Top List Curated by Listnerd
  • Public list
  • Nov 27th 2012
  • 1.222 views
  • 625 votes
  • 625 voters
  • 10%
Best Extraterrestrial location of All Time

More about Best Extraterrestrial location of All Time:

Best Extraterrestrial location of All Time is a public top list created by Listnerd on rankly.com on November 27th 2012. Items on the Best Extraterrestrial location of All Time top list are added by the rankly.com community and ranked using our secret ranking sauce. Best Extraterrestrial location of All Time has gotten 1.222 views and has gathered 625 votes from 625 voters. O O

Best Extraterrestrial location of All Time is a top list in the Science category on rankly.com. Are you a fan of Science or Best Extraterrestrial location of All Time? Explore more top 100 lists about Science on rankly.com or participate in ranking the stuff already on the all time Best Extraterrestrial location of All Time top list below.

If you're not a member of rankly.com, you should consider becoming one. Registration is fast, free and easy. At rankly.com, we aim to give you the best of everything - including stuff like the Best Extraterrestrial location of All Time list.

Get your friends to vote! Spread this URL or share:

Items just added

    1
    Hilbert

    Hilbert

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Hilbert is a lunar crater that is located on the far side of the Moon, just past the southeast limb. It lies just beyond the region of the surface that is occasionally brought into view due to libration, and so this feature cannot be observed directly from the Earth. The crater is attached to the southeast rim of the walled plain Pasteur, a formation nearly half as large again as Hilbert. To the southeast of Hilbert is the smaller crater Alden, while Backlund lies to the west-northwest. Much of the outer rim of Hilbert remains relatively intact, although it is heavily eroded in places particularly in the south. The interior is relatively flat, but has been deeply gouged by several small craters. There is a short range of central ridges offset to the west of the interior midpoint. Just to the west of the ridges is Hilbert W, a crater with a smaller crater overlying the western rim, giving it a pear-like shape. Hilbert H is a circular, bowl-shaped crater in the east part of the floor. Next to the northern rim is Hilbert Y. There are also many lesser craterlets scattered about the interior. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of
    7.29
    7 votes
    2
    Erlanger

    Erlanger

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Erlanger is a very deep lunar impact crater that lies close to the Northern pole. Due to its position near the north pole of the moon (and given the fact that the moon's axis is only tilted about 1.5 degrees), sunlight only rarely falls on the bottom, and it is hoped that ice from comet impacts may have accumulated here . The crater was named by the International Astronometrical Union on January 22nd 2009, after the American physiologist and 1944 Nobel Prize winner Joseph Erlanger.
    6.38
    8 votes
    3
    Fra Mauro formation

    Fra Mauro formation

    • On celestial object: Moon
    The Fra Mauro formation (or Fra Mauro Highlands) is a lunar selenological formation on the near side of the Moon that served as the landing site for the American Apollo 14 mission in 1971. It is named after the 80-kilometer-diameter crater Fra Mauro, located within it. The formation, as well as Fra Mauro crater, take their names from a 15th century Italian monk and mapmaker of the same name. Apollo 13 was originally scheduled to land in the Fra Mauro highlands, but was unable to due to an in-flight technical failure. Fra Mauro is thought to have been formed from ejecta, or debris, from the impact which formed Mare Imbrium. During Apollo 14, the crew members sampled ejecta from Cone crater, a crater in close proximity to the immediate landing site of that mission, which provided insight into the composition of material deep inside the formation. Data from the mission has helped to determine the approximate age of Mare Imbrium, suggesting that it is no more than about 4.25 billion years old. Fra Mauro is a widespread hilly geological area covering large portions of the lunar surface around Mare Imbrium, and is thought to be composed of ejecta from the impact which formed Imbrium. The
    9.00
    5 votes
    4
    Lacus Timoris

    Lacus Timoris

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Timoris (Latin for "Lake of Fear") is a small lunar mare on the Moon. It is located at 38.8° S, 27.3° W and is 117 km in diameter. It was discovered in 1976 and its name was approved by the International Astronomical Union at a meeting in Grenoble.
    7.50
    6 votes
    5
    Terra Nivium

    Terra Nivium

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Terra Nivium (Latin for "Land of Snows") is a roughly triangular highland region on the Moon. In his Almagestum novum, the notable selenographer Giovanni Riccioli named the various highland regions terrae. However, unlike his naming scheme for craters and lunar maria, his nomenclature for the continental areas of the Moon never came into common use. It lies to the north of the Mare Vaporum and is bounded along the northwest by the rugged Montes Apenninus range, and to the northeast by the less impressive Montes Haemus mountains. Portions of this area have been penetrated by flows of magma that connect to the Mare Vaporum. This irregular area contains a number of smaller depressions that have become covered in flows of basaltic lavas. These form what are essentially miniature lunar maria. They are clustered near the southern borders of the area, and fill much of the terrain between Mare Vaporum and the Montes Haemus. These mare-like features are generally irregular in shape, and many are joined together through gaps between the more rugged islands of continental terrain. These areas are listed in the table below, ordered from west to east. The listed diameter corresponds to the
    8.60
    5 votes
    6
    Coriolis

    Coriolis

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Coriolis is a lunar impact crater that is located on the far side of the Moon. The crater floor is bisected by the lunar equator, and it lies about three crater diameters northwest of the crater Daedalus. The rim of this formation is somewhat eroded, and several small craters lie along the edge. The northern rim is somewhat damaged, and has a slight outward bulge and depression in the side. The interior floor has small craters along the eastern and southern inner walls. There are also some low hills near the mid-part of the floor. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Coriolis.
    8.40
    5 votes
    7
    Condon

    Condon

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Condon is a lunar crater that lies on the eastern shore of the Sinus Successus, a bay along the northeast edge of Mare Fecunditatis. It lies midway between the larger crater Apollonius to the north and the smaller Webb to the south on the Mare Fecunditatis. Condon was previously designated Webb R before being given a name by the IAU. This is a lava-flooded crater remnant with only low rim segments surviving to the east and west. There is a break in the rim to the south and a wider break to the northwest of the crater. The crater interior is nearly level, and mark only by a few low rises in the surface. A pair of small craterlets are attached to the exterior of the southeast rim.
    7.17
    6 votes
    8
    Sinus Roris

    Sinus Roris

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Sinus Roris (latin for "Bay of Dew") is an extension of the northern edge of Oceanus Procellarum on the Moon. The IAU-defined selenographic coordinates of this bay are 54.0° N, 56.6° W, and the diameter is 202 km. The borders of this feature are somewhat indistinct. The bay proper is framed along the western edge by the craters Markov and Oenopides, and to the north by Babbage and South. At the eastern edge it joins the Mare Frigoris. Many selenographers have taken liberties with the dimensions of Sinus Roris. Lunar maps often indicate a much larger region for this bay than the official dimensions. These can range out as far as the craters Gerard and Repsold to the west, Harpalus to the east, and as far south as 44° N latitude, approaching Mons Rümker. The area where the official coordinates place this bay has a generally higher albedo than the mare to the south, most likely due to deposits of ejecta from impacts to the north. Arthur C Clarke's novel A Fall of Moondust is set in a fictional "Sea of Thirst" located within Sinus Roris. USGS lunar map showing Sinus Roris
    9.50
    4 votes
    9
    Mare Anguis

    Mare Anguis

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Anguis (the "serpent sea") is a lunar mare located on the near side of the Moon, about 150 kilometers in diameter. Located within the Crisium basin, Mare Anguis is a part of the Nectarian System, meaning that it was formed during the Nectarian time period. Like most mare, the surface of Mare Anguis is dark, indicating that it has been filled with volcanic basalt.
    6.00
    7 votes
    10
    Airy

    Airy

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Contains: Airy-0
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Airy is an impact crater on Mars, named in honor of the British Astronomer, Royal Sir George Biddell Airy (1801–1892). The crater is approximately 40 kilometers in diameter and is located at 0.1°E 5.1°S in the Meridiani Planum region. The much smaller crater Airy-0, which defines the location of Mars' prime meridian, lies within it.
    7.80
    5 votes
    11
    Discovery Rupes

    Discovery Rupes

    • On celestial object: Mercury
    • Type of planetographic feature: Rupes
    Discovery Rupes is an escarpment on Mercury approximately 650 kilometers (400 mi) long and 2 kilometers (6,562 feet) high, located at latitude 56.3 S and longitude 38.3 W. It was formed by a thrust fault, thought to have occurred due to the shrinkage of the planet's core as it cooled over time. The scarp cuts through Rameau crater.
    6.67
    6 votes
    12
    Plato

    Plato

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Plato is the lava-filled remains of a lunar impact crater on the Moon. It is located on the northeastern shore of the Mare Imbrium, at the western extremity of the Montes Alpes mountain range. In the mare to the south are several rises collectively named the Montes Teneriffe. To the north lies the wide stretch of the Mare Frigoris. East of the crater, among the Montes Alpes, are several rilles collectively named the Rimae Plato. The age of Plato is about 3.84 billion years, only slightly younger than the Mare Imbrium to the south. The rim is irregular with 2-km-tall jagged peaks that project prominent shadows across the crater floor when the Sun is at a low angle. Sections of the inner wall display signs of past slumping, most notably a large triangular slide along the western side. The rim of Plato is circular, but from the Earth it appears oval due to foreshortening. The flat floor of Plato has a relatively low albedo, making it appear dark in comparison to the surrounding rugged terrain. The floor is free of significant impact craters and lacks a central peak. However there are a few small craterlets scattered across the floor. Plato has developed a reputation for transient
    6.67
    6 votes
    13
    Capella

    Capella

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Capella is a lunar crater 49 km (30 mi) in diameter that lies to the north of the Mare Nectaris, in a rugged region with many small impact craters. It intrudes slightly into the eastern rim of the crater Isidorus, a feature only slightly smaller in diameter. The wall of Capella is low but relatively thick and irregular, with a large promontory intruding on the south-eastern side. The crater is crossed by a deep rift, the Vallis Capella, which passes directly through Capella from the north rim through the southeast side of the wall, and extends out both sides for a combined distance of 110 kilometers. This feature was formed by a chain of craters. In the middle of the crater is a wide, round peak with a craterlet at the top. The western side of the crater is dotted with impact debris, forming clusters of small hills. The crater was named for Marcianus Capella, a writer of Late Antiquity. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Capella.
    7.60
    5 votes
    14
    Mare Crisium

    Mare Crisium

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Crisium (the "Sea of Crises") is a lunar mare located in the Moon's Crisium basin, just northeast of Mare Tranquillitatis. The basin is of the Pre-Imbrian period, 4.55 to 3.85 billion years ago. Mare Crisium is 555 km (345 mi) in diameter, and 176,000 km in area. It has a very flat floor, with a ring of wrinkled ridges toward its outer boundaries. Ghost craters (craters that have largely been buried under deposits of other material), are located to the south. The mare has many notable features in and around it. The cape-like feature protruding into the southeast of the mare is Promontorium Agarum. On the western rim of the mare is the palimpsest Yerkes. The crater Picard is located just to the east of Yerkes, and northwest of Picard is the crater Peirce. Mare Anguis can be seen northeast of Mare Crisium. Like most of the other maria on the Moon, Mare Crisium was named by Giovanni Riccioli, whose 1651 nomenclature system has become standardized. By the 17th century, Mare Crisium had acquired the name 'Caspian Sea', being labelled as such by Thomas Harriot, Pierre Gassendi and Michael Van Langren. Ewen A. Whitaker speculates that it received this name because it occupies roughly
    7.60
    5 votes
    15
    Fermat

    Fermat

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Fermat is a lunar impact crater located to the west of the Rupes Altai escarpment. To the west-southwest is the larger crater Sacrobosco, and to the southwest is the irregular Pons. It is 39 kilometers in diameter and two kilometers deep. The rim of Fermat is worn and somewhat irregular, but still possesses an outer rampart. The north rim is indented by a double crater formation that includes Fermat A. The floor is relatively flat and does not have a central rise. The crater is from the Pre-Imbrian period, 4.55 to 3.85 billion years ago. It is named for 17th century French mathematician Pierre de Fermat. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Fermat.
    6.50
    6 votes
    16
    Mare Moscoviense

    Mare Moscoviense

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Moscoviense ("sea of Moscow") is a lunar mare that sits in the Moscoviense basin. It is one of the very few maria on the far side of the Moon. Like Mare Marginis, this mare appears to be fairly thin. However, it is clearly centered within a large impact basin. It is also much lower than either the outer basin floor or the farside highlands. The great depth of this mare beneath the nearby highlands probably explains why mare units are so rare on the lunar farside. Very few basins on the farside were deep enough to allow mare volcanism. Thus, while large impact basins are found on both the nearside and farside, large maria are mostly found on the nearside. Mare lavas apparently could reach the surface more often and more easily there. The basin material is of the Nectarian epoch, while the mare material is of the Upper Imbrian epoch. Following the SELENE mission, scientists proposed that volcanism in Mare Moscoviense was active for at least ~1.5 Ga following the formation of the Moscoviense basin, but the formation of the mare as the result of a meteorite cluster impact, rather than from volcanism, has also been proposed based on the energy required to melt the lava in Mare
    7.40
    5 votes
    17
    Montes Caucasus

    Montes Caucasus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Montes Caucasus is a rugged range of mountains in the northeastern part of the Moon. It begins at a gap of level surface that joins the Mare Imbrium to the west with the Mare Serenitatis to the east, and extends in an irregular band to the north-northeast to the western side of the prominent crater Eudoxus. The range forms the northwestern boundary of the Mare Serenitatis. It forms a continuation of the Montes Apenninus range to the southwest. There are several breaks in the range where nearby lunar mare has intruded into the formation, particularly near the southern tip. Embedded within the eastern flank of the range is the crater Calippus. Along the eastern flank to the south of Eudoxus is the remnants of the crater Alexander. The selenographic coordinates of this range are 38.4° N, 10.0° E, and it has an official diameter of 445 km. However some observers list the length as being up to 550 km. The tallest peaks in this range reach heights of 6 km, undoubtedly providing an expansive view of the surroundings from their tops. The range was named after the Caucasus Mountains on the Earth by the German selenographer Johann H. Mädler. However none of the peaks in this range has been
    7.40
    5 votes
    18
    Bonpland

    Bonpland

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Bonpland is the remains of a lunar crater that is attached to the walled plain Fra Mauro to the north and Parry to the east. The intersection of their rims forms a three-pointed mountainous rise. To the southeast is the small crater Tolansky. Bonpland lies on the eastern edge of Mare Cognitum. This rim of Bonpland is heavily worn and eroded, with the intrusion of Parry in the east creating a bulging extension to the southeast. The floor has been flooded by lava in the past, leaving a relatively flat surface that is broken by a series of narrow clefts. These are collectively designated the Rimae Parry. The clefts cross the rim to the south and also to the north, extending into the neighboring Fra Mauro. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Bonpland. The following craters have been renamed by the IAU.
    8.50
    4 votes
    19
    Mons Hadley

    Mons Hadley

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Mons Hadley is a massif in the northern portion of the Montes Apenninus, a range in the northern hemisphere of the Moon. The selenographic coordinates of this peak are 26.5° N, 4.7° E. It has a height of 4.6 km and a maximum diameter of 25 km at the base. To the southwest of this mountain is a valley that served as the landing site for the Apollo 15 expedition. To the southwest of this same valley is the slightly smaller Mons Hadley Delta (δ) peak with a height of about 3.5 km. The coordinates of this peak are 25.8° N, 3.8° E. To the west of these peaks is the sinuous Rima Hadley rille where the Fallen Astronaut memorial has been placed in memory of those astronauts who died in the advancement of space exploration. These features were named after John Hadley. This sinuous lunar rille follows a course generally to the northeast, toward the Mons Hadley peak, for which it is named. This feature is centered at selenographic coordinates 25.0° N, 3.0° E, and lies within a diameter of 80 km. It begins at the crater Béla, an elongated formation with the long axis oriented to the northwest. Four small craters near this rille have been assigned names by the IAU. These are listed in the table
    5.57
    7 votes
    20
    Beijerinck

    Beijerinck

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Beijerinck is a lunar crater on the far side of the Moon. It lies to the south of the larger crater Chaplygin, and to the northeast of the huge walled plain Gagarin. The outer rim of this crater is heavily worn and eroded by subsequent meteor bombardment, particularly along the southern half, with several small and tiny craterlets lying along the rim. The interior floor, in contrast, is relatively level and unmarked by notable impacts. There is a small, angled central peak near the midpoint of the floor. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Beijerinck.
    7.20
    5 votes
    21
    Cyrano

    Cyrano

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Cyrano is a lunar impact crater that lies on the far side of the Moon. It lies due east of the huge walled plain Gagarin, and to the north of the somewhat smaller crater Barbier. The most notable aspect of this crater are the small impacts along the western and southwest rim, with the pear-shaped Cyrano P forming the later intrusion into the interior. The remainder of the rim has received some wear, and is particularly eroded at the northern end. There are also a few small craters within the interior, with a merged crater pair near the eastern side and a crater along the northeast inner wall. The northern half of the interior floor is slightly more irregular than the southern part. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Cyrano.
    7.20
    5 votes
    22
    Einthoven

    Einthoven

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Einthoven is a lunar impact crater that is located on the far side of the Moon. It is located beyond the region of the surface that is sometimes brought into view due to libration, and so can not be viewed from the Earth. Einthoven is located to the northeast of the huge walled plain Pasteur. This is a circular crater with some minor terrace structure along the inner rim. The satellite crater Einthoven X is attached to the northwestern rim, and is partly overlaid by Einthoven. The hummocky interior floor is marked only by a small crater in the eastern half and a few tiny craterlets. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Einthoven.
    8.25
    4 votes
    23
    Harden

    Harden

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Harden is a small lunar impact crater that lies in the eastern part of the interior floor of the walled plain Mendeleev. It is located on the far side of the Moon, and cannot been seen from the Earth. The crater is a circular, bowl-shaped feature with a slightly higher albedo than the surrounding terrain, but lacks the skirt of bright ejecta that many young impacts possess. The edge and interior are not notably eroded, and no significant craters overlie this feature. To the southeast of this crater, overlying the rim of Mendeleev, is the large Schuster.
    8.25
    4 votes
    24
    Sinus Honoris

    Sinus Honoris

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Sinus Honoris (latin for "Bay of Honour") is located along the western edge of the Mare Tranquillitatis located on the surface of the near side of the moon. The selenographic coordinates of this feature are 11.7° N, 18.1° E, and it has a diameter of 109 km. Sinus Honoris has a wide mouth and is bordered by uneven terrain to the north and southwest. Where the bay joins the mare, rille systems extend to the north and south. The northern system is designated Rimae Maclear, after the crater Maclear just to the east of the bay. At the southern end of the bay entrance is the Rimae Sosignes, named for the crater Sosigenes to the south. At the west end of the bay is a finger of mare surface that extends to the northwest for almost 100 km.
    8.25
    4 votes
    25
    Diyar Planitia

    Diyar Planitia

    • On celestial object: Enceladus
    • Type of planetographic feature: Planitia
    Diyar Planitia is a region of relatively un-cratered terrain on Saturn's moon Enceladus. It is located at 0.5° North Latitude, 239.7° West Longitude and is approximately 311 km across. Images from the Voyager probes could not resolve whether Diyar Planitia is part of the ridged plains unit of Enceladus (Kargel and Pozio 1996) or the smooth plains unit (Rothery 1999), which is thought to be the youngest terrain on the moon. The more recent (and higher resolution) Cassini images show that Diyar is a region of relatively low, north-south trending ridges, with several younger fractures cutting across the region along the same trend. Very few impact craters have been found in Diyar, demonstrating the youthful age of the region. Diyar Planitia is bounded on the north and east by a band of grooved terrain named Harran Sulci. Given the similarity in the spatial relationship between the Sarandib Planitia and Samarkand Sulci, it is likely that the formation of Diyar Planitia and Harran Sulci are related. Diyar Planitia is named after the country that Khudadad's father rules in Arabian Nights. Rothery, David A. (1999). Satellites of the Outer Planets: Worlds in their own right. Oxford
    7.00
    5 votes
    26
    Eimmart

    Eimmart

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Eimmart is a lunar crater that is located near the east-northeastern limb of the Moon, to the northeast of the Mare Crisium. The northern and eastern outer rim of this crater borders on the narrow Mare Anguis. To the northwest of Eimmart are the smaller crater Delmotte and the prominent Cleomedes. The rim of this crater has been lightly eroded, especially along the south-southeastern portion, but most of the edge remains intact. The small crater Eimmart A lies along the eastern rim, and is surrounded by a skirt of higher albedo material, particularly to the south and west across the interior of Eimmart. The interior floor is relatively level, and is marked by the ray material from Eimmart A. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Eimmart.
    7.00
    5 votes
    27
    Palus Somni

    Palus Somni

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Palus Somni (Latin for "Marsh of Sleep") is an area on the Moon of relatively level but somewhat uneven terrain that lies along the northeastern edge of Mare Tranquillitatis and the Sinus Concordiae. It has selenographic coordinates 14.1° N, 45.0° E, and has a diameter of 143 km. The surface of this feature has low ridges and patches of level terrain. It has a higher albedo than the lunar mare to the west, and is a shade of grey typical of continental terrain. A few minor craters lie within its borders, with the flooded Lyell along the west edge, Crile to the east, and Franz to the northwest. In 1907 it was described as having "a color which is unique upon the moon, a kind of light brown, quite unlike the hue of any of the other plains or mountain regions"
    7.00
    5 votes
    28
    Rupes Kelvin

    Rupes Kelvin

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Rupes Kelvin is an escarpment near Promontorium Kelvin (after which it is named), at 27°18′S 33°06′W / 27.3°S 33.1°W / -27.3; -33.1. It is 78.0 km long.
    7.00
    5 votes
    29
    Lacus Bonitatis

    Lacus Bonitatis

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Bonitatis (Latin for Lake of Goodness) is a small lunar mare that lies to the northwest of the prominent crater Macrobius. Further to the north of Lacus Bonitatis is the Montes Taurus mountain range. This mare is an irregular region of basaltic lava with uneven borders. The mare lies within a diameter of 92 km and the longest dimension trends from the southwest to the northeast. The selenographic coordinates of Lacus Bonitatis are 23°12′N 43°42′E / 23.2°N 43.7°E / 23.2; 43.7.
    9.33
    3 votes
    30
    Fischer

    Fischer

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Fischer is a lunar crater that lies in the northeastern part of the interior floor of the huge walled plain Mendeleev. This feature is located on the far side of the Moon relative to the Earth, and can only be viewed from a spacecraft. This crater has a slender, circular rim and an interior that has the same low albedo as the surrounding floor. There is a smaller impact crater within the interior, adjacent to the northwestern inner wall. The rim and the floor of Fischer are pitted by several tiny craterlets.
    6.80
    5 votes
    31
    Mare Spumans

    Mare Spumans

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Spumans (from Latin: foaming sea) is a lunar mare located just south of Mare Undarum on the lunar near side. It is one of the many elevated lakes contained in the Crisium basin, surrounding Mare Crisium. The surrounding basin material is of the Nectarian epoch, while the mare basalt being of the Upper Imbrian epoch. The crater Apollonius W is located on the western rim of the mare. This crater is white and surrounded by a well-defined ray system.
    6.80
    5 votes
    32
    Pythagoras

    Pythagoras

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Pythagoras is a prominent impact crater located near the northwestern lunar limb. It lies just to the northwest of the somewhat larger Babbage. The crater has an oval appearance due to the oblique viewing angle. Only the western face of the interior can be viewed from the Earth, the other side being permanently out of sight. The well-preserved rim of Pythagoras has a wide terrace system, and a slight rampart around the exterior. Although generally circular, the crater outline has a hexagonal form. The floor is flattened, but with an irregular, hilly surface. There is evidence of landslips around the periphery. In the center is a sharp, mountainous rise with a double peak that ascends 1.5 kilometers above the crater floor. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Pythagoras.
    6.80
    5 votes
    33
    Anaxagoras

    Anaxagoras

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Anaxagoras is a young lunar impact crater that is located near the north pole of the Moon. It lies across the larger and more heavily worn crater Goldschmidt. To the south-southeast is Epigenes, and due south is the worn remains of Birmingham. Anaxagoras is a relatively recent impact crater that is young enough to still possess a ray system that has not been eroded by space weathering. The rays from the site reach a distance of over 900 kilometers from the rim, reaching Plato to the south. The crater interior has a relatively high albedo, making it a prominent feature when the Moon is nearly full. (The high latitude of the crater means that the Sun always remains close to the horizon even at maximum elevation less than a day after Full Moon.) The interior walls are steep and possess a system of terraces. The central peak is offset from the crater midpoint, and joins a low range across the crater floor. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Anaxagoras.
    9.00
    3 votes
    34
    Cyrillus

