An event is a topic that can be described by the time or date at which it happened. Long-lasting events may be described as occurring between two dates. It is sometimes appropriate to create abstract events, as collections of other events -- like World War II, or Opposition to the Vietnam War, but use your best judgment here, as some topics are surely too abstract to be considered a collection of events, like 'democracy'.
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The Battle of Adrianople (9 August 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between a Roman army led by the Roman Emperor Valens and Gothic rebels (largely Thervings as well as Greutungs, non-Gothic Alans, and various local rebels) led by Fritigern. The battle took place about 8 miles (13 km) north of Adrianople (modern Edirne in European Turkey, near the border with Greece and Bulgaria) in the Roman province of Thracia and ended with an overwhelming victory for the Goths.
Part of the Gothic War (376–382), the battle is often considered the start of the final collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. Adrianople actually was fought between the Goths and the Eastern Roman Empire, which ultimately withstood the Gothic invasions and developed into the Byzantine Empire.
In 376 AD, displaced by the invasions of the Huns, the Goths, led by Alavivus and Fritigern, asked to be allowed to settle in the Roman Empire. Hoping that they would become farmers and soldiers, the emperor Valens allowed them to establish themselves in the Empire as allies (foederati). However, once across the Danube (and in Roman territory), the dishonesty of the provincial
The 1975 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monza on September 7, 1975. It was the 45th Italian Grand Prix and the 41st to be held at Monza. The race held over 52 laps of the five kilometre circuit for a race distance of 300 kilometres.
The race was won by Swiss driver Clay Regazzoni in his Ferrari 312T in a glorius day for Scuderia Ferrari. It was Regazzoni's third win, Ferrari's fifth win for the season. Regazzoni took a sixteen point win over the McLaren M23 of outgoing world champion, Brazilian driver Emerson Fittipaldi. Behind Fittipaldi was the second Ferrari of Austrian driver Niki Lauda. Third place was enough for Lauda to secure his first world championship. Lauda's 16.5 point lead would be too much for Fittipaldi to bridge at the final round of the championship at the United States Grand Prix. With Regazzoni and Lauda scoring 13 points between them, Ferrari also secured the constructor's championship, their first such win since 1964.
The Italian supporters were gathered in expectation of Ferrari gaining their first championship in 11 years-on home ground, with many Austrians travelling over the border to support Niki Lauda and were delighted when
The 1982 Canadian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Circuit Gilles Villeneuve on June 13, 1982. Riccardo Paletti was killed at the start of the race, when his car ran into the back of the stationary Ferrari of Didier Pironi who had stalled on the grid. Paletti was the last driver to be killed during a Formula One race weekend until Roland Ratzenberger at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix (although Elio de Angelis was killed during testing at the Paul Ricard circuit at Le Castellet in 1986). The death of Ayrton Senna occurred the day after Ratzenberger's death.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1982/349/. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
The 1976 Dutch Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Circuit Zandvoort on August 29, 1976. It was won by British driver James Hunt driving a McLaren M23.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1976/453/. Retrieved 2007-06-16.
The 1975 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Silverstone on July 19, 1975. It was the 30th British Grand Prix to be held since the race was first held in 1926 and the 17th time the race had been held at Silverstone. The race was held over 56 of the scheduled 67 laps of the four kilometre venue for a race distance of 264 kilometres.
The results were overshadowed by a heavy hail storm from Lap 53, which caused three out of the top four cars (Jody Scheckter, James Hunt, and Mark Donohue), to aquaplane and crash in the same corner, bringing an early finish to the race, and a significant absence on the podium. A number of other cars crashed at the same corner as well, including Wilson Fittipaldi, Jochen Mass, and John Watson. The race results were finalised the lap after the lap most cars crashed, giving Brazilian Emerson Fittipaldi, who had been the race leader prior to the storm, a one lap win in his McLaren M23. Carlos Pace, who was one of the crashers in his Brabham BT44B was classified in second position with another of the crashers, Tyrrell 007 driver Jody Scheckter classified third.
The win was the 14th and final win of Fittipaldi's career which had included
The 1952 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 22 June 1952 at Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps. It was the third round of the 1952 World Drivers' Championship, which was run to Formula Two rules in 1952 and 1953, rather than the Formula One regulations normally used.
The 1960 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Silverstone Circuit, Northamptonshire, England, on 16 July 1960. The race was the seventh round of the 1960 Formula One season, the final Formula One season run to the 2.5 litre maximum engine displacement rules which had been in place since 1954. The race was won by reigning World Champion Jack Brabham and Innes Ireland finished in third place. Between the two, multiple motorcycle Grand Prix World Champion John Surtees (in only his second ever Formula One Grand Prix) took second place.
* Lance Reventlow and Chuck Daigh were entered with the same vehicle following extensive damage to their Scarab cars at the preceding French Grand Prix. Daigh proved the faster during practice and so Reventlow was withdrawn.
The 2006 North Korean nuclear test was the detonation of a nuclear device conducted on October 9, 2006 by North Korea.
North Korea announced its intention to conduct a test on October 3, six days prior, and in doing so became the first nation to give warning of its first nuclear test. The blast is estimated to have had an explosive force of less than one kiloton, and some radioactive output was detected. United States officials suggested the device may have been a nuclear explosive that misfired.
An anonymous official at the North Korean Embassy in Beijing told a South Korean newspaper that the explosive output was smaller than expected. Because of the secretive nature of North Korea and small yield of the test, there remains some question as to whether it was a successful test of an unusually small device (which would have required sophisticated technology), or a partially failed "fizzle" or dud.
It was reported that the government of the People's Republic of China was given a 20-minute advance warning that the test was about to occur. China sent an emergency alert to Washington, D.C. through the United States embassy in Beijing at which time President George W. Bush was told by
The 1961 German Grand Prix was the 23rd time the German Grand Prix (or Grosser Preis von Deutschland) motor race was held. The race also held the honorary designation of the 21st European Grand Prix. It was run to Formula One regulations as the sixth round of the 1961 World Drivers' Championship on 6 August 1961. It was held over 15 laps of the giant 14.2 mile Nürburgring Nordschleife circuit for a race distance of almost 213 miles. The race also celebrated the 100th race since the establishment of the World Championship in 1950.
The race was won by British driver Stirling Moss driving a Lotus 18/21 for privateer outfit the Rob Walker Racing Team. Moss started from the second row of the grid and lead every lap of the race. It was the first German Grand Prix victory for a rear-engined car since Bernd Rosemeyer's Auto Union Type C took victory in 1936. Moss finished just over 20 seconds ahead of Ferrari 156 drivers Wolfgang von Trips and Phil Hill, breaking a four-race consecutive run of Ferrari victories. The result pushed Moss into third place in the championship points race, becoming the only driver outside of Ferrari's trio of von Trips, Hill and Richie Ginther still in
The 1981 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monaco on May 31, 1981.
Nelson Piquet led for much of the race, but crashed out late on. New race leader Alan Jones then suffered a fuel feed problem in the latter stages of the race, allowing Gilles Villeneuve in his Ferrari, to take his first victory since 1979. Championship leader Carlos Reutemann retired with gearbox problems, breaking a 15-race streak of consistently finishing in the points.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1981/363/. Retrieved 2007-06-16.
The 1982 San Marino Grand Prix was the fourth race of the 1982 Formula One World Championship. It was held on the weekend of April 23–25, 1982 at the Autodromo Dino Ferrari, Imola. The race was marked by a boycott of many teams as part of a political war, unrelated to the event itself, involving the two dominant forces within the sport, the FISA and the FOCA, which caused the field for this race to be only 14 cars. It was Gilles Villeneuve's final race, as he was killed at the following race in Belgium.
In a decision relating to the 1982 Brazilian Grand Prix, Nelson Piquet and Keke Rosberg were excluded for their cars' crafty use of water tanks as ballast to keep them under the weight limit during race conditions. An immediate outcry from the Formula One Constructors Association (FOCA) followed, and as the decision happened after the USGP West it was decided that the next race would be boycotted, and that race was Imola.
While most FOCA-aligned teams, such as Brabham, McLaren, Williams and Lotus boycotted the race, four teams– Tyrrell, Osella, ATS and Toleman– broke their stated boycott and started the race anyway.
Even with these teams defecting and starting the race, there were
The 1966 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Circuit de Monaco on May 22, 1966. It was the opening round of the 1966 Formula One season, the first of a new era for Formula One, the 'return to power' as engine regulations were altered from 1.5 litres of maximum engine displacement to 3.0 litres. It was the 24th Monaco Grand Prix.
The race was won by British driver Jackie Stewart driving a BRM P261. He took a forty second victory over the Ferrari 246 of Italian driver Lorenzo Bandini. It was Stewart's second Grand Prix victory after winning the Italian Grand Prix the previous year. Stewart's team mate, fellow Briton Graham Hill finished a lap down in third position in his BRM P261. The only other driver to be classified as a finisher was American driver Bob Bondurant driving a BRM P261 entered privately by Team Chamaco Collect.
The first race of the new 3-litre engine series began in Monaco. Few teams were ready for the new regulations with several teams starting the race with 1965 engines still in place, or had adapted heavier sports car racing engines to suit.
Some sessions were filmed for the movie Grand Prix. It was the debut race of the McLaren racing
The 1973 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Silverstone Circuit on July 14, 1973.
The race is known for the first lap pile-up which ultimately caused eleven cars to retire. The accident happened when Jody Scheckter spun out of fourth place and into the center of the track coming out of Woodcote (the final corner) at the end of the first lap, causing many other cars to collide and crash. The race was stopped at the end of the second lap, because of the pile-up, and restarted over the original distance. Andrea de Adamich retired from the sport after this race due to injuries received in the first lap accident. Nine cars were eliminated in the pile-up (including all three works Surtees cars); and 18 cars started on the second restart out of 29 cars that started (David Purley and Graham McRae were also out of the race on the first lap in separate incidents).
On the first start, a swift start by Jackie Stewart brought him from fourth to first in less than half a lap. At Becketts corner (which was the third out of eight corners on the original Silverstone circuit) Stewart out-braked race leader Ronnie Peterson and took the lead. Unfortunately for Stewart, the massive
The 1976 Japanese Grand Prix was a Formula One race held at Fuji on October 24, 1976.
The 1976 World Championship was to be decided at the Mount Fuji circuit, with Niki Lauda just three points ahead of James Hunt after a season full of incidents including Lauda's near-fatal crash at the Nürburgring and subsequent missed races.
The field was almost unchanged from the previous race, but Noritake Takahara rented the second Surtees replacing Brett Lunger and Hans Binder was back in the second Wolf Williams after Masami Kuwashima's money failed to materialize. Maki resurrected its Formula One car for Tony Trimmer while Heros Racing entered an old Tyrrell for Kazuyoshi Hoshino. Kojima Engineering entered a locally-built chassis for Masahiro Hasemi (on Dunlop tyres).
Mario Andretti took pole position in the Lotus 77 with Hunt on second place and Lauda third. Then came John Watson's Penske, Jody Scheckter, Carlos Pace, Clay Regazzoni and Vittorio Brambilla. The top 10 was completed by Ronnie Peterson and Hasemi. The Maki failed to qualify.
On race day the weather was very wet with fog and running water at several places on the track. There were intense debates as to whether the race should
In this article, inhabitants of the Thirteen Colonies of British America that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans," with occasional references to "Patriots," "Whigs," "Rebels" or "Revolutionaries." Colonists who supported the British in opposing the Revolution are usually referred to as "Loyalists" or "Tories." The geographical area of the thirteen colonies is often referred to simply as "America."
The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America. They first rejected the authority of the Parliament of Great Britain to govern them from overseas without representation, and then expelled all royal officials. By 1774, each colony had established a Provincial Congress, or an equivalent governmental institution, to govern itself, but still within the empire. The British responded by sending combat troops to re-impose direct rule. Through the Second Continental Congress, the Americans managed the armed conflict against the British known as the American
The 1969 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Silverstone Circuit on July 19, 1969. It was the sixth round of the 1969 Formula One season. Jackie Stewart was victorious, as he lapped the entire field and took his fifth win in six races.
The 1983 Austrian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Österreichring on August 14, 1983.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1983/337/. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
The naval battle of Lake Poyang (鄱陽湖之戰) took place 30 August – 4 October 1363 CE and was one of the final battles fought in the fall of China's Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. There were at this time a number of rebel groups who sought to topple the reigning dynasty; the three most powerful were the Ming, the Han, and the Wu.
The navy of the Ming, under Zhu Yuanzhang, met the Han navy, commanded by Chen Youliang, in Jiangxi Province on Lake Poyang, China's largest freshwater lake.
The battle of Lake Poyang began as an amphibious siege by the Han against the Ming-held town of Nanchang. The descriptions from the time seem to indicate the use of lóu chuán (楼船, tower ships), which were essentially floating fortresses, very tall and strong, but also relatively slow, and requiring deep water to sail.
Nanchang defended itself well against the siege, the city's tall walls rendering the chief strength of the tower ships to no advantage; the ground assault was repelled as well for some time. A Ming messenger managed to break through the Han fleet's blockade, getting out a call for help to Zhu Yuanzhang. The majority of the Ming forces, in particular its ships, were occupied at the time in fighting
The 1973 Dutch Grand Prix was a Formula One race held at Zandvoort on July 29, 1973. Zandvoort returned to the Formula 1 calendar following a year's absence for extensive safety upgrades to the race track including new asphalt, new barriers and a new race control tower. Jackie Stewart won the race, this Grand Prix being fourth of five wins for Stewart during the 1973 Formula One season, and he became the most successful Formula One driver of all time with his 26th Grand Prix victory, surpassing Jim Clark's record of 25 victories.
Driver Roger Williamson was killed in the race; this was the first of two driver fatalities in the 1973 season. François Cevert, who took the podium in second place at this race, would later perish during practice for the 1973 United States Grand Prix.
On the 8th lap of the race through the high speed esses near the Tunnel Oost (East Tunnel) right-hand corner, a suspected tyre failure caused Williamson's car to pitch into the barriers at high speed, and be catapulted 300 yards (275 m) across the track, eventually coming to rest upside down against the barriers on the other side. The petrol tank had ignited whilst being scraped along the track, and the car
The 1976 Austrian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Österreichring on 15 August 1976. This race was the only major Formula One and European victory for Penske Racing. It was a poignant win for the team, coming a year after the death of their former driver Mark Donohue at the same circuit the previous season. Roger Penske withdrew the team at the end of year to refocus on Champ Car racing.
Local drivers Otto Stuppacher and Karl Oppitzhauser had applied to enter the event, but were refused due to their lack of experience. They petitioned the other teams for support but none was forthcoming, and they did not participate, although they had brought their cars to the circuit. They had entered under the ÖASC Racing Team banner, with Stuppacher bringing a Tyrrell 007, and Oppitzhauser a March 761.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1976/452/. Retrieved 2007-06-16.
The 2004 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on May 23, 2004 at the Circuit de Monaco in Monte Carlo, Monaco. The race, contested over 78 laps, was the sixth round of the 2004 Formula One season. It was won by Jarno Trulli, who took the first, and only, victory of his career for the Renault team. BAR driver, Jenson Button finished in second position, just one second behind the winner. Rubens Barrichello took the third and final podium spot for Ferrari after his team-mate, Michael Schumacher retired due to collision damage during a safety car period, ending his perfect start to the season. Trulli's team-mate, Fernando Alonso, also crashed at the tunnel, like Schumacher, during the race, and consequently lost second place.
One of the most eventful races of the 2004 season, the Monaco Grand Prix saw Ferrari driver Michael Schumacher qualify in fourth place (his time was actually fifth best; his brother Ralf qualified second, but was dropped ten places as a penalty for changing engines). Italian Renault driver Jarno Trulli took his first pole position and made it his first race win, breaking the elder Schumacher's streak of race wins.
The race began with Trulli on pole
The Battle of Karnal (February 13, 1739), was a decisive victory for Nader Shah the emperor of Persia during his invasion of India. The Shah's forces defeated the army of Muhammad Shah, the Indian emperor of the Mughal dynasty, in little more than three hours thus paving the way for the Persian sack of Delhi. The battle took place at Karnal, 110 kilometres (68 mi) north of Delhi, India.
The Mughal army was lined up with Sa'adat Khan forming the right wing, which was in the extreme east and near the Yamuna river. Khwaja Asim Khan Dauran's division stood in the centre, while the Vizier Qamar ud-Din Khan and the Emperor took up the left wing along a canal.
The Persian right wing was placed under Tahmasp Quli Jalair, whilst the left wing was under Fateh Ali and Lutf Ali Afshar. Nader's son, Nasrullah, commanded the centre, whilst Nader commanded the vanguard himself, which consisted of 4,000 cavalry.
The Mughals' main weapon was their war elephants therefore Nader Khan ordered camels to be paired together and platforms constructed between them. A mixture of naphtha combustibles was placed on the platforms with orders to set them on fire during the battle so that the Mughal elephants
The 2004 San Marino Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on April 25, 2004 at the Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari, Imola.
The 2004 San Marino Grand Prix marked the 10th anniversary of Roland Ratzenberger and Ayrton Senna's fatal accidents in 1994. Qualifying gave BAR's Jenson Button his maiden career pole position, ahead of Michael Schumacher, Juan Pablo Montoya, Rubens Barrichello and Ralf Schumacher. Both Giancarlo Fisichella and Kimi Räikkönen failed to set a time in the session, leaving them at the back of the grid. Rain fell on the Imola circuit overnight, washing away much of the rubber that had been laid down over the weekend, theoretically handing the advantage to teams with Bridgestone tyres. On race day it was warm and sunny, and the circuit was completely dry for the start of the race. As the lights went out, Button got away well, leading the field through the first corners. At the first chicane, David Coulthard locked his brakes and ran into the back of Fernando Alonso, dislodging Coulthard's front wing and sending the Scot into the gravel trap. He rejoined the track, but was already a long way behind and was forced to pit to repair the damage. Meanwhile, Montoya
The Battle of Clontarf (Irish: Cath Chluain Tarbh) took place on 23 April 1014 between the forces of Brian Boru and the forces led by the King of Leinster, Máel Mórda mac Murchada: composed mainly of his own men, Viking mercenaries from Dublin and the Orkney Islands led by his cousin Sigtrygg, as well as the one rebellious king from the province of Ulster. It ended in a rout of the Máel Mórda's forces, along with the death of Brian, who was killed by a few Norsemen who were fleeing the battle and stumbled upon his tent. After the battle, Ireland returned to a fractious status quo between the many small, separate kingdoms that had existed for some time.
Brian Boru (Brian mac Cennétig (Kennedy)) had ruled most of Ireland since 1002, but the island was still highly fractious and the title of "High King" had been largely ceremonial. Brian looked to change this, and unite the island, which he set about doing over a period of years.
In 997, Brian Boru and Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill had met in Clonfert and reached an agreement where they recognized each other's reign over their respective halves of the country. Brian attacked Máel Sechnaill's territory constantly, which forced Máel
The Victorian gold rush was a period in the history of Victoria, Australia approximately between 1851 and the late 1860s. In 10 years, the Australian population nearly tripled.
For a number of years the output from Victoria was greater than in any other country in the world with the exception of the more extensive fields of California. Victoria's greatest yield for one year was in 1856, when 3,053,744 ounces of gold were won from the diggings.
Gold was first discovered in Australia on 15 February 1823, by assistant surveyor James McBrien, at Fish River, between Rydal and Bathurst (in New South Wales). The find was considered unimportant at the time, and was not pursued for policy reasons.
Gold discoveries in Beechworth, Ballarat and Bendigo sparked gold rushes similar to the California Gold Rush. At its peak some two tonnes of gold per week flowed into the Treasury Building in Melbourne.
The £500,000 million worth of gold exported to Britain in the fifties paid all her foreign debts and helped lay the foundation of her enormous commercial expansion in the latter half of the century.
Melbourne was a major boomtown during the gold rush. The city became the centre of the colony with
The 1983 Brazilian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Jacarepaguá on March 13, 1983. It was the first round of the 1983 Formula One season.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1983/327/. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California. The first to hear confirmed information of the Gold Rush were the people in Oregon, the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), and Latin America, who were the first to start flocking to the state in late 1848. All told, the news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. Of the 300,000, approximately half arrived by sea and half came from the east overland on the California Trail and the Gila River trail.
The gold-seekers, called "forty-niners" (as a reference to 1849), often faced substantial hardships on the trip. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands from Latin America, Europe, Australia, and China. At first, the gold nuggets could be picked up off the ground. Later, gold was recovered from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, such as panning. More sophisticated methods were developed and later adopted elsewhere. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, increasing the proportion of
The Paris Commune or Fourth French Revolution (French: La Commune de Paris, IPA: [la kɔmyn də paʁi]) was a government that briefly ruled Paris from March 18 (more formally, from March 28) to May 28, 1871. It existed before the split between anarchists and Marxists had taken place, and it is hailed by both groups as the first assumption of power by the working class during the Industrial Revolution. Debates over the policies and outcome of the Commune contributed to the break between those two political groups.
In a formal sense, the Paris Commune simply acted as the local authority, the city council (in French, the "commune"), which exercised power in Paris for two months in the spring of 1871. However, the conditions in which it formed, its controversial decrees, and its violent end make its tenure one of the more important political episodes of the time.
The Commune was the result of an uprising in Paris after France was defeated in the Franco-Prussian War. This uprising was chiefly caused by the disaster in the war and the growing discontent among French workers. The worker discontent can be traced to the first worker uprisings, the Canut Revolts, in Lyon and Paris in the 1830s
The 1968 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Monte Carlo Circuit on May 26, 1968. It was the third round of the 1968 Formula One season. The race was won by Lotus driver Graham Hill, who started from pole position. Richard Attwood, driving for BRM, gained second place and fastest lap, while Lucien Bianchi finished in third position in a Cooper, in what was to be these drivers' only podium finishes.
The 1978 Swedish Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on June 17, 1978, at the Scandinavian Raceway; it was the eighth race of the 1978 Formula One season. It is the only race entered and won by the Brabham "fan car".
