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Best Defunct Organization of All Time

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    1
    United Defense

    United Defense

    United Defense Industries was a United States defense contractor which is now part of Britains BAE Systems Land and Armaments. This company produces combat vehicles, artillery, naval guns, missile launchers and precision munitions. The company started as a division of the agricultural machine business, Food Machinery Corporation (FMC), when they won a US government contract to build LVTs and became a weapon manufacturer during World War II. Bowen McLaughlin York (later the BMY division of Harsco Corporation) also began building tanks around this time and airplanes. Following a massive decline in orders for tracked combat vehicles between 1983 and 1994 FMC and the Harsco Corporation agreed in January 1994 to combine their defense businesses to form United Defense. The new company owned the former FMC California-based Ground Systems Division and Harsco's Pennsylvania-based BMY Combat Systems Division. The new company restructured its operations to concentrate final assembly and testing to Pennsylvania. In September 2000, UDI purchased Bofors Weapon Systems AB of Sweden, subsequently renamed Bofors Defence. UDI was subject to a takeover bid by rival General Dynamics in 1997 but
    7.22
    9 votes
    2
    Westwood Studios

    Westwood Studios

    Westwood Studios was a video game developer, based in Las Vegas, Nevada. It was founded by Brett Sperry and Louis Castle in 1985 as Westwood Associates and was renamed Westwood Studios when it merged with Virgin Interactive in 1992. The company was bought from Virgin Interactive by Electronic Arts (EA) in 1998, and closed by EA in 2003. Westwood is best known for developing real-time strategy, adventure and role-playing genres. It received an entry to the Guinness book of records, for selling more than 10 million copies of Command & Conquer worldwide. Electronic Arts continues to develop games based on Westwood's Command & Conquer series. The last former Westwood employee quit working for Electronic Arts after the release of Command & Conquer: Generals in 2003. The company's first projects consisted of contract work for companies like Epyx and Strategic Simulations, Inc. (SSI), porting 8-bit titles to 16-bit systems like Commodore Amiga and Atari ST. Proceeds from contract work allowed the company to expand into designing its own games in-house. Their first original title was Mars Saga, a game developed for Electronic Arts and released in 1988. They laid the foundations for the
    7.13
    8 votes
    3
    Pay 'n Save

    Pay 'n Save

    Pay 'n Save was a retail company founded by Monte Lafayette Bean in Seattle, Washington; 1940. Over the years, Pay 'n Save was the leading drug store chain in Washington and was the owner several Washington-based retailers including Lamonts and Ernst. A 1984 sale of the company to the Trump Group and a 1986 attempt to transform the retailer into a bargain-basement merchandiser resulted in a loss of nearly $50 million. By 1988, Pay 'n Save was sold to Thrifty Corporation who later sold the stores to PayLess Drug who retired the Pay 'n Save name. As a result, most of the retailer's divisions were spun-off as separate companies or shuttered. As of 2011, Pay 'n Save's membership discount chain, Bi-Mart, is the lone surviving division of the company. At the company's peak, Pay 'n Save was operating 313 stores in ten western states under several different names including Pay 'n Save, Ernst, Bi-Mart, Lamonts, Sportswest, Schuck's Auto Supply, Yard Birds, Von Tobel's, and Price Savers. In 1940, businessman Monte Lafayette Bean arrived in Seattle, Washington from Portland, Oregon to take over Tradewell Stores, Inc., a chain of grocery stores. By 1947, Bean and his son, M. Lamont Bean,
    6.75
    8 votes
    4
    Thames Trains

    Thames Trains

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Merger
    Thames Trains was a train operating company in the United Kingdom owned by Go-Ahead that operated the Thames Trains franchise from October 1996 until March 2004. The Thames Trains franchise was awarded by the Director of Passenger Rail Franchising to Victory Rail Holdings Limited, a company owned by Go-Ahead (65.2%) and some ex British Rail managers (34.8%), for a period of seven years with opearions commencing on 13 October 1996. Go-Ahead bought the remaining shares it didn't own in June 1998. Thames Trains operated the train which was involved in the Ladbroke Grove rail crash in October 1999. Thames Trains ran passenger services from along the Great Western Main Line from London Paddington to Greenford, Windsor & Eton Central, Marlow, Henley, Reading, Bedwyn, Oxford, Bicester Town, Worcester, Hereford and Stratford-upon-Avon. It also ran services from Reading to Basingstoke and Reading to Gatwick Airport. Thames Trains' fleet was maintained at Reading depot. In April 2003 the Strategic Rail Authority invited First and Go-Ahead to bid for a two-year franchise. On 4 November 2003 the Strategic Rail Authority awarded the new franchise to First with the services operated by Thames
    7.43
    7 votes
    5
    Kaiser Broadcasting

    Kaiser Broadcasting

    Kaiser Broadcasting Corp. was the name of an company that owned and operated broadcast television and radio stations in the United States from 1958 to 1977. Kaiser's involvement in television broadcasting began when the Henry J. Kaiser Company Ltd., a multi-industrial conglomerate, signed on KHVH-TV/Honolulu, Hawaii (operating on channel 13 at the time), in 1957. In 1958 Kaiser purchased Honolulu's KULA-TV and merged it with KHVH, resulting in KULA becoming the new KHVH-TV, which is now KITV. Later in the 1960s, Kaiser explored new opportunities to expand its broadcast holdings on the U.S. mainland. Kaiser secured licenses to construct new UHF stations, all of which were in large markets. The first two of these new stations signed-on during 1965: WKBD-TV in Detroit went on the air in January, followed nine months later by WKBS-TV in Burlington, New Jersey, a suburb of Philadelphia. Also that year Kaiser sold KHVH, partially to help fund its mainland expansion. In December 1966 Kaiser teamed up with the Boston Globe forming WKBG Inc. (later Kaiser-Globe Broadcasting) to purchase WXHR (AM-FM-TV) from Harvey Radio Laboratories. WKBG, WCAS and WJIB were all placed into Kaiser-Globe
    7.29
    7 votes
    6
    Dutch East India Company

    Dutch East India Company

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Bankruptcy
    The Dutch East India Company (Dutch: Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC, "United East India Company") was a chartered company established in 1602, when the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia. It is often considered to have been the first multinational corporation in the world and it was the first company to issue stock. It was also arguably the first megacorporation, possessing quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, imprison and execute convicts, negotiate treaties, coin money, and establish colonies. Statistically, the VOC eclipsed all of its rivals in the Asia trade. Between 1602 and 1796 the VOC sent almost a million Europeans to work in the Asia trade on 4,785 ships, and netted for their efforts more than 2.5 million tons of Asian trade goods. By contrast, the rest of Europe combined sent only 882,412 people from 1500 to 1795, and the fleet of the English (later British) East India Company, the VOC’s nearest competitor, was a distant second to its total traffic with 2,690 ships and a mere one-fifth the tonnage of goods carried by the VOC. The VOC enjoyed huge profits from its
    8.00
    6 votes
    7
    Hall, Russell & Company

    Hall, Russell & Company

    Hall, Russell & Company, Limited was a shipbuilder based in Aberdeen, Scotland. Brothers James and William Hall, Thomas Russell, a Glasgow engineer, and James Cardno Couper founded the company in 1864 to build steam engines and boilers. In 1867 the company built its first ship, the Kwang Tung, for the Imperial Chinese Navy. Like most shipyards of their era, Hall Russell built ships first using iron and later changing to steel. In 1944–45 Hall, Russell built five coasters under sub-contract for the Burntisland Shipbuilding Company of Fife: hull numbers 773, 776, 781, 785 and 788. In 1956–57 Hall, Russell built two more coasters for Burntisland: hull 750 launched as SS Winga and hull 857 launched as William Cory & Son's MV Corsea. In 1977 the company became part of the nationalised British Shipbuilders Corporation, before being returned to the private sector in 1986. It came under the ownership of A&P Appledore International in 1989, as A&P Appledore International (Aberdeen). However, it had been classed by the Government as a naval shipbuilder, despite traditionally producing fishing vessels and small cargo ships, and closed in 1992. In the Second World War Hall Russell built a
    7.33
    6 votes
    8
    Trondheim Sporvei

    Trondheim Sporvei

    Trondheim Sporvei was a municipally owned tram operator in Trondheim, Norway that existed between 1936 and 1974. The company operated the municipal parts of the Trondheim Tramway until it was merged with A/S Graakalbanen and Trondheim Bilruter to create Trondheim Trafikkselskap. That company has become part of Nettbuss. The tramway in Trondheim was started in 1901 and replaced a horse omnibus service from 1893. The city council established Trondhjems Elektricitetsværk og Sporvei to build and operate the tramway. In 1936 the two companies were split, with Trondheim Energiverk, the other half of the company specialising as a power company. Trondheim Sporvei operated three lines, including the original Ilalinjen and also built Elgeseterlinjen (1913), Ladelinjen (1901 and 1958) and Singsakerlinjen (1923), but not Gråkallbanen, that was run by the private A/S Graakalbanen. In 1966 though the city bought Graakalbanen and merged it with Trondheim Sporvei in 1971. In the later years Trondheim Sporvei also operated some buses, including the ones used on the closed Line 3. The company's buses were painted blue upper part, and yellow lower part.On merger with Trondheim Bilruter:Yellow upper
    8.40
    5 votes
    9
    Siata

    Siata

    Siata (Societa Italiana Auto Trasformazioni Accessori in English Italian Car Transformation Accessories Company), was an Italian tuning shop turned automaker founded in 1926 by amateur racecar driver Giorgio Ambrosini. Siata initially sold performance parts to modify and tune cars manufactured by Fiat. After World War II, the company began making its own sports cars under the Siata brand until its eventual bankruptcy following the first Arab oil embargo in the mid 1970s. Production of the Siata's first wholly original design the Siata Amica began in 1948 and continued through 1952. The Amica was powered by a Fiat 500cc engine capable of producing 22 horsepower with an optional 750cc unit producing 25 horsepower. The Amica was available in both two-seater convertible/spider and coupe configurations. A specially modified Amica known as the Fiat Siata 500 Pescara won the 1948 Italian Road Racing Championship fitted with a 5 speed manual gearbox and a modified 500 cc engine producing 40 horsepower. Only two 500 Pescaras were ever built with only one surviving model. The surviving car also competed in the 1991 Historic Millie Miglia. Following the Amica, Siata introduced the 300BC
    7.17
    6 votes
    10
    Innherredsferja

    Innherredsferja

    Innherredsferja AS ("The Innherred Ferry") was a Norwegian ferry operator in the Trondheimsfjord in Nord-Trøndelag county. It operated the Levanger–Hokstad Ferry between the town of Levanger and the island of Ytterøya, and the Vangshylla–Kjerringvik Ferry between Inderøy and Mosvik. The company operated seven ferries through its history, and had up to three operating at any time, including one in reserve. Innherredsferja was based in Levanger. The company was founded in 1957, and started a service between Venneshamn, Kjerringvik, Vangshylla, Hokstad, and Levanger. The initial owners of the company were a mixture of municipalities, the county, and private individuals and companies. In 1964, the company's operations were split into two services, each with a single crossing. Following the opening of the Skarnsund Bridge in 1991, the Vangshylla–Kjerringvik Ferry was terminated. In 2005, the company was taken over by Fosen Trafikklag, after the state decided that the route would be subject to public service obligation. The company lost the bid to Nor-Ferjer, and operation ceased at the end of 2006. The initiative for a cross-fjord ferry services was taken by Arthur Selvig, leader of the
    9.25
    4 votes
    11
    Moretti Motor Company

    Moretti Motor Company

    Moretti Motor Company is a now defunct automobile manufacturer formerly based in Italy. It was founded in 1925 and ceased operations in the mid-1980s. Today, many of its sportscar models can still be found at various European auto shows. Moretti Motors produced a variety of models at various times including motorcycles, microcars, and several commercial vehicles. Moretti Motor Company was founded in 1925 by Giovanni Moretti in order to design and build motorcycles, both of his own design and with agreements with other companies. Using the same motorcycle engines, Giovanni Moretti also dabbled in microcars in the late 1920s and early 1930s. During World War II, Moretti found success constructing various commercial vehicle, most notably a range of electric powered small trucks and a 5 or 7 seat electric car. In 1946, with the war over and thus demand for their commercial vehicles wavering, Moretti began production of conventional cars. The first conventional car model released by Moretti Motors was the 'Cita'. Shortly afterwards Moretti came out with the '600'. Then, in 1953, the '750' was released. Various versions of the '750' were built during the 1950s including estates, taxis,
    7.80
    5 votes
    12
    Westinghouse Broadcasting

    Westinghouse Broadcasting

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Merger
    The Westinghouse Broadcasting Company, also known as Group W, was the broadcasting division of Westinghouse Electric Corporation. It owned several radio and television stations across the United States and distributed television shows for syndication. Westinghouse Broadcasting was formed in the 1920s as Westinghouse Radio Stations, Inc. It was renamed Westinghouse Broadcasting Company in 1954, and adopted the Group W moniker on May 20, 1963. It was a self-contained entity within the Westinghouse corporate structure; while the parent company was headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Westinghouse Broadcasting maintained headquarters in New York City. It kept national sales offices in Chicago and Los Angeles. Group W stations are best known for using a distinctive corporate typeface, introduced in 1963, for their logos and on-air imaging. Similarly-styled typefaces had been used on some non-Group W stations as well and several former Group W stations still use it today. The Group W corporate typeface is closely, but not accurately, mimicked in Ray Larabie's freeware font "Anklepants." The font is also used in the video game Damnation. Westinghouse Broadcasting was also well known
    9.00
    4 votes
    13
    Northern Electric

    Northern Electric

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Acquisition
    Northern Electric was an electricity supply and distribution company serving north east England. It had its origins as the North Eastern Electricity Board, formed as part of the nationalisation of the electricity industry by the Electricity Act 1947. The assets of the board were transferred to Northern Electric plc in March 1990, and the company was privatised in December of the same year. At the end of 1996 the company was acquired by American corporation, CalEnergy, which formed a subsidiary, CE Electric to manage Northern Electric. The company was split into supply and distribution arms under the Utilities Act 2000. In 2001, the supply business was disposed in an asset swap with npower, exchanging the North East consumer business for the distribution arm of Yorkshire Electricity. The North East England distribution arm was retained by CE Electric, renamed Northern Electric Distribution Limited (NEDL) and merged with the newly acquired distribution arm of Yorkshire Electricity, which was renamed Yorkshire Electricity Distribution Ltd (YEDL) to form CE Electric UK. It is licensed as the Distribution Network Operator for the North East England region by the Office of Gas and
    6.67
    6 votes
    14
    Lanchester Motor Company

    Lanchester Motor Company

    The Lanchester Motor Company Limited was a car manufacturer based until early 1931 at Armourer Mills, Montgomery Street, Sparkbrook, Birmingham, and afterwards at Sandy Lane, Coventry England. Lanchester was purchased by the BSA Group at the end of 1930 and after that its cars were made by Daimler on Daimler's Coventry sites. So, with Daimler, Lanchester became part of Jaguar Cars in 1960. The rights to the Lanchester brand now belong to Tata Motors of India, though Lanchester has been dormant since the last Lanchester rolled off the line in 1955. The Lanchester Motor Company Limited is still registered as an active company and accounts are filed each year though it is currently marked "non-trading". This business was begun by the three Lanchester brothers, Frederick, one of the most influential automobile engineers of the 19th and 20th century, George and Frank who together incorporated The Lanchester Engine Company Limited in 1899. Work on the first Lanchester car had been started in 1895, significantly designed from first principles as a car, not a horseless carriage, and it ran on the public roads in February or March 1896. It had a single cylinder 1306 cc engine with the
    8.75
    4 votes
    15
    Cooper Canada Ltd.

    Cooper Canada Ltd.

    Cooper Canada Ltd. was a sporting goods and fine leather goods manufacturer based in Toronto, Canada. In its heyday, the 1960s through to the 1980s, the company was Canada's leading producer of leather baseball gloves and protective ice hockey equipment. The company pioneered team-colored hockey equipment and the use of nylon, foam, and modern plastics in equipment manufacturing. In 1949, Jack Charles Cooper, a former leather goods buyer for the Eaton's department store, and partner Cecil Weeks, a cousin of General Leather Goods owner R. H. Cameron, bought General Leather Goods from Cameron, who had founded the company in 1905, and was 78-years-old at the time. (Cooper had joined the company of 15 employees in 1932 after admiring the quality of the company's products.) The company was re-styled as Cooper Weeks. On June 15, 1971, the company was renamed Cooper of Canada. Prior to Cooper and Weeks's purchase, the company had made ski and snowshoe harness sets. With the Great Depression impacting sales, they switched focus to economy-priced protective ice hockey shin guards (in 1933) and gloves (in 1935). Frank Selke, manager of the Montreal Canadiens in the 1950s and early 1960s,
    7.40
    5 votes
    16
    Wagn

    Wagn

    West Anglia Great Northern was a train operating company in the United Kingdom owned by National Express that operated the West Anglia Great Northern franchise from January 1997 until March 2006. Prism Rail was awarded the West Anglia Great Northern franchise and commenced operations on 5 January 1997. West Anglia Great Northern made an Open Access application to extend services to Doncaster but this was rejected by the Office of Rail Regulation. In July 2000 Prism Rail was purchased by National Express. In 2002 as part of a franchise reorganisation by the Strategic Rail Authority, it was announced that the franchise would be split with the West Anglia part merged into the Greater Anglia Rail Franchise. On 22 December 2003 the Strategic Rail Authority awarded the Greater Anglia franchise to National Express with the West Anglia services transferring to One on 1 April 2004. After being granted a two-year franchise extension, the Great Northern services were retained with the company now referring to itself as WAGN rather than West Anglia Great Northern. West Anglia Great Northern operated all stops and limited stops West Anglia services out of London Liverpool Street to Chingford,
    7.40
    5 votes
    17
    Lancashire United Transport

    Lancashire United Transport

    Lancashire United Transport (LUT) was a tram, bus and trolleybus operator based at Howe Bridge in Atherton, 10 miles north west of Manchester. It had the distinction of being the largest independent bus operator in the UK until its acquisition by Greater Manchester PTE in 1976. The company was founded in 1905 as Lancashire United Tramways Ltd to assume operation of the South Lancashire Tramways tram system, which had run into financial difficulties. The tram system was centred on the towns of Leigh and Atherton in South Lancashire, with lines running towards St Helens, Wigan, Bolton and Salford. Trams continued to run under the "South Lancashire Tramways" fleetname, but after the First World War LUT took the opportunity to operate motorbus services using the "Lancashire United" fleetname. By 1926, the bus fleet had reached the total of 100 operating over 21 routes. The company changed its name in the same year to Lancashire United Transport and Power Company Ltd to reflect the widened range of business activities. The company continued to operated routes in South Lancashire until purchased by Greater Manchester PTE in 1976. LUT remained as an independent subsidiary until 1981 when
    6.33
    6 votes
    18
    Lotus Software

    Lotus Software

    Lotus Software (called Lotus Development Corporation before its acquisition by IBM) is a software company with headquarters in Westford, Massachusetts. Lotus is most commonly known for the Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet application, the first feature-heavy, user-friendly, reliable and WYSIWYG-enabled product to become widely available in the early days of the IBM PC, when there was no graphical user interface. Such a useful tool certainly helped to spread the adoption of the PC, both for administrative and scientific applications. Much later, in conjunction with Ray Ozzie's Iris Associates, Lotus also released a groupware and email system, Lotus Notes. IBM purchased the company in 1995 for $3.5 billion, primarily to acquire Lotus Notes and to establish a presence in the increasingly important client–server computing segment, which was rapidly making host-based products like IBM's OfficeVision obsolete. Lotus was founded in 1982 by partners Mitch Kapor and Jonathan Sachs with backing from Ben Rosen. Lotus' first product was presentation software for the Apple II known as Lotus Executive Briefing System. Kapor founded Lotus after leaving his post as head of development at VisiCorp (the
    9.67
    3 votes
    19
    Birmingham Small Arms Company

    Birmingham Small Arms Company

    This article is not about Gamo subsidiary BSA Guns (UK) Limited or 'BSA Company' or its successors. The Birmingham Small Arms Company Limited (BSA) was a major industrial combine, a group of businesses manufacturing military and sporting firearms; bicycles; motorcycles; cars; buses and bodies; steel; iron castings; hand, power, and machine tools; coal cleaning and handling plants; sintered metals; and hard chrome process. At its peak, BSA was the largest motorcycle producer in the world. Loss of sales and poor investments in new products in the motorcycle division, which included Triumph Motorcycles, led to problems for the whole group. A government-organized rescue operation in 1973 led to the takeover of remaining operations by what is now Manganese Bronze Holdings, then owners of Norton-Villiers, and over the following decade further closures and dispersals. The original company, The Birmingham Small Arms Company Limited, remains a subsidiary of Manganese Bronze but its name was changed in 1987. Manganese Bronze continues to operate former BSA subsidiary Carbodies, now known as LTI Limited, manufacturers of London Taxicabs and the largest wholly British owned car
    8.25
    4 votes
    20
    Hercules Company

    Hercules Company

    Hercules is a manufacturer of computer peripherals for PC and Mac. Hercules Computer Technology, Inc. was formed in 1982 in Fremont, California, by Van Suwannukul, and was one of the major graphics card companies of the 1980s. Its biggest product was the MDA-compatible Hercules Graphics Card and associated standard, which was widely copied and survived into the 1990s. Hercules Graphics Card, by including the printer port, promoted this dedicated port for printing as a faster port than the serial port. The company also produced CGA compatible cards, and also tried to go head-to-head with EGA with the unsuccessful Hercules InColor Card. After low sales with InColor, Hercules stopped making its own graphics core and bought graphics chipsets coming from other manufacturers: the company name gradually declined in the 1990s while graphics chipsets firms such as Tseng Labs, S3 Graphics, 3Dfx, nVidia and ATI Technologies became popular, but Hercules sales of graphic cards were still at US$20 million in 1998. Hercules was acquired by ELSA in August 1998 for $8.5m; ELSA also assumed all of Hercules' debts. ELSA entered Chapter 11 bankruptcy the following year, Hercules was closed and the
    8.25
    4 votes
    21
    Lipmans

    Lipmans

    Lipman's was a department store chain based in Portland, Oregon. The company was originally known as Lipman-Wolfe & Company, named after the two founding partners, Adolphe Wolfe and his uncle, Soloman Lipman. It is now defunct. The 1912 building in downtown Portland that was the company's flagship store is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, as the Lipman–Wolfe and Company Building. In 1850, Lipman and Wolfe formed a partnership in Sacramento, California during the California Gold Rush. They became prosperous merchants, expanding into Nevada during the great silver rushes. The later decline of the Comstock Lode impacted the business, prompting Wolfe to move to Portland in 1880. Wolfe opened a new store in Portland, re-establishing his business. Floods and space limitations forced the store to move three times, the last of which was in 1912, when the flagship store was opened at Fifth and Washington Streets. The new store was just across the street from Meier & Frank's flagship store, sparking an intense rivalry. Lipman's was well-known locally for establishing several "firsts" in Portland retail history: By the end of its identity, the Lipman's brand had grown into
    8.25
    4 votes
    22
    Arrol-Johnston

    Arrol-Johnston

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Bankruptcy
    Arrol-Johnston (later known as Arrol-Aster) was an early Scottish manufacturer of automobiles, which operated from 1896 to 1931 and produced the first automobile manufactured in Britain. The company also developed the world’s first "off-road" vehicle for the Egyptian government, and another designed to travel on ice and snow for Ernest Shackleton’s Nimrod Expedition to the South Pole. George Johnston was by training a locomotive engineer from Neilson, Reid and Company Limited of Springburn, Glasgow. Johnston was commissioned by Glasgow Corporation Tramways in 1894 to build an experimental steam-powered tramcar to replace their fleet of horse-drawn trams. During a final test before a Corporation committee, it caught fire and work was abandoned. Johnston's attention was then turned to a detailed examination of continental makes of motor cars and he came to the conclusion that he could design and make a better vehicle than any of them and, in particular, a better engine. The first British-built motor car was thus conceived and by the end of 1895 was ready for financial backing. In the autumn of that year Johnston was joined by Norman Osborne Fulton and T. Blackwood Murray. Fulton was
    5.43
    7 votes
    23
    Kaiserliche Werft Wilhelmshaven

    Kaiserliche Werft Wilhelmshaven

    Kaiserliche Werft Wilhelmshaven (Imperial Shipyard Wilhelmshaven) was a German shipbuilding company in Wilhelmshaven, founded in 1871 and closed in 1918. Together with Kaiserliche Werft Danzig and Kaiserliche Werft Kiel it was one of three shipyards which only produced warships for the Preußische Marine and the following German Kaiserliche Marine. With the end of World War I all three imperial shipyards were closed, but the Wilhelmshaven shipyard was 1919 opened again first as Reichsmarinewerft Wilhelmshaven, since 1935 named Kriegsmarinewerft Wilhelmshaven. Kaiserliche Werft Wilhelmshaven was a German shipbuilding company in Wilhelmshaven, a coastal town in Lower Saxony - North Germany - on the western side of the Jade Bight, a bay of the North Sea. The predecessor of the Kaiserliche Werft was founded 1853 under an agreement of the Großherzogtum Oldenburg (Grand-Dukedom Oldenburg) and the Königreich Preußen (Kingdom Prussia). The object of this agreement was a protection of Oldenburg´s merchant fleet by Prussian navy on the one hand, on the other to enlarge the Prussian sphere of influence in the western part of Germany. When the Jade-Vertrag (Jade Treaty) was undersigned about
    7.00
    5 votes
    24
    Processor Technology

    Processor Technology

    Processor Technology Corporation was a personal computer company founded in April 1975 by Gary Ingram and Bob Marsh in Berkeley, California. Their first product was a 4K byte RAM board that was compatible with the MITS Altair 8800 computer but more reliable than the MITS board. This was followed by a series of memory and I/O boards including a video display module. Popular Electronics magazine wanted a feature article on an intelligent computer terminal and Technical Editor Les Solomon asked Marsh and Lee Felsenstein to design one. It was featured on the July 1976 cover and became the Sol-20 Personal Computer. The first units were shipped in December 1976 and the Sol-20 was a very successful product. The company failed to develop next generation products and ceased operations in May 1979. Bob Marsh, Lee Felsenstein and Gordon French started designing the Sol-20 between April and July 1975. The Sol-20 utilized the Intel 8080 8-bit microprocessor chip, running at 2 MHz. A major difference between the Sol-20 and most other machines of the era was its built-in video driver, which allowed it to be attached to a composite monitor for display. The Sol-20 consisted of a main motherboard
    7.00
    5 votes
    25
    Pacific Electric Railway

    Pacific Electric Railway

    The Pacific Electric Railway (reporting mark PE), also known as the Red Car system, was a mass transit system in Southern California using streetcars, light rail, and buses. The largest electric railway in the world at its greatest extent, around 1925, the system interconnected cities in Los Angeles County and Orange County, as well as in San Bernardino County and Riverside County. The service was organized around two nexuses located in the city centers of Los Angeles and San Bernardino, which were each connected in 1914 by the 1200-volt San Bernardino Line. The system shared some dual gauge track with the 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) narrow gauge Los Angeles Railway, "Yellow Car" or "LARy" system. These were on Main Street in downtown Los Angeles (directly in front of the busy 6th and Main terminal), on 4th Street and along Hawthorne Boulevard south of downtown LA toward the cities of Hawthorne, Gardena, and Torrance. The system was divided into three districts: Originally, there was an Eastern District, but this was incorporated into the Northern District early in the company's existence. Electric trolleys first traveled in Los Angeles in 1887. In 1895 The Pasadena and Pacific Railway
    9.33
    3 votes
    26
    Borgward

    Borgward

    Borgward was a German automobile manufacturer founded by Carl F. W. Borgward (November 10, 1890-July 28, 1963). The company was based in Bremen. The Borgward group eventually produced four brands of cars: Borgward, Hansa, Goliath and Lloyd. The first "automobile" Carl Borgward designed was the Blitzkarren (lightning cart), a sort of tiny three-wheeled van with 2 hp (1.5 kW), which was an enormous success in the market gap it filled. Traders with a small budget bought it for delivery. The Reichspost ordered many of them for postal service. In 1929, Borgward became the director of Hansa Lloyd AG and led the development of the Hansa Konsul. In February 1937, there came the new Hansa Borgward 2000 and in 1939 the name was shortened to Borgward 2000. The 2000 model was followed by the Borgward 2300 that remained in production until 1942. After World War II, the company presented the Borgward Hansa 1500. One of the top engineers at Borgward from 1938-1952 was Dipl. Ing. Hubert M. Meingast. Production of the Borgward Isabella began in 1954. The Isabella would become Borgward's most popular model and remained in production for the life of the company. In 1959, the Borgward P100 was
    8.00
    4 votes
    27
    Merrill Lynch

    Merrill Lynch

    Merrill Lynch is the wealth management division of Bank of America. With over 15,000 financial advisors and $2.2 trillion in client assets, it is the world's largest brokerage. Formerly known as Merrill Lynch & Co., Inc., prior to 2009 the firm was publicly owned and traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol MER. Merrill agreed to a purchase by Bank of America on September 14, 2008, at the height of the 2008 Financial Crisis. It ceased to exist as a separate entity in January 2009. Merrill Lynch is headquartered in New York City, and occupies the entire 34 stories of the Four World Financial Center building in Manhattan. The company was founded on January 6, 1914, when Charles E. Merrill opened his Charles E. Merrill & Co. for business at 7 Wall Street in New York City. A few months later, Merrill's friend, Edmund C. Lynch, joined him, and in 1915 the name was officially changed to Merrill, Lynch & Co. At that time, the firm's name included a comma between Merrill and Lynch. In 1916, Winthrop H. Smith joined the firm. In its early history, Merrill, Lynch & Co. made several successful investments. In 1921, the company purchased Pathé Exchange, which later became
    8.00
    4 votes
    28
    Plessey

    Plessey

    The Plessey Company plc was a British-based international electronics, defence and telecommunications company. It originated in 1917, growing and diversifying into electronics. It expanded after the second world war by acquisition of companies and formed overseas companies. It was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. In 1989, it was taken over by a consortium formed by GEC and Siemens which split the assets of the Plessey group. The majority of the Plessey defence assets were amalgamated into BAE Systems; when in 1999 BAe merged with the defence arm of GEC, Marconi Electronic Systems (MES). While the bulk of telecommunications assets were acquired by Ericsson through its 2005 acquisition of a successor company of GEC - Marconi Corporation plc. The remainder of the communication assets went to Telent plc. The Plessey company was founded in 1917 in Marylebone, central London. The original shareholders were Thomas Hurst Hodgson, C.H. Whitaker, Raymond Parker and his brother Plessey Parker. A talented German engineer, William Oscar Heyne was employed by the company. Heyne later became the Managing Director and Chairman of Plessey and was one
    8.00
    4 votes
    29
    Kendall & Sons Ltd

    Kendall & Sons Ltd

    Kendall and Sons Limited was an umbrella, rainwear and ladies wear company founded in 1870, it was bought by Combined English Stores in 1977, and subsequently by Hepworths, a Leeds based menswear company. It was then converted into the Next ladieswear chain. Kendall and Sons was founded by William Wheeler Kendall in 1870. Born 1849, he came from a farming family near Market Harborough in Leicestershire who decided to travel to Leicester to find his fortune. He started selling umbrellas from a barber's shop in Northampton Street, and then manufactured them using Fox frames. The company expanded to over 100 stores by the 1960s and its umbrellas were sold the world over. On many occasions it supplied umbrellas to particular specifications to protect members of the Royal Family, and even supplied 5 umbrellas to the 1952 expedition which successfully conquered Everest. In 1932 the company moved into purpose built factory on Charles Street, Leicester specifically designed with an eye to greater efficiency and staff comfort. Indeed special care was always given to the welfare of the staff. The company was one of the first to institute the tea-break with the tea provided free (15 minutes
    6.80
    5 votes
    30
    Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft

    Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft

    Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft Company, or Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft, was a British aircraft manufacturer. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft was established as the Aerial Department of the Sir W. G Armstrong Whitworth & Company engineering group in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1912, and from c. 1914 to 1917 employed the Dutch aircraft designer Frederick Koolhoven (hence the "F.K." models). In 1920, Armstrong Whitworth acquired the engine and automobile manufacturer Siddeley-Deasy. The engine and automotive businesses of both companies were spun off as Armstrong Siddeley and the aircraft interests as the Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft Company. When Vickers and Armstrong Whitworth merged in 1927 to form Vickers-Armstrongs, Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft and Armstrong Siddeley were bought out by J. D. Siddeley and did not join the new grouping. This left two aircraft companies with Armstrong in the name Vickers-Armstrongs (known usually as just "Vickers") and "Armstrong-Whitworth" In 1935, J. D. Siddeley retired and Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft was purchased by Hawker Aircraft, the new group becoming Hawker Siddeley Aircraft. The component companies of Hawker Siddeley
    9.00
    3 votes
    31
    Grant

    Grant

    The Grant Motor Co was a United States automobile manufacturing company which produced automobiles from 1913 to 1922. The company was based in Findlay, Ohio. The company produced several thousand four and six cylinder automobiles and even exported cars to England as the Whiting-Grant. In 1916, the five passenger Touring car (pictured) sold for US$795.
    9.00
    3 votes
    32
    Trilogy Systems

    Trilogy Systems

    Trilogy Systems Corporation was a computer systems company started in 1980. Originally called ACSYS, the company was founded by Gene Amdahl, his son Carl Amdahl and Clifford Madden. Flush with the success of his previous company, Amdahl Corporation, Gene Amdahl was able to raise $230 million for his new venture. Trilogy was the most well funded start-up company up till that point in Silicon Valley history. It had corporate support from Groupe Bull, Digital Equipment Corporation, Unisys, Sperry Rand and others. The plan was to use extremely advanced semiconductor manufacturing techniques to build an IBM compatible mainframe computer that was both cheaper and more powerful than existing systems from IBM and Amdahl Corporation. These techniques included wafer scale integration (WSI), with the goal of producing a computer chip that was 2.5 inch on one side. At the time, computer chips of only 0.25 inch on a side could be reliably manufactured. This giant chip was to be connected to the rest of the system using a package with 1200 pins, an enormous number at the time. Previously, mainframe computers were built from hundreds of computer chips due to the size of standard computer chips.
    6.60
    5 votes
    33
    Western Maryland Railway

    Western Maryland Railway

    The Western Maryland Railway (reporting mark WM) was an American Class I railroad which operated in Maryland, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania. It was primarily a coal hauling and freight railroad, with a small passenger train operation. The WM became part of the Chessie System in 1973 and ceased operating its lines in 1983 when it was merged into the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The B&O itself was then merged into C&O on August 31, 1987, before the C&O merged with the Seaboard System Railroad to legally form CSX Transportation on September 2, 1987. At the end of 1925 WM operated 804 miles of line on 1290 miles of track; at the end of 1970 mileages were 865 and 1396. In 1970 it reported 3526 million ton-miles of revenue freight and zero passengers. The original main line began with the chartering of the Baltimore, Carroll and Frederick Railroad in 1852, with the intent of building a rail line from Baltimore west to Washington County, Maryland. The Maryland General Assembly changed the name of the company to the Western Maryland Rail Road Company in 1853, and construction began from Owings Mills in 1857. An existing Northern Central Railway branch line terminating at Owings Mills was
    6.60
    5 votes
    34
    British Aerospace

    British Aerospace

    British Aerospace plc (BAe) was a UK aircraft, munitions and defence-systems manufacturer. Its head office was in the Warwick House in the Farnborough Aerospace Centre in Farnborough, Hampshire. In 1999 it purchased Marconi Electronic Systems, the defence electronics and naval shipbuilding subsidiary of the General Electric Company plc, to form BAE Systems. The company was formed in the United Kingdom as a statutory corporation on 29 April 1977 as a result of the Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act. This called for the nationalisation and merger of the British Aircraft Corporation, Hawker Siddeley Aviation, Hawker Siddeley Dynamics and Scottish Aviation. In 1979 BAe officially joined Airbus, the UK having previously withdrawn support for the consortium in April 1969. In accordance with the provisions of the British Aerospace Act 1980 the statutory corporation was changed to a Public limited company (plc), British Aerospace Public Limited Company, on 1 January 1981. On 4 February 1981 the government sold 51.57% of its shares. The British government sold its remaining shares in 1985, maintaining a £1 Golden Share which allows it veto foreign control of the board or company. On
    7.50
    4 votes
    35
    Paramount Records

    Paramount Records

    Paramount Records was an American record label, best known for its recordings of African-American jazz and blues in the 1920s and early 1930s, including such artists as Ma Rainey and Blind Lemon Jefferson. Paramount Records, founded in Grafton, Wisconsin, was founded in the 1910s as a subsidiary of the Wisconsin Chair Company of Port Washington, Wisconsin, Fred Dennett Key, director. The chair company had made some wooden phonograph cabinets by contract for Edison Records. Wisconsin Chair decided to start making its own line of phonographs with a subsidiary called the "United Phonograph Corporation" at the end of 1915. It made phonographs under the "Vista" brand name through the end of the decade; the line failed commercially. In 1918 a line of phonograph gramophone records was debuted with the "Paramount" label. They were recorded and pressed by Chair Company subsidiary "The New York Recording Laboratories, Incorporated", which despite its name was located in the same Wisconsin factory complex as the parent concern (advertisements, however, stated somewhat misleadingly, "Paramounts are recorded in our own New York laboratory"). In its initial years, the Paramount label fared only
    7.50
    4 votes
    36
    NexGen

    NexGen

    NexGen (Milpitas, California) was a private semiconductor company that designed x86 microprocessors until it was purchased by AMD in 1996. Like competitor Cyrix, NexGen was a fabless design house that designed its chips but relied on other companies for production. NexGen's chips were produced by IBM's Microelectronics division. The company was best known for the unique implementation of the x86 architecture in its processors. NexGen's CPUs were designed much differently than other processors based on the x86 instruction set at the time: the processor would translate code designed to run on the traditionally CISC-based x86 architecture to run on the chip's internal RISC architecture. The architecture was used in later AMD chips such as the K6, and to an extent most x86 processors today implement a "hybrid" architecture similar to those used in NexGen's processors. The company was founded in 1986 by Thampy Thomas, being funded by Compaq, ASCII and Kleiner Perkins. Its first design was targeted at the 80386 generation of processors. But the design was so large and complicated it could only be implemented using eight chips instead of one and by the time it was ready, the industry had
    8.67
    3 votes
    37
    Sequent Computer Systems

    Sequent Computer Systems

    Sequent Computer Systems, or Sequent, was a computer company that designed and manufactured multiprocessing computer systems. They were among the pioneers in high-performance symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) open systems, innovating in both hardware (e.g. cache management and interrupt handling) and software (e.g. read-copy-update). Through a partnership with Oracle Corporation, Sequent became a dominant high-end UNIX platform in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Later they introduced a next-generation high-end platform for UNIX and Windows NT based on a non-uniform memory access architecture, NUMA-Q. As hardware prices fell in the late 1990s, and Intel shifted their server focus to the Itanium processor family, Sequent joined the Project Monterey effort in October 1998. which aimed to move a standard Unix to several new platforms. In July 1999 Sequent agreed to be acquired by IBM. At the time, Sequent's CEO said its technology would "find its way through IBM's entire product field" and IBM announced it would "both sell Sequent machines, and fold Sequent's technology...into its own servers", but by May 2002 a decline in sales of the models acquired from Sequent, among other reasons,
    10.00
    2 votes
    38
    Ottakar's

    Ottakar's

    Ottakar's was a chain of bookshops in the United Kingdom founded in 1987 by James Heneage. Following a takeover by the HMV Group plc in 2006, the chain was merged into the Waterstone's brand. James Heneage established the Ottakar's chain in 1987, taking inspiration from The Adventures of Tintin book King Ottokar's Sceptre. He saw a lucrative market in small towns which lacked a Waterstones branch and opened stores in Loughborough, Brighton, Banbury, Salisbury and Trowbridge. A number of Ottakar's stores drew on the Tintin connection and had walls painted with scenes from the series. The Ottakar store in Bromley, Kent had a large rocket taken from the Tintin novels so that children could play inside it. Above the rocket was a cartoon picture of the night sky to add to the effect. The company was listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1998 and expanded rapidly, making a number of acquisitions including small bookstores in the West Country, eight branches of James Thin Booksellers in 2002, and twenty-four branches of Hammicks Bookshops Ltd, a company with 35 years of bookselling history, in April 2003. By mid-2006, the chain had shops in 141 locations throughout the United Kingdom. In
    6.40
    5 votes
    39
    Groupe DSO

    Groupe DSO

    Groupe DSO was a collection of small business units that operated from 1967 to 1997 in the Asia-Pacific region. The core focus of these business units was logistic integration and consultancy. The company was founded in 1967 by R. Milhous Hoboct, a Czech-English engineer and entrepreneur. It found some significant successes in its BSDN and Checkpoint logistics systems; however due to a number of regulatory obstacles and failed business endeavours, a decision was made to dissolve the company in November 1997. Groupe DSO was a member of the FALO alliance, a close-knit set of companies providing reciprocal services. The FALO alliance comprised: The organisational structure of Groupe DSO was of a number of small business units, each with a clearly defined purpose and goal. Central financial and administrative management was controlled by a holding company named DSO Centraal. The Bow-Scott Distribution Network, named after its creators, Ashleigh Bow and Dr. Shalain Scott, provided an integrated 'end-to-end' solution to the distribution of large volumes of data by traditional courier means. The BSDN business unit was an incubator initiative whose aim was to provide start-up capital for
    7.25
    4 votes
    40
    Lehman Brothers

    Lehman Brothers

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Bankruptcy
    Lightfoot Capital Partners is an investment partnership dealing in energy-related investments. It is a limited partnership based in New York City.
    8.33
    3 votes
    41
    Mount Savage Railroad

    Mount Savage Railroad

    The Mount Savage Railroad was a railroad operated by the Mount Savage Coal and Iron Company of Mount Savage, Maryland between 1845 and 1854. The 14.9 miles (24 km) rail line ran from Frostburg to Cumberland, Maryland. The Mt. Savage Railroad was opened for use on Monday, September 24, 1845. The railroad was the first in America to use iron rail that was produced within the country, having to rely on British rail beforehand. Before the railroad linked Mt. Savage to Cumberland, Mt. Savage had no way of transporting manufactured goods to the rest of the region. When the railroad reached Cumberland, Mt. Savage now had a link to the National Road, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The interchange in the Narrows also linked Mt. Savage to the Potomac Wharf Branch. The Potomac Wharf Branch was built by the Maryland Mining Company in around 1850 and is an extension to the Eckhart Branch Railroad. The Potomac Wharf Branch was located in Maryland and used to cross Wills Creek. The branch is no longer present. The Mt. Savage Railroad linked Mt. Savage to the National Road, where they met in Cumberland. One of the first improved highways in the country is the
    8.33
    3 votes
    42
    Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory

    Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory

    Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, the primary lab of the Shockley Transistor Company, was the first company to work on silicon semiconductor devices in what came to be known as Silicon Valley. It was purchased by Clevite in 1960, and officially closed shortly after being sold to ITT in 1968. Engineers leaving the company stayed in the area; engineers leaving these companies did the same, and soon an entire industry built up in the San Francisco Bay Area. William Shockley had studied his undergraduate degree at Caltech and moved east to complete his PhD at MIT. He graduated in 1936 and immediately started work at Bell Labs. Through the 1930s and 40s he worked on electron devices, and increasingly with semiconductor materials. This led to the 1947 creation of the first transistor, in partnership with John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and others. Through the early 1950s a series of events led to Shockley becoming increasingly upset with Bell's management, and especially what he saw as a slighting when Bell promoted Bardeen and Brattain's names ahead of his own on the transistor's patent. However, others that worked with him suggested the reason for these issues was Shockley's abrasive
    6.20
    5 votes
    43
    American Motor Car Company

    American Motor Car Company

    The American Motor Car Company was a short-lived company in the automotive industry founded in 1906, lasting until 1913. It was based in Indianapolis, Indiana, United States. The American Motor Car Company pioneered the "underslung" design. Harry C. Stutz, who later formed a company bearing his name, designed the first car for the new enterprise. However, Stutz quickly left and Fred L. Tone took over as chief engineer in 1906. Tone re-designed the chassis (frame) below the axles and the semi-elliptic leaf spring suspension system mounted above. This upside-down or reverse arrangement became known as the underslung design. It gave the vehicles a lower stance and was an industry first. Because of the lower chassis position, 40 in (1,000 mm) wheels gave the vehicle space between the frame and the ground. The company claimed that the vehicles were safe from rollovers and could be tilted up to 55 degrees. The engine was a 6.4 L (390.6 cu in) engine rated at 40 horsepower (by the measurements at that time), but the car was underpowered. By 1908, the engine was enlarged to 7.8 L (476.0 cu in) producing 50 bhp (37 kW). The company entered a large engined roadster in the Savannah Challenge
    9.50
    2 votes
    44
    Marusho

    Marusho

    Marusho Motor Co., Ltd. (丸正自動車製造株式会社, marushō jidōsha seizō kabushiki gaisha) was a company that manufactured motorcycles from 1948 to 1967. The company's Lilac model motorcycle garnered attention when it was recognized as one of the 180 best pieces of engineering in Japan (日本の自動車技術180選). Tadashi Itō started Marusho in Hamamatsu, Japan, in 1948 after studying business management with Soichiro Honda. The company produced shaft driven models like the Lilac, and showcased its technical prowess to the world in the Mount Asama Volcano Race, competing well against the likes of Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki. Company founder Tadashi Itō died in 2005 at the age of 92.
    9.50
    2 votes
    45
    Seagram

    Seagram

    The Seagram Company Ltd. was a large corporation headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada that was the largest distiller of alcoholic beverages in the world. Toward the end of its independent existence it also controlled various entertainment and other business ventures. The Seagram assets have since been acquired by other companies, notably The Coca-Cola Company, Diageo, Pernod Ricard. The Seagram Building, the company's American headquarters office tower at 375 Park Avenue in New York City, was designed by architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe with Philip Johnson. The former Seagram headquarters in Montreal now belongs to McGill University, under the name Martlet House. In 1857, a distillery was founded in Waterloo, Ontario. Joseph E. Seagram became a partner in 1869 and sole owner in 1883, and the company became known as Joseph E. Seagram & Sons. Many decades later, Samuel Bronfman founded Distillers Corporation Limited, in Montreal, which enjoyed substantial growth in the 1920s, in part due to Prohibition in the United States. In 1928, a few years after the death of Joseph E. Seagram (1919), the Distillers Corporation acquired Joseph E. Seagram & Sons, and took over the Seagram
    9.50
    2 votes
    46
    Seattle Computer Products

    Seattle Computer Products

    Seattle Computer Products (SCP) was a Seattle, Washington microcomputer hardware company which was one of the first manufacturers of computer systems based on the 16-bit Intel 8086 processor. SCP began shipping its first S-100 bus 8086 CPU boards to customers in November, 1979, about 21 months before IBM introduced its Personal Computer which was based on the slower 8088 and introduced the 8-bit ISA bus. SCP shipped an operating system for that hardware about a year before the release of the PC, which was modified by Microsoft for the PC and renamed IBM PC DOS. SCP was staffed partly by high-school students from nearby communities who soldered and assembled the computers. Some of them would later work for Microsoft. Twenty-two-year-old Tim Paterson was hired in June 1978 by SCP's owner Rod Brock. At the time, SCP built memory boards for microcomputers, but after attending a local seminar on Intel's just-released 8086 in late summer 1978, Paterson convinced Brock that his company should design a CPU board for the new chip. Paterson had a prototype working by May 1979, and he took his "computer" over to Microsoft, who were working on an 8086 BASIC, which was working before the end of
    9.50
    2 votes
    47
    Air Atlanta

    Air Atlanta

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Bankruptcy
    For the international charter airline see Air Atlanta Icelandic Air Atlanta was an airline based in Atlanta, Georgia, USA in the 1980s serving a dozen cities from its hub in Atlanta. The airline was started in February 1984, by attorneys Michael Hollis and Daniel Kolber. It was a regional airline for Pan American World Airways, connecting the international airline to points within the contiguous 48 states. The first route was Memphis-Atlanta with the first flight being operated on 1 February 1984 using a Boeing 727-100. Other cities served were Fort Myers, Miami, New York, Orlando and Philadelphia. The airline flew three million passengers before it shut down on April 2, 1987 when it filed bankruptcy. At the time it filed, KLM offered to invest $10 million in Air Atlanta if the existing investors would match it. The existing investors declined even though Air Atlanta was making progress. Air Atlanta had a perfect safety record and was responsible for many innovations in the airline industry including with respect to financing its operations through the use of the zero coupon convertible note. . The Air Atlanta fleet began with five Boeing 727-100 aircraft, and added five Boeing
    7.00
    4 votes
    48
    American Locomotive Company

    American Locomotive Company

    The American Locomotive Company, often shortened to ALCO or Alco, was a builder of railroad locomotives in the United States. The company was created in 1901 from the merger of several smaller locomotive manufacturers: The new company was headquartered in Schenectady and eventually closed all the other locomotive manufacturing plants, except for the main plants in Schenectady, New York, and Montreal, Quebec. In 1904, control of the Locomotive and Machine Company of Montreal, Quebec, was acquired; this company was eventually renamed the Montreal Locomotive Works (MLW), and after over 50 years of closely working together, was to ultimately continue locomotive manufacturing operations after the U.S. parent company had ended production in 1969. The next year, 1905, Alco purchased Rogers Locomotive Works of Paterson, New Jersey, the second largest locomotive manufacturer in the U.S. behind Baldwin Locomotive Works. Alco was the second-largest steam locomotive builder in the United States (after Baldwin), producing over 75,000 locomotives. Among these were a large number of well-known locomotives. Railroads that favored Alco products included the Delaware and Hudson Railway, the New
    7.00
    4 votes
    49
    Armstrong Whitworth

    Armstrong Whitworth

    Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century. Headquartered in Elswick, Newcastle upon Tyne, Armstrong Whitworth engaged in the construction of armaments, ships, locomotives, automobiles, and aircraft. In 1847, engineer William George Armstrong founded the Elswick works at Newcastle, to produce hydraulic machinery, cranes and bridges, soon to be followed by artillery, notably the Armstrong breech-loading gun, which re-equipped the British Army after the Crimean War. In 1882, it merged with the shipbuilding firm of Charles Mitchell to form Armstrong Mitchell & Company and at the time its works extended for over a mile (about 2 km) along the bank of the River Tyne. Armstrong Mitchell merged again with the engineering firm of Joseph Whitworth in 1897. The company expanded into the manufacture of cars and trucks in 1902, and created an "aerial department" in 1913, which became the Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft subsidiary in 1920. In 1927, it merged with Vickers Limited to form Vickers-Armstrongs. and The Armstrong-Whitworth was manufactured from 1904 (when the company took over construction of the Wilson-Pilcher
    7.00
    4 votes
    50
    Austin-Healey

    Austin-Healey

    Austin-Healey was a British sports car maker. The marque was established through a joint-venture arrangement, set up in 1952 between Leonard Lord of the Austin division of the British Motor Corporation (BMC) and the Donald Healey Motor Company, a renowned automotive engineering and design firm. Austin-Healey cars were produced until 1972 when the 20-year agreement between Healey and Austin came to an end. Donald Healey left the company in 1968 when British Motor Holdings (BMC had merged with Jaguar Cars in 1966 to form BMH) was merged into British Leyland. Healey joined Jensen Motors who had been making bodies for the "big Healeys" since their inception in 1952, and became their chairman in 1972. The Austin Healey was extensively raced by the Donald Healey Motor Company in Europe at Le Mans and in Sebring in the U.S., in classic rallies by the BMC competitions department, and was recognized from the very beginning by the Sports Car Club of America (SCCA). Healey models raced in club racing in D, E, and F production classes, winning National Championships in both D and E Production. In 1953, a special streamlined Austin-Healey set several land speed records at the Bonneville Salt
    7.00
    4 votes
    51
    Raxwerke

    Raxwerke

    Raxwerke or Rax-Werke was a facility of the Wiener Neustädter Lokomotivfabrik at Wiener Neustadt in Lower Austria. During World War II, the company also produced lamps for Panzer tanks and anti-aircraft guns. Two Raxwerke plants employed several thousand forced laborers from the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp (on June 20, 1943, Mauthausen delivered ~500 prisoners to the Rax-Werke). Part of the Eastern Works (V-2 facilities in the Vienna-Freidrichshafen area), the 30 meter-high Serbs hall at the Raxwerke was selected for V-2 manufacturing. A few V-2 center sections had been assembled by the Raxwerke when on November 2, 1943, the US Fifteenth Air Force targeted the nearby Wiener Neustädter Flugzeugwerke (WNF) plant and hit the Raxwerke. Rax test equipment was subsequently moved to the site of the Redl-Zipf brewery in central Austria (code name Schlier) where V-2 test stands were built. Werner Dahm was sent from Peenemünde to the Raxwerke for the construction of an engine test stand for the Wasserfall anti-aircraft missile (construction was never completed).
    7.00
    4 votes
    52
    Tovarna avtomobilov Maribor

    Tovarna avtomobilov Maribor

    Tovarna avtomobilov Maribor (TAM, "Maribor Automobile Factory") was a Yugoslavian and Slovenian commercial vehicle manufacturer based in the city of Maribor. TAM began as an aircraft-parts factory founded by the occupying Germans in 1941. Immediately following World War II, the Yugoslav government decided to convert the works to vehicle production and renamed it the Tovarna avtomobilov Maribor Tezno, "Maribor Tezno Automobile Factory" on December 31, 1946. TAM's first model, the "TAM Pionir," was built under license from the Czechoslovak company "Praga," and was manufactured until 1962, with a total of 1700 produced in that period. TAM quickly became Yugoslavia's leading truck manufacturer. In 1958, it began manufacturing vehicles under license from the German company Magirus-Deutz. In 1961, the company was renamed to Tovarna Avtomobilov in Motorjev Maribor ("Maribor Automobile and Motorcycle Factory"), however the TAM acronym and logo were retained. At its height, it employed more than 8000 workers; however, the economic decline of the 1980s saw financial difficulties, and in 1996 the company was dissolved. Another company, Tovarna Vozil Maribor (TVM, "Maribor Vehicle Factory"),
    8.00
    3 votes
    53
    Wachovia

    Wachovia

    Wachovia (former NYSE ticker symbol WB) was a diversified financial services company based in Charlotte, North Carolina. Before its acquisition by Wells Fargo in 2008, Wachovia was the fourth-largest bank holding company in the United States based on total assets. Wachovia provided a broad range of banking, asset management, wealth management, and corporate and investment banking products and services. At its height, it was one of the largest providers of financial services in the United States, operating financial centers in 21 states and Washington, D.C., with locations from Connecticut to Florida and west to California. Wachovia provided global services through more than 40 offices around the world. The purchase of Wachovia by Wells Fargo and Company was completed on December 31, 2008. Wells Fargo acquired Wachovia after a government-forced sale to avoid a failure of Wachovia. Starting in 2009, the Wachovia brand was absorbed into the Wells Fargo brand in a process that lasted three years. On October 15, 2011, the Wachovia brand was retired when the last bank branches in North Carolina were converted to Wells Fargo. The company was organized into four divisions: General Bank
    8.00
    3 votes
    54
    Wales and Borders

    Wales and Borders

    Wales & Borders was was a train operating company in the United Kingdom owned by National Express that operated the Wales & Borders franchise from October 2001 until December 2003. In October 1996 the Valley Lines franchise commenced operating services around Cardiff and the South Wales Valleys. In March 2000 the Strategic Rail Authority decided to reorganise the Valley Lines and Wales & West franchises, both being operated by National Express. Valley Lines became Wales & Borders from October 2001 combining its services with most of Wales & West's Welsh services and the Cambrian Line services from Central Trains. In September 2003 Wales & Borders took over the North Wales Coast Line services from First North Western. Wales & Borders operated passenger services in Wales and the West Country as seen in their route map. It also operated services to Liverpool Lime Street, Manchester Piccadilly, Birmingham International, Penzance and London Waterloo. On 14 October 2001 the services from Birmingham New Street to Chester, Aberystwyth, and Pwllheli operated by Central Trains were transferred. On 28 September 2003 the services from Birmingham New Street, Crewe and Manchester Piccadilly to
    8.00
    3 votes
    55
    Westland Aircraft

    Westland Aircraft

    Westland Aircraft was a British aircraft manufacturer located in Yeovil in Somerset. Formed as a separate company by separation from Petters Ltd just before the start of the Second World War, Westland had been building aircraft since 1915. During the war the company produced a number of generally unsuccessful designs, but their Lysander would serve as an important liaison aircraft with the Royal Air Force. After the war the company focussed on helicopters, and was merged with several other British firms to create Westland Helicopters in 1961. In 1915 the Westland Aircraft Works was founded as a division of Petters Limited in response to government orders for the construction under licence of initially 12 Short Type 184 seaplanes, followed by 20 Short Type 166 aircraft. Orders for other aircraft followed during the First World War, including the Sopwith 1½ Strutter, the de Havilland designed Airco DH.4, Airco DH.9 and Airco DH.9A and the Vickers Vimy. The name "Westland" was chosen by Mrs Petter as new land purchased as part of an expansion in 1913 at West Hendford which had been earmarked for a new foundry, but ended up becoming the centre for aircraft production. As a result of
    8.00
    3 votes
    56
    Absolute Entertainment

    Absolute Entertainment

    Absolute Entertainment was an American video game publishing company. Through its development house, Imagineering, Absolute Entertainment produced titles for the Amiga, Atari 2600, Atari 7800, Sega Game Gear, Sega Mega Drive, Mega-CD, Game Boy, Nintendo Entertainment System, and Super Nintendo Entertainment System video game consoles, as well as for the PC. It also released games for the Sega Master System in Europe. After leaving his position as a video game developer and designer at Activision, Garry Kitchen founded the company in 1986 with his brother Dan Kitchen, along with David Crane, Alex Demeo, John Van Ryzin. The company's headquarters was in Glen Rock, New Jersey, but later moved to another New Jersey borough, Upper Saddle River. While the company was based in New Jersey, David Crane worked out of his home on the West Coast. The company's name was chosen because it was alphabetically above Activision, implying that Absolute Entertainment was superior to Activision . It was the same strategy that Activision chose when the programmers left Atari. At Absolute Entertainment, Kitchen continued developing games for the Atari 2600 and Atari 7800, as he had done at Activision.
    6.75
    4 votes
    57
    Haynes Automobile Company

    Haynes Automobile Company

    The Haynes Automobile Company was a United States automobile manufacturing company which produced automobiles in Kokomo, Indiana, from 1905 to 1924. The company was related to the Haynes-Apperson company which produced automobiles from 1896-1905. Co-founder Elwood Haynes changed the name of the company after fellow co-founders Elmer and Edgar Apperson left to form the Apperson automobile company. In 1923, just before going out of business, Haynes introduced the 57, with a 121-inch (3073 mm) wheelbase, in five-seat four-door sedan, three-seat coupelet, and two-seat roadster, advertised as complete with front and rear bumpers, six disc (as opposed to wire) wheels, wind wings, sun visors, "artistically fashioned individual steps" (for the running boards), and "individual fenders".
    6.75
    4 votes
    58
    British Shipbuilders

    British Shipbuilders

    British Shipbuilders Corporation was a public corporation that owned and managed the shipbuilding industry in England and Scotland from 1977 and through the 1980s. The British Shipbuilders Corporation headquarters was in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. The corporation was founded as a result of the Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act 1977 which nationalised all major shipbuilding companies in Great Britain. The same act nationalised the three large UK aviation companies and grouped them in an analogous corporation, British Aerospace. The first Chairman of British Shipbuilders, serving from 1978 to 1981, was Admiral Sir Anthony Griffin. Harland & Wolff, the only shipbuilder based in Northern Ireland was a special political case and remained out of the control of the British Shipbuilders management, despite being in State ownership. British Shipbuilders was privatised in 1983 under the terms of the British Shipbuilders Act 1983. The various divisions that had survived under nationalised ownership were divested throughout the 1980s as the company wound up operations. The British Shipbuilders Corporation continues to exist in statute in order to be accountable for any liabilities
    9.00
    2 votes
    59
    IQon Technologies

    IQon Technologies

    iQon Technologies Ltd was a manufacturer of personal and notebook computers and consumer electronics based in Dundalk, Louth, Ireland. The company marketed computers through retailers across the United Kingdom and exported to Europe and North Africa. iQon Technologies was founded in 1994 under the name ROMAK Computers by Dermot McElroy, Lars Krull and Patrick Rooney. The company was sold in 1997 to US world wide distributor CHS ELECTRONICS Inc. After the collapse of CHS ELECTRONICS Inc. in 2000 Dermot McElroy purchased the company back from the CHS Electronics liquidators. In 2004, iQon secured a deal to supply computers for retailer Tesco to be sold in the United Kingdom and Ireland. In 2006, the company established its iQon France subsidiary based in Toulon to expand sales across Europe. As of 2007, iQon was Ireland's largest indigenous PC maker and largest PC exporter. The company sought bankruptcy protection in November 2007 and went into liquidation in January 2008. As of January 2008, iQon's call center and warranty service divisions continue to operate under a court-appointed liquidator and the company is up for sale.
    9.00
    2 votes
    60
    John Brown & Company

    John Brown & Company

    John Brown and Company of Clydebank was a pre-eminent Scottish marine engineering and shipbuilding firm, responsible for building many notable and world-famous ships, such as the RMS Lusitania, HMS Hood, HMS Repulse, the RMS Queen Mary, the RMS Queen Elizabeth, and the RMS Queen Elizabeth 2. At their height, from 1900 to the 1950s, they were one of the most highly regarded, and internationally famous, shipbuilding companies in the world. However after that time, along with other UK shipbuilders, they found it increasingly difficult to compete with the emerging shipyards in Eastern Europe and the far East. In 1968, they merged with other Clydeside shipyards to form the Upper Clyde Shipbuilders consortium, but that collapsed in 1971. John Brown and Company ceased its involvement with shipbuilding. The engineering wing of the company continued successfully and was eventually bought out by Trafalgar House in 1986. It continued to operate as a wholly owned subsidiary of Trafalgar House until 1996, when Trafalgar House was acquired by Kvaerner, which later closed the Clydebank engineering works in 2000. The Clydebank shipyard was purchased from UCS initially by Marathon Oil, and
    9.00
    2 votes
    61
    Midland Bank

    Midland Bank

    Midland Bank Plc was one of the Big Four banking groups in the United Kingdom for most of the 20th century. It is now part of HSBC. The bank was founded as the Birmingham and Midland Bank in Union Street, Birmingham, England in August 1836. It expanded in the Midlands, absorbing many local banks, and merged with the Central Bank of London Ltd in 1891, becoming the London City and Midland Bank. After a period of nationwide expansion, including the acquisition of many smaller banks, the name Midland Bank Ltd was adopted in 1923. By 1934 it was the largest deposit bank in the world. It was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index but in 1992 it was taken over by HSBC Holdings plc. Midland Bank was founded by Charles Geach, its first manager in Union Street, Birmingham, England, in August 1836. Geach had formerly worked at the Bank of England; he secured the business support and capital backing of leading merchants and manufacturers in Birmingham. In the 1830s and 1840s, Midland occupied an important niche in Birmingham business, particularly in the discounting of bills of exchange for its customers. Links with local industrial and commercial
    9.00
    2 votes
    62
    Norton Villiers Triumph

