The physical form in which a drug is made available for therapeutic use. For example tablet, injection, capsule, and so on.
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Formulations available in this form:Sodium monofluorophosphate 8.4 dentifrice gel
A combination of a dentifrice (formulation intended to clean and/or polish the teeth, and which may contain certain additional agents), and a gel. It is used with a toothbrush for the purpose of cleaning and polishing the teeth.
Formulations available in this form:Benzalkonium chloride 0.001 douche
A douche /ˈduːʃ/ is a device used to introduce a stream of water into the body for medical or hygienic reasons, or the stream of water itself.
Douche usually refers to vaginal irrigation, the rinsing of the vagina, but it can also refer to the rinsing of any body cavity. A douche bag is a piece of equipment for douching—a bag for holding the fluid used in douching. To avoid transferring intestinal bacteria into the vagina, the same bag must not be used for an enema and a vaginal douche.
The word douche came to English via French – where today it means shower (from Italian: doccia "conduit pipe" and docciare "pour by drops"). It is thus a notorious false friend encountered by non-native speakers of English.
Vaginal douches may consist of water, water mixed with vinegar, or even antiseptic chemicals. Douching has been touted as having a number of supposed but unproven benefits. In addition to promising to clean the vagina of unwanted odors, it can also be used by women who wish to avoid smearing a sexual partner's penis with menstrual blood while having intercourse during menstruation. In the past, douching was also used after intercourse as a method of birth control, though it is
Formulations available in this form:Divalproex sodium 125 coated pellets in capsule
A solid dosage form in which the drug is enclosed within either a hard or soft soluble container or "shell" made from a suitable form of gelatin; the drug itself is in the form of granules to which varying amounts of coating have been applied.
Formulations available in this form:Zinc acetate anhydrous and zinc gluconate 2/1 multilayer tablet
A solid dosage form containing medicinal substances that have been compressed to form a multiple-layered tablet or a tablet-within-a-tablet, the inner tablet being the core and the outer portion being the shell.
Formulations available in this form:Ruta graveolens 6e-05 salve
A salve is a medical ointment used to soothe the head or other body surface. A popular eye medicine known as "Phrygian powder" was one of Laodicea's sources of wealth. The medical school at Laodicea was famous for the preparation and use of this eye salve.
Like aloe vera, a drawing salve is a salve used to help treat various minor skin problems such as sebaceous cysts, boils, ingrown toenails and splinters. It is sometimes known as Black Ointment, or Ichthyol Salve. The main ingredients are often ichthammol, phenyl alcohol, or arnica montana, and several familiar herbs such as echinacea or calendula.
A greasy salve was rubbed into the wool of sheep in the autumn in the days before dipping, as a precautionary measure - as referenced in social literature about ancient farming areas in England.
Formulations available in this form:Pancrelipase 56000/20000/44000 delayed release capsule
A solid dosage form in which the drug is enclosed within either a hard or soft soluble container made from a suitable form of gelatin, and which releases a drug (or drugs) at a time other than promptly after administration. Enteric-coated articles are delayed release dosage forms.
Formulations available in this form:Budesonide and formoterol fumarate dihydrate 160/4.5 aerosol
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets in a gas. Examples are clouds, and air pollution such as smog and smoke. In general conversation, aerosol usually refers to an aerosol spray can or the output of such a can. Aerosols have many technological applications including aerosol sprays; dispersal of pesticides; medical treatment of respiratory illnesses and in combustion technology. Aerosol science covers a wide range of topics, such as generation and removal of aerosols, technological application and their impacts on the environment and people.
An aerosol is defined as a suspension of solid or liquid particles in a gas. This includes both the particles and the suspending gas, which is usually air. The name aerosol is thought to have been first used by F.G. Donnan during World War I to describe clouds of microscopic particles in air. This term was an analogy to a liquid colloid suspension called a hydrosol. A primary aerosol has particles that are introduced directly into the gas and secondary aerosols are formed when gas-to-particle conversion occurs.
There are several measures of aerosol concentration. The most important in the area of environmental
Formulations available in this form:Oxygen-nitrogen mixture 800 gas
Gas is one of the three classical states of matter (the others being liquid and solid). Near absolute zero, a substance exists as a solid. As heat is added to this substance it melts into a liquid at its melting point, boils into a gas at its boiling point, and if heated high enough would enter a plasma state in which the electrons are so energized that they leave their parent atoms from within the gas. A pure gas may be made up of individual atoms (e.g. a noble gas or atomic gas like neon), elemental molecules made from one type of atom (e.g. oxygen), or compound molecules made from a variety of atoms (e.g. carbon dioxide). A gas mixture would contain a variety of pure gases much like the air. What distinguishes a gas from liquids and solids is the vast separation of the individual gas particles. This separation usually makes a colorless gas invisible to the human observer. The interaction of gas particles in the presence of electric and gravitational fields are considered negligible as indicated by the constant velocity vectors in the image.
