An engine type is an entire class of engines produced by a manufacturer. and example would be the General Motors LS engine used in late model Corvettes, Firebirds, Camaros and trucks although the type itself is not limited to internal combustion engines.
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Two generations of Boss 302 Mustang sports cars -- the 1969-1970 original and the 2012-2013 reintroduction -- have been produced and, while their model-specific engines (the 1969-70 Cleveland-Boss variant and 2012-13 Coyote-Boss variant respectively) share their 302 cubic inch (5 liter) displacement and "race engine for the street" personalities, they also show how advances in engineering and manufacturing techniques have made possible modern "muscle cars" that greatly outperform the American-made muscle cars produced in the era 1965-1970. This is exemplified by the 2012-13 Boss 302 Mustangs, which, powered by the Coyote-Boss engines Ford Modular engine#Boss 302 (Road Runner) Variant, have 50% more power and torque than their 1969-70 ancestors, while simultaneously enjoying superior fuel economy and exhaust emissions performance.
In spite of the advance in performance seen in the most recent generation of Boss 302 engines, the original Cleveland-Boss engine had striking performance for its time, and even today would afford ample power in high-performance automotive applications. Because of its historical significance and its ongoing appeal (the Cleveland-Boss engine remains highly
The powerplant used in Saturn S-series automobiles was a straight-4 aluminum piston engine produced by Saturn, a subsidiary of General Motors. The engine was only used in the Saturn S-series line of vehicles (SL, SC, SW) from 1991 through 2002. It was available in chain-driven SOHC or DOHC variants.
This was an innovative engine for the time using the lost foam casting process for the engine block and cylinder head. Saturn was one of the first to use this casting process in a full-scale high-production environment. Both engine types used the same engine block.
The engine utilized a water-cooled aluminum block. The main bearing caps were made of cast iron and held in place with two bolts each. The cylinder block bores had interference fit cast iron liners for the piston rings to sit against. The engine block was made from 319.1 aluminum alloy and the liners were made from D5506 ductile iron.
The crankshaft was supported by five main bearings with thrust taken at the middle bearing. 1991 and 1992 engines had a different crankshaft than 1993 and later engines. 1993 and later crankshafts had ten degrees advanced reluctor ring slots to aid in startability. 1991 to 1998 crankshafts
The Ford Vulcan V6 is a 3.0 L (2,986 cc (182.2 cu in)), 60° V6 engine with an iron block and iron heads, used in some of Ford Motor Company's vehicles from model years 1986 through 2008. It was originally designed to be the optional engine in the Ford Taurus and Mercury Sable. In 1992, it became the standard engine for the Taurus, and was the only engine available in the 2006–2007 Taurus. It was also used in the Ford Probe, the Ford Tempo and Mercury Topaz from 1992–1994 (optional, but standard in the 1992 GLS, XR5, and LTS models), the Ford Aerostar and Ford Windstar minivans, and the Ford Ranger and Mazda B3000 pickup trucks. It replaced the Cologne 2.9 engine (to which it is not related) as the base V6 in the Ranger.
The Vulcan was a clean-sheet design using the metric system. The engine block was cast by Cleveland Casting Plant from tooling built by Sherwood Metal Products, the intake came from Ford's Essex Casting, and the engine was assembled at Ford's Lima engine plant in Lima, Ohio.
The Vulcan is a straightforward pushrod design, with 2 valves per cylinder. Its bore is 89.0 mm (3.50 in) and its stroke is 80.0 mm (3.15 in). The engine was designed to use electronic fuel
A W12 engine is a twelve cylinder piston internal combustion engine in a W configuration. W12 engines are manufactured in two distinct configurations. One configuration uses four rows of three cylinders merged into two 'cylinder banks' (two narrow-angle VR6 engine blocks), coupled to a common crankshaft - as in the Volkswagen Group W12. The other uses three banks of four cylinders coupled to a common crankshaft - as in the Napier Lion.
The Napier Lion was a broad arrow-style W12 engine produced by Napier at Acton, West London, from 1917 to the late 1930s. This mostly alloy engine had a capacity of 24 litres (1,465 cu in) and produced from 450 to 900 horsepower (336 to 671 kW; 456 to 912 PS). It was used in many racing cars by John Cobb and Malcolm Campbell, racing aircraft such as the Supermarine S.5 Schneider Cup winner, and speed boats such as Hubert Scott-Paine's Miss Britain III. This configuration had three separate four-cylinder banks, each at 60 degrees offset from one another, as opposed to the "double V" layout used by Volkswagen-Audi (VAG). Sunbeam tried the similar Kaffir, based on their Arab V8 engine.
At the 2001 Tokyo Motor Show, Volkswagen Group showcased a prototype
The Ford 427 side oiler was a completely redesigned 425 cubic inches (6.96 L), cross-bolted FE engine block that first debuted in 1965. Of distinction is the incongruence between the engine's stated displacement and its actual displacement. As this engine was designed for NASCAR usage and their rules at the time of its design stated a maximum displacement of 427 cubic inches, 427 was the number stated by Ford, most likely as an attempt to immediately distinguish it as a NASCAR engine. However, the 427 had a cylinder bore of 4.23 in and had a stroke of 3.78 in (the same stroke as the 390) making the true displacement 424.96 cubic inches (6.9638 L)
This internal combustion engine featured a generous oil gallery down the left-hand side of the engine block to keep the main bearings fully supplied with oil at high revolutions or RPM. The 427 side oiler used mechanical valve tappets, heavily favored for use in Carroll Shelby's AC Cobra. The 427 side oiler not only offered tremendous power for the small amount of space allotted to the Cobra, but also better oil passageways and improved durability on the track.
Used In:Volkswagen 3.6L 6 cylinder 276hp 265ft-lbs
The VR6 engine is an internal combustion engine configuration, consisting of six cylinders. It was developed by the Volkswagen Group in the late 1980s, and evolutions of the original variant are still produced by them.
It is technically closer to an inline engine, but with the two banks of cylinders offset and tilted from each other by a narrow angle of either 10.6 or 15 degrees - instead of the more common 45°, 60°, or 90° as found on conventional Vee engines.
The name VR6 comes from the combination of German words "Verkürzt" and "Reihenmotor" meaning "shortened inline engine"
This engine configuration can also be described as a "staggered six", in keeping with the narrow angle geometry of the Lancia Fulvia staggered-four, developed in the late-1950s (a continuation of Lancia's V4 design practice dating back to the 1920s).
The Volkswagen VR6 was specifically designed for transverse engine installations in front-wheel drive vehicles. The narrow angle of 15° between the two 'rows' in the VR6 engine is a more compact size than a conventional V6 design. This made it possible for Volkswagen to install six-cylinder engines in existing four-cylinder cars. The wider configuration of a
Ford's revolutionary United Kingdom Zephyr/Consul cars used a new family of engines. The so-called Zephyr engine included both straight-4 and straight-6 OHV engines. Production began in 1951 and lasted through to 1966.
The straight-4 engine started in 1951 at 1508 cc. In this form it had a bore of 79.3 mm and stroke of 76.2 mm. With its standard compression ratio of 6.8:1 it produced an output of 47 bhp (35 kW) at 4400 rpm. It was enlarged in 1956 to 1703 cc engine for the Mark II Consul by increasing the bore to 82.5 mm and the stroke to 79.5 mm putting the power up to 59 bhp (44 kW). This engine continued in the Mark III car, now called Zephyr.
Automobiles using the Consul engine:
The straight-6 Zephyr engine was used widely. Displacement began at 2262 cc when it shared the same bore and stroke as the 1508 cc 4-cylinder engine. It was produced with two standard compression ratios of 6.8:1 and 7.5:1 with outputs of 68 and 71 bhp (53 kW). It grew to 2553 cc in the 1956 Mark II.
Automobiles using the Zephyr engine:
The Taunus V4 was a V4 piston engine with one balance shaft, introduced by Ford Motor Company in Germany in 1962. The German V4 was built in the Cologne plant and powered the Ford Taunus and German versions of the Granada, Capri and Transit.
In common with other V4 and V6 engines, but unlike longer V engines with more cylinders, the connecting rods do not share a crankpin on the crankshaft.
The V4 was later expanded into the Ford Cologne V6 engine that was used in the Ford Capri, Ford Taunus, Ford Cortina, Ford Consul, Ford Granada, Ford Sierra, Ford Scorpio, Ford Ranger, Ford Explorer and many other cars. The V4 engine was (and still is) also used in industrial applications: pumps, electrical generators, and in agricultural machinery. In automobiles, the Taunus V4 was replaced by the Ford OHC/Pinto engine.
The 1.2 L (1183 cc) version features an 80.0 mm bore (3.15 in) and 58.86 mm (2.3 in) stroke. Output was 40 hp (29 kW) and 80 N·m (59 lb·ft) or 45 hp (33 kW) and 82 N·m (60 lb·ft).
The 1,3 L (1288 cc) version had an 84.00 mm (3.3 in) bore and 58.86 mm (2.3 in) stroke. Output was 50 hp (37 kW) and 95 N·m (70 lb·ft) or 53 hp (39 kW) and 98 N·m
The Ford SHO V6 is a family of DOHC V6 engines fitted to the Ford Taurus SHO from 1989 to 1995. The designation SHO denotes Super High Output.
Due to the engine's unusual and aesthetically pleasing appearance it is sometimes transplanted into other vehicles. Its distinctive variable length intake manifold is bilaterally symmetrical, so it can be rotated 180 degrees (making it face "backwards" on the engine, relative to its original installation orientation) to ease the engine's transition from transverse to longitudinal mounting.