    Cyrillus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Cyrillus is a lunar impact crater located on the northwest edge of Mare Nectaris. Intruding into the northeast rim is the equally large, and younger crater Theophilus. To the south is another prominent crater named Catharina. Together these three craters form a prominent trio in the southeast quadrant of the Moon. To the northwest is Ibn-Rushd. Cyrillus is named after Saint Cyril of Alexandria, a 4th-century Coptic Pope and theologian. The floor of Cyrillus contains a reduced central hill and the considerable crater Cyrillus A. The walls of the broken formation of Cyrillus remain intact up until the point of junction with Theophilus. Slightly northeast of its center, three rounded mountains rise to heights of 1,000 meters above Theophilus' floor: Cyrillus Alpha, Delta, and Eta. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Cyrillus. The following craters have been renamed by the IAU.
    9.00
    3 votes
    35
    Elysium Planitia

    Elysium Planitia

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Planitia
    Elysium Planitia is the second largest volcanic region on Mars, after Tharsis. It is centered at 2°00′N 155°00′E / 2.0°N 155.0°E / 2.0; 155.0. It includes volcanoes, from north to south, Hecates Tholus, Elysium Mons and Albor Tholus. Another large volcano, Apollinaris Mons, lies south of the others. Besides having large volcanoes, Elysium Planitia has several areas with long trenches, called fossa or fossae (plural) on Mars. They include Cerberus Fossae, Elysium Fossae, and Hephaestus Fossae. A 2005 photo of Elysium Planitia by the Mars Express spacecraft shows what may be ash-covered water ice. The volume of ice is estimated to be 800 by 900 kilometers in size and 45 meters deep, similar in size and depth to the North Sea. The ice is thought to be the remains of water floods and lava flows in the Cerberus Fossae fissures about 2 to 10 million years ago. The surface of the area is broken into 'plates' like broken ice floating on a lake. Impact crater counts show that the plates are up to 1 million years older than the gap material, showing that the area solidified much too slowly for the material to be basaltic lava.
    7.75
    4 votes
    36
    Lacus Odii

    Lacus Odii

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Odii (latin for "Lake of Hate") is a small lunar mare in the Terra Nivium region on the Moon. It is located at 19.0° N, 7.0° E and is 70 km in diameter.
    7.75
    4 votes
    37
    Rupes Cauchy

    Rupes Cauchy

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Rupes Cauchy is a 120km-long escarpment at 9°00′N 37°00′E / 9.0°N 37.0°E / 9.0; 37.0 on the surface of the Moon. It faces southwest, and rises about 200-300 m. It is located in the northeastern portion of the Mare Tranquillitatis, and is named after the nearby crater Cauchy. Rupes Cauchy casts a thin shadow about five days after the new moon, when the sunrise terminator is nearby and the sunlight is arriving at a low angle.
    7.75
    4 votes
    38
    Sinus Fidei

    Sinus Fidei

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Sinus Fidei (latin for "Bay of Faith") is a small basaltic mare feature in the Terra Nivium region of the Moon.
    7.75
    4 votes
    39
    Urey

    Urey

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Urey is a lunar impact crater located in the narrow niche of terrain between the western halves of the craters Rayleigh and Lyapunov. It lies near the east-northeastern limb of the Moon, and thus appears very foreshortened when viewed from the Earth. The rim of Urey has outward bulges along the western and southeastern sides. There are no notable craters along the rim or inner wall. However there are a few small craterlets on the interior floor, including a crater at the northern end of the central ridge. This range of low hills divides the floor in half, running north-south for a distance of about one third the crater diameter. This crater was previously designated Rayleigh A, a satellite of Rayleigh, before being given its current name by the IAU.
    7.75
    4 votes
    40
    Vallis Schröteri

    Vallis Schröteri

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Rille
    Schroter's Valley, frequently known by the Latinized name Vallis Schröteri, is a sinuous valley or rille on the surface of the near side of the Moon. It is located on a rise of continental ground, sometimes called the Aristarchus plateau, that is surrounded by the Oceanus Procellarum to the south and west and the Mare Imbrium to the northwest. At the southern edge of this rise are the craters Aristarchus and Herodotus. This is the largest sinuous rille on the Moon. It begins at a 6 km diameter crater located 25 km to the north of Herodotus. (The start of the rille has been termed the "Cobra's Head" by some observers, due to its resemblance to a snake.) From the crater it follows a meandering path, first to the north, then setting a course toward the northeast, before finally bending back to the south until it reaches a 1 km high precipice at the edge of the Oceanus Procellarum. The rille has a maximum width of about 10 km, then gradually narrows to less than a kilometer near its terminus. The origins of this rile are believed to be volcanic. The interior floor has been resurfaced and is very level. However there is a slender rille located on the floor, which can be photographed
    7.75
    4 votes
    41
    Goeppert-Mayer

    Goeppert-Mayer

    • On celestial object: Venus
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Goeppert-Mayer is a crater on the planet Venus. It is 35 kilometers (22 mi) in diameter and lies above an escarpment at the edge of a ridge belt in Southern Ishtar Terra. West of the crater the scarp has more than one kilometer (0.6 miles) of relief.
    6.60
    5 votes
    42
    Mare Vaporum

    Mare Vaporum

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Vaporum (the "sea of vapors") is a lunar mare located between the southwest rim of Mare Serenitatis and the southeast rim of Mare Imbrium. The lunar material surrounding the mare is from the Lower Imbrian epoch, and the mare material is from the Eratosthenian epoch. The mare lies in an old basin or crater that is within the Procellarum basin. The mare is 245 kilometres (152 mi) in diameter and 55,000 km (21,000 sq mi) in area. It may be from the Pre-Imbrian period, which lasted from 4.55 to 3.85 billion years ago. To the south of the mare is a light colored thin line. This feature is Rima Hyginus. The mare is bordered by the mountain range Montes Apenninus. The mare was named by Giovanni Battista Riccioli in 1651.
    7.50
    4 votes
    43
    Necho

    Necho

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Necho is a lunar impact crater on the far side of the Moon, and therefore cannot be seen directly from the Earth. It lies to the northeast of the larger crater Langemak, and about a crater diameter to the south-southwest of Bečvář. The most distinctive aspect of this crater is the prominent ray system that surrounds the outer rim. This higher-albedo skirt of ejecta extends in a nearly continuous fashion out for several crater diameters, but is more extensive to the north and northeast than elsewhere. Beyond this continuous skirt, occasional rays and wisps of light material extent outwards for many more crater diameters. The outer rim of Necho is somewhat uneven in form, particularly along the western side where it possesses two inner sides that overlap in almost spiral-like fashion. The rim has a slight outward bulge to the east, and is more uneven along that edge. The inner wall and floor has a high albedo, giving the crater a bright appearance. The inner side is generally wider on the western side, and the interior floor is offset to the eastern half. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest
    7.50
    4 votes
    44
    Conon

    Conon

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Conon is a small but prominent lunar impact crater that lies in the eastern foothills of the Montes Apenninus mountain range. Just to the west of Conon is the long mountainous ridge Mons Bradley. The nearest craters possessing an eponym are Galen, about 70 kilometres (43 mi) to the east, and Aratus, about the same distance to the northeast. The edge of Conon's rim is sharply defined and has not received significant erosion from later impacts. The inner wall is somewhat variable in width, and the interior floor forms an irregular oval shape. This irregularity may be due to the rough and uneven surface on which the crater was formed. The floor is rough, but lacks a central prominence of note. To the south, in the Sinus Fidei, is a sinuous rille that follows a course to the south-southeast. This rille is designated Rima Conon, and is named after this crater. The crater is named for the astronomer Conon of Alexandria (fl. 250 BCE). By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Conon.
    8.67
    3 votes
    45
    Epigenes

    Epigenes

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Epigenes is a lunar crater that is located in the north part of the Moon, and is sufficiently close to the northern limb to appear significantly foreshortened from the Earth. It lies just to the northwest of the remains of the walled plain W. Bond. Due north of Epigenes is Goldschmidt, and the ruined crater Birmingham lies just to the southwest. This formation is a picture in contrasts. The north and northwest parts of the rim are well-formed with little appearance of wear, while the remainder of the rim is notably eroded, particularly in the east-southeastern half. The western half of the interior floor is smooth and nearly featureless, while the remainder is somewhat hummocky and appears covered in ejecta from the east. The small crater Epigenes B intrudes into the northeastern rim. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Epigenes.
    8.67
    3 votes
    46
    Olympus Mons

    Olympus Mons

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Mountain
    Olympus Mons (Latin for Mount Olympus) is a large shield volcano on the planet Mars. By one measure, it has a height of nearly 22 km (14 mi). This makes it the tallest mountain on any planet in the Solar System (and, after the 2011 discovery of Rheasilvia Mons on 4 Vesta, the second largest mountain on any world known to man). It stands almost three times as tall as Mount Everest's height above sea level. Olympus Mons is the youngest of the large volcanoes on Mars, having formed during Mars's Amazonian Period. Olympus Mons had been known to astronomers since the late 19th century as the albedo feature Nix Olympica (Latin for "Olympic Snow"). Its mountainous nature was suspected well before space probes confirmed its identity as a mountain. The volcano is located in Mars's western hemisphere at approximately 18°39′N 226°12′E / 18.65°N 226.2°E / 18.65; 226.2, just off the northwestern edge of the Tharsis bulge. The western portion of the volcano lies in the Amazonis quadrangle (MC-8) and the central and eastern portions in the adjoining Tharsis quadrangle (MC-9). Two impact craters on Olympus Mons have been assigned provisional names by the IAU. They are the 15.6 km
    8.67
    3 votes
    47
    Buys-Ballot

    Buys-Ballot

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Buys-Ballot is an oddly-shaped lunar crater that is located on the far side of the Moon. It lies just to the northwest of the small lunar mare named Lacus Luxuriae, and southeast of the crater Freundlich. Other nearby craters of note are Anderson to the southwest and Dante to the northeast. This formation has a distinctive shape for a crater, having a prominent extension to the south that nearly doubles the dimension compared to the width across the maximum west-east cross-section. It vaguely resembles a pear, with the thinner end to the south and the bulge to the north. Despite the odd shape, this crater has not been significantly eroded and only a few tiny craterlets mark the interior or the rim. Running down the middle of the crater along its longest dimension is a ridge that divides the southern part in half. This ridge extends as far north as the widest part before coming to an end. The floor at this widest part has been partially resurfaced by basaltic lava, leaving an oval area around the northern edge of the central ridge surrounded by a patch of material with a lower albedo than the surroundings. The remainder of the interior floor is somewhat rough and irregular,
    10.00
    2 votes
    48
    Eratosthenes

    Eratosthenes

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Eratosthenes is a relatively deep lunar impact crater that lies on the boundary between the Mare Imbrium and Sinus Aestuum mare regions. It forms the western terminus of the Montes Apenninus mountain range. The crater has a well-defined circular rim, terraced inner wall, central mountain peaks, an irregular floor, and an outer rampart of ejecta. It lacks a ray system of its own, but is overlain by rays from the prominent crater Copernicus to the south-west. The Eratosthenian period in the lunar geological timescale is named after this crater. The crater is believed to have been formed about 3.2 billion years ago, defining the start of this time period. At low Sun-angles this crater is prominent due to the shadow cast by the rim. When the Sun is directly overhead, however, Eratosthenes visually blends into the surroundings, and it becomes more difficult for an observer to locate it. The rays from Copernicus lie across this area, and their higher albedo serves as a form of camouflage. In 1924, William H. Pickering noted dark patches in the crater that varied in a regular manner over each lunar day. He put forward the speculative idea that these patches appeared to migrate across the
    6.40
    5 votes
    49
    Calippus

    Calippus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Calippus is a small lunar crater that is located on the eastern edge of the rugged Montes Caucasus mountain range in the northern part of the Moon. It lies to the southwest of the crater remnant Alexander, to the northwest of the Mare Serenitatis. The outer rim of Calippus has an irregular appearance, with outward bulges to the northeast and particularly to the west where there is an interior shelf of slumped material. The exterior has a slight rampart that is surrounded by the rugged terrain of the mountain range. Within the sharp-sided interior walls is a rough and irregular interior floor. To the southeast of this crater, on the edge of the Mare Serenitatis, is an arcing rille designated Rima Calippus. This cleft follows a path to the northeast for a length of about 40 kilometers. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Calippus.
    7.25
    4 votes
    50
    Oceanus Procellarum

    Oceanus Procellarum

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Contains: Mare Cognitium
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Oceanus Procellarum ( /oʊˈsiːənəs ˌprɒsɨˈlɛərəm/; Latin for "Ocean of Storms") is a vast lunar mare on the western edge of the near side of Earth's Moon. It is the only one of the lunar maria to be called an "Oceanus" (ocean). This is due to its size; Oceanus Procellarum is the largest of the maria, stretching more than 2,500 km (1,600 mi) across its north-south axis and covering roughly 4,000,000 km (1,500,000 sq mi). Nevertheless, it is still smaller than the surface area of the Mediterranean Sea on Earth. Like all lunar maria, Oceanus Procellarum was formed by ancient basaltic flood volcanic eruptions that covered the region in a thick, nearly flat layer of solidified magma. Unlike the other lunar maria, however, Oceanus Procellarum is not contained within a single well-defined impact basin (evidence for a "Procellarum basin" of impact origin is equivocal). Around its edges lie many minor bays and seas, including Mare Nubium and Mare Humorum to the south. To the northeast, Oceanus Procellarum is separated from Mare Imbrium by the Carpathian Mountains. On its north-west edge lies the 32 km wide Aristarchus ray crater, which is considered as the brightest feature on the Near side
    7.25
    4 votes
    51
    Clavius

    Clavius

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Clavius is one of the largest crater formations on the Moon, and it is the third largest crater on the visible near side. It is located in the rugged southern highlands of the Moon, to the south of the prominent ray crater Tycho. Due to the location of the crater toward the southern limb, the crater appears oblong due to foreshortening. Because of its great size, Clavius can be detected with the unaided eye. It appears as a prominent notch in the terminator about 1–2 days after the Moon reaches first quarter. The crater is one of the older formations on the lunar surface and was likely formed during the Nectarian period about 4 billion years ago. Despite its age, however, the crater is relatively well-preserved. It has a relatively low outer wall in comparison to its size, and it is heavily worn and pock-marked by craterlets. The rim does not significantly overlook the surrounding terrain, making this a "walled depression". The inner surface of the rim is hilly, notched, and varies in width, with the steepest portion in the south end. Overall the rim has been observed to have a somewhat polygonal outline. The floor of the crater forms a convex plain that is marked by some
    8.33
    3 votes
    52
    Lacus Gaudii

    Lacus Gaudii

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Gaudii (latin for "Lake of Delight") is a small lunar mare in the Terra Nivium region of the Moon. It is located at 16.2° N, 12.6° E and is 113 km in diameter.
    8.33
    3 votes
    53
    Lacus Solitudinis

    Lacus Solitudinis

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Solitudinis (latin for "Lake of Solitude") is a small lunar mare on the far side of the Moon. The selenographic coordinates of the lake are 27.8° S, 104.3° E, and it lies within a diameter of 139 km. It forms an arcing feature with the concave side oriented to the northwest. The eastern edge is relatively continuous, while the west is more irregular and disrupted by small craters. To the northwest of the northern end is the small crater Bowditch, a lava-flooded feature although it does not appear directly connected to the Lacus Solitudinis. At the western end of the mare, the eroded crater Titius lies to the northwest. To the south of this feature is Parkhurst Y, with Parkhurst itself lying some distance to the southeast.
    8.33
    3 votes
    54
    Argyre Planitia

    Argyre Planitia

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Planitia
    Argyre Planitia is a plain located in the Argyre impact basin in the southern highlands of Mars. Its name comes from a map produced by Giovanni Schiaparelli in 1877; it refers to Argyre, a mythical island of silver in Greek mythology. Argyre lies between -35 and -61 deg S and 27 and 62 deg W, centered at 49°42′S 316°00′E / 49.7°S 316.0°E / -49.7; 316.0. The basin is approximately 1120 miles (1800 kilometers) wide, believed to be the second-largest impact basin on Mars after Hellas Planitia, and drops 3.2 miles (5.2 kilometers) below the surrounding plains. The basin was possibly formed by a giant impact during the Late Heavy Bombardment of the early Solar System, approximately 3.9 billion years ago, and may be one of the best preserved ancient impact basins from that period. Argyre is surrounded by rugged massifs which form concentric and radial patterns around the basin. Several mountain ranges are present, including Charitum and Nereidum Montes. Four large Noachian epoch channels lie radial to the basin. Three of these channels (Surius Valles, Dzígai Valles, and Palacopas Valles) flowed into Argyre from the south and east through the rim mountains. The fourth, Uzboi Vallis,
    9.50
    2 votes
    55
    Lamb

    Lamb

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Lamb is a lunar crater that lies beyond the southeastern limb on the Moon's far side. It is located in an irregular lunar mare region named Mare Australe, just to the east of the crater Jenner. This crater has a slender inner wall and an interior floor that has been resurfaced by basaltic lava. The rim is somewhat worn and irregular, but retains a generally circular shape and is not overlaid by any smaller craters of significance. The interior floor is marked only by a multitude of tiny craters, and a small, unnamed crater in the south-southeastern section. The exterior of the crater consists of the outer rampart and sections of rough terrain. This in turn is nearly enclosed by lava-flooded sections of the surface belonging to the Mare Australe. To the east of Lamb is Lamb G, a somewhat smaller, lava-flooded formation. The crater is called after Horace Lamb. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Lamb.
    9.50
    2 votes
    56
    Mare Frigoris

    Mare Frigoris

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Frigoris (the "Sea of Cold") is a lunar mare in the far north of the Moon. It is located in the outer rings of the Procellarum basin, just north of Mare Imbrium, and stretches east to north of Mare Serenitatis. It is just north of the dark crater Plato. The basin material surrounding the mare is of the Lower Imbrian epoch, while the eastern mare material is of the Upper Imbrian epoch, and the western mare material is of the Eratosthenian epoch. Like most of the other maria on the Moon, Mare Frigoris was named by Giovanni Riccioli, whose 1651 nomenclature system has become standardized. Previously, William Gilbert had included it among the Insula Borealis ("Northern Island") in his map of c.1600, and Michael Van Langren had labelled it the Mare Astronomicum ("Sea of Astronomy") in his 1645 map. Pierre Gassendi called it the Boreum Mare ('Northern Sea'). This area of the Moon featured prominently in 'Behemoth', the second episode of the 1973 BBC science fiction mini-series Moonbase 3.
    9.50
    2 votes
    57
    Richards

    Richards

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Richards is a small lunar impact crater that is located in the northern interior of the walled plain Mendeleev, on the far side of the Moon. It lies about half-way between the craters Bergman to the west-southwest and Fischer to the east, both also within Mendeleev's interior. This is a circular, cup-shaped crater with a small interior floor at the midpoint of the sloping inner walls. The interior sides have a higher albedo than the surroundings. There is a small craterlet situated along the north-northeastern edge of the rim. The crater chain named Catena Mendeleev passes just to the west of Richards, continuing in a line of small craterlets from the southwestern edge of Mendeleev.
    9.50
    2 votes
    58
    Rima Ariadaeus

    Rima Ariadaeus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Rima Ariadaeus is a linear rille on the Moon at 6°24′N 14°00′E / 6.4°N 14.0°E / 6.4; 14.0. It is named after the crater Ariadaeus, which marks its eastern end. Over 300 kilometers long, it is thought to have been formed when a section of the Moon's crust sank down between two parallel fault lines (making it a graben or fault trough). It is a relatively young lunar feature, with few craters or other features overlying it.
    9.50
    2 votes
    59
    Valles Marineris

    Valles Marineris

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Contains: Tharsis
    • Type of planetographic feature: Valley
    Valles Marineris (Latin for Mariner Valleys, named after the Mariner 9 Mars orbiter of 1971–72 which discovered it) is a system of canyons that runs along the Martian surface east of the Tharsis region. At more than 4,000 km long, 200 km wide and up to 7 km deep, the Valles Marineris rift system is one of the larger canyons of the Solar System, surpassed only by the rift valleys of Earth and (in length only) by Baltis Vallis on Venus. Valles Marineris is located along the equator of Mars, on the east side of the Tharsis Bulge, and stretches for nearly a quarter of the planet’s circumference. The Valles Marineris system starts in the west with Noctis Labyrinthus; proceeding to the east are Tithonium and Ius chasmata, then Melas, Candor and Ophir chasmata, then Coprates Chasma, then Ganges, Capri and Eos chasmata; finally it empties into an outflow channel region containing chaotic terrain that ends in the basin of Chryse Planitia. Valles Marineris is a large tectonic "crack" in the Martian crust. Most researchers agree that this formed as the crust thickened in the Tharsis region to the west, and was subsequently widened by erosional forces. However, near the eastern flanks of the
    9.50
    2 votes
    60
    Abbot

    Abbot

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Abbot is a small lunar impact crater that lies on the rugged ground between the Mare Fecunditatis in the south and west, and the Mare Crisium to the north. It is a circular crater with a cup-shaped interior. The inner walls slope downward to the midpoint, and no impacts of significant mark the interior or the rim. Abbot is named after the American astrophysicist Charles Greeley Abbot. It was designated Apollonius K before being given its name by the IAU. Apollonius itself lies to the east of the crater Abbot.
    7.00
    4 votes
    61
    Bruce

    Bruce

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Bruce is a small lunar impact crater located in the Sinus Medii. It lies to the west-northwest of the irregular crater Rhaeticus, and just to the west of the even smaller Blagg. This feature is circular and cup-shaped, with no notable impacts overlaying the rim or interior. The interior has a generally higher albedo than the surrounding terrain, but there is a band of darker material cross the midpoint of the crater from west to east. It is surrounded by lunar mare, with a few tiny craterlets in the surface to the east. Less than forty kilometres to the south-southeast is the original point of the selenographic coordinate system. From the floor of this crater the Earth always appears at the zenith. Both the Surveyor 4 and Surveyor 6 probes landed about 50 km to the west-southwest of Bruce.
    7.00
    4 votes
    62
    Magelhaens

    Magelhaens

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Magelhaens is a lunar crater that lies along the southwestern edge of the Mare Fecunditatis, in the eastern part of the Moon's near side. It lies to the south-southwest of the crater Goclenius, about midway between Gutenberg to the northwest and Colombo to the southeast. This crater has a somewhat slender and uneven outer rim that is only roughly circular. The slightly smaller satellite crater Magelhaens A is attached to the southeastern rim. Within the inner walls of Magelhaens, the interior floor has been resurfaced by basaltic lava, matching the same dark appearance as the lunar mare to the northeast. This floor is level and almost featureless. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Magelhaens.
    7.00
    4 votes
    63
    Mare Serenitatis

    Mare Serenitatis

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Serenitatis ("Sea of Serenity") is a lunar mare located to the east of Mare Imbrium on the Moon. Mare Serenitatis It is located within the Serenitatis basin, which is of the Nectarian epoch. The material surrounding the mare is of the Lower Imbrian epoch, while the mare material is of the Upper Imbrian epoch. The mare basalt covers a majority of the basin and overflows into Lacus Somniorum to the northeast. The most noticeable feature is the crater Posidonius on the northeast rim of the mare. The ring feature to the west of the mare is indistinct, except for Montes Haemus. Mare Serenitatis connects with Mare Tranquillitatis to the southeast and borders Mare Vaporum to the southwest. Mare Serenitatis is an example of a mascon, an anomalous gravitational region on the moon. Like most of the other maria on the Moon, Mare Serenitatis was named by Giovanni Riccioli, whose 1651 nomenclature system has become standardized. Previously, William Gilbert had included it among the Regio Magna Occidentalis ("Large Western Region") in his map of c.1600. Pierre Gassendi had included it among the 'Homuncio' ('little man'), referring to a small humanoid figure that he could see among the
    7.00
    4 votes
    64
    Anaximenes

    Anaximenes

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Anaximenes is a low-rimmed lunar crater that is located near the north-northwest limb of the Moon. It lies to the west of the crater Philolaus, and northeast of Carpenter. To the northwest is Poncelet, close to the visible edge of the Moon. The outer rim of Anaximenes has been eroded and worn into a roughly circular ring of ridges. The rim is lowest along the northeast side where Anaximenes partly overlaps the equally worn satellite crater Anaximenes G. There are also low cuts through the rim along the southeast, where the crater is attached to an unnamed plain in the surface. The interior floor of Anaximenes is relatively level, compared to the typical lunar terrain. The inner surface is pock-marked by a multitude of tiny craterlets of various dimensions, the most notable having a diameter of 2-3 kilometers. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Anaximenes.
    8.00
    3 votes
    65
    Aristoteles

