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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best Family of All Time

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    1
    Timurid Dynasty

    Timurid Dynasty

    • Country: India
    The Timurid dynasty (Persian: تیموریان‎), self-designated Gurkānī (Persian: گوركانى‎), was a Persianate, Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turco-Mongol lineage which ruled over the whole of Iran, modern Afghanistan, modern Central Asia, as well as large parts of contemporary Pakistan, Mesopotamia, Anatolia and the Caucasus. It was founded by the militant conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) in the 14th century. The Timurids lost control of most of Persia to the Safavid dynasty in 1501, but members of the dynasty continued to rule parts of Central Asia, sometimes known as the Timurid Emirates. In the 16th century, the Timurid prince Babur, ruler of Ferghana, invaded present-day Pakistan and North India and founded the Mughal Empire. This came to rule most of North India until its decline after Aurangzeb in the early 18th century, and was formally dissolved by the British Raj after the Indian rebellion of 1857. Later princes of the dynasty predominantly used the title Mirza to show descent from the Amir. The origin of the Timurid dynasty goes back to the Mongol tribe known as Barlas, who were remnants of the original Mongol army of Genghis Khan. After the Mongol conquest of Central Asia,
    7.88
    8 votes
    2
    Artuqid dynasty

    Artuqid dynasty

    The Artquids or Artuqid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Artuklu Beyliği, sometimes also spelled as Artukid, Ortoqid or Ortokid; Turkish plural: Artukoğulları) was a Turkmen dynasty that ruled in Eastern Anatolia, Northern Syria and Northern Iraq in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Two main branches of the dynasty ruled from Hasankeyf (Hısn-ı Keyf, Hısnkeyfa) between 1102–1231 and Mardin between 1106–1186 (and until 1409 as vassals). There was also a third branch that acquired Harput in 1112 and was independent between 1185–1233. The dynasty was founded by Artuq, son of Eksük, a general originally under Malik Shah I and then under the Seljuq emir of Damascus, Tutush I. Tutush appointed Artuq governor of Jerusalem in 1086. Artuq died in 1091, and his sons Sokman and Ilghazi were expelled from Jerusalem by the Fatimid vizier al-Afdal Shahanshah in 1098; the Fatimids lost the city to the crusaders the following year. Sokman and Ilghazi set themselves up in Diyarbakır, Mardin, and Hasankeyf in the Jezirah, where they came into conflict with the sultanate of Great Seljuq. Sokman, bey of Mardin, defeated the crusaders at the Battle of Harran in 1104. Ilghazi succeeded Sokman in Mardin and
    7.50
    8 votes
    3
    Goryeo

    Goryeo

    The Goryeo Dynasty or Koryŏ (Hangul: 고려; Hanja: 高麗; 918–1392) was a Korean dynasty established in 918 by Emperor Taejo. This kingdom later gave name to the modern state of Korea. It united the Later Three Kingdoms in 936 and ruled most of the Korean peninsula until it was removed by the leader of the Joseon dynasty in 1392. Goryeo expanded its borders to present-day Wonsan in the north-east (936–943) and the Amnok River (993) and finally almost the whole of the Korean peninsula (1374). Two of this period's most notable products are Goryeo celadon pottery and the Tripitaka Koreana — the Buddhist scriptures (Tripitaka) carved onto roughly 80,000 woodblocks and stored, and still in, Haeinsa. Goryeo also created the world's first metal-based movable type in 1234 and the oldest surviving movable metal type book, the Jikji, was made in 1377. In 668, Silla conquered Baekje and Goguryeo with alliance of Tang Dynasty, but by the late 9th century it was tottering, its monarchs being unimaginative and pressed by the power of powerful statesmen. Many robbers and outlaws agitated and in 900 Gyeon Hwon revolted from Silla control in the Jeolla region as Hubaekje and next year Gung Ye revolted
    8.29
    7 votes
    4
    Clan MacKinnon

    Clan MacKinnon

    Clan Mackinnon or Clan Fingon is a Highland Scottish clan associated with the islands of Mull and Skye, in the Inner Hebrides. Popular tradition gives the clan a Dalriadic Gaelic origin. The 19th century historian W. F. Skene named the clan as one of the seven clans of Siol Alpin - who according to Skene could all trace their ancestry back to Alpin, father of Cináed mac Ailpín. Popular tradition has been until recently to consider Cináed mac Ailpín the first King of Scots and a Gael, however recent research speculates Cináed was a Pictish king and possibly even a Pict himself. Sir Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk speculated that Clan Mackinnon belonged to the kindred of Saint Columba, noting the Mackinnon Arms bore the hand of the saint holding the Cross, and the several Mackinnon abbots of Iona. The Mackinnon clan took part in the thirty years war with neighbouring clans such as MacKay, Love and McFarlane. Early history states that the Mackinnon clan was one of the most powerful clan in highland Scotland. Though little is known of the early history of the clan, it is likely to have served under the Lords of the Isles. After the forfeiture of the Lordship of the Isles in 1493 the clan
    7.00
    7 votes
    5
    Radziwiłł family

    Radziwiłł family

    • Members: Mikalojus Radvila the Old
    • Country: Lithuania
    The Radziwiłł family (Polish pronunciation: [radʑiˈviw]; Lithuanian: Radvila; Belarusian: Радзівіл, Radzivił; German: Radziwill; Latin: Radvil) is a noble family of Lithuanian origin. The descendants of Kristinas Astikas, a close associate of the 14th century Lithuanian ruler Vytautas, were highly prominent for centuries, first in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, later in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Kingdom of Prussia. The family has produced many individuals notable in Lithuanian, Belarusian, Polish, German (particularly Prussian) and general European history and culture. The Radziwiłł family received the title of Reichsfürst (prince, Lithuanian: kunigaikštis, Polish: książę, Belarusian: князь, kniaź), from the Holy Roman Empire. A complex of buildings maintained by the family in Belarus between the 16th century and 1939 is a UNESCO World Heritage site. The countries of Belarus, Finland, Lithuania, Poland, Russian Federation, and Ukraine jointly nominated its family archives to the UNESCO Memory of the World Register in 2008, and they were inscribed on the Register in 2009. The Radziwiłł family is a directly descended branch of the extinct Lithuanian noble Astikai
    7.00
    7 votes
    6
    Rurik Dynasty

    Rurik Dynasty

    • Members: Euphrosyne of Kiev
    The Rurik dynasty or Rurikids (Russian: Рю́риковичи, Ukrainian: Рю́риковичі, Belarusian: Ру́рыковичи) was a dynasty founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year 862 AD. The Rurikids were the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus' (after 862), the successor principalities of Galicia-Volhynia (after 1199), Chernigov, Vladimir-Suzdal, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and the founders of the Tsardom of Russia. They are one of Europe's oldest royal houses, with numerous existing cadet branches. The Rurikid dynasty was founded in 862 by Rurik, a Varangian prince. The apocryphal story tells of the [Slavic] tribes in the area calling on “‘the Varangians [i.e. Scandinavians], to the Rus' … The Chud, the Slovenes, the Krivichi and the Ves said “Our land is vast and abundant, but there is no order in it. Come and reign as princes and have authority over us!”’ Three brothers came with ‘their kin’ and ‘all the Rus’ in response to this invitation. Rurik set up rule in Novgorod, giving more provincial towns to his brothers. There is some ambiguity even in the Primary Chronicle about the specifics of the story, “hence their paradoxical statement ‘the people of
    7.00
    7 votes
    7
    Severan dynasty

    Severan dynasty

    The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235. The dynasty was founded by the Roman general Septimius Severus, who rose to power as the victor of the civil war through 193, known as the Year of the Five Emperors. Although Septimius Severus successfully restored peace following the upheaval of the late 2nd century, the dynasty was disturbed by highly unstable family relationships, and constant political turmoil, foreshadowing the imminent Crisis of the Third Century. It was the last lineage of the Principate founded by Augustus. Lucius Septimius Severus was born to a family of equestrian rank in the Roman province of Africa proconsularis. He rose through military service to consular rank under the later Antonines. Proclaimed emperor in 193 by his legionaries in Noricum during the political unrest that followed the death of Commodus, he secured sole rule over the empire in 197 after defeating his last rival, Clodius Albinus, at the Battle of Lugdunum. Severus fought a successful war against the Parthians and campaigned with success against barbarian incursions in Roman Britain, rebuilding Hadrian's Wall. In Rome, his relations with
    7.50
    6 votes
    8
    Reddy dynasty

    Reddy dynasty

    The Reddy kingdom (1325 - 1448 CE) was established in southern India by Prolaya Vema Reddy. The region that was ruled by the Reddy dynasty is now part of modern day coastal and central Andhra Pradesh. Prolaya Vema Reddy was part of the confederation that started a movement against the invading Muslim armies of the Delhi Sultanate in 1323 CE and succeeded in repulsing them from Warangal. Reddy is a social group or caste of India, predominantly inhabiting Andhra Pradesh. The first of the Reddy clans came into prominence during the Kakatiya period. The Reddy chiefs were appointed as generals and soldiers under the Kakatiyas. Reddys were among the feudatories of Kakatiya ruler Pratapa Rudra. During this time the Reddys carved out feudal principalities for themselves. The Reddy feudatories fought against the invading Muslim sultans and defended the region from coming under Muslim rule. Eventually, the Muslim army of the Delhi Sultanate invaded Warangal and captured Pratapa Rudra. In 1323 CE, after the death of Pratapa Rudra and the subsequent fall of the Kakatiya empire, the Reddy chiefs became independent. Prolaya Vema Reddy proclaimed independence and established the Reddy kingdom in
    7.17
    6 votes
    9
    Artaxiad Dynasty

    Artaxiad Dynasty

    The Artaxiad Dynasty or Ardaxiad Dynasty (Artashessian Dynasty, Armenian: Արտաշեսեան արքայատոհմ) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 12. Their realm included Greater Armenia, Sophene and intermittently Lesser Armenia and parts of Mesopotamia. Their main enemies were the Seleucids and the Parthians, against whom the Armenians had to conduct multiple wars. During this period, Armenian culture experienced considerable Hellenistic influence. According to the geographer Strabo, Artaxias and Zariadres were two satraps of the Seleucid Empire, who ruled over the provinces of Greater Armenia and Sophene respectively. After the Seleucid defeat at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC, they revolted and declared their independence, with Artaxias (Armenian: Արտաշես) becoming the first king of the Artaxiad dynasty of Armenia in 188. However, some Armenian scholars believe that Artaxias and Zariadres were not foreign generals but local figures related to the previous Orontid dynasty, as their Irano-Armenian (and not Greek) names would indicate. Artaxias is regarded as one of the most important kings in Armenian history. He presented himself as a
    8.20
    5 votes
    10
    Clan MacThomas

    Clan MacThomas

    Clan MacThomas is a Highland Scottish clan from the Glens of Eastern Perthshire. The clan takes its name from Thomaidh Mor (Big Tommy), who was the great-grandson of the William Mackintosh, 8th chief of the Clan Chattan. The seat of the Clan MacThomas was at Finegand (Scottish Gaelic: Feith nan Ceann, meaning "burn of the heads") in Glenshee. Tomaidh Mor lived in the 15th Century in the Badenoch Region of Scotland, south of Inverness. It was an inhospitable place and with the Clan Chattan becoming large and unmanageable (and not being heir to the Chattan Chiefship) Tomaidh Mor took his family and followers in an easterly direction across the Grampian Mountains before settling in Glenshee. There they flourished becoming an independent Clan in their own right, albeit retaining close ties with the Clan Chattan Confederation for defence reasons. The 4th Chief, Robert MacThomaidh, lived at the Thom in Upper Glenshee. In 1587, the Clan MacThomas was mentioned in the Acts of the (Scottish) Parliament as one of the " Clannis that the Capitannes,Cheffis and Chiftanes quhom on they depend". Robert was killed by a band of highland marauders at the end of the 16C and as he only had a daughter,
    7.00
    6 votes
    11
    Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt

    Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt

    The Thirtieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt followed Nectanebo I's deposition of Nefaarud II, the son of Hakor. This dynasty is often considered part of the Late Period. Nectanebo I had gained control of all of Egypt by November of 380 BC, but spent much of his reign defending his kingdom from Persian reconquest with the occasional help of Sparta or Athens. In 365, Nectanebo made his son Teos co-king and heir, and until his death in 363 father and son reigned together. After his father's death, Teos invaded the Persian territories of modern Syria and Israel and was beginning to meet with some successes when he lost his throne due the machinations of his own son Tjahepimu. Tjahepimu took advantage of Teos' unpopularity within Egypt by declaring his son—and Teos' grandson--Nectanebo II--king. The Egyptian army rallied around Nectanebo which forced Teos to flee to the court of the king of Persia. Nectanebo II's reign was dominated by the efforts of the Persian rulers to reconquer Egypt, which they considered a satrapy in revolt. For the first ten years, Nectanebo avoided the Persian reconquest because Artaxerxes III was forced to consolidate his control of the realm. Artaxerxes then
    7.00
    6 votes
    12
    Beecher family

    Beecher family

    • Members: Henry Ward Beecher
    • Country: United States of America
    Originating in New England, one particular Beecher family in the 19th century was a political family notable for issues of religion, civil rights, and social reform. Notable members of the family include clergy (Congregationalists), educators, authors and artists. Many of the family were Yale-educated and advocated for abolitionism, temperance, and women's rights. Some of the family provided material or ideological support to the Union in the American Civil War. The family is of English descent. Locations named after persons of this family include: Beecher, Illinois, named after Henry Ward Beecher and Beecher Island, named after Lt. Fredrick H. Beecher. The following is a brief family tree of the Lyman Beecher family, and its many notable members : 1. Lyman Beecher (1775–1863), son of David Beecher and Esther Hawley Lyman , married first to Roxana Foote (1775–1816) in 1799 and had 9 children; Yale graduate By his second wife Harriet Porter (1790–1835), whom he married in 1817:
    9.25
    4 votes
    13
    Clan Fergusson

    Clan Fergusson

    Clan Fergusson is a Scottish clan which has multiple geographic origins across Scotland. Consequently the Fergussons may be viewed as both a Highland and a Lowland clan. "Sons of Fergus" the world over have gained distinction in nonmilitary activities, e.g. in the law, the church, government, the arts and sciences, medicine, education, agriculture and in business and industry. Mention can only be made of Adam Ferguson the philosopher (1724–1816) and Robert Fergusson (1750–1774) the poet and mentor of Robert Burns. And in the realm of romance, the heroine of the song Annie Laurie was married to Alexander Ferguson of Craigdarroch. Before the 18th century, at least five groups of Fergusons possessed lands and lived in the style of a clan under their respective chiefs in Argyll, Perthshire, Aberdeenshire, Galloway, and Carrick. Today, the Kilkerran Fergusons in Ayrshire and the family of Fergusson of Baledmund and the Fergusons of Balquhidder, both in Perthshire, are still owners of extensive lands. Fergussons from both Galloway and Carrick alike claim descent from Fergus of Galloway. The grandfather of Donnchadh, Earl of Carrick and in turn great-great-grandfather to Robert Bruce,
    6.83
    6 votes
    14
    Twelfth dynasty of Egypt

    Twelfth dynasty of Egypt

    The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XII) is often combined with Dynasties XI, XIII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom. Known rulers of the Twelfth Dynasty are as follows: The chronology of the 12th dynasty is the most stable of any period before the New Kingdom. The Ramses Papyrus canon (1290 BC) in Turin gives 213 years (1991-1778 BC. Manetho stated that it was based in Thebes, but from contemporary records it is clear that the first king moved its capital to a new city named "Amenemhat-itj-tawy" ("Amenemhat the Seizer of the Two Lands"), more simply called Itjtawy. The location of Itjtaway has not been found, but is thought to be near the Fayyum, probably near the royal graveyards at el-Lisht. Egyptologists consider this dynasty to be the apex of the Middle Kingdom. The order of its rulers is well known from several sources — two lists recorded at temples in Abydos and one at Saqqara, as well as Manetho's work. A recorded date during the reign of Senusret III can be correlated to the Sothic cycle, consequently many events during this dynasty are frequently assigned to a year BC or BCE. This dynasty was founded by Amenemhat I, who may have been vizier
    7.60
    5 votes
    15
    Salian dynasty

    Salian dynasty

    • Members: Agnes of Germany
    The Salian dynasty [German: Salier] was a dynasty in the High Middle Ages of four German Kings (1024–1125), also known as the Frankish dynasty after the family's origin and role as dukes of Franconia. All of these kings were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor (1027–1125): the term 'Salic dynasty' also applies to the Holy Roman Empire as a separate term. After the death of the last Saxon of the Ottonian Dynasty in 1024, first the elected German King and then three years later the elected position of Holy Roman Emperor both passed to the first monarch of the Salian dynasty in the person of Conrad II, the only son of Count Henry of Speyer and Adelheid of Alsace (both territories in the Franconia of the day). He was elected German King in 1024 and crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire on 26 March 1027. The four Salian kings of the dynasty — Conrad II, Henry III, Henry IV, and Henry V — ruled the Holy Roman Empire from 1027 to 1125, and firmly established their monarchy as a major European power. They achieved the development of a permanent administrative system based on a class of public officials answerable to the crown. Werner of Worms and his son Duke Conrad the Red of Lorraine, who
    6.50
    6 votes
    16
    Twentieth dynasty of Egypt

    Twentieth dynasty of Egypt

    The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. This dynasty is considered to be the last one of the New Kingdom of Egypt, and was followed by the Third Intermediate Period. The Pharaohs of the 20th dynasty ruled for approximately one hundred and twenty years: from ca 1187 to 1064 BC. The dates and names in the table are mostly taken from Chronological Table for the Dynastic Period" in Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors), Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill, 2006. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes (designated KV). More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website. Pharaoh Setnakhte was likely already middle aged when he took the throne after Queen Twosret. He ruled for only around 4 years when he was succeeded by his son Ramesses III. Egypt was threatened by the Sea Peoples during this time period, but Ramesses III was able to defeat this confederacy from the Near East. The king is also known for a harem conspiracy in which Queen Tiye attempted to assassinate the king and put her son Pentawere on the
    9.67
    3 votes
    17
    Clan Ross

    Clan Ross

    Clan Ross is a Highland Scottish clan. The original chiefs of the clan were the original Earls of Ross. Clan Ross is a Highland Scottish clan first named as such by King Malcolm IV of Scotland in 1160. The first of the chiefs was Fearchar, Earl of Ross from the O'Beolain (Ó Beólláin, Boland, Bolan) family, also known as 'Fearchar Mac-an-t-sagairt' (meaning "son of the priest") of Applecross. Ferquhard Ross helped King Alexander II of Scotland (1214–1249) crush a rebellion in Moray and Ross-shire. When King Alexander II ascended to the throne, a rebellion broke out in Moray and western Ross-shire, whose Celtic population were opposed to the laws and customs of the south. The King marched northwards with his army but was unable to crush the insurgents from Ross and Moray. However, Fearchar, Earl of Ross, with a large body of men from his own clan and his allies, appeared on the scene and soon wiped out all opposition to the King's authority. Fearchar brought the King the heads of the rebel leaders and was knighted on 15 June 1215. He was created Earl of Ross in about 1234. The Clan Ross by tradition fought at the Battle of Largs in 1263 in support of Alexander III of Scotland against
    7.20
    5 votes
    18
    Rubido

    Rubido

    • Country: Spain
    The Rubido family of Madrid originated in Castile. They were ennobled in the 12th century. The Croatian branch of that family came to Croatia in the first half of the 19th century. Count Antun Rubido de Zagorie, Plemeniti (gently born) (1817–1863) came to Croatia from Madrid in the first half of the 19th century (Related to Don Sebastian Rubido from Santiago de Compostela). He was counsel vicegerent and a major in the Habsburg army, under command of Ban Josip Jelačić. Antun's wife, Countess Sidonija Rubido Erdödy (1819–1884) was Croatia's first opera primadona and an important member of the Illyrian movement. In 1858 she was the first to sing the Croatian anthem from her castle in Zagorje. She started a primary school in Gornja Rijeka by initiating the building of a new school. Today the primary school in Gornja Rijeka carries her name. Ivan Peklic wrote a book on her life - "Sidonija Rubido Erdody: Prva Hrvatska Primadona". There are no others of the name Rubido in the states bordering Croatia. The other family that carries the name Rubido in Croatia are a related but failing line. Lord Radoslav Rubido (born 1847) was župan (prefect) of the Varaždin county, Croatia. He took the
    7.20
    5 votes
    19
    Afsharid Persian Empire

    Afsharid Persian Empire

    The Afsharids (Persian: افشاریان‎) were members of an Iranian dynasty of Turkic origin, from Khorasan, who ruled Persia in the 18th century. The dynasty was founded in 1736 by the military commander Nader Shah, who deposed the last member of the Safavid dynasty and proclaimed himself King of Iran. During Nader's reign, Iran reached its greatest extent since the Sassanid Empire. After his death, most of his empire was divided between the Zands and the Durranis, and Afsharid rule was confined to a small local state in Khorasan. Finally, the Afsharid dynasty was overthrown by Mohammad Khan Qajar in 1796. The dynasty was named after the Turkic Afshar tribe to which Nader belonged. The Afshars had migrated from Turkestan to Azerbaijan in the 13th century. In the early 17th century, the Persian Shah Abbas the Great moved many Afshars from Azerbaijan to Khorasan to defend the north-eastern borders of his state against the Uzbeks. Nader belonged to the Qereqlu branch of the Afshars. Nader Shah was born (as Nader Qoli) into a humble semi-nomadic family of Khorasan, where he became a local warlord. His path to power began when the Ghilzai Shah Mahmud overthrew the weak Safavid shah Sultan
    8.25
    4 votes
    20
    Nervan-Antonian dynasty

    Nervan-Antonian dynasty

    The Nerva–Antonine dynasty was a dynasty of seven Roman Emperors who ruled over the Roman Empire from 96 to 192. These Emperors are Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus. The first five of the six successions within this dynasty were notable in that the reigning Emperor adopted the candidate of his choice to be his successor. Under Roman law, an adoption established a bond legally as strong as that of kinship. Because of this, the second through sixth Nerva-Antonine emperors are also called Adoptive Emperors. This has often been considered as a conscious repudiation of the principle of dynastic inheritance and has been deemed as one of the factors of the period's prosperity. However, this was not a new practice; Roman emperors had adopted heirs in the past: The Emperor Augustus had adopted Tiberius and the Emperor Claudius had adopted Nero. The Imperator who appointed himself Dictator for Life, Gaius Julius Caesar, considered to be instrumental in the transition from Republic to Empire, adopted Octavian who would become Augustus, the first Emperor of Rome, even though he possibly had an illegitimate natural son Caesarion, by Cleopatra
    8.25
    4 votes
    21
    Toumanishvili

    Toumanishvili

    • Members: Cyril Toumanoff
    • Country: Georgia
    The Toumanishvili or Toumaniani, armenianized Tumanyan or russianized Toumanov or Toumanoff (Georgian თუმანიშვილი, Russian Туманишви́ли,Тума́нов) is an ancient Armenian-Georgian princely family. The family has its roots in the ancient Armenian noble dynasty of the Mamikonians (Mamikonids),. One branch of Toumanoffs (Georgian: Toumaniani) belonged to the Armenian Church, the other branch (Georgian: Toumanishvili) was of Greek Orthodox line. The two Mamikonid princely Houses of Georgia (and later the Russian Empire) are the Liparitids and the T’umanids. The former appeared in Iberia c. 876 and was invested with the office of High Constable of Georgia. It returned, to Armenia in 1177, or possibly even earlier and reigned as the Third Dynasty of Siunik from c. 1200 to the mid-fifteenth century. It was subdivided, in the remaining Georgian branch, into the following houses: Jambakur(ian) [= čenbakur]-Orbeliani, Barat’ašvili, Solağašvili, Kaxaberije-Čiĵavaje, and possibly Abašije. The other house of T’umanids, moved back to Georgia from Armenia Maritima (Cilicia) after the twelfth century and adopted the last name Toumanishvili. They were acknowledged by the Kings of Georgia as tavadi
    8.25
    4 votes
    22
    House of Valois

    House of Valois

    • Members: Catherine II of Valois, Princess of Achaea
    • Founder: Charles of Valois
    • Country: France
    The House of Valois (French pronunciation: [valwa]) was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, succeeding the House of Capet (or "Direct Capetians") as kings of France from 1328 to 1589. A cadet branch of the family reigned as dukes of Burgundy from 1363 to 1482. They were descendants of Charles of Valois, the fourth son of King Philip III. They based their claim on the Salic law, which excluded females (Joan II of Navarre) as well as male descendants through the distaff line (Edward III of England), from the succession to the French throne. The Capetian dynasty seemed secure both during and after the reign of Philip IV. Philip had left three surviving sons (Louis, Philip and Charles) and a daughter (Isabella). Each son became king in turn but died young without male heirs, leaving only daughters who could not inherit the throne. When Charles IV died in 1328, the French Succession was thrown wide open. In 1328 there were 3 reasonable candidates to the throne; In England, Isabella of France heard the news and claimed the throne on behalf of her son. Similar to France, the English law of succession did not allow the succession of females, but allowed the succession through the
    8.00
    4 votes
    23
    Clan Scott

    Clan Scott

    Clan Scott is a Scottish clan. Clan Scott is not a Highland clan but Lowland, from the Borders region of Scotland. Families and clans from this area prefer to be known as Borderers instead of Lowlanders. One of the most powerful of the Border families, the name was derived from the Scots who invaded Dalriada (Argyll) from Ireland and the surname is found in all parts of Scotland. However in the Borders, an area that was never fully Gaelic speaking, it may have meant a Scottish Gaelic speaker. The first record of the name Scott is when Uchtred filius Scot witnessed the foundation charter of Selkirk in 1120. Henricus le Scotte witnessed a charter by David Earl of Strathearn around 1195. Michael Scott "the wizard" was a real-life scholar and philosopher, whom Walter Scott described in The Lay of the Last Minstrel as "addicted to the abstruse studies of judicial astrology, alchemy, physiognomy, and chiromancy. Hence he passed among his contemporaries for a skilful magician". In the last quarter of the 13th century the Scotts appear in Fife when Michael Lescot agreed to serve King Edward I of England overseas. (In the 17th century author Sir John Scott would rebuild Scotstarvit Tower
    6.80
    5 votes
    24
    Clan Kennedy

    Clan Kennedy

    Clan Kennedy is a Scottish clan. The Kennedys had their home territory in Carrick in Ayrshire, in southwestern Scotland. Originally they were of Pictish/Norse stock from the Western Isles. In the fifteenth century, one Ulric Kennedy fled Ayrshire to Lochaber in the Highlands for refuge, where he was granted protection under the Chief of Clan Cameron. From this Highland branch, Kennedys settled on the Isle of Skye. A branch also was established in northeast Scotland, at Aberdeen. The clan was one branch of the Celtic Lords of Galloway. The Kennedys of nine-county Ulster, in the north of Ireland, are mostly of Scottish origin from the territories of Galloway and Ayr just across the Irish Sea 20 miles away. Many Scottish Kennedys were planters in Ulster, and many Scots went south to Dublin and mingled with the Irish clan. The Clan Kennedy supported King Robert I of Scotland before and through the Wars of Scottish Independence and were rewarded. Around 1360 John Kennedy became owner of lands at Cassillis and in 1457 his descendant, Gilbert, was created Lord Kennedy. Gilbert's younger brother James was Bishop of St Andrews and founder of Scotland's first university, the University of St
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    Hafsid dynasty

    Hafsid dynasty

    The Hafsids (Arabic: الحفصيون‎ / ALA-LC: al-Ḥafṣiyūn) were a Masmuda-Berber dynasty ruling Ifriqiya (modern Tunisia) from 1229 to 1574. Their territories were stretched from east of modern Algeria to west of modern Libya during their zenith. The dynasty was named after Muhammad bin Abu Hafs a Berber from the Masmuda tribe of Morocco. He was appointed governor of Ifriqiya (present day Tunisia) by Muhammad an-Nasir, Caliph of the Almohad empire between 1198-1213. The Banu Hafs, were a powerful group amongst the Almohads; their ancestor is Omar Abu Hafs al-Hentati, a member of the council of ten and a close companion of Ibn Tumart. His original name was "Fesga Oumzal", which later changed to "Abu Hafs Omar ibn Yahya al-Hentati" (also known as "Omar Inti") since it was a tradition of Ibn Tumart to rename his close companions once they had adhered to his religious teachings. The Hafsids as governors on behalf of the Almohads faced constant threats from Banu Ghaniya who were descendents of Almoravid princes which the Almohads had defeated and replaced as a ruling dynasty. Hafsids were Ifriqiya governors of Almohads until 1229, when they declared independence. After the split of the
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    Ikhshidid dynasty

    Ikhshidid dynasty

    The Ikhshidid dynasty of Egypt (sometimes transliterated other ways) ruled from 935 to 969. The dynasty carried the Arabic title "Wali" reflecting their position as governors on behalf of the Abbasids, the first governor was Muhammad bin Tughj Al-Ikhshid, a Turkic slave soldier, who was installed by the Abbasid Caliph and gave him and his descendants the Wilayah for 30 years, the last name Ikhshid is Soghdian for "prince" also given as title by the Caliph. The dynasty came to an end when the Fatimid army conquered Fustat in 969. Only gold coins are common, with coppers being extremely rare. Dinars were mainly struck at Misr (Fustat) and Filastin (al-Ramla), and dirhams were usually struck at Filastin, and less often at Tabariya, Dimashq, and Hims. Other mints for dirhams are quite rare. Dinars from Misr are often well struck, while the Filastin dinars are more crude. Dirhams are usually crudely struck and often are illegible on half of the coin.
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    Rothschild family

    Rothschild family

    • Members: James Mayer de Rothschild
    • Founder: Mayer Amschel Rothschild
    • Country: Germany
    The Rothschild family ( /ˈrɒθs.tʃaɪld/, German: [ˈʁoːt.ʃɪlt], French: [ʁɔt.ʃild], Italian: [ˈrɔtʃild]), known as the House of Rothschild, or more simply as the Rothschilds, is a European banking dynasty, of German-Jewish origin, that established European banking and finance houses starting in the late 18th century. Five lines of the Austrian branch of the family have been elevated to Austrian nobility, being given hereditary baronies of the Habsburg Empire by Emperor Francis II in 1816. Another line, of the British branch of the family, was elevated to British nobility at the request of Queen Victoria. During the 1800s, when it was at its height, the family is believed to have possessed by far the largest private fortune in the world as well as by far the largest fortune in modern world history. The family's wealth is believed to have subsequently declined, as it was divided amongst hundreds of descendants. Today, Rothschild businesses are on a far smaller scale than they were throughout the 19th century, although they encompass a diverse range of fields, including: mining, banks, private asset management, mixed farming, wine, and charities. The first member of the family who was
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    Slavník dynasty

    Slavník dynasty

    The Slavniks/Slavníks or Slavnikids (Czech: Slavníkovci; German: Slawnikiden; Polish: Sławnikowice; Croatian: Slavnikovići) was a powerful dynasty in Bohemia during the 10th century. It governed Zličané, one of the oldest Czech tribes. The center of the principality was the gord of Libice located at the confluence of the rivers Cidlina and Elbe (Labe). The Slavníks competed with the Přemyslids for control over Bohemia and eventually succumbed to them. The founder of the dynasty was prince Slavník (†981) who lent his name to the whole family. He had consanguinity with the Saxon kings. His wife was Střezislava, a woman of remarkable beauty, allegedly from the Přemyslid house. Slavník had at least 7 sons, among whom two – Vojtěch (Adalbert) and the illegitimate Radim (Gaudentius) – later became saints. According to Cosmas' Chronicle, Slavník was a happy man all his lifetime. Slavník dynasty was supposedly related to the Babenbergs, the Přemyslid dynasty, and was friendly with the Polish kings. Slavník's heir was his son Soběslav who rushed to consolidate the princedom's independence. For instance, he began to coin money in Libice, known among numismatists as the silver senars, in
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    Toungoo dynasty

    Toungoo dynasty

    The Toungoo Dynasty (Burmese: တောင်ငူခေတ် [tàʊɴŋù kʰɪʔ]; also spelled Taungoo Dynasty) was the ruling dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from the mid-16th century to 1752. Its early kings Tabinshwehti and Bayinnaung succeeded in reunifying the Pagan Empire for the first time since 1287, and in incorporating the Shan States for the first time. At its peak, the First Toungoo Empire also included Manipur, Chinese Shan States, Siam, and Lan Xang, but the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia collapsed in 1599, 18 years after Bayinnaung's death. The dynasty quickly regrouped under the leadership of Nyaungyan and his son Anaukpetlun who succeeded in restoring a smaller, more manageable kingdom, encompassing Lower Burma, Upper Burma, Shan States and Lan Na by 1616. The Restored Toungoo kings, now based in Ava (Inwa), and created a legal and political system whose basic features would continue under the Konbaung dynasty well into 19th century. The crown completely replaced the hereditary chieftainships with appointed governorships in the entire Irrawaddy valley, and greatly reduced the hereditary rights of Shan chiefs. Its trade and secular administrative reforms built a prosperous
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    Clan Hay

    Clan Hay

    Clan Hay is a Scottish clan that has played an important part in the history and politics of Scotland. Members of the clan are to be found in most parts of Scotland and in many other parts of the world. However, the North East of Scotland, i.e. Aberdeenshire Aberdeenshire (historic), Banffshire, Morayshire and Nairnshire Nairn (boundaries), is the heart of Hay country with other significant concentrations of Hays being found in Perthshire, especially around Perth, in the Scottish Borders, and in Shetland. The family name is derived from that of several villages called La Haye in the Cotentin peninsula of Normandy, France. The word, haye comes from haia, a hedge, which in modern French is haie. It can also mean "stockade", but it may have been used here because this part of Normandy is characterized by centuries-old interlocking hedgerows (bocage). The French, de la Haye, appears in Latin documents as de Haya The name has evolved into English as Hay and rendered into Gaelic as Garadh. According to George Fraser Black, the Gaelic form of Hay, MacGaradh, was merely an invention of John Hay Allan, also known as John Sobieski Stuart, author of the dubious Vestiarium Scoticum. There are
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    Clan Macnab