    Norton Villiers Triumph

    Norton Villiers Triumph was a British motorcycle manufacturer, formed by the British Government to continue the UK motorcycling industry, but the company eventually failed. Triumph had been owned by the BSA Group since 1951, but by 1972 the merged BSA-Triumph group was in serious financial trouble. British Government policy at the time was to save strategic industries with tax payers' money, and as BSA-Triumph had won the Queen's Awards for Exports a few years earlier, the industry was deemed 'strategic' enough for financial support. The Conservative Government under Ted Heath concluded to bail out the company, provided that to compete with the Japanese it merged with financially troubled Norton Villiers (the remains of Associated Motor Cycles, which had gone bust in 1966), a subsidiary of British engineering conglomerate Manganese Bronze. The merged company was created in 1973, with Manganese Bronze exchanging the motorcycle parts of Norton Villiers in exchange for the non-motorcycling bits of the BSA Group—mainly Carbodies, the builder of the Austin FX4 London taxi: the classic "black cab." As BSA was both a failed company and a solely British-known brand (the company's products
    9.00
    2 votes
    63
    Oregon Steam Navigation Company

    Oregon Steam Navigation Company

    The Oregon Steam Navigation Company (O.S.N.) was an American company incorporated in 1860 in Washington with partners J. S. Ruckle, Henry Olmstead, and J. O. Van Bergen. It was incorporated in Washington because of a lack of corporate laws in Oregon, though it paid Oregon taxes. The company operated steamships between San Francisco and ports along the Columbia River at Astoria, Portland and The Dalles, serving the lumber and salmon fishing industries. A railroad was built to serve the steamship industry. The company was incorporated on December 29, 1860, at Vancouver, Washington, with 22 shareholders. Principal shareholders included D. F. Bradford (one of the owners of the north bank portage railway at the Cascades), Jacob Kamm, Harrison Olmstead, Simeon G. Reed, R. R. Thompson, and steamboat captains John C. Ainsworth and L. W. Coe. The company then gained control over most of the boats on the Columbia and Snake rivers. Timmen described the Oregon Steam Navigation Company as "the many-tentacled monopoly of river transportation." From 1858 to 1863, the Oregon Portage Railroad operated 4.5 miles of track between Bonneville and Cascade. The railroad hauled primarily military and
    9.00
    2 votes
    64
    Premier Cruise Line

    Premier Cruise Line

    Premier Cruise Line a subsidiary of Premier Cruises, was a cruise line that was headquartered in Cape Canaveral, Florida. It was at one time licensed as the official cruise line of Walt Disney World and used the trademark "The Big Red Boat" based on the color scheme of some of its ships. Dolphin Cruise Line, a company that became a part of Premier, was headquartered on Dodge Island in Miami. Premier Cruise Line was formed in 1983 by two cruise veterans and later bought by Dial Corporation who owned the Greyhound Bus Company. The ships typically operated 3-day and 4-day Bahamas trips out of Port Canaveral, Florida. The company earned over $20 million annually on a gross revenue of $100 million during the 1980s. The successful niche that Premier served was the Family cruise line especially attractive to grandparents sailing with their children and grandchildren. Also, all food on The Big Red Boats (1995–1997) was fresh, not frozen. Starting in 1985, Premier partnered with Walt Disney World, providing seven-night land and sea vacations on the Big Red Boat. Premier was licensed to provide Disney characters on its ships, until the relationship ended in 1993. (Disney started its own
    5.80
    5 votes
    65
    Sperry Corporation

    Sperry Corporation

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Merger
    Sperry Corporation was a major American equipment and electronics company whose existence spanned more than seven decades of the twentieth century. Through a series of mergers it exists today as a portion of Unisys, while some other of its former divisions became part of Honeywell. The company was founded in 1910 as the Sperry Gyroscope Company by Elmer Ambrose Sperry to manufacture navigation equipment, chiefly his own inventions – the marine gyrostabilizer and the gyrocompass at 40 Flatbush Avenue Extension in Downtown Brooklyn. During World War I the company diversified into aircraft components including bomb sights and fire control systems. In their early decades, Sperry Gyroscope and related companies were concentrated on Long Island, New York, especially in Nassau County. Over the years, it diversified to other locations. In 1918 Lawrence Sperry split from his father to compete over aero-instruments with the Lawrence Sperry Aircraft Company, including the new automatic pilot. In 1924 following the death of Lawrence on December 13, 1923, the two firms were brought together. The company became Sperry Corporation in 1933. The new corporation was a holding company for a number of
    5.80
    5 votes
    66
    Air Florida

    Air Florida

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Bankruptcy
    Air Florida was an American low-cost carrier that operated from 1971 to 1984. In 1975 it was headquartered in the Dadeland Towers in what is now the Kendall CDP in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida. Air Florida was based at Miami International Airport. It was formed in 1971 by a Miami native, Eli Timoner and was organized by company president Ted Griffin, a former marketing director of Eastern Airlines. It started operations in 1972. Initial aircraft included the Boeing 707, later transitioning to the Lockheed L-188 Electra turboprop. Air Florida's fleet grew to include the McDonnell Douglas DC-9, Boeing 727, Boeing 737, and McDonnell Douglas DC-10. Ed Acker, formerly CEO of Braniff International Airlines, led an acquisition of Air Florida in 1975 and expanded the airline into the interstate market following the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978. In addition to Air Florida having a large presence in the Northeast-to-Florida market during the 1970s and 1980s, the airline also expanded internationally and served various points in the Caribbean and Central America, as well as London, Brussels, Shannon, Frankfurt, Zurich, and Amsterdam. Air Florida was well known for its
    7.67
    3 votes
    67
    Computervision

    Computervision

    Computervision, Inc. (CV) was an early pioneer in turnkey Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Computervision was founded in 1969 by Marty Allen and Philippe Villers, and headquartered in Bedford, Massachusetts, USA. Its early products were built on a Data General Nova platform. Starting around 1975, Computervision built its own "CGP" (Computervision Graphics Processor) Nova-compatible 16-bit computers with added instructions optimized for graphics applications and using its own operating system known as Computervision Graphic Operating System (CGOS). In the 1980s, Computervision transitioned to Unix. Computervision was acquired by Parametric Technology Corporation in 1998. Computervision's first product, CADDS-1, was aimed at the printed circuit board layout and 2-D drafting markets. CADDS stood for Computervison Automated Design and Drafting System. The CADDS-1 system featured a combination digitizer and plotter mounted on a large drafting table. Integrated circuit layout was added with the CADDS-2 product, which had a dedicated operating system and a 16-bit graphic database. When this proved insufficient resolution for VLSI (very large scale integration), the
    7.67
    3 votes
    68
    North Birmingham Busways

    North Birmingham Busways

    North Birmingham Busways (NBB) was a small bus operator established in the mid 1990s, and based near Erdington, in Birmingham. Its services operated throughout North Birmingham, using, in the main, a distinctive livery of green and cream. In addition to bus services, the company also offered PCV training. On Monday 18 June 2007 it was announced that Rotala plc was to purchase North Birmingham Busways for £860,000. On Monday 20 August 2007 the bus service operations and vehicles transferred to Rotala's bus operating arm in the West Midlands region Central Connect. These are now operated by Central Connect. Before the company was purchased by Central Connect
    7.67
    3 votes
    69
    Diatto

    Diatto

    Diatto was an Italian manufacturing company founded in 1835 in Turin by Guglielmo Diatto to make 'carriages for wealthy customers'. In 1874 Guglielmo’s sons, Giovanni and Battista Diatto, began building railway carriages for Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits and the Orient Express. In 1905 Guglielmo's grandsons, Vittorio and Pietro Diatto, began Diatto-Clément, a cooperative venture making motor-vehicles under license from French manufacturer Clément-Bayard owned by industrialist Adolphe Clément-Bayard. By 1909 they had full ownership of 'Autocostruzioni Diatto' and began developing their own motor-vehicles and exporting them worldwide. From 1905 the company built two and four cylinder cars based on the Clément-Bayard, a leading contemporary French manufacturer. By the 1920s, Diatto was making quality cars of its own design, including race cars with supercharged eight-cylinder engines. Diatto also supplied frames to Bugatti which used them for their own race cars. Some Diatto racers were prepared and raced by Alfieri Maserati who left Diatto in 1926 to establish with his brothers, his own marque, Maserati. Diatto cars were known for their innovative engineering and as early
    10.00
    1 votes
    70
    Electric Smelting and Aluminum Company

    Electric Smelting and Aluminum Company

    The Electric Smelting and Aluminum Company, founded as Cowles Electric Smelting and Aluminum Company, and Cowles Syndicate Company, Limited formed in the United States and England during the mid-1880s to extract and supply valuable metals. Founded by two brothers from Ohio, the Cowles companies are remembered for producing alloys in quantity sufficient for commerce. Their furnaces were electric arc smelters, one of the first viable methods for extracting metals. The businesses of the era dramatically increased the supply of aluminium, a plentiful resource not found in nature in pure form, and reduced its price. The Cowles process was the immediate predecessor to the Hall-Héroult process—today in nearly universal use more than a century after it was discovered by Charles Martin Hall and Paul Héroult and adapted by others including Carl Josef Bayer. Because of the patent landscape, the Cowles companies found themselves in court. Judges eventually acknowledged their innovations many years after the companies formed, and one brother received two separate settlements. Eugene H. Cowles and Alfred H. Cowles, sons of newspaper publisher Edwin Cowles of Cleveland, Ohio built high
    10.00
    1 votes
    71
    Lear Jet

    Lear Jet

    Learjet is a manufacturer of business jets for civilian and military use. It was founded in the late 1950s by William Powell Lear as Swiss American Aviation Corporation. Learjet is now a subsidiary of Bombardier and marketed as the "Bombardier Learjet Family". For decades the popular misconception was that the Learjet started life as an abortive 1950s Swiss ground-attack fighter aircraft, the FFA P-16. But in his 2005 book "Lear Gene", William Lear's son John stated: The basic structure of Swiss P-16 aircraft was seen by Bill Lear and his team as a good starting point to the development of a business jet, which was originally intended to be called the SAAC-23. The wing with its distinctive tip fuel tanks and landing gear of the first Learjets were little changed from those used by the fighter prototypes. The tooling for building the aircraft was purchased and moved to Wichita, Kansas, in 1962. LearJet was in a temporary office which opened in September 1962 while the plant at Wichita's airport was under construction. On February 7, 1963 assembly of the first Learjet began. The next year, the company was renamed the Lear Jet Corporation. The original Learjet 23 was a six- to eight-
    10.00
    1 votes
    72
    Marconi Electronic Systems

    Marconi Electronic Systems

    Marconi Electronic Systems (MES), or GEC-Marconi as it was until 1998, was the defence arm of The General Electric Company (GEC). It was demerged from GEC and acquired by British Aerospace (BAe) on November 30, 1999 to form BAE Systems. GEC then renamed itself Marconi plc. MES exists today as BAE Systems Electronics Limited, a subsidiary of BAE Systems, but the assets were rearranged elsewhere within that company. MES-related businesses include BAE Systems Submarine Solutions, BAE Systems Surface Ships, BAE Systems Insyte and SELEX Galileo (now owned by Finmeccanica). MES represented the pinnacle of GEC's defence businesses which had a heritage of almost 100 years. Following GEC's acquisition of Marconi as part of English Electric in 1968 the Marconi brand was used for its defence businesses e.g. Marconi Space & Defence Systems (MSDS), Marconi Underwater Systems Ltd (MUSL). GEC's history of military products dates back to World War I with its contribution to the war effort then including radios and bulbs. World War II consolidated this position with the company involved in many important technological advances, most notably radar. Between 1945 and GEC's demerger of its defence
    10.00
    1 votes
    73
    Shugart Associates

    Shugart Associates

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Acquisition
    Shugart Associates was a computer peripheral manufacturer that dominated the floppy disk drive market in the late 1970s and is famous for introducing the 5⁄4-inch minifloppy floppy disk drive. Founded in 1973, Shugart Associates was purchased by Xerox in 1977. In the early 1980s the name was changed to Shugart Corporation. Xerox exited the business in 1985 and 1986, selling the brand name and the 8-inch floppy product line to Narlinger Group (Mar 1986). Narlinger promptly rebranded itself as Shugart Corporation and continued as such into the early 1990s. Under Narlinger management, Shugart acquired several discontinued product lines such as the Optotech 5984 WORM drive. Alan Shugart, after a distinguished career at IBM and a few years at Memorex, decided to strike out on his own, and in 1973 he gathered up some venture capital and started Shugart Associates. The original business plan was to build a small-business system (similar to the IBM 3740) including the development of all of the major components, including floppy disk drives, a printer, etc. After two years the seed money was gone and Shugart had no product to show for it. The Board wanted to focus on the floppy disk drive
    10.00
    1 votes
    74
    Tecton Group

    Tecton Group

    The Tecton Group was a radical architectural group co-founded by Berthold Lubetkin, Francis Skinner, Denys Lasdun, Godfrey Samuel, and Lindsay Drake in 1932. Tecton (also translated from the Greek as Tekton) has been traditionally translated into English as "carpenter", but is a rather general word (from the same root as "technical" and "technology", derived from Greek) that at the time could cover makers of objects in various materials, and builders, from tent makers to stonemasons. In this case, the name Tecton came from architecton, the Greek word for architecture. The group was one of the leaders in bringing continental modernism to Britain. The group's first commission was the 1932-1934 gorilla house in the London Zoo in Regent's Park. After the successful completion of the gorilla house, the group designed a penguin pool for the zoo, which contained a unique double helix-shaped walkway without intermediate supports for the penguins and a large swinmming area. The group's successes at the London Zoo resulted in their designing two other zoos: Whipsnade Zoo in Bedfordshire and Dudley Zoo in West Midlands. The group then designed the Highpoint I tower, an apartment complex in
    10.00
    1 votes
    75
    Filene's

    Filene's

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Acquisition
    Filene's was a Boston-based department store owned by Federated Department Stores (1929-1988; 2005-2006), and May Department Stores (1988-2005). It operated throughout New England and in New York. Filene’s was founded in 1881 by William Filene under the name Filene’s sons and Co. William Filene was a German Jewish immigrant from Posen, Prussia, who immigrated to Boston in 1848. By 1881 Filene had built up many small retail shops around Boston creating his own department store. Although William Filene is credited with creating Filene’s, it was his sons, Edward and Lincoln, who took the store into greatness. Edward and Lincoln were two of the most well known businessmen in America and were responsible for turning their father’s clothing store into one of the largest department stores in the country. The two sons assumed management of the store in 1891 and inherited the store upon their father’s death in 1901. In 1908 Edward Filene opened the automatic bargain annex or Filene's Basement as a way to sell excess merchandise from the upstairs department store. He also developed an automatic mark-down schedule to mark down merchandise still used today. Edward's influence gave Filene’s an
    6.50
    4 votes
    76
    Guipuzcoana Company

    Guipuzcoana Company

    The Real Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas (the Royal Gipuzkoan Company of Caracas) was a Spanish trading company in the 18th century, operating from 1728 to 1785, which had a monopoly on Venezuelan trade. It was renamed in 1785 the Real Compañía de Filipinas. The Company was founded by a group of wealthy Basques from the province of Gipuzkoa in 1728, under the leadership of the Count of Peñaflorida, Xavier María de Munibe e Idiáquez. The specific aim of the Company was to break the de facto Dutch monopoly on the cocoa trade in the Captaincy General of Venezuela. It was initially based in San Sebastián and received its royal decree on September 25, 1728, by Philip V of Spain. Its creation was part of the larger Bourbon Reforms to control unlicensed trading, especially in tobacco, which existed along the Orinoco River and mostly benefited the foreign, Dutch traders. The Guipuzcoana Company was the only body entitled to sell European goods in Venezuela (or Caracas) Province and to export Venezuelan agricultural products to Spain. It began operating in 1730 and quickly prospered because the Basque ports were not part of the regular Spanish customs zone and were able to trade freely
    6.50
    4 votes
    77
    Alaska Coastal Airlines

    Alaska Coastal Airlines

    Alaska Coastal Airlines was an airline in the United States. It was formed in 1939 as a result of the merger of Alaska Air Transport and Marine Airways. On April 1, 1962 Alaska Coastal Airlines merged with Ellis Air Lines, trading for a while as Alaska Coastal-Ellis Airlines. Alaska Coastal Airlines was taken over by Alaska Airlines in April 1968. Alaska Air Transport was formed by Sheldon B. "Shell" Simmons (October 8, 1908 – November 16, 1994) at Juneau in the summer of 1935 with one Stinson SM-2AC aircraft named Patco. Alaska Air Transport bought out Irving Airways in September 1936. Irving Airways had been started by Wilbur Irving at Juneau in the spring of 1936. Marine Airways was formed by Alex Holden, Jim Davis and M E Monagle in Juneau in July 1936. holden bought a Bellanca CH-300 Pacemaker NC196N in August 1936. In 1938, Simmons used Bellanca NC47M in the rescue of survivors of the Patterson, an ocean going freighter which had run aground at Cape Fairweather, 150 miles northwest of Juneau. In 1939, Simmons and Holden joined forces, forming Alaskan Coastal Airways. Ellis Air Lines was formed in Ketchikan in 1936 by Robert Edmund Ellis (January 2, 1903 – May 8, 1994). At the
    8.50
    2 votes
    78
    American Overseas Airlines

    American Overseas Airlines

    American Overseas Airlines (AOA) was an airline that operated between the United States and Europe between 1945 and 1950. It was headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. American Export Airlines (AEA), commonly known as Am Ex, was founded in April 1937 as a wholly owned subsidiary of the shipping company American Export Lines. Transatlantic surveys were done with a Consolidated PBY-4 flying boat and in 1939 AEA placed an order for three Vought-Sikorsky VS-44 flying boats, dubbed 'Flying Aces', named after the parent company's Four Aces. That same year, AEA made an application to the US Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) for routes across the Atlantic from the United States to the United Kingdom, France, and Portugal. On July 15, 1940, in spite of strong protests by Juan Trippe, the president of Pan American World Airways (PAA), President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave his approval to AEA for a seven-year temporary certificate to serve Lisbon (Portugal) from New York City-La Guardia Flying Boat base. Later, services were also flown to Foynes (Ireland). These services ended in 1944 when AEA started operations on behalf of the US Air Transport Command (ATC), using Douglas C-54
    8.50
    2 votes
    79
    Consolidation Coal Company

    Consolidation Coal Company

    The Consolidation Coal Company was established in 1864 and headquartered in the city of Cumberland, Maryland for the first 85 years (1864-1945) where the company became the largest bituminous coal company in the eastern United States. The company's origin began in the early 19th century when a 14-foot (4.3 m) thick seam of bituminous coal referred to historically as "The Big Vein" was discovered in the Georges Creek Valley of Western Maryland. This coal region became famous during the industrial age for its clean-burning low sulfur content that made it ideal for powering ocean steamers, river boats, locomotives, and steam mills, and machines shops. However, coal production did not become important until the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached Cumberland in 1842. In 1850, the opening of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal from Cumberland to Washington, D.C. provided another route for coal shipments. Over 21 million short tons of coal were transported on the canal before it closed in 1923. By 1850, almost 30 coal companies were mining the Georges Creek Valley, producing over 60 million tons of coal between 1854 to 1891. The Consolidated Coal Company was formed as a consolidation of the
    8.50
    2 votes
    80
    Gaeth

    Gaeth

    Gaeth was an American steam automobile manufactured in Cleveland, Ohio from 1902 until 1911. Bicycle maker Paul Gaeth added stationary engines to his business, and made an experimental steam car in 1898. His gasoline cars were unusual in using a large 3-cylinder horizontal engine of 25/30 hp. Advertised as "the best $3500 car on the market", the 1909 model was a powerful 6423 cc 35/40 hp four-cylinder.
    8.50
    2 votes
    81
    Hyperion Solutions

    Hyperion Solutions

    Hyperion Solutions Corporation was a business performance management software company, located in Santa Clara, California, USA, that was acquired by Oracle Corporation in 2007. Many of its products were targeted at the business intelligence (BI) and business performance management markets, and as of 2012 are still actively developed and sold by Oracle as Oracle Hyperion products. Hyperion Solutions was formed from the merger of Hyperion Software (formerly IMRS) and Arbor Software in 1998. Oracle Corporation announced on March 1, 2007 that it had agreed to purchase Hyperion Solutions Corporation for $3.3 billion in cash. The transaction was completed on April 18, 2007 and Hyperion now operates as a subsidiary of Oracle. Vendors in the business intelligence space are often categorized into: Well-known BI market surveys and analyses include: Hyperion software products include:
    8.50
    2 votes
    82
    NV Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw

    NV Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw

    NV Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw (Dutch: engineer-office for shipbuilding), usually contracted to IvS, was a Dutch dummy company set up by the Reichsmarineamt after World War I in order to maintain and develop German submarine know-how and to circumvent the limitations set by the Treaty of Versailles. The company designed several submarine types for paying countries, including the Soviet S class submarine and the prototypes for the German Type II submarine and the German Type VII submarine. The company was a joint venture by the German shipyards AG Vulcan and the Krupp-owned Germaniawerft in Kiel and AG Weser in Bremen. Design work was carried out at the facilities of these companies in Germany. The company was funded by the German Navy. IvS first constructed two submarines for Spain, which were later sold to Turkey, both of which were launched in 1927 and were closely based on the Type UBIII of the Kaiserliche Marine. In 1927-1933 five IvS submarine designs were built by Crichton-Vulcan in Finland. One of them was CV 707, later Vesikko, which was the prototype of type IIA. The contracts were worded in such a way that IvS personnel were involved with crew training and
    8.50
    2 votes
    83
    Simca

    Simca

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Acquisition
    Simca (Société Industrielle de Mécanique et Carrosserie Automobile) (Industrial Society of Mechanical and Automotive Body) was a French automaker, founded in November 1934 by Fiat. It was directed from July 1935 to May 1963 by the Italian Henri Théodore Pigozzi (born Enrico Teodoro Pigozzi, 1898–1964). Simca was affiliated with Fiat, but later, when Simca bought Ford's French branch, became increasingly controlled by the Chrysler Group, in 1970 becoming a part of Chrysler Europe and a brand rather than independent company. In 1978, Chrysler divested its European operations to another French automaker, PSA Peugeot Citroën, which replaced the Simca brand with Talbot, thus ending the life of the brand (although some models were badged as Simca-Talbots for a time). During most of its post-war activity, Simca was one of the biggest automobile manufacturers and most popular automobile brands in France. The Simca 1100 was for some time the best-selling car in France, while the Simca 1307 and Simca Horizon won the coveted European Car of the Year title in 1976 and 1978, respectively — these models were badge engineered as products of other marques in some countries. For instance the Simca
    8.50
    2 votes
    84
    Bergesen d.y. ASA

    Bergesen d.y. ASA

    Bergesen d.y. ASA was a Norwegian shipping company, and one of the world's largest. The company was founded by Sigval Bergesen d.y. (1893–1980). He was the son of Sigval Bergesen, who was also a shipping magnate, but in 1935 he broke with his father to form his own company. The same year he bought the tanker President de Vogue (renamed Bergesund), in 1937 Charles Racine and in 1939 Anders Jahre (renamed Bergeland). By the time of the war he then had three major tankers, though Charles Racine was hit by torpedoes and destroyed in 1942. Bergesen used the war to position himself in the market, and by 1950 he had four ships in his fleet, by 1955 the fleet had reached seven, and 16 by 1970. Two of its OBO ships, MS Berge Istra and MS Berge Vanga disappeared under mysterious, however similar circumstances in 1975 and 1979, and the company to this day keeps all information about the disasters secret. In 1976 Sigval Bergesen d.y. was forced to retire for health reasons. Management of the company was handed over to his two grandchildren, Petter C.G. Sundt and Morten Sig. Bergesen. Ten years later, the company went from being a privately owned to a publicly traded company. Sundt and Sig
    7.33
    3 votes
    85
    Cone Mills Corporation

    Cone Mills Corporation

    Cone Mills Corporation was a world leader in textile manufacturing of corduroy, flannel, denim and other cotton fabrics for most of the 20th century. The company was based in Greensboro, North Carolina and its mills were mostly in North and South Carolina. The company was known as the world's largest producer of denim. The Cone family history begins in 1845 when Herman Kahn (1828–1897), a Jewish-German immigrant, and his sister’s family left their home in Bavaria, Germany for a new life in the United States. Herman changed the spelling of his last name from Kahn to "Cone" almost immediately upon arrival in the United States to become more American. Herman Cone and his brother-in-law Jacob Adler started a dry goods business in the German-speaking Pennsylvania Dutch town of Jonesboro, Tennessee. Cone & Adler sold the usual items like groceries, hats, boots, and shoes. An exception to this was that they also sold ready-to-wear clothing, unusual in the antebellum South where most clothing was made at home. Herman met Helen Guggenheimer (1838–1898) in one of his business traveling trips to Lynchburg, Virginia in the early part of the 1850s. She was also from Germany and was of the
    7.33
    3 votes
    86
    FTL Games

    FTL Games

    FTL Games (Faster Than Light) was the video game development division of Software Heaven Inc. FTL created several popular video games in the 1980s and early 1990s. Despite the company's small size, FTL products were consistently number-one sellers and received the highest critical acclaim and industry awards. FTL was founded by Wayne Holder in 1982. Holder started Software Heaven and FTL as its game division after founding Oasis Systems, which specialized in spell checking software. He hired Bruce Webster, with whom he graduated from high school, to head FTL. After Webster left FTL in 1984, Doug Bell joined FTL and served as the Technical Director until FTL ceased operations in 1996. FTL released several games throughout its relatively short history. Surprisingly, most went on to become best sellers and some even set new standards for games of their genres. Holder and Webster co-designed FTL's first game, SunDog: Frozen Legacy, a space trading game. It was released first for the Apple II in March 1984. Webster did most of the programming for the Apple II version, but resigned from FTL after the release of version 2.0 due to programming burn-out. Doug Bell, Andy Jaros and Michael
    7.33
    3 votes
    87
    Holsman

    Holsman

    The Holsman Automobile Company was an early United States automobile manufacturer Chicago, Illinois between 1901 and 1910. Founded by Henry K. Holsman, the company produced a high wheeler automobile until production ceased.
    7.33
    3 votes
    88
    Effoa

    Effoa

    Finland Steamship Company (Swedish: Finska Ångfartygs Aktiebolag, abbreviated FÅA, Finnish: Suomen Höyrylaiva Osakeyhtiö, abbreviated SHO) was a Finnish shipping company founded in 1883 by Captain Lars Krogius. In Finnish and Swedish The company was usually referred to simply as FÅA. In 1976, the company changed its name to Effoa, a phonetic spelling of the abbreviation FÅA. The company was a founding member of the Silja Line consortium. In 1975 FÅA founded Finncarriers together with Finnlines as a joint freight operations venture. At the same time FÅA gave up passenger traffic between Finland and Germany, the ships used on the route were sold to Finnlines. In the 1980s both Finncarriers and Finnlines became fully owned subsidiaries of Effoa. In 1989 Effoa decided to give up its freight-carrying operations, and its shares of Finnlines were transferred to Effoa's owners. Effoa stopped trading as an independent company in 1990 when its freight operations were demerged to form an independent Finnlines, while the passenger operations were merged with Johnson Line (the other partner in Silja Line at the time) to form EffJohn. In 1945, FÅA was the first company post-World War II to
    6.25
    4 votes
    89
    Rural Radio Network

    Rural Radio Network

    The Rural Radio Network (RRN) was an interconnected group of six commercial FM radio stations spread across upstate New York and operated from Ithaca, NY -- the first all-radio, no-wireline network in the world. It began operation in 1948 as an innovative broadcast service to the agricultural community, but competition from television—and a lack of affordable, well-performing FM receivers—caused the founders' original business plan to fail. The stations changed ownership, as well as Radio formats, several times in futile attempts to achieve profitability. Perhaps the group's most notable owner was the Christian Broadcasting Network, headed by televangelist Pat Robertson, which acquired the stations through a corporate donation in 1969. A decade later, Robertson decided to sell the stations and the licenses were gradually transferred to individual owners in 1981 and 1982, thus dissolving one of the nation's earliest FM networks. The concept of building the world's first farmer-owned network originated at the Cooperative Grange League Federation Exchange (commonly known as "GLF"), an agricultural co-op founded in 1920 in Ithaca, which later merged with another co-op to form the Agway
    6.25
    4 votes
    90
    Safeway (UK)

    Safeway (UK)

    Safeway was a chain of supermarkets and convenience stores in the United Kingdom. It started as a subsidiary of the American Safeway Inc., before being sold off in 1987. Safeway was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index until it was acquired by Morrisons in March 2004. Most of its 479 stores were rebranded as Morrisons, with others being sold off. The brand disappeared from the UK on 24 November 2005. The business was established in 1962 when Safeway Inc. opened its first store in the United Kingdom in Bedford: it was then known as Safeway Food Stores. By 1987, it had 133 stores around the United Kingdom. In 1987, Safeway Inc. put Safeway Food Stores up for sale. Argyll Foods eventually secured it for the sum of £681m, with £600m raised through a rights issue that was three times oversubscribed. The merger of Argyll and Safeway was hailed by commentators as one of the most successfully integrated retail combinations in the UK, bringing together Argyll's experienced management team with a strong but somewhat underdeveloped retail brand. Argyll then began converting the larger Presto superstores to the Safeway brand, a notable example being
    6.25
    4 votes
    91
    SWTPC

    SWTPC

    The U.S. company SWTPC started in 1964 as DEMCO (Daniel E. Meyer Company). It was incorporated in 1967 as Southwest Technical Products Corporation of San Antonio, Texas. They produced a wide variety of electronics kits, and later complete computer systems. In the 1960s, many hobbyist electronics magazines such as Popular Electronics and Radio-Electronics published construction articles, for many of which the author would arrange for a company to assemble a kit of parts to build the project. Daniel Meyer published several popular projects and successfully sold his kits. He soon started selling kits for other authors such as Don Lancaster and Louis Garner. Between 1967 and 1971 SWTPC sold kits for over 50 Popular Electronics articles. Most of these kits were intended for audio use, such as hi-fi, utility amplifiers, and test equipment such as a function generator based on the Intersil ICL8038. In 1972 SWTPC had a large enough collection of kits to justify printing a 32 page catalog. In January 1975 SWTPC introduced a computer terminal kit, the "TV Typewriter", or CT-1024. By November 1975 they were delivering complete computer kits based on Motorola MPUs. They were very successful
    6.25
    4 votes
    92
    British European Airways

    British European Airways

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Merger
    British European Airways (BEA) — formally British European Airways Corporation — was a British airline which existed from 1946 until 1974. BEA operated to Europe, North Africa and the Middle East from airports around the United Kingdom. The airline was also the largest UK domestic operator, serving major British cities, including London, Manchester, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Belfast, as well as remote areas of the British Isles such as the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. From 1946 until 1974, BEA operated a network of internal German routes between West Berlin and West Germany as well. Formed as the British European Airways division of British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) on 1 January 1946, BEA became a crown corporation in its own right on 1 August 1946. Operations commenced from Croydon and Northolt airports, with DH89A Dragon Rapides and Douglas DC-3s. Having established its main operating base at Northolt, BEA operated its first service from Heathrow in April 1950; by late-1954, all Northolt operations had moved to Heathrow, which remained the airline's main operating base until the merger with BOAC in 1974. During 1952, BEA
    7.00
    3 votes
    93
    Dutch West India Company

    Dutch West India Company

    Dutch West India Company (Dutch: Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie or GWIC; English: Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company (known as the "WIC") of Dutch merchants. Among its founding fathers was Willem Usselincx (1567–1647). On June 2, 1621, it was granted a charter for a trade monopoly in the West Indies (meaning the Caribbean) by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and given jurisdiction over the African slave trade, Brazil, the Caribbean, and North America. The area where the company could operate consisted of West Africa (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Cape of Good Hope) and the Americas, which included the Pacific Ocean and the eastern part of New Guinea. The intended purpose of the charter was to eliminate competition, particularly Spanish or Portuguese, between the various trading posts established by the merchants. The company became instrumental in the Dutch colonization of the Americas. When the Dutch East India Company (VOC) was founded in 1602, some traders in Amsterdam did not agree with its monopolistic politics. With help from Plancius Peter, a Flemish minister who was engaged in producing maps, globes and nautical instruments, they
    7.00
    3 votes
    94
    Media Play