The gaseous state of matter is found between the liquid and plasma states, the latter of which provides the upper temperature boundary for
Formulations available in this form:Camphor and menthol 5/3.4 poultice
A poultice, also called cataplasm, is a soft moist mass, often heated and medicated, that is spread on cloth over the skin to treat an aching, inflamed, or painful part of the body. It can be used on wounds such as cuts. It can also be a porous solid filled with solvent used to remove stains from porous stone such as marble or granite.
The word "poultice" comes from the Latin puls, pultes, meaning "porridge."
A poultice is a common treatment used on horses to relieve inflammation. It is usually used on the lower legs, under a stable bandage, to focus treatment on the easily-injured tendons in the area. Poultices are sometimes applied as a precautionary measure after the horse has worked hard, such as after a cross-country run, to prevent heat and filling. They are also used to treat abscess wounds, where a build-up of pus needs to be drawn out.
Poultices may also be heated and placed on an area where extra circulation is desired.
Stone is a porous material which is susceptible to staining. Granite and marble are frequently used in residential construction of bathrooms and kitchens and are susceptible to a variety of stains.
From a chemical standpoint, a porous stone becomes stained
Formulations available in this form:Cocoa butter, phenylephrine hcl 0.8/0.0296 suppository
A suppository is a drug delivery system that is inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository) or urethra (urethral suppository), where it dissolves or melts.
They are used to deliver both systemically-acting and locally-acting medications.
The alternative term for delivery of medicine via such routes is pharmaceutical pessary.
The general principle is that the suppository is inserted as a solid, and will dissolve or melt inside the body to deliver the medicine pseudo received by the many blood vessels that follow the larger intestine.
Rectal suppositories are commonly used for:
In 1991, Abd-El-Maeboud and his colleagues published a study in The Lancet, based upon their investigation into whether there was some hidden and forgotten knowledge behind the traditional shape of a rectal suppository.
Their research very clearly demonstrated that there was, indeed, a very good reason for the traditional torpedo shape; namely, that the shape had a strong influence on the extent to which the rectal suppository traveled internally — and, thus, upon its increased efficiency.
They (counter-intuitively) found that the ideal mode of insertion was to insert
Formulations available in this form:Clotrimazole 10 troche
A Troche is a small square-shaped pill that is filled with a custom dosage of medicine and comes in many different flavors. It is commonly seen in oral and esophageal pain relievers such as throat lozenge. Its use has also been extended to natural hormone replacement therapy, anesthetics, antibiotics, and a whole cast of other medications.
In the past, it was difficult to get patients to stay on treatment regime because of its bad taste, but that problem has largely been deterred because of all the different flavors such as strawberry, orange, lemon, etc.
Formulations available in this form:Clozapine 12.5 orally disintegrating tablet
An orally disintegrating tablet or orodispersible tablet (ODT) is a drug dosage form available for a limited range of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications. ODTs differ from traditional tablets in that they are designed to be dissolved on the tongue rather than swallowed whole. The ODT serves as an alternative dosage form for patients who experience dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) or for where compliance is a known issue and therefore an easier dosage form to take ensures that medication is taken. Common among all age groups, dysphagia is observed in about 35% of the general population, as well as up to 60% of the elderly institutionalized population and 18-22% of all patients in long-term care facilities During the last decade, ODTs have become available in a variety of therapeutic markets, both OTC and by prescription. An additional reason to use an ODTs is the convenience of a tablet that can be taken without water.
Tablets designed to dissolve on the buccal (cheek) mucous membrane were a precursor to the ODT. This dosage form was intended for drugs that yield low bioavailability through the digestive tract but are inconvenient to administer parenterally,
Formulations available in this form:Epoetin alfa 20000 solution
In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of only one phase. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. The solvent does the dissolving. The solution more or less takes on the characteristics of the solvent including its phase, and the solvent is commonly the major fraction of the mixture. The concentration of a solute in a solution is a measure of how much of that solute is dissolved in the solvent.
Homogeneous means that the components of the mixture form a single phase. The properties of the mixture (such as concentration, temperature, and density) can be uniformly distributed through the volume but only in absence of diffusion phenomena or after their completion. Usually, the substance present in the greatest amount is considered the solvent. Solvents can be gases, liquids, or solids. One or more components present in the solution other than the solvent are called solutes. The solution has the same physical state as the solvent.
