Top List Curated by Listnerd
  • Public list
  • Nov 27th 2012
  • 2.735 views
  • 616 votes
  • 616 voters
  • 5%
Best Drug ingredient of All Time

More about Best Drug ingredient of All Time:

Best Drug ingredient of All Time is a public top list created by Listnerd on Rankly.com on November 27th 2012. Items on the Best Drug ingredient of All Time top list are added by the Rankly.com community and ranked using our secret ranking sauce. Best Drug ingredient of All Time has gotten 2.735 views and has gathered 616 votes from 616 voters. Only owner can add items. Just members can vote.

Best Drug ingredient of All Time is a top list in the Health & Fitness category on Rankly.com. Are you a fan of Health & Fitness or Best Drug ingredient of All Time? Explore more top 100 lists about Health & Fitness on Rankly.com or participate in ranking the stuff already on the all time Best Drug ingredient of All Time top list below.

If you're not a member of Rankly.com, you should consider becoming one. Registration is fast, free and easy. At Rankly.com, we aim to give you the best of everything - including stuff like the Best Drug ingredient of All Time list.

Get your friends to vote! Spread this URL or share:

Items just added

    1
    Potassium nitrate

    Potassium nitrate

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Potassium nitrate and sodium fluoride 50/2.4 dentifrice paste
    Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the formula KNO3. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K and nitrate ions NO3. It occurs as a mineral niter and is a natural solid source of nitrogen. Potassium nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as saltpeter. Major uses of potassium nitrate are in fertilizers, food additive, rocket propellants and fireworks; it is one of the constituents of gunpowder. The earliest known complete purification process for potassium nitrate was outlined in 1270 by the chemist and engineer Hasan al-Rammah of Syria in his book al-Furusiyya wa al-Manasib al-Harbiyya ('The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices'). In this book, al-Rammah describes first the purification of barud (crude saltpetre mineral) by boiling it with minimal water and using only the hot solution, then the use of potassium carbonate (in the form of wood ashes) to remove calcium and magnesium by precipitation of their carbonates from this solution, leaving a solution of purified potassium nitrate, which could then be dried. This was used for the manufacture of gunpowder and explosive devices. The terminology used by al-Rammah
    8.83
    6 votes
    2
    Lima bean

    Lima bean

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Lima beans 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Lima beans 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Lima bean extract
    Phaseolus lunatus is a legume. It is grown for its seed, which is eaten as a vegetable. It is commonly known as the lima bean or butter bean. Phaseolus lunatus is of Andean and Mesoamerican origin. Two separate domestication events are believed to have occurred. The first, taking place in the Andes around 2000 BC, produced a large-seeded variety (Lima type), while the second, taking place in Mesoamerica around AD 800, produced a small-seeded variety (Sieva type). By around 1300, cultivation had spread north of the Rio Grande, and in the 1500s, the plant began to be cultivated in the Old World. The small-seeded wild form (Sieva type) is found distributed from Mexico to Argentina, generally below 1600 meters above sea level, while the large-seeded wild form (Lima type) is found distributed in the north of Peru, between 320 and 2030 meters above sea level. The Moche Culture (1-800 AD) cultivated all of the lima beans and often depicted them in their art. During the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, lima beans were exported to the rest of the Americas and Europe, and since the boxes of such goods had their place of origin labeled "Lima - Peru", the beans got named as such. The term "butter
    6.63
    8 votes
    3
    Cantaloupe

    Cantaloupe

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Cantaloupe 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Cantaloupe 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Cantaloupe extract
    Cantaloupe (also canteloupe, cantaloup, mushmelon, muskmelon, rockmelon, Persian melon, spanspek (South Africa), or Garma گرما) refers to a variety of Cucumis melo, a species in the family Cucurbitaceae. Cantaloupes range in size from 500 g to 5 kg (1 to 10 lb). Originally, cantaloupe referred only to the non-netted, orange-fleshed melons of Europe. However, in more recent usage, it has come to mean any orange-fleshed melon (C. melo). Cantaloupe is the most popular variety of melon in the United States. The name is derived, via French, from the Italian Cantalupo which was formerly a papal county seat near Rome. Tradition has it, that this is where it was first cultivated in Europe, on its introduction from Ancient Armenia. Its first known usage in English dates from 1739 in The Gardeners Dictionary Vol. II by Scottish botanist Philip Miller (1691–1771). The European cantaloupe is lightly ribbed, with a gray-green skin that looks quite different from that of the North American cantaloupe. The North American cantaloupe, common in the United States, Mexico, and in some parts of Canada, is actually a muskmelon, a different variety of Cucumis melo, and has a net-like (or reticulated)
    8.17
    6 votes
    4
    Trout

    Trout

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Trout 50 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Trout 50 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Trout, unspecified extract
    Trout is the name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is also used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout or speckled trout. Trout are closely related to salmon and char (or charr): species termed salmon and char occur in the same genera as do trout (Oncorhynchus - Pacific salmon and trout, Salmo - Atlantic salmon and various trout, Salvelinus - char and trout). Most trout such as Lake trout live in freshwater lakes and/or rivers exclusively, while there are others such as the Rainbow trout which spend two or three years at sea before returning to freshwater to spawn, a habit more typical of salmon. Trout are an important food source for humans and wildlife including brown bears, birds of prey such as eagles, and other animals. They are classified as an oily fish. The name trout is commonly used for some species in three of the seven genera in the subfamily Salmoninae: Salmo, Atlantic species; Oncorhynchus, Pacific species; and Salvelinus, which includes fish also sometimes called char or
    6.71
    7 votes
    5
    Oxalic acid

    Oxalic acid

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Natural medicine 0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Natural medicine 0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Aconitum napellus/Actaea spicata root/Aesculus hippocastanum flower/Arnica montana/Bellis perennis/Bryonia alba root/Black cohosh/Hypericum perforatum/Lilium lancifolium bulb/Tomato/Oxalic acid/Ruta graveolens flowering top/Salicylic acid/Stellaria media
    Oxalic acid is an organic compound with the formula H2C2O4. It is a colorless crystalline solid that dissolves in water to give colorless solutions. It is classified as a dicarboxylic acid. In terms of acid strength, it is much stronger than acetic acid. Oxalic acid is a reducing agent and its conjugate base, known as oxalate (C2O4), is a chelating agent for metal cations. Typically, oxalic acid occurs as the dihydrate with the formula H2C2O4·2H2O. Ingestion of oxalic acid through skin contact or orally is dangerous. Oxalic acid is mainly manufactured by the oxidation of carbohydrates or glucose using nitric acid or air in the presence of vanadium pentoxide. A variety of precursors can be used including glycolic acid and ethylene glycol. A newer method entails oxidative carbonylation of alcohols to give the diesters of oxalic acid: These diesters are subsequently hydrolyzed to oxalic acid. Approximately 120,000 metric tons are produced annually. Although it can be readily purchased, oxalic acid can be prepared in the laboratory by oxidizing sucrose using nitric acid in the presence of a small amount of vanadium pentoxide as a catalyst. The hydrated solid can be dehydrated with heat
    8.80
    5 votes
    6
    Calcium arsenate

    Calcium arsenate

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Lycopodium clavatum, phytolacca decandra, abies canadensis, ammonium bromatum, ammonium muriaticum, pulsatilla, kali bichromicum, ammonium carbonicum, fucus vesiculosus, 6/6/200/4/200/200/200/200/1/4/200/3/1/3/200/200/30/4/8/30/5/6 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Lycopodium clavatum, phytolacca decandra, abies canadensis, ammonium bromatum, ammonium muriaticum, pulsatilla, kali bichromicum, ammonium carbonicum, fucus vesiculosus, 6/6/200/4/200/200/200/200/1/4/200/3/1/3/200/200/30/4/8/30/5/6 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Calcium arsenate homeopathic preparation
    Calcium arsenate (Ca3 is the inorganic compound with the formula Ca3(AsO4)2. A colourless solid, it was originally used as a pesticide and as a germicide. It is highly soluble in water, as compared with lead arsenate, which makes it more toxic. The synthesis of calcium arsenate is commonly prepared by from disodium hydrogen arsenate and calcium chloride: The solubility of this compound was found by Tartar, et al. to be 0.014g in 100g of water at 25°C. In the 1920s it was made in large vats by mixing 4 moles of Calcium Oxide with 1 mole of Arsenic Oxide. In the United States, 1360 metric tons were produced in 1919, 4540 in 1920, and 7270 in 1922. Once commonly used as an herbicide, calcium arsenate use is now banned in the UK, and its use is strictly regulated in the United States. It is currently the active ingredient in TURF-Cal manufactured by Mallinckrodt, it is one of the few herbicides – used mainly for the control of Poa annua and crabgrass- that hinders earthworm activity. Its label states that it will “reduce and inhibit earthworm activity and survival” and is only recommended against serious earthworm infestations in places such as golf course greens. Calcium arsenate is
    7.33
    6 votes
    7
    Cadmium sulfide

    Cadmium sulfide

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Aquaflora 0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169 liquid
    Cadmium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula CdS. Cadmium sulfide is a yellow solid. It occurs in nature with two different crystal structures as the rare minerals greenockite and hawleyite, but is more prevalent as an impurity substituent in the similarly structured zinc ores sphalerite and wurtzite, which are the major economic sources of cadmium. As a compound that is easy to isolate and purify, it is the principal source of cadmium for all commercial applications. Cadmium sulfide can be prepared by the precipitation from soluble cadmium(II) salts with sulfide ion and this has been used in the past for gravimetric analysis and qualitative inorganic analysis. The preparative route and the subsequent treatment of the product, affects the polymorphic form that is produced (i.e., cubic vs hexagonal). It has been asserted that chemical precipitation methods result in the cubic zincblende form Pigment production usually involves the precipitation of CdS, the washing of the precipitate to remove soluble cadmium salts followed by calcination (roasting) to convert it to the hexagonal form followed by milling to produce a powder. When cadmium sulfide selenides are required
    8.20
    5 votes
    8
    Beclometasone dipropionate

    Beclometasone dipropionate

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Beclomethasone dipropionate 40 metered aerosol
    • Active moiety of drug: Beclomethasone dipropionate monohydrate
    Beclometasone dipropionate (INN modified) or beclomethasone dipropionate (USAN, former BAN) is a potent glucocorticoid steroid. It is a prodrug of the free form, beclometasone (INN). In the form of an inhaler (e.g. Clenil, Qvar), a wide number of brands of which are available, it is used for the prophylaxis of asthma. As a nasal spray (e.g. Beconase, alanase, Vancenase), it is used for the treatment of rhinitis (e.g. hay fever) and sinusitis. In some instances, it is used by oral pathologists in the treatment of unusually severe aphthous ulcers. As a cream or ointment (trade name Propaderm), it is used to treat severe inflammatory skin disorders (e.g. eczema) unresponsive to less potent steroids, but is generally avoided in the treatment of psoriasis due to the risk of rebound on withdrawal. It is also licensed to treat ulcerative colitis in conjunction with doses of 5-aminosalicylates in the United Kingdom in the form of a gastric acid-resistant, periodic release tablet marketed under the brand name Clipper. It is a white to creamy-white, odorless powder which is very slightly soluble in water, very soluble in chloroform, and freely soluble in acetone and in ethanol. Occasionally
    7.00
    6 votes
    9
    Tuna

    Tuna

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Tuna 50 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Tuna 50 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Cod, unspecified/European flounder/Atlantic halibut/Scomberomorus cavalla whole/Tuna, unspecified/Quahog, unspecified/Shrimp, unspecified/Blue crab/Edible oyster/Sea scallop/Atropa belladonna/Carbo animalis/Citrullus colocynthis fruit pulp/Potassium catio
    A tuna is a saltwater finfish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae), which includes the bonito (Sardini) and mackerel (Scombrini) tribes. Thunnini comprises fifteen species across five genera, the sizes of which vary greatly, ranging from the bullet tuna (max. length: 50 cm (1.6 ft), weight: 1.8 kg (4.0 lb)) up to the Atlantic bluefin tuna (max. length: 458 cm (15.03 ft), weight: 684 kg (1,510 lb); the bluefin averages 200 cm (6.6 ft), and is believed to live for up to 50 years. Their circulatory and respiratory systems are unique among fish, enabling them to maintain a body temperature slightly higher than the surrounding water. An active and agile predator, the tuna has a sleek, streamlined body, and is among the fastest-swimming pelagic fish – the yellowfin tuna, for example, is capable of speeds of up to 75 km/h (47 mph). Found in warm seas, it is extensively fished commercially and is popular as a game fish. As a result of over-fishing, stocks of some tuna species have been reduced dangerously close to the point of extinction. The term tuna derives from Latin 'thunnus' and from Ancient Greek 'θύννος' or 'thunnos', from 'θύνω' or
    7.00
    6 votes
    10
    Irbesartan

    Irbesartan

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Irbesartan 75 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Irbesartan 75 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Irbesartan/Hydrochlorothiazide
    Irbesartan (INN) ( /ɜrbəˈsɑrtən/) is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used mainly for the treatment of hypertension. Irbesartan was developed by Sanofi Research (now part of sanofi-aventis). It is jointly marketed by sanofi-aventis and Bristol-Myers Squibb under the trade names Aprovel, Karvea, and Avapro. As with all angiotensin II receptor antagonists, irbesartan is indicated for the treatment of hypertension. Irbesartan may also delay progression of diabetic nephropathy and is also indicated for the reduction of renal disease progression in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension and microalbuminuria (>30 mg/24 hours) or proteinuria (>900 mg/24 hours). Irbesartan is also available in a combination formulation with a low dose thiazide diuretic, invariably hydrochlorothiazide, to achieve an additive antihypertensive effect. Irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination preparations are marketed under similar trade names to irbesartan preparations, including Irda, CoIrda, CoAprovel, Karvezide, Avalide and Avapro HCT. A large randomized trial following 4100+ men and women with heart failure and normal ejection fraction (>=45%) over 4+ years found no improvement in study
    9.25
    4 votes
    11
    Cochliobolus sativus

    Cochliobolus sativus

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Treatment set ts330453 0.002/0.002/0.00067/0.00067/0.00067/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.001/0.001/0.002/0.002/0.002/400/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.002/4000/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.002,0.002/0.002/0.002 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Treatment set ts330453 0.002/0.002/0.00067/0.00067/0.00067/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.001/0.001/0.002/0.002/0.002/400/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.002/4000/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.002,0.002/0.002/0.002 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Gallus gallus feather/Anas platyrhynchos feather/Anser anser feather/Ustilago nuda hordei/Ustilago maydis/Ustilago avenae/Ustilago tritici/Ustilago cynodontis/Sporisorium cruentum/Cochliobolus sativus/Penicillium chrysogenum var. chrysogenum/Aureobasidium
    The fungus Cochliobolus sativus is the teleomorph (sexual stage) of Bipolaris sorokiniana (anamorph) which is the causal agent of a wide variety of cereal diseases. The pathogen can infect and cause disease on the root (where it is known as common root rot), leaf and stem, and head tissue. C.sativus is extremely rare in nature and thus it is the asexual or anamorphic stage which causes infections. The two most common diseases caused by B.sorokiniana are spot blotch and common root rot, mainly on wheat and barley crops. The mycelium of B.sorokiniana is usually deep olive-brown. New cultures produce abundant simple conidiophores, which may be single or clustered and measure 6-10 x 110-220 μm with septations. Conidia develop laterally from pores beneath each conidiophore setpum. Conidia are olive-brown and ovate to oblong, with rounded ends and a prominent basal scar. They measure 15-28 x 40-120 μm and are 3- to 10- septate. Some may be slightly curved. Their walls are smooth and noticeably thickened at the septa. The sexual state (C.sativus), when formed in culture, is in the form of black, globose pseudothecia 300-400 μm in diameter, with erect beaks 50-200 μm long. Asci are clavate
    7.80
    5 votes
    12
    Hydrogen

    Hydrogen

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Eleuthero, epiphegus virginiana, lacticum acidum, tecoma pentaphylla, hydrocotyle asiatica, hydrocyanicum acidum, 100/15/15/100/15/15 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Garlic/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Glycyrrhiza glabra/Arctium lappa root/Phytolacca americana root/Frangula alnus bark/Red clover/Methionine/Thyroid, porcine/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Mercury/Oxygen/Silicon/Aluminum/Arsenic/Bariu
    Hydrogen ( /ˈhaɪdrɵdʒən/ HY-drə-jən) is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With an average atomic weight of 1.00794 u (1.007825 u for hydrogen-1), hydrogen is the lightest element and its monatomic form (H1) is the most abundant chemical substance, constituting roughly 75% of the Universe's baryonic mass. Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in its plasma state. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Naturally occurring atomic hydrogen is rare on Earth because hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most elements and is present in the water molecule and in most organic compounds. Hydrogen plays a particularly important role in acid-base chemistry with many reactions exchanging protons between soluble molecules. In ionic compounds, it can take a negative charge (an anion known as a hydride and written as H), or as a positively charged species H. The latter cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds always occur as more complex species. The most common
    6.67
    6 votes
    13
    Mannitol

    Mannitol

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Mannitol 50 irrigant
    • Active moiety of formulation: Mannitol 50 irrigant
    • Active moiety of drug: Mannitol
    Mannitol is a white, crystalline sugar alcohol with the chemical formula (C6H8(OH)6). It is used as an osmotic diuretic agent and a weak renal vasodilator. It was originally isolated from the secretions of the flowering ash, called manna after their resemblance to the Biblical food, and is also referred to as mannite and manna sugar. In plants, it is used to induce osmotic stress. Mannitol is a sugar alcohol; that is, it is derived from a sugar by reduction, with a molecular weight of 182.17 g/mol, and a density of 1.52 g/mL. Other sugar alcohols include xylitol and sorbitol. Mannitol and sorbitol are isomers, the only difference being the orientation of the hydroxyl group on carbon 2. Aqueous solutions of mannitol are mildly acidic and sometimes such solutions are treated to lower the pH. Chemical Abstracts Registry Numbers for mannitol are 123897-58-5, 69-65-8 (D-Mannitol), 75398-80-0, 85085-15-0, and 87-78-5 (mannitol with unspecified stereochemistry). D-Mannitol (CAS# 69-65-8) has a solubility of 22g mannitol/ 100mL water (25 °C), and a relative sweetness of 50 (sucrose=100). It melts between 165 and 169 °C (7.6 torr), and boils at 295 °C at 3.5 torr, indicating a greater
    7.60
    5 votes
    14
    Immunoglobulin G

    Immunoglobulin G

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Human immunoglobulin g 100 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Human immunoglobulin g 100 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Immunoglobulin G
    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is an antibody isotype. It is a protein complex composed of four peptide chains — two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains arranged in a Y-shape typical of antibody monomers. Each IgG has two antigen binding sites. Representing approximately 75% of serum immunoglobulins in humans, IgG is the most abundant antibody isotype found in the circulation. IgG molecules are synthesized and secreted by plasma B cells. Antibodies are major components of the immune system. IgG is the main antibody isotype found in blood and extracellular fluid allowing it to control infection of body tissues. By binding many kinds of pathogen—representing viruses, bacteria, and fungi—IgG protects the body from infection. It does this via several immune mechanisms: IgG-mediated binding of pathogens causes their immobilization and binding together via agglutination; IgG coating of pathogen surfaces (known as opsonization) allows their recognition and ingestion by phagocytic immune cells; IgG activates the classical pathway of the complement system, a cascade of immune protein production that results in pathogen elimination; IgG also binds and neutralizes toxins. IgG also
    7.40
    5 votes
    15
    Naltrexone

    Naltrexone

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Naltrexone 95 kit
    • Active moiety of formulation: (morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride) extended release capsules 80/3.2 capsule
    • Active moiety of drug: Naltrexone
    Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used primarily in the management of alcohol dependence and opioid dependence. It is marketed in generic form as its hydrochloride salt, naltrexone hydrochloride, and marketed under the trade names Revia and Depade. In some countries including the United States, a once-monthly extended-release injectable formulation is marketed under the trade name Vivitrol. Also in the US, Methylnaltrexone Bromide, a closely related drug, is marketed as Relistor, for the treatment of opioid induced constipation. Naltrexone should not be confused with naloxone (which is used in emergency cases of overdose rather than for longer-term dependence control) nor nalorphine. Using naloxone in place of naltrexone can cause far worse withdrawal symptoms; conversely, using naltrexone in place of naloxone in an overdose can lead to insufficient opiate antagonism and fail to reverse the overdose. The main use of naltrexone is for the treatment of alcohol dependence. After publication of the first two randomized, controlled trials in 1992, a number of studies have confirmed its efficacy in reducing frequency and severity of relapse to drinking. The multi-center COMBINE
    7.20
    5 votes
    16
    Veal

    Veal

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Veal 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Veal 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Veal extract
    Veal is the meat of young cattle (calves), as opposed to beef from older cattle. Though veal can be produced from a calf of either sex and any breed, most veal comes from male calves (bull calves) of dairy cattle breeds. There are five types of veal: The veal industry's support for the dairy industry goes beyond the purchase of surplus calves. It also buys large amounts of milk byproducts. Almost 70% of veal feeds (by weight) are milk products. Most popular are whey and whey protein concentrate (WPC), byproducts of the manufacture of cheese. Milk byproducts are sources of protein and lactose. Skimmed milk powder, casein, buttermilk powder and other forms of milk byproducts are used from time to time. Veal has been an important ingredient in Italian and French cuisine from ancient times. The veal is often in the form of cutlets, such as the Italian cotoletta or the famous Austrian dish Wiener Schnitzel. Some classic French veal dishes include: fried escalopes, fried veal grenadines (small thick fillet steaks), stuffed paupiettes, roast joints and blanquettes. As veal is lower in fat than many meats, care must be taken in preparation to ensure that it does not become tough. Veal is
    7.20
    5 votes
    17
    Capsicum

    Capsicum

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Apis mellifica, arsenicum album, baptisia tinctoria, capsicum annuum, dulcamara, echinacea, nitricum acidum, pyrogenium, rhus toxicodendron, 3/200/3/6/3/200/200/30/200 spray
    • Active moiety of formulation: Apis mellifica, arsenicum album, baptisia tinctoria, capsicum annuum, dulcamara, echinacea, nitricum acidum, pyrogenium, rhus toxicodendron, 3/200/3/6/3/200/200/30/200 spray
    • Active moiety of drug: Avena sativa flowering top/Capsicum/Centella asiatica/Ginkgo/Rosemary/Vinca minor/Barium cation/Atropa belladonna/Potassium cation/Datura stramonium/Pork brain/Germanium sesquioxide/Fallopia multiflora root homeopathic preparation
    Capsicum is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Its species are native to the Americas where they have been cultivated for thousands of years. In modern times, it is cultivated worldwide, and has become a key element in many regional cuisines. In addition to use as spices and food vegetables, capsicum has also found use in medicines. The fruit of Capsicum plants have a variety of names depending on place and type. The piquant (spicy) variety are commonly called chili peppers, or simply "chilies". The large mild form is called red pepper, green pepper or bell pepper in North America, sweet pepper in Britain, and typically just "capsicum" in Australia, New Zealand, and India. The fruit is called paprika in some other countries (although paprika can also refer to the powdered spice made from various capsicum fruit). The generic name is derived from the Greek word κάπτω (kapto), meaning "to bite" or "to swallow." The name "pepper" came into use because of their similar flavour to the condiment black pepper, Piper nigrum, although there is no botanical relationship with this plant, or with Sichuan pepper. The original Mexican term, chilli (now chile in
    8.25
    4 votes
    18
    Echinococcus granulosus

    Echinococcus granulosus

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Artemisia vulgaris, filix mas, tanacetum vulgare, teucrium marum, absinthium, cina, chenopodium anthelminticum, 4/4/1/12/6/3/12/30/12/6/12/12/12/3/3/6 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Artemisia vulgaris, filix mas, tanacetum vulgare, teucrium marum, absinthium, cina, chenopodium anthelminticum, 4/4/1/12/6/3/12/30/12/6/12/12/12/3/3/6 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Tanacetum vulgare top/Artemisia absinthium pollen/Chenopodium ambrosioides/Mercuric cation/Dryopteris filix-mas root/Teucrium marum/Graphite/Artemisia vulgaris root/Turpentine/Spigelia anthelmia/Artemisia cina flower/Ascaris lumbricoides/Echinococcus gran
    Echinococcus granulosus, also called the Hydatid worm or Hyper Tape-worm or Dog Tapeworm, is a cyclophyllid cestode that parasitizes the small intestine of canids as an adult, but which has important intermediate hosts such as livestock and humans, where it causes hydatid disease. The adult tapeworm ranges in length from 2 mm to 7 mm and has three proglottids ("segments") when intact - an immature proglottid, mature proglottid and a gravid proglottid. Like all cyclophyllideans, E. granulosus has four suckers on its scolex ("head"), and E. granulosus also has a rostellum with hooks. In canids, E. granulosus causes a typical tapeworm infection, and produces eggs that are passed with the dog's feces. Intermediate hosts include herbivores such as sheep, deer, moose, kangaroos, and wallabies, and any other organism (including humans) that ingests dog feces. In the intermediate host, eggs hatch into oncosphere larvae that travel through the blood and form hydatid cysts in the host's tissues. These cysts can grow to be the size of a softball or basketball, and may contain several smaller "balloons" inside the main cyst. In the related worm Echinococcus multilocularis, the outer cyst is
    8.25
    4 votes
    19
    Azathioprine

    Azathioprine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Azathioprine 100 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Azathioprine 100 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Azathioprine
    Azathioprine (INN,  /ˌæzəˈθaɪɵpriːn/, abbreviated AZA) is an immunosuppressive drug used in organ transplantation and autoimmune diseases and belongs to the chemical class of purine analogues. Synthesized originally as a chemotherapy drug and a pro-drug for mercaptopurine in 1957, it has been widely used as a immunosuppressant for more than 50 years. It is believed that azathioprine acts as a pro-drug for mercaptopurine, inhibiting an enzyme that is required for the synthesis of DNA. Thus it most strongly affects proliferating cells, such as the T cells and B cells of the immune system. Despite more than 50 years of widespread clinical use of azathioprine, the understanding of its mechanism of action is still incomplete. The main adverse effect of azathioprine is bone marrow suppression, and people with a genetic deficiency of the enzyme thiopurine S-methyltransferase this can be serious. It is also listed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a Group 1 carcinogen (carcinogenic to humans). Azathioprine is produced by a number of manufacturers under different brand names (Azasan by Salix in the U.S., Imuran by GlaxoSmithKline in Canada, the U.S., Australia, Ireland
    7.00
    5 votes
    20
    Aztreonam

    Aztreonam

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Aztreonam 2 lyophilized powder for injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Aztreonam 2 lyophilized powder for injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Aztreonam
    Aztreonam (trade names Azactam injection, Cayston inhalation) is a synthetic monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic (a monobactam), with the nucleus based on a simpler monobactam isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1986. It is resistant to some beta-lactamases, but is inactivated by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Aztreonam is similar in action to penicillin. It inhibits mucopeptide synthesis in the bacterial cell wall, thereby blocking peptidoglycan crosslinking. It has a very high affinity for penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP-3) and mild affinity for PBP-1a. Aztreonam binds the penicillin-binding proteins of gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria very poorly and is largely ineffective against them. Aztreonam is bactericidal but less so than some of the cephalosporins. Acinetobacter anitratus, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis species are generally susceptible to Aztreonam, while some Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus hemolyticus and Xanthomonas maltophilia are resistant to Aztreonam. Furthermore, Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter diversus, Enterobacter agglomerans,
    7.00
    5 votes
    21
    Epazote

    Epazote

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Calcarea carbonica, chenopodium anthelminticum, cocculus indicus, conium maculatum, nux vomica, phosphorus, pulsatilla, silicea, 30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Calcarea carbonica, chenopodium anthelminticum, cocculus indicus, conium maculatum, nux vomica, phosphorus, pulsatilla, silicea, 30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Aconitum napellus/Bacillus anthracis immunoserum rabbit/Arnica montana/Baptisia tinctoria root/Capsicum/Chamomile/Chenopodium ambrosioides/Euphorbia resinifera resin/Lachesis muta venom/Magnesium cation/Mercuric cation/Plantago major/Pulsatilla vulgaris/V
    Epazote, wormseed, Jesuit's tea, Mexican tea, Paico or Herba Sancti Mariæ (Dysphania ambrosioides, formerly Chenopodium ambrosioides) is an herb native to Central America, South America, and southern Mexico. It is an annual or short-lived perennial plant, growing to 1.2 m tall, irregularly branched, with oblong-lanceolate leaves up to 12 cm long. The flowers are small and green, produced in a branched panicle at the apex of the stem. As well as in its native areas, it is grown in warm temperate to subtropical areas of Europe and the United States (Missouri, New England, Eastern United States), sometimes becoming an invasive weed. The common Spanish name, epazote (sometimes spelled and pronounced ipasote or ypasote), is derived from Nahuatl: epazōtl (pronounced [eˈpasoːt͡ɬ]). Epazote is used as a leaf vegetable and herb for its pungent flavor. Raw, it has a resinous, medicinal pungency, similar to anise, fennel, or even tarragon, but stronger. Epazote's fragrance is strong but difficult to describe. It has been compared to citrus, savory, or mint. Although it is traditionally used with black beans for flavor and its carminative properties, it is also sometimes used to flavor other
    9.33
    3 votes
    22
    Zanamivir

    Zanamivir

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Zanamivir 5 powder
    • Active moiety of formulation: Zanamivir 5 powder
    • Active moiety of drug: Zanamivir
    Zanamivir INN ( /zəˈnæmɨvɪər/) is a neuraminidase inhibitor used in the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza caused by influenza A virus and influenza B virus. Zanamivir was the first neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. It is currently marketed by GlaxoSmithKline under the trade name Relenza as a powder for oral inhalation. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), no flu, seasonal or pandemic, has shown any signs of resistance to zanamivir. Zanamivir was discovered in 1989 by scientists led by Mark von Itzstein at the Victorian College of Pharmacy, Monash University, in collaboration with the CSIRO and scientists at Glaxo, UK. Zanamivir was the first of the neuraminidase inhibitors. The discovery was initially funded by the Australian biotechnology company Biota and was part of Biota's ongoing program to develop antiviral agents through rational drug design. Its strategy relied on the availability of the structure of influenza neuraminidase, by X-ray crystallography. It was also known, as far back as 1974, that 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA), a sialic acid analogue, was an inhibitor of neuraminidase. Sialic acid
    8.00
    4 votes
    23
    Duck

    Duck

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Duck meat 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Duck meat 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Duck extract
    Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the Anatidae family of birds, which also includes swans and geese. The ducks are divided among several subfamilies in the Anatidae family; they do not represent a monophyletic group (the group of all descendants of a single common ancestral species) but a form taxon, since swans and geese are not considered ducks. Ducks are mostly aquatic birds, mostly smaller than the swans and geese, and may be found in both fresh water and sea water. Ducks are sometimes confused with several types of unrelated water birds with similar forms, such as loons or divers, grebes, gallinules, and coots. The word duck comes from Old English *dūce "diver", a derivative of the verb *dūcan "to duck, bend down low as if to get under something, or dive", because of the way many species in the dabbling duck group feed by upending; compare with Dutch duiken and German tauchen "to dive". This word replaced Old English ened/ænid "duck", possibly to avoid confusion with other Old English words, like ende "end" with similar forms. Other Germanic languages still have similar words for "duck", for example, Dutch eend "duck" and German Ente "duck". The word
    6.00
    6 votes
    24
    Common sage

    Common sage

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Sage 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Sage 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Sage extract
    Salvia officinalis (garden sage, common sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. It is a member of the family Lamiaceae and is native to the Mediterranean region, though it has naturalized in many places throughout the world. It has a long history of medicinal and culinary use, and in modern times as an ornamental garden plant. The common name "sage" is also used for a number of related and unrelated species. Salvia officinalis was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. It has been grown for centuries in the Old World for its food and healing properties, and was often described in old herbals for the many miraculous properties attributed to it. The specific epithet, officinalis, refers to the plant's medicinal use—the officina was the traditional storeroom of a monastery where herbs and medicines were stored. S. officinalis has been classified under many other scientific names over the years, including six different names since 1940 alone. Cultivars are quite variable in size, leaf and flower color, and foliage pattern, with many variegated leaf types. The Old World type grows to approximately 2 ft (0.61 m) tall and
    9.00
    3 votes
    25
    Glatiramer acetate

    Glatiramer acetate

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Glatiramer acetate 20 injectable solution
    Glatiramer acetate (also known as Copolymer 1, Cop-1, or Copaxone - as marketed by Teva Pharmaceuticals) is an immunomodulator drug currently used to treat multiple sclerosis. It is a random polymer of four amino acids found in myelin basic protein, namely glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine, and may work as a decoy for the immune system. Glatiramer acetate is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for reducing the frequency of relapses, but not for reducing the progression of disability. Observational studies, but not randomized controlled trials, suggest that it may reduce progression of disability. Although the clinical definition of multiple sclerosis requires two or more episodes of symptoms and signs, glatiramer acetate is approved for treatment after single episodes. It is also used to treat relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. It is administered by subcutaneous injection. Glatiramer acetate is a random polymer (average molecular mass 6.4 kD) composed of four amino acids that are found in myelin basic protein. The mechanism of action for glatiramer is unknown, although several have been proposed. Administration of glatiramer shifts the population of T
    9.00
    3 votes
    26
    Levetiracetam

    Levetiracetam

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Levetiracetam 500 extended release film coated tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Levetiracetam 500 extended release film coated tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Levetiracetam
    Levetiracetam (INN) ( /lɛvɨtɪˈræsɨtæm/) is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy. It is the S-enantiomer of etiracetam, structurally similar to the prototypical nootropic drug piracetam. Levetiracetam is marketed under the trade name Keppra. Keppra is manufactured by UCB Pharmaceuticals Inc. Since November 2008 the drug has been available as a generic brand in the United States. Levetiracetam has been approved in the European Union as a monotherapy treatment for epilepsy in the case of partial seizures, or as an adjunctive therapy for partial, myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures. It is also used in veterinary medicine for similar purposes. Levetiracetam has potential benefits for other psychiatric and neurologic conditions such as Tourette syndrome, Alzheimer's Disease, autism, bipolar disorder and anxiety disorder. However, its most serious adverse effects are behavioral, and its benefit-risk ratio in these conditions is not well understood. Along with other anticonvulsants like gabapentin, it is also sometimes used to treat neuropathic pain. It has not been found to be useful for essential tremors. Levetiracetam is generally well tolerated, but may cause drowsiness,
    9.00
    3 votes
    27
    Egg

    Egg

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Egg 50 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Egg 50 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Egg extract
    In zoology, an egg is an organic vessel in which an embryo first begins to develop. In most birds, reptiles, insects, molluscs, fish, and monotremes, an egg (Latin, ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum, which is expelled from the body and permitted to develop outside the body until the developing embryo can survive on its own. The term "egg" is used differently outside the animal kingdom, for an egg cell (sometimes called an ovum). Reproductive structures similar to the egg in other kingdoms are termed spores, or (in spermatophytes) seeds. Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other development within the mother. The study or collecting of eggs, particularly bird eggs, is called oology. Reptile eggs, bird eggs, and monotreme eggs, which are laid out of water, are surrounded by a protective shell, either flexible or inflexible. The special membranes that support these eggs are traits of all amniotes, including mammals. Eggs laid on land or in nests are usually kept within a favourable temperature range (warm) while the embryo grows. When the embryo is adequately developed it breaks out of the egg's shell. This breaking out is known
    7.75
    4 votes
    28
    Erbium

    Erbium

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of drug: Arsenic trioxide/Avena sativa flowering top/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Sodium cation/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Phytolacca americana root/Frangula alnus bark/Solidago virgaurea flowering top/Trifolium pratense flower/Iron/Magnesi
    Erbium ( /ˈɜrbiəm/) is a chemical element in the lanthanide series, with the symbol Er and atomic number 68. A silvery-white solid metal when artificially isolated, natural erbium is always found in chemical combination with other elements on Earth. As such, it is a rare earth element which is associated with several other rare elements in the mineral gadolinite from Ytterby in Sweden. Erbium's principal uses involve its pink-colored Er ions, which have optical fluorescent properties particularly useful in certain laser applications. Erbium-doped glasses or crystals can be used as optical amplification media, where erbium (III) ions are optically pumped at around 980 nm or 1480 nm and then radiate light at 1530 nm in stimulated emission. This process results in an unusually mechanically simple laser optical amplifier for signals transmitted by fiber optics. The 1550 nm wavelength is especially important for optical communications because standard single mode optical fibers have minimal loss at this particular wavelength. In addition to optical fiber lasers, a large variety of medical applications (i.e. dermatology, dentistry) utilize the erbium ion's 2940 nm emission (see Er:YAG
    7.75
    4 votes
    29
    Polyvinyl alcohol

    Polyvinyl alcohol

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Polyvinyl alcohol and povidone 0.075/0.09 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Polyvinyl alcohol and povidone 0.075/0.09 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Polyvinyl alcohol/Polyethylene glycol 400
    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH, PVA, or PVAl) is a water-soluble synthetic polymer (not to be confused with polyvinyl acetate, a popular wood glue). Polyvinyl alcohol has excellent film forming, emulsifying and adhesive properties. It is also resistant to oil, grease and solvents. It is odorless and nontoxic. It has high tensile strength and flexibility, as well as high oxygen and aroma barrier properties. However these properties are dependent on humidity, in other words, with higher humidity more water is absorbed. The water, which acts as a plasticiser, will then reduce its tensile strength, but increase its elongation and tear strength. PVA is fully degradable and dissolves quickly. PVA has a melting point of 230°C and 180–190°C (356-374 degrees Fahrenheit) for the fully hydrolysed and partially hydrolysed grades, respectively. It decomposes rapidly above 200°C as it can undergo pyrolysis at high temperatures. PVA is an atactic material but exhibits crystallinity as the hydroxyl groups are small enough to fit into the lattice without disrupting it. PVA is close to incompressible. The Poisson's ratio has been measured to between 0.42 and 0.48. Polyvinyl alcohol is the raw material to
    7.75
    4 votes
    30
    Sodium sulfate

    Sodium sulfate

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Kali phos , mag phos , nat sulphuricum 6/6/6 tablet
    Sodium sulfate is the sodium salt of sulfuric acid. When anhydrous, it is a white crystalline solid of formula Na2SO4 known as the mineral thenardite; the decahydrate Na2SO4·10H2O has been known as Glauber's salt or, historically, sal mirabilis since the 17th century. Another solid is the heptahydrate, which transforms to mirabilite when cooled. With an annual production of 6 million tonnes, it is a major commodity chemical product. Sodium sulfate is mainly used for the manufacture of detergents and in the Kraft process of paper pulping. About two-thirds of the world's production is from mirabilite, the natural mineral form of the decahydrate, and the remainder from by-products of chemical processes such as hydrochloric acid production. The hydrate of sodium sulfate is known as Glauber's Salt after the Dutch/German chemist and apothecary Johann Rudolf Glauber (1604–1670), who discovered it in 1625 in Austrian spring water. He named it sal mirabilis (miraculous salt), because of its medicinal properties: the crystals were used as a general purpose laxative, until more sophisticated alternatives came about in the 1900s. In the 18th century, Glauber's salt began to be used as a raw
    7.75
    4 votes
    31
    Entamoeba histolytica

    Entamoeba histolytica

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Alpine strawberry, atropa belladonna, baptisia tinctoria root, capsicum, cinchona officinalis bark, entamoeba histolytica, giardia lamblia, goldenseal, hamamelis virginiana root bark/stem bark, jateorhiza calumba root, lycopodium clavatum spore, nitric ac
    • Active moiety of formulation: Alpine strawberry, atropa belladonna, baptisia tinctoria root, capsicum, cinchona officinalis bark, entamoeba histolytica, giardia lamblia, goldenseal, hamamelis virginiana root bark/stem bark, jateorhiza calumba root, lycopodium clavatum spore, nitric ac
    • Active moiety of drug: Triticum aestivum pollen/Baptisia tinctoria root/Capsicum/Jateorhiza calumba root/Alpine strawberry/Hamamelis virginiana root bark/stem bark/Goldenseal/Quassia amara wood/Senna leaf/Pork liver/Sus scrofa spleen/Atropa belladonna/Cinchona officinalis bark/
    Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic protozoan, part of the genus Entamoeba. Predominantly infecting humans and other primates, E. histolytica is estimated to infect about 50 million people worldwide. Previously, it was thought that 10% of the world population was infected, but these figures predate the recognition that at least 90% of these infections were due to a second species, E. dispar. Mammals such as dogs and cats can become infected transiently, but are not thought to contribute significantly to transmission. The active (trophozoite) stage exists only in the host and in fresh loose feces; cysts survive outside the host in water, in soils, and on foods, especially under moist conditions on the latter. The cysts are readily killed by heat and by freezing temperatures, and survive for only a few months outside of the host. When cysts are swallowed they cause infections by excysting (releasing the trophozoite stage) in the digestive tract. The pathogenic nature of E. histolytica was first reported by Lösch in 1875, but it was not given its Latin name until Fritz Schaudinn described it in 1903. E. histolytica, as its name suggests (histo–lytic = tissue destroying),
    7.50
    4 votes
    32
    Sulfuric acid

    Sulfuric acid

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Belladonna, calcarea silicate, lachesis mutus, phophorus, nux vomica, sepia, sulphuricum acidum 12/12/12/12/12/12/12 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Belladonna, calcarea silicate, lachesis mutus, phophorus, nux vomica, sepia, sulphuricum acidum 12/12/12/12/12/12/12 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Angelica archangelica root/American ginseng/Black cohosh/Goldenseal/Pulsatilla vulgaris/Sepia officinalis juice/Sulfuric acid/Lachesis muta venom/Juniperus sabina leaf homeopathic preparation
    Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4. It is a colorless to slightly yellow viscous liquid which is soluble in water at all concentrations. Sometimes, it may be dark brown as dyed during industrial production process in order to alert people to its hazards. The historical name of this acid is oil of vitriol. It is a diprotic acid which may show different properties depending upon its concentration. Its corrosiveness on metals, stones, skin, eyes and flesh or other materials can be mainly ascribed to its strong acidic nature and, if concentrated, strong dehydrating and oxidizing properties. Concentrated sulfuric acid can cause very serious damage upon contact as not only does it hydrolyze proteins and lipids leading to chemical burn, but also dehydrates carbohydrates resulting in secondary thermal burn. If it contacts eyes, permanent blindness may occur. Therefore, safety precautions should always be taken when using it. Moreover, it is hygroscopic, readily absorbing water vapour from the air. Possessing different chemical properties, the sulfuric acid has a wide range of applications including
    7.50
    4 votes
    33
    Almond

