Deceased person is a type of person who is no longer alive. This type contains properties for date, place and cause of death.
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Ferenc Szisz (September 20, 1873–February 21, 1944), was a Hungarian race car driver and the winner of the first Grand Prix motor racing event on a Renault Grand Prix 90CV on 26 June, 1906.
Szisz was born in the small town of Szeghalom in Békés county of the Hungarian part the former Austro-Hungarian Empire on September 20, 1873. He was trained to be a locksmith and a coppersmith but in his early twenties the growing proliferation of automobiles fascinated Szisz and he studied engineering along with car design. After time spent in several Austrian and German cities, in the spring of 1900 he ended up in Paris, France where he found work at the new Renault automobile company.
At Renault, Szisz's engineering talent made him an integral part of the testing department, and when the company became involved in racing in 1902 he was chosen as the riding mechanic for Louis Renault. Following the death of Marcel Renault in the 1903 Paris-Madrid race, Szisz took over as a driver. In 1905, he finished fifth in the Gordon Bennett Cup elimination race on the Circuit d'Auvergne at Clermont-Ferrand. In October of that same year, along with other French and Italian automobile manufacturers, Renault
Robert Allen (March 15, 1811 – August 5, 1886) was a career officer in the United States Army, serving as a general during the American Civil War.
Allen was born in tiny West Point in Columbiana County, Ohio, and was educated in the public schools. He received an appointment to the United States Military Academy and graduated in 1836, ranking 33rd out of 49 cadets. He was assigned as a second lieutenant in the 2nd U.S. Artillery and assigned to garrison duty in various outposts.
He saw his first combat during the Mexican-American War, where he received a brevet promotion to major for his actions at the Battle of Cerro Gordo. Allen was transferred to the Quartermaster's Department, and was eventually promoted to the chief quartermaster for the Department of the Pacific with the permanent rank of major.
At the outbreak of the Civil War, Allen was reassigned to the Department of the Missouri, where he was again chief quartermaster, as well as a colonel. Becoming recognized for his efficiency, he was soon promoted to command the supplies for the entire Mississippi Valley. From his headquarters in Louisville, Kentucky, Allen supervised the Federal supplies for all the region's major
Pope Sixtus V (13 December 1521 – 27 August 1590), born Felice Peretti di Montalto, was Pope from 1585 to 1590.
Felice Peretti was born on December 13, 1521 at Grottammare, in the Papal States, to Pier Gentile (also known as Peretto Peretti), and Marianna da Frontillo. His family was poor. Felice later adopted Peretti as his family name in 1551, and was known as "Cardinal Montalto". He himself claimed that he was "nato di casa illustre" — born of an illustrious (i.e. "illuminated") house.
According to Isidoro Gatti, the Peretti family came from Piceno, today Marche, in Italy. According to another source, his father came from Montalto, a nearby village. According to Croatian sources, he had Croat ancestry, from the Croatian family Peretti which settled from Kruševice, in Boka Kotorska (modern Montenegro), to Montalto in Italy, where Felice was born. According to the Serbian Academy, he had Slavic origin from the Adriatic coast. According to Sava Nakićenović, he hailed from the Svilanović family from Kruševice. The family origin in Kruševice is supported by the fact that the Pope used three pears for his Coat of Arms (The toponym Kruševice is derived from kruška, "pear"). The Slavic,
Michael John "Mike" Lockwood (August 25, 1971 – November 6, 2003) was an American professional wrestler best known for his time with World Wrestling Federation/Entertainment (WWF/E) under the ring name Crash Holly or simply Crash.
Lockwood wrestled on the independent circuit, and briefly for Extreme Championship Wrestling, before he signed a contract with the World Wrestling Federation in 1999. He debuted as Hardcore Holly's on-screen cousin, "Crash Holly". Lockwood earned his greatest success in WWE's hardcore division, winning the title 22 times, leading to him being nicknamed "The Houdini Of Hardcore". In June 2003, he was released from WWE and joined Total Nonstop Action Wrestling as "Mad Mikey", but died in November 2003, just four months later.
In WWF/E, he was a one-time European Champion, a one-time Light Heavyweight Champion, and a 22-time Hardcore Champion. He was also a one-time Tag Team Champion with Hardcore Holly as part of the tag team The Holly Cousins.
Lockwood made his wrestling debut in 1989, as "Johnny Pearson" in Bay Area Wrestling, where he competed until 1994. He dislocated his shoulder about five times, and ended up having to take a year and a half out to
Gustav Eduard von Hindersin (July 18, 1804 – January 23, 1872) was a Prussian general from Wernigerode (now in Saxony-Anhalt).
He was the son of a priest and received a good education. His earlier life was spent in great poverty, and the struggle for existence developed in him an iron strength of character. Entering the Prussian artillery in 1820 he became an officer in 1825. From 1830 to 1837 he attended the Allgemeine Kriegsakademie at Berlin, and in 1841, while still a subaltern, he was posted to the great General Staff, in which he afterwards directed the topographical section.
In 1849 he served with the rank of major on the staff of General Peucker, who commanded a federal corps in the suppression of the Baden insurrection. He fell into the hands of the insurgents at the action of Ladenburg, but was released just before the fall of Rastatt. In the Second Schleswig War of 1864 Hindersin, now lieutenant-general, directed the artillery operations against the lines of Düppel, and for his services was ennobled by King William I. Soon afterwards he became inspector-general of artillery.
His experience at Düppel had convinced him that the days of the smooth-bore gun were past, and he
Pema Lingpa or Padma Lingpa (Tibetan: པདྨ་གླིང་པ་, Wylie: padma gling pa) (1450–1521) was a famous saint and siddha of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism. He was a preeminent terton (discoverer of spiritual treasures), and is considered to be foremost of the Five Terton Kings. In the history of the Nyingma school in Bhutan, Pema Lingpa is second only in importance to Padmasambhava himself.
Pema Lingpa was born in Chel, part of the central Bhutanese region of Bumthang known as the “Wheel of Dharma.” His father was Lama Döndrup Zangpo of the Nyö clan, and his mother, Drogmo Pema Drolma, was bestowed with all the signs of a dakini. Their son was born among many miraculous signs. As an incarnation of the Omniscient One Drimé Ozer (Longchenpa), Pema Lingpa was extraordinary even as a child. He learned everything from reading and writing to ironwork and carpentry without receiving any instruction.
On the tenth day of the first month of autumn in a Monkey Year, Guru Rinpoche appeared before Pema Lingpa at the holy site of Yigé Drukma, blessed him, and placed in his hands an inventory of one hundred and eight major termas to be revealed. However, due to the karmic disposition of beings
John Michael Gibson (March 29, 1956 – July 24, 1998) was a United States Capitol Police detective assigned to the dignitary protection detail of Congressman Tom DeLay. Gibson was one of two people killed inside the United States Capitol during a 1998 shooting rampage.
Gibson was a native of Boston, Massachusetts. His wife, Lynn, was the niece of Representative Joe Moakley, a Democrat from Massachusetts. The couple had three children, a daughter and two boys.
Gibson was sworn in as a police officer in 1980. He worked for the United States Capitol Police in Washington, D.C., and was a resident of Woodbridge, Virginia.
On July 24, 1998, shooting suspect Russell Eugene Weston Jr. entered the United States Capitol. He shot and killed Officer Jacob Chestnut outside Representative Tom Delay's congressional office. Gibson confronted the suspect and was also shot. Despite being mortally wounded, Gibson was able to return fire and wounded the suspect.
Weston was known to the United States Secret Service prior to the incident as a person who had threatened the President of the United States. The suspect was found mentally unfit to stand trial.
A memorial service was held in the Capitol on
Ronald Belford "Bon" Scott (9 July 1946 – 19 February 1980) was a Scottish-born Australian rock musician, best known for being the lead singer and lyricist of Australian hard rock band AC/DC from 1974 until his death in 1980. He was born in Forfar and brought up in Kirriemuir, Scotland, before moving to Melbourne, Australia, with his family in 1952 at the age of six. The family lived in the suburb of Sunshine for 4 years before moving to Fremantle, Western Australia.
Scott formed his first band, The Spektors, in 1964 and became the band's drummer and occasional lead vocalist. He performed in several other bands including The Valentines and Fraternity before replacing Dave Evans as the lead singer of AC/DC in 1974.
In the July 2004 issue of Classic Rock, Scott was rated as number one in a list of the "100 Greatest Frontmen Of All Time" ahead of Freddie Mercury and Robert Plant. Hit Parader ranked Scott as fifth on their 2006 list of the 100 Greatest Heavy Metal Vocalists of all time.
AC/DC's popularity grew throughout the 1970s, initially in Australia, and then internationally. Their 1979 album Highway to Hell reached the top twenty in the United States, and the band seemed on the
Juan Vicente de Güemes Padilla Horcasitas y Aguayo, 2nd Count of Revillagigedo (Spanish, with variant name: Juan Vicente de Güemes Pacheco de Padilla y Horcasitas, segundo conde de Revillagigedo) (1740, Havana – May 2, 1799, Madrid) was a Spanish military officer and viceroy of New Spain from October 17, 1789 to July 11, 1794. He is known as a great reformer and one of the finest administrators of the Spanish colonial era—perhaps the last able viceroy of New Spain.
From a young age, Güemes Padilla Horcasitas served in the army, and distinguished himself fighting the British in the siege of Gibraltar. He rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel. He was a knight of the military Order of Charles III, baron of Benilova y Rivarroja and lord of the bedchamber to his majesty.
He arrived at Veracruz on October 8, 1789 and took up the offices of viceroy, captain general and president of the Audiencia on the seventeenth. He became the third Criollo viceroy. His father, Juan Francisco de Güemes y Horcasitas, 1st Count of Revillagigedo was captain general of the island of Cuba, where the son was born, and later viceroy of New Spain (1746–55). The son was said to sleep only three to four hours a
Beirne Lay, Jr., (September 1, 1909 - May 26, 1982) was an American author, aviation writer, Hollywood screenwriter, and combat veteran of World War II with the U.S. Army Air Forces. He is best known for his collaboration with Sy Bartlett in authoring the novel Twelve O'Clock High and adapting it into a major film.
Born September 1, 1909, in Berkeley Springs, West Virginia, Lay attended St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire, and Yale University, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English in 1931. As an undergraduate he boxed and rowed.
Lay enlisted in the United States Army in July 1932 and began pilot training at Randolph Field, Texas. In June 1933 he earned his pilot's wings and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Army Reserve at Kelly Field, Texas. He was assigned to the 20th Bombardment Squadron at Langley Field, Virginia, flying the Keystone B-6 and Curtiss B-2 Condor bombers. In February and March 1934, he was part of the Army Air Corps unit delivering U.S. mail during the Air Mail scandal, flying the Chicago-to-Nashville route. The operation was unsuccessful, marred by several fatal accidents in which the Air Corps took the brunt of public blame.
Abraham Cowley (/ˈkuːli/; 1618 – 28 July 1667) was an English poet born in the City of London late in 1618. He was one of the leading English poets of the 17th century, with 14 printings of his Works published between 1668 and 1721.
His father, a wealthy citizen, who died shortly before his birth, was a stationer. His mother was wholly given to works of devotion, but it happened that there lay in her parlour a copy of The Faerie Queene. This became the favourite reading of her son, and he had read it twice before he was sent to school.
As early as 1628, that is, in his tenth year, he composed his Tragicall History of Piramus and Thisbe, an epic romance written in a six-line stanza, a style of his own invention. It is not too much to say that this work is the most astonishing feat of imaginative precocity on record; it is marked by no great faults of immaturity, and possesses constructive merits of a very high order.
