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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best Family member of All Time

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    1
    David Sassoon

    David Sassoon

    • Family: Sassoon family
    David Sassoon (October 1792 – November 7, 1864) was the treasurer of Baghdad between 1817 and 1829. He became the leader of the Jewish community in Mumbai after Baghdadi Jews emigrated there. He was a leading trader of cotton and opium in China. Sassoon was born in Baghdad, where his father, Saleh Sassoon, was a wealthy businessman, chief treasurer to the pashas (the governors of Baghdad) from 1781 to 1817, and leader of the city's Jewish community. The family were Iraqi Jews. His mother was Amam Gabbai. After a traditional education in the Hebrew language, Sassoon married Hannah in 1818. They had two sons and two daughters before she died in 1826. Two years later he married Farha Hyeem (who was born in 1812 and died in 1886). The pair had six sons and three daughters. Following increasing persecution of Baghdad's Jews by Daud Pasha, the family moved to Mumbai via Persia. Sassoon was in business in Mumbai no later than 1832, originally acting as a middleman between British textile firms and Gulf commodity merchants, subsequently investing in valuable harbour properties. His major competitors were Parsis, whose profits were built on their domination of the Sino-Indian opium trade
    7.00
    8 votes
    2
    Konstanty Adam Czartoryski

    Konstanty Adam Czartoryski

    • Family: Czartoryski family
    Prince Konstanty Adam Czartoryski (October 28, 1774 – April 24, 1860) was a Polish szlachcic. Colonel since 1809 in the Duchy of Warsaw and Brigadier General since 1815 in Congress Poland.
    8.50
    6 votes
    3
    Alexey Razumovsky

    Alexey Razumovsky

    • Family: Razumovsky
    Count Alexei Grigorievich Razumovsky (Russian: Алексей Григорьевич Разумовский, Ukrainian: Олексій Григорович Розумовський, Olexii Hryhorovych Rozumovskyi; 1709 – 1771), was a Ukrainian Cossack who rose to become lover and, eventually, the morganatic spouse of the Russian Empress Elizaveta Petrovna. Oleksiy Rozum was born on March 17, 1709 (NS: March 28) on the farm Lemeshi near Chernihiv in the family of a registered Ukrainian Cossack, Hryhory Rozum. In his youth he was a shepherd; then he was taught to read and write by the rural sexton. Having a fine voice he sang in the choir at the village church. In 1731, Colonel Vyshnevsky, one of empress Anna Ivanovna’s courtiers, while passing through the village on his way back to the Russian capital from a mission to Hungary, was wonder-struck with his vocal ability, and took him to St. Petersburg where he joined the choir of the Ukrainian palace chapel. The beauty and talent of Razumovsky captivated Elizabeth Petrovna who took him to the imperial court in 1732. Upon deportation of Elizabeth’s minion Aleksey Shubin, Razumovsky replaced him as tsesarevna's favorite. After losing his voice, he was accepted in the post of the court bandura
    6.38
    8 votes
    4
    Hannah Primrose, Countess of Rosebery

    Hannah Primrose, Countess of Rosebery

    • Family: Rothschild family
    Hannah Primrose, Countess of Rosebery (27 July 1851 – 19 November 1890) was the daughter of Mayer de Rothschild and his wife Juliana, née Cohen. Upon the death of her father in 1874 she became the richest woman in Britain. During the final quarter of the 19th century her husband, the 5th Earl of Rosebery, was one of the most celebrated figures in Britain, an influential millionaire and politician, whose charm, wit, charisma and public popularity gave him such standing that he "almost eclipsed royalty." Yet his Jewish wife, during her lifetime regarded as dull, overweight and lacking in beauty, remains an enigmatic figure largely ignored by historians and often regarded as notable only for financing her husband's three ambitions: to marry an heiress, win the Epsom Derby, and become Prime Minister (the second and third of these possibly apocryphal ambitions were achieved after her death). In truth, she was her husband's driving force and motivation. Her marriage into the aristocracy, while controversial at the time, gave her the social cachet in an antisemitic society that her vast fortune could not. She subsequently became a political hostess and philanthropist. Her charitable work
    7.14
    7 votes
    5
    Kryštof Dientzenhofer

    Kryštof Dientzenhofer

    • Family: Dientzenhofer Family of Architects
    Christoph Dientzenhofer (Czech: Kryštof Dientzenhofer) (born 7 July 1655 in St. Margarethen near Brannenburg, Landkreis Rosenheim - 20 June 1722 in Prague) was a prominent German architect of Bohemian Baroque. He was a member of the famous Dientzenhofer family of architects, and the father of Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer. Among his works are the Church of St. Nicholas (1703–11, later completed by his son) and the Brevnov Monastery (1708–21) in Prague, church of St. Klara in Eger (Cheb) (1708–11). Some of his works are difficult to identify, due to the lack of documentation.
    8.00
    6 votes
    6
    Michał Kazimierz Ogiński

    Michał Kazimierz Ogiński

    • Family: Ogiński family
    Prince Michał Kazimierz Ogiński (1730, Warsaw – 1800, Słonim or Warsaw) of Oginiec was a Polish noble, a political office holder and a military commander in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, as well as a noted musician and composer. He began his political career at the age of 18, when he became the Field Writer of Lithuania, a mid-level position in the administration of the State. In 1764 he became one of Russia's candidates for the Polish-Lithuanian throne. When Stanisław August Poniatowski was chosen instead, he was made Palatine of Vilnius. He later joined the anti-Russian Bar Confederation. Defeated by the Russian forces under Alexander Suvorov in the Battle of Stołowicze, he was forced into exile. However, in 1768 he was allowed to return and was nominated to the rank of the Grand Hetman of Lithuania, thus becoming one of two highest ranking military commanders in the Polish-Lithuanian state. During the Great Sejm of 1788–1791, Ogiński was a member of the Patriotic Party. However, following the defeat of his faction in the Polish-Russian War of 1792, he resigned his post and retired to his family manor in Słonim. Apart from his political
    7.50
    6 votes
    7
    Elisabeth Radziwill

    Elisabeth Radziwill

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Princess Elisa Radziwill Elisa Friederike Luise Martha (28 October 1803, Berlin – 27 August 1834, Bad Freienwalde) was a member of Polish-Lithuanian high nobility of royal ancestry who was the desired bride of the Prince who later became Wilhelm I, German Emperor. Elisa was a daughter of Prince Anton Radziwill and Princess Louise of Prussia, niece of King Frederick the Great. She was a cousin of the Prussian Royal Family. Prince William, her second cousin once removed, and the heir presumptive of the Prussian throne, was in love with her. William was expected to marry and produce further heirs. His father and her kinsman King Frederick William III were fond of the relationship between Wilhelm and Elisa, but some in the Prussian court had discovered historical allegations that her ancestors had bought their princely title from Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. In the eyes of certain people, she was not deemed of sufficiently high nobility to marry the heir to the Prussian throne (Elisa was not royal, because her father was not a reigning prince). Interestingly, William's older brother, Frederick William IV of Prussia was married to Elisabeth Ludovika of Bavaria, and Elisabeth was
    8.60
    5 votes
    8
    Jerzy Radziwiłł

    Jerzy Radziwiłł

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Jerzy Radziwiłł (Lithuanian: Jurgis Radvila) (1480–1541) was a Lithuanian noble. He was Deputy Cup-Bearer of Lithuania from 1510, voivode of Kiev Voivodeship from 1510, Field Hetman of Lithuania in 1521, castellan of Trakai from 1522, castellan of Vilnius from 1527, Marshal of the Court from 1528, Grand Hetman of Lithuania from 1531, Starost of Hrodna, Namiestnik of Vilnius, Maišiagala, Mereck, Utena, Mozyrsk, Lida, Skidal, Bielica, Kryńsk and Oziersk. He was a progenitor of the Biržai-Dubingiai (also known as Protestant) Radziwiłł family line. He was renowned for his military achievements and as a talented politician. He took part in various conflicts against Muscovy, the Cossacks and the Tatars. Achieving around 30 military victories, he has been referred as the Lithuanian Hercules. In 1526 as a member of the Lithuanian Council of Lords he unsuccessfully petitioned the Grand Duke of Lithuania Sigismund I the Old for the renewal of a Kingdom of Lithuania under the rule of Zygmunt's I son, Sigismund II August. In the 1530s, acting with his brother Jan Radziwiłł, he was in almost total control of Lithuania's internal affairs. As a member of influential Radziwiłł family, Jerzy worked
    7.33
    6 votes
    9
    Julian Huxley

    Julian Huxley

    • Family: Huxley
    Sir Julian Sorell Huxley FRS (22 June 1887 – 14 February 1975) was an English evolutionary biologist, eugenicist and internationalist. He was a proponent of natural selection, and a leading figure in the mid-twentieth century evolutionary synthesis. He was Secretary of the Zoological Society of London (1935–1942), the first Director of UNESCO, and a founding member of the World Wildlife Fund. Huxley was well known for his presentation of science in books and articles, and on radio and television. He directed an Oscar-winning wildlife film. He was awarded UNESCO's Kalinga Prize for the popularisation of science in 1953, the Darwin Medal of the Royal Society in 1956, and the Darwin–Wallace Medal of the Linnaean Society in 1958. He was also knighted in that same year, 1958, a hundred years after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace announced the theory of evolution by natural selection. In 1959 he received a Special Award of the Lasker Foundation in the category Planned Parenthood – World Population. Huxley was a prominent member of the British Eugenics Society and its president from 1959–1962. Huxley came from the distinguished Huxley family. His brother was the writer Aldous
    6.43
    7 votes
    10
    Robert Sargent Shriver III

    Robert Sargent Shriver III

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Robert Sargent "Bobby" Shriver III (born April 28, 1954) is an American activist, attorney, journalist and a Democratic member of the Santa Monica City Council in Santa Monica, California. He is a former mayor of the City of Santa Monica and currently serves as a member of the Santa Monica City Council. With the retirement of his cousin, U.S. Representative Patrick Kennedy (D-Rhode Island) in January 2011, Shriver is the only member of the Kennedy family serving in elected office. He was born in Chicago, Illinois, to Eunice Kennedy Shriver (née Kennedy) and Robert Sargent Shriver, Jr., the first of their five children. His siblings are: Shriver attended Yale College at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, where he was a member of the Scroll and Key Society. He graduated with a B.A. in American studies with cum laude honors. He graduated from Yale Law School in 1981. After graduating from law school, Shriver clerked for a year for Judge Stephen R. Reinhardt at the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, which is headquartered in San Francisco, California. He then moved to New York City to work in a venture capital business at James D. Wolfensohn, Inc. Along with his
    7.00
    6 votes
    11
    Antoni Radziwiłł

    Antoni Radziwiłł

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Prince Antoni Henryk Radziwiłł (13 June 1775 – 7 April 1833) was a Polish-Lithuanian and Prussian noble, aristocrat, musician and politician. Initially a hereditary Duke of Nieśwież (modern Nesvizh, Belarus) and Ołyka (modern Olyka, Ukraine), as a scion of the Radziwiłł family he also held the honorific title of a Reichsfürst of the Holy Roman Empire. Between 1815 and 1831 he acted as Duke-Governor (Polish: książę-namiestnik, German: Statthalter) of the Grand Duchy of Posen, an autonomous province of the Kingdom of Prussia created out of Greater Polish lands annexed in the Partitions of Poland. Antoni Radziwiłł was born on 13 June 1775 in Vilnius to Michał Hieronim Radziwiłł and Helena née Przeździecka. From 1792 he attended Göttingen University and was invited to the court of King Frederick William II of Prussia. In 1796 he married Princess Louise of Prussia, the second daughter of Prince Augustus Ferdinand of Prussia and hence a niece of the late Prussian king Frederick the Great. His new family convinced him that he should be a mediator between the Poles living under the Third Partition after the failed Kościuszko Uprising and the Prussian authorities in Berlin. Fluctuating
    9.25
    4 votes
    12
    Amadeus I of Savoy

    Amadeus I of Savoy

    • Family: House of Savoy
    Amadeus I (died c. 1052), nicknamed of the Tail or la Coda (Latin caudatus, "tailed"), was an early count of the House of Savoy. He was probably the eldest son of Humbert I. His nickname derives from an anecdote, preserved only in a thirteenth-century manuscript, that when he met the Emperor Henry III at Verona in 1046, he refused to enter the emperor's chambers without his large train of knights, his "tail". Amadeus is first attested in a document of 8 April 1022, when, along with his younger brother Burchard, Bishop of Belley, he witnessed a donation of Lambert, Bishop of Langres, to his father. Probably sometime after this and before 1030, Amadeus, Burchard, and a third brother, Otto, joined their father in witnessing a donation made by one Aymon de Pierrefort to the Abbey of Cluny. In a further two undated charters of probably about the same period, Amadeus together with his brothers Otto and Aymon and his father made donations to the Abbey of Cluny and the church of Saint-Maurice at Matassine. Amadeus and his father also witnessed another donation, made by several nobleman, to the Abbey of Savigny. The first record of Amadeus's marriage and use of the comital title ("count",
    7.80
    5 votes
    13
    William C. Whitney

    William C. Whitney

    • Family: Whitney family
    William Collins Whitney (July 5, 1841 - February 2, 1904) was an American political leader and financier and founder of the prominent Whitney family. He served as Secretary of the Navy in the first Cleveland administration from 1885 through 1889. A conservative reformer, he was considered a Bourbon Democrat. William Whitney was born at Conway, Massachusetts of Puritan stock. The family were descended from John Whitney of London, who settled at Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1635. William Whitney's father was Brigadier General James Scollay Whitney; his mother, Laurinda Collins, was a descendant of Plymouth governor William Bradford. William Whitney had a well known older brother, industrialist Henry Melville Whitney (1839–1923), president of the Metropolitan Steamship Company, founder of the West End Street Railway Company of Boston, and later founder of the Dominion Coal Company and Dominion Iron and Steel Company in Sydney, Nova Scotia on Cape Breton Island. His sister Lucy Collins "Lily" Whitney married Charles T. Barney, who became the president of the Knickerbocker Trust Company. Another sister, Susan Collins Whitney, married Henry F. Dimock. Educated at Williston Seminary, East
    9.00
    4 votes
    14
    Consuelo Vanderbilt

    Consuelo Vanderbilt

    • Family: Vanderbilt family
    Consuelo Balsan (formerly, Consuelo, Duchess of Marlborough; born Consuelo Vanderbilt) (2 March 1877 – 6 December 1964), was a member of the prominent American Vanderbilt family. Her marriage to the Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough became an international emblem of the socially advantageous, but loveless marriages common during the Gilded Age. Born in New York City, she was the only daughter and eldest child of William Kissam Vanderbilt, a New York railroad millionaire, and his first wife, a Mobile, Alabama belle and budding suffragist, Alva Erskine Smith (1853–1933, later Mrs. O. H. P. Belmont). Her Spanish name was in honor of her godmother, Maria Consuelo Iznaga Clement (1858–1909), a half-Cuban, half-American socialite who created a social stir a year earlier when she married the fortune-hunting George Montagu, Viscount Mandeville, a union of Old World and New World that caused the groom's father, the 7th Duke of Manchester, to openly wonder if his son and heir had married a "Red Indian." (Consuelo, Duchess of Manchester was also the basis of the character Conchita Closson in Edith Wharton's unfinished novel The Buccaneers.) Consuelo Vanderbilt was largely
    7.60
    5 votes
    15
    James I of England

    James I of England

    James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the English and Scottish crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death. The kingdoms of England and Scotland were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments, judiciary, and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. He became King of Scotland at the age of thirteen months, succeeding his mother Mary, Queen of Scots, who had been compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died without issue. He continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22 years, a period known as the Jacobean era after him, until his death in 1625 at the age of 58. After the Union of the Crowns, he based himself in England (the largest of the three realms) from 1603, only returning to Scotland once in 1617, and styled himself "King of Great Britain and Ireland". In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and
    7.60
    5 votes
    16
    Amadeus II of Savoy

    Amadeus II of Savoy

    • Family: House of Savoy
    Amadeus II (c. 1050 – 26 January 1080) was the Count of Savoy from 1078 to 1080. His life is obscure and few documents mention him. During his reign he was overshadowed by his mother, but he had good relations with the Papacy and, for a time, the Holy Roman Emperor. The second son of Otto, Count of Savoy, and Adelaide, Margravine of Turin, Amadeus II was probably born around 1050, because he, alongside other noblemen of the Kingdom of Burgundy, swore an oath on the tomb of Saint Peter in Rome to defend the Church around 1070–73. In 1074 Pope Gregory VII was trying to persuade William I, Count of Burgundy, to remember this vow and, with Amadeus and others, go to the defence of the Roman Empire in the East against the Seljuk Turks. As his mother is known to have had good relations with the Papacy in these years, this record seems to indicate that Amadeus was following his mother's policies at this early stage in his career. Early in 1077 Amadeus, with his mother and brother Peter, then Count of Savoy, hosted his sister Bertha, and his brother-in-law, Bertha's husband, the Emperor Henry IV. Amadeus and Adelaide then escorted the imperial couple to Canossa so the excommunicated emperor
    8.75
    4 votes
    17
    Leonard Huxley

    Leonard Huxley

    • Family: Huxley
    Leonard Huxley (11 December 1860 – 2 May 1933) was an English schoolteacher, writer and editor. His father was the zoologist Thomas Henry Huxley, 'Darwin's bulldog'. Leonard was educated at University College School, London, St. Andrews University, and Balliol College, Oxford. He first married Julia Arnold, daughter of Tom Arnold. She was a sister of the novelist Mrs. Humphrey Ward, niece of the poet Matthew Arnold, and granddaughter of Thomas Arnold, the headmaster of Rugby School (immortalised as a character in Tom Brown's Schooldays). Their four children included the biologist Julian Huxley (1887–1975) and the writer Aldous Huxley (1894–1963). Their middle son, Noel Trevenen (born in 1889), committed suicide in 1914. Their daughter, Margaret Arnold Huxley, was born in 1899 and died on 11 October 1981. Julia Arnold died of cancer in 1908. After the death of his first wife, Leonard married Rosalind Bruce, and had two further sons. The elder of these was David Bruce Huxley (1915–1992), whose daughter Angela married George Pember Darwin, son of the physicist Charles Galton Darwin. The younger was the 1963 Nobel Prize-winning physiologist Andrew Huxley (1917–2012). Huxley's major
    8.75
    4 votes
    18
    Leonhard Dientzenhofer

    Leonhard Dientzenhofer

    • Family: Dientzenhofer Family of Architects
    Leonhard Dientzenhofer (also: Johann Leonhard Dientzenhofer; 20 February 1660 – 26 November 1707) was a German builder and architect from the well known Dientzenhofer family of architects. Leonhard was born in St. Margarethen (Bavaria), District of Rosenheim, the seventh child of Georg Dientzenhofer and Anna Thanner. His four brothers, Georg, Wolfgang, Christoph and Johann, were also well-known architects/builders. On 30 January 1685 in Waldsassen, he married Maria Anna Hager, a sister of the wife of his brother Georg. They had three sons and four daughters. Soon after the death of his Maria (6 July 1699), he married in Bamberg Anna Margaretha Sünder from Staffelstein. They had two daughters. Leonhard died, aged 47, in Bamberg. His work on Banz Abbey was taken over by his brother Johann. (1696–1702) Georg Dientzenhofer, after the death of Wolfgang Dientzenhofer) (1686) der Barockzeit. Rosenheimer Verlagshaus, 1989, ISBN 3-475-52610-7 Barock. Rosenheim 1976, ISBN 3-475-52149-0
    8.75
    4 votes
    19
    Laurance Rockefeller

    Laurance Rockefeller

    • Family: Rockefeller family
    Laurance Spelman Rockefeller (May 26, 1910 – July 11, 2004) was a venture capitalist, financier, philanthropist, a major conservationist and a prominent third-generation member of the Rockefeller family. He was the fourth child of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and brother to John D. III, Nelson, Winthrop, David and Abby Rockefeller Mauze. Rockefeller was born in New York City. He graduated from Princeton University (1932) and attended Harvard Law School for two years, until he decided he did not want to be a lawyer. In 1934, Laurance married childhood friend Mary French, whose mother, Mary Montague French, and Laurance's mother were friends. When Nelson attended Dartmouth College, he shared a room with Mary's brother. Mary was granddaughter of Frederick H. Billings, a president of Northern Pacific Railway. Laurance and Mary had three daughters and a son. They are Laura R. Chasin, Marion R. Weber, Dr. Lucy R. Waletzky, and Larry Rockefeller. In 2004, when he died, he had eight grandchildren and 12 great-grandchildren. Mary had died in 1997. In 1937 he inherited his grandfather's seat on the New York Stock Exchange. He served as founding trustee of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund for
    10.00
    3 votes
    20
    Percy Avery Rockefeller

    Percy Avery Rockefeller

    • Family: Rockefeller family
    Percy Avery Rockefeller (1878–1934) was founder and vice president of Owenoke Corporation. He was a board director of Air Reduction Company, American International Corporation, Atlantic Fruit Company, Anaconda Copper Mining Company, Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Bowman Biltmore Hotels Company, Cuba Company, Chile Copper Company, Consolidated Gas Company, Greenwich Trust Company, W. A. Harriman & Co. & Brown Brothers Harriman & Company, Mesabi Iron Company, National City Bank of New York, National City Company, New York Edison Company, North American Reassurance Company, National Surety Company, Provident Loan Society, Remington Arms Company, United Electric Light & Power Company, Western Union & Telegraph Company; and a trustee of John Sterling. He was the son of William Rockefeller and his wife, Almira Geraldine Goodsell. He attended Yale University from 1897 to 1900, where he was also a member of the 1900 class of Skull and Bones. He married Isabel Goodrich Stillman, daughter of First National City Bank president James Jewett Stillman (now known as Citibank), on April 23, 1901. Their daughter Isabel Stillman (Rockefeller) Lincoln was a bride's maid at the wedding of Dorothy Walker
    10.00
    3 votes
    21
    Samuel P. Bush

    Samuel P. Bush

    • Family: Bush family
    Samuel Prescott Bush (October 4, 1863 – February 8, 1948) was an American industrialist. He was the patriarch of the Bush political family. He was the father of U.S. Senator Prescott Bush, grandfather of former U.S. President George H. W. Bush, and great-grandfather of former U.S. President George W. Bush. Bush was born in Brick Church, Orange, New Jersey, the son of Harriet Fay and the Rev. James Smith Bush, an Episcopal priest at Grace Church in Orange. He grew up in New Jersey, San Francisco, and Staten Island, but spent the majority of his adult life in Columbus, Ohio. He married Flora Sheldon on June 20, 1894. They had five children: Prescott Bush, Robert (who died in childhood), Mary (Mrs. Frank) House, Margaret (Mrs. Stuart) Clement, and James. His wife, Flora, died on September 4, 1920 in Narragansett, Rhode Island, when she was hit by a car. He later married Martha Bell Carter of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Bush graduated from the Stevens Institute of Technology at Hoboken, New Jersey in 1884, where he played on one of the earliest regular college football teams. He took an apprenticeship with the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad at the Logansport, Indiana
    5.71
    7 votes
    22
    Pauline Einstein

    Pauline Einstein

    • Family: Einstein family
    Pauline Einstein (née Koch) (February 8, 1858 – February 20, 1920) was the mother of the physicist Albert Einstein. She was born in Cannstatt, Württemberg. She was Jewish and had an older sister, Fanny, and two older brothers, Jacob and Caesar. Her parents were Julius Doerzbacher, who had accepted the family name Koch in 1842, and Jette Bernheimer. They had married in 1847. Pauline’s father was from Jebenhausen, now part of the city of Göppingen, and came from simple circumstances. Later he lived in Cannstatt and together with his brother Heinrich succeeded in making a considerable fortune in the corn trade. They even became “Royal Württemberg Purveyor to the Court”. Their mother was from Cannstatt and was a quiet and caring person. At 18 years old, Pauline married the merchant Hermann Einstein who lived in Ulm. They got married in Cannstatt on August 8, 1876. After the marriage the young couple lived in Ulm, where Hermann became joint partner in a bed feathers company. Their son Albert was born on March 14, 1879. On the initiative of Hermann’s brother Jakob the family moved to Munich in the summer of 1880, where the two brothers together founded an electrical engineering company
    6.50
    6 votes
    23
    Michał Kleofas Ogiński

    Michał Kleofas Ogiński

    • Family: Ogiński family
    Michał Kleofas Ogiński (Lithuanian: Mykolas Kleopas Oginskis, Belarusian: Міхал Клеафас Агінскі) (25 September 1765 - 15 October 1833) was a Polish composer, diplomat and politician, Lithuanian Grand Treasurer and Russian senator. Ogiński was born in Guzów, Żyrardów County (near Warsaw) in the Polish Kingdom (part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). His father Andrius was Lithuanian nobleman and governor of Trakai, in Lithuania; his mother, Paula Paulina Szembek (1740–1797), was a daughter of the Polish magnate, Marek Szembek whose ancestors were Austrians and Yadviga Rudnicka who was of polonised Lithuanian descent (family name's root is of Lithuanian origin and the suffix indicates polonisation of her family name). Taught at home, young Ogiński excelled especially at music and foreign languages. He studied under Józef Kozłowski, and later took violin lessons from Viotti and Baillot. Ogiński served as an adviser to King Stanisław August Poniatowski and supported him during the Great Sejm of 1788–1792. After 1790, he was dispatched to Hague as a diplomatic representative of Poland in the Netherlands and was Polish agent in Constantinople and Paris. In 1793, he was nominated to
    7.40
    5 votes
    24
    George H. W. Bush

    George H. W. Bush

    • Family: Bush family
    George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States (1989–93). He had previously served as the 43rd Vice President of the United States (1981–89), a congressman, an ambassador, a Director of Central Intelligence, and is currently the oldest surviving president. Bush was born in Milton, Massachusetts, to Senator Prescott Bush and Dorothy Walker Bush. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Bush postponed going to college, enlisted in the US Navy on his 18th birthday, and became the youngest aviator in the Navy at the time. He served until the end of the war, then attended Yale University. Graduating in 1948, he moved his family to West Texas and entered the oil business, becoming a millionaire by the age of 40. He became involved in politics soon after founding his own oil company, serving as a member of the House of Representatives, among other positions. He ran unsuccessfully for president of the United States in 1980, but was chosen by party nominee Ronald Reagan to be the vice presidential nominee, and the two were subsequently elected. During his tenure, Bush headed administration task forces on
    8.50
    4 votes
    25
    August Aleksander Czartoryski

    August Aleksander Czartoryski

    • Family: Czartoryski family
    Prince August Aleksander Czartoryski (Lithuanian: Augustas Aleksandras Čartoriskis, 9 November 1697 – 4 April 1782) was a Polish-Lithuanian noble (szlachcic), magnate, and founder of the family fortune. August became Major-General of the Polish Army in 1729, voivode of the Ruthenian Voivodship in 1731, General Starost of Podolia in 1750–1758, and a Knight of Malta. He was Starost of Warsaw, Kościerzyna, Lubochnia, Kałusz, Latowicz, Lucyn, Wąwolnica, Kupiski and Pieniań. He supported Stanisław I Leszczyński during the War of the Polish Succession in 1733. In the reign of August III, with his brother Michał he was a leader of the "Familia." During the interregnum of 1763–1764 he strove for the Polish crown for himself, later for his son Adam Kazimierz. In 1764–1766 he was Marshal of the General Confederation (konfederacja generalna); from 1764, Regimentarz of the Crown. He was a supporter of political reforms in the Republic, and an opponent of the Radom Confederation.
    8.25
    4 votes
    26
    David René de Rothschild

    David René de Rothschild

    • Family: Rothschild family
    Baron David René James de Rothschild (French pronunciation: [david ʁəne ʒɛms də ʁɔtʃild]) (born December 15, 1942 in New York City, New York) is a banker and a member of the French branch of the Rothschild family. He is the chairman of Rothschild Continuation Holdings, a Swiss holding company (which is believed to be controlled by Concordia BV, another holding company, this time registered in Holland). He was formerly a chairman of De Beers. David de Rothschild was born in the United States as a result of his parents having to escape the Nazis during the German occupation of France in World War II. He is the son of Guy de Rothschild (1909-2007) and his first wife and distant cousin, the former Baroness Alix Hermine Jeannette Schey de Koromla (1911-1982). His maternal grandfather was the Hungarian Baron Philip Schey von Koromla. While his mother remained in New York City throughout the war, his father went to England where he joined the Free French Forces. Following the liberation of France, the family returned to their home in Paris. His parents eventually divorced and from his father's second marriage he has a half-brother, Edouard. In 1974, David de Rothschild married the Italian
    7.00
    5 votes
    27
    Tito Jackson

    Tito Jackson

    • Family: The Jacksons
    Toriano Adaryll "Tito" Jackson (born October 15, 1953) is an American singer and lead guitarist and original member of The Jackson 5, who later changed their name to The Jacksons, who rose to fame in the late 1960s with the Motown label, later finding success under the Epic label in the 1970s and 1980s. Jackson was the third eldest of the nine Jackson siblings and was raised in Gary, Indiana. His father, Joe worked with a band called the Falcons at the time of Jackson's birth but eventually quit after the success of his family grew. Jackson's early career aspirations began when his father was often away at work at U.S. Steel, playing with his father's guitar, which he had forbidden his kids to do. Then one night, Jackson broke one of his father's guitar strings while his father worked night hours. When his father found out about it, he whipped him with a belt. After he got his guitar fixed, he ordered Jackson to play for him, warning that if he broke it again, he'd get more discipline. Upon playing the guitar, an impressed Joe Jackson later bought the eight-year-old Jackson his own guitar. Within a year, he discovered that Tito and his brothers Jackie and Jermaine could also hold
    7.00
    5 votes
    28
    Charlotte Perkins Gilman

    Charlotte Perkins Gilman

    • Family: Beecher family
    Charlotte Perkins Gilman (July 3, 1860 – August 17, 1935) was a prominent American sociologist, novelist, writer of short stories, poetry, and nonfiction, and a lecturer for social reform. She was a utopian feminist during a time when her accomplishments were exceptional for women, and she served as a role model for future generations of feminists because of her unorthodox concepts and lifestyle. Her best remembered work today is her semi-autobiographical short story The Yellow Wallpaper which she wrote after a severe bout of postpartum psychosis. Gilman was born on July 3, 1860 in Hartford, Connecticut, to Mary Perkins (formerly Mary Fitch Westcott) and Frederick Beecher Perkins. She had only one brother, Thomas Adie, who was fourteen months older, because a physician advised Mary Perkins that she might die if she bore other children. During Charlotte's infancy, her father moved out and abandoned his wife and children, leaving them in an impoverished state. Since their mother was unable to support the family on her own, the Perkinses were often in the presence of aunts on her father's side of the family, namely Isabella Beecher Hooker, a suffragist, Harriet Beecher Stowe (author
    8.00
    4 votes
    29
    Daniele Barbaro

    Daniele Barbaro

    • Family: Barbaro family
    Daniele Matteo Alvise Barbaro (also Barbarus) (8 February 1514 – 1570) was an Italian translator of, and commentator on, Vitruvius. He also had a significant ecclesiastical career, reaching the rank of Cardinal. He was born in Venice, the son of Francesco di Daniele Barbaro and Elena Pisani, daughter of the banker Alvise Pisani and Cecilia Giustinian. Barbaro studied philosophy, mathematics, and optics at the University of Padua. He has been credited with the design of the university's botanical garden. Barbaro served the Republic of Venice as ambassador to the court of Elizabeth I in London and as representative at the Council of Trent. His appointment as Cardinal may have been secret (in pectore) to avoid causing diplomatic complications. In 1550 he was elected Patriarch of Aquileia, an ecclesiastical appointment that required the approval of the Venetian Senate. On the death of his father, he inherited a country estate with his brother Marcantonio Barbaro. They commissioned Palladio to design their shared country home Villa Barbaro, which is now part of a World Heritage Site. Palladio and Daniele Barbaro visited Rome together and the architecture of the villa reflects their
    8.00
    4 votes
    30
    George Bush

    George Bush

    • Family: Bush family
    George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who was the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009 and the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. The eldest son of Barbara Bush and George H. W. Bush, he was born in New Haven, Connecticut. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, Bush worked in oil businesses. He married Laura Welch in 1977 and ran unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives shortly thereafter. He later co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. In a close and controversial election, Bush was elected president in 2000, becoming the fourth president to be elected despite receiving less popular votes nationwide than his opponent. Bush is the second president to have been the son of a former president. He is also the brother of Jeb Bush, former Governor of Florida. Eight months into Bush's first term as president, the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks occurred. In response, Bush announced the War on Terror, an international military campaign which included the war in Afghanistan launched in 2001 and
    8.00
    4 votes
    31
    Robert F. Kennedy, Jr.

    Robert F. Kennedy, Jr.