Responsible for the Brabham win was clever thinking by Brabham's Gordon Murray, who was trying to eclipse Colin Chapman's ground effect invention on the Lotus 79, the skirted car that had swept the front row since its debut at Zolder. Center of the new Brabham BT46B concept was a large fan which drew air through the engine water radiator which was mounted horizontally over the engine. The fan also took ground effect to a higher level (at least engineering-wise) by sucking air from under the car, creating a partial vacuum and creating an enormous amount of downforce. The car appeared to contravene a rule which stated that moving aerodynamic devices were not allowed, but Brabham argued that the rules had been worded to ban devices whose primary function was aerodynamic. As the fan also cooled the engine, Brabham claimed that this, not aerodynamics, was its primary function.
Its legality was soon protested, but it was allowed to race, John Watson and Niki Lauda
The Red River Rebellion or Red River Resistance was the sequence of events related to the 1869 establishment of a provisional government by the Métis leader Louis Riel and his followers at the Red River Colony, in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba.
The Rebellion was the first crisis the new government faced following Canadian Confederation in 1867. The Canadian government had bought Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company in 1869 and appointed an English-speaking governor, William McDougall. He was opposed by the French-speaking, mostly Métis inhabitants of the settlement. Before the land was officially transferred to Canada, McDougall sent out surveyors to plot the land according to the square township system used in Ontario. The Métis, led by Riel, prevented McDougall from entering the territory. McDougall declared that the Hudson's Bay Company was no longer in control of the territory and that Canada had asked for the transfer of sovereignty to be postponed. The Métis created a provisional government, to which they invited an equal number of Anglophone representatives. Riel undertook to negotiate directly with the Canadian government to establish Assiniboia as a
The 1978 Dutch Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on 27 August 1978 at Zandvoort.
Qualifying was as expected, Mario Andretti taking pole with Ronnie Peterson alongside in the all-Lotus front row (it would be Lotus' last 1-2 qualifying result until the 1984 Dallas Grand Prix), and Niki Lauda heading the second row. At the start, Andretti led with Peterson following, whereas Lauda was challenged by Jacques Laffite. The Lotus cars quickly built up a good gap, while Laffite challenged Lauda early on but then began to drop down the order with tyre issues. The race was quite uneventful, and Andretti went to take victory, with Peterson completing another Lotus 1-2 leaving Lauda to take third.
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign or the Battle of Gallipoli or the Battle of Çanakkale (Turkish: Çanakkale Savaşı), took place on the Gallipoli peninsula in the Ottoman Empire (now Gelibolu in modern day Turkey) between 25 April 1915 and 9 January 1916, during the First World War. A joint British and French operation was mounted to capture the Ottoman capital of Constantinople (Istanbul) and secure a sea route to Russia. The attempt failed, with heavy casualties on both sides. The campaign was considered one of the greatest victories of the Turks and was reflected on as a major failure by the Allies.
The Gallipoli campaign resonated profoundly among all nations involved. In Turkey, the battle is perceived as a defining moment in the history of the Turkish people—a final surge in the defence of the motherland as the aging Ottoman Empire was crumbling. The struggle laid the grounds for the Turkish War of Independence and the foundation of the Republic of Turkey eight years later under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, himself a commander at Gallipoli.
The campaign was the first major battle undertaken by the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC), and is
The 1968 South African Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Kyalami Circuit on Monday 1 January 1968. It was the first round of the 1968 Formula One season. The race, contested over 73 laps, was won by two time World Drivers' Champion and 1965 Indianapolis 500 winner Jim Clark for Lotus-Ford after starting from pole position. The race is significant as not only the last Formula One race to be won by Jim Clark, but also the last in which he ever competed, due to his fatal crash at the Hockenheimring in Germany three months later.
Clark broke many records during the weekend, such as leading the most Grands Prix (43), having the most laps led (1,943), having the most perfect weekends (11), achieving the most pole positions (33) and finally achieving 25 race wins, beating Juan Manuel Fangio's 11-year-old record.
The 1980 Dutch Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on August 31, 1980 at the Circuit Zandvoort in the Netherlands. It was the eleventh race of the 1980 Formula One season. The race was the 29th Dutch Grand Prix. The race was held over 72 laps of the 4.252-kilometre circuit for a total race distance of 306 kilometres.
The race was won by Brazilian driver, Nelson Piquet driving a Brabham BT49. The win was Piquet's second Formula One Grand Prix victory having taken his first win earlier the same year at the 1980 United States Grand Prix West. The win confirmed Piquet as being the major threat to Alan Jones' charge to the world championship crown. Piquet won by twelve seconds over French driver René Arnoux driving a Renault RE20. Less than half a second behind in third was another French driver Jacques Laffite (Ligier JS11/15).
The circuit had been altered for the second time in as many years with the back straight chicane tightened significantly. There were several new combinations. Alfa Romeo entered a second car, a replacement after Patrick Depailler's death a month earlier, for Italian veteran Vittorio Brambilla. Geoff Lees was entered in a second Ensign N180 and Jochen
The 1982 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monza on 12 September 1982.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1982/355/. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
The 1983 San Marino Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Imola on May 1, 1983.
Frenchman Patrick Tambay took a popular victory in his Ferrari in front of a delighted Tifosi. Tambay, who drove the #27 Ferrari dedicated his win to the man he replaced in the Ferrari team, the late Gilles Villeneuve. It was almost a perfect weekend for the Maranello based team with René Arnoux qualifying on pole and finishing 3rd. Renault's Alain Prost finished in second place, passing Arnoux with 3 laps left after the #28 Ferrari spun in the Acque Mineralli chicane.
Brabham driver Riccardo Patrese had taken the lead from Tambay with only 6 laps remaining but only held the lead until he crashed at Acque Mineralli just half a lap later.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1983/330/. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations or The Great Exhibition, sometimes referred to as the Crystal Palace Exhibition in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held, was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde Park, London, from 1 May to 15 October 1851. It was the first in a series of World's Fair exhibitions of culture and industry that were to become a popular 19th-century feature. The Great Exhibition was organized by Henry Cole and Prince Albert, the spouse of the reigning monarch, Queen Victoria. It was attended by numerous notable figures of the time, including Charles Darwin, Samuel Colt, members of the Orléanist Royal Family and the writers Charlotte Brontë, Charles Dickens, Lewis Carroll, George Eliot and Alfred, Lord Tennyson.
The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations was organized by Prince Albert, Henry Cole, Francis Henry, George Wallis, Charles Dilke and other members of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce as a celebration of modern industrial technology and design. It was arguably a response to the highly successful French Industrial Exposition of 1844 :
The 1963 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race, held at Spa-Francorchamps on June 9, 1963. It was the second race of the 1963 Formula One season. Jim Clark won the race in extremely wet and rainy conditions. After starting eighth on the grid Clark passed all of the cars in front of him, including early leader Graham Hill. About 17 laps into the race, with the rain coming down harder than ever, Clark had not only lapped the entire field except for Bruce McLaren, but he was almost five minutes ahead of McLaren and his Cooper. This would be the first of 7 victories for Clark and Team Lotus that year.
The Battle of Trenton took place on December 26, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, after General George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River north of Trenton, New Jersey. The hazardous crossing in adverse weather made it possible for Washington to lead the main body of the Continental Army against Hessian soldiers garrisoned at Trenton. After a brief battle, nearly the entire Hessian force was captured, with negligible losses to the Americans. The battle significantly boosted the Continental Army's flagging morale, and inspired reenlistments.
The Continental Army had previously suffered several defeats in New York and had been forced to retreat through New Jersey to Pennsylvania. Morale in the army was low; to end the year on a positive note, George Washington—Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army—devised a plan to cross the Delaware River on Christmas night and surround the Hessian garrison.
Because the river was icy and the weather severe, the crossing proved dangerous. Two detachments were unable to cross the river, leaving Washington and the 2,400 men under his command alone in the assault. The army marched 9 miles (14 km) south to Trenton. The Hessians
The 1953 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 21 June 1953 at Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps. It was the fourth round of the 1953 World Drivers' Championship, which was run to Formula Two rules in 1952 and 1953, rather than the Formula One regulations normally used.
A record crowd of over 100,000 spectators crammed into the forest track to watch this dramatic race. The Maseratis were definitely capable of matching the Ferraris for sheer speed – Juan Manuel Fangio put in a record-shattering practice lap of 117 mph. At the flag, he waved José Froilán González past and stunned everyone with another blitzkrieg lap of 110 mph from a standing start. After 11 laps, González had pulled out a full minute's lead, but it had taken its toll on his engine which expired, leaving Fangio half a minute clear. On lap 13, it was the other Argentine's turn to fall prey to engine troubles and Ferrari inherited another 1–2 victory from the third Argentine driver Onofre Marimón who gained his first podium position.
† Shared Drive – Car #6: Claes (13 laps) then Fangio (22 laps)
The 1981 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Silverstone on July 18, 1981. John Watson won his first race for five years, and McLaren's first since James Hunt's victory at the 1977 United States Grand Prix. The race also marked the first victory for a carbon fibre composite monocoque F1 car, the McLaren MP4/1.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1981/366/. Retrieved 2007-06-16.
The 1952 French Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 6 July 1952 at Rouen-Les-Essarts. It was the fourth round of the 1952 World Drivers' Championship, which was run to Formula Two rules in 1952 and 1953, rather than the Formula One regulations normally used.
The 1954 Argentine Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Autódromo 17 de Octubre in Buenos Aires, Argentina on 17 January 1954. It was the first round of the 1954 World Drivers' Championship.
The 1961 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race, held on 15 July 1961 at the Aintree Circuit, near Liverpool. It was the fifth race of eight in the 1961 World Championship season. Following a wet weekend, with torrential rain affecting both qualifying and the race start, the Grand Prix was ultimately dominated by Scuderia Ferrari, with their drivers taking all three podium positions. The race was won by German Wolfgang von Trips, who had led for much of the race after starting from fourth place. This was von Trips's second and last Grand Prix victory, as two races later he was killed in an accident during the 1961 Italian Grand Prix. Pole position winner Phil Hill drove to second place, on his way to winning the World Drivers' Championship at the end of the season, and third place was taken by Hill's American compatriot Richie Ginther.
The 1961 British Grand Prix is also notable as being the first occasion on which a four-wheel drive car, and the last at which a front engined car was entered for a World Championship race. These two accomplishments were achieved by the same vehicle: the experimental Ferguson P99-Climax run by the Rob Walker Racing Team. Although the car was
The Battle of Hjörungavágr (Norwegian Slaget ved Hjørungavåg) is a semi-legendary naval battle that took place in the late 10th century between the Jarls of Lade and a Danish invasion fleet led by the fabled Jomsvikings. This battle played an important role in the struggle by Haakon Sigurdsson to unite his rule over Norway.
Haakon Sigurdsson ruled Norway as a vassal of King Harald Bluetooth of Denmark, but he was in reality an independent ruler. Haakon was a strong believer in the old Norse gods.When Harald Bluetooth attempted to force Christianity upon him around 975, Haakon broke his allegiance to Denmark.
Harald Bluetooth had suffered defeat from the Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor. Haakon took advantage of the weakened position of the Danish king to make Norway independent of Denmark.
The battle is described in the Norse kings' sagas—such as Heimskringla—as well as in Jómsvíkinga saga and Saxo Grammaticus' Gesta Danorum. Saxo Grammaticus estimated that the battle took place while Harald Bluetooth was still alive. Traditional has set the battle during the year 986. Those late literary accounts are fanciful but historians believe that they contain a kernel of truth.
The Fall of Constantinople (Turkish: İstanbul'un Fethi; Greek: Άλωση της Κωνσταντινούπολης, Alōsē tēs Kōnstantinoupolēs) was the capture of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, which occurred after a siege by the Ottoman Empire, under the command of 21-year-old Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, against the defending army commanded by Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos. The siege lasted from Friday, 6 April 1453 until Tuesday, 29 May 1453 (according to the Julian calendar), when the city was conquered by the Ottomans.
The capture of Constantinople (and two other Byzantine splinter territories soon thereafter) marked the end of the Roman Empire, an imperial state which had lasted for nearly 1,500 years. It was also a massive blow to Christendom, and the Ottomans thereafter were free to advance into Europe without an adversary to their rear. After the conquest, Mehmed made Constantinople the Ottoman Empire's new capital. Several Greek and non-Greek intellectuals fled the city before and after the siege, migrating particularly to Italy. It is argued that they helped fuel the Renaissance. Some mark the end of the Middle Ages by the fall of the city and
The 1959 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Aintree Circuit on 18 July 1959. It was the fifth round of the 1959 Formula One season. It was the 14th British Grand Prix and the third to be held at the Aintree Motor Racing Circuit, a circuit mapped out in the grounds of the Aintree Racecourse horse racing venue. The race was held over 75 laps of the four kilometre circuit for a race distance of 362 kilometres.
The race was won by Australian Jack Brabham taking his second Grand Prix victory in a works Cooper T51. Brabham dominated the race, leading all 75 laps to win by 22 seconds over British driver Stirling Moss driving a British Racing Partnership entered BRM P25. It was the first time a BRP entry finished in the top three. Brabham's Cooper Car Company team mate, New Zealader Bruce McLaren finished in third place, just 0.2 seconds behind Moss, having lost second place late in the race. Harry Schell finished fourth for the Owen Racing Organisation BRM team a lap behind Brabham.
The British Grand Prix had the biggest entry of the season outside of the Indianapolis 500 with 30 cars competing and 24 starting the race, all despite the absence of Ferrari. Strikes
The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia formed one nation. They kept the systems of government that they had developed as separate colonies but also would have a federal government that was responsible for matters concerning the whole nation. When the Constitution of Australia came into force, on 1 January 1901, the colonies collectively became states of the Commonwealth of Australia.
The efforts to bring about federation in the mid-19th century were dogged by the lack of popular support for the movement. A number of conventions were held during the 1890s to develop a constitution for the Commonwealth. Sir Henry Parkes, Premier of New South Wales, was instrumental in this process. Fiji and New Zealand were originally part of this process, but they decided not to join the federation.
Sir Edmund Barton was the caretaker Prime Minister of Australia at the inaugural Federal election in 1901, at which he retained his office.
This period has lent its name to an architectural style prevalent in Australia at that time, known as Federation
The 1953 Dutch Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 7 June 1953 at the Circuit Zandvoort. It was the third round of the 1953 World Drivers' Championship, which was run to Formula Two rules in 1952 and 1953, rather than the Formula One regulations normally used.
The Ferraris returned to their standard configuration for the Dutch Grand Prix, which was held in very difficult conditions – the track was made slippery by loose grit. The Ferraris had better road holding and once again Alberto Ascari led from start to finish from Nino Farina. José Froilán González took over Felice Bonetto's car and ran out the winner of an exciting duel with Mike Hawthorn. Juan Manuel Fangio retired with a broken back axle, whilst Peter Collins was eighth in the highest-placed British car.
†Shared Drive – Car #16: Bonetto (25 laps) then González (64 laps). They shared the points for 3rd place.
The 1977 Japanese Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on 23 October 1977 at Fuji.
Mario Andretti and James Hunt continued their late-season battle, with the American pipping Hunt to the pole, with John Watson heading the second row. Hunt took the lead at the start, and Jody Scheckter and Jochen Mass jumped up to second and third, whereas Andretti had a terrible start and was at the tail of the top ten. On the second lap, Andretti was involved in a collision while trying to gain places, putting him out. With Andretti out, Hunt had no challengers left and he built a large gap, with teammate Mass second and Watson passing Scheckter for third. However, both Mass and Watson had to retire within one lap of each other with engine and gearbox failures, and with Scheckter dropping back, Carlos Reutemann was second until he was passed by Jacques Laffite. Hunt went on and capped off the season with a comfortable win, whereas Laffite ran of fuel on the last lap, handing over second to Reutemann and allowing Patrick Depailler to complete the podium.
The 1980 Canadian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on September 28, 1980, at the Circuit Île Notre-Dame in Montreal, Canada. It was the thirteenth and penultimate race of the 1980 Formula One season. The race was the 19th Canadian Grand Prix and the third to be held in Montreal. The race was held over 70 laps of the 4.41-kilometre circuit for a total race distance of 309 kilometres.
Australian driver Alan Jones, driving a Williams FW07B, won his second consecutive Canadian Grand Prix, and coupled with the retirement of the Brabham BT49 of Brazilian driver Nelson Piquet due to the failure of its Cosworth DFV engine, this allowed Jones to secure the 1980 World Drivers' Championship. Jones became only the second Australian to claim the world championship, a title last won by Jack Brabham in 1966. It was also the first World Drivers' Championship for Williams Grand Prix Engineering, adding to their first Constructors' Championship, achieved two weeks earlier at the Italian Grand Prix.
The brief comeback of Vittorio Brambilla had come to an end with the Italian veteran retiring from Formula One. Alfa Romeo replaced him with someone younger and Andrea de Cesaris made his
The 1983 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Silverstone on 16 July 1983. This was the last British Grand Prix event where the race took place on a Saturday rather than the usual Sunday.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1983/335/. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
The 1984 Austrian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Österreichring on August 19, 1984. It was the twelfth round of the 1984 Formula One season and the 400th World Championship Grand Prix held since the championship began in 1950.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1984/322/. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
The 2003 San Marino Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on April 20, 2003 at the Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari in Imola, Italy. The race, contested over 62 laps, was the fourth round of the 2003 Formula One season and was won by Ferrari driver Michael Schumacher.
Ralf and Michael Schumacher raced despite the death of their mother just hours before the race. They sported black armbands and no champagne was sprayed on the podium as a mark of respect. This was also the last race for the Ferrari F2002, concluding its successful career with a win. Ferrari team principal Jean Todt took Michael's place at the post-race press conference.
Confusion caused by a red flag at the end of the previous race in Brazil had led to Kimi Räikkönen being declared the winner. An investigation by the FIA in the days following the race proved that Giancarlo Fisichella had been the actual victor. On the Friday of the San Marino Grand Prix meeting, a ceremony was held in which Kimi Räikkönen and Ron Dennis presented their winners' trophies from the 2003 Brazilian Grand Prix to Giancarlo Fisichella and Eddie Jordan.
The 2003 United States Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on September 28, 2003 at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.
Michael Schumacher took a huge step toward his record-breaking sixth drivers championship by winning this race, 18.258 seconds over pole-sitter Kimi Räikkönen. Afterwards Räikkönen remained in mathematical contention for the championship with one race to go; whilst Williams driver Juan Pablo Montoya dropped out of the hunt after being penalized for an incident on Lap 3 with Schumacher's Ferrari teammate Rubens Barrichello.
It was the German's second straight win since the Ferrari team and its tire supplier Bridgestone accused rival tire maker Michelin of using illegal tires for most of the season, threatening to decide the title in court. As a result Michelin were forced to retool their tires before the Italian Grand Prix, with its teams suffering in the changing weather conditions at Indianapolis.
Though rain clouds surrounded the circuit at the start, all drivers began the race on dry tires. The cars on the "clean" side of the track got off the grid much better, with Räikkönen taking the lead ahead of Olivier Panis and the two Schumachers (all from the left side
There were several sieges of Constantinople during the history of the Byzantine Empire. Two of them resulted in the capture of Constantinople from Byzantine rule: in 1204 by Crusaders, and in 1453 by the Ottoman Empire under Mehmed II.
The 1950 Swiss Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 4 June 1950 at Bremgarten. It was the fourth round of the 1950 World Drivers' Championship.
The fourth round of the Championship took place just three weeks after the series began at Silverstone (with Monaco and Indianapolis having taken place on consecutive weekends). Once again the event proved to be a battle between the Alfa Romeo factory 158s of Giuseppe Farina, Juan Manuel Fangio and Luigi Fagioli and the Scuderia Ferraris of Alberto Ascari, Luigi Villoresi (who had the latest model with de Dion rear suspension, twin overhead camshaft engine and 4-speed gearbox), Raymond Sommer and Peter Whitehead. There were a number of uncompetitive Talbot-Lagos and Maseratis as usual. José Froilán González was out of action as a result of burns he had received after the first lap accident at Monaco Grand Prix. Also out of action as a result of the crash was Maserati factory driver Franco Rol.
In qualifying Fangio and Farina were well clear of Fagioli with Villoresi and Ascari sharing the second row of the 3-2-3 grid. Peter Whitehead, Franco Rol, Reg Parnell and Rudi Fischer failed to qualify. In the race, on the first lap Ascari
The 1957 Pescara Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race, held on 18 August 1957, at the Pescara Circuit near Pescara in Italy. The race was the seventh, and penultimate round of the 1957 World Drivers' Championship. The race, which was the only Formula One race at the track, is best remembered for being held at the longest ever circuit to stage a Formula One World Championship Grand Prix. The track is 25 km/16 miles long and is now part of the SR16bis on the coast of Pescara. It was also the first of the two consecutive Italian races, and after the subsequent race at Monza was complete, it became the first time that two Formula One races had been held in the same country in the same year.
The race drew a crowd in excess of 200,000 spectators.
The 1981 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monza on September 13, 1981.
Formula One returned to the Monza circuit after a year's absence; the year previous's Italian Grand Prix had been held at the Imola circuit.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1981/370/. Retrieved 2007-06-16.
The 228 Massacre, 2/28 Massacre, also called 228 Incident by KMT, or 2/28 for short, was an anti-government uprising in Taiwan that began on February 27, 1947 which was violently suppressed by the Kuomintang(KMT)-led Republic of China government and which resulted in the massacre of numerous civilians, beginning on February 28, or 2/28. Estimates of the number of deaths vary from 10,000 to 30,000 or more. The incident marked the beginning of the Kuomintang's White Terror period in Taiwan, in which thousands more inhabitants vanished, died, or were imprisoned. This incident is one of the most important events in Taiwan's modern history, and is a critical impetus for the Taiwan independence movement.