The SHO engines share a common bell housing pattern with the following Ford engines: the 2.3/2.5 L FWD HSC I4, the 3.0 L FWD/RWD Vulcan V6, and the 3.8 L FWD Canadian Essex V6. In 1996, Ford discontinued the SHO V6 and began fitting the Taurus SHO's with the SHO 3.4 L V8 and the Ford AX4N automatic transmission.
In 1984, executives of the Yamaha Motor Corporation signed a contract with the Ford Motor Company to develop, produce, and supply a compact 60° DOHC V6 engine based upon the existing Vulcan engine for transverse application.
There has been some confusion about the original intended use of the engine. It was thought this engine was first intended to
Ford Motor Company used the Zetec name on a variety of Inline-4-cylinder automobile engines. It was coined to replace "Zeta" on a range of 1.6 L to 2.0 L multi-valve engines introduced in 1991 because Ford was threatened to be sued by Lancia who was the owner of the trademark. The company used the name widely in European advertising and later introduced it to the North American market with the Contour.
The Zetec name was so recognized that Ford decided to apply it to other high-tech four-cylinder engines. It is used across many engine types in Europe today even though the original Zeta design ended production in 2004. Ford also confusingly used the "Zetec" name for a trim level designation in certain markets.
A Formula One engine produced for Ford by Cosworth was also badged as a Ford Zetec, although this was technologically unrelated. This engine (a 3.5 litre V8) was used by the Benetton team in 1994, and powered Michael Schumacher to his first World Championship title.
The Zetec name has been used on many different engines:
The first Zetec-branded engine was the Zeta family, introduced for the 1992 model year powering the fifth generation of the European Ford Escort, the third
The Essex V4 was a V4 engine from Ford Motor Company made at the plant in Essex. The engine was available in two capacities, 1663 cc and 1996 cc, differing only in stroke. This engine was used on the Ford Corsair, Capri Mk I, Consul/Granada Mk I, Ford Zephyr 4 Mk IV and certain early models of the Ford Transit van. The MK1 Transit (1965 to 1978), with its flat front and short bonnet, was designed to use this engine.
The engine was available with a twin choke carburetor and other modifications to increase its power; this variant was fitted in the 2000E version of the Corsair and the GT version of the Capri and Granada.
It was related to the Essex V6 engine which, with two extra cylinders, offered a displacement of 2.5 litres and 3.0 litres.
An air engine or air motor is a device for converting potential energy from compressed air into kinetic energy to drive other machine. As in a steam engine, expansion of externally supplied pressurized gas performs work against one or more piston or rotor to move wheel or other tools.
A compressed air vehicle can offer many of the advantages of a battery electric vehicle without the need for heavy and potentially toxic batteries, which take hours to recharge instead of the few minutes required to refill the tanks for an air engine. Like an electric vehicle, a compressed air vehicle will usually be pollution free during operation. However the energy required for compression must be sourced, and will usually be derived from electricity, or an internal combustion engine. Depending on the method used to generate the electricity, the energy may contribute significant quantities of greenhouse gas and other pollutants, especially if fossil fuel are used. Although some air engines may be highly efficient, the system efficiency, including compression of the air, heat rejection, electricity losses and electricity generation, may be less than 25%.
The air engine and its idea of using air
The GM LS engine family is an engine design intended as the only V-8 engine used in General Motors' line of rear-wheel-drive cars and trucks. The LS series was a "clean sheet" design with little in common in terms of shared parts with the classic Chevrolet small block V8, although its basic design layout owes a good deal to the essential concept of Ed Cole's original small-block design of 1954-55. Some LS engines are all-aluminum, especially the performance oriented engines, while others are cast iron, and all LS engines have six-bolt main bearing caps.
The LS engine has been the sole powerplant of the Chevrolet Corvette since 1997 and has seen use in a wide variety of other General Motors vehicles, ranging from sport coupes to full size trucks. Due to the engine's relatively compact external dimensions compared to its displacement and power output, the engine family is also a popular choice for kit cars, hot rods, buggies, and even light aircraft.
The Generation III V-8 engines (It should be noted that Buick, Olds and Pontiac all had small block engines, that for some unknown reason GM fails to count in it's "generation" numbers) that replaced the Gen II-LT family in 1997 and Gen
The Barra engines are a family of straight 6s and V8s used by Ford Australia since 2002. The inline 6 is unique to the Australian market and developed and manufactured in Geelong, Victoria. It was first introduced as a "Barra" in the BA Falcon. The V8s are built in Windsor, Ontario by the Ford Motor Company and are shipped to Australia. Production of the straight 6 is scheduled to continue until at least 2016, with no word regarding the cessation or continuation of production of this motor post 2016.
The current I6s are all DOHC engines with VCT. They are a development of the SOHC I6s produced between 1991–2002, which in turn are a development of the 4.1L push rod flat-tappet I6 Straight 6, known in Australia as a "250 Crossflow", which in turn are a development of the 144Cid Mustang Straight-6.
Common specifications to all I6s
Bore: 92.26 mm (3.6 in)
Stroke: 99.31 mm (3.9 in)
Displacement: 3984 cc
Number of valves: 24
This was the engine in six cylinder variants of the BA Falcon, Fairmont, Fairlane and Territory and were produced between late 2002 to mid 2005.
This was the engine found in the BF Falcon and SY Territory. It began production since 2005. It is aesthetically the same
The Ventoux was an automotive engine designed by Renault for the Renault 4CV, used subsequently until 1997, and named after Mont Ventoux in Provence.
The engine was liquid-cooled, with four cylinders in line. It was also characterised by its three main bearing design and its piston stroke of 80 mm. It used a lateral camshaft to operate overhead valves.
The engine was produced from 1947 to 1984, in displacements of 603 cc, 748 cc, 782 cc, and 845 cc, the differences being effected by changing the cylinder bore diameter. Ford do Brasil extended the engine to 1300 cc and 1400 cc to use it on the Ford Corcel.
The following Renault models used the Ventoux engine:
The following Willys-Overland models used the Ventoux engine:
The following Ford models used the Ventoux engine:
Willys-Overland do Brasil produced this engine in Brazil for use in the Interlagos (Renault Alpine) and Dauphine, which they built under Renault license from 1959 to 1967.
Renault continued developing the engine and branded it Renault Cléon engine afterwards.
Ford do Brasil acquired Willys-Overland do Brasil in 1968 and continued producing the engine with a higher displacement (of 1300cc and 1400cc) until 1984. After
The Lion engine family was developed and manufactured at Ford's Dagenham Diesel Centre for use in PSA Peugeot Citroën vehicles (as DT17 as part of joint venture begun in 1999), Jaguar Cars (as the AJD-V6), and Land Rover vehicles. The engines share the same bore/stroke ratio, with the V6 displacing 2.7L and the V8 displacing 3.6L. The V6 was launched in 2004 and as of 2011 also serves in Ford Australia's Territory SUV; the V8 in 2006. The V6 engine meets the Euro IV emissions standards. A 3.0L was added in 2009 and is based on the 2.7L.
The engine family utilizes a high-tech DOHC with 24/32 valves, twin turbochargers with an air-to-air intercooler, and an innovative compacted graphite iron (CGI) block construction that leads to a low weight of 202 kg dry. High-pressure common rail direct injection completes the picture. Bore is 81 mm and stroke is 88 mm for the engine.
The V6 utilizes a 60° V configuration. Output is 147 to 152 kW (200 to 207 hp ECE) and up to 440 Nm (325 lb·ft).
Land Rover version is called 'LR-TDV6 Diesel engine'. It has a single turbocharger, of a larger capacity than the twin-turbo design. This is to improve the engine's low-speed torque range for off-road and
Boss is the internal name for a family of large displacement V8 engines from Ford Motor Company intended to compete with Chrysler Hemi engines and General Motors' 6.2 L Vortec engines. Originally, Ford developed the engine architecture under the name Hurricane; however, development of the engine was delayed due to its temporary cancellation in 2005. It was revived in early 2006 by Mark Fields and was given the new name of Boss in light of the devastation caused by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. In spite of this change Ford has yet to officially market the engines with the Boss name in any production vehicle where they are to be used, instead referring to the engines by their displacement - except for in Australia where it has been promoted as the Boss V8.
The first Boss engine, a 6.2 L V8, is produced at Ford's Romeo Engine Plant in Romeo, Michigan.
The 6.2 L (379 cu in) V8 is the main variant of the Boss engine. The V8 shares design similarities with the Modular engine family such as a deep-skirt block with cross-bolted main caps, crankshaft driven gerotor oil pump, overhead camshaft valve train arrangement, and bellhousing bolt pattern. In particular, the 6.2 L V8 features a 2-valve
The Ford Modular engine is Ford Motor Company's overhead camshaft (OHC) V8 and V10 engine family, which has been produced in 4.6L, 5.0L (Cammer, Coyote), 5.4L, 5.8L and 6.8L variations. Contrary to popular belief, the Modular engine did not get its name from its design or sharing of certain parts among the engine family. Instead, the name was derived from a manufacturing plant protocol, "Modular", where the plant and its tooling could be changed out in a matter of hours to manufacture different versions of the engine family. The Modular engines are used in various Ford, Lincoln, and Mercury vehicles. Modular engines used in Ford trucks were marketed under the Triton name from 1997–2010 while the InTech name was used for a time at Lincoln for vehicles equipped with DOHC versions of the engines.
The engines were first produced in Romeo, Michigan but additional capacity was added in Windsor, Ontario.