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Robert Francis Kennedy, Jr., (born January 17, 1954) is an American radio host, activist, and attorney specializing in environmental law. He is the third of eleven children born to Ethel (Skakel) Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy and is the nephew of John F. Kennedy and Ted Kennedy. Kennedy co-hosts Ring of Fire, a nationally syndicated American radio program. After obtaining his high school diploma from Pomfret School, Kennedy continued his studies at Harvard University and the London School of Economics, graduating from Harvard College in 1976 with a Bachelor of Arts in American History and Literature. He then obtained a law degree from the University of Virginia and a Master of Laws degree from Pace University. Kennedy married Emily Ruth Black (b. October 15, 1957) on April 3, 1982, in Bloomington, Indiana; she is the daughter of Thomas Black and Libby Armstrong. They have two children: Robert F. III, b. 1984, and Kathleen Alexandra, b. 1988. They divorced on March 25, 1994, in the Dominican Republic. Kennedy subsequently married Mary Richardson (October 4, 1959 – May 16, 2012) on April 15, 1994, aboard a research vessel along the Hudson River. They had four children: Conor
    8.00
    4 votes
    32
    William Kissam Vanderbilt II

    William Kissam Vanderbilt II

    • Family: Vanderbilt family
    William Kissam Vanderbilt II (2 March 1878 – 8 January 1944) was a motor racing enthusiast and yachtsman and a member of the prominent United States Vanderbilt family. He was born on March 2, 1878 in New York City, the second child and first son of William Kissam Vanderbilt and Alva Erksine Smith. He was a brother to Harold Stirling Vanderbilt and Consuelo Vanderbilt. Born to a life of luxury, he was raised in Vanderbilt mansions, traveled to Europe frequently, and sailed the globe on yachts owned by his father. Vanderbilt was educated by tutors and at private schools and sent to study at Harvard University but dropped out after the first year. Although he developed an interest in horse racing and yachting, he was totally fascinated with automobiles. At age 10, during a stay in the south of France he had ridden in a steam-powered tricycle from Beaulieu-sur-Mer the 7 kilometers to Monte Carlo and as a twenty-year-old, in 1898 he ordered a French De Dion-Bouton motor tricycle and had it shipped to New York. Soon, he acquired other motorized vehicles and before long began to infuriate citizens and officials alike as he sped furiously through the towns and villages of Long Island, New
    8.00
    4 votes
    33
    Peggy Guggenheim

    Peggy Guggenheim

    • Family: Guggenheim
    Marguerite "Peggy" Guggenheim (August 26, 1898 – December 23, 1979) was an American art collector, bohemian and socialite. Born to a wealthy New York City family, she was the daughter of Benjamin Guggenheim, who went down with the Titanic in 1912, and the niece of Solomon R. Guggenheim, who would establish the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. Peggy Guggenheim created a noted art collection in Europe and America primarily between 1938 and 1946. She exhibited this collection as she built it and, in 1949, settled in Venice, where she lived and exhibited her collection for the rest of her life. Peggy's father was of Swiss-German Jewish origin, and her mother of German and Dutch-Jewish ancestry. When she turned 21 in 1919, Peggy Guggenheim inherited US$2.5 million, roughly US$20 million in today's currency. Guggenheim's father, Benjamin Guggenheim, died in the sinking of the RMS Titanic and he had not amassed the fortune of his siblings; therefore her inheritance was far less than the vast wealth of her cousins. She first worked as a clerk in an avant-garde bookstore, the Sunwise Turn, where she became enamored with the members of the bohemian artistic community. In 1920 she went to
    6.80
    5 votes
    34
    Robert I of Scotland

    Robert I of Scotland

    • Family: Clan Bruce
    Robert I (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce (Medieval Gaelic: Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys), was King of Scots from 25 March 1306, until his death in 1329. His paternal ancestors were of Scoto-Norman heritage (originating in Brix, Manche, Normandy), and his maternal of Franco-Gaelic. He became one of Scotland's greatest kings, as well as one of the most famous warriors of his generation, eventually leading Scotland during the Wars of Scottish Independence against the Kingdom of England. He claimed the Scottish throne as a fourth great-grandson of David I, and fought successfully during his reign to regain Scotland's place as an independent nation. Today in Scotland, Bruce is remembered as a national hero. His body is buried in Dunfermline Abbey, while it is believed his heart was interred in Melrose Abbey. Bruce's lieutenant and friend Sir James Douglas agreed to take the late King's embalmed heart on crusade to the Holy Land, but he only reached Moorish Granada. According to tradition, Douglas was carrying the heart in a silver casket when he died at the head of the
    6.80
    5 votes
    35
    Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach

    Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach

    • Family: Bach family
    Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (21 June 1732 – 26 January 1795), the ninth son of Johann Sebastian Bach, sometimes referred to as the "Bückeburg Bach". He is not to be confused with other similarly named members of the Bach family (see Johann Christoph Bach (disambiguation)). Born in Leipzig in the Electorate of Saxony, he was taught music by his father, and also tutored by his distant cousin Johann Elias Bach. He studied at the St. Thomas School, and some believe he studied law at the university there, but there is no record of that. In 1750, Count Wilhelm von Schaumburg-Lippe appointed Johann Christoph harpsichordist at Bückeburg, and in 1759, he became Konzertmeister. While there, Bach collaborated with Johann Gottfried Herder, who provided the texts for six vocal works; the music survives for only four of these. Bach wrote keyboard sonatas, symphonies, oratorios, liturgical choir pieces and motets, operas and songs. Because of Count Wilhelm's predilection for Italian music, Bach had to adapt his style accordingly, but he retained stylistic traits of the music of his father and of his brother, C. P. E. Bach. He married the singer Lucia Elisabeth Münchhausen (1728–1803) in 1755
    9.00
    3 votes
    36
    Daniel Guggenheim

    Daniel Guggenheim

    • Family: Guggenheim
    Daniel Guggenheim (July 9, 1856 – September 28, 1930) was an American industrialist and philanthropist, and a son of Meyer Guggenheim. Born in Philadelphia, Daniel Guggenheim won a lead-silver price war with ASARCO in 1900, and the Guggenheims took over ASARCO in 1901. Daniel moved aggressively to add mining and smelting properties to the Guggenheim's mining empire. When World War I broke out in 1914, Daniel was ready to ramp up copper production worldwide to aid the Allied war effort—and the Guggenheim profits. He was a member of the National Security League, the driving force for moving the then-neutral USA into World War I, which was headed by J.P. Morgan. During the war, Daniel's son Harry Guggenheim became a pilot and both became avid supporters of aviation technology. In the 1920s they established the Daniel Guggenheim Medal for achievement in aeronautics and provided grants for aeronautics research at California Institute of Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, New York University, Northwestern University, Stanford University, Syracuse University, the University of Akron, the University of Michigan, and the
    7.75
    4 votes
    37
    Dorothy Walker Bush

    Dorothy Walker Bush

    • Family: Bush family
    Dorothy Wear Walker Bush (July 1, 1901 – November 19, 1992), mother to 41st President of the United States, George H. W. Bush, and the grandmother of 43rd President of the United States, George W. Bush. Time on her death wrote that "George (H.W.) Bush was shaped and tempered by his mother's nature." Dorothy Bush raised her five children in a strongly religious home. During her childhood she attended church as many as three times each Sunday. She was born near Walker's Point, in York County, Maine, to George Herbert Walker and Lucretia "Loulie" (Wear) Walker (1874–1961). Walker attended Miss Porter's School and married Prescott Sheldon Bush on August 6, 1921, in Kennebunkport, Maine. They had five children: Prescott "Pressy" Bush, Jr. (1922–2010), George H. W. Bush (1924; (named after Dorothy's father, George Herbert Walker), Nancy Bush (1926), Jonathan Bush (1931), and William "Bucky" Bush (1938). Lucretia Wear was descended from French Huguenots (Gabriel and Marie Hersent Maupin) who arrived in America in 1700. Dorothy Walker Bush died at age 91 in Greenwich, Connecticut, on November 19, 1992, only 16 days after her son lost the 1992 presidential election to Bill Clinton. She is
    7.75
    4 votes
    38
    Prescott Bush

    Prescott Bush

    • Family: Bush family
    Prescott Sheldon Bush (May 15, 1895 – October 8, 1972) was an American banker and politician. He was a Wall Street executive banker and a United States Senator, representing Connecticut from 1952 until January 1963. He was the father of George H. W. Bush (41st President of the United States) and the grandfather of George W. Bush (43rd President of the United States) and Jeb Bush (43rd Governor of Florida). Bush was born in Columbus, Ohio, to Samuel Prescott Bush and Flora Sheldon Bush. Samuel Bush was a railroad executive, then a steel company president, and, during World War I, also a federal government official in charge of coordination and assistance to major weapons contractors. Bush attended St. George's School in Newport, Rhode Island, from 1908 to 1913. In 1913, he enrolled at Yale University, where his grandfather James Smith Bush, class of 1844, and his uncle Robert E. Sheldon Jr., class of 1904, had matriculated. Three subsequent generations of the Bush family have been Yale alumni. Prescott Bush was admitted to the Zeta Psi fraternity and Skull and Bones secret society. George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush are also members of that society. Prescott Bush was a
    7.75
    4 votes
    39
    William H.T. Bush

    William H.T. Bush

    • Family: Bush family
    William Henry Trotter "Bucky" Bush (born July 14, 1938) is the youngest son of Prescott Sheldon Bush and Dorothy Walker Bush, the youngest brother of former President George H. W. Bush, and the uncle of former President George W. Bush. Born in Greenwich, Connecticut, he graduated from the Hotchkiss School, Lakeville, CT, in 1956, and earned a BA from Yale University in 1960, where he became a brother of the Psi Upsilon fraternity and was elected to Wolf's Head Society. His great-grandfather James Smith Bush was among the Yale alumni and faculty who help found the society. Bush has worked in banking and venture capital, and sits on a number of corporate boards. In 1986 he founded Bush O'Donnell & Co., and remains the CEO of that firm. He has worked on the election campaigns of George H.W., George W., and Jeb Bush, primarily as a fundraiser. He resides in St. Louis, Missouri, also the home of his late grandfather George Herbert Walker. A former president of and director of the St. Louis-based Boatmen's Bancshares from 1978 to 1986 he is active in various St. Louis civic functions including being chairman of the Board of Trustees of Saint Louis University (1985–92), chairman of the
    5.83
    6 votes
    40
    Janusz Radziwiłł

    Janusz Radziwiłł

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Prince Janusz Radziwiłł of Trąby (also known as Janusz the Second or Janusz the Younger, 1612–1655) was a notable Polish–Lithuanian noble and magnate. Throughout his life he occupied a number of posts in the state administration, including that of Court Chamberlain of Lithuania (from 1633) and Field Hetman of Lithuania (from 1654). He was also a voivode of Vilna Voivodeship, as well as a starost of Samogitia, Kamieniec, Kazimierz and Sejwy. In his times he was one of the most powerful people in the Commonwealth, often described as a de facto ruler of the entire Grand Duchy of Lithuania. During the "Deluge", the Swedish invasion of Poland-Lithuania during the Second Northern War, he sided with the Swedish king signing the Treaty of Kėdainiai and the Union of Kėdainiai. This move however antagonised him with most of other nobles, including members of his own family. His forces were eventually defeated in battle and he himself died in a besieged castle at Tykocin. He was born to one of the most powerful of princely Lithuanian families and as heir to its Kėdainiai estate (as it is written in the Lithuanian Rhymed Chronicle). Educated abroad, in Germany and the Netherlands, he took part
    6.60
    5 votes
    41
    Henry VI of England

    Henry VI of England

    • Family: House of Lancaster
    Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. Until 1437, his realm was governed by regents. Contemporaneous accounts described him as peaceful and pious, not suited for the dynastic wars, known as the Wars of the Roses, which were to commence during his reign. His periods of insanity and his inherent benevolence eventually required his wife, Margaret of Anjou, to assume control of his kingdom, which contributed to his own downfall, the collapse of the House of Lancaster, and the rise of the House of York. Henry was the only child and heir of King Henry V. He was born on 6 December 1421 at Windsor Castle, and succeeded to the throne at the age of nine months as King of England on 31 August 1422 when his father died, thus making him the youngest person ever to succeed to the English throne. Two months later, on 21 October 1422, he became King of France upon his grandfather Charles VI's death in agreement with the Treaty of Troyes in 1420. His mother, Catherine of Valois, was then 20 years old and, as Charles VI's daughter, was viewed with considerable suspicion by English
    7.50
    4 votes
    42
    Nathan Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild

    Nathan Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild

    • Family: Rothschild family
    Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild, Baron de Rothschild (8 November 1840 – 31 March 1915) was a British banker and politician from the international Rothschild financial dynasty. Known as "Natty", he was the eldest son of Baron Lionel de Rothschild (1808–1879) and Baroness Charlotte de Rothschild (née von Rothschild), grandson of Nathan Mayer Rothschild after whom he was named, and the great-grandson of Mayer Amschel Rothschild founder of the dynasty. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was a friend of the Prince of Wales, but left without taking a degree. On 16 April 1867 he married Emma Louise von Rothschild (1844–1935), a cousin from the Rothschild banking family of Germany in Frankfurt. They had the following children: In 1847, his uncle Anthony Nathan de Rothschild (1810–1876) was created 1st Baronet de Rothschild, of Tring Park. Because Anthony had no male heirs, on his death the baronetcy passed to his nephew Nathan Mayer Rothschild. In 1885, he subsequently became a member of the House of Lords and was created Baron Rothschild, of Tring in the County of Hertford, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. He also was Baron (Freiherr) von/de
    8.67
    3 votes
    43
    Herbert H. Lehman

    Herbert H. Lehman

    • Family: Lehman family
    Herbert Henry Lehman (March 28, 1878 – December 5, 1963) was a Democratic Party politician from New York. He was the 45th Governor of New York from 1933 to 1942, and represented New York in the United States Senate from 1950 to 1957. Lehman, born in New York City in 1878, was the son of Reform Jews, Babetta (Newgass) and German-born immigrant Mayer Lehman, one of the three founders of the Lehman Brothers investment banking firm. Herbert Lehman attended what is now The Dwight School. A graduate of Williams College (Class of 1899), he became a partner of Lehman Brothers with his brother Arthur and cousin Philip in 1908. Lehman married Edith Louise Altschul in 1910. Herbert Lehman became a colonel in the U.S. Army during World War I. The couple had three children, Hilda, Peter, and John. All three served in the United States Military during World War II; Peter was killed while on active duty. According to a group history that was published April 6, 1944, the Governor's son was to be awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. The medal was set to be awarded to Peter on his father's 70th birthday. Lehman became active in politics in 1920, and became Chairman of the Finance Committee of the
    6.40
    5 votes
    44
    Charles Beecher

    Charles Beecher

    • Family: Beecher family
    Charles Beecher (October 1, 1815 – April 21, 1900) was an American minister, composer of religious hymns, and prolific author. Beecher was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, the son of Lyman Beecher, an abolitionist Congregationalist preacher from Boston and Roxana Foote Beecher. He was the brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe, the famous author of Uncle Tom's Cabin, and the brother of renowned Congregationalist minister, Henry Ward Beecher. He also had another prominent and activist sister, Catharine Beecher. He attended Boston Latin School and Lawrence Academy in Groton, Massachusetts, graduated from Bowdoin College in 1834, and then attended Lane Theological Seminary in Ohio. He taught music classes in Cincinnati, Ohio, and received his preaching license from the Presbytery of Indianapolis, Indiana. Beecher married Sarah Leland Coffin (1815-1897) in 1840 and they had six children. He served as pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church in Fort Wayne, Indiana, from 1844 until 1851. He was also a prominent member of the Peucinian Society. In 1851, he moved east and ministered to the First Free Presbyterian Church in Newark, New Jersey. The church, known as a stronghold of abolitionism,
    7.25
    4 votes
    45
    Jay Rockefeller

    Jay Rockefeller

    • Family: Rockefeller family
    John Davison "Jay" Rockefeller IV (born June 18, 1937) is the senior United States Senator from West Virginia. He was first elected to the Senate in 1984, while in office as Governor of West Virginia, a position he held from 1977 to 1985. Rockefeller moved to Emmons, West Virginia to serve as a VISTA worker in 1964, and was first elected to public office in the state, as a member of the House of Delegates, in 1966. Rockefeller was later elected Secretary of State in 1968 and was president of West Virginia Wesleyan College from 1973 to 1976. As a great-grandson of oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller, he is the only currently-serving politician of the prominent six-generation Rockefeller family and the only Democrat in what has been a traditionally Republican dynasty. John Davison Rockefeller IV was born at New York Hospital in New York City to John D. Rockefeller III and Blanchette Ferry Hooker just 26 days after the death of his great-grandfather John D. Rockefeller. Jay Rockefeller graduated from Phillips Exeter Academy in 1955 and from Harvard College in 1961 with an A.B. in Far Eastern Languages and History, after having spent three years studying Japanese at the International
    7.25
    4 votes
    46
    Aldous Huxley

    Aldous Huxley

    • Family: Huxley
    Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. Best known for his novels including Brave New World and a wide-ranging output of essays, Huxley also edited the magazine Oxford Poetry, and published short stories, poetry, travel writing, film stories and scripts. Huxley spent the later part of his life in the United States, living in Los Angeles from 1937 until his death. Aldous Huxley was a humanist, pacifist, and satirist, and he was latterly interested in spiritual subjects such as parapsychology and philosophical mysticism. He is also well known for advocating and taking psychedelics. By the end of his life Huxley was widely acknowledged as one of the pre-eminent intellectuals of his time and respected as an important researcher into visual communication and sight-related theories as well. Aldous Huxley was born in Godalming, Surrey, England, in 1894. He was the third son of the writer and schoolmaster Leonard Huxley and his first wife, Julia Arnold, who founded Prior's Field School. Julia was the niece of poet and critic Matthew Arnold and the sister of Mrs. Humphrey Ward. Aldous
    8.33
    3 votes
    47
    Catharine Beecher

    Catharine Beecher

    • Family: Beecher family
    Catharine Esther Beecher (September 6, 1800 – May 12, 1878) was an American educator known for her forthright opinions on female education as well as her vehement support of the many benefits of the incorporation of kindergarten into children's education. Beecher was born September 6, 1800, in East Hampton, New York, the daughter of outspoken religious leader Lyman Beecher and Roxanna (Foote) Beecher. She was the sister of Harriet Beecher Stowe, the 19th century abolitionist and writer most famous for her groundbreaking novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, and of clergymen Henry Ward Beecher and Charles Beecher. Beecher was educated at home until she was ten years old, when she was sent to a private school in Litchfield, Connecticut, where she was taught the limited curriculum available to young women. The experience left her longing for additional opportunities for education. She taught herself subjects not commonly offered to women, including math, Latin, and philosophy. She took over the domestic duties of her household at the age of 16, following her mother's death. Beecher became a teacher in 1821 at a school in New Haven, Connecticut. Catharine was engaged to marry Professor Alexander M.
    8.33
    3 votes
    48
    Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney

    Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney

    • Family: Whitney family
    Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney (February 20, 1899 – December 13, 1992) was an American businessman, film producer, writer, and government official, as well as the owner of a leading stable of thoroughbred racehorses. Born in Old Westbury, New York, he was the son of the wealthy and socially prominent Harry Payne Whitney (1870–1932) and Gertrude Vanderbilt (1875–1942). As a scion of both the Whitney and Vanderbilt families, he inherited a substantial fortune. However, Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney proved to be a very capable businessman, using his connections to make investments that played an important role in the development of the American economy. Most often referred to as C.V. Whitney, he was also known widely by the nickname "Sonny." After graduating from Yale University in 1922, he went to work at a Nevada mine owned by his father. His grandfather William C. Whitney was a co-founder and director of the Guaranty Trust Company of New York and in 1926 C.V. Whitney was appointed a director, serving on the bank's board until 1940. In 1927, he joined with William A. Rockefeller and other investors to back Juan Trippe in establishing the Aviation Corporation of America which a year
    8.33
    3 votes
    49
    Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild

    Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild

    • Family: Rothschild family
    Lionel Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild, Baron de Rothschild FRS (8 February 1868 – 27 August 1937), a scion of the Rothschild family, was a British banker, politician, and zoologist. Walter Rothschild was the eldest son and heir of Lord [Nathan] Rothschild, an immensely wealthy financier, of the international Rothschild financial dynasty, the first unconverted (to Christianity) Jewish peer in England. The eldest of three children, Walter was deemed to have delicate health and was educated at home. As a young man he traveled in Europe, attending the university at Bonn for a year before entering Magdalene College at Cambridge. In 1889, leaving Cambridge after two years, he was required to go into the family banking business to study finance. At the age of seven, he declared that he would run a zoological museum. As a child, he collected insects, butterflies, and other animals. Among his pets at the family home in Tring Park were kangaroos and exotic birds. As a boy, Rothschild was once dragged off his horse and assaulted by workmen while on a hunting ride near Tring, an experience that he personally attributed to Anti-Semitism. At 21, he reluctantly went to work at the family
    8.33
    3 votes
    50
    Jean Kennedy Smith

    Jean Kennedy Smith

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Jean Ann Kennedy Smith (born February 20, 1928) is an American diplomat and a former United States Ambassador to Ireland. She is the eighth of nine children born to Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Sr., and Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald and is their last surviving child. She is the sister of the 35th U.S. President, John F. Kennedy, Senators Robert F. Kennedy and Edward M. Kennedy and Special Olympics founder Eunice Kennedy Shriver. Smith is the founder of Very Special Arts (VSA), an internationally recognized non-profit dedicated to creating a society where those with disabilities can engage with the arts. In 2011, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian honor, by President Barack Obama for her work with VSA and the disabled. As Ambassador to Ireland from 1994-1998, Smith was instrumental to the Northern Ireland peace process as President Bill Clinton's representative in Dublin. She successfully advocated for the U.S. government to grant a visa to Sinn Féin President Gerry Adams which directly led to the IRA declaring a ceasefire in 1994. Irish President Mary McAleese conferred honorary Irish citizenship on Smith in 1998 in recognition of her service to
    9.50
    2 votes
    51
    Joan Whitney Payson

    Joan Whitney Payson

    • Family: Whitney family
    Joan Whitney Payson (February 5, 1903 – October 4, 1975) was an American heiress, businesswoman, philanthropist, patron of the arts and art collector, and a member of the prominent Whitney family. She was also co-founder and majority owner of Major League Baseball's New York Mets baseball franchise, and was the first woman to own a major-league team in North America without inheriting it. Joan Whitney was born in New York City, the daughter of Payne Whitney and Helen Julia Hay. Her brother was John Hay Whitney. She inherited a trust fund from her grandfather, William C. Whitney and on her father's death in 1927, she received a large part of the family fortune. She attended what is now the The Chapin School, then studied at Barnard College for a year, as well as taking some courses at Brown. She married lawyer and businessman Charles Shipman Payson, a native of Maine and a graduate of Yale University and Harvard Law School. Her husband was a Board member of Pepperdine University and together they provided the funds to build the university's library that was named for them. In 1943, she established and endowed the Helen Hay Whitney Foundation (named in honor of her mother) for
    9.50
    2 votes
    52
    Johann Dientzenhofer

    Johann Dientzenhofer

    • Family: Dientzenhofer Family of Architects
    Johann Dientzenhofer (25 May 1663 – 20 July 1726) was a builder and architect during the Baroque period in Germany. Johann was born in St. Margarethen near Rosenheim, Bavaria, a member of the famous Dientzenhofer family of German architects, who were among the leading builders in the Bohemian and German Baroque which included his brothers Georg Dientzenhofer (1643–1689), Wolfgang Dientzenhofer (1648–1706), Christoph Dientzenhofer (7 July 1655 – 20 June 1722) and Leonhard Dientzenhofer (1660–1707), Johann's son Justus Heinrich Dientzenhofer (1702–1744) and his nephew Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer (1689–1751). Dientzenhofer died in Bamberg.
    9.50
    2 votes
    53
    Patrick Bouvier Kennedy

    Patrick Bouvier Kennedy

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Patrick Bouvier Kennedy (August 7, 1963 – August 9, 1963) was the youngest child of United States President, John F. Kennedy and First Lady Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy and brother to Arabella (a stillborn baby girl), Caroline and John Jr. Patrick Bouvier Kennedy was born by emergency caesarean section five and a half weeks early at the Otis Air Force Base Hospital in Bourne, Massachusetts. His birth weight of 4 pounds 10+⁄2 ounces (2.11 kg) medically classified him as premature. Right after his birth, he was transferred to Boston Children's Hospital where he died two days later of hyaline membrane disease. His obituary in The New York Times stated that, at that time, all that could be done for a victim of hyaline membrane disease "is to monitor the infant's blood chemistry and to try to keep it near normal levels." The infant's death from hyaline membrane disease, now more commonly called respiratory distress syndrome, helped spark new public awareness of the disease and further research. As of 2004, the disease has an overall mortality of less than 15%—and is much less fatal among mildly to moderately premature infants, such as with the Kennedys' infant son. Also, treatment
    9.50
    2 votes
    54
    Robert F. Kennedy

    Robert F. Kennedy

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also referred to by his initials RFK, was an American politician, a Democratic senator from New York, and a noted civil rights activist. An icon of modern American liberalism and member of the Kennedy family, he was a younger brother of President John F. Kennedy and acted as one of his advisors during his presidency. From 1961 to 1964, he was the U.S. Attorney General. Following his brother John's assassination on November 22, 1963, Kennedy continued to serve as Attorney General under President Lyndon B. Johnson for nine months. In September 1964, Kennedy resigned to seek the U.S. Senate seat from New York, which he won in November. Within a few years, he publicly split with Johnson over the Vietnam War. In March 1968, Kennedy began a campaign for the presidency and was a front-running candidate of the Democratic Party. In the California presidential primary on June 4, Kennedy defeated Eugene McCarthy, a U.S. Senator from Minnesota. Following a brief victory speech delivered just past midnight on June 5 at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, Kennedy was shot by Sirhan Sirhan, a Palestinian Arab, because Kennedy in
    9.50
    2 votes
    55
    Thomas I, Count of Savoy

    Thomas I, Count of Savoy

    • Family: House of Savoy
    Thomas I or Tommaso I (1178, Aiguebelle – 1 March 1233) was Count of Savoy from 1189-1233. He was the son of Humbert III of Savoy and Beatrice of Viennois. His birth was seen as miraculous; his monkish father had despaired of having a male heir after three wives. Count Humbert sought counsel from St. Anthelm, who blessed Humbert three times, and it was seen as a prophecy come true when Thomas was born shortly before Anthelm himself died on 26 June 1178. He was named in honour of Saint Thomas Becket. Thomas was still a minor when his father died on 4 March 1189, and a council of regency was established, composed of his mother Beatrice, his father's cousin Boniface I of Montferrat, and the Bishop of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne. He had reached his majority by August 1191. Thomas possessed the martial abilities, energy, and brilliance that his father lacked, and Savoy enjoyed a golden age under his leadership. Despite his youth he began the push northwest into new territories. In the same year he granted Aosta Valley the "Carta delle Franchigie", recognising the right to administrative and political autonomy. This right was maintained up until the eve of the French Revolution. Later he
    9.50
    2 votes
    56
    Edgar Bronfman, Sr.

    Edgar Bronfman, Sr.

    • Family: Bronfman family
    Edgar Miles Bronfman (born June 20, 1929) is a Canadian-American businessman. He is a member of the Bronfman family. Bronfman was born in Montreal into the Jewish-Canadian Bronfman family, the son of Samuel Bronfman and Saidye Rosner Bronfman. His father was the founder of Distillers Corporation Limited which purchased in 1928, the largest distiller in the world, Seagram Company Ltd. He had three siblings: the late Minda de Gunzburg, the architecture maven Phyllis Lambert, and Charles Bronfman. After graduating from Williams College] with a B.A. degree in 1950 he joined the family business. In 1957 he took over as head of Seagram's American subsidiary. He increased the range of products sold by the company, improved distribution, and expanded the number of countries in which Seagram's products were sold. In 1966 Cemp Investments, which managed the family's investments, bought 820,000 shares of MGM and in 1969 Bronfman took over the chairmanship of MGM, albeit briefly. Following his father's death in 1971, Bronfman took over as president, treasurer, and director of Distillers Corporation-Seagrams Ltd. His son Edgar Jr. succeeded him as chief executive officer of the company in
    7.00
    4 votes
    57
    Edward Beecher

    Edward Beecher

    • Family: Beecher family
    Edward Beecher (August 27, 1803 – July 28, 1895) was a noted theologian, the son of Lyman Beecher and the brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe and Henry Ward Beecher. He was born August 27, 1803 in East Hampton, New York. He graduated from Yale College in 1822. After this he studied theology at Andover. In 1826, he became the pastor of Park Street Church in Boston, Massachusetts. He married Isabella Jones in 1829 and together they had eleven children. In 1830, he became the first president of Illinois College at Jacksonville, Illinois, where he remained president for 14 years. He was a close friend of Elijah P. Lovejoy and helped organize the first anti-slavery society in Illinois. He returned to Boston in 1844, where he was the pastor of Salem Street Church until 1855, when he returned to Illinois and became the pastor of the First Congregational Church of Galesburg. In 1871 he settled in Brooklyn, New York, where from 1885 to 1889 he was pastor of the Parkville church and he died there on July 28, 1895. He was senior editor of The Congregationalist (1849—1855), and an associate editor of the Christian Union from 1870.
    7.00
    4 votes
    58
    Robert II of Scotland

    Robert II of Scotland

    Robert II (early 1316 – 19 April 1390) became King of Scots in 1371 as the first monarch of the House of Stewart. He was the son of Walter Stewart, sixth hereditary High Steward of Scotland and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert I and of his first wife Isabella of Mar. Edward Bruce, Robert I's brother, was named heir ahead of Marjorie but he died without issue on 3 December 1318 in a battle near Dundalk in Ireland. Marjorie by this time had died in a riding accident probably in 1317. Parliament decreed that her infant son, Robert Stewart, was to be heir presumptive, but this lapsed on 5 March 1324 on the birth of a son, David, to King Robert. Robert Stewart inherited the title of High Steward of Scotland on his father's death on 9 April 1326, and a Parliament held in July 1326 confirmed the young Steward as heir should Prince David die without a successor. In 1329 the king died and the six year-old David succeeded to the throne with Sir Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray appointed Guardian of Scotland. Edward Balliol, son of King John Balliol, assisted by the English and Scottish nobles disinherited by Robert I, invaded Scotland inflicting heavy defeats on the Bruce party on 11
    7.00
    4 votes
    59
    Kerry Kennedy

    Kerry Kennedy

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Mary Kerry Kennedy (born September 8, 1959) is an American human rights activist and writer. She is the seventh of the eleven children of Robert F. Kennedy and Ethel Skakel Kennedy. She was known as Kerry Kennedy Cuomo from 1991 until 2003. Kennedy was born in Washington, D.C. She is a graduate of The Putney School and Brown University and received her J.D. from Boston College Law School. Since 1981, Kennedy has worked as a human rights activist, leading delegations into places such as El Salvador, Gaza, Haiti, Kenya, Northern Ireland, and South Korea She was also involved in causes in China, Indonesia, Vietnam, India, Sudan, and Pakistan. She established the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Human Rights in 1988 and was the Executive Director of the Robert F. Kennedy Memorial until 1995. Since 2006 she is Honorary President of the Robert F. Kennedy Foundation of Europe, based in Rome (Italy). She is also the chair of the Amnesty International Leadership Council, and has been published in The Boston Globe, The Chicago Sun-Times, and The New York Times. She is a judge for the Reebok Human Rights Award. Kennedy also travels the country giving speeches and presentations and calling on her
    6.00
    5 votes
    60
    George P. Bush

    George P. Bush

    • Family: Bush family
    George Prescott Garnica Bush (born April 24, 1976) is an attorney, U.S. Navy Reserve officer and real estate developer. He is the eldest son of former Florida Governor Jeb Bush, the nephew of former President George W. Bush, and the namesake grandson of former President George H. W. Bush. George Prescott is also named for his great-grandfather, Senator Prescott Bush. Bush's mother, Columba Garnica Gallo, is a naturalized citizen of the U.S. originally from Mexico. Bush attended Gulliver Preparatory School in Miami and was a classmate to popular musical artist Enrique Iglesias. Bush earned an undergraduate degree from Rice University in 1998 and a Juris Doctor degree from the University of Texas School of Law in 2003. Like his grandfather and uncle (both at Yale), Bush was a freshman walk-on to the baseball team at Rice University, but abandoned the game by his sophomore year. Bush played quarterback for the Jones College intramural football team. He was also featured in People Magazine's top 100 Bachelors in 2000. At the age of 12, Bush spoke before the 1988 Republican National Convention, which nominated his grandfather. He also spoke at the 1992 convention, when H.W. Bush was
    8.00
    3 votes
    61
    Johann Ludwig Bach

    Johann Ludwig Bach

    • Family: Bach family
    Johann Ludwig Bach (4 February 1677 – 1 May 1731) was a composer and violinist. He was born in Thal. At the age of 22 he moved to Meiningen eventually being appointed cantor there, and later Kapellmeister. He wrote a large amount of music and regularly oversaw performances, both at Meiningen and neighbouring courts. He was a second cousin of Johann Sebastian Bach, who made copies of several of his cantatas and performed them at Leipzig. The cantata Denn du wirst meine Seele nicht in der Hölle lassen, BWV 15, once thought to be by Johann Sebastian, and listed as BWV 15 in Wolfgang Schmieder's catalogue of his works, is now thought to be by Johann Ludwig.
    8.00
    3 votes
    62
    Micky Arison

    Micky Arison

    • Family: Arison family
    Micky Arison (born June 29, 1949) is an Israeli-American businessman. He is Chief Executive Officer of Carnival Corporation, the world's largest cruise operator, and owner of the NBA's Miami Heat. Micky Arison is the son of Ted Arison, co-founder of the Carnival Corporation, with Meshulam Riklis. His sister is Shari Arison. He resides in Bal Harbour, Florida but also has homes in New York and Israel. Arison owns a 200 foot yacht which he also uses as a home. He attended University of Miami but dropped out. In 2011, Forbes magazine calculated Arison's wealth at $5.9 billion, making him the 169th wealthiest person in the world. In 2009, he earned $7,201,110, which included a base salary of $880,000, a cash bonus of $2,206,116, stocks granted of $3,618,481, and other compensation totaling $496,513.
    8.00
    3 votes
    63
    William Kissam Vanderbilt

