An engine is a device that converts fuel to kinetic energy.
Please use this type for all engines, including product lines such as Rolls Royce Merlin.
This type is not for engine categories e.g. pulsejet, instead use the Engine Category type instead.
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The Pratt & Whitney F135 is an afterburning turbofan developed for the F-35 Lightning II single-engine strike fighter. The F135 family has several distinct variants, including a conventional, forward thrust variant and a multi-cycle STOVL variant that includes a forward lift fan. The first production engines are scheduled to be delivered in 2009.
The origins of the F135 lie with the Lockheed Corporation Skunk Works's efforts to develop a stealthy STOVL strike fighter for the U.S. Marine Corps under a 1986 DARPA program. Lockheed employee Paul Bevilaqua developed and patented a concept aircraft and propulsion system, and then turned to Pratt & Whitney (P&W) to build a demonstrator engine. The demonstrator used the first stage fan from a F119 engine for the lift fan, the engine fan and core from the F100-220 for the core, and the larger low pressure turbine from the F100-229 for the low pressure turbine of the demonstrator engine. The larger turbine was used to provide the additional power required to operate the lift fan. Finally, a variable thrust deflecting nozzle was added to complete the "F100-229-Plus" demonstrator engine. This engine proved the lift-fan concept and led to the
The Lycoming T53, (company designation LTC-1) is a turboshaft engine used on helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft (in turboprop form) since the 1950s. It was designed at the Lycoming Turbine Engine Division in Stratford, Connecticut by a team headed by Anselm Franz, who was the chief designer of the famed Junkers Jumo 004 during World War II. A much larger engine, similar in overall design, became the Lycoming T55. Both engines are now produced by Honeywell Aerospace.
The Pratt & Whitney F100 (company designation JTF22) is an afterburning turbofan engine manufactured by Pratt & Whitney which powers the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon.
In 1967, the United States Navy and United States Air Force issued a joint engine Request for Proposals (RFP) for the F-14 Tomcat and F-15 Eagle fighters. The combined program was called Advanced Turbine Engine Gas Generator (ATEGG) with goals to improve thrust and reduce weight to achieve a thrust-to-weight ratio of 9. The program requested proposals and would award Pratt & Whitney a contract in 1970 to produce F100-PW-100 (USAF) and F401-PW-400 (USN) engines. The Navy would cut back and later cancel its order, choosing to continue to use the Pratt & Whitney TF30 engine from the F-111 in its F-14.
The F100-100 first flew in an F-15 Eagle in 1972 with a thrust of 23,930 lbf. Due to the advanced nature of engine and aircraft, numerous problems were encountered in its early days of service including high wear, stalling and "hard" afterburner starts which are commonly referred to as A/B blowouts by the Air Force mechanics who service the engines. These "hard" starts could be caused by failure of the afterburner to
The Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire was a British turbojet engine produced by Armstrong Siddeley in the 1950s. It was the ultimate development of work that had started as the Metrovick F.2 in 1940, evolving into an advanced axial flow design with an annular combustion chamber that developed over 11,000 lbf (49 kN). It powered early versions of the Hawker Hunter and Handley Page Victor, and every Gloster Javelin. Production was also started under license in the United States by Curtiss-Wright as the J65, powering a number of US designs.
Design evolution of the Sapphire started at Metropolitan-Vickers (Metrovick) in 1943 as an offshoot of the F.2 project. With the F.2 reaching flight quality at about 1,600 lbf (7,100 N), the Metrovick engineers turned to producing larger designs, both an enlarged F.2 known as the Beryl, as well as the much larger F.9 Sapphire, the names being chosen after they decided to use gemstones for future engine names. The Beryl was soon running and eventually developed 4,000 lbf (18 kN) thrust, but the only project to select it, the Saunders-Roe SR.A/1, was cancelled.
By this point the F.9 MVSa.1 was developing about 7,500 lbf (33 kN), somewhat more than its
The de Havilland Gipsy Six is a British six-cylinder, air-cooled, inverted inline piston engine developed for aircraft use in the 1930s. It was based on the cylinders of the four-cylinder Gipsy Major and went on to spawn a whole series of similar aero engines that were still in common use until the 1980s.
The engines were of particular note for their exceptionally low cross-sectional area, a drag-reducing feature which made them ideal for the many racing aircraft of that period. In 1934, the basic bronze-headed Gipsy Six, rated at 185 horsepower (138 kW) at 2,100 rpm was modified for use in the DH.88 Comet air racer as the Gipsy Six "R" which produced 223 horsepower (166 kW) at 2,400 rpm for takeoff. Many Gipsy Six engines remain in service powering vintage aircraft types today.
The de Havilland company had hoped to produce a version of the basic engine capable of utilising a hydraulically actuated variable pitch (VP) airscrew based on the American Hamilton "Bracket-Type." Since there was so little time to perfect this installation, as a compromise, a French "Ratier" VP airscrew was fitted to the Comets' "R" engines, which utilised a simple air-filled bladder for a once-per-flight
The Tumansky R-11 (initially AM-11) is a turbojet engine.
The Tumansky R-11 was developed by A.A. Mikulin, S.K. Tumansky, and B.S. Stechkin as a twin-spool axial-flow high-altitude non-afterburning turbojet for Yakovlev Yak-25RV reconnaissance aircraft. This engine was the first Soviet twin-spool turbojet. It was first run in early 1956. The basic design was very successful and it was evolved into Tumansky R-13 and Tumansky R-25. Also experimental Tumansky R-21 was an evolution of R-11. A total of 20,900 R-11 engines were built.
The Klimov VK-1 was the first Soviet jet engine to see significant production. It was developed by Vladimir Yakovlevich Klimov and first produced by the GAZ 116 works. It was derived from the British Rolls-Royce Nene. The engine was built under license in China as the WP-5.
Immediately after World War II, the Soviet Union manufactured copies of first generation German Junkers 004 and BMW 003 engines, which were advanced designs with poor durability, limited by Germany's availability of rare metals at wartime. However in 1946, before the Cold War had really begun, the new British Labour government under the Prime Minister, Clement Attlee, keen to improve diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, authorised Rolls-Royce to export 40 Rolls-Royce Nene centrifugal flow turbojet engines. In 1958 it was discovered during a visit to Beijing by Whitney Straight, then deputy chairman of Rolls-Royce, that this engine had been copied without license to power the MiG-15 'Fagot', first as the RD-45, and after initial problems of metallurgy forced the Soviet engineers to develop a slightly redesigned (and metallurgically closer) copy, the engine had then entered production as the Klimov VK-1
The Lyulka AL-21 is an axial flow turbojet engine created by the Soviet company named for its chief designer Arkhip Mikhailovich Lyulka.
The AL-21 entered service in the early 1960s. With later marks AL-21F3 it was used in the Sukhoi Su-17, Sukhoi Su-24, early Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23, and Sukhoi T-10 (Sukhoi Su-27 prototype). A non-afterburning version powered the Yakovlev Yak-38 VTOL fighter.
The Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600 series is a family of very small turbofan engines developed by Pratt & Whitney Canada for use in very light jets. Designed with scalability in mind, the engines can produce between 900 lbf (4,000 N) and 3,000 lbf (13,000 N) of take-off thrust.
First run of the 2,500 lbf (11,000 N) thrust PW625F demonstrator engine was on 31 October 2001. P&WC began work on the 900 lbf (4 kN) thrust PW610F engine, destined for the Eclipse 500, in 2002. The engine was certified by the Canadian authorities on the 27 July 2006. The first Eclipse 500 aircraft, powered by two PW610Fs, was delivered to a customer on 31 December 2006.
With a 14.5 inch (36.83 cm) diameter fan, the PW610F is one of the smallest turbofans to enter production. Little is known about the engine cycle, although the bypass ratio is believed to be about 1.83. Driven by a single-stage low pressure (LP) turbine, the single stage fan is an advanced snubberless design, with wide chord blades integral with the rotor hub. The newly patented high pressure (HP) compressor comprises a diagonal (i.e. mixed) flow stage, supercharging a conventional centrifugal blower, the whole being driven by a single stage
The Armstrong Siddeley Double Mamba was a turboprop engine design developed in the late 1940s of around 3,000–4,000 hp (2,500–3,000 kW). It was used mostly on the Fairey Gannet anti-submarine aircraft developed for the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy.
The Double Mamba (also known as the Twin Mamba) was a development of the Armstrong Siddeley Mamba with two Mambas driving contra-rotating propellers through a combining gearbox.
Engine starting was by cartridge, however, forced air restart was achieved in flight. One engine could be shut down in flight to conserve fuel.
The numbering system for these engines reflects the obvious linkage to their Mamba lineage:
AS = Armstrong Siddeley
M = Mamba
D = Double
num = model
The Double Mamba engine was also proposed for the Westland Westminster, a 30-seat helicopter that was later prototyped with another engine.
Preserved Double Mamba engines are on public display at the:
Data from Flight
The Europrop International TP400-D6 is an 11,000 shp (8,203 kW) powerplant for the Airbus A400M military transport aircraft, developed and produced by Europrop International. It supersedes the now defunct Aero Propulsion Alliance TP400-D1 M88 derivative proposed earlier. It is the third most powerful turboprop after the contra-rotating Kuznetsov NK-12 and Progress D-27, making the TP400 the most powerful single-rotation turboprops.
The engine has a twin-spool gas generator, with a third coaxial shaft connecting the low pressure power turbine to the 5.3 m diameter, eight bladed, composite propeller, via an offset reduction gearbox. Gas generator configuration is as follows: Five-stage intermediate pressure (IP) compressor, driven by a single-stage IP turbine; contra-rotating six-stage high pressure (HP) compressor driven by a single-stage, air-cooled, HP turbine.
A three shaft configuration (i.e. 2 spool gas generator) was chosen to maximize overall pressure ratio, whilst retaining a free power turbine. An earlier proposal, designated the TP400-D1, based on the core size of the SNECMA M88-2 military turbofan was considered by Airbus to be too heavy and not sufficiently fuel
The Napier Sabre was a British H-24-cylinder, liquid cooled, sleeve valve, piston aero engine, designed by Major Frank Halford and built by Napier & Son during WWII. The engine evolved to become one of the most powerful inline piston aircraft engines in the world developing from 2,200 horsepower (1,640 kW) in its earlier versions to 3,500 hp (2,600 kW) in late-model prototypes.
The first operational aircraft to be powered by the Sabre were the Hawker Typhoon and Hawker Tempest; however, the first aircraft powered by the Sabre was the Napier-Heston Racer, which was designed to capture the world speed record. Other aircraft using the Sabre were early prototype and production variants of the Blackburn Firebrand, the Martin-Baker MB 3 prototype and one of the Hawker Fury prototypes. The rapid conversion to jet engines after the war led to the quick demise of the Sabre, because Napier also turned to developing jet engines.
Prior to the Sabre, Napier had been working on large aero engines for some time. Their most famous was the Lion, which had been a very successful engine between the World Wars and, in modified form, powered several of the Supermarine Schneider Trophy competitors in
The Pratt & Whitney JT9D engine was the first high bypass ratio jet engine to power a wide-body aircraft. Its initial application was the Boeing 747-100, the original "Jumbo Jet". It was the company's first high-bypass-ratio turbofan and also the first of today's generation of large commercial turbofan engines to be produced.
The JT9D was developed as part of the design phase of the C-5 Galaxy. A contract was awarded to Pratt & Whitney to study the type of large engine needed, but the production contract was eventually awarded to General Electric and their TF39 turbofan. The JT9D was, however, chosen by Boeing to power the 747, with that aircraft's first flight taking place on 9 February 1969. Flight testing of the engine had begun in June 1968, using a Boeing B-52E as a testbed.
The JT9D-3, which entered service in 1970, was constructed using titanium and nickel alloys. The engine featured a single stage fan, a three stage low pressure compressor and an eleven stage high pressure compressor coupled to a two stage high pressure turbine and four stage low pressure turbine. This version of the JT9D weighed 8,608 lb (3,905 kg) and produced 43,500 lbf (193,000 N) thrust. Production
The Engine Alliance GP7000 is a turbofan jet engine that is currently in service on the Airbus A380.
Originally intended to power Boeing Commercial Airplanes's cancelled 747-500X/-600X, the engine has since been pushed for Airbus' A380-800 superjumbo. It is built around the GE90-110B/115B core and contains a Pratt & Whitney fan and low-pressure system design.
The competing Rolls-Royce Trent 900 was named as the lead engine for the then-named A3XX in 1996 and was initially selected by almost all A380 customers. However the GE/PW engine increased its share of the A380 engine market to the point where as of September 2007 it will power 47% of the super-jumbo fleet. This disparity in sales was resolved in a single transaction, with Emirates' order of 55 GP7000-powered A380-800s, comprising over one quarter of A380 sales (as of September 2007). Emirates has traditionally been a Rolls-Royce customer. A380 aircraft powered by the GP7000s will have A380-86X model numbers as 6 is the code for Engine Alliance engines.
Ground testing of the engine began in April 2004 and was first flight tested as the number two engine on GE's 747 flying testbed over Victorville, CA in December 2004. The
The Hall-Scott A-7 was an early aircraft engine manufactured by the Hall-Scott company of Berkeley, California. Of straight-4 configuration, it developed 100 horsepower (75 kW). These engines suffered from reliability problems and were prone to catch fire while in operation.
The Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 is a turboshaft engine produced by Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Limited, a joint venture between Rolls-Royce plc and Turbomeca. The engine was designed to suit a wide-range of military and commercial helicopter designs. The RTM322 can also be employed in maritime and industrial applications.
The first order for the RTM322 was received in 1992 to power 44 Royal Navy Merlin HM1s which subsequently entered service in 1998. According to Rolls-Royce 1,500 engines are made or ordered, and about 80% of AW101's use the engine.
The Rolls-Royce RB.109 Tyne is a twin-shaft turboprop engine developed in the mid to late 1950s by Rolls-Royce Limited. It was first test flown during 1956 in the nose of a modified Avro Lincoln. Following company naming convention for gas turbine engines this turboprop design was named after the River Tyne.
The Tyne was developed primarily for the four-engined Vickers Vanguard airliner, the prototype first flying on 20 January 1959 equipped with four Tyne Mk.506 of 4,985 e.s.h.p. Production deliveries of the engine were made from mid 1959 onwards to power the 43 Vanguards delivered to British European Airways and Trans-Canada Airlines.
The engine was further developed with greater power and used in the later twin-engined Dassault-Breguet Atlantique long-range reconnaissance aircraft; also in the Canadair CL-44 and Transport Allianz Transall transport aircraft.
A single stage HP turbine drove the 9 stage HP compressor, whilst a 3 stage LP turbine drove, not only the propeller (via a reduction gearbox), but a 6 stage LP compressor. The combustor was cannular.
So the Tyne, like the ill-fated Bristol Orion, has a shared-load LP turbine, as opposed to a free power turbine, as used in
The Turbomeca Makila is a family of French turboshaft engines for helicopter use, first run in 1976 and flown in 1977.
Typical power output is around 1,300 kW (1,700 hp). As of 2012, some 2,200 had been built.
Data from Turbomeca.
The BMW 801 was a powerful German air-cooled radial aircraft engine built by BMW and used in a number of German military aircraft of World War II. Production versions of the engine generated between 1,560 and 2,000 PS (1,540-1,970 hp, or 1,150-1,470 kW). It was the most produced radial engine of Germany in World War II with more than 28,000 built.
The 801 was originally intended to replace existing radial types in German transport and utility aircraft. At the time, it was widely agreed among European designers that an inline engine was a requirement for high performance designs due to its smaller frontal area and resulting lower drag. However, radial engines could endure more combat damage, so Kurt Tank fitted a BMW 801 to a new fighter design he was working on. As a result, the 801 became best known as the powerplant for the famous Focke-Wulf Fw 190.
In the 1930s, BMW took out a license to build the Pratt & Whitney Hornet engines. By the mid-30s they had introduced an improved version, the BMW 132. The BMW 132 was widely used, most notably on the Junkers Ju 52, which it powered for much of that design's lifetime.
In 1935 the RLM funded prototypes of two much larger radial designs,
The Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet was a widely used aircraft engine. Developed by Pratt & Whitney, 2,944 were produced from 1926 through 1942. It first flew in 1927. It was a single-row, 9-cylinder air-cooled radial design. Displacement was 1,690 cubic inches (27.7 L). It was built under licence in Italy as the Fiat A.59. In Germany, the BMW 132 was a developed version of this engine. The R-1860 Hornet B was an enlarged version produced from 1929.
The Turbomeca Artouste was an early French turboshaft engine, first run in 1947. Originally conceived as an auxiliary power unit (APU), it was soon adapted to aircraft propulsion, and found a niche as a powerplant for turboshaft-driven helicopters in the 1950s. Artoustes were licence-built by Bristol Siddeley (formerly Blackburn) in the UK, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited in India, and developed by Continental CAE in the USA as the T51. Power is typically in the 300 kW (400 hp) range.
A turboprop variant, the Turbomeca Marcadau was a development of the Artouste II, producing 300 kW (400 hp) through a 2.3:1 reduction gearbox.
A Turbomeca Artouste is on public display at:
Data from FAA TCDS
The Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah is a seven-cylinder British air-cooled aircraft radial engine of 834 cu in (13.65 L) capacity introduced in 1935 and produced until 1948. Early variants of the Cheetah were initially known as the Lynx Major.
The Cheetah was used to power many British trainer aircraft during World War II including the Avro Anson and Airspeed Oxford.
The Cheetah was developed from the earlier Lynx using the increased bore cylinders from the Armstrong Siddeley Panther but the engine retained the stroke of the Lynx. Initially only direct-drive variants were produced with later engines being made available with propeller reduction gear of various ratios. Superchargers were also available for later variants, both geared and directly driven by the crankshaft.
The basic design of the Cheetah remained unchanged from its introduction in 1935 to the last examples built in 1948. It was the first engine of its type to be certified for 1,200 hours of operational time between overhauls, with over 37,200 examples built.
List from: LumsdenNote:
As of October 2008 at least four Cheetah engines remained airworthy. Two Cheetah 17s power the Anson T21 operated by the Air Atlantique
The GTRE GTX-35VS Kaveri is an afterburning turbofan being developed by the Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE), a lab under the DRDO in Bangalore, India. An Indian design, the Kaveri was originally intended to power production models of the HAL Tejas fighter, also known as the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) being built by the Aeronautical Development Agency. However, the Kaveri programme failed to satisfy the necessary technical requirements or keep up with its envisaged timelines and was officially delinked from the Tejas programme in September 2008. GTRE is now running two separate successor engine programmes, the K9+ programme and the K10 programme.
In 1986, the Indian Defence Ministry's Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) was authorized to launch a programme to develop an indigenous powerplant for the Light Combat Aircraft. It had already been decided early in the LCA programme to equip the prototype aircraft with the General Electric F404-GE-F2J3 afterburning turbofan engine, but if this parallel program was successful, it was intended to equip the production aircraft with this indigenous engine.
The DRDO assigned the lead development responsibility to its
The Mitsubishi Kasei (火星, Mars) was a two-row, 14-cylinder air-cooled radial engine built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and used in a variety of World War II Japanese aircraft, such as Mitsubishi J2M and Mitsubishi G4M. The Mitsubishi model designation for this engine was A10 while it was an experimental project, in service it was known as the MK4, and known as the Ha-101 & Ha-111 by the Army and Kasei by the Navy. According to unified designation code it was Ha-32 of the variants from 11 to 27.
Although originally ordered by the Imperial Japanese Navy, the Kasei was based on the earlier Mitsubishi Shinten engine, itself based originally on the Mitsubishi Kinsei. Produced in a wide variety of models, the Kasei began with a rated power of 1,530 horsepower (1,140 kW), with a gradual evolution to 1,850 horsepower (1,380 kW) in later wartime versions. Three variants were developed for the Japanese Navy starting in 1939. It was also later adopted by the Imperial Japanese Army as the Ha-101 engine. Unified code was Ha-32.
Physically, the engine had a rather large 1,322 millimetres (52.0 in) diameter compared to the 1,180 millimetres (46.5 in) of the Nakajima Homare engine. Its size and
The Daimler-Benz DB 605 is a German aircraft engine, built during World War II. Developed from the DB 601, the DB 605 was used from 1942 to 1945 in the Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter, and the Bf 110 and Me 210C heavy fighters. The DB 610, a coupled "power system" powerplant comprising a pair of side-by-side configured examples of the DB 605, geared together in the front to turn a single output shaft, was used in Germany's only operational heavy bomber, the Heinkel He 177.
License-built versions of the DB 605 were used in the Macchi C.205, Fiat G.55, Reggiane 2005 and some other Italian aircraft. It was also initially used in the pusher-design Swedish Saab J21. Approximately 42,400 DB 605s of all kinds were built.
The primary differences between the 605 and 601 were greater displacement, higher revolutions, higher compression ratio and a more powerful supercharger. Through careful study the engineers determined that the cylinders could be bored out to a larger diameter without seriously affecting the strength of the existing block. The difference was minimal, increasing from the 601's 150 mm cylinder bore to the 605's 154 mm, but this increased the overall displacement from 33.9
The Lycoming O-540 is a family of six-cylinder, horizontally opposed fixed-wing aircraft and helicopter engines of 541.5 cubic inch (8,874 cc) displacement, made by Lycoming Engines. The engine is a six-cylinder version of the four-cylinder Lycoming O-360.
Generally these engines produce 230 to 350 horsepower. They are installed on a large number of different aircraft types. Their main competitive engine is the Continental IO-520 and IO-550 series.
The AEIO version was developed for high-performance competition aerobatics aircraft. Starting at 260 hp (190 kW), the power was then improved to 300 hp (220 kW). The AEIO-540 family has achieved tremendous results in competition aircraft such as the Extra 300, CAP 232 and Zivko Edge 540.
All engines have an additional prefix preceding the 540 to indicate the specific configuration of the engine. There are also numerous engine suffixes, denoting different accessories such as different manufacturers' carburetors, or different magnetos.
Data from FAA Lycoming IO-540 Series Type Certificate. Retrieved: 1 September 2008.
The Pratt & Whitney Canada PW100 aero engine family is a series of 2,000 to 5,000 horsepower (1,500 to 3,700 kW) turboprops manufactured by Pratt and Whitney's Canadian subsidiary. The engine first entered service in 1984.
Originally called the PT7, the PW100 uses a relatively unusual three-shaft engine configuration. In the PW100, a centrifugal LP impeller (except for the PW150 which uses a 3-stage axial LP compressor), driven by a single stage LP turbine, supercharges a centrifugal HP impeller, driven by a single stage HP turbine. Power is delivered to the offset propeller reduction gearbox via a third shaft, connected to a 2-stage free (power) turbine.
The General Electric J47 turbojet (GE company designation TG-190) was developed by General Electric from the earlier J35 engine, and first flew in May 1948. The J47 was the first axial-flow turbojet approved for commercial use in the United States. It was used in many types of aircraft and more than 30,000 were manufactured before production ceased in 1956. It saw continued service in the US military until 1978.
Overhaul life for the J47 ranged from 15 hours (in 1948) to a theoretical 1,200 hours (625 achievable in practice) in 1956. For example, the J47-GE-23 was rated to run 225 hours between overhauls. As installed on the F-86F, it experienced one in-flight shutdown every 33,000 hours in 1955 and 1956.
Ground-based vehicles that used the engine include:
In the 1950s, interest in the development of nuclear-powered aircraft led GE to experiment with two nuclear-powered gas turbine designs, one based on the J47, and another new and much larger engine called the X211.
The design based on the J47 became the X39 program. This system consisted of two modified J47 engines which, instead of combusting jet fuel, received their heated, compressed air from a heat exchanger that was part of
The Rolls-Royce BR700 family of engines was developed by BMW and Rolls-Royce plc through the joint venture company BMW Rolls-Royce to power regional and corporate jets. Rolls-Royce took full control of the company in 2000, which is now known as Rolls-Royce Deutschland.
The company was established in 1990 and the first engine run (BR710) took place in September 1994.
The engine is manufactured in Dahlewitz, Germany.
The BR710 is a twin shaft turbofan, entered service on the Gulfstream V in 1997 and the Bombardier Global Express in 1998. This version has also been selected to power the Gulfstream G550.
Another rerated version, with a revised exhaust system, was selected for the now cancelled Royal Air Force Nimrod MRA4s.
The BR710 comprises a 48in diameter single stage fan, driven by a two stage LP turbine, supercharging a ten stage HP compressor (scaled from the V2500 unit) and driven by a two stage, air-cooled, HP turbine.
The BR715 is another twin shaft turbofan, this engine was first run in April 1997 and entered service in mid-1999. This version powers the Boeing 717.
A new LP spool, comprising a 58in diameter single stage fan, with two stage LP compressor driven by a three
The Lycoming O-235 is a family of four-cylinder, air-cooled, horizontally opposed piston aircraft engines that produce 100 to 135 hp (75 to 101 kW), derived from the earlier O-233 engine.
Well-known designs that use versions of the O-235 included the Cessna 152, Grumman American AA-1 series, Beechcraft Model 77 Skipper, Piper PA-38 Tomahawk, American Champion Citabria, and the Piper PA-22-108 Colt.
The engines are all carburetor-equipped, feature dual magneto ignition and have a displacement of 233 cubic inches (3.82 L). The first O-235 model was certified on the 11 February 1942.
The O-235 was developed into the lighter-weight Lycoming IO-233 engine for light sport aircraft.
Reference: Operator's Manual, Textron Lycoming Aircraft Engines
The General Electric/Allison J33 was a development of the General Electric J31, enlarged to produce significantly greater thrust, starting at 4,000 lbf (18 kN) and ending at 4,600 lbf (20 kN) with an additional low-altitude boost to 5,400 lbf (24,000 N) with water-alcohol injection.
The J33 was originally developed by General Electric as a follow-on to their work with the designs of Frank Whittle during World War II. Their first engine was known as the I-A, but after major changes to adapt it to US production and to increase thrust, it started limited production as the I-16 in 1942, the 16 referring to its 1,600 lbf (7,100 N) thrust. Full production started as the J31 when the United States Army Air Forces introduced common naming for all their engine projects.
Along with the I-16, GE also started work on an enlarged version, known as the I-40. As the name implied, the engine was designed to provide 4,000 lbf (18 kN). The development cycle was remarkably rapid. Design work started in mid-1943 and the first prototype underwent static testing on January 13, 1944.
Lockheed was in the midst of the XP-80 project at the time, originally intending to power their design with a US-produced
The Williams F107 (company designation WR19) is a small turbofan engine made by Williams International. The F107 was designed to power cruise missiles. It has been used as the powerplant for the AGM-86 ALCM, and BGM-109 Tomahawk, as well as the experimental Williams X-Jet flying platform.
The initial version of this article was based on a public domain article from Greg Goebel's Vectorsite.
The Jabiru 2200 is a lightweight naturally aspirated, four-stroke, flat four, air-cooled aircraft engine produced by Jabiru Aircraft. This conventional direct-drive engine is fitted with an alternator, silencers, vacuum pump drives and dual ignition systems as standard.
Jabiru began as builders of small 2-seater aircraft in Bundaberg, Australia. They turned to producing their own engines with CNC machines when supplies of their original Italian-sourced engines dried up.
The Rotax 912 is a normally aspirated, air- and water-cooled, horizontally opposed four-cylinder, four-stroke, gear reduction-drive engine commonly used on certified aircraft, light sport aircraft, ultralight aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles.