    Aristoteles

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Aristoteles is a lunar impact crater that lies near the southern edge of the Mare Frigoris and to the east of the Montes Alpes mountain range. To the south of Aristoteles lies the slightly smaller crater Eudoxus and these two form a distinctive pair for a telescope observer. An arc of mountains between these craters bends to the west before joining the walls. The smaller crater Mitchell is directly attached to the eastern rim of Aristoteles. To the west is the low, flooded feature Egede. Observers have noted the crater wall of Aristoteles is slightly distorted into a rounded hexagon shape. The inner walls are wide and finely terraced. The outer ramparts display a generally radial structure of hillocks through the extensive blanket of ejecta. The crater floor is uneven and covered in hilly ripples. Aristoteles does possess small central peaks but they are somewhat offset to the south. The interior floor appears to have been filled with a layer of material partially burying these projections. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Aristoteles.
    8.00
    3 votes
    66
    Aryabhata

    Aryabhata

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Aryabhata, named after Indian astronomer Aryabhata (see picture), is the remnant of a lunar impact crater located in the eastern Mare Tranquillitatis. The crater has been almost submerged by lava-flow, and now only an arc-shaped ridge formed from the eastern half of the rim remains above the lunar mare. This crater was previously identified as Maskelyne E before being named by the IAU.
    8.00
    3 votes
    67
    Beaumont

    Beaumont

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Beaumont is a lava-flooded crater located on the southwestern shore of the Mare Nectaris on Earth's Moon. It lies to the northwest of the similarly flooded crater remnant Fracastorius. To the west is the prominent crater Catharina. The rim of Beaumont is breached in the east, where the lava from Mare Nectaris broached the crater and flooded the interior. Now only a worn and crater-impacted outer wall remains. If the crater once possessed a central peak, it is no longer apparent. The floor contains several hills and small craters. A low ridge runs northward from the crater rim across the Mare Nectaris. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Beaumont.
    8.00
    3 votes
    68
    Challis

    Challis

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Challis is a lunar crater that is located in the northern regions of the Moon's near side, close enough to the limb to appear significantly foreshortened when viewed from the Earth. It is joined to the crater Main through a break in the northern rim, and is close to Scoresby along the southeast side. The rim of this crater has been damaged and eroded by a history of impacts, with the most intact portion located along the southeastern half. A small crater lies across the southern rim, and the remaining rim is notched and irregular. The interior floor of both Challis and Main have been resurfaced forming a relatively level bottom common to both formations. This surface is marked only by multiple tiny craterlets. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Challis.
    8.00
    3 votes
    69
    Mare Humorum

    Mare Humorum

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Humorum (the "Sea of Moisture") is a lunar mare. The impact basin it is located in is 825 kilometers across. It was not sampled by the Apollo program, so a precise age has not been determined. However, geological mapping indicates that it is intermediate in age between the Imbrium and Nectaris Basins, suggesting an age of about 3.9 billion years. Humorum Basin is filled with a thick layer of mare basalt, believed to exceed 3 kilometers in thickness at the center of the basin. On the north edge of Mare Humorum is the large crater Gassendi, which was considered as a possible landing site for Apollo 17. Like most of the other maria on the Moon, Mare Humorum was named by Giovanni Riccioli, whose 1651 nomenclature system has become standardized. Previously, the 17th century astronomer Pierre Gassendi had named it Anticaspia ('opposite to the Caspian', referring to Mare Crisium, which he had named after the Caspian Sea),, and Michael Van Langren had labelled it the Mare Venetum ("Venetian Sea") in his 1645 map. Johannes Hevelius called it Sinus Sirbonis ("Bay of Serbonis", after the lake of Serbonis, now Lake Bardawil, in Egypt) in his 1647 map.
    8.00
    3 votes
    70
    Sinus Asperitatis

    Sinus Asperitatis

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Sinus Asperitatis (latin for "Bay of Roughness") is an area of lunar mare that extends southward from the Mare Tranquillitatis until it joins the Mare Nectaris to the southeast. It is bordered along the western and eastern sides by continental regions of irregular terrain. The selenographic coordinates of this feature are 3.8° S, 27.4° E, and it has a diameter of 206 km. In the northern part of this mare is the small crater Torricelli. At the southern end is the prominent crater pair of Theophilus and Cyrillus. On the border between Sinus Asperitatis and the Mare Nectaris is the crater Mädler.
    8.00
    3 votes
    71
    Euctemon

    Euctemon

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Euctemon is a lunar crater that is located in the northern part of the Moon, along the northwest rim of the crater Baillaud. To the southwest of Euctemon is the large walled plain Meton, and to the north-northeast lies the crater De Sitter. Due to its location, Euctemon appears foreshortened when viewed from the Earth. The interior floor of this crater has been resurfaced some time following the original formation, leaving a nearly level, featureless plain surrounded by the worn outer rim. This floor is marked only by a number of tiny craterlets, and the small crater Euctemon K near the southwest inner wall. A small crater has cut through the western rim, and has joined with the main crater by a gap in its eastern rim. The two craters now share a common floor. Just to the north is another small crater, Euctemon H, that now forms a wide cleft through the rim. Along the ridge that separates Euctemon from Baillaud is perched the small crater Euctemon N. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Euctemon.
    6.75
    4 votes
    72
    Van Vleck

    Van Vleck

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Van Vleck is a lunar impact crater that is located near the northeastern rim of the walled plain Gilbert, to the west of the Mare Smythii. The similar crater Weierstrass is nearly joined to the northwestern rim of Van Vleck. To the east is the small Carrillo. The rim of this crater is nearly circular with no overlying craters of note, although a small crater abuts against the northeastern side and another along the southern inner wall. The inner sides slope down to a slumped ring of unconsolidated material that encircles the interior floor. There is a small peak just to the north of the crater center. This crater was previously identified as Gilbert M before being assigned a name by the IAU.
    6.75
    4 votes
    73
    Montes Alpes

    Montes Alpes

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Montes Alpes is a mountain range in the northern part of the Moon's near side. It was named after the Alps in Europe. This range forms the northeastern border of the Mare Imbrium lunar mare. To the west of the range is the level and nearly featureless mare, while on the eastern face is a more rugged continental area with a higher albedo. The range begins about one crater diameter northwest of the crater Cassini, at the Promontorium Agassiz, then stretches about 50 kilometres to the northwest and continues in intermittent fashion to the eastern rim of the dark-floored crater Plato. In this last stretch can be found the system of rilles named Rimae Plato. The northwestern third of the range is separated from the remainder of the mountains by the Vallis Alpes, a wide rift valley that extends from a narrow cleft in the Montes Alpes to the northeast, reaching the edge of the Mare Frigoris. The total length of this formation is about 180 km, and it reaches a maximum width of 20 km. Running down the center of this valley is a narrow cleft. About one-third the length of the range from the southeast is Mons Blanc, a peak rising to a height of 3.6 km. This compares to a typical height of
    9.00
    2 votes
    74
    Montes Cordillera

    Montes Cordillera

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Montes Cordillera is a mountain range on the Moon. This feature forms the outer wall of peaks that surround the Mare Orientale impact basin, the inner ring being formed by the Montes Rook. The center of the range is located at selenographic coordinates 17.5° S, 81.6° W, and the diameter is 574 km (357 mi). This range of peaks lies across the southwestern limb of the Moon, so that they are observed from the side from Earth. The western extreme is approximately 116° W, on the far side of the Moon. The northern part of the range lies just to the south of the lunar equator, while the southern extent reaches about 38° S. The inner face of the range is distinguished by an uneven, ring-shaped plain surrounding the Montes Rook, while the outer extent apparently consists of a wide blanket of ejecta features deposited during the formation of the Mare Orientale. These have formed various ridges and valleys radial to the mare, and have heavily modified nearby pre-existing crater formations. Along the inner side of the range to the northeast is a small lunar mare feature named the Lacus Autumni, or Autumn Lake. To the northeast of the range here is the crater pair of Schlüter and Hartwig. The
    9.00
    2 votes
    75
    Sverdrup

    Sverdrup

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Sverdrup is a lunar crater that is located about one crater diameter from the southern pole of the Moon. It lies on the far side of the Moon with respect to the Earth, in an area of the surface that is only illuminated by very oblique light from the Sun. The interior part of the crater is cloaked in perpetual darkness, and thus has not been mapped using photography. Portions of the rim are illuminated, however, and give the appearance of a worn formation that has been intruded upon by adjacent formations. The nearest craters of note to Sverdrup are de Gerlache to the east, and Shackleton at the south pole.
    9.00
    2 votes
    76
    Weierstrass

    Weierstrass

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Weierstrass is a small lunar crater that is attached to the northern rim of the walled plain Gilbert, in the eastern part of the Moon. It also lies very near the crater Van Vleck, a similar formation just to the southeast that is almost attached to the outer rim. Due to its location, the crater appears foreshortened as seen from the Earth. The crater has an oval-shaped outer rim that is longer along an east–west axis. There are some slumped shelves along the inner walls to the north and south. The interior floor is nearly featureless, with only a few tiny impacts. Neither the rim nor the interior are marked by impact craters of significance. Prior to being named by the IAU, this crater was designated Gilbert N.
    9.00
    2 votes
    77
    Zwicky

    Zwicky

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Zwicky is a lunar impact crater that is located on the far side of the Moon. It lies to the west of the crater Aitken, and is attached to the western rim of Vertregt. Attached to the northern end of Zwicky is Heaviside. Zwicky is a considerably eroded formation with an irregular rim and interior. Portions of the southern rim still survive, but the remainder has been almost completely eradicated. The satellite crater Zwicky N, located in the midst of the interior of Zwicky, has a relatively dark floor by comparison with the surrounding terrain. This smaller crater has a polygonal outline with relatively smooth inner walls. The interior floor is a lower albedo material that has a cracked surface. It is thought that this is caused by the cooling of molten material, or possibly tectonic movement. This is referred to informally as a "turtleback crater floor". By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Zwicky.
    9.00
    2 votes
    78
    Arnold

    Arnold

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Arnold is a lunar crater that is located in the north-northeastern part of the visible Moon, near the lunar limb. This location gives the crater a notably oval appearance due to foreshortening, although the formation is actually relatively round. It lies to the northeast of the Mare Frigoris, to the north of the crater Democritus. West of Arnold is the smaller crater Moigno. The ancient rim of Arnold has been worn and rounded by ages of subsequent bombardment. There is a gap in the wall to the southwest, marked by the tiny crater Arnold J, and the wall is relatively low along the eastern edge. The northern half of the rim is the most intact, particularly to the northeast where is joins the satellite crater Arnold A. The inner floor of Arnold crater has been resurfaced by lava, and is relatively flat except for a number of tiny craterlets. The most notable crater in the interior is Arnold F, in the northwest section. If the crater once possessed a central peak, no sign of this feature now remains. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Arnold.
    7.67
    3 votes
    79
    Candor Chasma

    Candor Chasma

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Chasma
    Candor Chasma is one of the largest canyons in the Valles Marineris canyon system on Mars. The feature is geographically divided into two halves: East and West Candor Chasmas, respectively. It is unclear how the canyon originally formed; one theory is that it was expanded and deepened by tectonic processes similar to a graben, while another suggests that it was formed by subsurface water erosion similar to a karst. MRO discovered sulfates, hydrated sulfates, and iron oxides in Candor Chasma.
    7.67
    3 votes
    80
    Reiner Gamma

    Reiner Gamma

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Reiner Gamma (γ) is an albedo feature that is located on the Oceanus Procellarum, to the west of the crater Reiner on the Moon. The center of the formation is located at selenographic coordinates 7°30′N 59°00′W / 7.5°N 59.0°W / 7.5; -59.0. It has an overall dimension of about 70 kilometres. The feature has a higher albedo than the relatively dark mare surface, with a diffuse appearance and a distinctive swirling, concentric oval shape. Related albedo features continue across the surface to the east and southwest, forming loop-like patterns over the mare. Reiner Gamma is not associated with any particular irregularities in the surface, and so the cause was a mystery until similar features were discovered in Mare Ingenii and Mare Marginis on photographs taken by orbiting spacecraft. The feature on Mare Ingenii is located at the lunar opposite point from the center of Mare Imbrium. Likewise the feature on Mare Marginis is opposite the midpoint of Mare Orientale. Thus it is believed that the feature resulted from seismic energies generated by the impacts that created these maria. Unfortunately there is no such lunar mare formation located precisely on the opposite surface of the
    7.67
    3 votes
    81
    Acidalia Planitia

    Acidalia Planitia

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Planitia
    Acidalia Planitia is a plain on Mars. It is located between the Tharsis volcanic province and Arabia Terra to the north of Valles Marineris, centered at 46°42′N 338°00′E / 46.7°N 338.0°E / 46.7; 338.0. The plain contains the famous Cydonia region at the contact with the heavily cratered highland terrain. The plain is named after a corresponding albedo feature on a map by Giovanni Schiaparelli, which was in turn named after the mythological fountain of Acidalia. It has been hypothesized by J.E.Brandenburg from Orbital Technologies Corp. that a large natural nuclear reactor in the northern Mare Acidalium, near the large, shallow depression north of Acidalia Colles (similar to Oklo on Earth) underwent catastrophic meltdown.
    10.00
    1 votes
    82
    Amazonis Planitia

    Amazonis Planitia

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Planitia
    Amazonis Planitia is one of the smoothest plains on Mars. It is located between the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces, to the west of Olympus Mons, in the Amazonis and Memnonia quadrangles, centered at 24°48′N 196°00′E / 24.8°N 196.0°E / 24.8; 196.0. The plain's topography exhibits extremely smooth features at several different lengths of scale. Its name derives from one of the classical albedo features observed by early astronomers, which was in turn named after the Amazons, a mythical race of warrior women. Only approximately 100 million years old, these plains provide some of the fewest sedimentary layers impeding viewing of the Martian terrain, and closely resemble the composition of Earth's Iceland. Formed by free-flowing lava across great plains, Amazonis has been described by William Hartmann as a "bright dusty volcanic desert crossed by many fresh-looking lava flows." Amazonis has become the primary focus of modern research efforts both because of its geological composition and because of its relative youth compared to other Martian regions, which are often hundreds of millions of years older. Hartman writes that the plain closely resembles Iceland's surface, with
    10.00
    1 votes
    83
    Athabasca Vallis

    Athabasca Vallis

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Vallis
    Athabasca Valles is an outflow channel on Mars, cut into its surface by catastrophic flooding. It is one of the youngest known of these structures, probably forming only in the geologically recent past of Mars. The flood produced distinctive "teardrop" landforms similar to those found in the Channeled Scablands on Earth. It is thought that these landforms were produced though depositional processes wherein the floodwaters dropped sediment behind resistant bedrock outcroppings and craters. The source of water for the flood is thought to be Cerberus Fossae, at 10 N and 157 E. Groundwater may have been trapped under a cryosphere which was broken when the fossae was created. The very high spatial resolution images from the HiRISE camera on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have revealed that all the flood features are draped by lava flows (Jaeger et al., 2007). Research, published in January 2010, described the discovery of a vast single lava flow, the size of the state of Oregon, that "was put in place turbulently over the span of several weeks at most." This flow, near Athabasca Valles, is the youngest lava flow on Mars. It is thought to be of Late Amazonian Age. The floor of
    10.00
    1 votes
    84
    Lacus Mortis

    Lacus Mortis

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Mortis, latin for "Lake of Death", is a plain of basaltic lava flows in the northeastern part of the Moon. It lies just to the south of the elongated Mare Frigoris, being separated by a slender arm of rugged ground. To the south is the Lacus Somniorum, separated from this mare by the joined craters Plana and Mason, and a strip of uneven surface. Located prominently just to the east of the midpoint of this feature is the crater Bürg. The western part of the Lacus Mortis contains an extensive system of criss-crossing rilles collectively designated Rimae Bürg. The selenographic coordinates of the Lacus Mortis are 45.0° N, 27.2° E, and it has a diameter of 151 km.
    10.00
    1 votes
    85
    Lacus Perseverantiae

    Lacus Perseverantiae

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Perseverantiae (Latin for "Perseverance") is a small lunar mare extending westward from the northwestern exterior of the crater Firmicus, with smaller extensions to the northeast and northwest at the eastern terminus. Its name is Latin for Lake of Perseverance. The selenographic coordinates are 8.0° N, 62.0° E, and it has a length of 70 km, but a maximum width of less than 15 km.
    10.00
    1 votes
    86
    Lacus Somniorum

    Lacus Somniorum

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Somniorum is a plain located in the northeastern part of the Moon's near side. It is located at selenographic coordinates 38.0° N, 29.2° E, and has a diameter of 384 kilometers. (It is the largest of the lunar features designated Lacus.) The name is Latin for Lake of Dreams, a title given to this feature by Riccioli. Lacus Somniorum is an irregular feature with complex, somewhat ill-defined borders. The surface has the same low albedo as the larger lunar mare found on the Moon, and its surface was formed by flows of basaltic lava. To the southwest this plain is joined to the Mare Serenitatis through a wide gap northwest of the crater Posidonius. This crater forms the western end of the southern border, which extends eastward to about longitude 41° before turning northwest. Along this southern border is attached the flooded crater Hall, and a 150-km-long rille named the Rima G. Bond for the small crater G. Bond south of Hall. The irregular eastern border comes close to the small crater Maury before continuing to the north until it reaches the crater remnant Williams. From there the edge continues to the west. A narrow border region separates the Lacus Somniorum from the
    10.00
    1 votes
    87
    Lacus Temporis

    Lacus Temporis

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Temporis (Latin for Lake of Time) is a small lunar mare that is located in the northeastern quadrant of the Moon's near side. The selenographic coordinates of this feature are 45°54′N 58°24′E / 45.9°N 58.4°E / 45.9; 58.4, and it lies within a diameter of 117 km. This small mare is composed of two large, roughly circular patches of relatively smooth surface, with a pair of small, cup-shaped craters located prominently at their intersection. Both of these regions of basaltic lava covered surface have some smaller side lobes, which are most likely impact features that have become flooded. Just to the southwest of this feature is the crater Chevallier and to the southeast lies Carrington.
    10.00
    1 votes
    88
    Langrenus

    Langrenus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Langrenus is a prominent impact crater located near the eastern lunar limb. The feature is circular in shape, but appears oblong due to foreshortening. It lies on the eastern shore of the Mare Fecunditatis. To the south is the overlapping crater pair Vendelinus and the smaller Lamé. The inner wall of Langrenus is wide and irregularly terraced, with an average width of about 20 kilometers. The outer ramparts are irregular and hilly, and there is a bright, fragmented ray system spread across the mare to the west. The interior of the crater has a higher albedo than the surroundings, so the crater stands out prominently when the Sun is overhead. The crater floor is covered by many boulders, and is slightly irregular in the northwest half. The central peaks rise about a kilometer above the floor, and a peak on the eastern rim ascends to an altitude of 3 km. During the Apollo 8 mission, Astronaut James Lovell described Langrenus as "quite a huge crater; it's got a central cone to it. The walls of the crater are terraced, about six or seven terraces on the way down." In the past this crater has not been noted as a site for observing transient lunar phenomena. However on December 30, 1992,
    10.00
    1 votes
    89
    Mare Nubium

    Mare Nubium

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Nubium ("sea of clouds") is a lunar mare in the Nubium basin on the Moon's near side. The mare is located just to the southeast of Oceanus Procellarum. The basin containing Mare Nubium is believed to have been part of the Pre-Nectarian system, with the surrounding basin material being of the Lower Imbrian epoch. The mare material is of the Upper Imbrian epoch. The crater to the west of the mare is Bullialdus, which is of the Eratosthenian Epoch. This means the crater is younger than the mare it sits in. The crater that sits on the southern rim of the mare is Pitatus. Like most of the other maria on the Moon, Mare Nubium was named by Giovanni Riccioli, whose 1651 nomenclature system has become standardized. Previously, William Gilbert had included it among the Continens Meridionalis ("Southern Continent") in his map of c.1600, and Michael Van Langren had labelled it the Mare Borbonicum (after the House of Bourbon) in his 1645 map. The first released images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in 2009 were of the Mare Nubium.
    10.00
    1 votes
    90
    Montes Jura

    Montes Jura

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Montes Jura is a mountain range in the northwest part of the Moon (of the side that we see). The selenographic coordinates of this range are 47.1° N 34.0° W, and it has a diameter of 422 km. They were named after the Jura Mountains in western Switzerland. This range of mountains form a visually pleasing semi-circular ring around the Sinus Iridum, a bay along the northwestern edge of Mare Imbrium. The protruding part of the range at the southwestern end is named Promontorium Heraclides, while that at the northeast end is called Promontorium Laplace. As the terminator advances near this range, the peaks of this range catch the sunlight at their tops. This produces a string of bright points that have been described as the 'jewelled handle' effect. In the distant past this range once formed the outer wall of a crater about 260 km in diameter. The southeast face of this crater was then removed and the interior flooded with basaltic lava. As a result the side of the range facing the mare ends in the nearly level plains, which the opposite side merges with a region of rough and irregular terrain. The only crater of note in this range is Bianchini, which lies across the north-northwestern
    10.00
    1 votes
    91
    Palus Epidemiarum

    Palus Epidemiarum

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Palus Epidemiarum (latin for Marsh of Epidemics) is a small lunar mare in the southwestern part of the Moon's near side. It lies to the southwest of Mare Nubium, and southeast of Mare Humorum. This feature forms a rough band of lava-flooded terrain that runs generally west–east, with a northward extension near the western end. This mare is notable for a system of rilles in the western end named the Rimae Ramsden, and for the wide Rima Hesiodus that extends from near the midpoint to the east-northeast roughly 300 km. The flooded crater Capuanus occupies the southern center of the Palus Epidemiarum, and is attached to the southern edge. Near the western end is the flooded crater Ramsden, after which the Rimae Ramsden are named. The crater Cichus forms the eastern end of the mare. The northern extension of the mare reaches the outer rims of the crater pair Campanus and Mercator. A narrow valley between these craters joins Palus Epidemiarum with Mare Nubium, and a rille from the Rimae Ramsden follows the course of this cleft. The small double-walled crater Marth lies at the southern midpoint of this northern extension. The selenographic coordinates of this feature are 32.0° S, 28.2° W,
    10.00
    1 votes
    92
    Utopia Planitia

    Utopia Planitia

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Planitia
    Utopia Planitia (Latin: "Nowhere Plain") is the largest recognized impact basin on Mars and in the solar system with an estimated diameter of 3300 km, and is the Martian region where the Viking 2 lander touched down and began exploring on September 3, 1976. It is located at the antipode of Argyre Planitia, centered at 49°42′N 118°00′E / 49.7°N 118.0°E / 49.7; 118.0. It is in the Casius quadrangle and the Cebrenia quadrangle of Mars. Many rocks at Utopia Planitia appear perched, as if wind removed much of the soil at their bases. A hard surface crust is formed by solutions of minerals moving up through soil and evaporating at the surface. Some areas of the surface exhibit what is called "Scalloped topography," a surface that seems to have been carved out by an ice cream scoop. This suface is thought to have formed by the degradation of an ice-rich permafrost. In the Star Trek media franchise, Utopia Planitia – both on Mars' surface and in areosynchronous orbit above it – is the site of a major Federation shipyard. The USS Enterprise-D, USS Defiant, USS Sao Paulo, USS Voyager, and USS Enterprise-F were built there. The Flaming Lips song "Approaching Pavonis Mons by Balloon (Utopia
    10.00
    1 votes
    93
    Bessel

    Bessel

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Bessel is a small lunar crater that is located in the southern half of the Mare Serenitatis. Despite its small size, this is the largest crater to lie entirely within the mare. It lies to the north-northeast of the crater Menelaus. This crater is circular and bowl-shaped with a rim that has a higher albedo than the floor or the surrounding mare. The outer rim is not significantly worn, and there are no features of note on the interior, apart from some slumping of material from the inner walls to the floor. Bessel is not of sufficient size to have developed the terrace structures of larger craters. It was named after Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. A large ray, most likely from Tycho, crosses the mare from north to south, passing Bessel's western side. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Bessel. The following craters have been renamed by the IAU.
    6.50
    4 votes
    94
    Chryse Planitia

    Chryse Planitia

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Planitia
    Chryse Planitia (Greek, "Golden Plain") is a smooth circular plain in the northern equatorial region of Mars close to the Tharsis region to the west, centered at 26°42′N 320°00′E / 26.7°N 320.0°E / 26.7; 320.0. Chryse Planitia lies partially in the Lunae Palus quadrangle and partially in the Oxia Palus quadrangle. It is 1600 km in diameter and with a floor 2.5 km below the average planetary surface altitude, and is thought to be an ancient impact basin; it has several features in common with lunar maria, such as wrinkle ridges. The density of impact craters in the 100 m to 2000 m range is close to half the average for lunar maria. Chryse Planitia shows evidence of water erosion in the past, and is the bottom end for many outflow channels from the southern highlands as well as from Valles Marineris and the flanks of the Tharsis bulge. It is one of the lowest regions on Mars (2-3 km below the mean surface elevation of Mars), so water would tend to flow into it. The elevation generally goes down from the Tharsis Ridge to Chryse. Kasei Vallis, Maja Valles, and Nanedi Valles appear to run from high areas (Tharsis Ridge) to Chryse Planitia. On the other side of Chryse, to the east,
    6.50
    4 votes
    95
    Gibbs