    William Kissam Vanderbilt

    • Family: Vanderbilt family
    William Kissam Vanderbilt (December 12, 1849 – July 22, 1920) was a member of the prominent American Vanderbilt family. He managed railroads and was a horse breeder. The second son of William Henry Vanderbilt, from whom he inherited $55 million, and grandson of "The Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbilt, William Kissam Vanderbilt was for a time active in the management of the family railroads, though not much after 1903. His sons, William Kissam Vanderbilt II (1878–1944) and Harold Stirling Vanderbilt (1884–1970), were the last to be active in the railroads, the latter losing a proxy battle for the New York Central Railroad in the 1950s. In 1879 after taking over P.T. Barnum's Great Roman Hippodrome which was on railroad property by Madison Square Park he renamed the facility Madison Square Garden. Vanderbilt's first wife was Alva Erskine Smith (1853–1933), whom he married on April 20, 1875. She was born in 1853, in Mobile, Alabama to Murray Forbes Smith, a commission merchant, and Phoebe Ann Desha, daughter of US Representative Robert Desha. They had three children. Consuelo Vanderbilt was born on March 2, 1877, followed by William Kissam Vanderbilt II on March 2, 1878, and Harold
    8.00
    3 votes
    64
    Maria Shriver

    Maria Shriver

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Maria Owings Shriver ( /ˈʃraɪvər/; born November 6, 1955) is an American journalist and author of six best-selling books. She has received a Peabody Award, and was co-anchor for NBC's Emmy-winning coverage of the 1988 Summer Olympics. As executive producer of The Alzheimer's Project, Shriver earned two Emmy Awards and an Academy of Television Arts & Sciences award for developing a "television show with a conscience". She was formerly First Lady of California as the wife of actor and then-California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, from whom she is now separated. She is a member of the Kennedy family (her mother, Eunice Kennedy Shriver was a sister of John F. Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy, and Edward Kennedy). Shriver was born in Chicago, Illinois. A Roman Catholic of German descent through her father and Irish descent through her mother, she is the second child and only daughter of the politician Sargent Shriver and Eunice Kennedy Shriver. Maria is the niece of United States President John F. Kennedy, U.S. Attorney General and U.S. Senator Robert F. Kennedy, U.S. Senator Ted Kennedy and five other siblings. Shriver attended Westland Middle School in Bethesda, Maryland, a suburb of
    6.75
    4 votes
    65
    Alfred E. Pease

    Alfred E. Pease

    • Family: Pease family
    Sir Alfred Edward Pease, 2nd Baronet (29 June 1857 – 27 April 1939), was a British Liberal Party politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1885 to 1902 and was an early settler of British East Africa, now Kenya. Pease, a member of the Quaker industrialist family, known in Britain as the Darlington Peases, was the elder son of Joseph W. Pease, 1st Bt and his wife Mary Fox. His younger brother was Joseph Albert Pease, 1st Baron Gainford. He was educated at Grove House School, Tottenham, and at Trinity College, Cambridge. He was a Director of Pease & Partners, a J.P. for North Riding of Yorkshire and a Deputy Lieutenant for London. From 1885 until 1892 Pease was Member of Parliament for York, and from 1897 until 1902 the Cleveland division of Yorkshire. He inherited the baronetcy on the death of his father on 23 June 1903. Pease was also an author, adventurer and an explorer, who lived out some years of his adult life in Britain's African colonies. He was a resident magistrate at Barberton, Mpumalanga in the Transvaal of South Africa, and explored Sudan, Somaliland, and the northern Sahara. In 1906, Pease leased more than 6,000 acres (24 km) of prairie land in the Athi Plains
    9.00
    2 votes
    66
    Amschel Mayer Rothschild

    Amschel Mayer Rothschild

    • Family: Rothschild family
    Amschel Mayer Rothschild (12 June 1773, Frankfurt am Main – 6 December 1855, Frankfurt am Main) was a German Jewish banker of the Rothschild family financial dynasty. He was the second child and eldest son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744–1812), the founder of the dynasty, and Gutlé Rothschild née Schnapper (1753–1849). On the death of Mayer Amschel in 1812, Amschel Mayer succeeded as head of the bank at Frankfurt-am-Main, his brothers having been dispatched to set up banking houses in Paris, London, Naples and Vienna. As Amschel Mayer died childless, the sons of his brothers (Anselm, son of Salomon, and Mayer Carl and Wilhelm Carl, sons of Carl) assumed responsibility for the business from 1855. He was ennobled as Amschel Mayer von Rothschild in 1817 and became a baron in 1822.
    9.00
    2 votes
    67
    Fujiwara no Fuhito

    Fujiwara no Fuhito

    • Family: Fujiwara family
    Fujiwara no Fuhito (藤原 不比等: 659 – September 13, 720) was a powerful member of the imperial court of Japan during the Asuka and Nara periods. Second son of Fujiwara no Kamatari (or, according to one theory, of Emperor Tenji), he had sons by two women, and those sons were the founders of the four principal lineages of the Fujiwara clan: the South, North, Ceremonial, and Capital lineages. Also, he had four daughters by two other women. three by Kamohime, one by Tachibana no Michiyo. One daughter by Kamohime became Emperor Mommu's wife Miyako, who in turn gave birth to Emperor Shōmu. The daughter by Michiyo became the empress of his grandson Shōmu, Empress Kōmyō. During the reign of Emperor Mommu, the government ordered that only the descendants of Fuhito could bear the Fujiwara surname and could be appointed in the Office of Dajokan, the center of administratives. Fuhito was 13 years old when the Jinshin incident occurred. His father Kamatari had been a strong supporter of Emperor Tenji, but Kamatari had already died and Fuhito was too young to be appointed a governmental officer, so he was not involved in this political conflict. In 688 he appeared first as a courtier. In 697 Prince
    9.00
    2 votes
    68
    Isabella Beecher Hooker

    Isabella Beecher Hooker

    • Family: Beecher family
    Isabella Beecher Hooker (February 22, 1822 – January 25, 1907) was a leader, lecturer, and activist in the American Suffragist movement. Isabella Holmes Beecher was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, the second child of Harriet Porter and the Reverend Lyman Beecher. As her father was called to new congregations, Isabella followed him to Boston, and then Cincinnati. In Cincinnati she attended her sister Catherine’s Western Female Institute. Although, the Western Female Institute closed during the Panic of 1837, not long after Isabella’s mother Harriet died. Then, at age fifteen, she then returned to Connecticut for an addition year of schooling at the Hartford Female Seminary, the first school her sister Catherine had founded, but was no longer involved with. While studying in Hartford, Isabella met John Hooker, a young lawyer from an established Connecticut Family. They married in 1841, and Isabella spent most of the following twenty-five years raising their three children. John brought a reformist attitude to the marriage; just before their marriage, John made his abolitionist sympathies known. Isabella did not immediately approve of her husbands position, but she gradually
    9.00
    2 votes
    69
    John F. Kennedy

    John F. Kennedy

    • Family: Kennedy family
    John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy  pronunciation (help·info) (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. After military service as commander of the Motor Torpedo Boats PT-109 and PT-59 during World War II in the South Pacific, Kennedy represented Massachusetts' 11th congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 as a Democrat. Thereafter, he served in the U.S. Senate from 1953 until 1960. Kennedy defeated Vice President and Republican candidate Richard Nixon in the 1960 U.S. presidential election. He was the youngest elected to the office, at the age of 43, the second-youngest President (after Theodore Roosevelt), and the first person born in the 20th century to serve as president. Kennedy is the only Catholic president, and is the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize. Events during his presidency included the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African-American Civil Rights Movement, and early stages of the Vietnam War. Kennedy was assassinated on November
    9.00
    2 votes
    70
    Michał Kazimierz "Rybeńko" Radziwiłł

    Michał Kazimierz "Rybeńko" Radziwiłł

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Prince Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł (Lithuanian: Mykolas Kazimieras Radvila , Belarusian: Міхал Казімер Радзівіл 1702, Olyka – 1762) was a Polish-Lithuanian noble. A member of the aristocratic Radziwiłł family, he was frequently referred to by his idiolect Rybeńko (Рыбанька), to distinguish him from the other Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł. Ordynat of (Niasviž) and(Olyka), owner of Biržai, Dubingiai, Slutsk and Kopyła. He was a koniuszy of Lithuania since 1728, Court Marshal of Lithuania since 1734, Field Hetman of Lithuania and castellan of Trakai (Troki) since 1737, castellan of Vilnius since 1742, voivod of Vilnius and Grand Hetman of Lithuania since 1744. Like his father, he was the starost of a number of towns, including Przemyśl, Bratslav, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Człuchów, Ostra, Krzyczów, Ovruch, Nowy Targ, Parczew, Osiek and Kaunas. On April 23, 1725 in Biala Krynica he married Urszula Franciszka Wiśniowiecka. Later married Anna Luiza Mycielska on January 2, 1754 in Lviv. Awarded with the Order of the White Eagle in August 1727. The treatment of his medical problems included 56 bleedings, 30 applications of leeches, and 13 cuppings. These treatments have been described as
    5.80
    5 votes
    71
    Umberto I, Count of Savoy

    Umberto I, Count of Savoy

    • Family: House of Savoy
    Umberto I (c. 980–1047/1048) (in French, Humbert aux blanches-mains; in Italian, Umberto Biancamano) was the first Count of Savoy from 1032, when the County of Vienne, which had been sold to the Archdiocese of Vienne, was divided between the County of Albon and the Maurienne. Humbert came of noble stock, possibly from Saxony, Italy, Burgundy or Provence. He is also called Umberto the White-Handed (French: Humbert aux Blanches-Mains; Italian: Umberto Biancamano) reportedly to signify his generosity. However, this posthumously applied title may derive from a textual mistranslation of an early Latin record which actually refers to the walls of his castle, not his hands, as white. During the wars between Rudolph III of Burgundy and the Emperor Henry II, Umberto supported the latter with provisions and soldiers because he was related to the imperial family by marriage. Thus, in 1003, the emperor installed him as the Count of Aosta, a mountainous region then a part of Burgundy but today within Italy, and granted him the northern Viennois as a reward. Umberto in turn protected the right flank of Henry's army during his subsequent invasion of Italy in 1004. Umberto's lands were essentially
    5.80
    5 votes
    72
    Amy Vanderbilt

    Amy Vanderbilt

    • Family: Vanderbilt family
    Amy Vanderbilt (July 22, 1908 – December 27, 1974) was an American authority on etiquette. In 1952 she published the best selling book Amy Vanderbilt's Complete Book of Etiquette. The book, later retitled Amy Vanderbilt's Etiquette, has been updated and is still in circulation today. The most recent edition (ISBN 0-385-41342-4) was edited by Nancy Tuckerman and Nancy Dunnan. Its longtime popularity has led to it being considered a standard of etiquette writing. She is also the author or collector of cooking materials, including the 1961 book Amy Vanderbilt's Complete Cook Book illustrated by Andy Warhol. This cookbook's illustrations are attributed to "Andrew Warhol" (sic), predating Andy Warhol's first New York solo pop art exhibition (hosted at Eleanor Ward's Stable Gallery November 6–24, 1962) in which he revealed his groundbreaking Marilyn Diptych and 100 Soup Cans. His illustrations for the Vanderbilt cookbook are simple line drawings in pen and ink, emotionally spare, and contrast starkly with the otherwise sumptuous cookbook setting. Amy Vanderbilt descended from either an uncle or brother of Cornelius Vanderbilt and is therefore not an official descendant-member of the
    7.67
    3 votes
    73
    Barbara Bush

    Barbara Bush

    • Family: Bush family
    Barbara Pierce Bush (born June 8, 1925) is the wife of the 41st President of the United States George H. W. Bush, and served as First Lady of the United States from 1989 to 1993. She is the mother of the 43rd President George W. Bush and of the 43rd Governor of Florida Jeb Bush. Previously she had served as Second Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Barbara Pierce was born in Flushing, New York, attended Rye Country Day School from 1931 to 1937, and is an alumna of Ashley Hall School in Charleston, South Carolina. She met George Herbert Walker Bush at age 16, and the two married in 1945, while he was on leave during his deployment as a Naval officer in World War II. They would have six children together. The Bush family soon moved to Midland, Texas; as George Bush entered political life, Barbara raised their children. As wife of the Vice President and then President, Barbara Bush has supported and worked to advance the cause of universal literacy. She founded the Barbara Bush Foundation for Family Literacy while First Lady. Since leaving the White House, she has continued to advance this cause. Barbara Pierce was born at Booth Memorial Hospital in Flushing, Queens in New
    7.67
    3 votes
    74
    Elizabeth of York

    Elizabeth of York

    • Family: House of York
    Elizabeth of York (11 February 1466 – 11 February 1503) was Queen consort of England as spouse of King Henry VII from 1486 until 1503. Elizabeth of York was, during her lifetime, a daughter, sister, niece, wife and mother of English monarchs - Edward IV, Edward V, Richard III, Henry VII and Henry VIII respectively. She was born at Westminster, the eldest girl child of King Edward IV and his Queen consort, Elizabeth Woodville, the former Lady Grey. Her christening was celebrated at Westminster Abbey, her sponsors being her grandmothers Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, and Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Duchess of Bedford. Her third sponsor was her cousin, Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick. She was named a Lady of the Garter in 1477, along with her mother and her paternal aunt Elizabeth of York, Duchess of Suffolk. In 1469, she was briefly betrothed to George Neville, son of John Neville, Earl of Northumberland, who initially supported Edward IV against his brother Warwick's rebellion. The Earl of Northumberland switched sides, however, and the betrothal was called off. In 1475, Louis XI agreed to let her marry his son, Charles, the Dauphin of France, but Louis reneged on the promise
    7.67
    3 votes
    75
    Gloria Vanderbilt

    Gloria Vanderbilt

    • Family: Vanderbilt family
    Gloria Laura Vanderbilt (born February 20, 1924) is an American artist, author, actress, heiress, and socialite most noted as an early developer of designer blue jeans. She is a member of the prominent Vanderbilt family of New York and the mother of CNN's Anderson Cooper. Vanderbilt was born in New York City, the only child of railroad heir Reginald Claypoole Vanderbilt (1880–1925) and his second wife, Gloria Morgan (1904–1965). She was christened in the Episcopal church as Gloria Laura Vanderbilt (and after her father's death, confirmed in the Catholic Church, to which her mother belonged). From her father's first marriage to Cathleen Neilson, she had a half-sister, Cathleen Vanderbilt (1904–1944). She became heiress to a half share in a five-million-dollar trust fund upon her father's death from cirrhosis when she was 18 months old. The rights to control this trust fund while Vanderbilt was a minor belonged to her mother, who traveled to and from Paris for years, taking her daughter with her. They were accompanied by a beloved nanny, whom young Gloria had named "Dodo", who would play a tumultuous part in the child's life, and her mother's identical twin sister, Thelma, who was
    7.67
    3 votes
    76
    Hassan II of Morocco

    Hassan II of Morocco

    HM King Hassan II (Arabic: الحسن الثاني‎, class. pron. (a)l-ḥasan aṯ-ṯānī, dial. (Mar.) el-ḥasan ett(s)âni); July 9, 1929 – July 23, 1999) was King of Morocco from 1961 until his death in 1999. He was the eldest son of Mohammed V, Sultan, then King of Morocco (1909–1961) and his wife Lalla Abla bint Tahar (1909–1992). King Hassan was educated at the Imperial College at Rabat and earned a law degree from the University of Bordeaux. He was exiled to Corsica by French authorities on 20 August 1953, together with his father Sultan Mohammed V. They were transferred to Madagascar in January 1954. Prince Moulay Hassan acted as his father's political advisor during the exile. Mohammed V and his family returned from exile on 16 November 1955. Prince Moulay Hassan participated in the February 1956 negotiations for Morocco's independence with his father, who later appointed him Chief of Staff of the newly founded Royal Armed Forces in April 1956. In the unrest of the same year, he led army contingents battling rebels in the mountains of the Rif. Mohammed V changed the title of the Moroccan sovereign from Sultan to King in 1957. Hassan was proclaimed Crown Prince on 19 July 1957, and became
    7.67
    3 votes
    77
    Henry IV of England

    Henry IV of England

    • Family: House of Lancaster
    Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (1399–1413). He was the ninth King of England of the House of Plantagenet and also asserted his grandfather's claim to the title King of France. He was born at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire, hence his other name, Henry (of) Bolingbroke ( /ˈbɒlɪŋbrʊk/). His father, John of Gaunt, was the third son of Edward III, and enjoyed a position of considerable influence during much of the reign of Henry's cousin Richard II, whom Henry eventually deposed. Henry's mother was Blanche, heiress to the considerable Lancaster estates, thus he became the first King of England from the Lancaster branch of the Plantagenets, one of the two family branches that were belligerents in the War of the Roses. The other one was the York branch, initiated by his uncle Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York (see section "Seniority in line from Edward III" below). One of Henry's elder sisters, Philippa of Lancaster, married John I of Portugal, and his younger sister Elizabeth was the mother of John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter. His younger half-sister Catherine, the daughter of his father's second wife, Constance of Castile, was queen
    7.67
    3 votes
    78
    Harry Frank Guggenheim

    Harry Frank Guggenheim

    • Family: Guggenheim
    Henry Frank Guggenheim (August 23, 1890 – January 22, 1971) was a American businessman, diplomat, publisher, philanthropist, aviator, and horseman. He was born August 23, 1890 in West End, New Jersey to Florence Shloss and Daniel Guggenheim. He graduated in 1907 from the Columbia Grammar School in Manhattan, and then he attended the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University. He later left Yale and served a three-year apprenticeship at the American Smelting and Refining Company in Mexico. The company was owned by the Guggenheim family. He resumed his education in 1910 at England's Pembroke College at the Cambridge University. He earned his B.A. in 1913 and an M.A. from Cambridge both in 1913. In 1917 he bought a Curtiss flying boat and moved to Manhasset, New York. In September 1917 he joined the United States Navy Reserve and served overseas in France, England and Italy during World War I. In 1924, his parents established the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Foundation and he was made a director and later president. He sponsored Robert H. Goddard's private research into liquid fuel rocketry and space flight. He provided funds for the establishment of the first Guggenheim School
    10.00
    1 votes
    79
    Jan Franciszek Czartoryski

    Jan Franciszek Czartoryski

    • Family: Czartoryski family
    Prince Jan Franciszek Czartoryski or Blessed Michał (1897–1944) was a Polish noble, Dominican. Jan was activist of the young organisation "Odrodzenie" (Rebirth) in Lwów. During the Warsaw Uprising chaplain of the Armia Krajowa Group "Konrad", killed by German troops. Beatified on June 13, 1998 among the 108 Martyrs of World War Two.
    10.00
    1 votes
    80
    Johann Sebastian Bach

    Johann Sebastian Bach

    • Family: Bach family
    Johann Sebastian Bach (31 March [O.S. 21 March] 1685 – 28 July 1750) was a German composer, organist, harpsichordist, violist, and violinist of the Baroque Period. He enriched many established German styles through his skill in counterpoint, harmonic and motivic organisation, and the adaptation of rhythms, forms, and textures from abroad, particularly from Italy and France. Many of Bach's works are still known today, such as the Brandenburg Concertos, the Mass in B minor, the The Well-Tempered Clavier, and his cantatas, chorales, partitas, passions, and organ works – and his music is revered for its intellectual depth, technical command, and artistic beauty. Bach was born in Eisenach, Saxe-Eisenach into a very musical family; his father, Johann Ambrosius Bach was the director of the town's musicians, and all of his uncles were professional musicians. His father taught him to play violin and harpsichord, and his brother, Johann Christoph Bach, taught him the clavichord and exposed him to much contemporary music. Bach also sang, and he went to the St Michael's School in Lüneburg because of his skill in voice. After graduating, he held several musical posts across Germany: he served
    10.00
    1 votes
    81
    Neil Bush

    Neil Bush

    • Family: Bush family
    Neil Mallon Pierce Bush (born January 22, 1955) is the fourth of six children of former President George Herbert Walker Bush and Barbara Bush (Barbara Lane Pierce). His five siblings are George Walker Bush, the former President of the United States; Jeb Bush, the former governor of Florida; Robin Bush, who died of leukemia in 1953 at the age of four; Marvin; and Dorothy. Bush is currently a businessman based in Texas. Bush was born in Midland, Texas. He was named after a good friend of the family, Henry Neil Mallon, chairman of Dresser Industries, George H. W. Bush's employer. As a child Bush spent some summers and holidays at his family's estate in Maine, the Bush Compound. At age 11, he entered the exclusive St. Albans School in Washington, DC. He struggled through school; a counselor told his mother that it was doubtful the boy had the potential to graduate. He was later diagnosed as having dyslexia, and his mother spent much time coaching him through his learning disability. Eventually his grades improved and he graduated from St. Albans in 1973. After St. Albans, Bush attended Tulane University, where he earned an economics degree in 1977. He earned an MBA in 1979. Neil Bush
    10.00
    1 votes
    82
    Albert Einstein

    Albert Einstein

    • Family: Einstein family
    Albert Einstein ( /ˈælbərt ˈaɪnstaɪn/; German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] ( listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the general theory of relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and the most influential physicist of the 20th century. While best known for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc (which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation"), he received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory within physics. Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. He realized, however, that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on the general theory of relativity. He
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    4 votes
    83
    Edward V of England

    Edward V of England

    • Family: House of York
    Edward V (2 November 1470 – 29 July 1483?) was King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. His reign was dominated by the influence of his uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who succeeded him as Richard III. Along with his younger brother Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, Edward was one of the Princes in the Tower, who disappeared after being sent (ostensibly for their own safety) to the Tower of London. Responsibility for their deaths is widely attributed to Richard III, but the actual events have remained controversial for centuries. The mysterious disappearance of a boy claimant to the English throne, possibly at the hands of his uncle, mirrors the presumed death of Arthur, Duke of Brittany in 1203. Along with Edward VIII, and the disputed Matilda and Jane, Edward V is one of only four English monarchs since the Norman Conquest never to have been crowned. If, as seems likely, he died before his fifteenth birthday, he is the shortest-lived monarch in English history (his great-nephew Edward VI died in his sixteenth year). Edward was born on 2 November 1470 in Westminster Abbey. His mother, Elizabeth Woodville, had sought sanctuary there from
    6.50
    4 votes
    84
    Amadeo I of Spain

    Amadeo I of Spain

    • Family: House of Savoy
    Amadeo I (Italian Amedeo, sometimes anglicized as Amadeus) (30 May 1845 – 18 January 1890) was the only King of Spain from the House of Savoy. He was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and was known for most of his life as the Duke of Aosta, but reigned briefly as King of Spain from 1870 to 1873. Granted the hereditary title Duke of Aosta in the year of his birth, he founded the Aosta branch of Italy's royal House of Savoy, which is junior in agnatic descent to the branch descended from King Umberto I that reigned until 1946, but senior to the branch of the Dukes of Genoa. Prince Amedeo of Savoy was born in Turin, Italy. He was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II (King of Piedmont, Savoy, Sardinia and, later, first King of Italy) and of Archduchess Adelaide of Austria. He was styled the Duke of Aosta from birth. In 1867 his father yielded to the entreaties of parliamentary deputy Francisco Cassins, and on 30 May of that year, Amedeo was married to Donna Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo. The King initially opposed the match on the grounds that her family was of insufficient rank, as well as his hopes for his son's marriage to a German princess. Despite her princely
    8.50
    2 votes
    85
    Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York

    Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York

    • Family: House of York
    Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, 1st Earl of Cambridge, Order of the Garter, (5 June 1341 – 1 August 1402) was a younger son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, the fourth of the five sons who lived to adulthood, of this Royal couple. Like so many medieval princes, Edmund gained his identifying nickname from his birthplace of Langley, now Kings Langley in Hertfordshire. He was the founder of the House of York, but it was through the marriage of his younger son, Richard, that the Yorkist faction in the Wars of the Roses made its claim on the throne (the other party in the Wars of the Roses, the Lancasters, being the male descendants of his elder brother, John of Gaunt). On the death of his godfather, the Earl of Surrey, Edmund was granted the Earl's lands north of the Trent, primarily in Yorkshire. In 1359 he joined his father King Edward III on an unsuccessful military expedition to France and in 1361 was made a knight of the Garter. In 1362, at the age of twenty-one, he was created Earl of Cambridge by King Edward. Some argue that Edmund had little aptitude for war, but he took part in several military expeditions to France in the 1370s, and when his tomb
    8.50
    2 votes
    86
    George V of the United Kingdom

    George V of the United Kingdom

    • Family: House of Windsor
    George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 through the First World War (1914–1918) until his death in 1936. George was a grandson of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and the first cousin of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany. From 1877 to 1891, he served in the Royal Navy. On the death of Victoria in 1901, George's father became King Edward VII, and George was made Prince of Wales. On his father's death in 1910, he succeeded as King-Emperor of the British Empire. He was the only Emperor of India to be present at his own Delhi Durbar. As a result of the First World War, other empires in Europe fell while his expanded to its greatest extent. In 1917, he became the first monarch of the House of Windsor, which he renamed from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha as a result of anti-German public sentiment. His reign saw the rise of socialism, communism, fascism, Irish republicanism, and the Indian independence movement, all of which radically changed the political landscape. The Parliament Act 1911 established the supremacy of the elected
    8.50
    2 votes
    87
    Kilián Ignác Dientzenhofer

    Kilián Ignác Dientzenhofer

    • Family: Dientzenhofer Family of Architects
    Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer (Czech: Kilián Ignác Dientzenhofer) (1 September 1689, Prague – 18 December 1751) was a Bohemian architect of the Baroque era. He was the fifth son of the German architect Christoph Dientzenhofer and a Bohemian (Czech) mother and a member of the well known Dientzenhofer family of architects. As an architect he co-operated with his father and with Jan Santini Aichel. Among Dientzenhofer's buildings are the Church of St. John of Nepomuk, the Church of St. Nicholas, and the Vila Amerika and Goltz-Kinsky Palace in Prague. He also built numerous churches and secular buildings in other towns of Bohemia. Many of his later projects were realized by his pupil and son-in-law Anselmo Martino Lurago.
    8.50
    2 votes
    88
    Mikołaj "the Red" Radziwiłł

    Mikołaj "the Red" Radziwiłł

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Mikołaj Radziwiłł, nicknamed The Red (Polish Rudy, Lithuanian: Radvila Rudasis) also known as Mikołaj Radziwiłł the Sixth (1512-1584) was a Lithuanian noble (szlachcic), Palatine of Vilnius, Grand Chancellor of Lithuania and Grand Lithuanian Hetman (from 1576) in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Together with his cousin Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł and the Radziwill family were granted title and position as Reichsfürst Prince of the Holy Roman Empire. Mikołaj Radziwiłł spent many years as a military commander. While not the most famous of Commonwealth hetmans, under king Stefan Batory he was fairly successful in defending the eastern borders of the Commonwealth against the Muscovy. His political career was marked by his alliance with his cousin Mikolaj 'Black' Radziwiłł, with whom he opposed the other notable Lithuanian families in the rivalry for the dominant status in the Great Duchy. This alliance marked the formation of a dynastic-like cooperation between Radziwiłłs and showed how family interests could affect magnates relations with the Commonwealth. Mikołaj Radziwiłł became an advocate of Lithuanian sovereignty and thus a vocal
    8.50
    2 votes
    89
    Philip II, Duke of Burgundy

    Philip II, Duke of Burgundy

    • Family: House of Burgundy
    Philip the Bold (French: Philippe le Hardi, Dutch: Filips de Stoute), also Philip II, Duke of Burgundy (January 15, 1342, Pontoise – April 27, 1404, Halle), was the fourth and youngest son of King John II of France and his wife, Bonne of Luxembourg. By his marriage to Margaret III, Countess of Flanders, he also became Count Philip II of Flanders, Count Philip IV of Artois and Count-Palatine Philip IV of Burgundy. He was the founder of the Burgundian branch of the House of Valois. Born in 1342, Philip gained his cognomen the Bold when, at the age of 14, he fought beside and was captured with his father at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356. He was created Duke of Touraine in 1360, but in 1363, as a reward for his behaviour at Poitiers, he returned this to the crown, receiving instead from his father the Duchy of Burgundy in apanage, which his father had been Duke of since the death of Philip of Rouvres in 1361. Philip would rule the Duchy until his death. On 19 June 1369, Philip married the 19 year old Margaret of Dampierre, the daughter of Louis II, Count of Flanders, who would become the heiress of Flanders, Brabant, Artois, and the Free County of Burgundy after the death of her
    8.50
    2 votes
    90
    Count Illarion Ivanovich Vorontsov-Dashkov

    Count Illarion Ivanovich Vorontsov-Dashkov

    • Family: Vorontsov
    Count Illarion Ivanovich Vorontsov-Dashkov (1837–1916) was a notable representative of the Vorontsov family. He served as Minister of Imperial Properties in 1881-97 and the General Governor of Caucasus in 1905-15. Illarion Vorontsov was born on 27 May 1837 in St. Petersburg. He took part in the conquest of Central Asia in the 1860s and was appointed Major General in 1866. He was in charge of the Hussar regiment of the Leub Guard in 1867-74. He was on friendly terms with the future Alexander III of Russia and, following his father's assassination, established a counter-revolutionary squad, or "holy druzhina", whose members included Konstantin Pobedonostsev, Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev, and Mikhail Katkov. Alexander III put Vorontsov-Dashkov in charge of the imperial court and made him Full General of Cavalry. He also was made responsible for imperial stud farms and vineyards. Following Nicholas II's coronation, he was dislodged from the office of Minister of Imperial Properties but was appointed to the State Council of Imperial Russia instead. The Russian Revolution of 1905 recalled Vorontsov to active service, and he ascended to the helm of the Viceroyalty of the Caucasus. His job
    7.33
    3 votes
    91
    Hermann Einstein

    Hermann Einstein

    • Family: Einstein family
    Hermann Einstein (August 30, 1847 – October 10, 1902) was the father of Albert Einstein. Hermann Einstein (also known as Hermann Moos) was born in Buchau, Württemberg to Abraham Einstein and Helene Moos (July 3, 1814–Aug. 20, 1887). He had six siblings: Raphael (Dec. 3, 1839-Jan. 15, 1842); male, Jette (Jan. 13, 1844-Jan. 7, 1905); female, Heinrich (Oct. 12, 1845-Nov. 16, 1877); male, August Ignaz (Dec. 23, 1849-Apr. 14, 1911); male, Jakob (Nov. 25, 1850-1912); male, Friederike "Rika" (Mar. 15, 1855-June 17, 1938); female. At the age of 14, Hermann attended the secondary school in the regional capital Stuttgart and was academically successful. He had a strong affection for mathematics, and would have liked to study in this or a related area, but as the financial situation of the family opposed further education, he decided to become a merchant and began an apprenticeship in Stuttgart. Hermann married 18-year-old Pauline Koch in Cannstatt, Württemberg on August 8, 1876. After their wedding, the young couple lived in Ulm, where Hermann became joint partner in the bed feathers shop of his cousins Moses and Hermann Levi. In Ulm, their son Albert was born on March 14, 1879. On the
    7.33
    3 votes
    92
    John Downer

    John Downer

    • Family: Downer family
    Sir John William Downer, KCMG, KC (6 July 1843 – 2 August 1915) was the Premier of South Australia from 16 June 1885 until 11 June 1887 and again from 1892 to 1893. He was the first of three Australian politicians from the Downer family dynasty. Downer was born in Adelaide, the son of Henry Downer who came to South Australia in 1838 and his wife Jane, née Field. John Downer was educated at St Peter's College, Adelaide, where he was a brilliant student. He studied for the bar, was admitted to practise on 23 March 1867, and was soon one of the leading Adelaide barristers. Downer became a Queen's Counsel in 1878, and in the same year was elected to the House of Assembly for Barossa. He represented this constituency until 1901, only leaving it to enter federal politics. In the House of Assembly he soon made his mark and became attorney-general in John Bray's cabinet on 24 June 1881. He endeavoured to bring in several law reforms, and though his married women's property bill was not passed, he succeeded in carrying bills allowing accused persons to give evidence on oath, and amending the insolvency and marriage acts. The government was defeated in June 1884, but a year later, on 16 June
    7.33
    3 votes
    93
    Joseph Pease

    Joseph Pease

    • Family: Pease family
    Joseph Pease (22 June 1799 – 8 February 1872) was involved in the early railway system in the UK and was the first Quaker elected to Parliament. Pease joined his father Edward and other members of the Pease family in starting the Stockton and Darlington Railway Company. In 1826 Pease married Emma Gurney, daughter of Joseph Gurney of Norwich. They had sixteen children, amongst them Arthur Pease (1837-1898). Pease's ninth child, Elizabeth Lucy, married the agricultural engineer and inventor, John Fowler, a pioneer in the application of steam power to agriculture. In 1829 Pease was managing the Stockton and Darlington Railway in place of his father. In 1830 he bought so many of the collieries in his area that he became the largest owner of collieries in South Durham. That same year Pease, Joseph Gurney, and some other Quaker businessmen bought a large tract of land at Middlesbrough. They turned it into a port for exporting coal. In December 1830 a new railway line was opened on the Stockton and Darlington to Middlesbrough to get Pease's coal there. In 1832 Pease was elected as a Member of Parliament for South Durham. As a Quaker, he was not immediately allowed to take his seat,
    7.33
    3 votes
    94
    Richard B. Mellon

    Richard B. Mellon

    • Family: Mellon family
    Richard Beatty Mellon (March 19, 1858 – December 1, 1933), sometimes R.B., was a banker, industrialist, and philanthropist from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He and his brother, Andrew W. Mellon, another son of Judge Thomas Mellon, were frequent business partners. Richard served under Andrew at Mellon Bank, and assumed its presidency in 1921 when Andrew was appointed Treasury Secretary. They also made several joint philanthropic gifts, notably several large donations to their alma mater, the University of Pittsburgh, including the establishment there of the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research in memory of their father, which is now a part of Carnegie Mellon University. R.B. served from 1899–1910 as president of the Pittsburgh Reduction Company, renamed the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) in 1907, and was heavily invested in the Pittsburgh Coal Company, today part of CONSOL Energy, where he clashed with John L. Lewis and the United Mine Workers. Later, he was instrumental in forming Mellbank Corporation, a bank holding company, which helped the affiliated banks weather the Great Depression. In 1918, R.B. Mellon organized the Citizens' Committee on City Plan, which sought to
    7.33
    3 votes
    95
    Winthrop Paul Rockefeller