    Media Play

    Media Play was a chain of retail stores founded in 1992 by Musicland that sold movies on video, DVDs, music, electronics, video games, books, and games in the United States. Each store essentially contained a book store, a movie store, a music store, and a video game store under one roof. At their height, they operated 72 stores in 19 states with 2,000 employees. The first store opened in Rockford, Illinois, in 1992. Hundreds of stores were slated to be opened, but only 89 ever were. Their Replay program was a loyalty program that allowed members to earn points for purchases which can earn members gift certificates. The same Replay card also worked at Sam Goody and Suncoast Motion Picture Company stores. In 2001, Musicland was purchased by Best Buy Co. Inc. for $696 million as part of its initiative to diversify its retail holdings to reach a larger demographic with its consumer electronics and entertainment products. By then, Musicland numbered over 1300 stores. Their intention was to transform Sam Goody into a destination for young people looking for hip electronics. They launched a major remerchandising campaign and converted Musicland's On Cue concept of rural stores to the Sam
    7.00
    3 votes
    95
    Penn Central Transportation

    Penn Central Transportation

    The Penn Central Transportation Company, commonly abbreviated to Penn Central, was an American railroad company headquartered in Philadelphia that operated from 1968 until 1976. It was created by the merger on February 1, 1968, of the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) and the New York Central Railroad (NYC). The New Haven Railroad (NH) was added to the merger at the insistence of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) on January 1, 1969. The railroad operated 20,083 miles of road and 40,985 miles of track at the end of 1970, not including P&LE and PRSL; it reported 83,955 million ton-miles of revenue freight and 3,158 million passenger miles. The Penn Central (PC) was created as a response to challenges faced by all three railroads in the late 1960s. The northeastern quarter of the United States, these railroads' service area, was the most densely populated region of the U.S. While railroads elsewhere in North America drew a high percentage of their revenues from the long-distance shipment of commodities such as coal, lumber, paper and iron ore, Northeastern railroads traditionally depended on a much more heterogeneous mix of services, including: These labor-intensive, short-haul
    7.00
    3 votes
    96
    Sally Cruise

    Sally Cruise

    Sally Cruise was a wholly owned subsidiary of Rederi Ab Sally, Finland that operated cruise ships on the Baltic Sea between the years 1986 and 1992. It was merged into Silja Line 1992. Rederi Ab Sally had been, until the early 1980s, the dominant partner in the Viking Line consortium. However, due to investing in unprofitable operations outside the Baltic Sea they started losing their foothold in Viking during the mid-80s when the other partners (SF Line and Rederi AB Slite) took delivery of new tonnage that supplanted Sally's newest ships. In 1986 when Sally's MS Viking Saga was replaced by the new MS Olympia, the decision was made not to sell the Viking Saga but use her to start a new company, Sally Cruise, to operate short cruises out of Helsinki, Finland. At this time one-day cruises to nowhere were still a novel idea, the first ones had been made only the previous year by GTS Finnjet. After a refit the Viking Saga re-emerged as MS Sally Albatross, painted in an attractive white livery with dark and light blue bands running along her hull. Despite the Sally Albatross' success her parent company's downward spiral continued, and in 1987 the company was sold to their main rivals
    7.00
    3 votes
    97
    SPA

    SPA

    SPA (Società Piemontese Automobili) an Italian automobile manufacturer, produced cars between 1906 and 1926. The company was established by Matteo Ceirano and Michele Ansaldi in Turin under the name of Società Piemontese Automobili. The first cars were exhibited at the Esposizione di Torino. These models, designed by Ceirano, were called 28/40HP and 60/70 HP. In 1908, the company merged with Fabbrica Ligure Automobili Genova (FLAG) and the new company became Società Ligure Piemontese Automobili. The headquarters was in Genoa while production continued in Turin. Next year an SPA racer driven by Ciuppa won the Targa Florio race. Before the World War I, there were twin, four and six cylinder cars - the biggest had an 11.536cc displacement. In 1916, both Ceirano and Ansaldi left. After the war, production was resumed with pre-war models (25/30 HP and 14/16 HP). In 1923 the company moved to Turin again. New sporting models (Tipo 23, Tipo 24 and Tipo 25) were marketed - the most progressive model had a six cylinder dohc 24 valve engine. Following to financial problems of the company, Fiat took over in 1925 and the company soon discontinued manufacturing cars in favor of commercial and
    7.00
    3 votes
    98
    Control Data Corporation

    Control Data Corporation

    Control Data Corporation (CDC) was a supercomputer firm. For most of the 1960s, Seymour Cray worked at CDC and developed a series of machines that were the fastest computers in the world by far. CDC only lost that title in the 1970s after Cray left the company to found Cray Research (CRI). CDC was one of the nine major United States computer companies through most of the 1960s; the others were IBM, Burroughs Corporation, DEC, NCR, General Electric, Honeywell, RCA, and UNIVAC. CDC was well known and highly regarded throughout the industry at one time. After several years of losses in the early 1980s, CDC made the decision to leave the computer manufacturing business and sell those parts of the company in 1988, a process that was completed in 1992 with the creation of Control Data Systems, Inc.. The remaining businesses of CDC currently operate as Ceridian. During World War II the U.S. Navy had built up a team of engineers to build codebreaking machinery for both Japanese and German electro-mechanical ciphers. A number of these were produced by a team dedicated to the task working in the Washington, D.C., area. With the post-war wind-down of military spending, the Navy grew
    6.00
    4 votes
    99
    D. L. Clark Company

    D. L. Clark Company

    The D. L. Clark Company was founded in 1886 in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, now part of Pittsburgh, by David L. Clark (1864–1939), an Irish-born candy salesman. In 1921, Clark Brothers Chewing Gum Company was spun off as a separate corporation (and later sold to Philip Morris). The D. L. Clark company was family-owned until sold in 1955 to Beatrice Foods, who sold it in 1983 to the Pittsburgh Food and Beverage Company. The Pittsburgh Food and Beverage Company entered bankruptcy in 1995, and many assets from the D. L. Clark Company, such as the rights to the Clark bar and Zagnut bar, were sold. With some of the remaining assets, Clark Bar America, Inc., was created; this was acquired by Necco (New England Confectionery Company) in 1999 for $4.1 million ($6 million today).
    6.00
    4 votes
    100
    Manitowoc Shipbuilding Company

    Manitowoc Shipbuilding Company

    Manitowoc Shipbuilding Company, located in Manitowoc, Wisconsin, was a major shipbuilder for the Great Lakes. It was founded in 1902, and made mainly steel ferries and ore haulers. During World War II, it built submarines, tank landing craft (LCTs), and self-propelled fuel barges called "YOs". Employment peaked during the military years at 7000. The shipyard closed in 1968, though the company lives on as the modern day Manitowoc Company. Shipyard President Charles C. West contacted the Bureau of Construction and Repair in 1939 to propose building destroyers at Manitowoc and transporting them through the Chicago River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Illinois River, and Mississippi River in a floating drydock towed by the tugboat Minnesota. After evaluating the plan and surveying the shipyard, the Navy suggested building submarines instead. A contract for ten submarines was awarded on 9 September 1940. The Navy paid for lift machinery on Chicago's Western Avenue railroad bridge to clear a submarine. The 15-foot draft submarines entered the floating drydock on the Illinois River to get through the 9-foot-deep Chain of Rocks Channel near the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri
    6.00
    4 votes
    101
    Maryland Mining Company

    Maryland Mining Company

    The Maryland Mining Company is a historic coal mining, iron producer and railroad company that operated in Allegany County, Maryland. The company was based in Eckhart Mines, Maryland; the location in Braddock Run was among the first bituminous coal mines developed in the Georges Creek Valley. This region saw significant industrialization, with the first pig iron to be smelted at Mount Savage, Maryland to the northwest by the Maryland and New York Coal and Iron Company. Coal mining began in Eckhart Mines after "The Big Vein" was opened in 1820. The coal was originally transported by flatboats placed together on the headwaters of the North Branch Potomac River. As part of its operations, the company built the Potomac Wharf Branch rail line from Wills Creek, west of Cumberland, between 1846 and 1850, as an extension to its Eckhart Branch Railroad. The Cumberland Coal & Iron Company, chartered in 1850, purchased the Maryland Mining Company's mines and railroad in April 1852, including the village of Eckhart. With the arrival of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) in Cumberland, Maryland in 1842, local interests began lobbying for the construction of branch lines leading to the coal
    6.00
    4 votes
    102
    Aérospatiale

    Aérospatiale

    Aerospatiale (French pronunciation: [aeʁɔspasjal]) was a French aerospace manufacturer that built both civilian and military aircraft, rockets and satellites. It was originally known as Société Nationale Industrielle Aérospatiale (SNIAS). Its head office was in the 16th arrondissement of Paris. The former assets of Aerospatiale are now part of EADS, except the Satellites activities which merged with Alcatel and became Alcatel Space, in 1999, now Thales Alenia Space. The company (as SNIAS) was created in 1970 by the merger of the state-owned companies Sud Aviation, Nord Aviation and Société d'études et de réalisation d'engins balistiques (SÉREB). Starting in 1971 it was directed by Henri Ziegler. In 1991 the company helped construct the revolutionary chassis of the Bugatti EB110 Supercar. The chassis was built completely of carbon fibre, and was very lightweight. In 1992, DaimlerBenz Aerospace AG (DASA) and Aerospatiale combined their helicopter divisions to form the Eurocopter Group. In 1999, Aerospatiale, except for the satellites activities, merged with Matra Haute Technologie to form Aerospatiale-Matra. In 2001, Aerospatiale-Matra's missile group was merged with Matra BAe
    8.00
    2 votes
    103
    America West Airlines

    America West Airlines

    America West Airlines was a U.S. airline headquartered in Tempe, Arizona. Its main hub was at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport. The airline became part of the US Airways Group after a merger in 2005. Prior to the merger, America West operated two hubs: its base location at Sky Harbor Airport in Phoenix, Arizona and a secondary hub (now defunct) at McCarran International Airport in Las Vegas, Nevada. America West was the second largest low-cost carrier in the US and served approximately 100 destinations in the US, Canada, and Mexico. Service to Europe was provided through codeshare partners. As of March 2005, the airline operated a fleet of 140 aircraft, with a single maintenance base at Sky Harbor Airport in Phoenix. Beginning in January 2006, all America West flights were branded as US Airways, along with most signage at airports and other printed material, though many flights were described as "operated by America West." Apart from two heritage aircraft, the only remaining America West branding on aircraft can be found on certain seat covers, bulkheads, and flight attendant uniforms. The merged airline uses America West's "CACTUS" callsign and ICAO code "AWE", but
    8.00
    2 votes
    104
    Bölkow

    Bölkow

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Merger
    Bölkow was a German aircraft manufacturer based in Stuttgart, Germany, and later Ottobrunn. The company was founded in 1948 by Ludwig Bölkow, who since 1955 with Emil Weiland had developed helicopters for Bölkow Entwicklungen KG. In June 1968, Bölkow merged with the Messerschmitt AG to form Messerschmitt-Bölkow, a combination that created West Germany's largest aircraft company, with sales approaching $150 million (1968 dollars). The move was encouraged by the West German government. In May 1969, the new company merged with Blohm + Voss, becoming Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB). MBB was bought by Daimler-Benz in the early 1990s, becoming part of DASA, which became part of EADS in 2000.
    8.00
    2 votes
    105
    Bradlees

    Bradlees

    Bradlees was a chain of discount department stores which operated primarily in the Northeastern United States. The chain went bankrupt in 2000 and all of its stores were closed by March 2001. The first store was opened in New London, Connecticut in 1958. The company was acquired by grocery chain Stop & Shop in 1961, which owned the chain until 1992. In the New York/New Jersey area, nearly all shopping centers that had Bradlees stores would also have a Stop & Shop in the same plaza or, in some cases, connected with the store as a supercenter, but this ended when Stop & Shop pulled out of the New York market during the 1980s (not to return until 2000 when Royal Ahold bought the company and rebranded its Edwards chain as Stop & Shop). Many Bradlees stores had snack stands/lunch counters that served hot dogs, soft pretzels, and various other food items to shoppers. In 1993, Bradlees added Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, and Dunkin' Donuts items to some of the stores that didn't have snack stands as well as new stores constructed during this time. During the 1970s and early 1980s (and again in the late 1990s), Bradlees was known for its TV and print ads featuring the character "Mrs. B." (played
    8.00
    2 votes
    106
    Daimler-Benz

    Daimler-Benz

    Daimler-Benz AG (German pronunciation: [ˈdaɪmlɐ ˈbɛnts]) was a German manufacturer of automobiles, motor vehicles, and internal combustion engines; founded in 1926. An Agreement of Mutual Interest - which was valid until 2000 - was signed on 1 May 1924 between Karl Benz's Benz & Cie., and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft, which had been founded by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach. Daimler had died in 1900, and Maybach had left in 1907. Both companies continued to manufacture their separate automobile and internal combustion engine marques until, on 28 June 1926, when Benz & Cie. and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft formally merged - becoming Daimler-Benz AG (Aktiengesellschaft) - and agreed that thereafter, all of the factories would use the brand name of "Mercedes-Benz" on their automobiles. The inclusion of the name Mercedes in the new brand name honored the most important model series of DMG automobiles, the Mercedes series, which were designed and built by Wilhelm Maybach. They derived their name from a 1900 engine named after the daughter of Emil Jellinek. Jellinek became one of DMG's directors in 1900, ordered a small number of motor racing cars built to his specifications by
    8.00
    2 votes
    107
    Farmer Jack

    Farmer Jack

    Farmer Jack was a supermarket chain based in Detroit, Michigan. At its peak, it operated more than 100 stores, primarily in southeastern Michigan. In its final years the chain operated as a subsidiary of the New Jersey-based A&P (The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company) Corporation. A&P shut down the Farmer Jack chain on July 7, 2007. Farmer Jack stores were typically in suburban neighborhoods, usually anchoring strip malls. In addition to offering groceries, each store operated full-service produce, floral, delicatessen, bakery, pharmacy, meat, and seafood departments. Many stores also featured a bank. Farmer Jack's beginnings were in 1924, when Jewish-Russian immigrants Tom Borman and Sam Burlak opened a neighborhood grocery store, Tom's Quality Meats, at 12th and Forest in Detroit. In 1927, his brother Abraham "Al" Borman opened a store on Kercheval on the city's east side. The brothers eventually formed a partnership, which ended in 1945, with Tom developing Lucky Stores, and Al developing Food Fair markets. In 1955, the two operations merged into Food Fair, operating under the corporate entity Borman Food Stores Inc. Four years later, the renamed Borman's Inc., sold more
    8.00
    2 votes
    108
    Fiberfab

    Fiberfab

    Fiberfab was a kit car manufacturer founded by Warren "Bud" Goodwin in 1964. Goodwin's earlier company, Sports Car Engineering had manufactured Microplas Mistral bodies under licence and sold them as the Spyder. Fiberfab started building street rod parts and body panels for Mustangs before moving on to kit cars. It was sold in 1983 to Classic Motor Carriages. The Jamaican was fitted to a TR3, TR4, MGA, Austin-Healey or a Volkswagen Beetle. Later Fiberfab built their own 'Jamaican' chassis for use with a V8 power-plant. Fiberfab made a Ford GT40 replica based on a VW Beetle floorpan called Avenger GT and the similar Valkyrie designed to take a V8. The Bonito was at one point license built in Sweden. Fiberfab built custom vehicles that appeared in the film THX 1138. The company was purchased by Classic Motor Carriages in 1983. Classic Motor Carriages was forced to close in 1994 after the Florida Attorney General's Office filed suit against it on behalf a several hundred of its customers. It agreed to pay $2.5 millon in compensation. At the same time as the case was proceeding a new company, Auto Resolutions, was set up by the owner George Levin to continue making Classic Motor
    8.00
    2 votes
    109
    Govan Shipbuilders

    Govan Shipbuilders

    Govan Shipbuilders Ltd (GSL) was a British shipbuilding company based on the River Clyde at Glasgow in Scotland. It operated the former Fairfield Shipyard and took its name from the Govan area in which it was located. The company was formed in 1972 by way of a purchase of the former Fairfield Shipyard in Govan from Sir Robert Smith, Liquidator of Upper Clyde Shipbuilders (UCS), itself a product of the amalgamation of several Clydeside yards; Fairfields, Alex Stephens, Charles Connell and Company, Yarrow Shipbuilders Ltd. and John Browns. Between 1973 and 1980 Scotstoun Marine Ltd, a subsidiary of Govan Shipbuilders, also operated the former Connell shipyard in Scotstoun. In 1977 the Company was nationalised by the Labour government of James Callaghan under the Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act and subsumed into British Shipbuilders. Between 1973 and 1988, a total of 53 ships were built by Govan Shipbuilders at the Govan (former Fairfield) shipyard. Investment in plant equipment at the yard during this period included expansion of the steel fabrication facilities and the installation of four 80 ton travelling rope luffing cranes in 1975 by Clarke Chapman, servicing the yard's
    8.00
    2 votes
    110
    Scottish Aviation

    Scottish Aviation

    Scottish Aviation Limited was a Scottish aircraft manufacturer, based at Prestwick in South Ayrshire. Originally a flying school operator the company took on maintenance work in 1938. During the Second World War, Scottish Aviation was involved in aircraft fitting for the war effort. This included maintenance and conversion of the Consolidated Liberator bomber. The factory building of Scottish Aviation, which still exists today, was formerly the Palace of Engineering at the 1938 Empire Exhibition in Bellahouston Park, Glasgow. The building was dismantled from its Glasgow site and reconstructed. Post war it built robust military STOL utility aircraft such as the Pioneer and larger Twin Pioneer. Much later the company built some Jetstream turboprop transport and navigational training aircraft following the collapse of the Handley Page Aircraft Company (which designed the type). It built Bulldog trainers after the demise of their original manufacturer, Beagle Aircraft Limited. Scottish Aviation merged with the British Aircraft Corporation, Hawker Siddeley Aviation, and Hawker Siddeley Dynamics to form British Aerospace in 1977. Much of the former Scottish Aviation assets now belong to
    8.00
    2 votes
    111
    Storer Communications, Inc.

    Storer Communications, Inc.

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Acquisition
    Storer Broadcasting, Inc. was an American company which owned several television and radio stations in the northeast United States. It was incorporated in Ohio in 1927, and sold its broadcasting properties in 1983. In 1927, George B. Storer and brother-in-law J. Harold Ryan were building service stations for Speedene brand gasoline in the Toledo, Ohio area. Speedene sales were booming, thanks to a cost-cutting device implemented by the partners. They bypassed the cost of trucking gasoline to service stations by building the stations beside railroad sidings and sold their product at two or three cents a gallon under the going retail rate by filling their tanks directly from railroad tank cars. Storer decided to buy some radio spots on WTAL in Toledo to advertise his gas stations. The spots were effective, and Storer decided to use his wealth to buy the radio station. Storer Broadcasting was born, and WTAL became WSPD, "Speedy AM," symbolic of the gasoline brand. The company was primarily in the broadcast radio business. Although the company had success in the Top 40 rock and roll format with WJBK in Detroit and WIBG "Wibbage" in Philadelphia, most of its radio stations, including
    8.00
    2 votes
    112
    Caproni

    Caproni

    Caproni was an Italian aircraft manufacturer founded in 1908 by Giovanni Battista "Gianni" Caproni. It was initially named, from 1911, Società de Agostini e Caproni, then Società Caproni e Comitti. Caproni made the first aircraft of Italian construction in 1911. The manufacturing facilities were based in Taliedo, a peripheral district of Milan. During World War I, Caproni developed a series of successful heavy bombers, used by the Italian, French, British and US air forces. Between the world wars, Caproni evolved into a large syndicate named Società Italiana Caproni, Milano, which bought some smaller manufacturers. The main subdivisions were Caproni Bergamasca, Caproni Vizzola, Reggiane and engine manufacturer Isotta-Fraschini. Between the world wars, Caproni produced mostly bombers and light transport planes. The Società Italiana Caproni ceased to exist in 1950, although one of its divisions, Caproni Vizzola endured until 1983 when it was bought by Agusta.
    9.00
    1 votes
    113
    CHUM Limited

    CHUM Limited

    CHUM Limited was a media company based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada from 1945 to 2007. Immediately prior to its acquisition, it held full or joint control of two Canadian television systems — Citytv and A-Channel (formerly NewNet, now CTV Two) — comprising 11 local stations, and one CBC Television (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation) affiliate, one provincial educational channel, and 20 branded specialty television channels, most notably MuchMusic and its various spinoffs. In addition, CHUM controlled 33 radio stations across Canada. At various points in its history, CHUM owned other radio stations and ATV/Atlantic Satellite Network in Atlantic Canada. CHUM was taken over by Bell Globemedia (now Bell Media), owner of the CTV Television Network in July 2006. Regulatory approval was made conditional on the sale of CHUM's five Citytv stations to Rogers Communications. CTVglobemedia took control of CHUM's other assets effective June 22, 2007. The company itself has since been renamed CTV Limited (now CTV Inc.) and continues operation as a subsidiary of Bell Media. Its radio broadcasting division, CHUM Radio has since became Bell Media Radio after Bell Canada took control of CTV's assets,
    9.00
    1 votes
    114
    Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company

    Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company

    The Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Limited was a Scottish shipbuilding company in the Govan area on the Clyde in Glasgow. Fairfields, as it is often known, was a major warship builder, turning out many vessels for the Royal Navy and other navies through the First World War and the Second World War. It also built many transatlantic liners, including record breaking ships for the Cunard Line and Canadian Pacific, such as the Blue Riband winning sisters RMS Campania and RMS Lucania. At the other end of the scale Fairfields built fast cross channel mail steamers and ferries for locations around the world. These included ships for the Bosphorus crossing in Istanbul and some of the early ships used by Thomas Cook for developing tourism on the River Nile. The business was founded by Charles Randolph, who began trading as a millwright under the name Randolph & Elliott, building engines and machinery in the Tradeston district of Glasgow in 1834. John Elder joined the business in 1852 and it then diversified into shipbuilding as Randolph, Elder and Company, acquiring the Govan Old Shipyard in 1858. The first ship was built in 1861 as No 14. The business moved to a new yard
    9.00
    1 votes
    115
    MicroProse

    MicroProse

    MicroProse was a video game publisher and developer, founded by Wild Bill Stealey and Sid Meier in 1982 as Microprose Software. In 1993, the company became a subsidiary of Spectrum HoloByte and has remained a subsidiary or brand name under several other corporations since. The MicroProse brand is currently owned by Interactive Game Group, as of 2012 it is used by a video game studio Microprose (with no capital "P" in the name). Founded in 1982 by Bill Stealey and Sid Meier, Microprose Software Inc. was primarily known as a publisher of flight simulators, military simulations, and strategy titles for 8-bit home computers such as the Commodore 64, Apple II, and Atari 8-bit family, with titles such as Spitfire Ace and Hellcat Ace. It also published a few strategy games at the time. As industry changed over to 16-bit and 32-bit CPUs in late 1980s, MicroProse started supporting IBM PC compatibles and 68000-based machines like the Amiga and Atari ST. MicroProse also started a UK branch to cross-publish titles in Europe, and to import some European titles to be published in the United States. Notable products from this period include Silent Service, Airborne Ranger, Pirates!, F-19 Stealth
    9.00
    1 votes
    116
    Trump Shuttle

    Trump Shuttle

    Trump Shuttle, Inc., doing business as Trump Airlines, was an airline owned by Donald Trump from 1989 to 1992. The landing rights and some of the physical assets necessary to operate the shuttle flights were originally part of Eastern Air Lines and known as the Eastern Air Lines Shuttle. It operated hourly flights of Boeing 727 aircraft from LaGuardia Airport in New York City to Logan International Airport in Boston, Massachusetts and Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport in Washington, D.C., then known as Washington National Airport at the time Trump Shuttle operated. As the financial outlook for Eastern Air Lines became more pessimistic in the late 1980s, the carrier began to sell its routes and aircraft. It organized its profitable Northeastern air shuttle operation into a separate company headed by Bruce Nobles with the intent of selling it to raise cash. On October 5, 1988, amidst a prolonged threatened mechanics strike action, real estate mogul Donald Trump arranged to purchase the shuttle. In June, 1989 the deal was completed, financed through a $380 million loan from a syndicate of 22 banks. The new airline began service as Trump Shuttle on June 23. Its IATA designator
    9.00
    1 votes
    117
    British Overseas Airways Corporation

    British Overseas Airways Corporation

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Merger
    British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) was the British state airline created in 1940 from the merger of Imperial Airways and British Airways Ltd. In the Civil Aviation Act of 1946, the state-owned British European Airways (BEA) and British South American Airways (BSAA) were formed, and the full name British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) was finally applied and accepted throughout the Corporation. BOAC absorbed BSAA in 1949, but BEA operated the UK's domestic and European routes for the next quarter century. A 1971 Act of Parliament proposed the merger of BOAC and BEA, finalised in 1974, forming today's British Airways. On 24 November 1939, BOAC was created by Act of Parliament to become the British state airline, formed from the merger of Imperial Airways and British Airways Ltd. The companies had been operating together since war was declared on 1 September 1939, when their operations were evacuated from the London area to Bristol. On 1 April 1940, BOAC started operations as a single company. Following the fall of France (22 June 1940), BOAC aircraft kept wartime Britain connected with its colonies and the free world, often under enemy fire, and initially with desperate
    6.67
    3 votes
    118
    C. Person's Sons

    C. Person's Sons

    C. Person's Sons was a whiskey distillery and wholesale distribution center in Buffalo, New York from 1850 until closing due to Prohibition in 1920. Known throughout all of western New York as the "foremost whiskey rectifier", C. Person's Sons was known for integrity, the excellence of its wares, and the courteous handling of its customers. C. Person's Sons was founded by Charles Person, a German immigrant from the Alsace-Lorraine region. Person arrived in the United States at the age of fourteen and at the age of 23 opened up his business, simply called "Charles Person's", in a rented space of twenty-by-thirty feet. Developing his skill and taste, Person also started a family with wife Sophia in 1850, a family that would grow to include ten children (six boys, four girls). As early as 1875, the business listing filed by Person was now titled "Charles Person and Son", and by 1885, "Charles Person and Sons." In the few years leading up to the Volstead Act and Prohibition, C. Person's Sons enjoyed ever-increasing success. The firm was eventually established on historic Elm Street in Buffalo, occupying an impressive five-story building, specifically built for the firm. The building
    6.67
    3 votes
    119
    DASA

    DASA

    DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG, or DASA, was the former aerospace subsidiary of Daimler-Benz AG (later DaimlerChrysler and Daimler AG) from 1989. In July 2000 DaimlerChrysler Aerospace merged with Aérospatiale-Matra and CASA to form EADS. DaimlerChrysler Aerospace was founded as Deutsche Aerospace AG on May 19, 1989 by the merger of Daimler-Benz's aerospace interests MTU, Dornier and two divisions of AEG. In July 1989 the two AEG divisions were themselves merged within Deutsche Aerospace to form Telefunken Systemtechnik (TST). In December 1989 Daimler-Benz acquired Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) and merged it into Daimler-Benz Aerospace. In March 1990 Daimler-Benz initiated a major restructuring of the new group, integrating the previously separate companies into five product groups; Aircraft, Space Systems, Defense and Civil Systems/Propulsion. Several companies continued to exist under their own names but by 1992 most (including MBB and TST) were fully integrated. In 1992, the helicopter division was joined to Aérospatiale's helicopter division to form the Eurocopter Group. On January 1, 1995 the company changed its name to Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG. With the 1998 merger of
    6.67
    3 votes
    120
    IG Farben

    IG Farben

    IG Farben was a German chemical industry conglomerate. Its name is taken from Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG (Syndicate [literally, "community of interests"] of dye-making corporations). The company was formed in 1925 from a number of major chemical companies that had been working together closely since World War I. During its heyday IG Farben was the largest chemical company in the world and the fourth largest overall industrial concern, after General Motors, U.S. Steel and Standard Oil (New Jersey). IG Farben was involved in numerous war crimes during World War II. It was seized by the Allies in 1945 and liquidated in 1952. It still nominally exists as an asset-less shell, with the stated goal of paying restitution to the victims of its many crimes in the form of compensation and reparations. IG Farben was founded on December 25, 1925, as a merger of the following six companies: At the beginning of the 20th century the German chemical industry dominated the world market for synthetic dyes. The three major firms BASF, Bayer and Hoechst produced several hundred different dyes, along with the five smaller firms Agfa, Cassella, Chemische Fabrik Kalle, Chemische Fabrik
    6.67
    3 votes
    121
    London Necropolis Company

    London Necropolis Company

    The London Necropolis Company (LNC), formally the London Necropolis & National Mausoleum Company until 1927, was a cemetery operator established by Act of Parliament in 1852 in reaction to the crisis caused by the closure of London's graveyards in 1851. The LNC intended to establish a single cemetery large enough to accommodate all of London's future burials in perpetuity. The company's founders recognised that the recently invented technology of the railway provided the ability to conduct burials a long distance from populated areas, mitigating concerns over public health risks from living near burial sites. Accordingly, the company bought a very large tract of land in Brookwood, Surrey, around 25 miles (40 km) from London, and converted a portion of it into Brookwood Cemetery. A dedicated railway line, the London Necropolis Railway, linked the new cemetery to the city. Financial mismanagement and internal disputes led to delays in the project. By the time Brookwood Cemetery opened in late 1854, a number of other cemeteries had opened nearer to London or were in the process of opening. While some parishes in London did arrange for the LNC to handle the burials of their dead, many
    6.67
    3 votes
    122
    The Outlet Company

    The Outlet Company

    The Outlet Company was a corporation based in Providence, Rhode Island, which owned holdings in both retail and broadcasting. The centerpieces of the group was its flagship Providence store (The Outlet) and WJAR radio and television, also in Providence. The Outlet Company was formed in 1891 when opened brothers Joseph and Leon Samuels opened a department store at 176 Weybosset Street in downtown Providence. Known as The Outlet, it quickly became a Providence landmark to the point of occupying an entire city block and attracting shoppers from all over southern New England. For decades, the store remained strong with its sole flagship location and dominated the field of retail in not only Providence, but Rhode Island as a whole. With the changing field of retail in the mid-20th Century, the company diversified with opening suburban locations as well as buying some existing stores such as Philadelphia-based Phillipsborn and Bedya, the midwestern Hughes & Hatcher chain, and The Edw. Malley Co. department store chain in New Haven, Connecticut. However, the allure of building a broadcasting empire under the leadership of company president Bruce Sundlun led Outlet to leave the retail
    6.67
    3 votes
    123
    Zenith Data Systems

    Zenith Data Systems

    Zenith Data Systems (ZDS) was a division of Zenith founded in 1979 after Zenith acquired Heathkit, which had, in 1977, entered the personal computer market. Headquartered in Benton Harbor, Michigan, Zenith sold personal computers under both the Heath/Zenith and Zenith Data Systems names. Zenith was an early partner with Microsoft, licensing all Microsoft languages for the Heath/Zenith 8-bit computers. Conversely, Microsoft programmers of the early 1980s did much of their work using Zenith Z-19 and Z-29 CRT display terminals hooked to central mainframe computers. The first Heathkit H8 computer, sold in kit form, was built on an Intel 8080 processor. It ran K7 audio-tape software, punched tape software (with puncher/reader H10) and HDOS (Heath Disk Operating System) software on 5¼" hard-sectored floppy disks. The CP/M operating system was adapted to all Heath/Zenith computers, in 1979. Next, the early Heath/Zenith computers (H88/H89 and Z-89) were based on the Z80 processors and ran either HDOS or CP/M operating systems. Zenith introduced the revolutionary Z-100 computer in mid-1981. Targeted for professionals, it had an S-100 bus, high performance color graphics, an 8-bit Z80 and a
    6.67
    3 votes
    124
    Airborne Express