Two years later the child wrote another and still more ambitious poem, Constantia and Philetus, being sent about the same time to Westminster School. Here he displayed extraordinary mental precocity and versatility, and wrote in his thirteenth year the Elegy on the
Frank Lloyd Wright, Jr. (March 30, 1890, Oak Park, Illinois – May 31, 1978, Santa Monica, California), commonly known as Lloyd Wright, was an American landscape architect and architect, active primarily in Los Angeles and Southern California. His name is frequently confused with that of his more famous father, Frank Lloyd Wright.
Lloyd Wright's mother was Frank Lloyd Wright's first wife, Catherine Lee "Kitty" Tobin. He was the eldest son of the couple, and grew up in the surroundings of the 1889 Wright home and studio in Oak Park. Lloyd briefly attended the University of Wisconsin in Madison, before leaving for a job at the Boston-based landscape architecture firm of the Olmsted Brothers. Specializing in botany and horticulture, he continued to pursue the interrelation of landscape and buildings through his life.
He settled in Southern California around 1911, followed by his younger brother John Lloyd Wright. The Olmsteds had sent him to assist with the landscape design of the 1915 Panama-California Exposition in San Diego with architects Irving Gill, Bertram Goodhue, and Carleton Winslow. The exposition's principal buildings and gardens still remain in Balboa Park. Landscape
Louis Mucciolo, Jr. (February 10, 1971 – February 15, 1998) was an American professional wrestler. He performed in Mexico under the ring name Madonna's Boyfriend, for the World Wrestling Federation as Rad Radford, and in Extreme Championship Wrestling and World Championship Wrestling in the 1990s as Louie Spicolli. He is sometimes credited as being the inventor of the Death Valley Driver finisher and even wore t-shirts in WCW stating it, though it was actually innovated by female wrestler Etsuko Mita.
At the age of 17, Mucciolo began training with "Big" Bill Anderson after the two met at a wrestling show held at the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena. He debuted in 1988 aged 17, working as a jobber for the World Wrestling Federation, using the ring name Louie Spicolli and would continue to use this name in squash matches until March 1995.
In 1989, he traveled to Tijuana, Mexico with Tim Patterson and his trainer, Bill Anderson, with whom he formed a stable known as "Los Mercenarios Americanos" ("The American Mercenaries"). They were a trio of masked villains who feuded with the Villano family. The Mercernarios were forced to unmask in July 1991 and then disbanded in 1992.
Miguel Ángel Blanco Garrido (13 May 1968 – 13 July 1997) was a local Spanish politician for the People's Party, who was kidnapped and subsequently executed by the Basque separatist group ETA.
Miguel Ángel Blanco was born on 13 May 1968 in Ermua (Biscay) into a humble family. He had a sister, María del Mar. His father, Miguel Blanco, was a construction worker and his mother, Consuelo Garrido, was a housewife. They were Galician immigrants from Xunqueira de Espadanedo (Ourense, Galicia)
Miguel Ángel Blanco graduated in Economics at the Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea in Sarriko. For a long time he worked with his father in construction, but he found work at Eman Consulting, in Eibar, where he commuted to every day by train. He also played the drums in the bands Póker and Cañaveral. He was a sports fan and his dream was to walk to Madrid to protest against the possible closure of the Ermua' sports centre.
He joined the youth-wing of the PP, Nuevas Generaciones, in 1995 and, due to it being a relatively small party in the area where the national parties compete against the PNV, he was the third candidate for the municipal elections in that year; he became member of the town's council.
Sylvia Plath (October 27, 1932 – February 11, 1963) was an American poet, novelist and short story writer. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, she studied at Smith College and Newnham College, Cambridge before receiving acclaim as a professional poet and writer. She married fellow poet Ted Hughes in 1956 and they lived together first in the United States and then England, having two children together: Frieda and Nicholas. After suffering from depression from the age of 20 and a marital separation, Plath committed suicide in 1963. Controversy continues to surround the events of her life and death, as well as her writing and legacy.
Plath is credited with advancing the genre of confessional poetry and is best known for her two published collections: The Colossus and Other Poems and Ariel. In 1982, she became the first poet to win a Pulitzer Prize posthumously, for The Collected Poems. She also wrote The Bell Jar, a semi-autobiographical novel published shortly before her death.
Plath was born on October 27, 1932 in the Massachusetts Memorial Hospital in Boston's Jamaica Plain neighborhood. Her mother, Aurelia Schober Plath (1906-1994), was a first-generation American of Austrian descent,
Blessed Bernhard Lichtenberg (December 3, 1875 – November 5, 1943) was a German Roman Catholic priest and theologian, awarded the title righteous among the Nations.
Lichtenberg was born in Ohlau (now Oława), Prussian Silesia, near Breslau (now Wrocław), and studied theology in Innsbruck, Austria - Hungary. He was then ordained priest in 1899.
Lichtenberg began his ministry in Berlin in 1900 as parson in Charlottenburg. For a time he also was a member of the local parliament for the Centre Party. In 1931, the bishop of Berlin appointed him as Canon of the Cathedral Chapter of St Hedwig and in 1938 provost of the cathedral and committed him to help Jews.
After the Kristallnacht, the first organized Nazi pogrom in Germany, he used to pray publicly for Jews at Evening prayer.
In 1942, Lichtenberg protested against the euthanasia programme by way of a letter to the chief physician of the Reich, "I, as a human being, a Christian, a priest, and a German demand of you, Chief Physician of the Reich, that you answer for the crimes that have been perpetrated at your bidding, and with your consent, and which will call forth the vengeance of the Lord on the heads of the German people." He was
Naomi Shemer (Hebrew: נעמי שמר; July 13, 1930 – June 26, 2004) was a leading Israeli musician and songwriter, hailed as the "first lady of Israeli song and poetry." Her song "Jerusalem of Gold", written in 1967, became an unofficial second anthem after Israel won the Six-Day War that year and reunited the city.
Naomi Shemer was born on Kvutzat Kinneret, a kibbutz her parents had helped found, on the shores of the Sea of Galilee. In the 1950s she served in the Israeli Defense Force's Nahal entertainment troupe, and studied music at the Rubin Academy in Jerusalem.
She first married actor Gideon Shemer and had a daughter, Lali. They were later divorced.
She later married the attorney Mordechai Horowitz, with whom she had a son, Ariel.
Shemer did her own songwriting and composing, set famous poems to music, such as those of the Israeli poet, Rachel, and the American Walt Whitman. She also translated and adapted popular songs into Hebrew, such as the Beatles song "Let It Be" in 1973.
In 1963 she composed "Hurshat Ha'Eucalyptus" ("The Eucalyptus Grove"), a song that evokes Kvutzat Kinneret where she was born. It was covered in a recent version by Ishtar.
In 1967, she wrote the patriotic
William III de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby (1193 – 28 March 1254) was an English nobleman and head of a family which controlled a large part of Derbyshire including an area known as Duffield Frith.
He was born in Derbyshire, England, the son of William de Ferrers, 4th Earl of Derby and Agnes of Chester, a daughter of Hugh of Kevelioc, Earl of Chester and Bertrada de Montfort. He succeeded to the title in 1247, on the death of his father and, after doing homage to King Henry III, he had livery of Chartley Castle and other lands of his mother's inheritance. He had accompanied King Henry to France in 1230 and sat in parliament in London in the same year.
He had many favours granted to him by the king, among them the right of free warren in Beaurepair (Belper), Makeney, Winleigh (Windley), Holbrooke, Siward (Southwood near Coxbench), Heyhegh (Heage) Cortelegh (Corkley, in the parish of Muggington), Ravensdale, Holland (Hulland), and many other places,
Like his father, he suffered from gout from youth, and always traveled in a litter. He was accidentally thrown from his litter into water, while crossing a bridge, at St Neots, in Huntingdon and although he escaped immediate death, yet he
William Allen (January 2, 1784 – July 16, 1868) was a biographer, scholar and academic.
He was born at Pittsfield, Massachusetts in 1784. He graduated from Harvard College in Cambridge in 1802 and after a few years of work became assistant librarian at Harvard. He became Pastor of Pittsfield 1810; President of Dartmouth University, 1817; and President of Bowdoin College 1820-1839. He was largely responsible for establishing the Medical School of Maine at Bowdoin College in 1820. He resigned in 1839. Died at Northampton in 1868.
He prepared his American Biographical and Historical Dictionary (1809), the first work of general biography published in the United States. In 1810 he succeeded his father as pastor of the Church in Pittsfield. He was chosen president of Dartmouth University in 1818 and remained until the Dartmouth College Case extinguished the institution in 1819. In 1820 he went to Bowdoin College, over which institution he presided until 1839, when he resigned and devoted himself to literary studies. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1823.
He collected 10,000 words not contained in standard dictionaries, and published them as a
Gesya Mirokhovna Gelfman (Gesia Gelfman or Helfmann); (Гельфман, Геся Мироховна in Russian) (her name is often incorrectly spelled Gesya Mironovna and she sometimes gave an abbreviated "Mirovna"; she is sometimes referred to as Gesia, Hesse, Hessy or Jessie) (between 1852 and 1855, Mazyr — 2.1(13).1882, Saint Petersburg), Russian revolutionary, member of Narodnaya Volya, implicated in the assassination of Tsar Alexander II of Russia.
Born into a Jewish family, Gelfman left it at the age of 16 or 17, allegedly to avoid an arranged marriage, and moved to Kiev, where she found employment in a sewing factory.
In the early 1870s, she was an active member of several revolutionary clubs in Kiev. In 1877, during the Trial of the Fifty, Gelfman was sentenced to two years in the Litovsky Castle. On 14 March 1879, she was sent into exile to the province of Novgorod, from where she escaped and joined Narodnaya Volya in Saint Petersburg in 1879.
At a personal level, she also practiced then-revolutionary free love.
In 1881 she was part of the group that assassinated Alexander II, along with her then lover, Nikolai Sablin. When the police raided their apartment, Sablin shot himself.
DeHart Hubbard (William DeHart Hubbard; born in Cincinnati, Ohio on November 25, 1903 - June 23, 1976) was a track and field athlete who was the first African American to win an Olympic gold medal in an individual event; the running long jump at the 1924 Paris Summer games.
He subsequently set a long jump world record of 25 feet 10+⁄4 inches (7.89 m) at Chicago in June 1925 and equaled the world record of 9.6 seconds for the 100-yard dash at Cincinnati, Ohio a year later.
He attended and graduated from Walnut Hills High School in Cincinnati, graduated with honors from the University of Michigan in 1927 where he was a three-time National Collegiate Athletic Association champion (1923 & 1925 outdoor long jump, 1925 100-yard dash) and seven-time Big Ten Conference champion in track and field (1923 & 1925 indoor 50-yard dash, 1923, 1924, & 1925 outdoor long jump, 1924 & 1925 outdoor 100-yard dash). His 1925 outdoor long jump of 25 feet 10+⁄2 inches (7.89 m) stood as the Michigan Wolverines team record until 1980, and it still stands second. His 1925 jump of 25 feet 3+⁄2 inches (7.71 m) stood as a Big Ten Championships record until Jesse Owens broke it on with what is now the current
Oliver Evans (13 September 1755 – 15 April 1819) was an American inventor. Evans was born in Newport, Delaware to a family of Welsh settlers. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to a wheelwright.
Evans' first invention was in 1777, when he designed a machine for making card teeth for carding wool. He went into business with his brothers and produced a number of improvements in the flour milling industry.