    Clan Macnab

    Clan Macnab is a Highland Scottish clan. The founder of the Clan Macnab is said to have belonged to the clerical profession. In Gaelic, Mac an Aba means "the son of abbot". He is said to have been Abbot of Glendochart. The title Mac an Aba eventually became one of four variations used today: "MacNabb", "McNabb", "Macnab" or "McNab". Clan Macnab is often said to have been a branch of the Clan MacDonald. However a bond of manrent exists to say that the Clan Macnab was an ally of the Clan Mackinnon and the Clan Gregor. The current village of Killin, on the shores of Loch Tay, is the traditional homeland of the Clan Macnab. The Macnabs were a considerable clan before the reign of Alexander III of Scotland. When King Robert the Bruce commenced his struggle for the crown of Scotland the Clan Macnab along with the Clan MacDougall fought against Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Dalrigh. After this when the cause of Robert the Bruce had prevailed his victorious troops ravaged the lands of Macnab. All of Macnab's family writs were destroyed. Of the Macnab's possessions only the Barony of Bowain or Bovain remained with them when Gilbert Macnab received a charter from King David II of
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    Antonine dynasty

    Antonine dynasty

    The Antonines most often referred to were two successive Roman Emperors who ruled between 138 and 180: Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, famous for their skilled leadership. Also included in those usually considered to be "Antonines" were Lucius Verus for a time (161–169) co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius, and Commodus, son of Marcus Aurelius. In 138, after a long reign dedicated to the cultural unification and consolidation of the empire, the Emperor Hadrian named Antoninus his son and heir, under the condition that he adopt both Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. Hadrian died that same year, and Antoninus began a peaceful, benevolent reign, in contrast to Hadrian's wars of unification and his immediate predecessors' expansionist wars. He adhered strictly to Roman traditions and institutions and shared his power with the Roman Senate. Marcus Aurelius succeeded Antoninus Pius upon that emperor's 161 death and continued his legacy as an unpretentious and gifted administrator and leader, a modern Numa Pompilius. Marcus Aurelius died in 180 and was followed by his biological son Commodus, who single-handedly ended the line of "Five Good Emperors" and the Pax Romana in general. Edward
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    Clan Kerr

    Clan Kerr

    Clan Kerr (/kɛr/) is a Scottish clan whose origins lie in the Scottish Borders. During the Middle Ages it was one of the prominent border reiver clans along the present-day Anglo-Scottish border and has played an important role in the history of the Border country of Scotland. The origins of the name Kerr are disputed as being either: The great Clan Kerr/Carr is well remembered in Scotland as one of the most loyal but warlike Clans of the turbulent Border territories. They are by tradition believed to be of Anglo-Norman origin. Ralph Kerr and John Kerr settled in Jedburgh in the 14th century and the clan is said to descend from them. The chiefs who were the Kerrs of Ferinhurst were descended from the older brother Ralph, while the cadet branch, the Kerrs of Cessford were descended from the younger brother John. Asked how to say his name, Admiral Mark Kerr told The Literary Digest "In Scotland the name rhymes with care. Since many of the family have come to England the pronunciation in this country rhymes with car, which we have entirely submitted to". The two main branches of the Clan Kerr, the Kerrs of Ferinhurst and the Kerrs of Cessford often feuded with each other. However both
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    Lý Dynasty

    Lý Dynasty

    The Lý Dynasty (Vietnamese: nhà Lý, pronounced [ɲâː lǐ], like Lee; Hán tự: 李朝, Lý Triều), sometimes known as the Later Lý Dynasty (nhà Hậu Lý, [ɲâː hə̂ˀw lǐ]), was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Prior Lê Dynasty (nhà Tiền Lê) and ended in 1225 when the queen Lý Chiêu Hoàng (then 8 years old) was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her husband, Trần Cảnh. They ruled Vietnam for a total of 216 years. During Lý Thánh Tông's reign, the official name of Vietnam became Đại Việt. The Lý Dynasty was started by Lý Công Uẩn. The Lý was the first Vietnamese dynasty that was able to hold onto power for more than several decades, allowing them to secure and expand the territory. Domestically, while the Lý Emperors were devout Buddhists, the influence of Confucianism from China was on the rise, with the opening of the first University in Vietnam in 1070 (Temple of Literature) for selection of civil servants who are not from noble families. Politically, they created a system of administration based on rule of law rather than on autocratic principles. The fact that they chose the Đại La Citadel as the capital (later renamed Thăng Long and subsequently
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    Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt

    Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt

    The Twenty-First, Twenty-Second, Twenty-Third, Twenty-Fourth, and Twenty-Fifth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Third Intermediate Period. The known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-First Dynasty are as follows: After the reign of Ramesses III, a long, slow decline of royal power in Egypt followed. The pharaohs of the Twenty-First Dynasty ruled from Tanis, but were mostly active only in Lower Egypt which they controlled. This dynasty is described as 'Tanite' because its political capital was based at Tanis. Meanwhile, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes effectively ruled Middle and Upper Egypt in all but name. The later Egyptian Priest Manetho of Sebennytos states in his Epitome on Egyptian royal history that "the 21st Dynasty of Egypt lasted for 130 years".
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    Clan Murray

    Clan Murray

    Clan Murray ( listen (help·info)) is a Highland Scottish clan. The Murrays have played a major role in Scottish history, with lands and cadet houses throughout Scotland. The Murrays (Moireach in Scottish Gaelic) are descended from the Flemish nobleman Freskin de Moravia (also progenitor of Clan Sutherland and possibly Clan Douglas). Flemish and Norman lords crossed the North Sea and established themselves in the Scottish realm at the invitation of the Kings of Scots from the early 12th century. Freskin and his son were granted extensive lands in Moray and intermarried with the old line of Celtic Mormaers from Moray. They took the name 'de Moravia', i.e. 'of Moray' in Latin. The descendants of Freskin's grandson William de Moravia became Lords of Bothwell. The name became more generally written simply as 'Moray' or variants, deriving from the great province of Moray, once a local kingdom, by the end of the 13th century. From him descend the principal houses of Murray: Tullibardine, Atholl, Abercairney and Polmaise. The name Murray is believed to derive from Pictish *Moritreb, meaning 'seaward settlement', referring to the ancient province, the Mormaerdom of Moray. Much larger than
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    Sayyid dynasty

    Sayyid dynasty

    The Sayyid dynasty was the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate from 1414 to 1451. They succeeded the Tughlaq dynasty and ruled that sultanate until they were displaced by the Lodi dynasty. This family claimed to be Sayyids, or descendants of Prophet Muhammad. The central authority of the Delhi Sultanate had been fatally weakened by the successive invasion of Timur and his sack of Delhi in 1398. After a period of chaos, when no central authority prevailed, the Sayyids gained power at Delhi. Their 37-year period of dominance witnessed the rule of four different members of the dynasty. The dynasty was established by Khizr Khan, deputised by Timur to be the governor of Multan (Punjab). Khizr Khan took Delhi from Daulat Khan Lodi on May 28, 1414 and founded the Sayyid dynasty. But he did not take up the title of sultan and nominally, continued to be a Rayat-i-Ala (vassal) of the Timurids, initially of Timur and after his death, his successor Shah Rukh, grandson of Timur. Khizer Khan was succeeded by his son Mubarrak Khan after his death on May 20, 1421, who styled himself as Muizz-ud-Din Mubarak Shah in his coins. A detailed account of his reign is available in the Tarikh-i-Mubarak
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    Yuan Dynasty

    Yuan Dynasty

    The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: 元朝, p Yuán Cháo; Mongolian: Их Юань улс) was the empire established by Kublai Khan, the leader of Mongolian Borjigin clan, after Mongol conquered Jin and Southern Song Dynasty in China. Although the Mongols had ruled territories, which included today's northern China for decades, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan officially proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style. His realm – the Great Yuan Empire (t 大元帝國, s 大元帝国, p Dà Yuán Dìguó) – was by this point isolated from the other khanates and controlled only most of present-day China and its surrounding areas including modern Mongolia. It was the first foreign dynasty to rule all of China and lasted until 1368, after which its remnants in Mongolia were known as the Northern Yuan. The Yuan is considered both a successor to the Mongol Empire and as an imperial Chinese dynasty. In official Chinese histories, the Yuan Dynasty bore the Mandate of Heaven, following the Song Dynasty and preceding the Ming Dynasty. Although the dynasty was established by Kublai Khan, he placed his grandfather Genghis Khan on the imperial records as the official founder of the dynasty as Taizu. In addition to
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    Ayyubid dynasty

    Ayyubid dynasty

    • Founder: Saladin
    The Ayyubid dynasty (Arabic: الأيوبيون‎ al-ʾAyyūbiyyūn) was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin and centered in Egypt. The dynasty ruled much of the Middle East during the 12th and 13th centuries CE. The Ayyubid family, under the brothers Ayyub and Shirkuh, originally served as soldiers for the Zengids until they supplanted them under Saladin, Ayyub's son. In 1174, Saladin proclaimed himself Sultan following the death of Nur al-Din. The Ayyubids spent the next decade launching conquests throughout the region and by 1183, the territories under their control included Egypt, Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen, and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia. Most of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and beyond Jordan River fell to Saladin after his victory at the Battle of Hattin in 1187. However, the Crusaders regained control of Palestine's coastline in the 1190s. After the death of Saladin, his sons contested control over the sultanate, but Saladin's brother al-Adil eventually established himself as Sultan in 1200. In the 1230s, the Ayyubid rulers of Syria attempted to assert their independence from Egypt and remained divided until Egyptian
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    Mạc Dynasty

    Mạc Dynasty

    The Mạc dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Mạc; Hán Việt: 莫朝, Mạc Triều), ruled the northern provinces of Vietnam from 1527 until 1592, when they lost control over the capital Hanoi for the last time. Later Mạc representatives ruled over the province of Cao Bằng (with the direct support of the Chinese Qing dynasty) until 1677. The founder of the Mạc Dynasty was a man who was related to a famous Trần Dynasty Confucian scholar named Mạc Đĩnh Chi. Unlike his ancestor, Mạc Đăng Dung chose to enter the military and ascended the ranks to become the senior general in the Vietnamese army. Later he seized power in a coup d'état and ruled Vietnam from 1527 till his death in 1541. Officially he resigned his position as Emperor in favor of his son but the reality was, he continued to rule. (Vietnam: The Revolutionary Path by Thomas Hodgkin, 1981). Mạc Đăng Dung, famed for his strength and cunning, got his start as a bodyguard for the cruel and reviled Lê Emperor – Lê Uy Mục (around 1506). Over time, despite the deaths of several emperors, Mạc Đăng Dung increased his power and gained many supporters. However, he also gained the enmity of other rivals for power. Around 1520, a civil war started. This war
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    Jìn Dynasty

    Jìn Dynasty

    The Jìn Dynasty (simplified Chinese: 晋朝; traditional Chinese: 晉朝; pinyin: Jìn Cháo; Wade–Giles: Chin⁴-ch'ao², IPA: [tɕîn tʂʰɑ̌ʊ];), was a dynasty in Chinese history, lasting between the years 265 and 420 CE. There are two main divisions in the history of the Dynasty, the first being Western Jin (ch: 西晉, 265–316) and the second Eastern Jin (ch: 東晉 317–420). Western Jin was founded by Sima Yan, with its capital at Luoyang, while Eastern Jin was begun by Sima Rui, with its capital at Jiankang. The two periods are also known as Liang Jin (ch: 兩晉 lit, two Jin) and Sima Jin by scholars, to distinguish this dynasty from other dynasties that use the same Chinese character, such as the Later Jin Dynasty (ch: 後晉). The Sima clan was initially subordinate to the Wei dynasty, but the clan's influence and power grew greatly after the incident at Gaoping tombs in 249. In 265, Sima Yan forced emperor Cao Huan of Wei to abdicate the throne to him, ending Wei and starting Jin (as Emperor Wu). He named his dynasty after the state of Jin of the Spring and Autumn Period that once ruled the Sima clan's home county of Wen in Henei (present day Wen County, Henan). In 280, the Jin conquered Eastern Wu and
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    Arsacid Dynasty of Armenia

    Arsacid Dynasty of Armenia

    The Arsacid dynasty or Arshakuni dynasty (Armenian: Արշակունի Aršakuni) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 to 428. They are a branch of the Iranian Parthian Arsacids. Arsacid Kings reigned intermittently throughout the chaotic years following the fall of the Artaxiad Dynasty until 62 when Tiridates I secured Arsacid rule in Armenia. An independent line of Kings was established by Vologases II (Vagharsh II) in 180. Two of the most notable events under Arsacid rule in Armenian history were the conversion of Armenia to Christianity by Gregory the Illuminator in 301 and the creation of the Armenian alphabet by Saint Mesrob in circa 406. The first appearance of an Arsacid on the Armenian throne came about in 12 when the Parthian King Vonones I was exiled from Parthia due to his pro-Roman policies and Occidental manners. Vonones I briefly acquired the Armenian throne with Roman consent, but Artabanus II demanded his deposition, and as Emperor Augustus did not wish to begin a war with the Parthians he deposed Vonones I and sent him to Syria. In the meantime Artabanus II didn't waste time after deposition of Vonones I; he installed his son Orodes on the Armenian throne. Emperor Tiberius
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    Clan MacAlister

    Clan MacAlister

    Clan MacAlister is a Scottish Clan and a branch of Clan Donald. The clan is the earliest branch to have split off from Clan Donald, claiming descent from Alasdair Mòr, son of Domhnall founder of Clan Donald. From Alasdair Mòr the clans takes its surname MacAlister; this surname is an Anglicisation of the Gaelic MacAlasdair meaning "son of Alasdair". In the 15th century the chief of the clan was seated in Kintyre, and the clan was centred there until the 18th century, when a chief sold the family estate in preference to a lowland estate. The current chief of the clan lives in England. Clan MacAlister is a branch of Clan Donald—one of the largest Scottish clans. The eponymous ancestor of Clan Donald is Domhnall, son of Raghnall, son of Somhairle. Traditional Clan Donald genealogies, created in the later Middle Ages, give the clan a descent from various legendary Irish figures. Modern historians, however, distrust these traditional genealogies, and consider Somhairle, son of Gille Brighde to be earliest ancestor for whom there is secure historical evidence. Somhairle, himself, was a 12th century leader, styled "king of the isles" and "king of Argyll"; yet there is no reliable account
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    Clan Menzies

    Clan Menzies

    For Menzies as a personal name, including its pronunciation and a list of famous people of that name, see Menzies. Clan Menzies ( listen (help·info)); Scottish Gaelic: Clann Mèinnear, a member is a Mèinnearach) is a Highland Scottish clan. Mesnières in Normandy was the original home of the Norman family whose name was transformed to Manners, which was the surname of the Dukes of Rutland. A branch of this family moved into Lothian in Scotland and gradually into the Scottish Highlands, where they first became known by the name Meyneris and eventually as Menzies. It is believed that the Menzies were granted lands in Lothian in the 12th Century, almost certainly in exchange for military service. The first Chief of Menzies was Sir Robert de Meyneris who became Chamberlain to King Alexander II of Scotland in 1249. The Menzies clan also became allies with the Earl of Atholl and Clan Murray. Sir Robert de Meyneris son, called Alexander, was granted lands and property in Strathtay. He was later also granted lands in and property in Weem. However the Castle Weem was built there two centuries later. In the 14th century during the Wars of Scottish Independence Clan Menzies supported Robert the
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    Herodian Dynasty

    Herodian Dynasty

    The Herodian Dynasty was a Judean dynasty of Idumean descent. Herodian dynasty began with Herod the Great, who assumed the throne of Judea, with Roman support, bringing down the century long Hasmonean Kingdom. His kingdom lasted until 4 BCE, when it was divided between his sons as Tetrarchy, which lasted for about 10 years. Most of those kingdoms, including Judea proper, were incorporated into Judaea Province in 6 CE, though limited Herodian kingship continued in Northern Levant until 92 CE, when the last Herodian monarch, Agrippa II, died and Rome assumed full power of his domain. During the time of the Hasmonean ruler John Hyrcanus 134-104 BCE, Judea conquered Edom (Idumea) and forced the Edomites to convert to Judaism. The Edomites were gradually integrated into the Judean nation, and some of them reached high ranking positions. In the days of Alexander Jannaeus, Edomite Antipas, was appointed governor of Edom. His son Antipater, father of Herod the Great, was the chief adviser to Hasmonean Hyrcanus II and managed to establish a good relationship with the Roman Republic, who at that time (63 BCE) extended their influence over the region, following conquest of Syria and
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    Clan Ogilvy

    Clan Ogilvy

    Clan Ogilvy / Ogilvie is a Highland Scottish clan. The Ogilvys are one of the most distinguished families in Scotland, and take their name from the like-named place near Glamis. This placename is first recorded in about 1205 as Ogilvin, and is likely derived from an early form of the Welsh uchel ("high") and either ma ("plain", "place") or ban ("hill"). Patrick de Olgilvy appears on the Ragman Roll swearing fealty to King Edward I of England in 1296. However Patrick's two sons supported King Robert I of Scotland during the Wars of Scottish Independence. The Ogilvy lands are found in Angus where the Ogilvy family were made hereditary sheriffs in the 14th and 15th centuries. In the 15th century the Tower of Airlie was built as the castle of the Chief of the Ogilvies. In 1394 a clan battle took place between Clan Robertson and the Clan Ogilvy, during a cattle raid on Angus. Sir Walter Ogilvy was slain at this battle, though his son became the Earl of Mar who commanded the Duke of Albany's forces at the Battle of Harlaw in 1411. The Clan Ogilvy, supported by men from the Clan Oliphant, Clan Seton, Clan Gordon and by the Clan Forbes of Pitsligo fought at the Battle of Arbroath on 24
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    House of Aviz

    House of Aviz

    • Members: Beatrice of Portugal, Duchess of Savoy
    • Founder: John I of Portugal
    • Country: Portugal
    The House of Aviz (in the current spelling Avis; Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐˈviʃ]) is a dynasty of the kings of Portugal. In 1385, the Interregnum of the 1383-1385 crisis ended with the proclamation by the Master of the Order of Aviz of John I, natural son of king Peter I and Dona Teresa Lourenço, as king. The descendants of king John I were still nominal Masters of Aviz, though they were often replaced by other officers of the monastic military order. With the death of John II, a new branch of the House was inaugurated when his cousin Manuel, Duke of Beja ascended to the throne of Portugal- hence, the House of Aviz-Beja. The institution of House of Aviz followed the dynastic crisis that originated from the death of Ferdinand I in 1383. With the Portuguese victory in the Battle of Aljubarrota in 1385, John I, half-brother of Ferdinand and natural son of Pedro I, confirmed the kingship which had been bestowed upon him at the Cortes of Coimbra in April 1385. This period of Portuguese history is considered to include the ascent of Portugal to the status of a European and world power. The first act of expansion was the conquest of Ceuta in 1415 and was followed by the exploration,
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    Orbelian Dynasty

    Orbelian Dynasty

    The Orbelian lords of the province of Syunik were a noble family of Armenia, with a long history of political influence documented in inscriptions throughout the provinces of Vayots Dzor and Syunik, and recorded by the family historian Bishop Stepanos in his 1297 History of Syunik. Through 12th century were a major feudal family in Georgia, with their home base the fortress of Orbet'i in southern Georgia. In 1177/8, their leader Ivane led his whole extended clan on the losing side in a power struggle between the deceased king's young heir, Ivane's protégé and son-in-law Demetre, and the king's brother Giorgi. Ivane sent his brother Liparit and nephews Elikum and Ivane to the Persians in Tabriz for help, but this new army came too late, after Ivane had been blinded, his family strangled, and young Demetre blinded and castrated. Liparit died in exile. One son, Ivane, returned to Georgia when the situation cooled down; his descendants, on their dwindled estates, stayed prominent in Georgia and even the USSR. Honored by the Persian atabek, other son Elikum stayed and became an important official, converting (half-heartedly and maybe not at all) to Islam and dying in one of the atabek's
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    Árpád dynasty

    Árpád dynasty

    • Members: Agnes of Austria
    • Founder: High Prince Álmos
    • Country: Hungary
    The Árpáds or Arpads (Hungarian: Árpádok, Croatian: Arpadovići, Serbian: Арпадовци/Arpadovci, Slovak: Arpádovci, Turkish: Arpatlar) was the ruling dynasty of the Principality of Hungary (9th–10th centuries) and of the Kingdom of Hungary (1000–1301). The dynasty was named after Grand Prince Árpád who was the head of the Hungarian tribal federation during the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, c. 895. It is also referred to as Turul dynasty. Both the first Grand Prince of the Hungarians (Álmos) and the first King of Hungary (Saint Stephen) were members of the dynasty. Seven members of the dynasty were canonized or beatified by the Roman Catholic Church; therefore, the dynasty has been often referred to as the "Kindred of the Holy Kings" from the 13th century. Two Árpáds were canonized by the Eastern Orthodox Church. The dynasty came to end in 1301 with the death of King Andrew III of Hungary, while the last member of the House of Árpad, Andrew's daughter, Blessed Elizabeth of Töss, died in 1336 or 1338. All of the subsequent kings of Hungary (with the exception of King Matthias Corvinus) were cognatic descendants of the Árpáds dynasty. The Croy family and the Drummond family of
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    Barbaro family

    Barbaro family

    • Members: Marcantonio Barbaro
    • Country: Italy
    The Barbaro family was a patrician family of Venice. They were wealthy and influential and owned large estates in the Veneto above Treviso. Various members were noted as church leaders, diplomats, patrons of the arts, military commanders, philosophers, scholars, and scientists. Barbaro family tradition claims they were descended the Roman gens Catellia and more distantly from the Fabii. Like other Venetian patrician families, they also claimed descent from Roman families with similar names, in this case Ahenobarbus. Tradition also says they fled to Istria to avoid persecution during the reign of Emperor Diocletian. The family’s wealth came from the salt trade. Records show the family moved from Pula to Trieste in 706 and then to Venice in 868.
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    Clan Johnstone

    Clan Johnstone

    Clan Johnstone is a Lowland Scottish clan. They were involved in many battles on the Scottish borders. Johnstone comes from "John's toun", not "John's stone" or "John's son." Historically, "Johnston" has been an alternate spelling of the surname. The first known person of this name was John of Johnstone, who in 1174 gave his name to the lands of Annandale in Dumfrieshire which he had been granted. His son, called Gilbert Johnstone ("Gillibertus de Johnistoun") appears on records between 1194–1214 and onwards, presumably taking his surname from the town his father had established - "Johnstone" or "John's toun". Gilbert's Grandson called Sir John Johnstone was a Knight of the county of Dumfries. Sir John Johnstone signed the Ragman Roll of King Edward I of England in 1296. At this time Perth was known as St Johnston and Johnstonburn in East Lothian was then called Jonystoun. These two areas have records of the Johnstone Clan. A third area of Johnstones which came from Stephen the Clerk and Margaret the heiress of Sir Andrew Garioch used the family name of Johnston. In roughly 1280, William Wallace gave the Lochmaben castle to Johnstone of Eskdale, who apparently was his kinsman. Sir
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    Clan Keith

    Clan Keith

    Clan Keith is a Scottish clan associated with Aberdeenshire and Caithness. It is said that a Scottish warrior slew the Danish General Camus at the legendary Battle of Barrie in 1010. For this, King Máel Coluim II of Scotland dipped three fingers into the blood of the slain and drew them down the shield of the warrior. Thereafter the warrior was named Marbhachir Chamius or Camus Slayer. It has been claimed that, ever since this event, that the Chief of the Clan Keith has borne the same mark of three red lines on his arms. Máel Coluim's victory at the Battle of Carham in 1018 brought him into outright possession of the lands of the Lothians and the Merse. The Keiths derive their name from the Barony of Keith, Humbie, East Lothian, said to have been granted by the king to Marbhachir Chamius for his valour. The first Keith on record as Marischal of Scotland is Hervey de Keith (d.c. 1196) described as Marscallus Regis Scotie in correspondence between the monks of Kelso Abbey and Jocelin, the Bishop of Glasgow. He was Marischal during the reigns of Malcolm the Maiden and William the Lyon. The office of Earl Marischal and later Knight Marischal of Scotland was hereditary in the Keith
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    House of Visconti

    House of Visconti

    • Members: Ottone Visconti
    • Country: Italy
    Visconti is the family name of two important Italian noble dynasties of the Middle Ages. There are two distinct Visconti families: The first one (chronologically) in the Republic of Pisa in the mid twelfth century who achieved prominence first in Pisa, then in Sardinia where they became rulers of Gallura. The second rose to power in Milan, where they ruled from 1277 to 1447 and where several collateral branches still exist. The renowned director Luchino Visconti is a scion of the family. The Visconti of Gallura used a cock as their symbol (Gallura meaning 'land of cocks'), whereas the later Visconti of Milan used a biscione (a great serpent) swallowing a Saracen, or, according to another version, on the contrary giving life to a child. This symbol is still closely connected with Milan. Any link between the two families in Pisa-Gallura and Milan has yet to be proven. The first Visconti of note in Pisa was Alberto, who bore the title patrician. Alberto's son, Eldizio, bore the titles patrician and consul from 1184 to 1185. It was Eldizio's sons, Lamberto and Ubaldo I, who brought the family to the height of its influence in Pisa and Sardinia. Both of them carried the title of
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    Liao Dynasty

    Liao Dynasty

    The Liao Dynasty (simplified Chinese: 辽朝; traditional Chinese: 遼朝; pinyin: Liáo Cháo; Khitan language: Mos Jælud), also known as the Khitan Empire (simplified Chinese: 契丹国; traditional Chinese: 契丹國; pinyin: Qìdān Guó; Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled over Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East and northern China proper from 907 to 1125. It was founded by the Khitan Great Khan Abaoji around the time of the collapse of the Han Chinese Tang Dynasty. The Liao Empire was destroyed by the Jurchen of the Jin Dynasty in 1125. However, remnants of its people, led by Yelü Dashi, established Western Liao Dynasty, also known as Kara-Khitan Khanate, which ruled over parts of Central Asia for almost a century before being conquered by Genghis Khan's Mongolian army. Neither the origins, ethnic makeup, nor early history of the Khitans are well documented in historical records. The earliest reference to a Khitan state is found in the Book of Wei, a history of the Northern Wei Dynasty (386–534) that was completed in 554. Several books written after 554 mention the Khitans as being active during the late third and early fourth centuries. The Book of
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    Sassoon family

    Sassoon family

    • Members: Albert Abdullah David Sassoon
    • Country: Iraq
    The Sassoon family was an Indian family of Iraqi Jewish descent and international renown, based in Mumbai, India. It was descended from the famous Ibn Shoshans, one of the richest families of medieval Spain. From the 18th century, the Sassoons were one of the wealthiest families in the world, with a merchant empire spanning the continent of Asia. The name of the family, however, strongly implies a local, Mesopotamian origin for the family. The family name of Sassoon, is also commonly shared by many Armenian and Kurdish families and tribes who all originate from the mountainous district of Sason (whence the family and tribal names), west of Lake Van, in upper Mesopotamia, in modern Turkey. It is, however, possible that some Saphardi Spanish blood was mixed with the primarily Mesopotamian Jewish Sasoons. Sassoon ben Salih (1750 - 1830) and his family were the chief treasurers to the pashas of Baghdad and Southern Iraq. His son David (1792 - 1864) fled from a new and unfriendly vali, going first to the Gulf port of Bushehr in 1828 and then to Mumbai, India, in 1832, with his large family. In Mumbai, he built the international business called David S. Sassoon, with the policy of
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    Theodosian dynasty

    Theodosian dynasty

    • Members: Theodosius I
    • Founder: Count Theodosius
    The Theodosian dynasty was a Roman family that rose to eminence in the waning days of the Roman Empire. Its founding father was Flavius Theodosius (often referred to as Count Theodosius), a great general who had saved Britannia from the Great Conspiracy. His son, Flavius Theodosius was made emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire in 379, and briefly reunited the Roman Empire 394-395 by defeating the usurper Eugenius. Theodosius I was succeeded by his sons Honorius in the West and Arcadius in the East. The House of Theodosius was related to the Valentinian Dynasty by marriage, since Theodosius I had married Galla, a daughter of Valentinian I. Their daughter was Galla Placidia. The last emperor in the West belonging to the dynasty was Galla Placidia's son Valentinian III. The last emperor of the dynasty in the East was Marcian, who became emperor by marrying Pulcheria, the older sister of Theodosius II, after the death of the latter. Later on a granddaughter of Valentinian III was married to Olybrius and Anthemius was a son-in-law of Marcian. Descendants of the dynasty continued to be part of the East Roman nobility at Constantinople until the end of the 6th century. In italics the
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    Clan MacMillan

    Clan MacMillan

    Clan MacMillan is a Highland Scottish clan. The MacMillans are one of a number of clans - including the MacKinnons, the MacQuarries, and the MacPhees - descended from Airbertach, a Hebridean prince of the old royal house of Moray who according to one account was the great-grandson of King Macbeth. The kin of Airbertach were closely associated with the Clann Somerhairle Ri Innse Gall ("Kings of the Hebrides"), the ancestors of the MacDougalls and the MacDonald "Lords of the Isles"; and like their allies their interests in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries ranged throughout the Hebrides and the western coastal regions of the Scottish mainland, and into Ireland. Though most of the clans certainly descended from Airbertach were associated with the Inner Hebrides (Tiree, Iona, Mull, Ulva and Colonsay) some others claiming the same descent were later settled inland along the strategic corridor that connects Lorn - the mainland region opposite those islands - to Dunkeld in Perthshire, where Airbertach's son Cormac was Bishop in the early twelfth century Celtic Church. Tradition connects the MacMillans with a number of different places in the areas associated with Airbertach's kindred:
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    Clan Boyd

    Clan Boyd

    Clan Boyd is a Lowland Scottish clan from Kilmarnock in Ayrshire, Scotland. The origin of the Boyd family name may be either from the Gaelic language or from the Normans, but in both cases translates as 'fair', 'blonde', 'yellow or fair,' etcetera. If the origin is Gaelic, historians argue the family name "Boyd" may have originated from the Gaelic 'buidhe', meaning 'fair' or 'blonde'. The 'fair' man in question is said to have been Robert, whose descendant is Stephen, nephew of Walter Fitzalan, 1st High Steward of Scotland. The fess-chequey supports this theory. If the origin be Norman, the name may have originated from the lands in Largs and Irvine, held by the de Morvilles. The earliest occurrence of the name is found in an Inquisition formed by King David I of Scotland into the lands of the bishopric of Glasgow. The Boyds were vassals of the de Morville family, who received lands from King David. The family name Boyd has roots in nobility rather than as a clan, however, the Lord Lyon Court recognizes the Boyds as a Clan. The 14th century saw the Wars of Scottish Independence. (1297–1328, 1332–1357) An early patriot of the clan was Duncan Boyd, who was hanged in 1306 for aiding
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    Clan Lyon

    Clan Lyon

    Clan Lyon is a Scottish clan, but is not associated with the lands of Glen Lyon in Perthshire, Scotland. Although Sir Iain Moncreiffe, perhaps the greatest herald genealogist, believed his family were of Celtic origin and descended from a younger son of the Lamonts, the generally accepted view is that they descended from a French family called de Leon, who came north with Edgar, son of Malcolm III, at the end of the eleventh century to fight against his uncle, Donald Bane, the usurper of the throne. Edgar was triumphant, and de Leon received lands in Perthshire. (These lands should NOT be confused with Glen Lyon. In this context, Lyon is thought to be a corruption of the word "lithe", meaning "flood", to describe the frequent state of the river through the glen. From all available records, there has never been any Lyon as owner or occupier of land in Glen Lyon.) Roger de Leonne witnessed a charter of Edgar to the Abbey at Dunfermline in 1105. In 1372 Robert II granted to Sir John Lyon (called the White Lyon because of his fair complexion) the thanage of Glamis. Five years later, he became Chamberlain of Scotland, and his prominence was such he was considered fit to marry the king¹s
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    Clan MacNeacail

    Clan MacNeacail

    Clan MacNeacail, sometimes known as Clan MacNicol, is a Scottish clan long associated with the Isle of Skye. Traditions states that, early in its history, the clan held the Isle of Lewis, as well as mainland lands. Further traditions, however, state that the clan lost its lands to the MacLeods of Lewis through the marriage of a MacNeacail heiress. The earliest member of the clan on record is one 14th century John "mak Nakyl", who is recorded amongst Edward I of England's powerful West Highland supporters during the Scottish Wars of Independence. The next record of the clan appears hundreds of years later, in the 16th century, when the clan was seated on Skye. In the 17th century, members of the clan began to Anglicise their surname from the Scottish Gaelic MacNeacail to various forms, such as Nicolson. Today the English variants of the Gaelic surname are borne by members of the clan as well as members of unrelated Scottish families, including the Lowland Clan Nicolson. The heartland of the clan has been for centuries in Trotternish, on Skye. The earliest record of a MacNeacail in Trotternish occurs in 1507. Hugh MacDonald's 17th century History of the MacDonalds shows that the clan
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    Clan Munro