    Airborne Express

    Airborne Express (IATA: GB, ICAO: ABX, Call sign: Abex) was an express delivery company and cargo airline. Headquartered in Seattle, Washington, its hub was at Wilmington, Ohio. Airborne was founded as the Airborne Flower Traffic Association of California in 1946 to fly flowers from the state of Hawaii to US Mainland. Airborne Express developed special narrow containers which allowed the use of passenger jet aircraft without needing a large cargo door modification. It was acquired by DHL in 2003. Prior to the acquisition, it was the third largest private express delivery company in the United States. Growth during Airborne's first 22 years was slow. Progress came slowly and competition was stiff. But in 1968, the airline started going through some changes. To begin with, Airborne of California merged with Pacific Air Freight of Seattle. The airline moved its headquarters there and changed its name to Airborne Freight Corporation.
    7.50
    2 votes
    125
    Bi-Autogo

    Bi-Autogo

    The Bi-Autogo was a prototype American motorcycle, built in 1913. Designed and built by Detroit artist & engineer James Scripps Booth, it had the usual two wheels (37 in. {94 cm}, spoked wooden ones), plus two pairs of smaller, retractable outrigger wheels (an idea that has resurfaced since) in the three-seater body. Fitted with wheel steering, it had a 45 hp (33.5 kW) V8 engine (3.5"x5", 384.8in, 6.3Li), the first of its kind from a Detroit company, with an external copper tube radiator, and a weight of 3,200-lb (1451 kg). Just one was built. It is on display at the Owls Head Transportation Museum in Owls Head, Maine.
    7.50
    2 votes
    126
    British East India Company

    British East India Company

    The British East India Company was an English and later (from 1707) British joint-stock company formed for pursuing trade with the East Indies but which ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent. The East India Company traded mainly in cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, saltpetre, tea and opium. The Company was granted a Royal Charter in 1600, making it the oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies. Shares of the company were owned by wealthy merchants and aristocrats. The government owned no shares and had only indirect control. The Company eventually came to rule large areas of India with its own private armies, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions. Company rule in India effectively began in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey and lasted until 1858 when, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown assuming direct control of India in the new British Raj. The Company was dissolved in 1874 as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act passed one year earlier, as the Government of India Act had by then rendered it vestigal, powerless and obsolete. Its
    7.50
    2 votes
    127
    PAST

    PAST

    PAST (short for Polska Akcyjna Spółka Telefoniczna, Polish Telephone Joint-stock Company) was a Polish telephone operator in the period between World War I and World War II. It is notable for its main headquarters in Warsaw, which at the time of its construction was the first and tallest skyscraper in the Russian Empire and the tallest building of Warsaw. The fight for the building during the Warsaw Uprising of 1944 also added to the legend of the place. The Swedish-owned company Towarzystwo Akcyjne Telefonów ", also known as Cedergren", won a competition in 1900 to expand the Warsaw telephone network. For that purpose, two buildings were built at Zielna street in downtown Warsaw, holding the telephone exchange and the company's headquarters. The building, located at 37 Zielna Street, was built between 1904 and 1910 and was constructed in two phases. The lower part, designed by L. Wahlman, I.G. Clason and B. Brochowicz-Rogoyski, was completed in 1904-1905; the upper part was added in 1907-1910. The building was one of the first reinforced concrete constructions of this magnitude in Europe. The Cedergren license expired in 1922 and the building was consequently taken over by the
    7.50
    2 votes
    128
    Rainier Brewing Company

    Rainier Brewing Company

    Rainier Brewing Company (1884–1999) was a Seattle, Washington, company that brewed Rainier Beer, a popular brand in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Although Rainier was founded in 1884, the Seattle site had been brewing beer since 1878. The beer is no longer brewed in Seattle, nor is the company owned locally. In the late 1990s, the company was sold to Stroh's, then to Pabst Brewing Company, though Miller contract brews most of Pabst's beers. The brewery was closed by Pabst in 1999 and sold. In 2010, Emerald City Beer Company rented and renovated a portion of the building, brewing the first batch of beer from the Old Rainier Brewery in 11 years on September 23. The brewery itself is a well-known fixture in the south end of town, adjacent to I-5 just north of the Spokane Street Viaduct. The plant is also home to the Tully's Coffee headquarters, Bartholomew Winery, Red Soul Motorcycle Fabrications, as well as artist lofts, band practice spaces, and a recording studio. The trademark red neon "R" that sat atop the building was replaced with a green "T" when Tully's was using the plant to roast coffee. The neon "R" is now in the collection of Seattle's Museum of History and
    7.50
    2 votes
    129
    Bradford & Bingley

    Bradford & Bingley

    Bradford & Bingley plc is a British bank with headquarters in the West Yorkshire town of Bingley. In 2008, partly due to the credit crunch, the bank was nationalised and in effect split into two parts; the mortgage book remained with the now publicly owned Bradford & Bingley plc, and the deposits and branch network (and a licence to use the B&B name for those aspects) was sold to Abbey National, itself owned by the Spanish bank Grupo Santander. Since 11 January 2010 the branch network has been rebranded Santander and the Bradford & Bingley name now solely relates to the nationalised section of the bank. The bank was formed in December 2000 by demutualisation of the Bradford & Bingley Building Society following a vote of the building society's members, who swapped their nominal share of the building society for at least 250 shares of the newly formed bank. Bradford & Bingley Building Society was formed in 1964 as a result of the merger of the Bradford Equitable Building Society and the Bingley Permanent Building Society, both of which were established in 1851. In May 1997, the Society bought Mortgage Express from Lloyds TSB for £64m. In December 2000, the Society demutualised and
    5.50
    4 votes
    130
    Air South

    Air South

    Air South was a small airline in the United States based in Columbia, South Carolina that operated from 1994 to September 1997. In 1984 a group of businessmen from Columbia formed an airline named Air South (not to be confused with other Air South that had operated in the past). But it would be 10 years before the first flight took to the air and on 23 August 1994 services were inaugurated between Atlanta and Miami and between Atlanta and St Petersburg, Florida. The aircraft of choice was the B737-200. The route network grew rapidly and service was started to Jacksonville, Florida, Myrtle Beach, Tampa and Raleigh-Durham. By 1995 seven Boeing 737-200s were operating. Although the airline was headquartered in Columbia, the main operations base was Atlanta. Air South's financial situation was never very strong and by 1996 the network was reduced. Flight delays and cancellations became a major problem with very dissatisfied passengers as a result. A marketing alliance was set up with Kiwi International Airlines but by that time both companies were having financial problems. By the summer of 1997 Air South's fleet was reduced to five B737-200s. The end came swiftly at the end of the
    6.33
    3 votes
    131
    Bergen Nordhordland Rutelag

    Bergen Nordhordland Rutelag

    Bergen Nordhordland Rutelag is a Norwegian company based in Hordaland. The company operates a small fleet of ferries. BNR It has roots back to 1880 when Lindaas-Masfjorden Dampskibsselskap was created. The company was founded in 1974 when Bergen-Nordhordland Trafikklag, Indre Nordhordland Dampbåtlag and Arna-Osterøy Billag merged. The company had permission to operate bus transport in Meland, Lindås, Radøy, Austrheim, Fedje, Masfjorden og Osterøy. The company also operated car ferries and owned the ferry company Fjord Line. The company was bought by Hardanger Sunnhordlandske Dampskipsselskap as of January 2002 while Fjord Line still is independent. In 2006 HSD merged with Gaia Trafikk forming the new company Tide. In 2004 BNR were established again as a fast ferry company and are running 6 fast ferrys i the Bergen region and in Sogn and Fjordane (Flåm - Gudvangen and Flåm - Sogndal)BNR are also bigg in charter. The new BNR fleet consists of 6 express boats and 2 car ferries.
    6.33
    3 votes
    132
    Herreshoff

    Herreshoff

    The Herreshoff was an automobile built in both Detroit, Michigan and Troy, New York, by the Herreshoff Motor Company from 1909-14. The Herreshoff started as a small car with a 24hp (18 kW) four-cylinder engine, and was made with three different models. Later models were upgraded to six-cylinder engines up to 3.8 liters capacity. For 1911, Herreshoff had a roadster with a rudimentary rumble seat at US$950; by contrast, the high-volume Oldsmobile Runabout went for US$650, the Ford Model N and Western's Gale Model A were US$500, the Black went as low as $375, and the Success hit the amazingly low US$250. A light car with a 16hp (12 kW) engine was introduced in 1914. Fisher produced bodies for the company.
    6.33
    3 votes
    133
    Hunting Aircraft

    Hunting Aircraft

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Merger
    Hunting Aircraft was a British aircraft manufacturer, that produced light training aircraft and the initial design that would evolve into the BAC 1-11 jet airliner. The company, based in Luton, merged with other companies to form the British Aircraft Corporation in 1959. The company was originally formed as Percival Aircraft Co. in Gravesend in 1933 by Edgar Percival to produce his own designs. Restructured in 1936, it became Percival Aircraft Ltd, and moved to Luton Airport. The company became part of the Hunting Group in 1944. Percival, who had resigned from the board to serve in the RAFVR during the war sold his remaining interest in the company at that point. Changing its name to Hunting Percival Aircraft in 1954 and finally to Hunting Aircraft in 1957 the company merged with the Bristol Aeroplane Company, English Electric and Vickers-Armstrongs in 1959 to form the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC), later to become part of British Aerospace, now BAE Systems.
    6.33
    3 votes
    134
    Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway

    Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway

    The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (L&YR) was a major British railway company before the 1923 Grouping. It was incorporated in 1847 from an amalgamation of several existing railways. It was the third-largest railway system based in Northern England (after the Midland and North Eastern Railways) and the largest whose network was entirely within Northern England. The intensity of its service was reflected in the 1,650 locomotives it owned – it was by far the most densely-trafficked system in the British Isles with more locomotives per mile than any other company – and that one third of its 738 signal boxes controlled junctions averaging one every 3.5 miles (6 km). No two stations were more than 5.5 miles (9 km) apart and its 1,904 passenger services occupied 57 pages in Bradshaw, a number exceeded only by the Great Western Railway, the London and North Western Railway, and the Midland Railway. It was the first mainline railway to introduce electrification of some of its lines, and it also ran steamboat services across the Irish Sea and North Sea, being a bigger shipowner than any other British railway company. It amalgamated with the London and North Western Railway on 1 January
    6.33
    3 votes
    135
    Metromedia

    Metromedia

    Metromedia (also often MetroMedia) was a media company that owned radio and television stations in the United States from 1956 to 1986 and owned Orion Pictures from 1986-1997. The company arose from the ashes of the DuMont Television Network, the world's first commercial television network. By 1955, DuMont realized it could not compete against CBS, NBC and a revived ABC, and decided to shut down network operations. Soon after DuMont formally shut down network operations in 1956, it spun off its two remaining owned and operated stations, WABD in New York City and WTTG in Washington, D.C., to shareholders as the DuMont Broadcasting Corporation. The company's headquarters were co-located with WABD in the former DuMont Tele-Centre (which was later renamed the Metromedia Telecenter) in New York. In 1957, DuMont Broadcasting purchased two New York area radio stations, WNEW (now WBBR) and WHFI (later WNEW-FM and WWFS), and later that year changed its name to the Metropolitan Broadcasting Corporation to distance itself from its former parent company. The following year Paramount Pictures, an indirect player in the failure of the DuMont network, sold its shares in Metropolitan Broadcasting
    6.33
    3 votes
    136
    Vickers plc

    Vickers plc

    Vickers plc was the remainder of Vickers-Armstrongs after the nationalisation of three of its four operating groups: aviation (as a 50% share since 1960 of British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) in 1977), shipbuilding (Vickers Limited Shipbuilding Group in 1977) and steel. It was purchased by Rolls-Royce plc in 1999, and the Vickers company name became defunct in 2004. In 1980, Vickers plc acquired Rolls-Royce Motors. This was not Vickers' first involvement with Rolls-Royce. In 1966, Rolls-Royce Limited (the original aero-engine and motor car company) acquired Bristol Aeroplane for its Bristol Siddeley engine business, but declared it had no interest in Bristol's 20% shareholding in BAC; Vickers Armstrong and English Electric (EE) each having 40% of BAC's shares. Despite this declaration Rolls-Royce had still not disposed of its BAC stake when the former was declared bankrupt in 1971. The 20% share was eventually acquired from receivership by Vickers and GEC (EE's parent company). In 1990, the Cosworth automotive engineering group was purchased. Vickers divested its automotive interests in 1998, selling Cosworth and Rolls-Royce Motors to Volkswagen Group. The disposal of Rolls-Royce
    6.33
    3 votes
    137
    Cottin & Desgouttes

    Cottin & Desgouttes

    Cottin & Desgouttes was a French automobile manufacturer from the beginning of the 20th century. In 1904, Pierre Desgoutte started manufacturing automobiles under the name “Desgouttes & Cie”, in Lyon, France. The first model was the type A, powered by a 9.5-liter, 45 hp, six-cylinder engine. Only two cars of this type were built. In December 1905, a chassis with a four-cylinder, 24/40 hp engine was presented at the Salon de Paris. It exhibited many innovative features and enjoyed a huge success. At the beginning of 1906, Pierre Desgoutte was joined by a wealthy industrial partner, Cyrille Cottin. They decided to call the new company “Automobiles Cottin & Desgouttes”, Pierre Desgoutte acting as Technical Director, whereas Cyrille Cottin would manage Sales. The company progressively specialized in luxury and sports models. Between 1906 and 1914, most of the production was devoted to four-cylinder models. En 1907, the company produced a 2.5 liter, 12 hp model that was so well accepted by the public that is was produced without any major changes for more than four years. Over the next years, growth was regular and the factories thrived. In 1913, Cottin & Desgouttes could be proud of
    8.00
    1 votes
    138
    Federal National Mortgage Association

    Federal National Mortgage Association

    The Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA; OTCQB: FNMA), commonly known as Fannie Mae, was founded in 1938 during the Great Depression as part of the New Deal. It is a government-sponsored enterprise (GSE), though it has been a publicly traded company since 1968. The corporation's purpose is to expand the secondary mortgage market by securitizing mortgages in the form of mortgage-backed securities (MBS), allowing lenders to reinvest their assets into more lending and in effect increasing the number of lenders in the mortgage market by reducing the reliance on thrifts. For a comprehensive list of articles discussing Fannie Mae, see Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac: A Bibliography. The Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA), colloquially known as Fannie Mae, was established in 1938 by amendments to the National Housing Act after the Great Depression as part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal. Fannie Mae was established to provide local banks with federal money to finance home mortgages in an attempt to raise levels of home ownership and the availability of affordable housing. Fannie Mae created a liquid secondary mortgage market and thereby made it possible for banks and
    8.00
    1 votes
    139
    Georges Creek Railroad

    Georges Creek Railroad

    The Georges Creek Railroad was a railroad operated by the Georges Creek Coal and Iron Company in Western Maryland. The railroad operated from 1853 to 1863, when it was acquired by the Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad (C&P). Georges Creek Coal and Iron Company had constructed and was operating a blast furnace in Lonaconing, Maryland. With production going well, iron piled up. Delivery was a problem. After experimenting with a horse-powered tram road, the company realized that a rail line, built down the Georges Creek Valley toward the Potomac River at Westernport, would be the answer to the transportation issue. The company began to concentrate on a railroad to meet with the canal and the railroad at Westernport. By 1850, surveys were complete. The B&O reached Piedmont, across the Potomac River from Westernport, in July 1851. In September of that year, the railroad construction began up the Georges Creek. The 9.2 miles (14.8 km) rail line was opened on May 9, 1853 and ran from Lonaconing to Piedmont, West Virginia, across the Potomac River from Westernport, where it connected with a B&O line that had been completed in 1851. In June 1853, a total of 1,061 tons of coal were
    8.00
    1 votes
    140
    Italian Line

    Italian Line

    The Italian Line or Italia Line, whose official name was Italia di Navigazione S.p.A., was a passenger shipping line that operated regular transatlantic services between Italy and the United States, and Italy and South America. During the late 1960s the company turned to running cruises, and from 1981 it became a global freight operator. The company was founded in 1937 through a merger of the Genoa-based Navigazione Generale Italiana (NGI), the Turin-based Lloyd Sabaudo, and the Trieste-based Cosulich STN lines, encouraged by the Italian government. The new company acquired the Cosulich-owned ships MS Saturnia and MS Vulcania, the Lloyd Sabaudo-owned SS Conte Rosso, SS Conte Biancamano and SS Conte Grande and the NGI-owned SS Giulio Cesare, SS Duilio, SS Roma and MS Augustus. The same year two previously commissioned ocean liners were delivered to the company: SS Rex, that captured the Blue Riband in 1933, and SS Conte di Savoia. During World War II, the company lost many ships, including the Rex and the Conte di Savoia. Others were captured by the United States and converted into troopships; four of them survived the war: Conte Biancamano, Conte Grande, Saturnia, and
    8.00
    1 votes
    141
    Metrowerks

    Metrowerks

    Metrowerks was a company that developed software development tools for various desktop, handheld, embedded, and gaming platforms. Its flagship product, CodeWarrior, comprised an IDE, compilers, linkers, debuggers, libraries, and related tools. Freescale, its current parent company, continues to sell these tools. Founded by Greg Galanos in 1985 as Metropolis Computer Networks in Hudson, Quebec, Metrowerks originally developed software development tools for the Apple Macintosh and UNIX workstations. Its first product was a Modula-2 compiler originally developed by Niklaus Wirth, the creator of the ALGOL, Pascal and Modula-2 programming languages. It had limited success with this product. In 1992, it began an effort to develop development tools for Macintosh computers based on the newly-announced PowerPC processor as well as legacy support for 68k chipsets. It shipped the first commercial release of CodeWarrior in May 1994 at Apple's Worldwide Developers Conference. The release was a great success. Metrowerks received much credit for helping Apple succeed in its risky transition to a new processor. In March 1994 Metrowerks had its initial public offering, trading under the symbol
    8.00
    1 votes
    142
    Railtrack

    Railtrack

    Railtrack was a group of companies that owned the track, signalling, tunnels, bridges, level crossings and all but a handful of the stations of the British railway system from its formation in April 1994 until 2002. The company was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index but on 3 October 2002, the main operating arm - the owner and operator of the national railway network, Railtrack plc - was sold by its parent company Railtrack Group plc to "not for dividend" company Network Rail (a company limited by guarantee) and was later renamed Network Rail Infrastructure Ltd. Railtrack Group plc was renamed RT Group plc and was dissolved on 22 June 2010. Founded under Conservative legislation that privatised the railways, Railtrack took control of the railway infrastructure on 1 April 1994 and was floated on the Stock Exchange in May 1996. Robert Horton was first chairman, leading the organisation through the early years of its existence up to 1999, including an industrial dispute from June to September 1994. The fatal accidents at Southall in 1997 and Ladbroke Grove in 1999 called into question the effect that the fragmentation of the railway network
    8.00
    1 votes
    143
    Smith Automobile Company

    Smith Automobile Company

    The Smith Automobile Company of Topeka, Kansas was an early United States automobile manufacturing company which produced the Veracity, Smith, and Great Smith lines of automobiles from 1902 to 1912. They were the first automobiles made west of the Mississippi River. The company's first automobile was designed by Terry Stafford. However, lacking operating capital, he gained financing from the artificial limb manufacturing brothers Anton and Clement Smith. The company the brothers financed bore their name. The Great Smith of 1907 was priced at US$2500 with a 318 in (5213 cc) (4.5×5-inch, 114×127mm) watercooled four, four-speed sliding gear transmission (three forward, one reverse), multi-disk clutch. It featured 34×4 in (86×10 cm) spoke wheels and a 107 in (2718 mm) wheelbase. In 1908, a Great Smith became the first automobile to make it to the top of Pikes Peak. The Kansas Historical Society has a red and black Great Smith on display.
    8.00
    1 votes
    144
    Visio Corporation

    Visio Corporation

    Visio Corporation was a software company based in Seattle, Washington. Its principal product was a diagramming application software of the same name. It was acquired by Microsoft and is now in a division of that company, which continues to develop the application under the name Microsoft Visio. The company was founded in September 1990 as the Axon Corporation. All of its founders came from Aldus Corporation: Jeremy Jaech and Dave Walter were two of Aldus's original founders, and Ted Johnson was the lead developer of Aldus PageMaker for Windows. In 1992, before it had released a single product, the company changed its name to Shapeware. It finally released its first application, Visio, in November of that year. When Shapeware released Visio 4.0 on August 18, 1995, it was one of the first applications developed specifically for Windows 95. In November 1995, Shapeware changed its own name to Visio 1 and marked its initial public offering of stock under the ticker VSIO. On January 7, 2000, Microsoft Corporation acquired Visio in a stock swap. Microsoft gave Visio shareholders 0.45 Microsoft shares for each Visio share. Based on the value of Microsoft stock when the deal closed the
    8.00
    1 votes
    145
    Ansells

    Ansells

    Ansells was a brewery and brewing company located in the Aston area of Birmingham, England. The brewery was founded by Joseph Ansell in 1858 at Aston Cross on the site of several artesian wells (the later HP Sauce factory was adjacent). In 1888 the company was known as Joseph Ansell and Sons and, after becoming a limited company in 1901, grew by acquiring several other smaller local brewers including Rushtons (1923), Lucas of Leamington (1928) and Holt's Brewery (1934). Holt's logo, a Red Squirrel seen in side profile, was subsequently adopted by Ansells to identify its own beers. In 1961, Ansells merged with Taylor Walker & Co and Ind, Coope & Co to form Allied Breweries. The Aston Brewery stopped all production following an industrial dispute in 1981. The site is now a car showroom. Production was subsequently moved to Allied's Burton upon Trent brewery, and some former staff set up the Aston Manor Brewery. Ansells Mild and Best Bitter are currently produced for Allied's successor Carlsberg by JW Lees.
    7.00
    2 votes
    146
    AST Research

    AST Research

    AST Research, Inc. was a personal computer manufacturer, founded in Irvine, California, in 1980 by Albert Wong, Safi Qureshey and Thomas Yuen. (The name comes from the initials of their first names.) AST's original business was the manufacture and marketing of a broad range of microcomputer expansion cards, later focusing on higher-density replacements for the standard I/O cards in the IBM PC. A typical AST multifunction card of the mid-1980s would have an RS-232 serial port, a parallel printer port, a battery-backed clock/calendar (the original IBM PC did not have one), a game port, and 384 KB of DRAM (added to the 256 KB on the motherboard to reach the full complement of 640 KB) - marketed under the product name 'Six Pack'. AST Research also produced the Mac286, a pair of NuBus cards containing an Intel 80286 and RAM, allowing a Macintosh to run MS-DOS side by side with its existing operating system. These cards were announced March 1987 alongside Apple's Macintosh II line (AKA, the 'Open Mac'). The product line was eventually sold to Orange Micro, which developed the concept further. As PC manufacturers improved the integration of peripheral controllers on their motherboards,
    7.00
    2 votes
    147
    Deutsche Werft

    Deutsche Werft

    Deutsche Werft was a German shipbuilding company, located in Hamburg, Germany. It was founded in 1918 on initiative by Albert Ballin and with Gutehoffnungshütte (GHH), Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG) and Hamburg Amerikanische Packetfahrt Actien Gesellschaft (HAPAG) as investors. During World War II Deutsche Werft constructed 113 IX and XXIII U-boats for the Kriegsmarine. In 1968 Deutsche Werft was merged and became part of Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft.
    7.00
    2 votes
    148
    Imagine Software

    Imagine Software

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Bankruptcy
    Imagine Software was a British video games developer based in Liverpool which existed briefly in the early 1980s, initially producing software for the ZX Spectrum and VIC-20. The company rose quickly to prominence and was noted for its polished, high-budget approach to packaging and advertising (at a time when this was not commonplace in the British software industry), as well as its self-promotion and ambition. Following Imagine's prominent demise under mounting debts in 1984, the name was bought and used as a label by Ocean Software until the late-1980s. Imagine Software was founded in 1982 by former members of Bug-Byte including Mark Butler, David Lawson and Eugene Evans. Butler and Evans had previously worked at Microdigital, one of the first computer stores in the UK. Imagine Software produced several very successful games, including Arcadia for the Vic 20 and ZX Spectrum, before running into financial trouble in late 1983. Rumours of Imagine's financial situation began to circulate in December 1983 following the revelations that an estimated £50,000 of its advertising bills had not been paid. The following year the debts mounted, with further advertising and tape duplication
    7.00
    2 votes
    149
    Kaiser Jeep

    Kaiser Jeep

    Kaiser Jeep was the result of the merger between the Kaiser-Frazer Corporation, an independent automaker based in Willow Run, Michigan, and the Toledo, Ohio-based Willys-Overland Company. Founded by John North Willys, Willys-Overland had survived World War II by producing the Jeep vehicle for the armed forces, and Jeep was considered the crown jewel of Willys-Overland. While Joseph W. Frazer had left Kaiser-Frazer by 1950, Frazer had been the one-time president of Willys-Overland. Going it alone, Henry J. Kaiser pursued a merger between Kaiser Industries and Willys-Overland, which was arranged in 1953. Kaiser's finances ultimately dictated that he could no longer compete with the established manufacturers in the passenger car business in the US, but he saw value in Willys' Jeep line. In 1955, Kaiser phased out both the Kaiser and Willys passenger car lines, and shipped the dies to Argentina where the joint venture with the Argentina Government owned Industrias Kaiser Argentina (IKA) continued to build cars through 1977 when Renault took over. Under the name "Willys Motors", the Jeep-based truck line continued in the United States including the CJ (Civilian Jeep) Series, all steel
    7.00
    2 votes
    150
    Kettle Valley Railway

    Kettle Valley Railway

    The Kettle Valley Railroad (reporting mark KV) was a subsidiary of the Canadian Pacific Railway that operated in the Thompson-Okanagan region of southern British Columbia. It opened in 1915 and was abandoned in portions beginning in 1961, with the final segment falling into disuse in 1989. Much of the railroad's original route has been converted to a multi-use recreational trail, known as the Kettle Valley Rail Trail, which carries the Trans-Canada Trail through this part of British Columbia. The Kettle Valley Railroad was built out of necessity to service the growing mining demands in the Southern Interior region of British Columbia. When the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) completed the transcontinental railroad in 1885, the route cut through the Rocky Mountains at Kicking Horse and Rogers Passes, then followed the Fraser River for the remainder of the distance to Vancouver. This selected routing was significantly North of the mining towns within Southern Interior. Those critical of the CPR believed that the railroad should have been routed along the Dewdney Trail, through the Southern portions of British Columbia in order to fulfill politician pledges to keep Americans out of
    7.00
    2 votes
    151
    Minivac 601

    Minivac 601

    Minivac 601 Digital Computer Kit was an electromechanical digital computer product created by Claude Shannon and sold by Scientific Development Corporation as early as 1961 as an educational kit for digital circuits. It used electrical relays as logic switches and for storage. It had a six-bit binary input/output array, consisting of simple switches and indicator lights and a dial to input decimal numbers. Its design just barely allowed it to play winning Tic-Tac-Toe.
    7.00
    2 votes
    152
    Murphy-Gamble

    Murphy-Gamble

    Murphy-Gamble Limited was a long-time department store in the City of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The store was located at 118 Sparks Street in a 1909 building designed by C.P. Meredith, and for years used the slogan "Ottawa's Smart Store". Murphy-Gamble's fifth floor restaurant was known as the Rideau Room. Sparks Street was home to many of Ottawa's department stores during the first half of the 20th century, including Murphy-Gamble, C. Ross and Bryson-Graham. Ogilvy's, Freimans and Caplan's were located further east, on Rideau Street. The success of local department stores in Ottawa discouraged the entry of most national chains into the National Capital Region until the 1950s. Murphy-Gamble was purchased by Simpson's in 1971, and the store continued to operate under the Simpson's banner until 1983. The building is now occupied by a branch of Scotiabank. Except for a Zellers, there are no longer any department stores operating on Sparks Street. Although Murphy-Gamble was an Ottawa landmark and retail institution for years, it has largely been forgotten today.
    7.00
    2 votes
    153
    Neckar

    Neckar

    Neckar was a German automobile manufacturer which produced Fiat and Autobianchi vehicles under license in Heilbronn from 1957 to 1971. NSU had sold its Heilbronn factory (near the river Neckar) in 1929 to Fiat due to the economic crisis. Fiat started to produce Fiat Topolinos and Balillas models under license in this factory under the brand NSU-Fiat. The same models were also produced under license in France by SIMCA-Fiat. In 1957, NSU decided to restart the production of personal cars and asked this Fiat licensee to change its name; therefore NSU-Fiat became Neckar. Neckar was producing less than 25,000 vehicles a year, Fiat 500 (Neckar Weinsberg), 600 (Neckar Jagst) and 1100 (Neckar Europa) slightly modified, often more luxurious and sporty than the Fiats produced in Turin. The launch of the Fiat 1500 in 1961 and of the Neckar Panorama (derived from the Autobianchi Bianchina) allowed Neckar to reach a yearly production of 50,000 units in 1962. A coupe derived from the 1500 and called the Neckar Mistral was designed. A coupe and a convertible based on the Fiat 600 was produced as the Neckar Riviera. The Fiat 850 (as the Neckar Adria) was the last model produced by Neckar. The high
    7.00
    2 votes
    154
    Pan American World Airways

    Pan American World Airways

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Bankruptcy
    Pan American World Airways, commonly known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier in the United States from 1927 until its collapse on December 4, 1991. Founded in 1927 as a scheduled air mail and passenger service operating between Key West, Florida, and Havana, Cuba, the airline became a major company credited with many innovations that shaped the international airline industry, including the widespread use of jet aircraft, jumbo jets, and computerized reservation systems. It was also a founding member of the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the global airline industry association. Identified by its blue globe logo, the use of the word "Clipper" in aircraft names and call signs, and the white pilot uniform caps, the airline was a cultural icon of the 20th century. In an era dominated by flag carriers that were wholly or majority government-owned, it was also the unofficial flag carrier of the United States. During most of the jet era, Pan Am's flagship terminal was the Worldport located at John F. Kennedy Airport in New York. Pan American Airways, Incorporated (PAA) was founded as a shell company on March 14, 1927 by Air Corps Majors
    7.00
    2 votes
    155
    Trondhjems mekaniske Værksted

    Trondhjems mekaniske Værksted

    Trondhjems mekaniske Værksted or TMV was a major shipbuilding company in Trondheim, Norway. It was founded in 1872 by engineer and industrialist, Sophus August Weidemann. Weidemann had started in 1864 as manager of one of the pioneer companies in Trondheim. Weidemann resigned from his manager position in 1871 and founded Trondhjems mekaniske Værksted the following year. The company grew gradually until the turn of the century, when it had over 700 employees and was one of Norway's largest companies. For many years TMV was the biggest employer in Trondheim. When Germany invaded Norway in 1940 it pressed TMV into war service. German authorities seized the ship SS Springfjord, which TMV had launched in 1939 and was completing for a British shipping company, and assigned it to the Deutsche Dampfschiffahrts-Gesellschaft "Hansa" (DDG Hansa). In 1960 the Norwegian holding company Aker bought the majority of TMV's shares, merging them into the Aker Group. The company was closed in 1983. The former location of the company's shipbuilding business is still referred to as TMV by some citizens of Trondheim. The site currently houses the offices of the Nedre Elvehavn borough of Trondheim. The
    7.00
    2 votes
    156
    Wile Carding Mill

    Wile Carding Mill

    The Wile Carding Mill is a defunct carding mill, in Bridgewater, Nova Scotia, Canada. The mill is now operated as a museum. This water-powered mill was owned and operated by the Wile family from 1860 to 1968. The Wiles ran the mill but employed a number of workers, usually unmarried women, to operate the machinery. The mill was powered by a 7 horsepower (5 kW) overshot waterwheel using the water of Shady Brook, a tributary of the Lahave River.
    7.00
    2 votes
    157
    Anhut Motor Car Company

    Anhut Motor Car Company

    The Anhut was an automobile manufactured in Detroit, Michigan, by the Anhut Motor Car Company from 1909-1910. The company was founded by Michigan politician John Nicholson Anhut and the factory was located at 510 Howard Street in Detroit. Their vehicle, known as the Anhut 6, used a six-cylinder overhead valve engine of 3.7L displacement. They offered two- and four-seater open vehicle, manufactured with a common chassis. The company was succeeded in 1910 by the Barnes Automobile Company which failed a month later.
    6.00
    3 votes
    158
    ETI Skoda