Evans devoted a great deal of his time to patents, patent extensions, and enforcement of his patents.
In 1792 he moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
He produced an improved high-pressure steam engine in 1801. For some years he contemplated the idea of applying steam power to wagons. He was granted a patent for a steam-carriage design in 1789, but did not produce a working example of such a machine until over a decade later (see below on his Oruktor Amphibolos). Part of his difficulties was a failure to get financial backing. After lack of support in his native land, in 1794 he sent copies of some his designs to Great Britain in an attempt to interest investors there.
Evans designed a refrigeration machine which ran on vapor in 1805, so he is often called the inventor of the
Princess Marie Luise Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Princess of Leiningen, Duchess of Kent (Marie Luise Viktoria; 17 August 1786 – 16 March 1861) was the mother of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
Marie Luise Viktoria, born 17 August 1786, was the fourth daughter and seventh child of Franz Frederick Anton, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf.
On 21 December 1803 at Coburg, she married (as his second wife) Charles, Prince of Leiningen (1763–1814), whose first wife, Henrietta of Reuss-Ebersdorf, was her aunt. Charles and Victoria had two children:
On 29 May 1818 at Amorbach (and again on 11 July 1818 at Kew Palace) she married Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820). Edward and Victoria had one daughter:
The Duke of Kent died suddenly of pneumonia in January 1820, a few days before his father, King George III. The widowed Duchess had little cause to remain in the United Kingdom, not speaking the language and having a palace at home in Coburg, where she could live cheaply on the incomes of her first husband, the late Prince of Leiningen. However, the British succession at this time was far from assured – of the three brothers
Nikolay Apollonovich Belelyubski (Russian: Белелюбский, Николай Аполлонович) (1845 – 1922) was a Russian scientist and the leading designer of bridges in the Imperial Russia.
Nikolai Belelyubski was born in Kharkiv on March 13, 1845. He spent his childhood and youth in Taganrog, and graduated with a golden medal from the Taganrog Boys Gymnasium in 1862. Belelyubski entered the Institute of Railroad Engineers in Saint Petersburg, which he graduated in 1867. He was considered one of the Institute's best graduates of all time, his name was written on a marble plate, and he offered the position of a teacher for construction mechanics, bridges and hydraulics. Professor (since 1873) Belelyubski also lectured at the Mountain Institute (Горный институт), Institute of Civil Engineers and Imperial Academy of Arts. His scientific and practical work in bridge-building and research of construction materials gained him a worldwide recognition.
Professor Belelyubski personally designed and managed over 100 projects of long bridges. The total length of bridges built by his projects extends 17 kilometers. This includes the bridges over rivers Don, Danube, Ob, Kama, Oka, Neva, Irtish, Belaya, Ufa,
Thomas Fuller (March 8, 1823 – September 28, 1898) was a Canadian architect.
He was born in Bath, Somerset (England), where he trained as an architect. Living in Bath and London he did a number of projects. In 1845 he left for Antigua, where he spent two years working on a new cathedral before emigrating to Canada in 1857. Settling in Toronto, he formed a partnership with Chilion Jones with Fuller responsible for design work. The company first won the contract to design the church of St. Stephen-in-the-Fields.
In 1859, The Legislative Assembly in Ottawa voted the sum of £75,000 for the erection of a "Parliament House" and offered a premium of $1000 for the best design within that budget. The winning bid was made by Fuller and Jones for a neo-gothic design. The principal architects until its completion in 1866 were Thomas Fuller and Charles Baillairge. In Hand Book to the Parliamentary and Departmental Buildings, Canada (1867), Joseph Bureau wrotes, "The corner stone was laid with great ceremony by His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales in September, 1860, on which occasion the rejoicings partook of the nature of the place, the lumber arches and men being a novelty to most of its
Edward Young (June 1681 – 5 April 1765) was an English poet, best remembered for Night Thoughts.
He was the son of Edward Young, later Dean of Salisbury, and was born at his father's rectory at Upham, near Winchester, where he was baptized on 3 July 1683. He was educated at Winchester College, and matriculated in 1702 at New College, Oxford. He later moved to Corpus Christi, and in 1708 was nominated by Archbishop Tenison to a law fellowship at All Souls. He took his degree of D.C.L. in 1719.
His first publication was an Epistle to ... Lord Lansdoune (1713). It was followed by a Poem on the Last Day (1713), dedicated to Queen Anne; The Force of Religion: or Vanquished Love (1714), a poem on the execution of Lady Jane Grey and her husband, dedicated to the Countess of Salisbury; and an epistle to Joseph Addison, On the late Queen's Death and His Majesty's Accession to the Throne (1714), in which he rushed to praise the new king. The fulsome style of the dedications jars with the pious tone of the poems, and they are omitted from his own edition of his works.
About this time he came into contact with Philip, Duke of Wharton, whom he accompanied to Dublin in 1717. In 1719 his play,
Henry II (Seville, 13 January 1334 – 29 May 1379 in Santo Domingo de la Calzada), better known as Henry of Trastámara (Spanish: Enrique de Trastámara, Galician: Henrique de Trastamar) was the first King of Castile and León from the House of Trastámara.
Henry was the fourth of twelve illegitimate sons of Alfonso XI of Castile and Eleanor of Guzmán. Eleanor was a great-granddaughter of Alfonso IX of León. He was born as a twin, and was the first boy born to the couple who survived to adulthood. His twin brother was Fadrique Alfonso, Lord of Haro.
At birth, he was adopted by Rodrigo Álvarez de las Asturias. Rodrigo died the following year and Henry inherited his lordship of Noreña. His father later made him Count of Trastámara and lord over Lemos and Sarria in Galicia, and the towns of Cabrera and Ribera, which constituted a large and important heritage in the northeast of the peninsular. It made him the head of the new Trastámara dynasty, arising from the main branch of Burgundy-Ivrea.
While Alfonso XI lived, his lover Eleanor gave a great many titles and privileges to their sons. This caused discontent among many noblemen and in particular the legitimate queen, the lady Maria of
Khushal Khan Khattak (1613–1689) (Pashto: خوشحال خان خټک) was a prominent Pashtun poet, warrior, charismatic personality and tribal chief of the Khattak tribe of the Pashtuns. He wrote a huge collection of Pashto poems during the Mughal Empire in the 17th century, and admonished Pashtuns to forsake their divisive tendencies and unite against the Mughal Army. Promoting Pashtun nationalism through poetry, Khushal Khan Khattak is the first Afghan mentor who presents his theories for the unity of the Afghan resistance against the foreign parts, and the creation of a nation-state.
His life was spent in struggling against the oppressive Mughal Empire who had fluctuating relations with the Afghans of modern-day Afghanistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. In order to restore Afghan freedom, Khushal Khan challenged Mughal Aurangzeb powers. He defeated the Mughal troops in many engagements. Khushal Khan wrote many works in Pashto and Persian, ten of them are very popular. The "stand and fight" attitude of Khushal Khan Khattak was an important stance in Afghan history. His thoughts form the basis of the political and literary movements in
Thomas Leo McCarey (October 3, 1898 – July 5, 1969) was an American film director, screenwriter and producer. During his lifetime he was involved in nearly 200 movies, especially comedies, but his most famous film was the Marx Brothers’ 1933 farce Duck Soup. French director Jean Renoir once said that "Leo McCarey understood people better than any other Hollywood director."
Born in Los Angeles, California, he graduated from the University of Southern California law school and began in the movie business as an assistant director to Tod Browning in 1920, but honed his skills at the Hal Roach Studios for the rest of that decade. Hired by Hal Roach in 1923, McCarey initially wrote gags for the Our Gang series and other studio stars, then produced and directed shorts, including two-reelers with Charley Chase. While at Roach, McCarey cast Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy together and guided development of their onscreen characters, thus creating one of the most enduring comedy teams of all time. He only officially appeared as director of the duo shorts We Faw Down (1928), Liberty (1929) and Wrong Again (1929), but wrote many of the screenplays. By 1929, he was vice-president of production for
Robert Young Hayne (November 10, 1791 – September 24, 1839) was an American political leader.
Born in St. Pauls Parish, Colleton District, South Carolina, Hayne studied law in the office of Langdon Cheves in Charleston, South Carolina, and in November 1812 was admitted to the bar there, soon obtaining a large practice. For a short time during the War of 1812 against Great Britain, he was captain in the Third South Carolina Regiment. He was a member of the lower house of the South Carolina state legislature from 1814 to 1818, serving as Speaker of the House in the later year; was attorney general of the state from 1818 to 1822, and in 1823 was elected, as a Democrat, to the United States Senate. After the death of Hayne's first wife, Frances Henrietta Pinckney, in 1820 he married Rebecca Brewton Alston. Her father, William Alston, gave her a lot on lower King Street where Hayne built a house (today's 4 Ladson Street) that remained in the family until 1863.
Hayne was considered a conspicuously ardent free-trader and an uncompromising advocate of States' rights. He opposed the protectionist tariff bills of 1824 and 1828, and consistently upheld the doctrine that slavery was a domestic
Charles Proteus Steinmetz (April 9, 1865 – October 26, 1923) was a German-American mathematician and electrical engineer. He fostered the development of alternating current that made possible the expansion of the electric power industry in the United States, formulating mathematical theories for engineers. He made ground-breaking discoveries in the understanding of hysteresis that enabled engineers to design better electric motors for use in industry.
Steinmetz was born as Carl August Rudolph Steinmetz to Carl Heinrich Steinmetz, a Jewish family in Breslau, Province of Silesia. Steinmetz suffered from dwarfism, hunchback, and hip dysplasia, as did his father and grandfather. Steinmetz attended Johannes Gymnasium and astonished his teachers with his proficiency in mathematics and physics.
Following the Gymnasium Steinmetz went on to the University of Breslau to begin work on his undergraduate degree in 1883. He was on the verge of finishing his doctorate in 1888 when he came under investigation by the German police for activities on behalf of a socialist university group and articles he had written for a local socialist newspaper, then a popular ideological pursuit among secular
Henry Boyle, 1st Baron Carleton, PC (12 July 1669 – 31 March 1725), was an Anglo-Irish politician of the early eighteenth century.
The son of Charles Boyle, 3rd Viscount Dungarvan, Boyle was educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge. and entered the army under the auspices of his uncle, the Tory politician Lord Rochester. However, Boyle himself became a Whig, and in 1688 deserted the army of James II in favour of the Prince of Orange.
In 1689, he was elected to the Parliament of England for Tamworth, but was defeated the next year. He spent the next two years in Ireland managing the family estates and represented Cork County in the Irish House of Commons in 1692. In the same year, he returned also to parliament for Cambridge University, and became a prominent spokesman of the "country" opposition, but in 1697 he switched to the court party. Here he advanced quickly, becoming a Lord of the Treasury in 1699 and Chancellor of the Exchequer of England in 1701.
He picked up other offices as he went along, becoming Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire and Lord Treasurer of Ireland in 1704, and was elected member for Westminster in 1705. With the departure
Jean-Marie Bastien-Thiry (19 October 1927 – 11 March 1963) was a French Airforce lieutenant-colonel, military air weaponry engineer, (creator of the Nord SS.10/SS.11 missiles) who attempted to assassinate French President Charles de Gaulle on 22 August 1962, following Algerian independence. Sentenced to death, he remains the last person to be executed by firing squad in France.
