audio data, AIFF can include loop point data and the musical note of a sample, for use by hardware samplers and musical applications. The file extension for the standard
    7.25
    4 votes
    38

    Departmental boot image

    • Genre: Disk image
    A departmental boot image is a boot image for any computer that has been enhanced by adding some applications and passwords specific to a task or group or department in an organization. This has many of the advantages of a thin client strategy, but can be done on any operating system base as long as the boot device is large enough to accommodate the boot and applications together. A typical departmental Windows XP boot image is usually so large that it requires a DVD to store, and may be too large for network booting. Accordingly it is usually installed on a fixed or removable hard drive kept inside the machine, rather than installed over a network or from a ROM. There are some boot image control complexity and total cost of operations advantages to using a departmental boot image instead of a common boot image for the entire organization, or a thin client: Disadvantages include the complexity of creating and managing several large boot images, and determining when a department needs to upgrade its applications. If each user is allowed to do this on their own, then, the discipline soon degrades and the shop will be no easier to manage than one that consists of one-off computers
    7.25
    4 votes
    39

    DotXSI

    dotXSI (TM) is an ASCII file format of Softimage Corporation for storing scene data. It includes support for meshes, NURBS, 2D and 3D chains, polygons, materials, hierarchies, skeletons, animation constraints, Hermite splines, custom effects, and user data. Common applications are architecture design and video games, becoming popular after Valve pioneered its use in HalfLife2. It was based on the Microsoft 'x-file' ascii format, extended to handle much of its specific data structures. The 'crosswalk' SDK includes the ability to transfer data between dotXSI files and the formats of other autodesk products.
    7.25
    4 votes
    40

    Encapsulated PostScript

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Encapsulated PostScript, or EPS, is a DSC-conforming PostScript document with additional restrictions which is intended to be usable as a graphics file format. In other words, EPS files are more or less self-contained, reasonably predictable PostScript documents that describe an image or drawing and can be placed within another PostScript document. At minimum, an EPS file contains a BoundingBox DSC comment, describing the rectangle containing the image described by the EPS file. Applications can use this information to lay out the page, even if they are unable to directly render the PostScript inside. EPS, together with DSC's Open Structuring Conventions, form the basis of early versions of the Adobe Illustrator Artwork file format. Because of the different ways in which EPS previews are handled, there is no one way to identify an EPS file. A number of programs will save or convert text and vector art to EPS format, including: Many image converter programs can create EPS files containing the pixels of the image. An EPS file is a stream of generic PostScript printing commands. Thus many PostScript printer drivers have an option to save as EPS, or to add EPS DSC information to their
    7.25
    4 votes
    41

    FITS

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is a digital file format used to store, transmit, and manipulate scientific and other images. FITS is the most commonly used digital file format in astronomy. Unlike many image formats, FITS is designed specifically for scientific data and hence includes many provisions for describing photometric and spatial calibration information, together with image origin metadata. The FITS format was first standardized in 1981; it has evolved gradually since then, and the most recent version (3.0) was standardized in 2008. FITS was designed with an eye towards long-term archival storage, and the maxim once FITS, always FITS represents the requirement that developments to the format must be backwards compatible. A major feature of the FITS format is that image metadata is stored in a human-readable ASCII header, so that an interested user can examine the headers to investigate a file of unknown provenance. Each FITS file consists of one or more headers containing ASCII card images (80 character fixed-length strings) that carry keyword/value pairs, interleaved between data blocks. The keyword/value pairs provide information such as size, origin,
    8.33
    3 votes
    42
    JBIG2

    JBIG2

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    JBIG2 is an image compression standard for bi-level images, developed by the Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group. It is suitable for both lossless and lossy compression. According to a press release from the Group, in its lossless mode JBIG2 typically generates files one third to one fifth the size of Fax Group 4 and one half to one quarter the size of JBIG, the previous bi-level compression standard released by the Group. JBIG2 has been published in 2000 as the international standard ITU T.88, and in 2001 as ISO/IEC 14492. Ideally, a JBIG2 encoder will segment the input page into regions of text, regions of halftone images, and regions of other data. Regions which are neither text nor halftones are typically compressed using a context-dependent arithmetic coding algorithm called the QM coder. Textual regions are compressed as follows: the foreground pixels in the regions are grouped into symbols. A dictionary of symbols is then created and encoded, typically also using context-dependent arithmetic coding, and the regions are encoded by describing which symbols appear where. Typically, a symbol will correspond to a character of text, but this is not required by the compression
    8.33
    3 votes
    43

    Formatted text

    Formatted text, styled text or rich text, as opposed to plain text, has styling information beyond the minimum of semantic elements: colours, styles (boldface, italic), sizes and special features (such as hyperlinks). Formatted text cannot rightly be identified with binary files or be distinct from ASCII text. This is because formatted text is not necessarily binary, it may be text-only, such as HTML, RTF or enriched text files, and it may be ASCII-only. Conversely, a plain text file may be non-ASCII (in an encoding such as Unicode UTF-8). Text-only formatted text is achieved by markup which too is textual, while some editors of formatted text like Microsoft Word save in a binary format. Formatted text has its genesis in the pre-computer use of underscoring to embolden passages in typewritten manuscripts. In the first interactive systems of early computer technology, underscoring was not possible, and users made up for this lack (and the lack of formatting in ASCII) by using certain symbols as substitutes. Emphasis, for example, could be achieved in ASCII in a number of ways: Surrounding by underscores was also used for book titles: Look it up in
    9.50
    2 votes
    44
    Theora

    Theora

    Theora is a free lossy video compression format. It is developed by the Xiph.Org Foundation and distributed without licensing fees alongside their other free and open media projects, including the Vorbis audio format and the Ogg container. libtheora is a reference implementation of the Theora video compression format being developed by the Xiph.Org Foundation. Theora is derived from the proprietary VP3 codec, released into the public domain by On2 Technologies. It is broadly comparable in design and bitrate efficiency to MPEG-4 Part 2, early versions of Windows Media Video, and RealVideo while lacking some of the features present in some of these other codecs. It is comparable in open standards philosophy to the BBC's Dirac codec. Theora is named after Theora Jones, Edison Carter's Controller on the Max Headroom television program. Theora is a variable-bitrate, DCT-based video compression scheme. Like most common video codecs, Theora also uses chroma subsampling, block-based motion compensation and an 8-by-8 DCT block. Pixels are grouped into various structures, namely super blocks, blocks and macroblocks. Theora supports intra-coded frames and forward-predictive frames, but not
    9.50
    2 votes
    45

    Computer Graphics Metafile

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) is a free and open international standard file format for 2D vector graphics, raster graphics, and text, and is defined by ISO/IEC 8632. All graphical elements can be specified in a textual source file that can be compiled into a binary file or one of two text representations. CGM provides a means of graphics data interchange for computer representation of 2D graphical information independent from any particular application, system, platform, or device. As a metafile, i.e. a file containing information that describes or specifies another file, the CGM format has numerous elements to provide functions and to represent entities, so that a wide range of graphical information and geometric primitives can be accommodated. Rather than establish an explicit graphics file format, CGM contains the instructions and data for reconstructing graphical components to render an image using an object-oriented approach. Although CGM is not widely supported for web pages and has been supplanted by other formats in the graphic arts, it is still prevalent in engineering, aviation, and other technical applications. The initial CGM implementation was effectively a
    7.00
    4 votes
    46

    Graphics File Formats

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Here is a summary of the most common graphics file format: Some file formats, e.g. PDF, allow both raster and vector graphics. This is because the underlying PostScript system of the Portable Document Format is designed to handle both methods of creating graphics. mnb
    7.00
    4 votes
    47

    Direct Access Archive

    • Genre: Disk image
    Direct Access Archive, or DAA, is a proprietary file format developed by PowerISO Computing for disk image files. The format supports features such as compression, password protection, and splitting to multiple volumes. Popular disk image mounting programs such as Alcohol 120% and Daemon Tools currently do not support the mounting of DAA images. Currently there is no published information about the format. Among mainstream applications, it can be opened or converted with PowerISO, MagicISO, AnyToISO and UltraISO. Various free open source packages are also available to convert DAA to ISO images. Although lacking official documentation, DAA image files are zlib- or lzma-compressed ISO images chunk by chunk. PowerISO provides free command-line tools for Linux and Mac OS X which allow the user to extract DAA files or convert them into ISO format, however these tools haven't been updated to support the newest version of the DAA format. The PowerISO Windows trial version only supports converting images from DAA files up to 300MB, less than half of the capacity of a standard CD. AcetoneISO is a free CD/DVD management application for Linux that can convert DAA to ISO with the help of the
    8.00
    3 votes
    48
    Moving Picture Experts Group

    Moving Picture Experts Group

    The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is a working group of experts that was formed by ISO and IEC to set standards for audio and video compression and transmission. It was established in 1988 by the initiative of Hiroshi Yasuda (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) and Leonardo Chiariglione, group Chair since its inception. The first MPEG meeting was in May 1988 in Ottawa, Canada. As of late 2005, MPEG has grown to include approximately 350 members per meeting from various industries, universities, and research institutions. MPEG's official designation is ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29 WG11 - Coding of moving pictures and audio (ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 11). The MPEG compression methodology is considered asymmetric as the encoder is more complex than the decoder. The encoder needs to be algorithmic or adaptive whereas the decoder is 'dumb' and carries out fixed actions. This is considered advantageous in applications such as broadcasting where the number of expensive complex encoders is small but the number of simple inexpensive decoders is large. The MPEG's (ISO's) approach to standardization is novel, because it is not the encoder that is standardized,
    8.00
    3 votes
    49

    Portable Application Description

    Portable Application Description is a machine-readable document format designed by the Association of Shareware Professionals. It allows software authors to provide product descriptions and specifications to online sources in a standard way, using a simple XML schema that allows webmasters and program librarians to automate program listings. PAD saves time for both authors and webmasters. PAD files most commonly have .XML or .PAD file name extension. PAD uses a simplified XML syntax that does not use name/value pairs in tags. All tags are attribute-free. The official PAD specification uses unique tags. To extract the fields in the official specification, it is not necessary to descend through the tag path. If multiple languages are represented in a single PAD file, then correct parsing does require descending though the tag path because leaf tags are duplicated for each language supported. Each field in the specification has a regular expression (regex) associated with it. The regex acts as a constraint on the field: if the regex matches, the field value is legal and if it fails to match, the field and the PAD file as a whole are out of spec. Only files where all fields in the file
    8.00
    3 votes
    50

    RAW image format

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    A camera raw image file contains minimally processed data from the image sensor of either a digital camera, image scanner, or motion picture film scanner. Raw files are so named because they are not yet processed and therefore are not ready to be printed or edited with a bitmap graphics editor. Normally, the image is processed by a raw converter in a wide-gamut internal colorspace where precise adjustments can be made before conversion to a "positive" file format such as TIFF or JPEG for storage, printing, or further manipulation, which often encodes the image in a device-dependent colorspace. There are dozens if not hundreds of raw formats in use by different models of digital equipment (like cameras or film scanners). Raw image files are sometimes called digital negatives, as they fulfill the same role as negatives in film photography: that is, the negative is not directly usable as an image, but has all of the information needed to create an image. Likewise, the process of converting a raw image file into a viewable format is sometimes called developing a raw image, by analogy with the film development process used to convert photographic film into viewable prints. The selection
    8.00
    3 votes
    51
    XBM

    XBM

    • MIME Type: image/x-xbm
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    • Read By: X
    In computer graphics, the X Window System uses X BitMap (XBM), a plain text binary image format, for storing cursor and icon bitmaps used in the X GUI. XBM files differ markedly from most image files in that they take the form of C source files. This means that they can be compiled directly into an application without any preprocessing steps, but it also makes them far larger than their raw pixel. Each byte of image data would be written in the C hexadecimal notation, '0x13' for example, using 4 bytes to express a single byte of image information. XBM data typically appears in headers (.h files) and consist of a series of static unsigned char arrays containing the monochrome pixel data. They feature one array per image stored in the header. The following piece of C code exemplifies an XBM file: In place of the usual image-file-format header, XBM files have two or four #define statements. The first two #defines specify the height and width of the bitmap in pixels. The second two, if they exist, specify the position of any hotspot within the bitmap. (Programmers use a hotspot within the image for bitmapped cursors to define where to position the "pointer" of the cursor, generally at
    8.00
    3 votes
    52
    XUL

    XUL

    • MIME Type: application/vnd.mozilla.xul+xml
    • Genre: Markup language
    XUL (/ˈzuːl/ ZOOL, the XML User Interface Language) is a computer programming language that is developed by the Mozilla Project. XUL is a user interface markup language implemented as an XML dialect; it allows for graphical user interfaces to be written in a similar manner to Web pages. XUL can be used to write cross-platform applications such as Mozilla Firefox, where it is interpreted by the layout engine known as Gecko which renders Firefox's user interface and Web page display. XUL relies on multiple existing Web standards and Web technologies, including CSS, JavaScript, and DOM. Such reliance makes XUL relatively easy to learn for people with a background in Web programming and design. XUL has no formal specification and does not inter-operate with non-Gecko implementations. However, it uses an open source implementation of Gecko, tri-licensed under the GNU GPL, GNU LGPL, and MPL. Mozilla provides experimental XULRunner builds to let developers build their applications on top of the Mozilla application framework and of XUL in particular. XUL provides a portable definition for common widgets, allowing them to move easily to any platform on which Mozilla applications
    8.00
    3 votes
    53
    CAD data exchange

    CAD data exchange

    CAD data exchange involves a number of software technologies and methods to translate data from one Computer-aided design system to another CAD file format. This PLM technology is required to facilitate collaborative work (CPD) between OEMs and their suppliers. The main topic is with the translation of geometry (wireframe, surface and solid) but also of importance is other data such as attributes; metadata, assembly structure and feature data. There are basically three methods of transferring data from one CAD system to another. Some CAD systems can directly read and/or write other CAD formats, simply by using file open and file save as options. As most CAD file formats are not open, this option is limited to either systems owned by the same company or via hacking of competitor's file format. There are a number of companies that specialize in CAD data translation software, providing software that can read one system and write the information in another CAD system format. These systems have their own proprietary intermediate format some of which will allow reviewing the data during translation. Some of these translators work stand-alone while others require one or both of the CAD
    6.75
    4 votes
    54
    Digital raster graphic

    Digital raster graphic

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    A digital raster graphic (DRG) is a digital image resulting from scanning a paper USGS topographic map for use on a computer. DRGs created by USGS are typically scanned at 250 dpi and saved as a TIFF. The raster image usually includes the original border information, referred to as the "map collar". The map file is UTM projected and georeferenced to the surface of the earth. DRG's are regularly used in GIS applications.
    6.75
    4 votes
    55
    IGES

    IGES

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) (pronounced eye-jess) is a file format which defines a vendor neutral data format that allows the digital exchange of information among Computer-aided design (CAD) systems. The official title of IGES is Digital Representation for Communication of Product Definition Data, first published in January, 1980 by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards as NBSIR 80-1978. Many documents (like early versions of the Defense Standards MIL-PRF-28000 and MIL-STD-1840) referred to it as ASME Y14.26M, the designation of the ANSI committee that approved IGES Version 1.0. Using IGES, a CAD user can exchange product data models in the form of circuit diagrams, wireframe, freeform surface or solid modeling representations. Applications supported by IGES include traditional engineering drawings, models for analysis, and other manufacturing functions. The IGES project was started in 1979 by a group of CAD users and vendors, including Boeing, General Electric, Xerox, Computervision and Applicon, with the support of the National Bureau of Standards (now known as NIST) and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). The name was carefully chosen to avoid any
    6.75
    4 votes
    56

    ISO image

    • Genre: Disk image
    An ISO image (International Organization for Standardization) is an archive file (also known as a disk image) of an optical disc, composed of the data contents of every written sector of an optical disc, including the optical disc file system. ISO images can be created from optical discs or from a collection of files by image creation software; images can be used to write optical discs. Software distributed on bootable discs is often available for download in ISO image format, and used to write a CD or DVD. ISO image files often have a file extension of .iso. The name ISO is taken from the ISO 9660 file system used with CD-ROM media, but what is known as an ISO image might also contain a UDF (ISO/IEC 13346) file system or a DVD or Blu-ray Disc (BD) image. ISO images are stored in an uncompressed format. Any CD-ROM (with no audio tracks, and only one data track) or DVD can be archived by .ISO format as a true digital copy of the original. The ISO image file is not stored in a container file. Unlike a physical optical disc, an image can be transferred over any data link or removable storage medium. What is known as a "valid" ISO image is an uncompressed collection of various files
    6.75
    4 votes
    57

    JPEG Lossless Compression

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    JPEG Lossless Compression is a means of compressing images such that the original image can be recovered exactly - so called Reversible Compression. It is only commonly used in conjunction with the DICOM standard for medical imaging. The name JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, the name of the joint ISO/CCITT committee which created the standard. The group was organized in 1986, issuing a standard in 1992 which was approved in 1994 as ISO 10918-1, which is the same document which defined the more commonly used and well-known JPEG lossy format, but they are totally different in concept and usage. The exact compression ratio achieved by this method depends on the noise in the original image, but for most medical images, it is in the range 2:1 to 3:1.
    6.75
    4 votes
    58

    USGS DEM

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    The USGS DEM standard is a geospatial file format developed by the United States Geological Survey for storing a raster-based digital elevation model. It is an open standard, and is used throughout the world. It has been superseded by the USGS's own SDTS format but the format remains popular due to large numbers of legacy files, self-containment, relatively simple field structure and broad, mature software support. A USGS DEM can be classified into one of four levels of quality. This is due to the multiple methods of data collection, and certainty in the data. The USGS DEM format is a self-contained (single file) set of ASCII-encoded (text) 1024-byte blocks that fall into three record categories called A, B, and C. There is no cross-platform ambiguity since line ending control codes are not used, and all data including numbers is represented in readable text form. There is no known binary analogue of the format, although it is common practice to compress the files with gzip. Floating-point numbers are encoded using Fortran scientific notation, so C/C++ programs need to swap the "D" exponent-indicating character with "E" when parsing (and vice versa when writing). The A record
    6.75
    4 votes
    59

    Well-known text

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    Well-known text (WKT) is a text markup language for representing vector geometry objects on a map, spatial reference systems of spatial objects and transformations between spatial reference systems. A binary equivalent, known as well-known binary (WKB) is used to transfer and store the same information on databases, such as PostGIS, Microsoft SQL Server and DB2. The formats were originally defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and described in their Simple Feature Access and Coordinate Transformation Service specifications. The current standard definition is in the ISO/IEC 13249-3:2011 standard, "Information technology -- Database languages -- SQL multimedia and application packages -- Part 3: Spatial". In total, there are 18 distinct geometric objects that can be represented: Coordinates for geometries may be 2D (x, y), 3D (x, y, z), 4D (x, y, z, m) with an m value that is part of a linear referencing system or 2D with an m value (x, y, m). Three-dimensional geometries are designated by a "Z" after the geometry type and geometries with a linear referencing system have an "M" after the geometry type. Empty geometries which contain no coordinates can be specified by using
    6.75
    4 votes
    60

    Amigaguide

    AmigaGuide is a hypertext document file format designed for the Amiga, files are stored in ASCII so it is possible to read and edit a file without the need for special software. Since Workbench 2.1 an Amiga Guide system for O.S. inline help files and reading manuals with sort of hypertext formatting elements was launched in AmigaOS and based on a viewer called simply "AmigaGuide" and it has been included as standard feature on the Amiga system. Users with earlier versions of Workbench could view the files by downloading the program and library AmigaGuide 34 distributed with public domain collections of floppy disks (for example on Fred Fish collection) or it could be downloaded directly from Aminet Amiga Official Repository on the web. Starting from AmigaOS 3.0 the AmigaGuide tool was replaced with more the complete and flexible MultiView. AmigaGuide is the default tool for viewing AmigaGuide files used with AmigaOS 2.1, and is also a basic text viewer for ASCII documents. It can handle multiple files thanks to cross-linking tables called XREF. Multiview is basically a void container and a natural GUI for the various datatypes that open Multiview as a default tool when any media
    9.00
    2 votes
    61

    Extensible MPEG-4 Textual Format

    The Extensible MPEG-4 Textual Format (XMT) is a high-level, XML-based file format for storing MPEG-4 data in a way suitable for further editing. In contrast, the more common MPEG-4 Part 14 (MP4) format is less flexible and used for distributing finished content. It was developed by MPEG (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11) and defined in MPEG-4 Part 11 Scene description and application engine (ISO/IEC 14496-11). XMT provides a textual representation of the MPEG-4 binary composition technology, based on XML. The XMT framework accommodates substantial portions of SMIL, W3C Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) and X3D (the new name of VRML). Such a representation can be directly played back by a SMIL or VRML player, but can also be binarised to become a native MPEG-4 representation that can be played by an MPEG-4 player. Another bridge has been created with BiM (Binary MPEG format for XML).
    9.00
    2 votes
    62
    Portable pixmap

    Portable pixmap

    • MIME Type: image/x-portable-pixmap
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    The phrase Netpbm format commonly refers to any or all of the members of a set of closely related graphics formats used and defined by the Netpbm project. The portable pixmap format (PPM), the portable graymap format (PGM) and the portable bitmap format (PBM) are image file formats designed to be easily exchanged between platforms. They are also sometimes referred to collectively as the portable anymap format (PNM). The PBM format was invented by Jef Poskanzer in the 1980s as a format that allowed monochrome bitmaps to be transmitted within an email message as plain ASCII text, allowing it to survive any changes in text formatting. Poskanzer developed the first library of tools to handle the PBM format, Pbmplus, released in 1988. It mainly contained tools to convert between PBM and other graphics formats. By the end of 1988, Poskanzer had developed the PGM and PPM formats along with their associated tools and added them to Pbmplus. The final release of Pbmplus was December 10, 1991. In 1993, the Netpbm library was developed to replace the unmaintained Pbmplus. It was simply a repackaging of Pbmplus with additions and fixes submitted by people all over the world. Each format differs
    9.00
    2 votes
    63
    Raster graphics

    Raster graphics

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    In computer graphics, a raster graphics image, or bitmap, is a dot matrix data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels, or points of color, viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium. Raster images are stored in image files with varying formats (see comparison of graphics file formats). A bitmap corresponds bit-for-bit with an image displayed on a screen, generally in the same format used for storage in the display's video memory, or maybe as a device-independent bitmap. A bitmap is technically characterized by the width and height of the image in pixels and by the number of bits per pixel (a color depth, which determines the number of colors it can represent). The printing and prepress industries know raster graphics as contones (from "continuous tones") and refer to vector graphics as "line work". The word "raster" has its origins in the Latin rastrum (a rake), which is derived from radere (to scrape). It originally referred to the raster scan of cathode ray tube (CRT) video monitors, which paints the image line by line by magnetically steering a focused electron beam. By association, it came also to refer to a rectangular grid of pixels. See
    9.00
    2 votes
    64

    Container format

    • Genre: Container format
    A container or wrapper format is a metafile format whose specification describes how different data elements and metadata coexist in a computer file. Among the earliest cross-platform container formats were Distinguished Encoding Rules and the 1985 Interchange File Format. Containers are frequently used in multimedia applications. Since the container does not describe how data or metadata is encoded, a program able to identify and open a container file might not be able to decode the contained data. This may be caused by the program lacking the required decoding algorithm. By definition, a container format could wrap any kind of data. Though there are some examples of such file formats (e.g. Microsoft Windows's DLL files), most container formats are specialized for specific data requirements. For example, a popular family of containers is found for use with multimedia file formats. Since audio and video streams can be coded and decoded with many different algorithms, a container format may be used to provide a single file format to the user. The container file is used to identify and interleave different data types. Simpler container formats can contain different types of audio
    7.67
    3 votes
    65