    Gibbs

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Gibbs is a lunar impact crater that lies near the eastern limb of the Moon. It is situated less than a crater diameter to the northeast of the larger crater Hecataeus. The crater chain Catena Humboldt passes to the south of Gibbs, following a line to the northeast. Due to its proximity to the limb, this crater appears foreshortened when viewed from the Earth, and visibility is subject to libration. The outer rim of Gibbs is not quite circular, and an outward bulge to the north gives it an onion-like profile. The southeastern wall is slightly straightened and there is a low break in the rim at the southern and northern ends. In other respects, however, the rim is only slightly eroded. The interior floor is nearly level in the southwestern half, with irregular ridges to the northeast. There is a small craterlet to the northwest of the midpoint. A recent small impact along the northeastern rim has produced a small ray system that forms a skirt of higher albedo material across this part of the rim. Faint traces from these rays cover the interior floor of Gibbs. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is
    6.50
    4 votes
    96
    Mare Fecunditatis

    Mare Fecunditatis

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Fecunditatis (the "Sea of Fecundity" or "Sea of Fertility") is a lunar mare which is 840 km in diameter. The Fecuditatis basin formed in the Pre-Nectarian epoch, while the basin material surrounding the mare is of the Nectarian epoch. The mare material is of the Upper Imbrian epoch and is relatively thin compared to Mare Crisium or Mare Tranquillitatis. This basin is overlapped with the Nectaris, Tranquillitatis, and Crisium basins. Fecunditatis basin meets Nectaris basin along Fecunditatis' western edge, with the area along this zone faulted by arcuated grabens. On the eastern edge of Fecunditatis is the crater Langrenus. Near the center lie the interesting craters Messier A and B. Sinus Successus lies along the eastern edge of the mare.
    6.50
    4 votes
    97
    Lacus Doloris

    Lacus Doloris

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Doloris (latin for "Lake of Sorrow") is a small lunar mare located in the Terra Nivium region at 17.1° N, 9.0° E. It is 110 km in diameter.
    5.60
    5 votes
    98
    Anaximander

    Anaximander

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Anaximander is a lunar crater that is located near the northwest limb of the Moon. It is joined at the northern rim by the crater Carpenter, a younger and better-defined formation. To the southeast is the much larger J. Herschel, a formation of the variety known as a walled plain. The outer wall of Anaximander is heavily worn and eroded, with multiple notches and breaks. There is no central peak, but the floor contains several small craterlets and a multitude of tiny pits from minor impacts. This crater has merged with the larger Anaximander D to the south, and there is a wide break in their common rims where they have joined. To the northwest a low rise in the surface is all that separated Anaximander from the much larger satellite crater Anaximander B. The crater is named for the 6th century BCE Greek philosopher and astronomer Anaximander. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Anaximander.
    8.50
    2 votes
    99
    Claritas Rupes

    Claritas Rupes

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Rupes
    Claritas Rupes is a scarp in the Phoenicis Lacus quadrangle of Mars, located at 26° South and 105.4° West. It is 924 km long and was named after an albedo feature at 25S, 110W.
    8.50
    2 votes
    100
    Mare Undarum

    Mare Undarum

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Undarum (the "sea of waves") is an uneven lunar mare located just north of Mare Spumans on the lunar near side, between the crater Firmicus and the eastern limb. It is one of the many elevated lakes contained in the Crisium basin, surrounding Mare Crisium. The selenographic coordinates of this mare are 6.8° N, 68.4° E. It has a maximum diameter of 243 km. The surrounding basin material is of the Nectarian epoch, with the mare basalt being of the Upper Imbrian epoch. The crater Dubyago can be seen on the southern edge of the mare. On the northeastern edge of the mare is the crater Condorcet P. When Mädler observed this area in the 1830s, he noted variations in the curved dark streaks that form this mare, leading him to speculate that the changes were caused by vegetation. Mare Undarum was the location of the second catapult in Robert A. Heinlein's novel The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress. The exact location of the catapult was kept secret and was "A matter of Lunar national security."
    8.50
    2 votes
    101
    Sinus Successus

    Sinus Successus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    The lunar feature Sinus Successus (latin for "Bay of Success") lies along the eastern edge of Mare Fecunditatis. It is an outward bulge that forms a type of bay. The selenographic coordinates of Sinus Successus are 0.9° N, 59.0° E, and the diameter is 132 km. Along the eastern edge of the bay is the flooded crater Condon, and the crater Webb forms the southern end of the area. There are no other features of significance on the bay. However the terrain just to the northwest of Sinus Successus was the landing site for the Soviet Luna 18 and Luna 20 probes.
    8.50
    2 votes
    102
    Amundsen

    Amundsen

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Amundsen is a large lunar impact crater located near the south pole of the Moon, named after the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen. It lies along the southern lunar limb, and so is viewed from the side by an observer on the Earth. To the northwest is the crater Scott, a formation of similar dimensions that is named for another Antarctic explorer. Nobile is attached to the western rim. The rim of Amundsen is slightly distended along the southern edge, and the terraced inner surface is wider at that point than elsewhere along the outer wall. The crater overlaps a smaller crater formation to the northwest, and Amundsen A is attached to the northern rim. Just to the south of Amundsen is the smaller crater Faustini. The inner floor is relatively flat, with a pair of central peaks near the midpoint. Much of the crater floor is cloaked in shadow during the lunar day, with only the southern floor and the central peaks receiving sunlight. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Amundsen.
    7.33
    3 votes
    103
    Copernicus

    Copernicus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Copernicus is a lunar impact crater named after the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, located in eastern Oceanus Procellarum. It is estimated to be about 800 million years old, and typifies craters that formed during the Copernican period in that it has a prominent ray system. Copernicus is visible using binoculars, and is located slightly northwest of the center of the Moon's Earth-facing hemisphere. South of the crater is the Mare Insularum, and to the south-south west is the crater Reinhold. North of Copernicus are the Montes Carpatus, which lie at the south edge of Mare Imbrium. West of Copernicus is a group of dispersed lunar hills. Due to its relative youth, the crater has remained in a relatively pristine shape since it formed. The circular rim has a discernible hexagonal form, with a terraced inner wall and a 30 km wide, sloping rampart that descends nearly a kilometer to the surrounding mare. There are three distinct terraces visible, and arc-shaped landslides due to slumping of the inner wall as the crater debris subsided. Most likely due to its recent formation, the crater floor has not been flooded by lava. The terrain along the bottom is hilly in the southern half while
    7.33
    3 votes
    104
    Mare Smythii

    Mare Smythii

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Smythii (Latin for "Sea of Smyth") is a lunar mare located along the equator on the easternmost edge of the lunar near side. The Smythii basin where the mare is located is of the Pre-Nectarian epoch, while the surrounding features are of the Nectarian system. The mare material, which make up the floor of the mare, is a high aluminous basalt, and consists of Upper Imbrian basalt covered by Eratosthenian basalt. The crater Neper is located to the north of the mare. This crater makes up part of the southern rim of Mare Marginis. Just off to the northwest of the mare are the craters Schubert and Schubert B. The dark mare-filled crater at the southern edge of Smythii is the crater Kästner. The Mare Smythii is named for the 19th century British astronomer William Henry Smyth.
    7.33
    3 votes
    105
    Sinus Lunicus

    Sinus Lunicus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Sinus Lunicus (latin for "Bay of Lunik") is an area of lunar mare along the southeast edge of the Mare Imbrium. It is formed by the area enclosed by the prominent craters Archimedes to the southwest, Autolycus to the southeast, and Aristillus to the northeast. The bay is open to the northwest, and faces the Montes Spitzbergen, a small chain of mountains. This bay was named the Bay of Lunik by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 1970 to honor the landing site of the first space probe to make contact with another interplanetary body. The Luna 2 landed in the gap between the craters Archimedes and Autolycus on September 14, 1959. The official selenographic coordinates of Sinus Lunicus are 31.8° N and 1.4° W, with a diameter of 126 kilometers. The most distinctive features on the bay are the complex outer ramparts of ejecta from the craters Aristillus and Autolycus, and the small satellite craters Archimedes C and Archimedes D. The albedo of the surface is brightened by overlapping ray material from Autolycus and Aristillus.
    7.33
    3 votes
    106
    Wollaston

    Wollaston

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Wollaston is a relatively small lunar impact crater located in the Oceanus Procellarum. To the northwest is the similar Nielsen. To the southeast is the somewhat larger Krieger. There are several small rilles to the southwest of Wollaston, forming part of the Rimae Prinz. This is a circular, cup-shaped crater with a higher albedo than the surrounding mare. It has a raised rim that is free from impact erosion, and is surrounded by a small radial skirt of ejecta. The crater has not been significantly eroded by subsequent impacts. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Wollaston. The following craters have been renamed by the IAU.
    7.33
    3 votes
    107
    Alpetragius

    Alpetragius

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Alpetragius is a lunar impact crater located on the eastern edge of Mare Nubium, to the southwest of the much larger crater Alphonsus. In the southeast is the prominent crater Arzachel, and to the west lies the flooded Lassell. The most notable feature of this crater is the disproportionately large central peak, which forms a rounded rise that occupies almost the entire crater floor—one-third the crater diameter—and rises to a height of 2.0 km. There is evidence that this peak has been enlarged through volcanic eruptions, and there appears to be an eroded vent at its summit. The rim has fine terraces that slope down to near the edge of the central rise along the south and east sides. This outer wall is nearly round, with slight protrusions on the north and west sides. The outer rim is joined to the southwest rim of Alphonsus by a rise in the surface. An arc of craterous depressions from the south rim of Alphonsus curves to the west, dividing Alpetagnius from Arzachel crater. To the west-northwest is the crater-like outline of Alpetragius X, now flooded by the mare and overlain across the east by ejecta from Alpetragius. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by
    6.25
    4 votes
    108
    Balmer

    Balmer

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Balmer is the lava-flooded remains of a lunar crater. Only the heavily worn southern and eastern sections of the crater still survive; the remainder being overlaid by a lava flow that joins to the nearby mare. Balmer lies to the east-southeast of the crater Vendelinus. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Balmer.
    6.25
    4 votes
    109
    Drebbel Crater

    Drebbel Crater

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Drebbel is a small lunar crater that is located to the northeast of the large walled plain Schickard, in the southwestern part of the Moon. Further to the northeast is the Lacus Excellentiae and the small crater Clausius. The rim of this crater is roughly circular, with an outward bulge along the east and southeast side. Along this arc of the inner wall is s single terrace where the material has slumped downwards. The west and northwest sides have accumulations along the base where loose material has slumped to the floor. The remainder of the inner rim is a simple slope that runs down to the interior floor. The rim is relatively sharp-edged and not noticeably worn. There is a level interior floor that is just over half the crater diameter. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Drebbel.
    6.25
    4 votes
    110
    Rupes Nigra

    Rupes Nigra

    • Type of planetographic feature: Rupes
    The Rupes Nigra ("Black Rock"), a phantom island, was believed to be a 33-mile-wide magnetic island of black rock located at the Magnetic North Pole or at the North Pole itself. It purportedly explained why all compasses point to this location. The idea came from a lost work titled Inventio Fortunata, and the island features on maps from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, including those of Gerardus Mercator and his successors. Mercator describes the island in a 1577 letter to John Dee: In Jules Verne's The Adventures of Captain Hatteras (1866), the North Pole is occupied by Queen Island, created by a volcano (Mount Hatteras) in the middle of an Open Polar Sea.
    5.40
    5 votes
    111
    Hellas Planitia

    Hellas Planitia

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Planitia
    Hellas Planitia, also known as the Hellas Impact Basin, is a huge, roughly circular impact basin located in the southern hemisphere of the planet Mars. It is the second or third largest impact crater and the largest visible impact crater known in the Solar System. The basin floor is about 7152-meters deep, 3 km deeper than the moon's South Pole-Aitken basin, and extends about 2,300 km east to west. It is centered at 42°42′S 70°00′E / 42.7°S 70°E / -42.7; 70 With a diameter of about 2,300 kilometres (1,400 mi), it is the largest unambiguous impact structure on the planet, though a distant second if the Borealis Basin proves to be an impact crater. The basin is thought to have been formed during the Late Heavy Bombardment period of the Solar System, approximately 4.1 to 3.8 billion years ago, when a large asteroid hit the surface. The altitude difference between the rim and the bottom is ~9 km (30,000 ft). The depth of the crater (7152-meters (23,000 ft) below the standard topographic datum of Mars) explains the atmospheric pressure at the bottom: 1,155 Pa (11.55 mbar, 0.17 psi, or 0.01 atm). This is 89% higher than the pressure at the topographical datum (610 Pa, or 6.1 mbar or
    7.00
    3 votes
    112
    Mare Marginis

    Mare Marginis

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Marginis is a lunar mare that lies on the very edge of the lunar nearside. The selenographic coordinates of this feature are 13.3° N, 86.1° E, and the diameter is 420 km. The name is Latin for "Sea of the Edge". This mare differs from most of the nearside maria; it has an irregular outline and it appears to be fairly thin. It has small circular and elongated features in the mare plains that probably mark impact craters buried by less than 1000 to 1700 feet of lava. Further, Mare Marginis is not centered on any clear, large impact basin. Thus, Mare Marginis seems to mark a low-lying region of the highlands where mare lavas were just able to reach the surface. Several large mare-floored craters also occur nearby. In these craters, the crater floors lie below the surrounding highland surface. Thus, they mark sites around Mare Marginis where lavas were close to the lunar surface. The major crater to the north of Marginis is Al-Biruni, with Ibn Yunus to the southeast and Goddard to the northwest. The surface of this mare displays some swirling, higher albedo deposits that are similar to the Reiner Gamma feature on the Oceanus Procellarum. This feature is associated with a
    7.00
    3 votes
    113
    Tithonium Chasma

    Tithonium Chasma

    • Type of planetographic feature: Chasma
    Tithonium Chasma is a large canyon in the Coprates quadrangle of Mars at 4.6° south latitude and 84.7° west longitude. It is about 810 km long and was named after a classical albedo feature name. Tithonium Chasma is a major part of the largest canyon system in the solar system; this great canyon would go almost all the way across the United States. The name for the whole system of canyons is Valles Marineris. Starting at the west with Noctis Labyrinthus in the Phoenicis Lacus quadrangle, the canyon system ends in the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle with Capri Chasma and Eos Chasma (in the south). The word Chasma has been designated by the International Astronomical Union to refer to an elongate, steep-sided depression. Valles Marineris was discovered by and named for the Mariner 9 mission. Moving east from Noctis Labyrinthus, the canyon splits into two troughs, Tithonium and Ius Chasma in the south. In the middle of the system are very wide valleys of Ophir Chasma (north), Candor Chasma, and Melas Chasma (south). Going farther to the east, one comes to Coprates Chasma. At the end of Coprates Chasma, the valley gets wider to form Capri Chasma in the north and Eos Chasma in the south.
    7.00
    3 votes
    114
    Autolycus

    Autolycus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Autolycus is a lunar impact crater that is located in the southeast part of Mare Imbrium. West of the formation is Archimedes, a formation more than double the size of Autolycus. Just to the north is Aristillus, and the outer ramparts of these two craters overlap in the intermediate stretch of the lunar mare. The rim of Autolycus is somewhat irregular, although generally circular overall. It has a small outer rampart and an irregular interior with no central peak. It possesses a light ray system that extends for a distance of over 400 kilometers. Some of the ray material appears to overlay the flooded floor of Archimedes. The Luna 2 probe crash-landed just to the west-southwest of the crater rim. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Autolycus.
    5.20
    5 votes
    115
    Compton

    Compton

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Compton is a prominent lunar crater that is located in the northern hemisphere on the far side of the Moon. It lies to the east of the Mare Humboldtianum, and southwest of the walled plain Schwarzschild. To the southeast of Compton is the heavily eroded crater Swann. This formation is roughly circular, with a wide, irregular outer rim that varies considerably in width. Parts of the inner wall have terraced steps that form wide shelves along the edge. Within the wall is a floor that has been resurfaced by lava flows some time in the past. This surface has a lower albedo than the surroundings, giving it a slightly darker hue. At the midpoint of the floor is a formation of mounts that comprise the central peak. This peak is surrounded by a semi-circular ring of hills that lie in the western half of the crater at a radius about half that of the inner edge of the rim. These mounts form jagged rises through the lava-covered surface and lie at irregular intervals from each other. The interior also contains a set of slender rilles within the ring of hills, primarily in the northwest part of the crater floor. Apart from a small, bowl-shaped craterlet near the eastern rim, the floor only
    8.00
    2 votes
    116
    Jenkins

    Jenkins

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Jenkins is a lunar crater that lies along the equator of the Moon, near the eastern limb. It is attached to the eastern rim of the slightly larger crater Schubert X, intruding somewhat into the interior. The crater Nobili is likewise attached to the western rim of Schubert X and intrudes slightly into the interior on that side. The three craters form a linear chain along the equator. This formation was previously designated Schubert Z before being given its current name by the IAU. Schubert itself is located to the northeast of Jenkins. To the east-northeast of Jenkins lies the crater Back, and to the south is the crater pair of Van Vleck and Weierstrass. This is a circular crater with a somewhat worn rim. The small crater Schubert J is attached to the exterior along the southeast. The western rim of Jenkins is marked by several small craterlets. The interior floor is relatively featureless, and is marked by a few tiny craterlets. There is no central peak on the floor.
    8.00
    2 votes
    117
    Lacus Luxuriae

    Lacus Luxuriae

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Luxuriae (latin for "Lake of Luxury") is a small lunar mare on the Moon. It is located at 19.0° N, 176.0° E and is 50 km in diameter.
    8.00
    2 votes
    118
    Schiller

    Schiller

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Schiller is an oddly shaped lunar impact crater located in the southwestern sector of the Moon. To the east is the crater Bayer and to the southeast is Rost. The rim of Schiller has an elongated shape that is amplified by its proximity to the lunar limb. The long axis lies along a line running northwest–southeast, with the wider girth located in the southeastern half. There is a slight bend in the elongation, with the concave side facing to the northeast. Schiller appears to be a fusion of two or more craters and bears a superficial resemblance to the footprint left by a shoe. The crater rim is well-defined, with a terraced inner wall and a slight outer rampart. At the southeastern end, a smaller crater is connected to Schiller by a wide valley. Most of the crater floor is flat, most likely due to lava flooding. There are some bright patches that are most clearly visible under a high sun angle. A double ridge lies along the center of the northwest crater floor, forming a nearly linear formation that divides the floor in half. Southwest of Schiller is an unnamed area of mare, possibly the remains of an ancient formation that has had its outer walls completely eroded away. This basin
    8.00
    2 votes
    119
    South Pole-Aitken basin

    South Pole-Aitken basin

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    The South Pole–Aitken basin is a huge impact crater on the far side of Earth's Moon. Roughly 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi) in diameter and 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) deep, it is one of the largest known impact craters in the Solar System. It is the largest, oldest and deepest basin recognized on the Moon. This moon basin was named for two features on opposing sides; the crater Aitken on the northern end and the southern lunar pole at the other end. The outer rim of this basin can be seen from Earth as a huge chain of mountains located on the lunar southern limb, sometimes called "Leibnitz mountains", although this name has not been considered official by the International Astronomical Union. The existence of a giant far side basin was suspected as early as 1962 based on early probe images (namely Luna 3 and Zond 3), but it was not until the acquisition of global photography by the Lunar Orbiter program in the mid-1960s that geologists recognized its true size. Laser altimeter data obtained during the Apollo 15 and 16 missions showed that the northern portion of this basin was very deep, but since these data were only available along the near-equatorial ground tracks of the orbiting
    8.00
    2 votes
    120
    Anville

    Anville

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Anville is a relatively small, solitary lunar crater located in the north part of the Mare Fecunditatis. This is a circular, cup-shaped formation with a sharp edge and little appearance of wear. Some minor slumping has occurred in the eastern half of the interior wall. It was designated Taruntius G prior to being assigned a name by the IAU. Taruntius itself lies to the north-northwest, at the edge of the mare.
    9.00
    1 votes
    121
    Ascraeus Mons

    Ascraeus Mons

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Mountain
    Ascraeus Mons is a large shield volcano located in the Tharsis region of the planet Mars. It is the northernmost and tallest of three shield volcanoes collectively known as the Tharsis Montes. The volcano's location corresponds to the classical albedo feature Ascraeus Lacus. Ascraeus Mons was discovered by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1971. The volcano was originally called North Spot because it was the northernmost of only four spots visible on the surface due to a global dust storm that was then enshrouding the planet. As the dust cleared, the spots were revealed to be extremely tall volcanoes whose summits had projected above the dust-laden, lower atmosphere. The volcano's name officially became Ascraeus Mons in 1973. The volcano is located in the southeast-central portion of the Tharsis quadrangle at 11.8°N, 255.5°E in Mars' western hemisphere. A group of three smaller volcanoes (the Ceraunius-Uranius group) lies about 700 km to the northeast, and Pavonis Mons (the middle volcano of the Tharsis Montes) lies 500 km to the southwest. The 70-km diameter crater Poynting is located 300 km to the west-southwest. Ascraeus Mons is roughly 480 km in diameter and is the second highest
    9.00
    1 votes
    122
    Ithaca Chasma

    Ithaca Chasma

    • Type of planetographic feature: Chasma
    Ithaca Chasma is a valley (graben) on Saturn's moon Tethys, named after the island of Ithaca, in Greece. It is up to 100 km wide, 3 to 5 km deep and 2,000 km long, running approximately three-quarters of the way around Tethys' circumference, making it one of the longer valleys in the Solar System. Ithaca Chasma is approximately concentric with Odysseus crater. Ithaca Chasma may have originated when the water ocean inside Tethys froze. This would have caused the surface to crack in order to accommodate the resulting increase in volume. Another hypothesis is that Ithaca Chasma is the outermost ring of the Odysseus impact basin. The Chasma is 4 to 0.4 billion years old, and slightly older than Odysseus. Ithaca Chasma was discovered by Voyager 1 spacecraft on 12 November 1980 during its flyby of Saturn. However its full extent was realized only in 1981 after the Voyager 2 flyby. It was named after the island of Ithaca, in Greece. Ithaca Chasma is a giant trough system about 3 km deep and approximately confined to a great circle running through the poles of Tethys. It is approximately concentric with Odysseus impact crater—a pole of Ithaca Chasma lies only approximately 20° from it. The
    9.00
    1 votes
    123
    Mare Tranquillitatis

    Mare Tranquillitatis

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Tranquillitatis (Latin for Sea of Tranquility) is a lunar mare that sits within the Tranquillitatis basin on the Moon. The mare material within the basin consists of basalt formed in the intermediate to young age group of the Upper Imbrian epoch. The surrounding mountains are thought to be of the Lower Imbrian epoch, but the actual basin is probably Pre-Nectarian. The basin has irregular margins and lacks a defined multiple-ringed structure. The irregular topography in and near this basin results from the intersection of the Tranquillitatis, Nectaris, Crisium, Fecunditatis, and Serenitatis basins with two throughgoing rings of the Procellarum basin. Palus Somni, on the northeastern rim of the mare, is filled with the basalt that spilled over from Tranquillitatis. This Mare has a slight bluish tint relative to the rest of the moon and stands out quite well when color is processed and extracted from multiple photographs. The color is likely due to higher metal content in the basaltic soil or rocks. Mare Tranquillitatis was named in 1651 by astronomers Francesco Grimaldi and Giovanni Battista Riccioli in their lunar map Almagestum novum. In February 1965, the Ranger 8 spacecraft
    9.00
    1 votes
    124
    Mons Maraldi

    Mons Maraldi

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Mons Maraldi is a 1.3-kilometer-tall mountain on the Moon at 20.3° N, 35.3°E, covering an area about 15 kilometers in diameter. It is named after the nearby crater Maraldi.
    9.00
    1 votes
    125
    Sinus Concordiae

    Sinus Concordiae

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Sinus Concordiae (latin for "Bay of Harmony") is a bay (sinus) on the Moon that lies along the eastern edge of the Mare Tranquillitatis. Along its northern border is an area called the Palus Somni, while the southern border is an area of irregular terrain that contains the ruined crater Da Vinci. The selenographic coordinates of this bay are 10.8° N, 43.2° E, and it has an overall diameter of 142 km.
    9.00
    1 votes
    126
    Tharsis