Bastien-Thiry was born to a family of Catholic military officers in Lunéville, Meurthe-et-Moselle. His father had known de Gaulle in the 1930s and was a member of the Gaullist RPF. He attended the École Polytechnique, followed by the École nationale supérieure de l'Aéronautique before going into the French Air Force where he specialized in the design of air-to-air missiles. In 1957 he was promoted to become principal air military engineer. He was married to Geneviève Lamirand, the daughter of Georges Lamirand (1899–1994), the latter had been Vichy France General Secretary of Youth from September 1940 to March 1943 but the family was Free French. He had three daughters with her.
Since 1848, French Algeria had been considered an integral part of France. After having returned to power with the stated intention
Salvatore Phillip "Sonny" Bono (/ˈboʊnoʊ/; February 16, 1935 – January 5, 1998) was an American recording artist, record producer, actor, and politician whose career spanned over three decades.
Sonny Bono was born in Detroit to Italian immigrants Santo Bono (born in Montelepre, Palermo, Italy) and Zena "Jean" La Valle. Sonny was the youngest of three siblings; he had two older sisters, Fran and Betty. Bono attended Inglewood High School in Inglewood, California, but did not graduate.
Bono began his music career working at Specialty Records where his song "Things You Do to Me" was recorded by Sam Cooke, and went on to work for the record producer Phil Spector in the early 1960s as a promotion man, percussionist and "gofer". One of his earliest songwriting efforts was "Needles and Pins" which he co-wrote with Jack Nitzsche, another member of Spector's production team. Later in the same decade, he achieved commercial success, along with his then-wife Cher, as part of the singing duo Sonny and Cher. Bono wrote, arranged, and produced a number of hit records with singles like "I Got You Babe" and "The Beat Goes On", although Cher received more attention as a performer. He also played a
Gaston de Foix, duc de Nemours (10 December 1489 – 11 April 1512), also known as The Thunderbolt of Italy, was a French military commander noted mostly for his brilliant six-month campaign from 1511 to 1512 during the War of the League of Cambrai.
Gaston de Foix was born on 10 December 1489 in Mazères, County of Foix. He was a son of John of Foix, Viscount of Narbonne and Marie d'Orléans. His paternal grandparents were Gaston IV of Foix-Grailly and Queen regnant Eleanor of Navarre. His maternal grandparents were Charles, Duke of Orléans and Marie of Cleves. His only maternal uncle was Louis XII of France.
In 1511, Gaston arrived in Italy as a new commander at the age of 21. His presence and energy shifted the conflict into much higher levels of activity.
French forces had captured Bologna on 13 May 1511 and were under siege from a combined Papal-Spanish army commanded by Ramón de Cardona, the Viceroy of Naples. Gaston marched his army to Bologna and scattered the armies of the Holy League. He then went north and defeated the Venetians at Brescia, which the French later captured (February 1512) after a furious assault.
Gaston had established firm control over northern Italy by March
James E. Hayes (August 10, 1865 - February 8, 1898) was the third Supreme Knight of the Knights of Columbus from March 2, 1897 to February 8, 1898. Hayes was also a Democrat Massachusetts State Representative in 1893.
James E. Hayes was a Charlestown, Massachusetts lawyer. He represented District 3 of Suffolk County, Massachusetts in 1893.
He joined the Knights in Massachusetts in 1892 five years later he was elected Supreme Knight. During his time as a district deputy and state deputy, he presided over the institution of seventy-five councils.
On February 8, 1898 Hayes died from complications caused from peritonitis.
Karl Bernhardovic Radek (Russian: Карл Бернга́рдович Ра́дек) (31 October 1885 – 19 May 1939) was a Marxist active in the Polish and German social democratic movements before World War I and an international Communist leader after the Russian Revolution.
Radek was born in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary (now Lviv in Ukraine), as Karol Sobelsohn, to a Jewish family, his father, Bernhard, worked in the post office and died whilst Karl was young. He took the name Radek from a favourite character, Andrej Radek, in Syzyfowe prace (The Labor of Sisyphus) by Stefan Żeromski.
Radek joined the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (SDKPiL) in 1904 and participated in the 1905 Revolution in Warsaw where he was responsible for the party's newspaper Czerwony Sztandar.
In 1907, after being arrested in Poland and escaping, Radek moved to Leipzig, Germany and joined the Social Democratic Party of Germany(SPD) working on the Party's Leipziger Volkszeitung. He moved to Bremen, where he worked for Bremer Bürgerzeitung, in 1911 and was one of several who attacked Karl Kautsky's analysis of imperialism in Die Neue Zeit in May 1912.
In 1912, he was invited by August Thalheimer to go to
Timothy Francis Leary (October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996) was an American psychologist and writer, known for his advocacy of psychedelic drugs. During a time when drugs such as LSD and psilocybin were legal, Leary conducted experiments at Harvard University under the Harvard Psilocybin Project, resulting in the Concord Prison Experiment and the Marsh Chapel Experiment. Both studies produced useful data, but Leary and his associate Richard Alpert were fired from the university.
Leary believed LSD showed therapeutic potential for use in psychiatry. He popularized catchphrases that promoted his philosophy, such as "turn on, tune in, drop out", "set and setting", and "think for yourself and question authority". He also wrote and spoke frequently about transhumanist concepts involving space migration, intelligence increase and life extension (SMI²LE), and he developed the eight-circuit model of consciousness in his book Exo-Psychology (1977).
During the 1960s and 1970s, Leary was arrested regularly and was held captive in 29 different prisons throughout the world. President Richard Nixon once described Leary as "the most dangerous man in America".
Leary was born in Springfield,
Billy Vessels (March 22, 1931 – November 17, 2001) was a standout football player in his hometown of Cleveland, Oklahoma, where he was known as "Curly." He went on to play college football for the University of Oklahoma and win the 1952 Heisman trophy. He was the first Oklahoman to win the award, which is given to the nation's top college football player. After he won the Heisman, Cleveland, Oklahoma, threw him a parade, with hundreds lining the streets of the small town. Vessels, a humble, hardworking kid, told a reporter, "Can you imagine people doing a thing like this for a kid like me?” Vessels went on to play professional football with the National Football League's Baltimore Colts and the Western Interprovincial Football Union's Edmonton Eskimos.
Vessels led the Oklahoma Sooners to the 1950 NCAA football national championship, scoring 15 touchdowns. In 1952 he was the Heisman Trophy winning halfback for the Sooners, the school's first Heisman winner.
Playing under the legendary Bud Wilkinson, he became the first of five Sooners, followed by Steve Owens (1969), Billy Sims (1978), Jason White (2003) and Sam Bradford (2008), to win the Heisman Trophy. During the 1952 season he
In the history of the Holy Roman Empire, Louis VI, Elector Palatine (4 July 1539 in Simmern – 22 October 1583, Heidelberg) was an Elector from the Palatinate-Simmern branch of the house of Wittelsbach. He was the first-born son of Frederick III, Elector Palatine and Marie of Brandenburg-Kulmbach.
To learn French, the young prince Louis visited the Burgundian University Dole in 1554. As presumptive heir of the Electorate in the Palatinate, he was already participating in government affairs at the court of Otto Henry, Elector Palatine. Since 1563, he was governor of the Upper Palatinate.
Unlike his father, he gave preference to Lutheranism over Calvinism, purging Calvinists from positions at the University of Heidelberg. The Calvinist theologians found protection at the court of Prince John Casimir, the brother of Louis, in Neustadt an der Weinstrasse and established the "Casimirianum Neustadt". During the Cologne War Louis VI was the only Lutheran imperial prince who stood on the side of Cologne's Elector and Archbishop Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg. With the Lutheran reorganization of the country Louis adopted a new court constitution, a police constitution and in 1582, a grand
Terence Bellew MacManus (born c. 1811 or 1823– 15 January 1861) was a radical Irish rebel who participated in the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848. Sentenced to death for treason, he and several other participants were given commuted sentences in 1849 and transported for life to Van Diemen's Land in Australia. Three years later in 1852, MacManus escaped and emigrated to the United States.
He lived in San Francisco, California until his death in 1861. There he was unable to re-establish his career. His body was returned to Dublin for burial, where the Fenians gave him a large funeral in honor of his part in the rebellion.
MacManus was notable for his statement in court in 1848; he explained his actions by saying: "...[I]t was not because I loved England less, but because I loved Ireland more."
Terence MacManus was born about 1811 (or 1823) in Tempo, County Fermanagh, Ireland. He was educated in parochial schools.
As a young man he moved to Liverpool, a major port, where he became a successful shipping agent. In 1848 he returned to Ireland, where he became active in the Repeal Association, which sought to overturn the Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland. After joining the
Joseph Devlin, also known as Joe Devlin, (13 February 1871 – 18 January 1934) was an Irish journalist and influential nationalist politician. He was a Member of Parliament (MP) for the Irish Parliamentary Party in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and later a Nationalist Party MP in the Parliament of Northern Ireland.
Born at 10 Hamill Street, in the Lower Falls area of Belfast, he was the fifth child of Charles Devlin (d. 1906) who ran a hackney cab, and his wife Eliza King (d. 1902) who sold groceries from their home. Until he was twelve he attended the nearby St. Mary's Christian Brothers School in Divis Street, where he was educated in a more ‘national’ and ‘catholic’ view of Irish history and culture than offered in the state system.
He showed an early gift for public speaking when he became chairman of a debating society founded in 1886 to commemorate the first nationalist election victory in West Belfast. From 1891-1893 he was a journalist on the Irish News, then on the Freeman's Journal when he became associated with the Ancient Order of Hibernians (AOH) which he helped to re-establish in 1890s becoming spokesman for the Catholic
Titta Ruffo (9 June 1877 - 5 July 1953), born as Ruffo Titta Cafiero, was an Italian opera star who had a major international singing career. Known as the "Voce del leone" ("voice of the lion"), he was greatly admired, even by rival baritones, such as Giuseppe De Luca, who said of Ruffo: "His was not a voice, it was a miracle" (although not often published is the second part of De Luca's conclusion "...which he [Ruffo] bawled away..."), and Victor Maurel, the creator of Verdi's Iago and Falstaff. Maurel said that the notes of Ruffo's upper register were the most glorious baritone sounds he had ever heard (see Pleasants, cited below). Indeed Walter Legge, the prominent classical record producer, went so far as to call Ruffo "a genius".
Born Ruffo Titta in Pisa (he reversed his forename and surname for the stage), Ruffo was the son of an engineer. He studied voice with several teachers, but he was an independent thinker and, basically, his vocal method was self-taught.
Ruffo made his operatic debut in 1898 at the Teatro Constanzi in Rome as the Herald in Wagner's Lohengrin. After a slow start, his career took off in the early 1900s and he quickly achieved international renown due to
Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Arabic: الوليد بن عبد الملك) or Al-Walid I (668 – 23 Ferbuary 715) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 705 to his death in 715. His reign saw the greatest expansion of the Caliphate, as successful campaigns were undertaken in Transoxiana, Sind, Hispania and against the Byzantines.
He was born to Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan and his wife who was from the central Arabian region Najd. Walid continued the expansion of the Islamic empire that was sparked by his father, and was an effective ruler. His father Abd al-Malik had taken the oath of allegiance for Walid during his lifetime.. As such the succession of Walid was not contested. His reign was marked by endless successions of conquests east and west, and historians consider his reign as the apex of Islamic power.