In 1945, 50 years of Japanese rule of Taiwan ended due to Japan's loss in the World War II, and in October the United States on behalf of the Allied Forces handed temporary administrative control of Taiwan to the Kuomintang-administered Republic of China (ROC) under General Order No. 1 to handle the surrender of Japanese troops and ruling administration. Local inhabitants became resentful of what they perceived as a high handed and frequently corrupt KMT authorities inclined to the
The Crusades were a series of religious expeditionary wars blessed by Pope Urban II and the Catholic Church, with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem. Jerusalem was and is a sacred city and symbol of all three major Abrahamic faiths (Judaism, Christianity and Islam). The background to the Crusades was set when the Seljuk Turks decisively defeated the Byzantine army in 1071 and cut off Christian access to Jerusalem. The Byzantine emperor, Alexis I feared that all Asia Minor would be overrun. He called on western Christian leaders and the papacy to come to the aid of Constantinople by undertaking a pilgrimage or a crusade that would free Jerusalem from Muslim rule. Another cause was the destruction of many Christian sacred sites and the persecution of Christians under the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim.
The crusaders comprised military units of Roman Catholics from all over western Europe, and were not under unified command. The main series of Crusades, primarily against Muslims in the Levant, occurred between 1095 and 1291. Historians have given many of the earlier crusades numbers. After some early successes, the later crusades failed and
The Pacers–Pistons brawl (colloquially known as the Malice in the Palace) was an altercation that occurred in a National Basketball Association game between the Detroit Pistons and Indiana Pacers on November 19, 2004, at The Palace of Auburn Hills in Auburn Hills, Michigan.
With less than a minute left in the game, a fight broke out between players on the court. After the fight was broken up, a drink was thrown from the stands at then Pacers player Ron Artest while he was lying on the scorer's table. Artest then entered the crowd and sparked a massive brawl between players and fans.
The repercussions led to nine players being suspended without pay for a total of 146 games, which led to $11 million in salary being lost by the players. Five players were also charged with assault, and eventually sentenced to a year of probation and community service. Five fans also faced criminal charges and were banned from attending Pistons home games for life. The fight also led the NBA to increase security presence between players and fans, and to limit the sale of alcohol.
The meeting between the two teams was a rematch of the previous season's heated Eastern Conference Finals, which the Pistons
The Rum Rebellion of 1808 was the only successful armed takeover of government in Australia's history. During the 19th century it was widely referred to as the Great Rebellion. The Governor of New South Wales, William Bligh, was deposed by the New South Wales Corps under the command of Major George Johnston, working closely with John Macarthur, on 26 January 1808, 20 years to the day after Arthur Phillip founded European settlement in Australia. Afterwards, the colony was ruled by the military, with the senior military officer stationed in Sydney acting as the Lieutenant-Governor of the colony until the arrival from Britain of Major-General Lachlan Macquarie as the new Governor at the beginning of 1810.
William Bligh, well known for his overthrow in the mutiny on the Bounty, was a naval officer and the fourth Governor of New South Wales. He succeeded Governor Philip Gidley King in 1805, having been offered the position by Sir Joseph Banks. It is likely that he was selected by the British Government as governor because of his reputation as a hard man. He stood a good chance of reining in the maverick New South Wales Corps, something which his predecessors had not been able to do.
Between 1644 and 1651 Scotland was involved the Wars of the Three Kingdoms during a period when a series of civil wars that were fought in Scotland, England (English Civil War) and in Ireland (Irish Confederate Wars). These civil wars followed other related conflicts: the Bishops Wars (between Scotland and England) and the Irish Rebellion of 1641.
In Scotland itself, from 1644–45 a Scottish civil war was fought between Scottish Royalists—supporters of Charles I—under James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, and the Covenanters, who had controlled Scotland since 1639 and allied with the English Parliament. The Scottish Royalists, aided by Irish troops, had a rapid series of victories in 1644–45, but were eventually defeated by the Covenanters.
However, the Covenanters then found themselves at odds with the English Parliament and backed the claims of Charles II to the thrones of England and Scotland. This led to the Third English Civil War, when Scotland was invaded and occupied by the Parliamentarian New Model Army under Oliver Cromwell.
Scotland had helped to spark this series of civil wars in 1638, when it had risen in revolt against Charles I's religious policies. The National
The 1974 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Brands Hatch on 20 July 1974.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1974/481/. Retrieved 2007-06-15.
The 1977 Brazilian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Interlagos on January 23, 1977.
James Hunt took pole again with Carlos Reutemann second and Mario Andretti third on the grid. Home hero Carlos Pace took the lead at the start, with Hunt dropping behind Reutemann as well but soon Hunt was back behind Pace and attacking. There was contact, and Hunt took the lead whereas Pace had to pit for repairs. Hunt led Reutemann until he began to suffer from tyre troubles and was passed by Reutemann. Hunt pitted for new tyres, and rejoined fourth and soon passed Niki Lauda in the Ferrari and John Watson to reclaim second. Reutemann marched on to victory, Hunt was second and Lauda third after Watson crashed out.
The 1981 Canadian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on September 27, 1981, at Montreal. Jacques Laffite won the race driving for Ligier. It would prove to be Ligier's last race win for fifteen years, until the 1996 Monaco Grand Prix. Williams clinched the 1981 Constructors' Championship with one race left, as the two points scored by the Brabham team were not sufficient to allow them to catch Williams in the final race. This was also the last time the Canadian Grand Prix was held at the near-end of the season.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1981/371/. Retrieved 2007-06-16.
The 2004 Brazilian Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on October 24, 2004 at the Autódromo José Carlos Pace. It was the final race of the 2004 season, and local fans were delighted when Brazil's Rubens Barrichello took pole for his home race. It would be Barrichello's first non-retirement at Interlagos in ten years, his previous finish at the circuit being at the season opener in 1994. The early laps were held in changeable conditions, and the race ended up as a duel between Kimi Räikkönen and Juan Pablo Montoya, who were to be McLaren team-mates for 2005. The Colombian took victory in his final race for Williams, which was also the last win for the Williams team until the 2012 Spanish Grand Prix. Montoya's move to take the lead was brave even by his standards. Elsewhere, Jaguar's final race was a disaster, with their two drivers colliding, with Webber trying an optimistic-looking move on Klien whilst expecting his team-mate to move over.
Ricardo Zonta returned to his home race for the Toyota team, replacing Olivier Panis.
The Battle of Kulikovo (Russian: Мамаево побоище, Донское побоище, Куликовская битва, битва на Куликовом поле) was fought between Tatar Mamai and Muscovy Dmitriy and portrayed by Russian historiography as a stand-off between Russians and the Golden Horde. However, the political situation at the time was much more complicated and concerned the politics of the Northeastern Rus'. The battle took place on September 8, 1380, at the Kulikovo Field near the Don River (now Tula Oblast) and resulted in victory for Dmitri Donskoi. The battle's site is commemorated by a memorial church built from a design by Aleksey Shchusev.
Upon the Mongol-Tatar conquest the territories of the disintegrating Kievan Rus, which became part of the western region of the Mongol Empire, the Golden Horde, the center of which was established in the lower Volga region. The numerous Russian (or Ruthenian) principalities were not, however, fully integrated into the Empire, but were required to pay a tax. During that time the small regional principality of Moscow had grown into a well-respected political entity and often challenged its neighbors for territorial claims, particularly the Grand Duchy of Ryazan. The
The Battle of Naseby was the key battle of the first English Civil War. On 14 June 1645, the main army of King Charles I was destroyed by the Parliamentarian New Model Army commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell.
At the beginning of 1645, most of King Charles's advisers urged him to attack the New Model Army while it was still forming. However, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, who had recently been appointed General of the Army and therefore the King's chief military adviser, proposed instead to march north to recover the North of England and join forces with the Royalists in Scotland under Montrose. This course was adopted, even though the King's army had to be weakened by leaving a detachment (including 3,000 cavalry) under Lord Goring, the Lieutenant General of Horse, to hold the West Country and maintain the Siege of Taunton, in Somerset.
At the same time, after the New Model Army had abandoned an attempt to relieve Taunton, Parliament's Committee of Both Kingdoms had directed Fairfax, its commander, to besiege Oxford, the King's wartime capital. Initially, Charles welcomed this move, as Fairfax would be unable to interfere with his move north. Then at the end of May he
The 1959 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monza on September 13, 1959. It was the eighth and penultimate round of the 1959 Formula One season. It was the 29th Italian Grand Prix and the 24th to be held at Monza. The race was held over 72 laps of the five kilometre circuit for a total race distance of 414 kilometres.
The race was won by British driver Stirling Moss driving a Cooper T51 for the privateer Rob Walker Racing Team. Moss won by 46 seconds over American driver Phil Hill driving a Ferrari Dino 246 for Scuderia Ferrari. Championship points leader Australian Jack Brabham finished third in works entered Cooper T51, expanding his points lead, but not sufficiently to prevent a championship showdown with Moss and Ferrari driver Tony Brooks at the United States Grand Prix.
This race was won on the weight of the cars, with Stirling Moss and team manager Rob Walker gambling on running the whole race without a tyre change in the little lightweight Cooper - although they substituted knock-on wheels for bolt-ons in case a pit stop was necessary. Stirling drove a careful race, relying on the Ferrari crew needing to pit. Tony Brooks made a good start but a piston
The 1962 Dutch Grand Prix was the eleventh time the Dutch Grand Prix (or Grote Prijs van Nederland) motor race was held. The race also held the honorary designation of the 22nd European Grand Prix. It was run to Formula One regulations as the opening round of the 1962 World Drivers' Championship on 20 May 1962. It was held over 80 laps of the compact 2.6 mile Circuit Park Zandvoort for a race distance of just over 200 miles.
It was won by British driver Graham Hill driving a BRM P57. It was the first Grand Prix victory for the future dual-World Champion and the second time a BRM driver had won the race after Jo Bonnier in 1959. Hill finished over 27 seconds ahead of Team Lotus driver Trevor Taylor driving a Lotus 25. The reigning World Champion, Ferrari's Phil Hill (Ferrari 156) completed the podium.
The race provided an indication of the season to come as the long-maligned British Racing Motors organisation were on their way to their first and ultimately only constructor's championship. It also signalled Hill's own rise in the sport, having only stood on the podium once before, at the same circuit two years previously. He would win three more races this year and be crowned World
The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in 1886 that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa. It was part of the Mineral Revolution.
There had always been rumours of a modern-day "El Dorado" in the folklore of the native tribes that roamed the plains of the South African highveld, and the gold miners that had come from all over the world to seek out their fortunes on the alluvial mines of Barberton and Pilgrim's Rest, in what is now known as the province of Mpumalanga.
But it was not until 1886 that the massive wealth of the Witwatersrand would be uncovered. Scientific studies have pointed to the fact that the "Golden Arc" which stretches from Johannesburg to Welkom was once a massive inland lake, and that silt and gold deposits from alluvial gold settled in the area to form the gold-rich deposits that South Africa is famous for.
It is believed that it was a Sunday in March 1886 that an Australian gold miner, George Harrison, stumbled across a rocky outcrop of the main gold-bearing reef. He declared his claim with the then-government of the Zuid Afrikaanse Republiek (ZAR), and the area was pronounced open. His discovery is recorded in history with a monument
The 1950 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 21 May 1950 at Monaco. This race was the second round of 1950 World Drivers' Championship. The race, contested over 100 laps at an overall distance of 318.1 km (197.1 mi) was won by Juan Manuel Fangio for the Alfa Romeo team after starting from pole position. Alberto Ascari finished 2nd for Ferrari and Louis Chiron finished 3rd for Maserati.
After two qualifying sessions, on Thursday and Saturday, which Charles Pozzi, Yves Giraud-Cabantous, Pierre Levegh and Clemente Biondetti did not start, the race was dominated by Juan Manuel Fangio, who scored his first ever victory in a World Championship event, driving an Alfa Romeo. The starting grid consisted of alternating rows of three and two, starting with three on the front row and continuing up to two on the 8th row. The race was marred by a large pile-up during the first lap, when a wave from the harbour flooded the track at Tabac Corner. Nino Farina in 2nd, spun and crashed while Fangio managed to escape the chaos. Those who were behind them tried to stop or avoid the carnage, but eight more drivers (from a field of 19 drivers) crashed and retired. None of them was
The 1961 French Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on 2 July 1961 at Reims-Gueux.
By winning the race, Giancarlo Baghetti became only the third driver to win his first World Championship race, the other two being Nino Farina, who won the first World Championship race (the 1950 British Grand Prix) and Johnnie Parsons, who won the 1950 Indianapolis 500 (the Indianapolis 500 was part of the World Championship from 1950 to 1960), though both Farina and Parsons had competed at future World Championship races before the creation of the championship, while this was Baghetti's first start at a major Grand Prix. This was Baghetti's only World Championship race win.
The 1984 Brazilian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Jacarepaguá Circuit in Rio de Janeiro on March 25, 1984. It was the first round of the 1984 Formula One season and the first race where the FISA mandated 220 litre fuel limit came into effect, with the re-fueling of 1983 now banned. Many of the drivers complained that this would turn Grand Prix racing into fuel economy runs rather than actual races.
Elio de Angelis claimed the first pole position of the season in his Lotus-Renault from the Ferrari of Michele Alboreto in his first race for the Prancing Horse. Derek Warwick, in his first race for Renault, was 3rd on the grid with the McLaren-TAG of Alain Prost 4th, Prost returning to the team he started his career with after three seasons with Renault. Reigning World Champion (and local favourite) Nelson Piquet qualified 7th in his Brabham-BMW, while a Formula One rookie by the name of Ayrton Senna qualified 17th for his first ever Grand Prix in his Toleman-Hart.
Alboreto got the jump at the start and led early from Warwick and de Angelis, with the McLarens of Niki Lauda and Prost (who had made a bad start after bogging down at the green light with too few revs
The 1953 French Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 5 July 1953 at Reims. It was the fifth round of the 1953 World Drivers' Championship, which was run to Formula Two rules in 1952 and 1953, rather than the Formula One regulations normally used.
Not only had the Reims circuit's layout changed, the name was different – both in regards to the same thing. The new, faster and slightly longer circuit bypassed the town of Gueux and as a result, the circuit was now called "Reims".
It is popularly known as the race of the century because of the sixty lap battle between Briton Mike Hawthorn and Argentine Juan Manuel Fangio. Hawthorn won the duel after they reportedly swapped the lead at virtually every corner on the Reims circuit. In addition, after 500 km of racing, the four lead cars were less than 5 seconds apart.
The 1969 German Grand Prix was a Formula One race held at Nürburgring on 3 August 1969 with Formula Two cars competing by invitation. It was the seventh round of the 1969 World Championship for Drivers. The F2 entrants were not eligible for points in the World Championship.
Gerhard Mitter was killed during a practice session for this race at the Schwedenkreuz curve. He was practicing for BMW's 269 F2 project. As a suspension or steering failure was suspected, the BMW team with Hubert Hahne and Dieter Quester withdrew from the race, as did Mitter's teammate at Porsche, Hans Herrmann.
Mario Andretti drove the 4WD Lotus 63 for very few laps in practice. The heavy fuel load for the race made the car ground out in lap 1 after a jump at Wippermann, causing a crash that also took out Vic Elford, whose car flipped upside down and landed in the trees. Elford broke his arm in 3 places.
In the race, Jacky Ickx had a very poor start which dropped him down to 9th, but he eventually passed the entire field over 3 laps, and he and Jackie Stewart battled for 4 laps until Ickx passed Stewart at the first corner, the Sudkurve. Stewart held on but then gearbox problems began to slow him and he
The 1975 French Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Paul Ricard on July 6, 1975. It was the 53rd French Grand Prix and the third time the race was held at Paul Ricard. The race was held over 54 laps of the five kilometre circuit for a race distance of 313 kilometres.
The race was won by world championship points leader, Austrian driver Niki Lauda driving a Ferrari 312T. Lauda won the race in dramatic fashion in a late race dogfight with British driver James Hunt in his Hesketh 308 while West German driver Jochen Mass closed rapidly on the fighting pair in his McLaren M23. It was Lauda's fourth win for the season, giving him a 22 point lead in the points over Brabham driver Carlos Reutemann.
Niki Lauda was suffering from flu and was definitely not on top form. Jean-Pierre Jarier brought a smile to French faces by setting Friday's quickest time. Jody Scheckter driving the new lightweight Tyrrell 007 set a record through the speed trap of 190 mph.
On the start line, Tom Pryce was left without a clutch and retired shortly afterwards. Lauda led from Scheckter, James Hunt and Jochen Mass. Clay Regazzoni had promoted himself to a fantastic second place before his engine
Apollo 12 was the sixth manned flight in the United States Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon (an H type mission). It was launched on November 14, 1969 from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, four months after Apollo 11. Mission commander Charles "Pete" Conrad and Lunar Module Pilot Alan L. Bean performed just over one day and seven hours of lunar surface activity while Command Module Pilot Richard F. Gordon remained in lunar orbit. The landing site for the mission was located in the southeastern portion of the Ocean of Storms. Unlike the first landing on Apollo 11, Conrad and Bean achieved a precise landing at the site of the Surveyor 3 unmanned probe, which had landed on April 20, 1967. They carried the first color television camera to the lunar surface on an Apollo flight, but transmission was lost after Bean accidentally destroyed the camera by pointing it at the Sun. On one of two moonwalks, they visited the Surveyor, and removed some parts for return to Earth. The mission ended on November 24 with a successful splashdown.
Apollo 12 launched on schedule from Kennedy Space Center, during a rainstorm. It was the first rocket launch attended by an incumbent US
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians (Roundheads) and Royalists (Cavaliers). The first (1642–46) and second (1648–49) civil wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third war (1649–51) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The Civil War ended with the Parliamentary victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651.
The English Civil War led to the trial and execution of Charles I, the exile of his son, Charles II, and replacement of English monarchy with, first, the Commonwealth of England (1649–53), and then with a Protectorate (1653–59), under Oliver Cromwell's personal rule. The monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship in England ended with the victors consolidating the established Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although this concept was legally established only with the Glorious Revolution later in the century.
The term English Civil War appears
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region. The rebellion posed a considerable threat to Company power in that region, and was contained only with the fall of Gwalior on 20 June 1858. The rebellion is also known as the India's First War of Independence, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Revolt of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Sepoy Rebellion, and the Sepoy Mutiny.
Other regions of Company-controlled India – such as Bengal, the Bombay Presidency, and the Madras Presidency – remained largely calm. In Punjab, the Sikh princes backed the Company by providing both soldiers and support. The large princely states of Hyderabad, Mysore, Travancore, and Kashmir, as well as the smaller ones of Rajputana, did not join the rebellion. In some regions, such as Oudh, the rebellion took on the attributes of a patriotic revolt against European presence. Maratha leaders,
The Second English Civil War (1648–1649) was the second of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1652 and also include the First English Civil War (1642–1646) and the Third English Civil War (1649–1651).
The end of the First Civil War, in 1646, left a partial power vacuum in which any combination of the three English factions, Royalists, Independents of the New Model Army (henceforward called the Army), and Presbyterians of the English Parliament, as well as the Scottish Parliament allied with the Scottish Presbyterians (the Kirk), could prove strong enough to dominate the rest. Armed political Royalism was at an end, but despite being a prisoner, King Charles I was considered by himself and his opponents (almost to the last) as necessary to ensure the success of whichever group could come to terms with him. Thus he passed successively into the hands of the Scots, the Parliament and the Army. The King attempted to reverse the verdict of arms by coquetting with each in turn. On 3 June 1647 Cornet George Joyce of Thomas
The 1977 Dutch Grand Prix was a Formula One race held at Circuit Zandvoort on 28 August 1977.
In qualifying, Mario Andretti took his fifth pole of the season with Jacques Laffite alongside on the front row, and James Hunt third. At the start, Hunt jumped both the front row starters to lead but before the end of the first lap, Andretti tried to drive alongside him but some aggressive defending from Hunt forced him to lift, and Laffite took advantage to get second. Five laps later, Andretti had got back past Laffite and was attack attacking Hunt, who again defended aggressively but this time Andretti did not lift and they collided. Hunt was out on the spot, whereas Andretti spun and rejoined fourth.
This left Laffite leading from the Ferraris of Niki Lauda and Carlos Reutemann. The latter had a long battle with Andretti for third, repeatedly exchanging places, until the Lotus driver's engine blew up. Soon after, Lauda passed Laffite to take the lead, and he went on build a gap and win comfortably. Laffite finished second. After Andretti's demise, Reutemann ran third until the second Lotus of Gunnar Nilsson attacked him, and the two collided with Nilsson out and Reutemann rejoining at
The Second Opium War, the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the British Empire and the Second French Empire against the Qing Dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860. It was fought over similar issues as the First Opium War.
"Second War" and "Arrow War" are both used in the literature. "Second Opium War" refers to one of the British strategic objectives: legalising the opium trade, expanding coolie trade, opening all of China to British merchants, and exempting foreign imports from internal transit duties. The "Arrow War" refers to the name of a vessel which became the starting point of the conflict. The importance of the opium factor in the war is in debate among historians.
The 1850s saw the rapid growth of imperialism. Some of the shared goals of the western powers were the expansion of their overseas markets and the establishment of new ports of call. The French Treaty of Huangpu and the American Wangxia Treaty both contained clauses allowing renegotiation of the treaties after 12 years. In an effort to expand their privileges in China, Britain demanded the Qing authorities renegotiate
The 1958 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 18 May 1958 at Monaco. It was the second round of the 1958 Formula One season.
Vanwall and BRM returned after their Argentine absence and so Stirling Moss went back to his regular drive. In his place with the new 2000cc engined Cooper was French driver Maurice Trintignant. Jean Behra led until his brakes failed, and then Mike Hawthorn swept by in the Ferrari. Moss had been duelling with him throughout the race until he retired on lap 38, and Hawthorn followed suit on lap 47 with a broken fuel pump. Graham Hill retired from fourth place in his first race on lap 69, after briefly leading. Stuart Lewis-Evans and Tony Brooks retired, leaving Trintignant to lead home by some 20 seconds giving Cooper its second race win of the year.
The 1960 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monza on September 4, 1960. The race was won by American driver Phil Hill driving a Ferrari 246 F1.