    Tharsis

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Contains: Olympus Mons
    • Type of planetographic feature: Volcanic plateau
    The Tharsis region on Mars is a vast volcanic plateau centered near the equator in Mars’ western hemisphere. The region is home to the largest volcanoes in the Solar System, including the three enormous shield volcanoes Arsia Mons, Pavonis Mons, and Ascraeus Mons, which are collectively known as the Tharsis Montes. The tallest volcano on the planet, Olympus Mons, is often associated with the Tharsis region but is actually located off the western edge of the plateau. The name Tharsis is the Greco-Latin transliteration of the biblical Tarshish, the land at western extremity of the known world. The Tharsis region can have several meanings depending on historical and scientific context. The name is commonly used in a broad sense to represent a continent-sized region of anomalously elevated terrain centered just south of the equator around longitude 265°E. Called the Tharsis bulge or Tharsis rise, this broad, elevated region dominates the western hemisphere of Mars and is the largest topographic feature on the planet, after the global dichotomy. Tharsis has no formally defined boundaries, so precise dimensions for the region are difficult to give. In general, the bulge is about 5,000 km
    9.00
    1 votes
    127
    Alpha Regio

    Alpha Regio

    • On celestial object: Venus
    Alpha Regio is a region of the planet Venus extending for about 1500 kilometers centered at 22°S, 5°E. It was discovered and named by Dick Goldstein in 1964. The name was approved by the International Astronomical Union's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (IAU/WGPSN) between 1976 and 1979. Maxwell Montes, Alpha Regio, and Beta Regio are the three exceptions to the rule that the surface features of Venus are to be named for females: women or goddesses. The surface of the region is what is known as Tessera, meaning a terrain that has been highly deformed and where the deformation strikes in multiple directions and is closely spaced. The term comes from the Greek word for “tiled” (Russian investigators analyzing Venera 15 and Venera 16 imagery thought this terrain looked like a parquet floor). Like all tessera regions, it sits above the surrounding terrain at an elevation of 1 to 2 kilometers elevation and is heavily deformed by what appears to be contractional folding. Like most tessera units, the surrounding volcanic plains appear to have flowed around Alpha's margins and thus are younger than Alpha. An infrared map prepared by the Venus Express orbiter shows that the
    6.67
    3 votes
    128
    Bowditch

    Bowditch

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Bowditch is a lunar crater that lies on the far side of the Moon, just beyond the eastern limb. It is located on a region of the lunar surface that is brought into view due to libration, but at such times the area is viewed from the edge and so not much detail can be observed. It lies just to the north of the small Lacus Solitudinis lunar mare, between the craters Titius to the southwest and Perel'man to the east-northeast. The rim of this crater is open to the southwest and the crater is elongated to the northeast, possibly due to a merged crater. The outer rim varies in height, with the most prominent sections being the southwest face and a ridge mount to the northwest. The interior floor has been flooded with basaltic lava, an unusual feature for a crater on the far side. The interior floor is generally flat, and marked by a number of small craterlets. However there are some low ridges in the surface that are concentric with the inner wall. A formation of irregular ridges occupies most of the rim gap along the southwest. Near the southern rim of this formation, at the northern edge of the Lacus Solitudinus, are four tiny craters that have been assigned individual names by the
    6.67
    3 votes
    129
    Cabeus

    Cabeus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Cabeus is a lunar crater that is located about 100 km (62 mi) from the south pole of the Moon. At this location the crater is seen obliquely from Earth, and it is almost perpetually in deep shadow due to lack of sunlight. Hence, not much detail can be seen of this crater, even from orbit. Through a telescope, this crater appears near the southern limb of the Moon, to the west of the crater Malapert and to the south-southwest of Newton. The crater name Cabeus first appeared in the 1651 work Almagestum Novum by Giovanni Riccioli, who named it after Niccolò Cabeo. However, the position of the Cabeus crater was in the location later assigned to Newton crater. The official name and location for this crater was adopted by the IAU Commission 17, as established in the 1935 work Named Lunar Formations by Mary A. Blagg and Karl Müller. This crater is a worn formation that has been eroded by subsequent impacts. The rim is eroded and uneven, with prominent ridges at the northern and southern ends. A small crater lies across the northeastern rim and there is 10–11 km crater on the interior floor near the west-southwestern rim. Near the center of the crater floor is a small ridge. The floor of
    6.67
    3 votes
    130
    Catharina

    Catharina

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Catharina is an ancient lunar impact crater located in the southern highlands. It lies in a rugged stretch of land between the Rupes Altai scarp to the west and Mare Nectaris in the east. To the west-northwest is the crater Tacitus, and the lava-flooded Beaumont lies to the east along the shore of Mare Imbrium. To the south-southeast is Polybius. With the large craters Cyrillus and Theophilus in the north, Catharina forms a prominent grouping that is framed by the curve of the Rupes Altai. Together they form a notable feature when the Sun is at a low angle to the surface. There is also a distinct difference in the ages of these three craters, with the age increasing significantly from north to south. The rim of Catharina is heavily worn and irregular, with most of the north wall incised by the worn ring of crater Catharina P. The northeast wall is deeply impacted by several smaller craters. No terracing remains on the inner wall, and the outer rampart has been nearly eroded away. The floor is relatively flat but rugged, with a curved ridge formed by Catharina P, and the remains of a smaller crater near the south wall. Nothing remains of a central peak. By convention these features
    6.67
    3 votes
    131
    Eos Chasma

    Eos Chasma

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Chasma
    Eos Chasma is a chasma in the southern part of the Valles Marineris canyon system of Mars. Eos Chasma’s western floor is mainly composed of an etched massive material composed of either volcanic or eolian deposits later eroded by the Martian wind. The eastern end of the Eos chasma has a large area of streamlined bars and longitudinal striations. This is interpreted to be stream-carved plateau deposits and material transported and deposited by flowing fluid. Ganges Chasma is an offshoot of Eos Chasma. MRO discovered sulfate, hydrated sulfate, and iron oxides in Eos Chasma. According to an analysis by Vicky Hamilton of the University of Hawaii, Eos Chasma may be the source of the ALH84001 meteorite, which some believe to be evidence of past life on Mars. However, the analysis was not conclusive, in part because it was limited to parts of Mars not obscured by dust.
    6.67
    3 votes
    132
    Mills

    Mills

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Mills is a small crater that lies on the far side of the Moon. It is located to the northeast of Henderson and to the south of Kohlschütter. This is an undistinguished impact crater that is roughly circular in form, with a slight outward bulge to the northwest. This bulge may be due to the merger of a smaller impact with the rim. The rim edge is somewhat worn, with indistinct features and a few tiny craterlets along the edge. The interior floor has a ridge of material protruding inwards from the southern inner wall, but is otherwise marked only by a number of tiny craters. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Mills.
    6.67
    3 votes
    133
    Al-Khwarizmi

    Al-Khwarizmi

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Al-Khwarizmi is a lunar impact crater located on the far side of the Moon. It lies to the southeast of the crater Moiseev, and northeast of Saenger. The western inner wall of Al-Khwarizmi is much wider than along the eastern side. The eastern rim overlays a pair of craters, including Al-Khwarizmi J. The outer wall is somewhat distorted from a circular shape, including a double-rim in the south. There is a small central peak at the midpoint, which forms part of a low ridge that bends to the northeast. Several tiny craterlets lie in the northern part of the interior floor. The floor to the southeast is somewhat smoother and free of significant impacts. The crater was named for the Persian mathematician and astronomer Al-Khwarizmi. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Al-Khwarizmi.
    5.75
    4 votes
    134
    Barkla

    Barkla

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Barkla is a lunar impact crater that lies near the eastern limb of the Moon. It is located to the east of the prominent crater Langrenus, and was formerly designated Langrenus A before being renamed by the IAU. Due east of Barkla is Kapteyn, a formation only slightly larger with a similar size. Southwest of Barkla is the crater Lamé. The rim of Barkla is very nearly circular, although it is slightly elongated to the northeast and southwest. The wall shows little appearance of erosion from subsequent impacts, and is not overlain by any craterlets of note. At the midpoint of the floor is a central peak, which joins a low ridge running to the south and northeast.
    5.75
    4 votes
    135
    Aratus

    Aratus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Aratus is a small lunar impact crater located on the highland to the south and east of the rugged Montes Apenninus range. It is a circular, cup-shaped crater with a relatively high albedo. To the east is the Mare Serenitatis, and to the southwest is the somewhat larger crater Conon. North-northeast of Aratus is the landing site of the Apollo 15 mission, just beyond Mons Hadley Delta. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Aratus. The following craters have been renamed by the IAU. This three-pronged feature is located in western Mare Serenitatis. It is formed from a merged group of depressions in the lunar surface, and may be a volcanic vent. The dimensions are 9.5 × 3 km (5.9 × 1.9 mi) with an estimated 0.4 km (0.25 mi) depth. The three elongated depressions have been given individual names: Two small craters in the vicinity of Aratus CA have also been assigned names: Manuel is just beyond the eastern tip of Vallis Krishna, while Yoshi is just beyond the western tip of Vallis Christel. Manuel is very difficult to see, even on high-resolution photos. The five names listed above first
    7.50
    2 votes
    136
    Baillaud

    Baillaud

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Baillaud is a lunar crater that is located near the north limb of the Moon. The rim of the crater has been eroded and worn by a long history of impacts, leaving a hilly ridge surrounding the interior. The crater Euctemon is intruding into the rim to the northeast, and the rim bulges outward to the northwest. At the south end of the crater is a gap connecting to the lava-flooded surface to the south. The interior of Baillaud has been submerged by past lava flows, leaving a flat surface that is marked only by many tiny craterlets and the satellite crater Baillaud E in the western half. The crater interior lacks a central peak or significant ridges. Nearby craters include the irregular Meton formation to the southwest, and Petermann further to the east. Due to its location, Baillaud appears oblong because of foreshortening along the line of sight to Earth. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Baillaud. Image of the crater http://www.lpod.org/coppermine/displayimage.php?pos=-1571
    7.50
    2 votes
    137
    Baily

    Baily

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Baily is the remnant of a lunar crater on the boundary between Mare Frigoris to the north and Lacus Mortis to the south. The crater interior has been flooded by lava in the past, and only the northern half of the crater rim remains relatively intact. There is an outward bulge in the northeastern rim, possibly the remnant of another crater formation that once overlapped Baily. The crater interior is flat and relatively featureless, with no impacts of significance. The surviving outer rim reaches a maximum elevation of about 0.5 km. The nearest crater of note is Bürg to the south-southwest. Further to the west is the prominent Aristoteles. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Baily.
    7.50
    2 votes
    138
    Birt

    Birt

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Birt is a lunar impact crater located in the eastern half of the Mare Nubium and west of the Rupes Recta. Birt is a bowl-shaped formation with a raised rim, slightly slightly intersected along the southeast edge by the much smaller crater Birt A. To the west of Birt, a rille named Rima Birt runs north-northwest in an arc from Birt F to Birt E. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Birt.
    7.50
    2 votes
    139
    Lacus Excellentiae

    Lacus Excellentiae

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Excellentiae (Latin for "Lake of Excellence") is a relatively small, irregular lunar mare in the southern latitudes of the Moon, amidst the rugged terrain to the south of the larger Mare Humorum. The most prominent feature within the diameter of this basin is the small crater Clausius. The selenographic coordinates of this feature are 35°24′S 44°00′W / 35.4°S 44.0°W / -35.4; -44.0 and it lies within a diameter of 184 km. The name of this lunar lake is a relatively recent addition to lunar nomenclature, being officially approved in 1976 by the IAU General Assembly. The Lacus Excellentiae was the impact site of the SMART-1 lunar orbiter. This probe impacted the lunar surface on September 3, 2006 and was observed by astronomers to determine the properties of the ejected materials.
    7.50
    2 votes
    140
    Lacus Hiemalis

    Lacus Hiemalis

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Hiemalis (latin for "Lake of Winter") is a small lunar mare in the Terra Nivium region on the Moon. It is located at 15.0° N, 14.0° E and is 50 km in diameter.
    7.50
    2 votes
    141
    Nobili

    Nobili

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Nobili is a lunar crater that lies near the eastern limb of the Moon, giving it a foreshortened appearance when viewed from the Earth. The crater overlies the western rim of the slightly larger crater Schubert X, and the eastern rim of this satellite crater is overlain in turn by Jenkins, resulting in a triple crater formation. To the south lies Gilbert. Nobili is a circular crater formation with a worn, circular rim. The rim wall is smaller along the eastern side where it overlaps Schubert X. A small crater, Gilbert P, is attached to the southwestern rim, and there is a small break in the northeastern rim. The interior floor is nearly featureless, with a small double-peak formation at the center. This crater was previously designated Schubert Y, before being given its current name by the IAU.
    7.50
    2 votes
    142
    Wrinkle-ridge

    Wrinkle-ridge

    • On celestial object: Moon
    A wrinkle ridge is a type of feature commonly found on lunar maria. These features are low, sinuous ridges formed on the mare surface that can extend for up to several hundred kilometers. Wrinkle ridges are tectonic features created when the basaltic lava first cooled and contracted. They frequently outline ring structures buried within the mare, follow circular patterns outlining the mare, or intersect protruding peaks. They are sometimes called veins due to their resemblance to the veins that protrude from beneath the skin. These are found near craters. Wrinkle ridges are named with the Latin designation dorsum (plural dorsa). The standard IAU nomenclature uses the names of people to identify wrinkle ridges on the Moon. Thus the Dorsa Burnet are named for Thomas Burnet, and the Dorsum Owen is named after George Owen of Henllys. Wrinkle ridges can also be found on Mars, for example in Chryse Planitia, as well as on several of the asteroids that have been visited by spacecraft, as well as Mercury, and a couple of moons of Jupiter and Saturn.
    7.50
    2 votes
    143
    Arsia Mons

    Arsia Mons

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Mountain
    Arsia Mons is the southernmost of three volcanos (collectively known as Tharsis Montes) on the Tharsis bulge near the equator of the planet Mars. To its north is Pavonis Mons, and north of that is Ascraeus Mons. The tallest mountain in the solar system, Olympus Mons, is to its northwest. Its name comes from a corresponding albedo feature on a map by Giovanni Schiaparelli, which he named in turn after the legendary Roman forest of Arsia Silva. Using a global climate model, a group of researchers headed by Laura Kerber found that the Medusae Fossae Formation could have easily been formed from ash from the volcanoes Apollinaris Mons, Arsia Mons, and possibly Pavonis Mons. Arsia Mons is a shield volcano with a relatively low slope and a massive caldera at its summit. The southernmost of the three Tharsis Montes volcanoes, it is the only major Tharsis volcano south of the equator. The volcano is 270 miles (approximately 435 kilometres) in diameter, almost 12 miles high (more than 9 kilometers (5.6 mi) higher than the surrounding plains), and the summit caldera is 72 miles (approximately 110 km) wide. It experiences atmospheric pressure lower than 107 pascals at the summit. Except for
    6.33
    3 votes
    144
    Giordano Bruno

    Giordano Bruno

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Giordano Bruno is a 22 km lunar impact crater on the far side of the Moon, just beyond the northeastern limb. At this location it lies in an area that can be viewed during a favorable libration, although at such times the area is viewed from the side and not much detail can be seen. It lies between the craters Harkhebi to the northwest and Szilard to the southeast. When viewed from orbit, Giordano Bruno is at the center of a symmetrical ray system of ejecta that has a higher albedo than the surrounding surface. The ray material extends for over 150 kilometers and has not been significantly darkened by space erosion. Some of the ejecta appears to extend as far as the crater Boss, over 300 km to the northwest. The outer rim of the crater is especially bright, compared to its surroundings. To all appearances this is a young formation that was created in the relatively recent past, geologically speaking. The actual age is unknown, but is estimated to be less than 350 million years. This feature was named after the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno. Five monks from Canterbury reported to the abbey's chronicler, Gervase, that shortly after sunset on June 18, 1178, (25 June on the
    6.33
    3 votes
    145
    Mare Cognitum

    Mare Cognitum

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Cognitum ("The Sea that has Become Known") is a lunar mare located in a basin or large crater which sits in the second ring of Oceanus Procellarum. To the northwest of the mare is the Montes Riphaeus mountain range, part of the rim of the buried crater or basin containing the mare. Previously unnamed, the mare received its name in 1964 in reference to its selection as the target for the successful impact probe Ranger 7, the first American spacecraft to return close up images of the Moon's surface. The basin material is of the Lower Imbrian epoch, while the basaltic mare material is of the Upper Imbrian epoch. Several spacecrafts have landed on Mare Congnitum, including Luna 5, Ranger 7, Surveyor 3, and Apollo 12. The Fra Mauro formation, the landing site of Apollo 14, is also located near Mare Cognitum.
    6.33
    3 votes
    146
    Mare Insularum

    Mare Insularum

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Insularum (the "sea of islands") is a lunar mare located in the Insularum basin just south of Mare Imbrium. The basin material is of the Lower Imbrian epoch, with the mare material of the Upper Imbrian epoch. The mare is bordered by the craters Copernicus on the east, and Kepler on the west. Oceanus Procellarum joins the mare to the southwest. Copernicus is one of the most noticeable craters on the Moon. The rays from both Kepler and Copernicus protrude into the mare. It is located near the crater Fra Mauro. Sinus Aestuum forms a northeastern extension to the mare.
    6.33
    3 votes
    147
    Aristillus

    Aristillus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Aristillus is a prominent lunar impact crater that lies in the eastern Mare Imbrium. Directly to the south is the smaller crater Autolycus, while to the southwest is the large Archimedes. The area of mare to the southwest is named the Sinus Lunicus. To the northeast are the craters Theaetetus and Cassini. The rim of Aristillus has a wide, irregular outer rampart of ejecta that is relatively easy to discern against the smooth surface of the surrounding mare. The crater impact created a ray system that extends for a distance of over 600 kilometers. The rim is generally circular in form, but possesses a slight hexagonal shape. The inner walls of the rim have a terraced surface, and descend to a relatively rough interior that has not been flooded with lava. In the middle of the crater is a set of three clustered peaks, which rise to a height of about 0.9 km. In the northern outer ramparts of Aristillus is a ghost crater remnant. This is the protruding rim of an old crater that has been almost completely submerged by the lava flows of the surrounding Mare Imbrium. The southern end of the rim has been covered by the ejecta from Aristillus. Along the eastern inner wall and rim is an
    8.00
    1 votes
    148
    Becquerel

    Becquerel

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Becquerel is a lunar crater that lies in the northern hemisphere on the far side of the Moon. This is an ancient and heavily worn formation that is now little more than an irregular depression in the surface. The outer rim has been worn and reshaped until it forms a rugged, mountainous region around the flatter interior. The most notable of the formations on the rim is Becquerel X, which is part of a double crater along the northwestern rim. There is a short valley paralleling the southwestern rim, most likely formed by the merging of several small craters. The interior floor of Becquerel is relatively flat, but with rough sections and several tiny craterlets marking the surface. There is a dark patch (low albedo) on the floor near the southern rim. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Becquerel.
    8.00
    1 votes
    149
    Heinsius

    Heinsius

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Heinsius is an eroded lunar crater that lies in the southwestern part of the Moon. It is located to the northwest of the prominent crater Tycho, and rays from that formation pass to the north and south of Heinsius as well as marking the rim and interior with material. To the south-southwest of Heinsius is the larger walled plain Wilhelm. The southern part of this crater has been heavily damaged by subsequent impacts. Both Heinsius B and Heinsius C lie across the southern and southwestern rim, while Heinsius A is located in the southern interior floor. Together these three satellite craters form a triangular arrangement with the rims only separated by a few kilometers from each other. If Heinsius possessed a central peak, it is now covered by the outer rampart of Heinsius A. The northern half of the rim is in better shape, although still worn and rounded due to impact erosion. There is a wide shelf along the northeastern inner wall. A small craterlet lies exactly on the northwestern rim. The northern interior floor is relatively level and featureless. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to
    8.00
    1 votes
    150
    Ius Chasma

    Ius Chasma

    • Type of planetographic feature: Chasma
    Ius Chasma is a large canyon in the Coprates quadrangle of Mars at 7° south latitude and 85.8° west longitude. It is about 938 km long and was named after a classical albedo feature name. Ius Chasma is a major part of Valles Marineris, the largest canyon system in the solar system; this great canyon would go almost all the way across the United States. Starting at the west with Noctis Labyrinthus in the Phoenicis Lacus quadrangle, the canyon system ends in the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle with Capri Chasma and Eos Chasma (in the south). The word chasma has been designated by the International Astronomical Union to refer to an elongate, steep-sided depression. Valles Marineris was discovered by and named for the Mariner 9 mission. Moving east from Noctis Labyrinthus, the canyon splits into two troughs, Tithonium and Ius Chasma in the south. In the middle of the system are very wide valleys of Ophir Chasma (north), Candor Chasma, and Melas Chasma (south). Going farther to the east, one comes to Coprates Chasma. At the end of Coprates Chasma, the valley gets wider to form Capri Chasma in the north and Eos Chasma in the south. The walls of the canyons often contain many layers. The
    8.00
    1 votes
    151
    Lacus Autumni

    Lacus Autumni

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Autumni (Latin for "Lake of Autumn") is a region of lunar mare that lies near the western limb of the Moon. Along this side of the lunar surface is a huge impact basin centered on the Mare Orientale. Two concentric mountain rings surround the Orientale mare, the inner ring being named Montes Rook and an outer ring called the Montes Cordillera. Lacus Autumni lies in the northeastern quadrant of the gap between these two mountain rings. Unfortunately this section of the lunar surface is difficult to observe directly from the Earth. This mare has selenographic coordinates of 9.9° S, 83.9° W, and it lies within a diameter of 183 km. (Compare to the Mare Orientale, which has a diameter of 327 km.) This mare runs from the southeast to the northwest, reaching a maximum width of 90-100 km. Only the central and southeastern sections of the lake have regions of relatively low albedo material typical of a lunar mare. The remainder matches the albedo of the surrounding terrain.
    8.00
    1 votes
    152
    Mouchez

    Mouchez

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Mouchez is the remnant of a lunar crater that is located near the northern limb of the Moon, to the north of Philolaus and northwest of Anaxagoras. Almost the entire eastern rim of this crater is missing, and the remaining arc is heavily worn and eroded. This surviving rim forms a curving arc that runs from the south clockwise to the north-northeast. Near the southern terminus is the small crater Mouchez C. The interior of the crater forms a level plain that is marked only by a number of tiny craters, and the small crater Mouchez B. Attached to the exterior of the southern rim is a smaller replica of Mouchez, forming a curving ridge. Attached to the northern exterior is the flooded crater Mouchez A, which has a nearly intact rim with gaps along the northwestern side. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Mouchez.
    8.00
    1 votes
    153
    Peary

    Peary

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Peary is the closest large lunar impact crater to the lunar north pole. At this latitude the crater interior receives little sunlight, and portions of the southernmost region of the crater floor remains permanently cloaked in shadow. From the Earth the crater appears on the northern lunar limb, and is seen from the side. The crater is nearly circular, with an outward bulge along the northeast rim. There is a gap in the southwestern rim, where it joins a slightly smaller worn crater formation. The outer rim of Peary is worn and eroded, creating a rugged mountainous ring that produces long shadows across the crater floor. The crater floor is relatively flat, but marked by several small craterlets, particularly in the eastern half. The southern third of the interior remains cloaked in shadows, and so its features cannot be readily discerned. The worn and lava-flooded crater Byrd lies close to the southern rim of Peary. To the northwest, about a quarter the way around the lunar pole, is the larger crater Hermite. On the opposite side of the pole, on the far side of the Moon, lies the still-larger Rozhdestvenskiy. In 2004, a team led by Dr. Ben Bussey of Johns Hopkins University using
    8.00
    1 votes
    154
    Sheepshanks

    Sheepshanks

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Sheepshanks is a small lunar crater located near the northern edge of Mare Frigoris. Due south on the opposite shore is the prominent crater Aristoteles while to the north is C. Mayer. Sheepshanks appears somewhat oblong due to foreshortening, but it is actually nearly circular. The inner walls slope down to a ring of material around the inner floor. There is a small craterlet along the southeastern inner wall. The crater is otherwise not particularly eroded by impacts. About 30 kilometers to the southeast of the crater rim is the western end of the narrow rille named Rima Sheepshanks. This cleft extends for a distance of about 200 kilometers across the surface of the mare, running to the east-northeast. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Sheepshanks.
    8.00
    1 votes
    155
    Theophilus

    Theophilus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Theophilus is a prominent lunar impact crater that lies between Sinus Asperitatis in the north and Mare Nectaris to the southeast. It partially intrudes into the comparably sized crater Cyrillus to the southwest. To the east is the smaller crater Mädler and further to the south-southeast is Beaumont. It was named after the 4th century Greek philosopher Theophilus. The rim of Theophilus has a wide, terraced inner surface that shows indications of landslips. It is 14,000 feet deep with massive walls and has broken into a second formation, Cyrillus. It was created during the Eratosthenian period, from 3.2 to 1.1 billion years ago. It has an imposing central mountain, 1,400 meters high, with four summits. The floor of the crater is relatively flat, and it has a large, triple-peaked central crater that climbs to a height of about 2 kilometers above the floor. The western peak is designated Psi (ψ), the eastern Phi (φ), and the northern peak is Alpha (α) Theophilus. The western slopes of this ridge are wider and more irregular, whereas the peaks descend more sharply to the floor on the northern and western faces. The Apollo 16 mission collected several pieces of basalt that are believed
    8.00
    1 votes
    156
    Denning