If the solvent is a gas, only gases are dissolved under a given set of conditions. An example of a gaseous solution is air (oxygen and other gases dissolved in nitrogen). Since
Formulations available in this form:Beclomethasone dipropionate monohydrate 42 suspension spray
A liquid preparation containing solid particles dispersed in a liquid vehicle and in the form of coarse droplets or as finely divided solids to be applied locally, most usually to the nasal-pharyngeal tract, or topically to the skin.
Formulations available in this form:Dihydrocodeine bitartrate, chlorpheniramine maleate, and phenylephrine hydrochloride 0.6/0.4/1.5 syrup
In cooking, a syrup or sirup (from Arabic: شراب; sharab, beverage, wine, via Latin: sirupus) is a thick, viscous liquid consisting primarily of a solution of sugar in water, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars but showing little tendency to deposit crystals. The viscosity arises from the multiple hydrogen bonds between the dissolved sugar, which has many hydroxyl (OH) groups, and the water. Syrups can be made by dissolving sugar in water or by reducing naturally sweet juices such as cane juice, sorghum juice, or maple sap. Corn syrup is made from corn starch using an enzymatic process that converts it to sugars. Technically and scientifically, the term syrup is also employed to denote viscous, generally residual, liquids, containing substances other than sugars in solution.
The syrup employed as a base for medicinal purposes consists of a concentrated or saturated solution of refined sugar in distilled water. The "simple syrup" of the British Pharmacopoeia is prepared by adding 1 kg of refined sugar to 500 mL of boiling distilled water, heating until it is dissolved and subsequently adding boiling distilled water until the weight of the whole is 1.5 kg. The specific
Formulations available in this form:Menthol 0.04 patch
A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. Often, this promotes healing to an injured area of the body. An advantage of a transdermal drug delivery route over other types of medication delivery such as oral, topical, intravenous, intramuscular, etc. is that the patch provides a controlled release of the medication into the patient, usually through either a porous membrane covering a reservoir of medication or through body heat melting thin layers of medication embedded in the adhesive. The main disadvantage to transdermal delivery systems stems from the fact that the skin is a very effective barrier; as a result, only medications whose molecules are small enough to penetrate the skin can be delivered by this method. A wide variety of pharmaceuticals are now available in transdermal patch form.
The first commercially available prescription patch was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in December 1979. These patches administered scopolamine for motion sickness.
Before these patches go into the market, they have to be carefully studied. One way to study
Formulations available in this form:Doxorubicin hydrochloride 2 injectable liposomal suspension
A liquid parenteral pharmaceutical dosage form structured as a multilamellar composition of concentric phospholipid spheres that encapsulate the drug (drug delivery systems) separated by layers of water. Drug release is facilitated and controlled by in vivo erosion of the liposomes. To further increase the in vivo circulation time, liposomes in some preparations are covalently derivatized with PEG to produce PEGylated or stealth liposomes. Covalent attachment of drugs to the outer surface of liposomes can potentially serve as a delayed-release product.
Formulations available in this form:Pain relieving plaster 3.22/1.39/15.01 plaster
Substance intended for external application made of such materials and of such consistency as to adhere to the skin and attach to a dressing; plasters are intended to afford protection and support and/or to furnish an occlusion and macerating action and to bring medication into close contact with the skin.
Formulations available in this form:Octinoxate, oxybenzone 0.06/0.03 lipstick
Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments, oils, waxes, and emollients that applies color, texture, and protection to the lips. Many varieties of lipstick exist. As with most other types of makeup, lipstick is typically, but not exclusively, worn by women. The use of lipstick dates back to ancient times.
Ancient Mesopotamian women were possibly the first women to invent and wear lipstick. They crushed gemstones and used them to decorate their lips. Women in the ancient Indus Valley Civilization applied lipstick to their lips for face decoration. Ancient Egyptians extracted red dye from fucus-algin, 0.01% iodine, and some bromine mannite, which resulted in serious illness. Cleopatra had her lipstick made from crushed cochineal insects, which gave a deep red pigment, and ants for a base. Lipsticks with shimmering effects were initially made using a pearlescent substance found in fish scales.
During the Islamic Golden Age the notable Arab Andalusian cosmetologist Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) invented solid lipsticks, which were perfumed sticks rolled and pressed in special molds, and he described them in his Al-Tasrif. In Medieval Europe, lipstick was banned by the
Formulations available in this form:Avobenzone, octinoxate 0.027/0.0675 lotion
A lotion is a low- to medium-viscosity, topical preparation intended for application to unbroken skin. By contrast, creams and gels have higher viscosity.
Lotions are applied to external skin with bare hands, a clean cloth, cotton wool or gauze. Many lotions, especially hand lotions and body lotions are formulated not as a medicine delivery system, but simply to smooth, re-hydrate, and soften the skin. These are particularly popular with the aging and aged demographic groups, and in the case of face usage, can also be classified as a cosmetic in many cases, and may contain fragrances.