The original 80 hp (60 kW) 912 engine has a capacity of 1,211 cc (73.9 cu in) and a compression ratio of 9.1:1. The later 912S is enlarged to 1,352 cubic centimetres (82.5 cu in) and has a compression ratio of 10.4:1, yielding 100 hp (75 kW). The 912 A and F are used in certified aircraft, such as the Diamond DA20, which is quite popular in Europe. The 100 hp (75 kW) versions are used in many light sport aircraft, such as the Flight Design CTSW, the Tecnam P2002 Sierra and the Titan T-51 Mustang. The 80 hp (60 kW) versions are sufficient to power the new generation of efficient motorgliders, such as the Pipistrel Sinus and the Urban Air Lambada. It is also fitted to some light twins, such as the Tecnam P2006T.
The engine differs from conventional aircraft engines (such as the Lycoming O-235) in that it has air-cooled cylinders with liquid-cooled heads and uses a 2.43:1 gearbox (PSRU) to reduce the engine's relative high 5,800 rpm shaft
The Pratt & Whitney Wasp was the civilian name of a family of air-cooled radial piston engines developed in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s.
The Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Company (P&W) was founded in 1925 by Frederick B. Rentschler, who had previously been the President of Wright Aeronautical. He brought with him some of Wright’s best designers and the new team quickly came up with their first design, the R-1340 Wasp.
Note: the designations refer to the engine configurations as follows: "R" = Radial, followed by the displacement in cubic inches.
The Allison T56 is a single shaft, modular design military turboprop with a 14 stage axial flow compressor driven by a four stage turbine. It was originally developed by the Allison Engine Company for the Lockheed C-130 transport entering production in 1954. It is now produced under Rolls-Royce which acquired Allison in 1995. The commercial version is designated 501-D. With an unusually long and numerous production run, over 18,000 engines have been produced since 1954. It has logged over 200 million flying hours.
The engine evolved from Allison's previous T38 series. It was first flown in the nose of a B-17 test-bed aircraft in 1954. Originally fitted to the Lockheed C-130 Hercules, the T56 was also installed on the P-3 and E-2/C-2 aircraft, as well as civilian airliners such as the Lockheed Electra and Convair 580. A shipboard version, the 501K engine, is used to generate electrical power for all U.S. Navy cruisers and destroyers currently in commission.
In the Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules which first flew in 1996, the T56 is replaced by the Rolls-Royce AE 2100, which uses dual FADECs (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) to control the engines and propellers. It
The Vedeneyev M14P is a Russian nine cylinder, four-stroke, air-cooled, petrol-powered radial engine. Producing 360 hp (268 kW), its design dates from the 1940s, and is itself a development of the Ivchenko AI-14 engine. The M14P has recently become increasingly popular in experimental aircraft and kit designs such as the Murphy Moose, Radial Rocket, Pitts Model 12, and others. Historically, the engine has been used extensively by the Yakovlev and Sukhoi Design Bureaus.
The M14PF is a 400 hp (298 kW) version of the M14P.
The engine's intake system uses a gear driven supercharger and an automatic-mixture type carburettor. Power is transmitted to the propeller via a reduction gearbox.
In addition to the carburettor, the engine has a speed governor, two magnetos, mechanical fuel pump, generator, and an oil pump. It is started pneumatically, and remains fully operational during inverted flight. Compared to most Western aero-engines, which turn to the right (clockwise) when viewed from the cockpit, the M14P rotates to the left (counter-clockwise).
A factory modification to the supercharger gearing results in the engine producing 400 hp, while non-factory modifications have it producing
The Allison V-3420 was a large experimental W-configuration American piston aircraft engine, designed in 1937.
In 1937, at the behest of the United States Army Air Corps, the Allison Engine Company agreed to design and build a large-displacement high-power aircraft engine. The resulting V-3420 was essentially a pair of 12-cylinder Allison V-1710 engines mated to a common crankcase with a 30° angle between the inner cylinder banks. The crankshafts of the two V-1710 engines were geared together to drive a common propeller shaft. Most V-3420 parts were interchangeable with those for V-1710-E and -F engines.
The V-3420 had a power-to-weight ratio of 1.6 kW/kg or 1 hp/lb, excellent for its time. It was envisioned as a powerful yet compact engine for several advanced Air Force projects of the day, including the Douglas XB-19, the Boeing XB-39 Superfortress, the Lockheed XP-58 Chain Lightning, and the General Motors P-75 Eagle. As none of these designs reached full-scale production, only about 150 V-3420s were built.
Data from Aircraft Engines of the world 1946
The Rolls-Royce RR300 is a turbine engine developed for the light helicopter market. Rated at 300 shp (224 kW) at take-off power, the RR300 is a rebadged and downrated variant of the Rolls-Royce Model 250-C20.
The Model 250-C18 certified in 1965 was rated at a similar power level to that of the RR300, but over the last forty years subsequent sub-models have become more efficient and produce substantially more power. For instance the Model 250-C40, with an overall pressure ratio of 9.2:1 at an airflow 6.1 lb/s, develops 715 shp.
The RR300 mates a scaled-down centrifugal compressor from the Model 250-C40/47 to a combustor and turbine similar to that of the Model 250-C20, doing away with the C20's complex six-stage axial/single-stage centrifugal compressor. The RR300 retains the look and layout of the Model 250 from which it is derived.
The RR300 is in fact the second attempt to develop a lower-rated version of the Model 250-C20, coming 20 years after the 350 shp Allison Model 225 of 1987.
The new five-seat Robinson R66 light helicopter will feature the RR300 as a turboshaft engine, Robinson having originally intended on utilizing the standard Model 250-C20. Rolls-Royce has also
The term Salmson 9 refers to any of a number of nine-cylinder, radial aircraft engines that were developed from 1910 onwards and built by Société des Moteurs Salmson in France. All Salmson engines produced after 1920 were air-cooled.
The designation Salmson 9 merely refers to the number of cylinders and the different series of engines were identified by the letter suffixes. Like most radials, later versions were air-cooled, but early Salmson engines were famous for being the only series-produced water-cooled radials. In common with other engines produced by this manufacturer, Salmson 9s featured the unorthodox Canton-Unné internal arrangement that dispensed with a master rod in favour of a cage of epicyclic gears driving the crankpin. Production ended in 1951 with the liquidation of the manufacturing company.
Variants of the Salmson 9 included:
Not related to the postwar air-cooled engines.
Data from Tsygulev
Data from Tsygulev
The Klimov M-105 was a V12 liquid-cooled piston aircraft engine used by Soviet aircraft during World War II.
The M-105, designed in 1940, drew heavily on Klimov's experience with the Hispano-Suiza 12Y (license-built as the M-100). In addition to a two-speed supercharger, the M-105 had several innovations like two intake valves per cylinder and a counterbalanced crankshaft. About 129,000 M-105 and its variants were built.
During the war, Klimov's engines were redesignated from "M" (for "motor," engine) to "VK" for the lead designer's initials.
The Delta was a 12-cylinder inverted-V aircraft engine built by Isotta Fraschini prior to and during World War II.
The Delta is a fairly rare example of a large air-cooled inline engine, which normally have cooling problems with the rearmost cylinders. It produced about 750 hp in common versions, although others were rated up to 900 hp. The Delta was not widely used, although it could be found on a number of production aircraft and some advanced prototypes.
Although the air-cooling might be considered an anachronism even during the 1930s, the engine included a number of otherwise advanced features. For instance, the valves were powered by dual overhead cams driven by power shafts at the rear of the engine. Exhaust ports were arranged to exit toward the middle of the engine, one cylinder bank being the mirror of the other, allowing the piping to be ganged below the engine nacelle.
The Shvetsov M-11 is a five-cylinder air-cooled radial aircraft engine produced in the Soviet Union between 1923 and 1952.
The Shvetsov M-11 was designed under a 1923 competition in the Soviet Union for a new engine to power trainer aircraft. It is a single-row five-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine with aluminum cylinder heads. Like the American Kinner B-5 5-cylinder radial of similar size, the M-11 had individual camshafts for each cylinder, operating the pushrods, rather than a single central cam ring. The initial versions of the M-11 suffered from a short service life of only 50 hours. The basic M-11 engine had a power output of 100 hp (73 kW), the newer M-11D variant was higher at 125 hp (92 kW). The ultimate version, M-11FR, introduced in 1946, increased power output to 160 hp at 1,900 rpm on takeoff and 140 hp at cruise and had provisions for a variable-pitch propeller, accessory drive (for vacuum pumps, compressors, generators, etc.) and featured a floatless carburetor.
The M-11 powered a number of aircraft, including the Polikarpov Po-2, Yakovlev UT-1, Yakovlev UT-2, Yakovlev Yak-6, Yakovlev Yak-12, Yakovlev Yak-18, Shcherbakov Shche-2 and Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-8. It
The Rolls-Royce Gem is a turboshaft engine developed specifically for the Westland Lynx helicopter in the 1970s. The design started off at de Havilland (hence the name starting with "G") and was passed to Bristol Siddeley as the BS.360. When Rolls-Royce bought out the latter in 1966, it became the RS.360.
The Gem's three-shaft engine configuration is rather unusual for turboshaft/turboprop engines. Basic arrangement is a four-stage axial compressor, driven by a single stage IP (Intermediate Pressure) turbine, supercharging a centrifugal HP (High Pressure) compressor, driven by a single stage HP turbine. Power is delivered to the load via a third shaft, connected to a two-stage free (power) turbine. A reverse flow combustor is featured.
The Gem 42 develops 1,000 shp (750 kW) at Take-off, Sea Level Static, ISA, but the Maximum Contingency Rating (MCR) is 1,120 shp (840 kW).
Until recently all versions of the Lynx have been Gem powered. However, now that Rolls-Royce own Allison, they have been marketing the more modern LHTEC T800, developed jointly with Honeywell. The civil version, known as the CTS800, will power the AgustaWestland Super Lynx.
Data from Rolls-Royce
The Mamba was a British turboprop engine produced by Armstrong Siddeley in the late 1940s and 1950s, producing around 1,500 effective horsepower (1,100 kW).
The Mamba was a compact engine with a 10-stage axial compressor, six combustion chambers and a two-stage power turbine. The epicyclic reduction gearbox was incorporated in the propeller spinner. Engine starting was by cartridge. The company internal designation was ASM (Armstrong Siddeley Mamba). The ASM.3 gave 1,475 ehp and the ASM.6 was rated at 1,770 ehp. A 500-hour test was undertaken in 1948. The Mamba was the first turboprop engine to power the Douglas DC-3. In 1949, a Dakota testbed was converted to take two Mambas.
The Mamba was developed into the form of the Double Mamba, which was used on the Fairey Gannet anti-submarine aircraft for the Royal Navy. This was essentially two Mambas lying side-by-side and driving contra-rotating propellers through a common gearbox. A turbojet version of the Mamba was developed as the Armstrong Siddeley Adder, by removing the reduction gearbox.
An Armstrong Siddeley Mamba is on static display at the Midland Air Museum, Coventry Airport, Warwickshire and at the Royal Air Force Museum
The Continental IO-360 is a family of fuel-injected air-cooled, six-cylinder aircraft engines manufactured by Continental Motors in the United States of America, now part of AVIC International since 2010.
The engine is available in both normally aspirated, fuel injected IO-360 model and a turbocharged TSIO-360 versions. It is also available in both left and right hand rotation versions for use on twin-engined aircraft.
There was no carbureted version of this engine, which would have been designation O-360, therefore the base model is the IO-360.
The IO-360 was first certified by the Federal Aviation Administration on 15 May 1962 to the CAR 13 certification standard, effective June 15, 1956, as amended by 13-1 thru 13-3. The engine is produced by Continental under Production Certificate No. 508.
The turbocharged TSIO-360 series was first certified on 11 October 1966 to the Federal Aviation Regulations Part 33 standard effective February 1, 1965, as amended by 33-1. This series is manufactured under Production Certificate No. 7, except the TSIO-360-D which is under Production Certificate No. 508.
Data from TYPE CERTIFICATE DATA SHEET NO. E1CE
The Wright R-2600 Cyclone 14 (also called Twin Cyclone) was an American radial engine developed by Curtiss-Wright and widely used in aircraft in the 1930s and 1940s.
In 1935, Curtiss-Wright began work on a more powerful version of their successful R-1820 Cyclone 9. The result was the R-2600 Twin Cyclone, with 14 cylinders arranged in two rows. The 1,600 hp R-2600-3 was originally intended for the C-46 Commando and was fitted to the CW-20A prototype, but a running change led to the adoption of the 2,000 hp Pratt & Whitney R-2800 in its place. The Twin Cyclone engine went on to power several key World War II production aircraft including the A-20 Havoc, B-25 Mitchell, TBF Avenger and SB2C Helldiver bombers, and the PBM Mariner flying boat.
Over 50,000 R-2600s were built at plants in Caldwell, New Jersey, and Cincinnati, Ohio.
Data from Jane's.
The de Havilland Gipsy Major or Gipsy IIIA is a four-cylinder, air-cooled, inline engine used in a variety of light aircraft produced in the 1930s, including the famous Tiger Moth biplane. Many Gipsy Major engines still power vintage aircraft types worldwide today.
The engine was a slightly modified Gipsy III, which was effectively a de Havilland Gipsy engine modified to run inverted so that the cylinders pointed downwards below the crankcase. This allowed the propeller shaft to be kept in a high position without having the cylinders blocking the pilot's forward view over the nose of the aircraft. One initial disadvantage of the inverted configuration was the high oil consumption (up to four pints per hour) requiring regular refills of the external oil tank, this problem improved over time with the use of modified piston rings. The Major was a slightly bored-out (118 mm from 114 mm) Gipsy III. First built in 1932, total production of all Gipsy Major versions was 14,615 units.
In 1934, when Geoffrey de Havilland needed a more powerful engine for his twin-engined transport aircraft, the four-cylinder Gipsy Major was further developed into the 200 hp six-cylinder Gipsy Six. In 1937
The Klimov VK-107 was a V-12 liquid-cooled piston aircraft engine used by Soviet aircraft during World War II.
The VK-107 was a brand-new design having little in common with its predecessors M-105 and VK-106. To achieve a greater power output, each cylinder now had four valves (two intake and two exhaust), crankshaft and camshafts were completely revised, and a new supercharger design was implemented. Although the engine could have been ready for production as early as 1942, Soviet factories lacked the capacity to produce a brand new design. Thus, less powerful VK-105PF and VK-105PF2 were built instead. However, the appearance of Luftwaffe Messerschmitt Bf 109G with Daimler-Benz DB 605 engine in 1943 created an urgent demand for a more powerful engine. VK-107A was put into production in 1944 and was used on Yak-9U fighters. The engine was not well liked by either pilots or mechanics -- it had a life expectancy of only 25 hours and war emergency power was almost never used for fear of decreasing this even more. The engine was also difficult to service, in part because its exhaust headers were on the inside of the cylinder banks, the reverse placement of most V-type liquid-cooled
The Nakajima Sakae (栄, Prosperity) was a two-row, 14-cylinder air-cooled radial engine used in a number of combat aircraft of the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army before and during World War II.
The engine was designed by Nakajima Aircraft Company after acquiring a license for the French Gnome-Rhone 14K. The Imperial Japanese Army Air Force called the first of the series the Ha-25 (ハ25) and later versions were designated Ha35, Ha105 and Ha115, while the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service designation was Nakajima NK1, with sub-types identified by Model numbers; thus Nakajima NK1 Sakae 10, 20 and 30 series.
A total of 21,166 were made by Nakajima; 9,067 were manufactured by other firms.
Data from Jane's.
The Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Adour is a two-shaft turbofan aircraft engine developed by Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Limited, a joint subsidiary of Rolls-Royce (UK) and Turbomeca (France). The engine is named after the Adour, a river in south western France.
The Adour is a turbofan engine developed primarily to power the Anglo-French SEPECAT Jaguar fighter-bomber, achieving its first successful test run in 1968. It is produced in versions with or without reheat.
As of July 2009 more than 2,800 Adours have been produced, for over 20 different armed forces with total flying hours reaching 8 million in December 2009. The U.S. military designation for this engine is the F405-RR-401 (a derivative of the Adour Mk 871), which is currently used to power the fleet of Boeing / BAE Systems T-45 Goshawk trainer jets of the US Navy.
Data from Rolls-Royce
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
Steam engines are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separate from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sources such as solar power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may be used. Water turns to steam in a boiler and reaches a high pressure. When expanded through pistons or turbines, mechanical work is done. The reduced-pressure steam is then released into the atmosphere or condensed and pumped back into the boiler. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. Most mobile steam engines and some smaller stationary engines discard the low-pressure steam instead of condensing it for reuse.
The idea of using boiling water to produce mechanical motion has a very long history, going back about 2,000 years. Early devices were not practical power producers, but more advanced designs producing usable power have become a major source of mechanical power over the last 300 years, beginning with applications for removing water from mines using vacuum engines. Subsequent developments used pressurized steam and converted linear to
The HWK 109-509 was a German liquid-fuel bipropellant rocket engine that powered the Messerschmitt Me 163 and Bachem Ba 349 aircraft. It was produced by Hellmuth Walter Kommanditgesellschaft commencing in 1943.
The HWK 109-509 used a two component hypergolic fuel/oxidizer combination, controlled by a dual flow turbopump, to regulate the rate of combustion and thereby the amount of thrust. The turbopump was driven by steam produced by a Walther steam generator. The engine worked on the principle of the "hot" Walter drive which used C-Stoff in place of Z-Stoff, the latter tending to clog the jets in the combustion chamber, causing fluctuations in power and potentially explosions.
The fuel was known as C-Stoff, a mix of 30% hydrazine hydrate + 57% methanol + 13% water with a small amount of potassium-copper-cyanide, and the oxidizer, known as T-Stoff, consisted of a hydrogen peroxide which reacted violently on contact, as a hypergolic propellant combination. The violent combustion process resulted in the formation of water, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, and a huge amount of heat sending out a superheated stream of steam, nitrogen and air that was drawn in through the hole in the mantle
The General Electric CF6 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines produced by GE Aviation. A development of the first high-power high-bypass jet engine available, the TF39, the CF6 powers a wide variety of civilian airliners. The basic engine core formed the basis for the LM2500, LM5000, and LM6000 marine and power generation turboshaft. GE intends to replace the CF6 family with the GEnx.
After the successful development in the late 1960s of the TF39 for the C-5 Galaxy, GE offered a more powerful development for civilian use as the CF6, and quickly found interest in two designs being offered for a recent Eastern Airlines contract, the Lockheed L-1011 and McDonnell Douglas DC-10. Although the L-1011 would eventually select the Rolls-Royce RB211, the DC-10 stuck with the CF6, and entered service in 1971. It was also selected for versions of the Boeing 747. Since then, the CF6 has powered versions of the Airbus A300, 310 and 330, Boeing 767, and McDonnell Douglas MD-11. The NTSB issued warnings regarding the cracking of the high pressure compressor in 2000 and failure of the low pressure turbine rotor disks in 2010.
The CF6-6 was a development of the military TF39. It was first
The General Electric F414 is an afterburning turbofan engine in the 22,000-pound (98 kN) thrust class produced by GE Aviation. The F414 was developed from GE's widely-used F404 turbofan for use in the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.
GE evolved the F404 into the F412-GE-400 non-afterburning turbofan for the A-12 Avenger II. After the cancellation of the A-12, the research was directed toward an engine for the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. GE successfully pitched the F414 as a low-risk derivative of the F404, rather than a riskier new engine. In fact, the F414 engine was originally envisioned as not using any materials or processes not used in the F404, and was designed to fit in the same footprint as the F404.
The F414 uses the core of the F412 and its full-authority digital engine control (FADEC), alongside the low-pressure system from the YF120 engine developed for the Advanced Tactical Fighter competition. One of the major differences between the F404 and the F414 is the fan section. The fan of the F414 is larger than that of the F404, but smaller than the fan for the F412. The larger fan section increases airflow by 16% and is 5 inches (13 cm) longer. To keep the engine in the F404's
The Continental R-670 (factory designation W-670) was a seven cylinder four-cycle radial aircraft engine produced by Continental displacing 668 cubic inches (11 litres) and a dry weight of 465 lb (211 kg). Horsepower varied from 210 to 240 at 2,200 rpm. The engine was the successor to Continental's first radial engine, the 170hp Continental A-70. This engine was used on many aircraft in the 1930s and 1940s. The R-670 was widely used in the PT-17 Stearman primary training aircraft of the U.S. military.
In addition to being used in aircraft, the R-670 was used in a number of light armored vehicles of World War II.
Data from Jane's.
The OX-5 was an early V-8 American liquid-cooled aircraft engine built by Curtiss. It was the first US-designed engine to enter mass production, although it was considered obsolete when it did so in 1917. It nevertheless found widespread use on a number of aircraft, perhaps the most famous being the JN-4 "Jenny". Some 12,600 units were built through early 1919. The wide availability of the engine in the surplus market made it common until the 1930s, although it was considered unreliable for most of its service life. Today the engine can be found powering many Edwardian automobile racing specials on the historic racing scene.
The OX-5 was the last in a series of Glenn Curtiss designed V engines, which had started as a series of air-cooled V-twins for motorcycles in 1902. A modified version of one of these early designs was sold as an aircraft engine in 1906, and from then on the company's primary market was aircraft. The basic design had slowly expanded by adding additional cylinders until they reached the V-8 in 1906. They also started enlarging the cylinders as well, but this led to cooling problems that required the introduction of water cooling in 1908. These early engines used
The Eurojet EJ200 is a military turbofan, used as the powerplant of the Eurofighter Typhoon. The engine is largely based on the Rolls-Royce XG-40 technology demonstrator which was developed in the 1980s. The EJ200 is built by the EuroJet Turbo GmbH consortium.
Rolls-Royce began development of the XG-40 technology demonstrator engine in 1984. Development costs were met by the British government (85%) and Rolls-Royce.
On 2 August 1985, Italy, West Germany and the UK agreed to go ahead with the Eurofighter. The announcement of this agreement confirmed that France had chosen not to proceed as a member of the project. One issue was French insistence that the aircraft be powered by the SNECMA M88, in development at the same time as the XG-40.
The Eurojet consortium was formed in 1986 to co-ordinate and manage the project largely based on XG-40 technology. In common with the XG-40, the EJ200 has a three-stage fan with a high pressure ratio, five-stage low-aspect-ratio high-pressure (HP) compressor with active tip-clearance control, a combustor using advanced cooling and thermal protection, and single-stage HP and low-pressure (LP) turbines with PM discs and low-density single crystal
The Lycoming (now Honeywell) LTS101 is a turboshaft engine family ranging from 650 to 850 shaft horsepower, used in a number of popular helicopters, and, as the LTP101 turboprop, light aircraft. Both models carry the US military designation T702. The engine was originally designed at the Lycoming Turbine Engine Division in Stratford, Connecticut, but is now produced by Honeywell Aerospace.
The Napier Lion was a 12-cylinder broad arrow configuration aircraft engine built by Napier & Son starting in 1917, and ending in the 1930s. A number of advanced features made it the most powerful engine of its day, and kept it in production long after contemporary designs had stopped production. It is particularly well known for its use on a number of racing designs, in aircraft, boats, and cars.
Early in in the First World War Napier were contracted to build aero engines to designs from other companies: initially a Royal Aircraft Factory model and then Sunbeams. Both proved to be rather unreliable, and in 1916 Napier decided to design their own instead. Reasoning that the key design criteria were high power, light weight, and low frontal area, the engine was laid out with its 12 cylinders in what they called a "broad arrow"—three banks of four cylinders sharing a common crankcase. This suggested the design's first name, the Triple-Four. Today these designs, of which there were only a few, are sometimes referred to as a W-block, although that designation applies more correctly to an engine in which a common crankcase is shared by not merely three but in fact four rows of cylinders
The Rolls-Royce Merlin is a British liquid-cooled, V-12, piston aero engine, of 27-litre (1,650 cu in) capacity. Rolls-Royce Limited designed and built the engine which was initially known as the PV-12: the PV-12 became known as the Merlin following the company convention of naming its piston aero engines after birds of prey.
The PV-12 first ran in 1933 and, after several modifications, the first production variants were built in 1936. The first operational aircraft to enter service using the Merlin were the Fairey Battle, Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire. More Merlins were made for the four-engined Avro Lancaster heavy bomber than for any other aircraft; however, the engine is most closely associated with the Spitfire, starting with the Spitfire's maiden flight in 1936. A series of rapidly applied developments, brought about by wartime needs, markedly improved the engine's performance and durability.
Considered a British icon, the Merlin was one of the most successful aircraft engines of the World War II era, and many variants were built by Rolls-Royce in Derby, Crewe and Glasgow, as well as by Ford of Britain at their Trafford Park factory, near Manchester. The Packard
The Argus As 10 is a German-designed and built, air-cooled 90º cylinder bank angle inverted V8 "low power" inline aircraft engine, used mainly in training aircraft such as the Arado Ar 66 and Focke-Wulf Fw 56 Stösser and other small short range reconnaissance and communications aircraft like the Fieseler Fi 156 Storch during and shortly after WWII. It was first built in 1928.
The General Electric F110 is an afterburning turbofan jet engine produced by GE Aviation. The F110 engine uses the same engine core design as the General Electric F101. The F118 is a non-afterburning variant. The engine is also license-built by Turkish Aerospace Industries.
The F-16 Fighting Falcon entered service powered by the Pratt & Whitney F100 afterburning turbofan. Seeking a way to drive unit costs down, the USAF implemented the Alternative Fighter Engine (AFE) program in 1984, under which the engine contract would be awarded through competition. The F110 currently powers 86% of the USAF F-16C/Ds (June 2005).
The F110-GE-100 provides around 4,000 lbf (17.8 kN) more thrust than the F100-PW-200 and requires more air, which led to the increase in the area of the engine intake. The F-16C/D Block 30/32s were the first to be built with a common engine bay, able to accept both engines, with block 30s having the bigger intake (known as "Big Mouth") and block 32s retaining the standard intake.
Initial orders were for the F110-GE-100 rated at 28,000 lbf (125 kN). Later versions of the F110 include the F110-GE-129 delivering 29,400 lbf (131 kN) thrust and the F110-GE-132 delivering
The SNECMA ATAR is a French axial-flow turbojet engine built by Snecma. It was derived from the German World War II BMW 003 design, but extensively developed though a progression of more powerful models. The name is derived from its original design group, Atelier technique aéronautique de Rickenbach. The Atar powered many of the French post-war jet aircraft, including the Vautour, Étendard and Super Étendard, Super Mystère and several models of the Mirage.
Herman Östrich's team in charge of the development of the BMW 003 engine had moved to the town of Stassfurt, near Magdeburg, in February 1945. An underground production factory was being set up in a salt mine outside town by C.G. Rheinhardt in a desperate attempt to continue engine production in face of the now overwhelming Allied air campaign. This mine is well known historically as it was also being used for the storage of uranium compounds as part of the Nazi atomic bomb program.
The town of Stassfurt surrendered to US forces on 12 April 1945, and Östrich hid much of the technical data in a local cemetery. The next day a ten-man team made up primarily of engineers from Pratt & Whitney arrived, and he handed the data over to
The Bristol Mercury is a nine-cylinder, air-cooled, single-row, piston radial engine. Designed by Roy Fedden of the Bristol Aeroplane Company it was used to power both civil and military aircraft of the 1930s and 1940s. Developed from the earlier Jupiter engine, later variants could produce 800 horsepower (600 kW) from its capacity of 1,500 cubic inches (25 L) by use of a geared supercharger.