    DVI

    • MIME Type: application/x-dvi
    • Genre: Document file format
    • Read By: Glosstex
    The device independent file format (DVI) is the output file format of the TeX typesetting program, designed by David R. Fuchs in 1979. Unlike the TeX markup files used to generate them, DVI files are not intended to be human-readable; they consist of binary data describing the visual layout of a document in a manner not reliant on any specific image format, display hardware or printer. DVI files are typically used as input to a second program (called a DVI driver) which translates DVI files to graphical data. For example, most TeX software packages include a program for previewing DVI files on a user's computer display; this program is a driver. Drivers are also used to convert from DVI to popular page description languages (e.g. PostScript, PDF) and for printing. DVI is not a document encryption format, and TeX markup may be at least partially reverse-engineered from DVI files, although this process is unlikely to produce high-level constructs identical to those present in the original markup, especially if the original markup used high-level TeX extensions (e.g. LaTeX). DVI differs from PostScript and PDF in that it does not support any form of font embedding. (Both PostScript
    7.67
    3 votes
    66
    FictionBook

    FictionBook

    FictionBook is an open XML-based e-book format, which originated and gained popularity in Russia. The FictionBook files have the .fb2 filename extension. The FictionBook format does not specify the appearance of a document; instead, it describes its structure. For example, there are special tags for epigraphs, verses and quotations. All the ebook metadata, such as the author name, title, and publisher, is also present in the ebook file. Hence the format is convenient for automatic processing, indexing, and ebook collection management. This also allows automatic conversion into other formats. In contrast to other eBook formats (e.g. ePub), FictionBook eBook consists of just one XML file. Images are converted to Base64 and reside inside the tag, so the size of the embedded images is increased by approximately 37%. Often FictionBook files are distributed inside Zip archives, and most of hardware and software readers can work with compressed FictionBook files (*.fb2.zip) directly. The metadata and the plain text data are always placed in the beginning of the FictionBook file, while more heavyweight binary images are placed in the end. This allows software to start rendering or
    7.67
    3 votes
    67
    Geo

    Geo

    • Read By: Geoworks
    Geo is a microformat used for marking up WGS84 geographical coordinates (latitude;longitude) in (X)HTML. Although termed a "draft" specification, this is a formality, and the format is stable and in widespread use; not least as a sub-set of the published hCalendar and hCard microformat specifications, neither of which is still a draft. Use of Geo allows parsing tools (for example other websites, or Firefox's Operator extension) to extract the locations, and display them using some other website or mapping tool, or to load them into a GPS device, index or aggregate them, or convert them into an alternative format. There are two ways to convert ordinary (X)HTML into a geo microformat: Adding three classes. For example the marked-up text:
    7.67
    3 votes
    68

    JT

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    JT is a 3D data format developed by Siemens PLM Software (formerly UGS Corp.) and is used for product visualization, collaboration, and CAD data exchange. It can contain any combination of approximate (faceted) data, exact boundary representation surfaces (NURBS), Product and Manufacturing Information (PMI), and Metadata (textual attributes) either exported from the native CAD system or inserted by a product data management (PDM) system. It is probably the most widely used 3D visualization format for discrete manufacturing with over 4,000,100 JT-enabled licenses of software in use. On 2009 September 18 the ISO stated officially that the JT specification has been accepted for publication as an ISO Publicly Available Specification (PAS). JT files are used in product lifecycle management (PLM) software programs and their respective CAD solutions, by engineers and other professionals that need to analyze the geometry of complex products. The format and associated software is structured so that extremely large numbers of components can be quickly loaded, shaded and manipulated in real-time. Because all major 3D CAD formats are supported, a JT assembly can contain a mixture of any
    7.67
    3 votes
    69

    Obj

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    • Read By: Lightwave
    OBJ (or .OBJ) is a geometry definition file format first developed by Wavefront Technologies for its Advanced Visualizer animation package. The file format is open and has been adopted by other 3D graphics application vendors. For the most part it is a universally accepted format. The OBJ file format is a simple data-format that represents 3D geometry alone — namely, the position of each vertex, the UV position of each texture coordinate vertex, normals, and the faces that make each polygon defined as a list of vertices, and texture vertices. Vertices are stored in a counter-clockwise order by default, making explicit declaration of normals unnecessary. Lines beginning with a hash character (#) are comments. An OBJ file contains several types of definitions: Define points in parameter space of curve or surface. "u" only is required for curve points, "u" and "v" for surface points and control points of non-rational trimming curves, and "u", "v" and "w" (weight) for control points of rational trimming curves. Faces are defined using lists of vertex, texture and normal indices. Polygons such as quadrilaterals can be defined by using more than three vertex/texture/normal indices. OBJ
    7.67
    3 votes
    70

    XVRML

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    xVRML (eXtensible Virtual Reality Modeling Language, usually pronounced ex-vermal) is a standard file format for representing 3-dimensional (3D) interactive computer graphics, designed particularly with the World Wide Web in mind. xVRML is a text-file format from the xVRML Project at RIT. While xVRML evolved from VRML; it now has an easy-to-learn, XML-based syntax, for which it utilizes an XML Schema to insure both a clear structure and understandable constraints. The specifications, documentation, and example files, as well as information about a viewer application (Carina), may all be found at the xVRML Project website. All but the examples may be downloaded from the Project SourceForge site. An extensive and growing object library is available for public use through the xVRML Project site.
    7.67
    3 votes
    71

    Content Sealed Format

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Content Sealed Format (DRM) (CSF) is a proprietary format created by the Informative Graphics Corporation for sharing electronic documents, images and CAD drawings in an encrypted format with embedded protection to permit visual operations on the files, such as time expiration, ability to print, copy, measure, view by layers, etc. It is also known as "Visual Rights".
    10.00
    1 votes
    72
    JPEG 2000

    JPEG 2000

    • MIME Type: image/jp2
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    • Read By: Pixel image editor
    JPEG 2000 is an image compression standard and coding system. It was created by the Joint Photographic Experts Group committee in 2000 with the intention of superseding their original discrete cosine transform-based JPEG standard (created in 1992) with a newly designed, wavelet-based method. The standardized filename extension is .jp2 for ISO/IEC 15444-1 conforming files and .jpx for the extended part-2 specifications, published as ISO/IEC 15444-2. The registered MIME types are defined in RFC 3745. For ISO/IEC 15444-1 it is image/jp2. While there is a modest increase in compression performance of JPEG 2000 compared to JPEG, the main advantage offered by JPEG 2000 is the significant flexibility of the codestream. The codestream obtained after compression of an image with JPEG 2000 is scalable in nature, meaning that it can be decoded in a number of ways; for instance, by truncating the codestream at any point, one may obtain a representation of the image at a lower resolution, or signal-to-noise ratio – see scalable compression. By ordering the codestream in various ways, applications can achieve significant performance increases. However, as a consequence of this flexibility, JPEG
    10.00
    1 votes
    73

    Scalable Vector Graphics

    • MIME Type: image/svg+xml
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is a family of specifications of an XML-based file format for two-dimensional vector graphics, both static and dynamic (i.e., interactive or animated). The SVG specification is an open standard that has been under development by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) since 1999. SVG images and their behaviors are defined in XML text files. This means that they can be searched, indexed, scripted, and, if need be, compressed. As XML files, SVG images can be created and edited with any text editor, but it is often more convenient to create them with drawing programs such as Inkscape. All major modern web browsers—including Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer 9, Google Chrome, Opera, and Safari—have at least some degree of support for SVG and can render the markup directly. Earlier versions of Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) do not support SVG natively. SVG has been in development since 1999 by a group of companies within the W3C after the competing standards Precision Graphics Markup Language (PGML) – developed from Adobe's PostScript – and Vector Markup Language (VML) – developed from Microsoft's RTF – were submitted to W3C in 1998. SVG drew on experience
    10.00
    1 votes
    74
    SGML

    SGML

    • MIME Type: text/sgml
    • Genre: Metalanguage
    The Standard Generalized Markup Language (ISO 8879:1986 SGML) is an ISO-standard technology for defining generalized markup languages for documents. ISO 8879 Annex A.1 defines generalized markup: Generalized markup is based on two novel postulates: HTML, XHTML, and XML are all examples of SGML-based languages. SGML is an ISO standard: "ISO 8879:1986 Information processing — Text and office systems — Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)", of which there are three versions: SGML is part of a trio of enabling ISO standards for electronic documents developed by ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 (ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 34 – Document description and processing languages) : SGML is supported by various technical reports, in particular SGML descended from IBM's Generalized Markup Language (GML), which Charles Goldfarb, Edward Mosher, and Raymond Lorie developed in the 1960s. Goldfarb, editor of the international standard, coined the “GML” term using their surname initials. As a document markup language, SGML was originally designed to enable the sharing of machine-readable large-project documents in government, law, and industry. Many such documents must remain readable
    10.00
    1 votes
    75

    Wireless Application Protocol Bitmap Format

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    • Read By: Macromedia Fireworks
    Wireless Application Protocol Bitmap Format (shortened to Wireless Bitmap and with file extension .wbmp) is a monochrome graphics file format optimized for mobile computing devices. WBMP images are monochrome (black & white) so that the image size is kept to a minimum. A black pixel is denoted by 0 and a white pixel is denoted by 1. For colored images, WAP supports the Portable Network Graphics format. The 3x3 bitmap: becomes Octet 1: 00000000 (WBMP type) Octet 2: 00000000 (Fixed header) Octet 3: 00000011 (Width) = 3 Octet 4: 00000011 (Height) = 3 Octet 5-7: 3 bits for data then Padding (8-3=5) Octet 5: 010 00000 (Row 1) Octet 6: 101 00000 (Row 2) Octet 7: 010 00000 (Row 3) 03467999495
    10.00
    1 votes
    76
    XML Sapiens

    XML Sapiens

    • MIME Type: text/xml
    • Genre: Markup language
    XML Sapiens ¬タモ a paradigm of the managed sites building, a way for the independent aspects¬タル effective integration: data, design, and functionality. This integration can be achieved by means of input of 3 basic meta-objects into the document: XML Sapiens specification describes XML-based markup user interface language for content management systems The following is an example of XML Sapiens HTML template. The following is an example of XML Sapiens WML template. The following is an example of XML Sapiens DDC.
    10.00
    1 votes
    77
    Caltech Intermediate Form

    Caltech Intermediate Form

    • Genre: Electronic design automation
    • Read By: Easy Cd Creator
    Caltech Intermediate Form (CIF) is a file format for describing integrated circuits. CIF provides a limited set of graphics primitives that are useful for describing the two-dimensional shapes on the different layers of a chip. The format allows hierarchical description, which makes the representation concise. In addition, it is a terse but human-readable text format. Each statement in CIF consists of a keyword or letter followed by parameters and terminated with a semicolon. Spaces must separate the parameters but there are no restrictions on the number of statements per line or of the particular columns of any field. Comments can be inserted anywhere by enclosing them in parenthesis. There are only a few CIF statements and they fall into one of two categories: geometry or control. The geometry statements are: LAYER to switch mask layers, BOX to draw a rectangle, WIRE to draw a path, ROUNDFLASH to draw a circle, POLYGON to draw an arbitrary figure, and CALL to draw a subroutine of other geometry statements. The control statements are DS to start the definition of a subroutine, DF to finish the definition of a subroutine, DD to delete the definition of subroutines, 0 through 9 to
    6.50
    4 votes
    78
    Gerber File

    Gerber File

    The Gerber format is a file format used by printed circuit board (PCB) industry software to describe the images of a printed circuit board (copper layers, solder mask, legend, drill holes, etc.). The Gerber format is the de facto industry standard for printed circuit board image transfer. The Gerber format specification can be freely downloaded. There are two versions. RS-274X ("extended Gerber") is the most commonly used today. The previous version was a subset of EIA RS-274-D ("standard Gerber"); it is deprecated and is largely superseded by RS-274X. The Gerber format was developed by Gerber Systems Corp., a company founded by Heinz Joseph “Joe” Gerber. The format is now controlled and owned by Ucamco through its acquisition of Barco ETS, a company that previously acquired Gerber Systems Corp. Inside many electronic devices is a PCB onto which components are connected. These PCBs may be designed using a computer aided design (CAD) system. One way to physically realize a design is to transfer the computerized design information to a photolithographic computer aided manufacturing (CAM) system. Gerber is a widely used file format for performing this transfer. Once the bare board is
    6.50
    4 votes
    79

    STL

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    • Read By: Macromedia Fireworks
    STL (STereoLithography) is a file format native to the stereolithography CAD software created by 3D Systems. STL is also known as Standard Tessellation Language This file format is supported by many other software packages; it is widely used for rapid prototyping and computer-aided manufacturing. STL files describe only the surface geometry of a three dimensional object without any representation of color, texture or other common CAD model attributes. The STL format specifies both ASCII and binary representations. Binary files are more common, since they are more compact. An STL file describes a raw unstructured triangulated surface by the unit normal and vertices (ordered by the right-hand rule) of the triangles using a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. An ASCII STL file begins with the line: where name is an optional string (though if name is omitted there must still be a space after solid). The file continues with any number of triangles, each represented as follows: where each n or v is a floating point number in sign-mantissa 'e'-sign-exponent format, e.g., "-2.648000e-002". The file concludes with: The structure of the format suggests that other possibilities
    6.50
    4 votes
    80

    MHTML

    MHTML, short for MIME HTML, is a web page archive format used to combine resources that are typically represented by external links (such as images, Flash animations, Java applets, audio files) together with HTML code into a single file. The content of an MHTML file is encoded as if it were an HTML e-mail message, using the MIME type multipart/related. The first part of the file is normally encoded HTML; subsequent parts are additional resources identified by their original URLs and encoded in base64. This format is sometimes referred to as MHT, after the suffix .mht given to such files by default when created by Microsoft Word, Internet Explorer, or Opera. MHTML is a proposed standard, circulated in a revised edition in 1999 as RFC 2557. Some browsers support the MHTML format, either directly or through third-party extensions, but the process for saving a web page along with its resources as an MHTML file is not standardized. Due to this, a web page saved as an MHTML file using one browser may render differently on another. Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0 was the first browser to support saving web pages and external resources to a single MHTML file. Support for saving web pages
    5.60
    5 votes
    81
    RDF

    RDF

    • MIME Type: application/rdf+xml
    • Genre: Semantic Web-The Next Gen Web
    • Read By: Geoworks
    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadata data model. It has come to be used as a general method for conceptual description or modeling of information that is implemented in web resources, using a variety of syntax formats. The RDF data model is similar to classic conceptual modeling approaches such as entity-relationship or class diagrams, as it is based upon the idea of making statements about resources (in particular Web resources) in the form of subject-predicate-object expressions. These expressions are known as triples in RDF terminology. The subject denotes the resource, and the predicate denotes traits or aspects of the resource and expresses a relationship between the subject and the object. For example, one way to represent the notion "The sky has the color blue" in RDF is as the triple: a subject denoting "the sky", a predicate denoting "has the color", and an object denoting "blue". Therefore RDF swaps object for subject that would be used in the classical notation of an Entity–attribute–value model within Object oriented design; object (sky), attribute (color) and value
    5.60
    5 votes
    82
    DIVA

    DIVA

    • Genre: Audio file format
    DIVA is a series of digital audio players from Bulgarian company Daisy Multimedia. All models (except the Diva MP3 and Music Pen) feature a digital FM radio tuner and possibility to record from microphone and the radio directly into MP3 format. The Diva GEM model is one of the first players, which supports Bluetooth headphones and can act as handsfree device. It also features Multi Media Card support (up to 4GB) and LiIon battery.
    8.50
    2 votes
    83

    DPX

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Digital Picture Exchange (DPX) is a common file format for digital intermediate and visual effects work and is an ANSI/SMPTE standard (268M-2003). The file format is most commonly used to represent the density of each colour channel of a scanned negative film in an uncompressed "logarithmic" image where the gamma of the original camera negative is preserved as taken by a film scanner. For this reason, DPX is the worldwide-chosen format for still frames storage in most Digital Intermediate post-production facilities and film labs. Other common video formats are supported as well (see below), from video to purely digital ones, making DPX a file format suitable for almost any raster digital imaging applications. DPX provides, in fact, a great deal of flexibility in storing colour information, colour spaces and colour planes for exchange between production facilities. Multiple forms of packing and alignment are possible. Last but not least, the DPX Specification allow for a wide variety of metadata to further clarify information stored (and storable) within each file. The DPX file format was originally derived from Kodak Cineon open file format (.cin file extension) used for digital
    8.50
    2 votes
    84

    DVR-MS

    DVR-MS (Microsoft Digital Video Recording) is a proprietary video and audio file container format, developed by Microsoft used for storing TV content recorded by Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows Vista and Windows 7. Multiple data streams (audio and video) are wrapped in an ASF container with the extension DVR-MS. Video is encoded using the MPEG-2 standard and audio using MPEG-1 Layer II or Dolby Digital AC-3 (ATSC A/52). The format extends these standards by including metadata about the content and digital rights management. Files in this format are generated from the Stream Buffer Engine (SBE.dll), a DirectShow component introduced in Windows XP Service Pack 1. The DVR feature of Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows Vista and the Windows 7 version of Windows Media Center create files in this format. If a recorded broadcast is marked as copy protected, the resultant DVR-MS file can only be played back on the recording device. Unprotected DVR-MS files (files not marked in this way) can be played back on any device running Windows XP with Service Pack 1 or later Windows operating systems, hotfix 810243 for Windows XP RTM (which adds DVR-MS support to DirectShow), and on
    8.50
    2 votes
    85

    Geocoded photo

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    A geotagged photograph is a photograph which is associated with a geographical location by geotagging. Usually this is done by assigning at least a latitude and longitude to the image, and optionally altitude, compass bearing and other fields may also be included. In theory, every part of a picture can be tied to a geographic location, but in the most typical application, only the position of the photographer is associated with the entire digital image. This has implications for search and retrieval. For example, photos of a mountain summit can be taken from different positions miles apart. To find all images of a particular summit in an image database, all photos taken within a reasonable distance must be considered. The point position of the photographer can in some cases include the bearing, the direction the camera was pointing. There are a few methods of geotagging photographs, either automatic or manual. Automatic methods provide the easiest and most precise method of geotagging an image, providing that a good signal has been acquired at the time of taking the photo. Several manufacturers offer cameras with a built-in GPS receiver, but most cameras with this capability are
    8.50
    2 votes
    86

    GeoTIFF

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    GeoTIFF is a public domain metadata standard which allows georeferencing information to be embedded within a TIFF file. The potential additional information includes map projection, coordinate systems, ellipsoids, datums, and everything else necessary to establish the exact spatial reference for the file. The GeoTIFF format is fully compliant with TIFF 6.0, so software incapable of reading and interpreting the specialized metadata will still be able to open a GeoTIFF format file. The GeoTIFF format was originally created by Dr. Niles Ritter while he was working at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
    8.50
    2 votes
    87

    Image Cytometry Standard

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    The Image Cytometry Standard (ICS) is a digital multidimensional image file format used in life sciences microscopy. It stores not only the image data, but also the microscopic parameters describing the optics during the acquisition. ICS was first proposed in: P. Dean, L. Mascio, D. Ow, D. Sudar, J. Mullikin, Proposed standard for image cytometry data files, Cytometry, n. 11, pp. 561-569, 1990 . The original ICS file format actually uses two separate files: a text header file with .ics extension and other, much bigger and with the actual image data, with .ids extension. This allows the compression of the data while leaving the header file accessible. On the other hand the newer ICS2 file format uses only one single .ics file with both the header and the data together. The .ics in the two-file format is a text file with fields separated by Tabs, and lines ending with a newline character. In the newer ICS2 format this text header precedes the binary data. The ICS format is capable to store:
    8.50
    2 votes
    88

    Layered Image File Format

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Layered Image File Format (LIFF) is a file format used in the Openlab suite for microscope image processing. It is a proprietary format, but has an open, extensible form analogous to TIFF. It was specifically designed to contain a large number of high resolution images, and also all of the meta data generated by analysis of such images. Apart from being an acronym, the name LIFF was chosen to honour Douglas Adams and John Lloyd's The Meaning of Liff, which was in turn named after Liff, a town in Scotland.
    8.50
    2 votes
    89
    Portable Game Notation

    Portable Game Notation

    • Read By: Chessmaster
    Portable Game Notation (PGN) is a plain text computer-processible format for recording chess games (both the moves and related data), supported by many chess programs. PGN was devised around 1993, by Steven J. Edwards, and was first popularized via the Usenet newsgroup rec.games.chess. PGN is structured "for easy reading and writing by human users and for easy parsing and generation by computer programs." The chess moves themselves are given in algebraic chess notation. The usual filename extension is ".pgn". There are two formats in the PGN specification, the "import" format and the "export" format. The import format describes data that may have been prepared by hand, and is intentionally lax; a program that can read PGN data should be able to handle the somewhat lax import format. The export format is rather strict and describes data prepared under program control, similar to a pretty printed source program reformatted by a compiler. The export format representations generated by different programs on the same computer should be exactly equivalent, byte for byte. PGN code begins with a set of "tag pairs" (a tag name and its value), followed by the "movetext" (chess moves with
    8.50
    2 votes
    90
    Abc notation

    Abc notation

    ABC notation is a shorthand form of musical notation. In basic form it uses the letters A through G to represent the given notes, with other elements used to place added value on these - sharp, flat, the length of the note, key, ornamentation. Later, with computers becoming a major means of communication, others saw the possibilities of using this form of notation as an ASCII code that could facilitate the sharing of music online, also adding a new and simple language for software developers. In this later form it remains a language for notating music using the ASCII character set. The earlier ABC notation was built on, standardized and changed to better fit the keyboard and an ASCII character set by Chris Walshaw, with the help and input of others. Although now re-packaged in this form, the original ease of writing and reading, for memory jogs and for sharing tunes with others on a scrap of paper or a beer coaster remains, a simple and accessible form of music notation, not unlike others, such as tablature and Solfeggio. Originally designed for use with folk and traditional tunes of Western European origin (e.g. English, Irish, Scottish) which are typically single-voice melodies
    7.33
    3 votes
    91

    Boot image control

    • Genre: Disk image
    A boot image control strategy is a common way to reduce total cost of ownership in organizations with large numbers of similar computers being used by users with common needs, e.g. a large corporation or government agency. This is considered part of enterprise application integration in larger shops that use that term since applications are part of the boot image, and modify the boot image, in most desktop OS. Windows Vista includes tools for boot image control, displacing third party tools. Mac OS has always had more flexible handling of boot drives, simplifying control and reducing the need to move boot images around between drives. Increasingly, boot image control is a network operating system function. Very often a large computer vendor is required to explain in a bid in response to an RFP how they intend to simplify the purchaser's boot image control problems and the attendant service costs: The total cost of ownership correlates strongly to the total number of different images, not the total number of computers, so this is a major cost concern. Three basic strategies are commonly advised: Organizations that do not closely track, control and set common standards for,
    7.33
    3 votes
    92

    Microsoft Document Imaging Format

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    MDI (Microsoft Document Imaging format) is a file format created by Microsoft for storing raster images of scanned documents together with optional annotations or metadata which can include the text of the document, generated by OCR. MDI is a proprietary format - the specifications have not been made public by Microsoft, and MDI files can only be produced or read by certain Microsoft software, in particular the Microsoft Office Document Imaging (MODI) module included in Microsoft Office 2003 and later versions. Applications in Microsoft Office 2010 can no longer open MDI files. This is because the MODI module is fully deprecated in Office 2010. It is known that MDI is a variant of TIFF (see Brad Hards' references below). Key differences from TIFF:
    7.33
    3 votes
    93