    Winthrop Paul Rockefeller

    • Family: Rockefeller family
    Winthrop Paul Rockefeller (September 17, 1948 – July 16, 2006) was a Republican politician who served as the 13th Lieutenant Governor of the US state of Arkansas from 1996 until his death. Winthrop Paul Rockefeller was born New York, and was the only child of Mr. Winthrop Rockefeller, the former Governor of Arkansas, and Mrs. Barbara Sears Rockefeller, and was known to his family and friends alike, as "Win". His parents separated in 1950 and divorced four years later. Rockefeller grew up in both the United States and in Europe and was educated at schools in New York, England and in Switzerland. He graduated from Texas Christian University (TCU) with a degree in Ranch Management. Rockefeller served from 1981 to 1995 on the Arkansas State Police Commission. In 1991, he was appointed by President George H. W. Bush to serve on the President’s Council on Rural America and was elected chairman. Rockefeller also was a president of the Quapaw Area Council of the Boy Scouts of America and served on the Boy Scouts National Board of Directors. He was elected lieutenant governor in a November 1996 special election triggered by the resignation of Governor Jim Guy Tucker and the promotion of
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    3 votes
    96
    Alexander Downer

    Alexander Downer

    • Family: Downer family
    Alexander John Gosse Downer (born 9 September 1951) is a former Australian Liberal Party politician who was Foreign Minister of Australia from March 1996 to December 2007, the longest-serving in Australian history. He was also the Leader of the Opposition for eight months from 1994 to 1995. Downer was born in Adelaide, South Australia, into one of the state's prominent established political families. His father, Sir Alec Downer, also reached cabinet rank in federal politics, and was then High Commissioner to the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1972. His grandfather, Sir John Downer, was twice Premier of South Australia and a Senator in the first federal Parliament in 1901. His mother, Mary, Lady Downer (née Mary Gosse), is descended from early immigrants to South Australia. Downer is related via the Gosse family to Sir Edmund Gosse, a famed English literary critic. Downer was educated at Geelong Grammar School in Australia, then in England (while his father was High Commissioner) at Radley College between 1964 and 1970, and the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. From 1975 to 1976, he worked as an economist for the Bank of New South Wales, before entering the Australian Diplomatic
    6.25
    4 votes
    97
    Anderson Cooper

    Anderson Cooper

    • Family: Vanderbilt family
    Anderson Hays Cooper (born June 3, 1967) is an American journalist, author, and television personality. He is the primary anchor of the CNN news show Anderson Cooper 360°. The program is normally broadcast live from a New York City studio; however, Cooper often broadcasts live on location for breaking news stories. As of September 2011, he also serves as host of his own eponymous syndicated daytime talk show, Anderson. Cooper was born on June 3, 1967, the younger son of the writer Wyatt Emory Cooper and the artist, designer, writer, and heiress Gloria Vanderbilt. His maternal grandparents were millionaire equestrian Reginald Claypoole Vanderbilt and socialite Gloria Morgan Vanderbilt, and his maternal great-great-great-grandfather was Cornelius Vanderbilt of the prominent Vanderbilt shipping and railroad fortune. He is also a descendant, through his mother, of brevet Civil War Major General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick, who was with General William T. Sherman on his march through Georgia. Cooper's media experience began early. As a baby, he was photographed by Diane Arbus for Harper's Bazaar. At the age of three, Cooper was a guest on The Tonight Show on September 17, 1970, appearing
    6.25
    4 votes
    98
    Frederick William Vanderbilt

    Frederick William Vanderbilt

    • Family: Vanderbilt family
    Frederick William Vanderbilt (February 2, 1856 – June 29, 1938) was a member of the Vanderbilt family. He was a director of the New York Central Railroad for 61 years, and also a director of the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad and of the Chicago and North Western Railroad. A son of William Henry Vanderbilt, Frederick Vanderbilt graduated in 1876 from Yale University's Sheffield Scientific School, to which he donated $500,000 in 1902. In 1878 he married Louise Holmes Anthony Torrance, grand-daughter of John Torrance, of Saint-Antoine Hall, Montreal. Though they were unable to have children, they had a close relationship with their nieces and nephews. Frederick Vanderbilt died on June 29, 1938. Vanderbilt maintained residences in New York City (he lived for a while at 450 Fifth Avenue), Newport ("Rough Point"), Bar Harbor ("Sonogee"), Upper St. Regis Lake in the Adirondacks ("Pine Tree Point"), and a country palace in Hyde Park, New York ("Hyde Park") now preserved by the National Park Service as Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site. He built the nearby Howard Mansion and Carriage House for his nephew Thomas H. Howard in 1896. Vanderbilt was the owner of 10 East 40th Street in
    6.25
    4 votes
    99
    James Mayer de Rothschild

    James Mayer de Rothschild

    • Family: Rothschild family
    James Mayer de Rothschild (born Jakob Mayer Rothschild, 15 May 1792 in Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany; died 15 November 1868 in Paris, France) was a French banker and the original founder of the French branch of the Rothschild family. James de Rothschild was the fifth son and youngest child of Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744–1812). Mayer sent each of his five sons to a prominent European commercial centre in order to found branches of the family banking empire; de Rothschild therefore moved to Paris in 1811 and in 1817 expanded the family banking empire to the city, opening De Rothschild Frères. An advisor to two kings of France, he became the most powerful banker in the country and following the Napoleonic Wars, played a major role in financing the construction of railroads and the mining business that helped make France an industrial power. Along the way, he added to his fortune with investments in such things as the importation of tea and the wine industry. A strong-willed and shrewd businessman, James de Rothschild amassed a fortune that made him one of the richest men in the world. Although his papers have never been disclosed, evidence suggests that in today's money, James de
    6.25
    4 votes
    100
    Dmitriy Vladimirovich Golitsyn

    Dmitriy Vladimirovich Golitsyn

    • Family: Galitzine
    Serene Prince Dmitriy Vladimirovich Golitsyn (Russian: Дмитрий Владимирович Голицын) (29 October 1771 – 27 March 1844, Paris) was a Russian cavalry general prominent during the Napoleonic Wars, statesman and military writer. He was born in the family of Knyaz Vladimir Borisovich Golitsyn (1731 – 1798) and his wife Natalie Tchernyshova, nicknamed La Princesse Moustache, or the Queen of Spades, who was portrayed as a central character in Pushkin's story (and Tchaikovsky's opera) of the same name. In 1774 Golitsyn was enrolled in the Leib Guard Preobrazhensky regiment and received his first rank of sergeant in 1777. He continued his education in Strasbourg and from 1781 he travelled in Germany and France with his family. In the middle of 1780s the Golitsyns settled in Paris, where Dmitriy studied military science. In 1785 Golitsyn returned to Russia and entered the cavalry. During the Kościuszko Uprising he fought under Aleksandr Suvorov and on 24 October 1794 distinguished himself at the Battle of Praga and earned his first Order of St. George of the 4th degree. During the reign of Emperor Paul I he was quickly promoted, first to colonel (on 2 May 1797), then to Major General (on 5
    7.00
    3 votes
    101
    Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York

    Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York

    • Family: House of York
    Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York, 2nd Earl of Cambridge, Earl of Rutland, Earl of Cork, Duke of Aumale KG (1373 – 25 October 1415) was a member of the English royal family who died at the Battle of Agincourt. The son of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, and his first wife Isabella of Castile. He was grandson of two kings, Edward III of England and Pedro of Castile. Edward is thought to have been born in Norwich. He was close to his cousin King Richard II, and was created Earl of Rutland (for the term of his father's life) by him in 1390, Earl of Cork (Ireland) in about 1394, and then Duke of Aumale in 1397. This association put him out of favour after the accession of King Henry IV, and he was deprived of his Dukedom. In 1400 he participated in a conspiracy against Henry IV, but betrayed the conspirators to the king. In 1402 he succeeded his father as Duke of York; the Earldom of Rutland, by its charter, then became extinct, although he continued to sign himself as Earl of Rutland. He married a widow, Philippa de Mohun, but there were no children from their marriage. Edward wrote “The Master of Game”, a translation of the most famous of the hunting treatises of the Middle
    7.00
    3 votes
    102
    Marvin Bush

    Marvin Bush

    • Family: Bush family
    Marvin Pierce Bush (born October 22, 1956) is the youngest son of U.S. President George H. W. Bush and Barbara Pierce, and brother of President George W. Bush, John (Jeb), Neil and Dorothy. He and wife Margaret Conway (née Molster) have two children who were adopted from the Gladney Center in Ft. Worth, Texas: a daughter, Marshall, and a son, Walker. Marvin Bush attended Woodberry Forest School. He obtained a B.S. degree from the University of Virginia, where he became a member of the Delta Phi Fraternity, or St. Elmo Hall. He spent most summers and holidays at the Bush family estate. Bush was on the board of directors of Securacom from 1993-2000, which maintained security for the World Trade Center Towers up until September 11, 2001. He is a former director of HCC Insurance Holdings. HCC, formerly Houston Casualty Company, is a publicly traded insurance company on the New York Stock Exchange. He appears in the 2008 award-winning documentary on Lee Atwater, Boogie Man: The Lee Atwater Story.
    7.00
    3 votes
    103
    Mayer Amschel Rothschild

    Mayer Amschel Rothschild

    • Family: Rothschild family
    Mayer Amschel Rothschild (23 February 1744 – 19 September 1812) was a German banker. He was the founder of the Rothschild family international banking dynasty that became the most successful business family in history. In 2005, he was ranked 7th on the Forbes magazine list of "The Twenty Most Influential Businessmen Of All Time". The business magazine referred to him as a "founding father of international finance". Meyer Amschel Rothschild was born in 1744 in the ghetto (called "Judengasse" or Jew Alley) in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, one of eight children of Amschel Moses Rothschild (d. 1755) and his wife Schönche Rothschild née Lechnich (d. 1756). The ancestry of the Rothschilds can be traced back to 1577 to Izaak Elchanan Rothschild, whose name derived from the house he occupied in the Judengasse — zum roten Schild ("at the sign of the red shield"). His grandchildren and descendents took this name as the family name and kept it when they relocated in 1664 to another house in the Judengasse — Hinterpfann (literally "house in the back of the saucepan") — which became the family's home and business location through to the early 19th century. The father of Mayer Amschel had a
    7.00
    3 votes
    104
    Robert M. Morgenthau

    Robert M. Morgenthau

    • Family: Lehman family
    Robert Morris Morgenthau ( /ˈmɔrɡənθɔː/ MORG-ən-thaw; born July 31, 1919) is an American lawyer. From 1975 until his retirement in 2009, he was the District Attorney for New York County, the borough of Manhattan. Robert Morris Morgenthau was born in 1919 in New York City into a prominent Ashkenazi Jewish family that had emigrated from Baden in 1866. He is the son of long-time Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, Jr. His grandfather Henry Morgenthau, Sr. was United States Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Before going into diplomatic service, Henry Morgenthau, Sr. had made a fortune in real estate and then became a strong financial backer of President Woodrow Wilson. His grandmother was born in Montgomery, Alabama. From his earliest days, Robert Morris Morgenthau was well-connected politically. The Morgenthau family home was near Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Springwood Estate at Hyde Park, New York, and he grew up knowing Roosevelt. After graduating from the New Lincoln School, Deerfield Academy, and Amherst College, he enlisted in the United States Navy, serving for four and a half years, during World War II. He attained the final rank of Lieutenant
    7.00
    3 votes
    105
    Ailsa Mellon-Bruce

    Ailsa Mellon-Bruce

    • Family: Mellon family
    Ailsa Mellon Bruce (June 28, 1901 – August 25, 1969), born in Pittsburgh, was a prominent socialite and the daughter of the banker and diplomat Andrew W. Mellon. She served from 1921 to 1932 as her father's official hostess during his tenure as United States Secretary of the Treasury, and again when he was U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom in 1932-33. She married David K. E. Bruce in 1926, a scion of a prominent Virginia family; he also would become United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom (1961–1969). They divorced in 1945. When their only child, Audrey, and her husband, Stephen Currier, died in a presumed plane crash in 1967 leaving four young children – Andrea, Lavinia, Michael, and an unnamed newborn baby – Ailsa Bruce decided to bequeath her collection of 18th-century English furniture and ceramics to the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Bruce established the Avalon Foundation in 1940, which made grants to colleges and universities, medical schools and hospitals, youth programs and community services, churches, environmental projects, and an array of cultural and arts organizations. In 1947 the Avalon Foundation was instrumental in the establishment of
    8.00
    2 votes
    106
    Catherine Radziwill

    Catherine Radziwill

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Princess Catherine Radziwiłł (30 March 1858 – 12 May 1941) was a Polish princess from the Polish-Lithuanian aristocratic Radziwiłł family. She was born as Countess Ekaterina Adamovna Rzewuska. She married Prince Wilhelm Radziwiłł at age 15 and moved to Berlin to live with his family. It was speculated that she was the author of a book gossiping about the German Emperor William II and Berlin society in 1884 under the pen name Paul Vasili. She stalked the English-born South African politician Cecil Rhodes and asked him to marry her, but he refused. She then got revenge by forging his name on a promissory note. She was convicted of forging Rhodes' signature and spent time in a South African jail for her crimes. Catherine Radziwiłł played a major role in the history of the antisemitic hoax The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. In 1921, she gave a private lecture in New York. She claimed that the Protocols were compiled in 1904-1905 by Russian journalists Matvei Golovinski and Manasevich-Manuilov at the direction of Pyotr Rachkovsky, Chief of the Okhrana, the Russian secret service in Paris. Golovinski worked together with Charles Joly (son of Maurice Joly) at Le Figaro in Paris. This
    8.00
    2 votes
    107
    Cornelius Vanderbilt II

    Cornelius Vanderbilt II

    • Family: Vanderbilt family
    Cornelius Vanderbilt II (November 27, 1843 – September 12, 1899) was an American socialite, heir, businessman, and a member of the prominent United States Vanderbilt family. He was the favorite grandson of Cornelius Vanderbilt, who left him $5 million, and the eldest son of William Henry Vanderbilt, who left him close to $70 million. In his turn he succeeded them as head of the New York Central and related railroad lines in 1885. He had a reputation as something of a workaholic, though a stroke in 1896 compelled him to reduce his active business involvement. In 1867 he married Alice Claypoole Gwynne (1845–1934) whom he met at St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church where both taught Sunday School. Their eldest child, a daughter named Alice Gwynne Vanderbilt, was born in 1869 but died of a childhood illness in 1874 at the age of five. Their second child and eldest son William Henry Vanderbilt II (1870–1892) died of typhoid fever while a junior at Yale University, and Cornelius endowed a large dormitory there. He disinherited his second son Cornelius Vanderbilt III (1873–1942) for marrying without his approval. Third son Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt (1877–1915) went down with the RMS
    8.00
    2 votes
    108
    Cornelius Vanderbilt III

    Cornelius Vanderbilt III

    • Family: Vanderbilt family
    Cornelius Vanderbilt III (September 5, 1873 – March 1, 1942) was a distinguished American military officer, inventor, engineer, and yachtsman, and a member of the prominent American Vanderbilt family. Called "Neily" by his close friends, he was the great-grandson of Cornelius Vanderbilt. He was born in New York City on September 5, 1873 to Alice Claypoole Gwynne and Cornelius Vanderbilt II. He was educated by private tutors at St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire before attending Yale University where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1895. Against his father's wishes, in August 1896 he married Grace Graham Wilson, the youngest child of New York banker Richard T. Wilson, Sr. Remaining at Yale until 1899, he earned a Bachelor of Philosophy degree and, having a great deal of interest in the mechanical and engineering aspects of his family’s railroad business, he also earned a degree in mechanical engineering. Ostracized by his parents and even to some extent by his siblings, on his father's death in 1899 Neily Vanderbilt received only $500,000 in cash and the income from a $1 million trust fund. The bulk of his father's $70 million estate went to Neily's brother,
    8.00
    2 votes
    109
    Lyman Beecher

    Lyman Beecher

    • Family: Beecher family
    Lyman Beecher (October 12, 1775 – January 10, 1863) was a Presbyterian minister, American Temperance Society co-founder and leader, and the father of 13 children, many of whom became noted figures, including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Beecher, Edward Beecher, Isabella Beecher Hooker, Catharine Beecher, and Thomas K. Beecher. He is credited as a leader of the Second Great Awakening of the United States. Beecher was born in New Haven, Connecticut, to David Beecher, a blacksmith, and Esther Hawley Lyman. His mother died shortly after his birth, and he was committed to the care of his uncle Lot Benton, by whom he was adopted as a son, and with whom his early life was spent between blacksmithing and farming. But it was soon found that he preferred study. He was fitted for college by the Rev. Thomas W. Bray, and at the age of eighteen entered Yale, graduating in 1797. He spent 1798 in Yale Divinity School under the tutelage of his mentor Timothy Dwight. In September 1798, he was licensed to preach by the New Haven West Association, and entered upon his clerical duties by supplying the pulpit in the Presbyterian church at East Hampton, Long Island, and was ordained
    8.00
    2 votes
    110
    Mohammed V of Morocco

    Mohammed V of Morocco

    • Family: Alaouite Dynasty
    Mohammed V (10 August 1909 – 26 February 1961) (Arabic: محمد الخامس‎) was Sultan of Morocco from 1927–53, exiled from 1953–55, where he was again recognized as Sultan upon his return, and King from 1957 to 1961. His full name was Sidi Mohammed ben Yusef, or Son of (Sultan) Yusef, upon whose death he succeeded to the throne. He was a member of the Alaouite Dynasty. On 20 August 1953, the French who were occupying Morocco at the time forced Mohammed V and his family into exile on Corsica. A relative of his, Mohammed Ben Aarafa, was placed on the throne. Mohammed V and his family were then transferred to Madagascar in January 1954. Mohammed V returned from exile on 16 November 1955, and was again recognized as Sultan after active opposition to the French protectorate. In February 1956 he successfully negotiated with France for the independence of Morocco, and in 1957 took the title of King. He died on 26 February 1961 following unspecified surgery. U.S. Ambassador Charles W. Yost saw the King hours before his death and was among those who suspected that the King's son, Hassan II, had a hand in his father's sudden death. The Mohammed V International Airport of Casablanca is named after
    8.00
    2 votes
    111
    Robert I, Duke of Burgundy

    Robert I, Duke of Burgundy

    • Family: House of Burgundy
    Robert I of Burgundy, known as Robert the Old (ne: Robert le Vieux, 1011 – 21 March 1076) was duke of Burgundy between 1032 to his death. Robert was son of King Robert II of France and brother of Henry I of France. In 1025, with the death of his eldest brother Hugh Magnus, he and Henry rebelled against their father and defeated him, forcing him back to Paris. In 1031, after the death of his father the king, Robert participated in a rebellion against his brother, in which he was supported by his mother, Constance of Arles. Peace was only achieved when Robert was given Burgundy (1032). Throughout his reign, he was little more than a robber baron who had no control over his own vassals, whose estates he often plundered, especially those of the Church. He seized the income of the diocese of Autun and the wine of the canons of Dijon. He burgled the abbey of St-Germain at Auxerre. In 1055, he repudiated his wife, Helie of Semur, and assassinated her brother Joceran and murdered her father, his father-in-law, Lord Dalmace I of Semur, with his own hands. In that same year, the bishop of Langres, Harduoin, refused to dedicate the church of Sennecy so as not "to be exposed to the violence of
    8.00
    2 votes
    112
    Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin

    Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin

    • Family: Galitzine
    Prince Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin (December 22, 1770 – May 6, 1840) was an emigre Russian aristocrat and Catholic priest known as The Apostle of the Alleghenies. Since 2005, he has been under investigation for possible canonization by the Catholic Church. His current title is Servant of God. Prince Dimitri Dmitrievich Gallitzin was born into a world of inherited privilege at The Hague. His father, Prince Dimitri Alexeievich (1735-1803), the Russian ambassador to the Netherlands, was an intimate friend of Voltaire and a follower of Diderot. So was his mother, the former German Countess Adelheid Amalie von Schmettau, until a severe illness in 1786 led her back to the Catholic Church, in which she had been nominally reared. As a young child, Prince Dmitri was cradled in the arms of Catherine the Great, as a sign of special favor to his father. He was raised as a nominal member of the Russian Orthodox Church, although his father, like many Russian aristocrats of his age, had little connection to or fondness for religion. As was fashionable at the time, the language of the household was French, which would always be Prince Dmitri's native tongue. After his mother's conversion, he was
    9.00
    1 votes
    113
    Fujiwara no Kamatari

    Fujiwara no Kamatari

    • Family: Fujiwara family
    Fujiwara no Kamatari (藤原 鎌足, 614 – November 14, 669) was a Japanese statesman, courtier and politician during the Asuka period. Kamatari was the founder of the Fujiwara clan in Japan. His birth clan was the Nakatomi. He was the son of Nakatomi no Mikeko, and his birth name was Nakatomi no Kamatari (中臣 鎌足). Just before his death, he received the surname Fujiwara from Emperor Tenji. He was a friend and supporter of the Prince Naka no Ōe, later Emperor Tenji. Kamatari was the head of the Jingi no Haku, or Shinto ritualists; as such, he was one of the chief opponents of the increasing power and prevalence of Buddhism in the court, and in the nation. As a result, in 645, Prince Naka no Ōe and Kamatari made a coup d'état in the court. They slew Soga no Iruka who had a strong influence over Empress Kōgyoku; thereafter, Iruka's father, Soga no Emishi, committed suicide. Empress Kōgyoku was forced to abdicate in favor of her younger brother, who became Emperor Kōtoku; Kōtoku then appointed Kamatari naidaijin (Inner Minister). Kamatari was a leader in the development of what became known as the Taika Reforms, a major set of reforms based on Chinese models and aimed at strengthening Imperial
    9.00
    1 votes
    114
    Harriet Beecher Stowe

    Harriet Beecher Stowe

    • Family: Beecher family
    Harriet Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was an American abolitionist and author. Her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) was a depiction of life for African-Americans under slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential in the United States and United Kingdom. It energized anti-slavery forces in the American North, while provoking widespread anger in the South. She wrote more than 20 books, including novels, three travel memoirs, and collections of articles and letters. She was influential both for her writings and her public stands on social issues of the day. Harriet Elisabeth Beecher was born in Litchfield, Connecticut on June 14, 1811. She was the seventh of 13 children, born to outspoken religious leader Lyman Beecher and Roxana (Foote), a deeply religious woman who died when Stowe was only five years old. Her notable siblings included a sister, Catharine Beecher, who was an educator and author, as well as seven brothers who became ministers: including Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Beecher, and Edward Beecher. Harriet enrolled in the seminary (girls' school) run by her sister Catharine, where she received a traditionally "male" education in the
    9.00
    1 votes
    115
    Janet Jackson

    Janet Jackson

    • Family: The Jacksons
    Janet Damita Jo Jackson (born May 16, 1966) is an American recording artist and actress. Known for a series of sonically innovative, socially conscious and sexually provocative records, as well as elaborate stage shows, television and film roles, she has been a prominent figure in popular culture for over 25 years. The youngest child of the Jackson family, she began her career with the variety television series The Jacksons in 1976 and went on to appear in other television shows throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, including Good Times and Fame. After signing a recording contract with A&M in 1982, she came to prominence following the release of her third studio album Control (1986). Her collaborations with record producers Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis incorporated elements of rhythm and blues, funk, disco, rap, and industrial beats, which led to crossover appeal in popular music. In addition to receiving recognition for the innovation in her records, choreography, music videos, and prominence on radio airplay and MTV, she was acknowledged as a role model for her socially conscious lyrics. In 1991, she signed the first of two record-breaking, multi-million dollar contracts with Virgin
    9.00
    1 votes
    116
    John F. Kennedy, Jr.

    John F. Kennedy, Jr.

    • Family: Kennedy family
    John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Jr. (November 25, 1960 – July 16, 1999), often referred to as John F. Kennedy, Jr., JFK Jr., John Jr. or John-John, was an American socialite, magazine publisher, lawyer, and pilot. The elder son of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and First Lady Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy, Kennedy died in a plane crash along with his wife Carolyn Bessette-Kennedy and his sister-in-law Lauren Bessette, on July 16, 1999. Kennedy was born at Georgetown University Hospital sixteen days after his father was elected to the presidency. He was in the public spotlight up until his death in 1999. Kennedy had an older sister, Caroline, and an infant brother, Patrick, who died two days after his birth in 1963. For most of the first three years of his life, Kennedy lived in the White House when his father was president. Kennedy's nickname, "John-John" came from a reporter who misheard JFK calling him ("John" spoken twice in quick succession). Although Kennedy was often referred to publicly as "John-John", members of his extended family themselves did not use his nickname. Kennedy's father was assassinated on November 22, 1963, and the state funeral was held three days later on his
    9.00
    1 votes
    117
    Maurice Paléologue

    Maurice Paléologue

    • Family: Văcărescu family
    Maurice Paléologue (13 January 1859—18 November 1944) was a French diplomat, historian, and essayist. Paléologue was born in Paris as the son of Alexandru Paleologu, a Wallachian Romanian revolutionary who had fled to France after attempting to assassinate Prince Gheorghe Bibescu during the 1848 Wallachian revolution; Alexandru was one of three illegitimate children of Elisabeta Văcărescu of the Văcărescu family of boyars - he and his siblings were later adopted by Zoe Văcărescu, Elisabeta's mother, who gave the children her maiden name Paleologu. The name became Paléologue in French language spellings; the family's relation to the Palaiologos Byzantines is doubtful (Alexandru's ancestors first claimed it at the end of the 17th century). After graduating in Law, Maurice Paléologue obtained an office at the French Foreign Ministry in 1880, and moved on to become Embassy Secretary at Tangiers, in the Morocco Protectorate, then in Beijing (Qing China), and later in Italy. A Minister Plenipotentiary in 1901, he represented France in Bulgaria (1907–1912) and Imperial Russia (1914–1917), and moved on to become General Secretary of the Foreign Ministry in the Alexandre Millerand cabinet.
    9.00
    1 votes
    118
    Michael Jackson

    Michael Jackson

    • Family: The Jacksons
    Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American recording artist, entertainer and businessman. Often referred to as the King of Pop, or by his initials MJ, Jackson is recognized as the most successful entertainer of all time by Guinness World Records. His unparalleled contributions to music, dance, and fashion, along with a much-publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades. The seventh child of the Jackson family, he debuted on the professional music scene along with his brothers as a member of The Jackson 5 in 1964, and began his solo career in 1971. In the early 1980s, Jackson became a dominant figure in popular music. The music videos for his songs, including those of "Beat It", "Billie Jean", and "Thriller", were credited with breaking down racial barriers and transforming the medium into an art form and promotional tool. The popularity of these videos helped to bring the then relatively new television channel MTV to fame. With videos such as "Black or White" and "Scream" he continued to innovate the medium throughout the 1990s, as well as forging a reputation as a touring solo artist. Through stage and
    9.00
    1 votes
    119
    Mikołaj Krzysztof "the Orphan" Radziwiłł

    Mikołaj Krzysztof "the Orphan" Radziwiłł

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Prince Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł or Nicholas Christopher Radziwill aka "Sierotka" (The [Little] Orphan) (1549–1616) was a Polish-Lithuanian noble (szlachcic). He was Ordynat of Nieśwież from 1586. He was also Court Marshal of Lithuania from 1569, Grand Marshal of Lithuania from 1579, castellan of Trakai from 1586, voivode of Trakai Voivodeship from 1590, voivode of Vilnius Voivodeship from 1604 and Starost of Šiauliai. After the treaty at Vienna in 1515 all Radziwills were Imperial Princes and he held a position as Imperial Prince of the Holy Roman Empire. He married Halaszka Eufemia Wiśniowiecka on November 24, 1584, a Calvinist who under his influence too converted to Roman Catholicism. He took part in the Livonian War against Muscovites. In 1573 he was a member of a diplomatic mission to France to the future king of Poland, Henryk Walezy. Unlike many other members of Radziwiłł family he tried to stay away from politics, especially from the dynastic clan politics of some of other Radziwiłłs like Janusz Radziwiłł; he also supported the forces loyal to the king and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Rokosz Zebrzydowskiego, a szlachta's confederatio threatening the king. He
    9.00
    1 votes
    120
    Shari Arison

    Shari Arison

    • Family: Arison family
    Shari Arison (born 1957) is an Israeli-American businesswoman and Israel's wealthiest woman. She is the owner of several businesses, the largest among them Bank Hapoalim. According to Forbes, she is the richest woman in the Middle East, and the only woman to be ranked in the region's top-20 richest people in 2007. As of 2011 Forbes estimated her fortune at US$5.1 billion, making her the 200th-wealthiest person in the world, and the third-wealthiest in Israel. Arison was born in New York, and is the daughter of the businessman Ted Arison and Mina Arison Sapir. She has an older brother, Micky. In 1966 her parents divorced, and she moved to reside with her mother in Israel. At the age of 12 she returned to the US to live with her father, and five years later she returned to Israel in order to enlist in the Israeli Defense Forces. Arison is the mother of four children. She has been married three times, most recently to businessman Ofer Glazer. In 1999 Arison's father died, and bequeathed her 35 percent of his possessions. In 2003, she caused a big wave of protest after 900 workers were fired from Bank Hapoalim. In 2005, she was voted the 56th-greatest Israeli of all time, in a poll by
    9.00
    1 votes
    121
    Wilhelm Friedemann Bach

    Wilhelm Friedemann Bach

    • Family: Bach family
    Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (22 November 1710 – 1 July 1784), the second child and eldest son of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach, was a German composer and performer. Despite his acknowledged genius as an organist, improviser and composer, his income and employment were unstable and he died in poverty. Wilhelm Friedemann (hereafter Friedemann) was born in Weimar, where his father was employed as organist and chamber musician to the Duke of Saxe-Weimar. In July 1720, when Friedemann was nine, his mother Maria Barbara Bach died suddenly; Johann Sebastian Bach remarried in December of 1721. J. S. Bach supervised Friedemann's musical education and career with great attention. The graded course of keyboard studies and composition that J. S. Bach provided is documented in the Clavier-Büchlein vor Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (modern spelling: Klavierbüchlein für Wilhelm Friedemann Bach), with entries by both father and son. This education also included (parts of) the French Suites, (Two-Part) Inventions, (Three-Part) Sinfonias (popularly known as "Inventions"), the first volume of The Well-Tempered Clavier, and the six Trio Sonatas for organ. At the age of 16 he went to Merseburg to
    9.00
    1 votes
    122
    Carl Mayer von Rothschild

    Carl Mayer von Rothschild

    • Family: Rothschild family
    Carl Mayer von Rothschild (April 24, 1788 - March 10, 1855) was a German-born banker in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the founder of the Rothschild banking family of Naples. Born Kalman Mayer Rothschild in Frankfurt am Main, he was the fourth of the five sons of Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1743-1812) and Gutlé Schnapper (1753-1849). He would become known as "Carl" by the family except for his English relatives who translated it as "Charles". Raised in an increasingly prosperous family, he was trained in his father's banking business and lived at home until age twenty-nine when he acquired a modest residence at 33 Neue Mainzer Strasse in Frankfurt am Main in preparation for his marriage on September 16, 1818 to Adelheid Herz (1800-1853). They would have the following children: Wanting to expand the family business across Europe, the eldest Rothschild son Amschel remained in Frankfurt, while each of the other sons were sent to different European cities to establish a banking branch. The 1821 occupation of Naples by the Austrian army provided the opportunity for the Rothschilds to set up business in the Kingdom. As such, Carl Rothschild was sent to Naples where he established C M
    6.67
    3 votes
    123
    Humbert III of Savoy

    Humbert III of Savoy

    • Family: House of Savoy
    Umberto III (1135, Avigliana, Piedmont – 1189), surnamed the Blessed, was Count of Savoy from 1148 to 1189. His parents were Amadeus III of Savoy and Mahaut (or Mafalda, or Matilda) of Albon, the sister of Guy IV of Dauphinois. His memorial day is March 4. According to Cope Umberto III, who reigned from 1149 to 1189...was a man of irresolute spirit who was disconsolate at being born a prince and preferred the seclusion of a monastery. He only renounced his chosen state of celibacy so as to give his land an heir. His first wife died young; his second marriage ended in divorce. Umberto gave up and became a Carthusian monk. However, the nobles and common people of Savoy begged him to marry yet again, which he reluctantly did. This third wife gave him two more daughters, and Umberto attempted to return to the monastic life yet again. Finally he was prevailed upon to marry for a fourth time, and this wife, Beatrice, produced the son who would ultimately succeed him. In 1188 he founded the Monastery of Sant'Antonio di Ranverso. Umberto married four times:
    6.67
    3 votes
    124
    Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.

    Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy, Sr. (September 6, 1888 – November 18, 1969) was a prominent American businessman, investor, and government official. Kennedy, an Irish American, was the father of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, United States Attorney General and Senator Robert F. Kennedy, United States Senator Edward M. Kennedy, naval officer Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., Special Olympics co-founder Eunice Kennedy Shriver, and former U.S. Ambassador to Ireland Jean Kennedy Smith; and the grandfather of U.S. Representatives Joseph P. Kennedy II and Patrick J. Kennedy. He was a leading member of the Democratic Party and of the Irish Catholic community. He was the inaugural Chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR), and later directed the Maritime Commission. Kennedy served as the United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1938 until late 1940, including the early part of World War II. Born to a political family in Boston, Massachusetts, Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. was educated at Boston Latin School and Harvard University, and embarked on a career in finance, making a large fortune as a stock market and commodity
    6.67
    3 votes
    125
    Mikalojus Radvila the Old

    Mikalojus Radvila the Old

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Mikalojus Radvila or Mikolaj I nicknamed the Old (Lithuanian: Mikalojus Radvilaitis, Mikalojus II Radvila Senasis, Latin: Nicolaus II Radziwil Priscus) (c. 1450-1509) was a Lithuanian noble. He was known after a patronym Radvilaitis, made of his father's name Radvila, which in turn became a family name of his heirs, Radvilos, later Polonised as Radziwiłł. Mikalojus had been a regent of Smolensk from 2 December 1481; in 1483 a 10,000-strong army was summoned by him for protection of Smolensk lands. He had been the Castellan of Trakai since 31 May 1488 and regent of Novgorodok, later a regent of Bielsk Podlaski. He was the Voivod of Vilnius since 1492 and the first Grand Chancellor of Lithuania from 1504 until his death in 1509. His sons Jerzy/Jurgis, Mikojal/Mikalojus and Jan/Jonas were the progenitors of the three Radziwill family lines.
    6.67
    3 votes
    126
    Edith Rockefeller McCormick

    Edith Rockefeller McCormick

    • Family: Rockefeller family
    Edith Rockefeller McCormick (August 31, 1872 – August 25, 1932) was an American socialite and opera patron. She was born on August 31, 1872, the fourth daughter of John D. Rockefeller and his wife, Laura Spelman. Her younger brother was John D. Rockefeller, Jr. McCormick and her father had an often stormy relationship, where her extravagance would often conflict with his frugality. She married Harold Fowler McCormick, a son of Chicago's mechanical reaper inventor Cyrus McCormick, in 1895. The married couple spent their first two years living in Council Bluffs, Iowa. They later moved to Chicago. Her country retreat, located directly on Lake Michigan in Lake Forest, Illinois, named Villa Turicum, was ostentatious, and had extensive gardens. A famous story about McCormick involves an evening in 1901 during a party. News arrived that McCormick's son, John Rockefeller McCormick, had died of scarlet fever. It was rumored that when this was whispered to her at the dinner table, she proceeded to merely nod her head and allowed the party to continue without incident. A biographer of her father, however, makes it clear that this could not have been true. At the time of her son's death, Edith
    5.75
    4 votes
    127
    Saladin

    Saladin

    Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb (Arabic: صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب‎, Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb, Kurdish: سه‌لاحه‌دین ئه‌یوبی, Selah'edînê Eyubî) (1137/1138 – March 4, 1193), better known in the Western world as Saladin, was a Kurdish Muslim, who became the first Sultan of Egypt and Syria, and founded the Ayyubid dynasty. He led Muslim opposition to the Franks and other European Crusaders in the Levant. At the height of his power, his sultanate included Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen, and parts of North Africa. Under his personal leadership, his forces defeated the Crusaders at the Battle of Hattin, leading the way to his re-capture of Palestine, which had been seized from the Fatimid Egyptians by the Crusaders 88 years earlier. Though the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem would continue to exist for a period, its defeat at Hattin marked a turning point in its conflict with the Muslims and Arabs. As such, Saladin is a prominent figure in Kurdish, Arab, and Muslim culture. Saladin was a strict adherent of Sunni Islam. His noble and chivalrous behavior was noted by Christian chroniclers, especially in the accounts of the Siege of Kerak, and despite being the nemesis of the
    5.75
    4 votes
    128
    Adam Jerzy Czartoryski

    Adam Jerzy Czartoryski

    • Family: Czartoryski family
    Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski (Polish pronunciation: [ˈadam ˈjɛʐɨ t͡ʂartɔˈrɨskʲi], Lithuanian: Аdomas Jurgis Čartoriskis, Russian: Адам Ежи Чарторыйский; also known as Adam George Czartoryski in English; January 14, 1770 – July 15, 1861) was a Polish-Lithuanian noble, statesman and author. He was the son of Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski and Izabela Fleming. Czartoryski became Minister of Foreign Affairs of Imperial Russia and was rumored to have been a lover of Louise of Baden, Empress consort to Alexander I of Russia. Czartoryski held the distinction of having been part, at different times, of the governments of two mutually hostile countries. He was de facto Chairman of the Russian Council of Ministers (1804–6), and President of the Polish National Government during the November 1830 Uprising against Imperial Russia. The 1975–1976 academic year at the College of Europe was named in his honour. Czartoryski was born on January 14, 1770 in Warsaw. He was the son of Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski and Izabela Fleming. It was rumored that Adam was the fruit of a liaison between Izabela and Russian ambassador to Poland, Nikolai Repnin. However, Repnin left the country two years
    7.50
    2 votes
    129
    Alphonse James de Rothschild

    Alphonse James de Rothschild

    • Family: Rothschild family
    Mayer Alphonse James Rothschild (February 1, 1827 - May 26, 1905), was a French, financier, vineyard owner, art collector, philanthropist, racehorse owner/breeder and a member of the prominent Rothschild banking family of France. Known as Alphonse, he was the eldest son of James Mayer de Rothschild (1792–1868). His mother was Betty de Rothschild (1805–1886), the daughter of Salomon Mayer von Rothschild from the Austrian branch of the family. Alphonse was educated to take his place at the head of de Rothschild Frères bank, training in the other Rothschild banking houses in Europe. In France he soon became a major force in the financial world and in 1855 was appointed a regent of the Banque de France, a position he held for the remainder of his life. In 1857 Alphonse de Rothschild married a cousin, Leonora "Laure" de Rothschild (1837–1911), the daughter of Lionel de Rothschild (1808–1879) of the English branch of the family. They had four children. Their firstborn, Bettina Caroline (1858–1892), married Albert Salomon von Rothschild. Alphonse and his brother Gustave developed somewhat of a rivalry with their English cousin Nathaniel de Rothschild who had moved to Paris after marrying
    7.50
    2 votes
    130
    Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach

    Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach

    • Family: Bach family
    Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (8 March 1714 – 14 December 1788) was a German Classical period musician and composer, the fifth child and second (surviving) son of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach. His second name was given in honor of his godfather Georg Philipp Telemann, a friend of Emanuel's father. Emanuel Bach was an influential composer working at a time of transition between his father's baroque style and the classical and romantic styles that followed it. His personal approach, an expressive and often turbulent one known as empfindsamer Stil or 'sensitive style', applied the principles of rhetoric and drama to musical structures. Bach's dynamism stands in deliberate contrast to the more mannered rococo style also then in vogue. Emanuel Bach was born in Weimar in 1714 to Johann Sebastian Bach and his first wife, Maria Barbara. The composer Georg Philipp Telemann was his godfather. When he was ten years old he entered the St. Thomas School at Leipzig, where his father had become cantor in 1723. He was one of four Bach children to become a professional musician; all four were trained in music almost entirely by their father. In an age of royal patronage, father and son
    7.50
    2 votes
    131
    George Washington Vanderbilt II

    George Washington Vanderbilt II

    • Family: Vanderbilt family
    George Washington Vanderbilt II (November 14, 1862 – March 6, 1914) was a member of the prominent United States Vanderbilt family, which had amassed a huge fortune through steamboats, railroads, and various business enterprises. He built and owned Biltmore, the largest home in the United States. The youngest child of William Henry Vanderbilt and Maria Louisa Kissam. George III was named after his father's youngest brother, George Washington Vanderbilt II, the third son to survive to adulthood of the family founder, Cornelius Vanderbilt. (Uncle George II had died young at age 25 of tuberculosis contracted during his service in the Civil War.) Cornelius' tenth child, George I, was born in 1832 and died in 1836. As the youngest in William's family, George III was said to be his father's favorite and his constant companion. Relatives described him as slender, dark-haired, and pale-complexioned. Shy and introverted, his interests ran to philosophy, books, and the collection of paintings in his father's large art gallery. In addition to frequent visits to Paris, France, where several Vanderbilts kept a home, George traveled extensively, becoming fluent in eight foreign languages. His
    7.50
    2 votes
    132
    John D. Rockefeller

    John D. Rockefeller

    • Family: Rockefeller family
    John Davison Rockefeller (July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937) was an American industrialist and philanthropist. He was the founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, he founded the Standard Oil Company and aggressively ran it until he officially retired in 1897. Standard Oil began as an Ohio partnership formed by John D. Rockefeller, his brother William Rockefeller, Henry Flagler, Jabez Bostwick, chemist Samuel Andrews, and a silent partner, Stephen V. Harkness. As kerosene and gasoline grew in importance, Rockefeller's wealth soared, and he became the world's richest man and the first American worth more than a billion dollars. Adjusting for inflation, he is often regarded as the richest person in history. Rockefeller spent the last 40 years of his life in retirement. His fortune was mainly used to create the modern systematic approach of targeted philanthropy. He was able to do this through the creation of foundations that had a major effect on medicine, education, and scientific research. His foundations
    7.50
    2 votes
    133
    Joseph Jackson

    Joseph Jackson

    • Family: The Jacksons
    Joseph Walter "Joe" Jackson (born July 26, 1928) is an American musician, boxer, and talent manager, who is the father and manager of the Jackson family of entertainers which includes Michael Jackson, The Jackson 5, Rebbie Jackson, La Toya Jackson, and Janet Jackson. Joseph Jackson was born in Fountain Hill, Arkansas, the eldest of five to Crystal Lee (née King; 1907-1992) and Samuel Jackson (1893-1993). His siblings were Verna Mae (1930 - 1937), Lula Mae (born c. 1932), Lawrence (born c. 1933), and Luther (c. 1935). Jackson described his childhood as "lonely," later writing in his memoirs that he rarely played with other children and said his father was domineering and strict. When he was twelve, his parents divorced and Jackson and some of his siblings moved with their father to Oakland. At eighteen, he moved to East Chicago, Indiana to live near his mother. Jackson married his first wife shortly thereafter but their marriage was annulled. During this time, Jackson had an affair with Katherine Scruse. After a two-year courtship, the couple married on November 5, 1949. Jackson spent part of his life wanting to be a professional boxer and spent time at the Golden Gloves. However,
    7.50
    2 votes
    134
    Marcantonio Barbaro

    Marcantonio Barbaro

    • Family: Barbaro family
    Marcantonio Barbaro (1518–1595) was an Italian diplomat of the Republic of Venice. He was born in Venice into the aristocratic Barbaro family. His father was Francesco di Daniele Barbaro and his mother Elena Pisani, daughter of the banker Alvise Pisani and Cecilia Giustinian. Barbaro married Guistina Giustiniani in 1534 and they had four sons, one of which, Francesco, became Patriarch of Aquileia, and another, Alvise, married a daughter of Jacopo Foscarini. On the death of Francesco Barbaro, Marcantonio and his elder brother Daniele Barbaro jointly inherited a country estate at Maser. There was already a house on the estate, but the brothers replaced it with a new house designed for them by the architect Palladio; this Villa Barbaro is now preserved as part of the World Heritage Site "City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto". The brothers probably had some input in the design of the building. Daniele was a published author whose interests included architecture. Marcantonio Barbaro was an amateur sculptor, and seems to have focused mainly on the garden of the new house (in particular, a water feature, the nymphaeum). Towards the end of Palladio's life, Marcantonio
    7.50
    2 votes
    135
    Michał Hieronim Radziwiłł

    Michał Hieronim Radziwiłł

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Prince Michał Hieronim Radziwiłł (1744-1831) was a Polish-Lithuanian noble, Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, awarded on September 7, 1773. Ordynat of Kleck, Olyka and Niasvizh, Great Sword-bearer of Lithuania since 1771, castellan of Vilnius since 1775, voivode of Vilnius Voivodship since 1790, Starost grabowski, komorowski, kraszewicki, and miksztadzki. he was Marshal of Sejm (Partition Sejm, together with Adam Poniński) on April 19, 1773 - April 11, 1775 in Warsaw. He was married to Helena Przeździecka since April 26, 1771. Their son was nobleman Antoni Radziwiłł.
    7.50
    2 votes
    136
    Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł

    Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Prince Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł (Lithuanian: Mykolas Kazimieras Radvila) (1625–1680) was a Polish-Lithuanian noble and magnate. He is sometimes referred to as the first Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł, to distinguish him from the other member of his family to use the name. He held the following titles: Majorat of Nieśwież, Master of the Pantry of Lithuania (since 1652), Curver of Lithuania (since 1653), Cupbearer of Lithuania (since 1656), castellan of Vilnius (since 1661), Voivode of the Vilnius Voivodeship (since 1667), Deputy Chancellor of Lithuania (1668) and Field Hetman of Lithuania. He was also a starost of Upita, Przemyśl, Człuchów, Kamieniec, Chojnice, Lida, Telsze, Rabsztyn, Choteń, Homel, Ostra, Gulbin, and several other towns in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Between May 2 and July 18, 1661, he served as the Marshal of the ordinary Sejm held in Warsaw. He married Katarzyna Sobieska, the sister of the King of Poland Jan III Sobieski on June 16, 1658. Unlike his cousins, Janusz Radziwiłł and Bogusław Radziwiłł, he was one of the members of the Radziwiłł family who valiantly fought in the defence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during The Deluge.
    7.50
    2 votes
    137
    Siegfried Sassoon

    Siegfried Sassoon

    • Family: Sassoon family
    Siegfried Loraine Sassoon, CBE, MC (8 September 1886 – 1 September 1967) was an English poet, author and soldier. Decorated for bravery on the Western Front, he became one of the leading poets of the First World War. His poetry both described the horrors of the trenches, and satirised the patriotic pretensions of those who, in Sassoon's view, were responsible for a vainglorious war. He later won acclaim for his prose work, notably his three-volume fictionalised autobiography, collectively known as the "Sherston Trilogy". Siegfried Sassoon was born and grew up in the neo-gothic mansion named "Weirleigh" (after its builder, Harrison Weir), in Matfield, Kent, to a Jewish father and an Anglo-Catholic mother. His father, Alfred Ezra Sassoon (1861–1895), son of Sassoon David Sassoon, was a member of the wealthy Baghdadi Jewish Sassoon merchant family. For marrying outside the faith he was disinherited. His mother, Theresa, belonged to the Thornycroft family, sculptors responsible for many of the best-known statues in London—her brother was Sir Hamo Thornycroft. There was no German ancestry in Siegfried's family; his mother named him Siegfried because of her love of Wagner's operas. His
    7.50
    2 votes
    138
    Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild

    Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild

    • Family: Rothschild family
    Nathaniel Mayer Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild, GBE, GM, FRS (31 October 1910 – 20 March 1990) was a biologist by training, a cricketer and a member of the prominent Rothschild family. Victor was the only son of Charles Rothschild and Rozsika Rothschild (née Edle von Wertheimstein). He had three sisters. Victor was educated at Harrow School and at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he read Physiology, French and English. He played first-class cricket for the University and Northamptonshire. At Cambridge he was known for his playboy lifestyle, driving a Bugatti and collecting art and rare books. At Trinity, Rothschild joined the secret society, the Cambridge Apostles, which at that time was predominantly Marxist, though he "was mildly left-wing but never a Marxist". There he became friends with the future Soviet spies Guy Burgess and Anthony Blunt, who were also members, and Kim Philby--not a member—who became the most important Soviet spy in Britain. Rothschild gave Blunt £100 to purchase "Eliezer and Rebecca" by Nicholas Poussin. The painting was sold by Blunt's executors in 1985 for £100,000 (totalling £192,500 with tax remission) and is now in the Fitzwilliam Museum. His
    7.50
    2 votes
    139
    Jerzy Konstanty Czartoryski

    Jerzy Konstanty Czartoryski

    • Family: Czartoryski family
    Prince Jerzy Konstanty Czartoryski (1828–1912) was a Polish noble (szlachcic). Jerzy was married to Marie Čermáková, married on May 2, 1861 in Vienna; his brother-in-law was the painter Jaroslav Čermák.
    5.50
    4 votes
    140
    William Kennedy Smith

    William Kennedy Smith

    • Family: Kennedy family
    William Kennedy Smith (born September 4, 1960) is an American physician whose work focuses on landmines and the rehabilitation of people disabled by them. He is a member of the prominent Kennedy political family and is famous for a well-publicized 1991 rape trial in which he was acquitted. Smith is the second of four children of Stephen Edward Smith and Jean Kennedy Smith. His mother is the daughter of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. He is the nephew of President John F. Kennedy and Senators Robert F. Kennedy and Ted Kennedy. William Kennedy Smith is the brother of Stephen Edward Smith, Jr., Amanda Smith Hood and Kym Smith Tucker . He is married to Anne Henry. As of May 12, 2012, a baby girl was born to the couple; India Rose Smith. He attended boarding school at Salisbury School in Salisbury, Connecticut. He then went on to receive his undergraduate degree from Duke University, completed premedical postbaccalaureate studies at Bryn Mawr College, and his M.D. degree from Georgetown University School of Medicine. He moved to Chicago and worked as a doctor, activist, and teaching physician at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. He founded the
    5.50
    4 votes
    141
    Barbara Radziwiłł

    Barbara Radziwiłł

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Barbara Radziwiłł (Lithuanian: Barbora Radvilaitė, Polish: Barbara Radziwiłłówna, Belarusian: Барбара Радзівіл; 6 December 1520 – 8 May 1551) was Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania as consort to Sigismund II Augustus. Barbara was the daughter of a powerful magnate of the Radziwiłł family, castellan, voivode and hetman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Jerzy Radziwiłł, and Barbara Koła. According to the writings of her contemporaries, Barbara was one of the most beautiful women in Europe. She was tall for her times (162 cm, or 5' 4"), with a slim, shapely body, blonde hair and even white teeth. Moreover, Barbara had an interest in fashion and cosmetics; she used perfumes and face powder. She had been well educated by her parents and spoke Lithuanian, Ruthenian (Old Belarusian), and Polish and could write in these languages. She was married on May 18, 1537, to Stanislovas Goštautas, Voivode of Nowogrodek and later Voivode of Trakai, who died on December 18, 1542. Her romance and later marriage in 1547, in Vilnius, to Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Sigismund II August, the last monarch of the Jagiellon Dynasty, greatly increased the power of the Radziwiłł family
    6.33
    3 votes
    142
    David II of Scotland

    David II of Scotland

    • Family: Clan Bruce
    David II (Medieval Gaelic: Daibhidh a Briuis, Modern Gaelic: Dàibhidh Bruis; Norman French: Dauid de Brus; 5 March 1324 – 22 February 1371) was King of Scots from 7 June 1329 until his death. David II was the elder and only surviving son of Robert I of Scotland and his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh. He was born on 5 March 1324 at Dunfermline Palace, Fife. His mother died in 1327. In accordance with the Treaty of Northampton's terms, David was married on 17 July 1328 to Joan of the Tower, daughter of Edward II of England and Isabella of France, at Berwick-upon-Tweed. They had no issue. David became King of Scots upon the death of his father on 7 June 1329, aged 5 years, 3 months, and 3 days. David and his Queen were crowned at Scone on 24 November 1331. During David's minority, Sir Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray was appointed Guardian of Scotland by the Act of Settlement of 1318. After Moray's death, on 20 July 1332, he was replaced by Donald, Earl of Mar, elected by an assembly of the magnates of Scotland at Perth, 2 August 1332. Only ten days later Mar fell at the Battle of Dupplin Moor. Sir Andrew Murray of Bothwell, who was married to Christian (or Christina), the sister
    6.33
    3 votes
    143
    Krzysztof Mikołaj "the Lightning" Radziwiłł

    Krzysztof Mikołaj "the Lightning" Radziwiłł

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Prince Krzysztof Mikołaj Radziwiłł, nicknamed The Thunderbolt (Lithuanian: Kristupas (Mikalojus) Radvila "Perkūnas", 1547–1603) was a Reichsfürst of the Holy Roman Empire and a member of the nobility of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was Cup-bearer of Lithuania from 1569, Field Hetman of Lithuania from 1572, Castellan of Trakai, Deputy Chancellor of Lithuania from 1579, Voivode of Vilnius Voivodeship from 1584, Great Lithuanian Hetman from 1589, and Starost. Krzysztof Mikołaj Radziwiłł was one of the most talented commanders in the service of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during the wars against Muscovy and Sweden, and won the Battle of Kokenhausen. His achievements combined with his powerful Radziwiłł family backing helped him rise to his various voivode and starost offices and further increased his family's wealth. Like his father, brother, and nephew he was an ardent Calvinist, and an adherent of the Polish Reformed Church, and defended it against the rise of the Counter-Reformation.
    6.33
    3 votes
    144
    Nathan Mayer Rothschild

    Nathan Mayer Rothschild

    • Family: Rothschild family
    Nathan Mayer, Freiherr von Rothschild (16 September 1777 – 28 July 1836), known as Nathan Mayer Rothschild, was a British banker and financier and one of five sons of the second-generation of the Rothschild banking dynasty. He was born in Frankfurt am Main, the fourth child of Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744–1812) and Gutle Schnapper (1753–1849). In 1798, at the age of 21, he settled in Manchester and established a business in textile trading and finance, later moving to London, England and making a fortune in trading bills of exchange through a banking enterprise begun in 1805. In 1816, his two elder brothers were granted noble status (Freiherr or Baron) by the Emperor of Austria. They were now permitted to prefix the Rothschild name with von or de. Their device of four arrows became five when in 1818 Nathan too was elevated, although he chose not to use his aristocratic title Freiherr von Rothschild. On 22 October 1806 in London he married Hannah Barent-Cohen (1783–1850), daughter of Levi Barent-Cohen (1747–1808) and wife Lydia Diamantschleifer and paternal granddaughter of Barent Cohen and wife, whose other son Salomon David Barent-Cohen (d. 1807) married Sara Brandes,
    6.33
    3 votes
    145
    Philip I, Duke of Burgundy

    Philip I, Duke of Burgundy

    • Family: House of Burgundy
    Philip I of Burgundy, also Philip II of Palatine Burgundy, Philip III of Artois, Philip III of Boulogne and Auvergne, nicknamed Philip of Rouvres (1346 – November 21, 1361) was Duke of Burgundy from 1350 until his death. Philip was the only son of Philip of Burgundy, heir to the Duchy of Burgundy, and Joanna I, Countess of Auvergne and Boulogne. He succeeded his grandfather when he was only three years old. His deceased father was the only child of Odo IV, Duke of Burgundy, and of Joan III, Countess of Burgundy and Artois. Philip, in his own right, held the counties of Artois and Burgundy from 1349 (inherited from his grandmother), the Duchy of Burgundy from 1350 (inherited from his grandfather) and the counties of Auvergne and Boulogne from 1360 (inherited from his mother). In 1357, by marrying the future Countess Margaret III of Flanders, then heiress of Flanders, he was promised the counties of Flanders, Nevers, Rethel, and Antwerp, and the duchies of Brabant, and Limburg. Most of these lands were located in the Low Countries. His mother Joanna, who became Queen of France after her remarriage to King John II of France, governed Burgundy as Philip's guardian until her death in
    6.33
    3 votes
    146
    Philip Sassoon

    Philip Sassoon

    • Family: Sassoon family
    Sir Philip Albert Gustave David Sassoon, 3rd Baronet, PC, GBE, CMG (4 December 1888 – 3 June 1939), was a British politician, art collector and social host, entertaining many celebrity guests at his homes, Port Lympne, Kent, and Trent Park, Hertfordshire, England. He was Private Secretary to Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig from 1915-1918, and Under Secretary of State for Air 1924-29 and 1931-37; as well as the Hon. Air Commodore No. 601 (County of London) Squadron, Auxiliary Air Force. Sassoon was a member of the prominent Sassoon family and Rothschild family. His father was Sir Edward Albert Sassoon, 2nd Baronet, MP, son of Albert Abdullah David Sassoon; his mother was Aline Caroline, daughter of Gustave Samuel de Rothschild. His sister was Sybil Sassoon, who married the Marquess of Cholmondeley. He was a cousin of the war poet Siegfried Sassoon. A second lieutenant in the East Kent Yeomanry, Sassoon served as private secretary to Field Marshal Haig during the First World War. Sassoon was present at the meeting on the First of December 1914 at the Chateau Demont at Merville in France, when King George V and Edward Prince of Wales met with Poincare, President of France, and the
    6.33
    3 votes
    147
    Simon Guggenheim

    Simon Guggenheim

    • Family: Guggenheim
    John Simon Guggenheim (December 30, 1867 – November 2, 1941) was an American businessman, politician, and philanthropist. He was the son of Meyer Guggenheim and Barbara Guggenheim, and was the younger brother of Daniel Guggenheim and Solomon R. Guggenheim. Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Simon Guggenheim attended Central High School and Peirce College before settling in Pueblo, Colorado, where he worked as the chief ore buyer for his father's mining and smelting operation, M. Guggenheim’s Sons. Guggenheim moved to Denver in 1892 and married Olga Hirsch on November 24, 1898, at the iconic Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York. To celebrate their marriage, the Guggenheims provided a Thanksgiving dinner to 5,000 poor Manhattan children. Simon and Olga made their residence in Denver and celebrated the birth of their first child, John Guggenheim, in 1905. To commemorate the event, Guggenheim made an $80,000 donation to the Colorado School of Mines to build a namesake building, Guggenheim Hall. At the time, it was the largest private grant ever made to a State institution. In 1907, Olga gave birth to their second son, George Guggenheim. In 1909, he donated a Law Building at University of
    6.33
    3 votes
    148
    Theodore Roosevelt

    Theodore Roosevelt

    • Family: Roosevelt family
    Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt ( /ˈroʊzəvɛlt/ ROH-zə-velt; October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was the 26th President of the United States of America (1901–1909). He is noted for his exuberant personality, range of interests and achievements, and his leadership of the Progressive Movement, as well as his "cowboy" persona and robust masculinity. He was a leader of the Republican Party and founder of the short-lived Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party of 1912. Before becoming President, he held offices at the city, state, and federal levels. Roosevelt's achievements as a naturalist, explorer, hunter, author, and soldier are as much a part of his fame as any office he held as a politician. Roosevelt was 42 years old when sworn in as President of the United States in 1901, making him the youngest president ever; he beat out the youngest elected president, John F. Kennedy, by only one year. Roosevelt was also one of only three sitting presidents to have won the Nobel Peace Prize. Born into a wealthy family in New York City, Roosevelt was a sickly child who suffered from asthma and stayed at home studying natural history. To compensate for his physical weakness, he embraced a strenuous life.
    6.33
    3 votes
    149
    Albert Abdullah David Sassoon

    Albert Abdullah David Sassoon

    • Family: Sassoon family
    Sir Albert Abdullah David Sassoon, 1st Baronet, KCB, CSI, (25 July 1818 – 24 October 1896) was a British Indian philanthropist and merchant. Sir Albert was born in Baghdad, a member of a Jewish family that had lived there since the beginning of the 16th century, having been expelled from Spain in the 1490s. He was named Abdullah at birth, but changed his name to Albert later in life. His father, David Sassoon, was a leading Baghdad merchant and a treasurer under Ahmet Pasha, the governor of Baghdad. However, he fled after he was implicated in a corruption scandal, moving from Baghdad to Bushire, in Iran and settled in Bombay in 1832, where he founded a large banking and mercantile business. David Sassoon's business acumen soon made him one of the richest men in Bombay. Albert Sassoon was educated in India and became head of the firm on his father's death. Sasoon was a major benefactor to the city of Bombay; among his gifts were the Sassoon Dock completed in 1875, and a handsome proportion of the cost of Elphinstone High School. In 1867 Sasoon was made a Companion of the Order of the Star of India (CSI) and in 1872 a Knight Companion of the Order of the Bath (KCB). In 1873 he
    8.00
    1 votes
    150
    Elizabeth Pease Nichol

    Elizabeth Pease Nichol

    • Family: Pease family
    Elizabeth Pease Nichol (1807–1897) was an abolitionist, anti-segregationist, woman suffragist, chartist and anti-vivisectionist in 19th century Great Britain. In 1853 she married Dr. John Pringle Nichol (1804-1859), Regius Professor of Astronomy at the University of Glasgow. She was one of about six women who were in the painting of the World Anti-Slavery Convention of 1840. Elizabeth Pease was born in Darlington, England to Joseph Pease and his wife Elizabeth Beaumont, who were members of the Society of Friends (Quakers). Her father started the Peace Society the year of her birth, the same year that Great Britain abolished the slave trade in its empire, while allowing slavery to continue. By 1837, Pease was leading the Darlington Ladies Anti-Slavery Society. Charles Stuart, an Anti-Slavery abolitionist and lecturer, encouraged her to send a female delegate or attend a national society being formed by Joseph Sturge. Pease resisted more public involvement, as she did not seek the limelight but wanted to work locally for the causes she held to be important. In 1840, Pease traveled to London to attend the World Anti-Slavery Convention beginning on 12 June. Before the conference
    8.00
    1 votes
    151
    Johann Ambrosius Bach

    Johann Ambrosius Bach

    • Family: Bach family
    Johann Ambrosius Bach (February 22/24, 1645 – February 20/24, 1695) was a German musician, father to Johann Sebastian Bach. The son of Christoph Bach (1613–1661), Ambrosius was born in Erfurt, Germany as the twin brother of Johann Christoph Bach (1645–1693). Ambrosius was employed as a violinist in Erfurt. In 1671, he moved his family to Eisenach, Thuringia, where he was employed as a court trumpeter and director of the town musicians with duties that included performing chorales twice daily from the tower of the town hall, assisting church musicians on feast days, and providing music for civic and municipal functions. In 1684, he unsuccessfully petitioned to be released from his duties to accept a position in his native town. He married his first wife Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt on April 1, 1668, and had eight children by her, four of whom became musicians, including Johann Sebastian. She was buried on May 3, 1694. On November 27, 1694 he married Barbara Margaretha, née Keul (she had already been twice widowed). He died in Eisenach less than three months later.
    8.00
    1 votes
    152
    Katherine Routledge

    Katherine Routledge

    • Family: Pease family
    Katherine Maria Routledge, née Pease (1866-1935) was a British archaeologist who initiated (but did not complete) the first true survey of Easter Island. She was the second child of Kate and Gurney Pease, and was born into a wealthy Quaker family in Darlington, northern England. She graduated from Somerville Hall (now Somerville College, Oxford), with Honours in Modern History in 1895, and for a while taught courses through the Extension Division and at Darlington Training College. After the Second Boer War, she traveled to South Africa with a committee to investigate the resettlement of single working women from England to South Africa. In 1906 she married William Scoresby Routledge. The couple went to live among the Kikuyu people of what was then British East Africa, and in 1910 jointly published a book of their research entitled With A Prehistoric People. In 1910 the Routledges decided to organize their own expedition to Easter Island/Rapa Nui. They had a state-of-the-art 90-foot (27 m) long Schooner built and named it Mana. They affiliated with the British Association for the Advancement of Science, the British Museum and the Royal Geographical Society, recruited a crew and
    8.00
    1 votes
    153
    Maja Einstein

    Maja Einstein

    • Family: Einstein family
    Maja Einstein is the younger sister of great scientist Albert Einstein. Maja was the only friend of Albert during his childhood. On November 18 in 1881 Maja was born in Munich. Her Jewish parents, Hermann Einstein and Pauline Einstein (née Koch), had moved from Ulm to Munich in June 1880 with their two-year-old son Albert. There Hermann and his brother Jakob had founded the electrical engineering company Einstein & Cie. When little Albert saw his sister for the first time he thought she was a kind of toy and asked: “Yes, but where does it have its small wheels?” Maja and her brother Albert got along very well all their lives. Albert was a very good friend to his sister. After attending elementary school in Munich from 1887 to 1894, she attended the German International School in Milan, where the family had moved due to financial reasons. To continue high school, Albert had stayed behind with relatives in Munich. From 1899 to 1902 she attended the workshop for teachers in Aarau. After she passed her final exams, she studied Romance languages and literature in Berlin, Bern and Paris. In 1909 she graduated from university in Bern. The title of her dissertation was “Contribution to the
    8.00
    1 votes
    154
    Phyllis Lambert

    Phyllis Lambert

    • Family: Bronfman family
    Phyllis Barbara Lambert CC GOQ  FRAIC FRSC RCA (née Bronfman, born January 24, 1927) is a Canadian philanthropist and member of the Bronfman family. Born in Montreal, she studied at The Study, a premier independent school for girls, Vassar College (BA in 1948). She moved to France in 1949 and married Baron Jean Lambert, a banker and Rothschild cousin, but they divorced in 1954. She moved to New York City in 1954 and became involved in architecture; she graduated from the Illinois Institute of Technology in 1963. In the 1960s, she designed the Saidye Bronfman Centre in Montreal, named after her mother. As Director of Planning for the Seagram Building, she was influential bringing Ludwig Mies van der Rohe onto the project, also recommending him for the Toronto-Dominion Centre design. In 1975, she founded the heritage preservation group Heritage Montreal. In 1979, she founded the Canadian Centre for Architecture, a museum and research centre in Montreal's Shaughnessy Village neighbourhood, and donated 750,000 shares of Seagram to help fund the Centre. Lambert has also been an advocate in efforts to revitalize the struggling Shaughnessy Village district. She also helped lead a
    8.00
    1 votes
    155
    Winthrop Rockefeller

    Winthrop Rockefeller

    • Family: Rockefeller family
    Winthrop Rockefeller (May 1, 1912 – February 22, 1973) was a politician and philanthropist who served as the first Republican Governor of Arkansas since Reconstruction. He was a third-generation member of the Rockefeller family. Winthrop Rockefeller was born in New York to John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and the former Abby Greene Aldrich. His four famous brothers were: Nelson, David, Laurance, and John D. III. Nelson served as Governor of New York and Vice President of the United States. Winthrop attended Yale University (1931–34) but was ejected as a result of misbehavior before earning his degree. Prior to attending Yale, he graduated from the Loomis Chaffee School in Windsor, Connecticut. In early 1941, he enlisted in the Army. As a soldier of the 77th Infantry Division, he fought in World War II, advancing from Private to Colonel. He earned a Bronze Star with Oak Leaf Clusters and a Purple Heart for his actions aboard the troopship USS Henrico, after a kamikaze attack during the invasion of Okinawa. His image appears in the Infantry Officer Hall of Fame at Fort Benning, Georgia. On February 14, 1948, Mr.Rockefeller married Mrs. Barbara "Bobo" Sears. She was the former wife of Boston
    8.00
    1 votes
    156
    Joseph Pease, 1st Baron Gainford