    Denning

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Denning is a lunar crater that is located on the far side of the Moon. It lies about midway between the craters Levi-Civita to the south and Marconi to the north-northeast. About two crater diameters to the southeast is the huge walled plain Gagarin. The rim of this worn crater is circular but somewhat irregular-edged. There is a low central rise at the midpoint consisting of at least two hills. Attached to the southwest outer rim is the larger satellite crater Denning R. About one crater diameter the southeast of Denning is a bright patch of high-albedo surface. This patch was most likely created by a small, relatively recent impact. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Denning.
    5.25
    4 votes
    157
    Lacus Lenitatis

    Lacus Lenitatis

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Lenitatis (latin for "Lake of Tenderness") is a small lunar mare in the Terra Nivium region on the Moon. It is located at 14.0° N, 12.0° E and is 80 km in diameter.
    5.25
    4 votes
    158
    Birmingham

    Birmingham

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Birmingham is the surviving remnant of a lunar crater. It is named after the astronomer John Birmingham (not, as is often stated, the British city nor its Alabama namesake). The crater is located near the northern limb of the Moon, and so is viewed from the Earth at a low angle. All that survives of the original formation is an irregular perimeter of low, indented ridges surrounding the lava-resurfaced interior. The inner floor is marked by several tiny craterlets, and the surface is unusually rough for a walled plain. The low angle of illumination allows fine details of this boulder-strewn field to be seen more clearly. The Birmingham formation lies just to the north of the Mare Frigoris, and to the east of the walled plain W. Bond. To the northeast is the smaller crater Epigenes, with Fontenelle to the northwest. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Birmingham.
    7.00
    2 votes
    159
    Fracastorius

    Fracastorius

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Fracastorius is the lava-flooded remnant of an ancient lunar impact crater located at the southern edge of Mare Nectaris. To the northwest of this formation lies the crater Beaumont, while to the northeast is Rosse. The northern wall of this crater is missing, with only mounds appearing in the lunar mare to mark the outline. The lava that formed Mare Nectaris also invaded this crater, so the structure now forms a bay-like extension. The remainder of the rim is heavily worn and covered in lesser impact craters, leaving little of the original rim intact. The maximum elevation of the rim is 2.4 km. The most prominent of these craters is Fractastorius D, which overlies a portion of the western rim. Fracastorius has no central peak, but a long, slender rille runs across the middle of the floor in a generally east-west direction. The crater commemorates the Italian scholar, astronomer and poet Girolamo Fracastoro, "Fracastorius" (1478‑1553). By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Fracastorius.
    7.00
    2 votes
    160
    Hoffmeister

    Hoffmeister

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Template:Crater data Hoffmeister is a lunar crater that is located on the Moon's far side, to the northwest of the huge walled plain Mendeleev. Some distance to the north of Hoffmeister lies the crater Siedentopf, and to the west-northwest is Gavrilov. This is a somewhat eroded crater with Hoffmeister N attached to the southern rim. A small crater with a high albedo lies along the common rim between Hoffmeister and this satellite. A small crater also lies along the northwestern rim of Hoffmeister. The interior floor of Hoffmeister is relatively featureless. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Hoffmeister.
    7.00
    2 votes
    161
    Mare Ingenii

    Mare Ingenii

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Ingenii ("sea of cleverness") is one of the few lunar mare features on the far side of the Moon. The mare sits in the Ingenii basin. This basin material is of the Pre-Nectarian epoch. The mare material located in Ingenii and the surrounding craters is of the Upper Imbrian epoch. The dark circular feature which dominates this mare is the crater Thomson (112 km diameter), with the overflow from Ingenii/Thomson directly to the east. Mare Ingenii is incompletely and thinly covered over much of its expanse with mare lava sheets. The best flooding occurs in the crater Thomson in the ENE part of the Mare Ingenii basin. The light grey crater to the south of Ingenii is Obruchev. The mare contains the second instance of a lunar pit on the moon and one of several outside the Earth to date.
    7.00
    2 votes
    162
    Mons Bradley

    Mons Bradley

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Mons Bradley is a lunar mountain massif in the Montes Apenninus range, along the eastern edge of the Mare Imbrium. It is located to the west of the crater Conon. To the west of this peak is the Rima Bradley rille. (See below.) The selenographic coordinates of this peak are 22.0° N, 1.0° E. It has a maximum diameter of 30 km across the base, and rises to a height of about 4.2 km. It is named after the English astronomer James Bradley (1692–1762). This is a graben-type rille located in the southeastern part of the Mare Imbrium, near the Montes Apenninus range. To the northwest is the prominent crater Archimedes. This rille follows a course to the southwest, starting at the Palus Putredinis, and cutting through a hummocky region. To the east of the northern end of this rille is Rima Hadley and the landing site of the Apollo 15 mission. This feature is centered at selenographic coordinates 23.8° N, 1.2° W, and it has a maximum diameter of 161 km. The rille was named for the nearby Mons Bradley. Several tiny craters near this rille have been assigned names by the IAU. These are listed in the table below.
    7.00
    2 votes
    163
    Cleostratus

    Cleostratus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Cleostratus is a lunar crater near the northwest limb of the Moon. It lies to the northeast of the crater Xenophanes, and west-southwest of the prominent Pythagoras. From the Earth this crater appears highly elongated due to foreshortening. The rim of this crater has become soft-shouldered due to steady impact erosion, and the formation is now just a depression in the surface surrounded by an eroded rise. A pair of small craters lie across the southwest rim, forming part of a short chain of craters leading to the west. Along the crest of the southern rim is a linear ridge. The satellite crater Cleostratus E is attached to the northwest rim, and intrudes slightly into the inner wall. The interior floor of this crater is flat and nearly featureless, having only a few tiny craterlets marking the surface. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Cleostratus.
    6.00
    3 votes
    164
    Geiger

    Geiger

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Geiger is a lunar crater on the far side of the Moon. It lies to the southwest of the much larger walled plain Keeler, and slightly farther to the northeast of the huge walled plain Gagarin. To the south is the crater Cyrano. This is a not-quite symmetrical crater formation with small outward bulges along the north and northeast. The rim to the southeast is less well-formed than elsewhere. The northern inner wall is more extensive than elsewhere, slumping across about one-third the inner floor. The interior is otherwise relatively level and is marked by a few tiny craterlets. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Geiger.
    6.00
    3 votes
    165
    Goldschmidt

    Goldschmidt

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Goldschmidt is a large lunar crater of the variety commonly termed a walled plain. It lies in the northern part of the Moon's near side, and appears oval in shape due to foreshortening. The rim is actually relatively circular, although the western rim is overlain by the prominent crater Anaxagoras. Nearly attached to the southeast rim is Barrow, and the two formations are separated by a rugged rise about 30 kilometers across. Further to the south is Epigenes. The heavily eroded outer rim of Goldschmidt is rugged and irregular, with an inner wall that is incised in several locations by small impacts. Much of the western rim no longer exists, due to the overlapping Anaxagoras and the smaller Anaxagoras A, and the ejecta from these formations covers the western third of the interior floor. The remaining floor is nearly level and flat, most likely having been resurfaced by lava flows. However the surface is now pock-marked by a multitude of tiny craterlets, the most prominent being the small Goldschmidt A. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Goldschmidt.
    6.00
    3 votes
    166
    Lunar mare

    Lunar mare

    • On celestial object: Moon
    The lunar maria  /ˈmɑriə/ (singular: mare /ˈmɑreɪ/) are large, dark, basaltic plains on Earth's Moon, formed by ancient volcanic eruptions. They were dubbed maria, Latin for "seas", by early astronomers who mistook them for actual seas. They are less reflective than the "highlands" as a result of their iron-rich compositions, and hence appear dark to the naked eye. The maria cover about 16 percent of the lunar surface, mostly on the near-side visible from Earth. The few maria on the far-side are much smaller, residing mostly in very large craters. The traditional nomenclature for the Moon also includes one oceanus (ocean), as well as features with the names lacus (lake), palus (marsh) and sinus (bay). The latter three are smaller than maria, but have the same nature and characteristics. The ages of the mare basalts have been determined both by direct physical dating and by the technique of crater counting. The radiometric ages range from about 3.16 to 4.2 Ga, whereas the youngest ages determined from crater counting are about 1.2 Ga (1 Ga = 1 billion years old). Nevertheless, the majority of mare basalts appear to have erupted between about 3 and 3.5 Ga. The few basaltic eruptions
    6.00
    3 votes
    167
    Messier

    Messier

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Messier is a relatively young lunar impact crater located on the Mare Fecunditatis. The crater has a discernible oblong shape that is not caused by foreshortening. The longer dimension is oriented in an east–west direction. Just to the west lies Messier A, a similar-sized crater with an oblong, doublet form. The longer dimension of this crater is oriented north–south, at right angles to Messier. This crater also has a curved bulge extending to the west. The interiors of Messier and Messier A have a higher albedo than the surrounding mare. There is also a dark streak in the center of each crater. Two prominent, nearly linear rays extend westwards from the rim of Messier A, continuing over 100 kilometers towards the east edge of Mare Fecunditatis. The mare surface around the craters is also lightly marked by rays from other craters. It is theorized that Messier crater was formed by an impact at a very low angle, and that Messier A could have formed following a rebound by the impacting body. The low angle of impact may also explain the asymmetrical ray system. To the northwest of Messier A is a long, narrow rille. This crater is named in honor of the French astronomer Charles Messier
    6.00
    3 votes
    168
    Tycho

    Tycho

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Tycho is a prominent lunar impact crater located in the southern lunar highlands, named after the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601). To the south is the crater Street; to the east is Pictet, and to the north-northeast is Sasserides. The surface around Tycho is replete with craters of various sizes, many overlapping still older craters. Some of the smaller craters are secondary craters formed from larger chunks of ejecta from Tycho. Tycho is a relatively young crater, with an estimated age of 108 million years (Ma), based on analysis of samples of the crater ray recovered during the Apollo 17 mission. This age suggests that the impactor may have been a member of the Baptistina family of asteroids, but as the composition of the impactor is unknown this is currently conjecture. However, simulation studies give a 70 percent probability that the crater was created by a fragment from the same break-up that created asteroid 298 Baptistina; which was previously believed to be responsible for the formation of Chicxulub Crater and the extinction of the dinosaurs. However, that possibility was ruled out by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer in 2011. The crater is sharply defined,
    6.00
    3 votes
    169
    Daedalus

    Daedalus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Daedalus is a prominent crater located near the center of the far side of the Moon. The inner wall is terraced, and there is a cluster of central peaks on the relatively flat floor. Because of its location (shielded from radio emissions from the Earth), it has been proposed as the site of a future giant radio telescope, which would be scooped out of the crater itself, much like the Arecibo radio telescope, but on a vastly larger scale. The crater is named after Daedalus of Greek myth. It is pictured in famous photographs taken by the Apollo 11 astronauts. In contemporary sources it was called "Crater 308" (this was a temporary IAU designation that preceded the establishment of far-side lunar nomenclature). Nearby craters of note include Icarus to the east and Racah to the south. Less than a crater diameter to the north-northeast is Lipskiy. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Daedalus.
    5.00
    4 votes
    170
    Moigno

    Moigno

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Moigno is a lunar crater that is located in the northern part of the Moon's near side. It lies just to the west of the crater Arnold, and southeast of Neison. The low rim of this crater is worn and eroded, until it is nearly level with the surrounding terrain. The perimeter is only roughly circular, and there are notches along the inner face of the western side. The interior floor has been resurfaced, leaving a level, nearly featureless plain covering the base of this depression. In the southern end of the floor is the small crater Moigno C. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Moigno.
    5.67
    3 votes
    171
    Airy-0

    Airy-0

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Airy-0 is a crater on Mars whose location defines the position of the prime meridian of that planet. It is about 0.5 kilometres (0.31 mi) across and lies within the larger crater Airy in the region Sinus Meridiani. It was named in honor of the British Astronomer Royal Sir George Biddell Airy (1801-1892), who in 1850 built the transit circle telescope at Greenwich. The location of that telescope was subsequently chosen to define the location of Earth's prime meridian. The selection of this crater as Mars' prime meridian was made by Merton Davies in 1969 based on Mariner 6 and 7 photographs.
    6.50
    2 votes
    172
    Plana

    Plana

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Plana is a lunar crater that lies on the boundary between two small lunar mare areas, with Lacus Mortis to the north and the larger Lacus Somniorum on the southern side. It is joined to the crater Mason to the east by a short stretch of rugged ground. Due north of Plana in the midst of the Lacus Mortis is the prominent crater Bürg. This is a crater with a slender outer rim that has been worn and eroded by impacts. This rim surrounds an interior that has been flooded by basaltic lava, leaving a level surface with only a central peak at the midpoint projecting up through the floor. There is a small craterlet near the eastern rim, but otherwise the interior floor is nearly featureless. The outer rim has some narrow breaks along the northwest, and the side is lower along the southwestern face. A small, circular crater intrudes slightly into the northwestern part of the rim. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Plana.
    6.50
    2 votes
    173
    Rozhdestvenskiy

    Rozhdestvenskiy

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Rozhdestvenskiy is a large lunar crater that is located on the far side of the Moon, within one crater diameter of the north pole. It lies sandwiched between the craters Hermite along the eastern rim, and Plaskett which intrudes slightly into the west-southwestern rim. Just on the opposite side of the pole is the crater Peary. This formation is a large crater of the form called a walled plain. The outer rim is heavily eroded and rugged, with a somewhat polygonal outline. The relatively young crater Rozhdestvenskiy K overlies the southern rim. To the northwest is a short chain of craters that forms a valley penetrating the rim. The interior floor of the crater is relatively level with a central peak formation located to the west of the midpoint. Just to the west of this peak is a pair of small craters on the floor. There is also a small crater to the south of the midpoint, and the surface is marked by many tiny craterlets. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Rozhdestvenskiy.
    6.50
    2 votes
    174
    Alden

    Alden

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Alden is a lunar crater that lies on the far side of the Moon, between Hilbert to the north-northwest and Milne to the south-southeast. To the south-southwest lies Scaliger. Alden has a low rim that is overlain in the north and northeast by Alden C and the smaller Alden E. The rim is worn and eroded, especially along the southern wall. The floor is somewhat irregular and pitted. The small crater Alden V lies just inside the north rim, and is attached to Alden C to the east. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Alden.
    7.00
    1 votes
    175
    Alphonsus

    Alphonsus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Alphonsus is an ancient impact crater on the Moon that dates from the immediate post-Nectarian era. It is located on the lunar highlands on the eastern end of Mare Nubium, west of the Imbrian Highlands, and slightly overlaps the crater Ptolemaeus to the north. The surface is broken and irregular along this boundary. The outer walls are slightly distorted and possess a somewhat hexagonal form. To the northwest is the smaller Alpetragius. A low ridge system of deposited ejecta bisects the crater floor, and includes the steep central peak designated Alphonsus Alpha (α). This pyramid-shaped formation rises to a height of 1.5 km above the interior surface. It is not volcanic in origin, but rather is made of anorthosite like the lunar highlands. The floor is fractured by an elaborate system of rilles and contains three smaller craters surrounded by a symmetric darker halo. These dark-halo craters are cinder cone-shaped and are believed by some to be volcanic in origin, although others think they were caused by impacts that excavated darker mare material from underneath the lighter lunar regolith. Alphonsus was one of the primary alternative landing sites considered for both the Apollo 16
    7.00
    1 votes
    176
    Ares Vallis

    Ares Vallis

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Vallis
    Ares Vallis is an outflow channel on Mars, named after the Greek name for Mars: Ares, the god of war; it appears to have been carved by fluids, perhaps water. The valley 'flows' northwest out of the hilly Margaritifer Terra, where the Iani Chaos depression (180 km long and 200 km wide) is connected to the beginning of Ares Vallis by a 100 km wide transition zone centered around 342.5° East (17.5 West) and 3° North. It then continues through the ancient Xanthe Terra highlands, and ends in a delta-like region of Chryse Planitia. Ares Vallis was the landing site of NASA's Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, which studied a region of the valley near the border with Chryse in 1997. It has been argued that Uzboi, Ladon, Margaritifer and Ares Valles, although now separated by large craters, once comprised a single outflow channel flowing north into Chryse Planitia. The source of this outflow has been suggested as overflow from the Argyre crater, formerly filled to the brim as a lake by channels (Surius, Dzigai, and Palacopus Valles) draining down from the south pole. If real, the full length of this drainage system would be over 8000 km, the longest known drainage path in the solar system. Under
    7.00
    1 votes
    177
    Cauchy

    Cauchy

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Cauchy is a small lunar impact crater on the eastern Mare Tranquillitatis. It is circular and symmetric, with a small interior floor at the midpoint of the sloping inner walls. Due to the high albedo of this bowl-shaped formation, it is particularly prominent at full Moon. Just to the northeast of the rim of this crater is the wide rille named Rima Cauchy, a 210-kilometer-long cleft following a line to the northwest. Southwest of Cauchy is a 120-km fault in the surface named the Rupes Cauchy. This wall parallels the Rima Cauchy to the northwest. South of Rupes Cauchy are two lunar domes designated Omega (ω) Cauchy and Tau (τ) Cauchy. They lie to the south and southwest of Cauchy respectively. Each lunar dome has a tiny craterlet at its crest. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Cauchy.
    7.00
    1 votes
    178
    Mare Orientale

    Mare Orientale

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Orientale ("eastern sea" in Latin) is a Lunar mare. It is located on the western border of the Moon's nearside and farside and is thus difficult to see from an Earthbound perspective. Images from spacecraft have revealed it to be one of the most striking large scale lunar features, resembling a target ring bullseye. During the 1960s, rectified images of Mare Orientale by Gerard Kuiper at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory gave rise to the notion of it being an impact crater. The mare is about 900 kilometres (560 mi) across and was formed by the impact of an asteroid-sized object. Unlike most other basins on the Moon, Orientale is relatively unflooded by mare basalts, exposing much of the basin structure to view; the central portion of Mare Orientale is covered by a thin layer of mare basalt probably less than 1 kilometer deep, much less than in other nearside mare basins. The collision caused ripples in the lunar crust, resulting in the three concentric circular features. The innermost rings of this vast, multi-ringed crater are the inner and outer Montes Rook, and the outermost ring are the Montes Cordillera, 930 km in diameter. Basin ejecta begins just outside the Montes
    7.00
    1 votes
    179
    Ptolemaeus

    Ptolemaeus

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Ptolemaeus is an ancient lunar impact crater close to the center of the near side. To the south-southeast Ptolemaeus is joined to the rim of the crater Alphonsus by a section of rugged, irregular terrain, and these form a prominent chain with Arzachel to the south. To the southeast is Albategnius and to the north is the smaller but well-defined Herschel. The features of Ptolemaeus are highlighted when the Sun is at low angles during the first and last quarter. At full Moon the Sun is directly overhead and the crater contours become more difficult to discern. The crater has a low, irregular outer rim that is heavily worn and impacted with multiple smaller craters. The rim has a discernibly polygonal shape, although overall it remains circular. The largest of the peaks along the rim, designated Ptolemaeus Gamma (γ), has an altitude of 2.9 km and is located along the northwest rim. The crater has no central peak, a lava-flooded floor, and lacks a ray system. Impact sites of this form are often classified as walled plains, due to their resemblance to the maria. The somewhat dark-hued floor of Ptolemaeus is notable for several ghost craters, formed where lava has covered a pre-existing
    7.00
    1 votes
    180
    Melas Chasma

    Melas Chasma

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Chasma
    Melas Chasma is a canyon on Mars, the widest segment of the Valles Marineris canyon system, located east of Ius Chasma at 9.8°S, 283.6°E. It cuts through layered deposits that are thought to be sediments from an old lake that resulted from runoff of the valley networks to the west. Other theories include windblown sediment deposits and volcanic ash. Support for abundant, past water in Melas Chasma is the discovery by MRO of hydrated sulfates. In addition, sulfate and iron oxides were found by the same satellite. The floor of Melas Chasma is about 70% younger massive material that is thought to be volcanic ash whipped up by the wind into eolian features. It also contains rough floor material from the erosion of the canyon walls. Around the edges of Melas is also a lot of slide material. This is also the deepest part of the Valles Marineris system at eleven kilometers deep from the surrounding surface, from here to the outflow channels are about a 0.03 degree slope upward to the northern plains, which means that if you filled the canyon with fluid, would have a lake with a depth of one kilometer before the fluid would flow out onto the northern plains. The canyon's depth suggests
    5.33
    3 votes
    181
    Rupes Recta

    Rupes Recta

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Rupes
    Rupes Recta is a linear fault, or rille, on the Moon, in the southeastern part of the Mare Nubium at 22°06′S 7°48′W / 22.1°S 7.8°W / -22.1; -7.8. The name is Latin for "Straight Fault", although it is more commonly called the Straight Wall. This is the most well-known escarpment on the Moon, and is a popular target for amateur astronomers. When the sun illuminates the feature at an oblique angle at about day 8 of the Moon's orbit, the Rupes Recta casts a wide shadow that gives it the appearance of a steep cliff. The fault has a length of 110 km, a typical width of 2–3 km, and a height of 240–300 m. Thus although it appears to be a vertical cliff in the lunar surface, in actuality the grade of the slope is relatively shallow. To the west of this escarpment is the crater Birt, which is about 17 km in diameter. Also to the west is the Rima Birt rille. At the southern end is a group of hills often called the "Stag's-Horn Mountains", although this name is not officially recognized by the IAU. To the northeast is the crater Alpetragius, and to the east is Thebit.
    5.33
    3 votes
    182
    Boyle

    Boyle

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Boyle is a lunar impact crater that is located in the southern hemisphere on the rugged far side of the Moon. It is adjacent to the larger crater Hess to the southeast, and lies about mid-way between the craters Alder to the north-northeast and Abbe to the south-southwest. The outer rim of Boyle is nearly circular, and displays some slumping around the interior. Most of the rim is sharp-edged and displays little appearance of wear due to subsequent impacts. The southern rim, however, is overlain by a wide, irregular groove in the surface that follows a course from east to west along the rim. There is also an overlapping formation of tiny craterlets overlapping the narrow strip of terrain that joins Boyle to Hess. The interior of the crater is relatively flat, with a long, low central ridge at the midpoint. This rise is aligned in a linear formation from southwest to northeast. There is a tiny craterlet near the eastern rim, but the interior is otherwise undistinguished. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Boyle.
    6.00
    2 votes
    183
    Mare Nectaris

    Mare Nectaris

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    The Sea of Nectar (Mare Nectaris) is a small lunar mare or sea (a volcanic lava plain noticeably darker than the rest of the Moon's surface) located between the Sea of Tranquility (Mare Tranquillatis) and the Sea of Fecundity (Mare Fecunditatis). Montes Pyrenaeus borders the mare to the west and the large crater near the south center of the mare is known as Rosse. It is 101,000 square kilometers in size and constitutes a gulf of the Sea of Tranquility. The mare material is approximately 1000m in depth, and mainly of the Nectarian period and the Lower Imbrian epoch, with the mare material of the Upper Imbrian epoch. The crater Theophilus on the northeastern side of the mare is of the Eratosthenian period. Thus, the crater is younger than the mare to its southeast. Enough subsidence has occurred to open a few arcuate grabens on the western margin of the mare.
    6.00
    2 votes
    184
    Mons La Hire

    Mons La Hire

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Mons La Hire is a solitary lunar mountain in the western Mare Imbrium. It is located to the northeast of the crater Euler, and to the west-northwest of Lambert. The selenographic coordinates of this feature are 27.8° N, 25.5° W, and it has a maximum diameter at the base of 25 km. The mountain base has a shape roughly like an arrow head, with the point oriented toward the west-northwest. The peak has a height of 1.5 km above the surface. This feature was named after Philippe de la Hire, a French mathematician and astronomer. Several tiny craters near this mountain have been assigned names by the IAU. These are listed in the table below. Felix and Verne are located to the south of the peak, while the remainder are grouped to the north and northeast. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Mons La Hire.
    6.00
    2 votes
    185
    Behaim

    Behaim

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Behaim is a lunar impact crater that is located near the eastern limb of the Moon, just to the south of the crater Ansgarius. To the south of Behaim is the crater Hecataeus, and to the east-southeast is Gibbs. The inner walls along the rim of Behaim still displays traces of old, worn terraces. The rim has received a negligible amount of wear from subsequent bombardment, but does not form a circular shape due to an inward bulge along the northern wall. The crater has a notable central peak at the midpoint of the interior floor. A cleft-like feature crosses the southern rim and continues to the south. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Behaim.
    5.00
    3 votes
    186
    Carmichael