    Open Document Architecture

    The Open Document Architecture (ODA) and interchange format (informally referred to as just ODA) is a free and open international standard document file format maintained by the ITU-T to replace all proprietary document file formats. ODA is detailed in the standards documents CCITT T.411-T.424, which is equivalent to ISO 8613. ODA defines a compound document format that can contain raw text, raster images and vector graphics. In the original release the difference between this standard and others like it is that the graphics structures were exclusively defined as CCITT raster image and Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM - ISO 8632). This was to limit the problem of having word processor and desktop publisher software be required to interpret all known graphics formats. The documents have both logical and layout structures. Logically the text can be partitioned into chapters, footnotes and other subelements akin to HTML, and the layout fill a function similar to Cascading Style Sheets in the web world. The binary transport format for an ODA-conformant file is called Open Document Interchange Format (ODIF) and is based on the Standard Generalized Markup Language and Abstract Syntax
    7.33
    3 votes
    94
    Simplified molecular input line entry specification

    Simplified molecular input line entry specification

    • Genre: Chemical file format
    The simplified molecular-input line-entry system or SMILES is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules. The original SMILES specification was developed by Arthur Weininger and David Weininger in the late 1980s. The Environmental Protection Agency funded the initial project to develop SMILES. It has since been modified and extended by others, most notably by Daylight Chemical Information Systems Inc. In 2007, an open standard called "OpenSMILES" was developed by the Blue Obelisk open-source chemistry community. Other 'linear' notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation (WLN), ROSDAL and SLN (Tripos Inc). In July 2006, the IUPAC introduced the InChI as a standard for formula representation. SMILES is generally considered to have the advantage of being slightly more human-readable than InChI; it also has a wide base of software support with extensive theoretical (e.g., graph theory) backing. The term SMILES refers to a line notation for encoding molecular
    7.33
    3 votes
    95

    VCalendar

    vCalendar is an older standard exchange format for calendar data promulgated by the Internet Mail Consortium (IMC). iCalendar is a newer standard (RFC 2445) for calendar data, heavily based on vCalendar. Here is an example of information in vCalendar format: Note that the version number in the above example is 1.0.iCalendar is version 2.0 of the vCalendar specification. Here is an example of information in an iCalendar format: See also vCard.See also iCalendar. vCalendar standards migrated into iCalendar. Calendar standards in general are being moved along with help from the Calendar and Scheduling Consortium (also called CalConnect).
    7.33
    3 votes
    96
    MusicXML

    MusicXML

    MusicXML is an open, XML-based music notation file format. It was developed by Recordare LLC, deriving several key concepts from existing academic formats (such as Walter Hewlett's MuseData and David Huron's Humdrum). It is designed for the interchange of scores, particularly between different scorewriters. Version 1.0 was released in January 2004. Version 1.1 was released in May 2005 with improved formatting support. Version 2.0 was released in June 2007 and included a standard compressed format. All of these versions were defined by a series of document type definitions (DTDs). An XML Schema Definition (XSD) implementation of Version 2.0 was released in September 2008. Version 3.0 was released in August 2011 with improved virtual instrument support, in both DTD and XSD versions. As of August 2012, MusicXML is supported to varying degrees by over 160 notation programs. These programs include: The MusicXML DTDs and XSDs are each freely redistributable under the MusicXML Public License. Like all XML-based formats, MusicXML is easy for automated tools to parse and manipulate. Though it is possible to create MusicXML by hand, interactive score writing programs like Finale and
    6.25
    4 votes
    97

    Controlled Image Base

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    Controlled image base or CIB is unclassified digital imagery, produced to support mission planning and command, control, communications, and intelligence systems. CIB is used as a map substitute for emergencies and crises in the event that maps do not exist or are outdated. CIB is produced from SPOT commercial imagery that has been orthonormalized using the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA)'s DTED. CIB is RPF and NITF compliant. (Source: FAS) Controlled Image Base (NGA web site)
    7.00
    3 votes
    98

    EbXML

    Electronic Business using eXtensible Markup Language, commonly known as e-business XML, or ebXML (pronounced ee-bee-ex-em-el, [i'bi,eks,em'el]) as it is typically referred to, is a family of XML based standards sponsored by OASIS and UN/CEFACT whose mission is to provide an open, XML-based infrastructure that enables the global use of electronic business information in an interoperable, secure, and consistent manner by all trading partners. The ebXML architecture is a unique set of concepts; part theoretical and part implemented in the existing ebXML standards work. The ebXML work stemmed from earlier work on ooEDI (object oriented EDI), UML / UMM, XML markup technologies and the X12 EDI "Future Vision" work sponsored by ANSI X12 EDI. The melding of these components began in the original ebXML work and the theoretical discussion continues today. Other work relates, such as the Object Management Group work and the OASIS BCM (Business-Centric Methodology) standard (2006). While the ebXML standards adopted by ISO and OASIS seek to provide formal XML-enabled mechanisms that can be implemented directly, the ebXML architecture is focused on concepts and methodologies that can be more
    7.00
    3 votes
    99

    GDAL

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    GDAL (Geospatial Data Abstraction Library) is a library for reading and writing raster geospatial data formats, and is released under the permissive X/MIT style free software license by the Open Source Geospatial Foundation. As a library, it presents a single abstract data model to the calling application for all supported formats. It may also be built with a variety of useful command-line utilities for data translation and processing. The related OGR library (which is part of the GDAL source tree) provides a similar capability for simple features vector data. GDAL was primarily developed by Frank Warmerdam until the release of version 1.3.2, when maintainership was officially transferred to the GDAL/OGR Project Management Committee under the Open Source Geospatial Foundation. GDAL/OGR is considered a major free software project for its "extensive capabilities of data exchange" and also in the commercial GIS community due to its widespread use and comprehensive set of functionalities. Several software programs use the GDAL/OGR libraries to allow them to read and write multiple GIS formats. Such programs include: GDAL as of version 1.9.0 provides at least partial support for more
    7.00
    3 votes
    100
    Image file formats

    Image file formats

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Image file formats are standardized means of organizing and storing digital images. Image files are composed of digital data in one of these formats that can be rasterized for use on a computer display or printer. An image file format may store data in uncompressed, compressed, or vector formats. Once rasterized, an image becomes a grid of pixels, each of which has a number of bits to designate its color equal to the color depth of the device displaying it. Generally speaking, in raster images, Image file size is positively correlated to the number of pixels in an image and the color depth, or bits per pixel, of the image. Images can be compressed in various ways, however. Compression uses an algorithm that stores an exact representation or an approximation of the original image in a smaller number of bytes that can be expanded back to its uncompressed form with a corresponding decompression algorithm. Considering different compressions, it is common for two images of the same number of pixels and color depth to have a very different compressed file size. Considering exactly the same compression, number of pixels, and color depth for two images, different graphical complexity of
    7.00
    3 votes
    101

    Index.dat

    In the Microsoft Windows operating system, index.dat is a database file used by the Internet Explorer web browser. It is used to improve performance. The index.dat file is a database file. It is a repository of information such as web URLs, search queries and recently opened files. Its purpose is to enable quick access to data used by Internet Explorer. For example, every web address visited is stored in the index.dat file, allowing Internet Explorer to quickly find Autocomplete matches as the user types a web address. The index.dat file is user-specific and is open as long a user is logged on in Windows. Separate index.dat files exist for the Internet Explorer history, cache, and cookies. The index.dat file is never resized or deleted. A large index.dat file can impair performance. Internet privacy groups contend that the use of index.dat files in the Windows operating system is an invasion of users' privacy. The information contained in an index.dat file can be considered private to the user. One of the groups' main complaints is that the index.dat files cannot easily be deleted. This is because windows prevents open or "locked" files from being deleted. It has been contended
    7.00
    3 votes
    102

    JBIG

    • MIME Type: image/jbig
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    JBIG is a lossless image compression standard from the Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group, standardized as ISO/IEC standard 11544 and as ITU-T recommendation T.82. It is widely implemented in fax machines. Now that the newer bi-level image compression standard JBIG2 has been released, JBIG is also known as JBIG1. JBIG was designed for compression of binary images, particularly for faxes, but can also be used on other images. In most situations JBIG offers between a 20% and 50% increase in compression efficiency over the Fax Group 4 standard, and in some situations, it offers a 30-fold improvement. JBIG is based on a form of arithmetic coding patented by IBM, known as the Q-coder, but using a minor tweak patented by Mitsubishi, resulting in what became known as the QM-coder. It bases the probabilities of each bit on the previous bits and the previous lines of the picture. In order to allow compressing and decompressing images in scanning order, it does not reference future bits. JBIG also supports progressive transmission with small (around 5%) overheads. Patent licence requirements for JBIG1 implementations by IBM, Mitsubishi and AT&T prevented the codec to become widely
    7.00
    3 votes
    103

    LSM

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    LSM is a line of laser point scanning confocal and two photon microscopes produced by Carl Zeiss AG. The 5th generation, including the LSM 510, LSM 5 Pascal, and LSM 5 Live are now obsoleted by the LSM 700/710/780 series released after 2008. LSM models produce a file format with the filename extension ".lsm". There are different generations of this file format depending on the generation of the microscope model, but all are essentially extensions of the TIFF multiple image stack file format, containing instrument specific hardware settings metadata and thumbnail images. These are technical details intended for use by scientists trying to write code to read LSM files. Carl Zeiss Microimaging can be contacted for a full file format description of the LSM 5/7 format. At least in the 5th generation LSM format, important extensions to the normal TIFF format are: See external links below for code examples of reading LSM files.
    7.00
    3 votes
    104

    Truevision TGA

    • MIME Type: image/x-targa
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    • Read By: Truevision
    Truevision TGA, often referred to as TARGA, is a raster graphics file format created by Truevision Inc. (now acquired by Avid Technology). It was the native format of TARGA and VISTA boards, which were the first graphic cards for IBM-compatible PCs to support Highcolor/truecolor display. This family of graphic cards was intended for professional computer image synthesis and video editing with PCs; for this reason, usual resolutions of TGA image files match those of the NTSC and PAL video formats. TARGA is an acronym for Truevision Advanced Raster Graphics Adapter; TGA is an initialism for Truevision Graphics Adapter. TGA files commonly have the extension ".tga" on PC DOS/Windows systems and Mac OS X (older Macintosh systems use the "TPIC" type code). The format can store image data with 8, 15, 16, 24, or 32 bits of precision per pixel – the maximum 24 bits of RGB and an extra 8-bit alpha channel. Color data can be color-mapped, or in direct color or truecolor format. Image data may be stored raw, or optionally, a lossless RLE compression similar to PackBits can be employed. This encoding performs poorly when compressing images with many color variations, such as digital photos, but
    7.00
    3 votes
    105

    Windows Media Video

    • MIME Type: video/x-ms-wmv
    • Genre: Container format
    Windows Media Video (WMV) is a video compression format for several proprietary codecs developed by Microsoft. The original video format, known as WMV, was originally designed for Internet streaming applications, as a competitor to RealVideo. The other formats, such as WMV Screen and WMV Image, cater for specialized content. Through standardization from the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE), WMV 9 has gained adoption for physical-delivery formats such as HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc. In 2003, Microsoft drafted a video codec specification based on its WMV 9 codec and submitted it to SMPTE for standardization. The standard was officially approved in March 2006 as SMPTE 421M, better known as VC-1, thus making the WMV 9 format an open standard. Since then, VC-1 has become one of the three mandatory video formats for the Blu-ray format, along with H.264 and MPEG-2. A WMV file is in most circumstances encapsulated in the Advanced Systems Format (ASF) container format. The file extension .WMV typically describes ASF files that use Windows Media Video codecs. The audio codec used in conjunction with Windows Media Video is typically some version of Windows Media Audio,
    5.20
    5 votes
    106

    MNG

    • MIME Type: video/x-mng
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Multiple-image Network Graphics is a public graphics file format for animated images. MNG is closely related to the PNG image format. When PNG development started in early 1995, developers decided not to incorporate support for animation, because the majority of the PNG developers felt that overloading a single file type with both still and animation features is a bad design, both for users (who have no simple way of determining to which class a given image file belongs) and for web servers (which should use the image/foo MIME type for stills and video/foo for animations--GIF notwithstanding). However, work soon started on MNG as an animation-supporting version of PNG. Version 1.0 of the MNG specification was released on 31 January 2001. MNG is currently not as widely supported as PNG. Nonetheless, Gwenview has native MNG support, and MNG plugins are available for some web browsers. Mozilla browsers and Netscape 6.0, 6.01 and 7.0 included native support for MNG until the code was removed in 2003 due to code size and little actual usage, causing complaints on the Mozilla development site. As a result, a MNGzilla project was started to offer patched Mozilla and Firefox browsers. By
    6.00
    4 votes
    107
    AAC-LD

    AAC-LD

    The MPEG-4 Low Delay Audio Coder (aka AAC Low Delay, or AAC-LD) is audio compression format designed to combine the advantages of perceptual audio coding with the low delay necessary for two-way communication. It is closely derived from the MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) format. It was published in MPEG-4 Audio Version 2 (ISO/IEC 14496-3:1999/Amd 1:2000) and in its later revisions. The most stringent requirements are a maximum algorithmic delay of only 20 ms and a good audio quality for all kind of audio signals including speech and music. Two-way communication with AAC-LD is possible on usual analog telephone lines and via ISDN connections. It can use a bit rate of 32 - 64kbit/s or higher. Compared to known speech coders, the codec is capable of coding both music and speech signals with good quality. Unlike speech coders, however, the achieved coding quality scales up with bitrate. Transparent quality can be achieved. AAC LD can also process stereo signals by using the advanced stereo coding tools of AAC. Thus it is possible to transmit a stereo signal with a bandwidth of 7 kHz via one ISDN line or with a bandwidth of 15 kHz via two ISDN lines.
    8.00
    2 votes
    108

    Adobe Illustrator Artwork

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Adobe Illustrator Artwork (AI) is a proprietary file format developed by Adobe Systems for representing single-page vector-based drawings in either the EPS or PDF formats. The .ai filename extension is used by Adobe Illustrator. Early versions of the AI file format are true EPS files with a restricted, compact syntax, with additional semantics represented by Illustrator-specific DSC comments that conform to DSC's Open Structuring Conventions. These files are identical to their corresponding Illustrator EPS counterparts, but with the EPS procsets (procedure sets) omitted from the file and instead externally referenced using %%Include directives. The AI file format was originally a native format called PGF. PDF compatibility is achieved by embedding a complete copy of the PGF data within the saved PDF format file. The same “dual path” approach is used when saving EPS-compatible files in recent versions of Illustrator. Aside from Adobe Illustrator, the following applications can edit .ai files: Viewers:
    8.00
    2 votes
    109

    Catia Graphical Representation

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Catia Graphical Representation (or CGR) is the triangulated format of the CAD-software CATIA developed by Dassault Systemes. It enables a faster loading of data.
    8.00
    2 votes
    110

    Disk image

    • Genre: Disk image
    A disk image is a single file or storage device containing the complete contents and structure representing a data storage medium or device, such as a hard drive, tape drive, floppy disk, optical disc, or USB flash drive. A disk image is usually created by creating a complete sector-by-sector copy of the source medium and thereby perfectly replicating the structure and contents of a storage device. Some disk imaging utilities omit unused file space from source media, or compress the disk they represent to reduce storage requirements, though these are typically referred to as archive files, as they are not literally disk images. Disk image file formats may be open standards, such as the ISO image format for optical disc images, or proprietary to particular software applications. Disk images were originally used for backup and disk cloning of floppy disk media, where replication or storage of an exact structure was necessary and efficient. Disk images are used heavily for duplication of optical media including DVDs, Blu-ray disks, etc. It is also used to make perfect clones of hard disks. A virtual disk may emulate any type of physical drive, such as a hard drive, tape drive, key
    8.00
    2 votes
    111
    Hierarchical Data Format

    Hierarchical Data Format

    Hierarchical Data Format (HDF, HDF4, or HDF5) is the name of a set of file formats and libraries designed to store and organize large amounts of numerical data. Originally developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, it is currently supported by the non-profit HDF Group, whose mission is to ensure continued development of HDF5 technologies, and the continued accessibility of data currently stored in HDF. In keeping with this goal, the HDF format, libraries and associated tools are available under a liberal, BSD-like license for general use. HDF is supported by many commercial and non-commercial software platforms, including Java, MATLAB, IDL, Python, and R. The freely available HDF distribution consists of the library, command-line utilities, test suite source, Java interface, and the Java-based HDF Viewer (HDFView). There currently exist two major versions of HDF, HDF4 and HDF5, which differ significantly in design and API. HDF4 is the older version of the format, although still actively supported by The HDF Group. It supports a proliferation of different data models, including multidimensional arrays, raster images, and tables. Each defines a specific
    8.00
    2 votes
    112

    PostScript Printer Description

    PostScript Printer Description (PPD) files are created by vendors to describe the entire set of features and capabilities available for their PostScript printers. A PPD also contains the PostScript code (commands) used to invoke features for the print job. As such, PPDs function as drivers for all PostScript printers, by providing a unified interface for the printer's capabilities and features. For example, a generic PPD file for all models of HP Color LaserJet contains: which specifies that the printer understands PostScript Level 2, is a color device, and so forth. The PPD can describe allowable paper sizes, memory configurations, the minimum font set for the printer, and even specify a tree-based user interface for printer-specific configuration. CUPS uses PPD drivers for all of its PostScript printers, and has even extended the concept to allow for PostScript printing to non-PostScript printing devices, by directing output through a CUPS filter. Such a file is no longer a standard PPD, but rather a "CUPS-PPD". CUPS clients usually read the current PPD file from the server every time a new print job is created. Microsoft Windows also uses PPD files but converts these to a binary
    8.00
    2 votes
    113

    Quetzal file format

    Quetzal is a standardised file format for the saved state of Z-machine games, invented by Martin Frost. Prior to the introduction of Quetzal, each Z-machine interpreter saved games in its own format; Quetzal enabled players to begin a game on one architecture (for example, a pocket computer) and end it on another. Use of the format is strongly recommended in Graham Nelson's Z-machine standards document, but not obligatory. Most modern Z-machines have the ability to save Quetzal files. The files are IFF files with a FORM of "IFZS" (presumably standing for "interactive fiction Z-machine save"), although the saved files are commonly given an extension of ".sav": less commonly sighted are "quz" and "qtz". Despite the reference to the Z-machine in the FORM code, the format has proved flexible enough to be adapted for at least one alternative architecture, Glulx. The magic-number reading of the files are often shown as: The format's name is a backronym for "Quetzal Unifies Efficiently The Z-Machine Archive Language". Version 1.3b, which is widely available, contains a bug later corrected in version 1.4: after a save instruction, the Z-machine requires that a success code is saved in a
    8.00
    2 votes
    114
    Executable

    Executable

    In computing, an executable file causes a computer "to perform indicated tasks according to encoded instructions," as opposed to a data file that must be parsed by a program to be meaningful. These instructions are traditionally machine code instructions for a physical CPU. However, in a more general sense, a file containing instructions (such as bytecode) for a software interpreter may also be considered executable; even a scripting language source file may therefore be considered executable in this sense. The exact interpretation depends upon the use; while the term often refers only to machine code files, in the context of protection against computer viruses all files which cause potentially hazardous instruction execution, including scripts, are conveniently lumped together. While an executable file can be hand-coded in machine language, it is far more usual to develop software as source code in a high-level language easily understood by humans, or in some cases an assembly language more complex for humans but more closely associated with machine code instructions. The high-level language is compiled into either an executable machine code file or a non-executable machine-code
    9.00
    1 votes
    115

    PCX

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    • Read By: Paintbrush
    PCX is an image file format developed by the now-defunct ZSoft Corporation of Marietta, Georgia. It was the native file format for PC Paintbrush (PCX = "Personal Computer Exchange") and became one of the first widely accepted DOS imaging standards, although it has since been succeeded by more sophisticated image formats, such as GIF, JPEG and PNG. PCX files commonly stored palette-indexed images ranging from 2 or 4 colors to 16 and 256 colors, although the format has been extended to record true-color (24-bit) images as well. PCX was designed during the early development of PC display hardware and most of the formats it supported are no longer used, Table A shows a list of the most commonly used PCX formats. Contemporary image editing programs may not read PCX files that match older hardware. A PCX file has three main sections, in the following order PCX files were designed for use on IBM-compatible PCs and always use little endian byte ordering. The PCX file header contains an identifier byte (value 10), a version number, image dimensions, 16 palette colors, number color planes, bit depth of each plane and a value for compression method. PCX version numbers range from 0 to 5, this
    9.00
    1 votes
    116

    Tag Image File Format / Electronic Photography

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    "Tag Image File Format / Electronic Photography" (TIFF/EP) is a digital image file format standard – ISO 12234-2, titled "Electronic still-picture imaging – Removable memory – Part 2: TIFF/EP image data format". This is different from the Tagged Image File Format, which is a standard administered by Adobe currently called "TIFF, Revision 6.0 Final – June 3, 1992". The TIFF/EP standard is based on a subset of the Adobe TIFF standard, and a subset of the JEITA Exif standard, with some differences and extensions. One of the uses of TIFF/EP is as a raw image format. A characteristic of most digital cameras (but excluding those using the Foveon X3 sensor or similar, hence especially Sigma cameras) is that they use a color filter array (CFA). Software processing a raw image format for such a camera needs information about the configuration of the color filter array, so that the raw image can identify separate data from the individual sites of the sensor. Ideally this information is held within the raw image file itself, and TIFF/EP uses the tags that begin "CFA", CFARepeatPatternDim and CFAPattern, which are only relevant for raw images. This standard has not been adopted by most camera
    9.00
    1 votes
    117

    Wavelet Scalar Quantization

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    The Wavelet Scalar Quantization algorithm (WSQ) is a compression algorithm used for gray-scale fingerprint images. It is based on wavelet theory and has become a standard for the exchange and storage of fingerprint images. WSQ was developed by the FBI, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This compression method is preferred over standard compression algorithms like JPEG because at the same compression ratios WSQ doesn't present the "blocking artifacts" and loss of fine-scale features that are not acceptable for identification in financial environments and criminal justice.
    9.00
    1 votes
    118

    Windows Media Photo

    • MIME Type: image/vnd.ms-photo
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    JPEG XR (abbr. for JPEG extended range) is a still-image compression standard and file format for continuous tone photographic images, based on technology originally developed and patented by Microsoft under the name HD Photo (formerly Windows Media Photo). It supports both lossy and lossless compression, and is the preferred image format for Ecma-388 Open XML Paper Specification documents. Support for the format is available in Adobe Flash Player 11.0, Adobe AIR 3.0, Sumatra PDF 2.1, Windows Imaging Component, .NET Framework 3.0, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Internet Explorer 9, Internet Explorer 10. Microsoft first announced Windows Media Photo at WinHEC 2006, and then renamed it to HD Photo in November of that year. In July 2007, the Joint Photographic Experts Group and Microsoft announced HD Photo to be under consideration to become a JPEG standard known as JPEG XR. On 16 March 2009, JPEG XR was given final approval as ITU-T Recommendation T.832 and starting in April 2009, it became available from the ITU-T in "pre-published" form. On 19 June 2009, it passed an ISO/IEC Final Draft International Standard (FDIS) ballot, resulting in final approval as International
    9.00
    1 votes
    119
    FELICS

    FELICS

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    FELICS, which stands for Fast Efficient & Lossless Image Compression System, is a lossless image compression algorithm that performs 5-times faster than the original lossless JPEG codec and achieves a similar compression ratio. It was invented by P. G. Howard & J. S. Vitter of the computer science department of the Brown University & Duke University in USA, and presented at the DCC in Snowbird, Utah in 1993. Like other lossless codecs for continuous-tone images, FELICS operates by decorrelating the image and encoding it with an entropy coder. The decorrelation is the context where and where are the pixel's two nearest neighbors (causal, already coded and known at the decoder) used for providing the context to code the present pixel . Except at the top and left edges, these are the pixel above and the pixel to the left. For example, the neighbors of pixel X in the diagram are A and B, but if X were at the left side, its neighbors would be B and D. P lies within the closed interval [L, H] roughly half the time. Otherwise, it is above H or below L. These can be encoded as 1, 01, and 00 respectively (p. 4). The following figure shows the (idealized) histogram of the pixels and
    6.67
    3 votes
    120
    General MIDI