The 4.6 L (4601 cc, 281 CID) 90-degree V8 has been offered in 2-valve SOHC, 3-valve SOHC, and 4-valve DOHC versions. The engines were also offered with both aluminum and cast iron blocks, depending on application. The 4.6 L's bore and stroke are nearly square at 90.2 mm (3.552 in) and
Ford's Volvo Cars subsidiary designed the SI6 ("short inline 6") straight-6 automobile engine for use in 2007 models. An evolution of the company's long-used straight-5, which itself is an evolution of the Volvo B6304 straight six engine, the SI6 can be mounted transversely for front wheel drive applications or longitudinally for rear wheel drive. Despite the added cylinder and displacement, the engine remains compact, and is in fact 1 mm (0.0 in) shorter than the previous straight-5. The engine will be offered in two displacements initially — a 3.0 L turbocharged version and a 3.2 L naturally aspirated version. Both offer variable cam timing, though only the turbo version varies both the intake and exhaust valves. On top of the variable cam timing used on the intake cam of the naturally aspirated it also has variable valve lift by using Cam Profile Switching (CPS).
Production of the Volvo SI6 began at the Ford Bridgend Engine Plant in Wales in May 2006. It was assumed that the engines would be used in European Ford and Jaguar products as well as Volvos.
The 3.0 L turbocharged engine is available in a light-pressure turbo (LPT) version. Cylinder bore is 82.0 mm (3.23 in) and stroke
The Ford Endura-D engine is a 1,753cc diesel power unit used in a variety of vehicles made by the Ford Motor Company, including the Ford Escort (Europe), Ford Focus, Ford Fiesta, Ford Mondeo, Ford Orion, Ford Sierra and Ford Transit Connect.
Originally branded Lynx it had 1.8 DIESEL stamped on its rocker cover, it is an engine which has featured in the Ford range since the late 1980s in models such as the Mk.3 Ford Fiesta, Mk.4 Ford Escort (Europe), Ford Sierra, and Mk.1 Ford Mondeo. The 1.8 itself was a development of the (then all-new) 1.6 Diesel unit, originally first featured in the Mk.3 Ford Escort and Mk.2 Ford Fiesta.
Still branded Lynx, later engines had Endura-DE stamped on the rocker cover, and first featured in the Mk.4 Ford Fiesta, Mk.6 Ford Escort (Europe) and Mk.2 Ford Mondeo
The Endura-DE engine features a cast iron block and indirect injection style cylinder head, which means there is a combustion chamber built into the cylinder head. This engine makes use of aluminium for some other components to minimise the weight penalty of the Diesel engine. It has a single overhead camshaft opening 8 valves via shim-and-bucket followers. The camshaft is rotated by a toothed
The Ford Model T used a 177-cubic-inch (2.9 L) inline 4-cylinder engine. It was primarily a petrol engine, but it had multifuel ability and could also burn kerosene or ethanol. It produced 20 hp (15 kW) for a top speed of 45 mph (72 km/h). The engine had side valves and 3 main bearings and was built in-unit with the Model T's novel transmission (a planetary design), sharing the same lubricating oil. The engine bore was 3+⁄4 inches (95.25 mm) and its stroke was 4 inches (101.6 mm) even, for a total displacement of 177 cu in (2,900 cc). Casting all four cylinders in one block was an uncommon practice when T production started in 1908.
The spark plugs were powered by a magneto (as typical of the time), and the ignition system included a manual advance/retard control. Starting was via a hand crank.
The Model T engine was produced continuously from September 27, 1908 through August 4, 1941, exactly 12,000 days. This makes it one of the longest engines in series production, especially considering that the specifications remained mostly unchanged for this entire duration. Its production run for the U.S. consumer market for passenger cars and pickups was shorter, being the 19 years'
The V8 Ford Windsor motor family is considered by Ford enthusiasts to be one of the greatest and most successful engines produced by the Ford Motor Company. It is referred to as the Small Block Ford by major aftermarket auto parts companies, parts catalogs, on internet forums, and by Ford itself. Introduced in 1962 as part of Ford's "Total Performance" era, the Ford Windsor design succeeded the Ford Y-block engine family, rendering the latter obsolete for performance purposes.
The Windsor family evolved significantly during its 40-year history through technology, performance, and reliability enhancements. Engine displacement also increased from 221 cu in (3.6 L) up to 351 cu in (5.8 L). Engines and their components naturally vary between models and displacements. Despite this, however, many parts are interchangeable. For performance enthusiasts, this means that older motors can frequently be retrofitted with replacement or upgraded parts. An abundant supply of aftermarket parts also exists to fit a wide range of Windsor models.
These motors were originally produced at Ford's Windsor, Ontario engine plant, hence the Windsor designation. From 1969, though, all Ford small blocks
The HSC ("High Swirl Combustion") is an automobile engine from Ford Motor Company sold from 1984 until 1994. It was produced in Lima, Ohio, largely using tooling and designs adapted from the predecessor 200 CID straight 6.
The 2.3 L (2301 cc, 140 CID) version was introduced in 1984 for the Ford Tempo/Mercury Topaz. Bore is 3.68 in (93.5 mm) and stroke is 3.3 in (83.8 mm). This engine produced 90 hp (67 kW) and 125 lb·ft (169 N·m) of torque. The HSC was Ford's first production "fast burn" engine.
1985 brought two significant changes. American-market engines received Central Fuel Injection (CFI), which reduced power to 86 hp. Ford remedied the power decrease with a High Specific Output "HSO" model, introduced for the high-performance variants of the Tempo (GLS) and Topaz (LTS/XR-5). Output was 100 hp (75 kW) and 125 lb·ft (169 N·m) of torque. This engine is denoted by an "S" in the VIN.
The early HSC engines were carbureted, with a 1-barrel Holley 6149 carburetor. Two-barrel Central Fuel Injection (CFI) was added in 1985. It was switched over to multi-port fuel injection in 1988 which raised horsepower to 95. Sequential fuel injection was added for 1992 increasing horsepower to 98,
Ford's first straight-6 engine was introduced in 1906 in the Model K. Production ended in 1907. Henry Ford did not like the car because the engine could overpower its transmission. The next Ford six was introduced in the 1941 Ford. The Ford Motor Company of America continued producing straight six engines until they were replaced in the mid-1990s by more compact V6 designs. However, Ford's Australian branch still manufactures these engines for their Falcon range.
The first generation Ford six-cylinder engines were all flatheads. They were the G- and H-series engines of 226 cu in (3.7 L) used in cars and trucks and the M-series of 254 cu in (4.2 L) used in larger Ford trucks and for industrial applications.
Introduced with the 1941 model year, the first Ford L-6 (designated G-series) displaced 226 cu in (3.7 L) and produced 90 hp (67 kW), the same as the Flathead V-8 that year. Like the V-8, it was also a flathead or L-head engine. In 1948, Ford raised the compression of the flathead six or L-6 (designated H-series or Rouge 226) so that it generated 95 hp (71 kW) and 180 lb·ft (244 N·m) of torque. The G- and H-series engines were used in the full-size Ford cars and trucks to replace
The Oldsmobile Rocket V8 was the first post-war OHV V8 at General Motors. Production started in 1949, with a new generation introduced in 1964. Like Pontiac, Olds continued building its own V8 engine family for decades, finally adopting the corporate Chevrolet 350 small-block and Cadillac Northstar engine only in the 1990s. All Oldsmobile V8s were manufactured at plants in Lansing, Michigan.
All Oldsmobile V8s use a 90° bank angle, and most share a common stroke dimension: 3.4375 in (87.31 mm) for early Rockets, 3.6875 in (93.66 mm) for later Generation 1 engines, and 3.385 in (86.0 mm) for Generation 2. The 260 cu in (4.3 l), 307 cu in (5.0 l), 330 cu in (5.4 l), 350 cu in (5.7 l) and 403 cu in (6.6 l) engines are commonly called small-blocks. 400 cu in (6.6 l), 425 cu in (7.0 l), and 455 cu in (7.5 l) V8s have a higher deck height (10.625 in (27.0 cm) versus 9.33 in (23.7 cm)) to accommodate a 4.25 in (108 mm) stroke crank to increase displacement. These taller-deck models are commonly called "big-blocks", and are 1 in (2.5 cm) longer and 1.5 in (3.8 cm) wider than their "small-block" counterparts.
The Rocket V8 was the subject of many first and lasts in the automotive industry.
The Ford Essex V6 engine was a 60° V6 engine built between 1966 and 1981 by the Ford Motor Company in the United Kingdom at their engine plant in Dagenham, Essex, which gave the engine its name. It was produced in two main capacities, 2.5 L and 3.0 L, and was fitted to a wide range of vehicles, from Ford Transit vans to sports cars. A 3.1 L version was produced for the 1973 Ford Capri RS 3100, but only 248 examples of this model were built. The Essex V6 also formed the base for the 3.4 L Cosworth GAA which, with the benefit of DOHC heads and fuel injection, generated 462 bhp (345 kW; 468 PS) at 9,000 rpm. This engine was used in the racing version of the Capri RS 3100, competing successfully in the European Touring Car Championship, as well as in Formula 5000 single-seaters.
Unusually, the Essex V6 was built so that the same block could serve in both diesel (compression ignition) and petrol applications, although the diesel version never reached production. Traces of its diesel design lie in the very heavy construction and the necessity for dished piston heads to decrease compression for the petrol engine. The cast iron Essex V6 is a heavy engine, weighing significantly more than
The Ford GAA engine is an all aluminum, 32 valve, DOHC, 60 degree V8 engine produced by the Ford Motor Company during World War II. It featured twin Stromberg NA-Y5-G carburetors, dual magnetos and twin spark plugs, and crossflow induction.
