A drug administration route is the path by which a drug is brought into contact with the body. For example, it may be taken orally, applied via a transdermal patch, or delivered with an injection.
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Drug formulations:Lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine bitartrate 100/1.91 patch
Ion transfer of topical solution into the epidermis and mucous membranes of body by continuous direct current. Can be used for local and systemic drug delivery. Concept does not refer to ion exchange, air ionization, and phonophoresis.
Endotracheal drug administration involves the introduction of the agent directly through the endotracheal tube in an intubated patient. Generally this route is considered as a last resort for drug administration, and provides a fast, effective means of drug delivery in a patient who requires immediate medication. Plasma levels obtained via endotracheal administration are considerably less than those obtained with an equal dosage administered intravenously or intraosseously. Endotracheal administration must be followed by hyper-insufflation of the lungs to promote optimal drug absorption.
Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as an ocular route to administer. Depending on the condition being treated, they may contain steroids, antihistamines, sympathomimetics, beta receptor blockers, parasympathomimetics, parasympatholytics, prostaglandins, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or topical anesthetics. Eye drops sometimes do not have medications in them and are only lubricating and tear-replacing solutions.
Eye drops have less of a risk of side effects than do oral medicines, and such risk can be minimized by occluding the lacrimal punctum, (i.e. pressing on the inner corner of the eye) for a short while after instilling drops.
Most pharmacists recommend disposal of most types of eyedrops after 28 days as they are only stable in solution for 28 days.
Different pharmacological classes of eye drops can be recognized by patients by their different colored tops. For instance the tops to dilating drops are a different color than anti-allergy drops.
Eye drops sometimes do not have medications in them and are only lubricating and tear-replacing solutions.
Syringe designed saline drops (e.g. Wallace Cameron Ultra Saline Minipod) are distributed in modern
Insufflation (Latin insufflatio "blowing on" or "into") is the practice of inhaling a substance. Insufflation has medical use as a route of administration for many respiratory drugs used to treat conditions in the lungs (e.g., asthma or emphysema) and paranasal sinus (e.g., allergy).
The technique is common for many recreational drugs and is also used for some entheogens. Nasal insufflation (snorting) is commonly used for many psychoactive drugs because it causes a much faster onset than orally and bioavailability is usually, but not always, higher than orally. This bioavailability occurs due to the quick absorption of molecules into the bloodstream through the soft tissue in the mucous membrane of the sinus cavity. Some drugs have a higher rate of absorption, and are thus more effective in smaller doses, through this route. Prodrugs, drugs that are metabolized or activated by the liver (such as codeine), should not be insufflated, because they need to be metabolized by the liver to break down into the compounds that are active (drugs absorbed through the GI tract pass through the liver before entering the systemic circulation, where drugs which are insufflated are absorbed
An injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is an infusion method of putting fluid into the body, usually with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body. An injection follows a parenteral route of administration; that is, administered other than through the digestive tract.
There are several methods of injection or infusion, including intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous, intraosseous, and intraperitoneal. Long-acting forms of subcutaneous/intramuscular injections are available for various drugs, and are called depot injections.
Injections are among the most common health care procedures, with least 16 billion administered in developing and transitional countries each year. 95% of injections are administered in curative care, 3% for immunization and the rest for other purposes, such as blood transfusions.
In an intramuscular injection, the medication is delivered directly into a muscle. Many vaccines are administered intramuscularly, as well as codeine, metoclopramide, and many other medications. Many drugs injected intramuscularly are
A suppository is a drug delivery system that is inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository) or urethra (urethral suppository), where it dissolves or melts.
They are used to deliver both systemically-acting and locally-acting medications.
The alternative term for delivery of medicine via such routes is pharmaceutical pessary.
The general principle is that the suppository is inserted as a solid, and will dissolve or melt inside the body to deliver the medicine pseudo received by the many blood vessels that follow the larger intestine.
Rectal suppositories are commonly used for:
In 1991, Abd-El-Maeboud and his colleagues published a study in The Lancet, based upon their investigation into whether there was some hidden and forgotten knowledge behind the traditional shape of a rectal suppository.
Their research very clearly demonstrated that there was, indeed, a very good reason for the traditional torpedo shape; namely, that the shape had a strong influence on the extent to which the rectal suppository traveled internally — and, thus, upon its increased efficiency.