Most lotions are oil-in-water emulsions using a substance such as cetearyl alcohol to keep the emulsion together, but water-in-oil lotions are also formulated. The key components of a skin care lotion, cream or gel emulsion (that is mixtures of oil and water) are the aqueous and oily phases, an emulgent to prevent separation of these two phases, and, if used, the drug substance or substances. A wide variety of other ingredients such as fragrances, glycerol, petroleum jelly, dyes, preservatives, proteins and stabilizing agents are commonly added to lotions. Lotions can be used for the delivery to the
Formulations available in this form:Eucalyptus globulus, myrrha, olibanum, romarinus officinalis 0.0339/0.0339/0.0339/0.0339 oil
An oil is any neutral chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures, is immiscible with water but soluble in alcohols or ethers. Oils have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are usually flammable and slippery (nonpolar). Oils may be animal, vegetable, or petrochemical in origin, volatile or non-volatile.
First attested in English 1176, the word oil comes from Old French "oile", from Latin "oleum", which in turn comes from the Greek "ἔλαιον" (elaion), "olive oil, oil" and that from "ἐλαία" (elaia), "olive tree". The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek e-ra-wo, written in Linear B syllabic script.
Organic oils are produced in remarkable diversity by plants, animals, and other organisms through natural metabolic processes. Lipid is the scientific term for the fatty acids, steroids and similar chemicals often found in the oils produced by living things, while oil refers to an overall mixture of chemicals. Organic oils may also contain chemicals other than lipids, including proteins, waxes and alkaloids.
Lipids can be classified by the way that they are made by an organism, their chemical structure and their limited solubility in water
In chemistry, soap is a salt of a fatty acid. Soaps are mainly used as surfactants for washing, bathing, and cleaning, but they are also used in textile spinning and are important components of lubricants. Soaps for cleansing are obtained by treating vegetable or animal oils and fats with a strongly alkaline solution. Fats and oils are composed of triglycerides; three molecules of fatty acids are attached to a single molecule of glycerol. The alkaline solution, often called lye, brings about a chemical reaction known as saponification. In saponification, the fats are first hydrolyzed into free fatty acids, which then combine with the alkali to form crude soap. Glycerol (glycerine) is liberated and is either left in or washed out and recovered as a useful byproduct, depending on the process employed.
Soaps are key components of most lubricating greases, which are usually emulsions of calcium soap or lithium soaps and mineral oil. These calcium- and lithium-based greases are widely used. Many other metallic soaps are also useful, including those of aluminium, sodium, and mixtures of them. Such soaps are also used as thickeners to increase the viscosity of oils. In ancient times,
Formulations available in this form:Amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride 5/10 capsule
In the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, encapsulation refers to a range of techniques used to enclose medicines in a relatively stable shell known as a capsule, allowing them to, for example, be taken orally or be used as suppositories. The two main types of capsules are:
Both of these classes of capsules are made from aqueous solutions of gelling agents like:
Other ingredients can be added to the gelling agent solution like plasticizers such as glycerin and/or sorbitol to decrease the capsule's hardness, coloring agents, preservatives, disintegrants, lubricants and surface treatment.
Since their inception, capsules have been viewed by consumers as the most efficient method of taking medication. For this reason, producers of drugs such as OTC analgesics wanting to emphasize the strength of their product developed the "caplet" or "capsule-shaped tablet" in order to tie this positive association to more efficiently-produced tablet pills. After the 1982 Tylenol tampering murders, capsules experienced a minor fall in popularity as tablets were seen as more resistant to tampering.
In 1834, Mothes and Dublanc were granted a patent for a method to produce a single-piece gelatin capsule
Formulations available in this form:Zinc oxide 25 dressing
A dressing is an adjunct used by a person for application to a wound to promote healing and/or prevent further harm. A dressing is designed to be in direct contact with the wound, which makes it different from a bandage, which is primarily used to hold a dressing in place. Some organisations classify them as the same thing (for example, the British Pharmacopoeia) and the terms are used interchangeably by some people. Dressings are frequently used in first aid and nursing.
A dressing can have a number of purposes, depending on the type, severity and position of the wound, although all purposes are focused towards promoting recovery and preventing further harm from the wound. Key purposes of a dressing are:
Historically, a dressing was usually a piece of material, sometimes cloth, but the use of cobwebs, dung, leaves and honey have also been described. However, modern dressings include gauze (which may be impregnated with an agent designed to help sterility or to speed healing), films, gels, foams, hydrocolloids, alginates, hydrogels and polysaccharide pastes, granules and beads. Many gauze dressings have a layer of nonstick film over the absorbent gauze to prevent the wound from
Formulations available in this form:Rhus toxicodendron, 12 extended release coated pellets
A solid dosage form in which the drug itself is in the form of granules to which varying amounts of coating have been applied, and which releases a drug (or drugs) in such a manner to allow a reduction in dosing frequency as compared to that drug (or drugs) presented as a conventional dosage form
Formulations available in this form:Desoximetasone 0.5 ointment
An ointment is a viscous semisolid preparation used topically on a variety of body surfaces. These include the skin and the mucous membranes of the eye (an eye ointment), vagina, anus, and nose. An ointment may or may not be medicated.