    Clan Munro

    • Members: Sir Alexander Munro
    Clan Munro ( listen (help·info)) is a Highland Scottish clan. The clan lands were on the north side of the Cromarty Firth and also contained the mountain Ben Wyvis and the Black Rock Gorge. Traditionally the Munros came from Ireland and settled in Scotland in the 11th century and fought as mercenary soldiers under the Earl of Ross who defeated Viking invaders in Ross-shire. The clan under chief Donald Munro, son of O'Ceann, were granted lands in Ross-shire and a seat at Foulis Castle as a reward for helping King Malcolm II of Scotland to defeat Viking invaders from Scandinavia. Traditionally, Donald Munro's grandson Hugh Munro was the first Munro recorded to be authentically designated Baron of Foulis; he died in 1126. A reliable scholar, Alexander Nisbet, stated that George Munro, 5th Baron of Foulis received a charter from the Earl of Sutherland during the reign of Alexander II of Scotland, but this charter cannot be traced. The clan name Munro, which in Gaelic is Rothach, Roich, or Mac an Rothaich, means Ro - Man or Man from Ro, and supports the traditional origin of the clan in the River Roe area in Ireland. However this tradition only exists in writing from the late 17th
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    Clan Sandilands

    Clan Sandilands

    Clan Sandilands is a Lowland Scottish clan. Sandilands is also considered a sept of Clan Douglas. The name Sandilands comes from lands by that name in Clydesdale. The family to bear the name may have originally fled to Scotland from Northumberland in the reign of King Malcolm III of Scotland. During the Wars of Scottish Independence Sir James de Sandilands distinguished himself in the wars against the English. For his services he was rewarded with a royal charter to his lands by King David II of Scotland. He married Eleanor, the only daughter of Sir Archibald Douglas, Regent of Scotland. James Sandilands received from his brother in law, William IV, Lord of Douglas the lands of Calder in Lothian. In 1384 Sir James' and Eleanor's son Sir James Sandilands of Calder (second feudal baron) married Princess Jean Stewart, daughter of King Robert II of Scotland and great granddaughter of Robert the Bruce. James Sandiland's son also called James was one of the hostages sent to England for King James I of Scotland. James Sandilands was only returned to Scotland two years before his death. He was the presumptive heir to the Douglas estates and should have inherited them on the death of the
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    Hamdanid dynasty

    Hamdanid dynasty

    The Hamdanid dynasty (Arabic: حمدانيون‎ Ḥamdānyūn) was a Shi'a Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (Al-Jazirah) and Syria (890-1004). They descended from the ancient Banu Taghlib Christian tribe of Mesopotamia and east Arabia. The Hamdanid dynasty was founded by Hamdan ibn Hamdun (after whom it is named), when he was appointed governor of Mardin in SE Anatolia by the Abbasid Caliphs in 890. His son Abdallah (904-929) was in turn appointed governor of Mosul in northern Iraq (906) and even governed Baghdad (914). His sons were installed as governors in Mosul and Aleppo. The rule of Hassan Nasir ad-Daula (929-968), governor of Mosul and Diyarbakır, was sufficiently tyrannical to cause him to be deposed by his own family. His lineage still ruled in Mossul, a heavy defeat by the Buyids in 979 notwithstanding, until 990. After this, their area of control in northern Iraq was divided between the Uqailids and the Marwanids. Ali Saif al-Daula 'Sword of the State' ruled (945-967) Northern Syria from Aleppo, and became the most important opponent of the Byzantine Empire's (Christian) expansion. His court was a centre of culture, thanks to its nurturing of Arabic literature, but it lost this
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    Protodynastic Period of Egypt

    Protodynastic Period of Egypt

    The Protodynastic Period of Egypt (generally dated 3200 BC to 3000 BC) refers to the period at the very end of the Predynastic Period. It is equivalent to the archaeological phase known as Naqada III. It is also known as the Late Predynastic Period or Dynasty 0. The Protodynastic Period in ancient Egypt was characterised by an ongoing process of political unification, culminating in the formation of a single state to begin the Early Dynastic Period. Furthermore, it is during this time that the Egyptian language was first recorded in hieroglyphs. There is also strong archaeological evidence of Egyptian settlements in southern Kanaan during the Protodynastic Period, which are regarded as colonies or trading entrepôts. State formation began during this era and perhaps even earlier. Various small city-states arose along the Nile. Centuries of conquest then reduced Upper Egypt to three major states: Thinis, Naqada, and Nekhen. Sandwiched between Thinis and Nekhen, Naqada was the first to fall. Thinis then conquered Lower Egypt. Nekhen's relationship with Thinis is uncertain, but these two states may have merged peacefully, with the Thinite royal family ruling all of Egypt. The Thinite
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    Solomonic dynasty

    Solomonic dynasty

    • Members: Girma Yohannis Iyasu
    • Founder: Yekuno Amlak of Ethiopia
    The Solomonic dynasty is the Imperial House of Abyssinia. Its members claim lineal descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, the latter of whom tradition asserts gave birth to the first King Menelik I after her Biblically described visit to Solomon in Jerusalem (1 Kings 10:1–10). The dynasty, a bastion of Judaic and later of Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, came to rule Ethiopia in the 10th Century A.D. Precise records of the dynasty's history had been maintained by the Ethiopian Orthodox monasteries to near antiquity. However, the resurgent Judaic Queen Judith I and her subsequent destruction of Orthodox monasteries resulted in the destruction of most such records. Yekuno Amlak I re-established the dynasty through birth traced to the last Solomonic King of Axum Dil Naod. The Dynasty re-established itself on 10 Nehasé 1262 EC(August 10, AD 1270) when Yekuno Amlak overthrew the last ruler of the Zagwe dynasty. Yekuno Amlak claimed direct male line descent from the old Axumite royal house that the Zagwes had replaced on the throne. Menelik II, and later his daughter Zewditu, would be the last Ethiopian monarchs who could claim uninterrupted direct male descent from King
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    Thirteenth dynasty of Egypt

    Thirteenth dynasty of Egypt

    The Thirteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XIII) is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom. Other writers separate it from these dynasties and join it to Dynasties XIV through XVII as part of the Second Intermediate Period. Dynasty XIII was from approximately 1802 BC until ca. 1649 BC for 153 years. There are many known rulers for Dynasty XIII. Some of the better known ones are listed below. The names and order in the table is based on Dodson and Hilton. In later texts, this dynasty is usually described as an era of chaos and disorder. However, the period may have been more peaceful than was once thought since the central government in Itj-tawy near the Faiyum was sustained during most of the dynasty and the country remained relatively stable. Unfortunately, the true chronology of this dynasty is difficult to determine as there are few monuments dating from the period. Many of the kings' names are only known from an odd fragmentary inscription or from scarabs. Ryholt gives a ruler named "Sobkhotep I Sekhemre-khutawy" as the first king of this dynasty. Sobekhotep Sekhemre Khutawy is referred to as Sobekhotep II in this
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    Vanderbilt family

    Vanderbilt family

    • Members: Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney
    The Vanderbilt family is an American family of railroad notability who became socially prominent during the first half of the nineteenth-century. The family's fortune was established by the shipping and railroad magnate Cornelius Vanderbilt, and eventually expanded into various other areas of industry and philanthropy through the 20th century. Cornelius Vanderbilt's son and heir, William Henry Vanderbilt, expanded the fortune, becoming the richest man in the world by the time of his death in 1877. His descendants built great mansions in New York, Newport, Rhode Island, North Carolina, Vermont, Massachusetts and various other exclusive homes. The family's prominence lasted until the late 20th century. Most of the family's Fifth Avenue mansions were torn down, and other Vanderbilt homes have been sold or turned into museums. Collectively, the Vanderbilts are the seventh wealthiest family in history. The family surname is of Dutch origin. Branches of the family are found on the East Coast of the United States as well as in the United Kingdom. The prominence of the family began with Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794–1877), the fourth of nine children born to a Staten Island family of modest
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    Clan Arbuthnott

    Clan Arbuthnott

    Clan Arbuthnott is a Scottish clan or family from the area of Kincardineshire in the lowland northeast of Scotland. From the place name Aberbothenoth, which lies on a narrow peninsula on the north side of the river Bervie. On the north east side the land falls steeply down to the burn, once called Buthenot, and on the south side it slopes more gradually down to the river Bervie. "Aber" means the influx of a small stream into a greater stream. "Aber" can also mean "mouth of" as in Aberdeen. "Both" or "Bothena" is a baronial residence. "Nethea" has been described as the stream that descends or is lower than something else in the neighbourhood. The lands of Arbuthnott are believed to have come into the possession of the Swinton family during the reign of William I of Scotland through the marriage of Hugh, to the daughter of Osbert Olifard (or Oliphant) 'The Crusader'. The first recorded instance of the family acquiring the name Arbuthnott is in 1355 with Philip de Arbuthnott described as 'of that ilk'. Murder of John Melville of Glenbervie Around 1420 Philip's son, Hugh, was implicated in the murder of John Melville of Glenbervie, sheriff of Kincardineshire (The Mearns). Melville was
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    Clan MacLea

    Clan MacLea

    The Clan MacLea is a Highland Scottish clan, which was traditionally located in the district of Lorn in Argyll, Scotland, and is seated on the Isle of Lismore. There is a tradition of some MacLeas Anglicising their names to Livingstone, thus the Clan Livingstone Society's website also refers to clan as the Highland Livingstones. The current chief of Clan MacLea was recognised by Lord Lyon as the "Coarb of Saint Moluag" and the "Hereditable Keeper of the Great Staff of Saint Moluag." There are conflicting theories of the etymology of MacLea, MacLay and similar surnames, and they could have multiple origins. The name may be an Anglicisation of Mac an Léigh (Scottish Gaelic), meaning son of the physician. The leading theory today, however, is that the name is derived from the patronymic Mac Dhunnshleibhe, meaning son of Donn Sléibhe (son of + the brown haired, or chieftain + of the mountain). In 1910 Niall Campbell, 10th Duke of Argyll maintained that the surname MacLea evolved from the name Maconlea, which was originally Mac Dhunnshleibhe. By the eighteenth century the standard form of the name had become MacLea or other forms with similar spellings (MacLeay, McClay, etc.). The
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    Comnenus dynasty

    Comnenus dynasty

    • Members: John Doukas, Caesar
    • Country: Byzantine Empire
    Komnenós or Comnenus (Greek Κομνηνός, plural Κομνηνοί, pronounced /komniní/) was the name of a ruling family of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire), who halted the political decline of the Empire from c.1081 to c.1185. Manuel Erotikos Komnenos is the first member of the family to achieve public prominence. He was the strategos autokrator of the East under Emperor Basil II Manuel originated in Thrace and was possibly of Vlach ancestry, though other ethnic origins have been suggested. It is said that the family name was derived from the city of Komne, near Philippopolis in Thrace, where they were landowners, and that they were of Armenian ancestry, which is possibly supported by the use of the name Manuel instead of Emmanouel. Manuel came to the notice of Basil II because of his defence, in 978, of Nicaea against the rebel Bardas Skleros. In recognition of Manuel's loyalty Basil gave him lands near Kastamuni in Paphlagonia. Manuel was the father of Isaac I Komnenos and grandfather of Alexios I Komnenos. The Komnenos dynasty of Byzantine emperors was founded by Isaac I Komnenos, a Stratopedarch of the East under Michael VI. In 1057 Isaac led a coup against Michael and was
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    Tahirid dynasty

    Tahirid dynasty

    The Tahirid dynasty (Persian: سلسله طاهریان‎) was a Persian dynasty that governed the Abbasid province of Khorasan from 821 to 873, and the city of Baghdad from 820 until 891. The dynasty was founded by Tahir ibn Husayn, a leading general in the service of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun. Their capital in Khorasan was initially located at Merv, but later moved to Nishapur. The Tahirids enjoyed a high degree of autonomy in their governance of Khorasan, although they remained subject to the Abbasid caliphate and were not independent rulers. The founder of the Tahirid dynasty was Tahir ibn Husayn, a general who had played a major role in the civil war between the rival caliphs al-Amin and al-Ma'mun. He and his ancestors had previously been awarded minor governorships in eastern Khorasan for their service to the Abbasids. In 821, Tahir was made governor of Khorasan, but he died soon afterwards. The caliph then appointed Tahir's son, Talha, whose governorship lasted from 822–828. Tahir's other son, Abdullah, was instated as the wali of Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula, and when Talha died in 828 he was given the governorship of Khorasan. Abdullah is considered one of the greatest of the
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    Tuluva Dynasty

    Tuluva Dynasty

    The Tuluva Dynasty was the third dynasty of the Vijayanagara Empire. The Tuluva were the third Hindu dynasty which ruled Vijayanagara empire. The dynasty was founded by chieftain Bunts who originally ruled southern parts of coastal Karnataka, also called Tulu Nadu. The dynasty gained the name "Tuluva" because they belonged to the Tulu speaking region of Tulu Nadu and their mother tongue was the ancient Tulu language which still survives and is the lingua franca of coastal Karnataka and northern parts of Kerala. They came to power after the Saluva Dynasty. The Tuluva dynasty were the most powerful dynasty of the Vijayanagara Empire of Southern India. They belonged to the Nagavanshi kshatriya order of lineage. They are believed to be Nagavanshis who worshiped Nagaraja Vasuki (name for a naga, one of the serpents of mythology) as their family deity. The Vijayanagar empire attained it greatest glory during this period and their most famous emperor Krishna Deva Raya. Their reign consisted of five emperors from 1491 till 1570. They ruled almost the entire South India with Vijayanagara as their capital. The fall of the Tuluva dynasty led the beginning of the disintegration of the empire.
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    Erdődy

    Erdődy

    • Members: Nikola Erdödy
    Erdődy (also Erdödy, Erdődi) is the name of a Hungarian noble family in the Kingdom of Hungary (most notably in Croatia). The Habsburg Monarchy granted them the title Graf / Gräfin. The family was first raised in a document dated 1187, under the name of Bakoch Generated Erdewd. They received the title of Count in 1485. (The first hereditary count in Hungary was Janos Hunyadi in 1453 by the king Ladislas V).The family origins from the town of Erdőd (Romanian: Ardud, German: Erdeed) which is in the region Szatmár (now Satu Mare in Romania). They are barons of Monyorokerek (German: Eberau) and counts of Monoszló (Croatian: Moslavina). Monyorokerek is a small village in the south of Burgenland (Austria) near the Hungarian border. Monoszló is a small region in central Croatia. The Erdődy family originated from the Bakócz family. The Bakóczs were originally serfs of the Drágffy in Szatmár county. They acquired wealth, when Tamás Bakócz became the archbishop of Esztergom. After Tamás Bakócz's death his estates were divided and the Southern branch took the name Erdődy. Numerous members of the family held important offices: judges of the royal court, Croatian bans, bishops and generals were
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    74
    Qajar dynasty

    Qajar dynasty

    • Members: Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan
    • Country: Iran
    The Qajar dynasty ( Qajar (help·info)) (Persian: سلسله قاجاریه‎ or دودمان قاجار; also anglicized as Ghajar or Kadjar) is a Persianized Iranian royal family of Turkic origin, which ruled Persia (Iran) from 1785 to 1925. The Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf 'Ali Khan, the last of the Zand dynasty, and re-asserted Persian sovereignty over parts of the Caucasus. In 1796, Mohammad Khan Qajar seized Mashhad which was under Durrani suzerainty, putting an end to the Afsharid dynasty, and Mohammad Khan was formally crowned as shah. The Qajar (or Ghajar) rulers were members of the Karagoz of the Qajars, originally the members of the Qarapapaqs of the larger Oghuz peoples. Qajars first settled during the Mongol period in the vicinity of Armenia and were among the seven Qizilbash tribes that supported the Safavids. The Safavids "left Arran (present-day Republic of Azerbaijan) to local Turkic speaking khans", and, "in 1554 Ganja was governed by Shahverdi Soltan Ziyadoglu Qajar, whose family came to govern Karabakh in southern Arran". Qajars filled a number of diplomatic missions and governorships in the 16-17th centuries for the Safavids. The Qajars were resettled
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    75
    Antipatrid dynasty

    Antipatrid dynasty

    The Antipatrid dynasty was a Macedonian dynasty founded by Cassander, the son of Antipater, who declared himself King of Macedon in 302 BC. This dynasty did not last long; in 294 BC it was overthrown by the Antigonid dynasty, whose members proved to be more effective rulers. Members of the Antipatrid dynasty:
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    76
    Fugger

    Fugger

    The Fugger family (German pronunciation: [ˈfʊɡɐ]) is a German family that was a historically prominent group of European bankers, members of the fifteenth and sixteenth-century mercantile patriciate of Augsburg, international mercantile bankers, and venture capitalists like the Welser and the Höchstetter families. This banking family replaced the de' Medici family, who influenced all of Europe during the Renaissance. The Fuggers took over many of the Medicis' assets and their political power and influence. The founder of the family was Johann Fugger, a weaver at Graben, near the Swabian Free City of Augsburg. His son, also called Johann (or Hans), settled in Augsburg, and the first reference to the Fugger family in Augsburg is his arrival, recorded in the tax register of 1357. He married Klara Widolf and became an Augsburg citizen. After Klara's death, he married Elizabeth Gfattermann. He joined the weaver's guild, and by 1396 he was ranked high in the list of taxpayers. He added the business of a merchant to that of a weaver. His eldest son, Andreas Fugger, was a merchant in the weaving trade, and was nicknamed “the rich Fugger,” buying land and other properties. It is also now
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    77
    The Jacksons

    The Jacksons

    • Members: Janet Jackson
    • Country: United States of America
    The Jackson family is an American family of singers who originated in Gary, Indiana. Performing as members of The Jackson 5 and as solo artists, the children of Joseph Walter and Katherine Esther Jackson influenced and shaped the sound of popular music. As a group, the eldest sons Jackie (Sigmund Esco "Jackie" Jackson), Tito (Toriano Adaryll "Tito" Jackson ), Jermaine (Jermaine La Jaune Jackson), Marlon (Marlon David Jackson), and Michael (Michael Joseph Jackson), set the family on a path of musical success that spread among siblings Rebbie, La Toya, Randy, and Janet. The acclaim of The Jackson 5 led the group to become known as the "First Family of Soul" (a title first held by the Five Stairsteps); the continued success of Michael and Janet's careers as solo artists led the Jacksons to become known as the "Royal Family of Pop". Eight of the nine Jackson siblings (excluding La Toya) have gold records to their credits. Members of the Jackson family have been the subject of heavily publicized controversies and legal imbroglios, most notably allegations of child abuse against Michael in 1993, his criminal trial in 2005, and Janet's controversial Super Bowl halftime performance in
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    78
    Clan Irvine

    Clan Irvine

    Clan Irvine is a Lowland Scottish clan. As a surname Irvine is of territorial origins from one of two places of the same name. Firstly from Irving, an old parish in Dumfriesshire and from Irvine in Ayrshire. The first person recorded of the name was Robert de Herwine who was witness to a charter in 1226. William de Irwyne, Clerk of the Register, obtained the Forest of Drum in Aberdeenshire from King Robert the Bruce in 1324 and is therefore the ancestor to the Irvines of Drum. Robert the Bruce is also said to have bestowed upon William the crest and motto used by himself. The Clan Irvine were often at feud with the neighbouring Clan Keith. Both clans invaded each others' lands. In 1402 the Clan Irvine are said to have slaughtered an invading war party of the Clan Keith at the Battle of Drumoak. William's son Sir Alexander Irvine of Drum as chief led the clan at the Battle of Harlaw in 1411. This is commemorated in a ballad about the battle as "Gude Sir Alexander Irvine the much renounit Laird of Drum". Sir Alexander de Irwine engaged in single combat or a duel with the chief of Clan MacLean of Duart who was known as "Hector of the Battles". After a legendary struggle both died of
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    79
    Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt

    Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt

    The Eighteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XVIII) (c. 1550–c. 1292 BC) is perhaps the best known of all the dynasties of ancient Egypt. As well as boasting a number of Egypt's most famous pharaohs, it included Tutankhamun, the finding of whose tomb by Howard Carter in 1922 was a sensational archaeological discovery despite its having been twice disturbed by tomb robbers. The dynasty is sometimes known as the Thutmosid Dynasty because of the four pharaohs named Thutmosis (English: Thoth child). As well as Tutankhamen, famous pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII include Hatshepsut (1479 BC–1458 BC), longest-reigning queen-pharaoh of an indigenous dynasty, and Akhenaten (1353–1336 BC/1351–1334 BC), the "heretic pharaoh", with his queen, Nefertiti. Dynasty XVIII is often combined with Dynasties XIX and XX to form the New Kingdom period of ancient Egyptian history. Radiocarbon dating suggests that Dynasty XVIII may have started a few years earlier than the conventional date of 1550 BC. The radiocarbon date range for its beginning is 1570–1544 BC, the mean point of which is 1557 BC. The pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII ruled for approximately two hundred and fifty years (c. 1550–1298 BC).
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    80
    Macedonian dynasty

    Macedonian dynasty

    The Macedonian dynasty ruled the Byzantine Empire from 867 to 1056, following the Amorian dynasty. During this period, the Byzantine state reached its greatest expanse since the Muslim conquests, and the Macedonian Renaissance in letters and arts began. The dynasty was named after its founder, Basil I the Macedonian, who came from the theme of Macedonia. The dynasty's founder and many subsequent emperors were of Armenian descent, hence the dynasty is also referred to by some authors as the Armenian Dynasty.
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    81
    Seljuq dynasty

    Seljuq dynasty

    • Country: Great Seljuq Empire
    The House of Seljuq (Persian: سلجوقيان‎ Saljūqīyān; Turkish: Selçuklular) was a Turkish Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually adopted Persian culture and contributed to the Turko-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia. The Seljuqs established both the Great Seljuq Empire and Sultanate of Rum, which at their total height stretched from Anatolia through Persia, and were targets of the First Crusade. The Seljuqs originated from the Qynyk branch of Oghuz Turks who in the 9th century lived on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian and Aral seas in their Yabghu Khaganate of the Oghuz confederacy, in the Kazakh Steppe of Turkestan. In 985, the Seljuq clan split off from the bulk of the Tokuz-Oghuz. They set up camp on the right bank of the lower Syr Darya (Jaxartes), where they converted to Islam. Later, in the 10th century the Seljuqs migrated from their ancestral homelands into mainland Persia, in the province of Khurasan, where they encountered the Ghaznavid empire. At the battle of Dandanaqan they defeated a Ghaznavid army and following Tughrul's successful siege of Isfahan in 1050-1051, led to the establishment of an empire which would later be called
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    82
    Alaouite Dynasty

    Alaouite Dynasty

    • Members: Princess Lalla Khadija of Morocco
    • Founder: Moulay Ali Cherif
    • Country: Morocco
    The Alaouite Dynasty is the name of the current Moroccan royal family. The name Alaouite comes from the ‘Alī of its founder Moulay Ali Cherif who became Prince of Tafilalt in 1631. His son Mulay Al-Rashid (1664–1672) was able to unite and pacify the country. The Alaouite family claim descent from Muhammad through the line of Fāṭimah az-Zahrah, Muhammad's daughter, and her husband, the First Imam ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib A.S. According to tradition the Alaouites entered Morocco at the end of the 13th century when Al Hassan Addakhil, who lived then in the town of Yanbu in the Hejaz, was brought to Morocco by the inhabitants of Tafilalet to be their imām. They were hoping that, as he was a descendant of Muhammad, his presence would help to improve their date palm crops thanks to his barakah "blessing", an Arabic term meaning a sense of divine presence or charisma. His descendants began to increase their power in southern Morocco after the death of the Saʻdī ruler Ahmad al-Mansur (1578–1603). In 1669, the last Saʻdī sultan was overthrown in the conquest of Marrakesh by Mulay r-Rshid (1664–1672). After the victory over the zāwiya of Dila, who controlled northern Morocco, he was able to unite
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    83
    Barakzai Dynasty

    Barakzai Dynasty

    • Members: Prince Ahmed Shah Khan
    • Founder: Dost Mohammad Khan
    • Country: Afghanistan
    The two branches of the Barakzai dynasty (Translation of Barakzai: sons of Barak) ruled Afghanistan from 1826 to 1973 when the monarchy finally ended under Mohammad Zahir Shah. The Barakzai dynasty was established by Dost Mohammad Khan after the Durrani dynasty of Ahmad Shah Durrani was removed from power. During this era, Afghanistan saw much of its territory lost to the British in the south and east, Persia in the west, and Russia in the north. There were also many conflicts within Afghanistan, including the three major Anglo-Afghan Wars and the 1929 civil war. Bārakzai (Pashto: بارکزی ‎ barakzay, plur. BĀRAKZĪ; Urdu: برکزئی) is a common ethnic name among the Pashtuns of Afghanistan and Pakistan, meaning "son of Barak" in the Pashto language. Barakzai may also be the name of a Baloch tribe in Iran. There are seven distinct Pashtun tribes named Barakzai, with the Zīrak branch of the Abdal Tareen, Bor Tareen, Tareen. The Durrani is being the most important and largest tribe with over 4 million people. Another source prevails the unfolded truth of the Barakzai in which the name Barak (English pronunciation: /ˈbɛəræk/ or /ˈbɛərək/; Hebrew: בָּרָק‎‎, Tiberian: Bārāq, "Lightning;
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    84
    Bush family

    Bush family

    • Members: Marvin Bush
    • Country: United States of America
    The Bush family is a prominent American family. Along with many members who have been successful bankers and businessmen, across generations the family includes two U.S. Senators, one Supreme Court Justice, two Governors and two Presidents (one of the two presidents also served as Vice President). George Herbert Walker Bush and Barbara Pierce Bush have been married for 67 years, holding the record for the longest-married presidential couple. Peter Schweizer, author of a biography of the family, has described the Bushes as "the most successful political dynasty in American history". According to some online sources, the Bush family is of primarily English and German descent. George Herbert "Bert" Walker (1875–1953) was a wealthy American banker and businessman. His daughter Dorothy married Prescott Bush, making him the grandfather of the 41st President George H. W. Bush and the great-grandfather of the 43rd President George W. Bush. He is also the namesake of the Walker Cup, a men's amateur golf trophy contested in odd-numbered years between a U.S. team and a combined Great Britain and Ireland side.
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    85
    Carolingian Dynasty

    Carolingian Dynasty

    • Members: Lothair II of Lotharingia
    The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The name "Carolingian", Medieval Latin karolingi, an altered form of an unattested Old High German *karling, kerling (meaning "descendant of Charles", cf. MHG kerlinc), derives from the Latinised name of Charles Martel: Carolus. The family consolidated its power in the late 7th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary and becoming the de facto rulers of the Franks as the real powers behind the throne. By 751, the Merovingian dynasty which until then had ruled the Franks by right was deprived of this right with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy and a Carolingian, Pepin the Short, was crowned King of the Franks. Traditional historiography has seen the Carolingian assumption of kingship as the product of a long rise to power, punctuated even by a premature attempt to seize the throne through Childebert the Adopted. This picture, however, is not commonly accepted today. Rather, the coronation of 751 is seen typically as a product
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    86
    Clan Barclay

    Clan Barclay

    Clan Barclay ( listen (help·info)) is a Lowland Scottish clan. Since the eighteenth century, Barclay historians, noted for their low level in medieval scholarship, have assumed the Scottish family Barclay (de Berchelai) is a branch of one of the Anglo-Norman Berkeley family of Berkeley in Gloucestershire. However, the link between the Scottish and English families is disputed. An old family tradition is that the Scottish family is descended from John de Berkeley, who was the son of Roger de Berkeley, provost of Berkeley, and went to Scotland in 1069 with St Margaret. Another theory is that the clan is descended from a John de Berkeley who went north in 1124 with Maud, queen of David I. Another theory of the Barclay origin, put forth by the historian G. W. S. Barrow, points to the small village of Berkley in Somerset (in 1086 Berchelei). In 1086 the overlordship of Berkley belonged to Robert Arundel, whose main tenant was a Robert. Arundel's manors included Cary Fitzpaine (in Charlton Mackerell), near Castle Cary. And Cary Fitzpaine seems to have been held by the tenant Robert as well. At the same time as Henry Lovel of Castle Cary first appears in Scotland, there appear the names
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    87
    Clan Napier

    Clan Napier

    Clan Napier is a Scottish clan originally from lands around Loch Lomond, but with presence in Stirlingshire, Edinburgh, Aberdeenshire and Kincardineshire. There is some debate about the origin of the name Napier. One theory holds that a “naperer” is "a person in charge of table linen in a royal or manor house” and that the original Napiers must have been “naperers” from England or France. The other theory is that the name Napier is a derivative spelling of “Nae Peer.” In 1625, Sir Archibald Napier of Merchiston, the first Lord Napier, presented an affidavit to the College of Heralds, in which he described this origin of the name Napier, as having been bestowed by the king (probably Alexander II) on one Donald Lennox in recognition for acts of bravery. He states: The earliest reference to Napiers in Scotland is in the charter of Malcolm, Earl of Lennox, granting lands at Kilmahew in Dumbartonshire to John de Naper, sometime around 1290. During the Wars of Scottish Independence this John Napier was probably one of the few defenders of Stirling Castle during the Siege of Stirling Castle who were forced to surrender to the English led by King Edward I of England in 1304. Another branch
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    88
    House of York

    House of York

    • Members: Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York
    • Founder: Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York
    • Country: England
    The House of York was a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet. Three of its members became Kings of England in the late 15th century. The House of York was descended in the male line from Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, the fourth surviving son of Edward III, but also represented Edward's senior line, being cognatic descendants of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, Edward III's second surviving son. It is based on these descents that they claimed the English crown. Compared with the House of Lancaster, it had a senior claim to the throne of England according to cognatic primogeniture but junior claim according to the agnatic primogeniture. Edmund of Langley had two sons, Edward, and Richard of Conisburgh. Edward succeeded to the dukedom in 1402, but was killed at the battle of Agincourt in 1415, with no issue. His younger brother married Anne de Mortimer, a great-granddaughter of Lionel of Antwerp, the second son of Edward III. Anne was also heiress to the earldom of March, following the death of her brother Edmund, 5th Earl in 1425. Edmund Mortimer was the son of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, who had been named heir presumptive of Richard II, prior to the
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    89
    Joseon Dynasty

    Joseon Dynasty

    • Members: Kenichi Momoyama
    • Founder: Taejo of Joseon
    Joseon (Hangul: 조선; Hanja: 朝鮮; July 1392 – October 1897) (also Chosŏn, Choson, Chosun, Cho-sen), was a Korean state founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo Dynasty in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul. The kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the Amnok and Duman rivers through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of Korean history and the longest-ruling Confucian dynasty. During its reign, Joseon consolidated its effective rule over the territory of current Korea, encouraged the entrenchment of Korean Confucian ideals and doctrines in Korean society, imported and adapted Chinese culture, and saw the height of classical Korean culture, trade, science, literature, and technology. However, the dynasty was severely weakened during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when invasions by the neighboring states of Japan and Qing nearly overran the peninsula, leading to an increasingly harsh isolationist policy for which the country became known
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    90
    Shah dynasty

    Shah dynasty

    • Members: Dipendra of Nepal
    • Country: Nepal
    The Shah dynasty was a ruling dynasty of the Kingdom of Nepal. In the 1500s, Prince Yashobramha Shah of Kaski (son of King Kulamandan Shah) was enthroned in the principality of Lamjung. The rulers of the neighbouring principality of Ligligkot, now in Gorkha, were Ghale people. They had a tradition of choosing a ruler every autumn by way of a running race open to everyone. Whoever won the race was to become ruler for a year. However, Dravya Shah was not a physically robust man and so he tricked his way to the win with the backing of the Bhattarai, Aryal, Adhikari, Pant and the Acharya clans of Bahun. He then did away with the tradition of choosing a ruler every autumn. He ruled in a brutal way and executed anyone who suggested the reinstatement of the running race. By the time of Dravya Shah's death in 1570, the running race tradition was but a memory among the people. Dravya Shah had used the Magar army to invade neighbouring states and his successors continued this aggression to increase the kingdom's territory. In 1743, Prithvi Narayan Shah came to the throne of Gorkha. He unified Nepal. In September 1768, he became the King of Nepal. In 1815, the Gurkha War between Nepal and the
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    91
    Awan dynasty

    Awan dynasty

    The Awan Dynasty was the first dynasty of Elam of which anything is known today, appearing at the dawn of historical record. The Elamites were likely major rivals of neighboring Sumer from remotest antiquity; they were said to have been defeated by Enmebaragesi of Kish (ca. 25th century BC), who is the earliest archaeologically attested Sumerian king, as well as by a later monarch, Eannatum I of Lagash. Awan was a city or possibly a region of Elam whose precise location is not certain, but it has been variously conjectured to be north of Susa, in south Luristan, close to Dezful, or Godin Tepe. According to the Sumerian king list, a dynasty from Awan exerted hegemony in Sumer at one time. It mentions three Awan kings, who supposedly reigned for a total of 356 years. Their names have not survived on the extant copies, apart from the partial name of the third king, "Ku-ul...", who it says ruled for 36 years. This information is not considered reliable, but it does suggest that Awan had political importance in the 3rd millennium BC. A royal list found at Susa gives 12 names of the kings in the Awan dynasty. As there are very few other sources for this period, most of these names are
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    92
    Clan MacKay

    Clan MacKay

    Clan Mackay (Gaelic: Mac Aoidh) is an ancient and once-powerful Scottish clan from the far North of the Scottish Highlands, but with roots in the old kingdom of Moray. They were a powerful force in politics beginning in the 14th century, supporting Robert the Bruce. In the centuries that followed they were anti-Jacobite. The Highland Clearances had dire consequences for the clan, but since then they have spread through many parts of the world and have provided it many famous and influential people. The territory of the Clan Mackay consisted of the parishes of Durness, Tongue and Farr in the north of the county of Sutherland, later it would extend and include the parish of Reay in the west of the neighboring county of Caithness. The chief of the clan is Lord Reay. The Mackays are believed to descend from the Picts, ancient tribes that lived in Scotland. The name Mackay is also found in Ireland from ancient times, when several tribes from the northern area of Ireland, which was once part of an ancient Scottish kingdom known as Dál Riata, moved across the sea to Scotland. The Mackays in Scotland were based in Strathnaver in modern Sutherland. Although the exact origin of Clan Mackay
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    93
    Clan MacLeod