Walid continued the Islamic conquests and took the early Islamic empire to its farthest extents. Then, in 711, Muslim armies crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and began to conquer the Iberian Peninsula using North African Berber armies. By 716, the Visigoths of Iberia had been defeated and Iberia was under Muslim control. This would be the farthest extent of Islamic control of Europe (in 736, they were
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (ca. 480–524 or 525 AD), was a philosopher of the early 6th century. He was born in Rome to an ancient and prominent family which included emperors Petronius Maximus and Olybrius and many consuls. His father, Flavius Manlius Boethius, was consul in 487 after Odoacer deposed the last Western Roman Emperor. Boethius, of the noble Anicia family, entered public life at a young age and was already a senator by the age of 25. Boethius himself was consul in 510 in the kingdom of the Ostrogoths. In 522 he saw his two sons become consuls. Boethius was imprisoned and eventually executed by King Theodoric the Great, who suspected him of conspiring with the Eastern Roman Empire. While jailed, Boethius composed his Consolation of Philosophy, a philosophical treatise on fortune, death, and other issues. The Consolation became one of the most popular and influential works of the Middle Ages. A link between Boethius and a mathematical boardgame Rithmomachia has been made.
Boethius' exact birth date is unknown. Boethius was born to a patrician family; his father Manlius Boethius was appointed consul in 487. However, his father died when
Henri Farman (26 May 1874 – 17 July 1958 was a French pilot, aviator and aircraft designer and manufacturer with his brother Maurice Farman. His family was British and he took French nationality in 1937.
Born in Paris, France, and given the name Henry, he was the son of a well-to-do British newspaper correspondent working there and his French wife. Farman trained as a painter at the École des Beaux Arts, but quickly become obsessed with the new mechanical inventions that were rapidly appearing at the end of the 19th century. Since his family had money, he was able to pursue this interest as an amateur sportsman. In the 1890s he became a championship cyclist, and at the turn of the century he discovered motor racing, competing for Renault in the Gordon Bennett Cup.
When the Voisin brothers started their aircraft construction business in 1907 Farman was one of their first customers, ordering a copy of the aircraft that had been built for Leon Delagrange. He used this aircraft, the Voisin 1907 biplane to set numerous official records for both distance and duration. These include the first to fly a complete circuit of 1 kilometre (13 January 1908, winning the 50,000 franc Grand Prix
James Ogilvie-Grant, 11th Earl of Seafield DL (18 April 1876-12 November 1915), briefly known as Viscount Reidhaven in 1888, was a Scottish nobleman.
Seafield was the eldest son of Francis William Ogilvie-Grant, 10th Earl of Seafield, and Ann Nina, daughter of George Thomas Evans, of County Limerick and of Clooneavin, New Zealand. He succeeded in the earldom and other titles and as 30th Chief of Clan Grant on his father's death in 1888. He served as a Justice of the Peace for Banffshire, Morayshire, and Inverness-shire and fought in the First World War as a Captain in the 3rd Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders, and was attached to the 5th Battalion Cameron Highlanders. He was a Deputy Lieutenant for the County of Elgin
Lord Seafield married Mary Elizabeth Nina Townend, daughter of Joseph Henry Townend, of Christchurch, New Zealand, in 1898. They had one daughter. He died of wounds received in action in 1915, aged 39. Lord Seafield was succeeded in the barony of Strathspey, the baronetcy of Colquhoun and as Chief of Clan Grant by his younger brother brother Hon. Trevor Ogilvie Grant. The earldom and the other subsidiary Scottish peerages could be passed on to female heirs, and were
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy pronunciation (help·info) (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963.
After military service as commander of the Motor Torpedo Boats PT-109 and PT-59 during World War II in the South Pacific, Kennedy represented Massachusetts' 11th congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 as a Democrat. Thereafter, he served in the U.S. Senate from 1953 until 1960. Kennedy defeated Vice President and Republican candidate Richard Nixon in the 1960 U.S. presidential election. He was the youngest elected to the office, at the age of 43, the second-youngest President (after Theodore Roosevelt), and the first person born in the 20th century to serve as president. Kennedy is the only Catholic president, and is the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize. Events during his presidency included the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African-American Civil Rights Movement, and early stages of the Vietnam War.
Kennedy was assassinated on November
Joseph Lafayette "Joe" Meek (1810–1875) was a trapper, law enforcement official, and politician in the Oregon Country and later Oregon Territory of the United States. A pioneer involved in the fur trade before settling in the Tualatin Valley, Meek would play a prominent role at the Champoeg Meetings of 1843 where he was elected as a sheriff. Later he served in the Provisional Legislature of Oregon before being selected as the United States Marshal for the Oregon Territory.
Joe Meek was born in Washington County, Virginia, United States, near the Cumberland Gap in 1810. At the age of 18 he joined William Sublette and the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, and roamed the Rocky Mountains for over a decade as a fur trapper. In about 1829, the nineteen-year old Meek traveled with a trapping party along the Yellowstone River. A band of Blackfoot scattered the trappers, leaving Meek to travel into what is today Yellowstone National Park. In a later account included in author Frances Fuller Victor's 1870 biography of Meek, The River of the West, he described the region. The whole country beyond was smoking with the vapor from boiling springs, and burning with gasses, issuing from small craters,
Alfred Habdank Skarbek Korzybski ([kɔˈʐɨpski]) (July 3, 1879 – March 1, 1950) was a Polish-American philosopher and scientist. He is remembered for developing the theory of general semantics. Korzybski's work argued that human knowledge of the world is limited both by the human nervous system and by the structure of language.
Korzybski thought that people do not have access to direct knowledge of reality; rather they have access to perceptions and to a set of beliefs which human society has confused with direct knowledge of reality. Korzybski is remembered as the author of the dictum: "The map is not the territory".
(List of Polish coats of arms Abdank coat of arms)
Korzybski was born in Warsaw, Poland which at that time was part of the Russian Empire. He was part of an aristocratic Polish family whose members had worked as mathematicians, scientists, and engineers for generations. He learned the Polish language at home and the Russian language in schools; and having a French governess and a German governess, he became fluent in these four languages as a child.
Korzybski was educated at the Warsaw University of Technology in engineering. During the First World War Korzybski served
Herculine Barbin (1838–1868) was a French intersex person who was treated as a female at birth but was later redesignated a male after an affair and physical examination.
Most of what we know about Barbin comes from his later memoirs. Herculine Adélaîde Barbin was born in Saint-Jean-d'Angély in France in 1838. He was regarded as a girl and raised as such; his family referred to him as Alexina. His family was poor but he gained a charity scholarship to study in the school of an Ursuline convent.
According to his account, he had a crush on an aristocratic female friend in school. He regarded himself as unattractive but sometimes slipped into his friend's room at night and was sometimes punished for that. However, his studies were successful and in 1856, at the age of seventeen he was sent to Le Chateau to study to become a teacher. There he fell in love with one of the teachers.
Although Barbin was in puberty, he had not begun to menstruate and remained flat chested. He would trim the hairs on his upper lip and cheeks which only made the hair thicker and more noticeable.
In 1857 Barbin received a position as an assistant teacher in a girl's school. He fell in love with another
John Eyre (1771–1812) was an early Australian painter and engraver. A transported convict, Eyre generally focused on urban landscapes, giving his creative output value not only as works of art but also as historical records.
Over the course of Eyre's artistic career, his work progressed from purely representative topographical depictions, to more artistic compositions with embellishments such as Aboriginal figures and ships at sea. This progression is typical of the developmental pattern of landscape depiction in the early colonial period.
Nathan Smith (January 8, 1770 – December 6, 1835) was a United States Senator from Connecticut, and was the brother of Nathaniel Smith and uncle of Truman Smith. He was born in Woodbury, Connecticut and received a modest education. He read law, and was admitted to the bar in 1792 and commenced the practice of his profession in New Haven. Smith was prosecuting attorney for New Haven County from 1817 to 1835, and was a delegate to the State constitutional convention in 1818. In 1825, he was an unsuccessful candidate for governor of Connecticut, and was appointed United States Attorney for the district of Connecticut, serving in 1828 and 1829.
Nathan Smith was elected as a Whig to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1833, until his death in Washington, D.C. on December 6, 1835. Interment was in the Grove Street Cemetery, New Haven.
This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
Rudolf "Rudi" Vrba (11 September 1924 – 27 March 2006) was a professor of pharmacology at the University of British Columbia. Originally from Slovakia, he is known for his escape, at the age of 19, from the Auschwitz concentration camp in German-occupied Poland during the Second World War, and for having provided some of the earliest and most detailed information about the mass murder that was taking place there.
Vrba and a fellow prisoner, Alfréd Wetzler (1918–1988), managed to flee Auschwitz on 10 April 1944, three weeks after German forces had invaded Hungary (a German ally), and after SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann had arrived in Budapest, the Hungarian capital, to begin the deportation to Auschwitz of the country's Jewish population. The 40 pages of information the men passed to Jewish officials when they arrived in Slovakia on 24 April – which included information about the use of gas chambers and crematoria – became known as the Vrba-Wetzler report. While it confirmed material in earlier reports from Polish and other escapees, Miroslav Kárný writes that it was unique in its "unflinching detail."
Mass transports of Hungary's Jews to Auschwitz began by train on 15 May
Whitelaw Reid (October 27, 1837 – December 15, 1912) was a U.S. politician and newspaper editor, as well as the author of a popular history of Ohio in the Civil War.
Born James Whitelaw Reid on a farm near Xenia, Ohio, Reid attended Xenia Academy and went on to graduate from Miami University with honors in 1856. At Miami, he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon (Kappa chapter), and lobbied for the expulsion of the six members who ultimately founded Sigma Chi.
He was the longtime editor of the New York Tribune and a close friend of Horace Greeley. He was a leader of the Liberal Republican movement in 1872.
During the war he wrote under the by-line "Agate"
A Republican, he had an illustrious career as a diplomat, serving as United States Ambassador to France from 1889 to 1892, and as U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James's from 1905 to 1912.
In 1892, Reid became the Republican vice presidential nominee when President Benjamin Harrison chose to drop Vice President Levi P. Morton from the ticket. Harrison and Reid lost to the Democratic ticket of Grover Cleveland and Adlai Stevenson, as Cleveland became the first former president to recapture the office.
Reid was given a spot on the
Allen M. Sumner (October 1, 1882-July 19, 1918) was an officer in the United States Marine Corps.
Born in Boston, Massachusetts, he initially went to Harvard before securing a place in the Naval Academy. On March 17, 1907, Sumner was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the Marine Corps. Until 1909 he was stationed in turn at the Marine Barracks of the Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland, and Norfolk Navy Yard. He was then ordered to Cuba with the 1st Provisional Regiment of Marines in the Army of Cuban Pacification. In December 1909, he served on temporary duty on the USS Prairie. He retired on January 1, 1914, after seven years service.
Sumner was recalled as soon as war was declared in April 1917, and began serving on active duty at Marine Barracks, Quantico, on July 5, 1917. When the 1st Machine Gun Battalion was formed in August, Sumner was assigned to 81st Company. Sumner's war record is as follows: Sailed from New York on December 14, 1917 on the USS DeKalb, arriving in St Nazaire on December 31,. Trained in the Vosges and was in the front lines in March at Mont-sur-la-Cote on the Verdun Front. On April 29, relieved Major Waller in Command of 81st Company when Major Waller was
Robert Gerard "Bobby" Sands (Irish: Roibeárd Gearóid Ó Seachnasaigh; 9 March 1954 – 5 May 1981) was an Irish volunteer of the Provisional Irish Republican Army and member of the British Parliament who died on hunger strike while imprisoned in HM Prison Maze.