The GAA was used to power several models and derivatives of the M4A3 Sherman tank. The engine displaces 1,100 cu in (18 l) and puts out over 1000 ft lbs of torque from idle to 2600 rpm. Maximum rated horsepower was 525@2800 rpm though most models were rated at 450HP.
Immediately preceding World War II, Ford developed an aircraft engine similar to that of the Rolls-Royce Merlin and Allison engines of that era. It was a 60 degree V-12 with aluminum block and head, dual overhead camshaft, and 4 valves per cylinder. The intention of this design was to help Ford break into the anticipated large market for fighter engines. This engine was built to typical aircraft standards: it was light, high performance, and highly reliable. Everything was safety wired or staked with close attention to detail on every part. Available information suggests this design performed well.
However, this engine never went into production as an aircraft engine due to the US
The Ford SHO V8 engine [super high output] was designed and built by Ford Motor Company in conjunction with Yamaha Motor Corporation for use in the 1996 Ford Taurus SHO. It was based on the successful Ford Duratec engine rather than its predecessor, the compact Ford SHO V6 engine developed by Yamaha for the 1989 Taurus SHO. The engine was retired in 1999 when production of the third-generation Taurus SHO ended.
The 3.4 L SHO V8 was introduced in the spring of 1996. It incorporated many of the traits of the SHO V6, including the aluminum cylinder heads and 4-valve per cylinder DOHC design, but differed with an aluminum rather than iron block and no variable length intake manifold. A chain is also used to time the camshafts to crankshaft instead of the belts that the SHO V6s used. The SHO V8 has a split port style intake valve setup. The primary valve is exposed all the time and has the fuel injector spraying on it, while the secondary valve is only exposed when the Intake Runner Manifold Control opens the secondary plates at 3400 rpm. These secondary valves are called "secondaries" by SHO enthusiasts. Power was similar too, at 235 hp (175 kW) and 230 lb·ft (312 N·m) of torque.
Used In:Volkswagen 5L 10 cylinder 310hp 553ft-lbs Turbo Diesel
A V10 engine is a V engine with 10 cylinders in two banks of five, which produces a distinct exhaust note.
The V10 is essentially the result of mating two even-firing straight-5 engines together. The straight-5 engine shows first and second order rocking motion. Here it should be assumed that the crankshaft with low second-order vibration is used and the first order is balanced by a balance shaft. By mating the straight-5 banks at 90 degrees and using five throws the balance shafts balance each other and become null. The firing sequence is odd (BMW M5, Dodge Viper, Ford 6.8 V10). Using an 18° split journal crankshaft the firing order can be made even, and the two balanced shaft do not balance each other completely, but are combined into a single very small balance shaft (Lamborghini Gallardo). Using a five-throw crankshaft and 72° bank angle the firing order can be made even, and the two balanced shafts do not balance each other completely, but are combined into a single small balance shaft (Lexus LFA). A 36° degree bank angle and a 108° flying arm crankshaft would allow even firing without a balance shaft and smaller counterweights, but would be impractical.
The V10 configuration
Pontiac began as a adjunct to the Oakland division of the General Motors line of automobiles in 1926. Pontiac successfully competed against more expensive 4-cylinder models with their inline flathead 6 engines. After outselling Oakland, Pontiac became the sole survivor of the two by 1932. In addition to the inline 6, Pontiac also had an inline 8 by 1933. These two engines were used through 1954, when Pontiac unveiled its V8 in 1955. From 1955 to 1981 the Pontiac Division of General Motors manufactured its own engines, distinct from Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, or Oldsmobile. Displacement began at 287 cu in and grew as large as 455 cu.in. (7.5 L) by 1970.
Pontiac engines were used in its U.S.-market cars; Canadian-built Pontiac automobiles generally used Chevrolet engines. From 1955 through 1959, the Pontiac V8 was also used in some GMC pick-up trucks.
The development of Pontiac's OHV V8 dates back to 1946, when engineers began considering new engine designs for postwar cars. Despite these experiments, the division's conservative management saw no immediate need to replace the Pontiac Straight-8 engine, which had served well since 1933. When Robert Critchfield took over as general
T5 is a name used by Volvo for high performance, turbocharged, 2.3 and 2.5 litre 5 cylinder internal combustion engines initially for use only in Volvo vehicles, but which eventually were used more widely.
The currently manufactured engine displaces approximately 2.5 litres. It has 5 cylinders and a double overhead cam valvetrain, is fitted with an intercooled turbocharger and is transversely mounted. The engine 'red lines' at 6500 rpm. The same engine is used in the high performance S60 and V70R where the 'red line' is 6750 , however in this case it is turbocharged at high pressure rather than the light pressure of the modern T5.
The same basic engine has been very widely adapted, the engine itself fundamentally merely being a turbocharged version of the standard 2.4 litre engine. The D5 is its closest relative in the diesel world, this being a 2.4 litre 5 cylinder turbocharged diesel engine.
The performance of the T5 engine is quite high, and as a result, the amount of power accessible to the driver is limited by the ECU, or Engine Control Unit. The largest amount of power accessible as standard from this engine is on the S60R, which produces around 300 bhp (220 kW).
Power Stroke is the name given to the diesel engines found in Ford Super Duty trucks, Ford Excursion SUVs, Ford Econoline vans, and Ford LCF commercial vehicles. Production by Navistar International Corporation (International Truck and Engine Corporation) for Ford Motor Company began in mid 1994, in Indianapolis, Indiana, Huntsville, Alabama, and Brazil and continued until 2010. The Navistar sourced diesels came in displacements of 7.3, 6.0, 4.5, and 6.4 liters. In the middle of 2010 Ford released a newly designed 6.7 Liter Powerstroke engine (codenamed the Scorpion and built in house by Ford in their Chihuahua, Mexico facility (Chihuahua Engine Plant, "CHEP") along with a newly redesigned interior and exterior. These engines primarily compete in the United States full-size pickup truck market with the Duramax V8 from General Motors/Isuzu DMAX and the B series straight 6 from Ram/Cummins.
In mid 1994, the 7.3L Power Stroke diesel was introduced. Although the previous 7.3L had the same displacement, there weren't any other similarities between the two.
The Power Stroke is an electronically controlled, direct injection engine with a 4.11 in (104 mm) bore and 4.18 in (106 mm) stroke
The Ford 385 engine family (the name coming from the 3.85 inch crankshaft stroke of the 460 V8) was the Ford Motor Company's final big block V8 engine design, replacing the Ford MEL engine and gradually superseding the Ford FE engine family. This design was a departure from the paradigm utilizing thinwall casting methods and a skirtless block to reduce weight.
It was available in three sizes in production vehicles; 370 cu in (6.1 L) in medium-duty trucks only, 429 cu in (7.0 L) and 460 cu in (7.5 L). A 514 cu in (8.4 L) crate engine was also available from Ford SVO.
The engines were sold between 1968 and 1997. It was introduced in the Ford Thunderbird in 1968 and replaced the FE in Ford's full-size cars in 1969. Production ended with the ninth generation Ford F-Series truck in the 1996/7 model year. They were manufactured at Ford's Lima Engine plant at Lima, Ohio. This manufacturing line replaced the Ford MEL engine line in the Lima plant. The FE engines, manufactured in Dearborn, continued in production but saw reduced applications and volume as the 385 engine gradually took over in the Ford line up. The FE went out of production in 1976, leaving the 385 as the only big block. The
Oldsmobile developed three diesel engines for the 1980s: two V8s and a 263 CID (4.3 L) V6. It was based on the Olds 350 V8 with a 4.057 in (103.0 mm) bore and 3.385 in (86.0 mm) stroke.
The history of passenger-car diesel engines at General Motors has been checkered. In the 1970s, the company was unable to power its large cars and trucks with their emissions-strangled engines. Like many other companies, GM turned to diesel power, directing the Oldsmobile division to develop one V6 and two V8 to be shared with all divisions.
Oldsmobile's diesels, the 5.7 L LF9 and 4.3 L LF7 V8s and the 4.3 L V6, were notoriously unreliable. Oldsmobile engineers claimed that management forced them to hold to a time line that did not allow for sufficient testing. Although over one million were sold from 1978–1985, the failure rate of early GM diesel engines ruined the reputation of diesel engines in general in the United States market. Eventually, a class action lawsuit resulted in an arbitration system under the supervision of the Federal Trade Commission where consumers could claim 80% of the original cost of the engine in the event of a failure.
The primary problem with GM's diesel engines of the
The Ford flathead V8 (often called simply the Ford flathead or flathead Ford when the V8 context is implicit, such as in hot-rodding) was a V8 engine of the flathead type, designed by the Ford Motor Company and built by Ford and various licensees. During the engine's first decade of production, when overhead-valve engines were rare, it was usually known simply as the Ford V‑8, and the first car model in which it was installed, the Model 18, was (and still is) often called simply the "Ford V‑8", after its new engine. When the engine was introduced in 1932, it was a market first in several respects: in cars that were affordable to the emerging mass market consumer, it was the first 8-cylinder, the first V8, and the first V engine to become available. It was the first independently designed and built V8 engine produced by Ford for mass production, and it ranks as one of the company's most important developments. A fascination with ever-more-powerful engines was perhaps the most salient aspect of the American car and truck market for a half century, from 1923 until 1973. The Ford flathead V8 was perfectly in tune with the cultural moment of its introduction, leading the way into a
The Ford I4 DOHC engine was a 4-cylinder inline internal combustion engine with twin overhead camshafts, produced by the Ford Motor Company. First with 2.0-litre 8-valve version, in later models with 2.0/2.3-litre 16-valve version from 1989 to the end of production of the MK2 Ford Galaxy in 2006. It powered various Ford models during this time, but was most well known in the rear wheel drive "Twin Cam" variants of the Ford Sierra, and Ford Scorpio. Despite being built for the company's larger RWD models, Ford unusually employed the engine in the front wheel drive Galaxy and sport version of Escort named RS 2000 16v.