    Clan MacLeod

    Clan MacLeod (/ˌklæn mɨˈklaʊd/; Scottish Gaelic: Clann Mhic Leòid; Scottish Gaelic pronunciation: [ˈkʰl̪ˠan̪ˠ viʰkʲ ˈlɔːtʲ]) is a Highland Scottish clan associated with the Isle of Skye. There are two main branches of the clan: the Macleods of Harris and Dunvegan, whose chief is Macleod of Macleod, are known in Gaelic as Sìol Tormoid ("seed of Tormod"); the Macleods of Lewis, whose chief is Macleod of The Lewes, are known in Gaelic as Sìol Torcaill ("seed of Torcall"). Both branches claim descent from Leòd, who lived in the 13th century. The surname MacLeod means 'son of Leod'. The name Leod is an Anglicization of the Scottish Gaelic name Leòd, which is thought to have been derived from the Old Norse name Ljótr, meaning ugly. Clann means family, while mhic is the genitive of mac, the Gaelic for son, and Leòid is the genitive of Leòd. The whole phrase therefore means The family of the son of Leod. The Clan MacLeod of Lewis claims its descent from Leod, who according to MacLeod tradition was a younger son of Olaf the Black, King of Mann (r.1229–1237). However, articles have been published in the Clan MacLeod magazine which suggest an alternate genealogy for Leod, one in which he was
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    94
    Constantinian dynasty

    Constantinian dynasty

    The Constantinian dynasty is an informal name for the ruling family of the Roman Empire from Constantius Chlorus (†305) to the death of Julian in 363. It is named after its most famous member, Constantine the Great who became the sole ruler of the empire in 324. The dynasty is also called Neo-Flavian because every Constantinian emperor bore the name Flavius, similarly to the rulers of the first Flavian dynasty in the 1st century. In italics the Augusti and the Augustae. Other rulers of the tetrarchy were related to the Constantinian dynasty:
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    95
    House of Hohenzollern

    House of Hohenzollern

    • Members: Margravine Elisabeth Fredericka Sophie of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
    • Founder: Frederick I, Burgrave of Nuremberg
    • Country: Romania
    The House of Hohenzollern is a noble family and royal dynasty of electors, kings and emperors of Prussia, Germany and Romania. It originated in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century. They took their name from their ancestral home, the Burg Hohenzollern castle near Hechingen. The family uses the motto Nihil Sine Deo (English: Nothing Without God). The family coat of arms, first adopted in 1192, began as a simple shield quarterly sable and argent. A century later, in 1317, Frederick IV, Burgrave of Nuremberg, added the head and shoulders of a hound as a crest. Later quartering reflected heiresses’ marriages into the family. The family split into two branches, the Catholic Swabian branch and the Protestant Franconian branch, known also as the Kirschner line. The Swabian branch ruled the area of Hechingen until their eventual extinction in 1869. The Franconian-Kirschner branch was more successful: members of the Franconian branch became Margrave of Brandenburg in 1415 and Duke of Prussia in 1525. Following the union of these two Franconian lines in 1618, the Kingdom of Prussia was created in 1701, eventually leading to the unification of Germany and
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    96
    House of Nemanjić

    House of Nemanjić

    • Members: Elizabeth of Hungary, Queen of Serbia
    • Country: Serbia
    The Nemanjić (pronounced [nɛ̌maɲitɕ], Serbian: pl. Немањићи, Nemanjići) was the most important dynasty of Serbia in the Middle Ages, and one of the most important in Southeastern Europe. The royal house produced eleven Serbian monarchs between 1166 and 1371. It's progenitor was Stephen Nemanja, who descended from a cadet line of the Vukanović dynasty (1101–1166). After Stephen (Stefan) Nemanja, all monarchs used Stefan as a personal name, a tradition adopted for the royal pretensions. The monarchs began as Grand Princes, and with the crowning of Stephen II in 1217, the realm was promoted to a Kingdom, and the Serbian Church was established. In 1346, Stephen Uroš IV Dušan was crowned Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks [and Albanians and Bulgarians], and the Archbishopric of Serbia was elevated to a Patriarchate. In 1371, with the death of child-less Uroš the Weak (r. 1355-1371), the fall of the Serbian Empire was ensured; provincial lords obtained the rule of the past provinces, and the Nemanjić survived only through maternal lines in several Serbian houses. The Serbs, as Slavs in the vicinity of the Byzantine Empire, lived in so-called Sklavinia ("Slav lands"), territories initially
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    97
    Piast dynasty

    Piast dynasty

    • Members: Fenenna of Kuyavia
    • Founder: Piast the Wheelwright
    • Country: Poland
    The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland. It began with the semi-legendary Piast Kołodziej (Piast the Wheelwright). The first historical ruler was Prince Mieszko I (tenth century). The Piasts' royal rule in Poland ended in 1370 with the death of king Casimir the Great. Branches of the Piast dynasty continued to rule in the Duchy of Masovia and in the duchies of Silesia after 1370, until the last male Silesian Piast died in 1675. The Piasts intermarried with several noble lines of Europe, and possessed numerous titles, some within the Holy Roman Empire. Although the early dukes and kings of Poland regarded themselves as descendants of Piast, the term "Piast Dynasty" originated in the 17th century. Piast Kołodziej (Piast the Wheelwright), the legendary founder of the Piast dynasty, is first mentioned in the Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum (Chronicles and deeds of the dukes or princes of the Poles) of Gallus Anonymus, written c. 1113. The last ruling Piast George William of Brzeg and Legnica died in 1675, although numerous families link their genealogy to the Piasts. His son August of Legnica, the last legitimate male Silesian Piast, died in
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    98
    Trần Dynasty

    Trần Dynasty

    The Trần Dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Trần, Hán Việt: 陳朝, Trần Triều) was a Vietnamese dynasty that ruled Vietnam (then known as Đại Việt) from 1225 to 1400. The dynasty was founded in 1225 when king Trần Thái Tông ascended to the throne after his uncle Trần Thủ Độ orchestrated the overthrow of the Lý Dynasty. The dynasty ruled for a total of 175 years, ending in 1400 when king Thiếu Đế, then five years old, was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of his maternal grandfather Hồ Quý Ly. Among other things, the Trần Dynasty are noted for defeating three Mongol invasions, most notably in the decisive Battle of Bạch Đằng River, in 1288. The founder of the Trần clan in Đại Việt was Trần Kinh, a man of Tức Mặc village (now Mỹ Lộc, Nam Định) who lived by fishing. After three generations in Đại Việt, Trần clan became a rich and powerful family under Trần Lý who was Trần Kinh's grandson. During the troubled time under the reign of Lý Cao Tông, the Crown Prince Lý Sảm sought refuge in the family of Trần Lý and decided to marry his beautiful daughter Trần Thị Dung in 1209. Afterward, it was the Trần clan who helped Lý Cao Tông and Lý Sảm restore the throne in Thăng Long; therefore, the Emperor
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    Clan Darroch

    Clan Darroch

    Clan Darroch is a Lowland Scottish clan. They were islanders who lived on the Isle of Islay and the Isle of Jura under MacDonald, Lord of the Isles. There are several origins for the surname Darroch in Scotland. In some cases it is an Anglicised form of the Irish Ó Dhubhdarach and Mac Dhubhdarach, which mean "descendant of Dubhdarach" and "son of Dubhdarach". The personal name Dubhdarach means "black one of the oak tree". The surname borne by the earliest Darrochs on record, however, is thought to have originated as a habitational name, derived from Darroch, located near Falkirk, in Stirlingshire, Scotland. There is a tradition in the West Highlands that the surname borne there is derived from the Gaelic Dath riabhach, which is said to be a short form of Mac 'Ille riabhach; although etymologist George Fraser Black thought such a derivation doubtful. The present line of chiefs, recognised as such by the Lord Lyon King of Arms since the late 18th century, claimed to descend from a "McIlliriech" from Jura. John Darroch was baille of Stirling in 1406. John Darach de Cruce is mentioned in 1445 and may be the same person as John Darraugh who was the commissioner to Parliament for the
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    100
    Madurai Nayak Dynasty

    Madurai Nayak Dynasty

    The Madurai Nayaks or Nayak Dynasty of Madurai (Tamil: மதுரை நாயக்கர்) were rulers of a region comprising most of modern-day Tamil Nadu, India, with Madurai as their capital. The Nayak reign was an era noted for its achievement in arts, cultural and administrative reforms, revitalization of temples previously ransacked by the Delhi Sultans, and inauguration of a unique architectural style. The dynasty consisted of 13 rulers, of whom 9 were kings, 2 were queens, and 2 were joint-kings. The most notable of these were the king, Tirumalai Nayak, and the queen, Rani Mangammal. Foreign trade was conducted mainly with the Dutch and the Portuguese, as the British and the French had not yet made inroads in the region. Madurai Nayaks belonged to the Kamma social group. They claimed a Bana descent. Early in the fourteenth century AD a dispute arose over the succession to the Pandya throne. One claimant appealed for help to emperor Ala-ud-din of Delhi, who dispatched his general, Malik Kafur, in 1310 AD. Malik Kafur marched south, ransacking kingdoms on the way and causing enormous changes to the political configuration of central and Southern India. He marched into Madurai, sacking the town,
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    Ptolemaic dynasty

    Ptolemaic dynasty

    The Ptolemaic dynasty, (Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαῖοι, sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagides, Ancient Greek: Λαγίδαι, from the name of Ptolemy I's father, Lagus) was a Macedonian Greek royal family which ruled the Ptolemaic Empire in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC. They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt. Ptolemy, one of the six somatophylakes (bodyguards) who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. In 305 BC, he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as "Soter" (saviour). The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. Ptolemaic queens, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony. Her apparent suicide at the
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    102
    Sui Dynasty

    Sui Dynasty

    The Sui Dynasty (589–618 CE) was a short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty. Preceded by the Southern and Northern Dynasties, it unified China for the first time after over a century of north-south division. It was followed by the Tang Dynasty. Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui, the Sui Dynasty capital was at Chang'an (which was renamed Daxing). His reign saw the reunification of Southern and Northern China and the construction of the Grand Canal. Emperors Wen and Yang undertook various reforms including the Equal-field system, which was initiated to reduce the rich-poor social gap that resulted in enhanced agricultural productivity, as well as government centralisation and reforms, creating a new model of governance after centuries of division. The Three Departments and Six Ministries system was officially instituted, coinage was standardized and re-unified, defense was improved and the Great Wall expanded. Buddhism was also spread and encouraged throughout the empire, uniting the varied peoples and cultures of China. This dynasty has often been compared to the earlier Qin Dynasty in tenor and in the ruthlessness of its accomplishments. The Sui dynasty's early demise was attributed to the
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    103
    Bagratuni Dynasty

    Bagratuni Dynasty

    The Bagratuni, Bagratid or alternatively Pakradouni (Armenian: Բագրատունի) royal dynasty of Armenia was a royal family whose branches formerly ruled many regional polities of the medieval Kingdom of Armenia, such as Syunik, Lori, Vaspurakan, Vanand, Taron, and Tayk, and the Kingdom itself in the 10th and 11th centuries. The exact origin of the Bagratuni, as well as of the related Georgian branch (Bagrationi) are still an object of debate among historians. The Bagratid family first emerged as nakharars, members of the hereditary nobility of Armenia. Their holdings were in the region of Sper, in the Chorokhi valley. As early as 288-301, the Bagratid prince Smbat held the hereditary Armenian titles of Aspet, which means Master of the Horse, and T'agatir, which means Coronant of the King. According to Prince Cyril Toumanoff, the earliest Bagratid prince was chronicled as early as AD 314. In the 8th century, a later Bagratid prince (also named Smbat) revolted against the Arab Caliphate but the revolt was defeated. The Bagratid Princes of Armenia are known as early as 1st century BC when they served under the Artaxiad Dynasty. Unlike most noble families on Armenia they held only strips
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    Clan Agnew

    Clan Agnew

    • Members: Sir Fulque Agnew, 10th Baronet
    • Country: United Kingdom
    Clan Agnew is a Lowland Scottish clan from Wigtownshire and Galloway in the southwest of Scotland. There are two theories as to the origins of the name Agnew. The most widely accepted is that the name is French and derives from the Barony d'Agneaux in Normandy. Emigrants from the region first settled in England before moving north in the 12th century to Liddlesdale, Scotland. The other theory is that the Clan Agnew was connected to one of the tribes in Ulster, Ireland, perhaps a sept of O'Gnive — pronounced O'New. Other versions of the name include Egnew, Aganew, Vans Agnew, O'Gnive, O'Gnyw, O Gniomha, and MacGnive. The Agnews may be related to King Somerled from whom the Clan MacDonald descends. The Italian family AGNELLI (of FIAT fame) may be related. In 1318 the Agnew Lord of Larne accompanied Edward Bruce, younger brother of King Robert I of Scotland, to Ireland. Edward had been invited by the Irish Lords to expel the English and to rule as High King of Ireland. Agnew stayed in Ireland for three years while Edward attempted to establish himself. Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw was granted the lands and constableship of Lochnaw Castle in 1426. In 1451 he was appointed Sheriff of
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    Clan Cumming

    Clan Cumming

    • Members: Alice Comyn
    Clan Cumming, also known as Clan Comyn, is a Scottish clan from the central Highlands that played a major role in the history of 13th century Scotland and in the Wars of Scottish Independence and were instrumental in defeating the English at the Battle of Roslin in 1303. The Clan Comyn were once the most powerful family in Scotland until they were defeated in civil war by their rival to the Scottish throne, Robert the Bruce. Like many of the families that came to power under King David I of Scotland, the Comyn clan is of Norman origin. The surname is either a place-name possibly derived from Comines, near Lille, in France, or possibly derived from Bosc-Bénard-Commin, near Rouen in the Duchy of Normandy. Richard Comyn, the nephew of William Comyn, chancellor to King David, is the one that established this family in Scotland. His son was William Comyn, who married Marjory, Countess of Buchan. William's mother was Hextilda, the granddaughter of King Donald III). His son was Walter Comyn, the man who acquired the lordship of Badenoch. The seat of power was Ruthven Castle. Ruthven Castle commanded the northern end of two passes over the Mounth, the Drumochter and Minigaig passes. This
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    Clan Dewar

    Clan Dewar

    Clan Dewar is a Lowland Scottish clan who settled near Edinburgh. Legend has it that they won their lands after killing a wolf which had terrorised the area. Dewars were also recorded as Septs of Clan Menzies and Clan MacNab. The Ragman Rolls include the record of the first known people by the name Dewar where Thomas and Piers de Deware both having swore fealty to King Edward I of England. The name is an anglicisation of "Deòrach" which originally means "pilgrim". Nowadays it is rendered "Mac an Deòir" in Scottish Gaelic. During the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Dewar are known to have supported King Robert the Bruce. The Clan Dewar were carriers of and custodians of the Staff of St Fillan. St Fillan was a Celtic saint who died in 777 AD. This famous relic was carried by the Dewars at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Despite changing hands over the centuries the relic has been tracked down and is now in the Museum of Antiques in Edinburgh. Later in 1497 a charter of lands was granted to William Dewar. There were also mentions of Dewars in Stirling around 1483. From this branch rose the Dewar of Cambuskenneth line. In 1710 John Dewar the son of Patrick Dewar of
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    Clan MacLaine of Lochbuie

    Clan MacLaine of Lochbuie

    Clan Maclaine of Lochbuie is a Scottish Clan that inhabited lands on the southern end of the Isle of Mull in the Inner Hebrides of the western Scottish Highlands. "Maclaine" is an alternate spelling for "MacLean." Clan Maclaine of Lochbuie and Clan MacLean of Duart are two separate clans. However, since the two clans share a strong family connection, the Maclaines of Lochbuie are widely considered a "branch clan" of the much larger Clan MacLean. The 26th (and current) clan chief is Lorne Gillean Ian Maclaine of Lochbuie. The clan is recognized by both the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs and the Lord Lyon. Clan Maclaine of Lochbuie is translated in Gaelic as Mac'ill-Eathain Locchabuide, but their history can be traced back farther than the Gaels to Tuscany in Italy. A Tuscan follower of William the Conqueror had a grandson named Maurice Fitzgerald, who moved to Ireland with the famous Earl of Surrey, known as "Strongbow." The Fitzgeralds of Ireland sent offshoots to Scotland in the thirteenth century. Two Fitzgerald cousins are said to have started both Clan MacLean and Clan Mackenzie, with the name MacLean being coined by Gillean-na-Taughe (Gillean of the Battle-Axe), a fierce
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    Fourth dynasty of Egypt

    Fourth dynasty of Egypt

    The Fourth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty IV or Dynasty 4) is characterized as a "golden age" of the Old Kingdom. Dynasty IV lasted from ca. 2613 to 2494 BC. It was a time of peace and prosperity as well as one during which trade with other countries is documented. Dynasties III, IV, V and VI are often combined under the group title the Old Kingdom, which often is described as the age of the pyramids. The capital at that time was Memphis. The Fourth Dynasty heralded the height of the pyramid-building age. The relative peace of the Third Dynasty allowed the Fourth Dynasty rulers the leisure to explore more artistic and cultural pursuits. Sneferu’s building experiments led to the evolution from the mastaba styled step pyramids to the smooth sided “true” pyramids, such as those on the Giza plateau. No other period in Egypt’s history equaled Dynasty IV’s architectural accomplishments. Each of the rulers of this dynasty commissioned at least one pyramid to serve as a tomb or cenotaph. The pharaohs of the Fourth Dynasty ruled for approximately 120 years, from ca 2613 to 2494 BCE. The names in the table are taken from Dodson and Hilton. Sneferu, the first king of Dynasty IV, is
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    109
    House of Savoy

    House of Savoy

    • Members: Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Turin
    • Founder: Umberto I, Count of Savoy
    • Country: Italy
    The House of Savoy (Italian: Casa di Savoia) was formed in the early 11th century in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, it grew from ruling a small county in that region to eventually rule the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until the end of World War II. The House of Savoy ruled unified Italy for 85 years with Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II as monarchs. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being overthrown by a popular referendum and a new republican government. The House of Savoy emerged, along with the free communes of Switzerland, in what is now called Switzerland. The name derives from the historical region Savoy in what is now France and Italy. Over time the house expanded from that region to rule almost all of the Italian Peninsula. Yet their growth and survival over the centuries was not based on spectacular conquests, but on gradual territorial expansion through marriage and methodical and highly manipulative political acquisitions. The house descended from Humbert I, Count of Sabaudia (Umberto I "Biancamano"), (1003–1047 or 1048). Humbert's family are thought to have originated from near Magdeburg in Saxony,
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    110
    Justinian Dynasty

    Justinian Dynasty

    The Justinian Dynasty is a family who ruled over the Byzantine Empire from 518 to 602. It originated with Justin I and ended with Maurice. Patriarch Germanus I of Constantinople (term c. 715 - 730), whose father was named Justinian, might have been a descendant of the dynasty. The names Justinian and Germanus were common among dynasty members.
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    111
    Kennedy family

    Kennedy family

    • Members: Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.
    • Country: United States of America
    In the United States, the phrase Kennedy family commonly refers to the family descending from the marriage of the Irish-Americans Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. and Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald that was prominent in American politics and government. Their political involvement has revolved around the Democratic Party. Harvard University educations have been common among them, and they have contributed heavily to that university's John F. Kennedy School of Government. The wealth, glamour and photogenic quality of the family members, as well as their extensive and continuing involvement in public service, has elevated them to iconic status over the past half-century. Soon after the 1960 election of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, he and his younger brothers, Robert F. Kennedy and Edward M. Kennedy, all held prominent positions in the federal government. They received intense publicity, often emphasizing their relative youth, allure, education, and future in politics. From 1947, when John F. Kennedy was first elected to Congress, to 2011, when Patrick J. Kennedy departed Congress, there were 64 years with a Kennedy in elective office in Washington. This spans more than a quarter of the nation's
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    112
    Liu Song Dynasty

    Liu Song Dynasty

    The Liu Song Dynasty (simplified Chinese: 刘宋朝; traditional Chinese: 劉宋朝; pinyin: Liú Sòng Cháo; Wade-Giles: Liu Sung Ch'ao), also known as Former Song Dynasty (前宋) (420-479 CE), was first of the four Southern Dynasties in China, succeeding the Eastern Jin Dynasty and followed by the Southern Qi Dynasty. The dynasty was founded by Liu Yu 劉裕 (363–422), whose surname together with "Song" forms the most commonly used name for the dynasty, the Liu Song 劉宋. This appellation is used to distinguish it from a later dynasty of the same name, the Song Dynasty 宋 (960–1279), which is much more famous and significant. The Liu Song is also at times referred to as the "Southern Song Dynasty" (南宋), as it is one of the Southern Dynasties period, i.e., one of those with its capital at Jiankang (modern Nanjing). However, the later Song Dynasty, after 1127, when it moved its capital south to Lin'an (modern Hangzhou, Zhejiang), is most commonly referred to as "Southern Song Dynasty" (南宋). Thus, for the shorter dynasty which is the subject of this article, "Liu Song" has become the term preferred in most contexts. The Liu Song was a time when there was much internal turmoil. A number of emperors were
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    113
    Nguyễn Dynasty

    Nguyễn Dynasty

    • Members: Nguyen Phuc Canh
    • Founder: Gia Long
    • Country: Vietnam
    The Nguyễn Dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Nguyễn; Hán-Nôm: 家阮, Nguyễn triều) was the last ruling family of Vietnam. Their rule lasted a total of 143 years. It began in 1802 when Emperor Gia Long ascended the throne after defeating the Tây Sơn Dynasty and ended in 1945 when Bảo Đại abdicated the throne and transferred power to the State of Vietnam. During the reign of Emperor Gia Long, the nation officially became known as Việt Nam (越南), but from the reign of emperor Minh Mạng on, the nation was renamed Đại Nam (大南, literally "Great South"). Their rule was marked by the increasing influence of French colonialism; the nation was eventually partitioned into three, Cochinchina became a French colony while Annam and Tonkin became protectorates which were independent in name only. The Nguyễn family had been one of the major families in Vietnamese history, dating back to the days of the Hero–Emperor Lê Lợi. Due to a civil war and the weakness of the Later Lê Dynasty, the Nguyễn and the Trịnh (another of the major families) joined together in opposition to the Mạc. Nguyễn Kim, the leader of this alliance, was assassinated in 1545 by a servant of the Mạc. Kim's son-in-law Trịnh Kiểm, took over
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    114
    Clan Gordon

    Clan Gordon

    Clan Gordon, also known as the House of Gordon, is a Scottish clan. The chief of the clan was the powerful Earl of Huntly, and now also the Marquess of Huntly. The first Gordon on record is Richard of Gordon, previously of Swinton, said to have been the grandson of a famous knight who slew some monstrous animal in the Merse during the time of King Malcolm III of Scotland. This Richard was Lord of the Barony of Gordon in the Merse. Between 1150 and 1160 he granted from his estate a piece of land to the Monks of St. Mary at Kelso, a grant which was confirmed by his son Thomas Gordon. Other notable Gordons from this time include Bertram de Gordon who wounded King Richard of England with an arrow at Châlons. Alicia Gordon, IV of the Gordon family was the heiress who married her cousin, Adam Gordon. Adam Gordon was a soldier who King Alexander III of Scotland sent with King Louis of France to Palestine. One tradition is that from Adam's grandson, Sir Adam all of the Gordons in Scotland are descended from.* This Adam Gordon supported Sir William Wallace in 1297 to recapture the Castle of Wigtown from the English and Adam was made the Governor. During the Wars of Scottish Independence Sir
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    115
    Clan Hamilton

    Clan Hamilton

    • Members: Walter fitz Gilbert of Cadzow
    • Founder: Walter fitz Gilbert of Cadzow
    • Country: Sweden
    The House of Hamilton, occasionally referred to as Clan Hamilton, is a Scottish family who historically held broad territories throughout central and southern Scotland, particularly Ayrshire, Lanarkshire and the Lothians. The Hamiltons' main areas of influence were in the Scottish Lowlands, excepting the Isle of Arran, from which territory, the chief of Hamilton bears the Lymphad of the Isles on his arms. The family is descended from Walter fitz Gilbert of Cadzow, a Scoto-Norman comrade of Robert the Bruce, and rose in power to be the leading noble family in Scotland, second only to the royal House of Stewart, to whom they were closely related. Members of the family have held a number of titles in the peerages of both Scotland and Great Britain, the principal title being Duke of Hamilton, the duke himself being the senior representative of the family. Chief among the legends still clinging to this important family is that which gives a descent from the House of Beaumont, a branch of which is stated to have held the manor of Hamilton, Leicestershire; and it is argued that the three cinquefoils of the Hamilton shield bear some resemblance to the single cinquefoils of the Beaumonts.
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    Clan Macintyre

    Clan Macintyre

    Clan MacIntyre is a Scottish clan. The name MacIntyre (from Scottish Gaelic Mac an t-Saoir), means "son of the carpenter." Although no documented history of the clan exists, it is most commonly said to descend from Maurice Mac Neil a nephew of Somerled, the great 12th century leader of the Scottish Gaels. Through an ingenious strategy, Maurice secured the marriage of Somerled to the daughter of the King of Mann and the Isles, thus greatly increasing Somerled’s territories. At an unknown date the clan journeyed from the Hebrides to the Scottish mainland where the chiefs established their home at Glen Noe on Loch Etive. The earliest recorded clan chiefs do not emerge until the 17th century. According to tradition, they had held the land at Glen Noe for centuries, although subject to a feudal tenure converted to money rent in later years. In 1806, however, the chief was forced to relinquish the tenancy of Glen Noe due to inability to meet the payments. He and his family subsequently emigrated to the United States. MacIntyres participated in military campaigns during the civil war in Scotland and the Jacobite rising of 1745–46 but they did not operate as an independent body. Clan
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    Eastern Ganga dynasty

    Eastern Ganga dynasty

    The Eastern Ganga dynasty reigned from Kalinga and their rule consisted of the whole of the modern day Indian state of Orissa as well as parts of West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh from the 11th century to the early 15th century. Their capital was known by the name Kalinganagar, which is the modern Srimukhalingam in Srikakulam District of Andhra Pradesh bordering Orissa. Today, they are most remembered as the builders of the Konark Sun Temple an UNESCO World Heritage site at Konark, Orissa. The dynasty was founded by King Ananta-Varman Chodaganga Deva (1078–1147), grandson of the Chola king Virarajendra Chola and nephew of emperor Kulothunga Chola I. Anantavarman was a religious person as well as a patron of art and literature. He is credited for having built the famous Jagannath Temple of Puri in Orissa. King Anantavarman Chodagangadeva was succeeded by a long line of illustrious rulers such as Narasimha Deva I (1238–1264). The rulers of Eastern Ganga dynasty defended their kingdom from the constant attacks of the Muslim rulers. This kingdom prospered through trade and commerce and the wealth was mostly used in the construction of temples. The rule of the dynasty came to
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    118
    House of Vojislavljević

    House of Vojislavljević

    • Country: Montenegro
    The Vojislavljević (Serbian: pl. Војислављевићи, Vojislavljevići) was the second Serb medieval dynasty, named after archon Stefan Vojislav, who wrestled the polities of Duklja, Travunia, Zahumlje, Rascia and Bosnia from Byzantine hands in the mid-11th century. The main line of the Vojislavljević were ousted by the cadet branches of Vukanović and Nemanjić in the late 12th century. Its eponymous founder was a "Travunian Serb", Stefan Vojislav, who was possibly kin to Jovan Vladimir. According to the Chronicle, Vojislav was a son of Dragomir, himself the uncle of Jovan Vladimir. Dragomir had held Travunija and Zahumlje, then ruled Doclea for two years after the death of Jovan Vladimir (1016). In 1018, Dragomir was killed by locals of Kotor. Mihailo I became Grand Prince around 1050/1055. He restored independence and maintained it from the Byzantine Empire. It sought closer relations with other greater powers, such as the Pope and the Normans. Mihailo installed his son Petrislav as Prince of Rascia. After the aborted rebellion in Bulgaria, the military governor of Dyrrhachium, Nicephorus Bryennius, restored Byzantine rule to Rascia in 1073. Mihailo reportedly received royal insignia in
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    119
    House of Windsor

    House of Windsor

    • Members: George V of the United Kingdom
    • Founder: George V of the United Kingdom
    • Country: United Kingdom
    The House of Windsor is the royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. It was founded by King George V by royal proclamation on 17 July 1917, when he changed the name of his family from the German Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (a branch of the House of Wettin) to the English Windsor, due to the anti-German sentiment in the British Empire during World War I. Currently, the most prominent member of the House of Windsor is its head, Queen Elizabeth II, the reigning monarch of each of the Commonwealth realms. The House of Windsor, as the British Royal Family, has the legal and constitutional prerogatives and practices associated with that status. Edward VII and, in turn, his son, George V, were members of the German ducal House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha by virtue of their descent from Albert, Prince Consort, husband of Queen Victoria. High anti-German sentiment amongst the people of the British Empire during World War I reached a peak in March 1917, when the Gotha G.IV, a heavy aircraft capable of crossing the English Channel, began bombing London directly and became a household name. In the same year, on 15 March, King George's first cousin, Nicholas II, the Tsar of
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    120
    Slave dynasty

    Slave dynasty

    Slave Dynasty 1206 - 1286 In 1206, Muhammad of Ghor died. He had no child, so after his death, his kingdom was divided into many parts by his slaves. Taj-ud-Din Yildoz became the ruler of Ghazni. Mohammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khilji got Bengal. Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha became the king of Multan. Qutub-ud-din-Aybak became the king of Delhi, and that was the start of the Slave dynasty.
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    Argead dynasty

    Argead dynasty

    • Country: Ancient Greece
    The Argead dynasty (Greek: Ἀργεάδαι) was an ancient Greek royal house. They were the ruling dynasty of Macedonia from about 700 to 310 BC. Their tradition, as described in ancient Greek historiography, traced their origins to Argos, in southern Greece (hence the name Argeads). Initially, the rulers of the homonymous tribe, by the time of Philip II they had expanded their reign further, to include under the rule of Macedonia all Upper Macedonian states. The family's most celebrated members were Philip II of Macedonia and Alexander the Great, under whose leadership, the kingdom of Macedonia gradually gained predominance throughout Greece, defeated the Achaemenid Empire and expanded as far as Egypt and India. The Argeads claimed descent from the Temenids of Argos, in the Peloponnese, whose legendary ancestor was Temenus, the great-great-grandson of Heracles. In the excavations of the royal Palace at Aegae Manolis Andronikos discovered in the "tholos" room (according to some scholars "tholos" was the throne room) an inscription relating to that belief. This is testified by Herodotus, in The Histories, where he mentions that three brothers of the lineage of Temenus, Gauanes, Aeropus and
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    122
    Clan Dundas

    Clan Dundas

    Clan Dundas (English pronunciation: /ˌdʌnˈdæs/) is a Scottish clan. It is one of Scotland's historically most important families and once widely regarded as one of the most noble families in the British Empire. The words ‘dùn deas’ in Scottish Gaelic mean ‘south fort’. The Dundas family occupied lands on the southern shores of the Firth of Forth. The family is believed to descend from Helias, a son of Hutred, who was a younger son of Gospatrick, Prince of Northumberland. Also the Clan Dunbar and the Clan Moncreiffe descend from this stock. Records from the reign of William I, King of Scots mention Serle de Dundas. Both Serle and a man named Robert de Dundas signed Edward I’s Ragman Roll. However, Sir Hugh Dundas fought together with William Wallace. During the Wars of Scottish Independence, the family fought alongside William Wallace against the English and later alongside King Robert I of Scotland. Sir George Dundas was on the committee that tried the Marquess of Montrose and one of the eight lairds who fought together with Robert the Bruce, and he was killed at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in 1332. James Dundas built Dundas Castle in 1424. Sir James Dundas was Governor of Berwick
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    Clan MacKenzie

    Clan MacKenzie

    • Members: Hector Roy Mackenzie
    Clan Mackenzie is a Highland Scottish clan, traditionally associated with Kintail and lands in Ross-shire. The Mackenzies, a powerful clan of Celtic stock, were not among the clans that originated from Norman ancestry. Descendants of the long defunct royal Cenél Loairn of Dál Riata, they are believed to be related to Clan Matheson and Clan Anrias. All three descend from the 12th century Gill'Eòin of the Aird. Based initially in Kintail, the clan was recorded at Eilean Donan on Loch Duich, a stronghold with which it was for many centuries associated. For generations, the constable of Eilean Donan was traditionally Macrae of Inverinate, with the result that the Clan Macrae became known as "Mackenzie's shirt of mail". There were also strongholds at Kilcoy Castle and Brahan Castle and the Mackenzies of Tarbat had their seat at Castle Leod, in Strathpeffer in the 17th century. There was a tradition - not borne out, however, by any tangible evidence or confirmation and quite possibly invented by the Earl of Cromartie - that the family deduced its descent from a member of the House of Geraldine, in Ireland (whence sprang the noble families of Leinster, Desmond, &c.), who, with a
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    House of Wettin

    House of Wettin

    • Members: Ernest, Elector of Saxony
    The House of Wettin is a dynasty of German counts, dukes, prince-electors (Kurfürsten) and kings that once ruled the area of today's German states of Saxony, the Saxon part of Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia for more than 800 years. Agnates of the House of Wettin have, at various times, ascended the thrones of Great Britain, Portugal, Bulgaria, Poland, Saxony, and Belgium; of these, only the British and Belgian lines retain their thrones today. (See list of members.) The oldest member of the House of Wettin who is known for certain is Dietrich I von Wettin, also known as Thiedericus, or as Thierry I of Liesgau (died c. 982). He was most probably based in the Liesgau (located at the western edge of the Harz). Around 1000, the family acquired Wettin Castle, after which they named themselves. Wettin Castle is located in Wettin in the Hosgau on the Saale River. Around 1030, the Wettin family received the Eastern March as a fief. The prominence of the Wettin family in the Slavic marches caused Emperor Henry IV to invest them with the March of Meissen as a fief in 1089. The family advanced over the course of the Middle Ages: in 1263 they inherited the landgraviate of Thuringia (though
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    House of Wittelsbach