Almost 21,000 engines were produced, with a number also being built in Europe under licence. At least three Bristol Mercuries remain airworthy in 2010, with other preserved examples on public display in aviation museums.
The Mercury was developed by the Bristol Aeroplane Company in 1925 as their Bristol Jupiter was reaching the end of its lifespan. Although the Mercury initially failed to attract much interest, the Air Ministry eventually funded three prototypes, and it became another winner for the designer Roy Fedden.
With the widespread introduction of superchargers to the aviation industry in order to improve altitude performance, Fedden felt it was reasonable to use a small amount of boost at all times in order to improve performance of an otherwise smaller engine. Instead of designing an
The de Havilland Gipsy Twelve was a British aero engine developed by the de Havilland Engine Company in 1937. Approximately 95 were manufactured. It was known as the Gipsy King in Royal Air Force service.
Preserved de Havilland Gipsy Twelve engines are on public display at the following museums:
Data from Lumsden
The Gnome-Rhône 14K Mistral Major was a 14-cylinder, two-row, air-cooled radial engine. It was Gnome-Rhône's major aircraft engine prior to World War II, and matured into a highly sought-after design that would see licensed production throughout Europe and Japan. Thousands of Mistral Major engines were produced, used on a wide variety of aircraft.
In 1921 Gnome-Rhône purchased a license for the highly successful Bristol Jupiter engine and produced it until about 1930, alongside the smaller Bristol Titan. Starting in 1926, however, they used the basic design of the Titan to produce a family of new engines, the so-called "K series". These started with the 5K Titan, followed by the 7K Titan Major and 9K Mistral. By 1930, 6,000 of these engines had been delivered.
However, the aircraft industry at that time was rapidly evolving and producing much larger aircraft that demanded larger engines to power them. Gnome-Rhône responded by developing the 7K into a two-row version that became the 14K Mistral Major. The first test examples were running in 1929.
The Ishikawajima Ne-20 (Japanese: 石川島 ネ-20) was Japan's first turbojet engine. It was developed during World War II in parallel with the nation's first military jet, the Nakajima Kikka.
The decision to manufacture this engine came about because of the unsuitability of two earlier powerplants selected for the Kikka, the Tsu-11 and the Ne-12. The Ne-20 was made possible by Imperial Japanese Navy engineer Eichi Iwaya obtaining photographs and a single cut-away drawing of the German BMW 003 engine.
Only a small number of these engines, perhaps fifty, were produced before the end of the war. Two of them were used to power the Kikka on its only flight on August 7, 1945. Only a few of the engines under construction survived. It was also planned to use the engine to power a version of the Ohka kamikaze weapon, but this was not implemented before the end of the war.
Three Ne-20s have been preserved to the present day, one at Ishikawajima-Harima's internal company museum in Tanashi, and two at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC.
The Junkers L 5 was a six-cylinder, water-cooled, inline engine for aircraft built in Germany during the 1920s. First run in 1925, it was a much enlarged development of the Junkers L2, in turn a licensed development of the BMW IV.
The Junkers L5 was a development of Junkers' first water-cooled engine, the L2, but at four times the swept volume was a much more powerful engine. It was a water-cooled upright inline 6-cylinder unit, four-stroke and petrol-fuelled, with a capacity of nearly 23 litres. It adopted some of the L2 features, having twin exhaust and inlet valves in each cylinder driven by an overhead camshaft, twin spark plugs and twin magnetos. The splash component of the L2's lubrication was abandoned in favour of a completely forced recirculating system. The twin carburettors of the L2 were replaced with a single float chamber, dual-venturi model. Like the L2, the L5 was a direct drive engine.
The compression ratio of the standard version was 5.5:1, but variants had other ratios to cope with fuels with octane ratings between 76 and 95. The G series introduced carburettor heating together with an hydraulically damped mounting system. There were also choices of starting
The Franklin 6A4 (United States military designation O-335) was a series of air-cooled aircraft engines of flat-six configuration.
These engines were commonly vertically mounted and used to power many early helicopters in the United States. They were closely related to the 2A4 and 4A4 2- and 4-cylinder engines. In various subtypes, the 6A4 remained in continuous production from 1945 to the time Franklin's United States operations ceased in 1975, with versions continuing in Polish production into the 1990s.
In 1947 this engine was modified into a water-cooled version by the Tucker Car Corporation for use in the 1948 Tucker Sedan. Tucker liked the engine so much, he purchased the Aircooled Motors/Franklin Engine Company and it remained under the ownership of the Tucker family until 1961.
The Light Helicopter Turbine Engine Company T800 is a turboshaft engine for rotary wing applications. It is produced by the LHTEC, a joint venture between Rolls-Royce and Honeywell. The commercial and export version is the CTS800. The engine was primarily developed for the United States Army's RAH-66 Comanche armed reconnaissance helicopter, but has found use in other applications.
The Progress D-27 is a two-shaft propfan engine developed by Ivchenko Progress. The D-27 engine's core is not related to or derived from the D-36 turbofan which is a three-shaft turbofan. The D-27 engine was developed specifically to power the An-70 military transport aircraft and to be a base platform for future engine derivatives.
The engine was developed by the Ivchenko-Progress Design Bureau for commercial and military transport aircraft. It was designed to meet the expected growth in demand for aeronautical products which include the development of a number of new aero engines of civil and military application.
D-27 is regarded as a pacesetter and perhaps a first in the world for production turbopropfan engines. It is rated at a maximum power of 14000shp. Currently, the D-27 is undergoing official flight testing as installed in medium-range military airlifter, the An-70.
In developing the D-27 engine, Ivchenko-Progress also came up with a proposal for several derivatives based on the core of the D-27 engine. For instance the following derivatives have been proposed for different purposes and at different times;
The AI-127 - a turboshaft derivative with a rated power of
The Turbomeca Astazou is a highly-successful series of turboprop and turboshaft engines, first run in 1957. The original version weighed 110 kg (240 lb) and developed 240 kW (320 shp) at 40,000 rpm. It was admitted for aviation service on May 29th, 1961 after a 150h test run. The main developing engineer was G. Sporer. It was named after two summits of the Pyrenees.
A simplified version was built by Agusta as the Turbomeca-Agusta TAA.230.
The Astazou IIA version was derived from the original Astazou powerplant for use in helicopters. By 1993, 2,200 had been built. As of 2007, it was still in production. However, many aircraft initially equipped with it, especially the heavier ones, have since been upgraded with more powerful engines.
The basic design of the single shaft Astazou has a two stage compressor, with the first stage an axial and the second stage a radial design. It has an annular combustion chamber, after which the hot exhaust enters a three-stage axial turbine. Max rpm was later raised to 43,500.
Production turbines have a reduction gear in front of the air inlet, reducing propeller speed to 1,800, 2,080, 2,200, 0r 2,400 rpm, or 6,000 rpm in the helicopter version. The
The Bristol Thor was a 16" diameter ramjet engine developed by Bristol Aero Engines (later Bristol Siddeley Engines) for the Bristol Bloodhound anti-aircraft missile.
Although Bristol Aero Engines acquired ramjet technology from the US company Marquardt, BAE put considerable effort into developing the Thor unit, including the construction of a high altitude test plant (HATP), with a supersonic test cell, at their Patchway site.
The Bloodhound Mk.1 could attain a speed of Mach 2.2, while the Mk.2 was capable of just over Mach 2.7.
The Curtiss V-1570 Conqueror was a 12-cylinder vee liquid-cooled aircraft engine. Representing a more powerful version of the Curtiss D-12, the engine entered production in 1926 and flew in numerous aircraft.
Designed in 1924 as a military successor to the Curtiss D-12, initially named the Conqueror it was later given the military designation of V-1570 based on its displacement of 1,570 cubic inches (26 L). The engine featured open ended cylinder liners (advanced technology for the period) and pressurized liquid cooling. Developments including the use of a supercharger gradually increased power output until reliability problems due to overheating and coolant leaks became apparent. Military funding for further development of the Conqueror was cut in 1932, efforts by Curtiss to market the engine for civil airliners failed and the line was dropped from production.
The Pratt & Whitney R-1535 Twin Wasp Junior was an engine used in American aircraft in the 1930s. The engine was first introduced in 1932 as a 14 cylinder version of the 9-cylinder R-985. It was a two-row, air-cooled radial design. Displacement was 1,535 in³ (25.2 L); bore and stroke were both 5-3/16 in (131.8 mm).
The Rolls-Royce Eagle was a British 24-cylinder, sleeve valve, H-block aero engine of 46 litre (2,807 cubic inches) displacement. It was designed and built in the early-1940s by Rolls-Royce Limited and first ran in 1944. It was liquid-cooled, of flat H configuration with two crankshafts and was capable of 3,200 horsepower (2,387 kW) at 18 psi boost.
The Rolls-Royce design team realised that producing a scaled-up version of their Griffon V-12 engine would lead to excessively large combustion chambers and problems with detonation. The team concluded that a larger number of small cylinders would be the answer and considered an X-24 design. This layout had previously caused unreliability with the Rolls-Royce Vulture due to the need to fasten four connecting rods in a complicated arrangement to a common big end bearing.
The designers finally settled on an 'H' layout with two crankshafts and 'blade and fork' connecting rod attachments, the crankshafts being connected through the propeller speed reduction unit. The new engine followed the layout of the Napier Sabre and similarly used sleeve valves but with a simplified drive system.
A two-speed, two-stage supercharger and intercooler were
The Allison J71 was a turbojet engine, designed and built in the United States. It began development in 1948 as a modified J35 and was originally designated the J35-A-23.
The Allison J71 turbojet powered the Douglas B-66 Destroyer and the McDonnell F3H-2 Demon after the failed Westinghouse J40 proved unworkable. The prototype P6M SeaMasters were also fitted with the engine.
Data from Gunston.
The Viper is a British turbojet engine developed and produced by Armstrong Siddeley and then by its successor companies Bristol Siddeley and Rolls-Royce Limited. It entered service in 1953 and remained in use with the Royal Air Force, powering its Dominie T1 navigation training aircraft until January 2011.
The design originally featured a seven-stage compressor based on their Adder engine — the Viper is in effect a large-scale Adder.
Like the similar J85 built in United States, the Viper was developed as an expendable engine for powering production versions of the Jindivik target drone, but, again like the J85, the limited-life materials and total-loss oil systems were replaced with standard systems for use in manned aircraft.
Because it was initially developed as an expendable engine, the Viper was subject to many recurring maintenance issues. This led to the development of the first Power by the Hour program in which operators would pay a fixed hourly rate to Bristol Siddeley for the continual maintenance of the engines.
Preserved Viper engines are on public display at the following museums:
The Centaurus was the final development of the Bristol Engine Company's series of sleeve valve radial aircraft engines, an 18-cylinder, two-row design that eventually delivered over 3,000 hp (2,200 kW). It was one of the largest piston aircraft engines to enter production, and was introduced into service use towards the end of World War II.
The Royal Navy Historic Flight currently operates a Hawker Sea Fury, powered by a Bristol Centaurus.
Like most Bristol Engines designs, the Centaurus was based on the mechanicals of an earlier design, in this case the "classic" 5.75 in (146 mm) piston from their original 1918 Jupiter. The Jupiter piston was still in use in the contemporary 14-cylinder Hercules, which was being brought into production during the design of the Centaurus. The Centaurus had a cylinder capacity of 3,270 in³ (53.6 l), making it one of the largest piston aircraft engines to enter production, while that of the Hercules was 2,364 cubic inches (38.7 l). The nearly 40% higher capacity was achieved by increasing the stroke from 6.5 to 7 in (170 to 180 mm), and by changing to two rows of nine cylinders instead of two rows of seven, but the overall diameter of the Centaurus
The Bristol Siddeley BS.100 was a British twin-spool, vectored thrust, turbofan aero engine that first ran in 1960, the engine was designed and built in limited numbers by Bristol Siddeley Engines Limited. The project was cancelled in early 1965.
The BS.100 was similar in general arrangement to that of the company's Pegasus design, but with the addition of plenum chamber burning (PCB), to enable the projected Hawker Siddeley P.1154 VSTOL fighter design to accelerate to supersonic speed. PCB is akin to reheat, but is only applied to the bypass stream (i.e. the front nozzles), as the flow turns from fan exit to the nozzle bearing plane. Variable area front nozzles were required, to maintain consistent fan matching regardless of whether the PCB was alight.
The BS.100 was also intended for the Fokker Republic D-24.
A preserved Bristol Siddeley BS100 is on public display at the Fleet Air Arm Museum, RNAS Yeovilton.
The Heinkel HeS 3 (HeS - Heinkel Strahltriebwerk) was the world's first operational jet engine to power an aircraft. Designed by Hans von Ohain while working at Heinkel, the engine first flew as the primary power of the Heinkel He 178, piloted by Erich Warsitz on 27 August 1939. Although successful, the engine had too little thrust to be really useful, and work started on the more powerful Heinkel HeS 8 as their first production design.
In some ways the HeS 3 design was simply a cleanup of the original HeS 1, converted to burn liquid fuel instead of the HeS 1's hydrogen gas. von Ohain was also unhappy with the large external diameter of the HeS 1, and re-arranged the layout of the new engine to allow the parts to be "folded together" in a more compact layout.
The first HeS 3 design was generally similar to the HeS 1, using a 16-bladed centrifugal compressor supported by an 8-blade impeller to smooth out the airflow in the intake. The compressed air flowed into an annular combustion chamber arranged to lie between the compressor and turbine, which were separated much more than in the HeS 1 to allow this arrangement. The first example was bench tested around March 1938, but the
The Heinkel HeS 8 (prefix being an abbreviation for "Heinkel Strahltriebwerk"-Heinkel Jet Engine) was an early jet engine designed by Hans von Ohain while working at Heinkel. It was the first jet engine to be financially supported by the RLM, bearing the official name 109-001. If naming had been common with other early german jet efforts, it would have been known as the Heinkel 001, but it does not appear this was used in practice.
The HeS 8 was intended to power the Heinkel He 280 twin-engine fighter, although both Heinkel and von Ohain preferred the axial HeS 30. A lengthy gestation period meant it was finally becoming ready for production at about the same time as the Junkers Jumo 004 and BMW 003. In 1942 work was ended on the HeS 8 and HeS 30, and Heinkel was ordered to move on to the larger Heinkel HeS 011 instead. The He 280 was left engineless, and was eventually abandoned.
By the time the HeS 3 program wound down in 1939, it appears that von Ohain no longer favoured the centrifugal compressor for jet engines. He had been "sold" on the axial compressor as early as 1938, after a meeting with D. Encke of AVA, but continued with the centrifugal design in the HeS 3 because it
The Junkers Jumo 205 aircraft engine was the most famous of a series of Diesel engines that were the first, and for more than half a century, the only successful aircraft Diesel engines. The Jumo 204 first entered service in 1932. Later engines in the series were styled Jumo 206, Jumo 207 and Jumo 208, and differed in stroke and bore and supercharging arrangements. In all more than 900 of these engines were produced.
These engines all used a two-stroke cycle with twelve pistons sharing six cylinders, piston-head to piston-head in an opposed piston configuration. This unusual configuration required two crankshafts, one at the bottom of the cylinder block and the other at the top, geared together. The pistons moved towards each other during the operating cycle. Intake and exhaust manifolds were duplicated on both sides of the block. There were two cam-operated injection pumps per cylinder, each feeding two nozzles, for 4 nozzles per cylinder in all.
As is typical of two-stroke designs, the Jumos used fixed intake and exhaust ports instead of valves, which were uncovered when the pistons reached a certain point in their stroke. Normally such designs have poor volumetric efficiency
The Mercedes D.IVa was a German six-cylinder, water-cooled, inline engine developed in 1917 for use in aircraft and built by Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG).
The D.IVa replaced the failed Mercedes D.IV inline eight-cylinder engine. The D.IVa was primarily used to power bombers and large reconnaissance aircraft. Unlike most German designs, the D.IVa was relatively advanced, including four valves per cylinder powered by an overhead cam, also used on the earlier two-valve per cylinder D.I through D.IIIa powerplants.
Designed specifically to be installed in the fuselage, the engine featured a number of design elements intended to reduce its width. For instance, the carburetor was placed behind the engine, feeding fuel to the cylinders via a long pipe. This had the disadvantage of poor fuel distribution. Two versions of the engine were produced in mirror copies, running in opposite directions.
Data from Jane's.
The Aviadvigatel PS-90 is a Russian high-bypass commercial turbofan rated at 16000 kgf (157 kN, 35,300 lbf) thrust. It powers Russian airliners such as the Ilyushin Il-96 and the Tupolev Tu-204/Tu-214 series and transport aircraft such as the Ilyushin Il-76. It is made by the Russian aircraft engine company Aviadvigatel, which is the successor of the soviet Soloviev Design Bureau. "PS" are the initials of Pavel Aleksandrovich Soloviev (Russian:Павел Алеќсандрович Соловьёв).
With the advent of new generation of Russian airliners, Aviadvigatel developed the PS-90 to satisfy the demands of economy, performance and exhaust emissions. It represented a huge advance over previous generations of 1960s era Soviet engines. The PS-90 is almost double the efficiency of those engines and is reasonably competitive to the current generation of western engines.
It incorporates many firsts in a Russian engine with advanced technology features such as
It was first certified in 1992 and has been in service since.
There are five variants; the basic PS-90A, the PS-90A-76, the improved PS-90A variants, PS-90A1 and PS-90A2, and the PS-90A-42 turbojet.
The PS-90A engine is the initial variant and is
The GE Honda HF120 is a small turbofan engine for the light-business jet market. GE Honda Aero Engines estimates a market for as many as 200 units annually.
The HF120 turbofan is the first engine to be produced by GE Honda Aero Engines. Developed from the Honda HF118, the HF120 is currently undergoing an extensive testing program, with formal certification testing scheduled to begin in late 2008. The engine has a wide-chord swept fan, two-stage low-pressure compressor and counter rotating high-pressure compressor based on a titanium impeller. Evolved from Honda's HF118, the engine demonstrates a 2,050 lbf takeoff thrust. The engine touts environmental performance, striving to meet and exceed future environmental standards for business jet engines. Greater fuel efficiency and reduced emissions are two of the results of the engine's lightweight design.
The Heinkel HeS 011 or Heinkel-Hirth 109-011 (HeS - Heinkel Strahltriebwerk) was an advanced World War II jet engine built by Heinkel-Hirth. It featured a unique compressor arrangement, combining a three-stage axial compressor with a "diagonal" stage similar to a centrifugal compressor, along with a low-compression impeller in the intake to smooth out airflow. Much like many of the projected piston-engined late-war German combat aircraft designs meant to be powered with the experimental Junkers Jumo 222 multibank powerplant, many of the German jet-powered aircraft designs at the end of the war were based around the HeS 011, but like the Jumo 222, the HeS 011 engine was not ready for production before the war ended in Europe.
Starting in 1936, Junkers started a jet engine development project under the direction of Wagner and Müller, who worked on axial compressor designs. By 1940 they had progressed to the point of having a semi-working prototype, which could not run under its own power and required an external supply of compressed air.
Meanwhile, Hans Mauch, in charge of engine development at the RLM, decided that all engine development should take place at existing engine
The Klimov RD-33 is a turbofan engine that was developed in OKB-117 led by S. P. Izotov (now OAO Klimov) from 1968, production started in 1981. It is an 8,000 to 9,000 kilograms-force (78,000 to 88,000 N; 18,000 to 20,000 lbf) thrust class turbofan twin-shaft engine with afterburner built by the Klimov company of Russia and has several variants. It features a modular design, individual parts can be replaced separately and has a good tolerance to the environment. The RD-33 is simple to maintain and retains good performance in challenging environments.
In early 1970s the RD-33 was selected for new light fighter jet, later becoming Mikoyan MiG-29, the other option was Tumansky R-67-300. Years of development has built an extensive engine family. A newly designed thrust vectoring nozzle (TVN) is now available. New models of the RD-33 family include BARK digital monitoring and control systems. Repair and maintenance of RD-33 engines takes advantage of an information and diagnostics system (IDS).
Baseline model developed in 1976 to power the MiG-29.
A model without afterburner for various types of aircraft, such as the Il-102.
A variant used to power the JF-17 / FC-1. According to
The Lycoming XR-7755 was the largest piston-driven aircraft engine ever produced; with 36 cylinders totaling about 7,750 in³ (127 L) of displacement and a power output of 5,000 horsepower (3,700 kilowatts). It was originally intended to be used in the "European bomber" that eventually emerged as the Convair B-36. Only two examples were built before the project was terminated in 1946.
Lycoming had not been successful in designing a high-power engine. They had started with an attempt to make a hyper engine that led to the 1,200 hp (890 kW) O-1230; by the time the engine was ready, however, new aircraft designs were all calling for more power. They tried again by "twinning" the engine to produce the H block H-2470, which saw some interest in the Vultee XP-54 "Swoose Goose" project. Work on the H-2470 ended when the XP-54 was cancelled.
In one final attempt, Lycoming decided to go all out and build the largest engine in the world. They put together a team under the direction of VP of Engineering Clarence Wiegman at their main Williamsport factory in the summer of 1943 and started work.
The resulting design used 9 banks of 4 cylinders arranged around a central crankshaft with each
The Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp is a two-row, 18-cylinder, air-cooled radial aircraft engine with a displacement of 2,804 in³ (46 L), and is part of the long-lived Wasp family.
The R-2800 is considered one of the premier radial piston engines ever designed and is notable for its widespread use in many important American aircraft during and after World War II. During the war years, Pratt & Whitney continued to develop new ideas to upgrade this already powerful workhorse, most notably water injection to give emergency power in combat.
First run in 1937, the R-2800 was America's first 18-cylinder radial engine design. The Double Wasp was more powerful than the world's only other modern eighteen, the Gnome-Rhône 18L of 3,442 in³ (56.4 L), but it was much smaller and heat dissipation was a greater problem. To enable more efficient cooling, the usual practice of casting or forging the cylinder head cooling fins that had been effective enough for other engine designs was discarded, and instead, much thinner and closer-pitched cooling fins were machined from the solid metal of the head forging. The fins were all cut at the same time by a gang of milling saws, automatically guided as
The F-1 is a rocket engine developed by Rocketdyne and used in the Saturn V. Five F-1 engines were used in the S-IC first stage of each Saturn V, which served as the main launch vehicle in the Apollo program. The F-1 is still the most powerful single-chamber liquid-fueled rocket engine ever developed. The RD-170 has slightly more thrust, using a cluster of four smaller combustion chambers and nozzles.
The F-1 was originally developed by Rocketdyne to meet a 1955 US Air Force requirement for a very large rocket engine. The eventual result of that requirement was two different engines, the E-1 and the much larger F-1. The E-1, although successfully tested in static firing, was quickly seen as a technological dead-end and was abandoned for the larger, more powerful F-1. The Air Force eventually halted development of the F-1 because of a perceived lack of requirement for such a large engine. However, the recently created National Aeronautics and Space Administration appreciated the usefulness of an engine with so much power and contracted Rocketdyne to complete its development. Test firings of F-1 components had been performed as early as 1957. The first static firing of a full stage
The Allison Model 250, now known as the Rolls-Royce M250, (US military designations T63 and T703) is a highly successful turboshaft engine family, originally developed by the Allison Engine Company in the early 1960s. The Model 250 has been produced by Rolls-Royce since it acquired Allison in 1995.
Allison adopted a reverse airflow engine configuration for the Model 250: although air enters the intake/compression system in the conventional fashion, the compressed air leaving the centrifugal compressor diffuser is ducted rearwards around the turbine system, before being turned through 180 degrees at entry to the combustor; the combustion products expand through the two stage HP turbine, which is connected, via the HP shaft, to the compression system, before expanding through the two stage power turbine; the exhaust gases then turn though 90 degrees to exit the engine in a radial direction; a stub shaft connects the power turbine to a compact reduction gearbox, located inboard, between the centrifugal compressor and the exhaust/power turbine system.
One of the latest versions of the Model 250 is the -C40, which has a centrifugal compressor pulling a pressure ratio of 9.2:1, at an
The Daimler-Benz DB 601 was a German aircraft engine built during World War II. It was a liquid-cooled inverted V12, and powered the Messerschmitt Bf 109, among others. The DB 601 was basically an improved DB 600 with direct fuel injection.
The DB 601Aa was licence-built in Japan by Aichi as the Atsuta, by Kawasaki as the Ha-40, and in Italy by Alfa Romeo as the R.A.1000 R.C.41-I Monsone.
Based on the guidelines laid down by the Reichswehrministerium ("Reich's Ministry of Defence"), in 1929 Daimler-Benz began development of a new aero engine of the 30-litre class: a liquid-cooled inverted-Vee 12-cylinder piston engine. This was designated F4, and by 1931 two prototypes were running on the test bench. These were followed by the improved F4 B, which became the prototype for the DB 600.
In 1933, Daimler-Benz finally received a contract to develop its new engine and to build six examples of the DB 600. For the year after, the DB 600 was the only German aero engine in the 30-litre class. In total, 2281 DB 600s were built.
The DB 601A-1 was a development of the DB 600 with direct fuel injection. Like all DB 601s, it had a 33.9 litre displacement. The first prototype with the direct fuel
The Pratt & Whitney F119 (company designation PW5000) is an afterburning turbofan engine developed by Pratt & Whitney for the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor advanced tactical fighter.
The engine delivers thrust in the 35,000 lbf (160 kN) class, and is designed for supersonic flight without the use of afterburner (supercruise). Delivering almost 22% more thrust with 40% fewer parts than conventional, fourth-generation military aircraft engine models, the F119 allows sustained supercruise speeds of up to Mach 1.72. The F119's nozzles incorporate thrust vectoring technology. These nozzles direct the engine thrust ±20° in the pitch axis to give the F-22 enhanced maneuverability.
The F119 derivative, The F135, produces 40,000 lbf (180 kN) of thrust for the F-35 Lightning II.
The BMW 003 was an early axial-flow turbojet engine produced by BMW AG in Germany during World War II. It and the Junkers Jumo 004 were the only German turbojet engines to reach production during World War II.
Work had begun on the design of the BMW 003 before its contemporary, the Junkers Jumo 004 engine, but prolonged developmental problems meant that the BMW 003 entered production much later, and the aircraft projects that had been designed with it in mind were re-engined with the Jumo powerplant instead. The most famous case of this was the Messerschmitt Me 262, in two of the V-series prototypes and in the two experimental A-1b aircraft, and the same was true of the Arado Ar 234 and Horten Ho 229. The only production aircraft to use the BMW 003 were the Heinkel He 162 and late, four-engined versions of the Arado Ar 234.
Some 500 BMW 003 engines were built in Germany, but very few were ever installed in aircraft. The engine also formed the basis for turbojet development in Japan during the war, and in France and the Soviet Union following the war.
The practicality of jet propulsion had been demonstrated in Germany in early 1937 by Hans von Ohain working with the Heinkel company.
The Le Rhône 9J is a nine-cylinder rotary aircraft engine produced in France by Gnome et Rhône. Also known as the Le Rhône 110 hp in a reference to its nominal power rating, the engine was fitted to a number of military aircraft types of the First World War. Le Rhône 9J engines were also produced under license in Great Britain.
In common with other Le Rhône series engines, the 9J featured highly visible telescopic copper induction pipes and used a single push-pull rod to operate its two overhead valves. The copper intake manifold tubing's lower ends on the 110 hp 9J attached to the crankcase along its rearward edge, as opposed to the lower 80 hp output 9C powerplant having its intake mainfold lower ends along its crankcase's forward edge.