The 1960 season had been a frustrating one for Ferrari's Formula 1 program as they campaigned their obsolete Dino 246, a front engined car as the rear engined design established supremacy. The championship had already been decided for Jack Brabham and Ferrari had gone without a victory. Seeing an opportunity, the Italian organizers decided to maximize Ferrari's one advantage—straightline speed—by using the combined Monza road and banked oval circuit, making the fast Monza even faster. Citing the fragility of their cars and the dangers of the banking, the major British factory teams of the day—Lotus, B.R.M., and Cooper, all boycotted the event, leading to a cobbled together field of private entrants and Formula 2 cars. The race was a processional affair, with Ginther leading at the start and eventually being overtaken by Hill. The pair with teammate Willy Mairesse raced on to a rare 1-2-3 team result for Scuderia Ferrari. The boycott also allowed Scuderia Castellotti to score its only world championship points with
The 1969 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One race held at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza on September 7, 1969. The race was notable in that less than a fifth of second separated the winner from the fourth-placed driver, and is generally reckoned to be the closest 1-2-3-4 in Formula One history. Jackie Stewart and Matra-Ford claimed the Drivers' and Constructors' championships in this race, with 3 races left to go.
The 1979 Dutch Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on 26 August 1979 at Zandvoort.
René Arnoux put his Renault on pole position but the slow start of the turbocharged car allowed Alan Jones to break free. Arnoux and Clay Regazzoni collided, eliminating the Williams on the spot while the poleman only lasted to the end of the lap as he limped back to the pits. Jody Scheckter fell to last place on the first lap and began the task of working through the field. Gilles Villeneuve, who made it through the first lap ahead of Jean-Pierre Jabouille, passed Jones at Tarzan on lap 11. He gave the lead back to Jones when he spun on lap 47. On lap 51, just after passing the pits, Villeneuve's left rear tyre exploded causing him to spin. He regained control to begin one of the wildest laps in history. He drove an entire lap on two tyres, the right front was in the air and the left rear was shredding rubber and sparking with the pavement. Reaction was mixed. It was either an act of the ultimate competitor not wanting to give up or an irresponsible, emotional decision. Either way he was out as his suspension was too damaged to rejoin the race. Jones finished first giving him his third
The Georgia Gold Rush was the second significant gold rush in the United States. It started in 1828 in the present day Lumpkin County near county seat Dahlonega, and soon spread through the North Georgia mountains, following the Georgia Gold Belt. By the early 1840s, gold became harder to find. When gold was discovered in California in 1848 to start the California Gold Rush, many Georgia miners moved west.
While the discovery in Georgia in 1828 was the event that led to the Georgia Gold Rush, there were reports of gold in the North Georgia Mountains much earlier. Since the 16th century, American Indians in Georgia told European explorers that the small amounts of gold which they possessed came from mountains of the interior. Some poorly documented accounts exist of Spanish or French mining gold in north Georgia between 1560 and 1690, but they are based on supposition and on rumors passed on by Indians. In summing up known sources, Yeates observed: “Many of these accounts and traditions seem to be quite plausible. Nevertheless, it is hardly probable, that the Spaniards would have abandoned mines, which were afterwards found to be quite profitable, as those in North Georgia.” In
This article is concerned with the military history of Ireland from 1641–53. For the political context of this conflict, see Confederate Ireland.
The Irish Confederate Wars, also called the Eleven Years' War (derived from the Irish language name Cogadh na hAon-déag mBliana), took place in Ireland between 1641 and 1653. It was the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms – a series of civil wars in the kingdoms of Ireland, England and Scotland (all ruled by Charles I). The conflict in Ireland essentially pitted the native Irish Catholics against English and Scottish Protestant colonists and their supporters. It was both a religious and ethnic conflict – fought over who would govern Ireland, whether it would be governed from England, which ethnic and religious group would own most of the land and which religion would predominate in the country.
The war in Ireland began with the rebellion of the Irish of Ulster in October 1641, during which thousands of Scots and English Protestant settlers were killed. The rebellion spread throughout the country and at Kilkenny in 1642 the association of The Confederate Catholics of Ireland was formed to organise the Irish Catholic war effort.
The 1954 French Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Reims-Gueux on 4 July 1954, the same date of 1954 Football (Soccer) World Cup Final. It was the fourth round of the 1954 World Drivers' Championship.
The long-awaited Mercedes W196 with its straight-8 fuel-injection engine made its debut with Fangio transferring from Maserati to join an otherwise all-German line-up of Hans Herrmann, Karl Kling and pre-war driver Herrmann Lang. It was a dominant return with Fangio recording a practice lap of 124.31 mph. He and Kling led away and continued to race side by side around the Rheims track. The Ferrari drivers simply couldn't cope with the pace. Ascari (driving a Maserati as the Lancia section of Ferrari was not yet ready for racing) lasted only 1 lap, Gonzalez retired after 12. Mike Hawthorn's car blew up spectacularly. Hans Herrmann set fastest lap before retiring, but Fangio and Kling continued their duel until the last lap when team orders were put in force and Fangio led Kling over the line by a mere 0.1 seconds-half a car length. Only six cars finished the gruelling race.
The 1961 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on 10 September 1961 at Monza.
The race was marked by one of the most terrible accidents in the history of Formula One, when on the end of lap 2 at the approach to the Parabolica the German driver Wolfgang von Trips lost control of his Ferrari and crashed against a stand full of spectators, killing 15 and dying himself. The race was not stopped, allegedly to assist the rescue work for the injured. This was also the last Formula One race ever to be held on the full 10 km (6.213 mi) Monza circuit, with the 2 bankings and the straight between the bankings included.
The 1983 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Spa-Francorchamps on May 22, 1983. After 13 years, the F1 circus returned to Spa after the track had been shortened. This was the first F1 race to be held on the modern Spa circuit.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1983/332/. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
The 1983 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monaco on May 15, 1983.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1983/331/. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
The First Crusade (1096–1099) was a military expedition by Roman Catholic Europe to regain the Holy Lands taken in the Muslim conquests of the Levant (632–661), ultimately resulting in the recapture of Jerusalem in 1099. It was launched on 27 November 1095 by Pope Urban II with the primary goal of responding to an appeal from Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos, who requested that western volunteers come to his aid and help to repel the invading Seljuq Turks from Anatolia. An additional goal soon became the principal objective—the Christian reconquest of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and the freeing of the Eastern Christians from Islamic rule.
During the crusade, knights and peasants from many nations of Western Europe travelled over land and by sea, first to Constantinople and then on towards Jerusalem, as crusaders; the peasants greatly outnumbered the knights. Peasants and knights were split into separate armies; however, because the peasants were not as well-trained in combat as the knights, their army failed to reach Jerusalem. The knights arrived at Jerusalem, launched an assault on the city, and captured it in July 1099, massacring many of the city's Muslim
The Women's March on Versailles, also known as The October March, The October Days, or simply The March on Versailles, was one of the earliest and most significant events of the French Revolution. The march began among women in the marketplaces of Paris who, on the morning of 5 October 1789, were near rioting over the high price and scarcity of bread. Their demonstrations quickly became intertwined with the activities of revolutionaries who were seeking liberal political reforms and a constitutional monarchy for France. The market women and their various allies grew into a mob of thousands and, encouraged by revolutionary agitators, they ransacked the city armory for weapons and marched to the Palace of Versailles. The crowd besieged the palace and in a dramatic and violent confrontation they successfully pressed their demands upon King Louis XVI. The next day, the crowd compelled the king, his family, and most of the French Assembly to return with them to Paris.
These events effectively ended the independent authority of the king. The march symbolized a new balance of power that displaced the ancient privileged orders of the French nobility and favored the nation's common people,
The 1981 Dutch Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Circuit Zandvoort on August 30, 1981.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1981/369/. Retrieved 2007-06-16.
The 1980 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Zolder on May 4, 1980. It was the fifth round of the 1980 Formula One season. The race was the 38th Belgian Grand Prix and the seventh to be held at Zolder. The race was held over 72 laps of the 4.262-kilometre circuit for a total race distance of 307 kilometres.
The race was won by French driver Didier Pironi driving a Ligier JS11/15. It was Pironi's debut World Championship victory and he was the fourth driver to win in the first five races of the season. Pironi won by 47 seconds over Australian driver and eventual 1980 champion, Alan Jones driving a Williams FW07B. Third was Jones' Williams team mate Argentinian driver, Carlos Reutemann. It was the first of three wins in Pironi's accident-shortened Formula One career. Jones' second place allowed him to close to within two points of series leader René Arnoux who had collected three points for finishing fourth in his Renault RE20. Piquet was one point behind Jones with Pironi just one point further behind.
The 1983 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monza on 11 September 1983.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1983/339/. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
The 2003 Australian Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on 9 March 2003 at the Melbourne Grand Prix Circuit.
There was a lot of speculation about how the new set of rules that debuted in this race would affect Ferrari, which were the ones to cause the changes after their dominant 2002 season. However, qualifying was an all Ferrari affair, with Schumacher edging out Barrichello. Montoya took third, with Frentzen, Panis and Villeneuve putting in good performances for 4th, 5th and 6th. The McLarens had poor qualifying, with Coulthard in 11th, and Räikkönen making a mistake, and ending up 15th.
Weather conditions were changeable at the start. Räikkönen stopped for dry tyres at the end of the formation lap. Barrichello jumped the start, and would soon receive a drive-through penalty. Schumacher led at the end of lap 1, with Barrichello in close company. Montoya was 6 seconds behind in third, followed by Frentzen and Villeneuve. Panis went backwards on dry tyres, with the Renaults, Ralf Schumacher and Coulthard climbing quickly. Barrichello received his penalty, and on his in lap, he crashed, putting him out. It was soon time for dry tyres, with the leaders pitting just before a
The Greek Civil War (Greek: ο Eμφύλιος [Πόλεμος], "the Civil War") was fought from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army—backed by the United Kingdom and the United States—and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE), the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE), backed by Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Albania. It was the result of a highly polarized struggle between leftists and rightists that started in 1943 and targeted the power vacuum that the German-Italian occupation during World War II had created. One of the first conflicts of the Cold War, according to some analysts it represents the first example of postwar British and American interference in the internal politics of a foreign country.
The first signs of the civil war occurred in 1942–1944, during the Occupation. With the Greek government in exile unable to influence the situation at home, various resistance groups of differing political affiliations emerged, the dominant one being the leftist National Liberation Front (EAM), controlled effectively by the KKE. Starting in autumn 1943, friction among EAM and the other resistance groups resulted in scattered clashes, which continued until the spring of 1944 when
Trafalgar 200 was a series of events in 2005 held mostly in the United Kingdom to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar, where a British fleet led by Admiral Nelson (who died in the battle) defeated a joint Franco-Spanish fleet during the Napoleonic Wars. During the summer of 2005 there was an International Fleet Review, the first since 1977. Dinners and other commemorations focussed on Trafalgar Day 21 October at HMS Victory, Trafalgar Square (T Square 200) and other locations. In an apparent effort to avoid giving offence, at the Fleet Review the fleets in the mock battle were called simply "Red" and "Blue". This originates from the military map convention in which enemy positions are marked in red, and friendly (or allied) positions in blue. The phrase "blue on blue" refers to an attack on ones' own forces in a "friendly fire" encounter. Some have thought the colouring was with the intent as not to insult French guests, which would make it an issue of political correctness.
The Trafalgar 200 celebrations were perhaps most remembered for the International Fleet Review, held in the Solent in the presence of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. Planning
The 1951 German Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 29 July 1951 at the Nürburgring Nordschleife. It was the sixth round of the 1951 World Drivers' Championship.
Alfa Romeo once again fielded four cars, with local driver Paul Pietsch replacing Consalvo Sanesi, joining Fangio, Farina and Bonetto. Following on from their maiden victory at Silverstone, Ferrari also entered four drivers. Piero Taruffi rejoined their lineup, alongside Ascari, Villoresi and British Grand Prix winner José Froilán González. Ferrari continued their good form from the previous event, with Ascari and González the fastest two qualifiers. Fangio and Farina completed the front row, with Villoresi, Taruffi and Pietsch making up the second row.
Nino Farina initially took the lead, but, by the end of the first lap, had been passed by Fangio, Ascari and González. Paul Pietsch was running in fifth, but ended up at the back of the field after going off on the second lap. When Farina was forced to retire due to overheating problems, Fangio was left as the sole Alfa Romeo able to take the fight to the Ferrari drivers. Alberto Ascari took the lead on the fifth lap as a result of Fangio's first pitstop, but
The 1953 Swiss Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 23 August 1953 at Bremgarten Circuit. It was the eighth round of the 1953 World Drivers' Championship, which was run to Formula Two rules in 1952 and 1953, rather than the Formula One regulations normally used. With his victory at this race, Ferrari driver Alberto Ascari won his second Driver's championship in a row; as teammates Nino Farina and Mike Hawthorn, and Maserati driver Juan Manuel Fangio (who failed to score) now could not beat Ascari's total points score.
It marked the brief return of Grand Prix-era legend Hermann Lang. He was given a chance to participate in Formula 1 racing driving for Officine Alfieri Maserati after one of their team drivers was injured. He raced in two World Drivers' Championship events overall—one in 1953 and one in 1954—and his result here, a fifth place finish, was his best result.
The 1959 French Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Reims on July 5, 1959. It was the fourth round of the 1959 Formula One season. It was the 37th French Grand Prix and the twelfth to be held at the Reims-Gueux highway circuit and the fourth to be held on the longer and faster 8.348 km layout. The race was held over 50 laps of the eight kilometre circuit for a race distance of 417 kilometres.
The race was won by British driver Tony Brooks driving a Ferrari Dino 246. Brooks dominated the race, leading all 50 laps and winning by 27 seconds over his American Scuderia Ferrari team mate Phil Hill. Brooks said after the race a sticking throttle in the closing laps made it more difficult than the result seemed. Australian driver Jack Brabham was over a minute behind in third position driving a Cooper T51 for the factory Cooper racing team after stopping to get new goggles as the circuit broke up.
Race day was very hot, to the point where the bitumen started to melt. Race cars were disloging aggregate stones as the race went on causing American Masten Gregory to retire with cuts to his face, and Graham Hill to retire his Lotus 16 after his radiator was holed.
Stirling Moss was
The 1973 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Zolder on May 20, 1973. It was won by British driver Jackie Stewart driving a Tyrrell 006.
The entire Zolder track had to be resurfaced a week before the actual Grand Prix after a few drivers such as Jackie Stewart, Emerson Fittipaldi and François Cevert walked around the track to inspect it. They found that the track started to break up as a result of a previous race, and the track owners immediately decided to resurface the track, only a week before the Grand Prix. Cevert, Fittipaldi and Stewart refused to drive on the track because of the danger, and Cevert responded to the FIA that they would attempt to cancel the race if the owners did not do a good enough job of fixing the track.
The 1975 Austrian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Österreichring on August 17, 1975. It was the eighth Austrian Grand Prix and the sixth to be held at the Österreichring. It was held over 29 of the scheduled 54 laps of the six kilometre circuit for a race distance of 171 kilometres. The race was shortened by heavy rain, meaning that only half points were awarded.
Mastering the wet weather, the race was won by Italian driver Vittorio Brambilla driving a March 751. It was Brambilla's only Formula One win in his seven year Grand Prix career. He took a 27 second win over British driver James Hunt in his Hesketh 308. Eight seconds further back was the Shadow DN5 of British driver Tom Pryce in the first of just two podiums in his abbreviated career.
With neither Carlos Reutemann nor Emerson Fittipaldi featuring in the points, Niki Lauda's sixth position actually allowed him to expand his points lead to 17.5 points. If Lauda scored any points at all at the Italian Grand Prix the Austrian driver could claim the championship.
Niki Lauda delighted his home crowd by claiming his seventh pole position of the year. Rolf Stommelen returned after his crash in Spain, Chris Amon had
The 1979 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on 27 May 1979 at Monaco. It was the 37th Monaco Grand Prix and the seventh round of the 1979 Formula One season.
The race was won by polesitter Jody Scheckter in a Ferrari 312T4 ahead of Clay Regazzoni (Williams FW07) and Carlos Reutemann (Lotus 79). Patrick Depailler set the fastest lap of the race in a Ligier JS11.
It was the last race of 1976 World Champion James Hunt's Formula One career.
The 1984 Canadian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Circuit Gilles Villeneuve on June 17, 1984. It was the seventh round of the 1984 Formula One season.
Brabham's defending World Champion Nelson Piquet scored his first win and indeed his first points for the season. It was the 4th "Grand Slam' of his Formula One career also scoring his 3rd pole position and 2nd fastest lap of the season. Piquet's win over the McLaren-TAGs of Niki Lauda and Alain Prost proved that when the Brabham's BMW turbo engine held together the car had the speed to beat the McLarens.
Lauda, who started 8th, finished 2nd to boost his championship hopes while Prost had to deal with a minor misfire in his TAG engine for the race but still finished 3rd. Rounding out the points were the Lotus-Renaults of Elio de Angelis and Nigel Mansell in 4th and 6th respectively, the pair separated by the Ferrari of 1983 race winner René Arnoux who finished 5th.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1984/317/. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
The 1984 San Marino Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Imola on May 6, 1984. It was the fourth round of the 1984 Formula One season.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1984/314/. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. It was sparked by the 1517 posting of Luther's Ninety-Five Theses. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to ("protested") the doctrines, rituals, and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led to the creation of new national Protestant churches. The Reformation was precipitated by earlier events within Europe, such as the Black Death and the Western Schism, which eroded people's faith in the Catholic Church and the Papacy that governed it. This, as well as many other factors, such as the mid 15th-century invention of the printing press, and the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire, contributed to the creation of Protestantism.
The Roman Catholic Church responded with a Counter-Reformation initiated by the Council of Trent—the most important ecumenical council since Nicaea II 800 years earlier (at the time, there had not been an ecumenical council since Lateran IV over 300 years earlier, a length only to be matched by the interval between Trent and Vatican I )—and spearheaded by the Society of Jesus.
The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States and those of the British Empire. The United States declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions brought about by Britain's ongoing war with France, the impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy, British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion, outrage over insults to national honour after humiliations on the high seas, and possible American desire to annex Canada. Tied down in Europe until 1814, the British at first used defensive strategy, repelling multiple American invasions of the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. However, the Americans gained control over Lake Erie in 1813, seized parts of western Ontario, and ended the prospect of an Indian confederacy and an independent Indian state in the Midwest under British sponsorship. In the Southwest, General Andrew Jackson destroyed the military strength of the Creek nation at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814. With the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 on April 6, the British adopted a more aggressive strategy, sending in three large invasion armies. The British victory at the Battle
The 1957 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 20 July 1957 at the Aintree Circuit, near Liverpool. It was the tenth British Grand Prix, and the fifth World Championship race of the 1957 Formula One season. The race was won by Stirling Moss and Tony Brooks, who shared driving duties in a Vanwall. It was the third and final time that a Grand Prix had been won by two drivers in a shared car. This was the first occasion that a British-built car won a World Drivers' Championship race, a feat achieved with two British drivers at their home Grand Prix.
The 1975 Dutch Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Circuit Zandvoort on June 22, 1975. It was the 24th Dutch Grand Prix. It was held over 75 laps of the four kilometre circuit for a race distance of 318 kilometres.
The race is memorable for one of the greatest underdog victories in Formula One. British driver and future world champion James Hunt won his first Formula One Grand Prix, giving small privateer operation Hesketh Racing the highlight of its six-year history with its first and only Grand Prix win. Hunt drove his Hesketh 308 to a one-second win over the Ferrari 312T of the World Championship points leader, Austrian driver Niki Lauda. Third was taken by Lauda's Ferrari team mate, Swiss driver Clay Regazzoni.
Niki Lauda dominated practice, with teammate Clay Regazzoni joining him on the front row. Jean-Pierre Jarier had a crash and the Maki team's weekend ended abruptly in a cloud of smoke from engine problems. James Hunt had a storming practice to take third place on the grid. On Saturday afternoon, weather conditions meant practice times would not improve, so Hunt was sent out to get some extra testing – during which something in the metering unit broke. This
The 1979 Brazilian Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on 4 February 1979 at Interlagos.
The Ligier team dominated the race weekend with their superior ground-effect JS11. Frenchman Jacques Laffite dominated the race weekend and made the most of his superbly set-up Ligier by taking pole position, smashing Jean-Pierre Jarier's 1975 pole time by 7 seconds, setting fastest lap and leading every lap of the race up to the finish. Laffite's teammate Patrick Depailler started and finished 2nd. Laffite and the Ligier team completed their domination of the South American fortnight, Laffite also dominantly won in Argentina.
The 1982 Dutch Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Circuit Zandvoort on July 3, 1982.
Ferrari entered Patrick Tambay to replace Gilles Villeneuve, who had been killed during qualifying a few race weekends prior, at the Belgian Grand Prix.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1982/350/. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
The First English Civil War (1642–1646) began the series of three wars known as the English Civil War (or "Wars"). "The English Civil War" was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651, and includes the Second English Civil War (1648–1649) and the Third English Civil War (1649–1651).
Convention uses the name "The English Civil War" (1642–51) to refer collectively to the civil wars in England and the Scottish Civil War, which began with the raising of King Charles I's standard at Nottingham on 22 August 1642, and ended on 3 September 1651 at the Battle of Worcester. There was some continued organised Royalist resistance in Scotland, which lasted until the surrender of Dunnottar Castle to Parliament's troops in May 1652, but this resistance is not usually included as part of the English Civil War. The English Civil War can be divided into three: the First English Civil War (1642–1646), the Second English Civil War (1648–1649), and the Third English Civil War (1649–1651).
For the most part, accounts summarize the two sides that fought the English Civil Wars as the Royalist Cavaliers of Charles I
The 1951 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 17 June 1951 at Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps. It was the third round of the 1951 World Drivers' Championship.
Despite there being just 13 starters representing 3 makes of car, the race attracted a record crowd. Fangio had a new suspension with special wheels, which had to be concave to make room for the brake drums. These proved an expensive novelty. At his first pit stop, they jammed and his stop lasted over 14 minutes. Farina's Alfa Romeo dominated, holding off the Ferraris of Ascari and Villoresi. A lightning stop of 39 seconds for wheel change and refuelling preserved his lead until the finish.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1951/574/. Retrieved 2007-06-05.