    House of Wittelsbach

    • Members: Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria
    • Founder: Otto I Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria
    • Country: Germany
    The Wittelsbach family is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. Members of the family served as Dukes, Electors and Kings of Bavaria (1180–1918), Counts Palatine of the Rhine (1214–1803 and 1816–1918), Margraves of Brandenburg (1323–1373), Counts of Holland, Hainaut and Zeeland (1345–1432), Elector-Archbishops of Cologne (1583–1761), Dukes of Jülich and Berg (1614–1794/1806), Kings of Sweden (1441–1448 and 1654–1720) and Dukes of Bremen-Verden (1654–1719). The family also provided two Holy Roman Emperors (1328/1742), one King of the Romans (1400), two Anti-Kings of Bohemia (1619/1742), one King of Hungary (1305), one King of Denmark and Norway (1440) and a King of Greece (1832–1862). The family's head, since 1996, is Franz, Duke of Bavaria. Berthold, Margrave in Bavaria (died 980), was the ancestor of Otto I, Count of Scheyern (died 1072), whose 3rd son Otto II, Count of Scheyern acquired the castle of Wittelsbach (near Aichach). The Counts of Scheyern left Burg Scheyern ("Scheyern Castle", constructed in about 940) in 1119 for Burg Wittelsbach ("Wittelsbach Castle"). Otto I's son Eckhard I, Count of Scheyern was father to the Count palatine of Bavaria Otto IV
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    Konbaung dynasty

    Konbaung dynasty

    The Konbaung Dynasty (Burmese: ကုန်းဘောင်ခေတ်, pronounced: [kóʊɴbàʊɴ kʰɪʔ]) was the last dynasty that ruled Burma (Myanmar), from 1752 to 1885. The dynasty created the second largest empire in Burmese history, and continued the administrative reforms begun by the Toungoo dynasty, laying the foundations of modern state of Burma. The reforms proved insufficient to stem the advance of the British, who defeated the Burmese in all three Anglo-Burmese wars over a six-decade span (1824–1885) and ended the millennium-old Burmese monarchy in 1885. The dynasty was founded by a village-chief Alaungpaya in 1752 to challenge the Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom which had just toppled the Toungoo dynasty. By 1759, Alaungpaya's forces had reunited all of Burma (and Manipur), and driven out the French and the British who had provided arms to Hanthawaddy. In 1760, Burma began a series of wars with Siam that would last well into the middle of 19th century. By 1770, Alaungpaya's heirs had temporarily defeated Siam (1767), subdued much of Laos (1765) and defeated four invasions by Qing China (1765–1769). With the Burmese preoccupied for another two decades by another impending invasion by the Chinese, the
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    Přemyslid dynasty

    Přemyslid dynasty

    • Members: Constance of Hungary
    The Přemyslids (Czech: Přemyslovci, German: Premysliden, Polish: Przemyślidzi), were a Bohemian royal dynasty which reigned in Bohemia and Moravia (9th century–1306), and partly also in Hungary, Silesia, Austria and Poland. Subsequently the ruling House of Luxembourg (1310 - 1437) claimed title to the crown of Bohemia through relation to Přemyslids. The House of Habsburg (ruling 1526 - 1918) claimed title to the crown from its relation to all previously ruling houses, including the House of Přemysl. Dynasty beginnings date back to the 9th century when Přemyslids ruled a tiny principality around Prague and gradually conquered the region of Bohemia, conveniently located in the Czech basin where it was not threatened by expansion of the Frankish Empire. The first historically-documented Premyslid Duke was Bořivoj I (867). In the following century Přemyslids also ruled over Silesia and founded the city of Wroclaw, derived from the name of a Bohemian duke Vratislaus I, father of Saint Wenceslaus. Under Prince Boleslaus II the Pious (972), the Přemyslids ruled territory stretching to today's Belarus. They controlled important trade routes. After their prominent rise, however, internal
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    Safavid dynasty

    Safavid dynasty

    The Safavid dynasty (Persian: سلسلهٔ صفويان‎; Azerbaijani: صفویلر) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires after the Muslim conquest of Persia and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history. The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and at their height, they controlled all of modern Iran, Azerbaijan and Armenia, most of Iraq, Georgia, Afghanistan, and the Caucasus, as well as parts of Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Turkey. Safavid Iran was one of the Islamic "gunpowder empires", along with its neighbours, the Ottoman and Mughal empires. The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safaviyya Sufi order, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Azerbaijan region. It was of mixed ancestry (Azerbaijani, Kurdish and Turkmen, which included intermarriages with Georgian and Pontic Greek dignitaries). From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over all of Greater Iran and reasserted the Iranian identity of the region, thus becoming the first
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    Sena dynasty

    Sena dynasty

    The Sena Empire (Bengali: সেন, Shen) was a Hindu dynasty that ruled from Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. At its peak the empire covered much of the north-eastern region of the Indian subcontinent. They were called Brahma-Kshatriyas, as evidenced through their surname, which is derived from the Sanskrit, for "army". The Senas belonged to the 'Gaur Kayastha' sub-caste of the Chitraguptvanshi Kayastha and they were Brahma-Kshatriyas (those who were Brahmanas first and became Kshatriyas afterwards). The dynasty's founder was Hemanta Sen, who was part of the Pala Dynasty until their empire began to weaken. He usurped power and styled himself king in 1095 AD. His successor Vijay Sen (ruled from 1096 AD to 1159 AD) helped lay the foundations of the dynasty, and had an unusually long reign of over 60 years. Ballal Sena conquered Gaur from the Pala, became the ruler of Bengal Delta as well as made Nabadwip the capital. Lakshman Sen succeeded Ballal Sena in 1179 and ruled Bengal for approximately 20 years. He expanded the Sena Empire to Assam, Orissa, Bihar and probably to Varanasi. In 1203–1204 AD, the Turkic general Bakhtiyar Khilji attacked Nabadwip. Though he defeated
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    Third Dynasty of Ur

    Third Dynasty of Ur

    The Third Dynasty of Ur, also known as the Neo-Sumerian Empire or the Ur III Empire refers simultaneously to a 21st to 20th century BC (short chronology timeline) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state that some historians regard as a nascent empire. The Third Dynasty of Ur is commonly abbreviated as Ur III by historians of the period. The Third Dynasty of Ur came to preeminent power in Mesopotamia after several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian kings. It controlled the cities of Isin, Larsa and Eshnunna and extended as far north as the Jazira. The Third Dynasty of Ur arose some time after the fall of the Akkad Dynasty. The period between the last powerful king of the Akkad Dynasty, Shar-kali-sharri, and the first king of Ur III, Ur-Nammu, is not well documented, but most Assyriologists posit that there was a brief "dark ages", followed by a power struggle among the most powerful city-states. On the king-lists, Shar-kali-shari is followed by two more kings of Akkad and six in Uruk, however there are no year-names surviving for any of these, nor even any artifacts confirming any of these reigns were historical — save one artifact
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    Almoravids

    Almoravids

    The Almoravids (Berber: ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ Imṛabḍen, Arabic: المرابطون‎ Al-Murābiṭūn) were a Berber dynasty of Morocco, who formed an empire in the 11th-century that stretched over the western Maghreb and Al-Andalus. Their capital was Marrakesh, a city which they founded in 1062. The dynasty originated amongst the Lamtuna and the Gudala, which were nomadic Berber tribes of the Sahara traversing the territory between southern Morocco, the Niger river and the Senegal river. The Almoravids were crucial in avoiding a precipitated fall of Al-Andalus to the Iberian Christian kingdoms, when they decisively beat a coalition of the Castilian and Aragonese armies at the Battle of Sagrajas. This enabled them to control an empire that stretched 3,000 kilometers north to south. However, the rule of the dynasty was relatively short-lived and the Almoravids fell - at the height of their power - when they failed to quell the Masmuda-led rebellion initiated by Ibn Tumart. As a result, their last king Ishaq ibn Ali was killed in Marrakesh in April 1147 by the Almohads who replaced them as a ruling dynasty both in Morocco and Al-Andalus. The term "Almoravid" comes from the Arabic "al-Murabitun" (المرابطون)
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    Attalid dynasty

    Attalid dynasty

    • Members: Attalus I
    • Founder: Philetaerus
    The Attalid dynasty was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great. The Attalid kingdom was the rump state left after the collapse of the Lysimachian Empire. One of Lysimachus' officers, Philetaerus, took control of the city in 282 BC. The later Attalids were descended from his father, and they expanded the city into a kingdom. Attalus I proclaimed himself King in the 230s BC, following his victories over the Galatians. The Attalids ruled Pergamon until Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 BC to avoid a likely succession crisis. On the interior of the Pergamon Altar is a frieze depicting the life of Telephus, son of Herakles, whom the ruling Attalid dynasty associated with its city and utilized to claim descendance from the Olympians. Pergamon, having entered the Greek world much later than its counterparts to the west, could not boast the same divine heritage as older city-states, and retroactively had to cultivate its place in Greek mythos.
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    Clan Bruce

    Clan Bruce

    • Members: Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale
    Clan Bruce (Scottish Gaelic: Clann Brus) is a Scottish clan from Kincardine in Scotland. It was a Royal House in the 14th century, producing two kings of Scotland. The surname Bruce comes from the French de Brus or de Bruis, derived from the lands now called Brix, situated between Cherbourg and Valognes in Normandy, France. The first of this family on record, in Great Britain, was Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale who came to England with King Henry I after his victory at Tinchebray in 1106. He was given 80 manors in Yorkshire, and later 13 manors around Skelton. He received the Lordship of Annandale from King David I of Scotland shortly after his accession in 1124. Robert founded a priory at Gysburn. Both the English and Scots lines descend from this Robert. It has long been written that the ancestor of the family was Robert de Brus, a knight of Normandy who came to England with William the Conqueror. But this was an invention taken from totally unreliable medieval lists of those who fought at Hastings. Soon after the accession of David I of Scotland to the throne, Robert visited the monarch and obtained from him the lordship of Annandale. Robert de Brus (known as Robert le
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    Clan Erskine

    Clan Erskine

    Clan Erskine is a Lowland Scottish clan. The surname Erskine is derived from the name of Erskine, an area to the south of the River Clyde and ten miles to the west of Glasgow. The name is believed to be ancient or Old British for green rising ground. In the 13th century during the reign of King Alexander II the first known person of the name Erskine was Henry Erskine who was also the owner of the Barony of Erskine. In modern Scottish Gaelic, the name is spelt Arascain. During the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Erskine were supporters of King Robert the Bruce. In 1435 Alexander Stewart, the Earl of Mar died and Sir Robert Erskine claimed the title. this also made him the chief of Clan Mar. However the King withdrew the earldom in 1457 stating that it could only belong to a Royal Stewart. Ten years later Sir Robert was created the first Lord Erskine. This unlawful succession was finally interrupted by Mary, Queen of Scots, who saw that the rightful heir John Erskine, 17th Earl of Mar was restored. During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the 4th 'Lord Erskine' led the Clan Erskine at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 where he was slain. Mary Queen of Scots had been in the care of the
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    Clan MacKintosh

    Clan MacKintosh

    Clan Mackintosh (Clann Mhic an Tòisich) is a Scottish clan from Inverness with strong Jacobite ties. The Mackintoshes were also chiefs of the Chattan Confederation. Seathach, son of Donnchadh Mac Duibh, accompanied King Malcolm IV of Scotland to Morayshire to suppress rebellion in 1160. In 1163 he was granted land in the Findhorn valley and made constable of Inverness Castle. Upon Seathach's death in 1179, his son, Shaw the second became chief and was confirmed by William I of Scotland the Lion. Probably the earliest authentic history of Mackintosh is traceable to Shaw or Search Macduff, a cadet son of the third Earl of Fife. The son of Macduff, for his support of King Malcolm IV, was awarded the lands of Petty and Breachley in Invernesshire and was appointed Constable of the Castle thereto. Assuming the name Mac an Toisich which means "son of the toisech ['thane']" or "son of the Chief", he became the progenitor of his own clan. In 1263 the Clan Mackintosh fought at the Battle of Largs in support of King Alexander III of Scotland against King Haakon IV of Norway. The fifth Chief of the Clan Mackintosh, Fearchar Mac an Toisich, was killed during the battle. In 1291, Aonghas, sixth
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    Clan MacLachlan

    Clan MacLachlan

    Clan Maclachlan, also known as Clan Lachlan, is a Highland Scottish clan that historically centred on the lands of Strathlachlan on Loch Fyne, Argyll on the west coast of Scotland. The clan claims descent from Lachlan Mor, who lived on Loch Fyne in the 13th century, and who has left his name upon the countryside he once controlled: places such as Strathlachlan, Lachlan Castle and Lachlan Bay. Tradition gives Lachlan Mor a descent from an Irish prince of the O'Neill dynasty, Ánrothán Ua Néill, son of Áed, son of Flaithbertach Ua Néill, King of Ailech and Cenél nEógain, died 1036. Clan Maclachlan has been associated with other clans, such as Clan Lamont, Clan MacEwen of Otter, Clan MacNeil of Barra, and the MacSweens: as all claim descent from Anrothan O'Neill who left Ireland for Kintyre in the 11th century. From this descent the clan claims a further descent from the legendary Niall Noigíallach, High King of Ireland, who lived from the mid 4th century to early 5th century. The clan took part in the Jacobite Risings as loyal supporters of the Stuart kings of Scotland. The seventeenth chief of the clan was killed in the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Following the Jacobite defeat, a
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    Kalhora Dynasty

    Kalhora Dynasty

    Kalhora Dynasty or Kalhoro Dynasty (Urdu: سلسله کلہوڑا) ruled Sindh, Pakistan. This dynasty was founded by Kalhora tribe. Kalhora dynasty ruled certain other parts of Pakistan from 1701 to 1783 AD. Kalhoras ruled Sindh for 85 years and there were twelve Kalhora rulers during this time. By the late 1600s, the Mughal dynasty became very weak and the governor Yar Muhammad Khan Kalhora became virtual ruler of Sindh. Miya Yaar Mohammed Kalhora, when he was in power, around 1710, with the help of his followers, won over Khud-Abad from the Panohar Muslims. They called it Khudábád and fixed it as their Capital for Sindh. From this centre, parties were sent in different directions, till, they recovered Khárí and Kadiá­rah* and dispossessed Malak Alah Baksh brother to Bakhtáwar Khán of Ládkánah. Earlier, the Khudabadi Sindhi Swarankar had developed the empty land and had called the city as Khud-Abad (Self-Developed) before Miya Yaar Mohammed took over from Panohar. After Nadir Shah Afshar of Iran and invaded and occupied the Mughal capital in 1739 the Kalhora became rulers of Sindh. The territory of Kalhora dynasty extended from Multan to Thatta. This period is known as the golden period of
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    Lê Dynasty

    Lê Dynasty

    The Later Lê Dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Hậu Lê; Hán Việt: 後黎朝), sometimes referred to as the Lê Dynasty (the earlier Lê Dynasty ruled only for a brief period) was the longest-ruling dynasty of Vietnam, ruling the country from 1428 to 1788, with a brief interruption. The dynasty officially began in 1428 with the coronation of Lê Lợi after he drove the Ming army from Vietnam. In 1527, the Mạc Dynasty usurped the throne; when the Lê Dynasty was restored in 1533, they still had to compete for power with the Mạc Dynasty during the period known as Southern and Northern Dynasties. The restored Lê emperors held no real power, and by the time the Mạc Dynasty was confined to only a small area in 1592 and finally eradicated in 1677, actual power was in the hands of the Nguyễn Lords in the South and the Trịnh Lords in the North, both ruling in the name of the Lê emperor while fighting each other. Their rule officially ended in 1788, when the peasant uprising of the Tây Sơn brothers defeated both the Trịnh and the Nguyễn, ironically in order to restore power to the Lê Dynasty. The Lê Dynasty's rule saw Vietnam's territories grow from a small state in northern Vietnam at the time of Lê Lợi's
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    Zengid dynasty

    Zengid dynasty

    The Zengid (or Zangid) dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turk origin, which ruled parts of Syria and northern Iraq on behalf of the Seljuk Empire. The dynasty was founded by Imad ad-Din Zengi (or Zangi), who became the Seljuk Atabeg (governor) of Mosul in 1127. He quickly became the chief Turkish potentate in Northern Syria and Iraq, taking Aleppo from the squabbling Ortoqid emirs in 1128, and capturing the County of Edessa from the Crusaders in 1144. This latter feat made Zengi a hero in the Muslim world, but he was assassinated by a slave two years later, in 1146. On Zengi's death, his territories were divided, with Mosul and his lands in Iraq going to his eldest son Saif ad-Din Ghazi I, and Aleppo and Edessa falling to his second son, Nur ad-Din Mahmud. Nur ad-Din proved to be as competent as his father. In 1149 he defeated Prince Raymond of Antioch at the battle of Inab, and the next year conquered the remnants of the County of Edessa west of the Euphrates River. In 1154 he capped off these successes by his capture of Damascus from the Burid Emirs who ruled it. Now ruling from Damascus, Nur ad-Din's success continued. Another Prince of Antioch, Raynald of Châtillon was
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    Clan Davidson

    Clan Davidson

    Clan Davidson is a Highland Scottish clan. The clan was also part of the Chattan Confederation. When the power of the Comyns began to wane in Badenoch, David Dubh of Invernahaven, Chief of Davidsons, having married the daughter of Angus, 6th of MacKintosh, sought the protection of William, 7th of MacKintosh, before 1350, and Clan Davidson became associated with the Chattan Confederation. Still another source relates that the Davidsons are descended directly from a son or grandson of Ghilliechattan Mor, founder of Clan Chattan. The manuscript by one MacLauchlan dating from the year 1467, which is generally held as the most authoritative source on the Davidsons' origins, states that David Dubh was one of two sons by Ghilliechattan Mor, Dhai (David) Dhu, the other being Muihrich, or Murdoch, Mhor who founded Clan MacPherson. In the 18th century we find important families like the Davidsons of Cantray and the Davidsons of Tulloch. The latter family came into possession of the lands and castle of Tulloch, near Dingwall, in 1762, when Henry Davidson purchased the estate from his cousin Kenneth Bayne. The Battle of Invernahoven 1370 or 1387. The Clan Cameron numbering approximately 400
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    Clan Hannay

    Clan Hannay

    Clan Hannay is a Lowland Scottish clan. Although the modern surname Hannay is likely derived from the place name Hannethe, the precise identity of the place is unknown. The family can be traced back to Galloway in South-West Scotland. The name 'Gillbert de Hannethe' appears on the Ragman Rolls of 1296, submitting to King Edward I of England. The Hannay's lands of Sorbie in Wigtownshire were reportedly acquired by the same Gillbert de Hannethe. Unlike many Scottish nobles and clans the Clan Hannay did not support Robert the Bruce but instead supported John Balliol because he was more local to them. In 1488 the Clan Hannay fought at the Battle of Sauchieburn. Later in 1513 the Clan Hannay fought at the Battle of Flodden Field which was part of the Anglo-Scottish Wars. In 1532 Patrick Hannay was acquitted of the murder of Patrick McClellen as he had killed him in self defense. James Hannay, the Master Gunner in the reign of James V led the clan at the Battle of Solway Moss in 1542 and the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547 which were part of the Anglo-Scottish Wars. The family began to spread and a tower built at Sorbie in 1550 which commanded views their ever increasing
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    Clan Lennox

    Clan Lennox

    Clan Lennox is a Lowland Scottish clan. The name Lennox in gaelic comes from the place of the same name. The clan name comes from the title of Earl of Lennox which commanded the vale of Leven between the 12th and 15th centuries. In 1424 the Clan Lennox was decimated and Iain Colquhoun of Luss of Clan Colquhoun took advatage of this to win the King's favour by capturing Dumbarton Castle from Lennox. Sir John Stuart of Darnley was created 1st Earl of Lennox of the new line by King James III of Scotland in 1473. Malcolm the fifth Earl of Lennox led Clan Lennox into England and besieged Carlisle Castle. A clan battle took place between the Clan Kincaid and the Clan Lennox of Woodhead in 1570. Henry Stuart (1545-1567) Lord Darnley and the eldest son of the 4th Earl of Lennox was the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots. He was also the father of King James VI of Scotland. The King promoted the 8th Earl of Lennox to Duke of Lennox in 1581.
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    House of Kinsky

    House of Kinsky

    • Members: Wilhelm Kinsky
    Kinsky (formerly Vchynští, sg. Vchynský in Czech; later (in modern Czech) Kinští, sg. Kinský; German: Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau) is the name of Counts and later Princes of one of the oldest and most illustrious noble families originating from Bohemia (in the present-day Czech Republik). The family is recorded in the Almanach de Gotha. According to romantic medieval legend, the Kinsky story began in Central Europe over 1000 years ago, when a beautiful King's daughter out hunting in the forest was attacked by a pack of wolves. Her attendants all fled the terrible scene except for one young man, who saved the princess by killing some wolves and driving the rest away. In gratitude, the girl's father ennobled the young man, granting him a coat of arms featuring three wolves' teeth as an emblem of his bravery. The first factual mention of an ancestor of this clan dates back to 1237, during the reign of the Přemyslid king Wenceslaus I of Bohemia. Over the next three centuries they were only minor nobles with estates in northwestern Bohemia, around the village of Vchynice (German: Wchinitz) near Litoměřice. Holding of Vchynice manor was confirmed by the Habsburg emperor Rudolf II in
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    Payyan dynasty

    Payyan dynasty

    Payyan dynasty is a family which manage and administer Swamithope pathi, the head quarters of Ayyavazhi. The genesis of Payyan dynasty was a bit uncertain. It was believed to be the descendants of Pothukkutty who was called as Payyan by Ayya Vaikundar. But some people claim that they were the descendants of Paradevathai and Muthu Kutty. There are a number of claims about them. Some legends says that they were the descendants of Pothukkutty who was the son of Paradevathai and her first husband. This legend says that Paradevathai after leaving her first husband went to the house of her grand mother on Poovandanthoppe. She also brings her three children, two boys and one girl. There she met Muthukuttu, who was known as Sampooranathevan in Akilam and fall in love with him. He too fall in love with her. They lived as husband and wife without marrying. One of the male child Paradevathai brought with her though married, died without descendants. And the remaining child was podukkutty and the ancestor of Payyan dynasty. He was taken as the primary Panividaiyalar by Ayya Vaikundar and called affectionately as 'Payyan' which later changed as the name of their dynasty. The female child was
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    Saffarid dynasty

    Saffarid dynasty

    The Saffarids (Persian: سلسله صفاریان‎) were a Muslim Persianate dynasty from Sistan that ruled over parts of eastern Iran, Khorasan, Afghanistan and Balochistan from 861 to 1002. The dynasty, of Persian origin, was founded by Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar, a native of Sistan and a local ayyar, who worked as a coppersmith (ṣaffār) before becoming a warlord. He seized control of the Sistan region and began conquering most of what is now Afghanistan in the name of Islam. The Saffarids used their capital Zaranj, which is a city in modern-day Afghanistan, as a base for an aggressive expansion eastwards and westwards. They first invaded the Buddhist-Hindu dominated areas south of the Hindu Kush in Afghanistan and then overthrew the Persian Tahirid dynasty, annexing Khorasan in 873. By the time of Ya'qub's death, he had conquered the Kabul Valley, Sindh, Tocharistan, Makran (Balochistan), Kerman, Fars, Khorasan, and nearly reached Baghdad but then suffered a defeat by the Abbasids. The Saffarid empire did not last long after Ya'qub's death. His brother and successor, Amr bin Laith, was defeated in a battle in Balkh against Ismail Samani in 900. Amr bin Laith was forced to surrender most of
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    Antigonid dynasty

    Antigonid dynasty

    The Antigonid dynasty (Greek: Δυναστεία των Αντιγονιδών) was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed"). Succeeding the Antipatrid dynasty in much of Macedonia, Antigonus ruled mostly over Asia Minor and northern Syria. His attempts to take control of the whole of Alexander's empire led to his defeat and death at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. Antigonus's son Demetrius I Poliorcetes survived the battle, and managed to seize control of Macedon itself a few years later, but eventually lost his throne, dying as a prisoner of Seleucus I. After a period of confusion, Demetrius's son Antigonus II Gonatas was able to establish the family's control over the old Kingdom of Macedon, as well as over most of the Greek city-states, by 276 BC. It was one of four dynasties established by Alexander's successors, the others being the Seleucid dynasty, Ptolemaic dynasty and Attalid dynasty. The last scion of the dynasty, Perseus of Macedon, who reigned between 179-168 BC, proved unable to stop the advancing Roman legions and Macedon's defeat at the Battle of Pydna signaled the end of the dynasty. The ruling members of the
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    Bagrationi Dynasty

    Bagrationi Dynasty

    • Members: Irakli Bagration of Mukhrani
    • Country: Georgia
    The Bagrationi Royal Dynasty (Georgian: ბაგრატიონი, bagrationi, ბაგრატიონთა დინასტია, bagrationt'a dinastia) was the ruling family of Georgia. Their ascendency lasted from the early Middle Ages until the early 19th century. In modern usage, this royal line is frequently referred to as the Georgian Bagratids, a Hellenized form of their dynastic name. The origin of the Bagrationi dynasty is disputed, as well as the time when they first appeared on Georgian soil. The history of the dynasty is inextricably bound with that of Georgia. They began their rule, in the early 9th century, as presiding princes in historic southwestern Georgia and the adjacent Georgian marchlands reconquered from Arabs. Subsequently they restored, in 888, the Georgian kingdom, which prospered from the 11th to the 13th century, bringing several regional polities under its control. This period of time, particularly the reigns of David IV (1089–1125) and his great granddaughter Tamar (1184–1213), is celebrated as a "golden age" in the history of Georgia, the era of empire, military exploits, and remarkable achievements in culture. After the fragmentation of their unified feudal state in the late 15th century, the
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    Chalukya dynasty

    Chalukya dynasty

    The Chalukya dynasty (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು [tʃaːɭukjə]) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami Chalukyas", ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakesi II. After the death of Pulakesi II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan. They ruled from Vengi until about the 11th century. In the western Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of the 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Badami before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas, in the late 10th century. These Western Chalukyas ruled from Kalyani (modern Basavakalyan) until the end of the 12th century. The rule of the Chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of South India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka. The political atmosphere in South India shifted from
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    Chola dynasty

    Chola dynasty

    Chola dynasty ([ˈt͡ʃoːɻə]) was a Tamil dynasty which was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in southern India. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BC left by Asoka, of Maurya Empire; as one of the Three Crowned Kings, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century AD. The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri River, but they ruled a significantly larger area at the height of their power from the later half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th century. The whole country south of the Tungabhadra was united and held as one state for a period of two centuries and more. Under Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola I, the dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-east Asia. The power of the new empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the celebrated expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by the overthrow after an unprecedented naval war of the maritime empire of Srivijaya, as well as by the repeated embassies to China. During the period 1010–1200, the Chola territories stretched from the
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    150
    Fujiwara family

    Fujiwara family

    • Members: Fujiwara no Kamatari
    • Founder: Fujiwara no Kamatari
    • Country: Japan
    The Fujiwara clan (藤原氏 Fujiwara-shi), descending from the Nakatomi clan, was a powerful family of regents in Japan. The clan originated when the founder, Nakatomi no Kamatari (614-669), was rewarded by Emperor Tenji with the honorific "Fujiwara", which evolved as a surname for Kamatari and his descendants. In time, Fujiwara became known as a clan name. The Fujiwara dominated the Japanese politics of Heian period (794–1185) through the monopoly of regent positions, sesshō and kampaku. The family's primary strategy for central influence was through the marrying of Fujiwara daughters to emperors. Through this, the Fujiwara would gain influence over the next emperor who would, according to Japanese family tradition, owe loyalty his grandfather. As abdicated Emperors took over power by exercising insei (院政, cloistered rule) at the end of 11th century, then followed by the rise of warrior class, the Fujiwara gradually lost its control over mainstream politics. Beyond the 12th century, they continued to monopolize the titles of sesshō and kampaku for much of the time until the system was abolished in the Meiji era. Though their influence declined, the clan remained close advisors to the
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    151
    House of Grimaldi

    House of Grimaldi

    • Members: Princess Antoinette, Baroness of Massy
    • Founder: Grimaldo Canella
    • Country: Monaco
    The House of Grimaldi is associated with the history of the Republic of Genoa, Italy and of the Principality of Monaco. Grimaldi descends from Grimaldo, a Genoese statesman at the time of the early Crusades. He might have been a son of Otto Canella, a consul of the Republic of Genoa in 1133, and in turn Grimaldo became a consul in 1160, 1170 and again in 1184. His numerous grandsons and their children led maritime expeditions throughout the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, and soon the North Sea, and quickly became one of the most powerful families of Genoa. The Grimaldis feared that the head of a rival Genoese family could break the fragile balance of power in a political coup and become lord of Genoa, as had happened in other Italian cities. They entered into a Guelphic alliance with the Fieschi family and defended their interests with the sword. The Guelfs however were banned from the City in 1271, and found refuge in their castles of Liguria and in Provence. They signed a treaty with Charles of Anjou, King of Naples and Count of Provence, to retake control of Genoa, and generally to provide mutual assistance. In 1276, they accepted a peace under the auspices of the Pope, which
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    152
    House of Karađorđević

    House of Karađorđević

    • Members: Alexander I of Yugoslavia
    • Founder: Karađorđe Petrović
    • Country: Serbia
    The Karađorđević (Serbian pronunciation: [karadʑɔ̌ːrdʑɛʋitɕ]; Serbian: Карађорђевићи, Karađorđevići; ) is a Serbian dynasty, which began with Karađorđe, the Grand Vožd of Serbia during the First Serbian Uprising. The family had a long blood feud with the Obrenović dynasty after Miloš Obrenović had Karađorđe murdered. The dynasty lost the throne in November 1945 when the communists seized power in Yugoslavia. Peter II of Yugoslavia never abdicated. The name Karađorđević is derived from progenitor Đorđe Petrović "Karađorđe". It is mostly written as Karadjordjevic in lack of unicode, and anglicized as Karageorgevitch, Karageorgevich. Karađorđe's paternal ancestors migrated during the Second Great Serb Migration in 1737-1739 under the leadership of Patriarch Šakabenta, as a result of the Austrian-Turkish War in which Serbs took part. According to Radoš Ljušić, Karađorđe's ancestors most likely migrated from the Herzegovina-Montenegro hills to Šumadija. According to Serbian historiography Karađorđe's ancestors hailed from Vasojevići. The Vasojevići clan claim descent from Stephen Constantine of the Nemanjić dynasty (that ruled Medieval Serbia, 1166–1371). The Vasojevići were proud of
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    153
    House of Lancaster

    House of Lancaster

    • Members: Henry V of England
    • Founder: John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
    • Country: Dual monarchy of England and France
    The House of Lancaster was a cadet branch of the royal House of Plantagenet. It was one of the opposing factions involved in the Wars of the Roses, an intermittent dynastic struggle which affected England and Wales during the 15th century. The family provided England with three kings: Henry IV of England, who ruled 1399–1413; Henry V of England, who ruled 1413–1422; and Henry VI of England and (II of) France, who ruled 1422–1461 and 1470–1471. The term "Lancastrian" refers to members of the family as well as their supporters. The House descended from Edward III's third surviving son, John of Gaunt. Gaunt did not receive a large inheritance, so he made his fortune through marriage to the heiress Blanche of Lancaster, who brought with her the considerable lands of the Earls of Leicester and Lancaster, which made Gaunt the wealthiest landowner in England after the King. He was conferred the second creation of the title of "Duke of Lancaster" by his father Edward III in 1362, a year following the death of John of Gaunt's father-in-law Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. Gaunt enjoyed great political influence during his lifetime, but upon his death in 1399, his lands were
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    Han Dynasty

    Han Dynasty

    The Han Dynasty (simplified Chinese: 汉朝; traditional Chinese: 漢朝; pinyin: Hàn Cháo; Wade–Giles: Han Ch'ao; IPA: [xân tʂʰɑ̌ʊ̯]) (206 BC – 220 AD) was an imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty (221–207 BCE) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms (220–280 CE). It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty (9–23 CE) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han into two periods: the Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) and Eastern Han (25–220 CE). Spanning over four centuries, the period of the Han Dynasty is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to itself as the "Han people" and Chinese characters are referred to as "Han characters". The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government, known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. The Xiongnu, a nomadic confederation which dominated the eastern Eurasian Steppe, defeated the Han army in battle in
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    Ardennes-Bouillon dynasty

    Ardennes-Bouillon dynasty

    The Ardennes-Verdun dynasty is used as a label on the dynasty centered on Verdun who dominated Lotharingia in the 11th century. The founder of the dynasty was Godfrey, known as the Captive. He was a son of Count Gozlin, brother of bishop Adalbero of Metz, and Uda, a daughter of Gerard, Count of Metz, and Uda of Saxony. Godfrey was the brother of Adalbero, Archbishop of Reims. Count Gozlin's parents were Wigeric, count palatine of Lotharingia, and Cunigunde, a granddaughter of Louis II of France. All descending from Wigeric and Cunigunde, the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty was closely tied to the houses of Ardennes-Bar, Salm and Ardennes-Luxembourg. The County of Verdun was given to Godfrey by Emperor Otto I between 944 and 951, and was held by several dynasty members over the following four generations. The Duchies of Upper and Lower Lorraine were the result of the division of the old kingdom, later duchy of Lotharingia in 959. Following the death of the childless Duke Otto in 1012, Godfrey the Childless was granted the Duchy of Lower Lorraine. Godfrey was succeeded in 1023 by his brother Gozelo, who also became Duke of Upper Lorraine in 1033. Both duchies were in the control of the
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    Bonanno crime family