The type was cloned and built in Germany by Motorenfabrik Oberursel where it was known as the Oberursel Ur.II.
Examples of Le Rhône 9J engines are on public display in aviation museums with several remaining airworthy, powering both restored vintage aircraft and authentic reproductions of such aircraft.
A Bristol M.1 replica, owned and operated by the Shuttleworth Collection remains airworthy and is powered by a Le Rhône 9J engine. The
The Saturn AL-31 is a family of military turbofan engines. It was developed by Lyulka, now NPO Saturn, of Soviet Union, originally for the Sukhoi Su-27 air superiority fighter. It produces a total thrust of 123 kN (27,600 lb) with afterburning in the AL-31F, 137 kN (30,800 lb) in the AL-31FM (AL-35F) and 142 kN (32,000 lb) in the AL-37FU variants. Currently it powers all Su-27 derivatives and the Chengdu J-10 multirole jet fighter which has been developed in China.
China is able to produce domestically most parts for clones of the AL-31 for its own jet engine programs, but is still dependent on imports of turbine blades from Russia.
The AL-31FP and AL-37FU variants have thrust vectoring. The former is used in the Su-30MKI export version of the Su-30 for India & Sukhoi Su-30MKM for Malaysia . The AL-37FU can deflect its nozzle to a maximum of ±15° at a rate of 30°/sec. The vectoring nozzle is utilized primarily in the pitch plane.
The Al-31FP is built in India by HAL at the Koraput facility under a deep technology transfer agreement.
It has a reputation for having a tremendous tolerance to severely disturbed air flow. In the twin-engined Su-27, the engines are interchangeable
The Rolls-Royce Avon was the first axial flow jet engine designed and produced by Rolls-Royce. Introduced in 1950, it went on to become one of their most successful post-World War II engine designs. It was used in a wide variety of aircraft, both military and civilian, production of the Avon aero engine ending after 24 years in 1974.
The current version of the Avon, the Avon 200, is an industrial gas generator that is rated at 21-22,000shp. As of 2011, 1,200 Industrial Avons have been sold, and the type has established a 60,000,000 hour class record for its class.
The Avon design team was headed by Cyril Lovesey, who had previously been in charge of Merlin development. The engine was intended both as an experiment in axial-flow engines, as well as (if successful) a replacement for the 5,000 lbf (22 kN) Nene. Originally known as the AJ.65 for Axial Jet, 6,500 lbf which was originally designed by Alan Arnold Griffith, the engine developed as a single-spool design with an eight, later 10 stage compressor, mass flow rate of 150 lb/s (68 kg/s) and a pressure ratio of 7.45. Development started in 1945 and the first prototypes were built in 1947. Introduction was somewhat slowed by a
The Rolls-Royce RB.50 Trent was the first Rolls-Royce turboprop engine.
The Trent was based on a concept provided by Sir Frank Whittle and was essentially a Derwent Mark II turbojet engine with an additional turbine stage driving a reduction gearbox (designed by A A Rubbra) connected to a five-bladed Rotol propeller. The Trent ran for 633 hours on test before being installed in a Gloster Meteor jet fighter which flew for the first time on 20 September 1945 at the start of a programme comprising 298 hours of flight tests.
A preserved Rolls-Royce Trent turboprop engine is on display at the London Science Museum.
The Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar was an aero engine developed by Armstrong Siddeley. The Jaguar was a petrol-fuelled air-cooled 14-cylinder two-row radial engine design. The Jaguar III was first used in 1923, followed in 1925 by the Jaguar IV and in 1927 by the Jaguar VI.
The Jaguar was developed from the Royal Aircraft Factory RAF.8 design proposal of 1917, and was engineered to use a gear driven supercharger. First run on 21 June 1922 initial performance was not as expected, as a result the bore was increased to 5.5 in (139.7 mm) with all variants after the Jaguar I using this dimension. Throughout its career the Jaguar suffered from vibration due to a lack of a crankshaft centre bearing.
The most powerful version of the engine, the Jaguar VIC, produced a maximum of 490 hp (365 kW) on takeoff at 1,950 rpm and weighed 910 lbs (413 kg). The later Lynx was designed using one row of Jaguar cylinders.
A preserved Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar is on public display at the Science Museum (London).
Data from Lumsden
The BMW 132 was a nine-cylinder radial aircraft engine produced by BMW starting in 1933.
BMW took over the license for manufacturing air-cooled radial engines from US aircraft manufacturer Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Company on 3 January 1928. The nine-cylinder model Pratt & Whitney Hornet was initially manufactured virtually unchanged under the designation BMW Hornet. Soon BMW embarked on its own development. The result was the BMW 132 that went into production in 1933, which was essentially an improved version of the Hornet engine. A number of different versions were built. Aside from the carburetor designs used mainly in civilian aircraft, versions with direct fuel injection were manufactured for the German Luftwaffe. The engines had a displacement of 27.7 liters and generated up to 1,200 PS (880 kW), depending on model.
The 132 found widespread use in the transport role, remaining the primary powerplant of the Junkers Ju 52 for much of its life, turning the BMW 132 into one of the most important aeroengines for civilian aircraft during the 1930s.
Numerous pioneering flights were undertaken with the BMW 132. The most impressive was the first direct flight from Berlin to New York in
The Bristol Lucifer was a British three-cylinder, air-cooled, radial engine for aircraft. Built in the UK in the 1920s by the Bristol Aeroplane Company, it produced 100 horsepower (75 kW).
The Lucifer was originally a Cosmos Engineering engine, Cosmos being taken over by Bristol in 1920.
Data from Lumsden
The General Electric J31 was the first working jet engine produced in the United States and also the first jet engine to be produced in quantity there.
The J31 was essentially a production version of the prototype Whittle W.1 that had been sent to the US after the Tizard Mission successes. General Electric's extensive experience in turbocharger production made them the natural choice for producing the engine, which they initially referred to as the I-16, I-A referring to the original prototype. The United States Army Air Forces later decided to standardize all their jet engine naming, at which point the I-16 became the J31.
Like the W.1, the I-16 produced 1,650 pounds force (7.3 kN) of thrust and weighed about 850 lb. Production started for the P-59 Airacomet in 1943, and by the time the lines shut down in 1945, a total of 241 had been built. GE also used the basic design to produce the much larger I-40 with 4,000 lbf, but this design was passed on to Allison as the J33, much to GE's chagrin.
A derivative of the J31, the General Electric I-20, given the military designation J49, was ordered but later cancelled.
The IAE V2500 is a two-shaft high-bypass turbofan engine which powers the Airbus A320 family (A320, A321, A319 and the Airbus Corporate Jet), and the McDonnell Douglas MD-90. International Aero Engines is a consortium backed by four aero-engine manufacturers, formed in 1983 to produce the engine. FAA flight certification for the V2500 was granted in 1988.
Rolls-Royce based the HP compressor on a scale-up of the RC34B eight stage research unit used in the RB401-06 Demonstrator Engine, but with a zero-stage added at the front and a tenth stage added to the rear. Pratt & Whitney developed the combustor and the 2-stage air-cooled HP turbine, while the Japanese companies provided the LP compression system. MTU were responsible for the 5-stage LP turbine.
The 4,000th V2500 engine was delivered to the Brazilian flag carrier TAM and installed on the 4,000th Airbus A320 family aircraft (an A319).
The original version to enter service with Cyprus Airways.
A fourth booster stage was introduced into the engine basic configuration to increase core flow. This, together with a fan diameter/airflow increase, helped to increase the thrust to 33,000 lbf (147 kN) thrust, to meet the requirements of
Pratt & Whitney PW6000 is a high-bypass turbofan engine designed for the Airbus A318 with a design thrust range of 18,000 to 24,000 lbf (82 to 109 kN).
Pratt & Whitney designed the engine with minimum complexity to significantly reduce maintenance cost and achieve weight and fuel consumption savings. However, tests revealed that the initial five-stage high compressor based design did not meet promised fuel burn performance. As a result many of the original customers switched their orders to the rival CFM International CFM56-5. To address the problem, Pratt & Whitney re-certified an updated design utilizing a six-stage high compressor designed by MTU Aero Engines in order to achieve promised performance. The German company manufactures the high-compressor and the low-pressure turbine. The HP compressor is driven by a single-stage turbine. On the LP spool a three-stage turbine drives a single-stage fan and a four-stage LP compressor.
The engine made its first flight August 21, 2000 on a test aircraft flown from Plattsburgh International Airport (KPBG), successfully completing a one hour and 20 minute flight. The engine final assembly line is located at MTU Aero Engines at their
The Rolls-Royce Pegasus is a turbofan engine originally designed by Bristol Siddeley, and was manufactured by Rolls-Royce plc. This engine is able to direct thrust downwards which can then be swivelled to power a jet aircraft forward. Lightly loaded, it can also manoeuvre like a helicopter, vertically for takeoff and landings. In US service, the engine is designated F402.
The unique Pegasus engine powers all versions of the Harrier family of multi-role military aircraft. Rolls-Royce licensed Pratt & Whitney to build the Pegasus for US built versions. However Pratt & Whitney never completed any engines, with all new build being manufactured by Rolls-Royce in Bristol, England. The Pegasus was also the planned engine for a number of aircraft projects, among which were the prototypes of the German Dornier Do 31 VSTOL military transport project.
Michel Wibault, the French aircraft designer, had the idea to use vectored thrust for vertical take-off aircraft. This thrust came from four centrifugal compressors driven by a Bristol Orion turboprop, the exhaust from each could be directed by rotating the outlets. Gordon Lewis initially planned an engine with two thrust vectors, driven by the
SABRE (Synergistic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine) is a concept under development by Reaction Engines Limited for a hypersonic precooled hybrid air breathing rocket engine. The engine has been designed to achieve single-stage-to-orbit capability, propelling the proposed Skylon launch vehicle. SABRE is an evolution of Alan Bond's series of liquid air cycle engine (LACE) and LACE-like designs that started in the early/mid-1980s for the HOTOL project.
The design comprises a single combined cycle rocket engine with two modes of operation. The air breathing mode combines a turbo-compressor with a lightweight air precooler positioned just behind the inlet cone. At high speeds this precooler cools the hot, ram compressed air leading to an unusually high pressure ratio within the engine. The compressed air is subsequently fed into the rocket combustion chamber where it is ignited with stored liquid hydrogen. The high pressure ratio allows the engine to continue to provide high thrust at very high speeds and altitudes. The low temperature of the air permits light alloy construction to be employed which gives a very lightweight engine — essential for reaching orbit. In addition, unlike the LACE
The Turbo-Union RB199 is an aircraft turbofan jet engine designed and built in the early 1970s by Turbo-Union, a joint venture between Rolls-Royce, MTU and FiatAvio. The RB199's sole production application is the Panavia Tornado.
The RB199 is a modular engine, improving servicing. It was flight tested on the Avro Vulcan, the same aircraft that was used for the flight testing of Concorde’s Olympus 593. A specially built nacelle was designed that was fully representative of the Tornado fuselage and attached below the Vulcan. The aircraft first flew in this configuration in 1972.
All the installed versions of the RB199 are of three spool design and are fitted with thrust reversers for braking on the Panavia Tornado. The engine's compact design gives high thrust-to-weight and thrust-to-volume ratios while maintaining good handling characteristics and low fuel consumption. The RB199 has amassed over 5 million flight hours since entering service with the Royal Air Force, Luftwaffe, German Navy, Italian Air Force and Royal Saudi Air Force. The engine was also used in the EAP Demonstrator assembled at, and flown from, Warton in Lancashire, England, and the early prototype Eurofighter
The Wolseley Viper is a high-compression derivative of the Hispano Suiza HS-8 liquid-cooled V-8 engine, which was built under license in Britain by Wolseley Motors as the Adder during World War I. It powered the SE-5A, SPAD VII and other British or British-built aircraft.
The Wolseley Viper powered Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5a that is owned and operated by the Shuttleworth Collection remains airworthy and can be seen flying at home displays throughout the summer months. One Wolseley Viper's was restored by the Museum's Friends Assn. at the Museo Nacional de Aeronautica Moron Argentina. Presently at the ENGINES HALL
A preserved Wolseley Viper is on public display at the Science Museum (London). A preserved WOLSELEY VIPER is on public display at the MUSEO NACIONAL DE AERONAUTICA (MORÓN-Argentina)
Data from Lumsden
The Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose is a British five-cylinder radial aero engine produced by Armstrong Siddeley. Developed in the mid-1920s it was used in the Hawker Tomtit trainer and Parnall Peto seaplane amongst others. With a displacement of 540 cubic inches (9 litres) the Mongoose had a maximum power output of 155 horsepower (115 kilowatts).
A Mongoose engine powers the sole remaining airworthy Hawker Tomtit, based at Old Warden.
The Mongoose is a five-cylinder, single-row, air-cooled radial piston engine. The engine features twin forward-mounted ignition magnetos and enclosed valve rockers, the cylinders being the same as those used for the earlier Jaguar engine. An unusual feature of the Mongoose is the vertical position of the lower cylinder, a design thought likely to promote oil fouling of the spark plugs.
Built in several variants, power output ranged between 135 and 155 hp (100-115 kW).
An Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose IIIC powers the sole remaining airworthy Hawker Tomtit, K1786/G-AFTA, owned and operated by the Shuttleworth Collection this aircraft flies regularly throughout the summer months.
Data from Lumsden.
The Daimler-Benz DB 603 engine was a German aircraft engine used during World War 2. It was a liquid-cooled 12-cylinder inverted V12 enlargement of the DB 601, which was in itself a development of the DB 600. Production of the DB 603 commenced in May 1942.
The DB 603 powered several aircraft, including the Do 217 N&M, Do 335, He 219, Me 410 and Ta 152C.
The Mercedes-Benz T80 land speed record car, designed by aircraft engineer Josef Mickl with assistance from Ferdinand Porsche and top German Grand Prix racing driver Hans Stuck, incorporated the third prototype DB 603. It ran on pure alcohol with MW injection and was tuned to 3,000 PS (2,959 hp, 2,207 kW)— enough, it was believed, to propel the aerodynamic three-axle T80 up to 750 km/h on the Dessau autobahn in January 1940 during Rekord Woche (Record/Speed Week). Due to the outbreak of the war in September 1939, the T80 (nicknamed Schwarz Vogel, "Black Bird") never raced. The DB 603 engine was removed from the vehicle for use in fighter aircraft.
All power data is given in metric horsepower as stated per manufacturer. Power (max) is Takeoff and Emergency power (5-min-rating), combat power is climb and combat power (30-min rating),
The General Electric J85 is a small single-shaft turbojet engine. Military versions produce up to 2,950 lbf (13.1 kN) of thrust dry, afterburning variants can reach up to 5,000 lbf (22 kN). The engine, depending upon additional equipment and specific model, weighs from 300 to 500 pounds (140 to 230 kg). It is one of GE's most successful and longest in service military jet engines, the civilian versions having logged over 16.5 million hours of operation. The United States Air Force plans to continue using the J85 in aircraft through 2040. Civilian models, known as the CJ610, are similar but supplied without an afterburner, while the CF700 adds an uncommon rear-mounted fan for improved fuel economy.
The J85 was originally designed to power a large decoy missile, the McDonnell ADM-20 Quail. The Quail was designed to be released from a B-52 Stratofortress in-flight and fly for long distances in formation with the launch aircraft, multiplying the number of targets facing the SA-2 surface-to-air missile operators on the ground. This mission demanded a small engine that could nevertheless provide enough power to keep up with the jet bomber. Like the similar Armstrong Siddeley Viper being
The General Electric LM2500 is an industrial and marine gas turbine produced by GE Aviation. The LM2500 is a derivative of the General Electric CF6 aircraft engine.
The LM2500 is available in 3 different versions:
The turbines have been used in various applications such as in warships of the U.S. and a number of other world navies, hydrofoils, hovercraft and fast ferries. As of 2004, more than one thousand LM2500/LM2500+ gas turbines have been in service for more than 29 international navies.
Recently, the increasing demands for low weight, high power engines in the oil and gas industry has led to GE developing a dedicated version for offshore use. This FPSO version is lighter and more compact, and is being used both for electricity generation and for directly driving compressors, e.g. for compressing natural gas going out into pipelines.
The LM2500 was first used in US Navy warships in the Spruance class of destroyers and the related Kidd class, which were constructed from 1970. In this configuration it was rated to 21,500 shp (16,000 kW). This configuration was subsequently used into the 1980s in the Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates, and Ticonderoga class cruisers. It was also
The Pratt & Whitney JT3D is an early turbofan engine derived from the Pratt & Whitney JT3C turbojet. It was first run in 1958 and was first flown in 1959 under a B-45 Tornado test aircraft. Over 8,000 JT3Ds were produced between 1959 and 1985. Most JT3D engines still in service today are used on military aircraft, where the engine is referred to by its USAF designation of TF33.
In 1959, important orders for the engine were the Boeing 707-120B and Boeing 720B when American Airlines ordered one 707 powered by JT3D turbofans and KLM ordered a JT3D powered Douglas DC-8. The earlier 707s had been powered by the turbojet JT3C and the improved efficiency of the turbofan soon attracted the airlines. A JT3D powered 707-123B and 720-023B (the suffix B was to indicate a turbofan powered aircraft) entered service with American Airlines on the same day, March 12, 1961.
The Boeing KC-135 Stratotankers were all originally powered by turbojet engines. With the demise of many airline 707s the United States Air Force took the opportunity to buy the surplus airframes and use the engines to re-engine the KC-135As used by the Air National Guard and reserve squadrons with the civilian JT3D (designated
The RS-25, otherwise known as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), is a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine that was used on NASA's Space Shuttle and is planned to be used on its successor, the Space Launch System. Built in the United States of America by Rocketdyne, the RS-25 burns cryogenic liquid hydrogen & liquid oxygen propellants, with each engine producing 1,859 kN (418,000 lbf) of thrust at liftoff. Although the RS-25 can trace its heritage back to the 1960s, concerted development of the engine began in the 1970s, with the first flight, STS-1, occurring on April 12, 1981. The RS-25 has undergone several upgrades over its operational history to improve the engine's reliability, safety and maintenance load.
The engine produces a specific impulse (Isp) of 453 seconds in a vacuum, or 363 seconds at sea level (effective exhaust velocities of 4,440 m/s and 3,560 m/s respectively), consumes 1,340 L (350 US gal) of propellant per second, has a mass of approximately 3.5 tonnes (7,700 pounds) and is capable of throttling between 67% and 111% of its rated power level in one-percent increments. The RS-25 operates at extreme temperatures, with the liquid hydrogen fuel being stored at
The Bristol Pegasus is a British nine-cylinder, single-row, air-cooled radial aero engine. Designed by Roy Fedden of the Bristol Aeroplane Company it was used to power both civil and military aircraft of the 1930s and 1940s. Developed from the earlier Mercury and Jupiter engines, later variants could produce 1,000 horsepower (750 kW) from its capacity of 1,750 cubic inches (28 L) by use of a geared supercharger.
Further developments of the Pegasus created the fuel-injected Bristol Draco and the diesel cycle Bristol Phoenix, both types being produced in limited numbers. In contrast, by the end of production over 30,000 Pegasus engines had been built. Aircraft applications ranged from single-engine biplanes to the four-engined Short Sandringham and Sunderland flying boats. Several altitude and distance records were set by aircraft using the Pegasus.
The Bristol Siddeley company reused the name many years later for the turbofan engine used in the Hawker Siddeley Harrier and which became known as the Rolls-Royce Pegasus when Rolls-Royce took over that company. Two Bristol Pegasus engines remain airworthy in 2010, powering Fairey Swordfish aircraft operated by the Royal Navy Historic
The Pratt & Whitney J57 (company designation: JT3C) was an axial-flow turbojet engine developed by Pratt & Whitney in the early 1950s. The J57 was the first 10,000 lbf (45 kN) thrust class engine in the United States. The J57/JT3C was developed into J75/JT4A turbojet, and the JT3D/TF33 turbofan.
The J57 was a development of the XT45 (PT4) turboprop engine intended for the XB-52. As the B-52 power requirements grew, the design evolved into a turbojet, the JT3. The prestigious Collier Trophy for 1952 was awarded to Leonard S. Hobbs, Chief Engineer of United Aircraft Corporation, for "designing and producing the P&W J57 turbojet engine". On May 25, 1953, a J57-powered YF-100A exceeded Mach 1 on its maiden flight. The engine was produced from 1951 to 1965 with a total of 21,170 built.
One XT57 was installed in the nose of a C-124 (BuNo 52-1069), and tested in 1956.
The Taurus was a British 14-cylinder two-row radial aircraft engine, produced by the Bristol Engine Company starting in 1936. The Taurus was developed by adding cylinders to the existing Aquila design, creating a powerplant that produced just over 1,000 horsepower (750 kW) with very low weight.
Bristol had originally intended to use the Aquila and Perseus as two of its major product lines in the 1930s, but the rapid increase in size and speed of aircraft in the 1930s demanded much larger engines than either of these. The mechanicals from both of these designs were then put into two-row configurations to develop much larger engines, the Aquila becoming the Taurus, and the Perseus becoming the Hercules.
The Taurus was a sleeve valve design, resulting in an extraordinarily uncluttered exterior and very low mechanical noise. It offered high power with a relatively low weight, starting from 1,015 hp (760 kW) in the earliest versions. It was also compact, with a diameter of 46 inches (1170 mm) which made it attractive to fighter designers. Unfortunately, the engine has also been described as "notoriously troublesome", with protracted development and a slow growth in rated power. After
The Thielert Centurion is a series of Diesel cycle aircraft engines for general aviation built by Thielert. They are based on heavily modified Mercedes-Benz automotive engines.
All Centurion engines are water-cooled, turbocharged and employ a single-lever digital engine management system (FADEC). This simplifies engine management for the pilot, as well as improving reliability, as it prevents the engine being operated improperly. The series utilizes either jet fuel or diesel fuel. The high compression ratio of the engine combined with the digitally controlled fuel injection system mirrors similar advances in automotive technology.
Centurion series engines are always fitted with constant speed propellers which allow the engine to be operated at optimum speed at all times. However, the normal operating speed is too high for any suitable propeller and so the propeller is driven through a reduction gearbox. The constant speed propeller and reduction gear result in a propeller tip speed that is 10-15% lower than comparable conventional avgas engines, reducing propeller noise.
The Diesel engine's high compression results in better fuel efficiency and the higher operating rpm of the
The CFM International CFM56 (U.S. military designation F108) series is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines made by CFM International (CFMI), with a thrust range of 18,000 to 34,000 pounds-force (80 to 150 kilonewtons). CFMI is a 50–50 joint-owned company of SNECMA, France and GE Aviation (GE), USA. Both companies are responsible for producing components and each has its own final assembly line. GE produces the high-pressure compressor, combustor, and high-pressure turbine, and SNECMA manufactures the fan, gearbox, exhaust and the low-pressure turbine, while some components are made by Avio of Italy. The engines are assembled by GE in Evendale, Ohio, and by SNECMA in Villaroche, France. The completed engines are marketed by CFMI.
The CFM56 first ran in 1974 and, despite initial political problems, is now one of the most common turbofan aircraft engines in the world, with more than 20,000 having been built in four major variants. It is most widely used on the Boeing 737 airliner and, under military designation F108, replaced the Pratt & Whitney JT3D engines on many KC-135 Stratotankers in the 1980s, creating the KC-135R variant of this aircraft. It is also the only
Clerget was the name given to a series of early rotary aircraft engine types of the World War I era that were designed by Pierre Clerget. Manufactured in both France by Clerget-Blin and Great Britain by Gwynne Limited, they were used on such aircraft as the Sopwith Camel and Vickers Gunbus.
In the 1920s Pierre Clerget turned his attention to diesel radial engines and finally produced a H-16 engine before he died in 1943.
What distinguished the Clerget rotary engine from its rivals (Gnome and Le Rhône) was that the Clerget had normal intake and exhaust valves unlike the Gnome, and the connecting rod arrangement was much simpler than the Le Rhone. A source of failure among the Clerget engines were the special-purpose piston rings, called obturator rings. These were located below the wrist pin or Gudgeon pin, to block heat transfer from the combustion area to the lower part of the cylinder and overcome their subsequent distortion. These rings were often made from brass and only had a lifespan of a few hours. The Clerget engines were considered reliable but they cost more per unit to produce than their rivals. Unlike other contemporary rotaries in which the ignition system was either
The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally a fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine. This force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir.
The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described.
The internal combustion engine (or ICE) is quite
The Pratt & Whitney J52 (company designation JT8A) is an axial-flow turbojet engine originally designed for the United States Navy, in the 9,000 lbf-class. It powered the A-6 Intruder and the AGM-28 Hound Dog cruise missile. The engine is still in use in 2011 in models of the A-4 Skyhawk and the EA-6B Prowler. The engine also provided the basis for the Pratt & Whitney JT8D, a popular civilian low-bypass turbofan engine.
The J52 was developed in the mid-1950s for the US Navy as a scaled-down derivative of the J57/JT3A. It was initially intended to power the A4D-3 Skyhawk, an advanced avionics model that was canceled in 1957. After being canceled, the USAF selected the J52 to power the AGM-28 Hound Dog cruise missile. The engine was designed with several unique features for this application, including a "conical centerbody mounted in the intake" and a "variable central plug ... in the nozzle". Then, in 1958, the US Navy selected the engine to power what became the A-6 Intruder.
The J52-P-6 model, designed for the YA2F-1 (YA-6A) Intruder, had a unique nozzle that could be angled downward at 23 degrees for STOL takeoffs; this was not used on production A-6s. Returning full circle, the
The Pratt & Whitney J58 (company designation JT11D) was a jet engine used on the Lockheed A-12, and subsequently on the YF-12 and SR-71 Blackbird aircraft. The J58 was a variable cycle engine which functioned as both a turbojet and a fan-assisted ramjet. The J58 was a single-spool turbojet engine with an afterburner. Bypass jet engines were rare at the time, but Ben Rich later described the engine as "bypass jet engine by air withdrawal".
The J58 was initially developed for the US Navy to power the planned version of the Martin P6M jet flying boat. Upon cancellation of this aircraft, it was selected by Convair and Lockheed for their supersonic projects. Other sources link its origin to the USAF's requirement for a powerplant for the WS-110A, the future XB-70 Valkyrie. The J-58 produced 32,000 lbf (142 kN) of thrust. It was the first engine to be able to operate on afterburner for extended periods of time, and the first engine to be flight-qualified by the United States Air Force for Mach 3. A major feature of the J58 was the conical spikes in the variable-geometry inlets, which were automatically moved fore and aft by an Air Inlet Computer. The spike altered the flow of supersonic
The Rolls-Royce Eagle was the first aero engine to be developed by Rolls-Royce Limited. Introduced in 1915 to meet British military requirements during World War I, it was used to power the Handley Page Type O bombers and a number of other military aircraft.
At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, the Royal Aircraft Factory asked Rolls-Royce to develop a new 200 hp air-cooled engine. Despite initial reluctance they agreed on condition that it be cooled by water rather than air, as this was the company's area of expertise.
Development of the new engine was led by Henry Royce from his home in Kent. Based initially on the Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost engine, and drawing also on the design of a Grand Prix Mercedes 35 hp, the power was increased by doubling the number of cylinders to twelve and increasing their stroke to 6.5 inches, although their bore remained at 4.5 inches. The engine was also run faster, and an epicyclic reduction gear was designed to keep the propeller speed below 1,100 rpm. To reduce inertia and improve performance the valve gear was changed from sidevalves to an overhead camshaft design.