    General MIDI

    General MIDI or GM is a standardized specification for music synthesizers that respond to MIDI messages. GM was developed by the MIDI Manufacturers Association (MMA) and the Japan MIDI Standards Committee (JMSC) and first published in 1991. The official specification is available in English from the MMA, bound together with the MIDI 1.0 specification, and in Japanese from the Association of Musical Electronic Industry (AMEI). GM imposes several requirements beyond the more abstract MIDI 1.0 specification. While MIDI 1.0 by itself provides a communications protocol which ensures that different instruments can interoperate at a fundamental level (e.g., that pressing keys on a MIDI keyboard will cause an attached MIDI sound module to play musical notes), GM goes further in two ways: it requires that all GM-compatible synthesizers meet a certain minimal set of features, such as being able to play at least 24 notes simultaneously (polyphony), and it attaches specific interpretations to many parameters and control messages which were left under-specified in the MIDI 1.0 spec, such as defining instrument sounds for each of the 128 possible program numbers. GM synthesizers are required to
    6.67
    3 votes
    121
    QTVR

    QTVR

    QuickTime VR (virtual reality) (also known as QTVR) is a type of image file format supported by Apple's QuickTime. It allows the creation and viewing of photographically captured panoramas and the exploration of objects through images taken at multiple viewing angles. It functions as a plugin for the standalone QuickTime Player, as well as working as a plugin for the QuickTime Web browser plugin. QuickTime VR will play on Windows computers as well as Apple Macintosh computers. Apple continues to include QuickTime VR in its QuickTime technology. Many software companies create authoring applications to create QuickTime VR content.
    6.67
    3 votes
    122
    Sound Recording and Reproduction

    Sound Recording and Reproduction

    Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical or mechanical inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording. Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a small microphone diaphragm that can detect changes in atmospheric pressure (acoustic sound waves) and record them as a graphic representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph (in which a stylus senses grooves on a record). In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current, which is then converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet, which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it. Analog sound reproduction is the reverse process, with a bigger loudspeaker diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound waves. Electronically generated sound waves may also be recorded directly from devices such as an electric guitar pickup or a synthesizer, without the use of acoustics in the
    6.67
    3 votes
    123
    Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing

    Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing, or TIGER, or TIGER/Line is a format used by the United States Census Bureau to describe land attributes such as roads, buildings, rivers, and lakes, as well as areas such as census tracts. TIGER was developed to support and improve the Bureau's process of taking the Decennial Census. The TIGER files do not contain the census demographic data, but merely the map data. GIS can be used to merge census demographics or other data sources with the TIGER files to create maps and conduct analysis. TIGER data is available without cost because U.S. Government publications are required to be released into the public domain. Prior to the 1960 census, the Census Bureau had enumerators visit each household in the United States to have them fill out a questionnaire. The Census Bureau provided enumerators with maps, showing the assigned area to canvass. In the late 1960s, the United States Census Bureau developed Dual Independent Map Encoding (DIME), a geographic information system to handle spatial data. DIME was superseded in the 1980s, with development of TIGER, which addressed problems encountered during the 1980 census with maps
    6.67
    3 votes
    124
    ZIP

    ZIP

    • Genre: File archiver
    • Read By: Winzip
    Zip is a file format used for data compression and archiving. A zip file contains one or more files that have been compressed, to reduce file size, or stored as is. The zip file format permits a number of compression algorithms. The format was originally created in 1989 by Phil Katz, and was first implemented in PKWARE's PKZIP utility, as a replacement for the previous ARC compression format by Thom Henderson. The zip format is now supported by many software utilities other than PKZIP. Microsoft has included built-in zip support (under the name "compressed folders") in versions of Microsoft Windows since 1998. Apple has included built-in zip support in Mac OS X 10.3 (via BOMArchiveHelper, now Archive Utility) and later. Zip files generally use the file extensions ".zip" or ".ZIP" and the MIME media type application/zip. Zip is used as a base file format by many programs, usually under a different name. Zip files are often represented by a document or other object prominently featuring a zipper. The zip file format was created by Phil Katz of PKWARE. He created the format after his company had lawsuits filed against him by Systems Enhancement Associates (SEA) claiming that his
    6.67
    3 votes
    125
    Advanced Audio Coding

    Advanced Audio Coding

    Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a standardized, lossy compression and encoding scheme for digital audio. Designed to be the successor of the MP3 format, AAC generally achieves better sound quality than MP3 at similar bit rates. AAC has been standardized by ISO and IEC, as part of the MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 specifications. Part of the AAC known as High-Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding (HE-AAC) which is part of MPEG-4 Audio is also adopted into digital radio standards like DAB+ and Digital Radio Mondiale, as well as mobile television standards DVB-H and ATSC-M/H. AAC supports inclusion of 48 full-bandwidth (up to 96 kHz) audio channels in one stream plus 16 low frequency effects (LFE, limited to 120 Hz) channels, up to 16 "coupling" or dialog channels, and up to 16 data streams. The quality for stereo is satisfactory to modest requirements at 96 kbit/s in joint stereo mode; however, hi-fi transparency demands data rates of at least 128 kbit/s (VBR). The MPEG-2 audio tests showed that AAC meets the requirements referred to as "transparent" for the ITU at 128 kbit/s for stereo, and 320 kbit/s for 5.1 audio. AAC is also the default or standard audio format for YouTube, iPhone, iPod, iPad,
    5.75
    4 votes
    126

    DOC

    • MIME Type: application/msword
    • Genre: Word processor
    • Read By: Framebuilder
    In computing, DOC or doc (an abbreviation of 'document') is a filename extension for word processing documents, most commonly in the Microsoft Word Binary File Format. Historically, the extension was used for documentation in plain text, particularly of programs or computer hardware on a wide range of operating systems. During the 1980s, WordPerfect used DOC as the extension of their proprietary format. Later, in the 1990s, Microsoft chose to use the DOC extension for their proprietary Microsoft Word format. The original uses for the extension have largely disappeared from the PC world. Binary DOC files often contain more text formatting information (as well as scripts and undo information) than some other document file formats like Rich Text Format and HyperText Markup Language, but are usually less widely compatible. The DOC files created with Microsoft Word versions differ. Microsoft Word versions up to Word 97 used a different format from Microsoft Word 97 and later. In Microsoft Word 2007 and later, the binary file format was replaced as the default format by the Office Open XML format, though Microsoft Word can still produce DOC files. The DOC format is native to Microsoft
    5.75
    4 votes
    127

    Vector graphics markup language

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    A vector graphics markup language is a markup language that describes an image at a higher level than a bitmap — in terms of lines, curves, and other vector graphics primitives. Some vector graphics markup languages use higher-level descriptions than lines and simple curves -- splines, text strings, iterated function systems, superquadratic ellipsoids, etc. Like other markup languages, vector graphics markup languages can be edited in two ways: A page description language normally contains a vector graphics markup language as a subset. The list of vector graphics markup languages includes Many page description languages such as PostScript contain a 2D vector graphics markup language, next to raster graphics and other content.
    5.75
    4 votes
    128
    Musepack

    Musepack

    Musepack or MPC is an open source lossy audio codec, specifically optimized for transparent compression of stereo audio at bitrates of 160–180 (manual set allows bitrates up to 320) kbit/s. It was formerly known as MPEGplus, MPEG+ or MP+. Development of MPC was initiated in 1997 by Andree Buschmann and later assumed by Frank Klemm, and as of 2011 is maintained by the Musepack Development Team (MDT) with assistance from Buschmann and Klemm. Encoders and decoders are available for Microsoft Windows, Linux and Mac OS X, and plugins for several third-party media players available from the Musepack website, licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) or BSD licenses, and an extensive list of programs supporting the format. Musepack was developed using the MP2 codec as a starting point, but many features have since been added, including: The psychoacoustic model of MPC is based on MPEG ISO model 2, but is extended by CVD (clear voice detection). The quantization algorithm of the MPC encoder performs spectral shaping of the noise, called adaptive noise shaping (ANS), in order to overcome the low frequency resolution of the polyphase quadrature filter bands. In the past,
    7.50
    2 votes
    129
    PowerPC

    PowerPC

    PowerPC (short for Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a RISC computer architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. PowerPC, as an evolving instruction set, has since 2006 been renamed Power ISA but lives on as a legacy trademark for some implementations of Power Architecture based processors. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular as embedded and high-performance processors. PowerPC was the cornerstone of AIM's PReP and Common Hardware Reference Platform initiatives in the 1990s and while the architecture is well known for being used by Apple's Macintosh lines from 1994 to 2006 (before Apple's transition to Intel), its use in video game consoles and embedded applications provided an array of uses. PowerPC is largely based on IBM's earlier POWER architecture, and retains a high level of compatibility with it; the architectures have remained close enough that the same programs and operating systems will run on both if some care is taken in preparation; newer chips in the POWER series implement the full PowerPC instruction set. The history of
    7.50
    2 votes
    130

    RSS

    RSS Rich Site Summary (originally RDF Site Summary, often dubbed Really Simple Syndication) is a family of web feed formats used to publish frequently updated works—such as blog entries, news headlines, audio, and video—in a standardized format. An RSS document (which is called a "feed", "web feed", or "channel") includes full or summarized text, plus metadata such as publishing dates and authorship. RSS feeds benefit publishers by letting them syndicate content automatically. A standardized XML file format allows the information to be published once and viewed by many different programs. They benefit readers who want to subscribe to timely updates from favorite websites or to aggregate feeds from many sites into one place. RSS feeds can be read using software called an "RSS reader", "feed reader", or "aggregator", which can be web-based, desktop-based, or mobile-device-based. The user subscribes to a feed by entering into the reader the feed's URI or by clicking a feed icon in a web browser that initiates the subscription process. The RSS reader checks the user's subscribed feeds regularly for new work, downloads any updates that it finds, and provides a user interface to monitor
    7.50
    2 votes
    131
    SPARC

    SPARC

    SPARC (from Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Sun Microsystems and introduced in mid-1987. SPARC is a registered trademark of SPARC International, Inc., an organization established in 1989 to promote the SPARC architecture, manage SPARC trademarks, and provide conformance testing. Implementations of the original 32-bit SPARC architecture were initially designed and used in Sun's Sun-4 workstation and server systems, replacing their earlier Sun-3 systems based on the Motorola 68000 family of processors. Later, SPARC processors were used in SMP and CC-NUMA servers produced by Sun Microsystems, Solbourne and Fujitsu, among others, and designed for 64-bit operation. SPARC International was intended to open the SPARC architecture to make a larger ecosystem for the design, which has been licensed to several manufacturers, including Texas Instruments, Atmel, Cypress Semiconductor, and Fujitsu. As a result of SPARC International, the SPARC architecture is fully open and non-proprietary. In March 2006 the complete design of Sun Microsystems' UltraSPARC T1 microprocessor was released in open-source form at OpenSPARC.net and named the
    7.50
    2 votes
    132

    VCal

    vCal is an open source calendar standard for Vision PIM. VCal can export itself to an RSS/RDF/WDP feed or publish itself to the internet using WebDAV and PHP. It can be exported to the iCalendar or vCalendar formats as well. VCal is not to be confused with the better known vCalendar format in that it is a completely different format.
    7.50
    2 votes
    133

    XCF

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    XCF, short for eXperimental Computing Facility, is the native image format of the GIMP image-editing program. It saves all of the data the program handles related to the image, including among others each layer, the current selection, channels, transparency, paths and guides. The image data saved are compressed only by a simple RLE algorithm, but GIMP supports compressed files, using either gzip or bzip2. The compressed files can be opened as normal image files. The XCF file format is backward compatible (all versions of GIMP can open earlier versions' files) and in some cases, forward compatible. For example, GIMP 2.0 can save text in text layers while GIMP 1.2 can not. Text layers saved in GIMP 2.0 will open as ordinary image layers in GIMP 1.2. However, XCF files containing layer groups, a feature introduced in GIMP 2.7, can't be opened with GIMP 2.6. The use of XCF as a data interchange format is not recommended by the GIMP developers, since the format reflects the GIMP's internal data structures, and there may be minor format changes in future versions. The source code of GIMP itself (which is freely available) is the reference documentation of the format. Henning Makholm (see
    7.50
    2 votes
    134
    2D-plus-depth

    2D-plus-depth

    2D-plus-Depth or also called 2D + Z format (not to be confused with 2D plus Delta or 2D-plus-DOT) is a Stereoscopic Video Coding format that is used for 3D displays, such as Philips WOWvx. Philips discontinued work on the WOWvx line in 2009, citing "current market developments". Currently, this Philips technology is used by Dimenco company, led by former key 3D engineers and scientists of Philips. They offer autostereoscopic 3D displays which use the 2D-plus-Depth format for 3D video input. The 2D-plus-Depth format is described in a Philips' white paper and articles. Each 2D image frame is supplemented with a greyscale depth map which indicates if a specific pixel in the 2D image needs to be shown in front of the display (white) or behind the screen plane (black). The 256 greyscales can build a smooth gradient of depth within the image. Processing within the monitor used this input to render the multiview images. Supported by various companies across the display industry, 2D-plus-Depth has been standardized in MPEG as an extension for 3D filed under ISO/IEC FDIS 23002-3:2007(E). There is also an extension on the 2D-plus-Depth format called the WOWvx Declipse format. It is described
    5.50
    4 votes
    135
    APNG

    APNG

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    The Animated Portable Network Graphics (APNG) file format is an unofficial extension to the Portable Network Graphics (PNG) specification. It allows for animated PNG files that work similarly to animated GIF files, while supporting 24-bit images and 8-bit transparency not available for GIFs. It also retains backward compatibility with non-animated PNG files. The first frame of an APNG file is stored as a normal PNG stream, so most old PNG decoders are able to display the first frame of an APNG file. The frame speed data and extra animation frames are stored in extra chunks (as provided for by the original PNG specification). APNG competes with Multiple-image Network Graphics (MNG), a comprehensive format for bitmapped animations created by the same team as PNG. APNG's advantage is the smaller library size and compatibility with older PNG implementations. The APNG specification was created in 2004 by Stuart Parmenter and Vladimir Vukićević of the Mozilla Corporation to allow for storing the animations needed for interfaces such as throbbers. Mozilla had scrapped support for MNG animations, which provides a superset of APNG functionality, citing concerns about the large file size
    6.33
    3 votes
    136

    FourCC

    A FourCC (literally, four-character code) is a sequence of four bytes used to uniquely identify data formats. The concept originated in the OSType scheme used in the Macintosh system software and was adopted for the Amiga/Electronic Arts Interchange File Format and derivatives. The idea was later reused to identify compressed data types in QuickTime and DirectShow. The byte sequence is usually restricted to ASCII printable characters, with space characters reserved for padding shorter sequences. Case sensitivity is preserved, unlike in file extensions. Four byte identifiers are useful because they can be made up of four human-readable characters with mnemonic qualities, while still fitting in the four byte memory space typically allocated for integers in 32-bit systems (although endian issues may make them less readable). Thus, the codes can be used efficiently in program code as integers as well as giving cues in binary data streams when inspected. In 1985 Electronic Arts introduced the Interchange File Format (IFF) meta-format (family of file formats), originally devised for use on the Amiga. These files consisted of a sequence of "chunks" which could contain arbitrary data, each
    6.33
    3 votes
    137

    Geographic Data Files

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    Geographic Data Files or GDF is an interchange file format for geographic data. In contrast with generic GIS formats, GDF provides detailed rules for data capture and representation, and an extensive catalog of standard features, attributes and relationships. Most recent extension expand applicability further towards Pedestrian Navigation, 3-D map rendering, and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). GDF is commonly used for data interchange in many industries such as Automotive navigation system, fleet management, dispatch management, road traffic analysis, traffic management, Automatic Vehicle Location. Originated as a flat plain-text file, GDF is not intended to be used directly for any large scale geographic application and normally requires conversion into a more efficient format. Consumability has been increased with most-recent developments for XML and SQL renditions. The maps in GDF format are provided by many map vendors such as Navteq, TomTom, Mapscape BV, GeoSmart, Automotive Navigation Data, AutoNavi and NavInfo. GDF is an international standard that is used to model, describe and transfer road networks and other geographic data. The standard was initially drawn up
    6.33
    3 votes
    138

    ICO

    • MIME Type: image/vnd.microsoft.icon
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    The ICO file format is an image file format for computer icons in Microsoft Windows. ICO files contain one or more small images at multiple sizes and color depths, such that they may be scaled appropriately. In Windows, all executables that display an icon to the user, on the desktop, in the Start Menu, or in Windows Explorer, must carry the icon in ICO format. The CUR file format is an almost identical image file format for non-animated cursors in Microsoft Windows. The only differences between these two file formats are the bytes used to identify them and the addition of a hotspot in the CUR format header; the hotspot is defined as the pixel offset (in x,y coordinates) from the top-left corner of the cursor image where the user is actually pointing the mouse. Icons introduced in Windows 1.0 were 32×32 pixels in size and were monochrome. Support for 256 colors was introduced in Windows 3.0. Win32 introduced support for storing icon images of up to 16.7 million colors (Truecolor) and up to 256x256 pixels in dimensions. Windows 95 also introduced a new Device Independent Bitmap (DIB) engine. However, 256 color was the default icon color depth in Windows 95. It was possible to enable
    6.33
    3 votes
    139

    ID3

    ID3 is a metadata container most often used in conjunction with the MP3 audio file format. It allows information such as the title, artist, album, track number, and other information about the file to be stored in the file itself. There are two unrelated versions of ID3: ID3v1 and ID3v2. Although ID3 is sometimes referred to as a standard, the term applies only in the de facto sense, as no standardization body was involved in its creation nor has such an organization given it a formal approval status. After the creation of the MP3 standard, there appeared a problem with storing data about the file. Standalone MP3s didn't have any special method of doing this. In 1996 Eric Kemp had the idea to add a small chunk of data to the audio file, thus solving the problem. The method, now known as ID3v1, quickly became the de facto standard for storing metadata in MP3s. The format was released by Damaged Cybernetics, an underground group that specialized in cracking console gaming systems. There was no identifying information for any of the ROMS, thus an ID tagging system was created to make tracking easier. Eric and associates carried this over into mp3 files. This format was used for a
    6.33
    3 votes
    140

    ILBM

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    ILBM is a subtype of the Interchange File Format (IFF) used for storing picture data. ILBM stands for InterLeaved BitMap which refers to the way the pictures are stored. The image data is stored as a varying number of bitplanes, each storing one bit of data for each pixel in the image. The format supports horizontal and vertical RLE (Run Length Encoding) compression. Besides supporting TrueColor (24-bit color) with or without an 8-bit alpha channel, the format is capable of closely matching the abilities and expectations of the original Amiga chipsets, of which three major revisions existed. On the OCS/ECS chipsets up to 6 bitplanes are supported, which would normally limit the number of colors to 64. However only 32 palette registers are available. Usage of one to five bitplanes is straightforward, according to binary progression. The first bitplane provides 2 colors, the second one doubles that to 4 colors, the third again doubles that to 8 colors, the fourth provides 16, and five bitplanes allows for 32 colors. With six bitplanes there are two display modes. Extra Half-Bright mode provides 64 colors, the last 32 being half as bright as the first. And more interestingly the Hold
    6.33
    3 votes
    141

    Mbox

    mbox is a generic term for a family of related file formats used for holding collections of electronic mail messages. All messages in an mbox mailbox are concatenated and stored as plain text in a single file. The beginning of each message is indicated by a line whose first five characters consist of "From" followed by a space (the so named "From_ line" or "'From ' line" or simply "From line") and the return path e-mail address. A blank line is appended to the end of each message. For a while, the mbox format was popular because text processing tools can be readily used on the plain text files used to store the e-mail messages. Unlike the Internet protocols used for the exchange of e-mail, the format used for the storage of e-mail has never been formally defined through the RFC standardization mechanism and has been entirely left to the developer of an e-mail client. mbox (RFC 4155) stores mailbox messages in their original Internet Message (RFC 2822) format, usually in files directly accessible to users. A similar format is the MH Message Handling System. Other systems, such as Microsoft Exchange Server and the Cyrus IMAP server store mailboxes in centralised databases managed by
    6.33
    3 votes
    142

    MrSID

    • MIME Type: image/x-mrsid-image
    • Genre: GIS file formats
    MrSID (pronounced Mister Sid) is an acronym that stands for multiresolution seamless image database. It is a file format (filename extension .sid) developed and patented by LizardTech for encoding of georeferenced raster graphics, such as orthophotos. MrSID originated as the result of research efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). MrSID was originally developed for Geographic Information Systems (GIS). With this format, large raster image files such as aerial photographs or satellite imagery are compressed and can be quickly viewed without having to decompress the entire file. The MrSID (.sid) format is supported in all major GIS applications such as Goodrich Merlin, ESRI, BAE Systems CoMPASS, ENVI, ERDAS, Autodesk, Bentley Systems, MapInfo, Intergraph and other product lines. According to the Open Source Geospatial Foundation (which releases GDAL), MrSID was developed "under the aegis of the U.S. government for storing fingerprints for the FBI." In a 1996 entry for the R&D 100 Awards, LANL identified other uses for the format: "it can be used as an efficient method for storing and retrieving photographic archives; it can store and retrieve satellite data for consumer
    6.33
    3 votes
    143
    VRML

    VRML

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language, pronounced vermal or by its initials, originally—before 1995—known as the Virtual Reality Markup Language) is a standard file format for representing 3-dimensional (3D) interactive vector graphics, designed particularly with the World Wide Web in mind. It has been superseded by X3D. VRML is a text file format where, e.g., vertices and edges for a 3D polygon can be specified along with the surface color, UV mapped textures, shininess, transparency, and so on. URLs can be associated with graphical components so that a web browser might fetch a webpage or a new VRML file from the Internet when the user clicks on the specific graphical component. Animations, sounds, lighting, and other aspects of the virtual world can interact with the user or may be triggered by external events such as timers. A special Script Node allows the addition of program code (e.g., written in Java or JavaScript (ECMAScript)) to a VRML file. VRML files are commonly called "worlds" and have the *.wrl extension (for example island.wrl). VRML files are in plain text and generally compresses well using gzip which is useful for transferring over the internet more quickly
    6.33
    3 votes
    144

    XPM

    • MIME Type: image/x-xpm
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    • Read By: X
    X Pixmap (XPM) is an image file format used by the X Window System, created in 1989 by Daniel Dardailler and Colas Nahaboo working at Bull Research Center at Sophia Antipolis, France, and later enhanced by Arnaud Le Hors. It is intended primarily for creating icon pixmaps, and supports transparent color. Derived from the earlier XBM syntax, it is a plain text file of a C programming language syntax, which can be included in a C program file. The XPM format is an array of strings composed of six different sections as follows: This is a black and white image in the first (1989) XPM format. The values section contains the width, height, number of colors, and number of characters per pixel. XPM2 simplifies the format by removing all C idiosyncrasies. An example: This is an XPM2 file with width 128, height 128, 64 colors, using one character per pixel. One tool is known to use only a to p for 16 colors, switching to aa up to dp for 64 colors, but still reading single character encodings for 64 colors; compare Base64. With more colors the codes use more characters, e.g. aa up to pp for 16*16=256 colors. This is less useful for text editors, because a string ab could be actually the
    6.33
    3 votes
    145

    Document file format

    A document file format is a text or binary file format for storing documents on a storage media, especially for use by computers. There currently exist a multitude of incompatible document file formats. A rough consensus has been established that XML is to be the basis for future document file formats. Examples of XML-based open standards are DocBook, XHTML, and, more recently, the ISO/IEC standards OpenDocument (ISO 26300:2006) and Office Open XML (ISO 29500:2008). In 1993, the ITU-T tried to establish a standard for document file formats, known as the Open Document Architecture (ODA) which was supposed to replace all competing document file formats. It is described in ITU-T documents T.411 through T.421, which are equivalent to ISO 8613. It did not succeed. Page description languages such as PostScript and PDF have become the de facto standard for documents that a typical user should only be able to create and read, not edit. In 2001, PDF became an international ISO/IEC standard (ISO 15930-1:2001, ISO 19005-1:2005, ISO 32000-1:2008). HTML is the most used and open international standard and it is also used as document file format. It has also become ISO/IEC standard (ISO
    8.00
    1 votes
    146