    Carmichael

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Carmichael is a lunar impact crater that is located along the eastern edge of the Sinus Amoris, in the northeastern quadrant of the Moon's near side. It lies within a couple of crater diameters south-southwest of the smaller crater Hill. Further to the east-northeast is the prominent crater Macrobius. Carmichael was designated Macrobius A before being given its current name by the IAU. Carmichael is generally circular, with a small floor at the middle of the sloping interior walls. There is a low rise of scree along the southeast inner wall. The crater is free of notable impacts along the rim or the interior, although a tiny craterlet is situated in the lunar mare just outside the rim to the south-southwest.
    5.00
    3 votes
    187
    Daguerre

    Daguerre

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Daguerre is a circular formation near the north end of Mare Nectaris. To the west-northwest is the crater Mädler, and beyond it to the west is the prominent Theophilus. To the north in the rugged continental area between the maria is Isidorus. This feature has the appearance of a lunar crater that has been nearly submerged by a lava flow, leaving a gap in the southwest wall that gives the feature the shape of a horse-shoe. The floor is overlaid by the linear ray from Mädler. The maximum altitude of the surviving rim is 1.5 km. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Daguerre.
    5.00
    3 votes
    188
    Mason

    Mason

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Mason is the remains of a lunar crater that lies in the northeastern part of the Moon. It is nearly attached to the eastern rim of the flooded crater Plana, and southeast of Bürg. Along the northern rim of Mason is the southern edge of the Lacus Mortis, a small lunar mare. To the south is the larger Lacus Somniorum. This is a heavily eroded crater formation that is somewhat irregular in shape, being longer in the east–west direction. The rim is an uneven, disintegrated ring of ridges that have merged with the rough terrain to the south and east. There are clefts or valleys in the western rim that reach the eastern rim of Plana. The interior floor has been resurfaced by lava, and forms a nearly level basin within the rim. The small crater Mason A lies in the northwest part of the floor. The crater is named after the English astronomer Charles Mason. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Mason.
    5.00
    3 votes
    189
    Ansgarius

    Ansgarius

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Ansgarius is a lunar impact crater that is located near the eastern limb of the Moon. When viewed from the Earth, the crater has a highly oval shape due to foreshortening, but the rim is actually nearly circular. To the northwest of Ansgarius is the crater La Pérouse, and south is Behaim. The rim of Ansgarius is not significantly worn, and has a terraced interior surface. The southwest rim appears somewhat flattened rather than round, and intrudes into an older formation of which little remains except the western rim. There is an outward notch in the north-northeastern wall. The interior floor of Ansgarius is relatively flat, with only tiny craterlets to mark the surface. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Ansgarius.
    5.50
    2 votes
    190
    Faustini

    Faustini

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Faustini is a lunar crater that lies near the south pole of the Moon. It is located nearly due south of the much larger crater Amundsen, and is almost attached to Shoemaker to the southwest. About one crater diameter due south is the smaller crater Shackleton at the south pole. A small crater is attached to the eastern rim of Faustini. Due to its location, sunlight reaches the rim of this crater at a very low angle, leaving the interior in permanent darkness. As a result the crater floor has never been observed by orbiting spacecraft, although it has been roughly mapped by radar. The lack of illumination by the Sun, the interior remains at a permanent temperature below 100 kelvins, cold enough to trap any water vapor that reaches the crater following comet impacts on the Moon. The Lunar Prospector spacecraft carried a neutron spectrometer that could be used to detect the presence of large concentrations of hydrogen. The cold trap within Faustini was identified as having a high concentration of hydrogen, relative to the norm for the lunar surface. However, radar observations of this crater failed to detect ice.
    5.50
    2 votes
    191
    Meton

    Meton

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Meton is a compound formation on the Moon that consists of several merged crater rings that have been flooded with lava, forming the remnant of a walled plain in the shape of a clover leaf. It is located near the northern lunar lumb, and is viewed from a low angle and foreshortened. The crater Barrow is attached to the southwest rim. To the northwest is the crater Scoresby, and to the east are Baillaud and Euctemon. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Meton.
    5.50
    2 votes
    192
    Montes Carpatus

    Montes Carpatus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Montes Carpatus is a mountain range that forms the southern edge of the Mare Imbrium on the Moon. The selenographic coordinates of this range are 14.5° N, 24.4° W, and the formation has an overall diameter of 361 km (224 mi). They were named after the Carpathian Mountains in Central Europe. This rugged range generally stretches from west to east. The western end begins in the vicinity of the crater T. Mayer, although a few low ridges curve northwards towards Euler crater. At the eastern extreme is a wide gap where Mare Imbrium in the north joins Mare Insularum to the south. Starting at the east side of this gap are the Montes Apenninus, another mountainous range that curves up towards the northeast. Most of this range consists of a series of peaks and rises, separated by valleys that have been penetrated by lava flows. None of the peaks have received individual names, unless one includes Mons Vinogradov to the west of the crater Euler. The surface to the north of the range is nearly level lunar mare, broken only by the occasional wrinkle ridge or minor impact crater. The region south of the range is somewhat rougher, although still covered by lava flows. About 100 kilometers south
    5.50
    2 votes
    193
    Philolaus

    Philolaus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Philolaus is a lunar impact crater that is located in the northern part of the Moon's near side. It lies within one crater diameter to the east-southeast of the flooded crater Anaximenes, and to the west of the smaller Anaxagoras. It overlies the older and heavily worn Philolaus C to the south. This crater retains a well-defined form that has not changed significantly since it was originally created. The outer rim edge is roughly circular, but with a somewhat irregular edge that displays signs of slumping. The most notable slump is a triangular area along the eastern rim. The inner wall of the crater has a complex system of terraces with a sharp-edged rim in locations where slumping has occurred. On the exterior of the rim is an outer rampart that extends outwards for nearly half a crater diameter in all directions. The interior floor is irregular with rough areas about the center and to the northeast. There is no single central peak, but rather a pair of peaks offset to the south and the east of the middle. There is also a smaller ridge pair offset to the northwest. The flattest part of the interior floor is in the northeast of the crater interior. The floor is not significantly
    5.50
    2 votes
    194
    Rille

    Rille

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Rille (German for 'groove') is typically used to describe any of the long, narrow depressions in the lunar surface that resemble channels. Typically a rille can be up to several kilometers wide and hundreds of kilometers in length. However, the term has also been used loosely to describe similar structures on a number of planets in the Solar System, including Mars, Venus, and on a number of moons. All bear a structural resemblance to each other. Three types of rille are found on the lunar surface: Rilles which show more than one structure are termed hybrid rilles. Rima Hyginus in Sinus Medii is an example, initially formed through a fault and subsequently subject to volcanic activity. Precise formation mechanisms of rilles have yet to be determined. It is likely that different types formed by different processes. Common features shared by lunar rilles and similar structures on other bodies suggest that common causative mechanisms operate widely in the solar system. Leading theories include lava channels, collapsed lava tubes, near-surface dike intrusion, nuee ardente (pyroclastic cloud), subsidence of lava-covered basin and crater floors, and tectonic extension. On-site examination
    5.50
    2 votes
    195
    Sinus Iridum

    Sinus Iridum

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Sinus Iridum (Latin for "Bay of Rainbows") is a plain of basaltic lava that forms a northwestern extension to the Mare Imbrium. It is surrounded from the northeast to the southwest by the Montes Jura range. The protruding part of the range at the southwest end is named Promontorium Heraclides, while that at the northeast end is called Promontorium Laplace. This bay and the surrounding mountains is considered one of the most beautiful features on the Moon, and is a favorite among lunar observers. Sinus Iridum does not contain any notable impact craters, but does include the satellite crater Heraclides E in the south, Laplace A along the eastern edge, and Bianchini G in the north. The surface is level, but is marked by a number of wrinkle ridges. The selenographic coordinates of this bay are 44.1° N, 31.5° W, and the diameter is 236 km. The feature was given the latin name for the Bay of Rainbows by Giovanni Riccioli. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Promontorium Heraclides. The following satellite craters are associated with the Promontorium Laplace. The Full Moon Atlas USGS
    5.50
    2 votes
    196
    Abbe

    Abbe

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Abbe is a lunar impact crater that is located in the southern hemisphere on the far side of the Moon. It is located just to the south of the crater Hess, and lies to the east of the large walled basin Poincaré. It is named after the German physicist Ernst Abbe. The outer wall of Abbe is somewhat eroded, with small craters lying across the northwest and southwest rim crests. The interior floor is relatively smooth, with a few tiny craterlets marking the surface. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Abbe.
    6.00
    1 votes
    197
    Bullialdus

    Bullialdus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Bullialdus is a lunar impact crater located in the western part of the Mare Nubium. To the north by north-west is the broken-rimmed and lava-flooded crater Lubiniezky. South-west of Bullialdus lies the smaller crater König. The relatively isolated location of this crater serves to highlight its well-formed shape. Bullialdus has a high outer rim that is circular but observers have noted a slightly polygonal appearance. The inner walls are terraced and contain many signs of landslips. The outer ramparts are covered in a wide ejecta blanket that highlights a radial pattern of low ridges and valleys. In the center of the crater is a formation of several peaks and rises that climb to over a kilometer in height. A raised ridge runs from the peaks to the south-east, until finally merging with the inner wall. The floor of the crater is generally rough with many low rises. Overall it has a somewhat convex shape, bulging upward toward the middle. When the Sun is at a high angle, the rim and central mountains appear brighter than the surroundings, and white patches can be viewed on the crater floor. Infrared studies of the crater region have revealed at least three layers of strata. The
    6.00
    1 votes
    198
    Levi-Civita

    Levi-Civita

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Levi-Civita is a lunar crater formation that lies on the far side of the Moon. It is located just to the southwest of the large walled plain Gagarin, and nearly as close to the crater Pavlov to the south-southwest. To the northwest of Levi-Civita lies the smaller crater Pirquet. This is an eroded crater formation with smaller impacts along the rim and within the interior. The southern rim closest to Pavlov is the most eroded section, with multiple small craterlets along the edge and near the inner wall. Along the eastern rim is the satellite crater Levi-Civita F. The interior floor, although relatively level, is pitted by a number of small craterlets. There is a central ridge near the midpoint of the crater. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Levi-Civita.
    6.00
    1 votes
    199
    Mare Australe

    Mare Australe

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Australe (the "Southern Sea") is a lunar mare located in the southeastern hemisphere of the Moon. It is 603 kilometers in diameter, overlapping the near and far sides of the Moon. Smooth, dark volcanic basalt lines the bottom of the mare. The Australe basin was formed in the Pre-Nectarian epoch, while the mare material inside formed in the Upper Imbrian epoch. Unlike most of the lunar maria, Mare Australe has an uneven surface that is marked by a number of crater impacts. Examples of these include the craters Jenner and Lamb, which are flooded with basaltic lava much like many of the other crater features in this mare. The selenographic coordinates of this mare are 38.9° S, 93.0° E. The eastern half of the mare lies on the far side of the Moon, although it can be viewed in its entirety during periods of favorable libration.
    6.00
    1 votes
    200
    Paracelsus

    Paracelsus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Paracelsus is an impact crater on the Moon's far side. It is located to the east of the crater Barbier, and to the southwest of the large walled plain Vertregt. To the south is the Mare Ingenii, one of the few lunar maria on the far side. This is a circular crater with the smaller Paracelsus Y intruding into its northwestern rim. Attached to the southwest exterior is Paracelsus P. The rim of Paracelsus is eroded, although the edge is still moderately well-defined. There is little evident terrace structure along the inner wall, and in places the features are radial to the center. The interior floor is level, with a central peak offset slightly to the west of the midpoint. There are a few tiny craterlets in the southern half of the floor. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Paracelsus.
    6.00
    1 votes
    201
    Shoemaker

    Shoemaker

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Shoemaker is a lunar crater that is located near the southern pole of the Moon, within half a crater diameter of Shackleton. It lies to the south of the crater Malapert, to the east of Haworth, and just to the west of the similar-sized Faustini. The rim of Shoemaker is circular and worn, with some small craters along the inner wall. Due to the lack of illumination, the albedo of the interior floor surface remains unknown. Prior to being given its current name by the IAU, this formation had been informally named Mawson (after the Antarctic explorer Douglas Mawson). It was officially named Shoemaker in honor of Eugene Shoemaker, the geologist whose remains were on board the Lunar Prospector spacecraft that impacted this crater floor. This crater became of interest to scientists when the Lunar Prospector detected unusually high concentrations of hydrogen on the floor of this and other nearby craters using a neutron spectrometer. The floor of this crater is kept in permanent shadow from the Sun, and thus maintains a temperature below 100 K. Thus the floor forms a cold trap, and any molecules of water that wander into the crater from cometary impacts can deposit on the floor and remain
    6.00
    1 votes
    202
    Trouvelot

    Trouvelot

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Trouvelot is a lunar impact crater located to the south of the Mare Frigoris. It is a bowl-shaped formation with a higher albedo than its surroundings. The rim is roughly circular, but somewhat uneven. It has not been significantly eroded by subsequent impacts. The crater lies less than 10 kilometers to the south of the Vallis Alpes canyon formation. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Trouvelot.
    6.00
    1 votes
    203
    Montes Rook

    Montes Rook

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Montes Rook is a ring-shaped mountain range that lies along the western limb of the Moon, crossing over to the far side. It completely encircles the Mare Orientale, and forms part of a massive impact basin feature. This range in turn is encircled by the larger Montes Cordillera, which is separated from the Montes Rook by a rugged, ring-shaped plain. The Montes Rook is actually a double-ring formation, sometimes divided into the outer Rook and the inner Rook. Sections of the gap between these sub-ranges contain long valleys filled in places with basaltic lava, forming small lunar maria. One such section along the northeastern part of the range has been named Lacus Veris. The selenographic coordinates of this range are 20.6° S, 82.5° W, and the diameter is 791 km. The range was named after the English astronomer Lawrence Rook. Due to its location this range is viewed from the edge from Earth, and not much detail can be seen. However a partial view of the range can be obtained by projecting the surface of a globe. This rectified map was used to identify the Mare Orientale impact basin. Several named craters are embedded within the Montes Rook. Near the southwest outer edge are the
    4.33
    3 votes
    204
    Aitken

    Aitken

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Aitken is a large lunar impact crater that lies on the far side of the Moon, named for Robert Grant Aitken, an American astronomer specializing in binary stellar systems. It is located to the southeast of the crater Heaviside, and north of the unusual formation Van de Graaff. Attached to the southwest rim is Vertregt. To the southeast is the smaller Bergstrand. The inner wall of Aitken is terraced, and varies notably in width with the narrowest portion in the southwest. The crater Aitken Z lies across the inner north wall. Just to the north of the rim is the small crater Aitken A, which is surrounded by an ejecta blanket of lighter-albedo material. The interior floor has been resurfaced in the past by a darker lava flow, especially in the southern half. There are also several small crater impacts on the eastern floor, an arcing central ridge line just to the east of the midpoint, and a line of smaller ridges in the western half. This crater lies along the northern rim of the immense South Pole-Aitken basin, which was named after this crater and the southern lunar pole, the two extreme points of the feature. By convention these features are identified on Lunar maps by placing the
    5.00
    2 votes
    205
    De Vries

    De Vries

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    De Vries is a lunar impact crater on the far side of the Moon relative to the Earth. It lies about mid-way between the craters Racah to the north-northwest and Orlov to the south-southeast. An nameless walled plain lies between De Vries and Orlov, with the perimeter of this feature joining the two rims. This crater is not significantly eroded, although a small crater is attached to the exterior of the northern rim. Within the somewhat interior floor is a broad central rise offset just to the northeast of the midpoint. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to De Vries.
    5.00
    2 votes
    206
    Smoky Mountains

    Smoky Mountains

    • On celestial object: Moon
    The Smoky Mountains are a small range of mountains on the Moon near the Apollo 16 landing site.
    5.00
    2 votes
    207
    Tracy's Rock

    Tracy's Rock

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Rock
    Tracy's Rock, known as Split Rock or the Station 6 Boulder in the scientific literature, is a large boulder visited by the Apollo 17 crew on December 13, 1972 at their Taurus-Littrow landing site. "Tracy's Rock" is its popular name. Scientist-astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt and mission commander Eugene A. Cernan spent considerable time studying the rock and its vicinity at station 6 during their third Extravehicular Activity (EVA-3). At about 165:33:38, Cernan took a series of photos from higher up the hill. In this photomontage, Schmitt is standing to the left of the rock and the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) is parked to the right. The Tracy's Rock/Station 6 panorama is also featured in David Harland's "Geology 101 Field Trip" on the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal's "Fun Images" page. The patch of dirt on the north face of the boulder is the subject of a painting by Apollo 12 astronaut Alan Bean. Bean took up a career as a professional artist after he left the Astronaut Corps and, in the years since, he has developed a considerable reputation as a space artist. As a result of the particular painting in question, those who know the story call the Station 6 boulder "Tracy's Rock". Tracy
    4.00
    3 votes
    208
    Fox

    Fox

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Fox is a small lunar crater on the far side of the Moon. It lies near the northern rim of the crater Wyld, and to the southeast of Babcock. This crater is bowl-shaped, with a roughly circular rim, simple sloping walls and a relatively level, featureless interior. There is some talus along the northern inner wall. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Fox.
    4.50
    2 votes
    209
    Mons Penck

    Mons Penck

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Mons Penck is a mountain promontory on the near side of the Moon. It lies just to the northeast of the crater Kant, to the north of Ibn-Rushd and the Rupes Altai scarp. Southeast of Mons Penck are the prominent craters Theophilus and Cyrillus. The selenographic coordinates of this peak are 10.0° S, 21.6° E. It has a diameter of about 30 km at the base and climbs to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 feet). It was named after Albrecht Penck (1858–1945), a German geographer and geologist.
    4.50
    2 votes
    210
    Albategnius

    Albategnius

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Albategnius is an ancient lunar impact crater located in the central highlands. It is named after the Latin nickname for the Muslim astronomer and scientist Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī. The level interior of Albategnius forms a walled plain, surrounded by the high, terraced rim. The outer wall is somewhat hexagon-shaped, and has been heavily eroded with impacts, valleys and landslips. It attains a height above 4,000 metres along the northeast face. The rim is broken in the southwest by the smaller crater Klein. Offset to the west of the crater's midpoint is its central peak, designated Alpha (α) Albategnius. It is longest in extent in the north-south direction, extending for just under 20 kilometres, and has a width about half that. The peak rises to an altitude of roughly 1.5 km, and there is a tiny, relatively fresh crater at the top. Albategnius is located to the south of the crater Hipparchus and to the east of Ptolemaeus and Alphonsus. The surface in this area is marked by a set of nearly parallel scars that form channels running roughly in a north-south line, bent slightly to the southeast. Albategnius is believed to have been featured prominently in an early
    5.00
    1 votes
    211
    Amici

    Amici

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Amici is a lunar impact crater that is located on the rugged far side of the Moon. It lies to the south of the larger crater Icarus, to the north of McKellar. The rim of Amici has been eroded and distorted by subsequent impacts, so that is now has a somewhat polygonal shape. It has a valley at the southern end that extends toward the satellite crater Amici M. The interior floor has no notable impact formations, but is pock-marked by tiny craterlets. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Amici.
    5.00
    1 votes
    212
    Bel'kovich

    Bel'kovich

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Bel'kovich is a large lunar crater of the form termed a walled plain. The formation has been heavily eroded by a history of subsequent impacts, leaving it reshaped, worn, and the features softened and rounded. Bel'kovich is located along the northeastern limb of the Moon, and so its visibility is subject to libration effects. From the Earth this crater is viewed from the side, making it difficult to view it in detail. Bel'kovich intrudes into the northeast portion of the Mare Humboldtianum, and the mare area outside the rim consists of hilly, irregular surface that covers much of the northern half of the lunar mare. The younger crater Hayn intrudes into the northwest rim of Bel'kovich, and the satellite crater Bel'kovich K lies across the northeast rim. In the south, the lava-flooded crater Bel'kovich A cuts across the southern rim, and its western rim is overlain in turn by the small, bowl-shaped Bel'kovich B. Apart from the intersecting crater formations, the outer rim of Bel'kovich has been degraded and reshaped until it now consists of a roughly circular range of mountains and hills. The northern and northeastern parts of the crater floor and rim is an irregular surface of many
    5.00
    1 votes
    213
    Curie

    Curie

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Curie is a large lunar crater, much of which lies on the far side of the Moon as seen from the Earth. The western rim projects into the near side of the Moon, as defined by the selenographic coordinate system. However the visibility of this formation depends on the effects of libration, so that it can be brought fully into view or completely hidden depending on the orientation of the Moon. When visible, however, it is seen nearly from the side, limiting the amount of detail that can be observed. Nearby craters of note include Schorr to the northwest and the walled plain Sklodowska to the northeast. Attached to the southeastern rim is the heavily damaged walled plain Lauritsen. Both Sklodowska and Lauritsen are smaller than Curie. The outer rim of Curie has been damaged and reshaped by nearby impacts. The sides of the rim are relatively linear, giving the crater an overall box-like shape. The eastern part of the rim is partly overlaid by the notable satellite craters Curie C to the northeast and Curie G along the east. At the northern end the rim is overlaid by the small crater Curie Z. Several other small craters lie along the rim, especially to the southwest. The interior floor of
    5.00
    1 votes
    214
    Hun Kal

    Hun Kal

    • On celestial object: Mercury
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Hun Kal is a small crater on Mercury that serves as the reference point for the planet's system of longitude. The longitude of Hun Kal's center is defined as being 20° W, thus establishing the planet's prime meridian. Hun Kal was chosen as a reference point since the actual prime meridian was in shadow when Mariner 10 photographed the region, hiding any features near 0° longitude from view. Hun Kal is about 1.5 km in diameter. The name "Hun Kal" means '20' in the language of the Maya.
    5.00
    1 votes
    215
    Isidis Planitia

    Isidis Planitia

    • On celestial object: Mars
    • Type of planetographic feature: Planitia
    Isidis Planitia is a plain located inside a giant impact basin on Mars, centered at 12°54′N 87°00′E / 12.9°N 87.0°E / 12.9; 87.0. It is the third biggest impact structure on the planet after the Hellas and Argyre basins – it is about 1500 km in diameter. Due to dust coverage, it typically appears bright in telescopic views, and was mapped as a classical albedo feature, Isidis Regio, visible by telescope in the pre-spacecraft era. The Beagle 2 lander was about to land in the eastern part of Isidis Planitia in December 2003 when contact with the craft was lost. Just to the west of Isidis is Syrtis Major Planum, a low-relief shield volcano that is also a prominent dark albedo feature of Mars, which formed after the basin. Around the Isidis basin magnesium carbonate was found by MRO. This mineral indicates that water was present and that it was not acid. Life may have formed in this area. The name "Isidis Planitia" follows the earlier name Isidis Regio ("Isis' Region"). Isis is the Egyptian goddess of heaven and fertility.
    5.00
    1 votes
    216
    Kant

    Kant

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Kant is a small lunar impact crater that is located to the northwest of the prominent crater Cyrillus and the comparably sized Ibn Rushd. To the northwest is Zöllner, and to the east is Mons Penck. This last feature forms a mountainous promontory reaching a height of about 4 km. This crater has a well-defined and somewhat uneven rim that is roughly circular in shape. The inner walls have a higher albedo than the surrounding surface, giving them a lighter appearance. Parts of the inner wall have slumped across the inner floor, producing an irregular surface. At the midpoint of the interior is a low central rise. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Kant.
    5.00
    1 votes
    217
    Litke

    Litke

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Litke is a lunar crater that lies within the large walled plain Fermi, near the north-northwestern inner rim. Less than one crater diameter to the west-northwest is the slightly larger Delporte. Litke is located on the far side of the Moon and cannot be viewed directly from the Earth. The rim of Litke is circular to the east and south, but the northern and western rims have been pushed inward somewhat. The west rim is irregular and broken through by a pair of worn depressions. Along the northern side slumped deposits form a pile along the base of the inner wall. A small craterlet lies along the southern rim and a small crater is attached to the exterior along the eastern side. The interior floor of litke has a low scarp that is nearly concentric with the eastern and southern sides. There is a small crater located on the interior floor just to the east of the midpoint.
    5.00
    1 votes
    218
    Montes Apenninus

    Montes Apenninus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Montes Apenninus are a rugged mountain range on the northern part of the Moon's near side. They are named after the Apennine Mountains in Italy. This range forms the southeastern border of the large Mare Imbrium lunar mare and the northwestern border of the Terra Nivium highland region. It begins just to the west of the prominent crater Eratosthenes, which abuts against the southern face of the range. To the west of these mountains is a narrow gap where Mare Imbrium in the north joins Mare Insularum to the south. Further to the west are the Montes Carpatus mountains. From Eratosthenes, the mountains form an arcing chain that gradually bends from east to northeast, ending at Promontorium Fresnel at about latitude 29.5° N. Here is another gap where the Mare Imbrium to the west joins the Mare Serenitatis to the east. At the north end of this gap lie the Montes Caucasus. This range contains several mountains that have received names, listed below ranging from west to northeast: The last two peaks are perhaps most famous for forming the valley where the Apollo 15 mission made its landing. This landing was considered one of the most scientifically successful missions of the Apollo
    5.00
    1 votes
    219
    Montes Pyrenaeus