    Almond

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Almond 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Almond 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Almond extract
    The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus Batsch., Amygdalus communis L., Amygdalus dulcis Mill.), is a species of tree native to the Middle East and South Asia. "Almond" is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree. Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated shell (endocarp) surrounding the seed. The fruit of the almond is a drupe, consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed or "nut" (which is not a true nut) inside. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed. Almonds are sold shelled (i.e., after the shells are removed), or unshelled (i.e., with the shells still attached). Blanched almonds are shelled almonds that have been treated with hot water to soften the seedcoat, which is then removed to reveal the white embryo. The almond is a small deciduous tree, growing 4–10 metres (13–33 ft) in height, with a trunk of up to 30 centimetres (12 in) in diameter. The young twigs are green at first, becoming purplish where exposed to sunlight, then grey in their second year. The leaves are 3–5 inches long, with a serrated
    8.67
    3 votes
    34
    Insulin aspart

    Insulin aspart

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Insulin aspart 100 injectable suspension
    • Active moiety of formulation: Insulin aspart 100 injectable suspension
    • Active moiety of drug: Insulin aspart
    A fast acting insulin analog (marketed by Novo Nordisk as "NovoLog/NovoRapid") is a man-made form of human insulin. A single amino acid has been slightly changed in its molecular structure. This change helps the fast-acting insulin analog absorb quickly into the bloodstream. As a result, it starts working in minutes, which allows you to take insulin and eat right away. Fast-acting insulin analogs are considered to act similar to the way insulin is released in people without diabetes mellitus. Novolog allows for a flexible dosing schedule, which allows the patient to adjust their insulin according to any changes in their eating habits. The safety and efficacy of Insulin aspart (NovoLog/NovoRapid) in real life clinical practice was evaluated in the A1chieve study. It was created through recombinant DNA technology so that the amino acid, B28, which is normally proline, is substituted with an aspartic acid residue. This analogue has increased charge repulsion, which prevents the formation of hexamers, to create a faster acting insulin. The sequence was inserted into the yeast genome, and the yeast expressed the insulin analogue, which was then harvested from a bioreactor. According to
    8.67
    3 votes
    35
    Lansoprazole

    Lansoprazole

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Lansoprazole 30 delayed release pellets in capsule
    • Active moiety of formulation: Lansoprazole 30 delayed release pellets in capsule
    • Active moiety of drug: Lansoprazole
    Lansoprazole ( /lænˈsoʊprəzoʊl/ lan-SOH-prə-zohl; INN) is a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) which inhibits the stomach's production of gastric acids. It is manufactured by a number of companies worldwide under several brand names. In the United States it was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1995. Lansoprazole has been available as a generic drug since Prevacid patent protection expired on November 10, 2009. Since 2009 Lansoprazole has been available over the counter (OTC) in the U.S. in a 15 mg dose marketed by Novartis as Prevacid 24HR. Lansoprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) in the same pharmacologic class as omeprazole. Lansoprazole has been marketed for many years and is one of several PPIs available. Lansoprazole is a racemate [1:1-mixture of the enantiomers dexlansoprazole (Kapidex) and levolansoprazole]. Dexlanprantazole is an enantiomerically pure active ingredient of a commercial drug as a result of the 'enantiomeric shift'. Lansoprazole's plasma elimination half-life is not proportional to the duration of the drug's effects to the person (i.e. gastric acid suppression). The mean plasma elimination half-life is 1.5 hours, and the effects of the
    8.67
    3 votes
    36
    Mung bean

    Mung bean

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Mung bean 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Mung bean 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Mung bean extract
    The mung bean (also known as green gram or golden gram) is the seed of Vigna radiata, native to the Indian subcontinent. It is used as a foodstuff in both savoury and sweet dishes. They are small, ovoid in shape, and green in colour. The English word mung derives from the Hindi word मूँग mūṅg [muːŋɡ]. The mung bean is one of many species recently moved from the genus Phaseolus to Vigna, and is still often seen incorrectly cited as Phaseolus aureus or Phaseolus radiatus. Mung beans are commonly used in India, as well as in the cuisines of Burma, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, Korea, Philippines, Bangladesh, Pakistan, , Iran, Iraq, Indonesia, Vietnam, and other parts of Southeast Asia . The starch of mung beans is also extracted from them to make jellies and "transparent" or "cellophane" noodles. Mung batter is used to make crepes named pesarattu in Andhra Pradesh, India. Whole cooked mung beans are generally prepared from dried beans by boiling until they are soft. In Chinese cuisine, whole mung beans are used to make a tángshuǐ, or dessert, otherwise literally translated, "sugar water", called lǜdòu tángshuǐ, which is served either warm or chilled. In Indonesia, they are made
    8.67
    3 votes
    37
    Tryptophan

    Tryptophan

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Alanine, arginine, calcium acetate, cysteine, glycerin, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, magnesium acetate, methionine, phenylalanine, phosphoric acid, potassium chloride, potassium metabisulfite, proline, serine, sodium acetate, sodium ch
    • Active moiety of formulation: Alanine, arginine, calcium acetate, cysteine, glycerin, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, magnesium acetate, methionine, phenylalanine, phosphoric acid, potassium chloride, potassium metabisulfite, proline, serine, sodium acetate, sodium ch
    • Active moiety of drug: Leucine/Phenylalanine/Lysine/Methionine/Isoleucine/Valine/Histidine/Threonine/Tryptophan/Alanine/Glycine/Arginine/Proline/Serine/Tyrosine/Dextrose
    Tryptophan (IUPAC-IUBMB abbreviation: Trp or W; IUPAC abbreviation: L-Trp or D-Trp; sold for medical use as Tryptan) is one of the 22 standard amino acids, as well as an essential amino acid in the human diet. It is encoded in the standard genetic code as the codon UGG. Only the L-stereoisomer of tryptophan is used in structural or enzyme proteins, but the D-stereoisomer is occasionally found in naturally produced peptides (for example, the marine venom peptide contryphan). The distinguishing structural characteristic of tryptophan is that it contains an indole functional group. It is an essential amino acid as demonstrated by its growth effects on rats. The isolation of tryptophan was first reported by Frederick Hopkins in 1901 through hydrolysis of casein. From 600 grams of crude casein one obtains 4-8 grams of tryptophan. Plants and microorganisms commonly synthesize tryptophan from shikimic acid or anthranilate. The latter condenses with phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP), generating pyrophosphate as a bi-product. After ring opening of the ribose moiety and following reductive decarboxylation, indole-3-glycerinephosphate is produced, which in turn is transformed into indole. In
    8.67
    3 votes
    38
    Arnica montana

    Arnica montana

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Natural medicine 0.102/0.102 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Natural medicine 0.102/0.102 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Amino acids/Apis mellifera/Arnica montana/Fucus vesiculosus/Gamboge/Pork liver/Phosphoric acid/Sus scrofa pituitary gland/Thuja occidentalis leafy twig/Thyroid, unspecified homeopathic preparation
    Arnica montana, known commonly as leopard's bane, wolf's bane, mountain tobacco and mountain arnica, is a European flowering plant with large yellow capitula. Arnica has been used in herbal medicine. Arnica montana is endemic to Europe, from southern Iberia to southern Scandinavia and the Carpathians. It is absent from the British Isles and the Italian and Balkan Peninsulas. A. montana grows in nutrient-poor siliceous meadows up to nearly 3,000 metres (9,800 ft). It is rare overall, but may be locally abundant. It is becoming rarer, particularly in the north of its distribution, largely due to increasingly intensive agriculture. In more upland regions, it may also be found on nutrient-poor moors and heaths. A. montana has tall stems, 20–60 centimetres (7.9–24 in) high, supporting usually a single flower head. Most of the leaves are in a basal rosette, but one or two pairs may be found on the stem and are, unusually for composites, opposite. The flower heads are yellow, approximately 5 cm in diameter, and appear from May to August. Arnica montana is sometimes grown in herb gardens and has long been used medicinally. It contains the toxin helenalin, which can be poisonous if large
    10.00
    2 votes
    39
    Ezetimibe

    Ezetimibe

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Ezetimibe and simvastatin 10/40 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Ezetimibe and simvastatin 10/40 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Ezetimibe
    Ezetimibe ( /ɛˈzɛtɨmɪb/) is a drug that lowers plasma cholesterol levels. It acts by decreasing cholesterol absorption in the intestine. It may be used alone (marketed as Zetia or Ezetrol), when other cholesterol-lowering medications are not tolerated, or together with statins (e.g., ezetimibe/simvastatin, marketed as Vytorin and Inegy) when statins alone do not control cholesterol. Even though ezetimibe decreases cholesterol levels, the results of two major, high-quality clinical trials (in 2008 and 2009) showed that it did not improve clinically significant outcomes, such as major coronary events, and actually made some outcomes, such as artery wall thickness, worse. Indeed, a panel of experts concluded in 2008 that it should "only be used as a last resort". In one of those studies, a head-to-head trial in 2009, a much less expensive medication (extended-release niacin) was found to be superior. Ezetimibe actually increased the thickness of artery walls (a measurement of atherosclerosis) and caused more major cardiovascular events. A more positive view of the benefits of Ezetimibe is offered by Britain's NICE statement which however was published in 2007 and may not have been
    6.40
    5 votes
    40
    Tragacanth gum

    Tragacanth gum

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Tragacanth gum 0.005 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Tragacanth gum 0.005 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Tragacanth extract
    Tragacanth is a natural gum obtained from the dried sap of several species of Middle Eastern legumes of the genus Astragalus, including A. adscendens, A. gummifer, A. brachycalyx, and A. tragacanthus. Some of these species are known collectively under the common names "goat's thorn" and "locoweed". The gum is sometimes called shiraz gum, shiraz, gum elect or gum dragon. The name derives from tragos and akantha, which means in Greek "goat" and "thorn", respectively. Iran is the biggest producer of the best quality of this gum. Gum tragacanth is a viscous, odorless, tasteless, water-soluble mixture of polysaccharides obtained from sap which is drained from the root of the plant and dried. The gum seeps from the plant in twisted ribbons or flakes which can be powdered. It absorbs water to become a gel, which can be stirred into a paste. The gum is used in vegetable-tanned leatherworking as an edge slicking and burnishing compound, and is occasionally used as a stiffener in textiles. The alkaloid it contains has historically been used as an herbal remedy for such conditions as cough and diarrhea. As a mucilage or paste, it has been used as a topical treatment for burns. It is used in
    6.40
    5 votes
    41
    Armodafinil

    Armodafinil

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Armodafinil 150 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Armodafinil 150 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Armodafinil
    Armodafinil (Nuvigil) is a stimulant-like drug produced by the pharmaceutical company Cephalon Inc., which was approved by the FDA on June 15, 2007. Armodafinil is an enantiopure drug consisting of just the active (−)-(R)-enantiomer of the racemic drug modafinil (Provigil). Armodafinil is approved by the FDA for the treatment of narcolepsy and shift work sleep disorder, and as an adjunctive treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. For narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea, armodafinil is taken as a once daily 150 mg or 250 mg dose in the morning. For shift work sleep disorder, 150 mg of armodafinil are taken one hour prior to starting work. Slow dose titration is needed to mitigate some side effects. Cephalon plans to conduct one or more Phase III clinical trials evaluating the use of Nuvigil as an adjunctive treatment for bipolar depression. In June, 2010, it was revealed that a phase II study of armodafinil as an adjunctive therapy in adults with schizophrenia had failed to meet the primary endpoints, and the clinical program was subsequently ceased. The drug was being considered for the first FDA-approved medicinally-specific drug for combating jet-lag. but on March 30, 2010, the
    7.25
    4 votes
    42
    Clonazepam

    Clonazepam

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Clonazepam 0.125 orally disintegrating tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Clonazepam 0.125 orally disintegrating tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Clonazepam
    Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine drug having anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, and hypnotic properties. It is marketed by Roche under the trade name Klonopin (or Klonapin) in the United States and Rivotril in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, Mexico and Europe. Other names such as Ravotril, Rivatril, Rivotril, Clonex, Paxam, Petril or Kriadex are known throughout the rest of the world. Clonazepam has an unusually long elimination half-life of 18–50 hours, making it generally considered to be among the long-acting benzodiazepines. Clonazepam is a chlorinated derivative of nitrazepam and therefore a chloro-nitrobenzodiazepine. Clonazepam has a slow onset with a peak four hours after ingestion. It has high effectiveness rate and low toxicity in overdose but, as most medications, it may have drawbacks due to adverse reactions including paradoxical effects and drowsiness. Other long-term effects of benzodiazepines include tolerance, benzodiazepine dependence, and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, which occurs in a third of people treated with clonazepam for longer than four weeks. Clonazepam is classified as a high potency benzodiazepine. The use of clonazepam
    7.25
    4 votes
    43
    Dutasteride

    Dutasteride

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Dutasteride 0.5 liquid filled capsule
    • Active moiety of formulation: Dutasteride 0.5 liquid filled capsule
    • Active moiety of drug: Dutasteride/Tamsulosin
    Dutasteride (trademark name Avodart, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline) is a dual 5-a reductase inhibitor that inhibits conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Dutasteride is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prescribed off-label for treatment of male pattern baldness (MPB). Dutasteride is approved for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); colloquially known as an "enlarged prostate". Phase I and II clinical trials for dutasteride as a hair loss drug were undertaken, but called off in late 2002, with reasons for termination unreported. The phase II results indicated that dutasteride at both 0.5 mg and 2.5 mg/day generated a superior hair count to finasteride 5 mg at 12 and 24 weeks. In the phase II trials, an expert panel observing a one-inch diameter circle on the vertex of the head reported the following results at 24 weeks: In December 2006, GlaxoSmithKline launched a new phase III, six month study in Korea to test the safety, tolerability and effectiveness of a once-daily dose of dutasteride (0.5 mg) for the treatment of male pattern baldness (MPB) in the vertex region of the
    7.25
    4 votes
    44
    Adenosine triphosphate

    Adenosine triphosphate

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Adenosine triphosphate, arsenic trioxide, ascorbic acid, ceanothus americanus leaf, cinchona officinalis bark, cortisone acetate, digitalis, histamine dihydrochloride, hydrocortisone, lactic acid, l-, lead, lycopodium clavatum spore, oyster shell calcium
    • Active moiety of formulation: Adenosine triphosphate, arsenic trioxide, ascorbic acid, ceanothus americanus leaf, cinchona officinalis bark, cortisone acetate, digitalis, histamine dihydrochloride, hydrocortisone, lactic acid, l-, lead, lycopodium clavatum spore, oyster shell calcium
    • Active moiety of drug: Hydrocortisone/Histamine/Adenosine triphosphate/Ascorbic acid/Pyridoxine/Riboflavin/Lactic acid, l-/Sus scrofa stomach/Sus scrofa spleen/Cortisone/Arsenic trioxide/Oyster shell calcium carbonate, crude/Silybum marianum seed/Ceanothus americanus leaf/Cinch
    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer. ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism. It is one of the end products of photophosphorylation and cellular respiration and used by enzymes and structural proteins in many cellular processes, including biosynthetic reactions, motility, and cell division. One molecule of ATP contains three phosphate groups, and it is produced by ATP synthase from inorganic phosphate and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or adenosine monophosphate (AMP). The three main ways of ATP synthesis are substrate level phosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration, and photophosphorylation in photosynthesis. Metabolic processes that use ATP as an energy source convert it back into its precursors. ATP is therefore continuously recycled in organisms: the human body, which on average contains only 250 grams (8.8 oz) of ATP, turns over its own body weight equivalent in ATP each day. ATP is used as a substrate in signal transduction pathways by kinases that phosphorylate proteins and lipids,
    8.33
    3 votes
    45
    Cefdinir

    Cefdinir

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Cefdinir 25 powder for suspension
    • Active moiety of formulation: Cefdinir 25 powder for suspension
    • Active moiety of drug: Cefdinir
    Cefdinir is a third generation oral cephalosporin antibiotic. It was discovered by Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. "Fujisawa" (now Astellas) and introduced in 1991 under the brand name Cefzon. Warner-Lambert licensed this cephalosporin, cefdinir, for marketing in US from Fujisawa, Japan. Abbott obtained U.S. marketing rights to Omnicef (Cefdinir) in December 1998 through an agreement with Warner-Lambert Company. It was approved by FDA on Dec 4, 1997. It is available in US as Omnicef by Abbott Laboratories and in India as Cednir by Abbott and Cefdiel by Ranbaxy. As of 2008, cefdinir was the highest-selling cephalosporin antibiotic in the United States, with more than US$585 million in retail sales of its generic versions alone. Therapeutic uses of cefdinir include otitis media, soft tissue infections, and respiratory tract infections, including sinusitis, strep throat, community-acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbations of bronchitis. Cefdinir is a bacteriocidal antibiotic. It can be used to treat infections caused by several Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Side effects include diarrhea, vaginal infections or inflammation, nausea, headache, and abdominal pain." Cefdinir
    8.33
    3 votes
    46
    Theanine

    Theanine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Histaminum hydrochloricum, dopamine, kidney, l-theanine, penylethylamine hydrochloricum, 12/6/24/12/12 spray
    • Active moiety of formulation: Histaminum hydrochloricum, dopamine, kidney, l-theanine, penylethylamine hydrochloricum, 12/6/24/12/12 spray
    • Active moiety of drug: Histamine/Dopamine/Pork kidney/Theanine/Phenethylamine homeopathic preparation
    Theanine ( /ˈθiːəniːn/), also gamma-glutamylethylamide or 5-N-ethyl-glutamine, is an amino acid and a glutamic acid analog commonly found in tea (infusions of Camellia sinensis), primarily in green tea, and also in the basidiomycete mushroom Boletus badius and in guayusa. More specifically, this compound is called L-theanine, being the L- amino acid (not to be confused with a levorotatory enantiomer). In 1950, the tea laboratory of Kyoto successfully separated theanine from gyokuro leaf, which has high theanine content. Theanine is an analog to glutamine and glutamate, and can cross the blood–brain barrier. It is sold in the US as a dietary supplement, and is classified by the FDA as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) ingredient. However, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung, BfR) has objected to the addition of isolated theanine to beverages. Early studies of theanine involved much larger doses than are found in an everyday cup of tea. Researchers wonder whether drinking tea might have the same effects found in those studies. However, one recent study by Unilever found that smaller doses typical of those found in a cup of tea did
    8.33
    3 votes
    47
    Atenolol

    Atenolol

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Atenolol and chlorthalidone 100/25 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Atenolol and chlorthalidone 100/25 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Atenolol
    Atenolol is a selective β1 receptor antagonist, a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers (sometimes written β-blockers), a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases. Introduced in 1976, atenolol was developed as a replacement for propranolol in the treatment of hypertension. The chemical works by slowing down the heart and reducing its workload. Unlike propranolol, atenolol does not pass through the blood–brain barrier thus avoiding various central nervous system side effects. Atenolol is one of the most widely used β-blockers in the United Kingdom and was once the first-line treatment for hypertension. The role for β-blockers in hypertension was downgraded in June 2006 in the United Kingdom to fourth-line, as they perform less appropriately or effectively than newer drugs, particularly in the elderly. Atenolol is used for a number of conditions including: hypertension, angina, acute myocardial infarction, supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia, and the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. It is also used to treat the symptoms of Graves' disease until antithyroid medication can take effect. Due to its hydrophilic properties, the drug is less suitable
    7.00
    4 votes
    48
    Desloratadine

    Desloratadine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Desloratadine 0.5 solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Desloratadine 0.5 solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Desloratadine/Pseudoephedrine
    Desloratadine is a drug used to treat allergies. It is marketed under several trade names such as NeoClarityn, Claramax, Clarinex, Larinex, Aerius, Dazit, Azomyr, Deselex and Delot. It is an active metabolite of loratadine, which is also on the market. Desloratadine is available as tablets (including orally disintegrating and extended release) and as syrup. In Colombia (South America) it is marketed under Dexio from Laboratorios Bussié, as tablets and as syrup to children. Desloratadine is a tricyclic antihistamine, which has a selective and peripheral H1-antagonist action. It is an antagonist at histamine H1 receptors, and an antagonist at all subtypes of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. It has a long-lasting effect and in moderate and low doses, does not cause drowsiness because it does not readily enter the central nervous system. Unlike other antihistamines, desloratadine is also effective in relieving nasal congestion, particularly in patients with allergic rhinitis. Most common side-effects are fatigue, dry mouth, headache, and gastrointestinal disturbances. Desloratadine is the major metabolite of loratadine. There are no head-to-head randomised controlled trials of
    7.00
    4 votes
    49
    Anthoxanthum odoratum

    Anthoxanthum odoratum

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Onion - anthoxanthum odoratum - schoenocaulon officinale seed 0.000214/0.000214/0.000214 pellet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Onion - anthoxanthum odoratum - schoenocaulon officinale seed 0.000214/0.000214/0.000214 pellet
    • Active moiety of drug: Anthoxanthum odoratum homeopathic preparation
    Anthoxanthum odoratum, known as sweet vernal grass, holy grass, vanilla grass or buffalo grass, is a short-lived grass found wild in acidic grassland in Eurasia. It is also grown as a lawn grass and a house plant, due to its sweet scent, and can also be found on unimproved pastures and meadows. 'Odoratum' is Latin for 'smell as well'. It avoids very dry or waterlogged soil. This grass grows in tufts. It can grow up to 100 cm. The stems are 25–40 centimetres (9.8–16 in) tall, with short but broad green leaves 3–5 millimetres (0.12–0.20 in) wide, which are slightly hairy. It flowers from April until June, i.e. quite early in the season, with flower spikes of 4–6 centimetres (1.6–2.4 in) long and crowded spikelets of 6–10 millimetres (0.24–0.39 in), oblong shaped, which can be quite dark when young. The lower lemmas have projecting awns. The ligules are quite long, up to 5mm, blunt, with hairy fringes around the side. The scent is particularly strong when dried, and is due to coumarin, a glycoside, and benzoic acid – it smells like fresh hay with a hint of vanilla. The seed head is bright yellow in colour. It is grown by scattering seed on tilled ground in the spring through fall,
    8.00
    3 votes
    50
    Candida albicans

    Candida albicans

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Candida albicans, 60 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Candida albicans, 60 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Gallus gallus feather/Anas platyrhynchos feather/Anser anser feather/Ustilago nuda hordei/Ustilago maydis/Ustilago avenae/Ustilago tritici/Ustilago cynodontis/Sporisorium cruentum/Cochliobolus sativus/Penicillium chrysogenum var. chrysogenum/Aureobasidium
    Candida albicans is a diploid fungus that grows both as yeast and filamentous cells and a causal agent of opportunistic oral and genital infections in humans. Systemic fungal infections (fungemias) including those by C. albicans have emerged as important causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients (e.g., AIDS, cancer chemotherapy, organ or bone marrow transplantation). C. albicans biofilms may form on the surface of implantable medical devices. In addition, hospital-acquired infections by C. albicans have become a cause of major health concerns. C. albicans is commensal and a constituent of the normal gut flora comprising microorganisms that live in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. C. albicans lives in 80% of the human population without causing harmful effects, although overgrowth of the fungus results in candidiasis (candidosis). Candidiasis is often observed in immunocompromised individuals such as HIV-infected patients. A common form of candidiasis restricted to the mucosal membranes in mouth or vagina is thrush, which is usually easily cured in people who are not immunocompromised. For example, higher prevalence of colonization of C. albicans was
    8.00
    3 votes
    51
    Eucalyptus oil

    Eucalyptus oil

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Camphor eucalyptus oil menthol 0.048/0.012/0.028 ointment
    • Active moiety of formulation: Camphor eucalyptus oil menthol 0.048/0.012/0.028 ointment
    • Active moiety of drug: Echinacea, unspecified/Menthol/Eucalyptus oil
    Eucalyptus oil is the generic name for distilled oil from the leaf of Eucalyptus, a genus of the plant family Myrtaceae native to Australia and cultivated worldwide. Eucalyptus oil has a history of wide application, as a pharmaceutical, antiseptic, repellent, flavouring, fragrance and industrial uses. The leaves of selected Eucalyptus species are steam distilled to extract eucalyptus oil. Eucalyptus oils in the trade are categorized into three broad types according to their composition and main end-use: medicinal, perfumery and industrial. The most prevalent is the standard cineole-based "oil of eucalyptus", a colourless mobile liquid (yellow with age) with a penetrating, camphoraceous, woody-sweet scent. China produces about 75% of the world trade, but most of this is derived from camphor oil fractions rather than being true eucalyptus oil. Significant producers of true eucalyptus oil include South Africa, Portugal, Spain, Brazil, Australia, Chile and Swaziland. Global production is dominated by Eucalyptus globulus. However, Eucalyptus kochii and Eucalyptus polybractea have the highest cineole content, ranging from 80-95%. The British Pharmacopoeia states that the oil must have a
    8.00
    3 votes
    52
    Paroxetine

    Paroxetine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Paroxetine 20 film coated tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Paroxetine hydrochloride hemihydrate 40 film coated tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Paroxetine hydrochloride
    Paroxetine (also known by the trade names Aropax, Paxil, Pexeva, Seroxat, Sereupin) is an antidepressant drug of the SSRI type. Paroxetine is used to treat major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder and generalized anxiety disorder in adult outpatients. Marketing of the drug began in 1992 by the pharmaceutical company SmithKline Beecham, now GlaxoSmithKline. Generic formulations have been available since 2003 when the patent expired. In adults, the efficacy of paroxetine for depression is comparable to that of older tricyclic antidepressants, with fewer side effects and lower toxicity. Differences with newer antidepressants are subtler and mostly confined to side effects. It shares the common side effects and contraindications of other SSRIs, with high rates of nausea, somnolence, and sexual side effects. Paroxetine is associated with clinically significant weight gain. Pediatric trials of paroxetine for depression did not demonstrate statistical efficacy better than placebo. Discontinuing paroxetine is associated with a high risk of withdrawal syndrome. Due to the increased risk of birth defects, pregnant women or
    8.00
    3 votes
    53
    Primula veris

    Primula veris

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Primula veris extract onopordum hyoscyamus niger antimony gold arnica montana bellis perennis matricaria recutita ipecac lycopodium clavatum spore 8/30/30/10/4/30/30/30/3/3 pellet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Primula veris extract onopordum hyoscyamus niger antimony gold arnica montana bellis perennis matricaria recutita ipecac lycopodium clavatum spore 8/30/30/10/4/30/30/30/3/3 pellet
    • Active moiety of drug: Primula veris/Onopordum acanthium flower/Hyoscyamus niger/Antimony/Gold/Arnica montana/Bellis perennis/Matricaria recutita/Ipecac/Lycopodium clavatum spore homeopathic preparation
    Primula veris (Cowslip; syn. Primula officinalis Hill) is a flowering plant in the genus Primula. The species is native throughout most of temperate Europe and Asia, and although absent from more northerly areas including much of northwest Scotland, it reappears in northernmost Sutherland and Orkney. The common name cowslip derives from the Old English cowshit meaning "cow dung", probably because the plant was often found growing amongst the manure in cow pastures. The species name vēris means "of spring". Folk names include Cowslip, Cuy lippe, Herb Peter, Paigle, Peggle, Key Flower, Key of Heaven, Fairy Cups, Petty Mulleins, Crewel, Buckles, Palsywort, Plumrocks. Primula veris is a low growing herbaceous perennial plant with a rosette of leaves 5–15 cm long and 2–6 cm broad. The deep yellow flowers are produced in the spring between April and May; they are in clusters of 10-30 together on a single stem 5–20 cm tall, each flower 9–15 mm broad. Red-flowered plants occur rarely. Cowslip is frequently found on more open ground than Primula vulgaris (primrose) including open fields, meadows, and coastal dunes and clifftops. The seeds are often included in wild-flower seed mixes used to
    8.00
    3 votes
    54
    Pulsatilla vulgaris

    Pulsatilla vulgaris

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Belladonna, lachesis mutus, nux vomica, pulsatilla, secale cornutum, sepia, ustilago maidis, 30/30/30/30/30/30/30 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Belladonna, lachesis mutus, nux vomica, pulsatilla, secale cornutum, sepia, ustilago maidis, 30/30/30/30/30/30/30 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Chelidonium majus/Echinacea, unspecified/Gentiana lutea root/Arsenic trioxide/Activated charcoal/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Phosphorus/Pulsatilla vulgaris homeopathic preparation
    Pulsatilla vulgaris (pasque flower, pasqueflower, common pasque flower, Dane's blood) belongs to the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), found locally on calcareous grassland in Europe. It used to be considered part of the Anemone genus, to which it is closely related. This is an herbaceous perennial plant. It develops upright rhizomes, which function as food-storage organs. Its leaves and stems are long, soft, silver-grey and hairy. It grows to 15–30 cm high and when it is fruit-bearing up to 40 cm. The roots go deep into the soil (to 1 m). The finely-dissected leaves are arranged in a rosette and appear with the bell-shaped flower in early spring. The purple flowers are followed by distinctive silky seed-heads which can persist on the plant for many months. The flower is 'cloaked in myth'; one legend has it that Pasque flowers sprang up in places that had been soaked by the blood of Romans or Danes because they often appear on old barrows and boundary banks. This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. It is classified as a Priority Species in the UK Biodiversity Action Plan and as Vulnerable in Britain on the Red Data List. It grows in sparsely
    8.00
    3 votes
    55
    Fexofenadine

    Fexofenadine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Fexofenadine and pseudoephedrine 60/60 extended release tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Fexofenadine and pseudoephedrine 60/60 extended release tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Fexofenadine/Pseudoephedrine
    Fexofenadine (trade names Allegra, Telfast, Fastofen, Tilfur, Vifas, Telfexo, Allerfexo) is an antihistamine pharmaceutical drug used in the treatment of hay fever, allergy symptoms, and urticaria. It was developed as a successor of and alternative to terfenadine (trade names include Triludan and Seldane), an antihistamine that caused QT interval prolongation, potentially leading to cardiac arrhythmia. Fexofenadine, like other second- and third-generation antihistamines, does not readily cross the blood–brain barrier, and so causes less drowsiness than first-generation histamine-receptor antagonists. It works by being an antagonist to the H1 receptor. It has been variously described as either a second-generation or a third-generation antihistamine. Fexofenadine is indicated for relief from physical symptoms associated with seasonal allergic rhinitis and for treatment of chronic urticaria. It is not a therapeutic drug and does not cure but rather prevents the aggravation of rhinitis and urticaria and reduces the severity of the symptoms associated with those conditions, providing relief from repeated sneezing, runny nose, itchy eyes and general body fatigue. Fexofenadine is not well
    6.75
    4 votes
    56
    Caffeine

    Caffeine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Ergotamine tartrate and caffeine 1/100 film coated tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Ergotamine tartrate and caffeine 1/100 film coated tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Acetaminophen/Caffeine/Isometheptene
    Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that acts as a stimulant drug and an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Caffeine is found in varying quantities in the seeds, leaves, and fruit of some plants, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding on the plants. It is most commonly consumed by humans in infusions extracted from the seed of the coffee plant and the leaves of the tea bush, as well as from various foods and drinks containing products derived from the kola nut. Other sources include yerba maté, guarana berries, guayusa, and the yaupon holly. In humans, caffeine acts as a central nervous system stimulant, temporarily warding off drowsiness and restoring alertness. It is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive drug, but, unlike many other psychoactive substances, it is both legal and unregulated in nearly all parts of the world. Beverages containing caffeine, such as coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks, enjoy great popularity; in North America, 90% of adults consume caffeine daily. Caffeine is toxic at sufficiently high doses. Ordinary consumption can have low health risks, even when carried on for years
    9.00
    2 votes
    57
    Lithium carbonate

    Lithium carbonate

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Niacin, melatonin, nadidum, pyridoxinum hydrochloricum, zincum sulphuricum, hypothalamus, lithium carbonicum, magnesia carbonica, pineal, pituitary, 8/8/6/6/3/6/8/8/8/6 spray
    Lithium carbonate is a chemical compound of lithium, carbon, and oxygen with the formula Li2CO3. This colorless salt is widely used in the processing of metal oxides and has received attention for its widespread use in the 20th century as a treatment for manic and bipolar disorders, however statistically significant clinical data were not available to confirm its therapeutic advantage given its profound side-effects. However, it still stays as the only naturally occurring treatment for bipolar disorder found in nature as the rare mineral zabuyelite. Lithium carbonate, like almost all other lithium compounds, is soluble in water. The isolation of lithium from aqueous extracts of its ores capitalizes on this poor solubility. Its apparent solubility increases tenfold under a mild pressure of carbon dioxide; this effect is due to the formation of the metastable bicarbonate: Lithium carbonate, and other carbonates of Group 1, do not decompose readily, unlike other carbonates. Li2CO3 decomposes at temperatures greater than 1,300 °C (1,570 K). Lithium carbonate is an important industrial chemical. It forms low-melting fluxes with silica and other materials. Glasses derived from lithium
    9.00
    2 votes
    58
    Metoclopramide

    Metoclopramide

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Metoclopramide 5 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Metoclopramide hydrochloride 5 injection
    • Active moiety of drug: Metoclopramide
    Metoclopramide (INN) ( /ˌmɛtəˈklɒprəmaɪd/) is an antiemetic and gastroprokinetic agent. It is commonly used to treat nausea and vomiting, to facilitate gastric emptying in people with gastroparesis, and as a treatment for the gastric stasis often associated with migraine headaches. Metoclopramide is commonly used to treat nausea including that which is due to chemotherapy and that occurring post operatively. Evidence also supports its use for gastroparesis (poor stomach emptying) and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Metoclopramide is used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with conditions such as uremia, radiation sickness, malignancy, labor, infection, migraine headaches, and emetogenic drugs. In the setting of painful conditions such as migraine headaches, metoclopramide may be used in combination with paracetamol (acetaminophen) (available in the UK as Paramax, and in Australia as Metomax), or in combination with aspirin (MigraMax). Metoclopramide increases peristalsis of the jejunum and duodenum, increases tone and amplitude of gastric contractions, and relaxes the pyloric sphincter and duodenal bulb. These gastroprokinetic effects make metoclopramide useful in the
    9.00
    2 votes
    59
    Carrot

    Carrot

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Carrot 50 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Carrot 50 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Carrot extract
    The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus, Etymology: from Late Latin carōta, from Greek καρότον karōton, originally from the Indo-European root ker- (horn), due to its horn-like shape) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, red, white, and yellow varieties exist. It has a crisp texture when fresh. The most commonly eaten part of a carrot is a taproot, although the greens are edible as well. It is a domesticated form of the wild carrot Daucus carota, native to Europe and southwestern Asia. The domestic carrot has been selectively bred for its greatly enlarged and more palatable, less woody-textured edible taproot. It is a biennial plant which grows a rosette of leaves in the spring and summer, while building up the stout taproot, which stores large amounts of sugars for the plant to flower in the second year. The flowering stem grows to about 1 metre (3 ft) tall, with an umbel of white flowers that produce a fruit called a mericarp by botanists, which is a type of schizocarp. Carrots can be eaten in a variety of ways. Only 3% of the β-carotene in raw carrots is released during digestion: this can be improved to 39% by pulping, cooking and adding cooking oil.
    5.80
    5 votes
    60
    Digoxin

    Digoxin

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Digoxin 250 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Digoxin 250 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Ovine digoxin immune fab
    Digoxin INN (/dɨˈdʒɒksɨn/) is a purified cardiac glycoside extracted from the foxglove plant, Digitalis lanata. Its corresponding aglycone is digoxigenin, and its acetyl derivative is acetyldigoxin. Digoxin is widely used in the treatment of various heart conditions, namely atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter and sometimes heart failure that cannot be controlled by other medication. Digoxin preparations are commonly marketed under the trade names Lanoxin, Digitek, and Lanoxicaps. It is also available as a 0.05 mg/ml oral solution and 0.25 mg/ml or 0.5 mg/ml injectable solution. It is marketed by GlaxoSmithKline and many other pharmaceutic manufacturers. Today, the most common indications for digoxin are atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter with rapid ventricular response. Beta blockers and/or calcium channel blockers should be the first choice. High ventricular rate leads to insufficient diastolic filling time. By slowing down the conduction in the AV node and increasing its refractory period, digoxin can reduce the ventricular rate. The arrhythmia itself is not affected, but the pumping function of the heart improves owing to improved filling. The use of digoxin in heart
    5.80
    5 votes
    61
    Benzoic acid

    Benzoic acid

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Triticum aestivum, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rhamnus purshiana, trifolium pratense, nitricum acidum, 200/3/12/8/200/200/200/8/200/200/200/200/200/3/3/200/200/200/12/12/200/200/12/12/3/8/200/3/200/200/200/200/12/8/1/200 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Benzoyl peroxide 0.025 lotion
    • Active moiety of drug: Triticum aestivum pollen/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Frangula alnus bark/Arctium lappa root/Frangula purshiana bark/Glycyrrhiza glabra/Phytolacca americana root/Red clover/Thyroid, unspecified/Atropa belladonna/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Strychnos nux-vomi
    Benzoic acid (pronunciation: /bɛnˈzoʊ.ɪk/), C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid. The name derived from gum benzoin, which was for a long time the only source for benzoic acid. Its salts are used as a food preservative and benzoic acid is an important precursor for the synthesis of many other organic substances. The salts and esters of benzoic acid are known as benzoates (pronunciation: /ˈbɛnzoʊ.eɪt/). Benzoic acid was discovered in the sixteenth century. The dry distillation of gum benzoin was first described by Nostradamus (1556), and subsequently by Alexius Pedemontanus (1560) and Blaise de Vigenère (1596). Pioneer work in 1830 through a variety of experiences based on amygdalin, obtained from bitter almonds (the fruit of Prunus dulcis) oil by Pierre Robiquet and Antoine Boutron-Charlard, two French chemists, had produced benzaldehyde but they failed in working out a proper interpretation of the structure of amygdalin that would account for it, and thus missed the identification of the benzoyl radical C7H5O. This last step was achieved some few months later (1832) by Justus von Liebig and Friedrich Wöhler, who determined
    7.67
    3 votes
    62
    Cnicus

    Cnicus

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Benzoic acid, berberis vulgaris root bark, bryonia alba root, ceanothus americanus leaf, chelidonium majus, chionanthus virginicus bark, cinchona officinalis bark, cnicus benedictus, cynara scolymus leaf, dioscorea villosa tuber, iris versicolor root, jun
    • Active moiety of formulation: Benzoic acid, berberis vulgaris root bark, bryonia alba root, ceanothus americanus leaf, chelidonium majus, chionanthus virginicus bark, cinchona officinalis bark, cnicus benedictus, cynara scolymus leaf, dioscorea villosa tuber, iris versicolor root, jun
    • Active moiety of drug: Uric acid/Benzoic acid/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Bryonia alba root/Lytta vesicatoria/Cnicus benedictus/Ceanothus americanus leaf/Chelidonium majus/Chionanthus virginicus bark/Cinchona officinalis bark/Dioscorea villosa root/Mucuna pruriens fruit trichom
    Cnicus benedictus (St. Benedict's thistle, blessed thistle, holy thistle or spotted thistle), is a thistle-like plant in the family Asteraceae, native to the Mediterranean region, from Portugal north to southern France and east to Iran. It is known in other parts of the world, including parts of North America, as an introduced species and often a noxious weed. It is an annual plant growing to 60 cm tall, with leathery, hairy leaves up to 30 cm long and 8 cm broad, with small spines on the margins. The flowers are yellow, produced in a dense flowerhead (capitulum) 3-4 cm diameter, surrounded by numerous spiny basal bracts. The related genus Notobasis is included in Cnicus by some botanists; it differs in slender, much spinier leaves, and purple flowers. It has sometimes been used as a galactogogue to promote lactation. The crude extracts contain about 0.2% cnicin. It is recommended for use by public health nurses in Ontario, Canada, as well as by the Canadian Breastfeeding Foundation along with fenugreek to increase lactation in nursing mothers. It is also a component in some bitters formulas. These thistles are not considered edible, unlike Cirsium, Arctium and Onopordum species;
    7.67
    3 votes
    63
    Dofetilide

    Dofetilide

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Dofetilide 0.125 capsule
    • Active moiety of formulation: Dofetilide 0.125 capsule
    • Active moiety of drug: Dofetilide
    Dofetilide is a class III antiarrhythmic agent. It is marketed under the trade name Tikosyn by Pfizer, and is available in the United States in capsules containing 125, 250, and 500 µg of dofetilide. Due to the pro-arrhythmic potential of dofetilide, it is only available by prescription by physicians who have undergone specific training in the risks of treatment with dofetilide. In addition, it is only available by mail order or through specially trained local pharmacies to individuals who are prescribed dofetilide by a properly registered physician. It is used for the maintenance of sinus rhythm in individuals prone to the formation of atrial fibrillation and flutter, and for the chemical cardioversion to sinus rhythm from atrial fibrillation and flutter. The elimination half-life of dofetilide is roughly 10 hours, however this is variable based on many physiologic factors (most significantly creatinine clearance), and ranges from 4.8 to 13.5 hours. Dofetilide works by selectively blocking the rapid component of the delayed rectifier outward potassium current (IKr). This causes the refractory period of atrial tissue to increase, hence its effectiveness in the treatment of atrial
    7.67
    3 votes
    64
    Mackerel

    Mackerel

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Mackerel 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Mackerel 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Mackerel, unspecified extract
    Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of pelagic fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae. They are found in both temperate and tropical seas, mostly living along the coast or offshore in the oceanic environment. Mackerel typically have vertical stripes on their backs and deeply forked tails. Many species are restricted in their distribution ranges, and live in separate populations or fish stocks based on geography. Some stocks migrate in large schools along the coast to suitable spawning grounds, where they spawn in fairly shallow waters. After spawning they return the way they came, in smaller schools, to suitable feeding grounds often near an area of upwelling. From there they may move offshore into deeper waters and spend the winter in relative inactivity. Other stocks migrate across oceans. Smaller mackerel are forage fish for larger predators, including larger mackerel. Flocks of seabirds, as well as whales, dolphins, sharks and schools of larger fish such as tuna and marlin follow mackerel schools and attack them in sophisticated and cooperative ways. Mackerel is high in omega-3 oils and is intensively harvested by humans. In
    7.67
    3 votes
    65
    Sodium sulfite