    ETI Skoda

    Electric Transit, Inc. (ETI) was a joint venture between the Škoda group in the Czech Republic and AAI Corporation in the United States which made trolleybuses for the Dayton and San Francisco trolleybus systems, constructing a total of 330 trolleybuses. ETI was formed in 1994, and ownership was divided as 65% by Škoda and 35% by AAI. The latter was a wholly owned subsidiary of United Industrial Corporation. Up to that time, Škoda had built more than 12,000 trolleybuses since 1935, but none for cities outside Europe and Asia. The company was awarded its first contract in November 1994, when the Miami Valley Regional Transit Authority, of Dayton, Ohio placed an order for 63 two-axle trolleybuses. The order was later reduced to 61 vehicles, and ultimately to 57. Three prototype trolleybuses were delivered in December 1995 and January 1996. These were designated by ETI as model 14TrE, the E standing for "export", and were given fleet numbers 9601-9603 by MVRTA. Following modifications to the design, construction of the 54 production-series ETI trolleybuses for Dayton took place in 1998-99. These were model 14TrE2 and were numbered 9801-9854 in MVRTA's fleet. Among the modifications
    6.00
    3 votes
    159
    Gandalf

    Gandalf

    Gandalf Technologies, or simply Gandalf, was an early data communications company, best known for their modems and terminal adaptors that allowed computer terminals to connect to a number of host computers through a single interface. The name Gandalf became synonymous with modem in the Soviet Union and a few other countries. Gandalf also pioneered a radio-based mobile data terminal that was popular for many years in taxi dispatch systems. The rapid rise of TCP/IP relegated many of Gandalf's products to niche status, and the company eventually went bankrupt in 1997. Gandalf was originally formed by Desmond Cunningham and Colin Patterson (not to be confused with the hockey player of the same name) in 1971, and started business from the lobby of the Skyline Hotel, which is now the Crowne Plaza Hotel, on Albert Street in Ottawa. The company's first products were industrial-looking half-bridges for remote terminals which were supported by large terminal multiplexers on the "computer end". Gandalf referred to these systems as a "PACX", in analogy to the telephony PABX which provided similar services in the voice field. These systems allowed the user to "dial up" the Gandalf box and then
    6.00
    3 votes
    160
    IndyMac Bank

    IndyMac Bank

    OneWest Bank is a federal savings bank with 82 retail branches in southern California and approximately $14 billion in deposits as of February 2010. In March 2009, OneWest purchased many assets from the Independent National Mortgage Corporation, more commonly known as IndyMac, after it filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy. In March 2009, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) held an auction for IndyMac Bank, which it had seized in 2008, and sold it to IMB HoldCo LLC. The FDIC said at the time that IMB Management Holdings LP, a limited partnership composed primarily of hedge funds, controlled IMB Holdco LLC. The FDIC also said that IMB HoldCo was the only bidder for all of the IndyMac Bank assets. IMB HoldCo did not bid on the uninsured deposits at IndyMac Bank. There were a number of conditions of the FDIC sale to IMB HoldCo LLC, including that IMB HoldCo would capitalize OneWest with approximately $1.3 billion in cash. As another condition of the sale IMB HoldCo also agreed to continue the FDIC’s existing loan modification program. The FDIC also agreed to share losses on a portfolio of qualifying loans, with IMB HoldCo assuming the first 20% of losses, with the FDIC sharing
    6.00
    3 votes
    161
    National Coal Board

    National Coal Board

    The National Coal Board (NCB) was the statutory corporation created to run the nationalised coal mining industry in the United Kingdom. Set up under the Coal Industry Nationalisation Act 1946, it took over the mines on "vesting day", 1 January 1947. In 1987 it was renamed the British Coal Corporation, whose assets were subsequently privatised. Coal mines had been taken under government control during First and Second World Wars. A Royal Commission in 1919 gave R.H. Tawney, Sidney Webb, and Sir Leo Chiozza Money the opportunity to publicly advocate nationalisation, but this was rejected as a solution at that time. Coal reserves were nationalised in 1942 and placed under the control of the Coal Commission, but the mining industry itself remained in private hands. Many of the coal companies were very small, although consolidation was underway in the years running up to nationalisation. The NCB was one of a number of public corporations created by Clement Attlee's post-war Labour government to run nationalised industries. The Coal Industry Nationalisation Act received the Royal Assent on 12 July 1946 and the NCB was formally constituted on 15 July, with Lord Hyndley as Chairman. The
    6.00
    3 votes
    162
    Spyker

    Spyker

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Bankruptcy
    Spyker was a Dutch car manufacturer, started in 1880 by coachbuilders Jacobus and Hendrik-Jan Spijker, but to be able to market the brand better in foreign countries, in 1903 the 'ij' was changed into 'y'. They were originally based in Hilversum but in 1898 moved to Trompenburg, Amsterdam. In 1898 Spyker manufactured the "Golden Carriage", still in use by the Dutch Queen today. In 1899 they started building automobiles and in 1900 put their first models on display, two-cylinder 3 hp and 5 hp similar to the Benz. Four-cylinder models were introduced in 1903, along with the six-cylinder Spyker 60 HP, a racer with the world's first ever four-wheel drive car with a single engine and four-wheel brakes. An engine with six cylinders was also a world's first. The 1905 cars featured a round radiator grille which became a feature of many of the pre war cars. In 1913 the company was having financial problems again and in 1915 was taken over by new owners and renamed Nederlandsche Automobiel en Vliegtuigfabriek Trompenburg (Dutch Car and Aircraft company). Under the new owners, the previous complex model range was simplified and a new car, the 13/30 C1, introduced; sales were disappointing. In
    6.00
    3 votes
    163
    Willamette Iron and Steel Works

    Willamette Iron and Steel Works

    Willamette Iron Works (also known as Willamette Iron and Steel Company or WISCO) was a general foundry and machine business established in 1865 in Portland, Oregon, originally specializing in the manufacture of steamboat boilers and engines. In 1904, the company changed its name to Willamette Iron and Steel Works, under which name it operated continually until its close in 1990. The works was very busy during both World War I and World War II, building small naval auxiliaries, minesweepers, patrol craft, submarine chasers, and non-self-propelled lighters. These were built through WISCO's relationship with Henry Kaiser. The company built more than 70 ships during World War II, but they were smaller than those built by the three nearby Kaiser Shipyards could produce. The ships were built on contract to the US government and to the British. Between the wars, the shipyard concentrated on building small commercial vessels. During the 1920s, the company manufactured a geared steam locomotive known as the "Willamette", a Shay-type locomotive for use in logging operations in Washington and Oregon. Between 1901 and 1931 Willamette built over 2500 steam donkeys for use in the logging
    6.00
    3 votes
    164
    Coleco

    Coleco

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Bankruptcy
    Coleco is an American company founded in 1932 by Maurice Greenberg as "Connecticut Leather Company". It became a highly successful toy company in the 1980s, known for its mass-produced version of Cabbage Patch Kids dolls and its video game consoles, the Coleco Telstar and ColecoVision. The company is headquartered in Manalapan, New Jersey. Coleco originally processed shoe leather, which later led to a business in leather craft kits in the 1950s. They began manufacturing plastic moulding and moved into plastic wading pools in the 1960s. The leather part of the business was then sold off. Under CEO Arnold Greenberg, the company entered the video game console business with the Telstar in 1976. Dozens of companies were introducing game systems that year after Atari's successful Pong console. Nearly all of these new games were based on General Instrument's "Pong-on-a-chip". However, General Instrument had underestimated demand, and there were severe shortages. Coleco had been one of the first to place an order, and was one of the few companies to receive an order in full. Though dedicated game consoles did not last long on the market, their early order enabled Coleco to break
    5.67
    3 votes
    165
    Fortis

    Fortis

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Acquisition
    Fortis N.V./S.A. was a company active in insurance, banking and investment management. In 2007 it was the 20th largest business in the world by revenue but after encountering severe problems in the financial crisis of 2008, most of the company was sold in parts, with only insurance activities remaining. The Benelux countries were Fortis's home base and its strength. Fortis's banking operations included network (retail), commercial, and merchant banking; its insurance products included life, health, and property/casualty lines. Products were sold through independent agents, brokers and financial planners, and through branches of Fortis Bank. It was listed on the Euronext Brussels, Euronext Amsterdam, and Luxembourg stock exchanges. The company was broken up after having critical difficulty financing its part of a joint acquisition of ABN AMRO (as a member of a consortium which also included Royal Bank of Scotland Group and Banco Santander). After receiving a bailout from the Benelux governments, its Belgian banking operations were sold to BNP Paribas, while its insurance and banking subsidiaries in the Netherlands were nationalised by the Dutch government and renamed ABN AMRO. The
    5.67
    3 votes
    166
    Travel Merry Hill

    Travel Merry Hill

    Merry Hill Minibuses was the bus operating arm of the Merry Hill Shopping Centre in Dudley, England. It was known as Travel Merry Hill after 1998 following a takeover by National Express Group. The Merry Hill Minibus company was originally owned by the former owners of the Merry Hill Centre, Richardson Developments Limited. Originally launched in 1987 to compete with WMPTE's "Mini Buzz" service, at that time the Merry Hill Minibuses were the major form of public transport linking the surrounding areas with the shopping centre, of which approximately half had been opened by the time the service was launched (the first retailers had moved to the centre in 1985 and it was completed in 1989). In the early days, the fleet consisted of Carlyle Works bodied Freight Rover Sherpa diesel vehicles. An attraction to customers of the Merry Hill Minibus service was that the buses gave change if you did not have the exact fare, which was not the case with the Autofare dominated WMPTE fleet. The company intended to operate around 100 vehicles from the time of the centre's completion in November 1989, but stalled at 46 following the Early 1990s recession. During 1997 Merry Hill Minibuses was taken
    5.67
    3 votes
    167
    Alvis plc

    Alvis plc

    Alvis Ltd. was created when United Scientific Holdings plc acquired the Alvis division of the nationalised vehicle manufacturer British Leyland in 1981. United Scientific maintained its own name until 1992 when the group was renamed Alvis plc. Alvis acquired Swedish armoured vehicle manufacturer Hagglunds AB in 1997 and the armoured vehicle business of GKN in 1998. Finally, it acquired Vickers Defence Systems from Rolls-Royce in October 2002. Alvis was acquired by BAE Systems in 2004 and became BAE Systems Land Systems (Weapons & Vehicles), now part of the BAE Systems Land and Armaments operating group. Alvis became part of Rover in 1965, which ended the company's car manufacturing in 1967 to allow it to concentrate on the manufacture of armoured vehicles. In 1968 Rover and its Alvis subsidiary were incorporated into the Leyland Motor Corporation later British Leyland or BL. In 1981 the then nationalised BL sold the Alvis business to United Scientific Holdings for £27 million. United Scientific was a manufacturer of military sighting products. In 1992 United Scientific adopted the name Alvis plc. In October 1997 Alvis acquired Hägglunds which was later renamed Alvis Hagglunds AB.
    6.50
    2 votes
    168
    Chase Manhattan Bank

    Chase Manhattan Bank

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Merger
    JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., doing business as Chase, is a national bank that constitutes the consumer and commercial banking subsidiary of financial services firm JPMorgan Chase. The bank was known as Chase Manhattan Bank until it merged with J.P. Morgan & Co. in 2000. Chase Manhattan Bank was formed by the merger of the Chase National Bank and the Bank of the Manhattan Company in 1955. The bank is headquartered in Chicago, since its merger with Bank One Corporation in 2004. In 2008, the bank acquired the deposits and most assets of Washington Mutual. Chase offers more than 5,100 branches and 16,100 ATMs nationwide. JP Morgan Chase has more than 240,000 employees and operates in more than 60 countries. JP Morgan Chase currently has assets of approximately $2.3 trillion. JP Morgan Chase, through its Chase subsidiary, is one of the Big Four banks of the United States. Chase traces its history back to the founding of The Manhattan Company by Aaron Burr on September 1, 1799, in a house at 40 Wall Street: Over two centuries after their duel, it can be said that the Bank of the Manhattan Company ultimately won the "business" side of the rivalry. In 2006, the modern-day Chase bought the
    6.50
    2 votes
    169
    Isokon

    Isokon

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Bankruptcy
    The London-based Isokon firm was founded in 1929 to design and construct modernist houses and flats, and subsequently furniture and fittings for them. Originally called Wells Coates and Partners, the name was changed in 1931 to Isokon, a name derived from Isometric Unit Construction, bearing an allusion to Constructivism. Unusually for a design company, its directors were a bacteriologist Molly Pritchard, a solicitor Frederick Graham-Maw, son of the founder of the law firm, Rowe and Maw, Frederick James Maw and an economist Robert S Spicer. In actuality, the company was run by Molly's husband Jack Pritchard whose initial involvement was to handle the economics, publicity and marketing, but who later went on to hire designers and direct the company. However Isokon was never commercially successful. But the end came when World War II began and its supply of plywood was cut off. The Isokon Furniture Company ceased production in 1939. Isokon's key project was the Lawn Road Flats in Hampstead, sometimes called the Isokon building, which opened on 9 July 1934. Intended to be the last word in contemporary modernist living, the block of flats were aimed at the market of new young
    6.50
    2 votes
    170
    J. Lyons and Co.

    J. Lyons and Co.

    J. Lyons & Co. was a market-dominant British restaurant-chain, food-manufacturing, and hotel conglomerate founded in 1887 as a spin-off from the Salmon & Gluckstein tobacco company. Joseph Nathaniel Lyons (born 1847) was appointed to run the company, and it was named after him. J. Lyons & Co. was a pioneer in introducing computers to business. Between 1947 and 1963, the company manufactured and sold a range of LEO (Lyons Electronic Office) computers. The company was a substantial food manufacturer, with factories at Cadby Hall in Hammersmith, and from 1921 at Greenford, producing bread, cakes, pies, tea, coffee and ice cream. To the public, J. Lyons & Co. were best known for their chain of tea shops which began in 1894 and finally closed in 1981, and for the Lyons Corner Houses in the West End of London. The tea shops were slightly more up-market than their ABC (Aerated Bread Company) counterparts. They were notable for their interior design, from the 1920s Oliver P. Bernard being consultant artistic director. Until the 1940s they had a certain working-class chic, but by the 1950s and 60s they were quick stops for busy shoppers where one could get a cup of tea and a snack or a
    6.50
    2 votes
    171
    Matsubishi Department Store

    Matsubishi Department Store

    The Matsubishi Department Store (松菱百貨店, Matsubishi Hyakkaten) was a Japanese department store located in Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan. It was established in 1937 but by November 14, 2001, the store had accrued a 32.8 billion yen debt and went bankrupt. The department store is one of the main settings for the visual novel Planetarian: Chiisana Hoshi no Yume developed by Key.
    6.50
    2 votes
    172
    Ogilvy's

    Ogilvy's

    Charles Ogilvy Limited, or "Ogilvy's", was a department store in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, founded in 1887. For much of the 20th century, Ogilvy's was one of Ottawa's higher-end department stores. Charles Ogilvy (1861-1947) was born in Edinburgh, Scotland and emigrated to Canada with his family in 1863. His father, James Ogilvy, established a stationery store in Ottawa, and Charles followed in the retail business by opening his own dry goods shop at 92 Rideau Street in 1887. The business prospered and moved to new premises at 126 Rideau Street in 1907. The new store was designed by Ottawa architect W.E. Noffke, and the building was expanded in 1917, 1931 and 1934 (top 2 floors built in 1931 and 1934 were designed by architect A.J. Hazelgrove). Ogilvy's was a thriving retail enterprise, famous for its "tartan boxes". The success of Ottawa's local department stores, such as Ogilvy's, Freimans, Murphy-Gamble and Caplan's discouraged the expansion of national chains (including Eaton's, Simpson's, Simpsons-Sears and The Bay) into the National Capital Region until the 1950s (Simpsons-Sears opened its Carlingwood outlet in 1955). Over time, Ogilvy's opened a woodworking shop in Westboro
    6.50
    2 votes
    173
    Pearson and Darling

    Pearson and Darling

    Pearson and Darling was an architectural firm based in Toronto from 1897 through 1923, a key player in shaping the urban look of the city and the rest of Canada in the first half of the 20th century. The firm was organized first as Darling, Curry, Sproatt, & Pearson in 1892, with partners Frank Darling, S. George Curry, Henry Sproatt, and John A. Pearson. From 1893 through 1896 it evolved into Darling, Sproatt & Pearson, then finally Pearson and Darling was founded as such in 1897. Its heyday began with Darling's commissions from the Canadian Bank of Commerce in 1898, grand Beaux-Arts buildings in Toronto, Winnipeg, Montreal, and Vancouver, and dozens of smaller branches in smaller Canadian cities and towns. Darling's training with the English architect George Edmund Street in the early 1870s brought a serious, substantial, Victorian influence, well-suited to large civic and institutional projects in the years of the nation's development. Their subsequent projects included the first tall steel-frame building in Canada (the Royal Tower in Winnipeg, 1904), the tallest building in Canada for three decades (the 1930 Canadian Bank of Commerce Building in Toronto), and the largest single
    6.50
    2 votes
    174
    Darracq

    Darracq

    Automobiles Darracq S.A. was a French motor vehicle manufacturing company founded in 1896 by Alexandre Darracq. Using part of the substantial profit he had made from selling his Gladiator bicycle factory to Adolpe Clément, Darracq began operating from a plant in the Paris suburb of Suresnes. The company started with a Millet motorcycle, powered by a five-cylinder rotary engine, but shortly introduced an electric brougham, and in 1898 a Leon Bolleé-designed voiturette tricar. This proved a débâcle: the steering was problematic, the five-speed belt drive "a masterpiece of bad design", and the hot tube ignition crude, proving the £10,000 Darracq had paid for the design a mistake. In 1900, the company produced its first vehicle with an internal combustion engine. Designed by Ribeyrolles, this was a 6.5 hp (4.8 kW; 6.6 PS) voiture legére powered by a 785 cc (47.9 cu in) single, and featured shaft drive and three speed column gear change. While not as successful as hoped, one hundred were sold. In 1902, Darracq signed a contract with Adam Opel to jointly produce vehicles in the German Empire under licence, with the brand name "Opel Darracq". The Darracq automobile company prospered, such
    7.00
    1 votes
    175
    Donaldson and Meier

    Donaldson and Meier

    Donaldson and Meier was an architectural firm based in Detroit, Michigan. Founded in 1880 by John Donaldson (1854–1941) and Henry J. Meier (1858–1917) the firm produced a large and varied number of commissions in Detroit and southeastern Michigan. Donaldson, the principal designer of the partnership from a design point of view was born in Stirling, Scotland and immigrated to Detroit at a young age. He returned to Europe where he studied at the Art Academy in Munich, Germany, and at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, France. The early designs from the firm, such as the Unitarian Church in Ann Arbor, were frequently in the Richardsonian Romanesque style but as with many other architectural companies whose longevity outlast the style of the day, their output changed with the times. Their last buildings, such as the David Stott Building, were in the art deco genre. Like most of the prominent architects in Detroit during the 1920s and 1930s, Donaldson and Meier employed sculptor Lee Lawrie to produce a panel for Beaumont Tower and used Corrado Parducci to create sculpture for many of their other buildings.
    7.00
    1 votes
    176
    Ernst Home & Nursery

    Ernst Home & Nursery

    Ernst Home Centers, Inc. was a chain of home improvement retail stores founded in Seattle, Washington. Ernst was started in 1893 by Seattle brothers Charles and Fred Ernst and became a division of Pay 'n Save, one of the largest retail companies in the Northwestern United States, in 1960. After a 1984 takeover of Pay 'n Save, Ernst was sold off and went public in 1994. Following several highly publicized lawsuits and a failed attempt to open larger stores, the company filed for bankruptcy in 1996 and liquidated in early 1997. At the company's peak, it operated 95 stores in 12 western U.S. states. In 1893, brothers Charles and Fred Ernst started Ernst Hardware in Seattle, Washington. In 1907, the new company was incorporated as Ernst Hardware and Plumbing Co. and moved to 512 Pike Street in downtown Seattle. During the 1950s, M. Lamont Bean, president of Seattle-based drugstore chain Pay 'n Save, expressed the possibility of operating non-drugstore businesses. Bean later took interest in Ernst and, in February 1960, came to an agreement with Fred Ernst to buy his nine hardware stores. Two years later, Pay 'n Save acquired Malmo Nursery and began opening Ernst-Malmo combination
    7.00
    1 votes
    177
    Phelon & Moore

    Phelon & Moore

    Phelon & Moore manufactured motorcycles in Cleckheaton, Yorkshire, England from 1904 to 1967 particularly those under the Panther marque. They became identified with one particular design of motorcycle which had a large sloping 40-degree single-cylinder engine as a stressed front frame member. This design spanned the entire history of the company, starting with a 500 cc model and ending with a 645 cc model. The sloping stressed member concept was patented in 1900 by Joah ("John") Carver Phelon and his nephew Harry Rayner. Phelon & Rayner made the first chain-driven motorcycle in 1900. They could not afford to put their first bike into production, so sold the design to Humber for royalties, and that design was produced by Humber till 1907. After Harry Rayner died in a car accident, Joah Phelon went into partnership with Richard Moore. Phelon & Moore was established in 1904. A clutch and two speed gear with chain drive was standard on a P&M in 1906. P&M motorcycles competed in the first International Six Days Trial (ISDT) in 1913. ( Now called the International Six Days Enduro). The Royal Flying Corps used P&M motorcycles during the First World War, keeping P&M busy throughout the
    7.00
    1 votes
    178
    Aspen Airways

    Aspen Airways

    Aspen Airways (IATA: AP, ICAO: ASP, Call sign: Aspen Air) was a former airline carrier and regional affiliate of United Express and based in Hangar 5 in Stapleton International Airport in Denver, Colorado. It ceased operations in 1989 when it was acquired by Mesa Airlines and Air Wisconsin Services, Inc. Aspen Airways was named after the aspen tree and not the town of Aspen, Colorado where it was originally based before moving its headquarters to Denver Stapleton Airport. Aspen Airways was founded in 1952 by Walter Paepcke, as the flight department of the Aspen Institute of Humanistic Studies. It was created to fly personnel between Aspen and Denver. The airline's first aircraft were surplus Douglas DC-3s. In 1963, Aspen Airways was purchased by J.W. "Bill" Ringsby. During the late 1960's, Aspen operated a Convair 240 prop aircraft leased from Alaska Airlines and by 1970 was operating four Convair 340/440 prop airliners which were purchased used from Delta Air Lines. In the early 1970's, Aspen began operating Convair 580 turboprop aircraft. The twin engine CV-580 became the workhorse of the Aspen fleet. Other aircraft operated by Aspen Airways in the 1960's included a Fairchild
    6.00
    2 votes
    179
    Atari, Inc

    Atari, Inc

    Atari, Inc. was an American video game and home computer company founded in 1972 by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney. Primarily responsible for the formation of the video arcade and modern video game industries, the company was closed and its assets split in 1984 as a direct result of the North American video game crash of 1983. In 1966, Nolan Bushnell saw Spacewar! for the first time at the University of Utah. Deciding there was commercial potential in a coin-op version, several years later he and Ted Dabney worked on a hand-wired custom computer capable of playing it on a black and white television in a single-player mode where the player shot at two orbiting UFOs. The resulting game, Computer Space, was released by a coin-op game company, Nutting Associates. Computer Space did not fare well commercially when it was placed in Nutting's customary market, bars. Feeling that the game was simply too complex for the average customer unfamiliar and unsure with the new technology, Bushnell started looking for new ideas. Bushnell and Ted Dabney left Nutting to form their own engineering firm, Syzygy Engineering, and soon hired Al Alcorn as their first design engineer. Initially wanting to
    6.00
    2 votes
    180
    Austin Rover Group

    Austin Rover Group

    The Austin Rover Group (ARG) was a British motor manufacturer. It was formed in 1981 as the mass-market car manufacturing subsidiary of British Leyland (BL). ARG was the result of a comprehensive restructuring programme intended to rescue BL from almost-certain oblivion, and with the Triumph, Morris, Riley and Wolseley marques now effectively dead, the new, leaner car business was rechristened as the Austin Rover Group and focused primarily on the Austin and Rover marques. In 1989, ARG was rebranded as Rover Group, the name of its owner. In 2008, Tata Motors purchased the Rover marque, as well as former BL/Rover Group businesses, Land Rover and Jaguar Cars, and the former BL marques Daimler and Lanchester, from the Ford Motor Company. The Austin marque has been retired and the Mini marque is owned by BMW. Following the collapse of the British Leyland Motor Corporation (BLMC) in 1975 and the stark Ryder Report on the ailing firm, the resulting government bail-out and nationalisation saw the company being renamed to British Leyland (BL). However, the huge industrial relations problems, ineffectual management and product duplication that had plagued the company up to the
    6.00
    2 votes
    181
    Maserati

    Maserati

    Fabbrica Candele Accumulatori Maserati S.p.A. ("Maserati Spark Plugs Batteries factory" 1947 in Modena - 1960) was an Italian manufacturer of motoring components (spark plugs and accumulators), as well as mopeds and motorcycles. It was part of Adolfo Orsis large industrial corporation (which included the Maserati car manufacturer), that was divided among siblings (1953). His sister Ida Orsi received over the component branch that was not doing well at the time. By purchasing the Bologna-based motorcycle manufacturer Italmoto (1953), the company entered a new market and sold well locally and had an export line to South Africa, Europe and North America as well. The products were allowed to continue the use of the well-known Maserati name and the company's trident trademark. The first Maserati motorcycles were the Tipo 125/T2, based on a DKW design, and the Tipo 160/T4, based on the Italmoto 160 tourer. Maserati motorcycles were produced in 125cc, 160cc, 175cc and 250cc models with two-stroke and four-stroke engine configurations. Maserati mopeds were offered in 50cc and 75cc versions. Production ended due increased competition from other manufacturers (Moto Morini, MV Agusta, Benelli
    6.00
    2 votes
    182
    North West Company

    North West Company

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Merger
    The North West Company was a fur trading business headquartered in Montreal from 1779 to 1821. It competed with increasing success against the Hudson's Bay Company in what was to become Western Canada. With great wealth at stake, tensions between the companies increased to the point where several minor armed skirmishes broke out, and the two companies were forced to merge. After the French landed in Quebec in 1608 coureurs des bois spread out and built a fur trade empire in the St. Lawrence basin. The French competed with the Dutch (from 1614) and English (1664) in New York and the English on Hudson Bay (1670). Unlike the French who travelled into the interior, the English confined themselves to trading posts on Hudson Bay. After 1731 La Vérendrye pushed trade west beyond Lake Winnipeg. After the conquest in 1763 management was taken over by English-speakers. These so-called "Pedlars" began to merge because competition cost them money and because of the high costs of outfitting canoes to the far west. There are historical references to a North West Company as early as 1770, involving the Montreal-based traders Benjamin Frobisher, Isaac Todd, Alexander Henry the elder and others,
    6.00
    2 votes
    183
    The South Sea Company

    The South Sea Company

    The South Sea Company was a British joint-stock company founded in 1711, created as a public-private partnership to consolidate and reduce the cost of national debt. The company was also granted a monopoly to trade with South America, hence its name. At the time it was created, Britain was involved in the War of the Spanish Succession and Spain controlled South America. There was no realistic prospect that trade would take place and the company never realised any significant profit from its monopoly. Company stock rose greatly in value as it expanded its operations dealing in government debt, peaking in 1720 before collapsing to little above its original flotation price. This became known as the South Sea Bubble. A considerable number of persons were ruined by the share collapse, and the national economy greatly reduced as a result. The founders of the scheme engaged in insider trading, using their advance knowledge of when national debt was to be consolidated to make large profits from purchasing debt in advance. Huge bribes were given to politicians to support the Acts of Parliament necessary for the scheme. Company money was used to deal in its own shares, and selected
    6.00
    2 votes
    184
    TRW

    TRW

    TRW Inc. was an American corporation involved in a variety of businesses, mainly aerospace, automotive, and credit reporting. It was a pioneer in multiple fields including electronic components, integrated circuits, computers, software and systems engineering. TRW built many spacecraft, including Pioneer 1, Pioneer 10, and several space-based observatories. It was #57 on the Fortune 500 list, and had 122,258 employees. TRW’s roots were founded in 1901, and it lasted more than a century until being acquired by Northrop Grumman in 2002. It helped create a variety of corporations, including Pacific Semiconductors, the Aerospace Corporation, Bunker-Ramo, Experian, and TRW Automotive which is now #161 on the Fortune 500. In 1953, the company was recruited to lead the development of America’s first ICBM. Starting with the initial design by Convair, the multi-corporate team launched Atlas in 1957 after some spectacular failures. It flew its full range in 1958, and was adapted to fly the Mercury astronauts into orbit. TRW also led development of the Titan missile, which was later adapted to fly the Gemini missions. The company served the US Air Force as systems engineers on all subsequent
    6.00
    2 votes
    185
    William Cramp and Sons

    William Cramp and Sons

    William Cramp & Sons Shipbuilding Company of Philadelphia was founded in 1825 by William Cramp, and was the preeminent U.S. iron shipbuilder of the late 19th century. The American Ship & Commerce Corporation bought the yard in 1919 but closed it in 1927 as fewer ships were ordered by the U.S. Navy after passage of the Naval Limitations Treaty in 1923. In 1940, the Navy spent $22 million to reopen the yard to build cruisers and submarines. Cramp used the long slipways to construct two submarines at a time, with the intention of launching them simultaneously. However, the shipyard's submarine construction program was not especially successful, as poor management hindered the delivery of the boats. The first delivery was made two years after keel laying, and fitting out was then done by Portsmouth Navy Yard. The best construction time for a submarine was 644 days. Cramp closed in 1947 and the site, on the Delaware River, became an industrial park. Works of the firm that are listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places include:
    6.00
    2 votes
    186
    Ballantine

    Ballantine

    Ballantine was an American brewery. It was best known for Ballantine Ale, a pale ale that is one of the oldest brands of beer in the United States. At its peak, Ballantine was the 4th largest brewer in the United States. The company was founded in 1840 in Newark, New Jersey, by Peter Ballantine (1791–1883), who emigrated from Scotland. The company was originally incorporated as the Patterson & Ballantine Brewing Company. Ballantine rented an old brewing site which had dated back to 1805. Around 1850, Ballantine bought out his partner and purchased land near the Passaic River to brew his ale. His three sons joined the business and in 1857 the company was renamed P. Ballantine and Sons. The name would be used for the next 115 years, until the company closed its brewery in May 1972. By 1879, it had become sixth largest brewery in the US, almost twice as large as Anheuser-Busch. Ballantine added a second brewery location, also in Newark, in order to brew lager beer to fill out the company product line. Peter Ballantine died in 1883 and his eldest son had died just a few months earlier. His second oldest son then controlled the company until his own death from cancer in 1895. The last
    5.00
    3 votes
    187
    DuMont Television Network

    DuMont Television Network

    The DuMont Television Network, also known as the DuMont Network, DuMont, Du Mont, or (incorrectly) Dumont (pronunciation: /duːmɒnt/) was one of the world's pioneer commercial television networks, rivalling NBC for the distinction of being first overall. It began operation in the United States in 1946. It was owned by DuMont Laboratories, a television equipment and set manufacturer. The network was hindered by the prohibitive cost of broadcasting, by Federal Communications Commission regulations which restricted the company's growth, and even by the company's partner, Paramount Pictures. Despite several innovations in broadcasting and the creation of one of television's biggest stars of the 1950s, the network never found itself on solid financial ground. Forced to expand on UHF channels during an era when UHF was not profitable, DuMont ceased broadcasting in 1956. DuMont's latter-day obscurity has prompted at least one notable TV historian to refer to it as the "Forgotten Network". A few popular DuMont programs, such as Cavalcade of Stars and Emmy Award winner Life Is Worth Living, appear in TV retrospectives or are mentioned briefly in books about U.S. television history, but
    5.00
    3 votes
    188
    Shinola