He was the leader of the 1981 hunger strike in which Irish republican prisoners protested against the removal of Special Category Status. During his strike he was elected as a member of the British Parliament as an Anti H-Block/Armagh Political Prisoner candidate. His death resulted in a new surge of IRA recruitment and activity. International media coverage brought attention to the hunger strikers, and the republican movement in general, attracting both praise and criticism.
Sands was born into a Roman Catholic family in Abbots Cross, but also lived in a house in Doonbeg Drive, Newtownabbey, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, and lived there until 1960 whereupon the family were forced to move to Rathcoole, Newtownabbey. His first sister, Marcella, was born in April 1955 and second sister, Bernadette, in November 1958. His parents, John and Rosaleen, had another son, John, in 1962. On leaving school, he became an apprentice
Johannes von Tepl (c. 1350 – c. 1415), also known as Johannes von Saaz (Czech: Jan ze Žatce), was a Bohemian writer of the German language, one of the earliest known writers of prose in Early New High German (or late Middle German — depending on the criteria).
Not much is known about him; historians presume that he probably studied at universities in Prague, Bologna and Padua. In 1383, he became a solicitor in Žatec (Saaz) and in 1386 a rector of the town's Latin school. From the year 1411 on, he lived in Prague. He spent almost all his life in the Kingdom of Bohemia during the reign of kings Charles and Wenceslaus.
Johannes von Tepl is best known for his early humanist poem Der Ackermann aus Böhmen (Ploughman of Bohemia), sometimes also called Der Ackermann und der Tod (Ploughman and Death), written around 1401 and first printed in 1460. It is a dialogue of Death and Ploughman, whose wife Margaretha recently died. Central themes of the book are their opposing views on life, mankind, and morality. (In the history of Bohemia, the ploughman is an important symbol of Bohemian kings — Přemysl, the legendary founder of the Přemyslid dynasty, was originally a ploughman.) The poem is
John Henry Bonham (31 May 1948 – 25 September 1980) was an English musician and songwriter, best known as the drummer of Led Zeppelin. Bonham was esteemed for his speed, power, fast right foot, distinctive sound, and "feel" for the groove. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest drummers in the history of rock music. Over 30 years after his death, Bonham continues to garner awards and praise, including a Rolling Stone readers' pick in 2011 placing him in first place of the magazine's "best drummers of all time".
Bonham was born on 31 May 1948, in Redditch, Worcestershire, England, to Joan and Jack Bonham. He began learning to play drums at the age of five, making a drum kit out of containers and coffee tins, imitating his idols Gene Krupa and Buddy Rich. His mother gave him a snare drum at the age of ten. He received his first proper drum kit from his father at fifteen, a Premier Percussion set. Bonham never took any formal drum lessons, though as a teen he would get advice from other Redditch drummers. Between 1962–63, while still at school, Bonham joined the Blue Star Trio, and Gerry Levene & the Avengers.
Bonham attended Lodge Farm Secondary Modern School, where his
Cesar Julio Romero, Jr. (February 15, 1907 – January 1, 1994) was an American film and television actor who was active in film, radio, and television for almost sixty years. His wide range of screen roles included Latin lovers, historical figures in costume dramas, characters in light domestic comedies, and as the Joker in the Batman TV series.
Romero was born in New York City, the son of Maria Mantilla and Cesar Julio Romero. His father was a native of Italy and was an importer-exporter of sugar refining machinery, and his mother was a Cuban concert singer. That lifestyle, however, changed dramatically when his parents lost their sugar import business and suffered losses in the Stock Market Crash of 1929. Romero's Hollywood earnings allowed him to support his large family, all of whom followed him to the West Coast years later. Romero lived on and off with various family members, especially his sister, for the rest of his life.
In October 1942, he voluntarily enlisted in the U.S. Coast Guard and served in the Pacific Theater. He reported aboard the Coast Guard-manned assault transport USS Cavalier in November, 1943. According to a press release from the period he saw action during
Admiral Sir Day Hort Bosanquet GCVO, KCB (22 March 1843 – 1923) was the Governor of South Australia from 18 February 1909 until 22 March 1914.
Born in Alnwick in Northumberland, Bosanquet joined the Royal Navy in 1857. He was present at the taking of Canton.
He was appointed Commander-in-Chief, East Indies Station in 1899, Commander-in-Chief, North America and West Indies Station in 1904 and Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth in 1907.
In retirement Bosanquet became Governor of South Australia.
He was a major landholder around Llanwarne, Herefordshire in England, living at Brom-y-clos.
Bosanquet's daughter Beatrice (d. 1 Sept, 1957) married Vice-Admiral Sir Raymond Fitzmaurice in 1919.
Bosanquet died at Alnwick, Northumberland in 1923.
John Leeds Kerr (January 15, 1780 – February 21, 1844) was an American politician.
Kerr was born in 1780 at Greenbury Point near Annapolis, Maryland, and graduated from St. John’s College of Annapolis in 1799. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1801, and commenced practice in Easton, Maryland.
Kerr was Deputy State’s Attorney for Talbot County, Maryland from 1806 to 1810. During the War of 1812, Kerr commanded a company of militia, and was later appointed agent of the State of Maryland in 1817 to prosecute claims against the federal government growing out of the War. In 1824, Kerr was elected to the Nineteenth and Twentieth Congresses, and served from March 4, 1825 to March 3, 1829. He was unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1828, but was elected two years later in 1830 to the Twenty-second Congress, and served one term from March 4, 1831 to March 3, 1833. In Congress, Kerr served as chairman of the Committee on Territories (Twenty-second Congress). After Congress, he served as presidential elector on the Whig ticket in 1840
Kerr was elected to the United States Senate as a Whig to fill the vacancy caused by the death of John S. Spence and served from January 5, 1841,
Wade Hampton III (March 28, 1818 – April 11, 1902) was a Confederate cavalry leader during the American Civil War and afterward a politician from South Carolina, serving as its 77th Governor and as a U.S. Senator.
Hampton was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the eldest son of Wade Hampton II (1791–1858), known as "Colonel Wade Hampton", one of the wealthiest planters in the South (and the owner of the largest number of slaves), an officer of dragoons in the War of 1812, and an aide to General Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans. He was grandson of Wade Hampton (1754–1835), lieutenant colonel of cavalry in the American War of Independence, member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and brigadier general in the War of 1812. His uncle, James Henry Hammond, was a member of both the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate, as well as a Governor of South Carolina.
Hampton grew up in a wealthy family, receiving private instruction. He had an active outdoor life, riding horses and hunting, especially at his father's North Carolina summer retreat, High Hampton. He was known for taking hunting trips alone into the woods, hunting American black bears with only a knife.
Charles Simon Clermont-Ganneau (19 February 1846 – 15 February 1923) was a noted French Orientalist and archaeologist.
Clermont-Ganneau was born in Paris, son of a sculptor of some repute. After an education at the Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales, he entered the diplomatic service as dragoman to the consulate at Jerusalem, and afterwards at Constantinople. He laid the foundation of his reputation by his involvement with stele of Mesha (Moabite Stone), which bears the oldest Semitic inscription known.
In 1874 he was employed by the British government to take charge of an archaeological expedition to Palestine. Among his discoveries there was the rock-cut tomb of the Biblical Shebna. He explored/discovered many tombs in Wady Yasul, a valley immediately south of Jerusalem, which he claimed served as an auxiliary cemetery for Jerusalem at some ancient period(s). Based on geographic and linguistic evidence he theorized that this valley was Azal mentioned in Zechriah 14:5 in the Bible. He was the first to make archeological soundings at Emmaus-Nicopolis. He was subsequently entrusted by his own government with similar missions to Syria and the Red Sea. He was
Cuthbert Brodrick FRIBA (1 December 1821 – 2 March 1905) was a British architect, whose most famous building is Leeds Town Hall.
Brodrick was born in the Yorkshire port of Hull where his father was a well-to-do merchant and shipowner. Cuthbert was the sixth son of the ten children of John and Hannah Brodrick. The family lived at 39, George Street, in the best residential area of Hull.
Brodrick attended Kingston College in Hull and, on leaving school, he became an articled pupil (a student of architecture) in the offices of Henry Francis Lockwood whose premises were at 8, Dock Street. Brodrick stayed with Lockwoods from 1837 until he embarked on the Grand Tour of Europe in May 1844, to continue his studies. He travelled through France and Italy, as far as Rome. Whilst on this journey he studied the architecture of Second Empire in Paris. This style greatly influenced his later designs.
When Brodrick returned to Hull in 1846, he was offered a partnership in Lockwood’s firm. He refused this, and set up in practice on his own at 1, Savile Street in Hull. He designed a number of local buildings in Hull including the Hull Royal Institution building and the Hull Town Hall.
In 1852, at the
Joseph Philo Bradley (March 14, 1813 – January 22, 1892) was an American jurist best known for his service on the United States Supreme Court, and on the Electoral Commission that decided the disputed 1876 presidential election.
The son of Philo Bradley and his wife Mercy Gardner Bradley, Bradley was born to humble beginnings in Berne, New York, and attended local schools. He began teaching at the age of 16. In 1833, the Dutch Reformed Church of Berne advanced young Joseph Bradley $250 to study for the ministry at Rutgers University. While there, he decided to study law instead, graduating in 1836. After graduation he was made Principal of the Millstone Academy.
Not long afterward, he was persuaded by his Rutgers classmate Frederick T. Frelinghuysen to join him in Newark and pursue legal studies at the Office of the Collector of the Port of Newark. He was admitted to the bar in 1839.
Bradley began in private practice in New Jersey, specializing in patent and railroad law, and he became very prominent in these fields and quite wealthy. Bradley remained dedicated to self-study throughout his life and collected an extensive library. He married Mary Hornblower in Newark in 1844. (His
Prince Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (1669–1719) was a Polish-Lithuanian szlachcic.
Ordynat of Nieśwież, Stolnik of Lithuania in 1685, Koniuszy of Lithuania in 1686, Deputy Chancellor of Lithuania in 1690, Grand Chancellor of Lithuania in 1698, Ciwun of Vilnius.
He married Anna Katarzyna Sanguszko on March 6, 1691 in Vilnius. He was awarded the Order of the White Eagle.
Melvin Burt Gottlieb (May 25, 1917, in Chicago, Illinois – December 1, 2000, in Haverford Township, Pennsylvania) was a high-energy physicist and director of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (1961-1980). With Van Allen he did the early studies of the magnetosphere, and he later led US fusion research.
Gottlieb was born on May 25, 1917 to Ezra Benjamin Gottlieb and Sara Gottlieb née Holtz in Chicago and received his bachelors in mathematics and doctorate in physics from the University of Chicago. He was married on June 26, 1948 to Golda Gehrman and they had two daughters.
During World War II Gottlieb worked on radar counter-measures and with Van Allen on early cosmic ray studies.
In 1950 Gottlieb accepted an appointment as assistant professor at the State University of Iowa where he continued to work with Van Allen. Starting in 1952 he went on several expeditions to the Arctic on behalf of the Office of Naval Research, where balloons, attached to ion chambers, and launched from rockets were used to study the magnetosphere.
Beginning in 1954 Gottlieb started work on fusion research at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for the federal government. The work was at the time
Albert Camus (French: [albɛʁ kamy] ( listen); 7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French pied-noir author, journalist, and philosopher. His views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism. He wrote in his essay "The Rebel" that his whole life was devoted to opposing the philosophy of nihilism while still delving deeply into individual freedom. Although often cited as a proponent of existentialism, the philosophy with which Camus was associated during his own lifetime, he rejected this particular label. In an interview in 1945, Camus rejected any ideological associations: "No, I am not an existentialist. Sartre and I are always surprised to see our names linked..."