The vehicle of an ointment is known as ointment base. The choice of a base depends upon the clinical indication for the ointment, and the different types of ointment bases are:
The medicaments are dispersed in the base and later they get divided after the drug penetration into the living cells of skin.
Ointments are homogeneous, semi-solid preparations intended for external application to the skin or mucous membranes. They are used as emollients or for the application of active ingredients to the skin for protective, therapeutic, or prophylactic purposes and where a degree of occlusion is desired.
Ointments are formulated using hydrophobic, hydrophilic, or water-emulsifying bases to provide preparations that are immiscible, miscible, or emulsifiable with skin secretions. They can also be derived from hydrocarbon (fatty), absorption, water-removable, or water-soluble bases.
Properties which affect choice of an ointment base are:
Trituration: In this
Formulations available in this form:Chlorpheniramine maleate and codeine phosphate 0.266/1 suspension
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture containing solid particles that are sufficiently larger for sedimentation. Usually they must be larger than 1 micrometer. The internal phase (solid) is dispersed throughout the external phase (fluid) through mechanical agitation, with the use of certain excipients or suspending agents. Unlike colloids, suspensions will eventually settle. An example of a suspension would be sand in water. The suspended particles are visible under a microscope and will settle over time if left undisturbed. This distinguishes a suspension from a colloid, in which the suspended particles are smaller and do not settle. Colloids and suspensions are different from solutions, in which the dissolved substance (solute) does not exist as a solid, and solvent and solute are homogeneously mixed.
A suspension of liquid droplets or fine solid particles in a gas is called an aerosol or particulate. In the atmosphere these consist of fine dust and soot particles, sea salt, biogenic and volcanogenic sulfates, nitrates, and cloud droplets.
Suspensions are classified on the basis of the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium, where the former is essentially
Formulations available in this form:Telmisartan 20 tablet
A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form. It comprises a mixture of active substances and excipients, usually in powder form, pressed or compacted from a powder into a solid dose. The excipients can include diluents, binders or granulating agents, glidants (flow aids) and lubricants to ensure efficient tabletting; disintegrants to promote tablet break-up in the digestive tract; sweeteners or flavours to enhance taste; and pigments to make the tablets visually attractive. A polymer coating is often applied to make the tablet smoother and easier to swallow, to control the release rate of the active ingredient, to make it more resistant to the environment (extending its shelf life), or to enhance the tablet's appearance.
The compressed tablet is the most popular dosage form in use today. About two-thirds of all prescriptions are dispensed as solid dosage forms, and half of these are compressed tablets. A tablet can be formulated to deliver an accurate dosage to a specific site; it is usually taken orally, but can be administered sublingually, buccally, rectally or intravaginally. The tablet is just one of the many forms that an oral drug can take such as syrups, elixirs, suspensions,
Formulations available in this form:Hydroquinone 0.02 emulsion
A dosage form consisting of a two-phase system comprised of at least two immiscible liquids (1), one of which is dispersed as droplets (internal or dispersed phase) within the other liquid (external or continuous phase), generally stabilized with one or more emulsifying agents. Note 1: A liquid is pourable; it flows and conforms to its container at room temperature. It displays Newtonian or pseudoplastic flow behavior. Note 2: Emulsion is used as a dosage form term unless a more specific term is applicable, e.g. cream, lotion, ointment.
Formulations available in this form:Nitroglycerin 400 spray aerosol
An aerosol product which utilizes a compressed gas as the propellant to provide the force necessary to expel the product as a wet spray; it is applicable to solutions of medicinal agents in aqueous solvents.
Formulations available in this form:Hydroxyproline 0.005 cream
A cream is a topical preparation usually for application to the skin. Creams for application to mucus membranes such as those of the rectum or vagina are also used. Creams may be considered pharmaceutical products as even cosmetic creams are based on techniques developed by pharmacy and unmedicated creams are highly used in a variety of skin conditions (dermatoses). The use of the Finger tip unit concept may be helpful in guiding how much topical cream is required to cover different areas.