    Bonanno crime family

    The Bonanno crime family is one of the "Five Families" that dominates organized crime activities in New York City, United States, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra). Founded and named after Joseph Bonanno, the Bonanno family was the first of the New York families to be kicked off the Commission (a council of the bosses that helps to maintain order in the Mafia), due to allegations that the family was actively dealing heroin and the inner family fighting for control of the leadership. Later, the family faced shaky leadership, with acting boss Carmine Galante being murdered in 1979 on the order of imprisoned boss Philip Rastelli, as well as two major setbacks: in 1981, they learned that an FBI agent calling himself Donnie Brasco had infiltrated their ranks; in 2004, boss Joseph Massino, who previously brought the family back to respectable stature among the families and back on the Commission, became a government informant. The origins of the Bonanno crime family can be traced back to the early 1880s in the town of Castellammare del Golfo located in the Province of Trapani, Sicily. During the 1900s, top members of the Bonanno, Bonventre, and
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    157
    Clan Forbes

    Clan Forbes

    Clan Forbes is a Lowland Scottish clan from Aberdeenshire, Scotland. The name Forbes is most probably a location name assumed from the lands of Forbes in Aberdeenshire, in possession of this family reputedly since the time of King William the Lion. While there are many legends surrounding the origins of this clan the first person on record was Duncan Forbes who in 1271-2 received a grant of lands from Alexander III of Scotland. Cited by William Forbes Skene the charter exists in the Forbes charter chest in tattered but quite legible condition. The next mention is a John Forbes, whose name dates from a 1306 roll containing a list of demands by English and Scottish loyalists to Edward I of England for the forfeited lands of Scotsmen, the lands of John Forbes being demanded or requested by both a William Comyn and a Robert Chival. The next name may be that of his son, Chritian, who received a grant of one-third of the lands of Skeith and Ardach by King Robert the Bruce in 1326, but doubt still remains he was a Forbes or of this family, even though in the charter he is named Christian Forbes. The next name found in records is that of John Forbes dominus ejusdem or Lord of Forbes. He he
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    158
    Clan Fraser

    Clan Fraser

    Clan Fraser (Scottish Gaelic: Clann Frisealach, French: Clan Fraiser) is a Scottish clan of French origin. The Clan has been strongly associated with Inverness and the surrounding area since the Clan's founder gained lands there in the 13th century. Since its founding, the Clan has dominated local politics and been active in every major military conflict involving Scotland. It has also played a considerable role in most major political turmoils. 'Fraser' remains the most prominent family name within the Inverness area. The Clan's current chief is Simon Fraser, the 16th Lord Lovat, and 26th Chief of Clan Fraser. The arms of Clan Fraser are Quarterly: 1st and 4th Azure, three fraises Argent, 2nd and 3rd Gules, three antique crowns Or, or in layman's terms, the traditional three cinquefoils, or fraises (strawberry flowers), as they have come to be known, in the first and fourth positions and three crowns in the second and third positions. Only the Lord Lovat is allowed use of these arms plain and undifferenced. The exact origins of the surname 'Fraser' can not be determined with any great certainty, although there is little doubt that it came from France. The first reputed record is
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    159
    Hồng Bàng Dynasty

    Hồng Bàng Dynasty

    The Hồng Bàng Dynasty, also known as the Lạc Dynasty, is the first dynasty that ruled Vietnam (then known as Xích Quỷ and later Văn Lang) from 2879 BC until 258 BC. It was founded by Kinh Dương Vương and the title Hùng Vương is used in many modern discussions of the ancient Vietnamese rulers of this period. The Hùng Vương was the absolute monarch of the country and, at least in theory, wielded complete control of the land and its resources. There are many legends surrounding it, but little verifiable historical information is known about this dynasty. Vietnam, a country situated along the eastern coast of mainland Southeast Asia, has had a long and turbulent history. The Vietnamese people represent a fusion of races, languages, and cultures, the elements of which are still being sorted out by ethnologists, linguists, and archaeologists. The Vietnamese language provides some clues to the cultural mixture of the Vietnamese people. The area now known as Vietnam has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, with some archaeological sites in Thanh Hóa Province reportedly dating back several hundred thousand years. Around 3000 BC, northern Vietnam was a place with mountains, forests, and
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    160
    House of Munsö

    House of Munsö

    • Founder: Björn Ironside
    • Country: Sweden
    The House of Munsö is one of the names of a protohistoric Swedish dynasty. Its early members of the 8th or 9th century are legendary or semi-legendary, while its later scions of the 10th to 11th centuries are historical. It is also known as the House of Yngling, the House of Ivar Vidfamne, the House of Uppsala, or simply the Old Dynasty. Munsö is the island where a barrow has been claimed to be the grave of Björn Ironside, a legendary founding member. The sagas, such as the Hervarar saga, contain extensive information on this dynasty for as many as 10 generations, but although, some of the 9th century kings are held to be historical, modern Swedish historiography begins it with the late 10th c. king Eric the Victorious. The king Björn, who was the father of Eric the Victorious, according to the sagas, is not accepted as historical by critical historians, unlike another 10th century king named Emund Eriksson who appears in the work of Adam of Bremen. For easy reference on legendary, semi-legendary and historical members of the dynasty (including some generations before Björn Ironside), the following family tree is based on Hervarar saga, and the uncertain identification of Styrbjörn
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    House of Vasa

    House of Vasa

    • Members: Erik Johansson Vasa
    • Founder: Gustav I of Sweden
    • Country: Sweden
    The House of Vasa (Swedish: Vasaätten, Polish: Wazowie) was the Royal House of Sweden 1523-1654 and of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1587-1668. It originated from a noble family in Uppland of which several members held high office during the 15th century. In 1654 Christina, the daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, the Protestant Champion of the Thirty Years' War, abdicated, converted to Roman Catholicism and left the country. The throne passed to her half-cousin Charles X of the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a cadet branch of the Wittelsbachs. The kings of the house of Holstein-Gottorp, which produced the kings of Sweden from 1751 to 1818, emphasized their Vasa descent through a female line. The current ruling house of Bernadotte similarly claims a Vasa mantle: Charles XIV was an adopted son of Charles XIII; his son Oscar I married a Vasa descendant Josephine of Leuchtenberg; their grandson Gustav V married Victoria of Baden who was a great-grandchild of Gustav IV Adolf of the house Holstein-Gottorp. John III of Sweden married Catherine Jagellonka, the sister of Sigismund II Augustus of Poland. When Sigismund II of Poland died without issue, the son of John III of Sweden and
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    162
    Huxley

    Huxley

    • Members: Aldous Huxley
    The Huxley family is a British family of which several members have excelled in scientific, medical, artistic, and literary fields. The family also includes members who occupied senior public positions in the service of the United Kingdom. The patriarch of the family was the zoologist and comparative anatomist Thomas Henry Huxley (referred to here as THH). THH's grandsons include Aldous Huxley, author of Brave New World and Doors of Perception, his brother Julian Huxley, evolutionist and first director of UNESCO, and Nobel laureate physiologist Andrew Huxley. Thomas Henry Huxley (1825–1895) was an English biologist, known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his defence of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. Mostly a self-educated man, he had an extraordinary influence on the British educated public. He was instrumental in developing scientific education in Britain, and opposed those Christian leaders who tried to stifle scientific debate. He was a member of eight Royal Commissions and two other commissions. A noted unbeliever, he used the term "agnostic" to describe his attitude to theism. Though Huxley was a great comparative anatomist and invertebrate zoologist, perhaps his most notable
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    163
    Qin Dynasty

    Qin Dynasty

    The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: 秦朝; pinyin: Qín Cháo; Wade–Giles: Ch'in Ch'ao; IPA: [tɕʰǐn tʂʰɑ̌ʊ̯]) was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Gansu and Shaanxi. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the 4th century BC, during the Warring States Period. In the mid and late third century BCE, the Qin accomplished a series of swift conquests, first ending the powerless Zhou Dynasty, and eventually destroying the remaining six states of the major states to gain control over the whole of China, resulting in a unified China. During its reign over China, the Qin Dynasty achieved increased trade, improved agriculture, and military security. This was due to the abolition of landowning lords, to whom peasants had formerly held allegiance. The central government now had direct control of the masses, giving it access to a much larger workforce. This allowed for the construction of ambitious projects, such as a wall on the northern border, now known as the Great Wall of China. The Qin Dynasty also introduced several reforms: currency, weights and
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    164
    Razumovsky

    Razumovsky

    • Members: Andrey Kirillovich Razumovsky
    • Country: Ukraine
    Razumovsky also Rozum (Ukrainian: Розумовський), formerly transliterated as Rasumowski, Rasumofsky and Rasoumofsky) is a Ukrainian noble family from Hetmanat and Russian Empire. Surviving branch remains in Austria. The root of the family begin with the Register-cossack Yakov (Romanovych) Rozum, who died about 1700. Upon his grandson's Oleksiy Grygorovych Rozum having been raised to the rank of Count of the Holy Roman Empire by Emperor Charles VII, the family name was changed to Razumovsky for all Yakovlevychi, including the lesser Ukrainian lines by Ivan Jakovlevych Rozum that were granted hereditary nobility but not entitled. Notable representatives of the family include:
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    165
    Bach family

    Bach family

    • Members: Anna Magdalena Bach
    • Founder: Veit Bach
    The Bach family was of importance in the history of music for nearly two hundred years, with over 50 known musicians and several notable composers, the best-known of whom was Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750). A family genealogy was drawn up by Johann Sebastian Bach himself and completed by his son Carl Philipp Emanuel. The Bach family never left Thuringia until the sons of Sebastian went into a more modern world. Through all the misery of the peasantry at the period of the Thirty Years' War this clan maintained its position and produced musicians who, however local their fame, were among the greatest in Europe. So numerous and so eminent were they that in Erfurt musicians were known as "Bachs", even when there were no longer any members of the family in the town. Sebastian Bach thus inherited the artistic tradition of a united family whose circumstances had deprived them of the distractions of the century of musical fermentation which in the rest of Europe had destroyed polyphonic music. Four branches of the Bach family were known at the beginning of the 16th century, and in 1561 we hear of Hans Bach of Wechmar, a village between Gotha and Arnstadt in Thuringia, who is believed to
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    166
    Chattan Confederation

    Chattan Confederation

    Clan Chattan or the Chattan Confederation is a confederation of 16 Scottish clans who joined for mutual defence or blood bonds. Its leader was the chief of Clan Mackintosh. The origin of the name Chattan is disputed. There are two main theories One of the traditional accounts of the founding of the Macpherson clan, states that Gillicattan Mor Mac Gillespic settled in the Lochaber region of Scotland on the eastern side of Loch Ness, where he founded the Clan Chattan. It is said that three of Gillichattan Mor's sons founded branches of the Clan Chattan. Murriach, a younger son of Gillichattan Mor, founded Clann Mhuirich. His grandson Duncan was called the Parson, because he had the collection of parsonage tithes in the Parish of Laggan. It is from him that the name Macpherson, the 'Son of the Parson', became the surname the clan in the 15th century. Although the chief of the Mackintosh clan has most frequently been the leader of Clan Chattan, there has been a long rivalry with the chiefs of the Macpherson clan for that position. Together, as the principal chiefs of Clan Chattan, they were involved in a bloody feud with Clan Cameron that lasted 350 years. In 1396, a gladiatorial
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    167
    Hotaki dynasty

    Hotaki dynasty

    The Hotaki dynasty was founded in April 1709 by Mir Wais Hotak at Kandahar after leading a successful revolution against the Persian Safavids. It was an Afghan-ruled monarchy that lasted until 1738 when Nader Shah of Khorasan defeated Hussain Hotaki during the long siege of Kandahar. At its peak, the Hotaki dynasty ruled over a wide area which is now Iran, Afghanistan, and northwestern Pakistan. After the death of its founder in 1715, Mir Wais, the monarchy was succeeded by Abdul Aziz followed by Mahmud who conquered Persia in 1722 and ruled it violently until 1725 when overthrown by his cousin, Ashraf. Kandahar province was ruled by the Shi'a Safavids during the early 18th century and the native Afghan tribes living in the area were Sunni Muslims. Immediately to the east began the Sunni Mughul Empire, who occasionally fought wars with the Safavids over the territory of southern Afghanistan. In 1704, the Safavid Shah Husayn appointed George XI (Gurgīn Khān), who is believed to have converted to Islam. Gurgin began imprisoning and executing Afghans, especially those suspected of organizing rebellions. One of those arrested and imprisoned was Mir Wais who belonged to an influential
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    168
    Ming Dynasty

    Ming Dynasty

    The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, described by some as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun Dynasty, soon replaced by the Manchurian Qing Dynasty), regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1662. The Hongwu Emperor (ruled 1368–98) attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities ordered in a rigid, immobile system that would guarantee and support a permanent class of soldiers for his dynasty: the empire's standing army exceeded one million troops and the navy's dockyards in Nanjing were the largest in the world. He also took great care breaking the power of the court eunuchs and unrelated magnates, enfeoffing his many sons throughout China and attempting to guide these princes through published dynastic instructions. This failed spectacularly when his teen-aged
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    169
    Terter dynasty

    Terter dynasty

    Terter (Bulgarian: Тертер), also Terterids or Terterovtsi (Тертеровци), was a Bulgarian noble and royal house that ruled the Second Bulgarian Empire between 1280 and 1292, as well as between 1300 and 1323. The Terterids were originally of Cuman origin (i.e. from the western branch of the Turkic Kipchaks), according to Plamen Pavlov they were a branch of the Cuman noble dynasty of Terteroba who had settled in Bulgaria as part of the second wave of Cuman migration, coming from the Kingdom of Hungary after 1241. The Terteroba clan had ruled the steppe proto-state of Cumania in the late 11th century, as well as in the mid-13th century under Köten. The earliest representatives of the dynasty in Bulgaria were the despotēs Aldimir (Eltimir) and his older brother George Terter who was crowned emperor of Bulgaria as George I of Bulgaria (1280-1292), marrying the Bulgarian Maria. After his reign, Bulgaria was under the de facto control of the Golden Horde, with Nogai Khan nominating the next ruler, Smilets (1292-1298), who was of another noble family, and was briefly succeeded by his son Ivan II (1298-1299). In 1299-1300, Bulgaria was controlled by the Mongol Chaka. Chaka was deposed by
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    House of Capet

    House of Capet

    • Members: Adela Capet
    The House of Capet, or The Direct Capetian Dynasty, (French: Les Capétiens, la Maison capétienne), also called The House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, which ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328, was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians. As rulers of France, the dynasty succeeded the Carolingian dynasty. The name derives from the nickname of Hugh, the first Capetian King, who was known as Hugh Capet and was a cognatic descendant of the Carolingians. The direct House of Capet came to an end in 1328, when the three sons of Philip IV all failed to produce surviving male heirs to the French throne. With the death of Charles IV, the throne passed to the House of Valois, the direct descendants of Charles of Valois, a younger son of Philip III. It would later pass again, to the House of Bourbon descended from Louis IX, and to its cadet branch, the House of Orléans, always remaining in the hands of agnatic descendants of Hugh Capet. The first Capetian monarch was Hugh Capet (c.940–996), a Frankish nobleman from the Île-de-France, who, following the death of Louis V of France (c.967–987) – the last
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    171
    Banu Qurayza

    Banu Qurayza

    The Banu Qurayza (Arabic: بني قريظة; بنو قريظة‎ alternate spellings include Quraiza, Qurayzah, Quraytha, and the archaic Koreiza) were a Jewish tribe which lived in northern Arabia, at the oasis of Yathrib (presently known as Medina), until the 7th century. In February/March of 627 AD, their conflict with Muhammad led to a 25-day siege of Banu Qurayza ending in the tribe's surrender. The Banu Qurayza refused to submit to Muhammad's judgment and so asked the Auws, (also spelled Aws) tribe to intervene on their behalf. Muhammad not wanting to antagonize the Auws deferred the issue to them. The leaders of Banu Qurayza were gathered and were asked by the Auws what the punishment is for a traitor in their own religion. They bowed their heads and stated according to the Torah the punishment is death. So on the order of Sa'd ibn Mua'dth (leader of the Auws tribe), the men were executed, while the women and children were enslaved. There is much debate about the number executed with some estimating that between 400-900 men were beheaded, while the Sunni hadith simply state that all male members were killed, without specifying a figure, and one woman. Jewish tribes reportedly arrived in
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    172
    Clan Lockhart

    Clan Lockhart

    Clan Lockhart is a Lowland Scottish clan. The Clan Lockhart arrived in Scotland among the waves of Normans who arrived after the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The Lockharts settled in Lanark and Ayrshire where the towns of Symington, South Ayrshire, Symington, South Lanarkshire and Stevenson remain to mark the past influence of Simon and Steven Locard. The exact date when the lands of Lee came into the family is not known, but 1272 is traditionally accepted. Symon Locard, 2nd of Lee, won fame for himself and his family in the wars against the English when he fought alongside King Robert the Bruce and was knighted for his loyal service. Sir Symon accompanied 'Good Sir James Douglas' of the Clan Douglas when he took the heart of Robert the Bruce on the crusades in 1330. It was Sir Symon who carried the key to the casket in which the heart was carried. Symon rescued the casket and heart and returned it to Scotland after James Douglas had been killed in Spain. It is said, the arms of a 'heart within a fetterlock', and the name in its present form came into use. During the crusades of the 14th century the Lockharts brought back a precious heirloom, a touch piece which has been
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    2 votes
    173
    Flavian dynasty

    Flavian dynasty

    The Flavian dynasty was a Roman Imperial Dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 and 96 AD, encompassing the reigns of Vespasian (69–79), and his two sons Titus (79–81) and Domitian (81–96). The Flavians rose to power during the civil war of 69, known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho died in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in mid 69. His claim to the throne was quickly challenged by legions stationed in the Eastern provinces, who declared their commander Vespasian Emperor in his place. The Second Battle of Bedriacum tilted the balance decisively in favour of the Flavian forces, who entered Rome on December 20. The following day, the Roman Senate officially declared Vespasian emperor of the Roman Empire, thus commencing the Flavian dynasty. Although the dynasty proved to be short-lived, several significant historic, economic and military events took place during their reign. The reign of Titus was struck by multiple natural disasters, the most severe of which was the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79. The surrounding cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were completely buried under ash and lava. One year later, Rome was struck by fire and a
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    174
    Guggenheim

    Guggenheim

    • Members: Solomon R. Guggenheim
    • Founder: Meyer Guggenheim
    • Country: Switzerland
    The Guggenheim family is an American family, of Swiss Jewish ancestry. Beginning with Meyer Guggenheim, who arrived in America in 1847, the family were known for their global successes in mining and smelting (including the American Smelting and Refining Company). During the 19th century, the family possessed one of the largest fortunes in the world. They later became known for their philanthropy in diverse areas such as modern art and aviation, including several Guggenheim Museums as well as the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory and I. M. Pei's Guggenheim Pavilion at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City. They sold off their global mining interests following World War I, then later purchased nitrate mines in Chile. Subsequently, the family largely left business. However, one family investment company, Guggenheim Partners, today manages over $100 billion in assets. Another family vehicle, Guggenheim Investment Advisors, oversees about $50 billion in assets. Meyer Guggenheim (1828–1905) had eleven children, including eight sons, five of whom were active in the family businesses: Isaac, Daniel, Murry, Solomon Robert and (John) Simon. The other sons were Benjamin, Robert and
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    175
    Nanda Dynasty

    Nanda Dynasty

    The Nanda Empire originated from the region of Magadha in ancient India during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. At its greatest extent, the Nanda Empire extended from Bengal in the east, to Punjab in the west and as far south as the Vindhya Range. The Nanda Empire was later conquered by Chandragupta Maurya, who founded the Maurya Empire. Mahapadma Nanda, who has been described as "the destroyer of all the Kshatriyas", defeated the Panchalas, Kasis, Haihayas, Kalingas, Asmakas, Kurus, Maithilas, Surasenas and the Vitihotras; to name a few .. He expanded his territory south of the Deccan plains. Mahapadma Nanda, who died at the age of 88, was the ruler of the Nanda dynasty for all but 12 of the dynasty's 100 years. The Nandas who usurped the throne of the Shishunaga dynasty were thought to be of low origin with some sources stating that the dynasty's founder, Mahapadma, was the son of a Shudra . The Nandas are sometimes described as the first empire builders in the recorded history of India. They inherited the large kingdom of Magadha and wished to extend it to yet more distant frontiers. To this purpose they built up a vast army, consisting of 200,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalry, 2,000
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    176
    Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt

    Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt

    The Fifteenth, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Second Intermediate Period. The Seventeenth Dynasty dates approximately from 1580 to 1550 BC. Known rulers of the Seventeenth Dynasty are as follows: The Seventeenth Dynasty covers a period of time when Egypt was split into a set of small Hyksos-ruled kingdoms. It is mainly Theban rulers contemporary with the Fifteenth Dynasties and Sixteenth Dynasties. In March 2012, French archeologists examining a limestone door in the Amun-Ra temple in Luxor discovered hieroglyphs with the name Senakhtenre, the first contemporary evidence found for this king. The last two kings of the dynasty opposed the Hyksos rule over Egypt and initiated a war that would rid Egypt of the Hyksos kings and began a period of unified rule, the New Kingdom. Kamose, the second son of Seqenenre Tao, was the brother of Ahmose I--the first king of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
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    177
    Tang Dynasty

    Tang Dynasty

    The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: 唐朝; pinyin: Táng Cháo; IPA: [tʰɑ̌ŋ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ]; Middle Chinese: Dâng) (June 18, 618 – June 1, 907) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li (李) family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire. The dynasty was interrupted briefly by the Second Zhou Dynasty (October 8, 690 – March 3, 705) when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, becoming the only Chinese empress regnant, ruling in her own right. The Tang Dynasty, with its capital at Chang'an (present-day Xi'an), which at the time was the most populous city in the world, is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization—equal to, or surpassing that of, the earlier Han Dynasty—a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivalled that of the Han Dynasty. In two censuses of the 7th and 8th centuries, the Tang records estimated the population by number of registered households at about 50 million people. Yet, even when the central government was breaking down and unable to compile an accurate census of
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    178
    Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt

    Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt

    The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, known as the Nubian Dynasty or the Kushite Empire, was the last dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt. The 25th dynasty was a line of rulers originating in the Nubian Kingdom of Kush and most saw Napata as their spiritual homeland. They reigned in part or all of Ancient Egypt from 760 BC to 656 BC. The dynasty began with Kashta's invasion of Upper Egypt and culminated in several years of war with the Assyrians which was to result in the destruction of the Kushite Empire. The 25th's reunification of Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt, and also Kush (Nubia) created the largest Egyptian empire since the New Kingdom. They ushered in an age of renaissance by reaffirming Ancient Egyptian religious traditions, temples, and artistic forms, while introducing some unique aspects of Kushite culture. It was during the 25th dynasty that the Nile valley saw the first widespread construction of pyramids (many in modern Sudan) since the Middle Kingdom. After Assyrian kings Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal invaded Egypt and defeated and drove out the Nubians, they were succeeded by the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt, the last native dynasty to rule Egypt
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    179
    House of Orange-Nassau

    House of Orange-Nassau

    • Members: William the Silent
    • Founder: William the Silent
    • Country: Netherlands
    The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau, Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɦœy̆s fɑn oˈrɑɲə ˈnɑsʌu̯]), a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands — and at times in Europe — especially since William I of Orange (also known as "William the Silent" and "Father of the Fatherland") organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War led to an independent Dutch state. Several members of the house served during this war and after as governor or stadtholder (Dutch stadhouder) during the Dutch Republic. However, in 1815, after a long period as a republic, the Netherlands became a monarchy under the House of Orange-Nassau. The dynasty was established as a result of the marriage of Hendrik III of Nassau-Breda from Germany and Claudia of Châlon-Orange from French Burgundy in 1515. Their son René inherited in 1530 the Principality of Orange from his mother's brother, Philibert of Châlon. As the first Nassau to be the Prince of Orange, René could have used "Orange-Nassau" as his new family name. However, his uncle, in his will, had stipulated that René should continue the use of
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    180
    Tudor dynasty

    Tudor dynasty

    • Members: Arthur, Prince of Wales
    • Founder: Henry VII of England
    • Country: Kingdom of England
    The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was a European royal house of Welsh origin from Prince Rhys ap Tewdwr that ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including the Lordship of Ireland, later the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1485 until 1603. Its first monarch was Henry VII, a descendant through his mother of a legitimised branch of the English royal House of Lancaster. The Tudor family rose to power in the wake of the Wars of the Roses, which left the House of Lancaster, to which the Tudors were aligned, extinct. Henry Tudor was able to establish himself as a candidate not only of the traditional Lancastrian supporters, but of discontented supporters of the rival House of York, and rose to capture the throne in battle, becoming Henry VII. His victory was reinforced by his marriage to Elizabeth of York, symbolically uniting the former warring factions under a new dynasty. The Tudors extended their power beyond modern England, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542 (Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542); and successfully asserting English authority over the Kingdom of Ireland. They also maintained the traditional (i.e. nominal) claims to the Kingdom of
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    181
    Clan Cameron

    Clan Cameron

    • Members: Ewen Cameron of Lochiel
    Clan Cameron is a West Highland Scottish clan, with one main branch Lochiel, and numerous cadet branches. The Clan Cameron lands are in Lochaber and within their lands is the mountain Ben Nevis which is the highest mountain in the British Isles. The chief of the clan is customarily referred to as simply "Lochiel". The origins of Clan Cameron are uncertain; there are several theories. A manuscript of the clan says that it is old tradition that the Camerons were originally descended from the son of the royal family of Denmark who assisted the restoration of King Fergus II of Scotland, and that their progenitor was called Cameron from his crooked nose (Scottish Gaelic: cam-shròn, Scottish Gaelic pronunciation: [ˈkʰaməhɾoːn̪ˠ]) – such nicknames were and are common in Gaelic culture, and that his dependants then adopted the name. According to John Mair, the Clan Cameron and the Chattan Confederation shared a common origin and together followed one chief, but this statement has no foundation or evidence to support it. Allen surnamed MacOrchtry the son of Uchtred is mentioned by tradition as the chief of Camerons during the reign of King Robert II of Scotland and, according to the same
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    182
    Clan Forsyth

    Clan Forsyth

    Clan Forsyth (Scottish Gaelic: Clann Fearsithe) is one of Scotland's wealthiest clans. The name Forsyth (sometimes spelled Forsythe, with an "e") derives from the Gaelic 'man of peace'. Members of the clan can now be found all over the United Kingdom, in Canada, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, U.S.A, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, in fact there are now more Forsyths living in the Scottish Diaspora than those remaining in Scotland. In early history the Forsyths of Scotland were a royal Scandinavian family that bore the Griffin as their symbol. Thus the ancient history of the Forsyths can not only be traced through the Clan's name, but also its symbol - the Griffin Sergeant. An alternative history is that the Forsyths were much later arrivals in the British Isles, arriving only in 1236. This tradition places the Forsyths as the descendants of Forsach, one of the Norsemen who settled on lands on the River Dordogne in Aquitaine. From here the Viscomte de Fronsoc accompanied Eleanor of Provence to London to marry Henry III and lived at the English court from 1236 to 1246. It is believed that his family obtained lands in Northumberland, and thence to the Borders of Scotland. The
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    183
    House of Antelminelli

    House of Antelminelli

    • Members: Castruccio Castracani
    • Country: Italy
    The House of Antelminelli was a noble family from Lucca. The family was involved in the struggle between the Guelph and the Ghibellini parties in Tuscany. The leader of the family in the earely 14th century was Castruccio Castracani a famous Ghibelline leader. Serving under the Ghibelline chief, Uguccione della Faggiuola, he was elected lord (as lifelong consul) of Lucca on June 12, 1316, displacing the Quartigiani family, and was appointed Duke of Lucca, Pistoia, Volterra and Luni by emperor Frederick of Austria . In the following generation the power of the family collapsed in the general success of the Guelfs.
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    184
    House of Romanov

    House of Romanov

    • Members: Prince Rostislav Romanov
    • Founder: Michael I of Russia
    • Country: Russia
    The House of Romanov (Russian: Рома́нов, IPA: [rɐˈmanəf]) was the second and last imperial dynasty to rule over Russia, reigning from 1613 until the February Revolution abolished the crown in 1917. The later history of the Imperial House is sometimes referred to informally as the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov. The Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, who was himself a member of a cadet branch of the Oldenburgs, married into the Romanov family early in the 18th century; all Romanov Tsars from the middle of that century to the revolution of 1917 were descended from that marriage. Though officially known as the House of Romanov, these descendants of the Romanov and Oldenburg Houses are sometimes referred to as Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov. The Romanovs share their origin with two dozen other Russian noble families. Their earliest common ancestor is one Andrei Kobyla, attested as a boyar in the service of Semyon I of Moscow. Later generations assigned to Kobyla the most illustrious pedigrees. An 18th century genealogy book claimed that he was the son of the Prussian prince Glanda Kambila, who came to Russia in the second half of the 13th century, fleeing the invading Germans. Indeed, one of the
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    185
    House of Saud

    House of Saud

    • Members: Sa'd ibn Abd al-Rahman
    • Founder: Muhammad bin Saud
    • Country: Saudi Arabia
    The House of Saud (Arabic: آل سعود‎ Āl Suʻūd) is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia. The family has thousands of members. It is composed of the descendants of Muhammad ibn Saud and his brothers, though the ruling faction of the family is primarily led by the descendants of Abdulaziz ibn Abdul Rahman Al Saud. The family advocates Salafi Islam and unification of Arabia. The most influential member of the family is the King of Saudi Arabia. The line of succession to the Saudi Arabian throne is not father–son but brother–brother among the children of King Abdul-Aziz. The family is estimated to be composed of 15,000 members, but the majority of the power and wealth is possessed by a group of only about 2,000. The House of Saud has gone through three phases: the First Saudi State, the Second Saudi State, and the modern nation of Saudi Arabia. The First Saudi State marked the expansion of Wahhabi Islam. The Second Saudi State was marked with continuous infighting. The modern nation of Saudi Arabia wields considerable influence in the Middle East. The family has had conflicts with the Ottoman Empire, the Sharif of Mecca, and the Al Rashid family of Ha'il. House of Saud is a
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    186
    Koch dynasty

    Koch dynasty

    The Koch dynasty of Assam and Bengal, named after the Koch tribe, emerged as the dominant ruling house in the Kamata kingdom in 1515 after the fall of the Khen dynasty in 1498. The first of the Koch kings, Viswa Singha and then his sons, Nara Narayan as the subsequent king and Chilarai as the general, soon occupied the western portion of the erstwhile Kamarupa Kingdom as well as some regions of south Assam. The dynasty forked for the first time into two major branches that controlled Koch Bihar and Koch Hajo. Koch Bihar became a vassal of the Mughals, whereas Koch Hajo came under Ahom control and was subsequently absorbed. Koch Bihar became a princely state during British rule and was absorbed after Indian independence. A third branch of this dynasty at Khaspur disappeared into the Kachari kingdom. After the fall of the Pala dynasty of Kamarupa, the Kamarupa fractured into differing domains. In the extreme east the Sutiya kingdom emerged on the north bank of Brahmaputra river. The Ahom kingdom emerged in the south bank and to their west was the Kachari kingdom. Further west was the region of the Baro-Bhuyan landlords and still further west was the Kamata kingdom. The last of the
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    187
    Merovingian dynasty

    Merovingian dynasty

    • Members: Saint Ferréol of Uzès
    • Founder: Merowig
    The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region known as Francia in Latin, largely corresponding to ancient Gaul, for 300 years from the middle of the 5th century. The Merovingian dynasty was founded by Childeric I (c.457 – 481) the son of Merovech, leader of the Salian Franks, but it was his famous son Clovis I (481 – 511) who united all of Gaul under Merovingian rule. After the death of Clovis there were frequent clashes between different branches of the family, but when threatened by its neighbours the Merovingians presented a strong united front. During the final century of the Merovingian rule, the dynasty was increasingly pushed into a ceremonial role. The Merovingian rule ended in March 752 when Pope Zachary formally deposed Childeric III. Zachary's successor, Pope Stephen II, confirmed and anointed Pepin the Short, in 754 beginning the Carolingian monarchy. The Merovingian ruling family were sometimes referred to as the "long-haired kings" (Latin reges criniti) by contemporaries, as their long hair distinguished them among the Franks, who commonly cut their hair short. The term "Merovingian" comes from medieval Latin Merovingi or
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    188
    Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt

    Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt

    The Nineteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XIX) was one of the periods of the Egyptian New Kingdom. Founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne, this dynasty is best known for its military conquests in Canaan. The warrior kings of the early 18th Dynasty had encountered only little resistance from neighbouring kingdoms, allowing them to expand their realm of influence easily. The situation had changed radically towards the end of the 18th Dynasty. The Hittites gradually extended their influence into Syria and Canaan to become a major power in international politics, a power that both Seti I and his son Ramesses II would need to deal with. The Pharaohs of the 19th dynasty ruled for approximately one hundred and ten years: from ca 1292 to 1187 BCE. Seti I's reign is today considered to be 11 years and not 15 years by both J. von Beckerath and Peter Brand who wrote a biography on this pharaoh's reign. Consequently it will be amended to 11 years or 1290-1279 BCE. Therefore, Seti's father and predecessor would have ruled Egypt between 1292-1290 BCE. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes (designated
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    189
    Aldobrandini family