The I4 was originally designed to replace the ageing 2.0L OHC Pinto engine, derivatives of which had powered most of Ford's four-cylinder rear-wheel drive cars since the early 1970s, and which was now lagging badly behind the competition in terms of power output, efficiency and refinement. Equipped with a newly designed twin-cam cylinder head but still only 8 valves, and a "square" 86x86mm bore and stroke, the new I4 unit was launched in the Ford Sierra and Ford Scorpio, mated to the newly designed all-synchromesh MT-75 5-speed manual transmission, or the existing A4LD
A V8 engine is a V engine with eight cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of four cylinders, in most cases set at a right angle to each other but sometimes at a narrower angle, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft.
In its simplest form, it is basically two straight-4 engines sharing a common crankshaft. However, this simple configuration, with a single-plane crankshaft, has the same secondary dynamic imbalance problems as two straight-4s, resulting in vibrations in large engine displacements. As a result, since the 1920s most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations. This results in an engine which is smoother than a V6, while being considerably less expensive than a V12 engine. Most racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs.
The V8 with a crossplane crankshaft (see below) is a common configuration for large automobile engines. V8 engines are rarely less than 3.0 L (183 cu in) in displacement and in automobile use have exceeded 8.2 L (500 cu in) in production vehicles. Industrial and marine
Developed in the late 1980s by the Ford Motor Company, the Ford Zeta engine was a straight-4, double overhead cam internal combustion engine with which Ford had intended to replace the analogous Pinto and CVH models.
Ford designed the Zeta to share some parts with other Ford engine developments at the time, including the smaller Sigma I-4 and Duratec V6. This engine shares its bore and stroke dimensions with the 2-valve CVH engine. Ford Power Products sells the Zeta in 1.8 L and 2.0 L versions as the MVH.
Production of the engines, renamed Zetec, began at Ford's Bridgend plant in Wales in September 1991, with later production added at Cologne, Germany in 1992 and Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico, in 1993. The first Zetecs displaced 1.8 L, with a 2.0 L version arriving quickly afterwards. The final Zeta Zetec was produced on December 10, 2004 at the Bridgend factory with over 3,500,000 built at that location.
The engine fits the Ford T9, B5/iB5, CD4E and MTX-75 gearboxes using the same bell bolt pattern as the Crossflow.
The 2.0 L Zetec shared its 84.8 mm (3.339 in) bore and 88 mm (3.465 in) stroke with its predecessor, the 2.0 L 2-valve CVH.
A high 10.2:1 compression ratio and larger
The Cyclone engine is Ford Motor Company's latest DOHC V6 family of gasoline engines. It will gradually replace the Mondeo family of V6 engines over the next several years. The first version, a 3.5 L Duratec V6, appeared in the 2007 Lincoln MKZ. Mazda badges its versions of the Cyclone MZI as it did with its versions of the Mondeo V6.
Notable Cyclone features include a capacity for displacements ranging up to 4.0 L, DOHC 4-valve per cylinder heads, direct acting mechanical bucket (DAMB) camshaft tappets, variable cam timing (iVCT) on the intake camshafts, and twin-independent variable cam timing (Ti-VCT) on some later versions. Features such as Gasoline direct injection and turbocharging were considerations in the design phase and have been added to the engine as part of EcoBoost. The Duratec 35 is ULEV-II compliant and is capable of meeting the PZEV requirement.
The Duratec 35 displaces 3.5 L (3496 cc, 213 CID) with a 92.5 mm (3.64 in) bore and 86.7 mm (3.41 in) stroke. Due to packaging differences (primarily the relocation of the water pump to the valley), the 3.5 L engine will fit into any engine bay the smaller Mondeo 3.0 L will, and replaced it in some applications (notably
The Y-block engine is a family of overhead valve V8 automobile piston engines from Ford Motor Company. It was introduced in 1955 on Ford trucks and in 1954 on Ford cars to replace the side-valved Ford Flathead engine and was replaced by the Ford FE engine (on medium cars) and the Ford Windsor engine (on small cars) in 1962, and lasted until 1964 in Ford trucks.
Note that Lincoln introduced a very different and larger Y-block engine in 1952 for use on large cars and on Ford heavy duty trucks.
The first Y-block on Ford automobiles was the 1954 239 in³ (3.9 L) Ford engine; known for its deep skirting, which causes the engine to resemble a Y. Rated at 130 hp (97 kW), it replaced the 239 in³ (3.9 L) flathead which was rated at 106 hp (79 kW). The Y-block was considered a major advancement over the flathead. It is known for having oiling problems in the rocker shafts due to the fact the oil first went to the crankshaft bearing, then to the camshaft bearings, then to the rocker shafts. This problem plagued the entire Y-block family and could be remedied by running a copper line from the oil pump and then to the rocker shafts.
The oiling problem was caused by the passage from the center
The straight-five engine or inline-five engine is an internal combustion engine with five cylinders aligned in one row or plane, sharing a single engine block and crankcase. This configuration is a compromise between the smaller inline-four engine and the larger straight-6.
Henry Ford had a inline-five engine developed in the late 1930s to early 1940s for a compact economy car design, which never saw production due to lack of demand for small cars in the United States. Consequently, a straight-five engine did not see production for passenger cars until Mercedes-Benz introduced the OM617 diesel in 1974. The first production petrol straight-five was the 2.1 R5 introduced by Volkswagen Group in the Audi 100 towards the end of the 1970s, developments of which powered the Audi Quattro rally racer. Since Volvo introduced their Volvo 850 in 1992, much of their lineup has switched to straight-five power, with their engines also seeing use in Ford's Focus ST and RS models. Honda used straight-fives in the Vigor, Inspire, Ascot, Rafaga, and Acura TL.
In the late 1990s, Rover Group developed an in-house straight-five diesel engine, the Td5, for the Discovery and Defender. Volkswagen has used
VTEC (Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control) is a valvetrain system developed by Honda to improve the volumetric efficiency of a four-stroke internal combustion engine. The VTEC system uses two camshaft profiles and hydraulically selects between profiles. It was invented by Honda engineer Ikuo Kajitani, and was the first system of its kind. Different types of variable valve timing and lift control systems have also been produced by other manufacturers (MIVEC from Mitsubishi, AVCS from Subaru, VVT-i/VVTL-i from Toyota, VANOS from BMW, VarioCam Plus from Porsche, NeoVVL from Nissan, etc.).
VTEC was initially designed to increase the power output of an engine to 100 HP/litre or more while maintaining practicality for use in mass production vehicles. Some later variations of the system were designed solely to provide improvements in fuel efficiency.
Japan levies a tax based on engine displacement, and Japanese auto manufacturers have correspondingly focused their R&D efforts toward improving the performance of smaller engine designs through means other than displacement increases. One method for increasing performance into a static displacement includes forced induction, as
Ford Motor Company's modern 2.5 L and 3.0 L V6 automobile engines are evolutions of the same design, first used in the 1994 Ford Mondeo. This line is sold under the brand name "Duratec", as are many other engines.
The Mondeo V6 is a modern aluminum DOHC V6 with a 60° bank angle. The primary engineering input came from Porsche, who were developing a similar V6 before selling the engineering to Ford, and Cosworth, who helped with cylinder head manufacturing. The Jaguar AJ-V6 engine is similar but adds variable valve timing. Mazda's AJ version also has this feature.
The Duratec 25 is a 2.5 L (2544 cc) 60° V6 and was introduced in 1994. It was developed for the Ford Mondeo and also used in the Ford Contour and others. Bore is 82.4 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 79.5 mm (3.1 in).
The Duratec 25 was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 1995 and 1996, and the SVT version made the list for 1998 and 1999.
An SVT version produced 195 hp (145 kW) and 165 lb·ft (224 N·m) in 1998. It included a larger throttle body from the Duratec 30, a new cone-shaped air filter, and abrasive flow machining processing on the intake manifold. SVT specific cams, a lighter flywheel and low-restriction exhaust
The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally a fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine. This force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir.
The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described.
The internal combustion engine (or ICE) is quite
The Boss 302 Mustang is a high performance variant of the Ford Mustang originally produced in 1969 and 1970, and revived in the 2012 model year. It was produced for the Trans Am racing series.
The Camaro/Mustang rivalry had begun in 1967 with the introduction of the Chevrolet Camaro by General Motors. The Camaro was the largest threat to the lead Ford had in the "pony car" field, a market segment largely created by Ford with the introduction of the Mustang in mid-year 1964. The performance of the Mustang with 289 and 390 engines was not up to the Camaro, with its small block and big block V8. In an effort to improve the Mustang's image, Ford made optional the 428 Cobra Jet V8 in mid-year 1968, and in 1969, the Ford Boss 302 engine. The 302 was a composite engine using the "tunnel port" Windsor block and large Cleveland heads. This optional engine was available for the express purpose of meeting the homologation guidelines to compete in the Trans-Am series.
The Boss 302 Mustang was designed by Larry Shinoda, a former GM employee. The car featured reflective "c-stripe" and the fake rear fender scoops of the regular 1969 Mustangs was eliminated. Optional were black horizontal rear
The Ford 4.4 TD is a diesel engine developed and built by Ford Motor Company. It is based on the Lion V6 Diesel and has a power output of 330 hp (246 kW) and 516 lb·ft (700 N·m) of torque. As with the other AJDs, it has a Compacted Graphite Iron block that reduces weight while increasing engine block strength.