Creams are semi-solid emulsions, that is mixtures of oil and water. They are divided into two types: oil-in-water (O/W) creams which are composed of small droplets of oil dispersed in a continuous phase, and water-in-oil (W/O) creams which are composed of small droplets of water dispersed in a continuous oily phase. Oil-in-water creams are more comfortable and cosmetically acceptable as they are less greasy and more easily washed off using water. Water-in-oil creams are more difficult to handle but many drugs which are incorporated into creams are hydrophobic and will be released more readily from a water-in-oil cream than an oil-in-water cream. Water-in-oil creams are also more moisturising as
Formulations available in this form:Triptorelin pamoate 11.25 lyophilized powder for injectable suspension
A sterile freeze dried preparation intended for reconstitution for parenteral use which has been formulated in a manner that would allow liposomes (a lipid bilayer vesicle usually composed of phospholipids which is used to encapsulate an active drug substance, either within a lipid bilayer or in an aqueous space) to be formed upon reconstitution.
Formulations available in this form:Fentanyl hydrochloride 10.8 electronically controlled extended release patch
A drug delivery system in the form of a patch which is controlled by an electric current that releases the drug in such a manner that a reduction in dosing frequency compared to that drug presented as a conventional dosage form (e.g., a solution or a prompt drug-releasing, conventional solid dosage form).
Formulations available in this form:Etonogestrel and ethinyl estradiol 11.7/2.7 extended release insert
A specially formulated and shaped non-encapsulated solid preparation intended to be placed into a non-rectal orifice of the body, where the medication is released, generally for localized effects; the extended release preparation is designed to allow for a reduction in dosing frequency.
Formulations available in this form:Helianthemum nummularium flower, clematis vitalba flower, impatiens glandulifera flower, prunus cerasifera flower, and ornithogalum umbellatum 5/5/5/5/5 tincture
A tincture is typically an alcoholic extract of plant or animal material or solution of such or of a low volatility substance (such as iodine and mercurochrome). To qualify as an alcoholic tincture, the extract should have an ethanol percentage of at least 40-60% or 80-120 proof. Sometimes even a 90% or 180 proof tincture is achieved. In herbal medicine, alcoholic tinctures are made with various concentrations of ethanol, 25% being the most common. Other concentrations include 45% and 90%.
Herbal tinctures are not always made using ethanol as the solvent, though this is most commonly the case. Other solvents include vinegar, glycerol, ether and propylene glycol, not all of which can be used for internal consumption. Ethanol has the advantage of being an excellent solvent for both acidic and basic (alkaline) constituents.
Glycerine can also be used, but is generally a poorer solvent. Vinegar, being acidic, is a better solvent for obtaining alkaloids but a poorer solvent for acidic components. For individuals who chose not to imbibe alcohol, non-alcoholic e,g., (glycerite) extracts offer an alternative for preparations meant to be taken internally.
Alcohol cannot be subjected to high
Formulations available in this form:Arnica montana, hamamelis virginiana, rhus toxicodendron, 12/12/12 gel
A gel (from the lat. gelu—freezing, cold, ice or gelatus—frozen, immobile) is a solid, jelly-like material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough. Gels are defined as a substantially dilute cross-linked system, which exhibits no flow when in the steady-state. By weight, gels are mostly liquid, yet they behave like solids due to a three-dimensional cross-linked network within the liquid. It is the crosslinks within the fluid that give a gel its structure (hardness) and contribute to stickiness (tack). In this way gels are a dispersion of molecules of a liquid within a solid in which the solid is the continuous phase and the liquid is the discontinuous phase.
Gels consist of a solid three-dimensional network that spans the volume of a liquid medium and ensnares it through surface tension effects. This internal network structure may result from physical bonds (physical gels) or chemical bonds (chemical gels), as well as crystallites or other junctions that remain intact within the extending fluid. Virtually any fluid can be used as an extender including water (hydrogels), oil, and air (aerogel). Both by weight and volume, gels are mostly fluid in
Formulations available in this form:Menthol 2.5 pastille
Pastilles are a type of candy or medicinal pill made of a thick liquid that has been solidified and is meant to be consumed by light chewing and allowing it to dissolve in the mouth. They are also used to describe certain forms of incense.
A pastille is also known as a "troche", or a medicated lozenge that dissolves like candy.
Pastilles were originally a pill-shaped lump of compressed herbs, which was burnt to release its medicinal properties. References to the burning of medicinal pastilles include the short story "Birthmark" by Nathaniel Hawthorne, the poem "The Laboratory" by Robert Browning, and the novel Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë. They are also mentioned in the novel McTeague by Frank Norris, when the title character's wife burns them to mask an unpleasant odor in the couple's rooms. They were also widely used during the eighteenth century in Western cultures to take herbal curatives and medicines, which eventually were developed into candies.