    Aldobrandini family

    • Members: Pope Clement VIII
    • Country: Italy
    The Aldobrandini are an Italian noble family from Florence, with close ties to the Vatican. Its Roman fortunes were made when Ippolito Aldobrandini became pope under the name Pope Clement VIII. He arranged the marriage that linked the Aldobrandini with the Roman family of Pamphili. Additionally, they were also linked to marriage alliances with the Farnese (Ranuccio I, duke of Parma, had married Margherita Aldobrandini) and Borghese (since Olimpia Aldobrandini married Paolo Borghese). The family also lends its name to the Palazzo Aldobrandini on the Quirinal Hill. The Aldobrandini family, having reached the height of its powers when Ippolito Aldobrandini became Pope Clement VIII (1592-1605), began the building of the villa. In 1600 Clement VIII acquired the Orti Vitelli on the Quirinal hill and in 1601 donated the property to his nephew Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini. The old buildings of the Vitelli Family were demolished and construction began on the new villa and adjacent garden. The villa was never the family seat as the Aldobrandini family owned even more splendid residences elsewhere in Rome. The villa on the Quirinal hill served essentially for ceremonial functions. More famous
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    190
    Clan Rollo

    Clan Rollo

    Clan Rollo is a Lowland Scottish clan. The Clan Rollo are of Norman origin. However they can trace their roots to the feared Norsemen who raided the coast of England and Scotland in the seventh and eighth centuries. Rognvald Eysteinsson was Jarl of Shetland and Orkney, and his son, Hrólfr Rögnvaldsson (Rollo or Gange-Rolf), was a renowned Viking who not only raided Scotland, but parts of his Norwegian homeland for good measure. He was harried by the Norwegian King Harald I of Norway, and eventually turned his attention to the northern coast of France where he was called Rollo. His descendants became established as Dukes of Normandy, and their spirit of conquest brought them to the shores of England in 1066. Erik Rollo accompanied his uncle, William the Conqueror, on the invasion, and it is believed that his son or grandson, Richard, followed King David I of Scotland when he left the English court to reclaim his Scottish throne. The name first appears on record in a charter of around 1141 granted by Robert de Brus. Black’s Surnames of Scotland lists numerous variants for the spelling of this name, and one Robert Rolloche obtained from King David II of Scotland lands near Perth in
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    191
    Galitzine

    Galitzine

    • Members: Nikolas Borissovich Galitzin
    The Galitzines (Russian: Голи́цын, tr. Golitsyn; IPA: [ɡɐˈlʲit͡sɨn]) are one of the largest and noblest princely houses of Russia. Since the extinction of the Korecki family in the 17th century, the Golitsyns have claimed dynastic seniority in the House of Gediminas. Its most notable members were Vasily Vasilyevich Galitzine, Boris Alexeyevich Galitzine and Dmitry Mikhaylovich Galitzine. The family descends from a Lithuanian prince George, son of Patrikas and grandson of Narimantas. He emigrated to the court of Vasily I and married his sister. His children and grandchildren, such as Vassian Patrikeyev, were considered premier Russian boyars. One of them, Prince Mikhail Bulgakov, was nicknamed Galitsa for an iron glove he wore in the Battle of Orsha (1514). His great grandson Prince Vasily Golitsyn (+1619) was active during the Time of Troubles and went as an ambassador to Poland to offer the Russian crown to Prince Władysław. Vasily Vasilyevich Galitzine (1643–1714) was probably the greatest Russian statesman of the 17th century. Dmitry's brother Mikhail (c.1674–1730) was a celebrated heroic soldier, 'prince valiant', who is best known for his governorship of Finland (1714–1721),
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    192
    Arison family

    Arison family

    • Members: Ted Arison
    • Country: United States of America
    The Arison family is an Israeli-American business family. Moshe and Sarah Arisohn immigrated to Turkish-ruled Palestine from Romania in 1882, and were among the founders of the town of Zikhron Ya'aqov. Their eldest son, Meir, is the father of Ted Arison. A history of Arison's involvement in the cruise industry and the Carnival Cruise company can be found in Kristoffer Garin's book Devils on the Deep Blue Sea (Plume; 1 edition (Jun 27 2006). The global cruising industry is dominated by two companies, Carnival and Royal Caribbean. The latter too happens to be associated with an Israeli family – the Ofer brothers, who own a significant stake in Royal Caribbean.
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    193
    Einstein family

    Einstein family

    • Members: Hermann Einstein
    The Einstein family is the family of the famous scientist Albert Einstein. Einstein's great-great-great-great-grandfather, Jakob Weil, is his oldest recorded relative, born around the turn of the 18th century, and the family continues to this day. Albert Einstein's great-great-grandfather, Löb Moses Sontheimer (1745–1831), was also the grandfather of the prominent tenor Heinrich Sontheim (1820–1912) of Stuttgart. Albert's three children were from his relationship with his first wife, Mileva Marić, his daughter Lieserl being born a year before they married. Albert Einstein's second wife was Elsa Einstein, whose mother Fanny Koch was the sister of Albert's mother, and whose father Rudolf Einstein was the son of Raphael Einstein, a brother of Albert's paternal grandfather. Thus Albert and Elsa were first cousins through their mothers and second cousins through their fathers. Pauline Einstein (née Koch) (February 8, 1858 – February 20, 1920) was the mother of the physicist Albert Einstein. She was born in Cannstatt, Württemberg. She was Jewish and had an older sister, Fanny, and two older brothers, Jacob and Caesar. Her parents were Julius Doerzbacher, who had accepted the family name
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    194
    Frasers of Lovat

    Frasers of Lovat

    Clan Fraser of Lovat is a Highland Scottish clan and is a branch of the Clan Fraser. The Frasers of Lovat are descendants from a younger brother of Sir Alexander Fraser. It is Sir Alexander Fraser descendants whom are the chief line of the Fraser clan. The current chief of the clan is Simon Fraser, 16th Lord Lovat. For the history of the Clan before the Scottish Wars of Independence, see Clan Fraser Clan Fraser of Lovat traces its heritage from Sir Simon Fraser, brother of Sir Alexander Fraser, Robert the Bruce's Chamberlain, whom Clan Fraser traces from. Sir Simon acquired the Bisset Lands around Beauly when he won the hand of its heiress, and these lands became the family home. A record from 1367 describes Hugh Fraser as ‘Lord of Lovat and portioner of Ard’, the first known connection the Frasers had with Lovat land. By 1422 the Frasers of Lovat had extended their lands to include Stratherrick by Loch Ness, together with part of Glenelg. Although the exact date of creation is uncertain, some time between 1456 and 1464, Hugh Fraser was raised to the peerage as Lord Lovat or Lord Fraser of Lovat. Around 1511, the 5th Lord Hugh Fraser of Lovat established his seat at Castle Fraser,
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    195
    House of Wessex

    House of Wessex

    • Members: Edgar Ætheling
    • Founder: Cerdic of Wessex
    • Country: Kingdom of England
    The House of Wessex, also known as the House of Cerdic, refers to the family that initially ruled a kingdom in southwest England known as Wessex, from the 6th century under Cerdic of Wessex until the unification of the Kingdoms of England. The House became rulers of all England (Bretwalda) from Alfred the Great in 871 to Edmund Ironside in 1016. This period of the English monarchy is known as the Saxon period, though their rule was often contested, notably by the Danelaw and later by the Danish king Sweyn Forkbeard who claimed the throne from 1013 to 1014, during the reign of Æthelred the Unready. Sweyn and his successors ruled until 1042. After Harthacanute, there was a brief Saxon Restoration between 1042 and 1066 under Edward the Confessor and Harold Godwinson, who was a member of the House of Godwin. After the Battle of Hastings, a decisive point in English history, William of Normandy became king of England. Anglo-Saxon attempts to restore native rule in the person of Edgar the Ætheling, a grandson of Edmund Ironside who had originally been passed over in favour of Harold, were unsuccessful and William's descendants secured their rule. Edgar's niece Matilda of Scotland later
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    196
    Shang Dynasty

    Shang Dynasty

    The Shang Dynasty (Chinese: 商朝; pinyin: shāng cháo) or Yin Dynasty (殷代; pinyin: yīn dài), according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia Dynasty and followed by the Zhou Dynasty. The classic account of the Shang comes from texts such as the Classic of History, Bamboo Annals and Records of the Grand Historian. According to the traditional chronology based upon calculations by Liu Xin, the Shang ruled between 1766 BC and 1122 BC, but according to the chronology based upon the Bamboo Annals, they ruled between 1556 BC and 1046 BC. The results of the Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project place them between 1600 BC and 1046 BC. Archaeological work at the Ruins of Yin (near modern day Anyang), which has been identified as the last Shang capital, uncovered eleven major Yin royal tombs and the foundations of palaces and ritual sites, containing weapons of war and remains from both animal and human sacrifices. Tens of thousands of bronze, jade, stone, bone, and ceramic artifacts have been obtained. The workmanship on the bronzes attests to a high level of civilization. A few bronze artifacts featured inscriptions, but
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    197
    Song Dynasty

    Song Dynasty

    The Song Dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng Cháo; Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao; IPA: [sʊ̂ŋ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ̯]) was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as first discernment of true north using a compass. The Song Dynasty is divided into two distinct periods: the Northern Song and Southern Song. During the Northern Song (Chinese: 北宋, 960–1127), the Song capital was in the northern city of Bianjing (now Kaifeng) and the dynasty controlled most of inner China. The Southern Song (Chinese: 南宋, 1127–1279) refers to the period after the Song lost control of northern China to the Jin Dynasty. During this time, the Song court retreated south of the Yangtze River and established their capital at Lin'an (now Hangzhou). Although the Song Dynasty had lost control of the traditional birthplace of Chinese civilization along the Yellow River, the Song economy was not in ruins, as the Southern
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    198
    Zand dynasty

    Zand dynasty

    • Members: Lotf Ali Khan
    • Country: Iran
    The Zand dynasty ( Zand (help·info)) (Persian: سلسله زندیه‎), formally known as the Zandieh dynasty, ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century. The dynasty was of Iranian origin. The dynasty was founded by Karim Khan, chief of the Zand tribe, which is a tribe of the Lak people and is considered to be either Luri or Kurdish in origin. He became one of Nader Shah's generals. Nader Shah moved the Zand tribe from their home in Lakestan to the eastern steppes of Khorasan. After Nader’s death, the Zand tribe, under the guidance of Karim Khan, went back to their original land. After Adil Shah was made king Karim Khan and his soldiers defected from the army and along with Ali Morad Khan Bakhtiari and Abolfath Khan Haft Lang, two other local chiefs, became a major contender but was challenged by several adversaries. Abolfath Khan was the Prime Minister, Karim Khan became the army chief commander and Ali Morad Khan became the regent. Karim Khan declared Shiraz his capital. He gained control of central and southern parts of Iran. In order to add legitimacy to his claim, Karim Khan placed the infant Shah Ismail III, the grandson of the last Safavid king in 1757 on the throne. Ismail
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    199
    Zhou Dynasty

    Zhou Dynasty

    The Zhou Dynasty (1046–256 BC) (Chinese: 周朝; pinyin: Zhōu Cháo; Wade–Giles: Chou Ch'ao [tʂóʊ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ]) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty. Although the Zhou Dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history, the actual political and military control of China by the Ji (Chinese: 姬) family lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as the Western Zhou. During the Zhou Dynasty, the use of iron was introduced to China, though this period of Chinese history produced what many consider the zenith of Chinese bronze-ware making. The dynasty also spans the period in which the written script evolved into its modern form with the use of an archaic clerical script that emerged during the late Warring States period. According to Chinese legend, the Zhou lineage began with Emperor Ku and proceeded from him to Qi, Buku, Ju, and then Gongliu, before Gugong Danfu moved the Zhou clan from Bin (豳 or 邠) to an area in the Wei River valley, where they founded a town that became central to the Zhou clan's growing prosperity. Gugong Danfu's son, Jili, fought against the Rong as a vassal of the Shang Dynasty's King Wen Ding until the king killed
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    200
    Clan Brodie

    Clan Brodie

    Clan Brodie is a Scottish clan whose origins are uncertain. The first known Brodie chiefs were the Thanes of Brodie and Dyke in Morayshire. The Brodies were present in several clan conflicts, and during the civil war were ardent covenanters. They resisted involvement in the Jacobite uprisings, and the chief's family later prospered under the British Empire in colonial India. Early references to Brodie were written as Brochy, Brothy, Brothie, Brothu, Brode. Various meanings to the name Brodie have been advanced, but given the Brodies uncertain origin, and the varying ways Brodie has been pronounced/written, these remain but suppositions. Some of the suggestions that have been advanced as to the meaning of the name Brodie are: The origins of the Brodie clan are mysterious. Much of the early Brodie records were destroyed when Clan Gordon pillaged and burnt Brodie Castle in 1645. It is known that the Brodies were always about since records began. From this it has been presumed that the Brodies are ancient, probably of Pict ancestry, referred to locally as the ancient Moravienses. The historian Dr. Ian Grimble suggested the Brodies were an important Pictish family and advanced the
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    201
    Clan MacGregor

    Clan MacGregor

    Clan Gregor (also Griogair, MacGregor, Mac Gregor, McGregor, M'Gregor) is a Highland Scottish clan. It is considered the most senior clan of Siol Alpin, translated as 'Seed of Alpin', referring to King Kenneth I Mac Alpin), descending from the ancient Kings of the Picts and Dál Riata. Outlawed for nearly two hundred years after a long power struggle with the Clan Campbell, the Clan Gregor claims descent from Constantin and wife and cousin Malvina, first son of Doungallas and wife Spontana (daughter of a High King of Ireland) and grandson of Giric, the third son of Alpin II Mac Eochaidh, the father of Kenneth I Mac Alpin, the first King of Scotland, a descent which is proclaimed in the clan motto, 'S Rioghal Mo Dhream, translated as 'Royal is my Race'. The surname MacGregor is an Anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic Mac Griogair meaning "son of Griogar". The personal name Griogar is a Gaelic form of the personal name Gregory. Clan Gregor is believed to have originated in Scotland during the 9th century. The MacGregors suggest that they take their name from Gregor (derived from the Latin Gregorius and the Late Greek Grēgorios, meaning "alert, watchful, or vigilant"). One Gregor is
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    202
    Clan Nesbitt

    Clan Nesbitt

    Clan Nesbitt (or Clan Nisbet) is a Scottish clan recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms and first mentioned in a Scottish charter of 1139. It is a lowland family centred in Berwickshire, East Lothian, Edinburgh and Ayrshire, with a significant historical presence in Northumberland and Durham. The clan has a chief, Mark Nesbitt of that Ilk, and active clan associations in the British Isles, North America and Australasia. The surname of the Berwickshire line derives from the hamlets of East Nisbet and West Nisbet, Berwickshire. Interestingly, until the 16th century, the lands are most often spelt Nesbit, which has a claim to be the original spelling. Some bearers of Nisbet/Nesbitt (and variant) names may originate from the village of Nisbet in Roxburghshire. The lowland family of Nesbitt or Nisbet has its roots in the county of Berwickshire, in the Scottish Borders. Like the families of Home and Swinton, its descent can be traced from Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria (d. 1073). In 1139 King David I confirmed a charter (now in the archives of Durham Cathedral) granting the lands of Nisbet to Aldan de Nisbet, the founder of the line of Nisbet of Nisbet (i.e. Nisbet of that Ilk). In the
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    203
    Clan Robertson

    Clan Robertson

    Clan Donnachaidh (Scottish Gaelic: Clann Dhonnchaidh), also known as Clan Robertson, is one of the oldest of all Scottish clans. There are two main theories as to the origins of the Clan Donnachaidh: The clan's first recognised chief, Donnchadh Reamhar, 'Stout Duncan', son of Andrew de Atholia (Latin 'Andrew of Atholl'), was a minor land-owner and leader of a kin-group around Dunkeld , Highland Perthshire, and as legend has it, an enthusiastic and faithful supporter of Robert I (king 1306–29) during the Wars of Scottish Independence; he is believed to have looked after King Robert after the Battle of Methven in 1306. The clan asserts that Stout Duncan's relatives and followers (not yet known as Robertsons) supported Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 (although this patriotic story is not supported by contemporary documentation). His descendants became known (in English or Scots) as the Duncansons, or Gaelic Clann Dhònnchaidh, 'Children of Duncan'. In 1394 a clan battle took place between Clann Dhonnchaidh, Clan Lindsay and involving Clan Ogilvy, who were the hereditary sheriffs of Angus, during a cattle raid on Angus. Sir Walter Ogilvy was slain at this battle.
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    204
    Hồ Dynasty

    Hồ Dynasty

    The Hồ dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Hồ; Hán Việt: 胡 朝, Hồ Triều) in Vietnam was a short-lived seven-year reign of two emperors, Hồ Quý Ly in 1400 and his second son, Hồ Hán Thương, who reigned from 1400 to 1407. The practice of bequeathing the throne to a designated son (not simply passing it on to the eldest) was similar to what had happened in the previous Trần Dynasty and was meant to avoid sibling rivalry. Hồ Quý Ly's eldest son, Hồ Nguyên Trừng, played his part as the dynasty's military general. The appearance of the Hồ family name, origin and background can be traced back to 9th century Zhejiang, which was then in the midst of the Five Dynasties struggle. From Zhejiang, the family migrated south until they established themselves in Nam Viet (Vietnam). Hồ Liêm, Hồ Quý Ly's great-great-grandfather, moved further south and settled in the province of Thanh Hóa (about 100 km south of the modern city of Hanoi). Some historians bring attention to the fact that Hồ Quý Ly (胡 季 犛) is also known as Lê Quý Ly (黎 季 犛). In his childhood, Hồ Quý Ly was adopted by Lê Huan after whom he took the family name. He did not change this Lê last name to Hồ until after he had deposed the last king of the
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    205
    House of Chigi

    House of Chigi

    • Members: Ludovico Chigi Albani della Rovere
    • Country: Italy
    Chigi is a Roman princely family of Sienese extraction descended from the counts of Ardenghesca, which possessed castles in the Maremma, southern Tuscany. The earliest authentic mention of them is in the 13th century, with one Alemanno, counsellor of the Republic of Siena. The first very prominent member was Mariano (1439–1504), a banker and two times ambassador of Siena to the Popes Alexander VI and Julius II. He founded the Roman branch of the family, the other branch was started by his brother, Benedetto. Agostino Chigi (1465–1520) was the most famous member of the family during the Renaissance. He became an immensely rich banker, and built the palace and gardens afterwards known as the Farnesina, decorated by Raphael, and was noted for the splendour of his entertainments. Pope Julius II made him practically his finance minister and gave him the privilege of quartering his own (Della Rovere) arms with those of the Chigi. Cardinal Fabio Chigi, on being elected pope (Pope Alexander VII) at the Conclave of 1655, conferred the Roman patriciate on his family. His brother Mario continued the branch of the family in Siena. His brother Augusto continued the line in Rome. Augosto's son
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    206
    Ninth dynasty of Egypt

    Ninth dynasty of Egypt

    The Ninth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty IX) is often combined with Dynasties VII, VIII, X and XI (Thebes only) under the group title First Intermediate Period. Dynasties IX and X date approximately from 2160 to 2025 BC. Known rulers in the Ninth Dynasty are as follows (dates are uncertain): Dynasty IX was founded at Herakleopolis Magna, and Dynasty X continued there. At this time Egypt was not unified, and there is some overlap between these and other local dynasties. The Turin Canon lists eighteen kings for this royal line, but their names are damaged, unidentifiable, or lost.
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    207
    Qutb Shahi dynasty

    Qutb Shahi dynasty

    The Qutb Shahi dynasty (Urdu: سلطنت قطب شاهی) was a Turkman Muslim dynasty of Kara Koyunlu origin that embraced Persianate culture. Its members were collectively called the Qutub Shahis and were the ruling family of the kingdom of Golkonda in modern-day Andhra Pradesh, India. They were Shia Muslims and as the kingdom was not heavily militarized, Golkonda tried to stay neutral and avoided any war scenario. The dynasty's founder, Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, migrated to Delhi with his uncle, Allah-Quli, some of his relatives and friends in the beginning of the 16th century. Later he migrated south, to the Deccan and served the Bahmani sultan, Mohammad Shah. He conquered Golconda, after the disintegration of the Bahmani Kingdom into the five Deccan sultanates. Soon after, he declared independence from the Bahmani Sultanate, took the title Qutub Shah, and thus established the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda. Though the state was Islamic, some Hindus did rise to prominence in the Qutb Shahi state, the most important example being the ministers Madanna and Akkanna. The dynasty ruled Golconda for 171 years, until the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Deccan in 1687. The Qutub Shahi
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    208
    Triệu Dynasty

    Triệu Dynasty

    The Triệu dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Triệu; 家赵) ruled the kingdom of Nam Việt ("South Yuè"), which consisted of parts of southern China as well as northern Vietnam. Its capital was Panyu, in modern Guangzhou. The founder of the dynasty, called Triệu Ðà or Zhao Tuo, was a military governor for the Qin Empire. He asserted his independence in 207 BC when the Qin collapsed. The ruling elite included both ethnic Chinese and native Yue, with intermarriage and assimilation encouraged. Trieu Da conquered the Vietnamese state of Au Lac and led a coalition of Yuè states in a war against the Han Empire. Subsequent rulers were less successful in asserting their independence and the Han conquered the kingdom in 111 BC. In Vietnamese historiography, this dynasty was a government of the Vietnamese nation, and its end marks the beginning of the First Chinese Domination (111 BC–39 AD). The modern name "Vietnam" is derived from "Nam Việt". However, Chinese-oriented historians regard the Trieu as a Chinese dynasty and thus consider this a period of Chinese rule over Vietnam. The scholar Huang Zuo produced the first detailed published history of Nam Viet in the fifteenth century. Chinese historians have
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    209
    Xia Dynasty

    Xia Dynasty

    The Xia Dynasty (Chinese: 夏朝; pinyin: Xià Cháo; Wade–Giles: Hsia-Ch'ao; IPA: [ɕiâ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ̯]; c. 2070 – c. 1600 BC) is the first dynasty in China to be described in ancient historical chronicles such as Bamboo Annals, Classic of History and Records of the Grand Historian. The dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors gave his throne to him. The Xia was later succeeded by the Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BC). According to the traditional chronology based upon calculations by Liu Xin, the Xia ruled between 2205 and 1766 BCE; according to the chronology based upon the Bamboo Annals, it ruled between 1989 and 1558 BC. The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project concluded that the Xia existed between 2070 and 1600 BCE. The tradition of tracing Chinese political history from heroic early emperors to the Xia to succeeding dynasties comes from the idea of the Mandate of Heaven, in which only one legitimate dynasty can exist at any given time, and was promoted by the Confucian school in the Eastern Zhou period, later becoming the basic position of imperial historiography and ideology. Although the Xia is an important element in early Chinese
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    210
    Clan Lindsay

    Clan Lindsay

    Clan Lindsay is a Lowland Scottish clan. Although certainly ancient, there remains debate to this day as to whether Clan Lindsay first arose from British, Saxon, Norman or Flemish family lines. While there is a long tradition of descent from Normans who arrived with William the Conqueror, the matter is complicated by evidence of a Saxon "Kingdom of Lindsay" that long predated the coming of the Normans. Several possible theories have been advanced over the years. First is the theory proposed in 1769 by biographer/historian, Richard Rolt, in which he claimed that the Lindsays were of Anglo-Saxon descent. In his “Lives of the Lindsays”, first published in 1840, the 25th Earl of Crawford (the Earls of Crawford all being Lindsays) discounted Rolt's Anglo-Saxon descent theory and stated that the Lindsays were "distinctly" of Norman descent. Then in 1985/1990, British historian, Beryl Platts established, via an analysis of heraldic devices, the Lindsays were of Flemish descent. Much work is yet to be done before the origin of the Lindsays can be stated as proven without any doubt. After the Norman conquest of 1066 Baldric de Lindsay became a tenant under the Earl of Chester in England. In
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    2 votes
    211
    House of Bourbon

    House of Bourbon

    • Members: Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
    • Founder: Robert, Count of Clermont
    • Country: France
    The House of Bourbon (English  /ˈbʊərbən/; French pronunciation: [buʁ.bɔ̃]) is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty (/kəˈpiːʃⁱən/). Bourbon kings first ruled Navarre and France in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Bourbon dynasty also held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have Bourbon monarchs. Bourbon monarchs ruled Navarre (from 1555) and France (from 1589) until the 1792 overthrow of the monarchy during the French Revolution. Restored briefly in 1814 and definitively in 1815 after the fall of the First French Empire, the senior line of the Bourbons was finally overthrown in the July Revolution of 1830. A cadet branch, the House of Orléans, then ruled for 18 years (1830–1848), until it too was overthrown. The Princes of Condé were a cadet branch of the dukes of Vendômes and, in turn, were senior to the Princes of Conti both of which are now extinct. Philip V of Spain was the first Bourbon of Spain. The Spanish Bourbons (in Spain the name is spelled Borbón and rendered into English as Borbon) have been overthrown and restored several times, reigning 1700–1808, 1813–1868, 1875–1931,
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    212
    Qing Dynasty

    Qing Dynasty

    • Members: Jin Youzhi
    • Founder: Nurhaci
    • Country: Taiwan
    The Qing Dynasty was the last imperial dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China. The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in contemporary Northeastern China. The Aisin Gioro leader, Nurhachi, who was originally a vassal of the Ming emperors, began unifying the Jurchen clans in the late sixteenth century. By 1635, Nurhachi's son Hong Taiji could claim they constituted a single and united Manchu people and began forcing the Ming out of Liaoning in southern Manchuria. In 1644, the Ming capital Beijing was sacked by a peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng, a former minor Ming official who became the leader of the peasant revolt, who then proclaimed the Shun dynasty. The last Ming ruler, the Chongzhen Emperor, committed suicide when the city fell. When Li Zicheng moved against Ming general Wu Sangui, the latter made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Manchurian army. Under Prince Dorgon, they seized control of Beijing and overthrew Li Zicheng's short-lived Shun Dynasty. Complete pacification of China was accomplished around 1683
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    213
    House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

    House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

    • Members: Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
    • Founder: Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
    • Country: Belgium
    The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (orig. Haus Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) is a German dynasty, the line of the Saxon House of Wettin that ruled the Ernestine duchies, including the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Founded by Ernest Anton, the sixth duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, it is also the royal house of several European monarchies, and branches currently reign in Belgium through the descendants of Leopold I, and in the Commonwealth realms through the descendants of Prince Albert. Due to anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom during World War I, George V of the United Kingdom changed the name of his branch from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to Windsor in 1917. The same happened in Belgium where it was changed to "Van België" (Dutch) or "de Belgique" (French). The first duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was Ernest I, who reigned from 1826 until his death in 1844. He had previously been Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (as Ernest III) from 1806 until the duchy was reorganized in 1826. Ernst's younger brother Leopold became King of the Belgians in 1831, and his descendants continue to serve as Belgian head of state. Léopold's only daughter, Princess Charlotte of Belgium, was the consort of
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    214
    Lippe-Biesterfeld

    Lippe-Biesterfeld

    • Members: Princess Marie Adelheid of Lippe-Biesterfeld
    • Country: Germany
    Lippe-Biesterfeld was a cadet line of the House of Lippe between 1762 and 1905, a morganatic title till 1916, and a title of the Dutch Royal House created in 1937. The branch of Lippe-Biesterfeld was founded by Jobst Herman (1625-1678), youngest son of Simon VII of Lippe-Detmold. From the line Lippe-Biesterfeld later the branch Lippe-Weissenfeld was separated. Both the Counties Lippe-Biesterfeld and Lippe-Weissenfeld were ceded and sold to the princely line of Lippe(-Detmold) on 24 May 1762. The Head of the Lippe-Biesterfeld family was given the style Illustrious Highness (German: Erlaucht) at Detmold on 27 August and 1 October 1844. When in 1895 the mentally ill Prince Alexander ascended the throne of the Principality of Lippe, Prince Adolf of Schaumburg-Lippe was appointed to act as regent of Lippe, this according to a then secret kept decree of the predecessor Prince Woldemar. Alexander was the last male of the Lippe-Detmold line, the next senior lines of the House of Lippe were the Counts of Lippe-Biesterfeld, followed by the Counts of Lippe-Weissenfeld, and then by the most junior line the Princes of Schaumburg-Lippe. Shortly after becoming a member state of the German Empire
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    215
    Chera dynasty

    Chera dynasty

    Chēra dynasty, ruling from before the Sangam Age (3rd century BC — 3rd century AD) until the 12th century AD, is one of the most ancient ruling dynasties in India. Together with the Chōlas and the Pāndyas, they formed the three principal warring south Indian kingdoms in the early centuries of the Common Era. They are also referred to as Keralaputras (sons of Kerala) or Keralas. During the time of Mauryas in northern India (c. 4th century BC — 3rd century BC) the Cheras (along with the Pandyas and the Cholas) were in a late megalithic phase on the western coast of ancient Tamil land. The cultural exchange with the northern India and the flourishing trade with the Roman Empire later contributed to the state formation. The kingdom, at its zenith, spread over most of the modern day Kerala and Coimbatore, Salem and Dharmapuri districts of modern day Tamil Nadu. Some records suggest the possible annexation of Nagapattanam (southern part) and Thiruvarur districts of Tamil Nadu. The Cheras were in continuous conflict with neighboring Cholas and Pandyas. Some Chera rules are said to have defeated the combined armies of the Pandyas and the Cholas and their ally states. They also made battles
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    216
    Clan Graham

    Clan Graham

    Clan Graham (Clann Greumach) is a Scottish clan who had territories in both the Scottish Highlands and Lowlands. There is a tradition that the first Graham was one Gramus who forced a breach in the Roman Antonine Wall known as Graeme's Dyke in 420 A.D. However, historians generally believe that the Grahams were of Norman descent. The surname Graham is derived from the English place-name Grantham, Lincolnshire, which appears in the Domesday Book both as Grantham and Graham. The first Graham in Scotland was Sir William de Graham (or De Graeme), a Norman knight who accompanied David I, on his journey north to claim the Scottish crown in 1128. William De Graeme witnessed the signing of the charter founding the Abbey of Holyrood in the same year 1128. From this line descended the Montrose line of Grahams, one of the most distinguished families of Scotland. The Clan Graham fought at the Battle of Dunbar in 1296 where Sir Patrick Graham of Kincardine was the only man of all the Scots not to retreat and instead fought to the death. Sir John de Graham, was a friend and follower of William Wallace. Sir John de Graham is regarded as hero for rescuing Wallace at Queensbury. Sir John de Graham
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    217
    Clan MacLean

    Clan MacLean

    Clan Maclean (/mækˈleɪn/; Scottish Gaelic: Mac Gill-Eain) is a Highland Scottish clan. They are one of the oldest clans in the Highlands and owned large tracts of land in Argyll as well as the Inner Hebrides. Many early MacLeans became famous for their honour, strength and courage in battle. They were involved in many clan skirmishes with the MacKinnons, Camerons, MacDonalds and Campbells. They were fierce Jacobites fighting in all of the Jacobite risings. There are several different origins for the surname Maclean, however, the clan surname is an Anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic MacGilleEathain. This was the patronymic form of the personal name meaning "servant of (Saint) John". They are descendents of Loarn mac Eirc, a 5th century king of Dál Riata. The family grew very powerful throughout the Hebrides and Highlands through allegiances with the Catholic Church in the 9th century, the MacDonalds in the 13th century, the MacKays and MacLeods in the 16th century. The early kings of Scotland also befriended the clan for their knowledge of the sea and their large numbers of sea-going vessels, which were useful against the Viking raids in the 9th century. The founder of the clan
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    218
    Clan Moffat

    Clan Moffat

    Clan Moffat is a Lowland Scottish clan. The Moffats are an ancient Borders family who were influential and powerful as far back as the time of Sir William Wallace. The ancestor of the Moffats most likely gave their name to the town of Moffat in Dumfriesshire. The origin of the name itself is thought to be Norse. William de Mont Alto, progenitor of the Movats, married the youngest daughter of Andlaw, who came to Scotland from Norway during the tenth century. Over the years the name softened to Montealt, then Movat, through Movest, eventually settling at Moffat in its modern form. In the twelfth century the family was of sufficient importance to be designated in deeds and records as ‘de Moffet’, showing the family were considered to be principal lairds, or landowners. In 1268, Nicholas de Moffet was Bishop of Glasgow, and the armorial bearings of the different branches of the family seemed to indicate a connection with the church. Robert the Bruce, as Lord of Annandale, granted four charters of land in the Barony of Westerkirk to the Moffats in 1300. One of these was to Adam Moffat of Knock who was granted ‘the same Barony in Eskdale’. Both he and his brother fought at the Battle of
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    219
    Clan Montgomery

    Clan Montgomery

    Clan Montgomery is a Lowland Scottish clan. Clan Montgomery originated in Wales, and emigrated to Scotland in the 12th century as vassals of the FitzAlans. The family derives its surname from lands in Wales, likely from the Honour of Montgomery which was located near the Shropshire lands of the FitzAlans. There is no evidence of any familial connection between Clan Montgomery and the family of the Earls of Shrewsbury, who derived their own surname from lands in Calvados, Normandy. The earliest member of the clan in Scotland was Robert of Montgomery, and the earliest possessions of the clan (in Scotland) was Eaglesham, in Renfrewshire. Members of the clan are recorded in the late 13th century Ragman Rolls, but it is not until the 14th century when the family rose in prominence, through a dynastic marriage with the Eglington family. Through this marriage the clan acquired the Eglington estates; the clan also acquired the lands of the Ardrossan family (which was possibly a branch of the Barclay family). A descendant of Robert was Sir John Montgomery who led the Clan Montgomery at the Battle of Otterburn in 1388 where the English were defeated. He was one of the heroes of the day as he
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    Clan Ramsay