    Montes Pyrenaeus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Montes Pyrenaeus is a mountain range on the Moon. The range begins at the southwestern rim of the flooded crater Gutenberg at the northern end and extends southward bordering the eastern edge of Mare Nectaris. The selenographic coordinates of this range are 15.6° S, 41.2° E, and it lies within a diameter of 164 km. Johannes Mädler gave this range the Latin name for the Pyrenees Mountains that lie along the border between France and Spain. The name is also a pun and involves a homonym/homophone, as it could refer to a type of cheese.
    4.00
    2 votes
    220
    Aristarchus

    Aristarchus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Aristarchus is a prominent lunar impact crater that lies in the northwest part of the Moon's near side. It is considered the brightest of the large formations on the lunar surface, with an albedo nearly double that of most lunar features. The feature is bright enough to be visible to the naked eye, and is dazzling in a large telescope. It is also readily identified when most of the lunar surface is illuminated by earthshine. The crater is located at the southeastern edge of the Aristarchus plateau, an elevated area that contains a number of volcanic features, such as sinuous rilles. This area is also noted for the large number of reported transient lunar phenomena, as well as recent emissions of radon gas as measured by the Lunar Prospector spacecraft. Aristarchus was originally named after the Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos by the Italian map maker Giovanni Riccioli. His work Almagestum novum ("New Almagest"), published in 1651, gave the spot-shaped telescopic features (later called craters) eponyms of noted astronomers and philosophers. Although it was already widely adopted, the name didn't become an official international standard until a vote by the IAU General Assembly
    4.00
    1 votes
    221
    Atlas

    Atlas

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Atlas is a prominent lunar impact crater that is located in the northeast part of the Moon, to the southeast of Mare Frigoris. Just to the west is the slightly smaller but still prominent crater Hercules. Northeast of Atlas is the large Endymion. The inner wall of Atlas is multiply terraced and the edge slumped, forming a sharp-edged lip. This is a floor-fractured crater with a rough and hilly interior that has a lighter albedo than the surroundings. Floor-fractures are usually created as a result of volcanic modifications. There are two dark patches along the inner edge of the walls; one along the north edge and another besides the southeast edges. A system of slender clefts named the Rimae Atlas crosses the crater floor, and were created by volcanism. Along the north and northeastern inner sides are a handful of dark-halo craters, most likely due to eruptions. Around the midpoint is a cluster of low central hills arranged in a circular formation. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Atlas.
    4.00
    1 votes
    222
    Dorsum Oppel

    Dorsum Oppel

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Dorsum Oppel is a wrinkle ridge at 18°42′N 52°36′E / 18.7°N 52.6°E / 18.7; 52.6 in Mare Crisium on the Moon. It is 268 km long and was named after Albert Oppel in 1976.
    4.00
    1 votes
    223
    Gioja

    Gioja

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Gioia is a lunar crater that is located in the vicinity of the north pole of the Moon. It is named after the Italian inventor Flavio Gioia. As it lies so close to the northern limb, it is view nearly from the edge making difficult to observe from the Earth. The crater is attached to the southern rim of the larger Byrd, a formation with low walls. To the south-southeast is the crater Main. The rim of Gioia remains nearly circular, but is worn and somewhat eroded. The exterior ramparts have been modified by subsequent impacts, particularly along the western rim. The rim achieves its high point to the northwest, where it has been reinforced by the rim of the crater Byrd and other since-vanished formations. The interior floor is nearly flat, with a low cleft or ridge running from the midpoint to the north-northeast rim. Several tiny craterlets mark the inner floor, most notably a pair near the west-northwestern inner wall.
    4.00
    1 votes
    224
    Kirkwood

    Kirkwood

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Kirkwood is a well-formed lunar impact crater that is located on the far side of the Moon, on the northern hemisphere. It lies just to the northeast of the crater Sommerfeld, and Hippocrates is located to the east-northeast. The perimeter of this crater is generally circular, with a few slight outward notches particularly to the southeast. It displays very little appearance of wear, and neither the interior nor the outer rampart are marked by any craters of note. The inner wall has slumped somewhat, and has formed a few terrace-like structures. The interior ejecta spreads a good way across the inner floor, covering nearly half the diameter. At the midpoint appear several small hills producing a central peak formation. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Kirkwood.
    4.00
    1 votes
    225
    Lacus Felicitatis

    Lacus Felicitatis

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Felicitatis (latin for "Lake of Happiness") is a small patch of the lunar surface that has been inundated by flows of lava, leaving a level patch with a lower albedo than the surrounding ground. It is located in Terra Nivium, an area of continental ground to the north of the Mare Vaporum. About 70-80 km to the northeast of this area are the Montes Haemus, along the southwestern edge of the Mare Serenitatis. The selenographic coordinates of the Lacus Felicitatis are 19.0° N, 5.0° E, and it has a maximum extent of 90 km. In outline it has a bent shape, with a wing to the northwest and another to the east. The border is somewhat uneven, and it is surrounded by rugged lunar surface. Three tiny craters within this formation have been assigned names by the IAU. These are listed below. Ina is a semi-circular depression that is only about 30 m deep and is difficult to image from the Earth. In November 2006, it was suggested that Ina was the result of a gas eruption in the last 10 million years.
    4.00
    1 votes
    226
    Lacus Spei

    Lacus Spei

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Spei (latin for "Lake of Hope") is a small lunar mare that is located in the northeastern part of the Moon's near side. To the north is the crater Mercurius and to the west-southwest lies Schumacher. The selenographic coordinates of this feature are 43.0° N, 65.0° E, and it lies within a diameter of 80 km. The main part of the lake occupies a region averaging about 50 km in diameter, with an extension leading to the northeast. The surface has the same low albedo as the larger mare features on the Moon, becoming lighter in hue near the edges. The only feature on this bay is the circular, cup-shaped satellite crater Zeno P. The crater Zeno lies to the east-northeast, closer to the lunar limb.
    4.00
    1 votes
    227
    Lunar dome

    Lunar dome

    • On celestial object: Moon
    A lunar dome is a type of shield volcano that is found on the surface of the Earth's Moon. They are typically formed by highly viscous, possibly silica-rich lava, erupting from localized vents followed by relatively slow cooling. Lunar domes are wide, rounded, circular features with a gentle slope rising in elevation a few hundred meters to the midpoint. They are typically 8–12 km in diameter, but can be up to 20 km across. Some of the domes contain a small craterlet at the peak. Some of the domes have been shown to consist of the same materials as the lunar maria. Thus they could be created by some mechanism that differs from the mare-forming flows. It is thought that these domes are formed from a smaller magma chamber that is closer to the surface than is the case for a mare. This results in a lower pressure, and so the lava flows more slowly. The magma wells up through a crack in the surface, but the flow eventually concentrates through one primary vent. This concentration can then result in a vent crater at the peak of the dome. There are concentrations of lunar domes near the craters Hortensius, Marius and T. Mayer, and across the top of Mons Rümker. Solitary lunar domes are
    4.00
    1 votes
    228
    Mare Humboldtianum

    Mare Humboldtianum

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Humboldtianum (Latin for "Sea of Alexander von Humboldt") is a lunar mare located within the Humboldtianum basin, just to the east of Mare Frigoris. It is located along the northeastern limb of the Moon, and continues on to the far side. Due to its location, the visibility of this feature can be affected by libration, and on occasion it can be hidden from view from Earth. The basin material is of the Nectarian epoch, with the mare material being of the Upper Imbrian epoch. The lighter gray area to the southeast of the dark mare material is a region of hills within the basin. The rim of this basin forms a mountain range that can be seen under oblique lighting conditions. The selenographic coordinates of this mare are 56.8° N, 81.5° E, and it has a diameter of 273 km. However the surrounding basin extends for a diameter of over 600 km. The walled plain Bel'kovich spills over the northwestern portion of Mare Humboldtianum, and the flooded crater Bel'kovich A lies across the southwestern rim of Bel'kovich and part of the floor of the mare. This feature was named by Johann H. Mädler after Alexander von Humboldt, in recognition of his explorations of unknown lands. It is one of only
    4.00
    1 votes
    229
    Moltke

    Moltke

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Moltke is a lunar impact crater located near the southern edge of the Mare Tranquillitatis. This is a small, bowl-shaped crater surrounded by a bright halo of higher-albedo material. Just to the south lies the rille system named Rimae Hypatia. These follow a course running roughly east-southeast to west-northwest, and have a length of approximately 180 kilometers. About 50 kilometers to the northeast of this crater is the landing site of Apollo 11. The crater is named after Helmuth von Moltke the Elder. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Moltke.
    4.00
    1 votes
    230
    Palus Putredinis

    Palus Putredinis

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Palus Putredinus (latin for "Marsh of Decay") is an area of the lunar surface that stretches from the crater Archimedes southeast toward the rugged Montes Apenninus range located on the southeastern edge of Mare Imbrium. This region is a nearly level, lava-flooded plain bounded by the crater Autolycus to the north and the foothills of the Montes Archimedes to the west. The selenographic coordinates are 26.5° N, 0.4° E, and it lies within a diameter of 161 km. In the southern part of this area is a rille system designated Rimae Archimedes. To the south is a prominent linear rille named Rima Bradley, and to the east is the Rima Hadley, which served as the landing site for Apollo 15, and the Rimae Fresnel. Just to the northwest of the Palus Putredinus midpoint is the nearly submerged crater Spurr. Luna 2 crashed in this area.
    4.00
    1 votes
    231
    Peters

    Peters

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Peters is a small lunar crater in the north-northeastern part of the Moon, lying in the gap between Neison to the west and Arnold to the southeast. Due south of Peters is the crater Moigno. This is not a particularly prominent feature, having a low rim and an interior floor that has been almost completely submerged by lava flows. The rim is circular and only lightly worn, with a notch along the southeast. The inner surface is level and almost featureless.
    4.00
    1 votes
    232
    Abel

    Abel

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Abel is an ancient lunar crater that lies near the southeast limb of the Moon's near side. It is located to the south of the crater Barnard, at the northwest edge of the Mare Australe. The rim of Abel is heavily eroded and distorted in shape, forming a somewhat polygonal figure. It is incised and overlaid by past impacts. The satellite crater Abel A overlies the southern rim, while Abel M and Abel L intrude into the western wall. The eastern floor of Abel has been resurfaced by past lava flows, leaving a relatively smooth, flat surface with a low albedo. The remains of a small crater rim protrude near the northeast wall. The western floor is rougher in texture and matches the albedo of the surrounding surface. The crater was named for the Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Abel.
    0.00
    0 votes
    233
    Archimedes

    Archimedes

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Archimedes is a large lunar impact crater on the eastern edges of the Mare Imbrium. To the south of the crater extends the Montes Archimedes mountainous region. On the southeastern rim is the Palus Putredinis flooded plain, containing a system of rilles named the Rimae Archimedes that extend over 150 kilometers. North-northwest of Archimedes stand the Montes Spitzbergen, a string of peaks in the Mare Imbrium. East of Archimedes is the crater Autolycus, and the stretch of lunar surface between these two formations was the crash-landing site of Luna 2. This was the first craft to reach the surface of the Moon, landing September 13, 1959. Northeast of Archimedes is the prominent crater Aristillus. The lava plain between Archimedes, Aristillus, and Autolycus forms the Sinus Lunicus bay of Mare Imbrium. A wrinkle ridge leads away from Archimedes toward the north-northwest, crossing this mare. The diameter of Archimedes is the largest of any crater on the Mare Imbrium. The rim has a significant outer rampart brightened with ejecta and the upper portion of a terraced inner wall, but lacks the ray system associated with younger craters. A triangular promontory extends 30 kilometers from
    0.00
    0 votes
    234
    Ariadaeus

    Ariadaeus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Ariadaeus is a small, bowl-shaped lunar impact crater on the western shores of Mare Tranquillitatis. It lies to the north of the crater Dionysius, and to the west-southwest of Arago. The crater is joined along the northeast rim by the slightly smaller Ariadaeus A, and the two form a double-crater. This crater marks the eastern extent of the rille designated Rima Ariadaeus. This wide rille extends in a nearly straight line to the west-northwest, passing just to the north of the crater Silberschlag. Other rille systems lie in the vicinity, including the Rimae Ritter to the southeast and Rimae Sosigenes to the northeast. The crater was named after Philip III of Macedon (Arrhidaeus). By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Ariadaeus.
    0.00
    0 votes
    235
    Boscovich

    Boscovich

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Boscovich is a lunar crater that has been almost completely eroded away by subsequent impacts. It is located to the west-northwest of the crater Julius Caesar, and to the south-southeast of the prominent Manilius. The crater floor has a low albedo, and the dark hue makes it relatively easy to recognize. The surface is crossed by the rille system designated Rimae Boscovich that extends for a diameter of 40 kilometres. The crater is named after Roger Joseph Boscovich. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Boscovich.
    0.00
    0 votes
    236
    Cardanus

    Cardanus

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Cardanus is a lunar impact crater that is located in the western part of the Moon, in the western part of the Oceanus Procellarum. Due to its location the crater appears very oval because of foreshortening, and it is viewed almost from the side. Cardanus is distinctive for the chain of craters, designated Catena Krafft, that connect its northern rim with the crater Krafft to the north. The outer rim is sharp-edged and somewhat irregular, with a hummocky outer rampart and terraces along parts of the inner wall. The crater floor has several small craterlets across its surface, and it has a low ridge near the midpoint. The floor surface is somewhat irregular in the southwest, but nearly featureless elsewhere. To the southwest is the rille designated Rima Cardanus, a cleft in the mare that generally follows a northeasterly direction. To the southeast, beyond the rille, is the small crater Galilaei. Southwest of Cardanus is Olbers. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Cardanus.
    0.00
    0 votes
    237
    Chevallier

    Chevallier

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Chevallier is a lunar crater that is located in the northeastern part of the Moon's near side, about a crater diameter east-southeast of the prominent crater Atlas. To the south-southeast of Chevallier is the flooded crater Shuckburgh. This formation is little more than a disintegrated crater rim protruding upward slightly from a lava-flooded surface. All that survives of this feature is a few arcing sections of low ridges in the surface. The most prominent section of rim is along the northeast where it has merged with a smaller double-crater formation which has also been flooded. The interior floor has been resurfaced by the flows of lava, which are joined to the nearby flooded terrain. In the eastern half of the floor is Chevallier B, a small, partly flooded crater. Just to the west of the rim of Chevallier is Atlas A, a sharp-rimmed, bowl-shaped crater. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Chevallier.
    0.00
    0 votes
    238
    Dawes

    Dawes

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Dawes is a lunar impact crater, named after William Rutter Dawes, and which is located in the wide straight between Mare Serenitatis and Mare Tranquilitatis. To the southwest is the larger crater Plinius. To the northeast is the Mons Argaeus mountain rise. This is a circular crater with a sharp rim that has a slightly flattened oval perimeter. It has a slight central rise, and a somewhat darker floor that is nearly covered in overlapping swirl-like deposits. Much of the deposits are slumped or fall-back material. The inner walls are steep and free from impact erosion. Detailed examination of this crater have located what appear to be alcoves and channels along the inner rim. It is hypothesized that micrometeorite impacts along the rim trigger dry landslides, which produce a gully-like appearance. A similar phenomenon may be responsible for gully-like features along the inner rim of some Martian craters.
    0.00
    0 votes
    239
    Green

    Green

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Green is a lunar impact crater on the Moon's far side. It lies just to the west of the huge walled plain Mendeleev, and is nearly joined with the west-northwestern edge of the crater Hartmann. The crater has not been significantly eroded although a few tiny craterlets lie along the edge and inner wall. The perimeter is nearly circular, but has an outward bulge along the eastern side with some indications of a landslip. The inner sides display some terrace structures, particularly to the northeast. At the midpoint of the relatively level interior floor is a central ridge. The floor is more level along the western half, with some low rises in the east. There are only a few tiny craterlets on the interior. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Green.
    0.00
    0 votes
    240
    Krafft

    Krafft

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Krafft is a prominent lunar impact crater located near the western edge of the Oceanus Procellarum. To the north is the lava-flooded walled plain Eddington. Almost due south is the crater Cardanus, and the two are connected by a 60-kilometer-long chain of craters known as the Catena Krafft. Krafft has a sharp, circular rim with a rampart on the exterior, and no central peak. There are several associated craters near the southern rim that are notable for their size in relation to the dimensions of Krafft. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Krafft.
    0.00
    0 votes
    241
    Lacus Veris

    Lacus Veris

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Lacus Veris (latin for "Lake of Spring") is a small lunar mare on the Moon. In selenographic coordinates, the mare centered at 16.5° S, 86.1° W and lies within a 396 km in diameter. The mare extends along an irregular 90° arc from east to north that is centered on the Mare Orientale, covering an area of about 12,000 km. A 1989 study performed at the NASA Johnson Space Center proposed this mare for the location of a future manned lunar based. This small, roughly crescent-shaped mare region lies between the ring-shaped Inner and Outer Rook mountains that form part of the Orientale impact basin. It lies in a topographic lowland about 1 km below the surrounding peaks. Based on data collected during the Lunar Orbiter missions and from Earth-based telescopes, the mare includes some material from the surrounding highlands. The density of crater impacts indicates that this mare is an estimated 3.5 billion years old, and it finished forming roughly 340 million years after the impact that created the Oriental basin. The mare contains eleven sinuous rille formed from lava tubes and channels, with lengths ranging from 4 to 51 km. Many of these rille begin in the Rook mountains and flow to the
    0.00
    0 votes
    242
    Mare Imbrium

    Mare Imbrium

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Contains: Mons Pico
    • Type of planetographic feature: Lunar mare
    Mare Imbrium (Latin for "Sea of Showers" or "Sea of Rains"), is a vast lunar mare filling a basin on Earth's Moon. One of the larger craters in the Solar System, Mare Imbrium was created when lava flooded the giant crater formed when a very large object hit the Moon long ago. The Moon's maria (plural of mare) have fewer features than other areas of the Moon because molten lava pooled in the craters and formed a relatively smooth surface. Mare Imbrium is not as flat as it was originally because later events have altered its surface. With a diameter of 1146 km, Mare Imbrium is second only to Oceanus Procellarum in size among the maria, and it is the largest mare associated with an impact basin. The Imbrium Basin is surrounded by three concentric rings of mountains, uplifted by the colossal impact event that excavated it. The outermost ring of mountains has a diameter of 1300 km and is divided into several different ranges; the Montes Carpatus to the south, the Montes Apenninus to the southeast, and the Montes Caucasus to the east. The ring mountains are not as well developed to the north and west, and it appears they were simply not raised as high in these regions by the Imbrium
    0.00
    0 votes
    243
    Nobile

    Nobile

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Nobile is a lunar crater that is located near the southern pole of the Moon. It lies to the south of the crater Scott, along the western rim of Amundsen. Between Nobile and the southern pole lie the smaller craters Shoemaker and Faustini. This is an eroded crater formation that is almost constantly cloaked in deep shadows. When sunlight does enter the interior of this crater, it does so at a very oblique angle. The crater rim is overlaid by several lesser craters, the most notable being a formation about half the diameter of Nobile along the western rim. There are also small craters along the southwest and northern parts of the rim. The outer rampart of Amundsen overlies the eastern rim and inner wall. The interior floor of this crater is somewhat irregular, and there are a few small craterlets across the surface. Nobile was previously designated Scott A before being assigned a name by the IAU.
    0.00
    0 votes
    244
    Obruchev

    Obruchev

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Obruchev is a disintegrating lunar crater that lies along the southern shore of Mare Ingenii, on the far side of the Moon. Less than three crater diameters to the south of Obruchev is the crater Chrétien, and about the same distance to the southeast lies Oresme. The outer rim of this crater has been heavily damaged and now forms an irregular, rugged ring about the interior. The crater partly overlies the satellite crater Obruchev M to the south, and there is a pair of smaller craters along the western rim and inner wall. The interior of Obruchev has some uneven edges, but it is relatively level and featureless nearer the center. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Obruchev.
    0.00
    0 votes
    245
    Sinus Aestuum

    Sinus Aestuum

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Sinus Aestuum (latin for "Bay of Billows") forms a northeastern extension to Mare Insularum. It has selenographic coordinates 10.9° N, 8.8° W, and it lies within a diameter of 290 km. The Sinus Aestuum is a level, nearly featureless surface of low albedo basaltic lava that is marked by a few small impacts and some wrinkle ridges. The eastern border is formed by an area of irregular terrain that divides the bay from the Mare Vaporum to the east. To the north is the Montes Apenninus range and the prominent crater Eratosthenes. Along the western side is the flooded crater Stadius and the Mare Insularum to the southwest.
    0.00
    0 votes
    246
    Sinus Medii

    Sinus Medii

    • On celestial object: Moon
    Sinus Medii ("Central Bay") is a small lunar mare. It takes its name from its location at the intersection of the Moon's equator and prime meridian; as seen from the Earth, this feature is located in the central part of the Moon's near side, and it is the point closest to the Earth. From this spot the Earth would always appear directly overhead, although the planet's position would vary slightly due to libration. The selenographic coordinates of Sinus Medii are 2°24′N 1°42′E / 2.4°N 1.7°E / 2.4; 1.7, and its diameter is 335 km. It joins Mare Insularum in the west with Mare Vaporum to the north. The eastern part of this area is notable for a series of rille systems. In the far northeast is the Rima Hyginus, which is bisected by the crater Hyginus. At the far eastern end is the 220-km long Rima Ariadaeus rille which continues eastward to the edge of the Mare Tranquillitatis. Crossing the prime meridian longitude is the Rimae Triesnecker rille system, named after the crater Triesnecker just to the west. The northern edge of the Sinus Medii is formed by a highland region, with the impact craters Murchison and Pallas along the border. Near the northern border on this mare is the
    0.00
    0 votes
    247
    Thebit

    Thebit

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Thebit is a lunar impact crater located on the southeast shore of Mare Nubium. To the north-northwest is the crater Arzachel, and Purbach lies to the south-southwest. To the southwest is the flooded remnants of Thebit P, which is actually larger in diameter than Thebit itself. The rim of Thebit is generally circular in outline, with a double-notch in the southwest wall. A prominent bowl-shaped crater, Thebit A, lies across the west-northwestern rim. The west-northwestern rim of this crater is overlain in turn by the even smaller Thebit L. Together this forms an elegant arrangement that makes Thebit relatively simple to identify. The floor of Thebit crater is rough and has no central peak. The rim displays a terrace, and has a hilly outer rampart. Due west of Thebit is a 110-kilometer-long ridge named Rupes Recta, which rises to 240 meters. This linear feature runs north-northwest to south-southeast across the Mare Nubium. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Thebit.
    0.00
    0 votes
    248
    Vallis Schrödinger

    Vallis Schrödinger

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Vallis
    Vallis Schrödinger (latin for "Schrödinger Valley") is a long, nearly linear valley that lies on the far side of the Moon. It is oriented radially to the huge Schrödinger basin and most likely was formed during the original impact that created Schrödinger. The valley is shaped like a long groove in the lunar surface. It begins at the outer rampart of ejecta surrounding Schrödinger and continues to the north-northwest until it crosses the rim of the crater Moulton. About mid-way along its length it crosses the crater Sikorsky, and is overlaid in turn by the small satellite crater Sikorsky Q. The selenographic coordinates of this feature are 67°00′S 105°00′E / 67.0°S 105.0°E / -67.0; 105.0, and it lies within a diameter of 310 km. It varies in width from 8–10 km. The valley was named after the crater Schrödinger, which itself is named for Erwin Schrödinger.
    0.00
    0 votes
    249
    Verona Rupes

    Verona Rupes

    • Type of planetographic feature: Rupes
    Verona Rupes is a cliff on Miranda, a moon of Uranus. The cliff face has been estimated to be from 5 kilometers (3 mi) to 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) high, which makes it the tallest known cliff in the solar system. It may have been created by a major impact, which caused the moon to disrupt and reassemble, or by the crust rifting.
    0.00
    0 votes
    250
    Xenophon

    Xenophon

    • On celestial object: Moon
    • Type of planetographic feature: Impact crater
    Xenophon is a small lunar crater that lies across the southern rim of the walled plain Fermi, to the west of the crater Tsiolkovskiy. South of Xenophon is Zhiritskiy F, a satellite crater of Zhiritskiy to the south-southwest. The rim of this crater is eroded and crossed by several tiny craterlets, especially along the western edge. The interior floor is relatively featureless. This crater is located on the far side of the Moon and cannot be seen directly from the Earth.
    0.00
    0 votes
    Get your friends to vote! Spread this URL or share:

    Discuss Best Extraterrestrial location of All Time