    Geodatabase

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    A geodatabase is a spatial database designed to store, query, and manipulate geographic information and spatial data of low dimensionality. It is a specialized type of spatial database often with optimizations for 2 and 3 dimensions, raster data and Euclidean distance. Within a spatial database, spatial data is treated as any other data type. Vector data can be stored as point, line or polygon data types, and may have an associated spatial reference system. A geodatabase record can use a geometry data type to represent the location of an object in the physical world and other standard database data types to store the object's associated attributes. Some geodatabases, such as Rasterlite and those used by ESRI in their ArcGIS software, also include support for storing raster data. Many geodatabases have custom functions that allow the spatial data to be manipulated and queried using SQL, for example to find all the residents of an area within an exposure zone for a potential environmental hazard. However the spatial data in some geodatabases can only be accessed by using specialized client software. Within a geographic information system (GIS) a spatial database is one component that
    8.00
    1 votes
    147
    PLY

    PLY

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    • Read By: Animation Master
    PLY is a computer file format known as the Polygon File Format or the Stanford Triangle Format. The format was principally designed to store three dimensional data from 3D scanners. It supports a relatively simple description of a single object as a list of nominally flat polygons. A variety of properties can be stored including: color and transparency, surface normals, texture coordinates and data confidence values. The format permits one to have different properties for the front and back of a polygon. There are two versions of the file format, one in ASCII, the other in binary. A complete description of the PLY format is beyond the scope of this article - but one may obtain a good understanding of the basic concepts from the following description: Files are organised as a header, that specifies the elements of a mesh and their types, followed by the list of elements itself, usually vertices and faces - potentially other entities such as edges, samples of range maps, and triangle strips can be encountered. The header of both ASCII and binary files is ASCII text. Only the numerical data that follows the header is different between the two versions. The header always starts with a
    8.00
    1 votes
    148

    Shapefile

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    The Esri shapefile or simply a shapefile is a popular geospatial vector data format for geographic information systems software. It is developed and regulated by Esri as a (mostly) open specification for data interoperability among Esri and other software products. Shapefiles spatially describe geometries: points, polylines, and polygons. These, for example, could represent water wells, rivers, and lakes, respectively. Each item may also have attributes that describe the items, such as the name or temperature. A shapefile is a digital vector storage format for storing geometric location and associated attribute information. This format lacks the capacity to store topological information. The shapefile format was introduced with ArcView GIS version 2 in the beginning of the 1990s. It is now possible to read and write shapefiles using a variety of free and non-free programs. Shapefiles are simple because they store primitive geometrical data types of points, lines, and polygons. These primitives are of limited use without any attributes to specify what they represent. Therefore, a table of records will store properties/attributes for each primitive shape in the shapefile. Shapes
    8.00
    1 votes
    149

    Tagged Image File Format

    • MIME Type: image/tiff-fx
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    TIFF (originally standing for Tagged Image File Format) is a file format for storing images, popular among graphic artists, the publishing industry, and both amateur and professional photographers in general. As of 2009, it is under the control of Adobe Systems. Originally created by the company Aldus for use with what was then called "desktop publishing", the TIFF format is widely supported by image-manipulation applications, by publishing and page layout applications, by scanning, faxing, word processing, optical character recognition and other applications. Adobe Systems, which acquired Aldus, now holds the copyright to the TIFF specification. TIFF has not had a major update since 1992, though several Aldus/Adobe technical notes have been published with minor extensions to the format, and several specifications, including TIFF/EP (ISO 12234-2), TIFF/IT (ISO 12639), TIFF-F (RFC 2306) and TIFF-FX (RFC 3949) have been based on the TIFF 6.0 specification. The phrases "Tagged Image File Format" and "Tag Image File Format" were used as the subtitle to some early versions of the TIFF specification; the 1992 specification, TIFF 6.0, does not use either subtitle phrase, but is simply
    8.00
    1 votes
    150

    Wildcard character

    The term wildcard character has the following meanings: In telecommunications, a wildcard is a character that may be substituted for any of a defined subset of all possible characters. In computer (software) technology, a wildcard character can be used to substitute for any other character or characters in a string. When specifying file names (or paths) in CP/M, DOS, Microsoft Windows and Unix-like operating systems, the asterisk character ("*") substitutes for zero or more characters. In Unix-like operating systems, the question mark ("?") substitutes for exactly one character, whereas in DOS, it substitutes for one character or less. For example, in DOS, the pattern 123??? will match 1231 or 12313 but not 1239919991. In Unix shells and Windows PowerShell, ranges of characters enclosed in square brackets ("[" and "]") substitute for all the characters in their ranges; for example, [A-Za-z] substitutes for any single capitalized or lowercase letter. Unix shells allow negation of the specified characters within brackets by using a leading "!". Matching wildcard patterns to multiple files or paths is referred to as glob expansion. In SQL, wildcard characters can be used in "LIKE"
    8.00
    1 votes
    151

    3GP

    • MIME Type: video/3gpp
    • Genre: Container format
    3GP (3GPP file format) is a multimedia container format defined by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for 3G UMTS multimedia services. It is used on 3G mobile phones but can also be played on some 2G and 4G phones. 3G2 (3GPP2 file format) is a multimedia container format defined by the 3GPP2 for 3G CDMA2000 multimedia services. It is very similar to the 3GP file format, but has some extensions and limitations in comparison to 3GP. 3GP is defined in the ETSI 3GPP technical specification. 3GP is a required file format for video and associated speech/audio media types and timed text in ETSI 3GPP technical specifications for IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS) and Transparent end-to-end Packet-switched Streaming Service (PSS). 3G2 is defined in the 3GPP2 technical specification. The 3GP and 3G2 file formats are both structurally based on the ISO base media file format defined in ISO/IEC 14496-12 - MPEG-4 Part 12, but older versions of the 3GP file format did not use some of its features. 3GP and 3G2 are container formats similar to MPEG-4 Part 14 (MP4), which is also based on MPEG-4 Part 12. The
    7.00
    2 votes
    152

    AIXM

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    The Aeronautical Information Exchange Model (AIXM) is designed to enable the management and distribution of Aeronautical Information Services (AIS) data in digital format. AIXM version 5.0, set to be finalized in late 2007, is based on Geography Markup Language (GML) and is one of the GML Application Schemas which is applicable for the Aeronautical domain. One main goal of AIXM version 5 is to enable 'digital NOTAM'. In this concept, the traditional free text information contained in NOTAM messages is replaced with structured information, which is suitable for automated computer processing. It is being developed by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL). AIXM has two main components: The AIXM Conceptual Model is a conceptual model of the aeronautical domain. It describes the features and their properties (attributes and associations) within the domain. Therefore, it can be used as the logical basis for AIM databases. The model is designed using the Unified Modelling Language (UML). The AIXM XML Schema is an exchange model for aeronautical data. It is an implementation of the Conceptual Model as an
    7.00
    2 votes
    153
    Alesis ADAT HD24

    Alesis ADAT HD24

    • Genre: Audio file format
    The Alesis HD24 is a 24-track hard-disk audio recorder. It is the successor to the tape based Alesis ADAT. There are numerous advantages that the HD24 has over the tape-based ADATs. Primarily, the use of hard disks as storage medium rather than tape allows for random access of audio, whereas tape based solutions only allow sequential playback. The built in Ethernet port allows users to transfer the audio files to a computer, which could only be done with a specific PCI card with the previous ADAT. This feature permits users to transfer the audio to a Digital Audio Workstation for editing, after which the audio can be transferred back to the HD24. However, transfer speed of the Ethernet port is limited to 10 Megabit per second. Although it is possible to edit audio within the HD24, computer based systems offer a lot more editing power. The additional benefits of computer based recording mean that the HD24, or any stand alone multi tracker, is now not the preferred choice of many audio engineers. However stand-alone solutions are often perceived as being more reliable than computer based solutions. For recordists who work mainly in analog realm, using digital recorder only as capture
    7.00
    2 votes
    154

    Geography Markup Language

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    The Geography Markup Language (GML) is the XML grammar defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) to express geographical features. GML serves as a modeling language for geographic systems as well as an open interchange format for geographic transactions on the Internet. Note that the concept of feature in GML is a very general one and includes not only conventional "vector" or discrete objects, but also coverages (see also GMLJP2) and sensor data. The ability to integrate all forms of geographic information is key to the utility of GML. GML contains a rich set of primitives which are used to build application specific schemas or application languages. These primitives include: The original GML model was based on the World Wide Web Consortium's Resource Description Framework (RDF). Subsequently, the OGC introduced XML schemas into GML's structure to help connect the various existing geographic databases, whose relational structure XML schemas more easily define. The resulting XML-schema-based GML retains many features of RDF, including the idea of child elements as properties of the parent object (RDFS) and the use of remote property references. GML profiles are logical
    7.00
    2 votes
    155
    MP3

    MP3

    • MIME Type: audio/mpeg
    • Genre: Audio file format
    • Read By: iTunes
    MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III, more commonly referred to as MP3, is a patented encoding format for digital audio which uses a form of lossy data compression. It is a common audio format for consumer audio storage, as well as a de facto standard of digital audio compression for the transfer and playback of music on most digital audio players. MP3 is an audio-specific format that was designed by the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) as part of its MPEG-1 standard and later extended in MPEG-2 standard. The first MPEG subgroup – Audio group was formed by several teams of engineers at Fraunhofer IIS, University of Hannover, AT&T-Bell Labs, Thomson-Brandt, CCETT, and others. MPEG-1 Audio (MPEG-1 Part 3), which included MPEG-1 Audio Layer I, II and III was approved as a committee draft of ISO/IEC standard in 1991, finalised in 1992 and published in 1993 (ISO/IEC 11172-3:1993). Backwards compatible MPEG-2 Audio (MPEG-2 Part 3) with additional bit rates and sample rates was published in 1995 (ISO/IEC 13818-3:1995). The use in MP3 of a lossy compression algorithm is designed to greatly reduce the amount of data required to represent the audio recording and still sound like a faithful
    7.00
    2 votes
    156

    OpenDocument

    • Genre: Office suite
    • Read By: OpenOffice.org
    The Open Document Format for Office Applications (ODF), also known as OpenDocument (OD), is an XML-based file format for spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents. It was developed with the aim of providing a universal document format that could be used with any office software suite. The standard was developed by a technical committee in the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) consortium. The specifications were originally developed by Sun Microsystems as an XML format for OpenOffice.org office suite. In addition to being an OASIS standard, version 1.1 is published as an ISO/IEC international standard, ISO/IEC 26300:2006/Amd 1:2012 - Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) v1.1. The most common filename extensions used for OpenDocument documents are: The original OpenDocument format consists of an XML document that has as its root element. OpenDocument files can also take the format of a ZIP compressed archive containing a number of files and directories; these can contain binary content and benefit from ZIP's lossless compression to reduce file size. OpenDocument benefits from
    7.00
    2 votes
    157

    Pro-MPEG

    Pro-MPEG – the Professional-MPEG Forum – is an association of broadcasters, program makers, equipment manufacturers, and component suppliers with interests in realizing the interoperability of professional television equipment, according to the implementation requirements of broadcasters and other end-users. The Forum has been in existence for approximately nine years and has over 130 members. Independence, openness, and non-commerciality are fiercely maintained to ensure all organizations and individuals can participate and contribute. The SMPTE and the EBU are two key partner organizations, and the output of the Forum's work on operating ranges and file formats has been submitted to SMPTE for standardization.
    7.00
    2 votes
    158

    Qcow

    • Genre: Disk image
    qcow stands for "QEMU Copy On Write" and denotes a disk storage optimization strategy that delays allocation of storage until it is actually needed. QEMU is an emulator and virtual machine container, and it can use a variety of virtual disk images which are generally associated with specific guests operating systems. qcow images grow as data is added, and support AES encryption or transparent decompression. One disadvantage of qcow images is that they cannot be mounted with offset, in the way that raw images can be mounted with mount /path/to/image.img /mount/path -o loop,offset=32256. The set of possible disk image formats have commonly accepted short names: qcow2 is a newer version of the qcow format. QEMU can use a base image which is read-only, and store all writes to the qcow2 image. Among the QEMU supported formats, this is the most versatile format. Features include smaller images (useful if the filesystem does not support holes, for example on FAT32), optional AES encryption, zlib based compression and support of multiple VM snapshots. qemu and xen have retained the qcow format for backwards compatibility. Users can easily convert qcow disk images to the qcow2 format.
    7.00
    2 votes
    159
    WMV HD

    WMV HD

    Windows Media High Definition Video (WMV HD) is the marketing name for high definition videos encoded using Microsoft Windows Media Video 9 codecs. These low-complexity codecs make it possible to watch high definition movies in 1280×720 (720p) or 1920×1080 (1080p) resolutions on many modern personal computers running Microsoft Windows XP or Windows Vista, although the hardware requirements are steep. Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Sony's PlayStation 3 video game consoles can also play WMV HD. WMV HD is not a standalone video codec nor a special modification of the WMV9 codec. As of April 2006, all existing WMV HD titles are encoded using the VC-1 compliant Windows Media Video 9 (FourCC: WMV3) codec conforming to VC-1 Main Profile @ High Level specification. It is possible that in the future Microsoft will take advantage of the new VC-1 Advanced Profile codec dubbed Windows Media Video Advanced Profile (FourCC: WVC1) to encode WMV HD videos. A number of WMV9-encoded high definition movie titles have been made commercially available on DVD-ROM discs, either as standalone discs or supplements to the regular DVD-Video titles. The technology was considered a stepping stone to true high
    7.00
    2 votes
    160
    World file

    World file

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    A world file is a plain text computer data file used by geographic information systems to georeference raster map images. The file specification was introduced by Esri. Small-scale rectangular raster image maps can have an associated world file for GIS map software which describes the location, scale and rotation of the map. These world files are six-line files with decimal numbers on each line. World files do not specify a coordinate system; this information is generally stored somewhere else in the raster file itself or in another companion file. The generic meaning of world file parameters are: This description is however misleading in that the D and B rotation parameters are not really rotations (in degrees or gradients) and in that as soon as D or B are not zero, the A and E parameters do not correspond to the pixel size any more. The A, D, B and E parameters are sometimes named "x-scale", "y-skew", "x-skew" and "y-scale". A better description of the A, D, B and E parameters would be: All four parameters are expressed in the map units depending on the coordinate system associated with the raster. When D or B are different from zero the pixel width is given by: and the pixel
    7.00
    2 votes
    161
    Chord chart

    Chord chart

    A chord chart (or chart) is a form of musical notation that describes harmonic and rhythmic information. It is the most common form of notation used by professional session musicians playing jazz or popular music. It is intended primarily for a rhythm section (usually consisting of piano, guitar, drums and bass). In these genres the musicians are expected to be able to improvise the actual notes used to represent the chord and the appropriate ornamentation or counter melody. The harmony is given as a series of chord symbols above a traditional musical staff. The rhythmic information can be very specific and written using a form of traditional notation, sometimes called rhythmic notation, or it can be completely unspecified using slash notation, allowing the musician to fill the bar any way he sees fit (called "comping"). In Nashville notation the key is left unspecified by substituting numbers for chord names. Chord charts are similar to the figured bass ("basso continuo") system used as early as the beginning of the seventeenth century to allow the continuo ("rhythm section") keyboard to improvise right-hand chords over a written bass line played with the left hand. Since it uses
    6.00
    3 votes
    162

    Extended Vector Animation

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Extended Vector Animation (EVA) is a web-based vector graphic file format developed by Sharp Corporation in 1996. The EVA format differs from other vector formats because only the changes in vectors over time is recorded instead of information per frame. The format is popular in Japan and several versions of EVA Animator software have been sold and included as standard software in Japanese Sharp notebook computers such as the Mebuis. The EVA format is comparable to the Macromedia Flash format except that the files are 13 times smaller than Flash counterparts. A ten minute animation produced in the EVA format is only around 500 KB whereas the same animation produced in Flash would be several MB in size. Although very popular in Japan, the Animator software itself only works in Japanese versions of Windows and has never been ported to the English versions.
    6.00
    3 votes
    163
    Filename

    Filename

    A filename (also written as two words, file name) is a name used to uniquely identify a computer file stored in a file system. Different file systems impose different restrictions on filename lengths and the allowed characters within filenames. A filename may include one or more of these components: The components required to identify a file varies across operating systems, as does the syntax and format for a valid filename. Around 1962, the Compatible Time-Sharing System introduced the concept of a file (i.e., non-paper file). Around this same time appeared the dot (period or full-stop) as a filename extension separator, and the limit to three letter extensions might have come from RAD50 16-bit limits. Traditionally, filenames allowed only alphanumeric characters, but as time progressed, the number of characters allowed increased. This led to incompatibility problems when moving files from one file system to another. Around 1995, VFAT, a variant of the FAT filesystem with an extended directory format, was introduced in Windows 95 and Windows NT 3.5. It allowed mixed-case Unicode long filenames (LFNs), in addition to classic "8.3" names. In 1985, RFC 959 officially defined a
    6.00
    3 votes
    164

    Filename mangling

    The process of filename mangling, in computing, involves a re-writing of the file name for compatibility at the operating system level. It occurs when a filename on a filesystem appears in a form incompatible with the operating system accessing it. Such mangling occurs, for example, on computer networks when a Windows machine attempts to access a file on a Unix server and that file has a filename which includes characters not valid in Windows.
    6.00
    3 votes
    165

    MXF

    • Read By: Simcity
    Material eXchange Format (MXF) is a container format for professional digital video and audio media defined by a set of SMPTE standards. MXF is a "container" or "wrapper" format which supports a number of different streams of coded "essence", encoded with any of a variety of codecs, together with a metadata wrapper which describes the material contained within the MXF file. MXF has been designed to address a number of problems with non-professional formats. MXF has full timecode and metadata support, and is intended as a platform-agnostic stable standard for future professional video and audio applications. MXF was developed to carry a subset of the Advanced Authoring Format (AAF) data model, under a policy known as the Zero Divergence Directive (ZDD). This theoretically enables MXF/AAF workflows between non-linear editing (NLE) systems using AAF and cameras, servers, and other devices using MXF. MXF is in the process of evolving from standard to deployment. The breadth of the standard can lead to interoperability problems as vendors implement different parts of the standard. Currently, MXF is fairly effective at the interchange of D10 (IMX) material, mainly because of the success
    6.00
    3 votes
    166

    RIFF

    The Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF) is a generic file container format for storing data in tagged chunks. It is primarily used to store multimedia such as sound and video, though it may also be used to store any arbitrary data. It was introduced in 1991 by Microsoft and IBM, and was presented by Microsoft as the default format for Windows 3.1 multimedia files. It is based on Electronic Arts' Interchange File Format, introduced in 1985 on the Amiga 1000, the only difference being that multi-byte integers are in little-endian format, native to the 80x86 processor series used in IBM PCs, rather than the big-endian format native to the 68k processor series used in Amiga and Apple Macintosh computers, where IFF files were heavily used. (The specification for AIFF, the big-endian analogue of RIFF, was published by Apple Computer in 1988.) The Microsoft implementation is mostly known through container formats like AVI, ANI and WAV, which use RIFF as their basis. In 2010 Google introduced the WebP picture format, which uses RIFF as a container. RIFF files consist entirely of "chunks". The overall format is identical to IFF, except for the endianness as previously stated, and the
    6.00
    3 votes
    167

    Apple Icon Image

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    The Apple Icon Image format is the icon format used in Apple Inc.'s Mac OS X. It supports icons of 16×16, 32×32, 48×48, 128×128, 256×256, 512×512, and 1024×1024 pixels, with both 1- and 8-bit alpha channels and multiple image states (example: open and closed folders). The fixed-size icons can be scaled by the operating system and displayed at any intermediate size. The file format consists of an 8 byte header, followed by any number of icons. Over time the format has been improved and there is support for compression of some parts of the pixel data. The 32-bit ("is32", "il32", "ih32","it32") pixel data is often compressed (per channel) with the PackBits algorithm. Some sources mentioned that the OS supports both compressed or uncompressed data chunks.
    5.67
    3 votes
    168

    General Data Format for Biomedical Signals

    • Read By: Geos
    The General Data Format for Biomedical Signals is a scientific and medical data file format. The aim of GDF is to combine and integrate the best features of all biosignal file formats into a single file format. GDF v1 uses a binary header, and uses an event table. GDF v2 added fields for additional subject-specific information (gender, age, etc.), and utilizes several standard codes (for storing physical units and other properties). GDF is used mostly in brain–computer interface research; however, GDF provides a superset of features from many different file formats, it could be also used for many other domains. The free and open source software library BioSig provides implementations for reading and writing of GDF in Octave/Matlab and C/C++. A lightweight C++ library called libGDF is also available and implements version 2 of the GDF format. The binary nature of the meta-information might not be suitable for all applications. Therefore, a new format called XDF was developed with the aim to provide a flexible and extensible format for all kinds of data streams, but in particular for biosignals.
    5.67
    3 votes
    169

    .dmg

    • MIME Type: application/octet-stream
    • Genre: Disk image
    • Read By: Mac OS X
    A file with the extension .dmg (an abbreviation for disk image) uses a disk image format commonly found on Mac OS X. The format allows secure password protection as well as file compression and hence serves both security and file distribution functions. Its most common function is the distribution of software over the Internet. When opened, DMG files are "mounted" as a drive within the Finder. DMG files can be easily created (with or without encryption) using utilities that are included in OS X: Disk Utility in Mac OS X v.10.5, Mac OS X v10.4 and 10.3 or Disk Copy in earlier versions. These utilities also use DMG files as images for burning CDs and DVDs. DMG files may also be managed via the command line using the utility. DMG files are published with a MIME type of application/x-apple-diskimage. As many web server administrators tend to be less knowledgeable about Apple-specific file types, this MIME type is often not set, resulting in the user experience of attempting to download DMG files as text directly to the browser window, forcing the use of a control-click or similar workaround to download the file. For this reason, DMG files may be distributed as bzip2 (.dmg.bz2) or
    6.50
    2 votes
    170

    .pst

    In computing, a Personal Storage Table (PST) is an open, proprietary file format used to store messages, calendar events, and other items within Microsoft software such as Microsoft Exchange Client, Windows Messaging, and Microsoft Outlook. The open format is controlled by Microsoft, who provides free specifications and free irrevocable technology licensing. The file format may also be known as a Personal Folder File or a Personal Address Book (.pab). When functioning in its capacity as a cache for Outlook's Cached Exchange Mode feature, it may be called an Offline Storage Table (.ost) or an Offline Folder File. In Microsoft Exchange Server, the messages, the calendar, and other data items are delivered to and stored on the server. Microsoft Outlook stores these items in a personal-storage-table (PST) or off-line-storage-table (OST) files that are located on the local computer. Most commonly, the PST files are used to store archived items and the files to maintain off-line availability of the items. The size of these files no longer counts against the size of the mailbox used; by moving files from a server mailbox to PST files, users can free storage space on their mailservers. To
    6.50
    2 votes
    171

    APEv2 tag

    An APE tag is a tag used to add metadata, such as the title, artist, or track number, to digital audio files. The APEv1 tag was designed for the Monkey's Audio format. In MP3 files, the APE tag is stored at the very end of the file, with no inline declaration in the body of the file. The software handles the writing and access to the tag and does not interfere with the contents of the MP3. The Musepack format developer, Frank Klemm, extended the original APE tag format to add a header, allowing APE tags to be at the beginning of files and allowing metadata values to be Unicode rather than simply ASCII. Because of its simplicity and flexibility, APEv2 was adopted by the WavPack and OptimFROG formats as their primary tag format. Version 3.99 of the official Monkey's Audio software switched from using APEv1 to APEv2. The popular media player software, Winamp, supports reading and writing of APEv2 tags in MP3 files. foobar2000 and Jack! The Knife can tag MP3 files with APEv2 tags instead of ID3 tags. Some music library managers and mass taggers such as MusicBee or Mp3tag also support this feature. The tagging string APETAGEX signals the start of an APEv2 record, and the string TAG
    6.50
    2 votes
    172