    Joseph Pease, 1st Baron Gainford

    • Family: Pease family
    Joseph Albert "Jack" Pease, 1st Baron Gainford PC, DL, JP (17 January 1860 – 15 February 1943), known as Jack Pease before 1917, was a British businessman and Liberal politician. He was a member of H. H. Asquith's Liberal cabinet between 1910 and 1916 and also served as Chairman of the BBC between 1922 and 1926. Pease was born in Darlington, County Durham (a member of the Darlington Peases), the second and youngest son of Sir Joseph Pease, 1st Baronet, of Hutton Hall, Guisborough, and Mary, daughter of Alfred Fox. He was the younger brother of Sir Alfred Pease, 2nd Baronet, the nephew of Arthur Pease and the first cousin of Sir Arthur Pease, 1st Baronet, and Herbert Pease, 1st Baron Daryngton. He was educated at Grove House, Tottenham, a Quaker school, and at Trinity College, Cambridge. Pease served as Mayor of Darlington from 1889 to 1890. He was elected Member of Parliament for Tyneside in 1892, a seat he held until 1900, and then represented Saffron Walden between 1901 and 1910 and Rotherham between 1910 and 1916. He was private secretary (unpaid) to John Morley, the Chief Secretary for Ireland, between 1893 and 1895 and a junior opposition whip between 1897 and 1905. When the
    5.25
    4 votes
    157
    Otto I, Count of Savoy

    Otto I, Count of Savoy

    • Family: House of Savoy
    Otto (or Othon in French, Oddone in Italian) (1010/1020 – c. 1057) was a Count of Savoy from 1051 (or 1056) until his death. He substantially enlarged his lands through his marriage. After this acquisition the House of Savoy concentrated their expansion efforts towards Italy instead of outside the Alps as they had done before. Savoy's lands occupied much of modern Savoy and Piedmont, although several other small states could be found between them. He was son of Humbert, the first Count of Savoy, and his wife Ancilla of Lenzburg, and ascended the throne after the death of his elder brother, Amadeus I of Savoy. In 1046 he married Adelaide, heiress of Turin and Susa. They had five children:
    5.25
    4 votes
    158
    Andrew W. Mellon

    Andrew W. Mellon

    • Family: Mellon family
    Andrew William Mellon (March 24, 1855 – August 26, 1937) was an American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector, and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932. Mellon was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on March 24, 1855. His father was Thomas Mellon, a banker and judge who was a Scotch-Irish immigrant from County Tyrone, Northern Ireland; his mother was Sarah Jane Negley Mellon. He also had a brother named Richard B. Mellon. He was educated at the Western University of Pennsylvania (now the University of Pittsburgh) and graduated in 1873. Mellon demonstrated financial ability early in life. In 1872 he was set up in a lumber and coal business by his father and soon turned it into a profitable enterprise. He joined his father's banking firm, T. Mellon & Sons, in 1880 and two years later had ownership of the bank transferred to him. In 1889, Mellon helped organize the Union Trust Company and Union Savings Bank of Pittsburgh. He also branched into industrial activities: oil, steel, shipbuilding, and construction. Three areas where Mellon's backing created giant enterprises were aluminum, industrial abrasives ("carborundum"), and coke. Mellon
    7.00
    2 votes
    159
    Edward IV of England

    Edward IV of England

    • Family: House of York
    Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was King of England from 4 March 1461 until 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 until his death. He was the first Yorkist King of England. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to this throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 to reign in peace until his sudden death. Before becoming king he was 4th Duke of York, 7th Earl of March, 5th Earl of Cambridge and 9th Earl of Ulster. He was also the 65th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Edward of York was born at Rouen in France, the second child of Richard, 3rd Duke of York (who had a strong genealogical claim to the throne of England), and Cecily Neville. He was the eldest of the four sons who survived to adulthood. His younger brother Edmund, Earl of Rutland, died along with his father fighting for the Yorkist cause. The Duke of York's assertion of his claim to the crown in 1460 was the key escalation of the conflict known as the Wars of the Roses. When his father was killed at the Battle of Wakefield, Edward inherited his claim. With the support of his cousin Richard Neville, 16th Earl of
    7.00
    2 votes
    160
    Joseph W. Pease

    Joseph W. Pease

    • Family: Pease family
    Sir Joseph Whitwell Pease, 1st Baronet (23 June 1828 – 23 June 1903) was a British Liberal Party politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1865 to 1903. Pease was a member of the Darlington Pease family, being the son of Joseph Pease and his wife Emma Gurney, daughter of Joseph Gurney of Lakenham Grove, Norwich. His father was a quaker industrialist and railway pioneer of Darlington, and M.P. for South Durham from 1832 to 1841. Pease was educated at the Quaker run Lawrence Street school in York, (later Bootham School). He was a banker, an owner of coal and ironstone mines in Durham and Yorkshire, and a director of numerous companies, including the family's original woollen mill business Henry Pease & Co., the family bank J & JW Pease, The Owners of the Middlesbrough Estate, the locomotive manufacturers Robert Stephenson and Company, and the North Eastern Railway of which he became chairman. He was a J.P. for Durham and a Deputy Lieutenant, J.P. for the North Riding of Yorkshire, President of the Peace Society, President of the Society for the Suppression of the Opium Trade, and a campaigner against capital punishment. At the 1865 general election Pease was elected Member of
    7.00
    2 votes
    161
    Lauren Bush

    Lauren Bush

    • Family: Bush family
    Lauren Pierce Bush Lauren (born June 25, 1984) is a fashion model and designer. She is the daughter of Neil Bush and Sharon Bush (née Smith). She is the niece of former President George W. Bush and the granddaughter of former President George H. W. Bush. Bush was born in Colorado. She attended high school at Kinkaid School in Houston, Texas, as did her sister Ashley, and brother Pierce. She studied fashion design at BEBE and Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design and graduated from Princeton University in 2006 with a B.A. in Anthropology and an certificate in Photography. She was a member of The Ivy Club, one of Princeton's eleven eating clubs. Standing at 5 feet 6 inches (1.68 m), Bush is signed with the Elite Model Management. She has been featured on the covers of Vogue and Vanity Fair magazine and frequently modeled for Tommy Hilfiger as well as for Abercrombie & Fitch and designers Gai Mattiolo and Isaac Mizrahi. She was an intern on the television sitcom Friends and had a cameo in one episode, and interned alongside Ashley Olsen with designer Zac Posen. Bush traveled to Chad in 2005 as a Student Ambassador for the World Food Program. Lauren Bush recently launched a
    7.00
    2 votes
    162
    Moulay Ali Cherif

    Moulay Ali Cherif

    Moulay Ali Cherif (Standard Arabic: مولاي علي الشريف Mawlāy ʻAlī Sharīf') (9 November 1589 in Rissani, Morocco, died 5 June 1659 in Rissani) was allegedly a descendant of l-Hesn d-Dakhl and is considered to have been the founder of the Alaouite Dynasty of Morocco. He began to increase his power in the Tafilalt during the anarchy following the death of the Saadi ruler Ahmad al-Mansur (1578–1603) and ruled that region from (1631–1640). Sharif Sultan Abul Amlak Sidi Muhammad I as-Sharif bin 'Ali was the Sultan of Tafilalt 1631 - 1636. He was born before 9 November 1589 as the sixth son of 'Ali as-Sharif al-Marrakchi. He abdicated the throne of Tafilat in 1636, in the favour of his eldest of fifteen sons, Muhammad II of Morocco. In 1659, the last sultan of the Saadi Dynasty was overthrown by Mulay Ali Cherif's son, Mulay r-Rshid (1664–1672) in the conquest of Marrakech. After the victory over the Dila brotherhood, who controlled northern Morocco, he was able to unite and pacify the country. He died at Sijilmasa (Rissani), Tafilalt, on 5 June 1659. His mausoleum is in the town of Rissani in the Tafilalt region. There is also a town named after him in the Meknès-Tafilalet Region.
    7.00
    2 votes
    163
    Patrick J. Kennedy

    Patrick J. Kennedy

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Patrick Joseph Kennedy II (born July 14, 1967) is the former U.S. Representative for Rhode Island's 1st congressional district, serving from 1995 until 2011. He is a member of the Democratic Party. The district includes all of Bristol County and Newport County, and parts of Providence County. Kennedy did not seek re-election in 2010. A member of the Kennedy family, he is a son of the late U.S. Senator Edward M. Kennedy from Massachusetts. At the time of his father's death, he was the last remaining member of the Kennedy family to serve in an elective office in Washington. Kennedy was born in 1967 to Virginia Joan Kennedy (née Bennett) and Edward Moore Kennedy, Sr. (known as "Ted") in Brighton, Massachusetts, the third of three children, after Kara Anne Kennedy (1960–2011) and Edward Moore Kennedy, Jr. (born 1961). Patrick was named after his paternal great-grandfather, Patrick Joseph Kennedy, known as "P.J.", a Massachusetts State Senator during the late 1800s. He graduated from Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts in 1986, and graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree from Providence College in Providence, Rhode Island in 1991. Kennedy became the youngest member of the
    7.00
    2 votes
    164
    Philippe de Rothschild

    Philippe de Rothschild

    • Family: Rothschild family
    Baron Philippe de Rothschild (13 April 1902, Paris – 20 January 1988, Paris) was a member of the Rothschild banking dynasty who became a Grand Prix race-car driver, a screenwriter and playwright, a theatrical producer, a film producer, a poet, and one of the most successful wine growers in the world. Born in Paris, Georges Philippe de Rothschild was the younger son of Baron Henri James de Rothschild (1872–1947) (who was a noted playwright under the name André Pascal) and Mathilde Sophie Henriette von Weissweiller (1872–1926). At the outbreak of World War I, 12-year-old Philippe was sent to the safety of the family's vineyard in the village of Pauillac in the Médoc. There, he developed a love of the country and the wine business, an enterprise in his family since 1853, but one his father and grandfather had shown little interest in. As a young man, in sharp contrast to the Rothschild family's staid aristocratic traditions, Philippe de Rothschild became a larger-than-life personality. During the 1920s, Philippe lived the life of a wealthy playboy, often found in the company of a beautiful woman, usually an actress, at one of the popular night spots in Paris. Philippe's older brother
    7.00
    2 votes
    165
    Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York

    Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York

    • Family: House of York
    Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, 6th Earl of March, 4th Earl of Cambridge, and 7th Earl of Ulster, conventionally called Richard of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460) was a leading English magnate, great-grandson of King Edward III. He inherited great estates, and served in various offices of state in France at the end of the Hundred Years' War, and in England, ultimately governing the country as Lord Protector during Henry VI's madness. His conflicts with Henry's queen, Margaret of Anjou, and other members of Henry's court were a leading factor in the political upheaval of mid-fifteenth-century England, and a major cause of the Wars of the Roses. Richard eventually attempted to claim the throne but was dissuaded, although it was agreed that he would become King on Henry's death. Within a few weeks of securing this agreement, he died in battle. Although Richard never became king, he was the father of Edward IV and Richard III. Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, the son of Richard, Earl of Cambridge and Anne Mortimer, was born 21 September 1411. His mother Anne was the great-granddaughter of Lionel of Antwerp, the second surviving son of Edward III, which arguably
    7.00
    2 votes
    166
    Carole Radziwill

    Carole Radziwill

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Carole DiFalco Radziwill (Princess Anthony Radziwill) is an Emmy Award-winning journalist and author in the United States. Carole DiFalco began her news career at ABC in New York in 1986 as an unpaid intern in postproduction for 20/20, a news magazine show. She was later assigned to "Close Up" as a production secretary. She eventually worked for Peter Jennings's documentary unit, producing shows on abortion and gun control, and covering foreign policy stories in Cambodia, Haiti and India. In 1991, Carole DiFalco was stationed in Israel and reported on the SCUD missile attacks during the Gulf War. In 2003, during the War on Afghanistan, she spent six weeks in Khandahar, embedded with an infantry unit of the 101st Airborne Division. She produced segments for an ABC-TV show called Profiles From the Frontline. She has won several awards, including three Emmys, one for a story she produced on land mines in Cambodia, and a Peabody. . Carole Radziwill, earned a B.A. at Hunter College, an MBA at New York University and was a finalist for the John C. Knight Fellowship at Stanford University. Radziwill was born to a lower-middle-class, Italian-American family. On August 27, 1994, she married
    6.00
    3 votes
    167
    Ferdinand James von Rothschild

    Ferdinand James von Rothschild

    • Family: Rothschild family
    Ferdinand James Anselm Freiherr von Rothschild (17 December 1839 – 17 December 1898) was an English art collector, and a member of the prominent Rothschild family of bankers. He was a Liberal politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1885 to 1898. Although Ferdinand von Rothschild was born in Paris, France, he was from Vienna and a part of the Rothschild banking family of Austria. He was the second son of Baron Anselm von Rothschild (1803–1874) and Charlotte von Rothschild née Rothschild (1807–1859). He held the hereditary title Freiherr (Baron) in the Austrian nobility. He became a British subject and moved from Vienna to London. In Britain he used the style Ferdinand de Rothschild. On 7 June 1865 he married his cousin Evelina de Rothschild (1839–1866), the daughter of Lionel de Rothschild (1808–1879). On 4 December 1866 their son was stillborn and Evelina died later the same day. In her memory, Ferdinand built, equipped and endowed the Evelina Hospital for Sick Children in Southwark, south London. In 1874 he bought an estate near the village of Waddesdon in Buckinghamshire and between 1874 and 1889 built Waddesdon Manor, designed by Gabriel-Hippolyte Destailleur in an
    6.00
    3 votes
    168
    Harry Payne Whitney

    Harry Payne Whitney

    • Family: Whitney family
    Harry Payne Whitney (April 29, 1872 - October 26, 1930) was an American businessman, thoroughbred horsebreeder, and member of the prominent Whitney family. Born in New York City, he was the eldest son of the very wealthy businessman and United States Secretary of the Navy, William C. Whitney and brother to William Payne Whitney. Harry Payne Whitney studied at Groton School in Groton, Massachusetts then attended Yale University, graduating with a law degree in 1894. He was a member of the Skull and Bones. In 1904, H. P. Whitney inherited $24,000,000 from his father and in 1917 approximately $12,000,000 from his uncle, Oliver Hazard Payne. On August 25, 1896 he married Gertrude Vanderbilt, a member of the wealthy Vanderbilt family with whom he had three children: Flora Payne Whitney (1897), Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney (1899), and Barbara Whitney (1903). An avid sportsman, he was a ten-goal polo player. His love of the sport was inherited from his father who had been involved with polo when it was first organized in the United States in 1876 by James Gordon Bennett, Jr.. H. P. Whitney organized the U. S. polo team that beat England in 1909. As well, he was a board member of the
    6.00
    3 votes
    169
    Laura Bush

    Laura Bush

    • Family: Bush family
    Laura Lane Welch Bush (born November 4, 1946) is the wife of the 43rd President of the United States, George W. Bush. She was the First Lady from January 20, 2001, to January 20, 2009. She graduated from Southern Methodist University in 1968 with a bachelor's degree in education and soon took a job as a second grade teacher. After attaining her Master's degree in Library Science at the University of Texas at Austin, she was employed as a librarian. She met George Walker Bush in 1977, and they were married later that year. The couple had twin daughters in 1981. Bush's political involvement began with her marriage. She campaigned during her husband's unsuccessful 1978 run for the United States Congress and later his successful Texas gubernatorial campaign. As First Lady of Texas, Bush implemented many initiatives focused on health, education, and literacy. In 1999, she aided her husband in campaigning for the presidency in a number of ways, most notably delivering a keynote address at the 2000 Republican National Convention, which gained her national attention. She became first lady after her husband defeated Democrat Al Gore in the 2000 election. Polled by Gallup as one of the most
    6.00
    3 votes
    170
    Mikołaj Radziwiłł

    Mikołaj Radziwiłł

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Mikalojus Radvila (1470–1521) was a magnate and statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. He was a son of Mikalojus Radvilaitis and among the first . He had brothers Jerzy Radziwiłł, Jonas Radvila and Wojciech Radvila and sister Anna Radvila. Mikalojus was a progenitor of Goniądz-Meteliai Radvila family line. He inherited the lands of Musninkai and Kėdainiai. Most of his acquired fortune had been confiscated from Michael Glinski—notably Raigardas, Goniądz and Knyszyn. He took part in the second Muscovite-Lithuanian War of 1500-1503 and other raids under leadership of Konstanty Ostrogski. Mikalojus was the Podczaszy from 1505 until 1510, Voivode of Vilnius from 1507 and replaced his father as the Grand Chancellor of Lithuania from 1510. He rivaled Albrecht Goštautas for influence in the government of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and was the initial editor of the First Statute of Lithuania.
    6.00
    3 votes
    171
    Paul Getty

    Paul Getty

    • Family: Getty family
    Sir John Paul Getty KBE (7 September 1932 – 17 April 2003), born Eugene Paul Getty, was a wealthy American-born British philanthropist and book collector. He was the elder son of Jean Paul Getty, Sr. (1892–1976), one of the richest men in the world at the time, and his wife Anne Rork. The Getty family's wealth was the result of the oil business founded by George Franklin Getty. At birth he was given the name Eugene Paul Getty, but in later life he adopted other names, including Paul Getty, John Paul Getty, Jean Paul Getty, Jr. and John Paul Getty II. A long-time Anglophile, He became a British citizen in 1997. In 1986, he was awarded an honorary knighthood for services to causes ranging from cricket (a sport he came to love despite his American upbringing), to art and to the Conservative Party. His honorary knighthood became substantive when he became a British citizen. In 1998 he changed his name by deed poll when he renounced the first name Eugene and wished to be known as Sir Paul Getty, KBE. His father expected him to prove himself: his first job was pumping gas for $100 a month. He attended St. Ignatius College Preparatory and the University of San Francisco, both Jesuit
    6.00
    3 votes
    172
    Michał Fryderyk Czartoryski

    Michał Fryderyk Czartoryski

    • Family: Czartoryski family
    Prince Michał Fryderyk Czartoryski (Lithuanian: Mykolas Frederikas Čartoriskis) (April 26, 1696 – August 13, 1775) was a szlachcic - a nobleman of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, magnate, Knight of the Order of the White Eagle since 1726. He was Steward of Lithuania since 1720, Kasztelan of Vilnius since 1722, Grand Chancellor of Lithuania since 1752, Starost grodzki, łucki, uświacki, jurbolski, homelski, kupiski and pieniański. He married Elenora Monika Waldstein in Prague on October 30, 1726.
    5.00
    4 votes
    173
    Alexander Downer, Sr.

    Alexander Downer, Sr.

    • Family: Downer family
    Sir Alexander Russell Downer KBE (7 April 1910 – 30 March 1981), Australian politician and diplomat generally known as Alec or Alick. Downer was a member of the Australian House of Representatives between 1949 and 1963 before serving as Australian High Commissioner to London between 1963 and 1972. Downer was born in Adelaide a member of the influential Downer family. His father Sir John Downer was a Premier of South Australia and member of the Australian Senate. Sir Alec's son, Alexander Downer, also a Liberal politician, was Leader of the Opposition 1994–95 and Foreign Minister of Australia 1996–2007. He was educated at Geelong Grammar School and at Oxford University, where he graduated in economics and political science. He was the godfather of Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer, brother of Diana, Princess of Wales. The Earl's godmother was Queen Elizabeth II. After graduating from Oxford in 1932 he read law in London and in 1934 was admitted to the bar at Inner Temple. Returning to Adelaide he joined the South Australian Bar in 1935. He practised as a barrister until joining the Australian Army in 1940. He served in Malaya and was a prisoner-of-war for three years. After the war
    5.67
    3 votes
    174
    Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild

    Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild

    • Family: Rothschild family
    Nathaniel Charles Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild, OM, GBE, FBA (born 29 April 1936) is a British investment banker and a member of the prominent Rothschild family of bankers. He is also Honorary President of the Institute for Jewish Policy Research. Born in 1936, he is the eldest son of Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild by his first wife Barbara Judith Rothschild (née Hutchinson). His father was Jewish while his mother was a gentile who converted to Judaism (in the Orthodox denomination) when they married. Rothschild was educated at Eton College and then at Christ Church, Oxford, where he gained a First in history, tutored by Hugh Trevor-Roper. From 1963 Rothschild worked for the family bank N M Rothschild & Sons in London, before resigning in 1980 due to a family dispute. The chairmanship of the bank had passed from his father, who had chosen to follow a scientific career and had lost control of the majority voting shares, to his cousin Sir Evelyn Robert de Rothschild, and Jacob felt that his aspirations would be thwarted. He sold his minority stake in the bank, but took independent control of Rothschild Investment Trust (now RIT Capital Partners plc), an investment
    5.67
    3 votes
    175
    Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr.

    Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr.

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy, Jr. (July 25, 1915 – August 12, 1944) was a junior officer in the United States Navy, a Naval Aviator, and a land-based bomber pilot during World War II. He was the eldest of nine children born to Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Sr., and Rose Elizabeth (née Fitzgerald) Kennedy. The elder brother of future U.S. President John F. Kennedy, he had been expected to become the family's political standard-bearer, especially after his father's political exile for supporting the appeasement policy of Neville Chamberlain in the advent of World War II. However, he was killed in action, and the task fell to his brother John. One of his nephews, politician Joseph P. Kennedy II, was named after him. Kennedy first attended the Dexter School in Brookline, Massachusetts, with his brother, John. Joseph graduated in 1933 from The Choate School (now Choate Rosemary Hall) in Wallingford, Connecticut. He then entered Harvard College in Cambridge, Massachusetts, graduating in 1938. Kennedy participated in football, rugby, and crew, and he served on the student council. Before he went away to war, Joe became engaged to Athalia Fetter, a model and actress. Joseph then spent a year
    5.67
    3 votes
    176
    Kathleen Cavendish

    Kathleen Cavendish

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Kathleen Agnes "Kick" Cavendish, Marchioness of Hartington (February 20, 1920 – May 13, 1948), born Kathleen Agnes Kennedy, was the fourth child and second daughter of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. and Rose Kennedy. She was a sister of future U.S. President John F. Kennedy and widow of the heir apparent to the Dukedom of Devonshire. When President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Joseph Kennedy ambassador to the United Kingdom, his daughter Kathleen (nicknamed "Kick" by her family) spent a year and a half living in London. She was educated in London at Queen's College. Kathleen later worked at Cissy Patterson's newspaper, the Washington Times-Herald in 1940, writing a column titled, "Did you happen to see . . . ?". In 1943, she returned to England to work in a centre for servicemen set up by the Red Cross. Despite the opposition of her Catholic mother, she married William Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington, an Anglican and the eldest son and heir apparent of the 10th Duke of Devonshire, on May 6, 1944. Her eldest brother Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. was the only member of the Kennedy family to attend the ceremony. Four months after their marriage, her husband was killed in action while serving in
    5.67
    3 votes
    177
    Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski

    Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski

    • Family: Czartoryski family
    Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski (1 December 1734 – 19 March 1823) was a Polish-Lithuanian noble, writer, literary and theater critic, and statesman. He was the son of Prince August Aleksander Czartoryski, voivode of the Ruthenian Voivodship, and Maria Zofia Sieniawska. He married Izabela Fleming on 18 November 1761, in Wołczyn, Poland. A member of the "Familia," in 1763 he declined to be a candidate for the Polish crown, preferring instead to be a patron of the arts, and withdrawing in favor of Stanisław August Poniatowski. Together with his wife, he created at the Czartoryski Palace in Puławy a major center of Polish intellectual and political life. He served from 1758 as general starost of Podolia. Founder of the "Little Monitor", in 1765 he co-founded the Monitor, the leading periodical of the Polish Enlightenment. In 1766 he reorganized the army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1767 he joined the Radom Confederation. In 1768 he became the commander of the School of Chivalry (Corps of Cadets). In 1788-1792 he was Deputy from Lublin to the "Four-Year Sejm." Drawing closer the king once again, he became a leader of the Patriotic Party and co-founder of Poland's Commission of
    6.50
    2 votes
    178
    Anna Magdalena Bach

    Anna Magdalena Bach

    • Family: Bach family
    Anna Magdalena Bach (née Wilcke or Wilcken) (22 September 1701 – 22 February 1760) was an accomplished singer and the second wife of Johann Sebastian Bach. Anna Magdalena Wilcke was born at Zeitz, in the Electorate of Saxony, to a musical family. Her father, Johann Caspar Wilcke, was a trumpet player, who had a career at the courts of Zeitz and Weißenfels. Her mother, Margaretha Elisabeth Liebe, was the daughter of an organist. Little is known about her early musical education, but it is possible that Johann Sebastian Bach first heard her sing at Weißenfels. By 1721 she was employed at Köthen as a singer. Johann married Anna on December 3, 1721, 17 months after the death of his first wife, Maria Barbara Bach. Together they raised the children from Johann's first marriage and had 13 children of their own from 1723 to 1742, 7 of whom died at a young age: Anna Magdalena continued to sing professionally after her marriage. She sang at Prince Leopold's funeral in 1729. The Bachs shared interest in music contributed to their happy marriage. She regularly worked as a copyist, transcribing her husband's music. He wrote a number of compositions dedicated to her, most notably the two
    6.50
    2 votes
    179
    Edouard Alphonse de Rothschild

    Edouard Alphonse de Rothschild

    • Family: Rothschild family
    Édouard Alphonse James de Rothschild (24 February 1868 – 30 June 1949) was a French financier and a member of the prominent Rothschild banking family of France. Born in Paris, Édouard de Rothschild was the only son of Baron Alphonse James de Rothschild (1827–1905). His mother was Leonora de Rothschild (1837–1911), the daughter of Lionel de Rothschild of the English branch of the family. He was raised in a Paris mansion at 2 rue Saint-Florentin that is now home to the United States Embassy as well as at Château de Ferrières in the country. On 1 March 1905, Edouard de Rothschild married Germaine Alice Halphen (1884–1975). They had four children, but according to his daughter Jacqueline, neither parent paid much attention to them. Only a few months after Édouard's marriage, his father died and he formally took over the running of de Rothschild Frères bank. His grandfather and the French bank founder, James Mayer de Rothschild, had stipulated "that the three branches of the family descended from him always be represented." As such, Édouard would be joined by the sons of two different uncles: cousin Robert Philippe de Rothschild (1880–1946) and cousin Maurice de Rothschild (1881–1957).
    6.50
    2 votes
    180
    Ermolao Barbaro

    Ermolao Barbaro

    • Family: Barbaro family
    Ermolao or Hermolao Barbaro, also Hermolaus Barbarus (21 May 1453/1454–14 June 1493), was an Italian Renaissance scholar. Ermolao Barbaro was born in Venice, the son of Zaccaria Barbaro, and the grandson of Francesco Barbaro. He was also the uncle of Daniele Barbaro and Marcantonio Barbaro Much of his early education was outside of Venice, accompanying his father who was an active politician and diplomat. He received further education in Verona with an uncle, also named Ermolao. In 1462 he was sent to Rome, where he studied under Pomponius Laetus and Theodorus Gaza. By 1468 he had returned to Verona, where Frederick III awarded him a laurel crown for his poetry. He completed his education at the University of Padua, where he was appointed professor of philosophy there in 1477. Two years later he revisited Venice, but returned to Padua when the plague broke out in his native city. Barbaro had an active political career, though he resented these duties as a distraction from his studies. In 1483 he was elected to the Senate of the Republic of Venice. He was twenty when he gave the funeral oration for Doge Nicholas Marcello. In 1486, he was sent to the court of the Duchy of Burgundy
    6.50
    2 votes
    181
    Tadeusz Franciszek Ogiński

    Tadeusz Franciszek Ogiński

    • Family: Ogiński family
    Prince Tadeusz Franciszek Andrzej Ogiński (Belarusian: Тадэвуш Францішак Андрэй Агінскі) was a szlachcic from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was Grand Clerk of Lithuania since 1737, castellan of Trakai since 1744, voivode of Trakai since 1770, starost oszmiański, wierzbowski and przewalski. Marshal of the Sejm (zwyczajnego) on 5 October - 19 November 1744 in Hrodna. Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, awarded on 3 August 1742.
    6.50
    2 votes
    182
    Adam Ludwik Czartoryski

    Adam Ludwik Czartoryski

    • Family: Czartoryski family
    Prince Adam Ludwik Czartoryski (1872–1937) was a Polish nobleman, landowner, and patron of the arts. Adam became the head of the Czartoryski family after the death of his father Władysław. In 1897 he became Ordynat of the Sieniawa Ordynacja property. Capital assets were estimated at 4.5 million Austrian Crowns, which did not include the Family Collections. In 1899 Izabela Działyńska, aunt of Adam, left the Glochów estates to him and his brother Witold. In the same year Adam acquired many Greek objects during his travel to Japan. In 1901 he married Countess Maria Ludwika Krasińska. His young wife took over the direction of affairs with tremendous determination, being a great heiress in her own right. In 1911 his brother Witold died and left Adam all his inheritance. In 1914 Adam served in the Austrian Army, and his wife Maria Ludwika took over the Czartoryski Museum. During the First World War, thanks to family connections to the King of Saxony, she sent the most valuable objects over to Dresden. After the war, there was some difficulty retrieving the objects because of concern about unrest in Poland, but two years of negotiation, along with the 1919 Treaty of Riga which provided
    7.00
    1 votes
    183
    Ernest, Elector of Saxony

    Ernest, Elector of Saxony

    • Family: House of Wettin
    Ernst, Elector of Saxony (Meissen, 24 March 1441 – 26 August 1486 in Colditz) was Elector of Saxony from 1464 to 1486. Ernst was founder of the Ernestine line of Saxon princes, ancestor of George I of Great Britain, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, as well as his wife and cousin Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, and their cousins Leopold II of Belgium and Empress Charlotte of Mexico. He was the second son (but fourth in order of birth) of the eight children of Frederick II, Elector of Saxony and Margaret of Austria, sister of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor. The death of his older brother Frederick (1451) made him the new heir apparent to the position of Elector of Saxony. In 1455 Ernst was kidnapped, along with his brother Albert, by the knight Kunz von Kaufungen an episode famous in German history as the "Prinzenraub" (i. e. The Stealing of the Princes). In 1464, he succeeded his father as Elector of Saxony, and annexed Thuringia in 1482, and three years later (Treaty of Leipzig, 1485) shared his territory with his brother Albert, until he arranged the division of the common possession. According to the Treaty of Leipzig he received an area around Wittenberg, the
    7.00
    1 votes
    184
    Franklin D. Roosevelt

    Franklin D. Roosevelt

    • Family: Roosevelt family
    Franklin Delano Roosevelt ( /ˈroʊzəvɛlt/ ROH-zuh-velt or  /ˈroʊzəvəlt/ ROH-zuh-vlt; January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States (1933–1945) and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic depression and total war. The only American president elected to more than two terms, he facilitated a durable coalition that realigned American politics for decades. With the bouncy popular song "Happy Days Are Here Again" as his campaign theme, FDR defeated incumbent Republican Herbert Hoover in November 1932, at the depth of the Great Depression. Energized by his personal victory over paralytic illness, FDR's unfailing optimism and activism contributed to a renewal of the national spirit. He worked closely with Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin in leading the Allies against Germany and Japan in World War II, but died just as victory was in sight. In his first hundred days in office, which began March 4, 1933, Roosevelt spearheaded major legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs
    7.00
    1 votes
    185
    Katherine Jackson

    Katherine Jackson

    • Family: The Jacksons
    Katherine Esther Jackson (née Scruse; born Kattie B. Screws on May 4, 1930) is the matriarch of the Jackson musical family. Katherine was born Kattie B. Screws in Barbour County, Alabama to Martha (née Upshaw; December 14, 1907 – April 25, 1990) and Prince Albert Screws (October 16, 1907 – January 21, 1997). When Katherine was four, her father changed his surname to "Scruse", and renamed his daughter to Katherine Esther. The younger of two daughters, Katherine contracted polio at two but survived the disease. Effects of the disease left her with a noticeable permanent limp. At four, Katherine's family moved to Gary, Indiana, a suburb outside Chicago. As a child, Katherine aspired to become a country singer but was dismayed to find that there were no notable black country stars. Katherine's parents divorced when Katherine was still a youngster. In high school, Katherine joined the local high school band. In 1947, Katherine met Joseph Jackson. After a year-long courtship that started after Jackson annulled an early marriage, they married in November 1949. In January 1950, they purchased a two-bedroom house in Gary. During the couple's early years, they sang together with Joe playing
    7.00
    1 votes
    186
    Kathleen Kennedy Townsend

    Kathleen Kennedy Townsend

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Kathleen Hartington Kennedy Townsend (born July 4, 1951) is an American attorney who was the sixth Lieutenant Governor of Maryland from 1995 to 2003. She ran unsuccessfully for Governor of Maryland in 2002. In 2010 she became the chair of the non-profit American Bridge, an organization that will raise funds for Democratic candidates and causes. She is a member of the Kennedy family. Townsend was born in Greenwich, Connecticut, the eldest of Robert F. Kennedy and Ethel Skakel Kennedy's 11 children, and the eldest grandchild of Joseph P. Kennedy and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. She was named for her aunt Kathleen Kennedy Cavendish. It was not assumed that the girls in the politically-oriented Kennedy family would run for office or become public persons, while she was growing up. However, after her uncle President John F. Kennedy was assassinated, her father wrote her saying, "As the oldest of the next generation you have a particular responsibility.... Be kind to others and work for your country." Her family gave her the nicknames "Clean Kathleen", "the Nun", and "the Un-Kennedy". She spent most of her childhood in McLean, Virginia, and attended Stone Ridge School in nearby Bethesda,
    7.00
    1 votes
    187
    Kirill Razumovsky