The 4.4L is built at Chihuahua Engine Plant in Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico along with the 6.7L Ford Power Stroke Diesel engine available in Ford Super Duty trucks. While in development, the 4.4 TD was rumored to be for use in the Ford F-150, Ford Expedition, and as an entry level diesel option for the Super Duty. No such option ever became available with Ford citing the reason as being a low demand for a vehicle with a $6000–$8000 premium over its gasoline models. Current application of the 4.4L TD engine is the Land Rover Range Rover.
The letters CVH denote a particular type of 4-cylinder internal combustion engine produced by the Ford Motor Company during the 1980s and 1990s.
This engine was labeled with a couple different names throughout its production. From 1991-1996 in the Ford Escort, it was "1.9L SEFI", and from 1997-2002, it was "Split Port Induction 2000". From 2000-2004 in the Ford Focus, it was "Split Port".
The CVH (Compound Valve angle Hemispherical combustion chamber) engine was introduced by Ford in 1980 in the third generation European Ford Escort and for the 1981 North American Escort. It was later used in the Ford Sierra as well as the second generation Ford Fiesta and from 1983 it was used in the Ford Orion. Engines were built in the Dearborn Engine Plant for the North American market, and in Ford's then-new engine plant in Bridgend in Wales for the European market.
The engine was originally conceived in 1974 and had a single overhead cam. Its valves were mounted at a compound angle in hemispherical combustion chambers, although some versions altered the combustion chamber shape to increase swirl. It also featured hydraulic valve lifters, a first for a European Ford engine.
Like its sister General Motors divisions, Buick produced its own family of V8 engines to replace its straight-8 engines. These engines came in many of the same displacements as those from other divisions, but were entirely different.
Buick first generation of V8 lasted from 1953 through 1956. It was an OHV/pushrod engine like the then new Oldsmobile "Rocket V8" engine. This engine became known as the "Nailhead" for the unusual vertical position of its small-sized valves, which were derisively compared to nails since their head diameter is rather smaller than other comparable displacement engines of the same era. The Nailhead V8 family employed a camshaft with greater lift and duration to offset the smaller-sized valves and arguably restrictive intake- and exhaust-port areas. The small-diameter valves and intake runners made for engines with a lot of torque, with many exceeding one foot-pound per cubic inch, which was exceptional for the day.
NOTE: The Buick V-8 was originally called the "Nail Valve" by early hot rodders because the valves looked like nails since the stems were so long and the heads were small. At some point "Nail Valve" got replaced by "Nailhead."
The 264 cu in
The Ford Pinto engine was the unofficial but generic nickname for a 4-cylinder internal combustion engine built by Ford Europe. In Ford sales literature it was referred to as the EAO or OHC engine and because it was designed to the metric system, it was sometimes called the "Metric engine". The internal Ford codename for the unit was the T88-series engine. European Ford service literature refer to it as the Taunus In-Line engine (hence the TL codenames) and the Lima In-Line (LL)
It was used in many European Ford cars and was exported to the United States to be used in the Ford Pinto, a successful Subcompact car of the 1970s, hence the name which is used most often for the unit. In Britain, it is commonly used in many kit cars and hot rods, especially in the 2 litre size.
In Europe, the Pinto OHC was introduced in 1970 to replace the Essex V4 in the Mk3 Ford Cortina and Taunus V4 for the German Fords range (mainly the new Taunus TC). It was the first Ford engine to feature a belt-driven overhead camshaft (thus the name).
The Pinto engine was available in five displacements: 1.3 L (1,294 cc), earlier 1.6 L (1,593 cc), later 1.6 L (1,598 cc), 1.8 L (1,796 cc) and the
The Ford Sidevalve is a side valve (flathead engine) from the British arm of the Ford Motor Company. The engine had its origins in the 1930s Ford Model Y, and were made in two sizes, 933cc or "8 HP", and 1172cc or "10 HP". The early engines were very basic and did not have a waterpump as standard relying on thermo-siphon effect to cool. A water pump was added in 1953 for the 100E models. The Sidevalve engine was used in many smaller Fords as well as farm vehicles, commercial vehicles and a marine version in boats. Production of the engine was stopped in 1962. Windscreen wipers were often driven by the vacuum generated in the inlet manifold.
The Sidevalve Engine was also used in German Fords, starting with the Ford Köln in 1932 and ending with the last rear wheel drive Ford Taunus 12M in 1962.
It was then replaced by the Kent engine in Britain and by the Taunus V4 engine in Germany.
The Sidevalve engine was used in
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft. Where it is inclined, it is sometimes called a slant-four. In a specification chart or when an abbreviation is used, an inline-four engine is listed either as I4 or L4 (for longitudinal, to avoid confusion between the digit 1 and the letter I).
The inline-four layout is in perfect primary balance and confers a degree of mechanical simplicity which makes it popular for economy cars. However, despite its simplicity, it suffers from a secondary imbalance which causes minor vibrations in smaller engines. These vibrations become worse as engine size and power increase, so the more powerful engines used in larger cars generally are more complex designs with more than four cylinders.
Today almost all manufacturers of four-cylinder engines for automobiles produce the inline-four layout, with Subaru's Flat-four engine being a notable exception, and so four-cylinder is synonymous with and a more
The letters CHT denote a particular type of four-cylinder internal combustion engine produced by the Ford Motor Company in Brazil during the 1980s. It is a completely different engine from the CVH engine and should not be mistaken with it. Contrary to the CVH, the CHT was very economical and had a very smooth and low noise profile, inherited from its Renault design.
The CHT (Compound High Turbulence) engine was introduced by Ford in 1984 in the Mark 3 version of the Ford Escort, the first of the series to be released in Brazil. It was later used in the Ford Del Rey, the Ford Verona (a Brazilian Ford Orion), as well as the Volkswagen Gol.
This engine was based on the Renault Cléon engine from 1962. The Cléon itself was an evolution of the very efficient Renault Ventoux engine, dated back to 1947. Ford do Brasil inherited this engine upon buying the Brazilian Willys/Renault operation in the late 1960s. It has a total of eight overhead valves, and features a rotating valve design. The displacement of the original Cléon used in Ford Corcel was 1,289 cc (73x77 mm bore and stroke); this was later raised to 1,372 cc (75.32x77 mm) for the "XP" engine, later called "1300-B" in
Used In:Honda 1.0L 3 cylinders VTEC 67hp 66 torque
A straight-three engine, also known as an inline-triple, or inline-three (abbreviated I3 or R3), is a reciprocating piston internal combustion engine with three cylinders arranged in a straight line or plane, side by side.
Most straight-three engines employ a crank angle of 120°, and are thus rotationally balanced; however, since the three cylinders are offset from each other, the firing of the end cylinders induces a rocking motion from end to end, since there is no opposing cylinder moving in the opposite direction as in a rotationally balanced straight-six engine. The use of a balance shaft in an antiphase to that vibration produces a smoothly running engine.
An exception to the 120° crankshaft can be found in some of the straight-three engines made by motorcycle manufacturer Laverda. In these engines (sometimes referred to as 180° triples), the outer pistons rise and fall together like a 360° straight-two engine. The inner cylinder is offset 180° from the outer cylinders. In these engines, cylinder number one fires, then 180° later cylinder number two fires, and then 180° later cylinder number three fires. There is no power stroke on the final 180° of rotation.
The Chevrolet small-block engine is a series of automobile V8 engines built by the Chevrolet Division of General Motors using the same basic small (for a V8) engine block. Retroactively referred to as the "Generation I" small-block, it is distinct from subsequent "Generation II" LT and "Generation III" LS engines. Engineer Ed Cole, who would later become GM President, is credited with leading the design for this engine.
Production of the original small-block began in the fall of 1954 for the 1955 model year with a displacement of 265 cu in (4.3 L), growing incrementally over time until reaching 400 cu in (6.6 L) in 1970. Several intermediate displacements appeared over the years, such as the 283 cu in (4.6 L) that was available with mechanical fuel injection, the 327 cu in (5.4 L) (5.3L), as well as the numerous 350 cu in (5.7 L) versions. Introduced as a performance engine in 1967, the 350 went on to be employed in both high- and low-output variants across the entire Chevrolet product line.
Although all of Chevrolet's siblings of the period (Buick, Cadillac, Oldsmobile, and Pontiac) designed their own V8s, it was the Chevrolet 350 cu in (5.7 L) small-block that became the GM
EcoBoost is a family of turbocharged, direct injected gasoline engines produced by the Ford Motor Company. Engines equipped with EcoBoost technology are designed to deliver power and torque consistent with larger displacement, naturally aspirated engines while achieving approximately 20% better fuel efficiency and 15% reduced greenhouse emissions than these same engines. Relative to the power output and fuel efficiency of hybrid and diesel technologies, Ford sees EcoBoost as an affordable and versatile alternative and intends on using it extensively in future vehicle applications.
EcoBoost gasoline direct-injection turbocharged engine technology adds 125 patents and patent applications to Ford's 4,618 active and thousands of pending U.S. patents.
The V6 EcoBoost engines are being assembled at Cleveland Engine Plant No. 1 in Brook Park, Ohio. The 2.0 L I4 EcoBoost engines will be produced at the Ford Valencia Engine Plant in Spain in 2009. The 1.6 L I4 EcoBoost engines will be made at the Ford Bridgend Engine Plant in the United Kingdom. The future small displacement I3 EcoBoost engine will be produced both at the Ford Cologne Engine Plant in Germany and at Ford Romania.