    Sodium sulfite

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Natural medicine 0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203 liquid
    Sodium sulfite (sodium sulphite) is a soluble sodium salt of sulfurous acid with the chemical formula Na2SO3. It is a product of sulfur dioxide scrubbing, a part of the flue-gas desulfurization process. It is also used as a preservative to prevent dried fruit from discoloring, and for preserving meats, and is used in the same way as sodium thiosulfate to convert elemental halogens to their respective hydrohalic acids, in photography and for reducing chlorine levels in pools. Sodium sulfite can be prepared in lab by reacting sodium hydroxide solution with sulfur dioxide gas: Evolution of SO2 by adding few drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid will indicate if sodium hydroxide is nearly gone, turned to aqueous sodium sulfite: Sodium sulfite is made industrially by reacting sulfur dioxide with a solution of sodium carbonate. The initial combination generates sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3), which is converted to the sulfite by reaction with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The overall reaction is: Sodium sulfite is primarily used in the pulp and paper industry. It is used in water treatment as an oxygen scavenger agent, in the photographic industry to protect developer solutions from
    7.67
    3 votes
    66
    Strychnine

    Strychnine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Natural medicine 0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Natural medicine 0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203/0.203 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Aconitum napellus/Antimony cation (3+)/Silver cation/Arnica montana/Bryonia alba root/Matricaria recutita/Chelidonium majus/Black cohosh/Eupatorium perfoliatum flowering top/Hypericum perforatum/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Toxicodendron pubescens leaf/Ruta
    Strychnine ( /ˈstrɪkniːn/; also US /ˈstrɪknaɪn/ or /ˈstrɪknɪn/) is a highly toxic (LD50 = 0.16 mg/kg in rats, 1–2 mg/kg orally in humans), colorless crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents. Strychnine causes muscular convulsions and eventually death through asphyxia. The most common source is from the seeds of the Strychnos nux-vomica tree. Strychnine was the first alkaloid to be identified in plants of the genus Strychnos, family Loganiaceae. Strychnos, named by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, is a genus of trees and climbing shrubs of the gentian order. The genus contains 196 various species and is distributed throughout the warm regions of Asia (58 species), America (64 species), and Africa (75 species). The seeds and bark of many plants in this genus contain the powerful poison strychnine. The toxic and medicinal effects of Strychnos nux-vomica have been well known from the times of ancient China and India, although the chemical compound itself was not identified and characterized until the 19th century. The inhabitants of these countries had historical knowledge of the species Strychnos nux-vomica and
    7.67
    3 votes
    67
    Sulfur

    Sulfur

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Astragalus membranaceus, echinacea angustifolia 3/12/12/3/30/12/3/30/3/30/30/3/30/8 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Astragalus membranaceus, echinacea angustifolia 3/12/12/3/30/12/3/30/3/30/30/3/30/8 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Bromine/Nickel/Sulfur homeopathic preparation
    Sulfur ( /ˈsʌlfər/ SUL-fər) or sulphur (British English; see spelling below) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid when at room temperature. Chemically, sulfur can react as either an oxidant or reducing agent. It oxidizes most metals and several nonmetals, including carbon, which leads to its negative charge in most organosulfur compounds, but it reduces several strong oxidants, such as oxygen and fluorine. It is also the lightest element to easily produce stable exceptions to the octet rule. Sulfur occurs naturally as the pure element (native sulfur) and as sulfide and sulfate minerals. Elemental sulfur crystals are commonly sought after by mineral collectors for their brightly colored polyhedron shapes. Being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, mentioned for its uses in ancient Greece, China and Egypt. Fumes from burning sulfur were used as fumigants, and sulfur-containing medicinal mixtures were used as balms and antiparasitics. Sulfur is
    7.67
    3 votes
    68
    Centella asiatica

    Centella asiatica

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Adenosine 4e-05 cream
    • Active moiety of formulation: Adenosine 4e-05 cream
    • Active moiety of drug: Avena sativa flowering top/Capsicum/Centella asiatica/Ginkgo/Rosemary/Vinca minor/Barium cation/Atropa belladonna/Potassium cation/Datura stramonium/Pork brain/Germanium sesquioxide/Fallopia multiflora root homeopathic preparation
    Centella asiatica, commonly centella (Sinhala: ගොටුකොල, gotu kola in Sinhala, Mandukaparni in Sanskrit,Kannada (ಒಂದೆಲಗ). Tamil: வல்லாரை, vallarai  in Tamil), is a small, herbaceous, annual plant of the family Mackinlayaceae or subfamily Mackinlayoideae of family Apiaceae, and is native to India, Sri Lanka, northern Australia, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Melanesia, Papua New Guinea, and other parts of Asia. It is used as a medicinal herb in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional African medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine. Botanical synonyms include Hydrocotyle asiatica L. and Trisanthus cochinchinensis (Lour.). Centella asiatica grows in tropical swampy areas. The stems are slender, creeping stolons, green to reddish-green in color, connecting plants to each other. It has long-stalked, green, reniform leaves with rounded apices which have smooth texture with palmately netted veins. The leaves are borne on pericladial petioles, around 2 cm. The rootstock consists of rhizomes, growing vertically down. They are creamish in color and covered with root hairs. The flowers are pinkish to red in color, born in small, rounded bunches (umbels) near the surface of the soil. Each flower is
    10.00
    1 votes
    69
    Chicken

    Chicken

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Chicken 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Chicken 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Chicken extract
    The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the Red Junglefowl. As one of the most common and widespread domestic animals, and with a population of more than 24 billion in 2003, there are more chickens in the world than any other species of bird. Humans keep chickens primarily as a source of food, consuming both their meat and their eggs. The chicken's "cultural and culinary dominance" could be considered amazing to some in view of its believed domestic origin and purpose and it has "inspired contributions to culture, art, cuisine, science and religion" from antiquity to the present. The traditional poultry farming view of the domestication of the chicken is stated in Encyclopædia Britannica (2007): "Humans first domesticated chickens of Indian origin for the purpose of cockfighting in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Very little formal attention was given to egg or meat production... " Recent genetic studies have pointed to multiple maternal origins in Southeast, East, and South Asia, but with the clade found in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East and Africa originating in the Indian subcontinent. From India the domesticated fowl made its way to the
    10.00
    1 votes
    70
    Roman Chamomile

    Roman Chamomile

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Aconitum napellus root, calcium phosphate, chamomile, artemisia cina flower, lycopodium clavatum spore, sodium chloride, pulsatilla vulgaris, and sulfur 6/12/6/6/6/6/6/6 soluable tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Aconitum napellus root, calcium phosphate, chamomile, artemisia cina flower, lycopodium clavatum spore, sodium chloride, pulsatilla vulgaris, and sulfur 6/12/6/6/6/6/6/6 soluable tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Arsenic trioxide/Chamomile/Citrullus colocynthis fruit pulp/Sulfur homeopathic preparation
    Chamaemelum nobile [synonym: Anthemis nobilis], commonly known as Roman camomile, chamomile, garden camomile, ground apple, low chamomile, English chamomile, or whig plant, is a low perennial plant found in dry fields and around gardens and cultivated grounds in Europe, North America, and Argentina. It has daisy-like white flowers and procumbent stems; the leaves are alternate, bipinnate, finely dissected, and downy to glabrous. The solitary, terminal flowerheads, rising 8-12 in above the ground, consist of prominent yellow disk flowers and silver-white ray flowers. The flowering time is June and July, and its fragrance is sweet, crisp, fruity and herbaceous. The plant is used to flavor foods, in tisanes, perfumes, and cosmetics. It is used to make a rinse for blonde hair, and is popular in aromatherapy; its practitioners believe it to be a calming agent to reduce stress and aid in sleep. The word chamomile comes from Greek χαμαίμηλον (chamaimēlon), "earth-apple", from χαμαί (chamai), "on the ground" + μήλον (mēlon), "apple", so-called because of the apple-like scent of the plant. (Note: The "ch-" spelling is used especially in science and pharmacology.) Chamomile is mentioned in
    10.00
    1 votes
    71
    Oriental cockroach

    Oriental cockroach

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Blatta orientalis 30 pellet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Blatta orientalis 30 pellet
    • Active moiety of drug: Blatta orientalis homeopathic preparation
    The oriental cockroach (also known as: waterbug and Blatta orientalis) is a large species of cockroach, measuring about 1 in (2.5 cm) in length at maturity. It is dark brown to black in colour and has a glossy body. The female Oriental cockroach has a somewhat different appearance to the male, appearing to be wingless at casual glance but has two very short and useless wings just below her head. She has a wider body than the male. The male has long wings, which cover a majority of his body and are brown in colour, and has a more narrow body. The odd male is capable of very short flights, ranging about 2 to 3 meters. The female oriental cockroach looks somewhat similar to the Florida woods cockroach, and may be mistaken for it. The oriental cockroach tends to travel somewhat more slowly than other species. They are often called "waterbugs" since they prefer dark, moist places. They can often be found around decaying organic matter, and in sewers, drains, damp basements, porches, and other damp locations. They can be found outside in bushes, under leaf groundcover, under mulch, and around other damp places outdoors. They are major household pests in parts of the northwest, mid-west,
    6.50
    4 votes
    72
    Strontium carbonate

    Strontium carbonate

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Calendula officinalis, symphytum officinale, staphysagria, rhus toxicodendron, ruta graveolens, bellis perennis, 12/12/3/3/12/12/12/12/12/12/12 liquid
    Strontium carbonate (SrCO3) is the carbonate salt of strontium that has the appearance of a white or grey powder. It occurs in nature as the mineral strontianite. Strontium carbonate is a white, odorless, tasteless powder. Being a carbonate, it is a weak base and therefore is reactive with acids. It is otherwise stable and safe to work with. It is practically insoluble in water (1 part in 100,000). The solubility is increased significantly if the water is saturated with carbon dioxide, to 1 part in 1,000. It is soluble in dilute acids. Other than the natural occurrence as a mineral, strontium carbonate is prepared synthetically in one of two manners. First of which is from naturally occurring celestine also known as strontium sulfate (SrSO4) or by using soluble strontium salts by the reaction in solution with a soluble carbonate salt (usually sodium or ammonium carbonates). For example if sodium carbonate was used in solution with strontium nitrate: Sr(NO3)2 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) → SrCO3 (s) + 2 NaNO3 (aq). The most common use is as an inexpensive colorant in fireworks. Strontium and its salts emit a brilliant red color in flame. Unlike other strontium salts, the carbonate salt is
    6.50
    4 votes
    73
    Phenytoin

    Phenytoin

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Phenytoin 50 chewable tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Phenytoin sodium 100 extended release capsule
    • Active moiety of drug: Phenytoin
    Phenytoin sodium (/fəˈnɪtoʊɨn/) is a commonly used antiepileptic. Phenytoin acts to suppress the abnormal brain activity seen in seizure by reducing electrical conductance among brain cells by stabilizing the inactive state of voltage-gated sodium channels. Aside from seizures, it is an option in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia in the event that carbamazepine or other first-line treatment seems inappropriate. It is sometimes considered a class 1b antiarrhythmic. Phenytoin sodium has been marketed as Phenytek by Mylan Laboratories, previously Bertek Pharmaceuticals, and Dilantin; Australia also Dilantin Kapseals and Dilantin Infatabs in the USA, Eptoin by Abbott Group in India and as Epanutin in the UK and Israel, by Parke-Davis, now part of Pfizer. In the USSR and post-USSR countries, it was/is marketed as Дифенин (Diphenin, Dipheninum). Phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin) was first synthesized by German chemist Heinrich Biltz in 1908. Biltz sold his discovery to Parke-Davis, which did not find an immediate use for it. In 1938, outside scientists including H. Houston Merritt and Tracy Putnam discovered phenytoin's usefulness for controlling seizures, without the sedative effects
    5.60
    5 votes
    74
    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Hyoscyamus, tuberculinum bov , arsenicum iod , veratrum alb 30/30/30/30 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Hyoscyamus, tuberculinum bov , arsenicum iod , veratrum alb 30/30/30/30 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Hyoscyamus albus leaf/Bacillus calmette-guerin substrain tice live antigen/Arsenic triiodide/Veratrum album root homeopathic preparation
    Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (or Bacille Calmette–Guérin, BCG) is a vaccine against tuberculosis that is prepared from a strain of the attenuated (weakened) live bovine tuberculosis bacillus, Mycobacterium bovis, that has lost its virulence in humans by being specially subcultured (230 passages) in an artificial medium for 13 years, and also prepared from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacilli have retained enough strong antigenicity to become a somewhat effective vaccine for the prevention of human tuberculosis. At best, the BCG vaccine is 80% effective in preventing tuberculosis for a duration of 15 years; however, its protective effect appears to vary according to geography. The history of BCG is tied to that of smallpox. Jean Antoine Villemin first recognized bovine tuberculosis in 1854 and transmitted it, and Robert Koch first distinguished Mycobacterium bovis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. After the success of vaccination in preventing smallpox, scientists thought to find a corollary in tuberculosis by drawing a parallel between bovine tuberculosis and cowpox: It was hypothesized that infection with bovine tuberculosis might protect against infection with human tuberculosis.
    8.50
    2 votes
    75
    Eculizumab

    Eculizumab

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Eculizumab 10 injectable concentrate solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Eculizumab 10 injectable concentrate solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Eculizumab
    Eculizumab (INN and USAN, trade name Soliris) is a monoclonal antibody directed against the complement protein C5. Eculizumab has been shown to be effective in treating paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), a rare and sometimes life threatening disease of the blood, and was first approved for this indication. It was also approved for atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS), a disease that causes abnormal blood clots to form in the kidneys, near the end of 2011. Eculizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal IgG2/4 antibody that specifically binds to the complement protein C5, inhibiting its cleavage by the C5 convertase which prevents the generation of the terminal complement complex C5b-9. It is this terminal complement complex that causes intravascular hemolysis in people with (PNH). Eculizumab is a product of Alexion Pharmaceuticals and was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on March 16, 2007 and the European Medicines Agency on June 20, 2007. According to Forbes magazine, Soliris, at $409,500 a year, is the world's single most expensive drug. Eculizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against C5. It contains a human IgG4 heavy chain at
    8.50
    2 votes
    76
    Pear

    Pear

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Pear 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Pear 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Pear extract
    The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus ( /ˈpaɪrəs/), in the family Rosaceae. It is also the name of the pomaceous fruit of these trees. Several species of pear are valued by humans for their edible fruit, while others are cultivated as ornamental trees. The genus Pyrus is classified in subtribe Pyrinae within tribe Pyreae. The English word “pear” is probably from Common West Germanic pera, probably a loanword of Vulgar Latin pira, the plural of pirum, akin to Greek ἄπιος apios (from Mycenaean ápisos), which is likely of Semitic origin. The place name Perry and Pharisoulopol can indicate the historical presence of pear trees. The term "pyriform" is sometimes used to describe something which is "pear-shaped". The pear is native to coastal and mildly temperate regions of the Old World, from western Europe and north Africa east right across Asia. It is a medium-sized tree, reaching 10–17 m tall, often with a tall, narrow crown; a few species are shrubby. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, 2–12 cm long, glossy green on some species, densely silvery-hairy in some others; leaf shape varies from broad oval to narrow lanceolate. Most pears are deciduous,
    8.50
    2 votes
    77
    Barium

    Barium

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Adrenocorticotrophin, agnus castus, baryta carbonica, calcarea carbonica, iodium, lac caninum, natrum muriaticum, phosphoricum acidum, sepia, thyroidinum suis, 12/12/12/6/12/12/12/12/12/12 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Avena sativa flowering top/Capsicum/Centella asiatica/Ginkgo/Rosemary/Vinca minor/Barium cation/Atropa belladonna/Potassium cation/Datura stramonium/Pork brain/Germanium sesquioxide/Fallopia multiflora root homeopathic preparation
    Barium ( /ˈbɛəriəm/ BAIR-ee-əm) is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56. It is the fifth element in Group 2, a soft silvery metallic alkaline earth metal. Because of its high chemical reactivity barium is never found in nature as a free element. Its hydroxide was known in pre-modern history as baryta; this substance does not occur as a mineral, but can be prepared by heating barium carbonate. The most common naturally occurring minerals of barium are barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4) and witherite (barium carbonate, BaCO3), both being insoluble in water. Barium's name originates from the alchemical derivative "baryta", which itself comes from Greek βαρύς (barys), meaning "heavy." Barium was identified as a new element in 1774, but not reduced to a metal until 1808, shortly after electrolytic isolation techniques became available. Barium has only a few industrial applications. The metal has been historically used to scavenge air in vacuum tubes. It is a component of YBCO (high-temperature superconductors) and electroceramics, and is added to steel and cast iron to reduce the size of carbon grains within the microstructure of the metal. Barium compounds are added to
    7.33
    3 votes
    78
    Ceftazidime

    Ceftazidime

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Ceftazidime 6 powder for injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Ceftazidime sodium
    Ceftazidime (INN) ( /sɛfˈtæzɨdiːm/) is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. Like other third-generation cephalosporins, it has broad spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Unlike most third-generation agents, it is active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, however it has weaker activity against Gram-positive microorganisms and is not used for such infections. Ceftazidime pentahydrate is marketed under various trade names including Cefzim (Pharco B International), Fortum (GSK), and Fortaz. Ceftazidime is usually reserved for the treatment of infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is also used in the empirical therapy of febrile neutropenia, in combination with other antibiotics. It is usually given IV or IM every 8–12 hours (2 - 3 times a day), with dosage varying by the indication, infection severity, and/or renal function of the recipient. Ceftazidine is first line treatment for the rare tropical infection, melioidosis. In addition to the syn-configuration of the imino side chain, compared to other third-generation cephalosporins, the more complex moiety (containing two methyl and a carboxylic acid group) confers extra stability to
    7.33
    3 votes
    79
    Pantothenic acid

    Pantothenic acid

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Cholecalciferol, ascorbic acid, folic acid, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine hcl, biotin, cyanocobalamin 100/150/1750/6/1/20/5/10/1.7/1.5 orally disintegrating tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Calcium pantothenate, cupric sulfate anhydrous, cyanocobalamin, folic acid, iron, magnesium sulfate, manganese sulfate, niacinamide, pyridoxine hydrochloride, riboflavin, sodium ascorbate, thiamine mononitrate, and zinc sulfate 10/0.8/15/1/106/6.9/1.3/30/
    • Active moiety of drug: Lemon/Vitamin a/Ascorbic acid/.alpha.-tocopherol acetate, dl-/Thiamine/Riboflavin/Niacin/Pyridoxine/Folic acid/Cyanocobalamin/Biotin/Pantothenic acid/Chromic cation/Iron/Magnesium cation/Zinc/Copper/Manganese/Selenium
    Pantothenic acid, also called pantothenate or vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin discovered by Roger J. Williams in 1919. For many animals, pantothenic acid is an essential nutrient. Animals require pantothenic acid to synthesize coenzyme-A (CoA), as well as to synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Pantothenic acid is the amide between pantoic acid and β-alanine. Its name derives from the Greek pantothen (πάντοθεν) meaning "from everywhere" and small quantities of pantothenic acid are found in nearly every food, with high amounts in whole-grain cereals, legumes, eggs, meat, royal jelly, avocado, and yogurt. It is commonly found as its alcohol analog, the provitamin panthenol, and as calcium pantothenate. Pantothenic acid is an ingredient in some hair and skin care products. Only the dextrorotatory (D) isomer of pantothenic acid possesses biologic activity. The levorotatory (L) form may antagonize the effects of the dextrorotatory isomer. Pantothenic acid is used in the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA). Coenzyme A may act as an acyl group carrier to form acetyl-CoA and other related compounds; this is a way to transport carbon atoms within the
    7.33
    3 votes
    80
    Phosphorus

    Phosphorus

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Flu-cold 12/12/3/12/12/12/12/30/30 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Flu-cold 12/12/3/12/12/12/12/30/30 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Chelidonium majus/Echinacea, unspecified/Gentiana lutea root/Arsenic trioxide/Activated charcoal/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Phosphorus/Pulsatilla vulgaris homeopathic preparation
    Phosphorus ( /ˈfɒsfərəs/ FOS-fər-əs) is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15. A multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group, phosphorus as a mineral is almost always present in its maximally oxidised state, as inorganic phosphate rocks. Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus—but due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. The first form of elemental phosphorus to be produced (white phosphorus, in 1669) emits a faint glow upon exposure to oxygen – hence its name given from Greek mythology, Φωσφόρος meaning "light-bearer" (Latin Lucifer), referring to the "Morning Star", the planet Venus. The term "phosphorescence", meaning glow after illumination, originally derives from this property of phosphorus, although this word has since been used for a different physical process that produces a glow. The glow of phosphorus itself originates from oxidation of the white (but not red) phosphorus— a process now termed chemiluminescence. The vast majority of phosphorus compounds are consumed as fertilisers. Other applications include the role of organophosphorus compounds in detergents, pesticides
    7.33
    3 votes
    81
    Propafenone

    Propafenone

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Propafenone hydrochloride 325 extended release capsule
    • Active moiety of formulation: Propafenone hydrochloride 225 film coated tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Propafenone
    Propafenone ( /proʊˈpæfɨnoʊn/ proh-PAF-i-nohn; brand name Rythmol SR or Rytmonorm) is a class of anti-arrhythmic medication, which treats illnesses associated with rapid heart beats such as atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Propafenone works by slowing the influx of sodium ions into the cardiac muscle cells, causing a decrease in excitability of the cells. Propafenone is more selective for cells with a high rate, but also blocks normal cells more than class Ia or Ib. Propafenone differs from the prototypical class Ic antiarrhythmic in that it has additional activity as a beta-adrenergic blocker which can cause bradycardia and bronchospasm. Propafenone is metabolized primarily in the liver. Because of its short half-life, it requires dosing two or three times daily to maintain steady blood levels. The long-term safety of propafenone is unknown. Because it is structurally similar to another anti-arrhythmic medicine, flecainide, similar cautions should be exercised in its use. Flecainide and propafenone, like other antiarrhythmic drugs have been shown to increase the occurrence of arrhythmias (5.3% for propafenone, Teva physician prescribing information), primarily in patients with
    7.33
    3 votes
    82
    Turpentine

    Turpentine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Berberis vulgaris root bark - turpentine - lycopodium clavatum spore 0.000214/0.000214/0.000214 pellet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Berberis vulgaris root bark - turpentine - lycopodium clavatum spore 0.000214/0.000214/0.000214 pellet
    • Active moiety of drug: Artemisia abrotanum flowering top/Horse chestnut/Garlic/Arsenic trioxide/Artemisia vulgaris root/Baptisia tinctoria root/Artemisia cina flower/Copper/Dryopteris filix-mas root/Punica granatum root bark/Ipecac/Lachesis muta venom/Lycopodium clavatum spore/
    Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, and wood turpentine) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from live trees, mainly pines. It is composed of terpenes, mainly the monoterpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene with lesser amounts of carene, camphene, dipentene, and terpinolene. It is sometimes colloquially known as turps. The word turpentine derives (via French and Latin) from the Greek word τερεβινθίνη terebinthine, the name of a species of tree, the terebinth tree Mineral turpentine or other petroleum distillates are used to replace turpentine, but they are very different chemically. One of the earliest sources was the terebinth or turpentine tree (Pistacia terebinthus), a Mediterranean tree related to the pistachio. Important pines for turpentine production include: Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster), Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis), Masson's Pine (Pinus massoniana), Sumatran Pine (Pinus merkusii), Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris), Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) and Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa). Jeffrey pine, which resembles Ponderosa Pine, produces a resin that, when distilled, yields almost pure n-Heptane, a volatile hydrocarbon which
    7.33
    3 votes
    83
    Broadleaf plantain

    Broadleaf plantain

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Chondrodendron tomentosum root, clerodendranthus spicatus leaf, equisetum hyemale, escherichia coli, hieracium pilosella flowering top, methylene blue, nitric acid, ononis campestris, plantago major, pork kidney, potassium nitrate, proteus vulgaris, quinh
    • Active moiety of formulation: Chondrodendron tomentosum root, clerodendranthus spicatus leaf, equisetum hyemale, escherichia coli, hieracium pilosella flowering top, methylene blue, nitric acid, ononis campestris, plantago major, pork kidney, potassium nitrate, proteus vulgaris, quinh
    • Active moiety of drug: Aconitum napellus/Bacillus anthracis immunoserum rabbit/Arnica montana/Baptisia tinctoria root/Capsicum/Chamomile/Chenopodium ambrosioides/Euphorbia resinifera resin/Lachesis muta venom/Magnesium cation/Mercuric cation/Plantago major/Pulsatilla vulgaris/V
    Plantago major ("broadleaf plantain" or "greater plantain") is a species of Plantago, family Plantaginaceae. The plant is native to most of Europe and northern and central Asia, but has widely naturalised elsewhere in the world. Plantago major is one of the most abundant and widely distributed medicinal crops in the world. A poultice of the leaves can be applied to wounds, stings, and sores in order to facilitate healing and prevent infection. The active chemical constituents are aucubin (an anti-microbial agent), allantoin (which stimulates cellular growth and tissue regeneration), and mucilage (which reduces pain and discomfort). Plantain has astringent properties, and a tea made from the leaves can be ingested to treat diarrhea and soothe raw internal membranes. Broadleaf plantain is also a highly nutritious wild edible, that is high in calcium and vitamins A, C, and K. The young, tender leaves can be eaten raw, and the older, stringier leaves can be boiled in stews and eaten. Plantago major is an herbaceous perennial plant with a rosette of leaves 15–30 cm in diameter. Each leaf is oval-shaped, 5–20 cm long and 4–9 cm broad, rarely up to 30 cm long and 17 cm broad, with an
    6.25
    4 votes
    84
    Famotidine

    Famotidine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Famotidine 40 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Famotidine 40 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Famotidine
    Famotidine (INN) ( /fəˈmɒtɪdiːn/) is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production, and it is commonly used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD/GORD). It is commonly marketed by Johnson & Johnson/Merck under the trade names Pepcidine and Pepcid and by Astellas under the trade name Gaster. Unlike cimetidine, the first H2 antagonist, famotidine has no effect on the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, and does not appear to interact with other drugs. Famotidine was developed by Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co. It was licensed in the mid-80s by Merck & Co. and is marketed by a joint venture between Merck and Johnson & Johnson. The imidazole-ring of cimetidine was replaced with a 2-guanidinothiazole ring. Famotidine proved to be 30 times more active than cimetidine. It was first marketed in 1981. Pepcid RPD orally-disintegrating tablets (that are not swallowed) were released in 1999. Generic preparations became available in 2001, e.g. Fluxid (Schwarz) or Quamatel (Gedeon Richter Ltd.). In the United States, a product called Pepcid Complete is available that combines famotidine with an antacid in a chewable tablet to
    6.25
    4 votes
    85
    Sugar beet

    Sugar beet

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Hepataplex 3/3/6/12/3/3/12/6/3/12/3 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Hepataplex 3/3/6/12/3/3/12/6/3/12/3 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Beta vulgaris/Peumus boldus leaf/Silybum marianum seed/Chelidonium majus/Petroselinum crispum/Taraxacum officinale/Glutathione/Pork liver/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Phosphorus homeopathic preparation
    Sugar beet, a cultivated plant of Beta vulgaris, is a plant whose tuber contains a high concentration of sucrose. It is grown commercially for sugar production. Sugar beets and other B. vulgaris cultivars such as beetroot and chard share a common wild ancestor, the sea beet (Beta vulgaris maritima). In 2009, France, the United States, Germany, Russia and Turkey were the world's five largest sugar beet producers. Despite the sugar beet harvest, in 2010-2011, North America, Western Europe and Eastern Europe did not produce enough sugar from sugar beet; these regions were all net importers of sugar. The U.S. harvested 1,004,600 acres (4 065 km²) of sugarbeets in 2008. In 2009, sugar beet accounted for 20 percent of the world's sugar production. Sugar beet is a conical, white, fleshy root with a flat crown. The plant consists of the sugar beet root and a rosette of leaves. Sugar is formed through a process of photosynthesis in the leaves, and it is then stored in the root. Sugar can represent between 15% and 21% of the sugar beet root’s total weight; however, depending on the cultivar and growing conditions, the sugar content can vary from 12 to above 20 percent. The root of the beet
    6.25
    4 votes
    86
    Adalimumab

    Adalimumab

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Adalimumab 50 kit
    • Active moiety of formulation: Adalimumab 50 kit
    • Active moiety of drug: Adalimumab
    Adalimumab (HUMIRA, Abbott) is the third TNF inhibitor, after infliximab and etanercept, to be approved in the United States. Like infliximab and etanercept, adalimumab binds to TNFα, preventing it from activating TNF receptors. Adalimumab was constructed from a fully human monoclonal antibody, while infliximab is a mouse-human chimeric antibody and etanercept is a TNF receptor-IgG fusion protein. TNFα inactivation has proven to be important in downregulating the inflammatory reactions associated with autoimmune diseases. As of 2008 adalimumab has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, moderate to severe chronic psoriasis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and ulcerative colitis. However, because TNFα is part of the immune system that protects the body from infection, prolonged treatment with adalimumab may slightly increase the risk of developing infections. HUMIRA ("Human Monoclonal Antibody in Rheumatoid Arthritis") is marketed in both preloaded 0.8 mL syringes and also in preloaded pen devices (called Humira Pen), both injected subcutaneously, typically by the patient at home. It cannot be
    7.00
    3 votes
    87
    Androstenedione

    Androstenedione

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, pregenolone, progesterone, testosterone 6/6/8/8/8 spray
    • Active moiety of formulation: Androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone, pregenolone, progesterone, testosterone 6/6/8/8/8 spray
    • Active moiety of drug: Epinephrine/Pulsatilla vulgaris/Cholesterol/Estrone/Bos taurus hypothalamus/Sus scrofa ovary/Androstenedione/Prasterone/Pregnenolone/Progesterone/Testosterone/Sus scrofa adrenal gland homeopathic preparation
    Androstenedione (also known as 4-androstenedione and 17-ketoestosterone) is a 19-carbon steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads as an intermediate step in the biochemical pathway that produces the androgen testosterone and the estrogens estrone and estradiol. Androstenedione is the common precursor of male and female sex hormones. Some androstenedione is also secreted into the plasma, and may be converted in peripheral tissues to testosterone and estrogens. Androstenedione can be synthesized in one of two ways. The primary pathway involves conversion of 17-hydroxypregnenolone to dehydroepiandrosterone by way of 17,20-lyase, with subsequent conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione via the enzyme 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The secondary pathway involves conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, most often a precursor to cortisol, to androstenedione directly by way of 17,20-lyase. Thus, 17,20-lyase is required for the synthesis of androstenedione, whether immediately or one step removed. Androstenedione is further converted to either testosterone or estrogen. Conversion of androstenedione to testosterone requires the enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid
    7.00
    3 votes
    88
    Cholecalciferol

    Cholecalciferol

    • Active ingredient of formulation: .alpha.-tocopherol, .beta.-carotene, ascorbic acid, calcium carbonate, cholecalciferol, cupric oxide, cyanocobalamin, doconexent, folic acid, iron, magnesium oxide, niacinamide, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, pyridoxine hydrochloride, riboflavin, thiamine mon
    • Active moiety of formulation: .alpha.-tocopherol, .beta.-carotene, ascorbic acid, calcium carbonate, cholecalciferol, cupric oxide, cyanocobalamin, doconexent, folic acid, iron, magnesium oxide, niacinamide, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, pyridoxine hydrochloride, riboflavin, thiamine mon
    • Active moiety of drug: Ascorbic acid/Calcium/Iron/Cholecalciferol/.alpha.-tocopherol/Thiamine/Riboflavin/Niacinamide/Pyridoxine/Folic acid/Potassium cation/Zinc/Cupric oxide/Docusate/Doconexent
    Cholecalciferol is a form of vitamin D, also called vitamin D3. It is structurally similar to steroids such as testosterone, cholesterol, and cortisol (though vitamin D3 itself is a secosteroid). Vitamin D3 has several forms: 7-Dehydrocholesterol is the precursor of vitamin D3. Within the epidermal layer of skin, 7-Dehydrocholesterol undergoes a retro-Diels–Alder reaction as a result of UVB radiation, resulting in the opening of the vitamin precursor B-ring through a conrotatory pathway. Following this, the previtamin D3 undergoes a [1,7] antarafacial sigmatropic rearrangement and therein finally isomerizes to form vitamin D3. Cholecalciferol is then hydroxylated in the liver to become calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D3). Next, calcifediol is again hydroxylated, this time in the kidney, and becomes calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3). Calcitriol is the most active hormone form of vitamin D3. Cholecalciferol is produced industrially for use in vitamin supplements and to fortify foods by the ultraviolet irradiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol extracted from lanolin found in sheep's wool. Paraphrasing a more detailed explanation , cholesterol is extracted from wool grease and wool wax
    7.00
    3 votes
    89
    Gadolinium

    Gadolinium

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of drug: Garlic/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Glycyrrhiza glabra/Arctium lappa root/Phytolacca americana root/Frangula alnus bark/Red clover/Methionine/Thyroid, porcine/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Mercury/Oxygen/Silicon/Aluminum/Arsenic/Bariu
    Gadolinium ( /ˌɡædɵˈlɪniəm/ GAD-o-LIN-ee-əm) is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64. It is a silvery-white, malleable and ductile rare-earth metal. It is found in nature only in combined (salt) form. Gadolinium was first detected spectroscopically in 1880 by de Marignac who separated its oxide and is credited with its discovery. It is named for gadolinite, one of the minerals in which it was found, in turn named for chemist Johan Gadolin. The metal was isolated by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886. Gadolinium metal possesses unusual metallurgic properties, to the extent that as little as 1% gadolinium can significantly improve the workability and resistance to high temperature oxidation of iron, chromium, and related alloys. Gadolinium as a metal or salt has exceptionally high absorption of neutrons and therefore is used for shielding in neutron radiography and in nuclear reactors. Like most rare earths, gadolinium forms trivalent ions which have fluorescent properties. Gd (III) salts have therefore been used as green phosphors in various applications. The Gd(III) ion occurring in water-soluble salts is quite toxic to mammals. However, chelated Gd(III) compounds are
    7.00
    3 votes
    90
    Nickel

    Nickel

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Aquaflora 0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Aquaflora 0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Bromine/Nickel/Sulfur homeopathic preparation
    Nickel ( /ˈnɪkəl/ NI-kəl) is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile. Pure nickel shows a significant chemical activity that can be observed when nickel is powdered to maximize the exposed surface area on which reactions can occur, but larger pieces of the metal are slow to react with air at ambient conditions due to the formation of a protective oxide surface. Even then, nickel is reactive enough with oxygen so that native nickel is rarely found on Earth's surface, being mostly confined to the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were protected from oxidation during their time in space. On Earth, such native nickel is always found in combination with iron, a reflection of those elements' origin as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis. An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth's inner core. The use of nickel (as a natural meteoric nickel–iron alloy) has been traced as far back as 3500 BC. Nickel was first isolated and classified as a chemical element in 1751 by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who
    7.00
    3 votes
    91
    Quinine

    Quinine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Aconitum nap, aloe, arsenicum alb, phos, carbo veg, chelidonium ma, chininum pu, ipecac, phosphoricum ac, podoph pelt, veratrum al, lycopodium, merc solub, nux vom, sulph 13.333/0.4/0.4/0.4/0.267/0.4/0.667/0.4/0.4/0.4/0.4/2/0.533/0.4/0.4 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Causticum, chininum sulphuricum, cinchona officinalis pulsatilla, thiosinaminum, 200/200/200/200/200 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Oyster shell calcium carbonate, crude/Activated charcoal/Quinine/Black cohosh/Cinchona officinalis bark/Arabica coffee bean/Graphite/Potassium cation/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Sodium cation/Salicylic acid homeopathic preparation
    Quinine (US  /ˈkwaɪnaɪn/, UK /ˈkwɪniːn/ or /kwɪˈniːn/ KWIN-een) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), antimalarial, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. It is a stereoisomer of quinidine which, unlike quinine, is an antiarrhythmic. Quinine contains two major fused-ring systems: the aromatic quinoline and the bicyclic quinuclidine. Though it has been synthesized in the lab, quinine occurs naturally in the bark of the cinchona tree. The medicinal properties of the cinchona tree were originally discovered by the Quechua, who are indigenous to Peru and Bolivia; later, the Jesuits were the first to bring the cinchona to Europe. Quinine was the first effective treatment for malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, appearing in therapeutics in the 17th century. It remained the antimalarial drug of choice until the 1940s, when other drugs replaced it that have less unpleasant side effects. Since then, many effective antimalarials have been introduced, although quinine is still used to treat the disease in certain critical circumstances, such as severe malaria, and in impoverished regions due to its low cost.
    7.00
    3 votes
    92
    Scandium

    Scandium

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of drug: Arsenic trioxide/Avena sativa flowering top/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Sodium cation/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Phytolacca americana root/Frangula alnus bark/Solidago virgaurea flowering top/Trifolium pratense flower/Iron/Magnesi
    Scandium ( /ˈskændiəm/ SKAN-dee-əm) is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21. A silvery-white metallic transition metal, it has historically been sometimes classified as a rare earth element, together with yttrium and the lanthanoids. It was discovered in 1879 by spectral analysis of the minerals euxenite and gadolinite from Scandinavia. Scandium is present in most of the deposits of rare earth and uranium compounds, but it is extracted from these ores in only a few mines worldwide. Because of the low availability and the difficulties in the preparation of metallic scandium, which was first done in 1937, it took until the 1970s before applications for scandium were developed. The positive effects of scandium on aluminium alloys were discovered in the 1970s, and its use in such alloys remains its only major application. The properties of scandium compounds are intermediate between those of aluminium and yttrium. A diagonal relationship exists between the behavior of magnesium and scandium, just as there is between beryllium and aluminium. In the chemical compounds of the elements shown as group 3, above, the predominant oxidation state is +3. Scandium is a soft
    7.00
    3 votes
    93
    Sodium nitroprusside

    Sodium nitroprusside

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Sodium nitroprusside 25 injectable concentrate solution
    Sodium nitroprusside is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]·2H2O. This red-coloured salt, which is often abbreviated SNP, is a potent vasodilator. The sodium salt dissolves in water and to a lesser extent in ethanol to give solutions containing the dianion [Fe(CN)5NO]. Sodium nitroprusside can be synthesized by boiling potassium ferrocyanide in concentrated nitric acid: Or with nitrites: Nitroprusside is a complex anion that features an octahedral ferrous centre surrounded by five tightly bound cyanide ligands and one linear nitric oxide ligand. The molecular symmetry is C4v. Linear nitrosyl ligands are assigned a single positive charge, thus the iron is assigned an oxidation state of 2+. As such it has a low-spin d electron configuration and is diamagnetic; together with the relatively short N-O distance of 113pm and the relatively high stretching wavenumber of 1947 cm, the complex is formulated as containing an [NO] ligand. The chemical reactions of sodium nitroprusside are mainly associated with the NO ligand. For example, addition of S ion to [Fe(CN)5(NO)] produces the red [Fe(CN)5(NOS)] ion, which is the basis for a sensitive test for S ions. An analogous
    7.00
    3 votes
    94
    Common chickweed

    Common chickweed

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Aconitum napellus, arnica montana, arsenicum iodatum, belladonna, bellis perenis, bryonia, calendula officinalis, chamomilla matricaria, echinacea angustifolia, echinacea purpurea, graphites, hamamelis virginia, hepar sulphuris, hypericum perforatum, lach
    • Active moiety of formulation: Aconitum napellus, arnica montana, arsenicum iodatum, belladonna, bellis perenis, bryonia, calendula officinalis, chamomilla matricaria, echinacea angustifolia, echinacea purpurea, graphites, hamamelis virginia, hepar sulphuris, hypericum perforatum, lach
    • Active moiety of drug: Aconitum napellus/Actaea spicata root/Aesculus hippocastanum flower/Arnica montana/Bellis perennis/Bryonia alba root/Black cohosh/Hypericum perforatum/Lilium lancifolium bulb/Tomato/Oxalic acid/Ruta graveolens flowering top/Salicylic acid/Stellaria media
    Stellaria media, common chickweed, is a cool-season annual plant native to Europe, which is often eaten by chickens. It is commonly also called Chickenwort, Craches, Maruns, Winterweed. The plant germinates in fall or late winter, then forms large mats of foliage. Flowers are small and white, followed quickly by the seed pods. This plant flowers and sets seed at the same time. In both Europe and North America this plant is common in gardens, fields, and disturbed grounds. Control is difficult due to the heavy seed sets. Common Chickweed is very competitive with small grains, and can produce up to 80% yield losses among barley. Stellaria media is delicious, edible and nutritious, and has medicinal purposes and is used as a leaf vegetable, often raw in salads. It is one of the ingredients of the symbolic dish consumed in the Japanese spring-time festival, Nanakusa-no-sekku. The plant has uses in folk medicine. For example, 17th century herbalist John Gerard recommended it as a remedy for mange. Modern herbalists mainly prescribe it for skin diseases, and also for bronchitis, rheumatic pains, arthritis and period pain. A poultice of chickweed can be applied to cuts, burns and bruises.
    6.00
    4 votes
    95
    Furosemide

    Furosemide

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Furosemide 10 solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Furosemide 10 solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Furosemide
    Furosemide (INN) or frusemide (former BAN) is a loop diuretic used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and edema. It is most commonly marketed by Sanofi-Aventis under the brand name Lasix, and also under the brand name Frumex. It has also been used to prevent Thoroughbred and Standardbred race horses from bleeding through the nose during races. Along with some other diuretics, furosemide is also included on the World Anti-Doping Agency's banned drug list due to its alleged use as a masking agent for other drugs. Furosemide is primarily used for the treatment of hypertension and edema. It is the first-line agent in most people with edema due to congestive heart failure. It is also used for hepatic cirrhosis, renal impairment, nephrotic syndrome, in adjunct therapy for cerebral/pulmonary edema where rapid diuresis is required (IV injection), and in the management of severe hypercalcemia in combination with adequate rehydration. Although disputed, it is considered ototoxic: "usually with large parenteral doses and rapid administration and in renal impairment". Furosemide also can lead to gout due to hyperuricemia. Hyperglycemia is also a common side effect. The tendency, as
    6.00
    4 votes
    96
    Staphylococcus aureus