    Shinola

    Shinola is a brand of wax shoe polish that was available in the early- to mid-20th century. The original trademark was filed in 1929 by 2-in-1 Shinola-Bixby Corporation, New York. Shinola was immortalized in colloquial English by the phrase You don't know shit from Shinola which first became widely popular during World War II. In the film comedy The Jerk, the character Navin R. Johnson played by Steve Martin is tested by "Daddy" Richard Ward (actor) on whether he knows the difference between shit and Shinola before leaving home. Dolly Parton wrote the song "You don't know love from Shinola" for her 2008 Backwoods Barbie album.
    5.00
    3 votes
    189
    Bear Stearns

    Bear Stearns

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Acquisition
    The Bear Stearns Companies, Inc. (former NYSE ticker symbol BSC) based in New York City, was a global investment bank and securities trading and brokerage firm, until its sale to JPMorgan Chase in 2008 during the global financial crisis and recession. Its main business areas, based on 2006 net revenue distributions, were capital markets (equities, fixed income, investment banking; just under 80%), wealth management (under 10%), and global clearing services (12%). Bear Stearns was involved in securitization and issued large amounts of asset-backed securities, which in the case of mortgages were pioneered by Lewis Ranieri, "the father of mortgage securities". As investor losses mounted in those markets in 2006 and 2007, the company actually increased its exposure, especially the mortgage-backed assets that were central to the subprime mortgage crisis. In March 2008, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York provided an emergency loan to try to avert a sudden collapse of the company. The company could not be saved and was sold to JP Morgan Chase for $10 per share, a price far below its pre-crisis 52-week high of $133.20 per share, but not as low as the $2 per share originally agreed upon
    5.50
    2 votes
    190
    Glenn L. Martin Company

    Glenn L. Martin Company

    The Glenn L. Martin Company was an American aircraft and aerospace manufacturing company that was founded by the aviation pioneer Glenn L. Martin. The Martin Company produced many important aircraft for the defense of the United States and its allies, especially during World War II and the Cold War. Also, during the 1950s and 60s, the Martin Company moved gradually out of the aircraft industry and into the guided missile, space exploration, and space utilization industries. In 1961, the Martin Company merged with the American-Marietta Corporation, a large sand and gravel mining company, forming the Martin Marietta Corporation. Then, in 1995, Martin Marietta merged with aerospace giant Lockheed to form the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Glenn L. Martin Company was founded by aviation pioneer Glenn Luther Martin on August 16, 1912. Martin started out building military trainers in Santa Ana, California, and then in 1916, Martin accepted a merger offer from the Wright Company, creating the Wright-Martin Aircraft Company in September. This new company did not go well, and Glenn Martin left it to form a second Glenn L. Martin Company on September 10, 1917. This time based in Cleveland,
    5.50
    2 votes
    191
    Kaypro

    Kaypro

    Kaypro Corporation, commonly called Kaypro, was an American home/personal computer manufacturer of the 1980s. The company was founded by Non-Linear Systems to develop computers to compete with the then-popular Osborne 1 portable microcomputer. Kaypro produced a line of rugged, portable CP/M-based computers sold with an extensive software bundle which supplanted its competitors and quickly became one of the top selling personal computer lines of the early 1980s. While exceptionally loyal to its original consumer base, Kaypro was slow to adapt to the changing computer market and the advent of IBM PC compatible technology. It faded from the mainstream before the end of the decade and was eventually forced into filing for bankruptcy in 1992. Kaypro began as Non-Linear Systems, a maker of electronic test equipment, founded in 1952 by Andrew Kay, the inventor of the digital voltmeter. In 1981, Non-Linear Systems began designing a personal computer, called KayComp, that would compete with the popular Osborne 1 transportable microcomputer. In 1982, Non-Linear Systems organized a daughter company named the Kaypro Corporation and rechristened the computer with the same name. The first
    5.50
    2 votes
    192
    Supermarine

    Supermarine

    Supermarine was a British aircraft manufacturer that became famous for producing a range of sea planes and the Supermarine Spitfire fighter. Noel Pemberton Billing set up a company, Pemberton-Billing Ltd, in 1913 to produce sea-going aircraft. Its telegraphic address, used for sending telegrams and cables to the company, was; Supermarine, Southampton. It produced a couple of prototypes using quadruplane designs to shoot down zeppelins; the Supermarine P.B.29 and the Supermarine Nighthawk. The aircraft were fitted with the recoilless Davis gun and the Nighthawk had a separate powerplant to power a searchlight. Upon election as an MP in 1916 Pemberton-Billing sold the company to his factory manager and longtime associate Hubert Scott-Paine who renamed the company Supermarine Aviation Works Ltd. The company became famous for its successes in the Schneider Trophy for seaplanes, especially the three wins in a row of 1927, 1929 and 1931. In 1928 Vickers-Armstrongs took over Supermarine as Supermarine Aviation Works (Vickers) Ltd and in 1938 all Vickers-Armstrongs aviation interests were reorganised to become Vickers-Armstrongs (Aircraft) Ltd, although Supermarine continued to design,
    5.50
    2 votes
    193
    Zak's

    Zak's

    Zak's Bus and Coach Services was founded in Great Barr by Kevin Fazakarley, a former taxi operator, in 1978, following a brief venture into the operation of Spanish express coach holidays. The company initially operated coaches and minibuses on social service contracts, before moving into local bus operation following deregulation, having won the Centro contract to operate evening journeys on service 52, between Perry Beeches and Birmingham City Centre, and deciding to add its own commercial daytime service on that route. The company expanded its bus operations over the next few years to cover tendered services throughout the West Midlands, and into Staffordshire and Worcestershire, along with a number of additional commercial services, including the North Lichfield circular services abandoned by Arriva Midlands and Choice Travel, and the Birmingham to Tamworth commuter express service. The coaching side of the business was also upgraded and expanded following the award of journeys on the National Express Coventry and Shewsbury to London services, and the acquisition of the coaching functions of the Birmingham Coach Company, Choice Travel and Chase Coaches. The company was also
    5.50
    2 votes
    194
    Condensed Milk Company of Ireland

    Condensed Milk Company of Ireland

    The Condensed Milk Company of Ireland Limited was an Irish manufacturer of dairy products and, in its heyday, the largest of its kind in the United Kingdom. Its most famous product was Cleeve's Toffee, a popular confectionery which continued to be sold in Ireland until the 1980s. The business was established in 1883 by Thomas Cleeve, a Canadian of English extraction. Cleeve first came to Ireland as a teenager to work for J. P. Evans & Co., a Limerick-based supplier of agricultural machinery owned by his uncle. Over the next 20 years Cleeve rose to become managing director of this company. Through his contacts with Irish farmers, Cleeve saw the potential to process milk and manufacture dairy products for home consumption and export. Together with Edmond Russell,a local businessman, and William Beauchamp, a solicitor, Cleeve acquired Lansdowne, a site on the northern bank of the River Shannon. There, the partners set up a factory to produce condensed milk and butter. In 1889, the business was incorporated as a private limited company. Within ten years 60,000 tins of condensed milk were being produced daily at its Limerick headquarters, with 10,000 cows providing the raw material. As
    4.67
    3 votes
    195
    Viacom

    Viacom

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Shutdown
    Viacom (short for VIsual & Audio COMmunications) was an American media conglomerate. Effective December 31, 2005, this corporate entity changed its name to CBS Corporation. The present firm known as Viacom was also established at that date and is a new spin-off company created during the CBS-Viacom split. Viacom was highly profitable during the 1970s and 1980s distributing old CBS classics to syndication, including such landmark shows as I Love Lucy, The Andy Griffith Show, The Twilight Zone and All in the Family (which was later owned by Embassy/Columbia Pictures Television, now called Sony Pictures Television). They also syndicated shows for others, the biggest examples being The Cosby Show and Roseanne (which were produced by Carsey-Werner Productions. Carsey-Werner eventually got big enough to distribute their own shows, mainly because of the success of these two). The original Viacom began as CBS Films, Inc., the television syndication division of CBS established in 1952. The division was spun off and renamed Viacom in 1971, amid new FCC rules forbidding television networks from owning syndication companies (the rules were later repealed). Viacom's first non-programming
    4.67
    3 votes
    196
    Engesa

    Engesa

    Engesa – Engenheiros Especializados S/A was a Brazilian company in the agriculture and defense sectors that specialized in producing tactical military trucks, armored fighting vehicles, and civilian Sport utility vehicles. Engesa began as a private company in 1963, fitting all-wheel-drive systems into existing commercial trucks. It also rebuilt, adapted, and updated obsolete armoured vehicles and tanks that had been sold or given to the Brazilian Army during and after World War II. Engesa's first headquarters were in Avenida Liberdade, São Paulo. In 1975, the company moved its headquarters to Avenida Das Nações Unidas, and in 1985, to Barueri. However, its main production facility was in São José dos Campos. Engesa headed a group of Brazilian companies, operating in various economic sectors and exporting to 37 countries, that included Engesa Electronics, (a Brazilian subsidiary of Philips,) and FNV-Fábrica Nacional de Vagões (National Rail Car Factory). Research and development for the group was provided by the company Engepeq. In the 1980s Engesa employed over 5000 people, and by 1993 had produced over 3,300 armoured vehicles for the Brazilian military, and export
    6.00
    1 votes
    197
    General Magic

    General Magic

    General Magic was a company co-founded by Bill Atkinson, Andy Hertzfeld and Marc Porat that developed a new kind of handheld communications device they called a "personal intelligent communicator", which was a PDA precursor that stressed communications. The original project started in 1990 within Apple Computer, when Porat convinced Apple's CEO at the time John Sculley that the next generation of computing would require a partnership of computer, communications and consumer electronics companies to cooperate. Known as the Paradigm project, the project ran for some time within Apple, but management remained generally uninterested and the team struggled for resources. Eventually they approached Sculley with the idea of spinning off the group as a separate company, which occurred in May 1990. The company started to generate some buzz during that year, and by 1992 some of the world's largest electronics corporations, including Sony, Motorola, Matsushita, Philips and AT&T were partners and investors in General Magic. Apple also decided to re-enter the market with a project that eventually developed into the Apple Newton, and they decided to sue General Magic. The lawsuit did not produce
    6.00
    1 votes
    198
    Loews Cineplex Entertainment

    Loews Cineplex Entertainment

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Merger
    Loews Theatres, aka Loews Incorporated (originally Loew's), founded in 1904 by Marcus Loew and Brantford Schwartz, was the oldest theater chain operating in North America until it merged with AMC Theatres on January 26, 2006. From 1924 until 1959, it was also the parent company of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios. The Loews name is still used by AMC in many markets. Its slogan was "Thank you for coming to Loews, sit back and relax, enjoy the show!!!", which was used in the chain's theater policy ads from the 1980s through the 1990s, when Sony rebranded the chain. The company was originally called "Loew's", after the founder, Marcus Loew. In 1969, when the Tisch brothers acquired the company, it became known as "Loews". Loew's Theatres Incorporated was founded in 1904 in Cincinnati, Ohio, by entrepreneur Marcus Loew. Loew founded a chain of nickelodeon theaters which showed short silent films in storefront locations. Soon the successful enterprise grew to include deluxe vaudeville houses and finally lavish movie palaces. Loew's theaters were found in cities from coast-to-coast, but primarily in East Coast and Midwest states. To provide quality films for his theaters, Loew founded
    6.00
    1 votes
    199
    Memphis and Charleston Railroad

    Memphis and Charleston Railroad

    The Memphis and Charleston Railroad, completed in 1857, was the first railroad in the United States to link the Atlantic Ocean with the Mississippi River. Chartered in 1846 the railroad ran from Memphis, Tennessee to Stevenson, Alabama through the towns of Corinth, Mississippi and Huntsville, Alabama. From Stevenson, the road was connected to Chattanooga, Tennessee via the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad. In Alabama, the railroad followed the route of the Tuscumbia, Courtland and Decatur Railroad between, Tuscumbia and Decatur, the first railroad to be built west of the Appalachian Mountains. When the Civil War broke out in 1861, this railroad became of strategic importance as the only east-west railroad running through the Confederacy. On the morning of April 11, 1862, Union troops led by General Mitchell captured Huntsville, cutting off this railroads use for the Confederacy. The railroad and its route through Corinth, Mississippi was a significant factor in the Battle of Shiloh in 1862. While the railroad briefly survived the American Civil War, the effect of the war on the railroad was devastating and led to its merger into other railroads of the same fate and eventually to
    6.00
    1 votes
    200
    Nixdorf Computer AG

    Nixdorf Computer AG

    Nixdorf Computer AG was a computer company founded by Heinz Nixdorf in 1952. Headquartered in Paderborn, Germany, it became the fourth largest computer company in Europe, and a worldwide specialist in banking and point-of-sale systems. Its main products were the 886x family of BNC, or Branch Network Computers, which ran a proprietary operating system (called DIPOS), the 8870 mini computer for business which ran a comprehensive business application software suite (called COMET written in a dialect of BASIC) and the 8812 Electronic Point of Sale (EPOS) terminal; over 200,000 of these systems were sold worldwide in the late 1970s and 1980s. Other products included private branch exchanges. In 1990, Nixdorf was acquired by Siemens and renamed Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme. After the splitoff of Siemens Nixdorf's Personal Computer products to Fujitsu Siemens Computers, the present day company Wincor Nixdorf is its closest incarnation.
    6.00
    1 votes
    201
    Renaissance Broadcasting

    Renaissance Broadcasting

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Merger
    Renaissance Broadcasting, founded in 1982 by Michael Finkelstien, was a company that owned several UHF television stations, it was sold to Tribune Broadcasting in 1997. The company was headquartered in Greenwich, Connecticut. Renaissance Broadcasting began operations in February 1982 under the name Odyssey Media Partners, a partnership headed by Greenwich businessman Michael Finkelstein with the purchase of WATR-TV in Waterbury, Connecticut, an NBC affiliate that was nearing disaffiliation after New Britain-based WVIT upgraded to cover all of Connecticut. For the previous decade, the Hartford/New Haven television market had been without a general independent station after the sale of WHCT to Dr. Eugene Scott in 1972 and that station's gradual evolution to religious programming. This left a massive hole in the market and the rise of cable television had Connecticut viewers watching independent stations from New York City and Boston, however a hole for a locally-based independent station in the market—the largest without such a station—existed. When WATR-TV's affiliation with NBC expired in March 1982, the station filled that hole and took on the new calls of WTXX (now WCCT-TV), a
    6.00
    1 votes
    202
    Solectron

    Solectron

    Solectron Corporation was a global electronics manufacturing company for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). It pioneered the electronics manufacturing services (EMS) industry in 1977 and was a leader in the field. Solectron's first customer designed and distributed an electronic controller for solar energy equipment, hence the name — "Solectron" is derived from combining the words "solar" and "electronics". The company was acquired by Flextronics International, Ltd. on October 15, 2007. Solectron was established in 1977 to provide outsourced manufacturing services to third parties. Solectron founder Roy Kusumoto saw a larger opportunity emerging from the growing number of electronics companies in California's Silicon Valley. There was a need to provide printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) services — handling the manufacturing overflow from OEMs. Solectron recognized, early on, that when high-tech companies created innovative products, they had to produce and deliver those products much more quickly and efficiently than the competition. Solectron saw that its customers — OEMs — needed more than an extra pair of hands to assemble and manufacture printed circuit boards. They
    6.00
    1 votes
    203
    Stettiner Vulcan AG

    Stettiner Vulcan AG

    Aktien-Gesellschaft Vulcan Stettin (usually just mentioned as AG Vulcan Stettin or A.G. Vulcan Stettin) was a German shipbuilding and locomotive builder company, located in Stettin (Szczecin). AG Vulcan Stettin played a significant role in both World Wars, building U-boats and warships for the Kaiserliche Marine. They also sold blueprints to other nations, among others those for the Russian destroyer Novik and the light cruiser Pamyat Merkuriya (later renamed the Komintern). The company and shipyard were taken over and closed by the Polish government after World War II. AG Vulcan Stettin was originally founded as Vulcan Werft in Stettin in 1851 and the shipyard was a pioneer of large-scale shipbuilding and a leading shipyard in Germany until its demise in 1945. Its first ship was the iron paddle steamer Die Dievenow for the service between the cities of Stettin and Swinemünde. In 1857 the shipyard was renamed Stettiner Maschinenbau AG Vulcan, and as larger and larger ships were built, the facilities in Stettin could no longer sustain the scale of the operations. The yard built the Kaiser class ocean liners. Thus a new shipyard was built in Hamburg between 1907–1909. From 1911, it
    6.00
    1 votes
    204
    Sunbeam

    Sunbeam

    Sunbeam was a British manufacturing marque that produced bicycles and motorcycles from 1912 to 1956. Originally independent, it was owned by BSA from 1943. Sunbeam is perhaps most famous for its S7 model, a balloon-tyred shaft-drive motorcycle with an ohv in-line twin engine. Sunbeam was founded by John Marston, who was born in Ludlow, Shropshire, UK in 1836 of a minor landowning family. In 1851, aged 15, he was sent to Wolverhampton to be apprenticed to Edward Perry as a japanware manufacturer. At the age of 23 he left and set up his own japanning business, John Marston Ltd, making any and every sort of domestic article. He did so well that when Perry died in 1871 Marston incorporated his company and into his own. The company began making bicycles and, on the suggestion of his wife Ellen, Marston adopted the trademark brand "Sunbeam". Consequently, the Paul Street works were called "Sunbeamland". John Marston was a perfectionist, and this was reflected in the high build-quality of the Sunbeam bicycle, which had an enclosure around the drive chain in which an oil bath kept the chain lubricated and clean. They were made until 1936. From 1903 John Marston Ltd had made some early
    6.00
    1 votes
    205
    SunCom

    SunCom

    SunCom Wireless Holdings, Inc. was a wireless carrier that operated in the Southeastern United States since 1999 and in parts of the Caribbean since 2004. From the "About Us" section of the company's website: As of the third quarter of 2007, SunCom was providing digital wireless communications services to approximately 1.1 million customers and employed more than 1,900 people. In February 2008, SunCom was acquired by T-Mobile USA, Inc., a subsidiary of Deutsche Telekom AG. The company traded on the NYSE under the TPC ticker symbol. In September 2008, the SunCom brand was phased out and rebranded under the T-Mobile name. Founded in January 1999 as Triton PCS Holdings by Mark Balfour, SunCom has gone through many deals with other cellular carriers. In December 2004, SunCom acquired 29,139 customers from Cingular Wireless as part of a deal of exchanging towers. In March 2005, SunCom sold 169 cell towers in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Puerto Rico to Global Signal Acquisitions. SunCom formed an agreement with Global Signal Acquisitions in June 2005 to lease tower space that they subsequently sold. In October 2005, SunCom agreed to sell the 29,139 customers from the deal in 2004
    6.00
    1 votes
    206
    Alberta Wheat Pool

    Alberta Wheat Pool

    The Alberta Wheat Pool was the first of Canada's wheat farmer co-operatives in 1923. In 1923, the United Farmers of Alberta met with then Attorney General John Edward Brownlee to consider setting up a Wheat Pool just in Alberta. On the advice of Aaron Sapiro, a California lawyer they created a non share, non-profit organization responsible solely for selling wheat for the best advantage. It was set up as a one-man, one-vote organization, with a 5-year contract required to deliver 100% of his commercial wheat to the Pool. United Grain Growers grain company and the Alberta Pacific Elevator company agreed to accept Pool deliveries in their facilities. Other elevator owners quickly agreed to accept Pool wheat when they realized the pricing power the farmers had created. The Pool purchased the grain produced by its members at a provisional or initial price. The pool then sold the grain, and if there was a surplus in the account at the end of the year, it was distributed to its members at a pro-rated basis. Everyone who was a member of the Pool received the same price. Initially 26,000 farmers joined the Pool, with hundreds of shipping points. The Alberta Wheat Pool started making direct
    5.00
    2 votes
    207
    Silverlink

    Silverlink

    Silverlink was a train operating company in the United Kingdom owned by National Express that operated the North London Railways franchise from March 1997 until November 2007. The North London Railways franchise was awarded to National Express on 7 February 1997. National Express commenced operating the franchise on 3 March 1997. After initially trading as North London Railways, in September 1997 the franchise was rebranded as Silverlink The name is taken from the first of the LNER Class A4 steam locomotives (a member of which holds the world speed record for steam traction) which was called Silver Link. Ironically, Silverlink trains operated on the route to the north of the old LMS, the LNER's greatest rival. The franchise was due to finish on 15 October 2006, but on 11 August 2006 the Department for Transport granted an extension until 10 November 2007. Silverlink had two sub-brands: Silverlink Metro operated these services. Note: Changes during the franchise period are noted but changes to the lines before and after the franchise are not. † At the end of service on Saturday 9 December 2006 the line between Stratford and North Woolwich closed, as much of the route was duplicated
    5.00
    2 votes
    208
    William Beardmore and Company

    William Beardmore and Company

    William Beardmore and Company was a Scottish engineering and shipbuilding conglomerate based in Glasgow and the surrounding Clydeside area. It was active from 1886 to the mid-1930s and at its peak employed about 40,000 people. It was founded and owned by William Beardmore, later Lord Invernairn, after whom the Beardmore Glacier was named. The Parkhead Forge, in the east end of Glasgow, would become the core of the company. It was established by Reoch Brothers & Co in 1837 and was later acquired by Robert Napier in 1841 to make forgings and iron plates for his new shipyard in Govan. Napier was given the contract to build HMS Black Prince, the sister ship to the Royal Navy's first true ironclad ship, HMS Warrior. Parkead was contracted to make the armour for her, but failed, so the manager, William Rigby called in William Beardmore Snr, who at the time was superintendent of the General Steam Navigation Company in Deptford, to help. Beardmore became a partner in the business and, moving to Glasgow was joined by his brother Isaac and son, William Jr. On the premature death of William Snr, Isaac retired and William Jnr became sole partner. He founded William Beardmore & Co in 1886. By
    5.00
    2 votes
    209
    Reliant

    Reliant

    Reliant was a British car manufacturer. The company was traditionally based at Tamworth in Staffordshire, England, but in 2001 it moved to nearby Cannock. It ceased manufacturing cars shortly afterwards. When the Raleigh Bicycle Company decided to discontinue the manufacture of their 3-wheeled vehicles in 1934, their Works Manager Mr T. L. Williams and a colleague Mr E. S. Thompson, felt that the days of lightweight three wheelers were far from over. The enterprising pair decided to build their own vehicle in Mr Williams's back garden at Kettlebrook, Tamworth. The homebuilt design closely resembled the Karryall van previously built by Raleigh and this prototype was licensed in January 1935. It was a 7 cwt (356 kg) van with a steel chassis, powered by a 750 cc V-twin engine driving the rear wheels through a 3-speed gearbox and shaft drive. The body was a hardwood frame with aluminium panels attached to it, in the traditional manner of the time. From building vehicles at home the work moved to a disused bus depot on Watling Street in Fazeley. June 3, 1935, saw delivery of the first Reliant. Powered by a single cylinder air cooled 600cc J.A.P. engine, the driver sat centrally the
    4.50
    2 votes
    210
    Rolls-Royce Limited

    Rolls-Royce Limited

    Rolls-Royce Limited was a renowned British car manufacturing company and, from 1914 on, aero-engine manufacturing company founded by Charles Stewart Rolls and Sir Frederick Henry Royce on 15 March 1906 as the result of a partnership formed in 1904. In 1971, Rolls-Royce was crippled by the costs of developing the advanced RB211 jet engine, resulting in the nationalization of the company as Rolls-Royce (1971) Limited. In 1973, the car division was separated from the parent company as Rolls-Royce Motors. Rolls-Royce (1971) Limited continued as a nationalized company until it was privatised in 1987 as Rolls-Royce plc. In 1884, Henry Royce started an electrical and mechanical business. He made his first car, a two-cylinder Royce 10, in his Manchester factory in 1904, and was introduced to Charles Rolls at the Midland Hotel in Manchester on 4 May of that year. Rolls was proprietor of an early motor car dealership, C.S.Rolls & Co. in Fulham. In spite of his preference for three or four cylinder cars, Rolls was impressed with the Royce 10, and in a subsequent agreement of 23 December 1904 agreed to take all the cars Royce could make. There would be four models: All would be badged as
    4.50
    2 votes
    211
    Allegheny Airlines

    Allegheny Airlines

    Allegheny Airlines (IATA: AL, ICAO: ALO, Call sign: ALLEGHENY) was an airline operating out of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, from 1952 to 1979. It was a forerunner of today’s US Airways. Its headquarters were located on the grounds of Washington National Airport in Arlington County, Virginia. Allegheny Airlines began as All American Aviation Company, a business founded by du Pont family brothers Richard C. du Pont and Alexis Felix du Pont, Jr. in 1939. In 1949, the company was renamed All American Airways as it switched from airmail to passenger service. The company was again renamed, to Allegheny Airlines, in 1952; the 1950s began a period of significant growth for the airline. In 1960 Allegheny had its headquarters in Washington, D.C. In the early 1960s, Allegheny added the Convair 540 turboprop to its fleet. The aircraft proved to be unreliable, with many engine problems. Throughout the industry the company was jokingly referred to as "Agony Air". Shortly thereafter, the airline switched to General Motors/Allison turboprops, the Convair 580. This proved to be a great aircraft and is credited with much of the airline's growth. Allegheny Airlines also became one of the
    5.00
    1 votes
    212
    Checker Motors Corporation

    Checker Motors Corporation

    Checker Motors Corporation was a Kalamazoo, Michigan based vehicle manufacturer and tier-one subcontractor that manufactured taxicabs used by Checker Taxi. Checker Motors Corporation was established by Morris Markin in 1922 through a merger of 'Commonwealth Motors' and 'Markin Automobile Body'. Checker made the iconic American taxi cab which was valued by taxicab companies for its durability in heavy use. Special features included large rear seats and trunks. The company had trouble competing with fleet discounts offered by the larger manufacturers as well as economies of scale in procuring components. The final models were produced in 1982. On January 16, 2009, the company filed for Chapter 11 protection in U.S. Bankruptcy Court. Morris Markin, (a clothier from Chicago, Illinois) became the owner of 'Markin Automobile Body', an auto-body manufacturer based in Joliet, Illinois following a default by the owner on a $15,000 personal loan. The facility made bodies for 'Commonwealth Motors' who marketed the vehicles to cab companies under the trade name 'Mogul'. Commonwealth Motors was on the verge of bankruptcy but had an order from Checker Taxi (a privately-owned cab company in
    5.00
    1 votes
    213
    Chicago Board of Trade

    Chicago Board of Trade

    The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), established in 1848, is the world's oldest futures and options exchange. More than 50 different options and futures contracts are traded by over 3,600 CBOT members through open outcry and eTrading. Volumes at the exchange in 2003 were a record breaking 454 million contracts. On 12 July 2007, the CBOT merged with the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) to form the CME Group, a CME/Chicago Board of Trade Company. CBOT and three other exchanges (CME, NYMEX, and COMEX) now operate as designated contract markets (DCM) of the CME Group. The concerns of U.S. merchants to ensure that there were buyers and sellers for commodities have resulted into forward contracts to sell and buy commodities. Still, credit risk remained a serious problem. The CBOT took shape to provide a centralized location, where buyers and sellers can meet to negotiate and formalize forward contracts. In 1864, the CBOT listed the first ever standardized "exchange traded" forward contracts, which were called futures contracts. In 1919, the Chicago Butter and Egg Board, a spin-off of the CBOT, was reorganized to enable member traders to allow future trading, and its name was changed to
    5.00
    1 votes
    214
    Coronet Films

    Coronet Films

    Coronet Films (also Coronet Instructional Media Inc.) was a producer and distributor of American short social guidance films from 1946 to the early 1970s founded by David A. Smart. The company, whose library is currently owned and distributed by The Phoenix Learning Group, Inc., produced instructional films aimed at young teenagers and high school students which were produced by dozens until the mid-1950s when production tapered off. Social guidance on topics such as dating, family life, courtesy and citizenship were typical themes of the films with occasional educational topics such as the solar system and the human body. Coronet was active during the 1973-4 school year when they placed over 60 titles for evaluation with Project METRO of the Capitol Region Education Council (CREC), in central Connecticut. Titles included A Is For Alphabet, Color, Color Everywhere, Dating Scene, and Understanding Shakespeare: His Stagecraft. Many of the titles in their catalog were produced early in the post-war film boom; they were typical of the quality, production values, and content of media of the period: no better, no worse, and often humorous in the context of the post mid-1960s sexual
    5.00
    1 votes
    215
    Eastern Air Lines

    Eastern Air Lines

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Bankruptcy
    Eastern Air Lines was a major United States airline that existed from 1926 to 1991. Before its dissolution it was headquartered at Miami International Airport in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida. There were plans to restart the airline in 2008. Eastern Air Lines was a composite of assorted air travel corporations, including Florida Airways and Pitcairn Aviation, the latter of which was established on April 19, 1926, by Harold Frederick Pitcairn, son of Pittsburgh Plate Glass founder John Pitcairn, Jr. In the late 1920s, Pitcairn Aviation won a government contract to fly mail between New York City and Atlanta, Georgia, using Mailwing single-engine aircraft. In 1929 Clement Keys, the owner of North American Aviation, purchased Pitcairn. In 1930, Keys changed the company's name to Eastern Air Transport, soon to be known as Eastern Air Lines after being purchased by General Motors and experiencing a change in corporate leadership brought on by the Airmail Act of 1934. In 1938, the airline was purchased by World War I flying ace Eddie Rickenbacker from General Motors. This very complex deal was concluded when Rickenbacker presented Alfred P. Sloan with a certified check for
    5.00
    1 votes
    216
    Integrated Micro Solutions

    Integrated Micro Solutions

    Integrated Micro Solutions (I.M.S.) San Jose, California, later iXMicro, a privately held company, was a graphics chipsets and video card manufacturer. Christopher Knight was a vice president of graphics marketing for IXMICRO. The company ceased operations in 2000. The Twin Turbo 128 PCI series came standard on the Power Macintosh 9600 and was a high-performance upgrade for the Power Macintosh 8600. TwinTurbo 128M8 PCI card was a default videocard for the Motorola StarMax 5000/300. This videocard was also used in the Umax Pulsar 2500 (SuperMac S900/250). ix3D Dual Monitor was a dual-monitor videocard for Mac and clones. ix3D Game Rocket was a 3D accelerator based on the 3dfx Voodoo Banshee chipset. ix3D Road Rocket was a 2D/3D Cardbus video accelerator for the Apple Macintosh PowerBook G3 series, with 4 MB SGRAM and support for an extended desktop at 1280x1040. ix3D Pro Rez was a 128-bit 2D and 3D graphics accelerator with 8 MB of SGRAM. It supports resolutions up to 1600x1200 and refresh rates as high as 100 Hz. TwinTurbo 128P8 was a PCI video card for the PC x86 market with standard 15-pin VGA connector. IXMICRO also offered ixTV or Turbo TV video capture devices. Lightning II
    5.00
    1 votes
    217
    McEwan's Brewery

    McEwan's Brewery

    McEwan's (historically MacEwan's in some export markets) is a brewing company that originated in Scotland and is now owned by the English brewer Wells & Youngs. William McEwan opened the Fountain Brewery in Fountainbridge, Edinburgh, in 1856. The firm underwent several mergers in the following century, including with local rival William Younger's Brewery, and later with Newcastle Breweries to form Scottish & Newcastle. The McEwan's brand passed to Heineken in 2008 after their purchase of Scottish & Newcastle's British operations. Heineken sold the brand to Wells & Youngs in 2011. McEwan's is best known for 80/-, a "Heavy", and McEwan's Export, which was originally an India Pale Ale. All of the draught beers (bar Best Scotch) are brewed at the Caledonian Brewery in Edinburgh, whilst the canned and bottled beers are produced at the Eagle Brewery in Bedford, England. The beers are sold predominantly in Scotland, where McEwan's has a 20 per cent share of the ale market, and the northeast of England. Despite being the dominant presence in Scottish brewing for around a century, the McEwan's brands were neglected by Scottish & Newcastle, who concentrated on their global brands. The
    5.00
    1 votes
    218
    Micromation