Pastilles are made by pouring a thick liquid into a powdered, sugared, or waxed mold and then allowing the liquid to set and dry. The substances contained in the dried liquid are slowly released when chewed and allowed to dissolve
Formulations available in this form:Chlorhexidine gluconate 1.2 mouthwash
Mouthwash or mouth rinse is a chemotherapeutic agent used as an effective home care system by the patient to enhance oral hygiene. Some manufacturers of mouthwash claim that antiseptic and anti-plaque mouth rinse kill the bacterial plaque causing cavities, gingivitis, and bad breath. Anti-cavity mouth rinse uses fluoride to protect against tooth decay. It is, however, generally agreed that the use of mouthwash does not eliminate the need for both brushing and flossing. As per the American Dental Association, regular brushing and proper flossing are enough in most cases although the ADA has placed its Seal of Approval on many mouthwashes containing alcohol (in addition to regular dental check-ups).
The first known references to mouth rinsing is in Ayurveda and Chinese medicine, about 2700 BC, for treatment of gingivitis. Later, in the Greek and Roman periods, mouth rinsing following mechanical cleansing became common among the upper classes, and Hippocrates recommended a mixture of salt, alum, and vinegar. The Jewish Talmud, dating back about 1800 years, suggests a cure for gum ailments containing "dough water" and olive oil.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek, the famous 17th century
Formulations available in this form:Ranitidine hydrochloride 25 effervescent tablet
A solid dosage form containing mixtures of acids (e.g., citric acid, tartaric acid) and sodium bicarbonate, which release carbon dioxide when dissolved in water; it is intended to be dissolved or dispersed in water before administration.
Formulations available in this form:Allergenic extracts alum precipitated 10000 injectable suspension
A liquid preparation, suitable for injection, which consists of solid particles dispersed throughout a liquid phase in which the particles are not soluble. It can also consist of an oil phase dispersed throughout an aqueous phase, or vice-versa.
Formulations available in this form:Isotretinoin 40 liquid filled capsule
A solid dosage form in which the drug is enclosed within a soluble, gelatin shell which is plasticized by the addition of a polyol, such as sorbitol or glycerin, and is therefore of a somewhat thicker consistency than that of a hard shell capsule; typically, the active ingredients are dissolved or suspended in a liquid vehicle.
Formulations available in this form:Sodium bicarbonate, tartaric acid 0.3/0.27 effervescent granule
A small particle or grain containing a medicinal agent in a dry mixture usually composed of sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, and tartaric acid which, when in contact with water, has the capability to release gas, resulting in effervescence.
Formulations available in this form:Copper 313.4 intrauterine device
The modern intrauterine device (IUD) is a form of birth control in which a small 'T'-shaped device, containing either copper or progesterone, is inserted into the uterus. IUDs are a form of long-acting reversible contraception, which is the most effective type of reversible birth control. As of 2002, IUDs were the most widely used form of reversible contraception, with nearly 160 million users worldwide.
The types of intrauterine devices available and the names they go by differ by location.
In the United States, there are two types available:
In the United Kingdom, there are over 10 different types of copper IUDs available. In the UK, the term IUD refers only to these copper devices. Hormonal intrauterine contraception is considered to be a different type of birth control and is labeled with the term intrauterine system (IUS).
However, the WHO/ATC labels both copper and hormonal devices as IUDs.
Copper IUDs primarily work by disrupting sperm mobility and damaging sperm so that they are prevented from joining with an egg. Copper acts as a natural spermicide within the uterus, increasing levels of copper ions, prostaglandins, and white blood cells within the uterine and tubal
Formulations available in this form:Estradiol 0.05 extended release patch
A drug delivery system in the form of a patch that releases the drug in such a manner that a reduction in dosing frequency compared to that drug presented as a conventional dosage form (e.g., a solution or a prompt drug-releasing, conventional solid dosage form).
Formulations available in this form:Aconitum napellus root, calcium phosphate, chamomile, artemisia cina flower, lycopodium clavatum spore, sodium chloride, pulsatilla vulgaris, and sulfur 6/12/6/6/6/6/6/6 soluable tablet
A solid dosage form that contains medicinal substances with or without suitable diluents and possesses the ability to dissolve in fluids.
Formulations available in this form:Methyl salicylate and menthol 260.4/148.8 liniment
Liniment (or embrocation), from the Latin linere, to anoint, is a medicated topical preparation for application to the skin. Preparations of this type are also called balm. Liniments are of a similar viscosity to lotions (being significantly less viscous than an ointment or cream) but unlike a lotion a liniment is applied with friction; that is, a liniment is always rubbed in.
Liniments are typically sold to relieve pain and stiffness, such as from sore muscles or from arthritis. These liniments typically are formulated from alcohol, acetone, or similar quickly evaporating solvents and contain counterirritant aromatic chemical compounds such as methyl salicilate, benzoin resin, or capsaicin. Opodeldoc is a sort of liniment invented by the physician Paracelsus.