The 1952 British Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 19 July 1952 at Silverstone Circuit. It was the fifth round of the 1952 World Drivers' Championship, which was run to Formula Two rules in 1952 and 1953, rather than the Formula One regulations normally used.
The 1955 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monaco on May 22, 1955. It was the second round of the 1955 World Drivers' Championship and was given an honorary name, Grand Prix d'Europe.
Stirling Moss had been signed by Mercedes for the new season and Maserati had replaced him with Jean Behra. The Silver Arrows of Fangio and Moss dominated, running 1-2 until half distance, trailed by Ascari and Castellotti. At the halfway mark, Fangio retired with transmission trouble, giving the lead to Moss. Almost a lap ahead, a seemingly sure win for Moss was ended on Lap 80 when his Benz's engine blew. The new leader Ascari got it all wrong at the chicane coming out of the tunnel, his Lancia crashing through the barriers into the harbour and having to swim to safety. Maurice Trintignant, in a Ferrari 625 thought to be uncompetitive, inherited the lead and scored his first Formula One victory.
Mercedes driver Hans Herrmann injured himself in practice and was replaced by André Simon.
This race marked the Grand Prix debut for Cesare Perdisa. It was the only Grand Prix appearance for Ted Whiteaway. This was the last Grand Prix appearance for Alberto Ascari; he was killed four
The 1978 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Brands Hatch circuit in Kent, England, in the United Kingdom. The race, contested over 76 laps, was the tenth round of the 1978 Formula One season and was won by Ferrari driver Carlos Reutemann.
Lotus took the front row, with Ronnie Peterson beating Mario Andretti to pole, with Jody Scheckter next up on the second row. Andretti took the lead at the start from Peterson, and the two Lotus cars quickly pulled out a gap until Peterson retired with an engine failure. Andretti had a big lead to Scheckter and continued to extend it until he had to pit with a puncture, and he eventually retired when his engine also failed. Scheckter inherited the lead, but Niki Lauda put him under pressure and took the lead before Scheckter went out with gearbox problems. This put Carlos Reutemann up to second, and he then closed down and thanks to a back marker who was in the way, Reutemann passed Lauda in the late stages of the race to win. Lauda had to settle for second, and his teammate John Watson took a podium in his home race.
The 1980 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monaco on May 18, 1980. It was the sixth round of the 1980 Formula One season. The race was the 38th Monaco Grand Prix. The race was held over 76 laps of the 3.34-kilometre circuit for a total race distance of 254 kilometres.
It was won by Carlos Reutemann driving a Williams FW07B. The win was Reutermann's tenth Formula One victory and his first since the 1978 United States Grand Prix. He also became the fifth winner in six races of the 1980 season. Reutemann won by 1 minute and 13 seconds over French driver Jacques Laffite driving Ligier JS11/15. Third was Brazilian driver Nelson Piquet driving a Brabham BT49. Piquet's third place moved him past René Arnoux and Alan Jones into the lead of the world championship for the first time.
The race however is remembered for a memorable and spectacular crash at the start of the race when Derek Daly collided with Bruno Giacomelli's Alfa Romeo 179, which sent Daly's Tyrrell 010 flying over Giacomelli and landing between teammate Jean-Pierre Jarier and Alain Prost's McLaren M29. All four drivers were out on the spot, but none suffered any serious injury. Jan Lammers also collected
The 2004 Australian Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on 7 March 2004 at the Melbourne Grand Prix Circuit. Michael Schumacher won the race for Ferrari from pole position in a very dominant fashion, with his team-mate Rubens Barrichello finishing behind him in second. This one-two finish gave Ferrari a strong 9 point lead in the constructors' standings after just one race. Williams, Renault and BAR gathered points together, while McLaren, a team that had enjoyed success in years preceding this, only managed one point, with David Coulthard finishing a lapped 8th.
Qualifying resulted in a Ferrari one-two, with Juan Pablo Montoya third on the grid for Williams. Gianmaria Bruni, Christian Klien and Olivier Panis all failed to set a qualifying time.
The race proved that Ferrari once again had a dominant car, with Michael Schumacher winning from team-mate Rubens Barrichello in Ferrari's first one-two since Japan 2002, while the rest of the field was over 20 seconds behind. Schumacher led every one of the 58 race laps. At the start, Montoya was jumped by the Renault of Fernando Alonso. Montoya attempted to regain the place by going around the outside of the Spaniard into the first
The Pike's Peak Gold Rush (later known as the Colorado Gold Rush) was the boom in gold prospecting and mining in the Pike's Peak Country of western Kansas Territory and southwestern Nebraska Territory of the United States that began in July 1858 and lasted until roughly the creation of the Colorado Territory on February 28, 1861. An estimated 100,000 gold seekers took part in one of the greatest gold rushes in North American history. The participants in the gold rush were known as "Fifty-Niners" after 1859, the peak year of the rush and often used the motto Pike's Peak or Bust!
The Pike's Peak Gold Rush, which followed the California Gold Rush by approximately one decade, produced a dramatic but temporary influx of immigrants into the Pike's Peak Country of the Southern Rocky Mountains. The rush was exemplified by the slogan "Pike's Peak or Bust!", a reference to the prominent mountain at the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains that guided many early prospectors to the region westward over the Great Plains. The prospectors provided the first major European-American population in the region. The rush created a few mining camps such as Denver City and Boulder City that would develop
The Eureka Rebellion of 1854 was a historically significant organised rebellion of gold miners of Ballarat against British colonial authority. The Battle of Eureka Stockade (by which the rebellion is popularly known) was fought between miners and the Colonial forces of Australia on 3 December 1854 at Eureka Lead and named for the stockade structure erected by miners during the conflict. Resulting in the deaths of 22 miners, it was the most significant conflict in the colonial history of Victoria.
The event was the culmination of civil disobedience in the Ballarat region during the Victorian gold rush with miners objecting to the expense of a Miner's Licence, taxation (via the licence) without representation and the actions of the government and its agents (the police and military) The local rebellion in Ballarat grew from a Ballarat Reform League movement and culminated in organised battle at the stockades against colonial forces.
Mass public support for the captured 'rebels' in the colony's capital of Melbourne when they were placed on trial resulted in the introduction of the Electoral Act 1856, which mandated full white male suffrage for elections for the lower house in the
The Third English Civil War (1649–1651) was the last of the English Civil Wars (1642–1651), a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists.
The Preston campaign of the Second Civil War was undertaken under the direction of the Scots Parliament, not the Kirk, and it took the execution of King Charles I to bring about a union of all Scottish parties against the English Independents. Even so, Charles II in exile had to submit to long negotiations and hard conditions before he was allowed to put himself at the head of the Scottish armies. The Marquess of Huntly was executed for taking up arms for the king on 22 March 1649.
The Marquess of Montrose, under the direction of Charles II, made a last attempt to rally the Scottish Royalists early in 1650. But Charles II merely used Montrose as a threat to obtain better conditions for himself from the Covenanters. When Montrose was defeated at the Battle of Carbisdale on 27 April, delivered up to his pursuers on 4 May, and executed on 21 May 1650, Charles II gave way to the demands of the Covenanters and placed himself at their head. Charles II now tried to regain the throne through an alliance
The 1965 South African Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at East London on 1 January 1965. It was the first race of the 1965 Formula One season.
Jim Clark celebrated Hogmanay by dominating the race, leading from pole and breaking the 100 mph barrier, winning by half a minute from Graham Hill and John Surtees and even had time to complete an extra lap after the chequered flag was waved a lap too early. Mike Spence, Bruce McLaren and débutant Jackie Stewart completed the points positions. Goodyear made their Grand Prix début with the Brabham team, challenging the Dunlop monopoly.
The 1956 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 2 September 1956 at Monza. It was the eighth and final round of the 1956 World Drivers' Championship.
Coming into the race, Juan Manuel Fangio had an eight-point lead over Ferrari team-mate Peter Collins and Jean Behra, driving for Maserati.
Fangio retired with a broken steering arm, while Behra also had to pull out. Luigi Musso, also driving for Ferrari, was told to hand his car over to Fangio to ensure the Argentine's third consecutive title but he refused. Brit Collins, with the opportunity for his first world championship, sportingly handed his car over to Fangio during a routine pit-stop. Fangio finished second, behind Stirling Moss, giving himself and Collins a share of the points for second place and ensuring his fourth title.
The race saw the World Championship debuts of Jo Bonnier, Les Leston and Wolfgang von Trips and the final World Championship appearances for Hernando da Silva Ramos, Toulo de Graffenried, Robert Manzon, Piero Taruffi and Luigi Villoresi. Ron Flockhart scored his first World Championship points (and podium finish) and it was the first World Championship race led by Luigi Musso.
The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French Navy and Spanish Navy, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815).
The battle was the most decisive British naval victory of the war. Twenty-seven British ships of the line led by Admiral Lord Nelson aboard HMS Victory defeated thirty-three French and Spanish ships of the line under French Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve off the south-west coast of Spain, just west of Cape Trafalgar. The Franco-Spanish fleet lost twenty-two ships, without a single British vessel being lost.
The British victory spectacularly confirmed the naval supremacy that Britain had established during the previous century and was achieved in part through Nelson's departure from the prevailing naval tactical orthodoxy, which involved engaging an enemy fleet in a single line of battle parallel to the enemy to facilitate signalling in battle and disengagement, and to maximise fields of fire and target areas. Nelson instead divided his smaller force into two columns directed perpendicularly against the larger enemy fleet,
The Klondike Gold Rush, also called the Yukon Gold Rush, the Alaska Gold Rush and the Last Great Gold Rush, was an attempt by an estimated 100,000 people to travel to the Klondike region of the Yukon in northwestern Canada between 1897 and 1899 in the hope of successfully prospecting for gold. Gold was discovered in large quantities in the Klondike on August 16, 1896 and, when news of the finds reached Seattle and San Francisco in July 1897, it triggered a "stampede" of would-be prospectors to the gold creeks. The journey to the Klondike was arduous and involved travelling long distances and crossing difficult mountain passes, frequently while carrying heavy loads. Some miners discovered very rich deposits of gold and became immensely wealthy. However, the majority arrived after the best of the gold fields had been claimed and only around 4,000 miners ultimately struck gold. The Klondike Gold Rush ended in 1899, after gold was discovered in Nome, prompting an exodus from the Klondike. The Klondike Gold Rush was immortalized by the photographs of the prospectors ascending the Chilkoot Pass, by books like The Call of the Wild, and films such as The Gold Rush.
Prospectors had begun to
Included in event:Great Depression in the United States
The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the Great Crash and the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began in late October 1929 and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its fallout. The crash signaled the beginning of the 10-year Great Depression that affected all Western industrialized countries and did not end in the United States until the onset of American mobilization for World War II at the end of 1941.
The Roaring Twenties, the decade that led up to the Crash, was a time of wealth and excess. Despite the dangers of speculation, many believed that the stock market would continue to rise indefinitely. The market had been on a six-year run that saw the Dow Jones Industrial Average increase in value fivefold, peaking at 381.17 on September 3, 1929. Shortly before the crash, economist Irving Fisher famously proclaimed, "Stock prices have reached what looks like a permanently high plateau." The optimism and financial gains of the great bull market were shaken on "Black Thursday", October 24, 1929, when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) abruptly fell.
In the days
The 1963 French Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Reims-Gueux on June 30, 1963. It was the fourth round of the 1963 Formula One season.
Jim Clark roared into a familiar lead from the start from Richie Ginther in the BRM. All Graham Hill's hard work in qualifying second despite mechanical problems in practice came to nothing-his engine died on the grid and he was ordered to be push started. The subsequent one minute penalty dropped him well back. Clark led dominantly, his lead being extended when a stone pierced Ginther's radiator, forcing him into the pits. Jack Brabham took second place after a strong fight with Trevor Taylor, who also suffered mechanical problems.
Brabham then began to gain significantly on Clark as the Scot's Climax engine started to splutter, however this proved to be a sporadic fault and he had enough of a lead to maintain the position. It was Brabham himself who dropped out when a lead came adrift, handing second and third to Tony Maggs and a delighted Hill. Clark was over a minute ahead of them after yet another start-to-finish victory.
The 1977 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Silverstone on 16 July 1977. It was won by James Hunt driving a McLaren M26, and marked the debut of Canadian driver Gilles Villeneuve. The race was the first outing for the first turbocharged Formula One car, the Renault RS01, driven by Jean-Pierre Jabouille.
Owing to the large number of entrants, a special system of pre-qualification was devised, taking place on the Wednesday before the race. Fourteen cars took part, most from teams which were not members of FOCA. Debutant Gilles Villeneuve also took part, along with Patrick Tambay, Jean-Pierre Jarier, Brett Lunger, Patrick Nève, Mikko Kozarowitzky, another debutant Andy Sutcliffe, Guy Edwards, Tony Trimmer, David Purley, Emilio de Villota, Brian Henton, Arturo Merzario and yet another debutant, Brian McGuire.
Kozarowitzky crashed his RAM March in the first session, and Purley suffered a huge accident in the second session, when the throttle stuck open on his LEC. He suffered multiple fractures and spent many months recovering. He later returned to racing but never appeared in a World Championship Formula One race again. The fastest five drivers after both sessions
The 1951 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 14 July 1951 at the Silverstone Circuit in Buckinghamshire, England. It was the fifth round of the 1951 World Drivers' Championship and was contested over 90 laps. The race was the first victory for José Froilán González, and was also the first of many for the Scuderia Ferrari team. Both the team and driver also achieved their first ever pole position during the weekend.
José Froilán González was one second quicker than Juan Manuel Fangio in qualifying, achieving the first pole position of his career. It was also the first pole position for the Ferrari team, and the first in the World Championship (excluding the Indy 500 races) not scored by an Alfa Romeo. Nino Farina and Alberto Ascari qualified in third and fourth positions, completing the front row.
González and Fangio shot away almost parallel from the front row of the grid, closely followed by the other Alfa Romeos and Ferraris. Alfa Romeo driver Felice Bonetto, who started in seventh position, was the first man at the first corner, with the Ferrari of González in second position. González took the lead from Bonetto on the second lap with Fangio chasing. The BRM
The 1982 Brazilian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Jacarepaguá on March 21, 1982. It was the second round of the 1982 Formula One season.
Nelson Piquet finished 1st and Keke Rosberg finished 2nd, but were disqualified after the cars were found to be underweight. As a result, the FOCA teams boycotted San Marino GP after two races. See also: FISA-FOCA war
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1982/343/. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
The 2002 Australian Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on 3 March 2002 at the Melbourne Grand Prix Circuit. It was the first race of the 2002 Formula One season.
The race was won by defending World Champion Michael Schumacher for Ferrari, becoming just the eighth driver to win the event three times since it was first held in 1928. Schumacher was also the first to achieve all three wins during the Formula One World Championship era. Williams driver Juan Pablo Montoya finished 18 seconds behind in second position while McLaren driver Kimi Räikkönen came home in third place and was the only other driver apart from Montoya, not to be lapped by Schumacher. The race was heavy on attrition, with eight cars eliminated in a multi-car pile-up at the first corner. Williams driver Ralf Schumacher ran into the back of polesitter Rubens Barrichello in the Ferrari. In the ensuing chaos Giancarlo Fisichella, Sauber pair Felipe Massa and Nick Heidfeld, Jenson Button , Olivier Panis and Allan McNish retired. Both Arrows were disqualified for disparate reasons. Heinz-Harald Frentzen was disqualified for leaving pit lane under a red light and Enrique Bernoldi was disqualified for starting the race
The Wars of the Three Kingdoms formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in England, Ireland, and Scotland between 1639 and 1651 after these three countries had come under the "Personal Rule" of the same monarch. The English Civil War has become the best-known of these conflicts and included the execution of the Three Kingdoms' monarch, Charles I, by the English parliament in 1649. The term, Wars of the Three Kingdoms, is often extended to include the uprisings and conflicts that continued through the 1650s until The English Restoration of the monarchy with Charles II, in 1660 (from which point the Three Kingdoms were once again under a relatively peaceful personal union led by a Stuart monarch), and sometimes until Venner's Uprising the following year. The wars were the outcome of tensions between king and subjects over religious and civil issues. Religious disputes centred on whether religion was to be dictated by the monarch or the choice of the subject, the subjects often feeling that they ought to have a direct relationship with God unmediated by any monarch or human intermediary. The related civil questions were to what extent the king's rule was constrained
The 1954 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Spa-Francorchamps on 20 June 1954. It was the third round of the 1954 World Drivers' Championship.
This was to be Fangio's last Championship race of the season for Maserati as the new Mercedes cars would be ready in France. There were only three makes contesting this round – Maserati, Ferrari and Gordini. Despite Farina having an arm in plaster after a crash in the Mille Miglia he managed to lead away from the start. Fangio soon overtook him, but lost the lead whilst adjusting his rain visor. A frantic duel ensued, with the Argentine coming out in the lead. Farina battled furiously,but an engine blow-up cost him a chance of a race win. Fangio cruised home an easy winner from Trintignant and Moss in his privately-entered Maserati.
The 1961 Dutch Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on 22 May 1961 at Zandvoort.
Taking place one week after the Monaco GP, there was not time for Innes Ireland to heal from his injury in the previous race, so he was replaced by Trevor Taylor. The front row was taken up by three Ferraris. Von Trips took the lead from the start and led every lap. Phil Hill was a solid second but was soon pressured by Jim Clark, who made a great start from the fourth row. The two would trade second place often with the Ferrari quicker on the straight and the Lotus faster in the corners. This continued until about 20 laps from the end when Clark's handling allowed the Ferrari to pull away. Fourth place was also a hard fought battle. Moss and Ginther, who made a terrible start, battled nose-to-tail until the very end with Moss passing Ginther on the final lap. The race was also historic as one of only three races with a full field where every car finished (the 2005 Italian Grand Prix and the 2011 European Grand Prix are the others). In fact, in this race no driver even made a pit stop.
The 1970 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One race held at Spa-Francorchamps on June 7, 1970. It was the fourth round of the 1970 Formula One season.
This was the last Formula One race to be held on the original Spa circuit; a chicane was put at the extremely high speed Malmedy corner to slow the cars' entrance into the Masta straight. It was also the last Formula One for Dunlop.
The 1981 San Marino Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Imola on May 3, 1981.
The race was the first to bear the title "San Marino Grand Prix", although several non-championship Formula One races and the 1980 Italian Grand Prix had previously been held at the circuit. The Acque-Minerale chicane had been widened from the year before and was faster; the chicane in its original narrow configuration in 1980 was unpopular with drivers because it was very slow.
The Lotus team withdrew their entries because the FIA upheld the ban on the Lotus 88 and team owner Colin Chapman felt the 81s were no longer competitive.
Didier Pironi held the lead until late in the race, before dropping back due to mechanical trouble, and was passed by Nelson Piquet, who eventually won the race. As well as being Michele Alboreto's Grand Prix debut, the race is also notable for the recovery of Gilles Villeneuve to seventh place, after misjudgement of tyre selection for the conditions.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1981/361/. Retrieved 2007-06-16.
The 1982 Caesars Palace Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on September 25, 1982 in Las Vegas, Nevada.
For the first time since the World Championship began in 1950, a country hosted three rounds in the same season in 1982. The final race of the year, and the third in the US, would once again decide the Championship.
It had been a tragic season with the deaths of Gilles Villeneuve and Riccardo Paletti, and the career-ending injuries of Didier Pironi. Though two separate appeals remained pending and clouded the title picture, Keke Rosberg of Williams had 42 points, to 33 for McLaren's John Watson when the teams arrived in Las Vegas. All Rosberg could do was forget about the legal possibilities and try to settle things outright with a fifth place finish, or even better, a win.
The course's tight turns and short straights allowed the non-turbo cars to be more competitive than usual, with Michele Alboreto's Tyrrell and Eddie Cheever's Talbot Ligier fastest among them. It wasn't until final qualifying on Friday afternoon that the turbocharged Renaults of Alain Prost and René Arnoux were able to really separate themselves from the rest, as they occupied the front row positions, more
The 1983 Dutch Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Circuit Zandvoort on August 28, 1983.
The race produced in a 1-2 result for the Ferraris of René Arnoux and Patrick Tambay, with John Watson third in a McLaren. Derek Warwick's fourth-place finish resulted in the first points for both himself and the Toleman team.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1983/338/. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
The Battle of Hastings occurred on 14 October 1066 during the Norman conquest of England, between the Norman-French army of Duke William II of Normandy and the English army under King Harold II. It took place at Senlac Hill, approximately 10 km (6⁄4 miles) northwest of Hastings, close to the present-day town of Battle, East Sussex, and was a decisive Norman victory.
Harold II was killed in the battle—legend has it that he was shot through the eye with an arrow. He was the last English king to die in battle on English soil until Richard III was killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field. The battle marked the last successful foreign invasion of the British Isles. Although there was further English resistance, this battle is seen as the point at which William gained control of England, becoming its first Norman ruler as King William I.
The battle also established the superiority of the combined arms attack over an army predominately composed of infantry, demonstrating the effectiveness of archers, cavalry and infantry working cooperatively together. The dominance of cavalry forces over infantry would continue until the emergence of the longbow, and battles such as Crecy, Poitiers and
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815 near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. An Imperial French army under the command of Emperor Napoleon was defeated by the armies of the Seventh Coalition, comprising an Anglo-Allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington combined with a Prussian army under the command of Gebhard von Blücher. It was the culminating battle of the Waterloo Campaign and Napoleon's last. The defeat at Waterloo ended his rule as Emperor of the French, marking the end of his Hundred Days return from exile.