They (counter-intuitively) found that the ideal mode of insertion was to insert
Drug formulations:Piperacillin sodium 4 lyophilized powder for injectable solution
Intramuscular (or IM) injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. In medicine, it is one of several alternative methods for the administration of medications (see route of administration). It is used for particular forms of medication that are administered in small amounts. Depending on the chemical properties of the drug, the medication may either be absorbed fairly quickly or more gradually. Intramuscular injections are often given in the deltoid muscle of the arm, the vastus lateralis muscle of the leg, and the ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal muscles of the buttocks.
Examples of medications that are sometimes administered intramuscularly are:
In addition, some vaccines are administered intramuscularly:
Platelet-rich plasma injections can be administered intramuscularly.
Certain substances (e.g. Ketamine) are injected intramuscularly for recreational purposes.
Drug formulations:Lidocaine hydrochloride 20 injectable solution
Administration of the drug in the epidural space, usually at the lumbar level of the spine. The drug must initially cross the dura mater before exerting its effect on the nervous system components. The drug is also subject to uptake into the rich epidural plexus of veins. Uptake and distribution after epidural administration resembles that seen after intramuscular injection. The portion of drug that is not taken into the vascular compartment is available to cross the dura. Hydrophilicity is a major component in the pharmacokinetics of drug transfer into the subdural space.
Vaporization of an element or compound is a phase transition from the liquid phase to gas phase. There are two types of vaporization: evaporation and boiling.
Evaporation is a phase transition from the liquid phase to gas phase that occurs at temperatures below the boiling temperature at a given pressure. Evaporation usually occurs on the surface.
Boiling is a phase transition from the liquid phase to gas phase that occurs at or above the boiling temperature. Boiling, as opposed to evaporation, occurs below the surface.
Sublimation is a direct phase transition from the solid phase to the gas phase, skipping the intermediate liquid phase.
The term vaporization has also been used to refer to the physical destruction of an object that is exposed to intense heat. As noted in discussions of the effects of nuclear weapons, this includes the vaporization of human bodies by the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the vaporization of the uninhabited Marshall Island of Elugelab in the 1952 Ivy Mike thermonuclear test.
The best way to describe such a process is that a flux of so many gamma ray, x-ray, ultraviolet and heat photons struck matter in a brief amount of time (photons
Drug formulations:Buprenorphine hydrochloride and naloxone hydrochloride 2/0.5 tablet
Sublingual, literally 'under the tongue', from Latin, refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which drugs diffuse into the blood through tissues under the tongue. Many pharmaceuticals are designed for sublingual administration, including cardiovascular drugs, steroids, barbiturates, enzymes, and increasingly, vitamins and minerals.
When a chemical comes in contact with the mucous membrane beneath the tongue, it diffuses through it. Because the connective tissue beneath the epithelium contains a profusion of capillaries, the substance then diffuses into them and enters the venous circulation. In contrast, substances absorbed in the intestines are subject to "first pass metabolism" in the liver before entering the general circulation.
Sublingual administration has certain advantages over oral administration. Being more direct, it is often faster, and it ensures that the substance will risk degradation only by salivary enzymes before entering the bloodstream, whereas orally administered drugs must survive passage through the hostile environment of the gastrointestinal tract, which risks degrading them, either by stomach acid or bile, or by the many enzymes therein,
Ear drops are a form of medicine used to treat or prevent ear infections, especially infections of the outer ear and ear canal (otitis externa).
Bacterial infections are sometimes treated with antibiotics. Examples are:
' sodiiumbicarbonate ear drops containing [sodiumbicarbonate and glycerin]
Over the counter ear drops are also available, including spirit drops (alcohol solution), which dries out the ear, and drops such as Aqua Ear (used for swimmer's ear) containing a mixture of substances such as alcohol and acetic acid, to dry the ear and make it difficult for microbes to grow.
Administration of a substance by the way of the gastrointestinal tract, usually for systemic action. Drug bioavailability can be affected due to enzymatic degradation by intestinal tissues and microbes, and first-pass hepatic metabolism.
A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. Often, this promotes healing to an injured area of the body. An advantage of a transdermal drug delivery route over other types of medication delivery such as oral, topical, intravenous, intramuscular, etc. is that the patch provides a controlled release of the medication into the patient, usually through either a porous membrane covering a reservoir of medication or through body heat melting thin layers of medication embedded in the adhesive. The main disadvantage to transdermal delivery systems stems from the fact that the skin is a very effective barrier; as a result, only medications whose molecules are small enough to penetrate the skin can be delivered by this method. A wide variety of pharmaceuticals are now available in transdermal patch form.