    DMPL

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Digital Microprocessor Plotter Language (DMPL) is a vector graphics file format from Houston Instruments developed to control pen plotters and later used on cutting plotters. This language is not compatible with HP-GL, see its EAGLE definition:
    6.50
    2 votes
    173
    Exchangeable image file format

    Exchangeable image file format

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Exchangeable image file format (Exif) is a standard that specifies the formats for images, sound, and ancillary tags used by digital cameras (including smartphones), scanners and other systems handling image and sound files recorded by digital cameras. The specification uses the following existing file formats with the addition of specific metadata tags: JPEG DCT (where DCT refers to the 1974 publication by N. Ahmed, T. Natarajan and K. R. Rao, Reference 1 in discrete cosine transform) for compressed image files, TIFF Rev. 6.0 (RGB or YCbCr) for uncompressed image files, and RIFF WAV for audio files (Linear PCM or ITU-T G.711 μ-Law PCM for uncompressed audio data, and IMA-ADPCM for compressed audio data). It is not supported in JPEG 2000, PNG, or GIF. This standard consists of the Exif image file specification and the Exif audio file specification. The Japan Electronic Industries Development Association (JEIDA) produced the initial definition of Exif. Version 2.1 of the specification is dated June 12, 1998. JEITA established version 2.2 in April 2002.. The latest, version 2.3 dated April 2010, was jointly formulated by JEITA and CIPA. Though the specification is not currently
    6.50
    2 votes
    174

    GIS file formats

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    A GIS file format is a standard of encoding geographical information into a file. They are created mainly by government mapping agencies (such as the USGS or National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency) or by GIS software developers. Metadata often includes: A raster data type is, in essence, any type of digital image represented by reducible and enlargeable grids. Anyone who is familiar with digital photography will recognize the Raster graphics pixel as the smallest individual grid unit building block of an image, usually not readily identified as an artifact shape until an image is produced on a very large scale. A combination of the pixels making up an image color formation scheme will compose details of an image, as is distinct from the commonly used points, lines, and polygon area location symbols of scalable vector graphics as the basis of the vector model of area attribute rendering. While a digital image is concerned with its output blending together its grid based details as an identifiable representation of reality, in a photograph or art image transferred into a computer, the raster data type will reflect a digitized abstraction of reality dealt with by grid populating
    6.50
    2 votes
    175

    MapInfo Interchange Format

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    MapInfo Interchange Format is a map and database exporting file format of MapInfo software product. The MIF-file filename usually ends with .mif-suffix. Some MIF-files also have a related MID-file. The filename of a MID-file usually ends with .mid-suffix.
    6.50
    2 votes
    176

    Pulse-code modulation

    Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. It is the standard form for digital audio in computers and various Blu-ray, DVD and Compact Disc formats, as well as other uses such as digital telephone systems. A PCM stream is a digital representation of an analog signal, in which the magnitude of the analog signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, with each sample being quantized to the nearest value within a range of digital steps. PCM streams have two basic properties that determine their fidelity to the original analog signal: the sampling rate, which is the number of times per second that samples are taken; and the bit depth, which determines the number of possible digital values that each sample can take. In the history of electrical communications, the earliest reason for sampling a signal was to interlace samples from multiple telegraphy sources, and convey them over a single telegraph cable. Telegraph time-division multiplexing (TDM) was conveyed as early as 1853, by the American inventor Moses G. Farmer. The electrical engineer W. M. Miner, in 1903, used an electro-mechanical commutator for time-division multiplex of
    6.50
    2 votes
    177

    ArcInfo binary grid

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    An Esri grid is a raster GIS file format developed by Esri, which has two formats: The formats were introduced for ARC/INFO. The binary format is widely used within Esri programs, such as ArcGIS, while the ASCII format is used as an exchange, or export format, due to the simple and portable ASCII file structure. The grid defines geographic space as an array of equally sized square grid points arranged in rows and columns. Each grid point stores a numeric value that represents a geographic attribute (such as elevation or surface slope) for that unit of space. Each grid cell is referenced by its x,y coordinate location. In Esri grid data, the first six lines indicate the reference of the grid, followed by the values listed in the order they would naturally appear (left-right, top-down). For example, consider a grid, shown to the left. This could be encoded into an ASCII grid file, that would look like: where The remainder of the file lists the raster values for each cell, starting at the upper-left corner. These real numbers (with optional decimal point, if needed) and are delimited using a single space character. A binary Esri grid is stored in several files contained in at least
    7.00
    1 votes
    178
    BitTorrent

    BitTorrent

    • Genre: Peer-to-peer
    BitTorrent is a protocol that underpins the practice of peer-to-peer file sharing and is used for distributing large amounts of data over the Internet. BitTorrent is one of the most common protocols for transferring large files and it has been estimated that, collectively, peer-to-peer networks have accounted for approximately 43% to 70% of all Internet traffic (depending on geographical location) as of February 2009. Programmer Bram Cohen designed the protocol in April 2001 and released the first available version on July 2, 2001. Currently, numerous BitTorrent clients are available for a variety of computing platforms. As of January 2012, BitTorrent is utilized by 150 million active users (according to BitTorrent, Inc.). Based on this figure, the total number of monthly BitTorrent users can be estimated at more than a quarter of a billion. At any given instant, BitTorrent has, on average, more active users than YouTube and Facebook combined (this refers to the number of active users at any instant and not to the total number of unique users). Research has also shown that, since 2010, more than 200,000 users of the protocol have been sued. The BitTorrent protocol can be used to
    7.00
    1 votes
    179

    NavPix

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    NavPix is the proprietary name applied by Navman to its technology that combines an image with geographical data. The "NavPix" name is used for both the software and the geo-referenced image that results from that software. The NavPix technology enables users to take a JPEG image using the integrated digital camera on the N Series ("N" for NavPix), iCN 720 or iCN 750 portable Navman GPS navigation devices. The Navman's GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver determines the latitude and longitude of where that image was taken. That information is then written into the image's Exif (Exchangeable image file format) meta data by the NavPix software. The NavPix, therefore, effectively provides a Georeference of the location where the image was taken, which is not necessarily the same georeference as the object being "NavPix-ed". The NavPix image can then be used to define a destination or point of interest on compatible Navman devices. Furthermore, as the geographical information is written to the meta data, the image itself can be shared between compatible devices or uploaded to Navman's NavPix Library which offers a wide range of NavPix images that have been taken by both Navman
    7.00
    1 votes
    180

    OPeNDAP

    OPeNDAP, an acronym for "Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol", is a data transport architecture and protocol widely used by earth scientists. The protocol is based on HTTP and the current specification is OPeNDAP 2.0 draft. OPeNDAP includes standards for encapsulating structured data, annotating the data with attributes and adding semantics that describe the data. The protocol is maintained by OPeNDAP.org, a publicly-funded non-profit organization that also provides free reference implementations of OPeNDAP servers and clients. An OPeNDAP client could be an ordinary browser, although this gives limited functionality. Usually, an OPeNDAP client is a graphics program (like GrADS, Ferret or ncBrowse) or web application (like DChart) linked with an OPeNDAP library. An OPeNDAP client sends requests to an OPeNDAP server, and receives various types of documents or binary data as a response. One such document is called a DDS (received when a DDS request is sent), that describes the structure of a data set. A data set, seen from the server side, may be a file, a collection of files or a database. Another document type that may be received is DAS, which gives attribute
    7.00
    1 votes
    181

    Spatial Data Transfer Standard

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    Spatial Data Transfer Standard, or SDTS, is a standard used to describe earth-referenced spatial data. It was designed to easily transfer and use spatial data on different computer platforms.
    7.00
    1 votes
    182
    ABX test

    ABX test

    • Genre: Audio file format
    An ABX test is a method of comparing two choices of sensory stimuli to identify detectable differences between them. A subject is presented with two known samples (sample A, the first reference, and sample B, the second reference) followed by one unknown sample X that is randomly selected from either A or B. If X cannot be identified reliably with a low p-value in a predetermined number of trials, then the null hypothesis cannot be rejected and it cannot be proven that there is a perceptible difference between A and B. ABX tests can easily be performed as double-blind trials, eliminating any possible unconscious influence from the researcher or the test supervisor. Because samples A and B are provided just prior to sample X, the difference does not have to be discerned from assumption based on long-term memory or past experience. Thus, the ABX test answers whether or not, under ideal circumstances, a perceptual difference can be found. ABX tests are commonly used in evaluations of digital audio data compression methods; sample A is typically an uncompressed sample, and sample B is a compressed version of A. Audible compression artifacts that indicate a shortcoming in the
    6.00
    2 votes
    183
    GDSII

    GDSII

    GDSII stream format, common acronym GDSII, is a database file format which is the de facto industry standard for data exchange of integrated circuit or IC layout artwork. It is a binary file format representing planar geometric shapes, text labels, and other information about the layout in hierarchical form. The data can be used to reconstruct all or part of the artwork to be used in sharing layouts, transferring artwork between different tools, or creating photomasks. GDS = Graphic Database System Initially, GDSII was designed as a format used to control integrated circuit photomask plotting. Despite its limited set of features and low data density, it became the industry conventional format for transfer of IC layout data between design tools of different vendors, all of which operated with proprietary data formats. It was originally developed by Calma for its layout design software, "Graphic Data System" ("GDS") and "GDSII". Now the format is owned by Cadence Design Systems. GDS II files are usually the final output product of the IC design cycle and are given to IC foundries for IC fabrication. GDS II files were originally placed on magnetic tapes. This moment was fittingly
    6.00
    2 votes
    184

    International Patching System

    The International Patching System (commonly called "IPS") is an old file format that became a standard to patching various file near 16 megabyte in size with an unlimited amount of 1¬タモ65,535 byte clusters and RLE. Its fame was gained for patching translation to video game ROMs. (see ROM hacking) The creation of IPS is unknown, but the file format it had was considered to be malformed. It had no version number designated in the structure, allowing no future emendation without disorder amongst the software supporting the file. More problems that arose were: 1. the original files ended with the three bytes: EOF, which soon became excluded by future software that generated IPS files; 2. the future RLE addition; 3. the limit to only being able to patch 16 MB files. These three problems actually made most of the software that applied patches not function correctly. Despite all this, the file was still used as the standard for small patches. This addition isn't believed to be created by the original creators; but it allowed run-length encoding and it was supported. This format is still used today for small patches however, as ROM became larger in size, this file became useless,
    6.00
    2 votes
    185

    JNG

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    JPEG Network Graphics (JNG,  /ˈdʒɪŋ/) is a JPEG-based graphics file format which is closely related to PNG: it uses the PNG file structure (with a different signature) as a container format to wrap JPEG encoded image data. JNG was created as an adjunct to the MNG animation format, but may be used as a stand-alone format. JNG files embed an 8-bit or 12-bit JPEG datastream in order to store color data, and may embed another datastream (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 bit PNG, or 8 bit JPEG grayscale image) for transparency information. However, a JNG may contain two separate JPEG datastreams for color information (one eight-bit and one twelve-bit) to permit decoders that are unable to (or do not wish to) handle twelve-bit datastreams to display the eight-bit datastream instead, if one is present. Version 1.0 of the JNG specification was released on January 31, 2001 (initially as part of the MNG specification). Usually, all the applications supporting the MNG file format can handle JNG files, too. E.g., Konqueror has native MNG/JNG support, and MNG/JNG plugins are available for Opera, Internet Explorer, and Mozilla Firefox. The Mozilla Application Suite (and hence Netscape) originally supported
    6.00
    2 votes
    186

    Quicken Interchange Format

    • Read By: Quicken
    Quicken Interchange Format (QIF) is an open specification for reading and writing financial data to media (i.e. files). Although still widely used, QIF is an older format than Open Financial Exchange (OFX). The inability to reconcile imported transactions against the current account information is one of the primary shortcomings of QIF. Most personal money management software, such as Microsoft Money, GnuCash and Quicken's low end products (e.g. Quicken Personal and Quicken Personal Plus), can read QIF files to import information. Intuit's Quicken used to be able to import QIF, too, but with its 2006 version it dropped that support for several important account types, including checking, savings, and credit card accounts. The Australian version of Quicken still allows the importing of QIF files for these account types, however, unlike the American version, it is not possible to export data to QIF or any other file type, for any account type. Quicken's proposed replacement for the QIF format has been the Quicken Web Connect (QFX) format. It is commonly supported by financial institutions to supply downloadable information to account holders, especially by banks that support
    6.00
    2 votes
    187
    SKOS

    SKOS

    Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a family of formal languages designed for representation of thesauri, classification schemes, taxonomies, subject-heading systems, or any other type of structured controlled vocabulary. SKOS is built upon RDF and RDFS, and its main objective is to enable easy publication of controlled structured vocabularies for the Semantic Web. SKOS is currently developed within the W3C framework. The most direct ancestor to SKOS was the RDF Thesaurus work undertaken in the second phase of the EU DESIRE project . Motivated by the need to improve the user interface and usability of multi-service browsing and searching, a basic RDF vocabulary for Thesauri was produced. As noted later in the SWAD-Europe workplan, the DESIRE work was adopted and further developed in the SOSIG and LIMBER projects. A version of the DESIRE/SOSIG implementation was described in W3C's QL'98 workshop, motivating early work on RDF rule and query languages: A Query and Inference Service for RDF. SKOS built upon the output of the Language Independent Metadata Browsing of European Resources (LIMBER) project funded by the European Community, and part of the Information Society
    6.00
    2 votes
    188
    JPEG-LS

    JPEG-LS

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Lossless JPEG refers to a 1993 addition to JPEG standard by the Joint Photographic Experts Group to enable lossless compression. However, it might be used as an umbrella term to refer to all lossless compression schemes developed by the Joint Photographic Expert group. They include JPEG 2000 and JPEG-LS. Lossless JPEG was developed as a late addition to JPEG in 1993, using a completely different technique from the lossy JPEG standard. It uses a predictive scheme based on the three nearest (causal) neighbors (upper, left, and upper-left), and entropy coding is used on the prediction error. It is not supported by the standard Independent JPEG Group libraries, although Ken Murchison of Oceana Matrix Ltd. wrote a patch that extends the IJG library to support Lossless JPEG. Lossless JPEG has some popularity in medical imaging, and is used in DNG and some digital cameras to compress raw images, but otherwise was never widely adopted. Lossless JPEG is actually a mode of operation of JPEG. This mode exists because the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) based form cannot guarantee that encoder input would exactly match decoder output since the Inverse DCT is not rigorously defined. Unlike the
    5.00
    3 votes
    189

    PalmDoc

    The PalmDoc format is commonly called the DOC format. However, that is only a shorthand name. In 1996, Rick Bram developed a method to compress text files for the Palm OS. He called the format "Palm Doc". In 1997, Aportis Technologies Corporation bought the rights to PalmDoc, and renamed it AportisDoc. As of December 31, 2002, Aportis has ceased operations. The AportisDoc software is no longer supported, but the format has an open specification, and a great deal of other Palm software exists which uses that format and will continue to use that format. The other primary product of Aportis Technologies Corporation was BrainForest, which is now actively developed by Ultrasoft Limited. DOC files can contain only compressed text. The format does not allow for any formatting. This keeps files small, in keeping with the Palm philosophy. However, extensions to the format can use tags, such as HTML, to include formatting within text. These extensions to PalmDoc are not interchangeable.
    5.00
    3 votes
    190

    TXT

    .txt is a filename extension for files consisting of text with very little formatting (ex: no '''bolding''' or ''italics''). This kind of text format is also called a plain text file to differentiate them from other kinds of binary file, which, at the time the distinction was made, were not supposed to have human readable text. The precise definition of the .txt format is not specified, but typically matches the format accepted by the system terminal or simple text editor. Files with the .txt extension can easily be read or opened by any program that reads text and, for that reason, are considered universal (or platform independent). It should be noted that not all systems use the .txt extension when creating plain text files. In particular, on Unix systems, where extensions are entirely optional, it's common to see text files with no extension at all, the most prominent example being the file, present in many software packages. However, there's no difference between a plain text file with no extension and a .txt file. The term "plain text" is attributed to the contents of the file, while the term ".txt" is attributed to the file metadata (i.e. the extension). Since plain
    5.00
    3 votes
    191
    Windows bitmap

    Windows bitmap

    • MIME Type: image/x-ms-bmp
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    The BMP file format, also known as bitmap image file or device independent bitmap (DIB) file format or simply a bitmap, is a raster graphics image file format used to store bitmap digital images, independently of the display device (such as a graphics adapter), especially on Microsoft Windows and OS/2 operating systems. The BMP file format is capable of storing 2D digital images of arbitrary width, height, and resolution, both monochrome and color, in various color depths, and optionally with data compression, alpha channels, and color profiles. Microsoft has defined a particular representation of color bitmaps of different color depths, as an aid to exchanging bitmaps between devices and applications with a variety of internal representations. They called these device-independent bitmaps or DIBs, and the file format for them is called DIB file format or BMP image file format. According to Microsoft support: A device-independent bitmap (DIB) is a format used to define device-independent bitmaps in various color resolutions. The main purpose of DIBs is to allow bitmaps to be moved from one device to another (hence, the device-independent part of the name). A DIB is an external
    5.00
    3 votes
    192

    FlashPix

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    FlashPix is a bitmapped computer graphics file format where the image is saved in more than one resolution. Though this makes it larger even than a TIFF file, when a request is sent for the file by a Web browser only the resolution required for the current screen resolution is sent to the browser; this therefore saves on bandwidth and download time. FlashPix is based on the IVUE file format, the tiled/multi-resolution image file format that was used by the Live Picture software (Live Picture Inc). In 1995, a consortium of Eastman Kodak (PhotoCD), Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard, and Live Picture Inc were looking for a powerful image file solution, and Live Picture's solution was the best approach for handling large image files. FlashPix files have the .fpx file extension. FlashPix uses Microsoft's structured storage format which stores hierarchical data in a single file. Each image is stored with its sub-resolutions. Each resolution is divided by 2, until the entire image can fit in a single tile. Tile size is variable, but the default usage is to have 64x64 pixels tiles (IVUE was using 256x256 pixels). Each tile can be compressed independently of other tiles using various algorithms
    5.50
    2 votes
    193
    ICalendar

    ICalendar

    iCalendar is a computer file format which allows Internet users to send meeting requests and tasks to other Internet users, via email, or sharing files with an extension of .ics. Recipients of the iCalendar data file (with supporting software, such as an email client or calendar application) can respond to the sender easily or counter-propose another meeting date/time. iCalendar is used and supported by a large number of products, including Google Calendar, Apple Calendar (formerly iCal), GoDaddy Online Group Calendar, IBM Lotus Notes, Yahoo! Calendar, Evolution (software), eM Client, Lightning extension for Mozilla Thunderbird and SeaMonkey, and partially by Microsoft Outlook and Novell GroupWise. iCalendar is designed to be independent of the transport protocol. For example, certain events can be sent by traditional email or whole calendar files can be shared and edited by using a WebDav server, or SyncML. Simple web servers (using just the HTTP protocol) are often used to distribute iCalendar data about an event and to publish busy times of an individual. Publishers can embed iCalendar data in web pages using hCalendar, a 1:1 microformat representation of iCalendar in semantic
    5.50
    2 votes
    194

    Position-independent code

    In computing, position-independent code (PIC) or position-independent executable (PIE) is a body of machine code that, being placed somewhere in the primary memory, executes properly regardless of its absolute address. PIC is commonly used for shared libraries, so that the same library code can be loaded in a location in each program address space where it will not overlap any other uses of memory (for example, other shared libraries). PIC was also used on older computer systems lacking an MMU, so that the operating system could keep applications away from each other even within the single address space of an MMU-less system. Position-independent code can be copied to any memory location and executed without modification. This differs from relocatable code, which requires special processing by a link editor or program loader to make it suitable for execution at a given location. Position independent code must adhere to a specific set of semantics in the source code and compiler support is required. Instructions that refer to specific memory addresses, such as absolute branches, must be replaced with equivalent program counter relative instructions. The extra indirection may cause
    5.50
    2 votes
    195

    3DXML

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    3DXML is a proprietary 3D file format developed by Dassault Systemes under its 3D Via Brand. It uses an XML container whose specifications were published. It should not be confused with X3D, the ISO standard XML-based file format for representing 3D computer graphics. Up to this date the 3DXML format is only supported by Dassault Systemes product line. A free player is provided by Dassault Systemes directly for the windows platform. Virtool a 100% subsidiary of the editor offers 3DVia player, a free player available on both the Mac OS X and Windows platform. 3DVIA Printscreen, a Windows only application, captures OpenGL or DirectX instructions to generate 3DXML files. Dassault Systemes provides a yearly royalty free license to anyone requesting the 3DXML format documentation. This license however only permits internal works.
    4.67
    3 votes
    196

    Digital Negative

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Digital Negative (DNG) is an open lossless raw image format written by Adobe used for digital photography. It was launched on September 27, 2004. The launch was accompanied by the first version of the DNG specification, plus various products, including a free-of-charge DNG converter utility. All Adobe photo manipulation software (such as Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Lightroom) released since the launch supports DNG. DNG is based on the TIFF/EP standard format, and mandates significant use of metadata. Exploitation of the file format is royalty-free; Adobe has published a license allowing anyone to exploit DNG, and has also stated that there are no known intellectual property encumbrances or license requirements for DNG. Adobe stated that if there was a consensus that DNG should be controlled by a standards body, they were open to the idea. Adobe has submitted DNG to ISO for incorporation into their revision of TIFF/EP. Given the existence of other raw image formats, Adobe's creation of DNG as a competing format implies that DNG is unusual and satisfies objectives that other raw image formats do not. These objectives and the associated characteristics of DNG, as well as assessments of
    6.00
    1 votes
    197

    Extensible Binary Meta Language

    Extensible Binary Meta Language (EBML) is a generalized file format for any kind of data, aiming to be a binary equivalent to XML. It provides a basic framework for storing data in XML-like tags. It was originally developed for the Matroska audio/video container format. EBML is not extensible in the same way that XML is, as the Document Type Definition must be known in advance.
    6.00
    1 votes
    198

    Wmv

    • MIME Type: video/x-ms-wmv
    • Genre: Video file format
    • Read By: Windows Media Player
    Video file format from Microsoft
    6.00
    1 votes
    199

    Cartesian Perceptual Compression

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Cartesian Perceptual Compression (abbreviated CPC, with filename extension .cpc) is a proprietary image file format. It was designed for high compression of black-and-white raster Document Imaging for archival scans. CPC is lossy, has no lossless mode, and is restricted to bi-tonal images. The company which controls the patented format claims it is highly effective in the compression of text, black-and-white (halftone) photographs, and line art. The format is intended for use in the web distribution of legal documents, design plans, and geographical plot maps. Viewing and converting documents in the CPC format currently requires the download of proprietary software. Although viewing CPC documents is free, as is converting CPC images to other formats, conversion to CPC format requires a purchase. JSTOR, a United States-based online system for archiving academic journals, converted its online archives to CPC in 1997. The CPC files are used to reduce storage requirements for its online collection, but are temporarily converted on their servers to GIF for display, and to PDF for printing. JSTOR still scans to TIFF G4 and considers those files its preservation masters.
    5.00
    2 votes
    200

    Creator ID

    A creator ID or type ID is a unique 4-character identifier for an organization, product, or file format. Most notably used on the Apple Macintosh to represent individual applications and file types. Creator IDs are similar to stock ticker symbols in both use and form. Unique 4-character identifiers are common to many sectors in the computer industry. For example, USB devices broadcast their manufacturer's ID and their device ID to the host operating system. The host then uses this information to determine which device driver to map to the device. Palm OS, heavily influenced by Mac OS, also uses creator IDs to determine which application owns what data.
    5.00
    2 votes
    201