    Staphylococcus aureus

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Staphylococcus aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae, haemophilus influenzae, 12/15/15 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Staphylococcus aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae, haemophilus influenzae, 12/15/15 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Staphylococcus aureus/Klebsiella pneumoniae/Haemophilus influenzae homeopathic preparation
    Staphylococcus aureus ( /ˌstæfɨlɵˈkɒkəs ˈɔriəs/, Greek σταφυλόκοκκος, "grape-cluster berry", Latin aureus, "golden") is a bacterial species. Also known as "golden staph" and Oro staphira, it is a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacterium. It is frequently found as part of the normal skin flora on the skin and nasal passages. It is estimated that 20% of the human population are long-term carriers of S. aureus. S. aureus is the most common species of staphylococcus to cause Staph infections. S. aureus is a successful pathogen due to a combination of bacterial immuno-evasive strategies. One of these strategies is the production of carotenoid pigment staphyloxanthin, which is responsible for the characteristic golden colour of S. aureus colonies. This pigment acts as a virulence factor, primarily by being a bacterial antioxidant which helps the microbe evade the reactive oxygen species which the host immune system uses to kill pathogens. S. aureus can cause a range of illnesses, from minor skin infections, such as pimples, impetigo, boils (furuncles), cellulitis folliculitis, carbuncles, scalded skin syndrome, and abscesses, to life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia,
    6.00
    4 votes
    97
    Calcitriol

    Calcitriol

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Calcitriol 1 injection
    • Active moiety of formulation: Calcitriol 1 injection
    • Active moiety of drug: Calcitriol
    Calcitriol (INN) (US /ˌkælsɨˈtraɪ.ɒl/; UK /kælˈsɪtri.ɒl/), also called 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is the hormonally active form of vitamin D with three hydroxyl groups (abbreviated 1,25-(OH)2D3 or simply 1,25(OH)2D), which was identified by Michael F. Holick. It increases the level of calcium (Ca) in the blood by (1) increasing the uptake of calcium from the gut into the blood, and (2) possibly increasing the release of calcium into the blood from bone. Calcitriol usually refers specifically to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, but may also sometimes include 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (when specified). Because cholecalciferol already has one hydroxyl group, only two are further specified in the nomenclature. Calcitriol is marketed under various trade names including Rocaltrol (Roche), Calcijex (Abbott), Decostriol (Mibe, Jesalis) and Vectical (Galderma). Calcitriol increases blood calcium levels ( [Ca] ) by promoting absorption of dietary calcium from the gastrointestinal tract and increasing renal tubular reabsorption of calcium thus reducing the loss of calcium in the urine. Calcitriol also stimulates release of calcium from bone by its action on
    8.00
    2 votes
    98
    Chromium

    Chromium

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Chromic chloride 20.5 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Berberis vulgaris root bark/Chelidonium majus/Silybum marianum seed/Taraxacum officinale/Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora root/Viscum album fruiting top/Chromium/Cobaltous cation/Copper/Magnesium cation/Sodium cation/Ptelea trifoliata bark/Lactic acid, l-/
    Chromium ( /ˈkroʊmiəm/ KROH-mee-əm) is a chemical element which has the symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in Group 6. It is a steely-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point. It is also odorless, tasteless, and malleable. The name of the element is derived from the Greek word "chrōma" (χρώμα), meaning colour, because many of its compounds are intensely coloured. Chromium oxide was used by the Chinese in the Qin dynasty over 2,000 years ago to coat metal weapons found with the Terracotta Army. Chromium was discovered as an element after it came to the attention of the western world in the red crystalline mineral crocoite (lead(II) chromate), discovered in 1761 and initially used as a pigment. Louis Nicolas Vauquelin first isolated chromium metal from this mineral in 1797. Since Vauquelin's first production of metallic chromium, small amounts of native (free) chromium metal have been discovered in rare minerals, but these are not used commercially. Instead, nearly all chromium is commercially extracted from the single commercially viable ore chromite, which is iron chromium oxide (FeCr2O4). Chromite is also now the chief
    8.00
    2 votes
    99
    Conyza canadensis

    Conyza canadensis

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Activated charcoal, antimony trisulfide, arctium lappa root, arnica montana, artichoke, berberis vulgaris root bark, ceanothus americanus leaf, chamaelirium luteum root, cholesterol, cinchona officinalis bark, conyza canadensis, daikon, equisetum arvense
    • Active moiety of formulation: Activated charcoal, antimony trisulfide, arctium lappa root, arnica montana, artichoke, berberis vulgaris root bark, ceanothus americanus leaf, chamaelirium luteum root, cholesterol, cinchona officinalis bark, conyza canadensis, daikon, equisetum arvense
    • Active moiety of drug: Horse chestnut/Antimony cation (3+)/Silver cation/Arnica montana/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Activated charcoal/Ceanothus americanus leaf/Cholesterol/Cinchona officinalis bark/Artichoke/Equisetum arvense top/Conyza canadensis/Fucus vesiculosus/Ginkgo/Hama
    Conyza canadensis (formerly Erigeron canadensis L.) is an annual plant native throughout most of North America and Central America. Common names include Horseweed, Canadian Horseweed, Canadian Fleabane, Coltstail, Marestail and Butterweed. It is an annual plant growing to 1.5 m tall, with sparsely hairy stems. The leaves are slender, 2–10 cm long and up to 1 cm broad, with a coarsely toothed margin. The flowers are produced in dense inflorescences 1 cm in diameter, with a ring of white or pale purple ray florets and a centre of yellow disc florets. Horseweed is commonly considered a weed, and in Ohio it has been declared a noxious weed. It can be found in fields, meadows, and gardens throughout its native range. Horseweed infestations have reduced soybean yields by as much as 83%. It is an especially problematic weed in no-till agriculture, as it is often resistant to glyphosate and other herbicides. Farmers are advised to include 2,4-D or dicamba in a burndown application prior to planting to control horseweed. Horseweed is much the most common of the alien Conyza species in Britain, and is found from northern Scotland to Cornwall. It is the only one of the British Conyza species
    8.00
    2 votes
    100
    Dysprosium

    Dysprosium

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of drug: Arsenic trioxide/Avena sativa flowering top/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Sodium cation/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Phytolacca americana root/Frangula alnus bark/Solidago virgaurea flowering top/Trifolium pratense flower/Iron/Magnesi
    Dysprosium ( /dɪsˈproʊziəm/ dis-PROH-zee-əm) is a chemical element with the symbol Dy and atomic number 66. It is a rare earth element with a metallic silver luster. Dysprosium is never found in nature as a free element, though it is found in various minerals, such as xenotime. Naturally occurring dysprosium is composed of 7 isotopes, the most abundant of which is Dy. Dysprosium was first identified in 1886 by Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, but was not isolated in pure form until the development of ion exchange techniques in the 1950s. Dysprosium is used for its high thermal neutron absorption cross-section in making control rods in nuclear reactors, for its high magnetic susceptibility in data storage applications, and as a component of Terfenol-D. Soluble dysprosium salts are mildly toxic, while the insoluble salts are considered non-toxic. Dysprosium is a rare earth element that has a metallic, bright silver luster. It is soft enough to be cut with a knife, and can be machined without sparking if overheating is avoided. Dysprosium's physical characteristics can be greatly affected even by small amounts of impurities. Dysprosium and holmium have the highest magnetic strengths
    8.00
    2 votes
    101
    Germanium

    Germanium

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of drug: Garlic/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Glycyrrhiza glabra/Arctium lappa root/Phytolacca americana root/Frangula alnus bark/Red clover/Methionine/Thyroid, porcine/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Mercury/Oxygen/Silicon/Aluminum/Arsenic/Bariu
    Germanium ( /dʒərˈmeɪniəm/ jər-MAY-nee-əm) is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. Purified germanium is a semiconductor, with an appearance most similar to elemental silicon. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature. Unlike silicon, it is too reactive to be found naturally on Earth in the free (native) state. Because very few minerals contain it in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry. Germanium ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties based on its position on his periodic table and called the element ekasilicon. Nearly two decades later, in 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite. Although the new element somewhat resembled arsenic and antimony in appearance, its combining ratios in the new element's compounds agreed with Mendeleev's predictions for a
    8.00
    2 votes
    102
    Goose

    Goose

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Goose meat 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Goose meat 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Goose extract
    Geese are waterfowl belonging to the tribe Anserini of the family Anatidae. This tribe comprises the genera Anser (the grey geese), Branta (the black geese) and Chen (the white geese). A number of other birds, mostly related to the shelducks, have "goose" as part of their name. More distantly related members of the Anatidae family are swans, most of which are larger than true geese, and ducks, which are smaller. The word goose is a direct descendant of Proto-Indo-European root, *ghans-. In Germanic languages, the root gave Old English gōs with the plural gēs and gandres (becoming Modern English goose, geese, and gander, respectively), New High German Gans, Gänse, and Ganter, and Old Norse gās. This term also gave Lithuanian žąsìs, Irish gé (goose, from Old Irish géiss), Latin anser, Greek chēn, Albanian gatë (heron), Sanskrit hamsī, Finnish hanhi, Avestan zāō, Polish gęś, Russian гусь, Czech husa, and Persian ghāz. The term goose applies to the female in particular while gander applies to the male in particular. Young birds before fledging are called goslings. The collective noun for group of geese on the ground is a gaggle; when in flight, they are called a skein, a team or a
    8.00
    2 votes
    103
    Insulin

    Insulin

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Insulin human 1,3 kit
    • Active moiety of formulation: Insulin human 1,3 kit
    • Active moiety of drug: Insulin
    Insulin is a peptide hormone, produced by beta cells of the pancreas, and is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, skeletal muscles, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood. In the liver and skeletal muscles, glucose is stored as glycogen, and in adipocytes it is stored as triglycerides. Insulin stops the use of fat as an energy source by inhibiting the release of glucagon. With the exception of the metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, insulin is provided within the body in a constant proportion to remove excess glucose from the blood, which otherwise would be toxic. When blood glucose levels fall below a certain level, the body begins to use stored sugar as an energy source through glycogenolysis, which breaks down the glycogen stored in the liver and muscles into glucose, which can then be utilized as an energy source. As a central metabolic control mechanism, its status is also used as a control signal to other body systems (such as amino acid uptake by body cells). In addition, it has several other anabolic effects throughout the body. When control of insulin levels fails, diabetes
    8.00
    2 votes
    104
    Isoniazid

    Isoniazid

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Isoniazid 100 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Isoniazid 100 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Rifampin/Isoniazid/Pyrazinamide
    Isoniazid (Laniazid, Nydrazid), also known as isonicotinylhydrazine (INH), is an organic compound that is the first-line medication in prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. The compound was first synthesized in the early 20th century, but its activity against tuberculosis was first reported in the early 1950s, and three pharmaceutical companies attempted unsuccessfully to simultaneously patent the drug (the most prominent one being Roche, which launched its version, Rimifon, in 1952). With the introduction of isoniazid, a cure for tuberculosis was first considered reasonable. Isoniazid is available in tablet, syrup, and injectable forms (given intramuscularly or intravenously). It is available worldwide, is inexpensive and is generally well tolerated. It is manufactured from isonicotinic acid, which is produced from 4-methylpyridine. Isoniazid may be prepared by the base hydrolysis of 4-cyanopyridine to give the amide, followed by displacement of ammonia by hydrazine: Isoniazid is a prodrug and must be activated by a bacterial catalase-peroxidase enzyme that in M. tuberculosis is called KatG. KatG couples the isonicotinic acyl with NADH to form isonicotinic acyl-NADH complex.
    8.00
    2 votes
    105
    Malathion

    Malathion

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Malathion lotion, 0.5% 5 lotion
    • Active moiety of formulation: Malathion lotion, 0.5% 5 lotion
    • Active moiety of drug: Malathion
    Malathion is an organophosphate parasympathomimetic which binds irreversibly to cholinesterase. Malathion is an insecticide of relatively low human toxicity; however, a 2010 study has shown that children with higher levels of organophosphate pesticide metabolites in their urine are more likely to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In the former USSR it was known as carbophos, in New Zealand and Australia as maldison and in South Africa as mercaptothion. Malathion is a pesticide that is widely used in agriculture, residential landscaping, public recreation areas, and in public health pest control programs such as mosquito eradication. In the US, it is the most commonly used organophosphate insecticide. Malathion was used in the 1980s in California to combat the Mediterranean Fruit Fly. This was accomplished on a wide scale by the near weekly aerial spraying of suburban communities for a period of several months. Formations of three or four agricultural helicopters would overfly suburban portions of Alameda County, San Bernardino County, San Mateo County, Santa Clara County, San Joaquin County, Stanislaus County, and Merced County releasing a mixture of malathion and corn
    8.00
    2 votes
    106
    Pink salmon

    Pink salmon

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Pink salmon 50 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Pink salmon 50 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Pink salmon extract
    Pink salmon or humpback salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (from a Russian name for this species gorbuša, горбуша), is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family. It is the smallest and most abundant of the Pacific salmon. In the ocean, pink salmon are bright silver fish. After returning to their spawning streams, their coloring changes to pale grey on the back with yellowish-white belly (although some turn an overall dull green color). As with all salmon, in addition to the dorsal fin, they also have an adipose fin. The fish is characterized by a white mouth with black gums, no teeth on the tongue, large oval-shaped black spots on the back, a v-shaped tail, and an anal fin with 13-17 soft rays. During their spawning migration, males develop a pronounced humped back, hence their nickname "humpies". Pink salmon average 4.8 pounds (2.2 kg) in weight. The maximum recorded size was 30 inches (76 cm) and 15 pounds (6.8 kg). Pink salmon in their native range have a strict two year life cycle, thus odd- and even-year populations do not interbreed. Adult pink salmon enter spawning streams from the ocean, usually returning to the water course, or race, where they originated. Spawning
    8.00
    2 votes
    107
    Podophyllum

    Podophyllum

    • Active ingredient of formulation: .alpha.-lipoic acid, .alpha.-tocopherol acetate, dl-, acetylcarnitine, adenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate, ascorbic acid, calcium carbonate, citric acid monohydrate, cobalamin, colchicum autumnale bulb, conium maculatum flowering top, cupric sulfate, ferr
    • Active moiety of formulation: .alpha.-lipoic acid, .alpha.-tocopherol acetate, dl-, acetylcarnitine, adenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate, ascorbic acid, calcium carbonate, citric acid monohydrate, cobalamin, colchicum autumnale bulb, conium maculatum flowering top, cupric sulfate, ferr
    • Active moiety of drug: Aethusa cynapium/Althaea officinalis root/Aluminum oxide/Sulfate ion/Arsenic trioxide/Baptisia tinctoria root/Bismuth subnitrate/Activated charcoal/Matricaria recutita/Cinchona officinalis bark/Collinsonia canadensis root/Citrullus colocynthis fruit pulp/
    Podophyllum is a genus of six species of herbaceous perennial plants in the family Berberidaceae, native to eastern Asia (five species) and eastern North America (one species, Mayapple P. peltatum). They are woodland plants, typically growing in colonies derived from a single root. The stems grow to 30–40 cm tall, with palmately lobed umbrella-like leaves up to 20–40 cm diameter with 3–9 shallowly to deeply cut lobes. The plants produce several stems from a creeping underground rhizome; some stems bear a single leaf and do not produce any flower or fruit, while flowering stems produce a pair or more leaves with 1–8 flowers in the axil between the apical leaves. The flowers are white, yellow or red, 2–6 cm diameter with 6–9 petals, and mature into a green, yellow or red fleshy fruit 2–5 cm long. All the parts of the plant, excepting the fruit, are poisonous. Even the fruit, though not dangerously poisonous, can cause unpleasant indigestion. The substance they contain (podophyllotoxin or podophyllin) is used as a purgative and as a cytostatic. Posalfilin is a drug containing podophyllin and salicylic acid that is used to treat the plantar wart. They are also grown as ornamental
    8.00
    2 votes
    108
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Pseudomonas aeruginosa 0.6 solution/drops
    • Active moiety of formulation: Pseudomonas aeruginosa 0.6 solution/drops
    • Active moiety of drug: Taraxacum officinale/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Frangula purshiana bark/Rheum officinale root/Artemisia cina flower/Arsenic trioxide/Aloe/Sus scrofa gallbladder/Beef liver/Activated charcoal/Pork intestine/Escherichia coli/Araneus diadematus/Carbo animal
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common bacterium that can cause disease in animals, including humans. It is found in soil, water, skin flora, and most man-made environments throughout the world. It thrives not only in normal atmospheres, but also in hypoxic atmospheres, and has, thus, colonized many natural and artificial environments. It uses a wide range of organic material for food; in animals, the versatility enables the organism to infect damaged tissues or those with reduced immunity. The symptoms of such infections are generalized inflammation and sepsis. If such colonizations occur in critical body organs, such as the lungs, the urinary tract, and kidneys, the results can be fatal. Because it thrives on most surfaces, this bacterium is also found on and in medical equipment, including catheters, causing cross-infections in hospitals and clinics. It is implicated in hot-tub rash. It is also able to decompose hydrocarbons and has been used to break down tarballs and oil from oil spills. It is a Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium with unipolar motility. An opportunistic human pathogen, P. aeruginosa is also an opportunistic pathogen of plants. P. aeruginosa is the type
    8.00
    2 votes
    109
    Beet

    Beet

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Beet 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Beet 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Adenosine triphosphate/.alpha.-ketoglutaric acid/.alpha.-lipoic acid/Ascorbic acid/Barium oxalosuccinate/Beet/Oxalic acid/Aconitic acid, (z)-/Coenzyme a/Cysteine/Sus scrofa embryo/Fumaric acid/Asian ginseng/Sus scrofa adrenal gland/Lactic acid/Magnesium c
    The beet (Beta vulgaris) is a plant in the Chenopodiaceae family which is now included in Amaranthaceae family. It is best known in its numerous cultivated varieties, the most well known of which is the root vegetable known as the beetroot or garden beet. However, other cultivated varieties include the leaf vegetables chard and spinach beet, as well as the root vegetables sugar beet, which is important in the production of table sugar, and mangelwurzel, which is a fodder crop. Three subspecies are typically recognised. All cultivated varieties fall into the subspecies Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, while Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, commonly known as the sea beet, is the wild ancestor of these, and is found throughout the Mediterranean, the Atlantic coast of Europe, the Near East, and India. A second wild subspecies, Beta vulgaris subsp. adanensis, occurs from Greece to Syria. The roots are most commonly deep red-purple in color, but come in a wide variety of other shades, including golden yellow and red-and-white striped. Beta vulgaris is a herbaceous biennial or, rarely, perennial plant with leafy stems growing to 1–2 m tall. The leaves are heart-shaped, 5–20 cm long on wild
    9.00
    1 votes
    110
    Sotalol

    Sotalol

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Sotalol 80 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Sotalol 80 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Sotalol
    Sotalol is a drug used in individuals with rhythm disturbances (cardiac arrhythmias) of the heart, and to treat hypertension in some individuals. It is a non-selective competitive β-adrenergic receptor blocker that also exhibits Class III antiarrhythmic properties by its inhibition of potassium channels. Because of this dual action, Sotalol prolongs both the PR interval and the QT interval. Originally discovered around 1960, sotalol became widely used first as a β-blocker in the 1980s, and its function as an antiarrhythmic drug was discovered soon after. Due to the dual action of sotalol, it is often used preferentially to other β-blockers as treatment for both ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. Trade names for Sotalol include Betapace and Betapace AF (Berlex Laboratories), and Sotalex and Sotacor (Bristol-Myers Squibb). Sotalol is used to treat ventricular tachycardias as well as atrial fibrillation. Betapace AF is specifically labeled for atrial fibrillation. Some evidence suggests that sotalol should be avoided in the setting of decreased ejection fraction due to an increased risk of death. It has also been suggested that it be used in the prevention of atrial
    9.00
    1 votes
    111
    Triamcinolone acetonide

    Triamcinolone acetonide

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Triamcinolone acetonide 1 lotion
    • Active moiety of drug: Nystatin/Triamcinolone acetonide
    Triamcinolone acetonide is a synthetic corticosteroid used to treat various skin conditions, relieve the discomfort of mouth sores and in nasal spray form as an over-the-counter relief for allergic and perennial allergic rhinitis. It is a more potent derivative of triamcinolone, being about 8 times as potent as prednisone. Triamcinolone acetonide should not be used by those with tuberculosis or untreated fungal, bacterial, systemic viral or herpes simplex infections without consulting a doctor first. Few serious adverse effects were noted in clinical trials, with pharyngitis, rhinitis, headache and epistaxis being the more common ones. Overdosage is improbable, and the effects of such an overdose appear to be confined to gastrointestinal upset. The maximum dosage for both adults and children (age 6-12) is 220 mcg per day. Individuals with geographic tongue (benign migratory glossitis) can apply it at bedtime to the affected area which heals overnight. Triamcinolone acetonide is also used in veterinary medicine as an ingredient in topical ointments. A series of injections with triamcinolone acetonide or another corticosteroid may reduce keloid size and irritation. It is also used as
    9.00
    1 votes
    112
    Valproic acid

    Valproic acid

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Valproic acid 250 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Divalproex sodium 125 coated pellets in capsule
    • Active moiety of drug: Divalproex sodium
    Valproic acid (VPA), an acidic chemical compound, has found clinical use as an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug, primarily in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder, and, less commonly, major depression. It is also used to treat migraine headaches and schizophrenia. VPA is a liquid at room temperature, but it can be reacted with a base such as sodium hydroxide to form the salt sodium valproate, which is a solid. The acid, salt, or a mixture of the two (valproate semisodium) are marketed under the various brand names Depakote, Depakote ER, Depakene, Depakene Crono (extended release in Spain), Depacon, Depakine, Valparin and Stavzor. Approved uses of the various formulations vary by country; e.g., valproate semisodium is used as a mood stabilizer and also in the US as an anticonvulsant. VPA is a histone deacetylase inhibitor and is under investigation for treatment of HIV and various cancers. As an anticonvulsant, valproic acid is used to control absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal), complex partial seizures, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, and the seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. It is also used in treatment of myoclonus. In some countries,
    9.00
    1 votes
    113
    Ceftaroline fosamil

    Ceftaroline fosamil

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Ceftaroline fosamil 20 powder for solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Ceftaroline fosamil 20 powder for solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Ceftaroline fosamil
    Ceftaroline fosamil (INN) ( /sɛfˈtærɵliːn/), brand name Teflaro, is an advanced-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. It is active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Gram-positive bacteria. It retains the activity of later-generation cephalosporins having broad-spectrum activity against Gram-negative bacteria. It is currently being investigated for community-acquired pneumonia and complicated skin and skin structure infection. Ceftaroline is being developed by Forest Laboratories, under a license from Takeda. Ceftaroline has received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin infections on October 29, 2010. In vitro studies show that it has a similar spectrum to ceftobiprole, the only other fifth-generation cephalosporin to date, although no head to head clinical trials have been conducted. Currently, ceftaroline and ceftobiprole are on an unnamed subclass of cephalosporins by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin that has activity against MRSA with phase III clinical trials for complicated skin and skin
    6.67
    3 votes
    114
    Chlordiazepoxide

    Chlordiazepoxide

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Chlordiazepoxide and amitriptyline hydrochloride 5/12.5 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride 25 gelatin coated capsule
    • Active moiety of drug: Chlordiazepoxide/Clidinium
    Chlordiazepoxide ( /ˌklɔərdaɪ.əzɨˈpɒksaɪd/), is a sedative/hypnotic drug and benzodiazepine. It is marketed under the trade names Angirex, Elenium, Klopoxid, Librax (also contains clidinium bromide), Libritabs, Librium, Mesural, Multum, Novapam, Risolid, Silibrin, Sonimen and Tropium. Chlordiazepoxide was the first benzodiazepine to be synthesised and the discovery of chlordiazepoxide was by pure chance. Chlordiazepoxide and other benzodiazepines were initially accepted with widespread public approval but were followed with widespread public disapproval and recommendations for more restrictive medical guidelines for its use. Chlordiazepoxide has a medium to long half-life but its active metabolite has a very long half-life. The drug has amnestic, anxiolytic, hypnotic and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Chlordiazepoxide (initially called methaminodiazepoxide) was the first benzodiazepine to be synthesised in the mid-1950s. Chlordiazepoxide was synthesised from work on a chemical dye, quinazolone-3-oxides. It was discovered by accident when in 1957 tests revealed that the compound had hypnotic, anxiolytic and muscle relaxant effects. Three years later chlordiazepoxide was
    6.67
    3 votes
    115
    Ketotifen

    Ketotifen

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Ketotifen 0.00025 solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Ketotifen fumarate 0.35 solution/drops
    • Active moiety of drug: Ketotifen fumarate
    Ketotifen is a second-generation noncompetitive H1-antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer. It is most commonly sold as a salt of fumaric acid, ketotifen fumarate, and is available in two forms. In its ophthalmic form, it is used to treat allergic conjunctivitis, or the itchy red eyes caused by allergies. In its oral form, it is used to prevent asthma attacks. Side effects include drowsiness, weight gain, dry mouth, irritability, and increased nosebleeds. The drug is marketed as ophthalmic solutions under the brand names Zaditor/Zaditen (Novartis), Alaway (Bausch and Lomb), Zyrtec Itchy-Eye Drops, and Claritin Eye. A generic version of Novartis' Zaditor, ketotifen fumarate ophthalmic solution, 0.025%, is available from Perrigo and distributed as store brands. Ketotifen relieves and prevents eye itchiness and/or irritation associated with most seasonal allergies. It starts working within minutes after administering the drops. The drug has not been studied in children under three. The mean elimination half life is 12 hours. Besides its anti-histaminic activity, it is also a functional leukotriene antagonist and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. The drug may also help relieve the symptoms
    6.67
    3 votes
    116
    Ondansetron

    Ondansetron

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Ondansetron 8 soluable film
    • Active moiety of formulation: Ondansetron hydrochloride 8 film coated tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Ondansetron Hydrochloride
    Ondansetron (INN) ( /ɒnˈdænsɛtrɒn/; developed and first marketed by GlaxoSmithKline as Zofran) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly as an antiemetic (to treat nausea and vomiting), often following chemotherapy. It affects both peripheral and central nerves. Ondansetron reduces the activity of the vagus nerve, which deactivates the vomiting center in the medulla oblongata, and also blocks serotonin receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone. It has little effect on vomiting caused by motion sickness, and does not have any effect on dopamine receptors or muscarinic receptors. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are the primary drugs used to treat and prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). A common use case is to give them intravenously about 30 minutes before commencement of a chemotherapy treatment. Ondansetron is also effective in controlling post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and post-radiation nausea and vomiting, and is a possible therapy for nausea and vomiting due to acute or chronic medical illness or acute gastroenteritis. Although it is highly effective, the high cost of the brand-name version had limited its use to controlling PONV and
    6.67
    3 votes
    117
    Palladium

    Palladium

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Ammonium chloride, berberis vulgaris root bark, black cohosh, cinchona officinalis bark, citrullus colocynthis fruit pulp, claviceps purpurea sclerotium, cupric acetate, horse chestnut, ledum palustre twig, mercuric oxide, yellow, palladium, potassium car
    • Active moiety of formulation: Ammonium chloride, berberis vulgaris root bark, black cohosh, cinchona officinalis bark, citrullus colocynthis fruit pulp, claviceps purpurea sclerotium, cupric acetate, horse chestnut, ledum palustre twig, mercuric oxide, yellow, palladium, potassium car
    • Active moiety of drug: Arsenic trioxide/Avena sativa flowering top/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Sodium cation/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Phytolacca americana root/Frangula alnus bark/Solidago virgaurea flowering top/Trifolium pratense flower/Iron/Magnesi
    Palladium ( /pəˈleɪdiəm/ pə-LAY-dee-əm) is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Pd and an atomic number of 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston. He named it after the asteroid Pallas, which was itself named after the epithet of the Greek goddess Athena, acquired by her when she slew Pallas. Palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium form a group of elements referred to as the platinum group metals (PGMs). These have similar chemical properties, but palladium has the lowest melting point and is the least dense of them. The unique properties of palladium and other platinum group metals (PGMs) account for their widespread use. A quarter of all goods manufactured today either contain PGMs or have a significant part in their manufacturing process played by PGMs. Over half of the supply of palladium and its congener platinum goes into catalytic converters, which convert up to 90% of harmful gases from auto exhaust (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide) into less-harmful substances (nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapor). Palladium is also used in electronics, dentistry, medicine, hydrogen
    6.67
    3 votes
    118
    Saw Palmetto

    Saw Palmetto

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Solidago virgaurea, uva-ursi, pareira brava, sabal serrulata, populus tremuloides, staphysagria, cantharis, terebinthia, borax 1/3/3/6/4/2/1/8/1 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Solidago virgaurea, uva-ursi, pareira brava, sabal serrulata, populus tremuloides, staphysagria, cantharis, terebinthia, borax 1/3/3/6/4/2/1/8/1 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Hydrocortisone/Sus scrofa adrenal gland/Sus scrofa hypothalamus/Sus scrofa pituitary gland/Sus scrofa prostate/Testosterone/Chelidonium majus/Saw palmetto/Thuja occidentalis leafy twig/Saccharomyces cerevisiae rna/Herring sperm dna homeopathic preparation
    Serenoa repens, commonly known as saw palmetto, is the sole species currently classified in the genus Serenoa. It has been known by a number of synonyms, including Sabal serrulatum, under which name it still often appears in alternative medicine. It is a small palm, normally reaching a height of around 2–4 m (3–6 ft). Its trunk is sprawling, and it grows in clumps or dense thickets in sandy coastal lands or as undergrowth in pine woods or hardwood hammocks. Erect stems or trunks are rarely produced but are found in some populations. It is endemic to the southeastern United States, most commonly along the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal plains, but also as far inland as southern Arkansas. It is a hearty plant; extremely slow growing, and long lived, with some plants, especially in Florida where it is known as simply the palmetto, possibly being as old as 500–700 years. Saw palmetto is a fan palm, with the leaves that have a bare petiole terminating in a rounded fan of about 20 leaflets. The petiole is armed with fine, sharp teeth or spines that give the species its common name. The teeth or spines are easily capable of breaking the skin, and protection should be worn when working around a
    6.67
    3 votes
    119
    Asparagus

    Asparagus

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Asparagus 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Asparagus 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Wheat/Alfalfa/Fucus vesiculosus/Laminaria digitata/Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum/Radish/Comfrey root/Hordeum vulgare top/Asparagus/Manganese/Ferrum phosphoricum/Arnica montana/Copper/Ubidecarenone/Lithium/Mercurius solubilis/Neodymium/Rubidium/Scandium/Sil
    Asparagus officinalis is a spring vegetable, a flowering perennial plant species in the genus Asparagus. It was once classified in the lily family, like its Allium cousins, onions and garlic, but the Liliaceae have been split and the onion-like plants are now in the family Amaryllidaceae and asparagus in the Asparagaceae. Asparagus officinalis is native to most of Europe, northern Africa and western Asia, and is widely cultivated as a vegetable crop. Asparagus is a herbaceous, perennial plant growing to 100–150 centimetres (39–59 in) tall, with stout stems with much-branched feathery foliage. The "leaves" are in fact needle-like cladodes (modified stems) in the axils of scale leaves; they are 6–32 millimetres (0.24–1.3 in) long and 1 millimetre (0.039 in) broad, and clustered 4–15 together. The root system is adventitious and the root type is fasciculated. The flowers are bell-shaped, greenish-white to yellowish, 4.5–6.5 millimetres (0.18–0.26 in) long, with six tepals partially fused together at the base; they are produced singly or in clusters of 2–3 in the junctions of the branchlets. It is usually dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants, but sometimes
    5.75
    4 votes
    120
    Calcium citrate

    Calcium citrate

    • Active ingredient of formulation: .alpha.-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, calcium citrate, cholecalciferol, cupric oxide, doconexent, docusate sodium, folic acid, iron pentacarbonyl, niacinamide, potassium iodide, pyridoxine hydrochloride, riboflavin, thiamine hydrochloride, and zinc oxide 30/
    Calcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid. It is commonly used as a food additive (E333), usually as a preservative, but sometimes for flavor. In this sense, it is similar to sodium citrate. Calcium citrate is also used as a water softener because the citrate ions can chelate unwanted metal ions. Calcium citrate is also found in some dietary calcium supplements (e.g. Citracal). Calcium makes up 21% of calcium citrate by weight. Calcium citrate is an odorless white powder, practically insoluble in cold water. Like citric acid, calcium citrate has a sour taste. Like other salts, however, it also has a salty taste. This should not be confused with the product commonly found in grocery stores labeled as "sour salt", which is simply powdered citric acid (which only resembles salt superficially). Calcium citrate is an intermediate in the isolation of citric acid from the fermentation process by which citric acid is produced industrially. The citric acid in the broth solution is neutralized by calcium hydroxide, precipitating insoluble calcium citrate. This is then filtered off from the rest of the broth and washed to give clean calcium citrate. The calcium citrate thus produced
    5.75
    4 votes
    121
    Kerosene

    Kerosene

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Kerosene 30 pellet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Kerosene 30 pellet
    • Active moiety of drug: Arsenic trioxide/Graphite/Mercurius solubilis/Kerosene/Toxicodendron pubescens leaf homeopathic preparation
    Kerosene is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid. The name is derived from Greek keros (κηρός wax). The word "Kerosene" was registered as a trademark by Abraham Gesner in 1854, and for several years, only the North American Gas Light Company and the Downer Company (to which Gesner had granted the right) were allowed to call their lamp oil "Kerosene" in the United States. It eventually became a genericized trademark. It is sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage. The term "kerosene" is usual in much of Canada, the United States, Australia (where it can be referred to colloquially as "kero") and New Zealand. Kerosene is usually called paraffin in the UK, Southeast Asia and South Africa. A more viscous paraffin oil is used as a laxative. A waxy solid extracted from petroleum is also called paraffin. Kerosene is widely used to power jet engines of aircraft (jet fuel) and some rocket engines, but is also commonly used as a cooking and lighting fuel and for fire toys such as poi. In parts of Asia, where the price of kerosene is subsidized, it fuels outboard motors on small fishing boats. Kerosene lamps are widely used for lighting in rural areas of Asia and Africa where
    5.75
    4 votes
    122
    Antimony

    Antimony

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Primula veris extract onopordum hyoscyamus niger antimony gold arnica montana bellis perennis matricaria recutita ipecac lycopodium clavatum spore 8/30/30/10/4/30/30/30/3/3 pellet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Antimonium tartaricum, arsenicum iodatum, asafoetida, baptisia tinctoria, echinacea, eupoatorium perfoliatum, euphorbia pilulifera, hepar sulphuris calcareum, 6/200/30/3/30/3/3/3/30/200/200/30/200/30/3/30 spray
    • Active moiety of drug: Antimony/Arsenic trioxide/Nitric acid/Sulfur/Thuja occidentalis leafy twig/Hippomane mancinella fruiting leafy twig homeopathic preparation
    Antimony ( /ænˈtɪmɵni/ an-TI-mo-nee or  /ˈæntəˌmoʊni/ AN-tə-MOH-nee; Latin: stibium) is a toxic chemical element with symbol Sb and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were used for cosmetics; metallic antimony was also known, but it was erroneously identified as lead. It was established to be an element around the 17th century. For some time, China has been the largest producer of antimony and its compounds, with most production coming from the Xikuangshan Mine in Hunan. The industrial methods to produce antimony are roasting and subsequent carbothermal reduction or direct reduction of stibnite with iron. The largest applications for metallic antimony are as alloying material for lead and tin and for lead antimony plates in lead-acid batteries. Alloying lead and tin with antimony improves the properties of the alloys which are used in solders, bullets and plain bearings. Antimony compounds are prominent additives for chlorine- and bromine-containing fire retardants found in many commercial and domestic products. An emerging application is the
    7.50
    2 votes
    123
    Pacific halibut

    Pacific halibut

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Halibut 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Halibut 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Pacific halibut extract
    The Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) is found on the continental shelf of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. They are demersal, living on or near the bottom. The halibut is among the largest teleost (bony) fishes in the world. Halibut are strong swimmers and are able to migrate long distances. Halibut size is age and sex-specific, but also follows a cycle that has been related to halibut and other species abundance. Pacific halibut have diamond-shaped bodies; both eyes are on their dark or upper side. The color adaption allows halibut to avoid detection by both prey and predator. Being strong swimmers, they are able to eat a large variety of fishes, such as cod, turbot, and pollock, and some invertebrates, such as crab and shrimp. Most spawning takes place off the edge of the continental shelf in deep waters about 200 to 300 fathoms (1,200 to 1,800 ft; 370 to 550 m). At six months of age, the young have their adult form and are about 1.4 in (3.6 cm) long. Young halibut, up to 10 years of age, are highly migratory. Older, reproductively mature halibut move seasonally across areas and between shallower and deeper waters during and around the winter reproductive season.
    7.50
    2 votes
    124
    Potassium carbonate

    Potassium carbonate

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Aconitum napellus, baptisia tinctoria root, black cohosh, bryonia alba root, chelidonium majus, conium maculatum flowering top, datura stramonium, delphinium staphisagria seed, gelsemium sempervirens root, gold, hypericum perforatum, lachesis muta venom,
    • Active moiety of formulation: Taraxacum officinale elymus repens root potash mercuric sulfide 3/20/10/2 pellet
    • Active moiety of drug: Taraxacum officinale/Elymus repens root/Potassium carbonate/Mercuric cation homeopathic preparation
    Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, soluble in water (insoluble in alcohol), which forms a strongly alkaline solution. It can be made as the product of potassium hydroxide's absorbent reaction with carbon dioxide. It is deliquescent, often appearing a damp or wet solid. Potassium carbonate is used in the production of soap and glass. Potassium carbonate was first identified in 1742 by Antonio Campanella and is the primary component of potash and the more refined pearl ash or salts of tartar. Historically, pearl ash was created by baking potash in a kiln to remove impurities. The fine, white powder remaining was the pearl ash. The first patent issued by the US Patent Office was awarded to Samuel Hopkins in 1790 for an improved method of making potash and pearl ash. In late 18th century North America, before the development of baking powder, pearl ash was used as a leavening agent in quick breads. Other terms for potassium carbonate: Today, potassium carbonate is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of potassium chloride. The resulting potassium hydroxide is then carbonated using carbon dioxide to form potassium carbonate, which is often used to produce other potassium
    7.50
    2 votes
    125
    Probenecid

    Probenecid

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Probenecid and colchicine 500/0.5 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Probenecid and colchicine 500/0.5 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Probenecid/Colchicine
    Probenecid (Lannett's Probalan) is a uricosuric drug that increases uric acid excretion in the urine. It is primarily used in treating gout and hyperuricemia. Probenecid was developed as an alternative to caronamide to competitively inhibit renal excretion of some drugs, thereby increasing their plasma concentration and prolonging their effects. During World War II, probenecid was used to extend limited supplies of penicillin, and is still used to increase antibiotic concentrations in serious infections. In one study, probenecid was shown to more than double blood concentrations of oseltamivir (trade name Tamiflu), an antiviral drug used to combat influenza, suggesting this property applies to antivirals, as well. It has also found use as a masking agent. Some of the important clinical interactions of probenecid include those with captopril, indomethacin, ketoprofen, ketorolac, naproxen, cephalosporins, quinolones, penicillins, methotrexate, zidovudine, gancyclovir, and aciclovir. In all these interactions, the excretion of these drugs is reduced due to probenecid. In the kidneys, probenecid is filtered at the glomerulus, secreted in the proximal tubule and reabsorbed in the distal
    7.50
    2 votes
    126
    Prostaglandin E2

    Prostaglandin E2

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Dinoprostone 10 insert
    • Active moiety of formulation: Dinoprostone 10 insert
    • Active moiety of drug: Prostaglandin E2
    The naturally occurring prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is known in medicine as dinoprostone. It has important effects in labour (softens cervix and causes uterine contraction) and also stimulates osteoblasts to release factors that stimulate bone resorption by osteoclasts. PGE2 is also the prostaglandin that ultimately induces fever. It is sold under the trade name of Cervidil (by Forest Laboratories, Inc.), Prostin E2 (by Pfizer Inc.), Propess (by Ferring Pharmaceuticals) and Glandin (by Nabiqasim Pharmaceuticals Pakistan) as a vaginal suppository, to prepare the cervix for labour; it is used to induce labour. Like other prostaglandins, dinoprostone can be used as an abortifacient. It is a direct vasodilator, relaxing smooth muscles, and it inhibits the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic nerve terminals. It does not inhibit platelet aggregation, where PGI2 does. It works by binding and activating the prostaglandin E2 receptor. It was discovered by Bunting, Gryglewski, Moncada and Vane in 1976. Precautions : uterine scar tissues; asthma; low blood pressure; heart disease; adrenal problems; anemia; diabetes; glaucoma; icterus (jaundice); multiparity (5 pregnancies); heart, lung or
    7.50
    2 votes
    127
    Strontium

    Strontium

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Calendula officinalis, symphytum officinale, staphysagria, rhus toxicodendron, ruta graveolens, bellis perennis, 12/12/3/3/12/12/12/12/12/12/12 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Calendula officinalis flowering top/Comfrey root/Delphinium staphisagria seed/Toxicodendron pubescens leaf/Ruta graveolens flowering top/Bellis perennis/Ledum palustre twig/Hypericum perforatum/Strontium cation/Phosphorus/Arnica montana homeopathic prepar
    Strontium ( /ˈstrɒntiəm/ STRON-tee-əm) is a chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38. An alkaline earth metal, strontium is a soft silver-white or yellowish metallic element that is highly reactive chemically. The metal turns yellow when exposed to air. It occurs naturally in the minerals celestine and strontianite. While natural strontium is stable, the synthetic Sr isotope is present in radioactive fallout and has a half-life of 28.90 years. Both strontium and strontianite are named after Strontian, a village in Scotland near which the mineral was first discovered. Strontium is a grey, silvery metal that is softer than calcium and even more reactive in water, with which it reacts on contact to produce strontium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. It burns in air to produce both strontium oxide and strontium nitride, but since it does not react with nitrogen below 380 °C, at room temperature it will only form the oxide spontaneously. Because of its extreme reactivity with oxygen and water, this element occurs naturally only in compounds with other elements, such as in the minerals strontianite and celestite. It is kept under a liquid hydrocarbon such as mineral oil or kerosene
    7.50
    2 votes
    128
    Temazepam