The first commercially available prescription patch was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in December 1979. These patches administered scopolamine for motion sickness.
Before these patches go into the market, they have to be carefully studied. One way to study
Drug formulations:Diltiazem hydrochloride 5 injectable solution
Intravenous literally means into a vein and is mostly used as a route of administration of medication with the help of an injection directly into the vein: an intravenous injection. Intraarterial is the term for (injection) into an artery.
Drug formulations:Quercus macrocarpa pollen 50 injectable solution
A subcutaneous injection (abbreviated as SC, SQ, sub-cu, sub-Q or subcut with SQ being the preferred abbreviation, since it is the only abbreviation listed under the entry for "subcutaneous" in Dorland's 28th edition) is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis. Subcutaneous injections are highly effective in administering vaccines and medications such as insulin, morphine, diacetylmorphine and goserelin. Subcutaneous, as opposed to intravenous, injection of recreational drugs is referred to as "skin popping."
A person with Type I diabetes mellitus typically injects insulin subcutaneously. Places on the body where people can inject insulin most easily are:
These areas can vary with the size of the person. Changing the injection site keeps lumps or small dents called lipodystrophies from forming in the skin. However, people should try to use the same body area for injections that are given at the same time each day-for example, always using the abdomen for the morning injection or an arm for the evening injection. Using the same body area for these routine injections lessens the
Drug formulations:Budesonide and formoterol fumarate dihydrate 160/4.5 aerosol
Inhalation (also known as inspiration) is the flow of the respiratory current into an organism. In humans it is the movement of air from the external environment, through the airways, and into the alveoli.
Inhalation begins with the contraction of the muscles attached to the rib cage this causes a expansion in the chest cavity. Then takes place the onset of contraction of the diaphragm, which results in expansion of the intrapleural space and an increase in negative pressure according to Boyle's Law. This negative pressure generates airflow because of the pressure difference between the atmosphere and alveolus. Air enters, inflating the lung through either the nose or the mouth into the pharynx (throat) and trachea before entering the alveoli.
Other muscles that can be involved in inhalation include:
Hyperaeration or hyperinflation is where the lung volume is abnormally increased, with increased filling of the alveoli. This results in an increased radiolucency on X-ray, a reduction in lung markings and depression of the diaphragm. It may occur in partial obstruction of a large airway, as in e.g. congenital lobar emphysema, bronchial atresia and mucous plugs in asthma.
It causes one
Drug formulations:Povidone-iodine perineal wash 0.0001 liquid
In medicine, a topical medication is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via a large range of classes including but not limited to creams, foams, gels, lotions and ointments.
Topical medications differ from many other types of drugs because mishandling them can lead to certain complications in a patient or administrator of the drug.
Many topical medications are epicutaneous, meaning that they are applied directly to the skin. Topical medications may also be inhalational, such as asthma medications, or applied to the surface of tissues other than the skin, such as eye drops applied to the conjunctiva, or ear drops placed in the ear, or medications applied to the surface of a tooth. As a route of administration, topical medications are contrasted with enteral (in the digestive tract) and parenteral administration (injected into the circulatory system).
A topical effect, in the pharmacodynamic sense, may refer to a local, rather than systemic, target for a medication. However, many topically administered drugs have systemic effects.
Some hydrophobic chemicals, such as steroid hormones, can be absorbed into the body after being applied to the
Smoking is a practice in which a substance, most commonly tobacco or cannabis, is burned and the smoke is tasted or inhaled. This is primarily practised as a route of administration for recreational drug use, as combustion releases the active substances in drugs such as nicotine and makes them available for absorption through the lungs. It can also be done as a part of rituals, to induce trances and spiritual enlightenment.
The most common method of smoking today is through cigarettes, primarily industrially manufactured but also hand-rolled from loose tobacco and rolling paper. Other smoking implements include pipes, cigars, bidis, hookahs, vaporizers, and bongs. It has been suggested that smoking-related disease kills one half of all long term smokers but these diseases may also be contracted by non-smokers. A 2007 report states that about 4.9 million people worldwide each year die as a result of smoking.
Smoking is one of the most common forms of recreational drug use. Tobacco smoking is today by far the most popular form of smoking and is practiced by over one billion people in the majority of all human societies. Less common drugs for smoking include cannabis and opium. Some