    ECW

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    ECW (Enhanced Compression Wavelet) is a proprietary wavelet compression image format optimized for aerial and satellite imagery. It was developed by Earth Resource Mapping, and is now owned by ERDAS, which is owned by Intergraph. The lossy compression format efficiently compresses very large images with fine alternating contrast. In 1998 ER Mapper Ltd in Perth, Western Australia company founder Stuart Nixon, and two software developers Simon Cope and Mark Sheridan were researching rapid delivery of terabyte sized images over the internet using inexpensive server technology. The outcome of that research was two products, Image Web Server (IWS) and ECW. ECW represented a fundamental mathematical breakthrough enabling Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWT) and inverse-DWT operations to be performed on very large images very quickly, while only using a tiny amount of RAM. For ECW patents, see US 6201897  and US 6442298 . For IWS patent, see US 6633688 . These patents were assigned to ERDAS (under a former name of Leica Geosystems Geospatial Imaging) July 29, 2007. After JPEG2000 became an image standard, ER Mapper added tools to read and write JPEG2000 data into the ECW SDK to form the ECW
    5.00
    2 votes
    202
    GEDCOM

    GEDCOM

    GEDCOM (an acronym standing for GEnealogical Data COMmunication) is a proprietary and open de facto specification for exchanging genealogical data between different genealogy software. GEDCOM was developed by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) as an aid to genealogical research. A GEDCOM file is plain text (usually either ANSEL or ASCII) containing genealogical information about individuals, and meta data linking these records together. Most genealogy software supports importing from and/or exporting to GEDCOM format. However, some genealogy software programs incorporate the use of proprietary extensions to the GEDCOM format, which are not always recognized by other genealogy programs, for example the GEDCOM 5.5 EL (Extended Locations) specification. In February of 2012 at the RootsTech 2012 conference, FamilySearch outlined a major new project around genealogical standards called GEDCOM X, and invited collaboration. GEDCOM uses a lineage-linked data model. This data model is based on the nuclear family and the individual. This contrasts with evidence-based models, where data are structured to reflect the supporting evidence. In the GEDCOM lineage-linked
    5.00
    2 votes
    203
    IAUDIO

    IAUDIO

    • Genre: Audio file format
    iAUDIO is the brand name for a range of portable media players produced by Korean consumer electronics manufacturer Cowon Systems, Inc. iAUDIO products are best known for their high sound quality, wide file format support and long battery life. Some people claim that low-impedance headphones display a low-frequency roll-off while connected to certain iAUDIO players. The iAUDIO range consists of players based on both flash memory and hard disk drives. Flash memory-based players are available with a capacity of up to 32 GB, while the hard drive-based models currently have capacities up to 160 GB. The iAUDIO 6 was the first player to use Toshiba's new 4GB 0.85″ hard disk. Cowon entered the digital audio player market in October 2000 with the introduction of their first MP3 player, the iAUDIO CW100. In March 2001, the iAUDIO CW100s, a revised model, was released. In December 2001, Cowon released the iAUDIO CW200. The CW200 had audio playback capabilities, an FM radio and voice recording through a built-in microphone. This player also had a revised model, the iAUDIO CW250. In December 2002, Cowon released the iAUDIO CW300. This model was essentially an iAUDIO CW200 using AA batteries as
    5.00
    2 votes
    204

    JPEG File Interchange Format

    • MIME Type: image/jpeg
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    The JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF) is an image file format standard. It is a format for exchanging JPEG encoded files compliant with the JPEG Interchange Format (JIF) standard. It solves some of JIF's limitations in regard to simple JPEG encoded file interchange. As with all JIF compliant files, image data in JFIF files is compressed using the techniques in the JPEG standard, hence JFIF is sometimes referred to as "JPEG/JFIF". JFIF defines a number of details that are left unspecified by the JPEG Part 1 standard (ISO/IEC IS 10918-1, ITU-T Recommendation T.81): JPEG allows multiple components (such as Y, Cb, and Cr) to have different resolutions, but it does not define how those differing sample arrays should be aligned. The JFIF standard requires samples to be sited "interstitially" — meaning the decoder can treat each component array as representing an array of equal-sized rectangular pixels sampled in their centers, with each array having the same exterior boundaries as the image. This is convenient for computer users, but is not the alignment used in MPEG-2 and most video applications. The JPEG standard does not include any method of coding the resolution or aspect ratio of
    5.00
    2 votes
    205

    OpenEXR

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    OpenEXR is a high dynamic range imaging image file format, released as an open standard along with a set of software tools created by Industrial Light and Magic (ILM), released under a free software license similar to the BSD license. It is notable for supporting 16-bits-per-channel floating point values (half precision), with a sign bit, five bits of exponent, and a ten-bit mantissa. This allows a dynamic range of over thirty stops of exposure. Both lossless and lossy compression of high dynamic range data is also supported. For a full technical introduction of OpenEXR, see the Technical Introduction available on the OpenEXR.org website. OpenEXR, or simply EXR for short, is a deep raster format developed by ILM and very broadly used in the computer-graphics industry, both visual effects and animation. OpenEXR's multi-resolution and arbitrary channel format makes it appealing for compositing. OpenEXR alleviates several painful elements of the compositing process. Since it can store arbitrary channels, specular, diffuse, alpha, RGB, normals, and various other types of channels in one file, it takes away the need to store this information in separate files. The multi-channel concept
    5.00
    2 votes
    206

    SWF

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    • Read By: Sidewinder
    SWF ( /ˈswɪf/ SWIF) is an Adobe Flash file format used for multimedia, vector graphics and ActionScript. Originating with FutureWave Software, then transferred to Macromedia, and then coming under the control of Adobe, SWF files can contain animations or applets of varying degrees of interactivity and function. Currently, SWF is the dominant format for displaying "animated" vector graphics on the Web. It may also be used for programs, commonly browser games, using ActionScript. SWF files can be generated from within several Adobe products: Flash, Flash Builder (an IDE) and After Effects, as well as through MXMLC, a command line application compiler which is part of the freely available Flex SDK. Other than Adobe products, SWFs can be built with open source Motion-Twin ActionScript 2 Compiler (MTASC), the open source Ming library and the free software suite SWFTools. There are also various third party programs that can produce files in this format, such as Multimedia Fusion 2, Captivate and SWiSH Max. Originally, the term SWF was used as an abbreviation for ShockWave Flash. This usage was changed to the backronym Small Web Format to eliminate confusion with a different technology,
    5.00
    2 votes
    207

    VCard

    • MIME Type: text/directory
    • Genre: Business card
    vCard is a file format standard for electronic business cards. vCards are often attached to e-mail messages, but can be exchanged in other ways, such as on the World Wide Web or instant messaging. They can contain name and address information, phone numbers, e-mail addresses, URLs, logos, photographs, and audio clips. Versitcard was originally proposed in 1995 by the Versit Consortium, which consisted of Apple, AT&T Technologies (later Lucent), IBM and Siemens. In December 1996, ownership of the format was handed over to the Internet Mail Consortium, a trade association for companies with an interest in Internet e-mail. Version 2.1 of the vCard standard is widely supported by e-mail clients. Version 3.0 of the vCard format is an IETF standards-track proposal contained in RFC 2425 and RFC 2426. Version 4.0 is defined in RFC 6350, with a new XML syntax, xCard, defined in RFC 6351. The commonly-used filename extension for vCards is vcf. In RFC 4770, vCard Extensions for Instant Messaging, a new type of entry to hold an IMPP URI is defined, which is "IMPP". This is now part of the base vCard 4.0 spec. The standard Internet media type for a vCard (often referred to as its mime type)
    5.00
    2 votes
    208
    Vorbis

    Vorbis

    • MIME Type: application/ogg
    • Genre: Audio codec
    Vorbis is a free software / open source project headed by the Xiph.Org Foundation (formerly Xiphophorus company). The project produces an audio format specification and software implementation (codec) for lossy audio compression. Vorbis is most commonly used in conjunction with the Ogg container format and it is therefore often referred to as Ogg Vorbis. Vorbis is a continuation of audio compression development started in 1993 by Chris Montgomery. Intensive development began following a September 1998 letter from the Fraunhofer Society announcing plans to charge licensing fees for the MP3 audio format. Vorbis project started as part of the Xiphophorus company's Ogg project (also known as OggSquish multimedia project). Chris Montgomery began work on the project and was assisted by a growing number of other developers. They continued refining the source code until the Vorbis file format was frozen for 1.0 in May 2000 and a stable version (1.0) of the reference software was released on July 19, 2002. The Xiph.Org Foundation maintains a reference implementation, libvorbis, the latest official version of which is 1.3.3, released on February 3, 2012. There are also some fine-tuned forks,
    5.00
    2 votes
    209
    Windows Script File

    Windows Script File

    A Windows Script File (WSF) is a file type used by the Microsoft Windows Script Host. It allows mixing the scripting languages JScript and VBScript within a single file, or other scripting languages such as Perl, Object REXX, Python, or Kixtart if installed by the user. These types of scripts may also be used to link many other external scripts together using a src parameter on the
    5.00
    2 votes
    210

    Joint Photographic Experts Group

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    The Joint Photographic Experts Group is the joint committee between ISO/IEC JTC1 and ITU-T (formerly CCITT) that created the JPEG, JPEG 2000, and JPEG XR standards. It is one of two sub-groups of ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 1 (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) - titled as Coding of still pictures. In the ITU-T, its work falls in the domain of the ITU-T Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG). ISO/IEC JTC1 SC29 Working Group 1 (working together with ITU-T Study Group 16 - SG16 and previously also with Study Group 8 - SG8) is responsible for the JPEG and JBIG standards. The scope of the organization includes the work of both the Joint Photographic Experts Group and Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group. In April 1983, ISO started to work to add photo quality graphics to the text terminals. In the mid 1980s, both CCITT (now ITU-T) and ISO had standardization groups for image coding: CCITT Study Group VIII (SG8) - Telematic Services and ISO TC97 SC2 WG8 - Coding of Audio and Picture Information. They were historically targeted on image communication. In 1986 it was decided to create the Joint (CCITT/ISO) Photographic Expert Group. The JPEG committee was created
    4.50
    2 votes
    211
    JPEG

    JPEG

    • MIME Type: image/jpeg
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    In computing, JPEG ( /ˈdʒeɪpɛɡ/ JAY-peg) is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital photography (image). The degree of compression can be adjusted, allowing a selectable tradeoff between storage size and image quality. JPEG typically achieves 10:1 compression with little perceptible loss in image quality. JPEG compression is used in a number of image file formats. JPEG/Exif is the most common image format used by digital cameras and other photographic image capture devices; along with JPEG/JFIF, it is the most common format for storing and transmitting photographic images on the World Wide Web. These format variations are often not distinguished, and are simply called JPEG. The term "JPEG" is an acronym for the Joint Photographic Experts Group, which created the standard. The MIME media type for JPEG is image/jpeg (defined in RFC 1341), except in Internet Explorer, which provides a MIME type of image/pjpeg when uploading JPEG images. It supports a maximum image size of 65535×65535. The name "JPEG" stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, the name of the committee that created the JPEG standard and also other still picture coding standards. The "Joint" stood for
    4.50
    2 votes
    212
    Vector Markup Language

    Vector Markup Language

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Vector Markup Language (VML) is a deprecated XML language used to produce vector graphics. VML was submitted to the W3C in 1998 by Autodesk, Hewlett-Packard, Macromedia, Microsoft, and Visio. Around the same time other competing W3C submissions were received in the area of web vector graphics, such as PGML from Adobe Systems, Sun Microsystems, and others. As a result of these submissions, a new W3C working group was created, which produced Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG). SVG became a W3C Recommendation in 2001 as a language for describing two-dimensional vector and mixed vector/raster graphics in XML. VML has been largely deprecated in favor of other formats, such as SVG. SVG is not compatible with VML. While Microsoft continues to document VML, development of the format ceased in 1998. VML is implemented in Internet Explorer 5.0 and higher and in Microsoft Office 2000 and higher. VML is still available in Internet Explorer 9 but Microsoft expects web sites to transition to SVG in the future. Version 2 of the Google Maps JavaScript API used to use VML for vector paths on Internet Explorer 5.5+, but has been officially deprecated in favour of version 3, which does not. The Vector
    4.50
    2 votes
    213

    Au file format

    • Genre: Container format
    The Au file format is a simple audio file format introduced by Sun Microsystems. The format was common on NeXT systems and on early Web pages. Originally it was headerless, being simply 8-bit µ-law-encoded data at an 8000 Hz sample rate. Hardware from other vendors often used sample rates as high as 8192 Hz, often integer factors of video clock signals. Newer files have a header that consists of six unsigned 32-bit words, an optional information chunk and then the data (in big endian format). Although the format now supports many audio encoding formats, it remains associated with the µ-law logarithmic encoding. This encoding was native to the SPARCstation 1 hardware, where SunOS exposed the encoding to application programs through the /dev/audio interface. This encoding and interface became a de facto standard for Unix sound. All fields are stored in big-endian format, including the sample data. The type of encoding depends on the value of the "encoding" field (word 3 of the header). Formats 2 through 7 are uncompressed PCM, therefore lossless. Formats 23 through 26 are ADPCM, which is a lossy, roughly 4:1 compression. Formats 1 and 27 are μ-law and A-law, respectively, both lossy.
    5.00
    1 votes
    214
    DBFS

    DBFS

    • Genre: Audio file format
    Decibels relative to full scale, commonly abbreviated dBFS, measures decibel amplitude levels in digital systems such as pulse-code modulation which have a defined maximum available peak level. 0 dBFS is assigned to the maximum possible digital level. For example, a signal that reaches 50% of the maximum level at any point would peak at -6 dBFS i.e. 6 dB below full scale. All peak measurements will be negative numbers, unless they reach the maximum digital value. A digital signal which does not contain any samples at 0 dBFS can still clip when converted to analog due to the signal reconstruction process. This possibility can be prevented by careful digital-to-analog converter circuit design. Since a peak measurement is not useful for qualifying the noise performance of a system, or measuring the loudness of an audio recording, for instance, RMS measurements are often used instead. There is a potential for ambiguity when assigning a level on the dBFS scale to a waveform rather than to a specific amplitude, since some choose the reference level so that RMS and peak measurements of a sine wave produce the same number, while others want the RMS and peak values of a square wave to be
    5.00
    1 votes
    215
    DocBook

    DocBook

    • MIME Type: application/docbook+xml
    • Genre: Markup language
    DocBook is a Semantics markup language for technical documentation. It was originally intended for writing technical documents related to computer hardware and software but it can be used for any other sort of documentation. As a semantic language, DocBook enables its users to create document content in a presentation-neutral form that captures the logical structure of the content; that content can then be published in a variety of formats, including HTML, XHTML, EPUB, PDF, man pages, Web help and HTML Help, without requiring users to make any changes to the source. DocBook is an XML language. In its current version (5.0), DocBook's language is formally defined by a RELAX NG schema with integrated Schematron rules. (There are also W3C XML Schema+Schematron and Document Type Definition (DTD) versions of the schema available, but these are considered non-standard.) As a semantic language, DocBook documents do not describe what their contents "look like," but rather the meaning of those contents. For example, rather than explaining how the abstract for an article might be visually formatted, DocBook simply says that a particular section is an abstract. It is up to an external
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    1 votes
    216
    Java Servlet

    Java Servlet

    A Servlet is a Java programming language class used to extend the capabilities of a server. Although servlets can respond to any types of requests, they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers, so they can be thought of as Java Applets that run on servers instead of in web browsers. These kinds of servlets are the Java counterpart to non-Java dynamic Web content technologies such as PHP and ASP.NET. A Servlet is a Java-based server-side web technology. Technically speaking, a Servlet is a Java class in Java EE that conforms to the Java Servlet API, a protocol by which a Java class may respond to requests. Servlets could in principle communicate over any client–server protocol, but they are most often used with the HTTP protocol. Therefore, the word "Servlet" is often used in the meaning of "HTTP Servlet". Thus, a software developer may use a servlet to add dynamic content to a web server using the Java platform. The generated content is commonly HTML, but may be other data such as XML. Servlets can maintain state in session variables across many server transactions by using HTTP cookies, or URL rewriting. To deploy and run a Servlet, a web container must
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    1 votes
    217

    NZB

    NZB is an XML-based file format for retrieving posts from NNTP (Usenet) servers. The format was conceived by the developers of the Newzbin.com Usenet Index. NZB is effective when used with search-capable websites. These websites create NZB files out of what is needed to be downloaded. Using this concept, headers would not be downloaded hence the NZB method is quicker and more bandwidth-efficient than traditional methods. Each Usenet message has a unique identifier called the "Message-ID". When a large file is posted to a Usenet newsgroup, it is usually divided into multiple messages (called segments or parts) each having its own Message-ID. An nzb-capable Usenet client will read all needed Message-IDs from the NZB file, download them and decode the messages back into a binary file (usually using yEnc or Uuencode). The following is an example of a NZB 1.1 file.
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    1 votes
    218

    Open Financial Exchange

    Open Financial Exchange (OFX) is a data-stream format for exchanging financial information that evolved from Microsoft's Open Financial Connectivity (OFC) and Intuit's Open Exchange file formats. The OFX standard was announced on the 16 January 1997 by Microsoft, Intuit and CheckFree and was designed as a unified technical specification to converge their respective mechanisms. The first OFX specification, version 1.0, was released on February 14, 1997. The specification allows for bank and application specific extensions, although only a subset is necessary to describe a financial transaction. Since the current version is a flavour of XML, it is simple to create well-formed OFX documents. Versions 1.0–1.6 relied on SGML for data exchange whereas all versions since are XML based. According to the main OFX site: "The specification is freely licensed, allowing any software developer to design an interface that will be supported on the front-end." Many banks in the US let customers use personal financial management software to automatically download their bank statements in OFX format, but most Canadian and Australian banks do not allow this. QFX is a proprietary variant of OFX used in
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    1 votes
    219
    SEG Y

    SEG Y

    The SEG Y file format is one of several standards developed by the Society of Exploration Geophysicists for storing geophysical data. It is an open standard, and is controlled by the SEG Technical Standards Committee, a non-profit organization. The format was originally developed in 1973 to store single-line seismic digital data on magnetic tapes. The specification was published in 1975, and has since been named as the rev 0 specification. However, since its release, there have been significant advancements in geophysical data acquisition, such as 3-dimensional seismic techniques and high speed, high capacity recording. The most recent revision of the SEG Y format was published in 2002, named the rev 1 specification. It still features certain legacies of the original format, such as an optional SEG Y tape label, the main 3200 byte textual EBCDIC character encoded tape header and a 400 byte binary header. This image shows the byte stream structure of a SEG Y file, with the Revision 1. added Extended Textual File Header records. Many SEG Y programs do not totally follow the specification. For example, ODEC uses the opposite byte order and adds 320 bytes to tail of each trace.
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    2 votes
    220

    8SVX

    8-Bit Sampled Voice (8SVX) is an audio file format standard developed by Electronic Arts for the Commodore-Amiga computer series. It is a data subtype of the IFF file container format. It typical contains linear pulse-code modulation (LPCM) digital audio. The 8SVX subtype stores 8-bit audio data within chunks contained within an IFF file container. 8SVX subtypes can exist alone within IFF file containers (audio only), or can be multiplexed together with other IFF subtypes, such as video animation streams. Metadata about the 8SVX data stream is contained in separate descriptor chunks that come prior to the main data body chunk. Sample rate, volume and compression type are described in a VHDR chunk. Various other chunks are available to describe the name, author and copyright. 8SVX supports features such as attack, release and section repeat, which are useful for storage of musical instrument samples. An example layout of an audio-only 8SVX IFF audio file: The majority of 8SVX data streams are encoded using uncompressed linear PCM streams. Optionally, Fibonacci-delta lossy data compression is also available, resulting in a 50% compression ratio at the cost of decreased fidelity.
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    1 votes
    221
    ACIS

    ACIS

    The 3D ACIS Modeler (ACIS) is a 3D modelling kernel (or engine) owned by Spatial Corporation (formerly Spatial Technology). ACIS is used by many software developers in industries such as computer-aided design (CAD), Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), Computer-aided engineering (CAE), Architecture, engineering and construction (AEC), Coordinate-measuring machine (CMM), 3D animation, and shipbuilding. ACIS provides software developers and manufacturers the underlying 3D modeling functionality. ACIS features an open, object-oriented C++ architecture that enables robust, 3D modelling capabilities. ACIS is used to construct applications with hybrid modeling features, since it integrates wireframe model, surface, and solid modeling functionality with both manifold and non-manifold topology, and a rich set of geometric operations. As a geometric kernel, ACIS is a second generation system, coming after the first generation Romulus There are several versions about what the word ACIS actually stands for, or whether it is an acronym at all. The most popular version is that ACIS stands for Alan, Charles, Ian's System (Alan Grayer, Charles Lang and Ian Braid as part of Three-Space Ltd.), or
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    1 votes
    222

    Delimited

    Formats that use delimiter-separated values (also DSV) store two-dimensional arrays of data by separating the values in each row with specific delimiter characters. Most database and spreadsheet programs are able to read or save data in a delimited format. Any character or sequence of characters may be used to separate the values, but the most common delimiters are the comma, tab, and colon. The vertical bar (also referred to as pipe) and space are also sometimes used. In a comma-separated values (CSV) file the data items are separated using commas as a delimiter, while in a tab-separated values (TSV) file, the data items are separated using tabs as a delimiter. Column headers are sometimes included as the first line, and each subsequent line is a row of data. The lines are separated by newlines. For example, the following fields in each record are delimited by commas, and each record by newlines: Note the use of the double quote to enclose each field. This prevents the comma in the actual field value (Bloggs, Fred; Doe, Jane and etc.) from being interpreted as a field separator. This necessitates a way to "escape" the field wrapper itself, in this case the double quote; it is
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    1 votes
    223

    DTED

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    DTED (or Digital Terrain Elevation Data) is a standard of digital datasets which consists of a matrix of terrain elevation values. This standard was originally developed in the 1970s to support aircraft radar simulation and prediction. Terrain elevations are described as the height above the Earth Gravitational Model 1996 (EGM96) geoid, not the WGS84 reference ellipsoid. DTED supports many applications, including line-of-sight analyses, terrain profiling, 3-D terrain visualization, mission planning/rehearsal, and modeling and simulation. DTED is a standard National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) product that provides medium resolution, quantitative data in a digital format for military system applications that require terrain elevation. The DTED format for level 0, 1 and 2 is described in U.S. Military Specification Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) MIL-PRF-89020B, and amongst other parameters describes the resolution for each level: The precise spacing is defined by dividing the world into zones based on latitude, and is given in the following tables: In addition three more levels (3, 4 and 5) at increasing resolution have been proposed, but not yet standardized. DTED
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    1 votes
    224
    EXPRESS

    EXPRESS

    EXPRESS is a standard data modeling language for product data. EXPRESS is formalized in the ISO Standard for the Exchange of Product model STEP (ISO 10303), and standardized as ISO 10303-11. Data models formally define data objects and relationships among data objects for a domain of interest. Some typical applications of data models include supporting the development of databases and enabling the exchange of data for a particular area of interest. Data models are specified in a data modeling language. EXPRESS is a data modeling language defined in ISO 10303-11, the EXPRESS Language Reference Manual. An EXPRESS data model can be defined in two ways, textually and graphically. For formal verification and as input for tools such as SDAI the textual representation within an ASCII file is the most important one. The graphical representation on the other hand is often more suitable for human use such as explanation and tutorials. The graphical representation, called EXPRESS-G, is not able to represent all details that can be formulated in the textual form. EXPRESS is similar to programming languages such as Pascal. Within a SCHEMA various datatypes can be defined together with
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    1 votes
    225
    GPS eXchange Format