Liniments are a common substance used by trainers and owners of horses. They may be applied diluted or full-strength, usually added into a bucket of water when sponged on the body. Liniments are especially useful in hot weather to help a hot horse cool down: the alcohols help the product to quickly evaporate, and the oils they contain cause the capillaries in the skin to dilate, also increasing the cooling process.
Formulations available in this form:Nicotine 2 chewing gum
Chewing gum is a type of gum made of chicle, a natural latex product, or synthetic rubber known as polyisobutylene.
Chewing gum in various forms has existed since at least 5,000 years ago during the Neolithic period. 5,000-year-old chewing gum with tooth imprints, made of birch bark tar, has been found in Kierikki, Yli-Ii, Finland. The bark tar of which the gums were made is believed to have antiseptic properties and other medicinal advantages. The ancient Aztecs used chicle as a base for making a gum-like substance. Women in particular used this gum as a mouth freshener.
Forms of chewing gums were also used in Ancient Greece. The Greeks chewed mastic gum, made from the resin of the mastic tree. Many other cultures have chewed gum-like substances made from plants, grasses, and resins. The American Indians chewed resin made from the sap of spruce trees. The New England settlers picked up this practice, and in 1848, John B. Curtis developed and sold the first commercial chewing gum called The State of Maine Pure Spruce Gum. Around 1850 a gum made from paraffin wax was developed and soon exceeded the spruce gum in popularity. William Semple filed an early patent on chewing gum, patent
Formulations available in this form:Povidone-iodine perineal wash 0.0001 liquid
Liquid is the classical state of matter with a definite volume but no fixed shape. A liquid is made up of tiny vibrating particles of matter, such as atoms and molecules, held together by forces called chemical bonds. Water is, by far, the most common liquid on Earth. Liquid is one of the three classical states of matter (the others being gas and solid). Like a gas, a liquid is able to flow and take the shape of a container. Some liquids resist compression, while others can be compressed. Unlike a gas, a liquid does not disperse to fill every space of a container, and maintains a fairly constant density. A distinctive property of the liquid state is surface tension, leading to wetting phenomena.
The density of a liquid is usually close to that of a solid, and much higher than in a gas. Therefore, liquid and solid are both termed condensed matter. On the other hand, as liquids and gases share the ability to flow, they are both called fluids.
Liquid is one of the three primary states of matter, with the others being solid and gas. A liquid is a fluid. Unlike a solid, the molecules in a liquid have a much greater freedom to move. The forces that bind the molecules together in a solid
Formulations available in this form:Ketoconazole 20 shampoo
Shampoo (English pronunciation: /ʃæmˈpuː/) is a hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. The goal is to remove the unwanted build-up without stripping out so much sebum as to make hair unmanageable.
Even though most modern shampoos include a conditioning component, shampooing is frequently followed by the use of conditioners which ease combing and styling.
The word shampoo in English is derived from Hindustani chāmpo (चाँपो [tʃãːpoː]), and dates to 1762. The shampoo itself originated in the eastern regions of the Mughal Empire particularly in the Nawab of Bengal where it was introduced as a head massage, usually consisting of alkali, natural oils and fragrances. Shampoo was first introduced in Britain by a Bihari Muslim entrepreneur named Sake Dean Mahomed, he first familiarized the shampoo in Basil Cochrane's vapour baths while working there in the early 19th century. Later, Sake Dean Mahomed together with his Irish wife, opened "Mahomed's Steam and Vapour Sea Water Medicated Baths" in Brighton, England. His baths were like Turkish baths where clients
Formulations available in this form:Chloroxylenol 0.033 sponge
A sponge is a tool, implement, utensil or cleaning aid consisting of porous material. Sponges are used for cleaning impervious surfaces. They are especially good absorbers of water and water-based solutions.
Sponges are commonly made from cellulose wood fibres, or foamed plastic polymers. Some natural sponges are still sold for the same purpose, although most natural sponges are now used either as body/facial sponges (bath sponges) or as decorating tools used for sponge painting.
There are three other categories of available synthetic sponges: low-density polyether (known as the rainbow packs of non-absorbent sponges), PVA (very dense, highly absorbent material with no visible pores) and polyester.
Polyester sponges are also sub-divided into a variety of types, some being reticulated (artificially broken-in) for ease of use. Other types are double-blown polyester, meaning that they have a high water retention ability, approaching or equalling PVA, but with visible pores and more flexibility of applications.
Cellulose sponges (because they are primarily made of wood) can serve as a medium for the growth of harmful bacteria or fungi, especially when the sponge is allowed to remain