    Temazepam

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Temazepam 30 capsule
    • Active moiety of formulation: Temazepam 30 capsule
    • Active moiety of drug: Temazepam/Choline
    Temazepam (brand names Restoril - 15 mg/30 mg and Normison, among others) is an intermediate-acting 3-hydroxy hypnotic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs. Temazepam is approved for the short-term treatment of insomnia. In addition, temazepam has anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Temazepam was first synthesized in 1964, but it first came into use in 1969 when its ability to counter insomnia was realized. By the late 1980s, temazepam was one of the most popular and widely prescribed hypnotics on the market and it became one of the most widely prescribed drugs. Temazepam is a hypnotic agent. In sleep laboratory studies, temazepam significantly decreased the number of nightly awakenings but has the drawback of distorting the normal sleep pattern. Temazepam is officially indicated for severe insomnia and other severe or disabling sleep disorders. The prescribing guidelines in the UK limit the prescribing of hypnotics to two-to-four weeks due to concerns of tolerance and dependence. The United States Air Force uses temazepam as one of the hypnotics approved as "no-go pills" to help aviators and special duty personnel sleep
    7.50
    2 votes
    129
    Vinca minor

    Vinca minor

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Avena sativa, capsicum annuum, hydrocotyle asiatica, fo-ti, ginkgo biloba, rosmarinus officinalis, vinca minor, brain, baryta carbonica, 12/3/12/3/3/12/3/12/3/6/12/3/3 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Avena sativa, capsicum annuum, hydrocotyle asiatica, fo-ti, ginkgo biloba, rosmarinus officinalis, vinca minor, brain, baryta carbonica, 12/3/12/3/3/12/3/12/3/6/12/3/3 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Avena sativa flowering top/Capsicum/Centella asiatica/Ginkgo/Rosemary/Vinca minor/Barium cation/Atropa belladonna/Potassium cation/Datura stramonium/Pork brain/Germanium sesquioxide/Fallopia multiflora root homeopathic preparation
    Vinca minor, Lesser periwinkle and Dwarf periwinkle, is a plant native to central and southern Europe, from Portugal and France north to the Netherlands and the Baltic States, and east to the Caucasus, and also in southwestern Asia in Turkey. Other vernacular names used in cultivation include Small periwinkle, Common periwinkle, and sometimes in the United States, Myrtle or Creeping myrtle , although this is misleading, as the name myrtle normally refers to the Myrtus species. Vinca minor is a trailing, viny subshrub, spreading along the ground and rooting along the stems to form large clonal colonies and occasionally scrambling up to 40 cm high but never twining or climbing. The leaves are evergreen, opposite, 2-4.5 cm long and 1-2.5 cm broad, glossy dark green with a leathery texture and an entire margin. The flowers are solitary in the leaf axils and are produced mainly from early spring to mid summer but with a few flowers still produced into the autumn; they are violet-purple (pale purple or white in some cultivated selections), 2-3 cm diameter, with a five-lobed corolla. The fruit is a pair of follicles 2.5 cm long, containing numerous seeds. The closely related species Vinca
    7.50
    2 votes
    130
    Zaleplon

    Zaleplon

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Zaleplon 5 capsule
    • Active moiety of formulation: Zaleplon 5 capsule
    • Active moiety of drug: Zaleplon
    Zaleplon (marketed under the brand names Sonata and Starnoc) is a sedative/hypnotic, mainly used for insomnia. It is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic from the pyrazolopyrimidine class. In terms of adverse effects zaleplon appears to offer little improvement compared to both benzodiazepines and other non-benzodiazepine Z-drugs. Sonata (US) is manufactured by King Pharm. of Bristol, TN; Starnoc has been discontinued in Canada. It's usually prescribed privately (rarely) in the United Kingdom; with Zopiclone being the preferred Z-Drug by the NHS. Zaleplon and Zolpidem both are agonists at the GABA A ɣ 1 subunit. It is also available as a white capsule tablet with no identifying markings. It is also prescribed for anxiety. Zaleplon is effective in the treatment of insomnia where difficulty in falling asleep is the primary complaint. Zaleplon, unlike many other hypnotic drugs, does not interfere with sleep architecture and can be administered for up to long term without the risk of dependence or addiction upon discontinuation. Zaleplon is also effective in the treatment of middle of the night insomnia without causing residual hangover effects. Zaleplon has advantages over benzodiazepines in
    7.50
    2 votes
    131
    Zinc gluconate

    Zinc gluconate

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Zinc acetate and zinc gluconate 2/2 swab
    Zinc gluconate (also called zincum gluconicum) is the zinc salt of gluconic acid. It is an ionic compound consisting of two moles of gluconate for each mole of zinc. Zinc gluconate is a popular form for the delivery of zinc as a dietary supplement. Gluconic acid is found naturally, and is industrially manufactured by the fermentation of glucose, typically by Aspergillus niger, but also by other fungi, e.g. Penicillium, or by bacteria, e.g. Acetobacter, Pseudomonas and Gluconobacter. In its pure form, it is a white to off-white powder. It can also be manufactured by electrolytic oxidation, although this is a more expensive process. The advantages are a lower microbiological profile, and a more complete reaction, yielding a product with a longer shelf life. Zinc gluconate may interfere with the absorption of antibiotics, so combinations may be unsafe A 2011 systematic meta analysis of studies conducted by the Cochrane Collaboration indicates that zinc lozenges definitively shorten the duration and severity of cold symptoms but offers no recommendations as to dosage. Many over the counter zinc medications may be less effective or ineffective because they do not contain the optimum mix
    7.50
    2 votes
    132
    Haddock

    Haddock

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Haddock 50 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Haddock 50 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Haddock extract
    The haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) is a marine fish distributed on both sides of the North Atlantic. Haddock is a popular food fish and is widely fished commercially. The haddock is easily recognized by a black lateral line running along its white side (not to be confused with pollock which has the reverse, i.e. white line on black side) and a distinctive dark blotch above the pectoral fin, often described as a "thumbprint" or even the "Devil's thumbprint" or "St. Peter's mark". Haddock is most commonly found at depths of 40 to 133 m (130 to 436 ft), but has a range as deep as 300 m (980 ft). It thrives in temperatures of 2 to 10°C (36 to 50°F). Juveniles prefer shallower waters and larger adults deeper water. Generally, adult haddock do not engage in long migratory behaviour as do the younger fish, but seasonal movements have been known to occur across all ages. Haddock feed primarily on small invertebrates, although larger members of the species may occasionally consume fish. Growth rates of haddock have changed significantly over the past 30 to 40 years. Presently, growth is more rapid, with haddock reaching their adult size much earlier than previously noted. However, the
    5.50
    4 votes
    133
    Black Walnut

    Black Walnut

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Black walnut meat 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Black walnut meat 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Black walnut extract
    Juglans nigra, the eastern black walnut, a species of flowering tree in the walnut family, Juglandaceae, is native to eastern North America. It grows mostly in riparian zones, from southern Ontario, west to southeast South Dakota, south to Georgia, northern Florida and southwest to central Texas. Isolated wild trees in the upper Ottawa Valley may be an isolated native population or may have derived from planted trees. The black walnut is a large deciduous tree attaining heights of 30–40 m (98–130 ft). Under forest competition, it develops a tall, clear bole; the open-grown form has a short bole and broad crown. The bark is grey-black and deeply furrowed. The pith of the twigs contains air spaces. The leaves are alternate, 30–60 cm long, odd-pinnate with 15–23 leaflets, with the largest leaflets located in the center, 7–10 cm long and 2–3 cm broad. The male flowers are in drooping catkins 8–10 cm long, the female flowers are terminal, in clusters of two to five, ripening during the autumn into a fruit (nut) with a brownish-green, semifleshy husk and a brown, corrugated nut. The whole fruit, including the husk, falls in October; the seed is relatively small and very hard. The tree
    6.33
    3 votes
    134
    Brussels sprout

    Brussels sprout

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Brussels sprout 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Brussels sprout 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Brussels sprout extract
    The Brussels sprout is a cultivar in the Gemmifera group of cabbages (Brassica oleracea), grown for its edible buds. The leafy green vegetables are typically 2.5–4 cm (0.98–1.6 in) in diameter and look like miniature cabbages. The Brussels sprout has long been popular in Brussels, Belgium and may have originated there. Forerunners to modern Brussels sprouts were likely cultivated in ancient Rome. Brussels sprouts as we now know them were grown possibly as early as the 13th century in what is now Belgium. The first written reference dates to 1587. During the 16th century, they enjoyed a popularity in the southern Netherlands that eventually spread throughout the cooler parts of Northern Europe. Brussels sprouts grow in heat ranges of 7–24 °C (45–75 °F), with highest yields at 15–18 °C (59–64 °F). Fields are ready for harvest 90 to 180 days after planting. The edible sprouts grow like buds in helical patterns along the side of long thick stalks of approximately 60 to 120 cm (24 to 47 in) in height, maturing over several weeks from the lower to the upper part of the stalk. Sprouts may be picked by hand into baskets, in which case several harvests are made of 5 to 15 sprouts at a time
    6.33
    3 votes
    135
    Magnesium sulfate

    Magnesium sulfate

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Calcium pantothenate, cupric sulfate anhydrous, cyanocobalamin, folic acid, iron, magnesium sulfate, manganese sulfate, niacinamide, pyridoxine hydrochloride, riboflavin, sodium ascorbate, thiamine mononitrate, and zinc sulfate 10/0.8/15/1/106/6.9/1.3/30/
    Magnesium sulfate (or magnesium sulphate) is an inorganic salt (chemical compound) containing magnesium, sulfur and oxygen, with the formula MgSO4. It is often encountered as the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O), commonly called Epsom salt, named for a bitter saline spring from the town of Epsom in Surrey, England, where the salt was produced from the springs that arise where the porous chalk of the North Downs meets non-porous London clay. Epsom salt occurs naturally as a pure mineral. Another hydrate form is kieserite. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is used as a drying agent. Since the anhydrous form is hygroscopic (readily absorbs water from the air) and is therefore difficult to weigh accurately, the hydrate is often preferred when preparing solutions, for example in medical preparations. Epsom salt has been traditionally used as a component of bath salts. Epsom salt can also be used as a beauty product. Athletes use it to soothe sore muscles, while gardeners use it to improve crops. It has a variety of other uses. Magnesium sulfate is highly soluble in water. The anhydrous form is strongly hygroscopic, and can be used as a desiccant. Epsom salts have medicinal
    6.33
    3 votes
    136
    Oxytocin

    Oxytocin

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Oxytocin 10 injection
    • Active moiety of formulation: Oxytocin 10 injection
    • Active moiety of drug: Corticotropin/Arnica montana/Barium oxalosuccinate/Barium cation/Brain-derived neurotrophic factor human/Malic acid/Sus scrofa frontal lobe/Sus scrofa adrenal gland/Pork liver/Sus scrofa hypothalamus/Rinfabate/Lutrelin/Melatonin/Neurotrophin-3/Neurotrophi
    Oxytocin (Oxt) ( /ˌɒksɨˈtoʊsɪn/) is a mammalian hormone that acts primarily as a neuromodulator in the brain. Oxytocin is best known for its roles in sexual reproduction, in particular during and after childbirth. It is released in large amounts after distension of the cervix and uterus during labor, facilitating birth, and after stimulation of the nipples, facilitating breastfeeding. Recent studies have begun to investigate oxytocin's role in various behaviors, including orgasm, social recognition, pair bonding, anxiety, and maternal behaviors. For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as the "love hormone". The inability to secrete oxytocin and feel empathy is linked to sociopathy, psychopathy, narcissism, and general manipulativeness. However, there is some evidence that oxytocin promotes 'tribal' behaviour, combining trust and empathy with the in-group with suspicion and rejection of outsiders. The word oxytocin was derived from the Greek ὼκυτοκίνη, ōkytokínē, meaning “quick birth”, after its uterine-contracting properties were discovered by British pharmacologist Sir Henry Hallett Dale in 1906. The milk ejection property of oxytocin was described by Ott and Scott in 1910
    6.33
    3 votes
    137
    Ammonia

    Ammonia

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Ammonia inhalants 150 inhalant
    • Active moiety of formulation: Ammonia inhalants 150 inhalant
    • Active moiety of drug: Ammonia/Antimony arsenate/Antimony cation (3+)/Arsenic trioxide/Bromine/Activated charcoal/Chlorine/Potassium cation/Lobelia inflata/Tin homeopathic preparation
    Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. It is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building-block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals and is used in many commercial cleaning products. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. In 2006, worldwide production was estimated at 146.5 million tonnes. Ammonia, as used commercially, is often called anhydrous ammonia. This term emphasizes the absence of water in the material. Because NH3 boils at −33.34 °C (−28.012 °F) at a pressure of 1 atmosphere, the liquid must be stored under high pressure or at low temperature. "Household ammonia" or "ammonium hydroxide" is a solution of NH3 in water. The concentration of such solutions is measured in units of the Baumé scale (density), with 26 degrees baumé (about 30% w/w ammonia at 15.5 °C) being the typical high-concentration commercial product. Household ammonia ranges in concentration from 5 to 10 weight percent ammonia. The ammonia
    8.00
    1 votes
    138
    Date Palm

    Date Palm

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Date 50 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Date 50 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Date extract
    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its place of origin is unknown because of long cultivation, it probably originated from lands around the Persian Gulf. It is a medium-sized plant, 15–25 m tall, growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. The leaves are 4–6 m long, with spines on the petiole, and pinnate, with about 150 leaflets; the leaflets are 30 cm long and 2 cm wide. The full span of the crown ranges from 6 to 10 m. Dates contain 20-70 calories each, depending on size and species. The species name dactylifera "date-bearing" comes from Ancient Greek dáktulos "date" (also "finger") and the stem of the Latin verb ferō "I bear". Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East and parts of South Asia for thousands of years. They are believed to have originated around the Persian Gulf, and have been cultivated since ancient times from Mesopotamia to prehistoric Egypt, possibly as early as 4000 BCE. The Ancient Egyptians used the fruits to be made into date wine, and ate them at harvest. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in eastern Arabia in 6000
    8.00
    1 votes
    139
    Docosanol

    Docosanol

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Docosanol 100 cream
    • Active moiety of formulation: Docosanol 100 cream
    • Active moiety of drug: Docosanol
    Docosanol, also known as behenyl alcohol, is a saturated fatty alcohol used traditionally as an emollient, emulsifier, and thickener in cosmetics, nutritional supplement (as an individual entity and also as a constituent of policosanol), and more recently, in a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pharmaceutical, Abreva, approved as an antiviral agent for reducing the duration of cold sores caused by the herpes simplex virus. Docosanol is thought to act by inhibiting the fusion of the human host cell with the viral envelope of the herpes virus, thus preventing its replication. This mechanism has not been demonstrated empirically. The drug was licensed as an oral herpes medicine after clinical trials by the FDA in July 2000. It was shown to shorten the healing by 17.5 hours on average (95% confidence interval: 2 to 22 hours) in a placebo-controlled trial. Three other trials showed negative results. Marketed by Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Abreva was the first but not the only over-the-counter antiviral drug approved for sale in the United States and Canada. In Europe, it is marketed by Healthcare Brands under the name Erazaban. In March 2007 it was the subject of a US nationwide
    8.00
    1 votes
    140
    Pine tar

    Pine tar

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Arsenicum album, pix liquida, thyriodinum, graphites, sulphur, equisetum arvense 0.0833/0.0167/0.05/0.05/0.25/0.05 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Arsenicum album, pix liquida, thyriodinum, graphites, sulphur, equisetum arvense 0.0833/0.0167/0.05/0.05/0.25/0.05 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Amanita muscaria var. muscaria fruiting body/Aluminum oxide/Anagallis arvensis/Antimony cation (3+)/Apis mellifera/Arsenic trioxide/Arsenic triiodide/Giant puffball/Causticum/Mucuna pruriens fruit trichome/Buckwheat/Graphite/Potassium cation/Hydrochloric
    Pine tar is a sticky material produced by the high temperature carbonization of pine wood in anoxic conditions (dry distillation or destructive distillation). The wood is rapidly decomposed by applying heat and pressure in a closed container; the primary resulting products are charcoal and pine tar. Pine tar consists primarily of aromatic hydrocarbons, tar acids and tar bases. Components of tar vary according to the pyrolytic process (e.g. method, duration, temperature) and origin of the wood (e.g. age of pine trees, type of soil and moisture conditions during tree growth). The choice of wood, design of kiln, burning and collection of the tar can vary. Only pine stumps and roots are used in the traditional production of pine tar. Pine tar has a long history as a wood preservative, as a wood sealant for maritime use, in roofing construction and maintenance, in soaps such as Packer’s Pine Tar Soap and in the treatment of skin diseases, such as psoriasis, eczema, and rosacea. Pine tar has long been used in Scandinavian nations as a preservative for wood which may be exposed to harsh conditions, including outdoor furniture and ship decking and rigging. The high-grade pine tar used in
    8.00
    1 votes
    141
    Silver

    Silver

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Ammonium chloride, berberis vulgaris root bark, black cohosh, cinchona officinalis bark, citrullus colocynthis fruit pulp, claviceps purpurea sclerotium, cupric acetate, horse chestnut, ledum palustre twig, mercuric oxide, yellow, palladium, potassium car
    • Active moiety of formulation: Aconitum napellus, baptisia tinctoria root, black cohosh, bryonia alba root, chelidonium majus, conium maculatum flowering top, datura stramonium, delphinium staphisagria seed, gelsemium sempervirens root, gold, hypericum perforatum, lachesis muta venom,
    • Active moiety of drug: Silver nitrate
    Silver ( /ˈsɪlvər/ SIL-vər) is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργυρος , Latin: argentum, both from the Indo-European root *arg- for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. The metal occurs naturally in its pure, free form (native silver), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal, and it is used as an investment, to make ornaments, jewelry, high-value tableware, utensils (hence the term silverware), and currency coins. Today, silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors, in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. Its compounds are used in photographic film, and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides (Oligodynamic effect). While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics, further research
    8.00
    1 votes
    142
    Sour Cherry

    Sour Cherry

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Cherry bing 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Cherry bing 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Sour cherry extract
    Prunus cerasus, or the sour cherry, is a species of Prunus in the subgenus Cerasus (cherries), native to much of Europe and southwest Asia. It is closely related to the wild cherry (P. avium), but has a fruit that is more acidic. The tree is smaller than the wild cherry (growing to a height of 4–10 m), has twiggy branches, and its crimson-to-near-black cherries are borne upon shorter stalks. There are two varieties of the sour cherry: the dark-red morello cherry and the lighter-red amarelle cherry. Prunus cerasus is thought to have originated as a natural hybrid between Prunus avium and Prunus fruticosa in the Caucasus Mountains, Anatolia or Eastern Europe where the two species come into contact. Prunus fruticosa is believed to have given it its smaller size and sour tasting fruit. The hybrids then stabilised and interbred to form a new, distinct species. Cultivated sour cherries were selected from wild specimens of Prunus cerasus and the doubtfully distinct P. acida from around the Caspian and Black Seas, and were known to the Greeks in 300 BC. They were also extremely popular with Persians and the Romans who introduced them into Britain long before the 1st century AD. The fruit
    8.00
    1 votes
    143
    Taraxacum officinale

    Taraxacum officinale

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Rhamnus purshiana, carduus marianus, taraxacum officinale, chelidonium majus, leptandra virginica, myrica cerifera, berberis vulgaris, natrum sulphuricum, magnesia phosphorica, cuprum metallicum 0.02/0.01/0.08/0.01/0.08/0.02/0.01/0.06/0.01/0.02 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Rhamnus purshiana, carduus marianus, taraxacum officinale, chelidonium majus, leptandra virginica, myrica cerifera, berberis vulgaris, natrum sulphuricum, magnesia phosphorica, cuprum metallicum 0.02/0.01/0.08/0.01/0.08/0.02/0.01/0.06/0.01/0.02 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Chelidonium majus/Glycyrrhiza glabra/Goldenseal/Nutmeg/Taraxacum officinale/Ginger/Sus scrofa adrenal gland/Beef liver/Sus scrofa pituitary gland/Thyroid, unspecified/Kidney bean/Phosphoric acid/Phosphorus/Syzygium cumini seed/Rheum officinale root/Bos ta
    Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion (often simply called "dandelion"), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). It can be found growing in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of water ways, and other areas with moist soils. T. officinale is considered a weed, especially in lawns and along roadsides, but it is sometimes used as a medical herb and in food preparation. As a nearly cosmopolitan weed, common dandelion is best known for its yellow flower heads that turn into round balls of silver tufted fruits that disperse in the wind. Taraxacum officinale grows from generally unbranched taproots and produces one to more than ten stems that are typically 5 to 40 cm tall but sometimes up to 70 cm tall. The stems can be tinted purplish, they are upright or lax, and produce flower heads that are held as tall or taller than the foliage. The foliage is upright growing or horizontally orientated, with leaves having narrowly winged petioles or being unwinged. The stems can be glabrous or are sparsely covered with short hairs. Plants have milky sap and the leaves are all basal, each flowering stem
    8.00
    1 votes
    144
    Temozolomide

    Temozolomide

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Temozolomide 5 capsule
    • Active moiety of formulation: Temozolomide 5 capsule
    • Active moiety of drug: Temozolomide
    Temozolomide (brand names Temodar and Temodal and Temcad) is an oral alkylating agent used for the treatment of Grade IV astrocytoma — an aggressive brain tumor, also known as glioblastoma multiforme — as well as for treating melanoma, a form of skin cancer. Temozolomide is also indicated for relapsed Grade III anaplastic astrocytoma and not indicated for, but as of 2011 used to treat oligodendroglioma brain tumors in some countries, replacing the older (and less well tolerated) PCV (Procarbazine-Lomustine-Vincristine) regimen. The agent was developed by Malcolm Stevens and his team at Aston University in Birmingham, A derivative of imidazotetrazine, temozolomide is the prodrug of MTIC (3-methyl-(triazen-1-yl)imidazole-4-carboxamide). It has been available in the US since August 1999, and in other countries since the early 2000s. The therapeutic benefit of temozolomide depends on its ability to alkylate/methylate DNA, which most often occurs at the N-7 or O-6 positions of guanine residues. This methylation damages the DNA and triggers the death of tumor cells. However, some tumor cells are able to repair this type of DNA damage, and therefore diminish the therapeutic efficacy of
    8.00
    1 votes
    145
    Aluminium

    Aluminium

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex gly 0.148 stick
    • Active moiety of drug: Aluminum homeopathic preparation
    Aluminium ( /ˌæljuːˈmɪniəm/ AL-ew-MIN-ee-əm) or aluminum (American English;  /əˈluːmɪnəm/ ə-LOO-mi-nəm) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is silvery white, and it is not soluble in water under normal circumstances. Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth's crust. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth's solid surface. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium is remarkable for the metal's low density and for its ability to resist corrosion due to the phenomenon of passivation. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and are important in other areas of transportation and structural materials. The most useful compounds of aluminium, at least on a weight basis, are the oxides and sulfates. Despite its prevalence in the environment, aluminium salts are not known to be used by any form of life. In keeping with its
    7.00
    2 votes
    146
    Aminocaproic acid

    Aminocaproic acid

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Aminocaproic acid 500 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Aminocaproic acid 500 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Carbonate ion/Phosphate ion/Aminocaproic acid/Alcloxa
    Aminocaproic acid (also known as Amicar, ε-aminocaproic acid, ε-Ahx, or 6-aminohexanoic acid) is a derivative and analogue of the amino acid lysine, which makes it an effective inhibitor for enzymes that bind that particular residue. Such enzymes include proteolytic enzymes like plasmin, the enzyme responsible for fibrinolysis. For this reason it is effective in treatment of certain bleeding disorders, and it is marketed as Amicar. Aminocaproic acid is also an intermediate in the polymerization of Nylon-6, where it is formed by ring-opening hydrolysis of caprolactam. Aminocaproic acid is used to treat excessive postoperative bleeding, especially after procedures in which a great amount of bleeding is expected, such as cardiac surgery. It can be given orally or intravenously. A meta-analysis found that lysine analogs like aminocaproic acid significantly reduced blood loss in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Aminocaproic acid can also be used to treat the overdose and/or toxic effects of the thrombolytic pharmacologic agents tissue plasminogen activator (commonly known as tPA) and streptokinase. Its side effects include nausea, vomiting, and chronic mild fevers
    7.00
    2 votes
    147
    Barium carbonate

    Barium carbonate

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Adrenocorticotrophin, agnus castus, baryta carbonica, calcarea carbonica, iodium, lac caninum, natrum muriaticum, phosphoricum acidum, sepia, thyroidinum suis, 12/12/12/6/12/12/12/12/12/12 liquid
    Barium carbonate (BaCO3), also known as witherite, is a chemical compound used in rat poison, bricks, ceramic glazes and cement. Witherite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system. The crystals are invariably twinned together in groups of three, giving rise to pseudo-hexagonal forms somewhat resembling bipyramidal crystals of quartz, the faces are usually rough and striated horizontally. The mineral is named after William Withering, who in 1784 recognized it to be chemically distinct from barytes. It occurs in veins of lead ore at Hexham in Northumberland, Alston in Cumbria, Anglezarke, near Chorley in Lancashire and a few other localities. Witherite is readily altered to barium sulfate by the action of water containing calcium sulfate in solution and crystals are therefore frequently encrusted with barytes. It is the chief source of barium salts and is mined in considerable amounts in Northumberland. It is used for the preparation of rat poison, in the manufacture of glass and porcelain, and formerly for refining sugar. It is also used for controlling the chromate to sulfate ratio in chromium electroplating baths. Barium carbonate is made commercially from barium sulfide either by
    7.00
    2 votes
    148
    Bimatoprost

    Bimatoprost

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Bimatoprost 0.3 solution/drops
    • Active moiety of formulation: Bimatoprost 0.3 solution/drops
    • Active moiety of drug: Bimatoprost
    Bimatoprost (marketed in the U.S., Canada and Europe by Allergan, under the trade name Lumigan) is a prostaglandin analog/prodrug used topically (as eye drops) to control the progression of glaucoma and in the management of ocular hypertension. It reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) by increasing the outflow of aqueous fluid from the eyes. It has also been used and prescribed off-label to lengthen eyelashes. In December 2008, this use was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA); the cosmetic formulation of bimatoprost is sold as Latisse ( /ləˈtiːs/). In 2008-2011, at least three case series suggested that bimatoprost has the ability to reduce adipose (fat) tissue. In patients using ophthalmic prostaglandins such as travoprost and latanoprost, as well as prostamides like bimatoprost(generic latisse), it has been anecdotally noted that there had been an increase in diameter, density and length of eyelashes. Allergan has initiated clinical trials investigating the usage of Lumigan as a cosmetic drug. On December 5, 2008, the FDA Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee voted to approve bimatoprost for the cosmetic use of darkening and lengthening eyelashes.
    7.00
    2 votes
    149
    Clevidipine

    Clevidipine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Clevidipine 0.5 emulsion
    • Active moiety of formulation: Clevidipine 0.5 emulsion
    • Active moiety of drug: Clevidipine
    Clevidipine (INN, trade name Cleviprex) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker indicated for the reduction of blood pressure when oral therapy is not feasible or not desirable. It was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration on August 1, 2008. Cleviprex is a dihydropyridine L-type calcium channel blocker, highly selective for vascular, as opposed to myocardial, smooth muscle and, therefore, has little or no effect on myocardial contractility or cardiac conduction. It reduces mean arterial blood pressure by decreasing systemic vascular resistance. Cleviprex does not reduce cardiac filling pressure (pre-load), confirming lack of effects on the venous capacitance vessels. No increase in myocardial lactate production in coronary sinus blood has been seen, confirming the absence of myocardial ischemia due to coronary steal. Cleviprex is rapidly metabolized by esterases in the blood and extravascular tissues. Therefore, its elimination is unlikely to be affected by hepatic or renal dysfunction. Cleviprex does not accumulate in the body, and its clearance is independent of body weight. The initial phase half-life is approximately 1 minute and the terminal half-life
    7.00
    2 votes
    150
    Fenugreek

    Fenugreek

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allergena trees, weeds and grasses - zone 5 kids 30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Allergena trees, weeds and grasses - zone 5 kids 30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/3
    • Active moiety of drug: Baptisia tinctoria root/Echinacea angustifolia/Goldenseal/Myrrh/Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum/Phytolacca americana root/Fenugreek seed/Cynodon dactylon pollen/Poa annua pollen/Bromus inermis pollen/Phalaris arundinacea pollen/Zea mays pollen/Sorghum halepe
    Fenugreek ( /ˈfɛnjʉɡriːk/; Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant in the family Fabaceae. The plant has small round leaves is cultivated worldwide as a semi-arid crop and is a common ingredient in dishes from Pakistan and the Indian Subcontinent, where it is known as methi in Urdu, Hindi and Nepali, as menthiyam and venthayam (வெந்தயம்) in Tamil, and as menthya (ಮೆಂತ್ಯ) in Kannada uluwa in malayalam' 'menthulu in Telugu" Fenugreek leaves (per 100g of edible portion) carbohydrates: 6.0 g protein: 4.4 g Fat: 0.9 g Minerals: 1.5 g calcium: 395 mg Phosphorus: 51 mg Iron: 1.93 mg total Energy: 49 kcal Zohary and Hopf note that it is not yet certain which wild strain of the genus Trigonella gave rise to the domesticated fenugreek but they believe it was brought into cultivation in the Near East. Charred fenugreek seeds have been recovered from Tell Halal, Iraq, (radiocarbon dating to 4000 BC) and Bronze Age levels of Lachish, as well as desiccated seeds from the tomb of Tutankhamen. Cato the Elder lists fenugreek with clover and vetch as crops grown to feed cattle (De Agri Cultura, 27). Major fenugreek-producing countries are Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Argentina, Egypt,
    7.00
    2 votes
    151
    Lobster

    Lobster

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Lobster 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Lobster 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Lobster, unspecified extract
    Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. They have long bodies with muscular tails, and live in crevices or burrows on the sea floor. Three of their five pairs of legs have claws, including the first pair, which are usually much larger than the others. Highly prized as seafood, lobsters are economically important, and are often one of the most profitable commodities in coastal areas they populate. Commercially important species include two species of Homarus from the northern Atlantic Ocean, and scampi – the northern-hemisphere genus Nephrops and the southern-hemisphere genus Metanephrops. Although several other groups of crustaceans have the word "lobster" in their names, the unqualified term "lobster" generally refers to the clawed lobsters of the family Nephropidae. Clawed lobsters are not closely related to spiny lobsters or slipper lobsters, which have no claws (chelae), or to squat lobsters. The closest living relatives of clawed lobsters are the reef lobsters and the three families of freshwater crayfish. Lobsters are invertebrates with a hard protective exoskeleton. Like most arthropods, lobsters must moult in
    7.00
    2 votes
    152
    Sole

    Sole

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Sole 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Sole 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: English sole extract
    Sole is a group of flatfish belonging to several families. Generally speaking, they are members of the family Soleidae, but, outside Europe, the name sole is also applied to various other similar flatfish, especially other members of the sole suborder Soleoidei as well as members of the flounder family. In European cookery, there are several species which may be considered true soles, but the common or Dover sole Solea solea, often simply called the sole, is the most esteemed and most widely available. The word sole in English and French comes from its resemblance to a sandal, Latin solea. In other languages, it is named for the tongue, e.g. German Seezunge, Spanish lenguado, Turkish dil. A complete list can be found using Fishbase's search function. They include: The true sole, Solea solea, is sufficiently broadly distributed that it is not considered a threatened species; however, overfishing in Europe has produced severely diminished populations, with declining catches in many regions. For example, the western English Channel and Irish Sea sole fisheries face potential collapse according to data in the UK Biodiversity Action Plan. Sole, along with the other major bottom-feeding
    7.00
    2 votes
    153
    Tin

    Tin

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Aquaflora 0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Aquaflora 0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Arsenic trioxide/Avena sativa flowering top/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Sodium cation/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Phytolacca americana root/Frangula alnus bark/Solidago virgaurea flowering top/Trifolium pratense flower/Iron/Magnesi
    Tin ( /ˈtɪn/ TIN) is a chemical element with symbol Sn (for Latin: stannum) and atomic number 50. It is a main group metal in group 14 of the periodic table. Tin shows chemical similarity to both neighboring group 14 elements, germanium and lead and has two possible oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table. Tin is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, where it occurs as tin dioxide, SnO2. This silvery, malleable post-transition metal is not easily oxidized in air and is used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion. The first alloy, used in large scale since 3000 BC, was bronze, an alloy of tin and copper. After 600 BC pure metallic tin was produced. Pewter, which is an alloy of 85–90% tin with the remainder commonly consisting of copper, antimony and lead, was used for flatware from the Bronze Age until the 20th century. In modern times tin is used in many alloys, most notably tin/lead soft solders, typically containing 60% or more of tin. Another large application for tin is corrosion-resistant tin plating of steel. Because of
    7.00
    2 votes
    154
    Tomato

    Tomato

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Aconitum napellus, actaea spicata, aesculus hippocastanum, arnica montana, bellis perennis, bryonia alba 0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169 gel
    • Active moiety of formulation: Aconitum napellus, actaea spicata, aesculus hippocastanum, arnica montana, bellis perennis, bryonia alba 0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169/0.169 gel
    • Active moiety of drug: Aconitum napellus/Actaea spicata root/Aesculus hippocastanum flower/Arnica montana/Bellis perennis/Bryonia alba root/Black cohosh/Hypericum perforatum/Lilium lancifolium bulb/Tomato/Oxalic acid/Ruta graveolens flowering top/Salicylic acid/Stellaria media
    The word "tomato" may refer to the plant (Solanum lycopersicum) or the edible, typically red, fruit that it bears. Originating in South America, the tomato was spread around the world following the Spanish colonization of the Americas, and its many varieties are now widely grown, often in greenhouses in cooler climates. The tomato fruit is consumed in diverse ways, including raw, as an ingredient in many dishes and sauces, and in drinks. While it is botanically a fruit, it is considered a vegetable for culinary purposes (as well as by the United States Supreme Court, see Nix v. Hedden), which has caused some confusion. The fruit is rich in lycopene, which may have beneficial health effects. The tomato belongs to the nightshade family. The plants typically grow to 1–3 meters (3–10 ft) in height and have a weak stem that often sprawls over the ground and vines over other plants. It is a perennial in its native habitat, although often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. The tomato is native to South America. Genetic evidence shows the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green vegetable and a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. One
    7.00
    2 votes
    155
    Zinc

    Zinc

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Aconitum napellus, baptisia tinctoria root, black cohosh, bryonia alba root, chelidonium majus, conium maculatum flowering top, datura stramonium, delphinium staphisagria seed, gelsemium sempervirens root, gold, hypericum perforatum, lachesis muta venom,
    • Active moiety of formulation: Zinc acetate and zinc gluconate 2/2 swab
    • Active moiety of drug: Lemon/Vitamin a/Ascorbic acid/.alpha.-tocopherol acetate, dl-/Thiamine/Riboflavin/Niacin/Pyridoxine/Folic acid/Cyanocobalamin/Biotin/Pantothenic acid/Chromic cation/Iron/Magnesium cation/Zinc/Copper/Manganese/Selenium
    Zinc (/ˈzɪŋk/ ZINGK; from German: Zink), or spelter (which may also refer to zinc alloys), is a metallic chemical element; it has the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element of group 12 of the periodic table. Zinc is, in some respects, chemically similar to magnesium, because its ion is of similar size and its only common oxidation state is +2. Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in the Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes. The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest mineable amounts are found in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc production includes froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning). Brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc, has been used since at least the 10th century BC. Impure zinc metal was not produced in large scale until the 13th century in India, while the metal was unknown to Europe until the end of the 16th century. Alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called "philosopher's wool" or "white snow". The element was probably named by the alchemist Paracelsus after the German word Zinke. German chemist Andreas Sigismund
    7.00
    2 votes
    156
    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Sodium oxybate 500 solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Sodium oxybate 500 solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid
    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid and sodium oxybate (INN), is a naturally occurring substance found in the human central nervous system, as well as in wine, beef, small citrus fruits, and almost all animals in small amounts. It is also categorized as an illegal drug in many countries. It is currently regulated in Australia and New Zealand, Canada, most of Europe and in the US. GHB as the sodium salt, known as sodium oxybate, is sold by Jazz Pharmaceuticals under the name Xyrem to treat cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy. GHB has been used in a medical setting as a general anesthetic, to treat conditions such as insomnia, clinical depression, narcolepsy, and alcoholism, and to improve athletic performance. It is also used as an intoxicant (illegally in many jurisdictions) or as a date rape drug. GHB is naturally produced in the human body's cells and is structurally related to the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate. As a supplement/drug, it is used most commonly in the form of a salt, for example sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate (Na.GHB, sodium oxybate, or under the brand name Xyrem.) or potassium gamma-hydroxybutyrate
    6.00
    3 votes
    157
    Scallop

    Scallop

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Scallop 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Scallop 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Scallop, unspecified extract
    A scallop ( /ˈskɒləp/ or /ˈskæləp/) is a marine bivalve mollusk of the family Pectinidae. Scallops are a cosmopolitan family, found in all of the world's oceans. Many scallops are highly prized as a food source. The brightly colored, fan-shaped shells of some scallops, with their radiating fluted pattern, are valued by shell collectors and have been used as motifs in art and design. The name "scallop" is derived from the Old French escalope, which means "shell". Like the true oysters (family Ostreidae), scallops have a central adductor muscle, and thus the inside of their shells has a characteristic central scar, marking the point of attachment for this muscle. The adductor muscle of scallops is larger and more developed than that of oysters, because they are active swimmers; scallops are in fact the only migratory bivalve. Their shell shape tends to be highly regular, recalling one archetypal form of a seashell. Scallops have up to 100 simple eyes arranged around the edges of their mantles like a string of beads. They are reflector eyes, about one millimeter in diameter, with a retina that is more complex than those of other bivalves. Their eyes contain two retina types, one
    6.00
    3 votes
    158
    Simvastatin

    Simvastatin

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Simvastatin 10 film coated tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Simvastatin 10 film coated tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Ezetimibe/simvastatin
    Simvastatin (INN) ( /ˈsɪmvəstætɨn/) is a hypolipidemic drug used to control elevated cholesterol, or hypercholesterolemia. It is a member of the statin class of pharmaceuticals. Simvastatin is a synthetic derivative of a fermentation product of Aspergillus terreus. The drug is marketed generically and under the trade name Zocor. The primary uses of simvastatin is for the treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. It is recommended to be used only after other measures such as diet, exercise, and weight reduction have not improved cholesterol levels sufficiently. Common side effects (>1% incidence) may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, indigestion, and a general feeling of weakness. Rare side effects include joint pain, memory loss, and muscle cramps. Cholestatic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, rhabdomyolysis (destruction of muscles and blockade of renal system) and myositis have been reported in patients receiving the drug chronically. A type of DNA variant known as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may help predict individuals prone to developing myopathy when taking simvastatin; a study ultimately including 32,000 patients concluded the carriers of
    6.00
    3 votes
    159
    Sodium bisulfite

    Sodium bisulfite

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, alanine, dl-, arginine, histidine, proline, serine, glycine, cysteine, phosphoric acid, and sodium bisulfite 6/8.1/0.14/11.9/2.4/5.9/7.7/6.2/4.5/4.8/1.15/9.5/5/1/3.4/1.
    Sodium bisulfite (sodium hydrogen sulfite) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NaHSO3. Sodium bisulfite is a food additive with E number E222. This salt of bisulfite can be prepared by bubbling sulfur dioxide in a solution of sodium carbonate in water. Sodium bisulfite in contact with chlorine bleach (aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite) will release harmful fumes. In organic chemistry sodium bisulfite has several uses. It forms a bisulfite adduct with aldehyde groups and with certain cyclic ketones to a sulfonic acid. This reaction has limited synthetic value(s) but it is used in purification procedures. Contaminated aldehydes in a solution precipitate as the bisulfite adduct which can be isolated by filtration. The reverse reaction takes place in presence of a base such as sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydroxide and the bisulfite is liberated as sulfur dioxide. Examples of such procedures are described for benzaldehyde, tetralone, citral, the ethyl ester of pyruvic acid and glyoxal. In the ring-expansion reaction of cyclohexanone with diazald, the bisulfite reaction is reported to be able to differentiate between the primary reaction product cycloheptanone and the
    6.00
    3 votes
    160
    Cimicifuga racemosa

    Cimicifuga racemosa

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Aconitum napellus, baptisia tinctoria root, black cohosh, bryonia alba root, chelidonium majus, conium maculatum flowering top, datura stramonium, delphinium staphisagria seed, gelsemium sempervirens root, gold, hypericum perforatum, lachesis muta venom,
    • Active moiety of formulation: Aconitum napellus, baptisia tinctoria root, black cohosh, bryonia alba root, chelidonium majus, conium maculatum flowering top, datura stramonium, delphinium staphisagria seed, gelsemium sempervirens root, gold, hypericum perforatum, lachesis muta venom,
    • Active moiety of drug: Black cohosh/Cypripedium parvifolum root/Strychnos ignatii seed/Lilium lancifolium flowering top/Passiflora incarnata flowering top/Platinum/Valerian/Zinc valerate homeopathic preparation
    Actaea racemosa (black cohosh, black bugbane, black snakeroot, fairy candle; syn. Cimicifuga racemosa) is a plant of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). It is native to eastern North America from the extreme south of Ontario to central Georgia, and west to Missouri and Arkansas. Black cohosh grows in a variety of woodland habitats, and is often found in small woodland openings. The roots and rhizomes of black cohosh have long been used medicinally by Native Americans. Extracts from these plant materials are thought to possess analgesic, sedative, and anti-inflammatory properties. Today, black cohosh preparations (tinctures or tablets of dried materials) are used mainly to treat symptoms associated with menopause. Black cohosh is a smooth (glabrous) herbaceous perennial plant that produces large, compound leaves from an underground rhizome, reaching a height of 25–60 centimetres (9.8–24 in). The basal leaves are up to 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) long and broad, forming repeated sets of three leaflets (tripinnately compound) having a coarsely toothed (serrated) margin. The flowers are produced in late spring and early summer on a tall stem, 75–250 centimetres (30–98 in) tall, forming
    6.50
    2 votes
    161
    Human papillomavirus infection