In 1949, Camus founded the Group for International Liaisons within the Revolutionary Union Movement after his split with Garry Davis' movement Citizens of the World, which the surrealist André Breton was also a member. The formation of this group, according to Camus, was to "denounce two ideologies found in both the USSR and the USA" regarding their idolatry of technology.
Camus was awarded the 1957 Nobel Prize for Literature "for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted
Eugene Casserly (November 13, 1820 – June 14, 1883) was an Irish-American journalist and lawyer. The son of Patrick S. Casserly, he served in the United States Senate from California.
Eugene Casserly was born on November 13, 1820, in Mullingar, County Westmeath, Ireland, and immigrated to the United States with his parents in 1822, settling in New York. Casserly's father prepared him for a college education and he attended and graduated from Georgetown University in Washington, D.C.. He subsequently studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1844 and began practicing in New York City. Casserly became editor of Freeman's Journal and contributed to several newspapers in various cities.
Before moving to San Francisco, California, in 1850, Casserly served on the New York City corporation counsel from 1846 to 1847. Upon moving to California, he published the Public Balance, the True Balance and the Standard, and was elected State printer in 1851 before retiring from journalism and resuming his law practice. In 1854, he married Teresa, daughter of deceased merchant John Doyle. Together, they had three children, two sons and a daughter.
Casserly was elected as a Democrat to the United
Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav (February 2, 1849 - November 8, 1921) was a Slovak poet, dramatist, translator and for a short time member of the Czechoslovak parliament. First, he wrote in traditional style, but later became influenced by parnassism and modernism.
Born as Pavel Országh in Vyšný Kubín (Felsőkubin), Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire, Országh became a Hungarian patriot and wrote his poems only in Hungarian until the 1860s. He was of noble origin. He studied in Miskolc, Kežmarok (Késmárk), Budapest and Prešov (Eperjes). Hviezdoslav (a Slavic name, meaning approximately "celebrating the stars" and/or "Slav of the stars") was his pseudonym from 1875. His earlier pseudonym was Jozef Zbranský.
Hviezdoslav studied in grammar schools in Miskolc and Kežmarok (Késmárk). After his graduation in 1870, he continued his studies in the Law Academy of Prešov (Eperjes) where in 1871 he participated in the preparation of the Almanach Napred ("Forward" Miscellany/Almanac) which marks the beginning of a new literary generation in Slovak literature. Due to his contribution to this Almanac with several radical poems, however, he was ignored in the literature life of the country in the rest
Rodger M. Ward (January 10, 1921 – July 5, 2004) was an American racecar driver who won the 1959 and 1962 Indianapolis 500. He also was the 1959 and 1962 USAC Championship Car champion.
Ward was born in Beloit, Kansas, the son of Ralph and Geneva (née Banta) Ward. By 1930, the family had moved to California. He died in Anaheim, California.
Ward's father owned an auto wrecking business in Los Angeles. Roger was 14 years old when he built a Ford hot rod. He was a P-38 Lightning fighter pilot in World War II. He enjoyed flying so much he thought of making it his career. He began to fly B-17 Flying Fortress and was so good he was retained as an instructor. After the war he was stationed in Wichita Falls, Texas when a quarter mile dirt track was built.
He began racing midget cars in 1946 after he was discharged from the Army. He finished poorly. His skills improved in 1947 and by 1948 he won the San Diego Grand Prix. He raced in an Offenhauser in 1949 and won several races.
Ward shocked the midget car racing world when he broke Offenhauser motor's long winning streak by using Vic Edelbrock's Ford 60 "shaker" motor at Gilmore Stadium on August 10, 1950. The motor was one of the first to
George Dewey Cukor ( /ˈkjuːkər/; July 7, 1899 – January 24, 1983) was an American film director. He mainly concentrated on comedies and literary adaptations. His career flourished at RKO when David O. Selznick, the studio's Head of Production, assigned Cukor to direct several of RKO's major films including What Price Hollywood? (1932), A Bill of Divorcement (1932), "Our Betters" (1933), and Little Women (1933). When Selznick moved to MGM in 1933 Cukor followed and directed Dinner at Eight (1933) and David Copperfield (1935) for Selznick and Romeo and Juliet (1936) and Camille (1936) for Irving Thalberg.
He was replaced as the director of Gone with the Wind (1939), but he went on to direct The Philadelphia Story (1940), Adam's Rib (1949), Born Yesterday (1950), A Star Is Born (1954) and My Fair Lady (1964). He continued to work into the 1980s.
Cukor was born on the Lower East Side of New York City, the younger child and only son of Hungarian Jewish immigrants Victor, an assistant district attorney, and Helen Ilona (née Gross) Cukor. His parents selected his middle name in honor of Spanish–American War hero George Dewey. Unlike the Jews of Poland and Russia whose first language was
Ludovico Antonio Muratori (October 21, 1672 – January 23, 1750) was an Italian historian, notable as a leading scholar of his age, and for his discovery of the Muratorian fragment, the earliest known list of New Testament books.
Born to a poor family in Vignola, near Modena, he was first instructed by the Jesuits, studied law, philosophy, and theology at the University of Modena, and was ordained a priest in 1694. The following year, Count Charles Borromeo called him to the college of "Dottori" at the Ambrosian Library in Milan, where he immediately started collecting unedited ancient writings of various kinds. His first publication was the Anecdota Latina ex Ambrosianæ Bibliothecæ codicibus (2 vols., Milan, 1697–98), followed by two other volumes (Padua, 1713).
Duke Rinaldo I (1700) appointed him archivist and librarian in Modena's Ducal library, which position he held until his death in that city. In 1716 Muratori became, in addition, provost of St. Maria della Pomposa, and conducted this parish until 1733. He continued publishing unedited writings, first among which was a volume, Anecdota græca (Padua, 1709). At the same time he cultivated literature, as is shown by his works,
Pierre Eugène Jean Pflimlin (French pronunciation: [pjɛʁ flimlɛ̃]; 5 February 1907 – 27 June 2000) was a French Christian democratic politician who served as the penultimate Prime Minister of the Fourth Republic for a few weeks in 1958, before being replaced by Charles de Gaulle during the crisis of that year.
Pfilimlin was born in Roubaix in the département Nord.
A lawyer and a member of the Christian democratic Popular Republican Movement (MRP), he was elected deputy of département Bas Rhin in 1945. With his personal roots in Alsace, Pflimlin numbered among his MRP party colleagues the Luxembourg-born Robert Schuman; for both, relations with Germany played an important role in their political thinking.
He held some governmental offices during the Fourth Republic, notably as Minister of Agriculture (1947–1949 and 1950–1951) and as Minister of Economy and Finance (1955–1956 and 1957–1958).
In 13 May 1958, the French National Assembly approved his nomination as Prime Minister. But the same day, riots took place in Algiers. The French generals in Algeria expected him to search for a negotiated solution with the Algerian nationalists and refused to recognize his cabinet. The crisis
Pietro Antonio Locatelli (3 September 1695 – 30 March 1764) was an Italian composer and violinist.
Locatelli was born in Bergamo, Italy. A child prodigy on the violin, he was sent to study in Rome under the direction of Arcangelo Corelli. Little is known of his subsequent activities except that he finally settled in Amsterdam in 1729, where he died on 30 March 1764.
Locatelli's works are mainly for the violin, an instrument on which he was a virtuoso.
His most significant publication is probably L'arte del violino, opus 3. Printed in Amsterdam in 1733, this was one of the most influential musical publications of the early eighteenth century. It is a collection of twelve concertos for solo violin, strings and basso continuo, with a 'capriccio' for unaccompanied violin inserted into the first and last movements of each concerto as a sort of cadenza.
Locatelli also wrote violin sonatas, a cello sonata, trio sonatas, concerti grossi and a set of flute sonatas (his opus 2). His early works show the influence of Arcangelo Corelli, while later pieces are closer to Antonio Vivaldi in style.
John Simon Guggenheim (December 30, 1867 – November 2, 1941) was an American businessman, politician, and philanthropist.
He was the son of Meyer Guggenheim and Barbara Guggenheim, and was the younger brother of Daniel Guggenheim and Solomon R. Guggenheim. Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Simon Guggenheim attended Central High School and Peirce College before settling in Pueblo, Colorado, where he worked as the chief ore buyer for his father's mining and smelting operation, M. Guggenheim’s Sons.
Guggenheim moved to Denver in 1892 and married Olga Hirsch on November 24, 1898, at the iconic Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York. To celebrate their marriage, the Guggenheims provided a Thanksgiving dinner to 5,000 poor Manhattan children.
Simon and Olga made their residence in Denver and celebrated the birth of their first child, John Guggenheim, in 1905. To commemorate the event, Guggenheim made an $80,000 donation to the Colorado School of Mines to build a namesake building, Guggenheim Hall. At the time, it was the largest private grant ever made to a State institution.
In 1907, Olga gave birth to their second son, George Guggenheim. In 1909, he donated a Law Building at University of
William Archer (23 September 1856 – 27 December 1924), Scottish critic, was born in Perth, and was educated at the University of Edinburgh, where he received the degree of M.A. in 1876. He was the son of Thomas Archer.
He became a leader-writer on the Edinburgh Evening News in 1875, and after a year in Australia returned to Edinburgh. In 1878 he took up residence in London. In 1879 he became dramatic critic of the London Figaro, and in 1884 of the World, where he remained until 1905. In London he soon took a prominent literary place.
Archer had much to do with introducing Ibsen to the English public by his translation The Pillars of Society, produced at the Gaiety Theatre, London, 1880. He also translated, alone or in collaboration, other productions of the Scandinavian stage: Ibsen's A Doll's House (1889), The Master Builder (1893, with Edmund Gosse); Edvard Brandes's A Visit (1892); Ibsen's Peer Gynt (1892, with Charles Archer); Little Eyolf (1895); and John Gabriel Borkman (1897); and he edited Henrik Ibsen's Prose Dramas vols., 1890–1891).
In 1897 Archer, along with Elizabeth Robins, H. W. Massingham, and Alfred Sutro, formed the Provisional Committee to organize an association
Edward Backwell (ca. 1618–1683) was an English goldsmith, financier, and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1673 and 1683. He has been called "the principal founder of the banking system in England", and "far and away the best documented banker of his time".
Backwell was the son of Barnaby Backwell, of Leighton Buzzard. He became a resident of London, and was apprenticed to Thomas Vyner as a goldsmith in 1635. Like other goldsmiths of the era, he was also a banker and played a role in State finance during The Protectorate, when he profited considerably by the resale of former Royal lands. He continued to operate in finance during the reign of Charles II, and is frequently mentioned in the diary of Samuel Pepys. He had his goldsmith's shop in Lombard Street. He was selected an alderman for Bishopsgate 1660–1661. The stoppage of the Exchequer in 1672 badly damaged him financially. He and his son John were appointed comptroller of customs in the port of London in 1671, and with his old master Vyner, he was from 1671 to 1675 a commissioner of the customs and farmer of the customs revenue.
Backwell owned land in Buckinghamshire and Huntingdonshire. In
George Henry Peters (1863–October 18, 1947) was an US astronomer. He died in Washington, D.C.
He worked at the U.S. Naval Observatory as an astrophotographer, discovering three asteroids and photographing the Sun's corona.
Giorgio Andreoli (between 1465 and 1470 – 1553), named also Mastro Giorgio Andreoli or Mastro Giorgio, was born in Intra, on the Lake Maggiore, and died in Gubbio, where he spent most of his life, in 1555. He is considered to be the most important potter of the Italian Renaissance. He is famous as inventor of a particular kind of lusterware (lustro).