A V6 engine is a V engine with six cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of three cylinders, usually set at either a right angle or an acute angle to each other, with all six pistons driving a common crankshaft. It is the second most common engine configuration in modern cars after the inline four.
The V6 is one of the most compact engine configurations, shorter than the inline-4 and in many designs narrower than the V8. Owing to its compact length, the V6 lends itself well to the widely-used transverse engine front-wheel drive layout. It is becoming more common as the space allowed for engines in modern cars is reduced at the same time as power requirements increase, and has largely replaced the inline-6, which is too long to fit in many modern engine compartments. Although it is more complicated and not as smooth as the inline-6, the V6 is more rigid for a given weight, more compact and less prone to torsional vibrations in the crankshaft for a given displacement. The V6 engine has become widely adopted for medium-sized cars, often as an optional engine where an inline-4 is standard, or as a base engine where a V8 is a higher-cost performance option.
The Buick V6, initially marketed as Fireball at its introduction in 1962, was a large V6 engine used by General Motors. The block is made of cast iron and all use two-valve-per-cylinder iron heads, actuated by pushrods.
The 3800 was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines of the 20th century list, made Ward's yearly 10 Best list multiple times, and is one of the most-produced engines in history. To date, over 25 million have been produced.
In 1967, GM sold the design to Kaiser-Jeep. The muscle car era had taken hold, and GM no longer felt the need to produce a V6, considered in North America an unusual engine configuration at the time. The energy crisis a decade later prompted the company to buy the design back from American Motors (AMC), who had by that point bought Kaiser-Jeep, and the descendants of the early 231 continue to be the most-common GM V6 as it developed into a very durable and reliable design.
Though the pre-3800 RWD V6 uses the BOP bellhousing pattern that it inherited from its V8 ancestor, an oddity of both the FWD and RWD 3800 V6 is that although it is a 90° V6, it uses the GM 60° V6 bell housing. For use in the RWD applications, the bellhousings on both the manual and
The Duratec is a range of four, five, and six-cylinder gasoline engines produced by the Ford Motor Company, used in Ford, Mazda, Volvo, Caterham, Morgan, Tiger, Ginetta cars and by specialist engine tuner Cosworth.
Originally there was a 2.5 L V6 introduced with the Ford Mondeo. When the 2000 Mondeo was introduced, the 1.8 L and 2.0 L engines became Duratecs too. Now there are engines of all sizes called Duratec. In North America, Ford uses the Duratec name on all its dual overhead cam 4- and 6-cylinder engines. In Europe, all Ford petrol engines are called Duratec.
Beginning in 2004, Ford dropped the old 4-cylinder Zetec engines in favor of Mazda's MZR design. This includes the 2.0 L Duratec 20 the 2.3 L Duratec 23 and the all new 2.5 L Duratec 25. Ford builds the engines for its own use in Chihuahua, Mexico; Dearborn, Michigan; Valencia, Spain; Laguna, Philippines; and Nanjing, China.
The Duratec 18 is a 1.8 L (110 CID; 1798 cc). Bore and stroke are a square 83 mm (3.3 in) × 83.1 mm (3.27 in × 3.27 in). It has an aluminum engine block with cast-in iron cylinder liners and an aluminum DOHC cylinder head. It uses SFI fuel injection, has 4 valves per cylinder and features
The Ford Essex V6 engine was a 90° V6 engine family built by Ford Motor Company at the Essex Engine Plant in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Unlike the British Essex V6, the Canadian Essex used a 90° V configuration, in addition to having different displacements and valvetrains. With Ford's Essex Engine Plant idled as of November 2007, this engine was succeeded by the Ford Duratec 35.
The Canadian Essex is an overhead valve (OHV, or pushrod) design featuring aluminum heads, which reduced its weight considerably and made it a very powerful engine for its size. The engine was initially offered in only a 3.8-liter displacement, being used in a variety of subcompact through large cars, minivans, and some pickup trucks. A 4.2-liter version was introduced in the mid-1990s for use in the F-150 and Ford E-Series, later, the Freestar and Monterey. The 3.8 L V6 was replaced by a 3.9 L version in 2004, though changes were minimal. The Essex and the smaller Vulcan V6 were the last traditional overhead valve engines built by Ford.
The Canadian Essex's origins are somewhat controversial. A common, but erroneous, belief is that the Essex was based on the 5.0 L Windsor V8 engine, because they both have
Ford developed the MEL ("Mercury-Edsel-Lincoln") engine series as the replacement for the Lincoln Y-block V8 engine for use in large passenger car applications. These engines were produced in Lima, Ohio at Ford's Lima Engine plant. They were in turn replaced by the 385 series engines.
All MEL engines had wedge shaped combustion chambers formed between a flat head surface and an angle milled block deck (10 degrees off square with the bore axis), with the piston top determining the compression ratio and combustion chamber shape, similar to the Chevrolet Big-Block 348 combustion chamber, also introduced in 1958, and the later 409. Unlike the Chevrolet, which had staggered valves and scalloped or M shaped valve covers, the MEL valves were inline with shaft mounted rocker arms like the FE model Ford engines which were introduced at the same time. As with the previous generation V8's, an open runner intake manifold was used, requiring the use of a stamped steel lifter valley cover similar to that of the Pontiac V8 engines. Also, the intake manifold provided no exhaust crossover passage to warm the air/fuel mixture, relying solely on the heat riser mounted over the left exhaust manifold
The Ford FE engine is a Ford V8 engine used in vehicles sold in the North American market between 1958 and 1976. A related engine, the Ford FT engine, was used in medium and heavy trucks from 1964 through 1978. The FE filled the need for a relatively lightweight medium block engine between the small block Ford Y-block and the much heavier big block Lincoln Y-block. The FE joined these older V8s, and Ford's new V8s, the big block MEL and Super Duty engines, in forming a much larger family of V8 engines.
"FE" is an acronym for 'Ford-Edsel'. Versions designed for use in trucks and school buses were known as "FT", an acronym for 'Ford-Truck', and differed primarily by having steel (instead of nodular iron) crankshafts, larger crank snouts, different distributor shafts, different water pumps and a greater use of iron for its parts.
FE series engines powered many vehicles; cars, trucks, buses, boats, industrial pumps and racing vehicles. Ford produced the engine from 1958 and ceased production in 1976. The aftermarket has continued to support the engine with replacement parts as well as many newly engineered and improved components.
In Ford vehicles, the FE primarily powered midsize cars
Introduced in 1995, the Ford Sigma is a small straight-4 automobile engine sold by Ford Motor Company. First evolution of engines were sold as the "Zetec-SE" (although frequently badged as Zetec-S, not to be confused with the trim level). After the upgrade Ford renamed Sigma to Duratec. Last upgrade of engine is named Duratec Ti-VCT. The engine was introduced in the mid-1990s and production continues through the present. Like the SHO V6 and SHO V8, the Sigma was designed with help from Yamaha. Intended for Ford's smaller models, it was intended to replace the older HCS (a derivative of the even older Kent unit) and smaller capacity CVH units.
The Zetec-SE has no common parts or design with the larger Zetec-E engines apart from the name. This gives rise to some confusion since it suggests that they are members of the same family, but are in fact, completely different. Zetec-E units are mounted transversely with the inlet manifold at the rear, whereas the Zetec-SE units are mounted with the inlet manifold at the front.
When the Zetec-SE first arrived in 1995 it included many firsts, such as a plastic inlet manifold, a "ladder" style main bearing and crankcase assembly, and big-end
The Ford Super Duty engine was a truck engine from Ford Motor Company.
The Super Duty was introduced in 1958, the same year as the FE and MEL series V8 engines, as a replacement for the Lincoln Y-block in truck applications. The Super Duty was available in displacements of 401 cu in (6.6 L), 477 cu in (7.8 L), or 534 cu in (8.8 L). These engines appeared in heavy duty trucks of the time and were large, heavy, low speed, high torque engines. They were never designed as automobile engines and were commonly found in large, industrial use vehicles including dump trucks, garbage trucks, concrete mixing trucks, and large buses. The Super Duty engine was built in Ford's Cleveland engine plant number 2.
When introduced in 1958, the 401 produced 226 hp (169 kW) at 3800 rpm and 350 lb·ft (475 N·m) of torque at 1800-2300 rpm. The 477 produced 260 hp (194 kW) at 3600 rpm and 430 lb·ft (583 N·m) of torque at 1800-2300 rpm. The 534 produced 277 hp (207 kW) at 3400 rpm and 490 lb·ft (664 N·m) of torque at 1800-2300 rpm. A marine version, commonly referred to as the "Seamaster" was also available starting in the late 1950s. The Seamaster was available with twin turbochargers, and weighed over
The 2.2 and 2.5 are a family of inline-4 engines developed by Chrysler Corporation originally for the Chrysler K- and L-platforms cars and subsequently used in many other Chrysler vehicles. After its launch in 1981, it became the basis for all Chrysler-developed 4-cylinder engines until the Chrysler 1.8, 2.0 & 2.4 engine family was released in 1990.
The first version of this engine family was a normally aspirated 2.2 L (134 cu in) unit. Developed under the leadership of Chief Engineer - Engine Design and Development Willem Weertman and head of performance tuning Charles "Pete" Hagenbuch, who had worked on most of Chrysler's V-8 engines and the Chrysler Slant-6 engine, it was introduced in the 1981 Dodge Aries, Dodge Omni, Plymouth Horizon and Plymouth Reliant, and was produced until 2000.