    Clan Ramsay

    Clan Ramsay is a Lowland Scottish clan of Anglo-Norman origin. The clan can be traced to the 12th century in Scotland. A ram in the sea is said to have been an emblem on the seal of Ramsay Abbey in Huntingdon in the 11th century. When David, Earl of Huntingdon, travelled north to claim the throne of Scotland in 1124, he was accompanied by many young Norman noblemen keen to share in their overlord's heritage. These may have included Sir Symon de Ramesie (Sir Simon of Ramsey) who received a grant of land in Midlothian from David and who witnessed important charters, including one to the monks of Holyrood in 1140. Actually the Ramsays of Nordic countries have another explanation to the origin of "Ramsay". In the Icelandic language and in Old Norse (hraems-ay) Rams-ay means ravens island. This means that the black bird in Ramsay arms comes from a raven. If we look at an old coat of arms from the 13th century (Adam Ramsay 1290) the "eagle" looks more like a "raven". The origin of Ramsays may be Viking from "Ravens Island" who settled in Normandy. In a Ramsay chronicle by Anders Ramsay (Finland) mentions that one Ramsay participated in the First Crusade to Jerusalem. At that time many
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    Clan Rose

    Clan Rose

    Clan Rose is a Highland Scottish clan. The origins of the Clan Rose, as with many northern Scottish clans are uncertain and there is more than one theory as to the origin of the clan. One traditional theory is that Hugh Rose of Geddes came over from Ireland to Scotland in the 12th century. The Clan Rose were vassels of the old Earls of Ross who were chiefs of the Clan Ross. However the Clan Rose were quite separate in origin from the Clan Ross. Another theory as to the origin of the Roses was that they were English in origin as believed by Mr Hugh Rose of the Rose of Kilravock family. Whatever the origin of the clan, the Roses of Kilravock appear to have settled in Nairn in the north of Scotland, in about 1219 during the reign of David I of Scotland. Hugh Rose of Geddes was witness to the foundation of Beauly Priory and the name Rose of Geddes changed to Rose of Kilravock when Hugh Rose of Geddes' son acquired the lands of Kilravock through marriage. In 1390 the Rose family records and charters were destroyed when Elgin Cathedral, where they were kept was burned down by the notorious Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan who was known as the Wolf of Badenoch. All records relating to
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    House of Hanover

    House of Hanover

    • Members: Ernst August V, Prince of Hanover
    • Founder: George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
    • Country: Electorate of Hanover
    The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (German: Braunschweig-Lüneburg), the Kingdom of Hanover, the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Kingdom of Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It succeeded the House of Stuart as monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714 and held that office until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901. They are sometimes referred to as the House of Brunswick and Lüneburg, Hanover line. The House of Hanover is a younger branch of the House of Welf, which in turn is the senior branch of the House of Este. Queen Victoria was the granddaughter of George III, and was an ancestor of most major European royal houses. She arranged marriages for her children and grandchildren across the continent, tying Europe together; this earned her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover; her son King Edward VII belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father, Prince Albert. Under semi-Salic law, Victoria could not inherit the German kingdom and duchies unless the entire male line became extinct; those
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    Jagiellon dynasty

    Jagiellon dynasty

    • Members: Jogaila
    • Founder: Jogaila
    • Country: Poland
    The Jagiellonian dynasty (Polish: Jagiellonowie, Lithuanian: Jogailaičiai, Czech: Jagellonci, Hungarian: Jagelló, Belarusian: Ягелоны) was a royal dynasty originating from the Lithuanian House of Gediminas dynasty that reigned in Central European countries (present day Lithuania, Belarus, Poland, Ukraine, Latvia, Estonia, parts of Russia (including today's Kaliningrad oblast), Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia) between the 14th and 16th centuries. Members of the dynasty were Grand Dukes of Lithuania (1377–1392 and 1440–1572), Kings of Poland (1386–1572), Kings of Hungary (1440–1444 and 1490–1526), and Kings of Bohemia (1471–1526). The dynastic union between the two countries (converted into a full administrative union only in 1569) is the reason for the common appellation "Poland–Lithuania" in discussions about the area from the Late Middle Ages onwards. One Jagiellonian briefly ruled both Poland and Hungary (1440–44), and two others ruled both Bohemia (from 1490) and Hungary (1490–1526) and then continued in the distaff line as the Eastern branch of the House of Habsburg. The name (other variations used in English include: Jagiellonians, Jagiellos, Jogailos, Jagiellas)
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    Rockefeller family

    Rockefeller family

    • Members: John D. Rockefeller
    The Rockefeller family (/ˈrɒkɨfɛlər/) is an American industrial and political family that made one of the world's largest fortunes in the oil business during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with John D. Rockefeller and his brother William Rockefeller primarily through the Standard Oil. The family is also known for its long association with and financial interest in the Chase Manhattan Bank, now part of JPMorgan Chase. They are generally seen as one of the most powerful families in the history of the United States. The family was heavily involved in many real estate construction projects in the U.S. during the 20th century. Chief among them: Beginning with Rockefeller Senior, the family has been a major force in land conservation. Over the generations, it has created more than 20 national parks and open spaces, including the Cloisters, Acadia National Park, Forest Hill Park, the Nature Conservancy, the Rockefeller Forest in California's Humboldt Redwoods State Park (the largest stand of old-growth redwoods), and Grand Teton National Park, among many others. Rockefeller Jr, and his son Laurance (and his son Larry) were particularly prominent in this area. The family was
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    Valentinian dynasty

    Valentinian dynasty

    The Valentinian Dynasty or Valentinianic Dynasty, consisting of four emperors, ruled the Western Roman Empire from 364 to 392 and the Eastern Roman Empire from 364 to 378. The dynasty was related to the Theodosian dynasty by the marriage of Theodosius I of the East to Valentinian I's daughter. From this marriage came Galla Placidia, whose son Valentinian III became the western emperor (425-455), the last ruler descended from either dynasty. His descendants continued to be a part of the Roman nobility in Constantinople until the end of the 6th century.
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    Chen Dynasty

    Chen Dynasty

    The Chen Dynasty (simplified Chinese: 陈朝; traditional Chinese: 陳朝; pinyin: Chén cháo) (557-589), also known as the Southern Chen Dynasty, was the fourth and last of the Southern dynasties in China, eventually destroyed by the Sui Dynasty. When the dynasty was founded by Emperor Wu, it was exceedingly weak, possessing only a small portion of the territory once held by its predecessor Liang Dynasty -- and that portion was devastated by wars that had doomed Liang. However, Emperor Wu's successors Emperor Wen and Emperor Xuan were capable rulers, and the state gradually solidified and strengthened, becoming roughly equal in power to rivals Northern Zhou and Northern Qi. After Northern Zhou destroyed Northern Qi in 577, Chen was cornered. To make matters worse, its final emperor Chen Shubao was an incompetent and indulgent ruler, and Chen was eventually destroyed by Northern Zhou's successor state Sui.
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    Clan MacLennan

    Clan MacLennan

    Clan MacLennan, also known as Siol Ghillinnein, is a Highland Scottish clan which historically populated lands in the north-west of Scotland. The surname MacLennan in Scottish Gaelic is Mac Gille Fhinnein meaning the son of the follower of St Finnan. According to tradition the clans MacLennan and Logan are related. In the fifteenth century a feud between the clans Logan and Fraser ended in a battle at North Kessock, in which the Clan Logan chief, Gilligorm, was killed. Gilligorm's pregnant widow was captured by the Frasers and soon gave birth to a child. The Frasers intentionally broke the child's back, who was named Crotair MacGilligorm because of his deformity. Crotair MacGilligorm was educated by the monks at Beauly Priory and later founded churches at Kilmor, Sleat and Kilchrinin, Glenelg. His son, called Gille Fhinnein, is the supposed progenitor of the Clan MacLennan. In the 1970s, research by the clan chief showed that the his ancestry could be traced back to the ancient royal Celtic families of Ireland and Scotland through Aengus Macgillafinan, Lord of Locherne around 1230. St. Adamans recorded they were occupying Glenshiel at an early date and were in residence at Eilean
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    Clan Oliphant

    Clan Oliphant

    Clan Oliphant is a Highland Scottish clan. Considered the earliest traceable member of this house would be Roger Olifard, who witnessed a foundation charter to the Clunic priory of St. Andrew's, Northampton, by Earl Simon. The Charter was dated between 1093 and 1100 and Roger himself made a grant of 3 shillings yearly to this priory. In Domesday, Northamptonshire, there is a mention of "In Lilleford, Willelmus Olyfart", which land was held of the Countess Judith. Also in the Pipe Roll, 31 Hen. I is mention of a William Olifard of Northamptonshire as well as a Hugh Olifard of Huntingdonshire. William held five hides in Lilford (Lilleford) of the fee of the King of Scotland while Hugh Olifard of Stokes was a knight in the service of the Abbot of Petersborough before 1120; both appear in the pipe roll of 1130. The progenitor of the Olifard family was "David Holyfard", godson of King David I of Scotland and in 1141 his protector; who was also in possession of Lilleford in Northamptonshire, showing the Northamptonshire family connection to Scotland. David was a son of William Olifard, mentioned in the pipe rolls of Cambridgeshire (1158), Northamptonshire (1163) and Huntingdonshire (1168
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    Genovese crime family

    Genovese crime family

    The Genovese crime family is one of the "Five Families" that dominate organized crime activities in New York City as part of the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra). The Genovese crime family has been nicknamed the "Ivy League" and "Rolls Royce" of organized crime. They are rivaled in size only by the Gambino crime family and are unmatched in terms of power. They have generally maintained a varying degree of influence over many of the smaller mob families outside of New York, including ties with the Patriarca, Buffalo and Philadelphia crime families. Finding new ways to make money in the 21st century, the Genovese family took advantage of lax due diligence by banks during the housing spike with a wave of mortgage frauds. Prosecutors say loan shark victims obtained home equity loans to pay off debts to their mob bankers. The family found ways to use new technology to improve on illegal gambling, with customers placing bets through offshore sites via the Internet. The current "family" was founded by Lucky Luciano, but in 1957 it was renamed after boss Vito Genovese. Originally in control of the waterfront on the West Side of Manhattan (including the Fulton Fish Market), the family was run for
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    House of Braganza

    House of Braganza

    • Members: Jaime, 4th Duke of Braganza
    • Founder: Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganza
    • Country: Brazil
    The House of Braganza (Portuguese:Casa de Bragança; Portuguese pronunciation: [bɾɐˈɣɐ̃sɐ]), officially the Most Serene House of Braganza (Portuguese: Sereníssima Casa de Bragança), is an important Portuguese noble house that later became the royal house of the Kingdom of Portugal and its colonial empire, from 1640 to 1910. In 1822 a branch of the house proclaimed independence of the Portuguese colony of Brazil, founding and ruling the Empire of Brazil from 1822 to 1889, as the Brazilian Imperial Family. The House of Braganza forms a collateral line of the House of Aviz, which ruled Portugal from 1385 until 1580. The House of Aviz was itself a branch of the Portuguese House of Burgundy (also called Afonsine Royal House), and thus of the House of Burgundy. The Afonsine Royal House founded Portugal in 1139, when it proclaimed independence of the County of Portugal from the Kingdom of León. The Afonsine Royal House ruled until 1385, when the House of Aviz succeeded the throne, as result of the 1383-1385 Succession Crisis. In 1853, Queen Dona Maria II of Portugal married Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The royal house continued to be called House of Braganza, though their
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    House of Luxembourg

    House of Luxembourg

    • Members: John I of Bohemia
    • Founder: Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor
    • Country: Kingdom of Bohemia
    The House of Luxembourg (Czech: Lucemburkové) was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia (Český králové). While the Luxembourgs could rely on their Bohemian power base, their rule over the Holy Roman Empire was twice interrupted by the rivaling House of Wittelsbach. It initially was a cadet branch of the ducal House of Limburg–Arlon, when in 1247 Henry, younger son of Duke Waleran III of Limburg inherited the County of Luxembourg upon the death of his mother Countess Ermesinde, a scion of the House of Namur. Her father, Count Henry IV of Luxembourg, was related on his mother's side with the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty (also called the Elder House of Luxembourg), which had ruled the county since the late 10th century. Count Henry V's grandson Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg upon the death of his father Henry VI at the 1288 Battle of Worringen, was elected Rex Romanorum in 1308. The election was necessary after the Habsburg king Albert I of Germany had been murdered, and Henry, backed by his brother Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, prevailed against Count Charles of
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    Pahlavi dynasty

    Pahlavi dynasty

    • Members: Shahriar Shafiq
    The Pahlavi dynasty (Persian: دودمان پهلوی‎) consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, Reza Shah Pahlavi (reg. 1925–1941) and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (reg. 1941–79), father and son respectively. The Pahlavis came to power after Ahmad Shah Qajar, the last ruler of the Qajar dynasty, proved unable to stop British and Soviet encroachment on Iranian sovereignty, and was consequently overthrown in a military coup, abdicated and ultimately exiled to France. The National Assembly, known as the Majlis, convening as a constituent assembly on 12 December 1925, deposed the young Ahmad Shah Qajar, and declared Reza Shah the new monarch of the Imperial State of Persia. In 1935, Reza Shah instructed foreign embassies to call Persia by its ancient name, Iran. The Pahlavi dynasty was overthrown in 1979 when Reza Shah's son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, was forced into exile by an Islamic Revolution led by Ruhollah Khomeini. In 1921, Reza Khan, an officer in Iran's Persian Cossack Brigade, used his troops to support a successful coup against the government of the Qajar dynasty. Within four years he had established himself as the most powerful person in the country by suppressing rebellions,
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    Vorontsov

    Vorontsov

    • Members: Count Illarion Ivanovich Vorontsov-Dashkov
    Vorontsov, also Woronzow, Woroncow (Russian: Воронцо́в) is a celebrated Russian family, which attained the dignity of Counts of the Holy Roman Empire in 1744 and Serene Princes of the Russian Empire in 1852. Most likely, the Vorontsovs represent a collateral branch of the great Velyaminov family of Muscovite boyars, which claimed male-line descent from a Varangian noble named Šimon. The Velyaminovs were hereditary mayors of Moscow, until the office was abolished by Dmitry Donskoy, whose own mother came from this family. The Vorontsov branch of the Velyaminovs reached a zenith of its power in the person of the boyar Feodor Vorontsov, who was de-facto ruler of Russia during the minority of Ivan IV (1543). Three years later, he was accused of treason and beheaded. For the next two centuries the family history is obscure. Under Empress Elizabeth, its fortunes soared once again, when Mikhail Illarionovich Vorontsov became Vice-Chancellor of the Russian Empire. His palace in St Petersburg, designed by Rastrelli, remains a monument to his power. During the reign of Peter III of Russia, Vorontsov was the most powerful man in Russia, as his niece Elisabeth became the Emperor's mistress.
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    Achaemenid Empire

    Achaemenid Empire

    The Achaemenid Persian Empire ( /əˈkiːmənɪd/; Old Persian: Parsā, name of ruling dynasty: Haxāmanišiya, Persian: دودمان هخامنشي ‎ ) (c. 550–330 BCE), sometimes known as the First Persian Empire, was an Iranian empire in Western Asia, founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great who overthrew the Median confederation. It expanded to eventually rule over significant portions of the ancient world which at around 500 BCE stretched from the Indus Valley in the east, to Thrace and Macedon on the northeastern border of Greece, making it the biggest empire the world had yet seen. The Achaemenid Empire would eventually control Egypt as well. It was ruled by a series of monarchs who unified its disparate tribes and nationalities by constructing a complex network of roads. Calling themselves the Pars after their original Aryan tribal name Parsa, Persians settled in a land which they named Parsua (Persis in Greek), bounded on the west by the Tigris River and on the south by the Persian Gulf. This became their heartland for the duration of the Achaemenid Empire. It was from this region that eventually Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II of Persia) would advance to defeat the Median, the Lydian,and
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    Clan Chisholm

    Clan Chisholm

    Clan Chisholm ( listen (help·info)) is a Scottish clan. The clan had its origin outside Scotland. The first Chisholm to appear in the records of Scotland was Alexander de Chesholme, who witnessed a charter in 1248/49. According to a 19th century historian, Alexander Mackenzie, the Clan Chisholm is of Norman and Saxon origin. Tradition stating that the Chisholms were a Norman family who arrived in England after the Norman conquest of 1066. The original Norman name being De Chese to which the Saxon term "Holme" was added upon the marriage of a Norman ancestor to a Saxon heiress. In early records the name is written as "de Cheseholme", eventually later becoming Chisholm. In Scotland the earliest recorded person of the family is on the Ragman Rolls as "Richard de Chisholm del Counte de Rokesburgh", referring to the Clan Chisholm's seat in Roxburghshire. Sir John de Chesholme led the clan at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 against the English. Robert Chisholm fought against the English at the Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346, was taken prisoner with King David II and probably not released until eleven years later when his royal master returned to Scotland. In 1359 Robert Chisholm
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    Clan Donald

    Clan Donald

    • Founder: Domhnall mac Raghnaill
    • Country: Scotland
    Clan Donald is one of the largest Scottish clans. There are numerous branches to the clan. Several of these have chiefs recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms; these are: Clan Macdonald of Sleat, Clan Macdonald of Clanranald, Clan MacDonell of Glengarry, Clan MacDonald of Keppoch, and Clan MacAlister. Notable branches without chiefs so-recognised are: the MacDonalds of Dunnyveg, MacDonalds of Lochalsh, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and the MacDonalds of Ardnamurchan. The MacDonnells of Antrim are related but do not belong to the Scottish associations and have a chief officially recognised in Ireland. The Norse-Gaelic Clan Donald traces its descent from Dòmhnall Mac Raghnuill (d. circa 1250), whose father Reginald or Ranald was styled "King of the Isles" and "Lord of Argyll and Kintyre". Ranald's father, Somerled was styled "King of the Hebrides", and was killed campaigning against Malcolm IV of Scotland at the Battle of Renfrew in 1164. Clan Donald shares a descent from Somerled with Clan MacDougall, who trace their lineage from his elder son, Dugall mac Somhairle. Their dynasties are together commonly referred to as the Clann Somhairle. Furthermore they are descended maternally
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    Clan Farquharson

    Clan Farquharson

    Clan Farquharson(/ˈfɑrkərsən/) of Invercauld is a Highland Scottish clan. The clan hails from Aberdeenshire and is a member of the Chattan Confederation. Farquhar - from the Gaelic 'fear' and 'char' meaning 'dear one'. In modern Scottish Gaelic, the surname is written "MacFhearchair". The clan derives its name from Farquhar Shaw, 4th son of Alexander "Ciar" Mackintosh of Rothiemurchus, 5th Chief of the Clan Shaw, who settled in the Braes of Mar, the source of the River Dee. His descendants took the name Farquharson. Farquhar Shaw's son married Isobel Stewart, heiress of Invercauld, however, it was their son, Finlay Mor who has become known as the first real Farquharson. He was killed during the Battle of Pinkie in 1547, aged 60, while performing the duty of the King's Standard Bearer. This was part of the Anglo-Scottish Wars. His nine sons ensured that the clan became numerous and influential. In 1595 the clan entered a bond of manrent with the Clan MacKintosh, so also associating themselves with the Chattan Confederation. At the end of the sixteenth century the Erskines attempted to reclaim the Earldom of Mar. Jon Erskine, who styled himself Earl of Mar, built Braemar Castle in
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    Clan Grant

    Clan Grant

    Clan Grant is a Highland Scottish clan. The Grants are one of the clans of Siol Alpin, and descend from the 9th century Kenneth MacAlpin, King of Scots; and also of Norse origin, from settlers who are the descents of Haakon inn Riki Sigurdarsson, Jarl of Hladr, Protector of Norway ( Hakon Sigurdsson ),(c. 937 – 995), sometimes known as "the Great ", who was the defacto ruler of Norway from about 975 to 995. The first recorded Grant was Sir Laurence le Grant who was Sherriff of Inverness in 1260. His son, John Grant was captured by the English during the Wars of Scottish Independence. Members of Clan Grant have owned land in Strathspey at least since 1316, prior to that, most likely in Stratherrick, to the east of Loch Ness. In 1316, John Grant of Inverallan sold his land to John le Grant, who was father of Patrick le Grant, Lord of Stratherrick. The clan's lands in Stratherrick would later come to be controlled by Clan Fraser. During the Wars of Scottish Independence Clan Grant were supporters of William Wallace and fought at the Battle of Dunbar (1296) where both Randolph and John de Grant were captured and imprisoned for a time. The Clan Grant later supported King Robert the
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    Clan Lamont

    Clan Lamont

    Clan Lamont ( listen (help·info)) is a Highland Scottish clan. The clan is said to descend from Ánrothán Ua Néill, an Irish prince of the O'Neill dynasty. As a part of this lineage, the clan claims descent from the legendary Niall Noigíallach, High King of Ireland. Clan MacEwen of Otter, Clan MacNeil of Barra, Clan MacLachlan, and Clan Sweeney are also descendants of Anrothan, and thus are distant kin to Clan Lamont. Clan Lamont's historical domain was a prominent one; for centuries, they powerfully ruled almost all of the rugged lands of the Cowal peninsula in Argyll. However, Clan Lamont was severely crippled by the Dunoon Massacre in 1646, when Campbell clansmen brutally murdered around 200 Lamont clan members. As a result of this and other events, Clan Lamont was repressed into smaller areas of Cowal. Many Lamonts moved to different parts of Scotland, particularly to the lowland areas. Today, Lamonts are widespread across the globe. The 26th and current chief of Clan Lamont is Rev. Fr. Peter Noel Lamont, Chief of the Name and Arms of Lamont. The surname Lamont has several origins, but the clan's name is derived from the medieval personal name Lagman (Lawspeaker) which is from
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    Clan MacLeod of Lewis

    Clan MacLeod of Lewis

    Clan Macleod of The Lewes, commonly known as Clan MacLeod of Lewis, is a Highland Scottish clan, which at its height held extensive lands in the Western Isles and west coast of Scotland. From the 14th century up until the beginning of the 17th century there were two branches of Macleods: the MacLeods of Dunvegan and Harris; and the Macleods of Lewis. In Gaelic the Macleods of Lewis were known as Sìol Thorcaill ("Seed of Torquil"), and the MacLeods of Dunvegan and Harris were known as Sìol Thormoid ("Seed of Tormod"). The traditional progenitor of the Macleods was Leod, whom tradition made a son of Olaf the Black, King of Mann and the Isles. Tradition gave Leod two sons, Tormod - progenitor of the Macleods of Harris and Dunvegan (Sìol Thormoid); and Torquil - progenitor of the Macleods of Lewis (Sìol Thorcaill). In the 16th and early seventeenth centuries the chiefly line of the Clan Macleod of The Lewes was extinguished due to family infighting. This feuding directly led to the fall of the clan, and loss of its lands to the Clan Mackenzie. The modern line of chiefs of Clan Macleod of The Lewes are represented by the leading family of a cadet branch of the clan - the Macleods of
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    Clan Macpherson

    Clan Macpherson

    Clan Macpherson ( listen (help·info)) is a Highland Scottish clan from Badenoch, on the River Spey. It is a leading member of the Chattan Confederation. The name Macpherson -- or MacPherson or McPherson, according to different spellings -- comes from the Gaelic Mac a' Phearsain and means 'Son of the Parson'. The Parson in question was Muriach, a 12th century parson, or lay preacher, of Kingussie in Badenoch. Historically, the term 'parson' (in the Gaelic pearsain or pears-eaglais literally 'person of the church') had a different meaning. Before the Reformation in Highland Scotland, the religious leader of a parish was the priest and the parson was the steward of church property, responsible for the collection of tithes. The history of Clan Macpherson has been called "The Posterity of the Three Brethren" as the three grandsons of Muriach are the antecedents of the three main clan families, Cluny, Pitmain and Invereshie. For many centuries, the Macphersons have been a leading clan in the Clan Chattan Confederation along with Clan Mackintosh, Clan Shaw and others. Although the Macphersons have a strong claim to the Chattan lineage, they have been unsuccessful in wresting control of
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    Clan Nicolson

    Clan Nicolson

    Clan Nicolson is a Lowland Scottish clan. The clan claims descent from an Edinburgh lawyer who lived in the 16th century and from a disinguished line of Aberdeen merchants who preceded him. During the mid-1980s David Nicolson, 4th Baron Carnock was recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms as the chief of Clan Nicolson. Around the same time, a Nicolson who claimed descent from the Highland clan of "Nicolsons" historically centred on Skye, petitioned the Lord Lyon King of Arms to be recognised as chief of his own clan. The Lord Lyon King of Arms accepted this man's petition on the condition he took the surname MacNeacail. In consequence there are two Scottish clans with similar names—the lowland Clan Nicolson and the highland Clan MacNeacail. The surname Nicolson means "son of Nicol". The personal name Nicol is a diminutive of Nicholas, derived from the Greek Νικόλαος meaning "victory people". The personal name Nicol was first brought to the British Isles by the Normans. Nicholas was a very common mediaeval name and is found in many different forms as a surname. The surname is shared by two Scottish clans—the lowland Clan Nicolson and the unrelated Clan MacNeacail of Skye. This is
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    Cometopuli dynasty

    Cometopuli dynasty

    • Members: Maria of Bulgaria
    The Cometopuli dynasty (Bulgarian: Династия на комитопулите; Byzantine Greek: Κομητόπουλοι) was the last royal dynasty in the First Bulgarian Empire, ruling from ca. 976 until the fall of Bulgaria under Byzantine rule in 1018. The most notable member of the dynasty, tsar Samuel is famous for successfully resisting Byzantine conquest for more than 40 years. Sometimes the realm of the Cometopuli is called Western Bulgarian Kingdom or Western Bulgarian Empire. The actual name of the dynasty is not known. “Cometopuli” is merely the nickname which is used by Byzantine historians to address rulers from the dynasty as its founder, boyar Nikola, was a comes (governor, cognate to "count"; Byzantine Greek Κóμης, from the Latin; Bulgarian Комита Komita) probably of the region of Sredetz (the present-day capital of Bulgaria, Sofia). According to some sources the dynasty was of Armenian origin. In 969 AD and following the Russo-Byzantine conquest of Eastern Bulgaria, count Nikola assumed control of the Bulgarian lands west of the rivers Iskar and Struma. By the time of the Byzantine conquest of Preslav and the dethronement of Tsar Boris II in 972, Nikola had been killed and the rule assumed by
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    House of Mecklenburg

    House of Mecklenburg

    • Members: Duchess Jutta of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
    The House of Mecklenburg is a North German dynasty of West Slavic origin that ruled until 1918. Niklot was a lord of the Wendish tribe of Obotrites. When the Holy Roman Empire expanded eastwards, notably to the coast of Baltic in 13th century, a portion of Obotrite lords allied with German leaders, and strengthened their own position in consequence. The mightiest of them were those who became first Lords of Mecklenburg (name derives from their main castle, Mikla Burg, big fortress). The main branch of the house was elevated in 1347 to ducal rank. They gradually became outwardly more German, preserving their ruling position. The Dukes of Mecklenburg pursued from 14th century a claim to inheritance in Sweden. The Duke of Mecklenburg was a descendant and the heir of two women whom legends tied to Scandinavian royal houses. The Sverker dynasty had long been extinct, having lost the throne ultimately to Eric XI. The male dynasty of Eric X was also now extinct, and issue of his other daughters had been sidestepped by Birger Jarl, the husband of his daughter (the only who yet in 1250 lived), Ingeborg Eriksdotter of Sweden. Birger took care to secure the kingship to his own sons. Claim
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    Julio-Claudian dynasty

    Julio-Claudian dynasty

    The Julio-Claudian dynasty normally refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula (also known as Gaius), Claudius, and Nero, or the family to which they belonged; they ruled the Roman Empire from its formation, in the second half of the 1st century (44/31/27) BC, until AD 68, when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide. None of the Julio-Claudians were succeeded by their sons; only one of them had a legitimate son survive him. The ancient historical writers, chiefly Suetonius and Tacitus, write from the point of view of the Roman senatorial aristocracy, and portray the Emperors in generally negative terms, whether from preference for the Roman Republic or love of a good scandalous story. Tacitus wrote this of the Julio-Claudian Emperors and history: Julius and Claudius were two Roman family names; in classical Latin, they came second. Such names are inherited from father to son; but a sonless Roman aristocrat quite commonly adopted an heir, who would also take the family name - this could be done in his will. Thus (Gaius) Julius Caesar adopted his sister's grandson, Gaius Octavius, who became a Julius, eventually named Imperator Caesar Augustus,
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    Nasrid dynasty

    Nasrid dynasty

    The Nasrid dynasty (Arabic: بنو نصر‎ banū Naṣr) was the last Moorish and Muslim dynasty in Spain. The Nasrid dynasty rose to power after the defeat of the Almohad Caliphate in 1212 at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. Twenty-three different emirs ruled Granada from the founding of the dynasty in 1232 by Mohammed I ibn Nasr until January 2, 1492, when Muhammad XII surrendered to the Christian Spanish kingdoms of Aragon and Castile. Today, the most visible evidence of the Nasrids is the Alhambra palace complex built under their rule. Arabs trace their ancestry through their nasab, i.e. patrilineal descent. The Nasrid dynasty claimed direct male-line descent from Sa'd ibn Ubadah, chief of the Banu Khazraj tribe and one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Banu Khazraj were themselves part of the Qahtanite group of tribes, which originate in the southern regions of the Arabian Peninsula. The nasab of Yusuf (nicknamed "al-Ahmar", meaning "the Red"), the common ancestor of all Nasrid sultans, is shown below. The name of Nasr, from whom the dynasty derives its name, appears in bold font. During the time the Christians were launching a campaign against the Emirate of
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    Ogiński family

    Ogiński family

    • Members: Michał Kazimierz Ogiński
    • Country: Lithuania
    Ogiński (Lithuanian: Oginskiai, Belarusian: Агінскія, Ahinskija) was a noble family of Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Poland (later, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), member of The Princely Houses of Poland. They were most likely of Rurikid stock, related to Chernihiv Knyaz family, and originated from the Smolensk region, incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania around 14th century. The family bears its name from Uogintai (in present day Kaišiadorys district of Lithuania), a major estate of the family in Lithuania granted to precursor of the family Knyaz Dmitry Hlushonok (d. 1510) by Grand Duke of Lithuania Alexander in 1486. An important family in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the family had produced many important officials of the state, as well as several notable musicians. The Ogiński clan's political stronghold was the Vitebsk Voivodeship, where a palace was built in the first half of the 17th century by Samuel Ogiński; until the beginning of the 19th century, it was the largest public building in the city of Vitebsk. On September 18, 1711 Bishop Bogusław Gosiewski, sold the town of Maladzyechna the Ogiński family. Among the owners of the area were Kazimierz Ogiński and
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    Roosevelt family

    Roosevelt family

    • Members: Claes Martenzsen Van Rosenvelt
    • Founder: Claes Martenzsen Van Rosenvelt
    • Country: United States of America
    The Roosevelt family is a prominent American business and political family whose members include United States Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt. The Roosevelts were among the earliest to settle in the Dutch colonial settlement of New Amsterdam, in what would later become New York. It has been suggested that Claes van Rosenvelt could have been related to the Van Rosevelts of Oud-Vossemeer, who were amt lords in the Tholen region of the Netherlands. While evidence suggests that Claes van Rosenvelt, the ancestor to the American Roosevelt family, indeed came from the Tholen region where the Van Rosevelts were land owners, no records exist that prove that he is related to the noble family. It may simply be a coincidence, or Claes van Rosenvelt may have chosen the name purposely because of its noble origins or to honour his local amt lord, as was common practice for peasants of the time. Claes Maartenszen van Rosenvelt, the immigrant ancestor of the Roosevelt family, arrived in Nieuw Amsterdam (present day New York City) some time between 1638 and 1649. Around the year 1652, he bought a farm from Lambert van Valckenburgh comprising
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    Samma Dynasty

    Samma Dynasty

    The Samma Dynasty (Sindhi: سمن جو راڄ, Urdu: سلسله سماں) ruled in Sindh and parts of Punjab and Balochistan from 1335-1520 AD, with their capital at Thatta in modern Pakistan before being replaced by the Arghun Dynasty. They claimed descent from Lord Krishna, their ancestor being Jam Unar who was 82nd in descent from Lord Krishna. Their collateral branch is Chudasama Rajput clan. They later converted to Islam. The Samma dynasty has left its mark in Sindh with magnificent structures including the necropolis of kings and royalties in Thatta. The Sindh is a fertile valley with a sub-tropical climate watered by the Indus river, the location of some of the oldest civilizations in the world, with settlements dating back to 7000 BCE. Always a prize possession, it has been controlled by many different empires, alternating with periods of independence. Before the Samma dynasty took control, the Sindh was ruled by the Soomra, first as nominal vassals of the Fatimid Caliphate of Cairo, later as vassals of the Delhi Sultanate, which reached its greatest extent under Muhammad bin Tughluq (c.1300–1351), but began to break up towards the end of his reign. The Sammas, a Rajput tribe, gained
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    Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt

    Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt

    The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (also written Dynasty XXVI or Dynasty 26) was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC (although others followed). The Dynasty's reign (c. 685-525 BC) is also called the Saite Period after the city of Sais, where its pharaohs had their capital, and marks the beginning of the Late Period of ancient Egypt. This dynasty traced its origins to 24th dynasty. Psamtik I was probably a descendant of Bakenrenef, and following the Assyrians' invasions during the reigns of Taharqa and Tantamani, he was recognized as sole king over all of Egypt. While the Assyrian Empire was preoccupied with revolts and civil war over control of the throne, Psammetichus threw off his ties to the Assyrians, and formed alliances with Gyges, king of Lydia, and recruited mercenaries from Caria and Greece to resist Assyrian attacks. With the sack of Nineveh in 612 BC and the fall of the Assyrian Empire, both Psamtik and his successors attempted to reassert Egyptian power in the Near East, but were driven back by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar II. With the help of Greek mercenaries, Apries was able to hold back Babylonian attempts to conquer
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