    Human papillomavirus infection

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Human papillomavirus 0.00152 gelatin coated capsule
    • Active moiety of formulation: Human papillomavirus 0.00152 gelatin coated capsule
    • Active moiety of drug: Human papillomavirus homeopathic preparation
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus from the papillomavirus family that is capable of infecting humans. Like all papillomaviruses, HPVs establish productive infections only in keratinocytes of the skin or mucous membranes. While the majority of the known types of HPV cause no symptoms in most people, some types can cause warts (verrucae), while others can – in a minority of cases – lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, oropharynx and anus. Recently, HPV has been linked with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, HPV 16 and 18 infections are strongly associated with an increased odds ratio of developing oropharyngeal (throat) cancer. More than 30 to 40 types of HPV are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region. Some sexually transmitted HPV types may cause genital warts. Persistent infection with "high-risk" HPV types — different from the ones that cause skin warts — may progress to precancerous lesions and invasive cancer. HPV infection is a cause of nearly all cases of cervical cancer. However, most infections with these types do not cause disease. Most HPV infections in young females are temporary and have
    6.50
    2 votes
    162
    Iron

    Iron

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Calcium pantothenate, cupric sulfate anhydrous, cyanocobalamin, folic acid, iron, magnesium sulfate, manganese sulfate, niacinamide, pyridoxine hydrochloride, riboflavin, sodium ascorbate, thiamine mononitrate, and zinc sulfate 10/0.8/15/1/106/6.9/1.3/30/
    • Active moiety of formulation: Calcium pantothenate, cupric sulfate anhydrous, cyanocobalamin, folic acid, iron, magnesium sulfate, manganese sulfate, niacinamide, pyridoxine hydrochloride, riboflavin, sodium ascorbate, thiamine mononitrate, and zinc sulfate 10/0.8/15/1/106/6.9/1.3/30/
    • Active moiety of drug: Lemon/Vitamin a/Ascorbic acid/.alpha.-tocopherol acetate, dl-/Thiamine/Riboflavin/Niacin/Pyridoxine/Folic acid/Cyanocobalamin/Biotin/Pantothenic acid/Chromic cation/Iron/Magnesium cation/Zinc/Copper/Manganese/Selenium
    Iron (AE /ˈaɪərn/ EYE-ər-n, BE /ˈaɪən/ EYE-ən) is a chemical element with the symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element (by mass) forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Iron's very common presence in rocky planets like Earth is due to its abundant production as a result of fusion in high-mass stars, where the production of nickel-56 (which decays to the most common isotope of iron) is the last nuclear fusion reaction that is exothermic. This causes radioactive nickel to become the last element to be produced before collapse of a supernova leads to the explosive events that scatter this precursor radionuclide of iron abundantly into space. Like other group 8 elements, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +6, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give iron oxides, also known as rust. Unlike
    6.50
    2 votes
    163
    Lemon balm

    Lemon balm

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Avena sativa flowering top, canakinumab, chamomile, helleborus niger root, melatonin, melissa officinalis, pulsatilla vulgaris, serotonin, strychnos ignatii seed, sus scrofa pineal gland, and valerian 0.2/0.133/0.2/0.2/0.133/0.2/0.2/0.2/0.2/0.2,0.4,1/0.2
    • Active moiety of formulation: Avena sativa flowering top, canakinumab, chamomile, helleborus niger root, melatonin, melissa officinalis, pulsatilla vulgaris, serotonin, strychnos ignatii seed, sus scrofa pineal gland, and valerian 0.2/0.133/0.2/0.2/0.133/0.2/0.2/0.2/0.2/0.2,0.4,1/0.2
    • Active moiety of drug: Ambergris/Silver cation/Gold/Avena sativa flowering top/Strychnos ignatii seed/Melissa officinalis/Sepia officinalis juice homeopathic preparation
    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), not to be confused with bee balm (which is genus Monarda), is a perennial herb in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. It grows to 70–150 cm tall. The leaves have a gentle lemon scent, related to mint. During summer, small white flowers full of nectar appear. These attract bees, hence the genus name Melissa (Greek for 'honey bee'). Its flavour comes from citronellal (24%), geranial (16%), linalyl acetate (12%) and caryophyllene (12%). In North America, Melissa officinalis has escaped cultivation and spread into the wild. Lemon balm requires light and at least 20 degrees Celsius (70 degrees Fahrenheit) to germinate. Lemon balm grows in clumps and spreads vegetatively as well as by seed. In mild temperate zones, the stems of the plant die off at the start of the winter, but shoot up again in spring. Melissa officinalis may be the "honey-leaf" (μελισσόφυλλον) mentioned by Theophrastus. It was in the herbal garden of John Gerard, 1596. There are many cultivars of Melissa officinalis, such as: (M. officinalis ‘Quedlinburger Niederliegende’ is an Improved variety bred for high essential oil content.) Lemon
    6.50
    2 votes
    164
    Onion

    Onion

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Onion - anthoxanthum odoratum - schoenocaulon officinale seed 0.000214/0.000214/0.000214 pellet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Onion - anthoxanthum odoratum - schoenocaulon officinale seed 0.000214/0.000214/0.000214 pellet
    • Active moiety of drug: Onion/Apis mellifera/Atropa belladonna/Eupatorium perfoliatum flowering top/Gelsemium sempervirens root/Dichromate ion/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Phytolacca americana root/Pulsatilla vulgaris homeopathic preparation
    The onion (Allium cepa), which is also known as the bulb onion, common onion is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium. The genus Allium also contains a number of other species variously referred to as onions and cultivated for food, such as the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum), Egyptian onion (A. ×proliferum), and Canada onion (A. canadense). The name "wild onion" is applied to a number of Allium species. Onion is most frequently a biennial, although it can also be a triennial or a perennial. The vast majority of cultivars of A. cepa belong to the "common onion group" (A. cepa var. cepa) and are usually referred to simply as "onions". The Aggregatum Group of cultivars (A. cepa var. aggregatum) includes both shallots and potato onions. Allium cepa is known exclusively in cultivation, but related wild species occur in Central Asia. The most closely related species include Allium vavilovii (Popov & Vved.) and Allium asarense (R.M. Fritsch & Matin) from Iran. However, Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the A. vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop." Onions are often chopped and used as
    6.50
    2 votes
    165
    Praseodymium

    Praseodymium

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of drug: Arsenic trioxide/Avena sativa flowering top/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Sodium cation/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Phytolacca americana root/Frangula alnus bark/Solidago virgaurea flowering top/Trifolium pratense flower/Iron/Magnesi
    Praseodymium ( /ˌpreɪziːɵˈdɪmiəm/ PRAY-zee-o-DIM-ee-əm) is a chemical element that has the symbol Pr and atomic number 59. Praseodymium is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal in the lanthanide group. It is too reactive to be found in native form, and when artificially prepared, it slowly develops a green oxide coating. The element was named for the color of its primary oxide. In 1841, Swedish chemist Carl Gustav Mosander extracted a rare earth oxide residue he called "didymium" from a residue he called "lantana," in turn separted from cerium salts. In 1885, the Austrian chemist Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach separated didymium into two salts of different colors, which he named praseodymium and neodymium. The name praseodymium comes from the Greek prasios (πράσιος), meaning green, and didymos (δίδυμος), twin. Like most rare earth elements, praseodymium most readily forms trivalent Pr(III) ions. These are yellow-green in water solution, and various shades of yellow-green when incorporated into glasses. Many of praseodymium's industrial uses involve its use to filter yellow light from light sources. Praseodymium is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal in the lanthanide
    6.50
    2 votes
    166
    Red clover

    Red clover

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Triticum aestivum, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rhamnus purshiana, trifolium pratense, nitricum acidum, 200/3/12/8/200/200/200/8/200/200/200/200/200/3/3/200/200/200/12/12/200/200/12/12/3/8/200/3/200/200/200/200/12/8/1/200 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Triticum aestivum, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rhamnus purshiana, trifolium pratense, nitricum acidum, 200/3/12/8/200/200/200/8/200/200/200/200/200/3/3/200/200/200/12/12/200/200/12/12/3/8/200/3/200/200/200/200/12/8/1/200 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Triticum aestivum pollen/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Frangula alnus bark/Arctium lappa root/Frangula purshiana bark/Glycyrrhiza glabra/Phytolacca americana root/Red clover/Thyroid, unspecified/Atropa belladonna/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Strychnos nux-vomi
    Trifolium pratense (red clover) is a species of clover, native to Europe, Western Asia and northwest Africa, but planted and naturalised in many other regions. It is an herbaceous, short-lived perennial plant, variable in size, growing to 20–80 cm tall. The leaves are alternate, trifoliate (with three leaflets), each leaflet 15–30 mm long and 8–15 mm broad, green with a characteristic pale crescent in the outer half of the leaf; the petiole is 1–4 cm long, with two basal stipules. The flowers are dark pink with a paler base, 12–15 mm long, produced in a dense inflorescence. The plant was named Trifolium pratense by Carolus Linnaeus in 1753. Pratense is Latin for "found in meadows". There are seven varieties: Red clover is subject to bacterial as well as fungal diseases. Other problems include parasitic nematodes (roundworms) and viruses. It is widely grown as a fodder crop, valued for its nitrogen fixation, which increases soil fertility. For these reasons it is used as a green manure crop. Several cultivar groups have been selected for agricultural use, mostly derived from var. sativum. It has become naturalised in many temperate areas, including the Americas and Australasia as an
    6.50
    2 votes
    167
    American Chestnut

    American Chestnut

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Chestnut 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Chestnut 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: American chestnut extract
    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is a large, deciduous tree of the beech family native to eastern North America. Before the species was devastated by the chestnut blight, a fungal disease, it was one of the most important forest trees throughout its range. There are now very few mature specimens of the tree within its historical range, although many small sprouts of the former live trees remain. However, there are (at least) hundreds of large (2 to 5 ft diameter) trees outside its historical range, in areas where less virulent (hypovirulent) strains of the pathogen are more common, such as the 600 to 800 large trees in northern lower Michigan. A rapidly growing deciduous hardwood tree, it reached up to 30–45 meters (100–150 feet) tall and 3 m (10 ft) in diameter, and ranged from Maine and southern Ontario to Mississippi, and from the Atlantic coast to the Appalachian Mountains and the Ohio Valley. It has several related chestnut species, such as the European sweet chestnut, Chinese chestnut, and Japanese chestnut, which are distinguishable only with difficulty from the American species. C. dentata can be best identified by the larger and more widely spaced saw-teeth on the
    5.33
    3 votes
    168
    Gefitinib

    Gefitinib

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Gefitinib 250 coated tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Gefitinib 250 coated tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Gefitinib
    Gefitinib (INN,  /ɡɛˈfɪtɨnɪb/, trade name Iressa, marketed by AstraZeneca and Teva), is a drug used for certain breast, lung and other cancers. Gefitinib is an EGFR inhibitor, like erlotinib, which interrupts signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in target cells. Therefore, it is only effective in cancers with mutated and overactive EGFR. Gefitinib is the first selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor's (EGFR) tyrosine kinase domain. Thus gefitinib is an EGFR inhibitor. The target protein (EGFR) is a family of receptors which includes Her1(erb-B1), Her2(erb-B2), and Her 3(erb-B3). EGFR is overexpressed in the cells of certain types of human carcinomas - for example in lung and breast cancers. This leads to inappropriate activation of the anti-apoptotic Ras signalling cascade, eventually leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation. Research on gefitinib-sensitive non-small cell lung cancers has shown that a mutation in the EGFR tyrosine kinase domain is responsible for activating anti-apoptotic pathways. These mutations tend to confer increased sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Of the types of non-small
    5.33
    3 votes
    169
    Pregabalin

    Pregabalin

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Pregabalin 225 capsule
    • Active moiety of formulation: Pregabalin 225 capsule
    • Active moiety of drug: Pregabalin
    Pregabalin (INN) ( /prɨˈɡæbəlɨn/) is an anticonvulsant drug used for neuropathic pain and as an adjunct therapy for partial seizures with or without secondary generalization in adults. It has also been found effective for generalized anxiety disorder and is (as of 2007) approved for this use in the European Union. It was designed as a more potent successor to gabapentin. Pregabalin is marketed by Pfizer under the trade name Lyrica. Pfizer described in an SEC filing that the drug could be used to treat epilepsy, post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic peripheral neuropathy and fibromyalgia. Sales reached a record $3.063 billion in 2010. Recent studies have shown that pregabalin is effective at treating chronic pain in disorders such as fibromyalgia and spinal cord injury. In June 2007, pregabalin became the first medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration specifically for the treatment of fibromyalgia. It is considered to have a low potential for abuse, and a limited dependence liability if misused, and is thus classified as a Schedule V drug in the U.S. Lyrica is one of four drugs which a subsidiary of Pfizer in 2009 pleaded guilty to misbranding "with the intent to
    5.33
    3 votes
    170
    Tiabendazole

    Tiabendazole

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Thiabendazole 500 chewable tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Thiabendazole 500 chewable tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Tiabendazole
    Tiabendazole (INN, other names include TBZ, thiabendazole and the trade names Mintezol, Tresaderm, and Arbotect) is a fungicide and parasiticide. It is used primarily to control mold, blight, and other fungally caused diseases in fruits (e.g. oranges) and vegetables; it is also used as a prophylactic treatment for Dutch elm disease. Use in treatment of aspergillosis has been reported. As an antiparasitic, it is able to control roundworms (such as those causing strongyloidiasis), hookworms, and other helminth species which attack wild animals, livestock and humans. TBZ works by inhibition of the mitochondrial, helminth-specific enzyme, fumarate reductase, with possible interaction with endogenous quinone. Medicinally, thiabendazole is also a chelating agent, which means that it is used medicinally to bind metals in cases of metal poisoning, such as lead, mercury or antimony poisoning. In dogs and cats, thiabendazole is used to treat ear infections. Thiabendazole is also used as a food additive, a preservative with E number E233 (INS number 233). For example, it is applied to bananas to ensure freshness, and is a common ingredient in the waxes applied to the skins of citrus fruits.
    5.33
    3 votes
    171
    Bemotrizinol

    Bemotrizinol

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Zinc oxide, octinoxate, titanium dioxide, bemotrizinol 0.105/0.07/0.04/0.015 cream
    • Active moiety of formulation: Zinc oxide, octinoxate, titanium dioxide, bemotrizinol 0.105/0.07/0.04/0.015 cream
    • Active moiety of drug: Zinc oxide/Octinoxate/Titanium dioxide/Bemotrizinol
    Bemotrizinol (INN/USAN, INCI bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine) is an oil-soluble organic compound that is added to sunscreens to absorb UV rays. It is marketed as Tinosorb S by BASF and as Escalol S by Ashland Inc. A recent development is Tinosorb S Aqua, which is bemotrizinol in a PMMA matrix dispersed in water. This makes it possible to add bemotrizinol to the water phase. Bemotrizinol is a broad-spectrum UV absorber, absorbing UVB as well as UVA rays. It has two absorption peaks, 310 and 340 nm. It is highly photostable. Even after 50 MEDs (minimal erythemal doses), 98.4% remains intact. It helps prevent the photodegradation of other sunscreen actives like avobenzone. Bemotrizinol has strong synergistic effects on the SPF when formulated with bisoctrizole, ethylhexyl triazone or iscotrizinol. It is the most effective UV absorber available measured by SPF, based on the maximum concentration permitted by European legislation. Bemotrizinol is not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, but is approved in the European Union since the year 2000 and other parts of the world, including Australia. Unlike some other organic sunscreen actives, it shows no
    7.00
    1 votes
    172
    Clarithromycin

    Clarithromycin

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Clarithromycin 50 granule for suspension
    • Active moiety of formulation: Clarithromycin 50 granule for suspension
    • Active moiety of drug: Clarithromycin
    Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia (especially atypical pneumonias associated with Chlamydophila pneumoniae), skin and skin structure infections. In addition, it is sometimes used to treat legionellosis, Helicobacter pylori, and lyme disease. Clarithromycin is available under several brand names, for example Crixan, Claritt, Clarac, Biaxin, Klaricid, Klacid, Klaram, Klabax, Claripen, Clarem, Claridar, Fromilid, Clacid, Clacee, Vikrol, Infex, Clariwin, Resclar, Ranbaxy and Clarihexal. Clarithromycin was invented by researchers at the Japanese drug company Taisho Pharmaceutical in the 1970s. The product emerged through efforts to develop a version of the antibiotic erythromycin that did not experience acid instability in the digestive tract, causing side effects, such as nausea and stomach ache. Taisho filed for patent protection for the drug around 1980 and subsequently introduced a branded version of its drug, called Clarith, to the Japanese market in 1991. In 1985, Taisho partnered with the American company Abbott Laboratories for the international
    7.00
    1 votes
    173
    Graphite

    Graphite

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Artemisia vulgaris, cina, filix mas, spigelia anthelmia, teucrium marum, calcarea carbonica, graphites, 3/3/200/3/12/12/12/12/12/3/200/12/3 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Artemisia vulgaris, cina, filix mas, spigelia anthelmia, teucrium marum, calcarea carbonica, graphites, 3/3/200/3/12/12/12/12/12/3/200/12/3 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Arsenic trioxide/Graphite/Mercurius solubilis/Kerosene/Toxicodendron pubescens leaf homeopathic preparation
    The mineral graphite  /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is an allotrope of carbon. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράφω (graphō), "to draw/write", for its use in pencils, where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead). Unlike diamond (another carbon allotrope), graphite is an electrical conductor, a semimetal. It is, consequently, useful in such applications as arc lamp electrodes. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. Therefore, it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal, just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite, although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite. There are three principal types of natural graphite, each occurring in different types of ore deposit: Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. This highest-quality synthetic form is used in scientific research, in particular, as a standard for scanner
    7.00
    1 votes
    174
    Largemouth bass

    Largemouth bass

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Largemouth bass 50 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Largemouth bass 50 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Largemouth bass extract
    The largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) is a species of black bass in the sunfish family native to North America. It is also known by a variety of regional names, such as the brown bass, widemouth bass, bigmouth, black bass, bucketmouth, Potter's fish, Florida bass, Florida largemouth, green bass, green trout, gilsdorf bass, linesides, Oswego bass, southern largemouth and (paradoxically) northern largemouth. The largemouth bass is the state fish of Alabama (official freshwater fish), Georgia, Mississippi, Florida (state freshwater fish), and Tennessee (official sport fish). The largemouth is an olive green fish, marked by a series of dark, sometimes black, blotches forming a jagged horizontal stripe along each flank. The upper jaw (maxilla) of a largemouth bass extends beyond the rear margin of the orbit. In comparison to age, a female bass is larger than a male. The largemouth is the largest of the black basses, reaching a maximum recorded overall length of 29.5 in (75 cm) and a maximum unofficial weight of 25 pounds 1 ounce (11.4 kg). The fish lives 16 years on average. The juvenile largemouth bass consumes mostly small bait fish, scuds, small shrimp, and insects. Adults
    7.00
    1 votes
    175
    Midazolam

    Midazolam

    • Active moiety of formulation: Midazolam hydrochloride 1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Midazolam
    Midazolam ( /mɪˈdæzəlæm/, marketed in English-speaking countries under the trade names Dormicum, Hypnovel, and Versed, is a short-acting drug in the benzodiazepine class developed by Hoffmann-La Roche in the 1970s. The drug is used for treatment of acute seizures, moderate to severe insomnia, and for inducing sedation and amnesia before medical procedures. It possesses profoundly potent anxiolytic, amnestic, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, skeletal muscle relaxant, and sedative properties. Midazolam has a fast recovery time and is the most commonly used benzodiazepine as a premedication for sedation; less commonly it is used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine antagonist drug, can be used to treat an overdose of midazolam, as well as to reverse sedation. However, flumazenil can trigger seizures in mixed overdoses and in benzodiazepine-dependent individuals, so is not used in most cases. Administration of midazolam by the intranasal or the buccal route (absorption via the gums and cheek) as an alternative to rectally administered diazepam is becoming increasingly popular for the emergency treatment of seizures in children. Midazolam is also used for
    7.00
    1 votes
    176
    Propylene glycol

    Propylene glycol

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Glycerin and propylene glycol 0.003/0.01 solution/drops
    • Active moiety of formulation: Glycerin and propylene glycol 0.003/0.01 solution/drops
    • Active moiety of drug: Propylene glycol
    Propylene glycol, also called 1,2-propanediol or propane-1,2-diol, is an organic compound (a diol or double alcohol) with formula C3H8O2 or HO-CH2-CHOH-CH3. It is a colorless, nearly odorless, clear, viscous liquid with a faintly sweet taste, hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform. The compound is sometimes called α-propylene glycol to distinguish it from the isomer propane-1,3-diol HO-(CH2)3-OH, also called β-propylene glycol. Propylene glycol contains an asymmetrical carbon atom, so it exists in two stereoisomers. The commercial product is a racemic mixture. Pure optical isomers can be obtained by hydration of optically pure propylene oxide. Industrially, propylene glycol is produced from propylene oxide. Different manufacturers use either non-catalytic high-temperature process at 200 °C (392 °F) to 220 °C (428 °F), or a catalytic method, which proceeds at 150 °C (302 °F) to 180 °C (356 °F) in the presence of iron exchange resin or a small amount of sulfuric acid or alkali. Final products contain 20% 1,2-propanediol, 1.5% of dipropylene glycol and small amounts of other polypropylene glycols. Further purification produces finished industrial grade or
    7.00
    1 votes
    177
    Scarlet pimpernel

    Scarlet pimpernel

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Agaricus muscarius, alumnia, anagallis arvensis, antimonium tartaricum 0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Agaricus muscarius, alumnia, anagallis arvensis, antimonium tartaricum 0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847/0.0847 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Amanita muscaria var. muscaria fruiting body/Aluminum oxide/Anagallis arvensis/Antimony cation (3+)/Apis mellifera/Arsenic trioxide/Arsenic triiodide/Giant puffball/Causticum/Mucuna pruriens fruit trichome/Buckwheat/Graphite/Potassium cation/Hydrochloric
    Scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis; also known as red pimpernel, red chickweed, poorman's barometer, poor man's weather-glass, shepherd's weather glass or shepherd's clock) is a low-growing annual plant found in Europe, Asia and North America. Scarlet pimpernel flowers are open only when the sun shines. Although traditionally included in the family Primulaceae, the genus Anagallis is now considered to be better placed within the related family Myrsinaceae. In the APG III system, Primulaceae is expanded to include Myrsinaceae, thus Anagallis is in Primulaceae sensu lato. This common European plant is generally considered a weed and is an indicator of light soils. It is most well known for being the emblem of the fictional hero The Scarlet Pimpernel. Scarlet pimpernel has weak sprawling stems growing to about 50 cm long, which bear bright green ovate sessile leaves in opposite pairs. The small orange, red or blue flowers are produced in the leaf axils from spring to autumn. The petal margins are somewhat crenate and have small glandular hairs. Blue-flowered plants (A. arvensis Forma azurea) are common in some areas, such as the Mediterranean region, and should not be confused with
    7.00
    1 votes
    178
    Shiitake

    Shiitake

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Angelica sinensis root, binetrakin, interleukin-11, interleukin-3, lenograstim, melatonin, reishi, shiitake mushroom, sus scrofa blood, sus scrofa small intestine mucosa lymph follicle, and sus scrofa spleen 0.00075/0.001/0.00125/0.00125/0.001/0.001/0.002
    • Active moiety of formulation: Angelica sinensis root, binetrakin, interleukin-11, interleukin-3, lenograstim, melatonin, reishi, shiitake mushroom, sus scrofa blood, sus scrofa small intestine mucosa lymph follicle, and sus scrofa spleen 0.00075/0.001/0.00125/0.00125/0.001/0.001/0.002
    • Active moiety of drug: Angelica sinensis root/Sus scrofa blood/Lenograstim/Interleukin-11/Interleukin-3/Binetrakin/Shiitake mushroom/Reishi/Sus scrofa small intestine mucosa lymph follicle/Melatonin/Sus scrofa spleen homeopathic preparation
    The Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) (from Japanese 椎茸, シイタケ (Shiitake)) is an edible mushroom native to East Asia, which is cultivated and consumed in many Asian countries, as well as being dried and exported to many countries around the world. It is a feature of many Asian cuisines including Chinese, Vietnamese, Japanese, Korean and Thai. In the East, the shiitake mushroom has long been considered a delicacy as well as a medicinal mushroom. Shiitake comes from its Japanese name, shiitake.  listen (help·info) (kanji: 椎茸; literally "shii mushroom", from "shii" the Japanese name of the tree Castanopsis cuspidata that provides the dead logs on which it is typically cultivated). In Chinese, it is called xiānggū (香菇, literally "fragrant mushroom"). Two Chinese variant names for high grades of shiitake are dōnggū (Chinese: 冬菇, "winter mushroom") and huāgū (花菇, "flower mushroom", which has a flower-like cracking pattern on the mushroom's upper surface); both are produced at lower temperatures. Other common names by which the mushroom is known in English include "Chinese black mushroom", "black forest mushroom", "black mushroom", "golden oak mushroom", or "oakwood mushroom". In Korean it is
    7.00
    1 votes
    179
    Ascaris lumbricoides

    Ascaris lumbricoides

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Artemisia vulgaris, cina, filix mas, spigelia anthelmia, teucrium marum, calcarea carbonica, graphites, 3/3/200/3/12/12/12/12/12/3/200/12/3 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Artemisia vulgaris, cina, filix mas, spigelia anthelmia, teucrium marum, calcarea carbonica, graphites, 3/3/200/3/12/12/12/12/12/3/200/12/3 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Artemisia vulgaris root/Dryopteris filix-mas root/Teucrium marum/Oyster shell calcium carbonate, crude/Graphite/Mercuric cation/Schoenocaulon officinale seed/Silicon/Tanacetum vulgare top/Ascaris lumbricoides/Spigelia anthelmia/Artemisia cina flower/Taeni
    Ascaris lumbricoides is the giant roundworm of humans, belonging to the phylum Nematoda. An ascarid nematode, it is responsible for the disease ascariasis in humans, and it is the largest and most common parasitic worm in humans. One quarter of the human population is estimated to be infected by this parasite. Ascariasis is prevalent worldwide and more so in tropical and subtropical countries. It can reach a length of up to 35 cm. Ascaris lumbricoides, or "roundworm", infections in humans occur when an ingested infective egg releases a larval worm that penetrates the wall of the duodenum and enters the blood stream. From here, it is carried to the liver and heart, and enters pulmonary circulation to break free in the alveoli, where it grows and molts. In 3 weeks, the larvae pass from the respiratory system to be coughed up, swallowed, and thus returned to the small intestine, where they mature to adult male and female worms. Fertilization can now occur and the female produces as many as 200,000 eggs per day for a year. These fertilized eggs become infectious after 2 weeks in soil; they can persist in soil for 10 years or more. The eggs have a lipid layer, that makes them resistant
    6.00
    2 votes
    180
    Cerium

    Cerium

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of drug: Arsenic trioxide/Avena sativa flowering top/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Sodium cation/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Phytolacca americana root/Frangula alnus bark/Solidago virgaurea flowering top/Trifolium pratense flower/Iron/Magnesi
    Cerium /ˈsɪəriəm/ is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58. It is a soft, silvery, ductile metal which easily oxidizes in air. Cerium was named after the dwarf planet Ceres (itself named for the Roman goddess of agriculture). Cerium is the most abundant of the rare earth elements, making up about 0.0046% of the Earth's crust by weight. It is found in a number of minerals, the most important being monazite and bastnasite. Commercial applications of cerium are numerous. They include catalysts, additives to fuel to reduce emissions and to glass and enamels to change their color. Cerium oxide is an important component of glass polishing powders and phosphors used in screens and fluorescent lamps. It is also used in the "flint" (actually ferrocerium) of lighters. Cerium is a silvery metal, belonging to the lanthanide group. It resembles iron in color and luster, but is soft, and both malleable and ductile. Cerium has the third-longest liquid range of any element: 2648 C° (795 °C to 3443 °C) or 4766 F° (1463 °F to 6229 °F). (Only thorium and neptunium have longer liquid ranges.) Cerium is especially interesting because of its variable electronic structure. The energy of
    6.00
    2 votes
    181
    Cochineal

    Cochineal

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Althaea officinalis leaf, antimony potassium tartrate, bryonia alba root, cetraria islandica subsp. islandica, cochineal, copper, drosera rotundifolia flowering top, echinacea angustifolia, lobaria pulmonaria, plantago major, and thyme 0.00667/0.0533/0.04
    • Active moiety of formulation: Althaea officinalis leaf, antimony potassium tartrate, bryonia alba root, cetraria islandica subsp. islandica, cochineal, copper, drosera rotundifolia flowering top, echinacea angustifolia, lobaria pulmonaria, plantago major, and thyme 0.00667/0.0533/0.04
    • Active moiety of drug: Althaea officinalis leaf/Potassium cation/Bryonia alba root/Cetraria islandica subsp. islandica/Cochineal/Copper/Drosera rotundifolia/Echinacea angustifolia/Plantago major/Lobaria pulmonaria/Thyme homeopathic preparation
    The cochineal (/kɒtʃɨˈniːl/ koch-i-NEEL or /ˈkɒtʃɨniːl/ KOCH-i-neel; Dactylopius coccus) is a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the crimson-coloured dye carmine is derived. A primarily sessile parasite native to tropical and subtropical South America and Mexico, this insect lives on cacti in the genus Opuntia, feeding on plant moisture and nutrients. The insect produces carminic acid that deters predation by other insects. Carminic acid, typically 17–24% of dried insects' weight, can be extracted from the body and eggs then mixed with aluminum or calcium salts to make carmine dye (also known as cochineal). Carmine is today primarily used as a food colouring and for cosmetics. The carmine dye was used in Central America in the 15th century for colouring fabrics and became an important export good during the colonial period. After synthetic pigments and dyes such as alizarin were invented in the late 19th century, natural-dye production gradually diminished. Health fears over artificial food additives, however, have renewed the popularity of cochineal dyes, and the increased demand has made cultivation of the insect profitable again, with Peru being the largest
    6.00
    2 votes
    182
    Human serum albumin

    Human serum albumin

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Albumin human 10 injectable suspension
    • Active moiety of formulation: Albumin human 10 injectable suspension
    • Active moiety of drug: Albumin (human)/Phenol
    Human serum albumin is the most abundant protein in human blood plasma. It is produced in the liver. Albumin constitutes about half of the blood serum protein. It is soluble and monomeric. Albumin transports hormones, fatty acids, and other compounds, buffers pH, and maintains osmotic pressure, among other functions. Albumin is synthesized in the liver as preproalbumin, which has an N-terminal peptide that is removed before the nascent protein is released from the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The product, proalbumin, is in turn cleaved in the Golgi vesicles to produce the secreted albumin. The reference range for albumin concentrations in blood is 3.4 to 5.4 g/dL. It has a serum half-life of approximately 20 days. It has a molecular mass of 67 kDa. The gene for albumin is located on chromosome 4 and mutations in this gene can result in anomalous proteins. The human albumin gene is 16,961 nucleotides long from the putative 'cap' site to the first poly(A) addition site. It is split into 15 exons that are symmetrically placed within the 3 domains thought to have arisen by triplication of a single primordial domain. Plasma albumin is a component of liver function tests (LFTs), but may
    6.00
    2 votes
    183
    Nitrogen

    Nitrogen

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Nitrogen 990 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Nitrogen 990 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Arsenic trioxide/Avena sativa flowering top/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Sodium cation/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Phytolacca americana root/Frangula alnus bark/Solidago virgaurea flowering top/Trifolium pratense flower/Iron/Magnesi
    Nitrogen ( /ˈnaɪtrɵdʒən/ NY-trə-jən) is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. Elemental nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and mostly inert diatomic gas at standard conditions, constituting 78.09% by volume of Earth's atmosphere. The element nitrogen was discovered as a separable component of air, by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford, in 1772. Nitrogen is a common element in the universe, estimated at about seventh in total abundance in our galaxy and the Solar System. Its occurrence there is thought to be entirely due to synthesis by fusion from carbon and hydrogen in supernovas. Due to the volatility of elemental nitrogen and its common compounds with hydrogen and oxygen, nitrogen is far less common on the rocky planets of the inner Solar System, and it is a relatively rare element on Earth as a whole. However, as is the case on Earth, nitrogen and its compounds occur commonly as gases in the atmospheres of planets and moons that have atmospheres. Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen. The extremely strong bond in elemental nitrogen dominates
    6.00
    2 votes
    184
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Berberis vulgaris, cochlearia armoracia, echinacea, hydrastis canadensis, lomatium dissectum, myrrha, tabebuia impetiginosa, propolis, glandula suprarenalis suis, thymus suis, ferrum metallicum, 12/12/12/3/12/12/3/3/3/12/12/3/12/12/3/12/6/12/12/12/12/12/8
    • Active moiety of formulation: Berberis vulgaris, cochlearia armoracia, echinacea, hydrastis canadensis, lomatium dissectum, myrrha, tabebuia impetiginosa, propolis, glandula suprarenalis suis, thymus suis, ferrum metallicum, 12/12/12/3/12/12/3/3/3/12/12/3/12/12/3/12/6/12/12/12/12/12/8
    • Active moiety of drug: Goldenseal/Tabebuia impetiginosa bark/Ginkgo/Lomatium dissectum root/Sus scrofa adrenal gland/Sus scrofa thymus/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Phosphoric acid/Phytolacca americana root/Sepia officinalis juice/Aspergillus niger/Rhizopu
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast. It is perhaps the most useful yeast, having been instrumental to winemaking, baking and brewing since ancient times. It is believed that it was originally isolated from the skin of grapes (one can see the yeast as a component of the thin white film on the skins of some dark-colored fruits such as plums; it exists among the waxes of the cuticle). It is one of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecular and cell biology, much like Escherichia coli as the model bacterium. It is the microorganism behind the most common type of fermentation. S. cerevisiae cells are round to ovoid, 5–10 micrometres in diameter. It reproduces by a division process known as budding. Many proteins important in human biology were first discovered by studying their homologs in yeast; these proteins include cell cycle proteins, signaling proteins, and protein-processing enzymes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is currently the only yeast cell that is known to have Berkeley bodies present, which are involved in particular secretory pathways. Antibodies against S. cerevisiae are found in 60–70% of patients with Crohn's disease and 10–15% of
    6.00
    2 votes
    185
    Samarium

    Samarium

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Samarium sm 153 lexidronam 50 injectable suspension
    • Active moiety of drug: Arsenic trioxide/Avena sativa flowering top/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Sodium cation/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Phytolacca americana root/Frangula alnus bark/Solidago virgaurea flowering top/Trifolium pratense flower/Iron/Magnesi
    Samarium ( /səˈmɛəriəm/ sə-MAIR-ee-əm) is a chemical element with symbol Sm and atomic number 62. It is a moderately hard silvery metal which readily oxidizes in air. Being a typical member of the lanthanide series, samarium usually assumes the oxidation state +3. Compounds of samarium(II) are also known, most notably monoxide SmO, monochalcogenides SmS, SmSe and SmTe, as well as samarium(II) iodide. The last compound is a common reducing agent in chemical synthesis. Samarium has no significant biological role and is only slightly toxic. Samarium was discovered in 1879 by the French chemist Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran and named after the mineral samarskite from which it was isolated. The mineral itself was earlier named after a Russian mine official, Colonel Vasili Samarsky-Bykhovets, who thereby became the first person to have a chemical element named after him, albeit indirectly. Although classified as a rare earth element, samarium is the 40th most abundant element in the Earth's crust and is more common than such metals as tin. Samarium occurs with concentration up to 2.8% in several minerals including cerite, gadolinite, samarskite, monazite and bastnäsite, the last two
    6.00
    2 votes
    186
    Star anise

    Star anise

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Antimony pentasulfide, bryonia alba root, drosera rotundifolia, eucalyptus globulus leaf, ipecac, star anise 0.0253/0.0127/0.0127/0.0127/0.0169/0.00422 syrup
    • Active moiety of formulation: Antimony pentasulfide, bryonia alba root, drosera rotundifolia, eucalyptus globulus leaf, ipecac, star anise 0.0253/0.0127/0.0127/0.0127/0.0169/0.00422 syrup
    • Active moiety of drug: Antimony/Bryonia alba root/Drosera rotundifolia/Eucalyptus globulus leaf/Ipecac/Star anise homeopathic preparation
    Illicium verum, commonly called Star anise, star aniseed, or Chinese star anise, (Chinese: 八角, pinyin: bājiǎo, lit. "eight-horn" or "eight-corners") is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a medium-sized native evergreen tree of northeast Vietnam and southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. In Persian, star anise is called badian ",بادیان رومی, hence its French name badiane. In northern India it is called badian khatai. It is said that its origin is a place called Khata in China. In Malay it is called "Bunga Lawang". It is widely used in Malay cooking. In Tamil it is called as"அன்னாசி மொக்கு" ("Annachi mokku") and in Malayalam it is called "thakolam". Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient that gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe. Star anise enhances the flavour of meat. It is used as a spice in
    6.00
    2 votes
    187
    4-Aminosalicylic acid

    4-Aminosalicylic acid

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Aminosalicylic acid 4 delayed release granule
    • Active moiety of formulation: Aminosalicylic acid 4 delayed release granule
    • Active moiety of drug: 4-Aminosalicylic acid
    4-aminosalicylic acid, commonly known as PAS, is an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis. This organic compound has also been use since the 1940s for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), where it has shown greater potency in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It is thought to act via NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) inhibition and free radical scavenging. 5-Aminosalicylic acid, sold under the name mesalazine, is a closely related compound that also has medical uses. Nowadays, 4-aminosalicylic acid is mainly use for treating tuberculosis, but it also has other uses. Aminosalicylic acid was introduced to clinical use in 1948. It was the second antibiotic found to be effective in the treatment of tuberculosis, after streptomycin. PAS formed part of the standard treatment for tuberculosis prior to the introduction of rifampicin and pyrazinamide. Its potency is less than that of the current five first-line drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and streptomycin) for treating tuberculosis and also cost higher, but it is still useful in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. PAS is always used in combination with other anti-TB drugs. The
    5.50
    2 votes
    188
    Alprazolam

    Alprazolam

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Alprazolam 0.25 orally disintegrating tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Alprazolam 0.25 orally disintegrating tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Alprazolam/Choline
    Alprazolam  /ælˈpræzəlæm/ (trade name Xanax, available among other generic names) is a short-acting anxiolytic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs. Alprazolam, like other benzodiazepines, binds to specific sites on the GABAA gamma-amino-butyric acid receptor. Alprazolam is commonly used and FDA approved for the medical treatment of panic disorder, and anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or social anxiety disorder (SAD). Alprazolam is available for oral administration in compressed tablet (CT) and extended-release capsule (XR) formulations. Alprazolam possesses anxiolytic, sedative, hypnotic, skeletal muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant, and amnestic properties. Alprazolam has a fast onset of action and symptomatic relief. Ninety percent of peak benefits are achieved within the first hour (Although onset may begin at 8-25 minutes of ingestion) of using either preparation for panic disorder, and full peak benefits are achieved in 1.5 and 1.6 hours respectively. Peak benefits achieved for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) may take up to a week. Tolerance does not appear to develop to the anxiolytic effects but may develop to the sedative effects
    5.50
    2 votes
    189
    Coffee bean

    Coffee bean

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Coffea tosta, avena sativa, equisetum hyemale, hypericum perforatum, ginkgo biloba, germanium sesquioxide, silicea, 3/1/3/8/6/3/8 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Coffea tosta, avena sativa, equisetum hyemale, hypericum perforatum, ginkgo biloba, germanium sesquioxide, silicea, 3/1/3/8/6/3/8 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Coffee bean extract
    A coffee bean (Arabic بُن bunn) is a misnomer for a seed of a coffee plant. It is the pit inside the red or purple fruit often referred to as a cherry. Even though they are seeds, they are incorrectly referred to as 'beans' because of their resemblance to true beans. The fruits - coffee cherries or coffee berries - most commonly contain two stones with their flat sides together. A small percentage of cherries contain a single seed, instead of the usual two. This is called a peaberry. Like Brazil nuts (a seed) and white rice, coffee seeds consist mostly of endosperm. The two most economically important varieties of coffee plant are the Arabica and the Robusta; 75-80% of the coffee produced worldwide is Arabica and 20% is Robusta. Arabica seeds consist of 0.8-1.4% caffeine and Robusta seeds consist of 1.7-4% caffeine. As coffee is one of the world's most widely consumed beverages, coffee seeds are a major cash crop, and an important export product, counting for over 50% of some developing nations' foreign exchange earnings. The United States imports more coffee than any other nation. In 2009 the average person in the United States consumed 4.09 kg (9 lbs) of coffee. Cultivation of
    5.50
    2 votes
    190
    Egg white

    Egg white

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Egg white 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Egg white 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Egg white extract
    Egg white is the common name for the clear liquid (also called the albumen or the glair/glaire) contained within an egg. In chickens it is formed from the layers of secretions of the anterior section of the hen's oviduct during the passage of the egg. It forms around either fertilized or unfertilized egg yolks. The primary natural purpose of egg white is to protect the yolk and provide additional nutrition for the growth of the embryo (when fertilized). Egg white consists primarily of about 90% water into which is dissolved 10% proteins (including albumins, mucoproteins, and globulins). Unlike the yolk, which is high in lipids (fats), egg white contains almost no fat, and carbohydrate content is less than 1%. Egg white has many uses in food (e.g. mousse) and also many other uses (e.g. in the preparation of vaccines such as those for influenza). The egg white is about two-thirds of the total egg's weight out of its shell, with nearly 92% of that weight coming from water. The remaining weight of the egg white comes from protein, trace minerals, fatty material, vitamins, and glucose. A raw U.S. large egg white weighs 33 grams with 3.6 grams of protein, 0.24 grams of carbohydrate and
    5.50
    2 votes
    191
    Trastuzumab