    GPS eXchange Format

    GPX, or GPS eXchange Format is an XML schema designed as a common GPS data format for software applications. It can be used to describe waypoints, tracks, and routes. The format is open and can be used without the need to pay license fees. Its tags store location, elevation, and time and can in this way be used to interchange data between GPS devices and software packages. Such computer programs allow users, for example, to view their tracks, project their tracks on satellite images or other maps, annotate maps, and tag photographs with the geolocation in the Exif metadata. In GPX, a collection of points, with no sequential relationship (the county towns of England, say, or all Skyscrapers in New York), is deemed a collection of individual waypoints. An ordered collection of points may be expressed as a track or a route. Conceptually, tracks are a record of where a person has been, routes are suggestions about where they might go in the future. For example, each point in a track may have a timestamp (because someone is recording where and when they were there), but the points in a route are unlikely to have timestamps, because the author is suggesting a route which nobody might
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    226
    Maildir

    Maildir

    The Maildir e-mail format is a common way of storing e-mail messages, where each message is kept in a separate file with a unique name, and each folder is a directory. The local filesystem handles file locking as messages are added, moved and deleted. A Maildir directory (often named Maildir) usually has three subdirectories named tmp, new, and cur. The original Maildir specification was written by Daniel J. Bernstein, the author of qmail, djbdns, and other software. Although the original specification was written specifically for Bernstein's qmail, it is general enough to be implemented in many programs. Sam Varshavchik, the author of the Courier Mail Server and other software, wrote an extension to the Maildir format called Maildir++ to support subfolders and mail quotas. Maildir++ directories contain subdirectories with names that start with a '.' (dot) that are also Maildir++ folders. This extension is therefore a violation of the Maildir specification, which provides an exhaustive list of the possible contents of a Maildir, however it is a compatible violation and other Maildir software supports Maildir++. The process that delivers an e-mail message writes it to a file in the
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    1 votes
    227

    MapInfo TAB format

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    The MapInfo TAB format is a popular geospatial vector data format for geographic information systems software. It is developed and regulated by MapInfo as a proprietary format. The basic file components for a MapInfo Professional data set relate to the two basic environments for working in Mapinfo; "Browser View" and "Mapper View". As with most other GIS packages, several files are required to allow the user to open a data set for viewing within Mapinfo Professional. The most basic view would be the browser view only. This environment provides storage of attribute or object data and is represented like a spreadsheet. In this simplified scenario, no geographic information is available. Minimum files required for the basic Mapinfo Professional browser environment: As an alternative to the *.DAT file, MapInfo Professional can use other data formats such as, *.TXT, *.XLS *.WK*, *.MDB (and for each Micosoft Access format the software also makes another small file). MapInfo Professional still creates a .TAB file that contains information about the data set file, and the user interacts with the TAB file only. There may also be a third fie: To view geographic information (the graphic
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    1 votes
    228

    Portable Document Format

    • MIME Type: application/pdf
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    • Read By: Pdq Lite
    Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format used to represent documents in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems. Each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a fixed-layout flat document, including the text, fonts, graphics, and other information needed to display it. In 1991, Adobe Systems co-founder John Warnock outlined a system called "Camelot" that evolved into PDF. While Adobe Systems made the PDF specification available free of charge in 1993, PDF remained a proprietary format, controlled by Adobe, until it was officially released as an open standard on July 1, 2008, and published by the International Organization for Standardization as ISO 32000-1:2008. In 2008, Adobe published a Public Patent License to ISO 32000-1 granting royalty-free rights for all patents owned by Adobe that are necessary to make, use, sell and distribute PDF compliant implementations. PDF was developed in the early 1990s as a way to share documents, including text formatting and inline images, among computer users of disparate platforms who may not have access to mutually-compatible application software. It was among a number of competing formats
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    229
    Adaptive DPCM

    Adaptive DPCM

    Adaptive differential pulse-code modulation (ADPCM) is a variant of differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM) that varies the size of the quantization step, to allow further reduction of the required bandwidth for a given signal-to-noise ratio. Typically, the adaptation to signal statistics in ADPCM consists simply of an adaptive scale factor before quantizing the difference in the DPCM encoder. ADPCM was developed in the early 1970s at Bell Labs for voice coding, by P. Cummiskey, N. S. Jayant, and James L. Flanagan. In telephony, a standard audio signal for a single phone call is encoded as 8000 analog samples per second, of 8 bits each, giving a 64 kbit/s digital signal known as DS0. The default signal compression encoding on a DS0 is either μ-law (mu-law) PCM (North America and Japan) or A-law PCM (Europe and most of the rest of the world). These are logarithmic compression systems where a 13 or 14 bit linear PCM sample number is mapped into an 8 bit value. This system is described by international standard G.711. Where circuit costs are high and loss of voice quality is acceptable, it sometimes makes sense to compress the voice signal even further. An ADPCM algorithm is used to
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    230

    ANIM

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    ANIM is a file format, used to store digital movies and computer generated animations (hence the ANIM name), and is a variation of the ILBM format, which is a subformat of Interchange File Format. Known filetypes for Anim into AmigaOS are: Anim1, Anim2, Anim3, Anim5 and Anim7. Anim1 to Anim3 did not support audio. Anim 5 and Anim7 should be able to contain Audio Data and being a complete movie animation file format. [Unconfirmed] In addition to the normal ILBM chunks, ANIM filetype also defines: Compression modes: It is possible to have several compression modes inside a file. The ANIM IFF format was developed in 1988 at Sparta Inc., a firm based in California, originally for the production of animated video sequences on the Amiga computer, and was used for the first time in AEGIS Videoscape and Video Titler programs for the Amiga line of computers. As being very efficient and also being an official subset of existing Amiga ILBM/IFF standard file format, it became the de facto standard for any animation file on Amiga. The file format must had these characteristics: Several compression schemes have been introduced in the ANIM format. Most of these are strictly of historical interest
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    231
    AutoCAD DWG

    AutoCAD DWG

    • Genre: Computer Aided Design
    • Read By: Autocad
    DWG ("drawing") is a binary file format used for storing two and three dimensional design data and metadata. It is the native format for several CAD packages including AutoCAD, IntelliCAD (and its variants) and Caddie. In addition, DWG is supported non-natively by many other CAD applications. The .bak (drawing backup), .dws (drawing standards), .dwt (drawing template) and .sv$ (temporary automatic save) files are also DWG files. DWG (denoted by the .dwg filename extension) was the native file format for the Interact CAD package, developed by Mike Riddle in the late 1970s, and subsequently licensed by Autodesk in 1982 as the basis for AutoCAD. From 1982 to 2009, Autodesk created versions of AutoCAD which wrote no fewer than 18 major variants of the DWG file format, none of which is publicly documented. The DWG format is probably the most widely used format for CAD drawings. Autodesk estimates that in 1998 there were in excess of two billion DWG files in existence. There are several claims to control of the DWG format. As the biggest and most influential creator of DWG files it is Autodesk who designs, defines, and iterates the DWG format as the native format for their CAD
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    232
    AutomationML

    AutomationML

    AutomationML (Automation Markup Language) is a neutral data format based on XML for the storage and exchange of plant engineering information, which is provided as open standard. Goal of AutomationML is to interconnect the heterogeneous tool landscape of modern engineering tools in their different disciplines, e.g. mechanical plant engineering, electrical design, HMI development, PLC, robot control. AutomationML describes real plant components as objects encapsulating different aspects. An object can consist out of other sub-objects, and can itself be part of a bigger composition. It can describe a screw, a claw, a robot or a complete manufacturing cell in different levels of detail. Typical objects in plant automation comprise information about topology, geometry, kinematics and logic, where logic comprises sequencing, behaviour and control. AutomationML incorporates different standards through strongly typed links across the formats: For future extensions, AutomationML is designed to integrate further formats using the same referencing mechanism. After first evaluations of exchange formats, Daimler initiated the joint activity of the companies ABB, KUKA, Rockwell Automation and
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    233
    Binary file

    Binary file

    A binary file is a computer file that is not a text file; it may contain any type of data, encoded in binary form for computer storage and processing purposes. Many binary file formats contain parts that can be interpreted as text; for example, some computer document files containing formatted text, such as older Microsoft Word document files, contain the text of the document but also contain formatting information in binary form. When downloading, a completely functional program without any installer is also often called program binary, or binaries (as opposed to the source code). Binary files are usually thought of as being a sequence of bytes, which means the binary digits (bits) are grouped in eights. Binary files typically contain bytes that are intended to be interpreted as something other than text characters. Compiled computer programs are typical examples; indeed, compiled applications (object files) are sometimes referred to, particularly by programmers, as binaries. But binary files can also contain images, sounds, compressed versions of other files, etc. — in short, any type of file content whatsoever. Some binary files contain headers, blocks of metadata used by a
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    234

    Cineon

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Cineon System was a computer based system, integrating a film scanner and recorder hardware, digital software for compositing and effects, image restoration, color management and the development of a proprietary file format designed by Kodak. These components were created to support the work flow of digital intermediate film production. Tape drives and workstations were also included in the system. The system was first released in 1993 and was abandoned by 1997. As an end-to-end solution for 2K and 4K digital film production, the system was well ahead of its time. The major components of the system (scanner, workstation software, and recorder) have all received AMPAS Scientific and Technical Awards. Kodak no longer sells the system or its components; however, the “Cineon” (.cin) file format that Kodak defined still is commonly used in the film visual effects world. (The Digital Picture Exchange (DPX) file format is also used in those applications; DPX files commonly store pixel data encoded according to Cineon Printing Density.) The Cineon file format was designed specifically to represent scanned film images, and it has some interesting differences from other formats such as TIFF
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    235
    GIF

    GIF

    • MIME Type: image/gif
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    • Read By: Compuserve
    The Graphics Interchange Format (GIF; /ˈdʒɪf/ or /ˈɡɪf/) is a bitmap image format that was introduced by CompuServe in 1987 and has since come into widespread usage on the World Wide Web due to its wide support and portability. The format supports up to 8 bits per pixel thus allowing a single image to reference a palette of up to 256 distinct colors. The colors are chosen from the 24-bit RGB color space. It also supports animations and allows a separate palette of 256 colors for each frame. The color limitation makes the GIF format unsuitable for reproducing color photographs and other images with continuous color, but it is well-suited for simpler images such as graphics or logos with solid areas of color. GIF images are compressed using the Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) lossless data compression technique to reduce the file size without degrading the visual quality. This compression technique was patented in 1985. Controversy over the licensing agreement between the patent holder, Unisys, and CompuServe in 1994 spurred the development of the Portable Network Graphics (PNG) standard. All the relevant patents have now expired. CompuServe introduced the GIF format in 1987 to provide a
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    236

    Keyhole Markup Language

    • Genre: GIS file formats
    • Read By: Kedit
    Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an XML notation for expressing geographic annotation and visualization within Internet-based, two-dimensional maps and three-dimensional Earth browsers. KML was developed for use with Google Earth, which was originally named Keyhole Earth Viewer. It was created by Keyhole, Inc, which was acquired by Google in 2004. KML became an international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium in 2008. Google Earth was the first program able to view and graphically edit KML files. Other projects such as Marble have also started to develop KML support. The KML file specifies a set of features (place marks, images, polygons, 3D models, textual descriptions, etc.) for display in Google Earth, Maps and Mobile, or any other geospatial software implementing the KML encoding. Each place always has a longitude and a latitude. Other data can make the view more specific, such as tilt, heading, altitude, which together define a "camera view". KML shares some of the same structural grammar as GML. Some KML information cannot be viewed in Google Maps or Mobile. KML files are very often distributed in KMZ files, which are zipped files with a .kmz extension. These must be
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    237

    Matroska

    • MIME Type: video/x-matroska
    • Genre: Container format
    The Matroska Multimedia Container is an open standard free container format, a file format that can hold an unlimited number of video, audio, picture, or subtitle tracks in one file. It is intended to serve as a universal format for storing common multimedia content, like movies or TV shows. Matroska is similar in concept to other containers like AVI, MP4, or Advanced Systems Format (ASF), but is entirely open in specification, with implementations consisting mostly of open source software. Matroska file extensions are .MKV for video (with subtitles and audio), .MK3D for stereoscopic video, .MKA for audio-only files, and .MKS for subtitles only. The name "Matroska" is derived from the Russian word Matryoshka (Russian: матрёшка [mɐˈtrʲoʂkə]), which means nesting doll (the common Russian cylindrical-shaped doll within a doll, also known as a babushka doll). This is a play on the container (media within a form of media/doll within a doll) aspect of the matryoshka as it is a container for visual and audio data. The loose transliteration may be confusing to Russian speakers, as the Russian word matroska (Russian: матроска) actually refers to a sailor suit. The project was announced on 6
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    238
    Microsoft Office Open XML

    Microsoft Office Open XML

    SpreadsheetML is the XML schema for Microsoft Office Excel 2003. The Office 2003 XML Reference Schemas are included in the Microsoft Open Specification Promise, a legal statement concerning unrestricted use of Microsoft intellectual property.
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    239
    Multimedia

    Multimedia

    Multimedia is media and content that uses a combination of different content forms. The term can be used as a noun (a medium with multiple content forms) or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content forms. The term is used in contrast to media which use only rudimentary computer display such as text-only, or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video, or interactivity content forms. Multimedia is usually recorded and played, displayed or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can also be part of a live performance. Multimedia (as an adjective) also describes electronic media devices used to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art; by including audio, for example, it has a broader scope. The term "rich media" is synonymous for interactive multimedia. Hypermedia can be considered one particular multimedia application. Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories. Linear active content progresses often without any navigational
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    240

    Nrg

    • Genre: Disk image
    • Read By: Nero Cd
    A .nrg file is a proprietary CD image file format used by Nero Burning ROM, a utility suite made by Nero AG, to create and burn CD images. Other than Nero Burning ROM, a variety of software titles can use these image files. For example, Power ISO, Alcohol 120%, or Daemon Tools can mount NRG files onto virtual drives for reading. Contrary to popular belief, .nrg files are not ISO images with .nrg extension and a header attached. For technical details on the nrg format, see below. There are several tools available to convert a .nrg data file into an ISO 9660 CD image. Note that converting a cd image .nrg multitrack (data + audio tracks) to ISO involve the loss of audio tracks. The data contents of NRG files can be extracted directly without creating an ISO image using freeware file archivers such as IZArc. The file format specification below is unofficial and as such is lacking some data. There may also be errors. The nrg file format uses a variation of the Interchange File Format (IFF) and stores data in a chain of "chunks". All integer values are stored unsigned in big endian byte order. Version 1 nrg format stores values as 32bit integers. Nero Burning ROM v5.5 introduced a new
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    241
    Object file

    Object file

    An object file is a file containing relocatable format machine code that is usually not directly executable. Object files are produced by an assembler, compiler, or other language translator, and used as input to the linker. Additionally, object files may contain metadata such as information to resolve symbolic cross-references between different modules, relocation information, stack unwinding information, comments, program symbols, debugging or profiling information. A linker is typically used to generate an executable or library by combining parts of object files. An object file format is a computer file format used for the storage of object code and related data. There are many different object file formats; originally each type of computer had its own unique format, but with the advent of Unix and other portable operating systems, some formats, such as COFF and ELF have been defined and used on different kinds of systems. It is possible for the same file format to be used both as linker input and output, and thus as the library and executable file format. The design and/or choice of an object file format is a key part of overall system design. It affects the performance of the
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    242
    Plain text

    Plain text

    • MIME Type: text/plain
    In computing, plain text is the contents of an ordinary sequential file readable as textual material without much processing, usually opposed to formatted text and to "binary files" in which some portions must be interpreted as binary objects (encoded integers, real numbers, images, etc.). The encoding has traditionally been either ASCII, one of its many derivatives such as ISO/IEC 646 etc., or sometimes EBCDIC. Unicode-based encodings such as UTF-8 and UTF-16 are gradually replacing the older ASCII derivatives limited to 7 or 8 bit codes. Files that contain markup or other meta-data are generally considered plain-text, as long as the entirety remains in directly human-readable form (as in HTML, XML, and so on (as Coombs, Renear, and DeRose argue, punctuation is itself markup)). The use of plain-text rather than bit-streams to express markup, enables files to survive much better "in the wild", in part by making them largely immune to computer architecture incompatibilities. According to The Unicode Standard, For instance, Rich text such as SGML, RTF, HTML, XML, and TEX relies on plain text. Wiki technology is another such example. According to The Unicode Standard, plain text has
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    243
    PNG

    PNG

    • MIME Type: image/png
    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    • Read By: Corel Paint Shop Pro
    Portable Network Graphics (PNG  /ˈpɪŋ/ PING) is a bitmapped image format that employs lossless data compression. PNG was created to improve upon and replace GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) as an image-file format not requiring a patent license. PNG supports palette-based images (with palettes of 24-bit RGB or 32-bit RGBA colors), grayscale images (with or without alpha channel), and full-color non-palette-based RGB[A] images (with or without alpha channel). PNG was designed for transferring images on the Internet, not for professional-quality print graphics, and therefore does not support non-RGB color spaces such as CMYK. PNG files nearly always use file extension PNG or png and are assigned MIME media type image/png; it was approved for this use by the Internet Engineering Steering Group on 14 October 1996. PNG was published as an ISO/IEC standard in 2004. The motivation for creating the PNG format was in early 1995, after it became known that the Lempel–Ziv–Welch (LZW) data compression algorithm used in the Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) format was patented by Unisys. There were also other problems with the GIF format that made a replacement desirable, notably its limit of
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    244

    Portable Executable

    • Genre: Executable
    The Portable Executable (PE) format is a file format for executables, object code and DLLs, used in 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Windows operating systems. The term "portable" refers to the format's versatility in numerous environments of operating system software architecture. The PE format is a data structure that encapsulates the information necessary for the Windows OS loader to manage the wrapped executable code. This includes dynamic library references for linking, API export and import tables, resource management data and thread-local storage (TLS) data. On NT operating systems, the PE format is used for EXE, DLL, SYS (device driver), and other file types. The Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) specification states that PE is the standard executable format in EFI environments. PE is a modified version of the Unix COFF file format. PE/COFF is an alternative term in Windows development. On Windows NT operating systems, PE currently supports the IA-32, IA-64, and x86-64 (AMD64/Intel64) instruction set architectures (ISAs). Prior to Windows 2000, Windows NT (and thus PE) supported the MIPS, Alpha, and PowerPC ISAs. Because PE is used on Windows CE, it continues to support
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    Rich Text Format

    • MIME Type: text/rtf
    • Genre: Document file format
    • Read By: TextEdit
    The Rich Text Format (often abbreviated RTF) is a proprietary document file format with published specification developed by Microsoft Corporation since 1987 for Microsoft products and for cross-platform document interchange. Most word processors are able to read and write some versions of RTF. There are several different revisions of RTF specification and portability of files will depend on what version of RTF is being used. RTF specifications are changed and published with major Microsoft Word and Office versions. It should not be confused with enriched text (mimetype "text/enriched" of RFC 1896) or its predecessor Rich Text (mimetype "text/richtext" of RFC 1341 and 1521); nor with IBM's RFT-DCA (Revisable Format Text-Document Content Architecture) which are completely different specifications. Richard Brodie, Charles Simonyi, and David Luebbert, members of the Microsoft Word development team, developed the original RTF in the middle to late 1980s. Its syntax was influenced by the TeX typesetting language. The first RTF reader and writer shipped in 1987 as part of Microsoft Word 3.0 for Macintosh, which implemented the RTF version 1.0 specification. All subsequent releases of
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    RMVB

    RealMedia Variable Bitrate (RMVB) is a variable bitrate extension of the RealMedia multimedia container format developed by RealNetworks. As opposed to the more common RealMedia container, which holds streaming media encoded at a constant bitrate (CBR), RMVB is typically used for multimedia content stored locally. Files using this format have the file extension ".rmvb". RealMedia uses compression similar to MPEG-4 Part 10 codecs, such as x264. RMVB files are extremely popular for distributing Asian content, especially Chinese television episodes and movies. For this reason, they have become noticeably present (though not entirely popular, partly due to their incompatibility with other media players) on file sharing platforms such as BitTorrent, eDonkey and Gnutella. On the Windows platform, the proprietary RealPlayer SP and the open-sourced Media Player Classic support RMVB, using an appropriate DirectShow filter or Real Alternative. On Linux and other Unix-like platforms, MPlayer, xine, and Totem are able to play RMVB files using the open-source, reverse-engineered RMVB implementation in FFmpeg. The format is also supported for playback by the cross-platform VLC media player. The
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    Smart Game Format

    The Smart Game Format (SGF) is a computer file format used for storing records of board games. Games currently supported are Amazons, Ataxx, Backgammon, Byte, Chase, Chess, DVONN, Exxit, Focus, Gess, GIPF, Go, Gobblet, Gomoku+Renju, Hex, Hive, Hnefatafl, Jungle, Kropki, Kuba, Lines of Action, Neutron, Nine Men's Morris, Octi, Philosopher's Football, Plateau, PÜNCT, Quadrature, Reversi (Othello), Sahara, Shogi, TAMSK, Tantrix, Trax, Tripples, Tumbling Down, TwixT, Xiangqi, YINSH and ZÈRTZ. Go is the game that is most commonly represented in this format and is the default. SGF was originally created under a different name by Anders Kierulf for his SmartGO program. SGF uses a tree-based representation of the game to store information; the tree structure makes the addition of variations simple. It is also text-based instead of binary for the sake of portability.
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    248

    Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language

    • Genre: Markup language
    • Read By: Real Player
    Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL,  /ˈsmaɪl/) is a World Wide Web Consortium recommended Extensible Markup Language (XML) markup language to describe multimedia presentations. It defines markup for timing, layout, animations, visual transitions, and media embedding, among other things. SMIL allows presenting media items such as text, images, video, audio, links to other SMIL presentations, and files from multiple web servers. SMIL markup is written in XML, and has similarities to HTML. As of 2008, the W3C Recommendation for SMIL is SMIL 3.0. SMIL 1.0 became a W3C Recommendation in June 1998. SMIL 2.0 became a W3C Recommendation in August 2001. SMIL 2.0 introduced a modular language structure that facilitated integration of SMIL semantics into other XML-based languages. Basic animation and timing modules were integrated into Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) and the SMIL modules formed a basis for Timed-Text. The modular structure made it possible to define the standard SMIL language profile and the XHTML+SMIL language profile with common syntax and standard semantics. SMIL 2.1 became a W3C Recommendation in December 2005. SMIL 2.1 includes a small number of extensions
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    Windows Media Audio

    • MIME Type: audio/x-ms-wma
    • Genre: Audio file format
    Windows Media Audio Format is a subtype of the Advanced Systems Format, developed by Microsoft for storing audio data streams. It comprises a Header Object, which describes the properties of the data streams, a Data Object, which contains the actual data streams stored in Data Packets and, optionally, one or more Index Objects. Audio data is stored using the Windows Media Audio codec, and the format supports streaming across networks.
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    250

    Windows Metafile

    • Genre: Graphics File Formats
    Windows Metafile (WMF) is a graphics file format on Microsoft Windows systems, originally designed in the 1990s. Windows Metafiles are intended to be portable between applications and may contain both vector graphics and bitmap components. It acts in a similar manner to SVG files. Essentially, a WMF file stores a list of function calls that have to be issued to the Windows Graphics Device Interface (GDI) layer to display an image on screen. Since some GDI functions accept pointers to callback functions for error handling, a WMF file may erroneously include executable code. WMF is a 16-bit format introduced in Windows 3.0. It is the native vector format for Microsoft Office applications such as Word, PowerPoint, and Publisher. In 1993, the 32-bit version of Win32/GDI introduced the Enhanced Metafile (EMF), a newer version with additional commands. EMF is also used as a graphics language for printer drivers. Microsoft recommends that "Windows-format" (WMF) functions only "rarely" be used and "enhanced-format" (EMF) functions be used instead. With the release of Windows XP, the Enhanced Metafile Format Plus Extensions (EMF+) format was introduced. EMF+ provides a way to serialize
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