The 2.2 has an undersquare 87.5 mm (3.44 in) bore and 92 mm (3.62 in) stroke, which gives it a displacement of 2,213 cc (135.0 cu in). It is a siamesed engine: there are no coolant passages between cylinders. The bore spacing is 87.5 mm (3.44 in), limiting the potential for increased bore diameter. All 2.2 engines have cast iron blocks, use a timing belt, and are non-interference engines. The
The Ford 335 engine family were a group of small-block V8 engines built by the Ford Motor Company between 1970 and 1985. The significance of the Numerals '335' designated to this series of small-block Ford V8 engines is not known. It has been suggested that the numbers were tied to Ford's development of a marine engine of 335 in³. The series was nicknamed Cleveland after the Cleveland, Ohio engine plant in which most of these engines were manufactured, a plant complex in Brookpark, Ohio that included a gray iron foundry (casting plant), a stamping plant, and an engine assembly plant. As newer automobile engines began incorporating aluminum bodies, Ford eventually also developed that approach, and closed the casting plant in May 2012. The 335 was used as an option in mid-sized vehicles and trucks concurrently with the larger 351 member of the Windsor small-block family as well as the mid-sized FE V8 family. Although all three of these engine families continued in production, the Cleveland, only outliving the FE by a half-decade, was eventually abandoned in favor of the more compact Windsor design.
The 335 series, although sharing the same bore spacing and cylinder head bolt pattern,
The Ford Boss 351 is a 351 cu in (5.8 L) 335 "Cleveland" V8 fitted with 4V (4V meaning 4 venturi (barrel) carburetor, not 4 valves) style closed-chambered 351C heads. The engine was available only in 1971 production Boss 351 Mustangs. It has four-bolt main block/caps and a premium crankshaft, as both are constructed from high-strength nodular iron. The cylinder head was modified for better airflow and solid lifters. It had an aluminum intake manifold and came with a Ford Autolite spreadbore carburator. Aluminum valve covers added to the look. The forged connecting rods were shot-peened and magnafluxed for strength, and used stronger bolts/nuts. Forged domed pistons gave a 11.3:1 nominal (11.1:1 advertised) compression ratio. Only 1806 Boss 351 Mustangs were produced by Ford that year. Currently there are only 591 registered and accounted for on the Boss 351 Registry site. The engine, like most Ford engines, was underrated. In the January 2010 issue of Hot Rod Magazine, they built a Boss 351 to exact specs of an original motor. It produced 383 hp (286 kW) at 6,100 rpm, and 391 lb·ft (530 N·m) torque at 4,000 rpm.
The Racing Boss 351 is the crate engine version from Ford Racing
The original Ford Cologne V6, also known as the 'Ford Taunus V6', is a series of 60° cast iron block V6 engines produced continuously by the Ford Motor Company in Cologne, Germany since 1968. In its original form, it was closely related to the Ford Taunus V4 engine, adding two cylinders and no longer requiring a balance shaft.
Throughout its production run, the Cologne V6 has evolved from the engine displacements of 1.8, 2.0, 2.3, 2.4, 2.6, 2.8, 2.9 and 4.0 litres engines. All except the Cosworth 24v derivative and later 4.0 litre SOHC engines were pushrod overhead-valve engines, with a single camshaft between the banks.
Originally, the Cologne V6 was installed in vehicles intended for Germany and continental Europe, while the British "Essex" V6 was used in cars for the British market. Later, the Cologne V6 largely replaced the Essex V6 for British-market vehicles. These engines were also used in the United States, especially in compact trucks.
The Cologne V6 was made to be very compatible in installation with the Taunus V4, having the same transmission bolt pattern, the same engine mounts, and in many versions, a cylinder head featuring "siamesed" exhaust passages, which reduced
The Ford DLD engine is an automobile engine family - a group of compact straight-4 Diesel engines developed jointly by Ford Motor Company and the automotive-diesel specialist PSA Group (Peugeot/Citroën). The Ford/PSA joint-venture for the production of the DLD/DV was announced in September, 1998. Half of the total engine count are produced at Ford's Dagenham Engine plant in Dagenham, England and at Ford's Chennai plant in India, the other half at PSA's Trémery plant in France.
The straight-4 engines are sold under the Duratorq TDCi name by Ford, and as the HDi by Citroën and Peugeot. Mazda also uses the Ford-made DLD engine in the Mazda2 and the Mazda 3, calling it the MZ-CD or CiTD.
Officially, there are two families of engines in the range:
Ford later added their unrelated 1.8 L DLD-418 engine to the DLD family, though it is properly part of the Ford Endura-D engine family.
In 2012, Ford added the 1.5-litre, closely derived from the 1.6-litre engine.
The Duratorq DLD-414 (or DV4) is a 1.4 L (1398 cc/85 cu in) straight-4 turbo-Diesel. Output is 50 kW (67 hp) at 4500 rpm and 160 N·m (117 lb·ft) at 2000 rpm.
The DV4 is available in two versions:
In some PSA applications a Bosch
The Ford Duratorq engine, commonly referred to as Duratorq, is the marketing name of a range of Ford diesel engines first introduced in 2000 for the Ford Mondeo range of cars.
The first design, codenamed "Puma" during its development, replaced the older Endura-D unit which had been around since 1984. Commercial versions of the Puma unit replaced Ford's older "York" type unit used in the Transit, and many other manufacturers' vehicles - most notably the London Taxi.
Other unrelated units in this range have been developed by Ford and PSA. The TDCi Duratorq engines are available in vehicles from Ford, Jaguar, Land Rover, Volvo and Mazda vehicles.
The straight-4 engines are sold under the Duratorq TDCi name by Ford, and as the HDi by Citroën and Peugeot. These are part of the DLD family. Mazda also uses the DLD engine in the Mazda2 and the Mazda3, calling it the MZ-CD or CiTD. The Ford/PSA joint-venture for the production of the DLD was announced in September, 1998.
Officially, there are two families of engines in the range:
Ford later added their unrelated 1.8 L DLD-418 engine to the DLD family, though it is properly part of the Ford Endura engine family.
The Duratorq DLD-414 (or DV4)
The Ford Kent is an internal combustion engine from Ford of Europe. Originally developed in 1959 for the Ford Anglia, it is an in-line four-cylinder overhead-valve–type engine with a cast-iron cylinder head and block.
The original OHV Kent engine appeared in the 1959 Anglia with a capacity of 996.95 cc developing 39 bhp (29 kW) at 5,000 rpm. With an 80.96 mm (3.1875 in) bore and 48.41 mm (1.906 in) stroke, it was a departure from traditional undersquare English engine design.
The same engine, its bore unchanged, but with a longer stroke and thus larger capacity was subsequently used in the Ford Classic and Consul Capri (1340 cc and 1500 cc), the Mk1 and early Mk2 Cortinas (1200 cc, 1300 cc and 1500 cc), and the early Corsairs.
In addition to its 'over-square' cylinder dimensions, a further unusual feature of the Kent engine at its introduction was an externally mounted combined oil filter/pump unit designed to facilitate efficient low-cost production.
The engine is now referred to as the pre-crossflow Kent, with both the inlet and exhaust being on the same side of the head.
Subsequent to its introduction the engine became known as the Kent engine because Alan Worters,
The Ford York engine is an inline Ford diesel engine used in vehicles including the Ford Transit range of vans between 1972 and 1984.
The Transit was fitted with the 2.4-litre four-cylinder engine, but the engine was also available as a 3.5-litre six-cylinder engine. These were fitted in the Ford "A" series light commercial vehicles.
Both the four- and the six-cylinder engines were also used as industrial engines. The front of the crankshaft had a long section with a key to allow a full-power front PTO
They were redesigned in 1984 and the front PTO was discontinued. The 2.5 DI (direct-injection) engine was a milestone in reliability, with engines commonly reaching 250,000 miles without overhaul.
The straight-six engine or inline-six engine (often abbreviated I6 or L6) is an internal combustion engine with the cylinders mounted in a straight line along the crankcase with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft. The bank of cylinders may be oriented at any angle, and where the bank is inclined to the vertical, the engine is sometimes called a slant-six. The straight-six layout is the simplest engine layout that possesses both primary and secondary mechanical engine balance, resulting in much less vibration than engines with fewer cylinders.
In automobiles, the straight-six design is used for engine displacements ranging from approximately 2 to 5 litres (120 to 310 cu in). It is also sometimes used for smaller engines but these, although very smooth running, tend to be rather expensive to manufacture in terms of cost-to-power ratio. Since the length of an engine is roughly proportional to the number of cylinders in one bank (plus the width of one connecting rod in a "V" engine), the straight-six is necessarily longer than alternative layouts such as L4, V6, or V8.
The smallest production straight-six was found in the Benelli 750 Sei motorcycle, displacing 747.7 cc
A V12 engine is a V engine with 12 cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of six cylinders, usually but not always at a 60° angle to each other, with all 12 pistons driving a common crankshaft.
Since each cylinder bank is essentially a straight-6, this configuration has perfect primary and secondary balance no matter which V angle is used and therefore needs no balance shafts. A V12 with two banks of six cylinders angled at 60°, 120° or 180° (with the latter configuration usually referred to as a flat-12) from each other has even firing with power pulses delivered twice as often per revolution as a straight-6. This allows for great refinement in a luxury car. In a racing car, the rotating parts can be made much lighter and thus more responsive, since there is no need to use counterweights on the crankshaft as is needed in a 90° V8 and less need for the inertial mass in a flywheel to smooth out the power delivery. In a large displacement, heavy-duty engine, a V12 can run slower than smaller engines, prolonging engine life.
The first V12 engines were used in aircraft. By the end of World War I, V12s were popular in the newest and largest fighters and bombers and were