    Trastuzumab

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Trastuzumab 22 kit
    • Active moiety of formulation: Trastuzumab 22 kit
    • Active moiety of drug: Trastuzumab
    Trastuzumab (INN; trade name Herceptin) is a monoclonal antibody that interferes with the HER2/neu receptor. Its main use is to treat certain breast cancers. The HER receptors are proteins that are embedded in the cell membrane and communicate molecular signals from outside the cell to inside the cell, and turn genes on and off. The HER proteins regulate cell growth, survival, adhesion, migration, and differentiation—functions that are amplified or weakened in cancer cells. In some cancers, notably some breast cancers, HER2 is over-expressed, and causes breast cells to reproduce uncontrollably. Antibodies are molecules from the immune system that bind selectively to different proteins. Trastuzumab is an antibody that binds selectively to the HER2 protein. When it binds to defective HER2 proteins, the HER2 protein no longer causes cells in the breast to reproduce uncontrollably. This increases the survival of people with cancer. However, cancers usually develop resistance to trastuzumab. The original studies of trastuzumab showed that it improved overall survival in late-stage (metastatic) breast cancer from 20.3 to 25.1 months, but there is controversy over whether trastuzumab is
    5.50
    2 votes
    192
    Alpha-linolenic acid

    Alpha-linolenic acid

    • Active ingredient of formulation: .alpha.-tocopherol acetate, dl-, biotin, calcium, calcium ascorbate, calcium threonate, cholecalciferol, doconexent, docusate sodium, ferrous asparto glycinate, folic acid, icosapent, iodine, iron, linolenic acid, magnesium oxide, niacinamide, omega-3 fat
    • Active moiety of formulation: .alpha.-tocopherol acetate, dl-, biotin, calcium, calcium ascorbate, calcium threonate, cholecalciferol, doconexent, docusate sodium, ferrous asparto glycinate, folic acid, icosapent, iodine, iron, linolenic acid, magnesium oxide, niacinamide, omega-3 fat
    • Active moiety of drug: Calcium ascorbate/Calcium threonate/Cholecalciferol/.alpha.-tocopherol/Folic acid/Pyridoxine/Calcium/Iron/Ferrous asparto glycinate/Doconexent/Icosapent/Linolenic acid
    α-Linolenic acid is an organic compound found in many common vegetable oils. In terms of its structure, it is named all-cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid. In physiological literature, it is given the name 18:3 (n−3). α-Linolenic acid is a carboxylic acid with an 18-carbon chain and three cis double bonds. The first double bond is located at the third carbon from the methyl end of the fatty acid chain, known as the n end. Thus, α-linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated n−3 (omega-3) fatty acid. It is an isomer of gamma-linolenic acid, a polyunsaturated n−6 (omega-6) fatty acid. Alpha-linolenic acid was first isolated by Rollett as cited in J. W. McCutcheon's synthesis in 1942, and referred to in Green and Hilditch's 1930's survey. It was first artificially synthesized in 1995 from C6 homologating agents. A Wittig reaction of the phosphonium salt of [(Z-Z)-nona-3,6-dien-1-yl]triphenylphosphonium bromide with methyl 9-oxononanoate, followed by saponification, completed the synthesis. Seed oils are the richest sources of α-linolenic acid, notably those of rapeseed (canola), soybeans, walnuts, flaxseed (linseed oil), perilla, chia, and hemp. α-Linolenic acid is also obtained from the
    4.67
    3 votes
    193
    Nitrous oxide

    Nitrous oxide

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Nitrous oxide 0.99 gas
    • Active moiety of formulation: Nitrous oxide 0.99 gas
    • Active moiety of drug: Nitrous oxide
    Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas, is a chemical compound with the formula N2O. It is an oxide of nitrogen. At room temperature, it is a colorless, non-flammable gas, with a slightly sweet odor and taste. It is used in surgery and dentistry for its anesthetic and analgesic effects. It is known as "laughing gas" due to the euphoric effects of inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anesthetic. It is also used as an oxidizer in rocketry and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidizer similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide gives rise to NO (nitric oxide) on reaction with oxygen atoms, and this NO in turn reacts with ozone. As a result, it is the main naturally occurring regulator of stratospheric ozone. It is also a major greenhouse gas and air pollutant. Considered over a 100-year period, it has 298 times more impact 'per unit weight' (Global warming potential) than carbon dioxide. Nitrous oxide is emitted by bacteria in soils and oceans, and thus has been a part of Earth's atmosphere for millennia. Agriculture is the main source of human-produced nitrous
    4.67
    3 votes
    194
    Benzoyl peroxide

    Benzoyl peroxide

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Benzoyl peroxide 0.025 lotion
    • Active moiety of formulation: 6% benzoyl peroxide 3% sulfur 0.069/0.03 gel
    • Active moiety of drug: Benzoyl peroxide/Sulfur
    Benzoyl peroxide ( /ˈbɛnzɔɪl pəˈrɒksaɪd/) is an organic compound in the peroxide family. It consists of two benzoyl groups bridged by a peroxide link. Its structural formula is [C6H5C(O)]2O2. It is one of the most important organic peroxides in terms of applications and the scale of its production. Benzoyl peroxide is used as an acne treatment, for improving flour, for bleaching hair and teeth, for polymerising polyester and many other uses. Benzoyl peroxide is included in the World Health Organization (WHO) Model Lists of Essential medicines, which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system. Benzoyl peroxide was the first organic peroxide prepared by intentional synthesis. It was prepared by treating benzoyl chloride with barium peroxide, a reaction that probably follows this stoichiometry: Benzoyl peroxide is usually prepared by treating hydrogen peroxide with benzoyl chloride. The oxygen-oxygen bond in peroxides is weak. Thus benzoyl peroxide readily undergoes homolysis (symmetrical fission), forming free radicals: The symbol indicates that the products are radicals; i.e., they contain at least one unpaired electron. Such species are highly reactive. The
    6.00
    1 votes
    195
    Bromine

    Bromine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Arnica montana, arisaema triphyllum root, belladonna leaf, bromine, bryonia alba root, mercurius solubilis, pulsatilla vulgaris, phytolacca americana root, spongia officinalis skeleton, roasted 3/3/3/3/3/3/3/3/3 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Arnica montana, arisaema triphyllum root, belladonna leaf, bromine, bryonia alba root, mercurius solubilis, pulsatilla vulgaris, phytolacca americana root, spongia officinalis skeleton, roasted 3/3/3/3/3/3/3/3/3 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Bromine/Nickel/Sulfur homeopathic preparation
    Bromine ( /ˈbroʊmiːn/ BROH-meen or /ˈbroʊmɨn/ BROH-min; from Greek: βρῶμος, brómos, meaning "stench (of he-goats)") is a chemical element with the symbol Br, and atomic number of 35. It is in the halogen group (17). The element was isolated independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig and Antoine Jerome Balard, in 1825–1826. Elemental bromine is a fuming red-brown liquid at room temperature, corrosive and toxic, with properties between those of chlorine and iodine. Free bromine does not occur in nature, but occurs as colorless soluble crystalline mineral halide salts, analogous to table salt. Bromine is rarer than about three-quarters of elements in the Earth's crust; however, the high solubility of bromide ion has caused its accumulation in the oceans, and commercially the element is easily extracted from brine pools, mostly in the United States, Israel and China. About 556,000 tonnes were produced in 2007, an amount similar to the far more abundant element magnesium. At high temperatures, organobromine compounds are easily converted to free bromine atoms, a process which acts to terminate free radical chemical chain reactions. This makes such compounds useful fire retardants
    6.00
    1 votes
    196
    Dexamethasone

    Dexamethasone

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone 3/1 suspension
    • Active moiety of formulation: Ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone 3/1 suspension
    • Active moiety of drug: Dexamethasone phosphate
    Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid drugs. It acts as an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant. When taken orally, it is 26.6 times more potent than the naturally occurring hormone cortisol and 6.6 times more potent than prednisone. Dexamethasone is used to treat many inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and bronchospasm. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, decreased numbers of platelets due to an immune problem, responds to 40 mg daily for four days; it may be administered in 14-day cycles. It is unclear whether dexamethasone in this condition is significantly better than other glucocorticoids. It is also given in small amounts (usually five or six tablets) before and/or after some forms of dental surgery, such as the extraction of the wisdom teeth, an operation which often leaves the patient with puffy, swollen cheeks. It is injected into the heel when treating plantar fasciitis, sometimes in conjunction with triamcinolone acetonide. It is useful to counteract allergic anaphylactic shock, if given in high doses. It is present in certain eye drops – particularly after eye surgery– and as a nasal spray
    6.00
    1 votes
    197
    Dextromethorphan

    Dextromethorphan

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Dextromethorphan and guaifenesin 2/20 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Brompheniramine maleate, dextromethorphan hydrobromide and phenylephrine hydrochloride 0.1/1/0.25 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Pyrilamine/Phenylephrine/Dextromethorphan
    Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug. It is one of the active ingredients in many over-the-counter cold and cough medicines, such as Mucinex DM, Robitussin, NyQuil, Dimetapp, Vicks, Coricidin, Delsym, and others, including generic labels. Dextromethorphan has also found other uses in medicine, ranging from pain relief to psychological applications. It is sold in syrup, tablet, spray, and lozenge forms. In its pure form, dextromethorphan occurs as a white powder. DXM is also used recreationally. When exceeding label-specified maximum dosages, dextromethorphan acts as a dissociative hallucinogen. Its mechanism of action is via multiple effects, including actions as a nonselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and a sigma-1 receptor agonist and the action of its major metabolite dextrorphan as an NMDA receptor antagonist, producing effects similar yet distinguished from the dissociative substances ketamine and phencyclidine on the higher spectrum of doses or "plateaus", as well as the active metabolite 3-methoxymorphinan, which produces local anesthetic effects in rats with a potency above dextrorphan but below dextromethorphan itself. The primary use
    6.00
    1 votes
    198
    Indium

    Indium

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of drug: Arsenic trioxide/Avena sativa flowering top/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Sodium cation/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Phytolacca americana root/Frangula alnus bark/Solidago virgaurea flowering top/Trifolium pratense flower/Iron/Magnesi
    Indium ( /ˈɪndiəm/ IN-dee-əm) is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49. This rare, very soft, malleable and easily fusible post-transition metal is chemically similar to gallium and thallium, and shows intermediate properties between these two. Indium was discovered in 1863 and named for the indigo blue line in its spectrum that was the first indication of its existence in zinc ores, as a new and unknown element. The metal was first isolated in the following year. Zinc ores continue to be the primary source of indium, where it is found in compound form. Very rarely the element can be found as grains of native (free) metal, but these are not of commercial importance. Indium's current primary application is to form transparent electrodes from indium tin oxide (ITO) in liquid crystal displays and touchscreens, and this use largely determines its global mining production. It is widely used in thin-films to form lubricated layers (during World War II it was widely used to coat bearings in high-performance aircraft). It is also used for making particularly low melting point alloys, and is a component in some lead-free solders. Indium is not known to be used by any
    6.00
    1 votes
    199
    Lipoic acid

    Lipoic acid

    • Active ingredient of formulation: .alpha.-lipoic acid, arnica montana, coenzyme a, nadide, sanguinaria canadensis root, sodium diethyl oxalacetate, solanum dulcamara stem, sulfur, sus scrofa cartilage, sus scrofa embryo, sus scrofa placenta, sus scrofa umbilical cord, symphytum tuberosum
    • Active moiety of formulation: .alpha.-lipoic acid, arnica montana, coenzyme a, nadide, sanguinaria canadensis root, sodium diethyl oxalacetate, solanum dulcamara stem, sulfur, sus scrofa cartilage, sus scrofa embryo, sus scrofa placenta, sus scrofa umbilical cord, symphytum tuberosum
    • Active moiety of drug: Adenosine triphosphate/.alpha.-ketoglutaric acid/.alpha.-lipoic acid/Ascorbic acid/Barium oxalosuccinate/Beet/Oxalic acid/Aconitic acid, (z)-/Coenzyme a/Cysteine/Sus scrofa embryo/Fumaric acid/Asian ginseng/Sus scrofa adrenal gland/Lactic acid/Magnesium c
    Lipoic acid (LA), also known as α-lipoic acid and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is an organosulfur compound derived from octanoic acid. LA contains two sulfur atoms (at C6 and C8) connected by a disulfide bond and is thus considered to be oxidized (although either sulfur atom can exist in higher oxidation states). The carbon atom at C6 is chiral and the molecule exists as two enantiomers (R)-(+)-lipoic acid (RLA) and (S)-(-)-lipoic acid (SLA) and as a racemic mixture (R/S)-lipoic acid (R/S-LA). Only the (R)-(+)-enantiomer exists in nature and is an essential cofactor of four mitochondrial enzyme complexes. Endogenously synthesized RLA is essential for life and aerobic metabolism. Both RLA and R/S-LA are available as over-the-counter nutritional supplements and have been used nutritionally and clinically since the 1950s for various diseases and conditions. LA appears physically as a yellow solid and structurally contains a terminal carboxylic acid and a terminal dithiolane ring. The relationship between endogenously synthesized (enzyme–bound) RLA and administered free RLA or R/S-LA has not been fully characterized but free plasma and cellular levels increase and decrease rapidly after
    6.00
    1 votes
    200
    Manganese

    Manganese

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Calcium 435 chewable tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Calcium pantothenate, cupric sulfate anhydrous, cyanocobalamin, folic acid, iron, magnesium sulfate, manganese sulfate, niacinamide, pyridoxine hydrochloride, riboflavin, sodium ascorbate, thiamine mononitrate, and zinc sulfate 10/0.8/15/1/106/6.9/1.3/30/
    • Active moiety of drug: Lemon/Vitamin a/Ascorbic acid/.alpha.-tocopherol acetate, dl-/Thiamine/Riboflavin/Niacin/Pyridoxine/Folic acid/Cyanocobalamin/Biotin/Pantothenic acid/Chromic cation/Iron/Magnesium cation/Zinc/Copper/Manganese/Selenium
    Manganese ( /ˈmæŋɡəniːz/ MANG-gə-neez) is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is found as a free element in nature (often in combination with iron), and in many minerals. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. Historically, manganese is named for various black minerals (such as pyrolusite) from the same region of Magnesia in Greece which gave names to similar-sounding magnesium, Mg, and magnetite, an ore of the element iron, Fe. By the mid-18th century, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine. Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite (now known to be manganese dioxide) contained a new element, but they were not able to isolate it. Johan Gottlieb Gahn was the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774, by reducing the dioxide with carbon. Manganese phosphating is used as a treatment for rust and corrosion prevention on steel. Depending on their oxidation state, manganese ions have various colors and are used industrially as pigments. The permanganates of alkali and alkaline earth metals are powerful oxidizers. Manganese
    6.00
    1 votes
    201
    Pecan

    Pecan

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Pecan nut 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Pecan nut 0.1 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Pecan extract
    The pecan ( /pɨˈkɑːn/, /pɨˈkæn/, or /ˈpiːkæn/), Carya illinoinensis, is a species of hickory, native to south-central North America, in Mexico from Coahuila south to Jalisco and Veracruz, in the United States from southern Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, and Indiana to Virginia, southwestern Ohio, south through Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Florida, and west into New Mexico. "Pecan" is from an Algonquian word, meaning a nut requiring a stone to crack. The pecan tree is a large deciduous tree, growing to 20–40 m (66–130 ft) in height, rarely to 44 m (144 ft); taller trees to 50–55 m (160–180 ft) have been claimed but not verified. It typically has a spread of 12–23 m (39–75 ft) with a trunk up to 2 m (6.6 ft) diameter. A 10-year-old sapling will stand about 5 m (16 ft) tall. The leaves are alternate, 30–45 cm (12–18 in) long, and pinnate with 9–17 leaflets, each leaflet 5–12 cm (2.0–4.7 in) long and 2–6 cm (0.79–2.4 in) broad. The flowers are wind-pollinated, and monoecious, with staminate and pistillate catkins on the same tree; the male catkins are pendulous, up to 18 cm (7.1 in) long; the female catkins are small, with
    6.00
    1 votes
    202
    German Chamomile

    German Chamomile

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Aconitum napellus, baptisia tinctoria root, black cohosh, bryonia alba root, chelidonium majus, conium maculatum flowering top, datura stramonium, delphinium staphisagria seed, gelsemium sempervirens root, gold, hypericum perforatum, lachesis muta venom,
    • Active moiety of formulation: Aconitum napellus, baptisia tinctoria root, black cohosh, bryonia alba root, chelidonium majus, conium maculatum flowering top, datura stramonium, delphinium staphisagria seed, gelsemium sempervirens root, gold, hypericum perforatum, lachesis muta venom,
    • Active moiety of drug: Arnica montana root/Atropa belladonna/Calendula officinalis flowering top/Matricaria recutita/Achillea millefolium/Sulfate ion/Comfrey root/Aconitum napellus/Bellis perennis/Mercurius solubilis/Hypericum perforatum/Echinacea, unspecified/Echinacea purpure
    Matricaria chamomilla, known as scented mayweed or German chamomile (also spelled camomile), is an annual plant of the composite family Asteraceae. Synonyms are: Chamomilla chamomilla, Chamomilla recutita (correct name according to the Flora Europaea), Matricaria recutita, and Matricaria suaveolens. M. chamomilla can be found near populated areas all over Europe and temperate Asia, and it has been widely introduced in temperate North America and Australia. It often grows near roads, around landfills, and in cultivated fields as a weed, because the seeds require open soil to survive. Common names include wild chamomile, Hungarian chamomile and scented mayweed (and is distinct from the scentless mayweed Matricaria perforata). Chamomile blue refers to chamazulene, the purified, deep-blue essential oil derived using steam distillation, rather than the plant itself. Hungarian chamomile has a reputation (among herbalists) for being incorrectly prepared because it is dried at a temperature above the boiling point of the volatile components of the plant. The word chamomile comes from the Greek χαμαίμηλον (chamaimēlon) meaning "earth-apple", which is derived from χαμαί (chamai) meaning "on
    4.33
    3 votes
    203
    Rubidium

    Rubidium

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of drug: Arsenic trioxide/Avena sativa flowering top/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Sodium cation/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Phytolacca americana root/Frangula alnus bark/Solidago virgaurea flowering top/Trifolium pratense flower/Iron/Magnesi
    Rubidium ( /rʉˈbɪdiəm/ roo-BID-ee-əm) is a chemical element with the symbol Rb and atomic number 37. Rubidium is a soft, silvery-white metallic element of the alkali metal group, with an atomic mass of 85.4678. Elemental rubidium is highly reactive, with properties similar to those of other elements in Group 1, such as very rapid oxidation in air. Rubidium has only one stable isotope, Rb, with the isotope Rb, which composes almost 28% of naturally occurring rubidium, being slightly radioactive with a half-life of 49 billion years—more than three times longer than the estimated age of the universe. German chemists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered rubidium in 1861 by the newly developed method of flame spectroscopy. Rubidium's compounds have various chemical and electronic applications. Rubidium metal is easily vaporized and has a convenient spectral absorption range, making it a frequent target for laser manipulation of atoms. Rubidium is not known to be necessary for any living organisms. However, like caesium, rubidium ions are handled by living organisms in a manner similar to potassium ions, being actively taken up by plants and by animal cells. Rubidium is a very
    4.33
    3 votes
    204
    Sodium hydroxide

    Sodium hydroxide

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Sodium hydroxide 0.01 liquid
    Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye or caustic soda, has the molecular formula NaOH and is a highly caustic metallic base. It is a white solid available in pellets, flakes, granules, and as a 50% saturated solution. Sodium hydroxide is soluble in water, ethanol and methanol. This alkali is deliquescent and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide in air. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries, mostly as a strong chemical base in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes. Although molten sodium hydroxide possesses properties similar to those of the other forms, its high temperature comparatively limits its applications. Pure sodium hydroxide is usually a white solid which may be pellets, flakes or granules, though sometimes it is in form of a 50% saturated solution. It is very soluble in water with a lower solubility in ethanol and methanol but it is insoluble in ether and other non-polar solvents. Similar to the hydration of sulfuric acid, dissolution of solid sodium hydroxide in water is a highly exothermic
    4.33
    3 votes
    205
    Tin(II) fluoride

    Tin(II) fluoride

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Stannous fluoride 4.3 gel
    • Active moiety of formulation: Sodium pyrophosphate and stannous fluoride 40/0.4 lyophilized powder for injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Sodium pyrophosphate/Stannous fluoride
    Tin(II) fluoride, known by the common name stannous fluoride, is a chemical compound with the formula SnF2. It is a colorless solid used as an ingredient in toothpastes that are typically more expensive than those that use sodium fluoride. Stannous fluoride converts the calcium mineral apatite into fluorapatite, which makes tooth enamel more resistant to bacteria generated acid attacks. In toothpastes containing calcium minerals, sodium fluoride becomes ineffective over time, while stannous fluoride remains effective in strengthening tooth enamel. Stannous fluoride has been shown to be more effective than sodium fluoride in reducing the incidence of dental caries and controlling gingivitis. Stannous fluoride was used under the trade name "Fluoristan" in the original formulation of the toothpaste Crest, though it was later replaced with sodium monofluorophosphate, or "Fluoristat." It is the active ingredient in Crest Pro Health brand toothpaste. Crest Pro Health issues a warning on the tube that stannous fluoride may cause staining which can be avoided by proper brushing, and that its particular formulation is resistant to staining. Any stannous fluoride staining that occurs due to
    4.33
    3 votes
    206
    Aspirin

    Aspirin

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Acetaminophen, alcohol, aspirin, bacitracin zinc, benzalkonium chloride, benzocaine, ibuprofen, lidocaine, neomycin sulfate, polymyxin b sulfate, and water 325/0.6/325/400/0.0013,0.004/0.06/200/5e-06/5/5000/0.986 kit
    • Active moiety of formulation: Acetaminophen, alcohol, aspirin, bacitracin zinc, benzalkonium chloride, benzocaine, ibuprofen, lidocaine, neomycin sulfate, polymyxin b sulfate, and water 325/0.6/325/400/0.0013,0.004/0.06/200/5e-06/5/5000/0.986 kit
    • Active moiety of drug: Meprobamate/Aspirin
    Aspirin (USAN), also known as acetylsalicylic acid (/əˌsɛtəlˌsælɨˈsɪlɨk/ ə-SET-əl-SAL-i-SIL-ik; abbreviated ASA), is a salicylate drug, often used as an analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin was first isolated by Felix Hoffmann, a chemist with the German company Bayer in 1897. Salicylic acid, the main metabolite of aspirin, is an integral part of human and animal metabolism. While in humans much of it is attributable to diet, a substantial part is synthesized endogenously. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet effect by inhibiting the production of thromboxane, which under normal circumstances binds platelet molecules together to create a patch over damaged walls of blood vessels. Because the platelet patch can become too large and also block blood flow, locally and downstream, aspirin is also used long-term, at low doses, to help prevent heart attacks, strokes, and blood clot formation in people at high risk of developing blood clots. It has also been established that low doses of aspirin may be given immediately after a heart attack to reduce the risk of another heart attack or of the death of
    5.00
    2 votes
    207
    Fluconazole

    Fluconazole

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Fluconazole 2 solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Fluconazole 2 solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Fluconazole
    Fluconazole ( /fluːˈkɒnəzoʊl/) is a triazole antifungal drug used in the treatment and prevention of superficial and systemic fungal infections. In a bulk powder form, it appears as a white crystalline powder, and it is very slightly soluble in water and soluble in alcohol. It is commonly marketed under the trade names Diflucan and Trican (Pfizer). Like other imidazole- and triazole-class antifungals, fluconazole inhibits the fungal cytochrome P450 enzyme 14α-demethylase. Mammalian demethylase activity is much less sensitive to fluconazole than fungal demethylase. This inhibition prevents the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol, an essential component of the fungal cytoplasmic membrane, and subsequent accumulation of 14α-methyl sterols. Fluconazole is primarily fungistatic; however, it may be fungicidal against certain organisms in a dose-dependent manner, specifically Cryptococcus. It is interesting to note, when fluconazole was in development at Pfizer, it was decided early in the process to avoid producing any chiral centers in the drug so subsequent synthesis and purification would not encounter difficulties with enantiomer separation and associated variations in biological
    5.00
    2 votes
    208
    Hexamethylenetetramine

    Hexamethylenetetramine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Hyoscyamine sulfate, methenamine, methylene blue, phenyl salicylate, and sodium phosphate, monobasic, monohydrate 0.12/81.6/10.8/36.2/40.8 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Hyoscyamine sulfate, methenamine, methylene blue, phenyl salicylate, and sodium phosphate, monobasic, monohydrate 0.12/81.6/10.8/36.2/40.8 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Methenamine/Benzoic acid/Phenyl salicylate/Methylene blue/Hyoscyamine
    Hexamethylenetetramine is a heterocyclic organic compound with the formula (CH2)6N4. This white crystalline compound is highly soluble in water and polar organic solvents. It has a cage-like structure similar to adamantane. It is useful in the synthesis of other chemical compounds, e.g. plastics, pharmaceuticals, rubber additives. It sublimes in a vacuum at 280 °C. The compound was discovered by Aleksandr Butlerov in 1859. Hexamethylenetetramine is prepared by the reaction of formaldehyde and ammonia. The reaction can be conducted in gas-phase and in solution. The molecule has a symmetric tetrahedral cage-like structure, similar to adamantane, whose four "corners" are nitrogen atoms and "edges" are methylene groups. Although the molecular shape defines a cage, no void space is available at the interior for binding other atoms or molecules, unlike crown ethers or larger cryptand structures. The molecule behaves like an amine base, undergoing protonation and N-alkylation . When reacted with nitric acid, hexamine forms cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine ( RDX ). The main use of hexamethylenetetramine is in the production of powdery or liquid preparations of phenolic resins and phenolic
    5.00
    2 votes
    209
    Jojoba oil

    Jojoba oil

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Morus alba root bark 0.1 lotion
    • Active moiety of formulation: Morus alba root bark 0.1 lotion
    • Active moiety of drug: Octinoxate/Jojoba oil/Titanium dioxide/.alpha.-tocopherol acetate, d-/Lycopene/Saccharide isomerate
    Jojoba oil /həˈhoʊbə/ is the liquid wax produced in the seed of the jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) plant, a shrub native to southern Arizona, southern California, and northwestern Mexico. The oil makes up approximately 50% of the jojoba seed by weight. Unrefined jojoba oil appears as a clear golden liquid at room temperature with a slightly fatty odor. Refined jojoba oil is colorless and odorless. The melting point of jojoba oil is approximately 10°C and the iodine value is approximately 80. Jojoba oil is relatively shelf-stable when compared with other vegetable oils mainly because it does not contain triglycerides, unlike most other vegetable oils such as grape seed oil and coconut oil. It has an Oxidative Stability Index of approximately 60, which means that it is more shelf-stable than safflower oil, canola oil, almond oil or squalene but less than castor oil and coconut oil. Jojoba oil is used as a replacement for whale oil and its derivatives, such as cetyl alcohol. The ban on importing whale oil to the US in 1971 led to the discovery that jojoba oil is "in many regards superior to sperm oil for applications in the cosmetics and other industries." Jojoba oil is found as an
    5.00
    2 votes
    210
    Levofloxacin

    Levofloxacin

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Levofloxacin 750 film coated tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Levofloxacin 750 film coated tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Levofloxacin
    Levofloxacin (Levaquin (U.S.), Tavanic (E.U.), and others) is a synthetic chemotherapeutic antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone drug class and is used to treat severe or life-threatening bacterial infections or bacterial infections that have failed to respond to other antibiotic classes. Levofloxacin is a chiral fluorinated carboxyquinolone. Investigation of ofloxacin, an older drug that is the racemic mixture, found that the l form [the (–)-(S) enantiomer] is more active. This specific component is levofloxacin. Levofloxacin interacts with other drugs, as well as herbal and natural supplements. Such interactions increase the risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias, anticoagulation, the formation of non-absorbable complexes, as well as increasing the risk of toxicity. Levofloxacin is associated with serious and life-threatening adverse reactions as well as spontaneous tendon ruptures and irreversible peripheral neuropathy. Such reactions may manifest long after therapy had been completed and in severe cases may result in life-long disabilities. Hepatoxicity has also been reported with the use of levofloxacin. As of 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has added two Black
    5.00
    2 votes
    211
    Mustard Greens

    Mustard Greens

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Mustard greens 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Mustard greens 0.05 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Mustard greens extract
    Brassica juncea, also known as mustard greens, Indian mustard, Chinese mustard, and leaf mustard, is a species of mustard plant. Subvarieties include southern giant curled mustard, which resembles a headless cabbage such as kale, but with a distinct horseradish-mustard flavor. It is also known as green mustard cabbage. The leaves, the seeds, and the stem of this mustard variety are edible. The plant appears in some form in African, Italian, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and soul food cuisine. Cultivars of B. juncea are grown as greens, and for the production of oilseed. In Russia this is the main variety grown for production of mustard oil, which after refining is considered one of the best vegetable oils around and is widely used in canning, baking and margarine production; and the majority of table mustard there is also made from this species of mustard plant. The leaves are used in African cooking, and leaves, seeds, and stems are used in Indian cuisine, particularly in mountain regions of Nepal, Punjab cuisine of India and Pakistan, where a famous dish called sarson da saag (mustard greens) is prepared. B. juncea subsp. tatsai, which has a particularly thick stem, is used
    5.00
    2 votes
    212
    Sambucus canadensis

    Sambucus canadensis

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Arsen iod , euphrasia , allium cepa , wyethia , kali bich , sambucus 0.18/0.18/0.18/0.18/0.18/0.18 tincture
    • Active moiety of formulation: Arsen iod , euphrasia , allium cepa , wyethia , kali bich , sambucus 0.18/0.18/0.18/0.18/0.18/0.18 tincture
    • Active moiety of drug: Verbascum phlomoides flower/American elderberry/Ferrum phosphoricum/Calcium cation homeopathic preparation
    Sambucus canadensis (American Elderberry) is a species of elderberry native to a large area of North America east of the Rocky Mountains, and south through eastern Mexico and Central America to Panama. It grows in a variety of conditions including both wet and dry soils, primarily in sunny locations. It is a deciduous suckering shrub growing to 3 m or more tall. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, pinnate with five to nine leaflets, the leaflets around 10 cm long and 5 cm broad. In summer, it bears large (20–30 cm diameter) corymbs of white flowers above the foliage, the individual flowers 5–6 mm diameter, with five petals. The fruit is a dark purple to black berry 3–5 mm diameter, produced in drooping clusters in the fall. The berries and flowers are edible, but other parts of the plant are poisonous, containing toxic calcium oxalate crystals. It is closely related to the European Sambucus nigra, and some authors treat it as conspecific, under the name Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis. Uses for the fruit include medicinal products, wine, jelly and dye. Leaves and inner bark can be used as an insecticide and a dye. Stems can be hollowed out and used for spouts, musical
    5.00
    2 votes
    213
    Feverfew

    Feverfew

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Cardsuus marianus, pyrethrum parthenium, secale cornutum, aconitum napellus, belladonna, bryonia, 12/12/12/6/12/12/12/12/1/12/12/1 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Cardsuus marianus, pyrethrum parthenium, secale cornutum, aconitum napellus, belladonna, bryonia, 12/12/12/6/12/12/12/12/1/12/12/1 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Silybum marianum seed/Tanacetum parthenium/Claviceps purpurea sclerotium/Aconitum napellus/Atropa belladonna/Bryonia alba root/Gelsemium sempervirens root/Nitroglycerin/Melilotus officinalis pollen/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Sepia officinalis juice/Spigeli
    Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium; syn. Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Pers., Pyrethrum parthenium Sm.) is a traditional medicinal herb which is found in many old gardens, and is also occasionally grown for ornament. The plant grows into a small bush up to around 46 cm (18 in) high with citrus-scented leaves, and is covered by flowers reminiscent of daisies. It spreads rapidly, and they will cover a wide area after a few years. It is also commonly seen in the literature by its synonyms, Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Bernh. and Pyrethrum parthenium (L.) Sm. It is also sometimes referred to as bachelor's buttons or featherfew. A perennial herb, which should be planted in full sun, 38–46 cm (15–18 in) apart and grows up to 61 cm (24 in) tall. It is hardy to USDA zone 5 (−30 °C (−22 °F)) and should be cut back to the ground in the autumn. Outside of its native range it can become an invasive weed. Feverfew was native to Eurasia; specifically the Balkan Peninsula, Anatolia and the Caucasus, but cultivation has spread it around the world and it is now also found in Europe, the Mediterranean, North America and Chile. Though its earliest medicinal use is unknown, it was documented in the first
    4.50
    2 votes
    214
    Trichloroacetic acid

    Trichloroacetic acid

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Trichloroacetic acid 0.8 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Trichloroacetic acid 0.8 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Trichloroacetic acid
    Trichloroacetic acid (TCA; also known as trichloroethanoic acid) is an analogue of acetic acid in which the three hydrogen atoms of the methyl group have all been replaced by chlorine atoms. It is prepared by the reaction of chlorine with acetic acid in the presence of a suitable catalyst. It is widely used in biochemistry for the precipitation of macromolecules, such as proteins, DNA, and RNA. Its sodium salt is used as a weedkiller. Solutions containing trichloroacetic acid as an ingredient are used for cosmetic treatments, such as chemical peels, tattoo removal, and the treatment of warts, including genital warts. It can kill normal cells as well. It is considered safe for use for this purpose during pregnancy. Salts of trichloroacetic acid are called trichloroacetates. Reduction of trichloroacetic acid results in dichloroacetic acid, a pharmacologically active compound that shows promise for the treatment of cancer. The discovery of trichloroacetic acid by Jean-Baptiste Dumas in 1839 delivered a striking example to the slowly evolving theory of organic radicals and valences. The theory was contrary to the beliefs of Jöns Jakob Berzelius, starting a long dispute between Dumas
    4.50
    2 votes
    215
    Asarum europaeum

    Asarum europaeum

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Asarum europaeum 30 pellet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Asarum europaeum 30 pellet
    • Active moiety of drug: Matricaria recutita/Potassium cation/Artemisia maritima flower/Phosphate ion/Asarum europaeum homeopathic preparation
    Asarum europaeum, commonly known as Asarabacca, European Wild Ginger, Hazelwort, and Wild Spikenard, is a species of wild ginger (unrelated to the rhizome spice ginger) with single axillary dull purple flowers, lying on the ground. It is widespread across Europe, ranging from southern Finland and northern Russia south to southern France, Italy and the Republic of Macedonia. It is also grown extensively outside of its range as an ornamental. It is sometimes harvested for use as a spice or a flavoring The stems are 10-15 cm long. The leaves are petiolate and reniform and about 10 cm wide. It occurs mostly in deciduous woodland or coniferous forests, especially in calcareous soils. There are two recognised subspecies other than the type, including A. europaeum ssp. caucasicum, which is confined to the southwestern Alps, and A. europaeum ssp. italicum, which is found in central and northern Italy as well as in the Skopska Crna Gora mountains. In former days, it was used in snuff and also medicinally as an emetic and cathartic. It is quite shade-tolerant and is often employed as a ground cover in gardens where little else will grow. The plant is a perennial and has prostrate stems that
    5.00
    1 votes
    216
    Brinzolamide

    Brinzolamide

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Brinzolamide 10 suspension
    • Active moiety of formulation: Brinzolamide 10 suspension
    • Active moiety of drug: Brinzolamide
    Brinzolamide (trade name Azopt, Alcon Laboratories, Inc.) is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used to lower intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Brinzolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (specifically, carbonic anhydrase II). Carbonic anhydrase is found primarily in erythrocytes (but also in other tissues including the eye). It exists as a number of isoenzymes, the most active of which is carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II). Use for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and raised intraocular pressure due to excess aqueous humor production. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary processes of the eye decreases aqueous humor secretion and thus lowers the intraocular pressure in the anterior chamber, presumably by reducing the rate of formation of bicarbonate ions with subsequent reduction in sodium and fluid transport; this alleviates the effects of open-angle glaucoma. The recommended frequency for topical application is two times per day. Following ocular instillation, the suspension is systemically absorbed to some degree; however the plasma concentrations are low and generally below the limits of detection (less than 10 ng/mL) due
    5.00
    1 votes
    217
    Guaifenesin

    Guaifenesin

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Dextromethorphan hydrobromide, guaifenesin, and phenylephrine hydrochloride 2/20/1 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Dextromethorphan hydrobromide, guaifenesin, and phenylephrine hydrochloride 2/20/1 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Guaifenesin
    Guaifenesin INN ( /ɡwaɪˈfɛnɨsɪn/) or guaiphenesin (former BAN), also glyceryl guaiacolate, is an expectorant drug sold over the counter and usually taken orally to assist the bringing up (expectoration) of phlegm from the airways in acute respiratory tract infections. A closely related compound is guaietolin (3-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)propane-1,2-diol) which is used for similar purposes in other countries. Similar medicines derived from the guaiac tree were in use as a generic remedy by Native Americans when explorers reached North America in the 16th century. The Spanish encountered guaiacum wood "when they conquered San Domingo; it was soon brought back to Europe, where it acquired an immense reputation in the sixteenth century as a cure for syphilis and certain other diseases..." The 1955 edition of the Textbook of Pharmacognosy states: "Guaiacum has a local stimulant action which is sometimes useful in sore throat. The resin is used in chronic gout and rheumatism, whilst the wood is an ingredient in the compound concentrated solution of sarsaparilla, which was formerly much used as an alternative in syphilis." Guaifenesin was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in
    5.00
    1 votes
    218
    Haemophilus influenzae

    Haemophilus influenzae

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Aconitum napellus - asclepias curassavica - atropa belladonna - cairina moschata heart/liver autolysate - copper - echinacea angustifolia - haemophilus influenzae type b - 5/5/5/7/3/3/9 pellet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Aconitum napellus - asclepias curassavica - atropa belladonna - cairina moschata heart/liver autolysate - copper - echinacea angustifolia - haemophilus influenzae type b - 5/5/5/7/3/3/9 pellet
    • Active moiety of drug: Staphylococcus aureus/Klebsiella pneumoniae/Haemophilus influenzae homeopathic preparation
    Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae, is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium first described in 1892 by Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic. A member of the Pasteurellaceae family, it is generally aerobic, but can grow as a facultative anaerobe. H. influenzae was mistakenly considered to be the cause of influenza until 1933, when the viral etiology of the flu became apparent; the bacterium is colloquially known as bacterial influenza. Still, H. influenzae is responsible for a wide range of clinical diseases. H. influenzae was the first free-living organism to have its entire genome sequenced. The sequencing project was completed and published in 1995. In 1930, two major categories of H. influenzae were defined: the unencapsulated strains and the encapsulated strains. Encapsulated strains were classified on the basis of their distinct capsular antigens. There are six generally recognized types of encapsulated H. influenzae: a, b, c, d, e, and f. Genetic diversity among unencapsulated strains is greater than within the encapsulated group. Unencapsulated strains are termed nontypable (NTHi) because they lack capsular serotypes;
    5.00
    1 votes
    219
    Lanthanum

    Lanthanum

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Lanthanum carbonate 750 chewable tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Lanthanum carbonate
    Lanthanum ( /ˈlænθənəm/) is a chemical element with the symbol La and atomic number 57. Lanthanum is a silvery white metallic element that belongs to group 3 of the periodic table and is the first element of the lanthanide series. It is found in some rare-earth minerals, usually in combination with cerium and other rare earth elements. Lanthanum is a malleable, ductile, and soft metal that oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air. It is produced from the minerals monazite and bastnäsite using a complex multistage extraction process. Lanthanum compounds have numerous applications as catalysts, additives in glass, carbon lighting for studio lighting and projection, ignition elements in lighters and torches, electron cathodes, scintillators, and others. Lanthanum carbonate (La2(CO3)3) was approved as a medication against renal failure. Lanthanum is a soft, malleable, silvery white metal which has hexagonal crystal structure at room temperature. At 310 °C, lanthanum changes to a face-centered cubic structure, and at 865 °C into a body-centered cubic structure. Lanthanum is easily oxidized (a centimeter-sized sample will completely oxidize within a year) and is therefore used in elemental
    5.00
    1 votes
    220
    Physalis angulata

    Physalis angulata

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Achyrocline satureioides, arctostaphylos uva-ursi, cassia occidentalis, mirailis jalapa, petiveria alliacea, physalis angulata, schinus molle, 32/32/32/32/32/32/32 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Achyrocline satureioides, arctostaphylos uva-ursi, cassia occidentalis, mirailis jalapa, petiveria alliacea, physalis angulata, schinus molle, 32/32/32/32/32/32/32 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Arctostaphylos uva-ursi leaf/Achyrocline satureioides/Senna occidentalis/Mirabilis jalapa top/Physalis angulata/Schinus molle bark/Petiveria alliacea root homeopathic preparation
    Physalis angulata is a widely-distributed herbaceous annual plant with common name of Fisalia, belonging to the nightshade family Solanaceae. It is known by several names, including Cutleaf groundcherry, Wild tomato, Camapu and Winter cherry. The plant has perennial habits and is reproduced by seeds, its leaves are dark green and roughly oval, often with tooth shapes around the edge. The flowers are five sided and pale yellow, whist the yellow-orange fruits, which are edible, are born inside a balloon-like calix. They are similar in size, shape and structure to a tomato, but partly or completely surrounded by a large shell which derives from the whorl. Its tree can reach up to 6 feet high, approximately (2 meters). The genus Physalis stands out in the Solanaceae family for having a swollen and vesicular fruitful cup that continues to develop after fecundation, involving the fruit completely. The origin of the name Physalis is due to the characteristics aforementioned, since Physalis means bladder, in Greek. The species has naturalized in Australia, but in the Northern Territory its arrival is thought to pre-date European settlement, so it is considered native there. In Colombia, is
    5.00
    1 votes
    221
    Succinic acid