On 3 January 1915 the Admiralty ordered twenty-five of the new engines.
The Rolls-Royce Falcon is an aero engine developed in 1915. It was a smaller version of the Rolls-Royce Eagle; a liquid cooled V-12 of 867 cu in (14.2 L) capacity. Fitted to many British World War I era aircraft, production ceased in 1927.
An airworthy Falcon survives today and powers a Bristol F.2 Fighter during summer displays.
Production of the Falcon began in September 1916 and was so successful that it was also manufactured under licence by Brazil Straker in Bristol. Production continued until 1927, by which time 2,185 had been built.
An unusual feature of this engine is the epicyclic propeller reduction gear which contains a clutch designed to limit the maximum torque, thus protecting the reduction gears.
The Falcon was notably used in the Bristol F.2 Fighter and Blackburn Kangaroo bomber.
List from Guttery and Lumsden:
Bristol F.2B Fighter, D-8096, is based at the Shuttleworth Collection and is powered by a Falcon III, this aircraft flies regularly throughout the summer months.
Data from Jane's and Lumsden.
The Kestrel or type F is a 700 horsepower (520 kW) class V-12 aircraft engine from Rolls-Royce, their first cast-block engine and the pattern for most of their future piston-engine designs. Used during the interwar period it remains somewhat obscure, although it provided excellent service on a number of British fighters of the era. The engine also sold to international air forces, and it was even used to power prototypes of German military aircraft types that were later used during the Battle of Britain. Several Kestrel engines remain airworthy in 2010.
The Kestrel came about as a result of the excellent Curtiss D-12, one of the first truly successful cast-block engines. Earlier designs had used individually machined steel cylinders that were screwed onto a crankcase, whereas the cast-block design used a single block of aluminium that was machined to form cylinders. The result was both simpler to build as well as lighter and much stronger, requiring only an investment in new machining equipment.
The D-12 was one of the most powerful engines of its era, and continued to swap records with other contemporary high-power engines. No British company could offer anything like it, and when
The Rolls-Royce RB.108 was a British jet engine designed in the mid-1950s by Rolls-Royce specifically for use as a VTOL lift engine, i.e., an engine intended primarily for providing upwards thrust rather than for horizontal propulsion.
Of squat, compact design for mounting vertically, the RB.108 differed from conventional turbojet engines in having its bearings and oil system designed for prolonged operation in the vertical attitude. First bench-tested in 1955 by Alan A. Griffith, who had conceived the idea of a specialised lift jet in 1941, thrust was 2,130 lbf (966.15 kg) from a weight of 269 lb (122 kg), giving a thrust/weight ratio of 8:1.
The RB.108 was used in the Short SC.1, which used four for lift with an additional one mounted at an angle at the rear for propulsion, and the Mirage Balzac, which used eight vertically-mounted RB.108s for lift. The Vereinigte Flugtechnische Werke (VFW) SG 1262 used five RB.108s, three mounted in tandem on the centreline, with one RB.108 either side.
The RB.108 was also the intended powerplant for several other VTOL aircraft designs, including one by Dornier.
A similar lift jet was designed by Bristol Siddeley, the BS.59, with a thrust of
The Soloviev D-30 is a Russian two-shaft low-bypass turbofan engine, officially referred to as a "bypass turbojet." A supersonic afterburning version, the D-30F6, is used in the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-31 interceptor, while the non-afterburning civilian versions, the D-30Kp and D-30KU are used in the Ilyushin Il-62M and Tupolev Tu-154M airliners, and in the Ilyushin Il-76MD, TD heavy cargo aircraft.
In the mid-1970s, the Soviet Union began the search for a high-speed interceptor to supplement and replace its MiG-25. The Mig-25 had two enormously powerful Tumansky R-15 turbojets, allowing Mach 3 speed at high altitudes, but the problem was their weak performance at low altitudes, not even sufficient to cross Mach 1 boundary. More acute problems stemmed from the tendency of the Foxbat's engines to break down at maximum throttle in high-speed situations. A new engine, this time a low-bypass turbofan, was needed to power the new interceptor. The Mikoyan-Gurevich (MiG) design bureau contracted Soloviev (later Aviadvigatel, now Perm) to build such an engine, for the aircraft that would become known as the MiG-31.
Aviadvigatel came up with the D30-F6 turbofan. Capable of generating 9,500 kgf
The Chrysler XIV-2220 (XI-2220 from 1944) was an experimental 2,500 hp liquid-cooled inverted-V-16 aircraft engine designed by Chrysler starting in 1940. Although several aircraft designs had considered using it, by the time it was ready for use in 1945 the war was already over. Only a few engines were built during the program, and it retained its 'X' designation the entire time as the XIV-2220, later XI-2220. The IV-2220 is historically important as it was Chrysler's first hemi, a design that would re-appear for many years later and is now a Chrysler trademark.
Chrysler had apparently been carrying out paper studies of a very large engine for a brief period starting in May 1940 and decided to present their work to the United States Army Air Corps. They proposed a large engine to provide 2,500 hp initially, with room for growth upwards. Instead of using advanced features such as sleeve valves for improved RPM, they instead decided to use a larger number of "normal sized" cylinders in a V-16 arrangement. The Army was interested, and sent them a development contract tender on June 22, 1940, to which Chrysler responded on July 2.
The extremely long profile of the new design meant that
The Continental O-300 and the C-145 are a family of air-cooled flat-6 aircraft piston engines built by Teledyne Continental Motors.
First produced in 1947, versions were still in production as of 2004. It was produced under licence in the United Kingdom by Rolls-Royce in the 1960s.
The C-145 was developed from the 125 hp (93 kW) C-125 engine. Both powerplants share the same crankcase, although the C-145 produces an additional 20 hp (15 kW) through a longer piston stroke, higher compression ratio of 7.0:1 and different carburetor jetting.
The O-300 is a modernized C-145 and retains the same weight, dimensions, bore, stroke, compression ratio, displacement and output power of the earlier engine.
The GO-300 employs a reduction gearbox, so that the engine turns at 3200 rpm to produce a propeller rpm of 2400. The GO-300 produces 175 hp (130 kW) whereas the ungeared O-300 produces 145 hp (108 kW).
The GO-300 engine has a TBO (Time Between Overhaul) of only 1200 hours, while 1800 hours is the standard for ungeared O-300 engines. The GO-300 engine also suffered reliability problems as a result of pilots mishandling the engine and operating it at too low an engine rpm. This caused the
The Rolls-Royce RB.41 Nene was a 1940s British centrifugal compressor turbojet engine. The Nene was essentially an enlarged version of the Rolls-Royce Derwent with the minimal changes needed to deliver 5,000 lbf, making it the most powerful engine of its era. The Nene was Rolls-Royce's third jet engine to enter production, designed and built in an astonishingly short five-month period in 1944, first running on 27 October 1944. It was named after the River Nene in keeping with the company's tradition of naming its jet engines after rivers.
The design saw relatively little use in British aircraft designs, being passed over in favour of the axial-flow Avon that followed it. Its only widespread use in Great Britain was in the Hawker Sea Hawk and the Supermarine Attacker. In the US it was built under license as the Pratt & Whitney J42, and it powered the Grumman F9F Panther. Ironically, its most widespread use was in the form of the Klimov RD-45, which powered the famous Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15.
Although based on the "straight-through" version of the basic Whittle-style layout, the Nene used a double-sided centrifugal compressor for improved pressure ratio and thus higher thrust. It was
The Rolls-Royce Olympus (originally the Bristol B.E.10 Olympus) was the world's first two-spool axial-flow turbojet aircraft engine, originally developed and produced by Bristol Aero Engines. First running in 1950, its initial use was as the powerplant of the Avro Vulcan V bomber. The design was further developed for supersonic performance as part of the BAC TSR-2 programme. Later it saw production as the Rolls-Royce/Snecma Olympus 593, the powerplant for Concorde SST. Versions of the engine were licenced to Curtiss-Wright in the USA as the TJ-32 or J67 (military designation) and the TJ-38 'Zephyr'. The Olympus was also developed with success as a marine and industrial gas turbine.
Bristol Aero Engines (formerly Bristol Engine Company) merged with Armstrong Siddeley Motors in 1959 to form Bristol Siddeley Engines Limited (BSEL) which in turn was taken over by Rolls-Royce in 1966.
As of 2012, the Olympus remains in service as both a marine and industrial gas turbine. It also powers the restored Avro Vulcan XH558.
At the end of World War II, the Bristol Engine Company’s major effort was the development of the Hercules and Centaurus radial piston engines. By the end of 1946, the
The General Electric TF34 is a military turbofan engine used on the A-10 Thunderbolt II and S-3 Viking. Developed by GE Aircraft Engines during the late 1960s, the original engine comprises a single stage fan, driven by a 4-stage low pressure (LP) turbine, supercharging a 14-stage high pressure (HP) compressor, driven by a 2-stage HP turbine. An annular combustor is featured. The TF34-GE-400A is rated at 9,275 lbf (41.26 KN) static thrust.
The civilian variant, the CF34, is used on a number of business and regional jets.
The Jabiru 5100 is a lightweight four-stroke, horizontally-opposed aircooled aircraft engine, manufactured by Jabiru Aircraft.
The engine is direct drive and is fitted with alternators, silencers, vacuum pump drives and dual ignition systems as standard equipment.
The Lycoming O-360 is a family of four-cylinder, direct-drive, horizontally opposed, air-cooled, piston aircraft engines. Engines in the O-360 series produce between 145 and 225 horsepower (109 to 168 kW).
There are 167 different models within the O-360 family of engines, with 12 different prefixes. This includes:
The O-360 series all have a displacement of 361 cubic inches (5.9 liters). Bore and stroke are 5.125 and 4.375 inches (130 and 111 mm) respectively.
The O-360 has a factory rated TBO (Time Between Overhaul) of 2000 hours. Engines that do not accumulate 2000 hours are recommended to be overhauled in the twelfth year. They have been installed in thousands of aircraft including Cessna 172s, Piper Cherokees/Archers, Grumman Tigers and many home-built aircraft.
By increasing the cylinder bore of the O-360 by ⁄16 inches, the engine was developed into the 210 hp (157 kW) Lycoming IO-390.
The first O-360 certified was the A1A model, certified on 20 July 1955 to United States CAR 13 effective March 5, 1952 as amended by 13-1 and 13-2.
Data from Type Certificate Data Sheet E-286
The Allison V-1710 aircraft engine was the only indigenous US-developed V-12 liquid-cooled engine to see service during World War II. Versions with a turbosupercharger gave excellent performance at high altitude in the twin-engined Lockheed P-38 Lightning, and turbosuperchargers were fitted to experimental single-engined fighters with similar results. The US Army preference for turbosuperchargers early in the program meant that less effort was spent on developing suitable superchargers, and when smaller or lower-cost versions of the engine were desired, they generally had poor performance at higher altitudes. The V-1710 nevertheless gave excellent service when turbosupercharged, notably in the P-38 Lightning, which accounted for much of the extensive production run.
The Allison Division of General Motors began developing the ethylene glycol-cooled engine in 1929 to meet a US Army Air Corps need for a modern, 1,000 hp (750 kW), engine to fit into a new generation of streamlined bombers and fighters. To ease production the new design could be equipped with different propeller gearing systems and superchargers, allowing a single production line to build engines for various fighters
The Armstrong Siddeley Lynx is a British seven-cylinder aero engine developed by Armstrong Siddeley. Testing began in 1920 and 6,000 had been produced by 1939. In Italy Alfa Romeo built a 200 horsepower (150 kW) licensed version of this engine named the Alfa Romeo Lynx.
Data from Lumsden
The Bristol Hercules was a 14-cylinder two-row radial aircraft engine designed by Sir Roy Fedden and produced by the Bristol Engine Company starting in 1939. It was the first of their single sleeve valve (Burt-McCollum, or Argyll, type) designs to see widespread use, powering many aircraft in the mid-World War II time frame.
The rationale behind the single sleeve valve design was two-fold: to provide optimum intake and exhaust gas flow in a two-row radial engine, improving its volumetric efficiency; and to allow higher compression ratios, thus improving its thermal efficiency. The arrangement of the cylinders in two-row radials made it very difficult to utilise four valves per cylinder, consequently all non-sleeve valve two- and four-row radials were limited to the less efficient two-valve configuration. Also, as combustion chambers of sleeve-valve engines are uncluttered by valves, especially the hot exhaust valves, being comparatively smooth they allow engines to work with lower octane number fuels using the same compression ratio. Conversely, the same octane number fuel may be utilised while employing a higher compression ratio, or supercharger pressure, thus attaining either
The Theseus was the Bristol Aeroplane Company's first attempt at a gas-turbine engine design, a turboprop that delivered just over 2,000 hp (1,500 kW). A novel feature was the use of a heat exchanger to transfer waste heat from the exhaust to the compressor exit. The engine was soon superseded by the Proteus design with more power, and the only extended use of the engine was in two Handley Page Hermes 5 development aircraft.
Following 156 hours of ground runs and the receipt of a test certificate from the Ministry of Supply on 28 January 1947, two Theseus engines were fitted in the outer positions of a four-engined Avro Lincoln for air tests. After ground and taxying test the Lincoln first flew on 17 February 1947.
The de Havilland Gipsy Queen is a British six-cylinder aero engine of 9 litres (550 cu in) capacity that was developed in 1936 by the de Havilland Engine Company. It was developed from the de Havilland Gipsy Six for military aircraft use. Produced between 1936 and 1950 Gipsy Queen engines still power vintage de Havilland aircraft types today.
Of the 11 Gipsy Queen-powered de Havilland Doves on the British register, only two remain airworthy as of April 2011.
Preserved de Havilland Gipsy Queen engines are on public display at the following museums:
Data from Lumsden
The de Havilland Goblin, originally the Halford H-1, is an early turbojet engine designed by Frank Halford. The Goblin built by de Havilland was the second British jet engine to fly, and the first to pass type tests and receive a "Gas Turbine" class type rating.
The Goblin was the primary engine of the de Havilland Vampire, and was to have been the engine for the F-80 Shooting Star (as the Allis-Chalmers J36) before that design switched engines due to production delays. The Goblin also powered the Saab 21R, Fiat G.80 and de Havilland Swallow. The Goblin was later expanded into the larger de Havilland Ghost, with the model numbers continuing from the last marks of the Goblin.
Design of the engine was carried out by Frank Halford at his London consulting firm starting in April 1941. It was based on the basic design pioneered by Frank Whittle, using a centrifugal compressor providing compressed air to sixteen individual flame cans, from which the exhaust powered a single-stage axial turbine. Compared to Whittle designs, the H-1 was "cleaned up" in that it used a single-sided compressor with the inlet at the front, and a "straight through" layout with the flame cans exhausting straight
The General Electric F101 is an afterburning turbofan jet engine. It powers the B-1 Lancer strategic bomber fleet of the USAF. In full afterburner it produces a thrust of 30,000 pounds-force (130 kN). The F101 was GE's first turbofan with an afterburner.
The F101 was developed specifically for the Advanced Manned Strategic Aircraft, which became the B-1A. The F101 powered the four development aircraft from 1970 to 1981. The B-1A was officially cancelled in 1977. However the flight test program continued. General Electric was awarded a contract to further develop the F101-102 engine variant. This turbofan eventually powered the B-1B from 1984, entering service in 1986. The B-1's four F101 engines helped the aircraft win 61 world records for speed, payload and range.
The GE F110 fighter engine is a derivative of the F101, designed using data from the F101-powered variant of the F-16 Fighting Falcon tested in the early 1980s. The F101 also became the basis for the highly successful CFM56 series of civil turbofans.
The PowerJet SaM146 is a turbofan engine produced by the PowerJet joint venture (not to be confused with Power Jets) between Snecma of France and NPO Saturn of Russia. Snecma is in charge of the core engine, control system (FADEC), transmissions (accessory gearbox, transfer gearbox), overall engine integration and flight testing. NPO Saturn is responsible for the components in the low pressure section and engine installation on the Sukhoi Superjet 100 regional aircraft and ground testing.
The SaM146 design is based on the CFM56. In keeping with the design and development of jet engines from manufacturers like Pratt & Whitney Canada, General Electric and Rolls Royce, the engine has been conceived to meet customer requirements regarding fuel burn, cost of operation and dispatch reliability.
The core was developed by Snecma, drawing on its M88 ‘hot section’ military engine experience and the DEM21 core demonstrator project – with its six-stage compressor and single-stage, high-pressure turbine with active blade-tip clearance control – and various other modern design features (such as single-piece bladed disks).
The SaM146 provides 62 to 77.8KN of thrust (6,200 to 7,700 kg). In April
The Rolls-Royce RB211 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines made by Rolls-Royce plc and capable of generating 37,400 to 60,600 pounds-force (166 to 270 kilonewtons) thrust. Originally developed for the Lockheed L-1011 (TriStar), it entered service in 1972 and was the only engine to power this aircraft type. Although the costs of development forced Rolls-Royce Limited into bankruptcy and nationalisation by the British government, the company survived and the RB211 became the first true three-spool engine, which also turned Rolls-Royce from a small player in the airline industry into a global competitor.
The RB211 was officially superseded in the 1990s by the Rolls-Royce Trent family of engines, the conceptual offspring of the RB211.
In 1966 American Airlines announced a requirement for a new short-medium range airliner with a focus on low-cost per-seat operations. While they were looking for a twin-engined plane, the aircraft manufacturers needed more than one customer to justify developing a new airliner. Eastern Airlines were also interested, but needed greater range and needed to operate long routes over water; at the time this demanded three engines in order to provide
The Rolls-Royce RB.183 Tay is a turbofan engine, developed from the RB.163 Spey, using scaled down low-pressure components from the RB.211 to produce versions with a bypass ratio of 3.1:1 or greater. The engine was first run in August 1984. The Tay family is used on a number of airliners and larger business jets, including the Gulfstream IV family, Fokker 70 and Fokker 100, with a later version being used to re-engine Boeing 727-100s.
Originally designated 610-8, all but one training engine have now been converted to 611-8 standard. The newest variant is the 611-8C which has a modified high pressure nozzle box, cast HP1 turbine blades, larger fan from the 650-15, structural by-pass duct and FADEC.
All Tays consists of a twenty-two blade titanium fan, 3 stage Intermediate pressure compressor (Same spool as the fan.), 12 stage High pressure compressor, 2 stage high pressure turbine, 3 stage low pressure turbine.
Thrust: 13,850 lbf (62 kN) Aircraft: Tay 611 entered service in 1987 on the Gulfstream IV/IV-SP, for which it is the exclusive powerplant.
The 620-15 is internally identical to the 611-8 and externally similar to the 650-15.
Thrust: 13,850 lbf (62 kN) Aircraft: Fokker 70 from
Siemens-Halske's Sh.III was an 11-cylinder, air-cooled rotary engine developed in Germany during World War I, similar to the Sh.I.
It shared with its predecessor the unusual design feature of having its internal workings (crankshaft, connecting-rods, etc.) rotating in a clockwise direction as seen from "nose-on", within the engine, and the crankcase and propeller (still fastened to the crankcase, as is usual for rotary engines) rotating in the "accepted" anti-clockwise direction. Also unusual for a rotary engine was the inclusion of a true throttle control. Power was rated at 120 kW (160 hp).
The advantages of the engine were increased propeller efficiency through the reduction gearing effect of having the engine effectively running at 1,800 rpm for only 900 rpm of the airscrew, and excellent high-altitude performance due to the high compression ratio achieved. A bonus was the counter-rotating masses tended to cancel out the gyroscopic forces of the engine. This was achieved by using bevel-gears housed in the rear of the crankcase.
Production problems at the Siemens works, and poor quality lubricating oil, gave the Sh.III engines a life expectancy of only seven to ten hours before
The SNECMA M53 is an afterburning turbofan engine developed for the Dassault Mirage 2000 fighter by Snecma. The engine is in service with different air forces, including the latest Mirage 2000-5 and 2000-9 multirole fighters.
Although an entirely new design, the M53 is very similar in concept with the previous family of SNECMA military engines, the ATAR 9C and 9K, in that it has a single shaft driving both the fan and the high pressure compressor. Although this made it rather “dated” in comparison to other engines of the same generation, this gave the M53 some very desirable traits for a military engine: It allows for carefree operation, whereas a two-spool engine of the same generation required much more care during its operation; its maintenance is vastly simplified, being of modular construction (subassemblies or modules do not require calibration when exchanged), and engine parts are changed “on condition”, that is, they do not expire after a given amount of hours of operation or time since installed, but rather on the general condition of the part or subassembly at the moment of inspection, which cuts down on maintenance costs. It is a simple engine in general, having no
The Turbomeca Marboré was a small turbojet engine produced by Turbomeca from the 1950s into the 1970s. The most popular uses of this engine were in the Fouga Magister and the Morane-Saulnier MS-760. It was also licensed for production in the United States as the Teledyne CAE J69,.
The first major production version was the Marboré II, which had a maximum thrust of 880 lbf (3.9 kN) at 22,500 rpm. In its most basic form, it is a single-spool, centrifugal compressor turbojet. Fuel consumption was rated at 109 gal/h. Variations include military or civilian aircraft, oil tank design, auxiliary equipment, and exhaust pipe configuration. Some variants also included one axial stage compressor for additional performance. The engine dimensions of different variants with different auxiliary components and mounting configurations.
These were eventually replaced by the Marboré VI series which were slightly more powerful at was 1080 lbf (4.8 kN) instead of 880 lbf. Fuel consumption was only slightly higher at 119 gal/h. This was a 23% increase in thrust with slightly more than a 9% increase in fuel consumption. As a result the IV series were used to re-engine many II-series aircraft, and Marboré
The E-113 was a small flat-twin piston engine developed by Aeronca for use in some of their light aircraft. It was a development of the E-107.
Originally fitted with a single ignition system, this was uprated to dual ignition when changes in FAA regulations made this mandatory in 1939. By that time, however, both the engine and the aircraft that it powered were facing obsolescence. Altogether, some 1,800 examples were built.
The E-113-C was license built in England as the Aeronca-JAP J-99 by J A Prestwich Limited (JAP) and powered several British aircraft types. It differed from the E-113 in that it was fitted with dual ignition.
The General Electric LM6000 is a turboshaft gas turbine. The LM6000 is derived from the CF6-80C2 aircraft turbofan. It has additions and modifications designed to make it more suitable for marine propulsion, industrial power generation, and marine power generation use. These include an expanded turbine section to convert thrust into shaft power, supports and struts for mounting on a steel or concrete deck, and reworked controls packages for power generation. It has found wide use including peaking power plants, fast ferries and high speed cargo ship applications.
The LM6000 provides 54,610 shaft horsepower (40,700 kW) from either end of the low-pressure rotor system, which rotates at 3,600 rpm. This twin spool design with the low pressure turbine operating at 60 Hz, a common electrical frequency, eliminates the need for a conventional power turbine. Its high efficiency and installation flexibility make it ideal also for a wide variety of utility power generation and industrial applications, especially peaker and cogeneration plants. When LM6000 power generation units are installed on a 50 Hz power grid, they require a gearbox between the turbine and the generator.
GE has several
The General Electric T700 and CT7 are a family of turboshaft and turboprop engines in the 1,500-3,000 shp class.
In 1967, General Electric began work on a new turboshaft engine demonstrator designated the "GE12" in response to US Army interest in a next-generation utility helicopter. The Army effort led, in the 1970s, to development of the Sikorsky S-70 Black Hawk, powered by twin GE "T700" turboshafts, the production descendant of the GE12.
The T700 was initially bench-tested in 1973, passed military qualification in 1976, and went into production in 1978. The initial "T700-GE-700" is an ungeared free-turbine turboshaft, with a five-stage axial / one-stage centrifugal mixed-flow compressor, featuring one-piece "blisk" axial stages, with the inlet guide vanes and first two stator stages variable; an annular combustion chamber with central fuel injection to improve combustion and reduce smoke; a two-stage compressor turbine; and a two-stage free power turbine with tip-shrouded blades. The engine is designed for high reliability, featuring an inlet particle separator designed to spin out dirt, sand, and dust. The T700-GE-700 is rated at 1,622 shp (1,210 kW) intermediate power.
The Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp was an American aircraft engine widely used in the 1930s and 1940s. Produced by Pratt & Whitney, it was a two-row, 14-cylinder, air-cooled radial design. It displaced 1,830 cu in (30.0 L) and its bore and stroke were both 5.5 in (140 mm). A total of 173,618 R-1830 engines was built, and from their use in two of the most-produced aircraft ever built, the B-24 bomber and DC-3 transport, more Twin Wasps may have been built than any other aviation piston engine in history. An enlarged version with a slightly higher power rating was produced as the R-2000.
The Rolls-Royce AE 2100 is a turboprop developed by Allison Engine Company, now part of Rolls-Royce North America. A derivative of the Allison AE 1107C-Liberty (Rolls-Royce T406) turboshaft engine, the AE 2100 shares the same high-pressure core as that engine, as does the Rolls-Royce AE 3007. The engine is a two-shaft design, and was the first to use dual FADECs (full authority digital engine control) to control both engine and propeller. There are two versions of the engine: the civil AE2100A, and the AE2100D3 military variant.
The engine uses new six-bladed Dowty propellers for use on the 50-seat Saab 2000 and the Lockheed C-130J Hercules military transport. Each engine develops 4,591 shaft horsepower.
The Garrett AiResearch TPE331 is a turboprop engine originally designed by Garrett AiResearch, and produced under their new name Honeywell Aerospace since 1999. The TPE331 family includes 18 models and 106 configurations, the engines range from 575 shaft horsepower to 1650 shp The military version is designated the T76.
The TPE331 originated in 1961 as a gas turbine (the "331") to power helicopters. It first went into production in 1963. More than 700 had been shipped by the end of 1973. It was designed to be both a turboshaft (TSE331) and a turboprop (TPE331), but the turboshaft version never went into production; however, over 14,000 TPE331s have been sold since the first engine was produced in 1963, installed on the Aero Commander in 1964 and put into production on the Aero Commander Turbo Commander in June 1965.
Data from Canadian Museum of Flight.
The General Electric GEnx (General Electric Next-generation) is an advanced dual rotor, axial flow, high-bypass turbofan jet engine in production by GE Aviation for the Boeing 787 and 747-8. The GEnx is intended to replace the CF6 in GE's product line.
The GEnx and the Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 were selected by Boeing following a run-off between the three big engine manufacturers. The GEnx uses some technology from the GE90 turbofan, including composite fan blades, and the smaller core featured in earlier variants of the engine. The engine carries composite technology into the fan case.
Both engine types will have a standard interface with the aircraft, allowing any 787 to be fitted with either GE or RR engines at any time. The engine market for the 787 is estimated at US$40 billion over the next 25 years. A first is the elimination of bleed air systems using high temperature/high pressure air from the propulsion engines to power aircraft systems such as the starting, air-conditioning and anti-ice systems. The GEnx and the Trent 1000 allow a move towards the electric airplane.
The GEnx is expected to produce thrust from 53,000 to 75,000 lbf (240 to 330 kN) with first tests commencing
The Rolls-Royce Griffon is a British 37-litre (2,240 cu in) capacity, 60-degree V-12, liquid-cooled aero engine designed and built by Rolls-Royce Limited. In line with company convention, the Griffon was named after a bird of prey, in this case the Griffon Vulture.