Upon Napoleon's return to power in 1815, many states that had opposed him formed the Seventh Coalition and began to mobilise armies. Two large forces under Wellington and Blücher assembled close to the north-eastern border of France. Napoleon chose to attack in the hope of destroying them before they could join in a coordinated invasion of France with other members of the coalition. The decisive engagement of this three-day Waterloo Campaign (16–19 June 1815) occurred at the Battle of Waterloo. According to Wellington, the battle was "the nearest-run thing you ever saw in your
The Restoration of the English monarchy began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The term Restoration is used to describe both the actual event by which the monarchy was restored, and the period of several years afterwards in which a new political settlement was established. It is very often used to cover the whole reign of Charles II (1660-1685) and often the brief reign of his younger brother James II (1685-1688). In certain contexts it may be used to cover the whole period of the later Stuart monarchs as far as the death of Queen Anne and the accession of the Hanoverian George I in 1714; for example Restoration comedy typically encompasses works written as late as 1710.
The Protectorate, which followed the Commonwealth and preceded the English Restoration, might have continued if Oliver Cromwell's son Richard, who was made Lord Protector on his father's death, had been capable of carrying on his father's policies. Richard Cromwell's main weakness was that he did not have the confidence of the army. After seven months, an army faction known as the
The Great Plague (1665–1666) was the last major epidemic of the bubonic plague to occur in the Kingdom of England (part of modern day United Kingdom). It happened within the centuries-long time period of the Second Pandemic, an extended period of intermittent bubonic plague epidemics which began in Europe in 1347, the first year of the "Black Death" and lasted until 1750.
The Great Plague killed an estimated 100,000 people, about 20% of London's population. Bubonic plague is a disease caused by the Yersinia pestis bacterium which is usually transmitted through the bite of an infected flea, the prime vector for Y. pestis.
The 1664–1666 epidemic was on a far smaller scale than the earlier "Black Death" pandemic; it was remembered afterwards as the "great" plague only because it was the last widespread outbreak of bubonic plague in England during the four-hundred-year timespan of the Second Pandemic.
The Great Plague of 1665 was the last major outbreak of the plague in England. Some other previous outbreaks of the plague in England were the 1603 plague, which killed 30,000 Londoners; the 1625 plague, when some 35,000 died, and the 1636 plague, when some 10,000 died. The English
The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement signed in 1920, at the end of World War I, between the Allies of World War I and Hungary (one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary). The treaty regulated the status of an independent Hungarian state and defined its borders. Compared to the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary (which was part of Austria-Hungary), post-Trianon Hungary had 72% less territory, i.e. its area was 93,073 square kilometres (35,936 sq mi), while the area of the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary was 325,411 square kilometres (125,642 sq mi). Its population was 7.6 million, which was 64% less than the population of the pre-war kingdom, whose population was 20.9 million. 31% (3.3 out of 10.7 million) of ethnic Hungarians who lived in the pre-war kingdom lived outside the newly defined borders of post-Trianon Hungary. Compared to the pre-war kingdom, post-Trianon Hungary did not include five of the ten most populous cities of the pre-war kingdom and did not have direct access to the sea. The military establishment of the post-Trianon Hungary included an army of about 35,000, while the navy of pre-war Austria-Hungary ceased to exist.
The principal beneficiaries of territorial
The Treaty of Windsor was signed in 1175 in Windsor, Berkshire between King Henry II of England and the High King of Ireland, Rory O'Connor (Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair). It was a territorial agreement signed during the time of Norman invasion of Ireland.
The accord, overall, left Rory with a kingdom consisting of Ireland outside the provincial kingdoms of Leinster, Meath (as they were then), Dublin and County Waterford, as long as he paid tribute to Henry II, and owed fealty to him. All of Ireland was also subject to the new religious provisions of the papal bull Laudabiliter and the Synod of Cashel (1172).
Rory was obliged to pay one treated cow hide for every ten cattle. The other "kings and people" of Ireland were to enjoy their lands and liberties so long as they remained faithful to the kings of England, and were obliged to pay their tribute in hides through Rory.
The witnesses were Richard of Ilchester, Bishop of Winchester; Geoffrey, Bishop of Ely; Laurence O'Toole, Archbishop of Dublin; William, Earl of Essex; Justiciar Richard de Luci; Geoffrey de Purtico, Reginald de Courtenea (Courtenay) and three of Henry's court chaplains.
The Annals of Tigernach recorded that: "Cadhla Ó
The North-West Rebellion (or the North-West Resistance, Saskatchewan Rebellion, Northwest Uprising, or Second Riel Rebellion) of 1885 was a brief and unsuccessful uprising by the Métis people of the District of Saskatchewan under Louis Riel against Canada. During a time of great social change in Western Canada, the Métis believed that Canada had failed to address the protection of their rights, their land and their survival as a distinct people. Despite some notable early victories at Duck Lake, Fish Creek and Cut Knife, the rebellion effectively ended for the Métis with their defeat at the siege of Batoche, Saskatchewan, the eventual scattering of their allied Aboriginal forces elsewhere, and the trial and hanging of Louis Riel. Tensions between French Canada and English Canada increased for some time. Due to the role that the Canadian Pacific Railway played in transporting troops, political support increased and the legislature authorized funds to complete the nation's first transcontinental railway.
After the Red River Rebellion of 1869–1870, many of the Métis moved from Manitoba to the Fort Carlton region of the North-West Territories, where they founded a settlement at Batoche
The 1975 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One race held in Monaco on May 11, 1975. It was the fifth race of the 1975 Formula One season. It was the 33rd Monaco Grand Prix since the race was first held in 1929. It was held over 75 of the scheduled 78 laps of the three kilometre street circuit, for a race distance of 245 kilometres.
The race was won by Austrian driver Niki Lauda giving the new Ferrari 312T its first win. The win broke a 20 year drought at Monaco for Ferrari. Lauda dominated the race, only losing the lead during a pitstop. He won by two seconds over the McLaren M23 of Emerson Fittipaldi. Carlos Pace finished third in his Brabham BT44B.
The future of Grand Prix racing was under scrutiny following the disastrous Spanish Grand Prix held three weeks prior. Actions had to be taken quickly: extra guard rails and catch fences were erected, kerbing resited and the chicane was modified. New measures were introduced: the grid was staggered and in addition would be restricted to just 18 cars. This last change affected Graham Hill's chance to qualify: the five-time Monaco winner had all sorts of practice problems and failed to qualify by 0.377 seconds. John Watson and Clay
The 1950 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 3 September 1950 at Monza. It was the seventh and final event of the 1950 World Drivers' Championship. In this race, Nino Farina became the first World Drivers' Champion, and the only driver to win the title in his home country.
Ferrari pulled out all the stops to impress at their home circuit, producing a new unsupercharged 4½ litre engine to try to end the Alfa monopoly. Ascari gained a stunning 2nd place on the grid to Fangio and then in the race leading Farina. Sadly, the pace was too punishing for the new car and a porous block broke on lap 20 and the battle returned as usual to the Alfas. Fangio retired twice– once in his own car and a second time after taking over Taruffi's. Farina led to the finish from Ascari who was now in team-mate Serafini's car. Only seven cars finished out of the 26 starters and with Farina's win and Fangio's failure to score and Fagioli being unable to score, Farina became the first recipient of the World Driver's Championship crown.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1950/385/. Retrieved
The 1977 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monaco on May 22, 1977.
John Watson took his first career pole for Brabham with Jody Scheckter also on the front row and Carlos Reutemann third. It was Scheckter who got the best start to beat Watson to the first corner, with Reutemann running third in the early stages until he was passed by his teammate Niki Lauda. Watson ran second to Scheckter until mid-race when he had to retire with gearbox trouble, allowing Lauda to close in on Scheckter but the latter was flawless and held on to take his second win of the season. Lauda had to be satisfied with second, with Reutemann completing the podium.
The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London, from Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September 1666. The fire gutted the medieval City of London inside the old Roman City Wall. It threatened, but did not reach, the aristocratic district of Westminster, Charles II's Palace of Whitehall, and most of the suburban slums. It consumed 13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, St. Paul's Cathedral and most of the buildings of the City authorities. It is estimated to have destroyed the homes of 70,000 of the City's 80,000 inhabitants. The death toll is unknown but traditionally thought to have been small, as only six verified deaths were recorded. This reasoning has recently been challenged on the grounds that the deaths of poor and middle-class people were not recorded, while the heat of the fire may have cremated many victims leaving no recognisable remains.
The Great Fire started at the bakery of Thomas Farriner (or Farynor) on Pudding Lane, shortly after midnight on Sunday, 2 September, and spread rapidly west across the City of London. The use of the major firefighting technique of the time, the creation of firebreaks
The 2004 Spanish Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on May 9, 2004 at the Circuit de Catalunya.
During the warm-up lap of the race, a man calling himself Jimmy Jump ran through the starting grid, only to be apprehended soon by the security. While he claimed to have many fans (due to his other performances at football matches), he was criticized for risking the lives of the drivers, even though the cars were still travelling at low speed at this point.
The 1953 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 13 September 1953 at Monza. It was the ninth and final round of the 1953 World Drivers' Championship, which was run to Formula Two rules in 1952 and 1953, rather than the Formula One regulations normally used. This made it the last World Championship race to run under the Formula Two regulations.
The 1955 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Autodromo Nazionale Monza, in Monza, Italy on 11 September 1955. It was the seventh and final round of the 1955 World Drivers' Championship.
In the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster, the championship was still open after the British Grand Prix; although after that race (with the French Grand Prix already having been cancelled) the German, Swiss and Spanish Grand Prixs were all cancelled. This meant that Fangio won the world driver's championship for the 3rd time and the 2nd time in succession.
A new concrete banking had been constructed over where the original slightly banked version was, and the combined 10 km (6.214 mi) Monza circuit was used for the first time since 1933. The Curva Sud had also been modified from 2 right hand corners into one sweeping right-hander known as the "Parabolica".
The 1970 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One race held at the Circuit de Monaco on May 10, 1970. It was the third race of the 1970 Formula One season.
There were no significant changes in the drivers' lineup for Monaco, and the only news was Ronnie Peterson, entering in a non-works March. The Lotus team decided to bring the old 49 chassis instead of the new 72, despite testing it in a non-championship race at Silverstone a couple of weeks earlier. In qualifying, March swept the front row, with Jackie Stewart on pole (for the Tyrrell team) and Chris Amon alongside him. Third was Denny Hulme's McLaren, and fourth the Brabham of Jack Brabham; behind them was the Ferrari of Jacky Ickx. The first Lotus driver was Jochen Rindt, qualyfing in only eighth place.
Despite the rain in the previous days, the sun shone on race day, and the track was dry. At the start, Stewart led the field, with Amon, Brabham, Ickx and Jean-Pierre Beltoise behind him; on the second lap, Beltoise passed Ickx. Stewart began to pull away, and so the order remained unchanged until lap 12, when Ickx retired with a driveshaft failure. On lap 22 Beltoise, who in the meantime went into fourth, retired with transmission
The First Carlist War was a civil war in Spain from 1833-1839, fought between factions over the succession to the throne and the nature of the Spanish state. It was fought between supporters of the regent, Queen Consort Maria Christina, acting for the Princess Isabella II, and those of the late king's brother, Infante Carlos. The Carlists supported return to an absolute monarchy.
At the beginning of the 18th century, Philip V, the first Bourbon king of Spain, promulgated the Salic Law, which declared illegal the inheritance of the Spanish crown by women. His purpose was to thwart the Habsburgs' regaining the throne by way of the female dynastic line.
A century later, King Ferdinand VII of Spain had no male descendant, but two daughters, Isabella (later known as Isabella II of Spain) and Luisa Fernanda. So he promulgated the Pragmatic Sanction, to allow Isabella to become Queen after his death.
Without the Pragmática Sanción, the Infante Carlos, the king's brother, would have normally become king. He and his followers, such as Secretary of Justice Francisco Tadeo Calomarde, pressed Ferdinand to change his mind. But the ill Ferdinand kept his decision and when he died on 29 September
The Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, (also Fraser Gold Rush and Fraser River Gold Rush) began in 1858 after gold was discovered on the Thompson River in British Columbia at its confluence with the Nicoamen River. This was a few miles upstream from the Thompson's confluence with the Fraser River at present-day Lytton. The rush overtook the region around the discovery, and was centered on the Fraser Canyon from around Hope and Yale to Pavilion and Fountain, just north of Lillooet.
Though the rush was largely over by 1860, miners from the rush spread out and found a sequence of other gold rushes throughout the British Columbia Interior and North, most famously that in the Cariboo. The rush is credited with instigating European-Canadian settlement on the mainland of British Columbia. It was the catalyst for the founding of the Colony of British Columbia, the building of early road infrastructure, and the founding of many towns.
Although the area had been mined for a few years, news of the strike spread to San Francisco when the governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island, James Douglas, sent a shipment of ore to that city's mint. People in San Francisco and the California gold fields greeted
The 1966 French Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Reims-Gueux on July 3, 1966. It was the '60th Anniversary race' of Grand Prix racing, which had started with the GP of France in 1906. It was the third round of the 1966 World Championship. It was also the 16th and last time the French Grand Prix had been held on variations of French highways near Reims after a three year absence from the region. The race was held over 48 laps of the eight kilometre circuit for a race distance of 400 kilometres.
The race was won by the 1959 and 1960 world champion, Australian driver Jack Brabham driving his Brabham BT19. It was Brabham's eighth Grand Prix victory, his first since the 1960 Portuguese Grand Prix, six years earlier. It was his first win since establishing his own team, Brabham Racing Organisation and the first win for the Australian developed Repco V8 engine. He became the first driver to win a World Championship grand prix in a car bearing his own name. Brabham took a nine second victory over British driver Mike Parkes driving a Ferrari 312. New Zealand driver Denny Hulme backed up team leader Brabham with third place in his Brabham BT20.
Brabham now led the championship
The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War in the United States, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United States of America, but gradually grew into a world war between Britain on one side and the United States, France, Netherlands and Spain on the other. The main result was an American victory, with mixed results for the other powers.
The war was the result of the political American Revolution. Colonists galvanized around the position that the Stamp Act of 1765, imposed by Parliament of Great Britain, was unconstitutional. The British Parliament insisted it had the right to tax colonists. The colonists claimed that, as they were British subjects, taxation without representation was illegal. The American colonists formed a unifying Continental Congress and a shadow government in each colony, though at first remaining loyal to the king. The American boycott of taxed British tea led to the Boston Tea Party in 1773, when shiploads of tea were destroyed. London responded by ending self-government in Massachusetts and putting it under the control of the British army with General Thomas Gage as
Apollo 1 (initially designated Apollo Saturn-204 and AS-204) was scheduled to be the first manned mission of the U.S. Apollo manned lunar landing program, with a target launch date of February 21, 1967. A cabin fire during a launch pad test on January 27 at Launch Pad 34 at Cape Canaveral killed all three crew members—Command Pilot Virgil "Gus" Grissom, Senior Pilot Edward H. White and Pilot Roger B. Chaffee—and destroyed the Command Module. The name Apollo 1, chosen by the crew, was officially retired by NASA in commemoration of them on April 24, 1967.
Immediately after the fire, NASA convened the Apollo 204 Accident Review Board to determine the cause of the fire. Although the ignition source was never conclusively identified, the astronauts' deaths were attributed to a wide range of lethal design and construction flaws in the early Apollo Command Module. The manned phase of the project was delayed for 20 months while these problems were corrected.
The Saturn IB launch vehicle, SA-204, scheduled for use on this mission, was later used for the first unmanned Lunar Module test flight, Apollo 5. The first successful manned Apollo mission was flown by Apollo 1's backup crew on Apollo
The storming of the Bastille occurred in Paris, France on the morning of 14 July 1789. The medieval fortress and prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the centre of Paris. While the prison only contained seven inmates at the time of its storming, its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution. In France, Le quatorze juillet (14 July) is a public holiday, formally known as the Fête de la Fédération (Federation Holiday). It is usually called Bastille Day in English.
During the reign of Louis XVI, France faced a major economic crisis, partially initiated by the cost of intervening in the American Revolution, and exacerbated by a regressive system of taxation. On 5 May 1789 the Estates-General of 1789 convened to deal with this issue, but were held back by archaic protocols and the conservatism of the Second Estate, consisting of the nobility and amounting to only 2% of France's population at the time. On 17 June 1789 the Third Estate, with its representatives drawn from the commoners, or proletariats, reconstituted themselves as the National Assembly, a body whose purpose was the creation of a French constitution. The king initially opposed this
The Wuchang Uprising began with the dissatisfaction of the handling of a railway crisis. The crisis then escalated to an uprising where the revolutionaries went up against Qing government officials. The uprising was then assisted by the New Army in a coup against their own authorities in the city of Wuchang, Hubei province on October 10, 1911. The Battle of Yangxia led by Huang Xing would be the major engagement in the uprising. These events served as a catalyst to the Xinhai Revolution, which led to the collapse of the Qing dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC).
After the Boxer Rebellion, many Western countries saw China as a good target for railway building and investment. Having carved out their individual spheres of influence, countries such as the United Kingdom and France built numerous railways over the Qing government's protests. Germany began building lines in Shandong, the British in Yangtze Valley, French in Kunming, Russians in Heilongjiang and the Japanese had the Southern Manchuria Railway company.
By 1905, however, the Canton-Hankou Railway and the Sichuan-Hankou railway (川漢鐵路) were being locally managed in Guangdong, Hunan, Hubei and Sichuan.
The Norman invasion of Ireland was a two-stage process, which began on 1 May 1169 when a force of loosely associated Norman knights landed near Bannow, County Wexford at the request of Dermot MacMurrough (Diarmait Mac Murchada), the ousted King of Leinster, who sought their help in regaining his kingdom.
On 18 October 1171, Henry II landed a much bigger army in Waterford to ensure his continuing control over the preceding Norman force. In the process he took Dublin and had accepted the fealty of the Irish kings and bishops by 1172, so creating the Lordship of Ireland, which formed part of his Angevin Empire.
Pope Adrian IV, the only English pope, in one of his earliest acts issued a papal bull in 1155, giving Henry authority to invade Ireland as a means of ensuring reform by bringing the Irish Church more directly under the control of the Holy See. Little contemporary use, however, was made of the bull Laudabiliter since its text enforced papal suzerainty not only over the island of Ireland but of all islands off of the European coast, including England, in virtue of the Constantinian Donation. The relevant text reads:
References to Laudabiliter become more frequent in the later
The 1951 Swiss Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Bremgarten on 27 May 1951. It was the first round of the 1951 World Drivers' Championship. The race saw the Formula One debut of British driver Stirling Moss.
The Swiss Grand Prix, the first event of the 1951 World Championship due to the absence of Monaco from the calendar, saw the Alfa Romeo team continue their dominance of the previous season. All four of their drivers occupied positions on the front two rows of the grid; the highest non-Alfa qualifier was Ferrari's Luigi Villoresi, who was alongside Fangio and Farina on the front row.
The race took place in the rain, with Fangio initially leading from Farina. Ferrari's Piero Taruffi also challenged for the lead, having started from sixth on the grid. Fangio pitted, handing Nino Farina the lead for the 24th lap of the race. However, Farina's decision not to make a pitstop did not pay off, as Fangio was able to retake the lead on lap 29. Fangio maintained the lead for the remainder of the race, eventually winning by nearly a minute from Taruffi, who had overtaken Farina on the penultimate lap. This was Taruffi's first podium in just his second championship race.
The 1953 British Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 18 July 1953 at Silverstone Circuit. It was the sixth round of the 1953 World Drivers' Championship, which was run to Formula Two rules in 1952 and 1953, rather than the Formula One regulations normally used.
The 1954 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Silverstone on 17 July 1954. It was the fifth round of the 1954 World Drivers' Championship.
A huge crowd turned out at Silverstone to see if Mercedes could repeat their Reims rout. In the end, just two silver cars arrived (for Fangio and Kling). In contrast, Maserati had nine cars, whilst Ferrari had three for the experienced trio of Hawthorn, Gonzalez and Trintignant. Fangio set Silverstone's fastest ever lap, breaking the 100 mph barrier with a lap of 100.35 mph. It was Gonzalez who led away and held the lead until the flag. Behind him, Fangio passed Hawthorn for second but after colliding several times with oil drums in a difficult handling car, he dropped to fourth. Moss took over the position but retired with rear axle problems, leaving Hawthorn to follow home for a Ferrari 1–2 and young Onofre Marimón to take his first podium place.
The 1957 Argentine Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 13 January 1957 at the Buenos Aires circuit. It was the first round of the 1957 World Drivers' Championship.
Juan Manuel Fangio had left Ferrari for Maserati to attempt to win a fifth world championship with the help of their much modified 250Fs. Even without him, Ferrari had one of the strongest driver lineups in history, with Mike Hawthorn moving from BRM to join Peter Collins, Luigi Musso and Eugenio Castellotti.
Since the British teams were not present, Stirling Moss — who had signed for Vanwall — was part of the Maserati line-up with Jean Behra as third driver.
Fangio and Behra raced away into the distance as the rest of the field floundered. Moss's throttle linkage broke on the startline and he lost 10 laps having it fixed. The Ferraris were all suffering terribly with clutch problems, as both Collins and Musso burnt theirs out, whilst Hawthorn's was slipping badly.
Both Collins and Wolfgang von Trips took over Cesare Perdisa's Ferrari in an attempt to stop the Maseratis, but were powerless to stop them taking the first four places. Moss rejoined and set fastest lap on his way to 8th place.
The 1960 United States Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on November 20, 1960 at Riverside International Raceway in Riverside, California.
For whatever reasons (unfamiliarity of the fans with open-wheeled cars and European drivers, media disapproval of Eastern promoters, or lack of an ongoing Championship battle), promoter Alec Ulmann had no more success drumming up support for the 1960 United States Grand Prix at Riverside International Raceway in California than he had the year before in Sebring, Florida.
Set in the desert near the San Bernardino mountains east of Los Angeles, the Riverside track featured a particularly demanding uphill esses section, just past the start-finish line. Riverside resident and local hero Dan Gurney headed the field as the natural favorite of the crowd, which numbered only about 25,000. Jack Brabham, who had already clinched his second consecutive World Championship a few weeks prior in Portugal, was back with teammate Bruce McLaren in the factory Cooper-Climaxes. Team Lotus had cars for Jim Clark, Innes Ireland and John Surtees, while Rob Walker entered a Scottish blue Lotus for Stirling Moss. BRM had three mid-engined P48s for Jo Bonnier,
The 1979 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on 9 September 1979 at Monza.