    Micromation

    Micromation Inc. was as an early pioneer (1978–1983) in the design, manufacture and sale of microcomputer systems, circuit boards and peripherals. The company's products were built around early Intel and Zilog microprocessors, the S-100 bus and the CP/M and MP/M Operating System software from Digital Research. Micromation's headquarters and manufacturing plant were both located in San Francisco. Unlike other computer companies of the same era, Micromation's products were targeted primarily at business users rather than hobbyists or consumers. The systems could be used to run a wide variety of software applications including the popular WordStar word processing program from Micropro and many other programs available for the CP/M and MP/M operating systems. The company built some of the first multi-user computer systems based on microprocessor technology and supported as many as 16 CRT terminals for users. A unique feature of Micromation systems was that they were also "multi-processor", meaning that a single system could contain as many as 16 separate CPUs, one for each user. This allowed the system to support multiple users without sacrificing performance. Most other multi-user
    5.00
    1 votes
    219
    5.00
    1 votes
    220
    Vanguard Airlines

    Vanguard Airlines

    Vanguard Airlines was an airline based in Kansas City, Missouri. For a time, Vanguard also had significant operations at Chicago Midway International Airport in Chicago, Illinois, until late 2000. It ceased operations on July 29, 2002, after filing for bankruptcy. The airline flew leased Boeing 737s and MD-80 aircraft to several destinations from its main hub in Kansas City at the time of its demise. Vanguard Airlines started service in 1994. Vanguard was originally started as a Low-cost, low-fare airline, the purpose of which was to undercut the costs of the major carriers and so be able to charge lower fares. Super-low regular advance fares of as little as $29 each way were the norm. Sale fares of as little as $10 were not uncommon. By the time Vanguard started, however, most major carriers had learned how to deal with such competition. They simply lowered prices in the markets where these smaller airlines flew, making it impossible for the Low-cost airlines to make money. Reservations were outsourced to a call center in Lawrence, KS run by Dakotah Reservations, a division of Dakotah Direct (now owned by West Business Services). Reservation agents were mostly college students
    5.00
    1 votes
    221
    Airlift International

    Airlift International

    Airlift International was based in the USA and operated from its inception in 1945 until June 1991. Airlift's headquarters were on the grounds of Miami International Airport in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida. Airlift International was founded as Riddle Airlines by John Paul Riddle in 1945 in Miami, Florida as a charter and freight airline. In 1965, it became Airlift International. In 1968, Airlift Intl. expanded and acquired Slick Airways. The first flights were between Miami and Puerto Rico using Curtiss C-46 and Douglas DC-4 aircraft. In 1951 it expanded services to serve New York. Then the route system was expanded to include Chicago and Detroit. In 1960 two Douglas DC-7 were added to the fleet and with those aircraft were used for charter flights to Europe, including charters for the military. The next aircraft to join the fleet was the Armstrong Whitworth AW.660 Argosy but those were replaced in 1963 by the Douglas DC-8. Further aircraft used were the L-1049 Super Constellation, the Canadair CL-44, the Lockheed L-382 Hercules, the Boeing 707, and the Boeing 727-100QC. The freight schedule was augmented by charter flights to South America and the military but by 1981
    4.00
    2 votes
    222
    Vickers Limited

    Vickers Limited

    Vickers Limited was a famous British engineering conglomerate that merged into Vickers-Armstrongs in 1927. Vickers was formed in Sheffield as a steel foundry by the miller Edward Vickers and his father-in-law George Naylor in 1828. Naylor was a partner in the foundry Naylor & Sanderson and Vickers' brother William owned a steel rolling operation. Edward's investments in the railway industry allowed him to gain control of the company, based at Millsands and known as Naylor Vickers and Company. It began life making steel castings and quickly became famous for casting church bells. In 1854 Vickers' sons Thomas and Albert joined the business. In 1863 the company moved to a new site in Sheffield on the River Don in Brightside. The company went public in 1867 as Vickers, Sons & Company and gradually acquired more businesses, branching out into various sectors. In 1868 Vickers began to manufacture marine shafts, in 1872 they began casting marine propellers and in 1882 they set up a forging press. Vickers produced their first armour plate in 1888 and their first artillery piece in 1890. It bought out the Barrow in Furness shipbuilder The Barrow Shipbuilding Company in 1897, acquiring its
    4.00
    2 votes
    223
    Washington Mutual

    Washington Mutual

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Bankruptcy
    Washington Mutual, Inc. (OTC Pink: WAMUQ), abbreviated to WaMu, was a savings bank holding company and the former owner of Washington Mutual Bank, which was the United States' largest savings and loan association until its collapse in 2008. On Thursday, September 25, 2008, the United States Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS) seized Washington Mutual Bank from Washington Mutual, Inc. and placed it into the receivership of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). The OTS took the action due to the withdrawal of $16.7 billion in deposits during a 9-day bank run (amounting to 9% of the deposits it had held on June 30, 2008). The FDIC sold the banking subsidiaries (minus unsecured debt or equity claims) to JPMorgan Chase for $1.9 billion, which JPMorgan Chase had been planning to acquire as part of a confidential plan internally nicknamed Project West. All WaMu branches were rebranded as Chase branches by the end of 2009. The holding company, Washington Mutual, Inc., was left with $33 billion in assets, and $8 billion debt, after being stripped of its banking subsidiary by the FDIC. The next day, September 26, Washington Mutual, Inc. filed for Chapter 11 voluntary bankruptcy in
    4.00
    2 votes
    224
    Argyll

    Argyll

    Argyll was a Scottish motor car marque manufactured from 1899 to 1932, and again from 1976 to around 1990. Alex Govan founded The Hozier Engineering Company in 1899, and it was at this factory that the first Argyll Voiturette was produced; copied from the contemporary Renault, it featured a 2¾ hp de Dion engine and shaft-drive. 1901 models had an upgraded engine of 5 hp; cars made in 1902 were upgraded even further, using 8 hp units. Soon there appeared a 10 hp twin with radiator tubes forming the sides of the hood; in 1904 the company introduced a range of front-radiatored Aster-engined cars. One of these was a 10 hp of 1985 cc; others were fours of 3054 cc, 3686 cc, and 4849 cc. All cars featured Govan's rather awkward gearbox, which had a T-shaped gate and separate reverse and change-speed levers. Argyll had now become Scotland's biggest marque and soon moved from its premises in Bridgeton, Glasgow to a grand terracotta factory in the suburb of Alexandria built for the company by now named Argyll Motors Ltd. This factory was never used to capacity, and the company began to decline after Govan's death in 1907 and, went into liquidation in 1908. Production restarted in 1910, under
    4.00
    1 votes
    225
    Calthorpe cars

    Calthorpe cars

    The Calthorpe Motor Company based in Bordesley Green, Birmingham, England made a range of cars, motorcycles and bicycles from 1904 to 1932. The company started out in the 1890s as a Birmingham bicycle maker called Hands and Cake run by George W. Hands. This was renamed the Bard Cycle Manufacturing Company in 1897 changing to the Minstrel Cycle Company in 1901. In 1904, the first motor car, a 10 hp four-cylinder model, was announced. They briefly made some larger types, but it was in the light car field that they specialised, using proprietary White and Poppe engines. The cars were successfully raced in France in the Coupe de l'Auto series. A small car was announced in 1913 for the 1914 season with the 10 hp Minor, which proved to be a real large car in miniature, with a 3-speed gearbox and shaft drive. After the war the large cars were dropped, but the Minor re-appeared with a slightly larger engine of 1261 cc. In 1920 a Mr J Mathews was in charge of production, and a target of making 50 cars a week was set. The cars continued to have excellent coachwork made by the Calthorpe subsidiary company of Mulliner (acquired in 1917), who had an adjacent factory. Sporting activity continued
    4.00
    1 votes
    226
    Canadair

    Canadair

    Canadair Ltd. was a civil and military aircraft manufacturer in Canada. It was a subsidiary of other aircraft manufacturers, then a nationalized corporation until privatized in 1986, and became the core of Bombardier Aerospace. Canadair's origins lie in the foundation of a manufacturing centre for Canadian Vickers in the Montreal suburb of Saint-Laurent, at Cartierville Airport. Canadair Plant One is still there, although the airport no longer exists. Absorbing the Canadian Vickers Ltd. operations, Canadair was created on 11 November 1944 as a separate entity by the government of Canada as a manufacturer of patrol PBY Canso flying boats for the Royal Canadian Air Force. Benjamin W. Franklin became its first president. Besides the ongoing PBY contract, a development contract to produce a new variant of the Douglas DC-4 transport, was still in effect. The new Canadair DC-4M powered by Rolls-Royce Merlin engines emerged in 1946 as the "Northstar." In the immediate postwar era, Canadair bought the "work in progress" on the existing Douglas DC-3/C-47 series. In 1946, the Electric Boat Company bought a controlling interest in Canadair. The two companies merged to form General Dynamics
    4.00
    1 votes
    227
    Carter's Foods

    Carter's Foods

    Carter's Foods, more commonly known as Carter's, was an employee-owned supermarket chain based in Charlotte, Michigan, United States. Founded in 1952, Carter's grew to over 30 stores throughout Michigan's Lower Peninsula, including two in Charlotte. In 2006, the chain declared bankruptcy, with its remaining stores being closed or sold. Until the chain's demise, Carter's Foods was the only grocery chain in Michigan to be entirely owned by its employees. Carter's Foods was founded in 1952 by Theodore Carter. A native of Charlotte, Michigan, Theodore had been an employee of the Kroger store in his hometown. Carter's expanded over several decades, mainly by acquiring IGA store. IGA also was the primary supplier for Carter's. In 1999, Sperry and Hutchinson, a company known for its S&H Green Stamps, introduced an updated rewards program, S&H Greenpoints; Carter's was the first chain in Michigan to utilize Greenpoints. In 2000, Carter's Foods became 100 percent employee-owned, becoming the only supermarket chain in Michigan to be employee-owned. Citing competition from Wal-Mart and regional supercenter chain Meijer, Carter's filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy in 2006, after it was unable to
    4.00
    1 votes
    228
    F. W. Woolworth Company

    F. W. Woolworth Company

    The F. W. Woolworth Company (often referred to as Woolworth's, or Woolies or Woolworth) was a retail company that was one of the original pioneers, and arguably the most successful American and international five-and-dime stores, setting trends and creating the modern retail model which stores follow today, worldwide. The first Woolworth store was opened by Frank Winfield Woolworth on February 22, 1878, as "Woolworth's Great Five Cent Store" in Utica, New York. Though it initially appeared to be successful, the store soon failed. Searching for a new location, a friend suggested Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Using the same sign from the Utica store, Frank opened his first successful "Woolworth's Great Five Cent Store" on July 18, 1879, in Lancaster. Frank brought his brother, Charles Sumner Woolworth, who went by the nickname "Sum", into the business. The two Woolworth brothers, pioneered and developed merchandising, direct purchasing, sales and customer service practices commonly used today. Despite growing to be one of the largest retail chains in the world through most of the 20th century, increased competition led to its decline beginning in the 1980s. The chain went out of business
    4.00
    1 votes
    229
    Hawker Aircraft

    Hawker Aircraft

    Hawker Aircraft Limited was a British aircraft manufacturer responsible for some of the most famous products in British aviation history. Hawker had its roots in the aftermath of the First World War which resulted in the bankruptcy of the Sopwith Aviation Company. Sopwith test pilot Harry Hawker and three others, including Thomas Sopwith, bought the assets of Sopwith and formed H.G. Hawker Engineering in 1920. In 1933 the company was renamed Hawker Aircraft Limited and took advantage of the Great Depression and a strong financial position to purchase the Gloster Aircraft Company in 1934. The next year it merged with the engine and automotive company Armstrong Siddeley and its subsidiary, Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft, to form Hawker Siddeley Aircraft. This group also encompassed A. V. Roe and Company; Avro. Hawker Aircraft continued to produce designs under its own name as a part of the Hawker Siddeley Aircraft, from 1955 division of Hawker Siddeley Group. The "Hawker" brand name was dropped, along with those of the sister companies, in 1963. The Hawker P.1127 was the last aircraft branded as "Hawker". The Hawker legacy was maintained by the American company Raytheon who produced
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    Jowett

    Jowett

    Jowett was a manufacturer of light cars and light commercial vehicles in Bradford, West Yorkshire, England from 1906 to 1954. Jowett was founded in 1901 by brothers Benjamin (1877—1963) and William (1880—1965) Jowett with Arthur V Lamb. They started in the cycle business and went on to make V-twin engines for driving machinery. Some early engines found their way locally into other makes of cars as replacements. In 1904 they became the Jowett Motor Manufacturing Company based in Back Burlington Street, Bradford. Their first Jowett light car was produced in February 1906 but as their little workshop was fully occupied in general engineering activities, experiments with different engine configurations, and making the first six Scott motorcycles, it did not go into production until 1910 and then after more than 25,000 miles of exhaustive trials. Their intention was to provide a low weight vehicle at a low price and with low running costs. The prototype could be described as England's first real light car. Engine and gearbox were specifically designed for a light car and made largely of aluminum. Its low speed torque and gear ratios were ideally suited to the hills about Bradford and
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    231
    Marimba

    Marimba

    Marimba, Inc. develops, markets and supports software change and configuration management solutions. Its products automate the distribution and management of software applications and content. Specific software solutions it provides include data center automation, security patch management, license compliance and inventory and others. The Company operates in one operating segment, the development and marketing of change management software. Marimba's products include Desktop/Mobile Management Product Family, Server Management Product Family and Marimba Six.
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    232
    Pacific Coast Borax Company

    Pacific Coast Borax Company

    The Pacific Coast Borax Company (PCB) was a United States mining company founded in 1890 by the American borax magnate Francis "Borax" Smith, the "Borax King". The roots of the Pacific Coast Borax Company lie in Mineral County, Nevada, east of Mono Lake, where Smith, while contracting to provide firewood to a small borax operation at nearby Columbus Marsh, spotted Teels Marsh while looking westward from the upper slopes of Miller Mountain where the only nearby trees were growing. Eventually, to satisfy his curiosity, Smith and two assistants visited Teels Marsh and collected samples, that proved to assay higher than any known sources for borate. Returning to Teels Marsh, Smith and his helpers staked claims and laid the foundation for his career as a borax miner. With the help of his older brother, Julius, who came west from the family home in Wisconsin, and financial support from the two Storey Brothers, operations began in 1872 under the name, Smith and Storey Brothers Borax Co. When the Storey Brothers interests were acquired subsequently in 1873, the name was shortened to Smith Brothers Borax Co. A few years later (circa 1884) it was changed again to Teel's Marsh Borax Co. In
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    233
    Strawbridge's

    Strawbridge's

    Strawbridge's (formerly Strawbridge & Clothier) was a department store in the northeastern United States with stores in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. In its day a gracious urban emporium, the downtown Philadelphia flagship store added branch stores starting in the 1930s and together they enjoyed annual sales of over a billion dollars by their zenith in the 1980s. By the 1990s Strawbridge's found itself part of May Department Stores until that company's August 30, 2005, acquisition by Macy's Inc. May had operated it under its Arlington County, Virginia-based Hecht's division. It was announced March 10, 2006, that this store would close on June 1, 2006, but it actually shut its doors on May 23, 2006. On February 1, 2006, the former May Company divisions were dissolved and operating control of the Strawbridge's stores was assumed by Macy's East. On September 9, 2006, the Strawbridge's and Hecht's nameplates were completely phased out in favor of Macy's. The store began as a dry goods store founded by Quakers Justus Clayton Strawbridge (1838–1911) and Isaac Hallowell Clothier (1837–1921) in Philadelphia in 1862. In 1868, Strawbridge & Clothier purchased the 3-story brick
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    234
    Amdahl Corporation

    Amdahl Corporation

    Amdahl Corporation is an information technology company which specializes in IBM mainframe-compatible computer products. Founded in 1970 by Dr. Gene Amdahl, a former IBM employee, it has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Fujitsu since 1997. The company is located in Sunnyvale, California. Amdahl was a major supplier of large mainframe computers, and later of UNIX and Open systems software and servers, data storage subsystems, data communications products, application development software, and a variety of educational and consulting services. In the 1970s, when IBM had come to dominate the mainframe industry, Amdahl created plug-compatible machines that could be used with the same hardware and software as offerings from IBM, but were more cost-effective. These machines gave "Big Blue" some of the little competition it had in that very high-margin computer market segment. Proverbially, during this time savvy IBM customers liked to have Amdahl coffee mugs visible in their offices when IBM salespeople came to visit. While winning about 8% of the mainframe business worldwide, Amdahl won a position of market leader in some regions, most notably Charlotte, North Carolina. In the early to
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    American Motors

    American Motors

    American Motors Corporation (AMC) was an American automobile company formed by the 1954 merger of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and Hudson Motor Car Company. At the time, it was the largest corporate merger in U.S. history. George W. Mason was the architect of the merger to reap benefits from the strengths of the two firms to battle the much larger "Big Three" automakers (General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler). Within a year George W. Romney took over, reorganizing the company and focusing AMC's future on a new small car line. By the end of 1957 the original Nash and Hudson brands were completely phased out. The company struggled at first, but Rambler sales took off. A Rambler won the 1959 Mobil Economy Run and the cars achieved America's third highest sales figures in 1960 and 1961. In the mid-1960s, under Roy Abernethy's leadership, AMC focused on larger and more profitable car lines to move away from the perceived negative of the Rambler's compact car image. In the face of deteriorating financial and market positions, Roy D. Chapin, Jr., took charge to revitalize the company, and designer Richard A. Teague economized by developing several vehicles from common stampings. While prices
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    236
    Argo Electric

    Argo Electric

    The Argo Electric Vehicle Company operated in Saginaw, Michigan, USA, from 1912 to 1916. The Argo Electric used a 60 volt system with Westinghouse motors. They claimed to be capable of 20 mph (32 km/h). It had 6 forward and 6 reverse speeds, had 36 x 4 cushion tires and used an 18-inch (457 mm) steering wheel on the left. They were offered in both four- and five-passenger models, with open and closed versions available, and all models used steering wheels. The 110-inch (2,794 mm) wheelbase was the longest of any electric at the time. The Argo Brougham was a 4 passenger car, weighing 3,200 lb (1,451 kg), claimed a range of 75 miles (121 km) per charge using thirty 190 ah, MV Exide batteries. By 1914 Argo joined with the Broc and Borland electric vehicle companies to form the American Electric Car Company. Three different models were marketed. In 1916 the Columbia Motors Company purchased the assets of Argo.
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    Centra

    Centra

    Centra was one of many operators of London Buses. They were the transport division of Central Parking Systems of UK Limited (CPS) who acquired the assets of Wimco Group Coaches Limited (which has been trading as Mitcham Belle) in August 2004. The company ran its last passenger services on 19 May 2006. In a separate operation, Centra also ran buses in Surrey and around Heathrow and Gatwick airports, after purchasing Thames Bus in October 2003. This division lasted two years before being sold to Flights Hallmark in 2005. Centra had 2 bus garages: Streatham Road, which operated Mitcham Belle coach operations which also passed into Centra's hands until they closed this depot, and moved the coach operations to a new site on the Willow Lane Industrial Estate, which was also going to be used as a bus garage to replace the Beddington Depot, and Beddington Mitcham Belle bus operations. Beddington garage held 53 buses, and ran a number of London Buses routes. It was originally opened by Mitcham Belle; the yard was taken over in 2004 by Central Parking Systems under the Centra name following poor performance and a history of poor public relations. A huge overhaul of buses and other issues was
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    E. Howard & Co.

    E. Howard & Co.

    The E. Howard & Co. clock and watch company was formed by Edward Howard and Charles Rice in 1858 after the demise of the Boston Watch Company. They acquired some of the material and watches in progress, based upon a lien against the defunct company held by Charles Rice, but they were unable to buy the existing factory or machinery, so they moved to Roxbury. There Howard soon bought out Rice's interest and thereafter concentrated on high quality watches based on his own unique designs and eccentric production methods. E. Howard & Co. was famous for high grade watches, regulators, and marine clocks. The E. Howard Watch & Clock Company was formed as a joint stock corporation on December 1, 1881 to succeed an earlier firm of similar name founded by Edward Howard (1813–1904). Howard, a clockmaking apprentice of Aaron Willard, Jr. had commenced business with David P. Davis, manufacturing high-grade wall clocks under the name of Howard & Davis in 1842. They also became known for their manufacture of sewing machines, fire engines and precision balances. About 1843, with a third partner, Luther Stephenson, they began to also manufacture tower clocks. In 1857, David P. Davis left the firm
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    Geer-Melkus Construction Co., Inc.

    Geer-Melkus Construction Co., Inc.

    Geer-Melkus Construction Co., Inc. was a commercial construction company located in Grand Island, Nebraska. The company was founded in 1893 and was in existence until 1986. Originally known as the Geer Company, it later became known as Geer-Maurer Construction Company before becoming known as Geer-Melkus. Geer-Melkus was the general contractor on many prominent buildings and civil engineering projects throughout the Midwest, including the Stuhr Museum of the Prairie Pioneer in Grand Island, designed by Edward Durell Stone. The company was involved in several prominent lawsuits, including Geer-Melkus Constr. Co. v. United States, 302 F.2d 181 (8th Cir. 1962); United States v. Geer-Melkus Constr. Co., 195 F. Supp. 362 (D.N.D. 1961); Wood River v. Geer-Melkus Constr. Co., 233 Neb. 179 (Neb. 1989); and Geer-Melkus Constr. Co. v. Hall County Museum Board, 186 Neb. 615 (Neb. 1971).
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    Humber

    Humber

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Acquisition
    Humber is a dormant British automobile marque which can date its beginnings to Thomas Humber's bicycle company founded in 1868. Following their involvement in Humber through Hillman in 1928 the Rootes brothers acquired a controlling interest and joined the Humber board in 1932 making Humber part of their Rootes Group. The range focused on luxury models, such as the Humber Super Snipe. The first car was produced in 1898 and was a three-wheeled tricar with the first conventional four-wheeled car appearing in 1901. The company had factories in Beeston near Nottingham and Coventry. The Beeston factory produced a more expensive range known as Beeston-Humbers but the factory closed in 1908 after financial problems. Before the First World War a wide range of models were produced from the 600 cc Humberette to several six-cylinder 6-litre models. In 1913 Humber was the second largest manufacturer of cars in the United Kingdom. The Humber Motor Works in Coventry still survives—a rare thing as the majority of the city was destroyed in the November 1940 air raid. In 1925 Humber moved into the production of commercial vehicles with the purchase of Commer. In 1928 Hillman was added but
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    241
    Jakob Lines

    Jakob Lines

    Jakob Lines was a ferry operator based in Jakobstad (Pietarsaari), Finland. The company was established in 1969 by the city of Jakobstad. It operated routes between Jakobstad and Kokkola (Karleby) in Finland, and Skellefteå, Umeå, and Örnsköldsvik in Sweden. Jakob Lines' first ship M/S Nordek made its first voyage for the company on September 16, 1969, on the route between Jakobstad and Umeå. The company usually operated one or two ferries at a time and in total the company operated twelve different ferries, ten of which the company owned while two were chartered. After the company was sold in 1991, the traffic was operated by the buyer Vasabåtarna. Shortly after Vasabåtarna acquired Jakob Lines, Vasabåtarna was merged with Silja Line. Silja Line gradually reduced the traffic from Jakobstad and Kokkola. Due to a part of the deal when Vasabåtarna bought Jakob Lines, Silja was obliged to maintain summer traffic from Jakobstad until tax-free sales were abolished on intra-EU travel in 1999.
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    Kaiserliche Werft Kiel

    Kaiserliche Werft Kiel

    Kaiserliche Werft Kiel ("Imperial shipyard Kiel") was a German shipbuilding company founded in 1867, first as Königliche Werft Kiel but renamed in 1871 with the proclamation of the German Empire. Together with Kaiserliche Werft Danzig and Kaiserliche Werft Wilhelmshaven it was one of three shipyards which produced warships for the Preußische Marine and later the Kaiserliche Marine. With the end of World War I Kaiserliche Werft Kiel was closed but the shipyard was opened again when Deutsche Werke was founded on their grounds in 1925.
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    Neoplan USA

    Neoplan USA

    Neoplan USA was a major transit bus manufacturing company based in Denver, Colorado, which was entirely separate from the German corporation, Neoplan, licensing its designs from the German company of the same name. The company was founded in 1981 and folded in 2006. It was originally a subsidiary of Neoplan, but later became an independent licensee. Its main factory was located in Lamar, Colorado. Its headquarters was also in Lamar, until moving to Denver in 2004. At one time, it also had production facilities in Honey Brook, Pennsylvania, and Brownsville, Texas. Neoplan manufactured standard-floor buses, low-floor buses, and articulated buses. In 2003–2006 it also built 28 40-foot (12 m) electric trolley buses and 32 articulated dual-mode buses for Boston's MBTA. Neoplan had 625 employees and revenue of $810 million before it ceased operations in January 2006. Neoplan USA filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in August 2006, listing assets of $13.7 million and debts of $59 million, after closing its manufacturing plant in 2006. In its last few months of operation, Neoplan had fallen on hard times, such as warranty issues with San Francisco's MUNI and cash-flow problems after
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    Peerless

    Peerless

    Peerless was a United States automobile produced by the Peerless Motor Company of Cleveland, Ohio from 1900 to 1931. The company was known for building high-quality, precision luxury automobiles. Peerless' factory was located at 9400 Quincy Avenue in Cleveland. Established in Cleveland in 1900, Peerless Motors began producing De Dion-Bouton "machines" under license from the French Company. At the time, Cleveland was the center of automotive production in the US. Peerless employed Barney Oldfield as a driver of its Green Dragon racecar; in early speed races Peerless proved the durability of the product and setting world speed records. Peerless was noted for its use of flat-plane crankshafts in its engine designs. As the Peerless evolved, it, along with makes Packard and Pierce-Arrow, became known as the "Three-Ps of Motordom" (premium vehicles) in the US. Peerless' downfall was in its quality. In the 1920s, the company was producing conservatively-styled vehicles that endured for ten or more years. Current Peerless owners retained their cars, which ran very well. New buyers of luxury cars were attracted to LaSalle, Packard, and the Studebaker President series. In 1930-31, Peerless
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    Phoenix AG

    Phoenix AG

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Acquisition
    Phoenix AG is an international company headquartered in Hamburg in Germany which specialises in products made of rubber, including sound and vibration insulation, conveyor-belt systems, and specialist industrial hose systems. The company has a turnover in excess of €1 billion, and over 9,000 employees across 50 different operating sites. The company was founded in 1856 and was acquired by Continental AG in 2004.
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    Premier

    Premier

    The Premier Motor Manufacturing Company was organized in 1903 by George A. Weidely and Harold O. Smith in Indianapolis, Indiana. The company built automobiles with air-cooled engines. A 1903 Premier is on display in the Speedway Museum in Indianapolis and a 1918 Premier is on display at Space Farms Zoo & Museum in Sussex, New Jersey. The 1904 Four-Cylinder Premier was a touring car model. Equipped with a tonneau, it could seat six passengers and sold for US$ 5,000. The vertically mounted water-cooled straight-4, situated at the front of the car, produced 40 hp (30 kW). A three-speed sliding transmission was fitted as on Système Panhard cars from Europe. The pressed steel-framed car weighed 2250 lb (1021 kg) and used semi-elliptic springs. A Double-Cylinder Premier model sold for US$ 2,500. It had a 2-stroke straight-2 engine producing 20 hp (15 kW). During 1906, the Model "F" and Model "L" were on the market with prices that ranged from $1,250 to $2,250. The cars were advertised as summer and winter vehicles that had a "powerful motor, easy but substantial clutch, buoyant springs and luxurious upholstering."
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    Rederi AB Svea

    Rederi AB Svea

    Stockholms Rederi AB Svea (originally Sveabolaget, later often referred to as Rederi AB Svea or simply Svea) was a Swedish shipping company founded in the 1870s. It operated a wide variety of ships carrying freight and passengers around the world, mostly concentrating on traffic in the Baltic and North Sea and was one of the largest Swedish shipping companies in its time. Rederi AB Svea was one of the founding members of Silja Line, and operated its ships under the names Skandinavisk Linjetrafik, Scandinvian Ferry Lines, Linjebuss and Trave Line. It also had a Finnish daughter company (Oy Svea Ab) and another daughter company based in the Netherlands. In 1981 Svea was merged into Johnson Line and ceased to operate as an independent company. Sveabolaget was founded in the 1870s, receiving its first ship in 1872. Most of early Svea ships were steamers used as freighters around the world, carrying whatever cargo they could find from any port to any other port. In addition to these Sveabolaget soon starter operating cargo and passengers around the coast of Sweden and in the Baltic Sea. In 1918 the company (which by this time had changed its name to Stockholms Rederi AB Svea) started
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    Standard Motor Company

    Standard Motor Company

    • Reason for ceasing operations: Merger
    The Standard Motor Company was founded in Coventry, England in 1903 by Reginald Walter Maudslay (1871–1934). The Standard name was last used in Britain in 1963, and in India in 1987. The company was first registered on 2 March 1903 by R. W. Maudslay. He was a civil engineer by profession but realised the enormous potential of the horseless carriage, and with a gift of £3,000 from Sir John Wolfe-Barrie he became a motor manufacturer, establishing a small factory in a two-storey building in Much Park Street, Coventry. Having undertaken the examination of several proprietary engines to familiarise himself with internal combustion engine design he employed seven people to assemble the first car, powered by a single-cylinder engine with three-speed gearbox and shaft drive to the rear wheels. By the end of 1903 three cars had been built and the labour force had been increased to twenty five. The increased labour force produced a car every three weeks during 1904. The single-cylinder model was soon replaced by a two-cylinder model quickly followed by three- and four-cylinder versions and in 1905 the first six. Even the first cars boasted shaft drive as opposed to chains, and the engines
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    Wellby Super Drug

    Wellby Super Drug

    Wellby Super Drug was a chain of 41 drug stores that operated in Maine and New Hampshire from 1973 until 1992. It was a wholly owned subsidiary of Hannaford Brothers, northern New England's largest grocer. After the Maine State Legislature repealed the 'Blue Laws' prohibiting stores greater than 5,000 square feet (460 m) in size to be open for business on Sunday, Hannaford made the decision to convert its smaller Shop 'N' Save grocery stores to 'Super Shop 'N' Save, which would include floor space for a pharmacy. Because the Shop 'N' Saves were in the same communities as Hannaford's Wellby stores, Hannaford decided to sell the pharmacy chain. In 1992, Wellby Super Drug was sold to Rite-Aid, which continues to operate in many of the former Wellby locations to this day.
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    Yorkshire Traction

    Yorkshire Traction

    Yorkshire Traction was a bus operator in South Yorkshire. Between 1986 and 2005 it was a key part of the Traction Group. In December 2005 it was sold to the Stagecoach Group. The Yorkshire Traction Company Limited was formed in 1902 as the Barnsley & District Electric Traction Company Limited. It operated trams around the Barnsley locality until around 1930. In 1928, prior to the trams being withdrawn, the company was renamed from the Barnsley & District Traction Company Limited (the 'electric' part of the name being dropped some years earlier). The company was affectionately referred to as 'Tracky'. Yorkshire Traction was sold by the Government in 1986 to a management team led by Frank Carter. Until selling the business to Stagecoach on 14 December 2005, Carter expanded the business by purchasing other operators including: Barnsley & District (formed in July 1990 when Traction bought the bus business of Tom Jowitt Travel of Tankersley), Lincolnshire RoadCar Company, Lincoln City Transport, Yorkshire Terrier, Andrews (Sheffield) Ltd (merged with Yorkshire Terrier in 1998), "Sheffield Omnibus (Merged with Andrews (Sheffield) in 1996), South Riding (merged with Andrews (Sheffield) in
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