Design work on the Griffon started in 1938 at the request of the Fleet Air Arm, for use in new aircraft designs such as the Fairey Firefly. In 1939 it was also decided that the engine could be adapted for use in the Spitfire. However, development was temporarily put on hold to concentrate efforts on the smaller Merlin and the 24 cylinder Vulture, and the engine did not go into production until the early 1940s.
The Griffon was the last in the line of V-12 aero engines to be produced by Rolls-Royce with production ceasing in 1955. Griffon engines remain in Royal Air Force service today with the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight and also power the last remaining airworthy Avro Shackleton.
According to Arthur Rubbra's memoirs, a de-rated version of the "R" engine, known by the name Griffon at that time, was tested in 1933. This engine, R11, which was never flown, was used for "Moderately Supercharged Buzzard development"
The Rolls-Royce RB.23 Welland was Britain's first production jet engine. It was designed by Frank Whittle's team at Power Jets and was originally intended to be produced by Rover as the W.2B/23. Rover's continued delays in starting production and Whittle's increasing anger over Rover going behind his back to design their own engine, the W.2B/26, led to the project being moved to Rolls-Royce where Stanley Hooker joined the team from Rolls' supercharger division. Hooker's experience in turbocompressor design, along with improved metals and combustion systems, put the engine back on track, although it was largely passed over in favour of Rover's W.2B/26, that became the Rolls-Royce Derwent.
The engine was renamed the Welland after the English river, and entered production in 1943 for use on the Gloster Meteor.
The W.2 was basically a larger version of Whittle's original flying design, the Whittle Supercharger Type W.1, or simply W.1, which flew in 1941 in the Gloster E. 28/39 experimental testbed aircraft. The engines used a single double-sided centrifugal compressor, or impeller, with the compressed air being taken off at several ports around the extreme outer edge of the compressor
The Alvis Leonides was a British air-cooled nine-cylinder radial aero engines first developed by Alvis in 1936.
Development of the nine-cylinder engine was led by Capt. George Thomas Smith-Clarke. The prototype engine, called 9ARS and which weighed 693 lb and developed 450 hp, was run in December 1936. In 1938 Airspeed (1934) Ltd lent their test pilot, George Errington, and their much rebuilt Bristol Bulldog (K3183), to carry out test flights. Development was continued at a reduced pace during the Second World War and following testing in an Airspeed Oxford and an Airspeed Consul (VX587) Alvis was ready to market the engine in 1947 as the Series 500 (502, 503 and sub-types) for aeroplanes and Series 520 for helicopters. (Most helicopter engines were direct drive - no reduction gearbox - with a centrifugal clutch and fan cooling). The first production use was the Percival Prince which flew in July 1948 and the Westland Sikorsky S-51 and Westland Dragonfly helicopters. From 1959 the stroke was increased to 4.8 inch for the Series 530 (mainly the Mk. 531 for Twin Pioneers) rated at 640 hp. It was Britain’s last high-power production piston aero-engine when manufacture ceased in 1966.
The Bristol Jupiter was a British nine-cylinder single-row piston radial engine built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company. Originally designed late in World War I and known as the Cosmos Jupiter, a lengthy series of upgrades and developments turned it into one of the finest engines of its era.
The Jupiter was widely used on many aircraft designs during the 1920s and 1930s. Thousands of Jupiters of all versions were produced, both by Bristol and abroad under license. A turbo-supercharged version of the Jupiter known as the Orion suffered development problems and only a small number were produced.
The Jupiter was designed during World War I by Roy Fedden of Cosmos Engineering. During the rapid downscaling of military spending after the war, Cosmos became bankrupt in 1920, and was eventually purchased by the Bristol Aeroplane Company on the strengths of the Jupiter design and the encouragement of the Air Ministry. The engine matured into one of the most reliable on the market. It was the first air-cooled engine to pass the Air Ministry full-throttle test, the first to be equipped with automatic boost control, and the first to be fitted to airliners.
The Jupiter was fairly standard in
The de Havilland Ghost (originally Halford H-2) was the de Havilland Engine Company's second turbojet engine design to enter production and the world's first gas turbine engine to enter airline (BOAC) service. A scaled up development of the Goblin, the Ghost powered the de Havilland Venom, de Havilland Comet and SAAB Tunnan.
The Ghost came about when de Havilland started work on what was to become the Comet in 1943. Frank Halford's first design, the H-1, was just entering production and he was able to meet the power requirements of the Comet by simply scaling up features of the H-1. The resulting H-2 also used ten larger flame cans in place of the Goblin's sixteen smaller ones, using "split intakes" to each can to feed in more air, as if there were twenty cans feeding off the compressor. While the prototype was being built, de Havilland bought Halford's firm and reformed it as the de Havilland Engine Company, renaming the H-1 and H-2 as the Goblin and Ghost respectively.
The Ghost was already being tested in 1944, and flew in 1945. This was long before the Comet or Venom was ready for flight. By this point the Ghost had been selected for the Swedish "JxR" fighter project, which
The Rolls-Royce Gnome is a single spool turboshaft engine originally developed by the de Havilland Engine Company as a licence-built General Electric T58—a mid 1950s design. The Gnome came to Rolls-Royce after their takeover of Bristol Siddeley in 1966, Bristol having absorbed de Havilland Engines Limited in 1961.
A free-turbine turboshaft, it was used in helicopters such as the Westland Sea King and Westland Whirlwind. The design was sub-licensed to Alfa-Romeo.
There were two series produced: the "H" turboshaft for helicopter use, and the "P" turboprop for fixed-wing aircraft.
A single-stage turbine drives the 10 stage all-axial compressor, whilst a two-stage free power turbine drives the load. The combustor is annular. The Gnome differed from the T-58 in having a British developed fuel control system (Lucas).
Because an all-axial design is employed, the final stage compressor rotor blades are amongst the smallest ever manufactured. Normally, a small engine such as this would feature an axial/centrifugal or even a double centrifugal compressor.
The engine was one of the first developed with an analogue computer, de Havilland's own, as part of the fuel control system, specifically
The Rolls-Royce/SNECMA M45H was a medium bypass ratio turbofan produced specifically for the twin-engined VFW-Fokker 614 aircraft in the early 1970s.
The design was started as a collaborative effort between Bristol Siddeley and SNECMA.
The single-stage fan, together with a five-stage LP compressor, was driven by a three-stage LP turbine, whilst the seven-stage HP compressor was driven by a single-stage, air-cooled, HP turbine. An annular combustor and an unmixed exhaust, with a plug-type primary nozzle, were other design features.
The engine was developed at the time of the Rolls-Royce bankruptcy which resulted in delays in developing the engine.
The M45SD-02 or RB.410 was a derivative of the M45H-01 turbofan, designed to demonstrate ultra-quiet engine technologies, needed for STOL aircraft operating from city centre airports.
A geared, variable pitch, fan replaced the first stage of the low pressure (LP) compressor. A modest fan pressure ratio, consistent with the high bypass ratio, meant a low fan tip speed could be employed. A low hot jet velocity was another major design feature.
In reverse thrust, intake air entered the bypass duct, via a gap in the cold nozzle outer wall, and
The Turbomeca Palas is a diminutive centrifugal flow turbojet engine used to power light aircraft. An enlargement of the Turbomeca Piméné the Palas was designed in 1950 by the French manufacturer Société Turbomeca, and was also produced under licence by Blackburn and General Aircraft in the United Kingdom and Teledyne Continental Motors in the United States.
The Wright R-975 Whirlwind was a series of nine-cylinder air-cooled radial aircraft engines built by the Wright Aeronautical division of Curtiss-Wright. These engines had a displacement of about 975 in³ (16.0 L) and power ratings of 300-450 hp (225-335 kW). They were the largest members of the Wright Whirlwind engine family to be produced commercially, and they were also the most numerous.
During World War II, Continental Motors built the R-975 under license as a powerplant for Allied tanks and other armored vehicles. Tens of thousands of engines were built for this purpose, dwarfing the R-975's usage in aircraft. After the war, Continental continued to produce its own versions of the R-975 into the 1950s; some of these produced as much as 550 hp (410 kW).
Wright introduced the J-6 Whirlwind family in 1928 to replace the nine-cylinder R-790 series. The J-6 family included varieties with five, seven, and nine cylinders. The nine-cylinder version was originally known as the J-6 Whirlwind Nine, or J-6-9 for short. The U.S. government designated it as the R-975; Wright later adopted this and dropped the J-6 nomenclature.
Like all the members of the J-6 Whirlwind family, the R-975 had
The BMW IV was a six-cylinder, water-cooled inline aircraft engine built in Germany in the 1920s. Power was in the 180 kW (250 hp) range. The IV was also produced under license by Junkers as the L2 which spawned the L5.
On June 17, 1919, the pioneering aviator Franz Zeno Diemer sets the airplane altitude record with a 32,000 ft (9760 m) flight. It was a significant technical and competitive accomplishment for the day. This historic flight was achieved only through the brilliant breakthrough of the BMW IIIa engine, from which the BMW IV was based. Diemer stated at the time, "I could have gone much higher, but I didn't have enough oxygen."
The Continental C90 and O-200 are a family of air-cooled, horizontally opposed, four-cylinder, direct-drive aircraft engines of 201 in³ (3.29 L) displacement, producing between 90 and 100 horsepower (67 and 75 kW).
Built by Continental Motors these engines are used in many light aircraft designs of the United States, including the early Piper PA-18 Super Cub, the Champion 7EC, the Alon Aircoupe, and the Cessna 150.
Though the C90 was superseded by the O-200, and many of the designs utilizing the O-200 had gone out of production by 1980, with the 2004 publication of the United States Federal Aviation Administration light-sport aircraft regulations came a resurgence in demand for the O-200.
The C90 was introduced in 1947 as a follow-on to the A-65, which had been in production since 1939. Many of the designs powered by the C90 are upgraded variants of earlier A-65 powered designs, such as the Piper J-3 Cub and PA-11 Cub Special, Aeronca 7AC, and Luscombe 8A. The engine was developed from the earlier O-190 by increasing the stroke ⁄4 inch.
This engine family is considered to be dependable, according to both industry publications and the FAA.
In a cooperative venture, Rolls-Royce
The de Havilland Gipsy is a British air-cooled four-cylinder in-line aircraft engine designed by Frank Halford in 1927 to replace the ADC Cirrus in the de Havilland DH.60 Moth light biplane. Initially developed as an upright 5 litre (300 cubic inch) capacity engine later versions were designed to run inverted with increased capacity and power.
The Gipsy went on to become one of the most popular sport aircraft engines of the inter-war period and was the engine of choice for various other light aircraft, trainers, liaison aircraft and air taxis, British as well as foreign, until long past WWII. Apart from helping to establish the de Havilland Aircraft Company as a manufacturer of light aircraft, it also established the company as an engine manufacturer in its own right.
Gipsy engines remain in service powering vintage light aircraft.
Just like the ADC Cirrus, the Gipsy was born as a collaboration between aircraft manufacturer Geoffrey de Havilland and engine designer Frank Halford. In fact, the early history of the Cirrus and Gipsy were linked through de Havilland's D.H.60 Moth.
In 1925 Geoffrey de Havilland was looking for a reliable cheap engine for use in a light sports aircraft.
The Pratt & Whitney J75 (company designation: JT4A) was an axial-flow turbojet engine first flown in 1955. A two-spool design in the 17,000 lbf (76 kN) thrust class, the J75 was essentially the bigger brother of the Pratt & Whitney J57 (JT3C). It was known in civilian service as the JT4A, and in a variety of stationary roles as the GG4 and FT4.
In military use, the J75 was used on the Lockheed U-2, the Republic Aviation F-105 Thunderchief, and the Convair F-106 Delta Dart. It was also utilized in the prototype and experimental Lockheed A-12, North American YF-107, Vought XF8U-3 Crusader III, P6M SeaMaster, and CF-105 Arrow.
Before the arrival of the Pratt & Whitney JT3D turbofan engine, the JT4A was used to power certain Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 models. It brought improved field performance in the medium-range Boeing 707-220 and Douglas DC-8-20, and gave intercontinental range in the original Boeing 707-320 and the Douglas DC-8-30.
After its relatively short lifetime in the aircraft role, the JT4 found more enduring use in the naval role, where the FT4 was produced in a variety of models between 18,000 and 22,000 hp. Well-known uses include the first all-turbine warships, the
The Rolls-Royce T406 (company designation AE 1107C-Liberty) is a turboshaft engine which powers the Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey tiltrotor. The Osprey is in service with the United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force. The engine delivers 6,000 shp (4,470 kW).
The T406/AE1107C Liberty shares a common core with the AE 3007 and AE 2100 series of engines.
The V-22's T406 powerplants are housed in wing-tip tilting nacelles, allowing the distinctive flight characteristics of the V-22. For take off and landing the nacelles are directed vertically (90° to fuselage), while for forward flight they are rotated parallel to fuselage. The engine has been considered as a cost-effective upgrade for existing heavylift helicopters such as the CH-47 Chinook and the CH-53.
In April 2012, the DoD ordered 70 AE 1107C engines for the Osprey, with options for up to 268 engines.
The Rolls-Royce Spey (company designations RB.163 and RB.168 and RB.183) is a low-bypass turbofan engine originally designed and manufactured by Rolls-Royce that has been in widespread service for over 40 years. Intended for the civilian jet airliner market when it was being designed in the late 1950s, the Spey concept was also used in various military engines, and later as a turboshaft engine for ships known as the Marine Spey, and even as the basis for a new civilian line, the Rolls-Royce Tay. A licensed version built by the XAEC is known as the WS-9 Qin Ling. Aviation versions of the "base model" have accumulated over 50 million hours of flight time. In keeping with Rolls-Royce naming practices, the engine is named after the River Spey.
In 1954 Rolls-Royce introduced the first commercial bypass engine, the Rolls-Royce Conway, with a 21,000 lbf (94 kN) thrust aimed at what was then the "large end" of the market. This was far too large for smaller aircraft such as the Sud Caravelle, BAC One-Eleven or Hawker Siddeley Trident which were then under design. Rolls then started work on a smaller engine otherwise identical in design, the RB.163, using the same two-spool turbine system
The Rolls-Royce Derwent is a 1940s British centrifugal compressor turbojet engine, the second Rolls-Royce jet engine to enter production. Essentially an improved version of the Rolls-Royce Welland, itself a renamed version of Frank Whittle's Power Jets W.2B, Rolls inherited the Derwent design from Rover when they took over their jet engine development in 1943. Performance over the Welland was somewhat improved, reliability dramatically, making the Derwent the chosen engine for the Gloster Meteor and many other post-World War II British jet designs.
When Rover was selected for production of Whittle's designs in 1941 they set up their main jet factory at Barnoldswick, staffed primarily by various Power Jets personnel. Rover felt their own engineers were better at everything, and also set up a parallel effort at Waterloo Mill, Clitheroe. Here Adrian Lombard developed the W.2 into a production quality design, angering Whittle who was left out of the team. Lombard went on to become the Chief Engineer of the Aero Engine Division of Rolls-Royce for years to come.
After a short period Lombard decided to dispense with Whittle's "reverse flow" design, and instead lay out the engine in a
The Bristol Siddeley Orpheus was a single-spool turbojet developed by Bristol Siddeley for various light fighter/trainer applications such as the Folland Gnat and the Fiat G91. Later, the Orpheus formed the core of the first Bristol Pegasus vectored thrust turbofan as used for the Hawker Siddeley Harrier "jump jet".
The engine had its genesis in a 1952 request by Folland for an engine in the 5,000 pounds (22 kN) class to power a new trainer and lightweight fighter-bomber they were developing. Stanley Hooker, relatively new to the company after an earlier career at Rolls-Royce, took the project under his wing. He delivered a relatively simple and easy to maintain engine, which was put into use in the Folland Gnat, flying in 1955. Developing a Sea Level Static thrust of 4,520 lbf (20.1 kN), the Orpheus 701 had a 7 stage axial compressor driven by a single stage turbine.
Other users, mostly trainers, soon followed, including the Fuji T-1, Hindustan Marut, HA-300,and the experimental Hunting H.126 and Short SB5. In 1957 NATO ran a competition for a light fighter design, asking for entries in both engine and airframe categories. The Orpheus was the unanimous winner of the engine
The General Electric/Allison J35 was originally developed by General Electric (GE company designation TG-180) in parallel with the Whittle-based centrifugal-flow J33, and was the United States Air Force's first axial-flow (straight-through airflow) compressor engine. The J35 was fairly simple, consisting of an eleven-stage axial-flow compressor and a single-stage turbine. With the afterburner, which most models carried, it produced 7,400 lbf.
Like the J33, the design of the J35 originated at General Electric, but major production was by Allison.
The J35 first flew in the XP-84 in 1946. Late in 1947, complete responsibility for the production of the engine was transferred to the Allison Division of the General Motors Corporation. Some J35s were built by GM's Chevrolet division. More than 14,000 J35s had been built by the time production ended in 1955.
The J35 was used to power the Bell X-5 variable-sweep research aircraft and various prototypes such as the XB-43 Jetmaster, XB-45 Tornado, Convair XB-46, XB-47 Stratojet, Martin XB-48, and Northrop YB-49. It is probably best known, however, as the engine used in two of the USAF's leading fighters of the 1950s, the F-84 Thunderjet and
The Bristol Proteus was the Bristol Aeroplane Company's first successful gas-turbine engine design, a turboprop that delivered just over 4,000 hp (3,000 kW). The Proteus was a two spool, reverse-flow gas turbine, similar to the original Whittle engine designs with an extra turbine stage. Because the turbine stages of the inner spool drove no compressor stages, but only the propeller, this engine is sometimes classified as a free turbine. It was used mostly on the Bristol Britannia airliner, but saw some third party use as well.
Design work on the Proteus started in September 1944, during the course of development the gas generator section was built as a small turbojet which became known as the Bristol Phoebus. This engine was test flown in May 1946 fitted to the bomb bay of an Avro Lincoln, performance was poor due to airflow problems. The centrifugal compressor was redesigned but similar problems were encountered when the Proteus started ground testing on 25 January 1947.
The original Proteus Mk.600 delivered 3,780 hp (2,820 kW), and was going to be used on the early versions of the Britannia and the Saunders-Roe Princess flying-boat. The versions on the Princess were mounted in a
The General Electric GE36 was an experimental aircraft engine, a hybrid between a turbofan and a turboprop, known as an Unducted Fan (UDF) or propfan. The GE36 was developed by General Electric Aircraft Engines.
A General Electric F404 military turbofan was used as the basis of the GE36. The F404 mixed exhaust stream discharged through a seven-stage low pressure (LP) turbine, where each stator ring was 'unearthed' and free to move in the opposite direction to that of the rotors. One set of open rotor, variable pitch, fan blades was connected to the LP turbine rotor system, while the other set was connected to the contra-rotating LP turbine stators. The scimitar shape of the fan rotor blades enabled high flight speeds (about Mach 0.75) to be obtained. GE used a low speed, (effectively) 14 stage, LP turbine, rather than a conventional high speed LP turbine and reduction gearbox, to drive the fan rotor blades.
Although the engine demonstrated an extremely low specific fuel consumption, cabin noise levels were a problem, even though the engines were mounted at the rear of the test aircraft.
The Hispano-Suiza 8 was a water-cooled V8 SOHC aero engine introduced by Hispano-Suiza in 1914 and was the most commonly used engine in the aircraft of the Entente Powers during the First World War. The original Hispano-Suiza 8A was rated at 140 hp (102 kW) and the later Hispano-Suiza 8F reached 300 hp (220 kW).
A total of 49,800 HS-8 engines and variants under different names were built in twenty-one plants in Spain, France, Britain, Italy, and the U.S. Derivatives of the engine were also used abroad to power numerous aircraft types and the engine can be considered as the ancestor of another successful engine by the same designer, the Hispano-Suiza HS-12Y (and Soviet Klimov V12 derivative aero-engines) which served in World War II.
When World War I began, the production lines of the Barcelona based Hispano-Suiza automobile and engine company were switched to the production of war materiel. Chief engineer Marc Birkigt led work on an aircraft engine based on his successful V8 automobile engine. The resulting engine, called the Hispano-Suiza 8A (or HS-8A), made its first appearance in February 1915.
The first 8A kept the standard configuration of Birkigt's existing design: eight
The Piaggio P.XI was an Italian 14-cylinder radial aircraft engine. The P.XI was a licensed derivative of the French Gnome-Rhône Mistral Major 14K produced in Italy. Isotta Fraschini also produced a version of the 14K called the K.14.
Data from Italian Civil & Military Aircraft 1930-1945
The Pratt & Whitney J48 (company designation JT7) is a turbojet engine developed by Pratt & Whitney as a license-built version of the Rolls-Royce Tay. The Tay/J48 was an enlarged development of the Rolls-Royce Nene (Pratt & Whitney J42).
In 1947, at the behest of the United States Navy, Pratt & Whitney entered into an agreement to produce the Rolls-Royce Nene centrifugal-flow turbojet engine under license as the J42 (company designation JT6), for use in the Grumman F9F Panther fighter aircraft. Concerned that the Nene would not have the potential to cope with future weight growth in improved versions of the Panther, Luke Hobbs, vice president of engineering for P&W's parent company, the United Aircraft Corporation, requested that Rolls-Royce design a more powerful engine based on the Nene, which Pratt & Whitney would also produce.
By 1948, Rolls-Royce had designed the Tay turbojet, also a centrifugal-flow design. However, as Rolls-Royce was then developing an improved design with an axial compressor, which would become the Avon, the development and production of the Tay turbojet was left to Pratt & Whitney. However, Rolls-Royce retained the rights to the Tay outside of the United
The Pratt & Whitney PW1120 turbofan was a derivative of the F100 turbofan. It was installed as a modification to a single F-4E fighter jet, and also powered the abortive IAI Lavi.
The development of the PW1120, according to Israeli Air Force (IDF/AF) specifications, started in June 1980. It retained the F100 core module, gearbox, fuel pump, forward ducts, as well as the F100 digital electronic control, with only minor modifications. Unique PW1120 components included a wide chord low pressure (LP) compressor, single-stage uncooled low pressure (LP) turbine, simplified single stream augmentor, and a lightweight convergent/divergent nozzle. Full scale testing was initiated in June 1982, and flight clearance of the PW1120 was tested in August 1984. The PW1120 had 70 percent similarity with the F100, so the IDF/AF would not need a special facility for spare parts. It would be built under licence by Bet-Shemesh Engines Limited in Israel.
IAI installed one PW1120 in the starboard nacelle of an F-4E-32-MC of the IDF/AF (Number 334/66-0327) to explore the airframe/powerplant combination for an upgrade program of the F-4E, known as Kurnass 2000 ("Heavy Hammer") or Super Phantom and to act as
The Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp was an aircraft engine of the reciprocating type that was widely used in American aircraft from the 1920s onward. It was the Pratt & Whitney aircraft company's first engine, and the first of the famed Wasp series. It was a single-row, nine-cylinder, air-cooled, radial design, and displaced 1,344 cubic inches (22 L); bore and stroke were both 5.75 in (146 mm). A total of 34,966 engines were produced.
Data from Jane's.
The Rolls-Royce RB.80 Conway was the first by-pass engine (or turbofan) in the world to enter service. Development started at Rolls-Royce in the 1940s, but it was used only briefly in the late 1950s and early 1960s before other turbofan designs were introduced that replaced it. The Conway powered versions of the Handley Page Victor, Vickers VC10, Boeing 707-420 and Douglas DC-8-40. The name "Conway" is an Anglo-Saxon permutation of River Conwy, in Wales, in keeping with Rolls' use of river names for jet engines.
In early jet engines the exhaust was much faster and hotter than it had to be (contrary to the ideal Froude efficiency) for efficient thrust; capturing some of that energy would improve the fuel economy of the engine. The turboprop is an obvious example, which uses a series of additional turbine stages to capture this energy to power a propeller. However there is a tradeoff in propeller efficiency compared to forward speed, so while the turboprops are efficient engines, they are only efficient at speeds of up to 500 mph (800 km/h; 430 kn). This meant there was a sweet spot between the high efficiencies of the turboprop at low speeds and the jet at high speeds that was not
The Turbomeca Arrius is one of a family of turboshaft engines for helicopter use, first produced in 1981. As of 2012, some 2,700 units had been sold. Power ranges between 357 kW (479 shp) and 530 kW (716 shp) for different versions. Following Turbomeca tradition, the Arrius was named after a Pyrenean peak (pic d'Arrius), located in the Ossau Valley near Pau.
Data from FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet.
The Turbomeca Turmo is a French turboshaft engine developed for helicopter use. A descendant of Turbomeca's pioneering Artouste design, later versions delivered around 1,200 kW (1,610 shp).
Current versions are built in partnership with Rolls-Royce, and the engine is produced under license by the Chinese Changzhou Lan Xiang Machinery Works as the WZ-6 and Romanian Turbomecanica Bucharest as the Turmo IV-CA
The Warner Scarab is an American seven-cylinder radial aircraft engine, that was manufactured by the Warner Aircraft Corporation of Detroit, Michigan in 1928 through to the early 1940s. In military service the engine was designated R-420.
A scaled-down five-cylinder version of the engine was produced as the Warner Scarab Junior.
Amongst the many uses for the Scarab, the engine was fitted to the Cessna Airmaster and the Fairchild 24 (UC61 or Argus). Notably, in 1942, it was put into use powering the Sikorsky R-4, the first helicopter to be put into production.
Many of these reliable engines soldier on today, still powering the aircraft to which they were originally mounted. The Warner 145 and 165 HP engines are the most commonly seen of the small radials for US-built pre-WWII era aircraft, in large part because of good parts availability due to the engines having been used on WWII Fairchild UC61s and Meyers OTWs.
Warner engines are also in demand as realistically sized, though far more powerful, replacement powerplants for many replica or restored World War I era airplanes which were originally fitted with rotary engines.
Data from FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS).
The Wright R-3350 Duplex-Cyclone was one of the most powerful radial aircraft engines produced in the United States. It was a twin row, supercharged, air-cooled, radial engine with 18 cylinders. Power ranged from 2,200 to over 3,700 hp (1,640 to 2,760 kW), depending on the model. First developed prior to World War II, the R-3350's design required a long time to mature before finally being used to power the Boeing B-29 Superfortress. After the war, the engine had matured sufficiently to become a major civilian airliner design, notably in its Turbo-Compound forms. The engine is now commonly used on Hawker Sea Fury and Grumman F8F Bearcat Unlimited Class Racers at the Reno Air Races.
In 1927, Wright Aeronautical introduced its famous "Cyclone" engine, which powered a number of designs in the 1930s. After merging with Curtiss to become Curtiss-Wright in 1929, an effort was started to redesign the engine to the 1,000 hp (750 kW) class. The new Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9 first ran successfully in 1935, and would become one of the most used aircraft engines in the 1930s and World War II, powering all examples (the -D through -G models) of the legendary B-17 Flying Fortress Allied heavy
For an outline of all engines used by American Motors, see list of AMC engines.
The American Motors Corporation straight-4 engine was used by a number of AMC, Jeep, and Dodge vehicles from 1984 to 2002.
American Motors devoted three years to the development of a new four-cylinder engine. The brand new engine was carefully designed to use AMC's existing tooling so that the spacing between the cylinder bores remained the same. The location of other major components, such as the distributor, oil filter, and starter were also kept the same to reuse the machine tools as for the AMC straight-6 engine.