Monza was revamped for 1979, including a re-surfaced track; and run-off areas were added to the Curva Grande and the Lesmo Curves.
This race saw the return of Alfa Romeo to the World Championship, with a new 179 chassis for Bruno Giacomelli and the old 177 for Vittorio Brambilla; who was back in action for the first time since the crash at Monza the previous season. Ensign decided to give Formula 2 champion Marc Surer a run in its car in place of Patrick Gaillard, while Hector Rebaque had his HR100 chassis ready for the first time.
As expected the Renaults, powered by turbo engines, were quick in practice and took the front row of the grid with Jean-Pierre Jabouille ahead of René Arnoux. Then came Jody Scheckter, Alan Jones, Gilles Villeneuve and Clay Regazzoni. The top 10 was completed by Jacques Laffite, Nelson Piquet, Niki Lauda and Mario Andretti.
Equally as expected the Renaults were slow off the start line and so Scheckter grabbed the lead from Arnoux. Behind then Villeneuve grabbed third while Laffite made a good start to get into fourth place. Jones dropped to the back of the field. On the
The 1982 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monaco on May 23, 1982.
This was the first race following the death of Gilles Villeneuve at the Belgian Grand Prix; consequently Ferrari entered only one driver, Didier Pironi.
By around lap 67, the race became a 2-horse sprint between Alain Prost and Riccardo Patrese. Once it started to rain and while Patrese was pushing hard Prost was now storming around the track, trying to finish the race before it started to rain; and by lap 74, Prost pushed too hard and crashed into the Armco barriers coming out of the Chicane du Port (also known as the Dog Leg). On lap 75, Patrese led, spun and stalled at Loews. On the last lap, Didier Pironi led into the tunnel and ran out of fuel, Andrea de Cesaris also ran out of fuel before he could take over the lead, and Derek Daly, the next leader, already had a car with no front or back wing- and then a damaged gearbox which seized up before he could start the final lap. Patrese, who had managed to restart his car by rolling downhill and bump-starting, took his first race win. Pironi and de Cesaris were classified 2nd and 3rd, with Daly sixth. BBC commentator and 1976 world champion
The First Battle of Ypres, also called the First Battle of Flanders (French: 1re Bataille des Flandres), was a First World War battle fought for the strategic town of Ypres in western Belgium in October and November 1914. The German and Western Allied attempts to secure the town from enemy occupation included a series of further battles in and around the West Flanders Belgian municipality.
The strategy of both the Allied and German armies is not entirely clear. The accepted and mainstream reasoning for the Ypres battle was the British desire to secure the English Channel ports and the British Army's supply lines; Ypres was the last major obstacle to the German advance on Boulogne-sur-Mer and Calais. The French strategy revolved around a desire to prevent German forces from outflanking the Allied front from the north. This was the last major German option, after their defeats at the First Battle of the Aisne and First Battle of the Marne. The Ypres campaign became the culmination point of the Race to the Sea. The opposing armies both engaged in offensive operations until the major German offensive occurred in mid-October, which forced the Allies onto the strategic defensive and
The Revolt of the Three Feudatories (Chinese: 三藩之亂) was a rebellion in the Qing Dynasty during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor. The revolt was led by the three lords of the fiefdoms in Yunnan, Guangdong and Fujian provinces against the Qing central government.
In the early years of the Qing Dynasty during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor, the central government's influence was not strong enough and the rulers were unable to control the provinces in southern China directly. The Qing government initiated a policy of "letting the Han Chinese govern the Han Chinese" (以漢制漢), which was to allow some surrendered generals from the former Ming Dynasty to help them govern the provinces in the south.
In 1655, Wu Sangui was granted the title of "Pingxi Prince" (平西王; "West Pacifying Prince") by the Qing government and granted governorship of the provinces of Yunnan and Guizhou. Shang Kexi and Geng Zhongming were granted the titles of "Pingnan Prince" and "Jingnan Prince" (both mean "South Pacifying Prince") respectively and were put in charge of the provinces of Guangdong and Fujian. After Geng's death, his son Geng Jimao inherited his father's title and fiefdom, and Geng Jimao was later
The 1961 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on 18 June 1961 at Spa-Francorchamps.
The organizers of the race invited 25 entries, but were only going to pay starting money to 19: sixteen pre-selected cars plus the 3 fastest of the remaining 9. Three of the cars without starting money decided not to race after practicing. A fourth entry was a single car for Cliff Allison and Henry Taylor. The team decided to let the fastest driver in practice compete, but Allison wrecked the car on his first practice lap. The Emeryson cars of Bianchi and Mairesse were also damaged beyond repair in practice, but they competed by using the older Lotus 18s of March and Seidel, who had decided not to race. The race was completely dominated by the Ferrari team. While Graham Hill made an amazing start to the lead from the third row, he could not hold off the Italian cars and all had passed him by the end of the first lap. There was some excitement for fifth place, with Graham Hill and Surtees passing each other for the position until Hill had to retire with an oil leak on the 24th lap.
The 1955 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Aintree on 16 July 1955. It was the sixth round of the 1955 World Drivers' Championship. British driver Stirling Moss led a Mercedes 1-2-3-4 domination of the race, to win his first Formula One race narrowly ahead of his illustrious Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio.
Subsequent to the race, the German, Swiss and Spanish Grands Prix were cancelled, in the wake of the Le Mans disaster. With only one Championship round therefore remaining (the Italian Grand Prix some 2 months later), Fangio's points advantage over Moss was sufficient to secure his third World Drivers' Championship.
The 1966 Dutch Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Zandvoort on July 24, 1966. It was the fifth round of the 1966 World Championship. The race was the 16th Dutch Grand Prix since it was first held in 1948. It was held over 90 laps of the four kilometre circuit for a race distance of 382 kilometres.
The race was the third in succession to be won by Australian driver, 1959 and 1960 world champion, Jack Brabham in his Brabham BT19. Brabham lapped the field on his way to his second Dutch Grand Prix victory to add to his win in 1960. British driver, 1962 world champion Graham Hill finished second in his BRM P261, himself a lap ahead of the rest of the field. Reigning world champion Jim Clark took his first podium finish of the year in his Lotus 33.
Brabham's win expanded his points lead to 16 points over Hill, with Hill's BRM team mate Jackie Stewart two points further away.
The 1967 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One race held at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza on September 10, 1967. It was won by British driver John Surtees driving a Honda RA300. Jim Clark led the race until a little after the half way point when he picked up a puncture and lost an entire lap. He then recovered through the field to take the lead with only a couple of laps to go. Clark then led until the final lap when a faulty fuel pump restricted him to third place. Jack Brabham and Surtees passed the Scotsman finished first and second, with Surtees ahead by less than a car length at the line. This was the second victory for the Honda F1 team.
The 1979 Canadian Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on 30 September 1979 at Montreal.
During practice Niki Lauda announced his retirement from Formula One. Ricardo Zunino replaced him for the race. The organizers would not let the Alfa Romeo team compete unless they pre-qualified. They refused to do so but a compromise was reached where one of their drivers would be allowed to take part in practice. The other, Bruno Giacomelli, was not allowed to enter the race. The race turned into a close duel between Alan Jones and Gilles Villeneuve that continued the entire race.
The 2004 Malaysian Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on March 21, 2004 at the Sepang International Circuit.
With all drivers starting on dry tyres, the action started sooner than expected as on the parade lap Kimi Räikkönen spun but was able to retake his grid position. Mark Webber, starting from P2, made a woeful start and slid down the field to be 9th by the 1st lap. Fernando Alonso on the other hand, made a brilliant start from 19th (2nd last) and was up behind Webber in 10th after lap 1. Michael Schumacher led from the start while drivers behind jostled for position. By the second lap, rain started to fall and cars were starting to lose traction on the dry tyres.
The 1952 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 7 September 1952 at Monza. It was the eighth and final round of the 1952 World Drivers' Championship, which was run to Formula Two rules in 1952 and 1953, rather than the Formula One regulations normally used.
The final round of the World Championship was not a great showdown as such had been Ferrari's domination that the title had been settled at the German GP in August. The Italian teams all made a big effort, however, and Ferrari ran five factory cars for World Champion Alberto Ascari, Giuseppe Farina, Gigi Villoresi, Piero Taruffi and André Simon. Maserati wheeled out three factory cars for Felice Bonetto, Froilán González and Franco Rol and there were three semi-factory entries from Escuderia Bandierantes as well. Gordini had three cars for Jean Behra, Maurice Trintignant and Robert Manzon while Connaught had a three-car team with Stirling Moss, Dennis Poore and Kenneth McAlpine driving and HWM had three cars for Lance Macklin, Peter Collins and Tony Gaze. The organizers decided that only 24 of the 35 entries should be allowed to start, notable victims of this rule being Hans Stuck Sr. in an Ecurie Espadon Ferrari, all
The 1956 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 13 May 1956 at Monaco. It was the second round of the 1956 World Drivers' Championship.
The Owen’s B.R.M. made their first appearance but after qualifying both cars were withdrawn due to engine valve problems. The other two non-starters were also teammates: the too slow Scarlatti and Chiron due to his engine blowing up in practice.
Moss, starting from the middle of the front row, took the lead at Gasworks on the first lap and led every lap. Fangio was not having a good day. He hit the straw bales on lap 2, causing Schell and Musso to retire when trying to avoid him, and on lap 32 he hit the harbour wall, bending a rear wheel. He turned the car over to Castellotti after the pit stop to fix the wheel. On lap 54 while second, Collins came in the pit and turned his car over to Fangio. He resumed in third and passed Behra for second on lap 70 but he was 47 seconds behind Moss. On lap 86 Perdisa’s brakes locked when being lapped by Moss, the resulting contact caused Moss’ bonnet to lift allowing Fangio to close the gap by two seconds each lap but Moss won with a 6 second cushion.
The 1968 United States Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on October 6, 1968 at the Watkins Glen Grand Prix Race Course in Watkins Glen, New York. It was the eleventh round of the 1968 Formula One season.
The first practice day was primarily a duel between Jackie Stewart and the Ferrari of Chris Amon, with Stewart posting the day's best time of 1:04.27. Stewart was unable to defend his provisional pole during the second practice day due to a broken stub-axle. However, Graham Hill bumped Amon from the second spot, before Mario Andretti—driving at Watkins Glen for the first time—beat Stewart's time by 0.07 seconds. This was Andretti's first ever Formula One start.
On race day, a crowd of 93,000 began to show for an expected strong American showing. Other Americans on the grid were Dan Gurney, in seventh, and Bobby Unser, in nineteenth. After the first lap the order was: Stewart, Andretti, Amon, Hill, Jochen Rindt, Hulme, Gurney, John Surtees and Bruce McLaren.
Stewart took the lead in the first lap from crowd favourite Andretti, who started the race from the pole, and led in every lap. By lap six, Andretti had opened up a gap to Amon and was threatening to get by Stewart. Three
The 1976 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on July 18, 1976 at the Brands Hatch circuit in Kent, England, United Kingdom. The race, contested over 76 laps, was the ninth round of the 1976 Formula One season.
British driver James Hunt was involved in a first corner crash that brought out the red flags. Hunt drove his damaged car back to the pits, but did not complete a full lap of the track to do so, instead driving through an access road on the Cooper Straight. The officials declared that, since he had not been on the circuit when the red flag was waved, Hunt would not be allowed to take part in the restart. This news led to much angry feeling amongst the British crowd, who chanted Hunt's name until the stewards, fearing crowd trouble, announced that Hunt would be allowed to take the restart. Hunt duly won the restarted race. In September, two months after the event, the Ferrari team successfully protested against Hunt's participation in the race, and he was disqualified, giving Niki Lauda the race win.
This was the only Formula One Grand Prix in which multiple female racers (Lella Lombardi and Divina Galica) were entered. Neither qualified for the Grand
The 1980 Brazilian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on January 27, 1980 at the Autódromo José Carlos Pace in São Paulo. It was the second round of the 1980 Formula One season. The race was the ninth Brazilian Grand Prix. It was the eighth to be held at Interlagos and would be the last until the circuit was substantially redeveloped for the 1990 Brazilian Grand Prix. The race was held over 40 laps of the 7.87-kilometre circuit for a total race distance of 315 kilometres.
Before the race, a number of drivers including world champion Jody Scheckter, wanted to boycott the event due to safety concerns with the Interlagos circuit. The circuit was extremely bumpy (which the circuit was well known for) and the catch-fencing and barriers surrounding the circuit were not perceived to be adequate enough to protect the drivers from the embankments and ditches around the circuit. Although Scheckter and the other concerned drivers nearly succeeded in stopping the race, it went ahead.
The race was won by French driver René Arnoux driving a Renault RE20. It was Arnoux's first World Championship victory and Equipe Renault's second and the second for a turbocharged car. Arnoux won by 21
The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre (Massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy in French) in 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations, followed by a wave of Roman Catholic mob violence, both directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants), during the French Wars of Religion. Traditionally believed to have been instigated by Catherine de' Medici, the mother of King Charles IX, the massacre took place six days after the wedding of the king's sister Margaret to the Protestant Henry III of Navarre (the future Henry IV of France). This marriage was an occasion for which many of the most wealthy and prominent Huguenots had gathered in largely Catholic Paris.
The massacre began on 23 August 1572 (the eve of the feast of Bartholomew the Apostle), two days after the attempted assassination of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, the military and political leader of the Huguenots. The king ordered the killing of a group of Huguenot leaders, including Coligny, and the slaughter spread throughout Paris. Lasting several weeks, the massacre expanded outward to other urban centres and the countryside. Modern estimates for the number of dead vary widely, from 5,000 to 30,000.
The massacre also marked
The 1951 Spanish Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 28 October 1951 at Pedralbes Circuit. It was the eighth and final round of the 1951 World Drivers' Championship.
This race was determined by tyre choice – Ferrari chose a 16 inch rear wheel, whilst Alfa Romeo settled for the 18 inch, which proved to be the better of the two options. Juan Manuel Fangio led Alberto Ascari by two points before the race. Ascari led the race from José Froilán González, but the Ferraris suffered numerous tread problems. Piero Taruffi threw a tyre tread on lap 6 and was followed on lap 7 by Luigi Villoresi, Ascari on lap 8 and Gonzalez on lap 14. The Ferraris were forced to stop frequently to change tyres and Fangio comfortably won the race and his first drivers' title, after Ascari finished 4th was not able to overhaul Fangio's total. After the race, Alfa Romeo announced that due to lack of finances, they would not be competing in the 1952 season.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1951/579/. Retrieved 2007-06-05.
The 1961 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on May 14, 1961 on the Circuit de Monaco in Monte Carlo, Monaco. It was the first round of the 1961 World Championship of Drivers, and the first World Championship race under the new 1.5 litre engine regulations.
The erratic yearly variations in Monaco's qualifying regulations saw grid places guaranteed for works teams and past winners in 1961. Therefore the five works teams were awarded two places each on the grid, while Stirling Moss and Maurice Trintignant earned spots. This left nine drivers to fight over four remaining slots. A fifth opened up when Innes Ireland crashed during the final practice session, breaking his leg. Moss took pole position from Richie Ginther and Jim Clark, with Graham Hill and Phil Hill on the second row.
Ginther led Clark and Moss into the first corner but Clark quickly ran into trouble with a faulty fuel pump. Ginther dropped to third on lap 14, when Moss and Bonnier passed him at almost the same time. At quarter distance, Moss had an impressive 10 second lead (in the underpowered Lotus 18-Climax) but the Ferraris of Hill and then Ginther found their way around Bonnier and began to close the
The 1975 Spanish Grand Prix was a Formula One race held at Montjuïc circuit on April 27, 1975, remembered as one of the most controversial and tragic race weekends in the sport's history after the death of five spectators who were hit by the crashing Hill GH1 of Rolf Stommelen. It was also the race in which Lella Lombardi became the first and only woman to score points towards the World Championship.
It was the 21st Spanish Grand Prix since the race was first held in 1913. It was the fourth, and last, Grand Prix to be held on the Montjuïc street circuit. The race was shortened to 29 of its scheduled 75 laps, a race distance of 109 kilometres. The race was won by German driver Jochen Mass driving a McLaren M23. It would be the only Formula One win of his career. Mass had just a second lead over the Lotus 72E of Belgian driver Jacky Ickx when the race was declared. Argentine racer Carlos Reutemann was declared third in his Brabham BT44B, a lap behind the race leaders after a penalty was given to Jean-Pierre Jarier.
Right from the start, the drivers who were members of the Grand Prix Drivers Association were furious that the barriers were not bolted together properly. Thus, they went
The 1976 Monaco Grand Prix (formally the XXXIV Grand Prix de Monaco) was a Formula One motor race held at the Monaco street circuit in Monaco on May 30, 1976. It was the fifth round of the 1976 Formula One season and the 34th Monaco Grand Prix. The race was contested over 78 laps of the 3.3 km circuit for a race distance of 257 kilometres.
The race was won by Ferrari driver Niki Lauda, who had also taken pole position in his Ferrari 312T2. Lauda won by 11 second over Jody Scheckter driving a six-wheeled Tyrrell P34, whilst Scheckter's teammate, Patrick Depailler, completed the podium in third position. As a consequence of the race, Lauda extended his lead in the World Drivers' Championship to 36 points over his team mate Clay Regazzoni who had retired after starting second, going off track on oil laid down when James Hunt retired, climbing back to third before crashing.
A lap down in fourth was the March 761 of Hans-Joachim Stuck with the McLaren M23 of Jochen Mass and the Fittipaldi FD04 of Emerson Fittipaldi completing the point scoring positions.
Points are accurate at the conclusion of the race and do not reflect final results of the 1976 Spanish Grand Prix as it was under
The 1950 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 18 June 1950 at Spa-Francorchamps. It was the fifth round of the 1950 World Drivers' Championship.
By the time of the Belgian Grand Prix, the pace of the season was beginning to tell, with only 14 cars arriving at the Spa circuit. These included the dominant Alfa Romeos of Nino Farina, Juan Manuel Fangio and Luigi Fagioli. Ferrari was down to two 125s for Luigi Villoresi and Alberto Ascari, although Ascari had a new V12 engine to try out. The factory Talbot-Lago team had three cars for Louis Rosier, Yves Giraud-Cabantous and Philippe Étancelin (standing in for the injured Eugène Martin). The rest of the field was made up of Talbot-Lagos (notably one for Raymond Sommer), a single Alta and one Maserati for Toni Branca.
Farina and Fangio were fastest as usual in qualifying with Fagioli unable to match them. Sommer split the Ferraris in his old Talbot-Lago. The race would be a similar story. The Alfas went off on their own and Sommer battled with the two Ferraris. When the Alfa stopped for fuel, Sommer found himself in the unlikely position of being race leader. Unfortunately his engine blew up. Ascari took the lead but
The 1951 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 16 September 1951 at Monza. It was the seventh round of the 1951 World Drivers' Championship.
Toulo de Graffenried returned to Alfa Romeo's four-car line up, in place of Paul Pietsch, having raced for Enrico Platé in France and Germany. He raced alongside the regular Alfa drivers, Fangio, Farina and Bonetto. The works Ferrari team retained the same four drivers from the race at the Nürburgring — Ascari, Villoresi, González and Taruffi — while Brazilian Chico Landi made his World Championship debut in a privately-run Ferrari. The field was completed by works teams from BRM, Simca-Gordini and OSCA, as well as the usual Talbot-Lago entries.
The front row positions on the grid were shared equally between Alfa Romeo and Ferrari, with Fangio, Farina, Ascari and González posting the four fastest qualifying times. The second row consisted of the remaining works Ferraris of Villoresi and Taruffi, alongside Felice Bonetto. Reg Parnell, in a BRM, was also supposed to be on the second row, but was unable to start due to lubrication problems.
Fangio was the initial race leader, having started from pole position, but he soon had to
The 1967 United States Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on October 1, 1967 at the Watkins Glen Grand Prix Race Course in Watkins Glen, New York.
Jim Clark nursed his limping car through the final two laps and came home six seconds ahead of Lotus teammate Graham Hill to win his third and final American Grand Prix. It was the Scot's third win of the season, and the twenty-third of his career. The following April, Clark was killed in a Formula Two race in Germany, but two more wins (in Mexico and South Africa) had already made him the winningest driver in Grand Prix history with 25, one more than Argentina's Juan Manuel Fangio.
Since they had appeared at the third race of the year in Holland, Colin Chapman's Lotus 49s had been the fastest cars on the track, taking the pole in all seven races they entered. The reliability of the Lotus cars had been another issue entirely, however, and, when the series returned to North America for the final two races, the only remaining contenders for the Driver's Championship were Brabham teammates Sir Jack (the defending Champion) and Denny Hulme.
Friday practice began under a dark, misty cloud and, as the weather slowly improved, the Lotus
The 1980 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on September 14, 1980 at the Imola Circuit in Italy. It was the twelfth race of the 1980 Formula One season. The race was the 50th Italian Grand Prix and the first Grand Prix to be held at Imola. It was the first time since the 1948 Italian Grand Prix was held at Parco del Valentino that the Autodromo Nazionale Monza did not host the Italian Grand Prix. Monza was under refurbishment at the time. The race was such a success that a new race, the San Marino Grand Prix was established for Imola. The race was held over 60 laps of the 5.000-kilometre circuit for a total race distance of 300 kilometres.
The race was won by Brazilian driver, Nelson Piquet driving a Brabham BT49. The win was Piquet's third Formula One Grand Prix victory and his second in succession. Piquet won by 28 seconds over championship points leader, Australian driver Alan Jones driving a Williams FW07B. Jones' Argentinian team mate Carlos Reutemann finished third.
Manfred Winkelhock made his debut, substituting for the still injured Jochen Mass at Arrows. He did not make it to the race after his Arrows A3 collided with the Lotus 81B of Nigel Mansell in
The 1981 Brazilian Grand Prix was the second race of the 1981 Formula One season and was held on March 29, 1981 at Jacarepaguá in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Formula One moved to the Jacarepaguá circuit in Rio de Janeiro from the Interlagos circuit in São Paulo, after safety concerns with the long Interlagos circuit and the growing slums of São Paulo being at odds with the glamorous image of Formula One.