    Succinic acid

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Chondrodendron tomentosum root, clerodendranthus spicatus leaf, equisetum hyemale, escherichia coli, hieracium pilosella flowering top, methylene blue, nitric acid, ononis campestris, plantago major, pork kidney, potassium nitrate, proteus vulgaris, quinh
    • Active moiety of formulation: Chondrodendron tomentosum root, clerodendranthus spicatus leaf, equisetum hyemale, escherichia coli, hieracium pilosella flowering top, methylene blue, nitric acid, ononis campestris, plantago major, pork kidney, potassium nitrate, proteus vulgaris, quinh
    • Active moiety of drug: Iron/Succinic acid/Calcium ascorbate/Calcium threonate/Folic acid/Cyanocobalamin
    Succinic acid ( /səkˈsɪnɨk/; IUPAC systematic name: butanedioic acid; historically known as spirit of amber) is a dicarboxylic acid. Succinate plays a biochemical role in the citric acid cycle. The name derives from Latin succinum, meaning amber, from which the acid may be obtained. The carboxylate anion is called succinate and esters of succinic acid are called alkyl succinates. At room temperature, pure succinic acid is a solid that forms colorless, odorless crystals. It has a melting point of 185 °C and a boiling point of 235 °C. It is a diprotic acid. Spirit of amber was originally procured from amber by pulverising and distilling it using a sand bath. It was chiefly used externally for rheumatic aches and pains, and internally in inveterate gleets. Succinic acid is now used within the food and beverage industry, primarily as a sweetener. Global production is estimated at 16,000 to 30,000 tonnes a year, with an annual growth rate of 10%. Succinate is a component of the citric acid cycle and is capable of donating electrons to the electron transport chain by the reaction: This is catalysed by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (or complex II of the mitochondrial ETC). The
    5.00
    1 votes
    222
    Cimetidine

    Cimetidine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Cimetidine 200 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Cimetidine 200 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Cimetidine hydrochloride
    Cimetidine INN ( /sɨˈmɛtɨdiːn/ or /saɪˈmɛtɨdiːn/) is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production. It is largely used in the treatment of heartburn and peptic ulcers. It has been marketed by GlaxoSmithKline (which is selling the brand to Prestige Brands) under the trade name Tagamet (sometimes Tagamet HB or Tagamet HB200). Cimetidine was approved in the UK in 1976 and was approved in the US by the Food and Drug Administration for prescriptions starting January 1, 1979. Cimetidine, approved by the FDA for inhibition of gastric acid secretion, has been advocated for a number of dermatological diseases. Cimetidine was the prototypical histamine H2-receptor antagonist from which the later members of the class were developed. Cimetidine was the culmination of a project at Smith, Kline and French (SK&F; now GlaxoSmithKline) by James W. Black, C. Robin Ganellin, and others to develop a histamine receptor antagonist to suppress stomach acid secretion. This was one of the first drugs discovered using a rational drug design approach. Sir James W. Black shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of propranolol and also is credited for
    4.00
    1 votes
    223
    Diazepam

    Diazepam

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Diazepam 1 solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Diazepam 1 solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Diazepam
    Diazepam ( /daɪˈæzɨpæm/), first marketed as Valium ( /ˈvæliəm/) by Hoffmann-La Roche, is a benzodiazepine drug. Diazepam is also marketed in Australia as Antenex. It is commonly used for treating anxiety, insomnia, seizures including status epilepticus, muscle spasms (such as in cases of tetanus), restless legs syndrome, alcohol withdrawal, benzodiazepine withdrawal and Ménière's disease. It may also be used before certain medical procedures (such as endoscopies) to reduce tension and anxiety, and in some surgical procedures to induce amnesia. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant, and amnestic properties. The pharmacological action of diazepam enhances the effect of the neurotransmitter GABA by binding to the benzodiazepine site on the GABAA receptor (via the constituent chlorine atom) leading to central nervous system depression. Adverse effects of diazepam include anterograde amnesia (especially at higher doses) and sedation, as well as paradoxical effects such as excitement, rage or worsening of seizures in epileptics. Benzodiazepines also can cause or worsen depression. Long-term effects of benzodiazepines such as diazepam
    4.00
    1 votes
    224
    Echinacea

    Echinacea

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Antimonium tartaricum, arsenicum iodatum, asafoetida, baptisia tinctoria, echinacea, eupoatorium perfoliatum, euphorbia pilulifera, hepar sulphuris calcareum, 6/200/30/3/30/3/3/3/30/200/200/30/200/30/3/30 spray
    • Active moiety of formulation: Antimonium tartaricum, arsenicum iodatum, asafoetida, baptisia tinctoria, echinacea, eupoatorium perfoliatum, euphorbia pilulifera, hepar sulphuris calcareum, 6/200/30/3/30/3/3/3/30/200/200/30/200/30/3/30 spray
    • Active moiety of drug: Chelidonium majus/Echinacea, unspecified/Gentiana lutea root/Arsenic trioxide/Activated charcoal/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Phosphorus/Pulsatilla vulgaris homeopathic preparation
    Echinacea ( /ˌɛkɨˈneɪʃⁱə/) is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants in the daisy family, Asteraceae. The nine species it contains are commonly called purple coneflowers. They are endemic to eastern and central North America, where they are found growing in moist to dry prairies and open wooded areas. They have large, showy heads of composite flowers, blooming from early to late summer. The generic name is derived from the Greek word ἐχῖνος (echino), meaning "sea urchin," due to the spiny central disk. Some species are used in herbal medicines and some are cultivated in gardens for their showy flowers. A few species are of conservation concern. Echinacea species are herbaceous, drought-tolerant perennial plants growing up to (140 cm or possibly 4 feet, reference needed) in height. They grow from taproots, except E. purpurea, which grows from a short caudex with fibrous roots. They have erect stems that in most species are unbranched. Both the basal and cauline leaves are arranged alternately. The leaves are normally hairy with a rough texture, having uniseriate trichomes (1-4 rings of cells) but sometimes they lack hairs. The basal leaves and the lower stem leaves have petioles,
    4.00
    1 votes
    225
    Giant puffball

    Giant puffball

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Giant puffball 30 pellet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Giant puffball 30 pellet
    • Active moiety of drug: Amanita muscaria var. muscaria fruiting body/Aluminum oxide/Anagallis arvensis/Antimony cation (3+)/Apis mellifera/Arsenic trioxide/Arsenic triiodide/Giant puffball/Causticum/Mucuna pruriens fruit trichome/Buckwheat/Graphite/Potassium cation/Hydrochloric
    Calvatia gigantea, commonly known as the Giant puffball, is a puffball mushroom commonly found in meadows, fields, and deciduous forests worldwide usually in late summer and autumn. It is common throughout Europe and North America. Most giant puffballs grow to be 10 to 70 centimetres (3.9 to 28 in) in diameter, although occasionally some can reach diameters up to 150 centimetres (59 in) and weights of 20 kilograms (44 lb). The inside of mature Giant puffballs is greenish brown, whereas the interior of immature puffballs is white. The large white mushrooms are edible when young. The fruiting body of a puffball mushroom will develop within the period of a few weeks and soon begin to decompose and rot, at which point it is dangerous to eat. Unlike most mushrooms, all the spores of the giant puffball are created inside the fruiting body; large specimens can easily contain several trillion spores. Spores are yellowish, smooth, and 3 to 5 micrometres (0.00012 to 0.00020 in) in size. The classification of this species has been revised in recent years, as the formerly recognized class Gasteromycetes, which included all puffballs, has been found to be polyphyletic. Some authors place the
    4.00
    1 votes
    226
    Lanolin

    Lanolin

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Rash prevention cream 0.01/0.04/0.303/0.13 cream
    • Active moiety of formulation: Rash prevention cream 0.01/0.04/0.303/0.13 cream
    • Active moiety of drug: Zinc oxide/Lanolin
    Lanolin (German, from Latin lāna, "wool", and oleum, "oil"), also called wool wax or wool grease, is a yellow waxy substance secreted by the sebaceous glands of wool-bearing animals. Most lanolin used by humans comes from domestic sheep. Lanolin is also frequently, but incorrectly, referred to as wool fat (adeps lanae) by many of the world’s pharmacopoeias even though it has been known for more than 150 years that lanolin is devoid of glycerides and is in fact a wax, not a fat. Lanolin's waterproofing property aids sheep in shedding water from their coats. Certain breeds of sheep produce large amounts of lanolin, and the extraction can be performed by squeezing the sheep's harvested wool between rollers. Most or all of the lanolin is removed from wool when it is processed into textiles, such as yarn or felt. Lanolin's role in nature is to protect wool and skin against the ravages of climate and the environment; it also seems to play a role in integumental hygiene. Lanolin and its many derivatives, not surprisingly, are used extensively in products designed for the protection, treatment and beautification of human skin. Like many natural products, lanolin is complex and variable in
    4.00
    1 votes
    227
    Nitrofurantoin

    Nitrofurantoin

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Nitrofurantoin 5 suspension
    • Active moiety of formulation: Nitrofurantoin 5 suspension
    • Active moiety of drug: Nitrofurantoin
    Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic which is marketed under the following brand names; Niftran, Furadantin, Furabid, Macrobid, Macrodantin, Nitrofur Mac, Nitro Macro, Nifty-SR, Martifur-MR, Martifur-100 (in India), Urantoin, Nifuran (in Macedonia) and Uvamin (in Middle East). It is usually used in treating urinary tract infection. It is often used against E. coli. Resistance to other antibiotics has led to increased interest in this agent. It is sometimes described as being appropriate to use in pregnant patients (along with other agents such as sulfisoxazole or cephalexin). This is in contrast to agents such as trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin which may not be appropriate for pregnant women. Organisms are said to be susceptible to nitrofurantoin if their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is 32 μg/mL or less. The peak blood concentration of nitrofurantoin following an oral dose of nitrofurantoin 100 mg, is less than 1 μg/mL and may be undetectable; tissue penetration is negligible; the drug is well concentrated in the urine: 75% of the dose is rapidly metabolised by the liver, but 25% of the dose is excreted in the urine unchanged, reliably achieving levels of 200 μg/ml or more. For
    4.00
    1 votes
    228
    Potassium acetate

    Potassium acetate

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Alanine, arginine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine acetate, magnesium acetate, methionine, phenylalanine, phosphoric acid, potassium acetate, proline, serine, sodium chloride, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine 4.48/3.43/4.48/1.05
    • Active moiety of formulation: Sodium chloride, potassium acetate, magnesium acetate tetrahydrate 2.34/1.28/0.23 injection
    • Active moiety of drug: Dextrose/Sodium chloride/Potassium acetate/Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate
    Potassium acetate (CH3CO2K) is the potassium salt of acetic acid. It can be prepared by treating a potassium-containing base such as potassium hydroxide or potassium carbonate with acetic acid: This sort of reaction is known as an acid-base neutralization reaction. Potassium acetate is the salt that forms along with water as acetic acid and potassium hydroxide are neutralized together. Conditions/substances to avoid are: moisture, heat, flames, ignition sources, and strong oxidizing agents. Potassium acetate is used as a catalyst in the production of polyurethanes. Potassium acetate can be used as a deicer instead of chloride salts such as calcium chloride or magnesium chloride. It offers the advantage of being less aggressive on soils and much less corrosive, and for this reason is preferred for airport runways. It is, however, more expensive. Potassium acetate is also the extinguishing agent used in class K fire extinguishers because of its ability to cool and form a crust over burning oils. Potassium acetate is used as a food additive as a preservative and acidity regulator. In the European Union, it is labeled by the E number E261; it is also approved for usage in the USA and
    4.00
    1 votes
    229
    Selegiline

    Selegiline

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Selegiline 0.375 patch
    • Active moiety of formulation: Selegiline 0.375 patch
    • Active moiety of drug: Selegiline
    Selegiline (Anipryl, L-deprenyl, Eldepryl, Emsam, Zelapar) is a drug used for the treatment of early-stage Parkinson's disease, depression and senile dementia. In normal clinical doses it is a selective irreversible MAO-B inhibitor. However, in larger doses it loses its specificity and also inhibits MAO-A. Dietary restrictions are common for MAOI treatments, but special dietary restrictions for lower doses have been found to be unnecessary, and dietary restrictions appear to be unnecessary at standard doses when selegiline is taken as Emsam, the transdermal patch form, as no adverse events due to diet have ever been reported with Emsam. The drug was discovered by Jozsef Knoll et al. in Hungary. Selegiline belongs to a class of drugs called phenethylamines. Selegiline is a methamphetamine derivative with a propargyl group attached to the nitrogen atom. Selegiline was discovered in Hungary in the 1960s. Joseph Knoll, a chair of pharmacology at the Semmelweis University in Budapest, was interested in the physiology of "drive" and the differences between high- and low-performing individuals. For his research, he required a molecule that combined amphetamine-like psychostimulant effect
    4.00
    1 votes
    230
    Sodium acetate

    Sodium acetate

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Sodium chloride, sodium acetate anhydrous, sodium gluconate, potassium chloride, and magnesium chloride 5.26/2.22/5.02/0.37/0.3 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Sodium chloride, sodium acetate anhydrous, sodium gluconate, potassium chloride, and magnesium chloride 5.26/2.22/5.02/0.37/0.3 irrigant
    • Active moiety of drug: Sodium chloride/Potassium chloride/Magnesium chloride/Sodium acetate/Sodium lactate/Calcium chloride
    Sodium acetate, CH3COONa, also abbreviated NaOAc, also sodium ethanoate, is the sodium salt of acetic acid. This colourless salt has a wide range of uses. Sodium acetate is used in the textile industry to neutralize sulfuric acid waste streams, and as a photoresist while using aniline dyes. It is also a pickling agent in chrome tanning, and it helps to retard vulcanization of chloroprene in synthetic rubber production. In processing cotton for disposable cotton pads, sodium acetate is used to eliminate the buildup of static electricity. Sodium acetate is used to reduce the damage water can potentially do to concrete by acting as a Concrete sealant, while also being environmentally benign and cheaper than the epoxy alternative that is usually employed for sealing concrete against water permeation . Sodium acetate may be added to foods as a seasoning. It may be used in the form of sodium diacetate — a 1:1 complex of sodium acetate and acetic acid, given the E-number E262. A frequent use of this form is in salt and vinegar chips in the United States. Many US brands, including national manufacturer Frito-Lay, sell "salt and vinegar flavored" chips that use this chemical, with lactose
    4.00
    1 votes
    231
    Table sugar

    Table sugar

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Sucrose 1 pellet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Sucrose 1 pellet
    • Active moiety of drug: Sucrose/Phosphoric acid
    Sucrose is the organic compound commonly known as table sugar and sometimes called saccharose. A white, odorless, crystalline powder with a sweet taste, it is best known for its nutritional role. The molecule is a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose with the molecular formula C12H22O11. The word was formed in mid-19th century from Latin sucrum = "sugar" and the chemical suffix -ose. The world produced about 168 million tonnes of table sugar in 2011. Sucrose is a molecule with five stereocenters and many sites that are reactive or can be reactive. The molecule exists as a single isomer. In sucrose, the components glucose and fructose are linked via an ether bond between C1 on the glucosyl subunit and C2 on the fructosyl unit. The bond is called a glycosidic linkage. Glucose exists predominantly as two isomeric "pyranoses" (α and β), but only one of these forms the links to the fructose. Fructose itself exists as a mixture of "furanoses", each of which having α and β isomers, but only one particular isomer links to the glucosyl unit. What is notable about sucrose is that, unlike most disaccharides, the glycosidic bond is formed between the reducing ends
    4.00
    1 votes
    232
    Tetrabenazine

    Tetrabenazine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Tetrabenazine 12.5 tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Tetrabenazine 12.5 tablet
    • Active moiety of drug: Tetrabenazine
    Tetrabenazine is a drug for the symptomatic treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorder and is marketed under the trade names Nitoman in Canada and Xenazine in New Zealand and some parts of Europe, and is also available in the USA as an orphan drug. On August 15, 2008 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of tetrabenazine to treat chorea associated with Huntington's disease (HD), the first in the US. The compound has been known since the 1950s. The effort for US FDA approval was led by Dr. Joseph Jankovic. According to a 2008 news report, "Americans with Huntington's who weren't Jankovic's patients ordered tetrabenazine from Canada if they could afford it. But the worsening exchange rate put the price out of reach for many. A recent check found Canadian Internet pharmacies selling generic 25-milligram pills for $1.75 or more each in U.S. currency, brand-name 25-mg pills for around $2.35 each." After the FDA approval, Dr. Jancovic said "I'm worried that the drug is just going to be too expensive" and initial pricing was $68.50 per 25 mg tablet. Tetrabenazine works mainly as a VMAT-inhibitor and as such promotes the early metabolic degradation of monoamines, in
    4.00
    1 votes
    233
    Thulium

    Thulium

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of drug: Garlic/Berberis vulgaris root bark/Glycyrrhiza glabra/Arctium lappa root/Phytolacca americana root/Frangula alnus bark/Red clover/Methionine/Thyroid, porcine/Lycopodium clavatum spore/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Mercury/Oxygen/Silicon/Aluminum/Arsenic/Bariu
    Thulium ( /ˈθjuːliəm/ THEW-lee-əm) is a chemical element that has the symbol Tm and atomic number 69. Thulium is the second least abundant of the lanthanides (promethium is only found in trace quantities on Earth). It is an easily workable metal with a bright silvery-gray luster. Despite its high price and rarity, thulium is used as the radiation source in portable X-ray devices and in solid-state lasers. Pure thulium metal has a bright, silvery luster. It is reasonably stable in air, but should be protected from moisture. The metal is soft, malleable, and ductile. Thulium is ferromagnetic below 32 K, antiferromagnetic between 32 and 56 K and paramagnetic above 56 K. Liquid thulium is very volatile. Thulium metal tarnishes slowly in air and burns readily at 150 °C to form thulium(III) oxide: Thulium is quite electropositive and reacts slowly with cold water and quite quickly with hot water to form thulium hydroxide: Thulium reacts with all the halogens. Reactions are slow at room temperature, but are vigorous above 200 °C: Thulium dissolves readily in dilute sulfuric acid to form solutions containing the pale green Tm(III) ions, which exist as a [Tm(OH2)9] complexes: Thulium reacts
    4.00
    1 votes
    234
    Aspergillus fumigatus

    Aspergillus fumigatus

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Treatment set ts330453 0.002/0.002/0.00067/0.00067/0.00067/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.001/0.001/0.002/0.002/0.002/400/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.002/4000/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.002,0.002/0.002/0.002 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of formulation: Treatment set ts330453 0.002/0.002/0.00067/0.00067/0.00067/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.001/0.001/0.002/0.002/0.002/400/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.002/4000/0.002/0.002/0.002/0.002,0.002/0.002/0.002 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Felis catus hair/Canis lupus familiaris hair/Aspergillus fumigatus/Phleum pratense pollen extract
    Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungus of the genus Aspergillus, and is one of the most common Aspergillus species to cause disease in individuals with an immunodeficiency. A. fumigatus, a saprotroph widespread in nature, is typically found in soil and decaying organic matter, such as compost heaps, where it plays an essential role in carbon and nitrogen recycling. Colonies of the fungus produce from conidiophores thousands of minute grey-green conidia (2–3 μm) that readily become airborne. For many years, A. fumigatus was thought to only reproduce asexually, as neither mating nor meiosis had ever been observed. In 2008, however, A. fumigatus was shown to possess a fully functional sexual reproductive cycle, 145 years after its original description by Fresenius. The fungus is capable of growth at 37 °C/99 °F (normal human body temperature), and can grow at temperatures up to 50 °C/122 °F, with conidia surviving at 70 °C/158 °F—conditions it regularly encounters in self-heating compost heaps. Its spores are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, and it is estimated that everybody inhales several hundred spores each day; typically these are quickly eliminated by the immune system in healthy
    0.00
    0 votes
    235
    Calcium phosphate

    Calcium phosphate

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Aconitum napellus root, calcium phosphate, chamomile, artemisia cina flower, lycopodium clavatum spore, sodium chloride, pulsatilla vulgaris, and sulfur 6/12/6/6/6/6/6/6 soluable tablet
    Calcium phosphate is the name given to a family of minerals containing calcium ions (Ca) together with orthophosphates (PO4), metaphosphates or pyrophosphates (P2O7) and occasionally hydrogen or hydroxide ions. Calcium phosphate is the principal form of calcium found in bovine milk. Seventy percent of bone consists of hydroxyapatite, a calcium phosphate mineral (known as bone mineral). Tooth enamel is composed of almost ninety percent hydroxyapatite. Unlike most other compounds, the solubility level of calcium phosphate becomes lower as temperature increases. Thus heating causes precipitation. In milk it is found in higher concentrations than would be possible at the normal pH because it exists in a colloidal form in micelles bound to casein protein with magnesium, zinc and citrate - collectively referred to as colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) It is used in the production of phosphoric acid and fertilizers, for example in the Odda process. Overuse of certain forms of calcium phosphate can lead to nutrient-containing surface runoff and subsequent adverse effects upon receiving waters such as algal blooms and eutrophication. Calcium phosphate is used in baking as a raising agent,
    0.00
    0 votes
    236
    Capsaicin

    Capsaicin

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Methyl salicylate, menthol and capsaicin 0.3/0.1/0.000375 lotion
    • Active moiety of formulation: Methyl salicylate, menthol and capsaicin 0.3/0.1/0.000375 lotion
    • Active moiety of drug: Capsaicin
    Capsaicin ( /kæpˈseɪ.ɨsɪn/; 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide, ( (CH3)2CHCH=CH(CH2)4CONHCH2C6H3-4-(OH)-3-(OCH3) ) is the active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. It is an irritant for mammals, including humans, and produces a sensation of burning in any tissue with which it comes into contact. Capsaicin and several related compounds are called capsaicinoids and are produced as a secondary metabolite by chili peppers, probably as deterrents against certain herbivores and fungi. Pure capsaicin is a hydrophobic, colorless, odorless, crystalline to waxy compound. The compound was first extracted (albeit in impure form) in 1816 by Christian Friedrich Bucholz (1770–1818). He called it "capsicin," after the genus Capsicum from which it was extracted. John Clough Thresh (1850–1932), who had isolated capsaicin in almost pure form, gave it the name "capsaicin" in 1876. But it was Karl Micko who first isolated capsaicin in pure form in 1898. Capsaicin's empirical formula (chemical composition) was first determined by E. K. Nelson in 1919; he also partially elucidated capsaicin's chemical structure. Capsaicin was first synthesized in 1930 by E. Spath
    0.00
    0 votes
    237
    Castor oil

    Castor oil

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Balsam peru, castor oil and trypsin 87/788/90 ointment
    • Active moiety of formulation: Balsam peru, castor oil and trypsin 87/788/90 ointment
    • Active moiety of drug: Castor oil/Balsam peru
    Castor oil (castor is Latin for beaver - before it was discovered in plants, castor oil was extracted from beavers groin ) is a vegetable oil obtained from the castor bean (technically castor seed as the castor plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), is not a member of the bean family). Castor oil is a colorless to very pale yellow liquid with mild or no odor or taste. Its boiling point is 313 °C (595 °F) and its density is 961 kg/m. It is a triglyceride in which approximately 90 percent of fatty acid chains are ricinoleic acid. Oleic and linoleic acids are the other significant components. Ricinoleic acid, a monounsaturated, 18-carbon fatty acid, is unusual in that it has a hydroxyl functional group on the 12th carbon. This functional group causes ricinoleic acid (and castor oil) to be unusually polar, and also allows chemical derivatization that is not practical with most other seed oils. It is the hydroxyl group which makes castor oil and ricinoleic acid valuable as chemical feedstocks. Compared to other seed oils which lack the hydroxyl group, castor oil commands a higher price. As an example, in July 2007, Indian castor oil sold for about US$0.90 per kilogram (US$0.41 per
    0.00
    0 votes
    238
    Copper

    Copper

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Copper 313.4 intrauterine device
    • Active moiety of formulation: Calcium pantothenate, cupric sulfate anhydrous, cyanocobalamin, folic acid, iron, magnesium sulfate, manganese sulfate, niacinamide, pyridoxine hydrochloride, riboflavin, sodium ascorbate, thiamine mononitrate, and zinc sulfate 10/0.8/15/1/106/6.9/1.3/30/
    • Active moiety of drug: Lemon/Vitamin a/Ascorbic acid/.alpha.-tocopherol acetate, dl-/Thiamine/Riboflavin/Niacin/Pyridoxine/Folic acid/Cyanocobalamin/Biotin/Pantothenic acid/Chromic cation/Iron/Magnesium cation/Zinc/Copper/Manganese/Selenium
    Copper ( /ˈkɒpər/ KOP-ər) is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, a building material, and a constituent of various metal alloys. The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus), later shortened to сuprum. Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts, which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). Decorative art prominently features copper, both by itself and as part of pigments. Copper(II) ions are water-soluble, where they function at low concentration as bacteriostatic substances, fungicides, and wood preservatives. In sufficient amounts, they are poisonous to higher organisms; at lower concentrations it is an
    0.00
    0 votes
    239
    Diphenhydramine

    Diphenhydramine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Acetaminophen and diphenhydramine 325/12.5 coated tablet
    • Active moiety of formulation: Diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2.5 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Diphenhydramine
    Diphenhydramine ( /ˌdaɪfɛnˈhaɪdrəmiːn/; abbreviated DPH, sometimes DHM) is a first-generation antihistamine possessing anticholinergic, antitussive, antiemetic, and sedative properties which is mainly used to treat allergies. Like most other first-generation antihistamines, the drug also has a powerful hypnotic effect, and for this reason is often used as a non-prescription sleep aid; especially in the form of diphenhydramine citrate. It is produced and marketed under the trade name Benadryl by McNeil-PPC (a division of Johnson & Johnson) in the U.S., Canada and South Africa (other trade names in other countries: Dimedrol, Daedalon). It is also available as a generic or store brand medication. It is also found in the name-brand products Nytol, Unisom, Tylenol PM, Excedrin PM, Midol PM, Zzzquil and Advil PM, though some Unisom products contain doxylamine instead. It is available as an over-the-counter (OTC) or prescribed HCl injectable. It may also be used for the treatment of extrapyramidal side-effects of many antipsychotics, such as the tremors that haloperidol can cause. In addition, injectable diphenhydramine can be used for life-threatening reactions (anaphylaxis) to allergens
    0.00
    0 votes
    240
    Human chorionic gonadotropin

    Human chorionic gonadotropin

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Hcg (human chorionic gonadotropin) 34 spray
    • Active moiety of formulation: Hcg (human chorionic gonadotropin) 34 spray
    • Active moiety of drug: Arginine/Levocarnitine/Ornithine/Tyrosine/Human chorionic gonadotropin homeopathic preparation
    In molecular biology, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced during pregnancy that is made by the developing placenta after conception, and later by the placental component syncytiotrophoblast. Some cancerous tumors produce this hormone; therefore, elevated levels measured when the patient is not pregnant can lead to a cancer diagnosis. However, it is not known whether this production is a contributing cause or an effect of tumorigenesis. The pituitary analogue of hCG, known as luteinizing hormone (LH), is produced in the pituitary gland of males and females of all ages. As of December 6, 2011 (2011 -12-06), the FDA has prohibited the sale of "homeopathic" and over the counter hCG diet products and declared them fraudulent and illegal. Human chorionic gonadotropin is a glycoprotein composed of 244 amino acids with a molecular mass of 36.7 kDa. It is heterodimeric, with an α (alpha) subunit identical to that of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and β (beta) subunit that is unique to hCG. The two subunits create a small hydrophobic core surrounded by a high surface area-to-volume ratio: 2.8 times that of
    0.00
    0 votes
    241
    Lead

    Lead

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Aconitum napellus, baptisia tinctoria root, black cohosh, bryonia alba root, chelidonium majus, conium maculatum flowering top, datura stramonium, delphinium staphisagria seed, gelsemium sempervirens root, gold, hypericum perforatum, lachesis muta venom,
    • Active moiety of formulation: Aconitum napellus, baptisia tinctoria root, black cohosh, bryonia alba root, chelidonium majus, conium maculatum flowering top, datura stramonium, delphinium staphisagria seed, gelsemium sempervirens root, gold, hypericum perforatum, lachesis muta venom,
    • Active moiety of drug: Corticotropin/Arnica montana/Barium oxalosuccinate/Barium cation/Brain-derived neurotrophic factor human/Malic acid/Sus scrofa frontal lobe/Sus scrofa adrenal gland/Pork liver/Sus scrofa hypothalamus/Rinfabate/Lutrelin/Melatonin/Neurotrophin-3/Neurotrophi
    Lead ( /ˈlɛd/) is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin: plumbum) and atomic number 82. Lead is a soft, malleable poor metal. It is also counted as one of the heavy metals. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed to air. Lead has a shiny chrome-silver luster when it is melted into a liquid. Lead is used in building construction, lead-acid batteries, bullets and shots, weights, as part of solders, pewters, fusible alloys, and as a radiation shield. Lead has the highest atomic number of all of the stable elements, although the next higher element, bismuth, has a half-life that is so long (much longer than the age of the universe) that it can be considered stable. Its four stable isotopes have 82 protons, a magic number in the nuclear shell model of atomic nuclei. Lead, at certain contact degrees, is a poisonous substance to animals as well as for human beings. It damages the nervous system and causes brain disorders. Excessive lead also causes blood disorders in mammals. Like the element mercury, another heavy metal, lead is a neurotoxin that accumulates both in soft tissues
    0.00
    0 votes
    242
    Lithium

    Lithium

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Allium sativum, berberis vulgaris, glycyrrhiza glabra, lappa major, phytolacca decandra, rahmnus frangula, stillingia sylvatica, 30/30/3/30/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/30/30/3/30/3/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/30/12/30/30/6/30/30/30/30/30/30/3/3
    • Active moiety of formulation: Niacin, melatonin, nadidum, pyridoxinum hydrochloricum, zincum sulphuricum, hypothalamus, lithium carbonicum, magnesia carbonica, pineal, pituitary, 8/8/6/6/3/6/8/8/8/6 spray
    • Active moiety of drug: Epinephrine/Silver cation/Ballota nigra subsp. velutina/Pummelo/Sus scrofa cerebral cortex/Lenograstim/Glutathione/Interferon gamma-1b/Potassium cation/Lithium cation/Melatonin/Acetylcysteine/Strychnos nux-vomica seed/Penicillium glabrum/Rhodotorula rubra
    Lithium ( /ˈlɪθiəm/ LITH-ee-əm) (from lithos, Greek for stone) is a soft, silver-white metal with symbol Li and atomic number 3. It belongs to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable. For this reason, it is typically stored in mineral oil. When cut open, lithium exhibits a metallic luster, but contact with moist air corrodes the surface quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black tarnish. Because of its high reactivity, lithium never occurs freely in nature, and instead, only appears in compounds, which are usually ionic. Lithium occurs in a number of pegmatitic minerals, but due to its solubility as an ion is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines and clays. On a commercial scale, lithium is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride. The nuclei of lithium verge on instability, since the two stable lithium isotopes found in nature have among the lowest binding energies per nucleon of all stable nuclides. Because of its relative nuclear instability, lithium is less
    0.00
    0 votes
    243
    Molybdenum

    Molybdenum

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Chelidonium majus, spongia tosta, lac defloratum, fucus vesiculosus, hepar, pituitary, thyroidinum, iodium, 3/12/30/12/12/12/8/12/12/8/3/100/100 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Ammonium molybdate 46 injectable solution
    • Active moiety of drug: Ammonium heptamolybdate
    Molybdenum ( /ˌmɒlɪbˈdiːnəm/ MOL-ib-DEE-nəm or /məˈlɪbdɨnəm/ mə-LIB-di-nəm), is a Group 6 chemical element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42. The name is from Neo-Latin Molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek Μόλυβδος molybdos, meaning lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores. Molybdenum minerals have been known into prehistory, but the element was "discovered" (in the sense of differentiating it as a new entity from the mineral salts of other metals) in 1778 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. The metal was first isolated in 1781 by Peter Jacob Hjelm. Molybdenum does not occur naturally as a free metal on Earth, but rather in various oxidation states in minerals. The free element, which is a silvery metal with a gray cast, has the sixth-highest melting point of any element. It readily forms hard, stable carbides in alloys, and for this reason most of world production of the element (about 80%) is in making many types of steel alloys, including high strength alloys and superalloys. Most molybdenum compounds have low solubility in water, but the molybdate ion MoO4 is soluble and forms when molybdenum-containing minerals are in contact with oxygen and water. Industrially, molybdenum
    0.00
    0 votes
    244
    Phenobarbital

    Phenobarbital

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Phenobarbital-hyoscyamine sulfate-atropine sulfate-scopolamine hydrobromide 0.0038/0.0206/3.24/0.0012 elixir
    • Active moiety of formulation: Phenobarbital-hyoscyamine sulfate-atropine sulfate-scopolamine hydrobromide 0.0038/0.0206/3.24/0.0012 elixir
    • Active moiety of drug: Phenobarbital
    Phenobarbital (INN) is a barbiturate and the most widely used anticonvulsant worldwide, and the oldest still commonly used. It also has sedative and hypnotic properties, but as with other barbiturates, it has been superseded by the benzodiazepines for these indications. The World Health Organization recommends its use as first-line for partial and generalized tonic–clonic seizures (those formerly known as grand mal) in developing countries. It is a core medicine in the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system. In more affluent countries, it is no longer recommended as a first- or second-line choice anticonvulsant for most seizure types, though it is still commonly used to treat neonatal seizures. Phenobarbital (and phenobarbital sodium) is manufactured and supplied in various forms: in tablets of 15, 30, 60 and 100 mg (though not all are available in all countries: for example, in Australia only the 30-mg tablets are available); in an oral elixir (commonly 3 mg/ml in strength); and in a form for injection (as phenobarbital sodium - usually 200 mg/ml). The injectable form is used principally to control status
    0.00
    0 votes
    245
    Pork tapeworm

    Pork tapeworm

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Artemisia vulgaris, cina, filix mas, spigelia anthelmia, teucrium marum, calcarea carbonica, graphites, 3/3/200/3/12/12/12/12/12/3/200/12/3 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Artemisia vulgaris, cina, filix mas, spigelia anthelmia, teucrium marum, calcarea carbonica, graphites, 3/3/200/3/12/12/12/12/12/3/200/12/3 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Artemisia vulgaris root/Dryopteris filix-mas root/Teucrium marum/Oyster shell calcium carbonate, crude/Graphite/Mercuric cation/Schoenocaulon officinale seed/Silicon/Tanacetum vulgare top/Ascaris lumbricoides/Spigelia anthelmia/Artemisia cina flower/Taeni
    Taenia solium, also called the pork tapeworm, is a cyclophyllid cestode in the family Taeniidae. It infects pigs and humans in Asia, Africa, South America, parts of Southern Europe and pockets of North America. In the larval stage, it causes cysticercosis, which is a major cause of seizures in humans. Like all cyclophyllid cestodes, T. solium has four suckers on its scolex ("head"). T. solium also has two rows of hooks. T. solium is commonly known as tape worm and are triploblastic aceolomates. T. solium is normally 2 m to 3 m in length, but can become very large, over 50 m long in some situations. T. solium has a very similar life cycle to Taenia saginata. Cysticerci have three morphologically distinct types. The common one is the ordinary "cellulose" cysticercus which has a fluid filled bladder that is 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm in length and an invaginated scolex. The intermediate form has a scolex while the "racemose" has no evident scolex but are believed to be larger and much more dangerous. They are 20 cm in length and have 60 ml of fluid and 13% of patients might have all three types in the brain. Humans are usually infected through eating infected pork, fostering adult tapeworms in
    0.00
    0 votes
    246
    Proteus vulgaris

    Proteus vulgaris

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Chondrodendron tomentosum root, clerodendranthus spicatus leaf, equisetum hyemale, escherichia coli, hieracium pilosella flowering top, methylene blue, nitric acid, ononis campestris, plantago major, pork kidney, potassium nitrate, proteus vulgaris, quinh
    • Active moiety of formulation: Chondrodendron tomentosum root, clerodendranthus spicatus leaf, equisetum hyemale, escherichia coli, hieracium pilosella flowering top, methylene blue, nitric acid, ononis campestris, plantago major, pork kidney, potassium nitrate, proteus vulgaris, quinh
    • Active moiety of drug: Escherichia coli/Proteus vulgaris/Streptococcus pyogenes homeopathic preparation
    Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped, Gram negative bacterium that inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. It can be found in soil, water and fecal matter. It is grouped with the enterobacteriaceae and is an opportunistic pathogen of humans. It is known to cause urinary tract infections and wound infections. The term Proteus signifies changeability of form, as personified in the Homeric poems in Proteus, "the old man of the sea," who tends the sealflocks of Poseidon and has the gift of endless transformation. The first use of the term “Proteus” in bacteriological nomenclature was made by Hauser (1885) who described under this term three types of organisms which he isolated from putrefied meat. One of the three species Hauser identified was Proteus vulgaris so this organism has a long history in Microbiology. Over the past two decades the genus Proteus, and in particular P. vulgaris, has undergone a number of major taxonomic revisions. In 1982, P. vulgaris was separated into three biogroups on the basis of indole production. Biogroup one was indole negative and represented a new species: P. penneri; while biogroup two and three remained together as P. vulgaris. According
    0.00
    0 votes
    247
    Sodium thiosulfate

    Sodium thiosulfate

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate 30/250 kit
    Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3), also spelled sodium thiosulphate, is a colorless crystalline compound that is more familiar as the pentahydrate, Na2S2O3·5H2O, an efflorescent, monoclinic crystalline substance also called sodium hyposulfite or “hypo.” The thiosulfate anion is tetrahedral in shape and is notionally derived by replacing one of the oxygen atoms by a sulfur atom in a sulfate anion. The S-S distance indicates a single bond, implying that the sulfur bears significant negative charge and the S-O interactions have more double bond character. The first protonation of thiosulfate occurs at sulfur. On an industrial scale, sodium thiosulfate is produced chiefly from liquid waste products of sodium sulfide or sulfur dye manufacture. In the laboratory, this salt can be prepared by heating an aqueous solution of sodium sulfite with sulfur. Thiosulfate anion characteristically reacts with dilute acids to produce sulfur, sulfur dioxide and water: This reaction is known as a "clock reaction", because when the sulfur reaches a certain concentration the solution turns from colourless to a pale yellow. This reaction has been employed to generate colloidal sulfur. When the protonation is
    0.00
    0 votes
    248
    Streptococcus pyogenes

    Streptococcus pyogenes

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Streptococcus pyogenes 5 liquid
    • Active moiety of formulation: Streptococcus pyogenes 5 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Streptococcus pyogenes homeopathic preparation
    Streptococcus pyogenes is a spherical, Gram-positive bacterium that is the cause of group A streptococcal infections. S. pyogenes displays streptococcal group A antigen on its cell wall. S. pyogenes typically produces large zones of beta-hemolysis (the complete disruption of erythrocytes and the release of hemoglobin) when cultured on blood agar plates, and are therefore also called Group A (beta-hemolytic) Streptococcus (abbreviated GABHS). Streptococci are catalase-negative. In ideal conditions, S. pyogenes has an incubation period of approximately 1–3 days. It is an infrequent, but usually pathogenic, part of the skin flora. It is estimated that there are more than 700 million infections world wide each year and over 650,000 cases of severe, invasive infections that have a mortality rate of 25%. Early recognition and treatment are critical; diagnostic failure can result in sepsis and death. In 1928, Rebecca Lancefield published a method for serotyping S. pyogenes based on its M protein, a virulence factor displayed on its surface. Later in 1946, Lancefield described the serologic classification of S. pyogenes isolates based on their surface T antigen. Four of the 20 T antigens
    0.00
    0 votes
    249
    Terbinafine

    Terbinafine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Terbinafine 10 gel
    • Active moiety of formulation: Terbinafine hydrochloride 0.01 liquid
    • Active moiety of drug: Terbinafine
    Terbinafine hydrochloride is a synthetic allylamine antifungal from Novartis. It is highly lipophilic in nature and tends to accumulate in skin, nails, fatty tissues, bacterias of the duodenum and viral infections of the stomach. It is sold by the name Lamisil in Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Egypt, Czech, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan (لیمسل), Peru, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States and Venezuela, also sold under the name Corbinal and Terbisil in Turkey and under the name "undofen cream" in Poland. As a generic it is sold under the name Zabel in Australia. It is also available as a generic medication in the United States, United Kingdom, Belgium, Switzerland and Brazil. In India, Terbinafine hydrochloride is available in topical form under the brand name Sebifin (Ranbaxy Labs), Zimig (GSK Pharma) and mycoCeaze (Progreś Laboratories). MycoVa, developed by Apricus Biosciences, is a topical nail solution of terbinafine and DDAIP which has completed three Phase III studies for the treatment of onychomycosis. Terbinafine
    0.00
    0 votes
    250
    Tyrosine

    Tyrosine

    • Active ingredient of formulation: Valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, threonine, tryptophan, arginine, alanine, proline, glycine, serine and tyrosine 8.2/6/5/5/4.9/4.5/4.2/3.8/1.6/6.3/5.6/3.5/3/3/0.4 injection
    • Active moiety of formulation: Valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, threonine, tryptophan, arginine, alanine, proline, glycine, serine and tyrosine 8.2/6/5/5/4.9/4.5/4.2/3.8/1.6/6.3/5.6/3.5/3/3/0.4 injection
    • Active moiety of drug: Bupropion/Tyrosine
    Tyrosine (abbreviated as Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, is one of the 22 amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins. Its codons are UAC and UAU. It is a non-essential amino acid with a polar side group. The word "tyrosine" is from the Greek tyri, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese. It is called tyrosyl when referred to as a functional group or side chain. Aside from being a proteinogenic amino acid, tyrosine has a special role by virtue of the phenol functionality. It occurs in proteins that are part of signal transduction processes. It functions as a receiver of phosphate groups that are transferred by way of protein kinases (so-called receptor tyrosine kinases). Phosphorylation of the hydroxyl group changes the activity of the target protein. A tyrosine residue also plays an important role in photosynthesis. In chloroplasts (photosystem II), it acts as an electron donor in the reduction of oxidized chlorophyll. In this process, it undergoes deprotonation of its phenolic OH-group. This radical is subsequently reduced in the photosystem II by the four core manganese clusters.
    0.00
    0 votes
    Get your friends to vote! Spread this URL or share:

    Discuss Best Drug ingredient of All Time

    Top List Voters