According to Jeep's chief engineer, Roy Lunn, "unlike most engines available today [it] was not designed for passenger cars and then adapted for trucks. We specifically developed it with our Jeep vehicles and Eagle in mind. That's the reason that performance and durability were of such prime consideration from the very beginning." Although some of components were interchangeable between the AMC 258 cubic inch six-cylinder and the new engine, the four-cylinder was not a cut down version of the big six. Noted Roy Lunn, "There is some common competency, but the 4-cylinder includes many unique
The General Electric J79 is an axial-flow turbojet engine built for use in a variety of fighter and bomber aircraft. The J79 was produced by General Electric Aircraft Engines in the United States, and under license by several other companies worldwide
A simplified civilian version, designated the CJ805, powered the Convair 880, while an aft-turbofan derivative, the CJ805-23, powered the Convair 990 airliners and a single Sud Aviation Caravelle intended as a prototype for the US market.
The J79 was developed in the 1950s as an outgrowth of the General Electric J73 engine program, originally called J73-GE-X24A, intended for reliable Mach 2 performance.
The first flight of the engine was on 20 May 1955 where the engine was placed in the bomb bay of a J47-powered B-45C (48-009). The J79 was lowered from the bomb bay and the four J47s were shut down leaving the B-45 flying on the single J79. The first flight after the 50-hr qualification test was on 8 December 1955, powering the second pre-production Douglas F4D Skyray, with the J79 in place of its original Westinghouse J40 engine as part of the General Electric development and qualification program. The YF-104 was the next airplane to
The Sunbeam Arab was a British First World War era aero engine.
By 1916 the demand for aero-engines was placing huge demands on the manufacturing industry. To help ease the pressure the War Office standardised on engines of about 200 hp (149 kW), one of these was a V-8 water-cooled engine from Sunbeam known as the Arab. Using cast Aluminium alloy cylinder blocks and heads with die-cast Aluminium alloy pistons, the V-8 Arab had a bore of 120 mm (5 in), and stroke of 130 mm (5 in) for a capacity of litres 11.76 l (718 cu in) capacity, developing 208-212hp (155-158kW) at 2,000 rpm.
First bench-run in 1916, the Arab was obviously inspired by the Hispano-Suiza V-8 engines but with very little in common when examined in detail. After submission to the Internal Combustion Engine Committee of the National Advisory Committee Sunbeam received an order for 1,000 in March 1917, increased to 2,000 in June 1917 as well as another 2,160 to be built by Austin Motors (1,000), Lanchester Motor Company (300), Napier & Son (300) and Willys Overland (560) in the United States of America. Bench testing revealed defects which required rectification, delaying completion of production drawings. Despite the
General Electric GE90 is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines built by GE Aviation exclusively for the Boeing 777, with thrust ratings ranging from 74,000 to 115,000 lbf (329 to 512 kN). It was first introduced in November 1995 on British Airways' 777s. The engine is one of three options for the 777-200, -200ER, and -300, and the exclusive engine of the -200LR, -300ER, and -200F.
The GE90 was launched in 1990 by GE Aviation associated with Snecma (France), IHI (Japan) and Avio (Italy). Developed from the 1970s NASA Energy Efficient Engine, the 10-stage high pressure compressor develops a pressure ratio of 23:1 (an industry record) and is driven by a 2-stage, air-cooled, HP turbine. A 3-stage intermediate pressure compressor, situated directly behind the fan, supercharges the core. The fan/IPC is driven by a 6-stage low pressure turbine.
The higher-thrust variants, GE90-110B1 and -115B, have a different architecture from the earlier makes of GE90, with one stage removed from the HP compressor (probably from the rear, to increase core size), with an extra stage added to the IP compressor to maintain/increase overall pressure ratio to achieve a net increase in core flow.
The RD-180 (РД-180, Ракетный Двигатель-180, Rocket Engine-180) is a Russian dual-combustion chamber, dual-nozzle rocket engine, derived from the RD-170 used in Soviet Zenit rockets, and currently provides first-stage power for American Atlas launch vehicles.
The combustion chambers of the RD-180 share a single turbopump unit, much like in its predecessor, the four-chambered RD-170. The RD-180 is fueled by a kerosene/liquid oxygen mixture and uses an extremely efficient, high-pressure staged combustion cycle. The engine runs with an oxidizer to fuel ratio of 2.72 and employs an oxygen-rich preburner, unlike typical fuel-rich US designs. The thermodynamics of the cycle allow an oxygen-rich preburner to give a greater power-to-weight ratio, but with the drawback that high pressure, high temperature gaseous oxygen must be transported throughout the engine. The movements of the engine nozzles are controlled by four hydraulic actuators. The engine can be throttled from 40% to 100% of rated thrust.
During the early 1990s General Dynamics Space Systems Division (later purchased by Lockheed Martin) acquired the rights to use the RD-180 in the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) and
The Snecma M88 is a French afterburning turbofan engine developed by Snecma for the Dassault Rafale fighter.
The M88 Pack CGP (for "total cost of ownership") or M88-4E is based on a study contract, development and production reported in 2008 by the General Delegation for Armament and is to introduce technical improvements to reduce maintenance costs. The purpose of this release is to reduce cost of ownership of the M88 and longer inspection intervals of the main modules by increasing the lifetime of the hot and rotating parts. It has been tested in flight for the first time March 22, 2010 at Istres, the Rafale's M02 CEV.
The Honeywell TFE731 is a family of geared turbofan engines commonly used on business jet aircraft. The engine was originally designed and built by Garrett AiResearch, and due to mergers was later produced by AlliedSignal and currently Honeywell Aerospace.
Since the engine was introduced in 1972, over 11,000 engines have been built, flying over 100 million flight-hours.
The TFE731 was based on the core of the TSCP700, which was specifically developed for use as the auxiliary power unit (APU) on the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. The design featured two important factors: low fuel consumption, and low noise profiles that met the newly established U.S. noise abatement regulations.
The first test run of the TFE731 occurred in 1970 at Garrett's plant in Torrance, California. The first production model, the TFE731-2, began rolling off the assembly line in August, 1972, and was used on the Learjet 35/36 and Dassault Falcon 10, both of which entered production in 1973.
The TFE731-3 was developed for use in the Lockheed JetStar re-engining program, and subsequent versions of it have been used on a number of aircraft, including the Learjet 55.
In 1975, the TFE731 was named Aviation Product of the
The Jumo 222 was a high-power aircraft engine design from Junkers, designed under the management of Ferdinand Brandner of the Junkers Motorenwerke. Such was the performance of the engine compared to contemporary designs that many developments of wartime Luftwaffe piston-engined aircraft designs were based around it, at least as an option. The design failed to mature even after years of intensive development, dooming the entire Bomber B program along with it. Only a small number were built, never leaving the prototype phase, but the design nevertheless continued appearing, endlessly, on proposals for new Luftwaffe multi-engined designs long after most had given up hope it would ever work.
Design work on the Jumo 222 started in 1937. The engine cylinder configuration was a unique one, with six inline cylinder banks spaced at equal angles around the crankcase, each bank having four cylinders each. The engine looked like a radial due to the arrangement, but the internal workings were more like a V engine with crossflow heads, and it was liquid-cooled like most inlines. Looking at a complete Jumo 222 from a "nose-on" view, the half-dozen cylinder banks were arranged at 60° equal angles
The Tumansky M-87 was a Soviet air-cooled aircraft radial engine that was developed in the late 1930s.
In 1934, USSR licensed the French Gnome-Rhone 14K aircraft engine producing 800 hp (595 kW), which entered production as the M-85. The engine was subsequently modified to M-86 which produced 960 hp (715 kW) at takeoff thanks to increased supercharging and a higher compression ratio. The M-87 was created to further increase the power output. Cylinders and pistons were revised to increase the compression ratio and the supercharger was redesigned. The resulting engine had better high-altitude performance and entered production in 1938. However, the engine proved unreliable and suffered from failure of gears in the reduction gearbox. Later the M-88 was designed to address the shortcomings of the M-87. At first the M-88 was not a success, but the designers persisted, and the M-88 was made into a reliable and widely produced engine. The M-87 was used in Ilyushin Il-4 and Sukhoi Su-2 bombers, and the Polikarpov I-180 fighter.
In hindsight the Tumansky family of engines developed from Gnome-Rhône 9K and Gnome-Rhône 14K, were far less successful than the Shvetsov family of engines
Mazda's first automobile engine was the V-twin family. This tiny air-cooled engine only lasted a few years in the early 1960s before Mazda moved to the standard straight-4 format used in most modern automobiles.
The first automobile engine from Mazda was the 356 cc (60x63 mm) air-cooled 90° V-twin. It was an overhead valve 4-valve pushrod design. This engine produced 16 hp (11.9 kW) and 16 lb·ft (22 Nm) in the 1960 Mazda R360.
The engine was enlarged to 577 cc for the 1961 B600.
The Orenda PS.13 Iroquois was an advanced turbojet engine designed for military use. It was developed by the Canadian aircraft engine manufacturer Orenda Engines, a part of the Avro Canada group. Intended for the CF-105 Arrow interceptor, development was cancelled, along with the Arrow, in 1959.
For the CF-105 Arrow project, Avro Canada had originally intended to use one of three different engines, all UK designs: Rolls-Royce RB.106, the Bristol B.0L.4 Olympus, or a license-built version of the Olympus, the Curtiss-Wright J67. The RB.106 and J67 were selected as the primary and backup engines for the new design. However, both the RB.106 and J67 were cancelled during the Arrow's design phase, too far into the program to select the Olympus. Orenda Engines quickly responded with the PS.13 Iroquois design.
The Iroquois design was based on simplicity and lightness. With this in mind, Orenda pioneered work in the use of titanium in engines, with 20% by weight of the Iroquois (mainly the compressor rotor blades) consisting of this metal. Titanium has light weight, high strength and good temperature and corrosion resistance. It was estimated that the engine would be 850 pounds (386 kg)
The Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6 is one of the most popular turboprop aircraft engines in history, and is produced by Pratt & Whitney Canada. The PT6 family is particularly well known for its extremely high reliability, with MTBO's on the order of 9000 hours in some models. In US military use, they are designated as T74 or T101. The main variant, the PT6A, is available in a wide variety of models, covering the power range between 580 and 920 shaft horsepower in the original series, and up to 1,940 shp (1,450 kW) in the "large" lines. The PT6B and PT6C are turboshaft variants for helicopters.
Development of the PT6 family started in the late 1950s, apparently as a modern replacement for the Pratt & Whitney Wasp radial engines they were producing at that time. It first flew on 30 May 1961, mounted on a Beech 18 aircraft at de Havilland Canada's Downsview, Ontario facility. Full-scale production started in 1963, entering service the next year. By its 40th anniversary in 2001 over 36,000 PT6As had been delivered, not including the other versions. The engine is used in over 100 different applications.
The engine consists of two sections that can be easily separated for maintenance. In
Rolls-Royce Trent is the name given to a family of high bypass turbofan aircraft engines manufactured by Rolls-Royce plc. All are developments of the RB211 with thrust ratings of 53,000 to 95,000 pounds-force (240 to 420 kN). Versions of the Trent are in service on the Airbus A330, A340, A380, Boeing 777, and 787, and variants are in development for the forthcoming A350 XWB. The Trent has also been adapted for marine and industrial applications.
First run in August 1990 as the model Trent 700, the Trent has achieved significant commercial success, having been selected as the launch engine for both of the 787's variants, the A380 and A350. Its overall share of the markets in which it competes is around 40%. Sales of the Trent family of engines have made Rolls-Royce the second biggest supplier of large civil turbofans after General Electric, relegating rival Pratt & Whitney to third position.
Singapore Airlines is currently the largest operator of Trents, with five variants in service or on order.
When Rolls-Royce was privatised in April 1987, its share of the large civil turbofan market was only 8%. Despite increasing sales success with the RB211, General Electric and Pratt &
The Turbomeca Arriel is a highly-successful series of French turboshaft engines that first ran in 1974. Weighing 109 kg (240 lb), the Arriel 1 has a power output of 520 kW (700 hp). 10,000 examples had been produced by 2012.
Data from FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet.
The Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major was a large 28-cylinder supercharged air-cooled four-row radial piston aircraft engine designed and built during World War II. It was the last of the Pratt & Whitney Wasp family and the culmination of its maker's piston engine technology, but the war was over before it could power airplanes into combat. It did, however, power the last generation of large piston-engined aircraft before the turbojet and turboprop took over.
The R-4360 was a 28-cylinder four-row air-cooled radial engine. Each row of pistons was slightly offset from the previous, forming a semi-helical arrangement to facilitate efficient airflow cooling of the successive rows of cylinders, with the spiraled cylinder setup inspiring the engine's "corncob" nickname. A mechanical supercharger geared at 6.374:1 ratio to engine speed provided forced induction, while the propeller was geared at 0.375:1 so that the tips did not reach inefficient supersonic speeds.
Although reliable in flight, the Wasp Major was maintenance-intensive. Improper starting technique could foul all 56 spark plugs, which would require hours to clean or replace. As with most piston aircraft engines of the era,
The Metropolitan-Vickers F.2 was an early turbojet engine and the first British design to be based on an axial-flow compressor. It was considered too unreliable for use during the war, and never entered production. The potential of the engine and the investment did not go to waste, however, and eventually resulted in an engine design that was passed on by Metropolitan-Vickers ("Metrovick") when they left the gas turbine business to Armstrong Siddeley; as the Sapphire.
Alan Arnold Griffith published a seminal paper in 1926, An Aerodynamic Theory of Turbine Design, that for the first time clearly demonstrated that a gas turbine could be used as a practical, and even desirable, aircraft powerplant. The paper started by demonstrating that existing axial compressor designs were "flying stalled" due to their use of flat blades, and that dramatic improvements could be made by using airfoil designs instead, improvements that made a gas turbine practical. It went on to outline a complete compressor and turbine design, using the extra exhaust power to drive a second turbine that would power a propellor. In today's terminology the design was a turboprop. In order to prove the design, Griffith
The Rolls-Royce RB.53 Dart is a long-lived British turboprop engine designed, built and manufactured by Rolls-Royce Limited. First produced in the late 1940s, it powered the first Vickers Viscount maiden flight in 1948, and was still in production until the last F27s and H.S 748s were produced in 1987. Following company naming convention for gas turbine engines this turboprop design was named after the River Dart.
Largely associated with the very successful Vickers Viscount medium range airliner it powered a number of other European and Japanese designs of the 1950s and 60s. The list includes:
Power output was around 1,500 hp (1,120 kW) in early versions, and close to twice that in later versions, such as those that powered the NAMC YS-11 airliner. Some versions of the engine were fitted with water methanol injection, which acted as a power restorative in hot and high conditions.
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1965–66
The Shenyang Liming WS-10 (or WS10, WS stands for Woshan, Chinese: 涡扇, meaning turbofan), codename Taihang, is a turbofan engine designed and built in the People's Republic of China. The WS-10A is already being used to power the J-11B. In the next year or two, China plans to use this engine to power the Chengdu J-10 aircraft that currently feature Russian Saturn AL-31FN turbofan engines.
The WS-10 project had it roots in the earlier WS-6 turbofan, which was abandoned at the start of the 1980s. Development of the WS-10 started in 1987 by Shenyang Aeroengine Research Institute (606 Institute) of the China Aviation Industry Corporation and was based upon the core of CFM International CFM56 engines imported from the United States in 1982. This core itself deriving from the F16's GE F101 engines. The original WS-10 was found to lack the performance needed for modern jet-powered fighters and was never used to power an aircraft. The design was modified and an improved version, the WS-10A, was tested on a prototype Shenyang J-11 fighter in 2002.
In 2005 it was reported that, according to Russian sources familiar with China's WS-10A turbofan development project, WS-10A was being developed
The de Havilland PS.23 or PS.52 Gyron, originally the Halford H-4, was Frank Halford's last turbojet design while working for de Havilland. Intended to outpower any design then under construction, the Gyron was the most powerful engine of its era, producing 20,000 lbf (89 kN) "dry", and 27,000 lbf (120 kN) with afterburner ("reheat" in British terminology). The engine was actually too large for most roles and saw no production use. It was later scaled down to 45% of its original size to produce the de Havilland Gyron Junior, which was somewhat more successful.
The Gyron was Halford's first axial-flow design, a complete departure from his earlier centrifugal-flow engines based on Whittle-like designs, the Goblin (H-1) and Ghost (H-2). The Gyron was also one of the first engines designed specifically for supersonic flight.
The Gyron first ran in 1953. Flight testing started in 1955 on a modified Short Sperrin (a bomber design that was instead turned into an experimental aircraft), replacing the lower two Rolls-Royce Avons with the much larger Gyrons. Flight rating was 18,000 lbf (80,000 N). In 1955 the DGy.1 received an official rating of 15,000 lbf (67,000 N). Addition of a reheat
The Jumo 210 was Junkers Motoren's first production inverted V12 gasoline aircraft engine, produced just before the start of World War II. Depending on version it produced between 610 and 700 PS and can be considered a counterpart of the Rolls-Royce Kestrel in many ways. Although originally intended to be used in almost all pre-war designs, rapid progress in aircraft design quickly relegated it to the small end of the power scale by the late 1930s'. Almost all aircraft designs switched to the much larger Daimler-Benz DB 600, so the 210 was produced only for a short time before Junkers responded with a larger engine of their own, the Junkers Jumo 211.
The first gasoline-burning aviation powerplants that the Junkers Motorenwerke ever built, the L1 and L2 single overhead camshaft (SOHC) liquid-cooled inline-6 aviation engines of the early and mid-1920s, leading up through the L8, were basically all developments of the BMW IIIa inline-6 SOHC German World War I aviation engine, which were approved of by BMW as the parent Bavarian firm was no longer interested in development of their WW I aviation engine line. The Junkers L55 engine, however, was the very first V12 layout aviation
The Pratt & Whitney JT8D is a low-bypass (0.96 to 1) turbofan engine, introduced by Pratt & Whitney in February 1963 with the inaugural flight of Boeing's 727. It was a modification of the Pratt & Whitney J52 turbojet engine, which powered the US Navy A-6 Intruder attack aircraft. The Volvo RM8 is an afterburning version that was license-built in Sweden for the Saab 37 Viggen fighter. A "fixed" version for powerplant and ship propulsion is known as the FT12.
The JT8D is an axial-flow front turbofan engine incorporating dual-spool design. There are two coaxially-mounted independent rotating assemblies: one rotating assembly for the low pressure compressor (LPC) which consists of the first six stages (i.e. six pairs of rotating and stator blades, including the first two stages which are for the bypass turbofan), driven by the second (downstream) turbine (which consists of three stages); and a second rotating assembly for the high-pressure compressor (HPC) section, which has seven stages. The high-pressure compressor is driven by the first (upstream) turbine, which has a single stage.
The front-mounted bypass fan has two stages. The annular discharge duct for the bypass fan runs along
The Bristol Siddeley Nimbus, later known as the Rolls-Royce Nimbus, was a British turboshaft engine developed under license by Blackburn Aircraft Ltd. from the Turbomeca Turmo in the late 1950s. It was used on the Westland Scout and Westland Wasp helicopters.
The Nimbus is a turboshaft engine comprising a gas generator section, which consists of a three-stage compressor, (two axial stages and one centrifugal stage), driven by a two-stage turbine in conjunction with an annular combustion chamber, and a power output section consisting of a single-stage free turbine driving an output shaft via a two-stage reduction gearbox.
In the Scout and Wasp the main rotor drive is taken from the front of the gearbox and is transmitted beneath the gas generator via a flexible coupling, while the drive for the tail rotor is taken from the rear of the gearbox.
The fuel system is designed to control and govern the engine under all operating conditions and to provide safeguards against malfunctions, the pilot selecting rotor speed and the governing element automatically maintaining the rotor speed within close limits under varying conditions of load.
The lubrication system is self-contained, the oil
The Ford Model T used a 177-cubic-inch (2.9 L) inline 4-cylinder engine. It was primarily a petrol engine, but it had multifuel ability and could also burn kerosene or ethanol. It produced 20 hp (15 kW) for a top speed of 45 mph (72 km/h). The engine had side valves and 3 main bearings and was built in-unit with the Model T's novel transmission (a planetary design), sharing the same lubricating oil. The engine bore was 3+⁄4 inches (95.25 mm) and its stroke was 4 inches (101.6 mm) even, for a total displacement of 177 cu in (2,900 cc). Casting all four cylinders in one block was an uncommon practice when T production started in 1908.
The spark plugs were powered by a magneto (as typical of the time), and the ignition system included a manual advance/retard control. Starting was via a hand crank.
The Model T engine was produced continuously from September 27, 1908 through August 4, 1941, exactly 12,000 days. This makes it one of the longest engines in series production, especially considering that the specifications remained mostly unchanged for this entire duration. Its production run for the U.S. consumer market for passenger cars and pickups was shorter, being the 19 years'
The General Electric T58 is an American turboshaft engine developed for helicopter use. First run in 1955, it remained in production until 1984, by which time some 6,300 units had been built. On July 1, 1959, it became the first turbine engine to gain FAA certification for civil helicopter use. The engine was license-built and further developed by de Havilland in the UK as the Gnome, and also manufactured by Alfa Romeo and the IHI Corporation.
Development commenced with a 1953 US Navy requirement for a helicopter turboshaft to weigh under 400 lb (180 kg) while delivering 800 hp (600 kW). The engine General Electric eventually built weighed only 250 lb (110 kg) and delivered 1,050 hp (780 kW) and was soon ordered into production. First flight was on a modified Sikorsky HSS-1 in 1957, and civil certification for the CT58-100 variant was obtained two years later.
The main production version of the engine was the T58-GE-10, developing 1,400 hp (1,044 kW). The most powerful version, the T58-GE-16, produces 1,870 hp (1,390 kW).
Two T58s, converted to turbojets by the removal of the power turbines, were used as the engines on the Maverick TwinJet 1200.
The Carroll Shelby turbine cars
The Lyulka AL-7 was a turbojet designed by Arkhip Mikhailovich Lyulka and produced by his Lyulka design bureau. The engine was produced between 1954 and 1970.
The AL-7 had supersonic airflow through the first stage of the compressor. TR-7 prototype developing 6,500 kgf (14,330 lbf, 63.7 kN) of thrust was tested in 1952, and the engine was initially intended for Ilyushin's Il-54 bomber. The afterburning version AL-7F was created in 1953. In April 1956, the Sukhoi S-1 prototype equipped with AL-7F exceeded Mach 2 at 18,000 m (70,900 ft), which lead to production of Su-7 'Fitter' and Su-9 'Fishpot' equipped with this engine. Later, the engine was adopted for Tu-128 'Fiddler' in 1960, and for the AS-3 'Kangaroo' cruise missile. The Beriev Be-10 jet flying boat used a non-afterburning AL-7PB with stainless steel compressor blades.
The Mercedes D.II was a six-cylinder, liquid cooled inline aircraft engine built by Daimler during the early stages of World War I. Producing about 110 to 120 hp, it was at the low-end of the power range of contemporary engines, and was generally outperformed by rotaries whose power-to-weight ratio tended to be much better. It also had stiff competition from the Ferdinand Porsche-designed 120 hp Austro-Daimler 6. The D.II was produced only briefly as a result, but its design formed the basis for the later Mercedes D.III which saw widespread use throughout the war.
The D.II was based on the Austro-Daimler to a large degree. Like the Austro-Daimler, it was built up from the crankcase, which was milled from two pieces of cast aluminum bolted together at their midline. The cylinders were separately milled from steel and bolted to the top of the crankcase. Steel sleeves were fitted over the cylinders and welded on to form a cooling jacket. Much of this complexity is due to the differential rates of expansion of steel and aluminum, which precluded screwing the cylinders into the crankcase, and the alloys of the era meant that an aluminum cylinder was not possible. Both engines also used
The Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D is a small turbofan engine built by Pratt & Whitney Canada. It was introduced in 1971 at 2,200 lbf (9,800 N) thrust, and has since undergone a series of upgrades to just over 3,000 lbf (13 kN) thrust in the latest versions. It is the primary powerplant for a wide variety of smaller jet aircraft, notably business jets. Over 6,000 JT15D's have been delivered since the 1970s, with over 30 million hours of operation.
The JT15D is rare among modern turbofans in that it uses a centrifugal compressor as its main high-pressure system. This was a common feature of early jet engines, but was quickly replaced by axial compressors in most roles due to its large frontal size. In the turbofan role most of the jet thrust is generated by the cold air blown past the engine, and the internal "jet" portion is quite small. In this role the high single-stage compression of the centrifugal design has advantages, and the main reason most small turbofans don't use them is that they are often developments of previous turbojet designs.
In the JT15D the fan blows about 70% of the air into the bypass duct, producing most of the overall thrust. On JT15D-4 models and above there
The Pratt & Whitney PW4000 is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines with certified thrust ranging from 52,000 to 99,040 lbf (230 to 441 kN). Built as the successor to the JT9D series engines, it has found much wider application than its predecessor.
The PW4000 is divided into three distinct families based on fan diameter.
The first family is the 94 inch (2.4 m) diameter fan with certified thrust ranging from 52,000 to 62,000 lbf (230 to 275 kN). It powers the Airbus A310-300, A300-600 aircraft, Boeing 747-400, 767-200/300 and MD-11 aircraft and is certified for 180-minute ETOPS if used in twinjets. These models include the PW4052, PW4056, PW4060, PW4062, PW4062A, PW4152, PW4156A, PW4156, PW4158, PW4460, and PW4462.
The second family is the 100 inch (2.5 m) diameter fan engine developed specifically for Airbus Industrie's A330 twinjet. It has certified thrust from 64,500 to 68,600 lbf (287 to 305 kN). Models are numbered PW4164, PW4168, and PW4168A. The launch of the Advantage70 program was announced at the 2006 Farnborough Airshow with a sale to Kingfisher Airlines. This package will increase certified thrust to 70,000 lbf (311 kN,) reduce fuel burn by about 1%, and
The Tumansky RD-9 was an early Soviet turbojet engine, not based on pre-existing German or British designs. It was a development of the Mikulin AM-5, featuring a new compressor with higher subsonic airflow. The engine completed testing in 1953 and produced 5,732 lbf (25.50 kN) thrust without afterburner. When Sergei Tumansky replaced Alexander Mikulin as the OKB-24's chief designer in 1956, the engine was renamed RD-9. The engine was built under license in China as the WP-6.
The RD-9B was also used in the East German civilian jetliner project Baade 152 in 1958 and 1959. It was replaced when Pirna 014 engines became available.
RD-9B page on LeteckeMotory.cz (cs)
The Walter Mikron is a four-cylinder, aircooled, inverted straight engine for aircraft. With a displacement of 2.4 L (149 cu in), it produces 48 kW (65 hp) at 2,600 rpm.
The first run was in 1938 in Czechoslovakia. Since 1999, the engine is again produced, by Parma Technik of Luhačovice. New improved versions include the Mikron IIIB: 75 hp at 2750rpm (5 minutes), 2,4L, max continuous power 69 hp, bore 90mm, stroke 96mm, dry weight 69 kg, and the Mikron IIIC 80 hp at 2800rpm and 2,7L. These engines are mostly used on ultralight and LSA aircraft.
The Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9 was an American radial engine developed by Curtiss-Wright and widely used on 1930s through 1950s aircraft.
The R-1820 Cyclone 9 represented a further development of the Wright P-2 engine dating back to 1925. Featuring a greater displacement and a host of improvements, the R-1820 entered production in 1931. The engine remained in production well into the 1950s.