The Argentine driver Carlos Reutemann won the race in contentious circumstances; he ignored his pit signals to give up the lead to his teammate and team leader Alan Jones. Jones, who finished in 2nd, did not show up on the podium afterwards.
The 1982 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Zolder on May 9, 1982. It was the fifth round of the 1982 Formula One season.
Canadian driver Gilles Villeneuve was killed in an accident during the final qualifying session. At the time of the crash, his team-mate Didier Pironi had set a time 0.1s faster than Villeneuve for sixth place. Contemporary and more recent writers say that he was attempting to improve his time on his final lap. Some suggest that he was specifically aiming to beat Pironi due to bitterness at being passed by him two weeks earlier in the closing stages of San Marino, when Villeneuve believed Pironi had been ordered to remain behind him. Villeneuve's biographer Gerald Donaldson quotes Ferrari race engineer Mauro Forghieri as saying that the Canadian, although pressing on in his usual fashion, was returning to the pits on his last set of qualifying tyres when the accident occurred. If so, he would not have set a time on that lap.
With eight minutes of the session left, Villeneuve came over the rise after the first chicane and found Jochen Mass travelling much more slowly through the left-handed bend before the Terlamenbocht corner. Mass saw
The 2003 Petronas Malaysian Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on March 23, 2003 at the Sepang International Circuit. It was the second race of the 2003 Formula One season, and it was won by Kimi Räikkönen driving the MP4-17 for McLaren-Mercedes. This was Räikkönen's first Formula One Grand Prix victory. This was Fernando Alonso's first pole. He also became the first Spaniard to earn a podium finish. Ferrari's Rubens Barrichello predicted whilst on the podium with Alonso and Räikkönen that both drivers would be future world champions.
Before the race, McLaren's David Coulthard was leading the championship however the Scot retired on lap three handing the championship lead to his teammate, Kimi Räikkönen who finished third in the previous race.
David Coulthard was leading the championship after winning the first race of the season. Montoya was second. Kimi Räikkönen, Michael Schumacher and Jarno Trulli were in Third, Fourth and Fifth respectively.
Before the race rain was predicted with the likelihood of heavy showers at 60 per cent. High humidity was also predicted by some people however, causing the teams to be split in terms of tactics.
The first Friday practice session saw
The 2004 Japanese Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on October 10, 2004 at the Suzuka Circuit. All the running on Saturday was cancelled due to Typhoon Ma-on, meaning that both the qualifying sessions were run on Sunday morning. The grid was shaken up due to rain, Ralf Schumacher and Mark Webber taking fortunate grid positions due to being allotted early running in the session.
While Michael Schumacher was not as competitive towards the end of the season as he had been en route to his seventh title, Japan could be seen as normal service resumed, the German winning comfortably from pole. Ralf was behind him, taking his first podium since breaking his back at Indianapolis. At Suzuka in 2003 BAR upset the form book with a double points finish - in 2004 this was commonplace, although 11 points was still their biggest haul of the season. Contact between David Coulthard and Rubens Barrichello ended the race for both drivers. Webber retired in bizarre circumstances - part of the seat had overheated, causing burns to his buttocks.
This was Jarno Trulli's first race with the Toyota team. This was Olivier Panis's last race as he decided to retire from the race seat. But he stayed with
The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350. Although there were several competing theories as to the etiology of the Black Death, recent analysis of DNA from victims in northern and southern Europe indicates that the pathogen responsible was the Yersinia pestis bacterium, which causes the Bubonic plague, although these were different, previously unknown ancestral variants of those identified in the 20th century.
The Black Death is thought to have started in China or central Asia, before spreading west. It is estimated to have killed 25 million people or 30% of the population of China. The plague then travelled along the Silk Road and reached the Crimea by 1346. From there, it was probably carried by Oriental rat fleas living on the black rats that were regular passengers on merchant ships. Spreading throughout the Mediterranean and Europe, the Black Death is estimated to have killed 30–60 percent of Europe's population. All in all, the plague reduced the world population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in the 14th century.
The aftermath of the plague created a series of religious,
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre (also known as the Amritsar massacre), took place in the Jallianwala Bagh public garden in the northern Indian city of Amritsar on 13 April 1919. The shooting that took place was ordered by Brigadier-General Reginald E.H. Dyer.
On Sunday 13 April 1919, Dyer was convinced of a major insurrection and thus he banned all meetings. On hearing that a meeting of 15,000 to 20,000 people including women, senior citizens and children had assembled at Jallianwala Bagh, Dyer went with fifty riflemen to a raised bank and ordered them to shoot at the crowd. Dyer kept the firing up till the ammunition supply was almost exhausted for about ten minutes with approximately 1,650 rounds fired. Official Government of India sources estimated that the fatalities were 379, with 1,100 wounded. The casualty number estimated by Indian National Congress was more than 1,500, with approximately 1,000 dead.
Dyer was removed from duty and forced to retire. He became a celebrated hero in Britain among people with connections to the British Raj. The massacre caused a reevaluation of the Army's role in which the new policy became minimum force, and the Army was retrained and developed
The 1951 French Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Reims-Gueux on 1 July 1951. It was the fourth round of the 1951 World Drivers' Championship and was won by Juan Manuel Fangio and Luigi Fagioli driving an Alfa Romeo. It was the first of three occasions where two drivers would be credited with a Grand Prix win after sharing a car.
The race, which also carried the honorific title of European Grand Prix, saw the World Championship debuts of Aldo Gordini, André Simon and Onofre Marimón. Fagioli's victory, his first in a World Championship race, made him the oldest driver to win a World Championship Grand Prix, a record he still holds.
About 10 laps into the race, the engine in Fangio's car began misfiring, so he stopped at the pits to have the magneto changed, but only completed one further lap before stopping again. When Fagioli came in for his fuel stop, the team ordered the drivers to swap cars. Fuel stops and problems for the Ferraris enabled Fangio to make his way into the lead and win the race. Fagioli, in Fangio's original car, finished 11th, 22 laps behind.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website".
The 1952 German Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 3 August 1952 at the Nürburgring Nordschleife. It was the sixth round of the 1952 World Drivers' Championship, which was run to Formula Two rules in 1952 and 1953, rather than the Formula One regulations normally used.
The race turned out to be rather a processional event, with Ascari leading Farina all the way in the first 16 laps. Two laps from home, he had to dive into the pits for oil, emerging 10 seconds behind Farina-which he rattled off on the next lap, catching Farina just a mile from home to win by several seconds after an otherwise dull race. Fischer and Taruffi completed a Ferrari 1-2-3-4 from Behra's Gordini and Laurent's Ferrari.
Ascari, having now scored maximum points for the season, clinched the world championship, making him the first driver to win the championship with two races left to go.
The 1959 United States Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on December 12, 1959 at Sebring International Raceway. It was the ninth and final round of the 1959 Formula One season. It was the second United States Grand Prix (ninth including the American Grand Prize races of the 1908–16). It was the first and only occasion the race was held at the home of the 12 Hours of Sebring endurance sports car race, the Sebring International Raceway in Florida. The race was held over 42 laps of the 8.36-kilometre circuit for a total race distance of 351 kilometres.
The race was won by New Zealander Bruce McLaren driving a Cooper T51 for the works Cooper team, the first win for a New Zealand-born driver. McLaren also became the youngest-ever Grand Prix winner, a record that would stand for over 40 years. McLaren won by six tenths of a second over French driver Maurice Trintignant driving a Rob Walker Racing Team-entered Cooper T51. British driver Tony Brooks finished third in his Ferrari Dino 246. Championship points leader Australian Jack Brabham ran out of fuel on the last lap and had to push his Cooper T51 across the line to finish fourth. Brooks' third place finish clinched the title for
The 1967 South African Grand Prix was a Formula One race held at Kyalami on 2 January 1967.
For the first time, the Kyalami circuit near Johannesburg was being used. There were some changes in the driver line-ups: John Surtees was driving for Honda, Mike Spence signed for BRM whilst Pedro Rodríguez was on trial for Cooper. Denny Hulme led Jack Brabham away from the start, but the Australian soon spun, handing second place to Surtees, but by lap 21 had managed to regain 2nd. Further down the field, local privateer racer John Love was doing very successfully, rising up to third place in a 4-cylinder Cooper Climax. On lap 41, Brabham retired, followed by Dan Gurney on lap 44. On lap 59, Hulme had to pit for more brake fluid, handing the lead sensationally to Love. A magnificent drive was heartbreakingly halted as with just seven laps left he had to sweep into the pits to take on more fuel. Rodríguez took a fine win for Cooper from Love in second place and Surtees in third.
The 1975 Brazilian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Interlagos on January 26, 1975. It was the fourth Brazilian Grand Prix since its introduction in 1972. The race was memorably won by São Paulo native Carlos Pace driving a Brabham BT44B. It would be the only win of Pace's abbreviated career, he would be killed in an aircraft accident two years later. It would be eight years before another Brazilian would win the Grand Prix. Fellow Brazilian Emerson Fittipaldi finished second in his McLaren M23 with his German team mate Jochen Mass finishing third.
Jean-Pierre Jarier was again the pole position, after beating the 1973 pole record. He lined up ahead of local hero Emerson Fittipaldi. The race was delayed whilst the track was washed down to remove debris – punctures had played a critical part in the 1974 race and no-one wanted a repeat of these problems.
This race marked the last start (and finish) of Graham Hill's extremely long F1 career.
Brazilian drivers finished 1–2 in this race, with Carlos Pace winning the only race of his career and Emerson Fittipaldi finishing second. This feat was to be repeated in 1986.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken
The 1975 German Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Nürburgring on August 3, 1975. It was the 37th German Grand Prix and the 34th to be held at the Nürburgring. The race was held over 14 laps of the 22 kilometre circuit for a race distance of 319 kilometres.
The race was won by Argentinian driver Carlos Reutemann driving a Brabham BT44B his first win of the season. Reutemann won by 1 minute and 37 seconds over the Williams FW04 of French driver Jacques Laffite. It was a stunning result for Laffite, his first point scoring finish in Formula One. It was also the peak result for Frank Williams Racing Cars, the first Formula One team run by British team principal, Frank Williams. While it was the team's second podium result, it was the first and only podium they would achieve in one of their own cars, having previously achieved a second at the 1969 Monaco Grand Prix with a customer Brabham. 46 seconds further back in third position was world championship points leader, Niki Lauda driving a Ferrari 312T.
With Emerson Fittipaldi's McLaren M23 retiring with suspension damage, Lauda was able to expand his points lead to 17 points with Reutemann moving back into second
The 1976 German Grand Prix (formally the XXXVIII Großer Preis von Deutschland) was a Formula One motor race held at the Nürburgring on 1 August 1976. It is notable as it was the scene of Niki Lauda's near fatal accident. It was also the last Formula One race to be held on the Nordschleife section of the track. The race, contested over 14 laps, was the tenth round of the 1976 Formula One season and was won by James Hunt.
The race weekend began with some changes to the drivers' lineup: Jacky Ickx was fired from the Walter Wolf Racing team and was replaced by Arturo Merzario, and there was a new team present, Scuderia Rondini, which bought an old Tyrrell 007 for Alessandro Pesenti-Rossi. RAM was going to run Rolf Stommelen in one of its ex-works Brabham BT44s, but in the middle of the practice session the local police impounded the cars (because of a legal action by former driver Loris Kessel), and as a result Stommelen transferred to the works Brabham team to drive a spare Alfa-Romeo-powered BT45.
In 1975, Lauda had been the first and only driver to break the 7-Minute-mark. Fans were looking forward whether he or others could repeat this after the technical rules had been changed,
The 1976 Swedish Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Scandinavian Raceway in Anderstorp, Sweden on June 13, 1976. It was the seventh round of the 1976 Formula One season and the ninth Swedish Grand Prix. The race was contested over 72 laps of the 4.0 km circuit for a race distance of 290 kilometres.
It saw the first and only win of a six-wheel car - the Tyrrell P34. The theory was that its four tiny front wheels would increase mechanical front-end grip – with more rubber on the road – and thus eliminate understeer while at the same time improve cornering and braking. When it was revealed it was the instant sensation of the 1976 season. The car was a photo opportunity on wheels – six of them, which was precisely why – and must have given Elf more free publicity in the 1976 pre-season and beyond than it garnered during the whole of 1974 and 1975.
Tyrrell's Jody Scheckter took pole, with Patrick Depailler in fourth. In the race it was Mario Andretti in the Lotus 77 who led for much of the race. Andretti however had been penalised sixty seconds for jumping the start. Andretti's engine failed on lap 46 while attempting to build his lead over the two Tyrrells. They went
The 1978 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on 7 May 1978 at Monaco. It was won by Patrick Depailler of France, his first Formula One victory.
Carlos Reutemann started on pole with the Brabham duo of John Watson and Niki Lauda second and third. Watson had a good start and led into the first corner, whereas Reutemann collided with James Hunt and had to pit for repairs, which left Patrick Depailler and Lauda second and third. For the first half of the race, the top three remained the same until Watson had an off allowing Depailler and Lauda through, but the latter then suffered a puncture and had to pit for tyres before charging back up and retaking second from Watson towards the end of the race. At the front, Depailler took his first career victory with Lauda second, and Jody Scheckter third after Watson made another mistake in the final laps. Jean-Pierre Jabouille's 10th place finish was Renault's first race finish.
The 1982 Austrian Grand Prix was a Formula One World Championship race held on 15 August 1982 at the Österreichring in Spielberg, Styria, Austria. The race was won by Lotus' Elio de Angelis, who held off Keke Rosberg's Williams to win by just 0.050 seconds, or less than half a car length.
A chicane had been added at the entrance to the pits earlier in the year. Nelson Piquet's Brabham led into the first corner from pole position, while Renault's Alain Prost passed Piquet's team mate Riccardo Patrese for second. Further back, there was a collison which eliminated the two Alfa Romeos of Andrea de Cesaris and Bruno Giacomelli. Prost's advantage over Patrese lasted only a few corners before the Italian re-passed him. On lap 2, Patrese took the lead from Piquet and the two Brabham's immediately began to pull away on their half-full tanks.
Shortly before half distance, Piquet made the first planned mid-race fuel and tyre pit stop in modern F1 history. He rejoined in 4th place, just ahead of Keke Rosberg, having lost position to Prost and Elio de Angelis. Several laps after Piquet, Patrese made his stop. In that time, he had built up a sufficient to lead to rejoin the race still in 1st,
The 1983 Canadian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Circuit Gilles Villeneuve on June 12, 1983.
Unless otherwise indicated, all race results are taken from "The Official Formula 1 website". http://www.formula1.com/results/season/1983/334/. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
The 2004 Chinese Grand Prix was a Formula One race held on 26 September 2004 at the Shanghai International Circuit. It was the first Formula One race to be held in China.
The bottom 6 teams in the 2003 Constructors' Championship were entitled to run a third car in free practice on Friday. These drivers drove on Friday but did not compete in qualifying or the race.
The Black Hills Gold Rush took place in Dakota Territory in the United States. It began in 1874 following the Custer Expedition and reached a peak in 1876-77.
Rumors and poorly documented reports of gold in the Black Hills go back to the early 19th century. In the 1860s, Roman Catholic missionary Father De Smet is reported to have seen Sioux Indians carrying gold which they told him came from the Black Hills.
Prior to the Gold Rush, the Black Hills were used by Native Americans (primarily bands of Sioux but others also ranged through the area). The United States government recognized the Black Hills as belonging to the Sioux by the Treaty of Laramie in 1868. Despite being within Indian territory, and therefore off-limits, white Americans were increasingly interested in the gold-mining possibilities of the Black Hills.
Prospectors found gold in 1874 near present-day Custer, South Dakota, but the deposit turned out to be small. The large placer gold deposits of Deadwood Gulch were discovered in November 1875, and in 1876, thousands of gold-seekers flocked to the new town of Deadwood, although it was still within Indian land.
The tale of first gold discovery in the Black Hills was
The Crimean War (pronounced /kraɪˈmiːən/ or /krɨˈmiːən/) (October 1853 – February 1856) was a conflict between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. The war was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire. Most of the conflict took place on the Crimean Peninsula, but there were smaller campaigns in western Anatolia, Caucasus, the Baltic Sea, the Pacific Ocean and the White Sea. In Russia, this war is also known as the "Eastern War" (Russian: Восточная война, Vostochnaya Voina), and in Britain it was also called the "Russian War" at the time.
The Crimean War is known for the logistical and tactical errors during the land campaign on both sides (the naval side saw a successful Allied campaign which eliminated most of the ships of the Russian Navy in the Black Sea). Nonetheless, it is sometimes considered to be one of the first "modern" wars as it "introduced technical changes which affected the future course of warfare", including the first tactical use of railways and the electric telegraph. It is also famous for
The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, in earlier centuries often called the Gunpowder Treason Plot or the Jesuit Treason, was a failed assassination attempt against King James I of England and VI of Scotland by a group of provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby.
The plan was to blow up the House of Lords during the State Opening of England's Parliament on 5 November 1605, as the prelude to a popular revolt in the Midlands during which James's nine-year-old daughter, Princess Elizabeth, was to be installed as the Catholic head of state. Catesby may have embarked on the scheme after hopes of securing greater religious tolerance under King James had faded, leaving many English Catholics disappointed. His fellow plotters were John Wright, Thomas Wintour, Thomas Percy, Guy Fawkes, Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, Robert Wintour, Christopher Wright, John Grant, Sir Ambrose Rookwood, Sir Everard Digby and Francis Tresham. Fawkes, who had 10 years of military experience fighting in the Spanish Netherlands in suppression of the Dutch Revolt, was given charge of the explosives.
The plot was revealed to the authorities in an anonymous letter sent to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, on
The Haymarket Riot on May 4, 1886 in Chicago is generally considered to have been an important influence on the origin of international May Day observances for workers. In popular literature this event inspired the caricature of "a bomb-throwing anarchist." The causes of the incident are still controversial, although deeply polarized attitudes separating business and working class people in late 19th century Chicago are generally acknowledged as having precipitated the tragedy and its aftermath. The site of the riot was designated as a Chicago Landmark on March 25, 1992. The Haymarket Martyrs' Monument in nearby Forest Park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and as a National Historic Landmark on February 18, 1997.
In October 1884 a convention held by the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions (FOTLU) of the United States and Canada set May 1, 1886 as the date by which the eight-hour work day would become law. Meanwhile the Knights of Labor, a more conservative organization, opposed the strike.
On Saturday May 1 rallies were held throughout the United States. There were an estimated 10,000 demonstrators in New York and 11,000 in Detroit. In
The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three conflicts in Florida between the Seminole — the collective name given to the amalgamation of various groups of native Americans and Black people who settled in Florida in the early 18th century — and the United States Army. The First Seminole War was from 1814 to 1819 (although sources differ), the Second Seminole War from 1835 to 1842, and the Third Seminole War from 1855 to 1858.
The first conflict with the Seminole arose out of tensions relating to General Andrew Jackson's attack and destruction of Negro Fort in Florida in 1816. Jackson also attacked the Spanish at Pensacola. Ultimately, the Spanish Crown ceded the colony to United States rule.
The indigenous peoples of Florida declined significantly in number after the arrival of Europeans in the region. The Native Americans had little resistance to diseases newly introduced from Europe. Spanish suppression of native revolts further reduced the population in northern Florida. By 1707, colonial soldiers from the Province of Carolina and their Yamasee Indian allies had killed or carried off nearly all the remaining native inhabitants, having conducted a series of raids
The Exhibition at the Café des Arts in summer 1889 was arranged by Paul Gauguin and his circle, on the walls of a café just outside the gates of the Exposition universelle, and run by a certain Monsieur Volpini. Though Gauguin and his companions had a poster and an illustrated catalogue printed, this show of Paintings by the Impressionist and Synthetist Group (Peintures du Groupe Impressioniste et Synthétiste) went almost unappreciated and finally proved to be a disaster: "Nothing sold", was the bitter summary for the participants.
The official art exhibition at the Académie des Beaux-Arts accompanying the Exposition universelle displayed works only by invited artists, and furthermore, the selection of works to be exhibited had to pass the judgement of official juries. Neither Gauguin nor his friends could hope to enter this exhibition. But by chance, Emile Schuffenecker found another way that their work could be presented to the public. Monsieur Volpini, the owner of the Grand Café des Beaux-Arts, had a problem: the mirrors he had ordered in Italy to decorate the interior of his café, would not arrive in time for the opening of the Exposition universelle. It was proposed that the
The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was a series of wars principally fought in Central Europe, involving most of the countries of Europe. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, and one of the longest continuous wars in modern history.
The origins of the conflict and goals of the participants were complex and no single cause can accurately be described as the main reason for the fighting. Initially, it was fought largely as a religious war between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire, although disputes over internal politics and the balance of power within the Empire played a significant part. Gradually, it developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers of the time. In this general phase the war became less specifically religious and more a continuation of the Bourbon–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence, leading in turn to further warfare between France and the Habsburg powers.
A major consequence of the Thirty Years' War was the devastation of entire regions, denuded by the foraging armies (bellum se ipsum alet). Famine and disease significantly decreased the population of the German
Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, which occurred on the night of December 25–26, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, was the first move in a surprise attack organized by George Washington against the Hessian forces in Trenton, New Jersey on the morning of December 26. Planned in partial secrecy, Washington led a column of Continental Army troops across the icy Delaware River in a logistically challenging and dangerous operation. Other planned crossings in support of the operation were either called off or ineffective, but this did not prevent Washington from surprising and defeating the troops of Johann Rall quartered in Trenton. The army crossed the river back to Pennsylvania, this time burdened by prisoners and military stores taken as a result of the battle.
Washington's army then crossed the river a third time at the end of the year, under conditions made more difficult by the uncertain thickness of the ice on the river. They defeated British reinforcements under Lord Cornwallis at Trenton on January 2, 1777, and defeated his rear guard at Princeton on January 3, before retreating to winter quarters in Morristown, New Jersey.
While 1776 had begun well for