    Kirill Razumovsky

    • Family: Razumovsky
    Count Kyrylo Grygorovych Rozumovsky (Ukrainian: Кирило Григорович Розумовський, Russian: Кирилл Григорьевич Разумовский) (March 18, 1728 – January 1, 1803) was a Ukrainian Registered Cossack from the Kozelets regiment in north-eastern Ukraine, who served as the last Hetman of Left- (from 1750) and Right-Bank (from 1754) Ukraine until 1764; Rozumovsky was subsequently elected Hetman of the sovereign Zaporozhian Host in 1759, a position that he managed to nominally preserve until 1769, even though he had lost all power to exercise this office and abdicated in November 1764. Kyrulo Rozum was appointed President of the Russian Academy of Sciences when he just turned 18 years old due to the influence of his brother, Oleksiy Grygorovych Rozumovsky, the morganatic husband of Empress Elisabeth. In 1750, he was elected and subsequently appointed Hetman of the Ukrainian Cossacks, a title he held until Catherine II of Russia forced him to abdicate in 1764. During his reign, Baturyn was re-established as capital of the Hetmanate and Rozumovsky had opulent baroque palaces erected both in Baturyn as well as in Hlukhiv by the imperial architect Andrey Kvasov and Charles Cameron. He also planned
    7.00
    1 votes
    188
    Mikołaj III Radziwiłł

    Mikołaj III Radziwiłł

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Mikolaj Radziwiłł (c. 1492–1530) was the Bishop of Samogitia of Radziwill Family. He was son of Mikolaj Radziwiłł, Grand Chancellor of Lithuania.
    7.00
    1 votes
    189
    Umberto II, Count of Savoy

    Umberto II, Count of Savoy

    • Family: House of Savoy
    Umberto II, surnamed the Fat (1065, Carignano, Piedmont – 14 October 1103), was Count of Savoy from 1080 until his death in 1103. He was the son of Amadeus II of Savoy. He was married to Gisela of Burgundy, daughter of William I, Count of Burgundy, and had 7 children:
    7.00
    1 votes
    190
    Eleanor Roosevelt

    Eleanor Roosevelt

    • Family: Roosevelt family
    Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (/ˈɛlɨnɔr ˈroʊzəvɛlt/; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was the longest serving First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. She supported the New Deal policies of her husband, distant cousin Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and became an advocate for civil rights. After her husband's death in 1945, Roosevelt continued to be an international author, speaker, politician, and activist for the New Deal coalition. She worked to enhance the status of working women, although she opposed the Equal Rights Amendment because she believed it would adversely affect women. In the 1940s, Roosevelt was one of the co-founders of Freedom House and supported the formation of the United Nations. Roosevelt founded the UN Association of the United States in 1943 to advance support for the formation of the UN. She was a delegate to the UN General Assembly from 1945 and 1952, a job for which she was appointed by President Harry S. Truman and confirmed by the United States Senate. During her time at the United Nations she chaired the committee that drafted and approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. President Truman called her the "First Lady of the World" in tribute
    5.33
    3 votes
    191
    Georgy Galitzine

    Georgy Galitzine

    • Family: Galitzine
    Georgy Sergeyevich Golitsyn (Russian: Георгий Сергеевич Голицын) (born January 23, 1935 in Moscow) is a prominent Russian scientist in the field of Atmospheric Physics, full member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (later of Russia) since 1987, Editor-in-Chief of Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, ISSN 0001-4338, member of the Academia Europaea since 1999. 1990-2009 - Director of the A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, RAS, Moscow, Russia. He is a member of the princely house of Galitzine. In the 1960s studied atmospheric circulation on other planets. In 1969 he predicted the small difference between nighttime and daytime temperature on Venus and its high wind velocities. He also developed a model for study of dust storms on Mars. He was also able to show that severe forest fires in Siberia in 1915 had caused global cooling. Golitsyn is regarded by some in Russia as the author of the nuclear winter theory, which was also developed by Vladimir Alexandrov and G.I.Stenchikov and by the authors of the so-called TTAPS study. In 1982 he became aware of the work of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on the subject and attended the TTAPS review meeting with
    5.33
    3 votes
    192
    Henry Ward Beecher

    Henry Ward Beecher

    • Family: Beecher family
    Henry Ward Beecher (June 24, 1813 – March 8, 1887) was a prominent Congregationalist clergyman, social reformer, abolitionist, and speaker in the mid to late 19th century. An 1875 adultery trial in which he was accused of having an affair with a married woman was one of the most notorious American trials of the 19th century. Born in Litchfield, Connecticut, Henry was the eighth of thirteen children born to Lyman Beecher, a Presbyterian preacher from Boston. His mother, Roxana Foote, died when Henry was three. His well-known siblings included writer Harriet Beecher Stowe, educators Catharine Beecher and Reverend Thomas K. Beecher, and activists Charles Beecher and Isabella Beecher Hooker. In addition, Henry was the uncle of Edgar Beecher Bronson. Henry was especially close to his sister Harriet, two years his senior, according to the web site of the Plymouth Church in Brooklyn Heights, New York City. "This friendship with Harriet continued throughout their lives, and she was still listed on the membership rolls of Plymouth Church when she died in 1896." The Beecher household was exemplary of the orthodox ministry that Lyman Beecher preached. His family not only prayed at the
    5.33
    3 votes
    193
    Rosemary Kennedy

    Rosemary Kennedy

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Rose Marie "Rosemary" Kennedy (September 13, 1918 – January 7, 2005) was the third child and first daughter of Rose Elizabeth Kennedy née Fitzgerald and Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Sr., born little more than a year after her brother, future U.S. President John F. Kennedy. Considered as either retarded or psychologically instable, she underwent a prefrontal lobotomy at age 23, which left her permanently incapacitated. She was born into an Irish American family at her parents' home in Brookline, Massachusetts, and named Rose Marie Kennedy after her mother but was commonly called Rosemary. To her family, she was known as Rosie. Rose sent Rosemary to the Sacred Heart Convent in Elmhurst, Providence, Rhode Island at age 15, where she was educated separately from the other students. Two nuns and a special teacher, Miss Newton, worked with her all day in a separate classroom. The Kennedys gave the school a new tennis court for their efforts. Rosemary "read, wrote, spelled and counted" like a fourth-grader. She studied and studied but felt she disappointed her parents, whom she wanted to please. Her mother arranged for her brother Jack to accompany her to a tea-dance where, thanks to him, she
    5.33
    3 votes
    194
    Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt

    Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt

    • Family: Vanderbilt family
    Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt I (October 20, 1877 – May 7, 1915) was an extremely wealthy sportsman and a member of the famous Vanderbilt family of philanthropists. He died on the RMS Lusitania. Born in New York City, the third son of Cornelius Vanderbilt II (1843–1899) and Alice Claypoole Gwynne (1845–1934), Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt was educated at St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire, and at Yale University (Class of 1899), where he was a member of Skull and Bones. Soon after graduation, Vanderbilt, with a party of friends, started on a tour of the world which was to have lasted two years. When they reached Japan on 12 September 1899, he received news of the sudden death of his father, and hastened home as speedily as possible to find himself, by his father's will, the head of his branch of the family. His siblings included Alice Gwynne Vanderbilt (1869-1874), William Henry Vanderbilt II (1870–1892), Cornelius Vanderbilt III (1873–1942), Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney (1875–1942), Reginald Claypoole Vanderbilt (1880–1925) and Gladys Vanderbilt, Countess Széchenyi (1886–1965). His eldest brother, William, had died in 1892 at the age of 22 and their father had disinherited Cornelius
    6.00
    2 votes
    195
    Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł

    Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł, nicknamed The Black (Lithuanian: Mikalojus Radvila Juodasis, Belarusian: Мікалай Радзівіл Чорны, Latin: Nicolaus Radvil also known as Mikołaj Radziwiłł The Fifth, 1515 – 1565) was Lithuanian noble of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, voivode of Vilnius, Grand Grand Lithuanian Chancellor and the Grand Hetman of Lithuania. Mikołaj was able to gain much political influence thanks to the romance between his cousin Barbara Radziwiłł and King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Zygmunt II August. This made him one of the most powerful Royal advisers. Mikolaj became Marshal of Lithuania, Grand Chancellor of Lithuania, as well as Palatine of Vilnius, gained immense wealth and became the most powerful magnate in the Commonwealth of that time. The growing influence of the Radziwiłł family was further bolstered when, during a diplomatic mission to Charles V and Ferdinand I, he and his cousin Mikołaj the Red received a hereditary title of Prince (Reichsfürst (SRI)). He formed an alliance with his cousin Mikołaj "the Red" Radziwiłł against other notable Lithuanian families in the rivalry for the dominant status in the Great Duchy of Lithuania. This alliance marked the
    6.00
    2 votes
    196
    Edward Sassoon

    Edward Sassoon

    • Family: Sassoon family
    Sir Edward Albert Sassoon, 2nd Baronet (20 June 1856 – 24 May 1912) was a British businessman and politician. A member of the Sassoon family, he was born in Bombay, India, the eldest surviving son of Sir Albert Sassoon (1818–1896) and Hannah Moise of Bombay, India. Edward Sassoon graduated from the University of London. He served as a major in the Middlesex Yeomanry (Duke of Cambridge's Hussars). In 1887 he married Aline Caroline de Rothschild (1865–1909), daughter of Baron Gustave de Rothschild and Cecile Anspach from Paris. They had two children, Philip Albert Gustave David and Sybil Rachel Bettie Cécile, Marchioness of Cholmondeley. Edward Sassoon was elected as the Liberal Unionist Party Member of Parliament (MP) for Hythe in March 1899. Active in Jewish community affairs, he served as a vice-president of Jews' College, London and the Anglo-Jewish Association. He succeeded to the baronetcy in 1896, on the death of his father. Sasoon died in 1912 at the age of 55. His body was placed in a mausoleum in an Indian style, behind his house at Eastern Terrace, Brighton. The Sassoon Mausoleum had been built in 1876 by his father as a family resting place. However, there were no more
    5.00
    3 votes
    197
    Peter I of Savoy

    Peter I of Savoy

    • Family: House of Savoy
    Peter I (c. 1048 – July 9, 1078) was count of Savoy and margrave of Turin jointly with his brother Amadeus II of Savoy from c. 1060 to 1078. He ruled only nominally, as true power was in the hands of his mother, Adelaide of Susa. He married with Agnes of Aquitaine, (or Agnes of Poitiers), the daughter of "William of Poitou" (speculated to have been William VII of Aquitaine), she may have previously been married to Ramiro I of Aragon. They had two daughters, Agnes, d.after1110; m.1080 Ct Friedrich von Luetzelburg, Mgve of Susa (died 1092) and Alice, d.ca 1111; m.1099 Mgve Boniface of Vasto and Saluzzo.
    5.00
    3 votes
    198
    Benjamin Guggenheim

    Benjamin Guggenheim

    • Family: Guggenheim
    Benjamin Guggenheim (October 26, 1865 – April 15, 1912) was an American businessman. He died aboard RMS Titanic when the ship sank in the North Atlantic Ocean. Benjamin was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, the fifth of seven sons of the wealthy mining magnate Meyer Guggenheim (1828–1905) and Barbara Myers (1834–1900). In 1894, he married Florette Seligman (1870–1937), daughter of James Seligman, a senior partner in the firm J & W Seligman, and Rosa Seligman née Content. They had three daughters: Benita Rosalind Guggenheim (1895–1927), Marguerite "Peggy" Guggenheim (1898–1979) and Barbara Hazel Guggenheim (1903–1995). Benjamin Guggenheim inherited a great deal of money from his father. He grew distant from his wife and for business reasons, was frequently away from their New York City home. He maintained an apartment in Paris, France. Guggenheim boarded the RMS Titanic and was accompanied by his mistress, a French singer named Léontine Aubert (1887–1964); his valet, Victor Giglio (1888–1912); his chauffeur, René Pernot (1872–1912); and Madame Aubert's maid, Emma Sägesser (1887–1964). His ticket was number 17593 and cost £79 4s (other sources give the price as £56 18s 7d). He
    5.50
    2 votes
    199
    Meyer Guggenheim

    Meyer Guggenheim

    • Family: Guggenheim
    Meyer Guggenheim (February 1, 1828 – March 15, 1905) was the patriarch of what became known as the Guggenheim family. He was born in Lengnau, Aargau, Switzerland, was of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry and emigrated to the United States in 1847. He started out in the importing business, but made his and his family's fortune (which was one of the largest fortunes of the 19th century) in mining and smelting. He and his wife Barbara had ten surviving children. Five of his seven sons were active in the family businesses: Two other sons were Benjamin (1865–1912), who died in the Titanic disaster, and William.
    5.50
    2 votes
    200
    Ted Kennedy

    Ted Kennedy

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy (February 22, 1932 – August 25, 2009) was a United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic Party. He was the second most senior member of the Senate when he died and was the fourth-longest-serving senator in United States history, having served there for almost 47 years. As the most prominent living member of the Kennedy family for many years, he was also the last surviving son of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.; the youngest brother of President John F. Kennedy and Senator Robert F. Kennedy, both victims of assassination, and Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., killed in action in World War II and the father of Congressman Patrick J. Kennedy. Kennedy entered the Senate in a November 1962 special election to fill the seat once held by his brother John. He was elected to a full six-year term in 1964 and was reelected seven more times before his death. The controversial Chappaquiddick incident on July 18, 1969, resulted in the death of his automobile passenger Mary Jo Kopechne. Kennedy pleaded guilty to a charge of leaving the scene of an accident and the incident significantly damaged his chances of ever becoming President of the United States. His one
    5.50
    2 votes
    201
    Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Turin

    Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Turin

    • Family: House of Savoy
    Prince Vittorio Emanuele of Savoy-Aosta, Infante of Spain, Count of Turin (24 November 1870 – 10 October 1946) was a grandchild of King Victor Emmanuel II and a member of the House of Savoy. He was a cousin of Victor Emmanuel III. He was born in Turin just before his father Prince Amadeo of Savoy, Duke of Aosta was about to leave for Spain where he had been elected king. His mother was Maria Victoria al Pozzo della Cisterna. With his fathers ascension to the Spanish throne he gained the additional title Infante of Spain. In 1897 Vittorio Emanuele challenged Prince Henri of Orléans to a duel, after Henri described, in several articles on Le Figaro, the Italian soldiers being held captive in Ethiopia during the first First Italo–Ethiopian War as cowards. The dispute was widely echoed in Italy and Europe. It was agreed on the use of the sword as weapon of choice, as the Italians thought that the duel with pistols, favorite by the French, was worthy of betrayed husbands, not of princes of royal blood. The duel with swords, directed by the Count Leontieff and the Count Avogadro, lasting 26 minutes took place at 5:00 am on 15 August 1897 in the Bois de Marechaux at Vaucresson, France.
    5.50
    2 votes
    202
    Witold Leon Czartoryski

    Witold Leon Czartoryski

    • Family: Czartoryski family
    Prince Witold Leon Karol Adam Jarosław Jerzy Czartoryski (1864-1945) was a Polish noble (Ksiaze, Szlachcic) and landowner. He served as the general commissar of Galicia and Lodomeria from the end of Russian occupation in 1917 to full incorporation as part of Poland on 1 November 1918. He was a hereditary member of the Austrian House of Lords (Herrenhaus) from 1908 and an elected Senator of the Polish Republic (1922-1928) Witold became owner of Pełkinie, Wiązownica, Konarzewo, Byliny estates in Poland and Weinhaus in Vienna. Witold was a well known horse racing enthusiast. He set up a world renowned hot bloods stud in Pełkinie, which bred the remarkable Arabian horses Czubuthan, Babolna, Ba-Ida, Kasmira and Aeniza. He was married to Jadwiga Dzieduszycka, married on February 21, 1889 in Lwów. They had twelve children together, including Maria Anna Czartoryska, Anna Maria Czartoryska, Kazimierz Jerzy Czartoryski, Jerzy Piotr Czartoryski, Włodzimierz Alfons Czartoryski, Jan Franciszek Czartoryski, Roman Jacek Czartoryski, Stanisław Ignacy Czartoryski, Elżbieta Czartoryska. Adam Michał Czartoryski, Witold Tadeusz Czartoryski and Piotr Michał Czartoryski.
    5.50
    2 votes
    203
    Adam Karol Czartoryski

    Adam Karol Czartoryski

    • Family: Czartoryski family
    Prince Adam Karol Jezus Maria Józef Franciszek Salezy and all the Saints Czartoryski, es. Adán Carlos Jesús María José Francisco de Sales y todos los Santos Czartoryski-Bórbon Krasinski y Orléans (born 2 January 1940 in Seville, Spain) is a Polish-Spanish aristocrat, the creator of the Princes Czartoryski Foundation, and a patron of the arts. He is the Head of the Polish House of Czartoryski, descendants of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania, and one of the most powerful families in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Through both his father and mother, he is related to most of Europe's royal families. Adam Karol Czartoryski was born in 1940 as the first son of Prince Augustyn Józef Czartoryski and Princess Maria de los Dolores Borbon y Orleans, who held the rank of Infanta of Spain. He had a younger brother, Prince Ludwik Piotr Czartoryski. Augustyn Józef was the eldest son of the seven children of Prince Adam Ludwik Czartoryski and Countess Maria Ludwika Krasińska. Adam Ludwik's parents were Prince Władysław Czartoryski, a political activist in exile, collector of art and founder of the Czartoryski Museum in Kraków, and his second wife Princess Marguerite Adelaide of Orléans, daughter
    6.00
    1 votes
    204
    Caroline Kennedy

    Caroline Kennedy

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Caroline Bouvier Kennedy (born November 27, 1957) is an American author and attorney. She is a member of the influential Kennedy family and the only living child of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and First Lady Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy. At the time of her father's presidency, she was a young child; after his assassination in 1963, her family settled in the Upper East Side of Manhattan, where she attended school. Kennedy graduated from Radcliffe College and worked at New York City's Metropolitan Museum of Art, where she met her future husband, exhibit designer Edwin Schlossberg. She went on to receive a J.D. degree from Columbia Law School. Kennedy's professional life has spanned law and politics as well as education and charitable work. She has also acted as a spokesperson for her family's legacy and co-authored two books on civil liberties with Ellen Alderman. In the 2008 presidential election, Kennedy endorsed Democratic candidate Barack Obama for President early in the primary race; she later stumped for him in Orlando, Indiana, and Ohio, served as co-chair of his Vice Presidential Search Committee, and addressed the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver. After Obama's
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    205
    Francesco Barbaro

    Francesco Barbaro

    • Family: Barbaro family
    Francesco Barbaro (1390–1454) was an Italian politician, diplomat, and humanist from Venice, a member of the patrician Barbaro family. He is interred in the Church of the Frari, Venice. Francesco Barbaro was the son of Candiano Barbaro, uncle of Ermolao Barbaro, grandfather of the younger Ermolao Barbaro, and great—great grandfather of Marcantonio Barbaro and Daniele Barbaro. Francesco’s father died in 1391 and Francesco was raised by his older brother Zaccaria. In 1419, Franceso married Maria Loredan, daughter of Procurator Pietro Loredan. Francesco and Maria had five daughters and one son, Zaccaria, who was born in 1422. Francesco Barbaro was a student at the University of Padua and studied under John of Ravenna, Gasparino Barzizza, Vittorino da Feltre, Guarino Veronese, and Giovanni Conversini. In 1419, Barbaro was appointed senator of the Republic of Venice. He was elected governor of Como in 1421, though he declined the post. Later that year he accepted the governorship of Trivigi. He served as governor of Vicenza in 1423, of Bergamo in 1430, and of Verona in 1434. In 1426 Barbaro was sent as a special envoy to the Papal Court, to try to persuade Pope Martin V to ally with
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    206
    Henry V of England

    Henry V of England

    • Family: House of Lancaster
    Henry V (16 September 1386 – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 35 in 1422. He was the second English monarch who came from the House of Lancaster. After military experience fighting various lords who rebelled against his father, Henry IV, Henry came into political conflict with the increasingly ill king. After his father's death, Henry rapidly assumed control of the country and embarked on war with France. From an unassuming start, his military successes in the Hundred Years' War, culminating with his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt, saw him come close to conquering France. After months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes recognised Henry V as regent and heir-apparent to the French throne, and he was subsequently married to Charles's daughter, Catherine of Valois. Following Henry V's sudden and unexpected death in France, he was succeeded by his infant son, who reigned as Henry VI. Henry features in three plays by William Shakespeare. He is shown as a young scapegrace who redeems himself in battle in the two Henry IV plays and as a decisive leader in Henry V. Henry was born in the tower above the
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    207
    Jeb Bush

    Jeb Bush

    • Family: Bush family
    John Ellis "Jeb" Bush (born February 11, 1953) is an American politician who served as the 43rd Governor of Florida from 1999 to 2007. He is a prominent member of the Bush family: the second son of former President George H. W. Bush and former First Lady Barbara Bush; the younger brother of former President George W. Bush; and the older brother of Neil Bush, Marvin Bush, and Dorothy Bush Koch. Jeb Bush was born in Midland, Texas. When he was six years old, the family relocated to Houston, Texas. Jeb initially attended Grady Elementary School in Houston. Following in the footsteps of older brother, George, Jeb Bush attended high school at the private Massachusetts boarding school, Phillips Academy Andover. At the age of 17, he taught English as a second language in León, Guanajuato, Mexico, as part of Phillips Academy's student exchange program. While in Mexico, he met his wife, Columba Garnica Gallo. In 1973, Bush graduated Phi Beta Kappa from the University of Texas at Austin with a BA in Latin American Studies. He completed his coursework in two and a half years with generally excellent grades. After graduating from UT at Austin, married Columba Garnica Gallo, on February 23,
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    208
    Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuck

    Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuck

    • Family: House of Wangchuck
    Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck (Dzongkha: འཇིགས་མེད་གེ་སར་རྣམ་རྒྱལ་དབང་ཕྱུག་, born 21 February 1980) is the son of Jigme Singye Wangchuk and the 5th and current reigning Dragon King (Druk Gyalpo) of the Kingdom of Bhutan. He became king on 14 December 2006. A public coronation ceremony was held on 6 November 2008, an auspicious year that marked 100 years of Monarchy in Bhutan. Khesar (pronounced Gesar) is the eldest son of the fourth Dragon King of Bhutan, Jigme Singye Wangchuck, and his third wife, Queen (Ashi) Tshering Yangdon. He has a younger sister, Princess Dechen Yangzom, and brother, Prince Jigme Dorji, as well as four half-sisters and three half-brothers. After completing his higher secondary studies at Yangchenphu Higher Secondary School, Bhutan, Khesar studied abroad at Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, Cushing Academy and Wheaton College in Massachusetts, United States, before graduating from Magdalen College, University of Oxford, where he completed the Foreign Service Programme and International Relations. The Crown Prince, popularly known to the people of Bhutan 'Dasho Khesar', accompanied his father in his many tours throughout the Kingdom to meet and
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    209
    Rory Kennedy

    Rory Kennedy

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Rory Elizabeth Katherine Kennedy (born December 12, 1968) is an American documentary filmmaker and producer. She is the youngest of the eleven children of U.S. Senator Robert F. Kennedy and his wife Ethel (née Skakel). Kennedy was born in Washington, D.C. six months after her father was assassinated. She graduated from Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. In the 1990s, Kennedy and fellow Brown classmate Vanessa Vadim (daughter of Roger Vadim and Jane Fonda) formed May Day Media, a non-profit organization that specializes in the production and distribution of films with a social conscience, based in Washington, D.C. In 1998 Kennedy and fellow Brown graduate Liz Garbus founded Moxie Firecracker Films which specializes in documentaries that highlight pressing social issues. The television networks that have shown its films include: She directed and co-produced American Hollow (1999) about a struggling Appalachian family which received critical acclaim and many awards. HBO broadcast the film and publisher Little, Brown and Company released Kennedy's companion book simultaneously. Kennedy directed and co-produced the Emmy Award-nominated series Pandemic: Facing AIDS (2003),
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    210
    Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy

    Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Countess Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy (July 22, 1890 – January 22, 1995) was an American philanthropist, the wife of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., and the mother of nine children, among them United States President John F. Kennedy, United States Senator Robert F. Kennedy, and United States Senator Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy. Born in the North End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, Rose Fitzgerald was the eldest child of John F. "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald and his wife, who was also his second cousin, Mary Josephine Hannon. "Honey Fitz" was a prominent figure in Boston politics and served one full term and almost eight months of another in the U.S. House of Representatives, as well as two terms as the Mayor of Boston. As a young child, Fitzgerald lived in an Italianate/Mansard-style home in the Ashmont Hill section of Dorchester, Massachusetts and attended the local Girl's Latin School. The home later burned down, but a plaque at Welles Avenue and Harley Street proclaims "Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy Square". The plaque was dedicated by her son, Senator Edward M. Kennedy, on Rose's 102nd birthday in 1992. Rose studied at the convent school Kasteel Bloemendal in Vaals, The Netherlands, and
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    211
    William Henry Vanderbilt

    William Henry Vanderbilt

    • Family: Vanderbilt family
    William Henry Vanderbilt I (May 8, 1821 – December 8, 1885) was an American businessman and a member of the prominent Vanderbilt family. William Vanderbilt was born in New Brunswick, New Jersey in 1821. He inherited nearly $100 million from his father, railroad mogul and family patriarch "The Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbilt upon his death in 1877 and had increased it to almost $194 million at his death less than nine years later. When he died, he was the richest man in the world. In 1841 he married Maria Louisa Kissam (1821–1896), the daughter of a Presbyterian minister. Vanderbilt said in an interview with the Chicago Daily News on October 9, 1882, "The railroads are not run for the benefit of the 'dear public' — that cry is all nonsense — they are built by men who invest their money and expect to get a fair percentage on the same." In 1883, when questioned by a reporter about the discontinuance of a fast mail train popular with the public, he declared: "The public be damned!... I don't take any stock in this silly nonsense about working for anybody but our own."{Interview, Chicago Daily News, October 9, 1882} His father Cornelius constantly berated and criticized him, calling his
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    212
    Zygmunt Karol Radziwiłł

    Zygmunt Karol Radziwiłł

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Zygmunt Karol Radziwiłł (Lithuanian: Zigmuntas Karolis Radvila) (1591-1642) was a Polish-Lithuanian noble, komorzy stolowicki from 1614, poznanski from 1625, krajczy of the queen from 1617, krajczy or Lithuania from 1633, podczaszy of Lithuania from 1638, voivode of Nowogródek from 1642, member of Knights Hospitaller (kawaler maltański), patron of Knight Hospitallers centers in Poznań and Stwołowce (in Lithuania). In 1621 took part in the Battle of Chocim, commander of mercenaries Lisowczycy in 1622 during the period of their service in the Holy Roman Empire. After the death of his older brother, Albrycht Władysław Radziwiłł, he inherited ordynacja of Nieśwież in 1636, but gave it up to his brother Aleksander Ludwik Radziwiłł. Born on 4 December 1591 in Nieśwież, died on 5 November 1642 in Assisi. Son of Mikołaj Krzysztof "Sierotka" Radziwiłł and Halszka Eufemia Wiśniowiecka.
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    213
    David Mayer de Rothschild

    David Mayer de Rothschild

    • Family: Rothschild family
    David Mayer de Rothschild (born 1978) is a British adventurer, ecologist, and environmentalist and head of Adventure Ecology, an expedition group raising awareness about climate change. He is a member of the Rothschild family, the youngest of three children of Victoria Lou Schott (born 1949) and Sir Evelyn de Rothschild (b. 1931) of the Rothschild banking family of England. His middle name "Mayer" is taken from the name of the founder of the Rothschild family banking empire, Mayer Amschel Rothschild. The youngest heir to his family’s banking fortune, de Rothschild was born in 1978 in London, England. His mother, Victoria Lou Schott, is American, daughter of Marcia Lou (Whitney) and Lewis M. Schott. He is the younger brother of Anthony de Rothschild and Jessica de Rothschild. As a teenager, de Rothschild was a top-ranked horse jumper on Britain’s junior event team. He later gave up the sport to pursue his education, stating in an interview with The New Yorker “I realized there was more to life than spending hours and hours and hours on a horse.” After leaving Harrow School in 1996 he attended Oxford Brookes receiving a 2:1 B.Sc (Hons) in Political Science and Information Systems. In
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    214
    Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney

    Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney

    • Family: Whitney family
    Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney (January 9, 1875 – April 18, 1942) was an American sculptor, art patron and collector, and founder in 1931 of the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York City. She was a prominent social figure and hostess, who was born into the United States Vanderbilt family and married into the Whitney family. Gertrude Vanderbilt was born in New York City on January 9, 1875. She was the eldest surviving daughter of Cornelius Vanderbilt II (1843–1899) and Alice Claypoole Gwynne (1852–1934) and a great-granddaughter of "Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbilt. Gertrude Vanderbilt spent her summers in Newport, Rhode Island, at the family's mansion, The Breakers, where she kept up with the boys in all their rigorous sporting activities. Educated by private tutors and at the exclusive Brearley School in New York City, at age 21 she married the extremely wealthy sportsman Harry Payne Whitney (1872–1930). A banker and investor, Whitney was the son of William C. Whitney, and his mother was the daughter of a Senator, and sister of a Standard Oil Company magnate. Harry Whitney inherited a fortune in oil and tobacco as well as interests in banking. Gertrude and Harry Whitney had
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    215
    Marcjan Aleksander Ogiński

    Marcjan Aleksander Ogiński

    • Family: Ogiński family
    Marcjan Aleksander Ogiński (1632 – 5 January 1690 in Alovė, now Alytus district of Lithuania) was a nobleman, a military commander and a statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He advanced to colonel (pulkownik) in 1657, served as Voivod of Trakai (since 1670) and Grand Chancellor of Lithuania (since 1684). He was the signatory of the Eternal Peace Treaty of 1686 with the Tsardom of Russia, on the side of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Since the Oginski's birth, he was Orthodox, and participated in the religious life of the church, being a member of the Mogilev and Vilnius Church fellowships. However, in the struggle for Troki province demanded of him transition from Orthodoxy to Catholicism or Uniate Church, which he did in 1670 and became a commander. He initiated the establishment of Dominicans in the Peninsula Castle of Trakai, which was approved in 1678. Since 1681, Ogiński was the owner of Vepriai and Deltuva (present day Lithuania), which were received from his sister Barbara. Marcjan Aleksander Ogiński may be the subject of a much debated work, Rembrandt's The Polish Rider. The image was painted at the time he was studying in the
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    216
    Hans Albert Einstein

    Hans Albert Einstein

    • Family: Einstein family
    Hans Albert Einstein (14 May 1904 – 26 July 1973) was a Swiss-American engineer and educator, and the second child and first son of Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić. He is best known for his research on sediment transport. Hans Albert Einstein was born in Bern, Switzerland, where his father worked as a clerk in the patent office. His younger brother, Eduard Einstein, was born in 1910 and died in 1965. The fate of his older sister, Lieserl Einstein, Albert Einstein's and Mileva Marić's first child, is unknown. Their parents divorced in 1919 after living apart for five years. In 1927 he married Frieda Knecht. Ironically, Albert Einstein disapproved of Frieda much as his parents had of Mileva. Hans Albert and Frieda had five children — Bernhard Caesar (1930–2008) was a physicist, and engineer. Klaus Martin (1932–1938) died of diphtheria. Two subsequent boys died several days after their birth. They adopted a daughter, Evelyn (1941–2011), soon after her birth. Frieda died in 1958, and Hans Albert later married Elizabeth Roboz. Hans Albert followed his father's footsteps and studied at ETH, the Swiss Federal Institute of technology, in Zurich, Switzerland. In 1926 he was awarded the
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    217
    Nelson Rockefeller

    Nelson Rockefeller

    • Family: Rockefeller family
    Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American businessman, philanthropist, public servant, and politician. He served as the 41st Vice President of the United States (1974–1977), serving under President Gerald Ford, and as the 49th Governor of New York (1959–1973). He also served in the administrations of Presidents Franklin Roosevelt, Harry Truman and Dwight Eisenhower in a variety of positions. A member of the Rockefeller family, he was also a noted art collector. Rockefeller, a Republican, was politically moderate. In his time, moderates in the Republican party were called "Rockefeller Republicans". As Governor of New York from 1959 to 1973 his achievements included the expansion of the State University of New York, efforts to protect the environment, the building of the Nelson A. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza in Albany, increased facilities and personnel for medical care, and creation of the New York State Council on the Arts. After unsuccessfully seeking the Republican presidential nomination in 1960, 1964, and 1968, he served as Vice President (under the 25th Amendment) from 1974 to 1977 under President Gerald R. Ford. Ford ascended to the
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    218
    Ted Arison

    Ted Arison

    • Family: Arison family
    Ted Arison (24 February 1924 — 1 October 1999) was an Israeli-American businessman who co-founded Norwegian Cruise Lines in 1966 with Knut Kloster and founded Carnival Cruise Lines in 1972. Arison was born in Tel Aviv (in the then British Mandate of Palestine) Theodore Arisohn to Meir Arisohn, a multi-millionaire owner of Meir Dizengoff and Company), and Vera Arisohn. Arison was a third-generation Israeli of Romanian descent. Arison studied commerce and economics at the American University of Beirut. and fought as a member of the Jewish Brigade of the British Army during World War II. After the British departure he later served as an officer in the IDF during Israel's War of Independence, eventually achieving the rank of Lieutenant colonel. From 1946 to 1951 he was manager of Meir Dizengoff and Company, a shipping company founded by Meir Dizengoff and acquired by his family from Dizengoff. Frustrated by the business opportunities, Arison wrapped up his business and moved to the United States after 1952. Arison took his family to New York in 1954 and moved to Miami, Florida in 1966. He created Carnival Cruise Lines in 1972 in which he made his fortune. Later, he established the
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    219
    Paul Mellon

    Paul Mellon

    • Family: Mellon family
    Paul Mellon KBE (June 11, 1907 – February 1, 1999) was an American philanthropist and an owner/breeder of thoroughbred racehorses. He is one of only five people ever designated an "Exemplar of Racing" by the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame. He was co-heir to one of America's greatest business fortunes, the Mellon Bank fortune, created by his grandfather Thomas Mellon, his father Andrew W. Mellon, and his father's brother Richard B. Mellon. In 1957, when Fortune prepared its first list of the wealthiest Americans, it estimated that Paul Mellon, his sister Ailsa Mellon-Bruce, and his cousins Sarah Mellon and Richard King Mellon, were all among the richest eight people in the United States, with fortunes of between 400 and 700 million dollars each (around $3,300,000,000 and $5,800,000,000 in today's dollars). Paul Mellon's autobiography, Reflections in a Silver Spoon ISBN 0-688-09723-5, was published in 1992. He died at his home, Oak Spring, in Upperville, Virginia, on February 1, 1999. He was survived by his wife, Rachel (a.k.a. Bunny), his children, Catherine Conover (first wife of John Warner) and Timothy Mellon, and two stepchildren, Stacy Lloyd III and Eliza,
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    220
    Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy

    Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy

    • Family: House of Savoy
    Amadeus VI (January 4, 1334, Chambéry – March 1, 1383), nicknamed the Green Count (Italian: Il Conte Verde) was Count of Savoy from 1343 to 1383. He was the eldest son of Aimone, Count of Savoy and Yolande of Montferrat. In 1349 Humbert II de La Tour du Pin, Dauphin de Viennois, the last Dauphin de Viennois surrendered his title and principality to the future Charles V of France. At the time the new Dauphin was grandson of current King Philip VI of France and son to his Heir Apparent, the later John II of France. Humbert II retired into a Dominican monastery. Amadeus, angered by this cessation, which had created a formidable neighbour to Savoy, went to war with France, which he defeated in 1354. In a treaty concluded in Paris in the following year Amadeus agreed to exchange territory in Dauphiné beyond the rivers Rhone and Guiers, in exchange for recognition as the undisputed sovereign of Faucigny and the county of Gex, as well as becoming the suzerain lord over the Counts of Genevois, all of whose titles had been the subject of earlier contention between the Counts of Savoy and the Dauphins of Viennois. Amadeus also forced the Marquess of Saluzzo to pay him tribute, thus extending
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    221
    August Czartoryski

    August Czartoryski

    • Family: Czartoryski family
    Blessed August Franciszek Maria Anna Józef Kajetan Czartoryski, Duke of Vista Alegre (1858–1893) was a Prince of the Polish Czartoryski family, born in Paris during the family's exile. A sickly child, he spent much of his youth being shuttled to various health spas. He was accompanied and tutored by a Polish patriot, Father Raphael Kalinowski, a man who was later canonized. Prince August also turned to the priesthood, and after dying at a relatively young age of tuberculosis, was himself beatified, on the path towards becoming a saint. Prince August was born in Paris, the only child of Prince Ladislaus (Władysław) Czartoryski and Princess Maria Amparo, Countess of Vista Alegre (daughter of Maria Christina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Queen of Spain, and her secret husband Augustín Fernández Muñoz, Duke of Riansares). The Czartoryski magnate was one of the most powerful families in Poland during the 18th century, but in the 19th century they were exiled from Poland by the Russians, and had their base of operations at the Hôtel Lambert in Paris. To his family, the young prince was known as "Gucio". He was a sickly child, having contracted tuberculosis from his mother at the age of 6 (she
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    222
    Edgar Bronfman, Jr.