The R-1820 was built under license by Lycoming, Pratt & Whitney Canada, and also, during World War II, by the Studebaker Corporation. The Soviet Union had purchased a license for the design, and the Shvetsov OKB was formed to produce the engine as the M-25. In Spain the R-1820 was license-built as the Hispano-Suiza 9V or Hispano-Wright 9V.
The R-1820 was at the heart of many famous aircraft including the early Douglas airliners (prototype DC-1, the DC-2, earliest civilian versions of the DC-3, and the limited-production DC-5), B-17 Flying Fortress, and SBD Dauntless bombers, the early versions of the Polikarpov I-16 fighter (as M-25), and the Piasecki H-21 helicopter.
The R-1820 also found limited use in armored vehicles in two forms. The G-200 was a nine-cylinder gas-burning radial that developed
The Armstrong Siddeley Python was an early British turboprop engine designed and built by the Armstrong Siddeley company in the mid 1940s. Its main use was in the Westland Wyvern carrier-based heavy fighter, the turboprop engine replacing the Wyvern prototype's original Rolls-Royce Eagle piston engine in production aircraft. In this application, the Python was rated at 4,110 EHP (Effective Horsepower).
The design started as an experimental pure-turbojet known as the ASX, which commenced testing in 1943. By this point other engine designs were already entering pre-production, and it seemed there was little need for the ASX in its existing form. The design was then modified into the turboprop layout with the addition of a second turbine stage, which was geared to the propeller and was named ASP at that stage.
Early flight-testing of the Python was carried out using the Lancaster B.1 (FE) TW911 and the Lincoln B.2 RE339/G, each aircraft having the two outboard Rolls-Royce Merlins replaced by Pythons. Lincoln B.2 RF403 also had two Pythons similarly installed and was used for high-altitude bombing trials at Woomera, South Australia, the Pythons being used to increase the height from
The BMW 803 was BMW's attempt to build a high-power aircraft engine by "coupling" two BMW 801s back-to-back driving contra-rotating propellers. The result was a 28-cylinder 4-row radial engine, like the contemporary American Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major of 17% smaller total displacement, but unlike the American engine, due to cooling concerns the 803 engine was liquid cooled.
One problem with scaling up any engine design is that eventually a point is reached where the crankshaft becomes a major engineering challenge. This was a problem that affected almost all engines of the 2,500 hp (1,900 kW) class, including BMW's own 18-cylinder BMW 802 project. For the 803 the engineers decided to avoid this problem by simply not using a common crankshaft, and driving a set of independent contra-rotating propellers. The front engine drove the front propeller directly, while the rear engine drove a number of smaller shafts that passed between the cylinders of the front engine before being geared back together to drive the rear prop. This layout resulted in a rather large gearbox on the front of the engine, and the front engine needing an extended shaft to "clear" the gearbox.
The General Electric F118 is a non-afterburning turbofan engine produced by GE Aviation, and is derived from the General Electric F110 afterburning turbofan.
The F118 is a non-afterburning derivative of the F110 specially developed for the B-2 Spirit stealth bomber. A single stage HP turbine drives the 9 stage HP compressor, whilst a 2 stage LP turbine drives the 3 stage fan. The combustor is annular. In 1998, the USAF's Lockheed U-2 fleet was fitted with a modified version of the F118.
The Jendrassik Cs-1 was the world's first working turboprop engine. It was designed by Hungarian engineer György Jendrassik in 1937, and was intended to power a Hungarian twin-engine heavy fighter, the RMI-1.
The engine was designed by György Jendrassik in 1937. It ran for the first time in 1940, but problems with combustion stability limited the power to 400 hp, from the design goal of 1,000 hp. There was nothing inherently wrong with the design, however, and continued work on the flame cans should have allowed it to develop to full power.
All work on the engine was later stopped when the Hungarian Air Force selected the Messerschmitt Me 210 for the heavy fighter role, and the engine factory converted over to the Daimler-Benz DB 605 to power it. The prototype RMI-1 was later fitted with these engines in 1944.
The Jumo 211 was an inverted V-12 aircraft engine, Junkers Motoren's primary aircraft engine of World War II. It was the direct competitor to the famous Daimler-Benz DB 601 and closely paralleled its development. While the Daimler-Benz engine was mostly used in single-engined and twin-engined fighters, the Jumo engine was primarily used in bombers such as Junkers' own Ju 87 and Ju 88, and Heinkel's H-series examples of the Heinkel He 111 medium bomber.
The Jumo 211 was developed by Dr. Franz Josef Neugebauer as scaled-up successor to the earlier Jumo 210. In 1934, even before the new Jumo 210 had completed its acceptance tests, the RLM sent out a request for a new 1,000 PS-class engine of about 500 kg weight. Both Jumo and Daimler-Benz responded, and in order to reach service before the new Daimler-Benz DB 600, the Jumo team decided to make their new design as similar as possible to their 210H model, currently in testing.
The resulting Jumo 211 was first prototyped at Jumo's Dessau plant in 1935 and started testing in April 1936. Like the 210H, it featured a direct fuel injection system powered by small pistons driven off the crankshaft, three valves per cylinder, and an inverted V
The Napier Gazelle was a turboshaft engine manufactured by Napier Aero Engines in the mid 1950s, production ceased when the Napier company was taken over by Rolls-Royce in 1962.
These helicopter engines were used on the Westland Wessex HAS 1 and HAS 3 (Other versions of the Wessex had 2 Rolls Royce Gnome engines) and the Bristol Belvedere (later Westland Belvedere) transport helicopter.
A preserved Napier Gazelle is on display at the Royal Air Force Museum London.
Data from Flightglobal archive
The Perseus was a British, nine-cylinder, single-row, air-cooled radial aircraft engine produced by the Bristol Engine Company starting in 1932. It was the first production sleeve valve aero engine.
In late 1925 and early 1926, the RAE published a series of papers by Harry Ricardo on the sleeve valve principle. The main advantages over the traditional poppet valves was better volumetric efficiency, and the ability to operate at higher rotational speeds. This allowed a smaller engine to produce the same power as a larger one, leading to better fuel efficiency and compact design, particularly in multi-row radial engines.
Roy Fedden, Bristol's primary engine designer, became interested in the concept and by 1927 he had constructed a working two-cylinder V as a testbed, with the idea of developing it into a V-12. However several problems cropped up on the design, notably that the sleeves tended to burst during the power stroke and strip their driving gears. This led to a long series of tests and materials changes and upgrades that required six years and an estimated 2 million pounds to cure; however, by 1933 the problems had been worked out, and the Perseus went on to become the first
The Continental O-170 engine is the collective military designation for a family of small aircraft engines, known under the company designation of A50, A65, A75 and A80. The line was designed and built by Continental Motors commencing in the 1940s. It was employed as the powerplant for civil and military light aircraft.
The horizontally opposed, four-cylinder engines in this family are all identical in appearance, bore, stroke, dry weight and piston displacement. All feature a bottom-mounted updraft carburetor fuel delivery system. The higher power variants differ only in compression ratio and maximum allowable rpm, plus minor modifications. The lower power versions are fully convertible to the higher rated versions.
In all models of this family of engines the cylinder heads are of aluminum alloy, screwed and shrunk onto steel barrels. Spark plug inserts and intake valve seats are made from aluminum-bronze alloy, while the exhaust valve seats are steel. The engines all employ hydraulic tappets which operate in aluminum guides that are machined into the crankcase. The tappets are built from four parts, a cam follower body, cup, cylinder and piston and operate with clearances of
The ERCO I-L 116 was an American inline aircraft engine designed and built in the late 1930s. The type was not placed into series production due to competition from cheaper engines.
In late 1938, the Engineering and Research Corporation (ERCO) searched unsuccessfully for a suitable engine for its new "safe" airplane, the Ercoupe. ERCO hired Harold Morehouse, former engineer in charge of small engine design at Continental Motors, to design a new engine. He came up with the inverted, in-line I-L 116, which provided good pilot visibility and enhanced aircraft streamlining.
ERCO installed the I-L 116 in the prototype Ercoupe Model 310 in 1939. The engine performed well, but ERCO discontinued it when Continental introduced the A-65 engine in 1940, which generated comparable horsepower at half the cost. ERCO manufactured parts for six I-L 116s but built only three were built.
An ERCO I-L 116, believed to be the last remaining engine, is on display at the National Air and Space Museum.
The General Electric/Rolls-Royce F136 was an advanced turbofan engine being developed by General Electric and Rolls-Royce plc for the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II. The two companies stopped work on the project in December 2011 after failing to gather Pentagon support for further development.
All early F-35s were to be powered by the Pratt & Whitney F135 but it was planned that engine contracts would be competitively tendered from Lot 6 onward. The engines selected would be either the F135 or an engine produced by the GE/RR Fighter Engine Team and designated the F136. The GE/RR Fighter Engine Team was a co-operation between GE Aviation in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States (60% share) and Rolls-Royce in Bristol, United Kingdom and Indianapolis, Indiana, USA (40% share).
On 21 July 2004, the F136 began full engine runs at GE's Evendale, Ohio facility. The engine ran for over an hour during two separate runs. In August 2005, the United States Department of Defense awarded the GE and Rolls-Royce team a $2.4 billion contract to develop its F136 engine. The contract was for the system development and demonstration (SDD) phase of the F136 initiative, scheduled to run until September
The Jumo 004 was the world's first turbojet engine in production and operational use, and the first successful axial compressor jet engine ever built. Some 8,000 units were manufactured by Junkers in Germany during late World War II, powering the operational Messerschmitt Me 262 fighter jet and the Arado Ar 234 reconnaissance / bomber jet, along with prototypes including the Horten Ho 229 aircraft. Variants of the engine were produced in Eastern Europe for years following the war.
The feasibility of jet propulsion had been demonstrated in Germany in early 1937 by Hans von Ohain working with the Heinkel company. Most of the RLM remained uninterested, but Helmut Schelp and Hans Mauch saw the potential of the concept and encouraged Germany's aero engine manufacturers to begin their own programmes of jet engine development. The companies remained skeptical and little new development was carried out.
In 1939 Schelp and Mauch visited the companies to check up on progress. Otto Mader, head of Junkers Motoren (Jumo), stated that even if the concept was useful, he had no one to work on it. Schelp responded by stating that Dr Anselm Franz, then in charge of Junkers' turbo- and supercharger
The Junkers Jumo 213 was a World War II-era V-12 liquid cooled aircraft engine, a development of Junkers Motoren's earlier design, the Jumo 211. The design added two features, a pressurized cooling system that required considerably less cooling fluid that allowed the engine to be built smaller and lighter, and a number of improvements that allowed it to run at higher RPM. Although these changes may sound fairly minor, they boosted power by over 500 hp and made the 213 one of the most sought-after engine designs in the late-war era.
When the Jumo 211 entered production in the late 1930s it used a normal liquid cooling system based on an "open cycle". Water was pumped through the engine to keep it cool, but the system as a whole operated at outside air pressure, or only slightly greater. Since the boiling point of water is affected by pressure, this meant that as the aircraft climbed the temperature of the cooling water had to be kept quite low to avoid boiling, which in turn meant that the water removed little heat from the engine before flowing into the radiator to cool it.
In contrast, the 1940 Daimler-Benz DB 601E used a pressurized system that ran at the same pressure at all
The Klimov RD-500 was an unlicensed Soviet copy of the Rolls-Royce Derwent Mk.V turbojet that was sold to the Soviet Union in 1947. The Klimov OKB adapted it for Soviet production methods and materials.
Producing metric drawings and analyzing the materials used in the Derwent went fairly quickly, but find a substitute for the high-temperature, creep-resistant Nimonic 80 steel alloy was a more difficult challenge. Eventually an alloy that matched Nimonic 80's high-temperature properties was found in KhN 80T, but it was not creep-resistant. The first Derwent copy, designated as the RD-500 (Reaktivnyy Dvigatel' — jet engine) after the Factory No. 500 where the engine was first produced, was being tested on 31 December 1947, but problems cropped up quickly. Combustion was uneven and this cracked the combustion chambers. This may have had something to do with the modifications made by the Soviets to the fuel, speed and starter systems. But these problems were resolved by September 1948 when the engine passed its 100-hour State acceptance test.
RD-500 was a close copy of the Derwent with a single-stage centrifugal compressor, nine combustion chambers and a single-stage turbine. It
The Kuznetsov NK-12 is a Soviet turboprop engine of the 1950s, designed by the Kuznetsov design bureau. It drives huge eight-bladed (four per propeller) contra-rotating propellers 5.6 m (18ft 4.5in) in diameter (6.2 m (20ft 4.1in) in the NK-12MA and NK-12MV).
The design that eventually became the NK 12 turboprop was developed after World War II by a team of deported German engineers under Ferdinand Brandner, which had worked for Junkers before. Thus, the NK 12 design evolved from late war German turboprop studies. This started with the post-war development of the wartime Jumo 022 turboprop design that developed 6000 ehp in a 3000 kg engine. The effort continued with a 5000 ehp engine that weighed in at 1700 kg, completed by 1947. The evolution to the TV-12 12000 Ehp engine required extensive use of new Soviet-developed alloys and was completed in 1951.
The NK-12M developed 8,948 kW (12,000 ehp), uprated in the NK-12MV to 11,033 kW (14,795 ehp) and reaching 11,185 kW (15,000 ehp) in the NK-12MA. The NK-12 remains the most powerful turboprop engine ever built. Only recently the Progress D-27 and Europrop TP400 came somewhat close. It powered the Tupolev Tu-95 bomber and its
The Lockheed J37 (company designation L-1000) was one of the first turbojet engines designed in the United States. It was not considered very important when it was first introduced in the 1930s and development was allowed to languish. By the time it was developed enough for production use, other engines, often British-derived, had surpassed it in performance. The design was later converted to a turboprop, the T35 and still later sold to Wright Aeronautical, where it saw some interest for use on what would become the B-52 Stratofortress, before that design moved to jet power. The J37 and T35 were built to the extent of a number of testbed examples but never entered production.
In 1930 Nathan C. Price joined Doble Steam Motors, a manufacturer of steam engines for cars and other uses. Over the next few years he worked on a number of projects and starting in autumn 1933 began working on a steam turbine for aircraft use. The engine featured a centrifugal compressor that fed air to a combustion chamber, which in turn fed steam into a turbine before exiting through a nozzle, powering the compressor and a propeller. The engine was fitted to a test aircraft in early 1934, where it
The Lotarev DV-2 (or PSLM DV-2) is a two-spool turbofan engine manufactured in Považská Bystrica, Slovakia by Považské Strojárne Letecké Motory (PSLM) (former ZVL) and designed in partnership with Ivchenko Lotarev Design Bureau.
Developed from the Ivchenko AI-25 turbofan engine, ZVL was also responsible for pre-production and serial engine production.
The DV-2 is a two-spool modular aviation turbofan engine with a single-stage overhung fan, two-stage LP compressor, seven-stage HP compressor, single-stage HP turbine, and two-stage LP turbine, and an annular combustion system. Maximum power at T-O is 4,850 lbf (21.58 kN) with a specific fuel consumption of 0.593lb/hr/lbf, at Maximum Rating, Sea Level Static, ISA.
One of the most unusual features of this military engine is the single stage fan; most trainer and combat engines have multi-staged fans, single stage fans normally being the preserve of civil and military transport turbofans. Ivchenko Lotarev chose a very low specific thrust (net thrust/airflow) cycle for the DV-2, so a single stage fan is sufficient to develop the desired fan pressure ratio. Even so, the pressure ratio produced is somewhat higher than that normally
The Lycoming O-320 is a large family of 92 different normally aspirated, air-cooled, four-cylinder, direct-drive engines commonly used on light aircraft such as the Cessna 172 and Piper Cherokee. Different variants are rated for 150 or 160 horsepower (112 or 119 kilowatts). As implied by the engine's name, its cylinders are arranged in horizontally opposed configuration and a displacement of 320 cubic inches (5.24 L / 319.75cuin).
The O-320 family of engines includes the carbureted O-320, the fuel-injected IO-320, the inverted mount, fuel-injected AIO-320 and the aerobatic, fuel-injected AEIO-320 series. The LIO-320 is a series of two models identical to the same model IO-320, but with the crankshaft rotating in the opposite direction for use on twin-engined aircraft to eliminate the critical engine.
The first O-320 (with no suffix) was FAA certified on 28 July 1953 to CAR 13 effective 5 March 1952; this same engine was later re-designated, without change, as the O-320-A1A. The first IO-320 was certified on 10 April 1961, with the AIO-320 following on 23 June 1969 and the first aerobatic AEIO-320 on 12 April 1974. The LIO-320s were both certified on 28 August 1969.
The O-320 family
The Mercedes D.III, or F1466 as it was known internally, was a six-cylinder, liquid cooled inline aircraft engine built by Daimler and used on a wide variety of German aircraft during World War I. The initial versions were introduced in 1914 at 160 hp, but a series of changes improved this to 170 hp in 1917, and 180 by mid 1918. These later models were used on almost all late-war German fighters, and its only real competition, the BMW III, was available only in very limited numbers. Compared to the Allied engines it faced, the D.III was generally outdated.
The D.III was based on the same pattern as the earlier Mercedes D.II, suitably scaled up for higher power settings. Like most inlines of the era, it used a large aluminum crankcase as the main structural component, with separate cylinders made from steel bolted onto it. The technology for screwing a threaded cylinder of steel into an aluminum crankcase did not exist at that time. Jackets for cooling water covered the top 2/3 of the cylinder, feeding a radiator via connections at the back of the engine.
The D.III featured a rather prominent overhead cam operating the single intake and exhaust valves, powered by a shaft running up
The Mikulin AM-34 (M-34) was the Soviet Union’s first indigenous mass-produced, liquid-cooled, aircraft engine. Its initial development was troubled, but it eventually became one of the most successful Soviet aircraft engines of the 1930s. It was utilized on the Beriev MBR-2, Tupolev TB-3, Tupolev TB-4, Tupolev ANT-20, Petlyakov Pe-8, Kalinin K-7, Polikarpov I-17 and Bolkhovitinov DB-A aircraft as well as the G-5 and various prototype motor torpedo boats. A version of the maritime model was adapted for use in several prototype heavy tanks in 1939, although none were placed into production.
The M-34 began development in 1928 as a replacement for the Mikulin M-17, a license-built copy of the BMW VI. It had similar dimensions and attachment points, but was otherwise an entirely new design. It was a direct-drive, block-type engine with the cylinder block connected by long internal studs with centrally-coupled connecting rods. The development process was prolonged with the engineering drawings not completed until April 1931. The first engine was delivered to TsIAM (Tsentralniy Institut Aviatsionnogo Motorostroeniya, Russian: Центральный Институт Авиационного Моторостроения) on 21
The Mikulin AM-38 was a 1940s Soviet aircraft piston engine. It was a further development of the Mikulin AM-35 design. The AM-38 was used on the Il-2 Shturmovik and Il-10 ground attack aircraft. The engine may also have been installed in MiG-3 aircraft, as a field modification, to improve the speed and performance
The Nakajima Homare (誉, "praise" or, more usually, "honour") was an air-cooled twin-row 18 cylinder radial Japanese aircraft engine manufactured during World War II. Producing almost 2,000 horsepower, it was used widely by both the Imperial Japanese Army and the Imperial Japanese Navy. NK9 "Homare" was the navy service designation, and their experimental designation for it was NBA; the army called it the Ha-45 (ハ45) or, in service, the Nakajima Army Type 4 1,900 hp Air-Cooled Radial. According to unified designation code it was also Ha-45.
Development of the Homare started in 1940, and certification was completed in 1941. It succeeded Nakajima's previous 14 cylinder Sakae (Ha-25) engine, with its forward seven cylinders staggered from the rear seven for efficient cooling.
The design was exceptionally compact, with an external diameter of 118 cm, a mere 3 cm larger than the Sakae. With a bore and stroke of 130 mm x 150 mm, it was classified as a short-stroke engine. It was designed to output around 1800 hp (1340 kW), or 100 hp (75 kW) per cylinder. However, the tight design of the engine made it difficult to maintain quality in manufacturing, and unreliability in the field was a
The Napier Nomad was a British diesel aircraft engine designed and built by Napier & Son in 1949. They combined a piston engine with a turbine to recover energy from the exhaust and thereby improve fuel economy. Two versions were tested, the complex Nomad I which used two propellers, each driven by the mechanically independent stages, and the Nomad II, using the turbo-compound principle, coupled the two parts to drive a single propeller. The Nomad II had the lowest specific fuel consumption figures seen up to that time. Despite this the Nomad project was cancelled in 1955 having spent £5.1 million on development, as most interest had passed to turboprop designs.
In 1945 the Air Ministry asked for proposals for a new 6,000 horsepower (4,500 kW) class engine with good fuel economy. Curtiss-Wright was designing an engine of this sort of power known as the turbo-compound engine, but Sir Harry Ricardo, one of Britain's great engine designers, suggested that the most economical combination would be a similar design using a diesel two-stroke in place of the Curtiss's petrol engine.
Before World War II Napier had licensed the Junkers Jumo 204 diesel design to set up production in the UK as
The Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior is a series of nine-cylinder air-cooled radial aircraft engines built by the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Company from the 1930s to the 1950s. These engines have a displacement of 985 cu in (16 L); initial versions produced 300 hp (220 kW), while the most widely used versions produce 450 hp (340 kW).
Wasp Juniors have powered numerous smaller civil and military aircraft, including small transports, utility aircraft, trainers, agricultural aircraft, and helicopters. Over 39,000 of these engines were built, and many are still in service today.
Pratt & Whitney developed the R-985 Wasp Junior as a smaller version of the R-1340 Wasp to compete in the market for medium-sized aircraft engines. Like its larger brother, the Wasp Junior was an air-cooled nine-cylinder radial, with its power boosted by a gear-driven single-speed centrifugal supercharger. Its cylinders were smaller, however, with a bore and stroke of 5+⁄16 in (132 mm), giving a lesser total displacement. The Wasp Junior used many parts from the Wasp and even had the same mounting dimensions, allowing an aircraft to easily use either the smaller or the larger engine. The first run of the Wasp
The Pratt & Whitney TF30 (company designation JTF10A) was a military low-bypass turbofan engine originally designed by Pratt & Whitney for the subsonic F6D Missileer missile carrier, but this project was cancelled. It was later adapted with an afterburner for supersonic designs, and in this form it was the world's first production afterburning turbofan, going on to power the F-111 and the F-14A Tomcat, as well seeing use in early versions of the A-7 Corsair II without an afterburner. First flight of the TF30 was in 1964 and production continued until 1986.
In the 1958, the Douglas Aircraft Company proposed a short-range, four-engined jet airliner to fill the gap below its new DC-8 intercontinental; it was known internally as the Model 2067, and to be marketed as the DC-9, jet. Pratt & Whitney (P&W) had offered its JT8A turbojet for the airliner, but Douglas preferred to go with a turbofan engine, which would have a greater fuel efficiency than a turbojet. P&W then proposed the JT10A, a half-scale version of its newly developed JT8D turbofan. Development of the new design began in April 1959, using the core of the JT8. Douglas shelved the projected DC-9 in 1960, as the targeted US
The Shvetsov ASh-82 (M-82) is a 14-cylinder, two-row, air-cooled radial aircraft engine developed from the Shvetsov M-62. The M-62 was the result of development of the M-25, which was a licensed version of the Wright R-1820 Cyclone.
Arkadiy Shvetsov developed the Wright Cyclone design, reducing the stroke, dimensions and weight. This allowed the engine to be used in light aircraft, where a Twin Cyclone could not be installed. It entered production in 1940 and saw service in a number of Soviet aircraft. It powered the Tupolev Tu-2 and Pe-8 bombers and the inline engine-powered LaGG-3 was adapted for the ASh-82, additionally the famous Lavochkin La-5, Lavochkin La-7 fighters, and the Ilyushin Il-14 airliner were created around the engine. Over 70,000 ASh-82s were built.
The Westinghouse J40 was to be a high performance afterburning turbojet engine. It was intended by the Bureau of Aeronautics in early 1946 to power several fighter aircraft, with a rating of 7,500 lbf (33 kN) of thrust at sea level static conditions, but a more powerful 11,000 lbf (49 kN) thrust version for McDonnell F3H Demon proved to be a failure. After a troublesome and delayed development program, failures in service led to the loss of aircraft and pilots and grounding of all J40 powered Demons.
After the program was called a "fiasco" and an "engine flop", the J40 program was terminated in 1955, by which time all the aircraft it was to power were either grounded, canceled or redesigned to use alternative engines. The J40's failure was among those that affected the most military programs and produced the most unflyable aircraft, and would lead to the downfall of the engine division of Westinghouse. In 1953 Westinghouse worked with Rolls-Royce to offer engines based on the Avon, but Westinghouse was out of the aircraft engine business when this engine also failed to find a United States market.
Westinghouse Electric Corporation established the Westinghouse Aviation Gas Turbine
The Williams FJ33 is a family of turbofan jet engines intended for use in very light jet aircraft. The FJ33 is a scaled-down version of the FJ44 engine.
Engine configuration is believed to be a single stage fan, with booster stage/s, driven by a 2 stage LP turbine, supercharging a centrifugal HP compressor, driven by a single stage HP turbine. An annular combustor is featured.
The FJ33 has a dry weight of less than 300 lb (140 kg), overall diameter of 21.05in, 47.9in overall length, and produces between 1000 and 1,800 lbf (8,000 N) static thrust. Specific fuel consumption at 1,200 lbf (5,300 N) thrust (SLS, ISA) is understood to be 0.486 lb/h/lbf.
The FJ33 has been selected to power a number of different aircraft:
The Williams FJ44 is a family of small, two-spool, turbofan engines produced by Williams International/Rolls-Royce for the light business jet market. Until the recent boom in the Very Light Jet market, the FJ44 was one of the smallest turbofans available for civilian applications. Although basically a Williams design, Rolls-Royce was brought into the project, at an early stage, to design, develop and manufacture an air-cooled HP turbine for the engine. The FJ44 first flew on July 12, 1988 on the Scaled Composites/Beechcraft Triumph aircraft.
The Williams FJ33 is a smaller engine based on the basic FJ44 design.
Production started in 1992 with the 1900 lbf (8.45 kN) thrust FJ44-1A, which comprises a 20.9 in (531 mm) diameter single stage blisk fan plus a single intermediate pressure (IP) booster stage, driven by a 2 stage low pressure (LP) turbine, supercharging a single stage centrifugal high pressure (HP) compressor, driven by a single stage uncooled high pressure (HP) turbine. The combustor is an impingement cooled annular design. Fuel is delivered to the combustor through an unusual rotating fuel nozzle system, rather than the standard fuel-air mixers or vapourisers. The bypass
The Wright R-1300 Cyclone 7 is an American air-cooled seven-cylinder supercharged radial aircraft engine produced by Curtiss-Wright.
The R1300 is similar to a single row Wright R-2600. The engine was mass produced but not widely used. Engineering began in 1942 but the first flight of an R1300 did not take place until 1949. The engine was produced under license by Kaiser-Frazer and later by AVCO Lycoming.
The engine was used in combat, the R1300-1A, -1B in the A model North American Aviation T-28 Trojan and the R1300-3,-3A,-3C,-3D Sikorsky UH-19 Chickasaw. The R1300-1B was used in the Ayres Thrush. The R1300-4, -4A was used in the N class blimp, 50 of these designation were produced by AVCO.
The engines early on had vibration problems, an improved lateral dampener in the crank brought about most of the model changes.
Data from Type Certificate Data Sheet 5E-14.