    Edgar Bronfman, Jr.

    • Family: Lehman family
    Edgar Miles Bronfman, Jr. (born May 16, 1955), is an American businessman who served as CEO of Warner Music Group 2004 to 2011 and as Chairman from 2011 to 2012. In May, 2011, the sale of WMG was announced; Bronfman would continue as CEO in the transaction. In August 2011, he became Chairman of the company as Stephen Cooper became CEO. Bronfman previously served as CEO of Seagram and vice-chairman of Vivendi Universal. He is the son of Edgar Miles Bronfman and the grandson of Samuel Bronfman, patriarch of one of the wealthiest and most influential Jewish families in Canada. The Bronfman family gained its fortunes through the Seagram Company, an alcohol distilling company, but Edgar Jr. ("Efer" to friends) has gained his reputation by expanding and later divesting ownership of the Seagram Company, as well as for pursuing more creative activities as a Broadway and film producer and songwriter. His controversial decision to sell his family stake in DuPont Chemical in order to create the Vivendi Universal entertainment company which turned out to be short-lived, was a source of widespread astonishment in the business community. Edgar Jr. is the second of five children. He was indicated
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    223
    Eduard Einstein

    Eduard Einstein

    • Family: Einstein family
    Eduard Einstein (28 July 1910 – 25 October 1965) was born in Zürich, Switzerland, the second son of physicist Albert Einstein and his first wife Mileva Marić. Einstein and his family moved to Berlin in 1914, but shortly thereafter Marić returned to Zürich, taking Eduard and his brother with her. Eduard was a good student and had musical talent. He started to study medicine to become a psychiatrist, but by the age of twenty he was afflicted with schizophrenia and institutionalized two years later for the first of several times. Many people believe he was overdosed with drugs and harmed by the many "cures" that were used at the time. According to his brother Hans Albert Einstein, the thing that ruined him were the electric shock treatments. After his illness struck, Eduard told his father that he hated him. Einstein never saw his son again for the rest of his life. His mother cared for him until she died in 1948. From then on Eduard lived most of the time at the psychiatric clinic Burghölzli in Zürich, where he died of a stroke at age 55. He is buried at Hönggerberg-Cemetery in Zurich. His family lineage has been used to raise public awareness of schizophrenia.
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    224
    John D. Rockefeller, Jr.

    John D. Rockefeller, Jr.

    • Family: Rockefeller family
    John Davison Rockefeller, Jr. (January 29, 1874 – May 11, 1960) was a major philanthropist and a pivotal member of the prominent Rockefeller family. He was the sole son among the five children of businessman and Standard Oil industrialist John D. Rockefeller and the father of the five famous Rockefeller brothers. In biographies, he was invariably referred to as "Junior" to distinguish him from his father, known as "Senior". Rockefeller, Jr. was the fifth and last child of John D. Rockefeller (July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937) and his wife, Laura Celestia Spelman. Living in his father's mansion at 4 West 54th Street he attended Park Avenue Baptist Church at 64th Street (now Central Presbyterian Church), and the Browning School, a tutorial establishment set up for him and other children of associates of the family; it was located in a brownstone owned by the Rockefellers, on West 55th Street. Initially he had intended to go to Yale but was encouraged by William Rainey Harper, president of the University of Chicago, among others, to enter the Baptist-oriented Brown University instead. Nicknamed Johnny Rock by his roommates, he joined both the Glee and the Mandolin Clubs, taught a Bible
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    225
    Joseph Patrick Kennedy II

    Joseph Patrick Kennedy II

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Joseph Patrick Kennedy II (born September 24, 1952) is an American businessman, Democratic politician, and a member of the Kennedy family. He served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from the 8th congressional district of Massachusetts from 1987 to 1999. In 1979 he founded and, until election to the U.S. House, led Citizens Energy Corporation, a non-profit energy company; since 1999 he has continued to lead Citizens Energy. He was named after his uncle Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., who was a bomber pilot in World War II. He is the eldest son of U.S. Senator Robert F. Kennedy and Ethel Skakel Kennedy. Kennedy was born in Brighton, a neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, to Robert Francis Kennedy and Ethel (Skakel) Kennedy, the second of their eleven children. He had a troubled youth, and was expelled from several private schools as a result of his quick temper. He regularly got into fights with his younger brothers and male cousins. A restless, impulsive teenager, he left the Milton Academy, a private, college preparatory school, in Milton, Massachusetts, before graduating from the Manter Hall School — also a private, college-preparatory school — in Cambridge,
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    226
    La Toya Jackson

    La Toya Jackson

    • Family: The Jacksons
    La Toya Yvonne Jackson (born May 29, 1956) is an American singer-songwriter, musician, author, television personality, actress, businesswoman, philanthropist, activist and former model. She is the fifth child of the Jackson family. She maintained a career as a singer throughout the 1980s and 1990s, and returned to music in 2004 with her Billboard charting songs "Just Wanna Dance" and "Free the World". An EP called Starting Over was released on June 21, 2011. Born on her sister Rebbie's 6th birthday on May 29, 1956, in Gary, Indiana, La Toya Jackson is the fifth of nine children born to Joseph Jackson and Katherine Jackson and the middle female child between Rebbie and Janet. Growing up, La Toya was a shy homebody. After her mother became a member of the Jehovah's Witnesses in 1965, La Toya, along with the rest of her siblings followed. She would spend some of her time (alongside her mother) preaching door-to-door. "Every morning, Michael and I witnessed, knocking on doors around Los Angeles, spreading the word of Jehovah." By 1972, at sixteen, La Toya joined her brothers in the spotlight with a tap dancing routine when her father arranged for them to perform shows in Las Vegas,
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    227
    Lionel de Rothschild

    Lionel de Rothschild

    • Family: Rothschild family
    Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild (22 November 1808, London – 3 June 1879, London) was a British banker and politician. The son of Nathan Mayer Rothschild and Hanna Barent Cohen, he was a member of the prominent Rothschild family. In 1847 Lionel de Rothschild was first elected to the British House of Commons as one of four MPs for the City of London constituency. Because Jews were at that point still barred from sitting in the chamber due to the Christian oath required to be sworn in, Prime Minister Lord John Russell introduced a Jewish Disabilities Bill to remove the problem with the oath. In 1848, the bill was approved by the House of Commons but was twice rejected by the House of Lords. After being rejected again by the Upper House in 1849, Rothschild resigned his seat and stood again winning in a by-election in order to strengthen his claim. In 1850, he entered the House of Commons to take his seat but refused to swear on a Christian Bible asking to use only the Old Testament. This was permitted but when omitting the words "upon the true faith of a Christian" from the oath he was required to leave. In 1851 a new Jewish Disabilities Bill was defeated in the House of Lords. In
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    228
    Rebbie Jackson

    Rebbie Jackson

    • Family: The Jacksons
    Maureen Reillette "Rebbie" Brown (née Jackson; born May 29, 1950) is an American singer professionally known as Rebbie Jackson ( /ˈriːbi ˈdʒæksən/). Born and raised in Gary, Indiana, she is the eldest child of the Jackson family of musicians. She first performed on stage with her siblings during shows in Las Vegas, Nevada, at the MGM Grand Hotel and Casino in 1974, before subsequently appearing in the television series The Jacksons. Her sister Latoya has the same birthday but they were born different years. At age 34, Jackson released her debut album Centipede (1984). The album featured songs written by Smokey Robinson, Prince and her younger brother Michael, whose contribution (the title track "Centipede") became Rebbie's most successful single release. By the end of the 1980s, the singer had released two more albums in quick succession: Reaction (1986) and R U Tuff Enuff (1988). Following a 10-year hiatus in her musical career, Jackson returned with the 1998 album Yours Faithfully. The production of the album, her last to date, had the singer collaborate with artists and producers such as Men of Vizion's Spanky Williams, Keith Thomas and Eliot Kennedy. It also featured
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    229
    Timothy Shriver

    Timothy Shriver

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Timothy Perry Shriver (born August 29, 1959) is Chairman and CEO of Special Olympics. Timothy Shriver was born to Sargent Shriver, a former United States Ambassador to France and the Democratic Party's vice-presidential candidate in 1972, and Eunice Kennedy Shriver, the founder of Special Olympics. He was raised as a Catholic along with his siblings, Bobby Shriver, Maria Shriver, Mark Shriver, and Anthony Shriver. He is a member of the Kennedy Family through his mother. Shriver graduated from St. Albans School. He received his B.A. from Yale University in 1981, his M.A. in religion and religious education from the Catholic University of America in 1988, and his Ph.D. in education from the University of Connecticut in 1996. He served as a high school teacher in the New Haven, Connecticut public school system, and as a counselor and teacher in the University of Connecticut branch of the Upward Bound program for disadvantaged youth. He became a Fellow at the School Development Program at the Yale Child Study Center. He was instrumental in establishing the Social Development Project at the public schools in New Haven, Connecticut and also established the Collaborative for Academic,
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    Władysław Czartoryski

    Władysław Czartoryski

    • Family: Czartoryski family
    Prince Władysław (Ladislaus) Czartoryski (July 3, 1828 – June 23, 1894) was a Polish noble, political activist in exile, collector of art, and founder of the Czartoryski Museum in Kraków. Son of Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski and Princess Anna Zofia Sapieha, he married Maria Amparo, Countess of Vista Alegre, daughter of Queen Maria Christina of Spain by morganatic relation to the Augustín Fernández Muñoz, Duke of Riansares, on March 1, 1855 in Malmaison near Paris. Their son August Czartoryski contracted tuberculosis at the age of 6, from his mother who died soon thereafter. August (known as "Gucio") had as a tutor Joseph (later Saint Raphael) Kalinowski. Władysław hoped that his son would pursue a diplomatic career, but Gucio went against his father's wishes and joined the religious order of the Salesians. Gucio was ordained a priest in 1893, but neither his father nor anyone else in the family attended the ceremony, and he died a year later of tuberculosis at the age of 34. Gucio was beatified in 2004, on track to becoming a saint himself. On January 15, 1872 Prince Władysław married his second wife, Princess Marguerite Adelaide of Orléans, daughter of the Duke of Nemours and
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    231
    Alecu Văcărescu

    Alecu Văcărescu

    • Family: Văcărescu family
    Alecu Văcărescu (1769–1798) was a Romanian Wallachian boyar and poet, of the Văcărescu family that gave Romanian literature its first poets. His son, Iancu Văcărescu, was also a poet.
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    232
    Amadeus III of Savoy

    Amadeus III of Savoy

    • Family: House of Savoy
    Amadeus III of Savoy (1095, Carignano, Piedmont – April 1148, Nicosia) was Count of Savoy and Maurienne from 1103 until his death. He was also known as the Crusader. He was the son of Humbert II of Savoy and Gisela of Burgundy, the daughter of William I of Burgundy. He succeeded as count of Savoy upon the death of his father. Amadeus had a tendency to exaggerate his titles, and also claimed to be Duke of Lombardy, Duke of Burgundy, Duke of Chablais, and vicar of the Holy Roman Empire, the latter of which had been given to his father by Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. He helped restore the Abbey of St. Maurice of Agaune, in which the former kings of Burgundy had been crowned, and of which he himself was abbot until 1147. He also founded the Abbey of St. Sulpicius in Bugey, Tamié Abbey in the Bauges, and Hautecombe Abbey on the Lac du Bourget. In 1128, Amadeus extended his realm, known as the "Old Chablais", by adding to it the region extending from the Arve to the Dranse d'Abondance, which came to be called the "New Chablais" with its capital at Saint-Maurice. Despite his marriage to Mahaut, he still fought against his brother-in-law Guy, who was killed at the Battle of Montmeillan.
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    233
    Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy

    Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy

    • Family: House of Savoy
    Amadeus VIII (4 September 1383, Chambéry – 7 January 1451) was the son of Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy and Bonne of Berry. He was surnamed the Peaceful and was the Count of Savoy from 1391 to 1416 and was elevated by Emperor Sigismund to the Duke of Savoy in 1416. Amadeus was elected, as antipope Felix V, by the Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence and reigned from November 1439 to April 1449. After the death of his father in 1391, his mother acted as a regent, because of his youth. In 1418 his distant cousin Louis of Savoy-Achaea, his brother-in-law, the last male of the elder branch of House of Savoy, died, leaving Amadeus as his heir-general, thus finally uniting the male-lines of the House of Savoy. He increased his dominions, encouraged several attempts to negotiate an end to the Hundred Years' War, and, after the death of his wife, retired from his position as Duke to become a hermit. Elected by the Council of Basel as an alternative Pope in opposition to Pope Eugene IV, Amadeus served as Felix V, regarded as an antipope, before stepping down to accept a Cardinal's hat. Amadeus' image in history is marred by the account of him as a pontiff concerned with money, to avoid
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    234
    Andrew Huxley

    Andrew Huxley

    • Family: Huxley
    Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley, OM, PRS (22 November 1917 – 30 May 2012) was a Nobel Prize-winning English physiologist and biophysicist. Huxley was born in Hampstead, London, England on 22 November 1917. He was the youngest son of the writer and editor Leonard Huxley by his second wife Rosalind Bruce, and hence half-brother of the writer Aldous Huxley and fellow biologist Julian Huxley, and grandson of the biologist T. H. Huxley. He was educated at Westminster School in Central London, where he was a King's Scholar. He graduated and matriculated to Trinity College, Cambridge to read natural sciences. The experimental measurements on which the pair based their action potential theory represent one of the earliest applications of a technique of electrophysiology known as the voltage clamp. The second critical element of their research used the giant axon of the Atlantic squid (Loligo pealei), which enabled them to record ionic currents as they would not have been able to do in almost any other neuron, such cells being too small to study by the techniques of the time. The experiments started at the University of Cambridge, beginning in 1935 with frog sciatic nerve, and soon after they
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    235
    Andrey Kirillovich Razumovsky

    Andrey Kirillovich Razumovsky

    • Family: Razumovsky
    Count (later Prince) Andrey Kirillovich Razumovsky (Russian: Андрей Кириллович Разумовский, Rasumovsky; Ukrainian: Андрі́й Кири́лович Розумо́вський, Andriy Kyrylovych Rozumovskyi; 2 November 1752 – 23 September 1836) was a Russian diplomat who spent many years of his life in Vienna. His name is transliterated differently in different English sources, including spellings Razumovsky, Razumovsky, Rasoumoffsky, and Rasoumoffsky, the last of which being used by the British Government for its official translation from the French of the Paris peace treaty of 1815 and the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna Razumovsky was the son of Cyril Razumovsky, the last hetman of Ukraine, and nephew of Aleksey Grigorievich Razumovsky, called the Night Emperor. The elder Rasumovsky's late Baroque palace on the Nevsky Prospekt is a minor landmark in Saint Petersburg. In 1792 Andres Kyrillovitch was appointed the Tsar's diplomatic representative to the Habsburg court in Vienna, one of the crucial diplomatic posts during the Napoleonic era. He was a chief negotiator during the Congress of Vienna that resettled Europe in 1814, and asserted Russian rights in Poland. In 1808 he established a house string
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    236
    Balthazar Getty

    Balthazar Getty

    • Family: Getty family
    Balthazar Getty ( /bælˈθeɪzər/) (born January 22, 1975) is an American film actor and member of the band Ringside. He is known for the roles of Thomas Grace on the American action drama Alias and Tommy Walker on the ABC drama Brothers & Sisters. Getty was born Paul Balthazar Getty in Tarzana, California, and raised in San Francisco before being sent to private school in the United Kingdom, where he was enrolled at Gordonstoun School, a boarding school that has educated three generations of the British Royal Family. His great-grandfather was Jean Paul Getty, founder of the Getty Oil Company, and at one time one of the richest men in the world. His grandfather was Sir Paul Getty; his father was John Paul Getty III; his mother, Gisela (née Schmidt) is a professional photographer and documentary filmmaker. His parents divorced in 1993. He has a maternal half-sister, Anna (born 1972). Getty began his career at age 14 in 1989. He auditioned for the lead role in the movie Lord of the Flies after being spotted by a talent scout in his art class at school. During the course of the 1990s and early 2000s, he appeared in films such as Young Guns II, Natural Born Killers, Judge Dredd, White
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    237
    David Rockefeller

    David Rockefeller

    • Family: Rockefeller family
    David Rockefeller, Sr. (born June 12, 1915) is an American banker and philanthropist. David is the current patriarch of the Rockefeller family and only surviving child of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, and the only surviving grandchild of oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller, founder of Standard Oil. His five siblings were Abby, John D. III, Nelson, Laurance and Winthrop. Rockefeller was born in New York City and grew up in a nine-story house at 10 West 54th Street, then the largest private residence in the city. The home contained rare, ancient, medieval and Renaissance treasures collected by his father — with some, such as the Unicorn Tapestries, held in an adjoining building at 12 West 54th Street. On the seventh floor was his mother Abby's private modern art gallery. The house was subsequently donated by David's father as a site for a sculpture garden in his wife's name and memory, now part of the Museum of Modern Art. He spent much time as a child at the family estate Kykuit, where, in his memoirs, he recalls visits by powerful associates of his father, including General George C. Marshall, the adventurer Admiral Richard Byrd (whose Antarctic expeditions had
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    238
    Dorothy Bush Koch

    Dorothy Bush Koch

    • Family: Bush family
    Dorothy Walker Bush Koch, often called "Doro", (born August 18, 1959), is the daughter of the 41st President of the United States George H. W. Bush and former First Lady Barbara Bush, and the youngest sibling of George W. Bush, the 43rd President. Her other four siblings are Jeb Bush, Neil Bush, Marvin Bush, and Robin Bush, who died of leukemia in 1953. Bush Koch was born in Harris County, Texas. Since she was a child, Dorothy has spent summers and holidays at the Bush compound, a sprawling estate in Kennebunkport, Maine. In 1975, during a visit to Beijing, Dorothy became the first person publicly baptized in the People's Republic of China since its government began discouraging foreign religious practices in 1949. Dorothy attended Miss Porter's School and earned a B.A. in sociology from Boston College in 1982. She has two children, Sam and Ellie, by her first husband, William LeBlond, whom she married in 1982 and divorced in 1990, and two children, Robert and Gigi, by her second husband, Robert P. Koch, whom she married in June 1992 at Camp David. Robert P. Koch was an aide to House Democratic leader Richard Gephardt, and is a lobbyist and president of the Wine Institute. He has a
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    239
    Elena Văcărescu

    Elena Văcărescu

    • Family: Văcărescu family
    Elena Văcărescu or Hélène Vacaresco (September 21, 1864 in Bucharest – February 17, 1947 in Paris) was a Romanian-French aristocrat writer, twice a laureate of the Académie française. Through her father, Ioan Văcărescu, she descended from a long line of boyars of Wallachia (the Văcărescu family), including Ienăchiţă Văcărescu, the poet who wrote the first Romanian grammar. She was also a granddaughter of Romanian poet Iancu Văcărescu. Through her mother, Eufrosina Fălcoianu, she descended from the Fălcoianu family, a prominent clan in the times of Prince Michael the Brave. She spent most of her youth on the Văcărescu estate near Târgovişte. Elena first got acquainted with the English literature through her English governess, Miss Allan. She also studied French literature in Paris, where she met Victor Hugo, whom she later mentioned in her memoirs. She attended courses of philosophy, aesthetics and history, and also studied poetry under the guidance of Sully Prudhomme. Another influence on her early life was the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878 that also involved Romania - the country declared independence from the Ottoman Empire, and joined Imperial Russia's camp. Elena's father fought
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    240
    Eli Whitney

    Eli Whitney

    • Family: Whitney family
    Eli Whitney (December 8, 1765 – January 8, 1825) was an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. This was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South. Whitney's invention made upland short cotton into a profitable crop, which strengthened the economic foundation of slavery in the United States (regardless of whether Whitney intended that or not). Despite the social and economic impact of his invention, Whitney lost many profits in legal battles over patent infringement for the cotton gin. Thereafter, he turned his attention into securing contracts with the government in the manufacture of muskets for the newly formed continental army. He continued making arms and inventing until his death in 1825. Whitney was born in Westborough, Massachusetts, on December 8, 1765, the eldest child of Eli Whitney Sr., a prosperous farmer, and his wife Elizabeth Fay of Westborough. Although the younger Eli, born in 1765, could technically be called a "Junior", history has never known him as such. He was famous during his lifetime and afterward by the name "Eli Whitney". His son, born in 1820, also named Eli, was well known
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    241
    Elsa Einstein

    Elsa Einstein

    • Family: Einstein family
    Elsa Einstein (January 18, 1876 – December 20, 1936) was a German cousin and the second wife of Albert Einstein. Elsa had the surname of Einstein at birth, lost it when she took the name of her first husband Max Löwenthal, and regained it in 1919 when she married her cousin Albert. Elsa, the daughter of Rudolf Einstein, was born in Hechingen in January 1876. She had two sisters; Paula (c. 1878–c. 1955) and Hermine (1872–1942). Rudolf was a textile manufacturer in Hechingen. During the regular visits with the family in Munich, she often played with her cousin Albert. In her Swabian dialect, she called him "Albertle". After Albert Einstein left Germany in 1894 to follow his family to Milan, their ways parted. In 1896, Elsa married textile trader Max Löwenthal (1864–1914), from Berlin, with whom she had three children: daughters Ilse and Margot and a son who was born and died in 1903. They lived together in Hechingen. In 1902, Max Löwenthal took a job in Berlin. His family stayed in Hechingen. She divorced Max on May 11, 1908, and moved with her two daughters to an apartment above her parents on Haberlandstrasse 5, in Berlin. She began a relationship with her cousin Albert Einstein at
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    242
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver

    Eunice Kennedy Shriver

    • Family: Kennedy family
    Eunice Mary Kennedy Shriver, DSG (July 10, 1921 – August 11, 2009) a member of the Kennedy family, sister of President John F. Kennedy and Senators Robert F. Kennedy and Edward Kennedy. Eunice Kennedy Shriver was the founder in 1962 of Camp Shriver which started on her Maryland farm known as Timberlawn and, in 1968 evolved into the Special Olympics. Her husband, Robert Sargent Shriver, Jr., was United States Ambassador to France and the Democratic vice presidential candidate in the 1972 U.S. presidential election. Their daughter, Maria Shriver, was married to actor and former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. Born Eunice Mary Kennedy in Brookline, Massachusetts, she was the fifth of nine children of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. and Rose Fitzgerald. She was educated at the Manhattanville College on the Upper West Side of Manhattan (the school later moved to Purchase, New York). After graduating from Stanford University with a Bachelor of Science degree in sociology in 1943, she worked for the Special War Problems Division of the U.S. State Department. She eventually moved to the U.S. Justice Department as executive secretary for a project dealing with juvenile delinquency. She
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    243
    Iancu Văcărescu

    Iancu Văcărescu

    • Family: Văcărescu family
    Iancu Văcărescu (1786-1863) was a Romanian Wallachian boyar and poet, member of the Văcărescu family. The son of Alecu Văcărescu, descending from a long line of Wallachian men of letters — his paternal uncle, Ienăchiţă Văcărescu, was author of the first Romanian grammar; Iancu was the grandfather of writer Elena Văcărescu. He received a quality education not only in Greek (the preferred language of teaching in Wallachia at the time), but also in German and French, and was well versed in Western literature. A patriot during the Phanariote epoch, he sided with the national movement in 1821 (around Tudor Vladimirescu's Wallachian Uprising), and assisted in establishing the Romanian theatre, translating many books and plays from German and French into Romanian, notably the Britannicus of Racine, a literary event of no small importance at the time. He inaugurated modern Romanian poetry. During the debates in the National Assembly over the drafting of an organic law for the Danubian Principalities (see Regulamentul Organic), Văcărescu spoke out against Imperial Russian overseeing, and was placed under arrest before being exiled for the following years. Văcărescu was also one of the
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    Ienăchiţă Văcărescu

    Ienăchiţă Văcărescu

    • Family: Văcărescu family
    Ienăchiţă Văcărescu (1740 – July 11, 1797) was a Wallachian Romanian poet, historian, philologist, and boyar belonging to the Văcărescu family. A polyglot, he was able to speak Ancient and Modern Greek, Old Church Slavonic, Arabic, Persian, French, German, Italian, and Ottoman Turkish. Văcărescu wrote one of the first printed books on Romanian grammar in 1787, an edition which also included a section dedicated to the study of prosody; it was titled Observaţii sau băgări de seamă asupra regulilor şi orânduielilor gramaticii româneşti ("Observations or Reckonings on the Rules and Dispositions of Romanian Grammar"). He also completed a work on Greek grammar (Gramatica greacă completă). Văcărescu's lyrical works take inspiration from both Anacreon and folklore, and center on romantic love. The best-known poems he left behind are Amărâta turturea ("Embittered Turtle Dove") and the minuscule Într-o grădină ("In a Garden"). Aside from these, he was also the author of a Istorie a Preaputernicilor Împăraţi Otomani ("History of the All Mighty Ottoman Emperors"). On several occasions, Ienăchiţă Văcărescu served Wallachia as a diplomat in missions abroad, including negotiations carried out in
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    Johann Christoph Bach

    Johann Christoph Bach

    • Family: Bach family
    Johann Christoph Bach (6 December 1642 – 31 March 1703) was a German composer and organist of the Baroque period. He was born at Arnstadt, the son of Heinrich Bach, Johann Sebastian Bach's great uncle, hence he was Johann Sebastian's first cousin once removed. He was also the uncle of Maria Barbara Bach, J.S. Bach's first wife. He is not to be confused with Johann Sebastian's Bach's son, Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach. Johann Christoph had a reputation as a composer that was only equalled by that of Johann Sebastian within the Bach family during his lifetime. He was organist at Eisenach and later a member of the court chamber orchestra there. His brother, Johann Michael Bach (Johann Sebastian Bach's father-in-law and Maria Barbara's father), was also a composer. Some of the works were later attributed to Johann Sebastian, but were recently recognized as written by Johann Christoph. One of the most famous works is the cantata Meine Freundin, du bist schön, based on the Song of Solomon. His eldest son, Johann Nicolaus Bach, was also a composer. Despite his success as a musician, Johann Christoph experienced financial difficulties, which may have resulted in his not having been
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    246
    Michał Gedeon Radziwiłł

    Michał Gedeon Radziwiłł

    • Family: Radziwiłł family
    Prince Michał Gedeon Radziwiłł (1778–1850) was a Polish-Lithuanian szlachcic, senator, owner of the Nieborów and others properties. Related to Radziwiłł family from Nieśwież (Dominik Hieronim Radziwiłł). He took part in the Kościuszko Uprising (1794). On January 1807 colonel and commander of the Legion-du-Nord, and later the 5th regiment of infantry (Duchy of Warsaw). Took part in siege of Gdańsk, and later stationed with his regiment in Gdańsk. In 1811 general-de-brigade. In campagne 1812 commanded the brigade of infantry in the “Polish division” of general Grandjean in the Jacques MacDonald’s 10th Army Corps. He took part in defense of Gdańsk in 1813 (under general Jean Rapp) and when fortress capitulated he was taken prisoner. In 1815 he resigned his commission and settled in Nieborów. In the 1830-31 November Uprising he was for some time Commander-in-Chief of the Polish forces and the Polish commander in the battle of Grochów. After failing of the uprising he was exiled to Yaroslavl in Russia. In 1836 returned to Poland, and died in Warsaw.
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    247
    Richard III of England

    Richard III of England

    • Family: House of York
    Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England for two years, from 1483 until his death in 1485 during the Battle of Bosworth Field. He was the last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty. His defeat at the Battle of Bosworth Field was the decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses and is sometimes regarded as the end of the Middle Ages in England. He is the subject of an eponymous play by William Shakespeare. When his brother Edward IV died in April 1483, Richard was named Lord Protector of the realm for Edward's son and successor, the 12-year-old King Edward V. As the new king travelled to London from Ludlow, Richard met and escorted him to London where he was lodged in the Tower of London. Edward V's brother Richard later joined him there. Arrangements began to be made for Edward's coronation on 22 June. However, before the young king could be crowned, Edward IV's marriage to the boys' mother Elizabeth Woodville was publicly declared to be invalid, making their children illegitimate and ineligible for the throne. On 25 June an assembly of lords and commoners endorsed these claims. The following day, Richard III officially began his
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    248
    Talitha Getty

    Talitha Getty

    • Family: Getty family
    Talitha Getty (18 October 1940 – 14 July 1971) was an actress of Dutch extraction, born in the former Dutch East Indies, who was regarded as a style icon of the late 1960s. She lived much of her adult life in Britain and, in her final years, was closely associated with the Moroccan city of Marrakesh. Her husband was the oil heir and subsequent philanthropist John Paul Getty, Jr. Talitha Dina Pol was born in Java, then part of the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Her father was Willem Jilts Pol (1905–88), a painter who subsequently married Poppet John (1912–97), daughter of the painter Augustus John (1878–1961), a pivotal figure in the world of "Bohemian" culture and fashion. She was thus the step -granddaughter of both Augustus John and his muse and second wife, Dorothy "Dorelia" McNeil (1881–1969), who was a fashion icon in the early years of the 20th century. By Ian Fleming's widowed mother, Evelyn Ste Croix Fleming née Rose, Augustus John had a daughter and Talitha's aunt, Amaryllis Fleming (1925–1999), who became a noted cellist. Pol spend her early years, during the Second World War, with her mother, born Arnoldine Adriana Mees, in a Japanese prison camp. Her father was
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    Thomas Huxley

    Thomas Huxley

    • Family: Huxley
    Thomas Henry Huxley PC FRS (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist (anatomist), known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. Huxley's famous 1860 debate with Samuel Wilberforce was a key moment in the wider acceptance of evolution, and in his own career. Huxley had been planning to leave Oxford on the previous day, but, after an encounter with Robert Chambers, the author of Vestiges, he changed his mind and decided to join the debate. Wilberforce was coached by Richard Owen, against whom Huxley also debated whether humans were closely related to apes. Huxley was slow to accept some of Darwin's ideas, such as gradualism, and was undecided about natural selection, but despite this he was wholehearted in his public support of Darwin. He was instrumental in developing scientific education in Britain, and fought against the more extreme versions of religious tradition. In 1869 Huxley coined the term 'agnostic' to describe his own views on theology, a term whose use has continued to the present day (see Thomas Henry Huxley and agnosticism). Huxley had little formal schooling and taught himself almost everything he knew. He became
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    250
    Toma Erdödy

    Toma Erdödy

    • Family: Erdődy
    Count Tamás Erdődy (Croatian: Toma Bakač Erdedi) (1558–1624) was a Croatian ban and member of the Erdödy magnate family of Hungarian ancestry. He succeeded Krsto Ungnad as ban in 1583. He was the son of former ban Petar Erdödy. During his reign he scored many victories against the Ottoman Empire's armies. His first victory occurred near Slunj in 1584. In 1591 he freed the Moslavina region. When Ottoman forces tried to retake the area in 1593, the battle of Sisak ensued between the Holy Roman Empire's forces and the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman troops lost, severely hampering their ability to expand further into Europe. For this victory Erdödy received congratulations from Pope Clement VIII and was knighted into the Order of Saint Saviour by Philip II of Spain. He left his role as ban in 1595. However, he reclaimed it from 1608 to 1615. Erdödy died in 1624.
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