In 1498 he became a citizen of Gubbio and in 1518 invented his remarkable lustre, the chief characteristics of which are its beautiful gold and carmine colors. Good examples of his majolica may be found in the local museums of Gubbio, Urbino, Arezzo, and elsewhere in Italy, and also in the principal museums of decorative art in Europe, such as Berlin, Vienna, Paris, and South Kensington.
Not all works fired with his lustre were designed by him, for potters of the neighboring cities brought their work to him to be fired. He was assisted in his work by his brothers Salimbene and Giovanni, and after his death it was continued by his son Vincenzo.
Bentley John Heddle (15 September 1943 – 19 December 1989), known as John Heddle, was a British Conservative Party politician.
Heddle was Member of Parliament for Lichfield and Tamworth from 1979 to 1983, and for Mid Staffordshire from 1983 until his death in 1989 at the age of 46. He committed suicide due to the indebtedness of his businesses.
Ottokar IV (1163 – May 8, 1192) was Margrave of Styria and Duke from 1180 onwards, when Styria, previously a margraviate subordinated to the duchy of Bavaria, was raised to the status of an independent duchy. He was the son of Ottokar III of Styria and the last of the dynasty of the Ottakars. He entered into the Georgenberg Pact with Leopold V of Austria in 1186, which brought Styria under joint rule with Austria after his death in 1192. The childless and deathly ill Ottokar, who had contracted leprosy while on crusade, was to give his duchy to Leopold and to his son Frederick under the stipulation that Austria and Styria would henceforth remain undivided.
Robert Remak (26 July 1815 – 29 August 1865) was a Polish/German embryologist, physiologist, and neurologist, born in Posen, Prussia. Dr. Remak obtained his medical degree from Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin in 1838 specializing in neurology. He is best known for reducing Karl Ernst von Baer's four germ layers to three: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. He also discovered unmyelinated nerve fibres and the nerve cells in the heart sometimes called Remak's ganglia. He studied under Johannes Muller at the University of Berlin.
Remak discovered that the origin of cells was by the division of pre-existing cells.
Despite his accomplishments, because of his Jewish faith, he was repeatedly denied full professor status until late in life, and even then was denied the usual benefits of the position. Rudolf Virchow, one of the founders of modern cell theory, plagiarized the notion that all cells come from pre-existing cells from Remak.
His son Ernst Julius Remak was also a neurologist and his grandson was the mathematician Robert Remak who died in Auschwitz in 1942.
Sitting Bull (Lakota: Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake in Standard Lakota Orthography, also nicknamed Slon-he or "Slow"; c. 1831 – December 15, 1890) was a Hunkpapa Lakota Sioux holy man who led his people as a tribal chief during years of resistance to United States government policies. Born near the Grand River in Dakota Territory, he was killed by Indian agency police on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation during an attempt to arrest him and prevent him from supporting the Ghost Dance movement.
He had a premonition of defeating the cavalry, which motivated his Native American people to a major victory at the Battle of the Little Bighorn against Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer and the 7th Cavalry on June 25, 1876. Months after the battle, Sitting Bull and his group left the United States to Wood Mountain, Saskatchewan, where he remained until 1881, at which time he surrendered to U.S. forces. A small remnant of his band under Chief Waŋblí Ǧí decided to stay at Wood Mountain.
After working as a performer, Sitting Bull returned to the Standing Rock Agency in South Dakota. Because of fears that he would use his influence to support the Ghost Dance movement, Indian Service agent James McLaughlin
Emperor Gaozong (Chinese: 高宗; pinyin: Gāo Zōng) (12 June 1107 – 9 November 1187), born Zhao Gou, was the tenth emperor of the Song Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of the Southern Song. He reigned from 1127 to 1162. He fled south after the Jurchens overran Kaifeng in the Jingkang Incident, hence the beginning of the Southern Song dynasty 1127–1279. Gaozong re-established his seat of government in Lin'an (臨安; today's Hangzhou, 杭州).
Gaozong was the 9th son of Emperor Huizong and the younger half-brother of Emperor Qinzong. His mother was a concubine from the Wei (韋) family who later became empress dowager, and is known posthumously as Empress Xianren (顯仁皇后) (1080–1159).
Gaozong was a regional ruler in the Northern Song dynasty. After Song's Qinzong and Huizong emperors were captured by the Jurchen, he became the emperor of China and established Southern Song empire. During his reign, Jurchens often attacked the Southern Song empire. Initially, he used military officials such as Li Gang, Zong Ze, Yue Fei, Han Shizhong and Yu Yunwen to hold the Jurchens at bay. However, after years of fighting and significant military success, Gaozong settled on a pacifist stance. One of the
Henry Beaufort (c. 1374 – 11 April 1447) was a medieval English clergyman and Cardinal Bishop of Winchester, an anomaly in being both a bishop and a member of the royal house of Plantagenet.
The second son of John of Gaunt and his mistress Katherine Swynford, Beaufort was born in Anjou, an English domain in France, in about 1374 and educated for a career in the Church. After his parents were married in early 1396, Henry, his two brothers and one sister were declared legitimate by the pope and legitimated by Act of Parliament on 9 February 1397, but they were barred from the succession to the throne. On 27 February 1398 he was nominated Bishop of Lincoln and on 14 July 1398 he was consecrated. When his half-brother deposed Richard and took the throne as Henry IV of England, he made Bishop Beaufort Lord Chancellor of England in 1403. Beaufort resigned that position in 1404 when he was appointed Bishop of Winchester on 19 November.
Between 1411 and 1413, Bishop Beaufort was in political disgrace for siding with his nephew, the Prince of Wales, against the King, but when King Henry IV died and the Prince became Henry V of England, he made his uncle Chancellor again in 1413; however,
Kurt Huber (October 24, 1893 – July 13, 1943) was a university professor and member of the White Rose group, which carried out resistance against Nazi Germany.
Huber was born in Chur, Switzerland, to German parents. He grew up in Stuttgart and later, after his father's death, in Munich. He showed an aptitude for such subjects as music, philosophy and psychology. Huber became a professor in 1920 at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich.
Huber was appalled by the rise of the Nazis. Huber decided that Hitler and his government had to be removed from power. He came into contact with the White Rose movement through some students who attended his lectures, Hans Scholl and Alexander Schmorell.
Huber wrote the White Rose's sixth and final leaflet calling for an end to National Socialism.
Huber's political activities came to the attention of the Gestapo and he was arrested on February 27, 1943. By coincidence, composer Carl Orff called at Huber’s house the day after he was taken. Huber’s wife begged him to use his influence to help her husband. But Orff told her that if his friendship with Huber was ever discovered he would be “ruined.” Orff left, Huber’s wife never saw him again.
Benjamin Moore (October 5, 1748 – February 27, 1816) was the second Episcopal bishop of New York.
Moore was born in Newtown, New York, in 1748, the son of Samuel Moore and Sarah Fish Moore and the great-grandson of John Moore, the first Independent minister allowed in New England. He attended King's College (now Columbia University), graduating in 1768 with a degree of A.B.. Moore returned to King's College for a master's degree in 1771. He traveled to England and was ordained deacon by Bishop Richard Terrick in Fulham Palace on June 24, 1774. He was advanced to the priesthood the next day.
On returning to America in 1775, Moore was made assistant rector at Trinity Church in New York City. In 1779, he married Charity Clarke, with whom he had one child, Clement Clarke Moore. While at Trinity Church, Moore earned a degree of doctor of sacred theology from his alma mater in 1789.
Moore kept neutral on the political questions surrounding the American Revolution and continued in his duties as assistant rector under Samuel Provoost until 1800 when, Provoost having resigned, Moore was elected rector.
Moore was elected coadjutor bishop of New York in 1801 to assist Provoost, who wished to
Ernst Bloch (German: [ˈɛʁnst ˈblɔx], July 8, 1885 – August 4, 1977) was a German Marxist philosopher.
Bloch was influenced by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Karl Marx, as well as by apocalyptic and religious thinkers such as Thomas Müntzer, Paracelsus, and Jacob Boehme. He established friendships with Georg Lukács, Bertolt Brecht, Kurt Weill, Walter Benjamin, and Theodor W. Adorno. Bloch's work focuses on the concept that in a humanistic world where oppression and exploitation have been eliminated there will always be a truly revolutionary force. Bloch has been called the greatest of modern utopian thinkers.
Bloch was born in Ludwigshafen, the son of a Jewish railway-employee. After studying philosophy, he married Else von Stritzky, daughter of a Baltic brewer in 1913, who died in 1921. His second marriage with Linda Oppenheimer lasted only a few years. His third wife was Karola Piotrowska, a Polish architect, whom he married in 1934 in Vienna. When the Nazis came to power, they had to flee, first into Switzerland, then to Austria, France, Czechoslovakia, and finally the USA. Bloch returned to the GDR in 1949 and obtained a chair in philosophy at Leipzig. When the Berlin Wall
Joseph "Lightning Joe" Lawton Collins (May 1, 1896 – September 12, 1987) was a General in the United States Army. During World War II, he served in both the Pacific and European Theaters of Operations. His elder brother, James Lawton Collins, was also in the army as a Major General. His nephew, Michael Collins, would become famous for being the Command Module Pilot on the Apollo 11 mission in 1969 that saw the first two men on the Moon. He too would retire as a Brigadier General, from the Air Force.
He was Army Chief of Staff during the Korean War.
Collins was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, on May 1, 1896. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1917; was commissioned a second lieutenant and assigned to the 22nd Infantry, April 1917; was promoted to first lieutenant, May 1917, and temporary captain, August 1917. He attended the Infantry School of Arms at Fort Sill and served with his regiment at various locations, 1917–1919. Collins was promoted to captain, June 1918, and to temporary major, September 1918; commanded the 3rd Battalion, 22nd Infantry, in France, 1919, and was assistant chief of staff, G-3, of American Forces in Germany, 1920–1921.
Matthew Cowley (August 2, 1897 – December 13, 1953) was an American missionary and a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1945 until his death. He was affectionately known as the "Polynesian Apostle" because of his intimate knowledge of Polynesian culture and the Māori language.
Matthew Cowley was the son of Matthias F. Cowley and Abbie Hyde. He was also the half-brother of FBI agent Samuel P. Cowley.
After his birth, in the same year, Cowley's father was called to the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and they moved from Preston, Idaho to Salt Lake City, Utah. When Matthew was eight years of age, his father resigned from the quorum over the church's decision to excommunicate practitioners of plural marriage. In 1911, when Matthew was 14, his father was disciplined and had his priesthood temporarily rescinded. This did not stop Matthew from growing strong in the church.
He attended Latter-day Saints University in Salt Lake City, Utah until his call as a missionary.
In 1914, Cowley was called to serve as a missionary in New Zealand. There he developed an unusual talent with the Māori language and people. He was called upon
Anne de Pisseleu d'Heilly (1508 – 1580), Duchess of Étampes, was the mistress of Francis I of France.
She was a daughter of Adrien de Pisseleu, seigneur d'Heilly, a nobleman of Picardy,Genealogy who, with the rise of his daughter at court, was made seigneur of Meudon, master of waters and forests of Île de France, of Champagne and of Brie.
She came to court before 1522 and was one of the maids-of-honour of Louise of Savoy, Duchess of Angoulême, the mother of Francis I. Francis made Anne his mistress, probably upon his return from his captivity at Madrid (1526), and soon gave up his long-term mistress, Françoise de Foix, for her.
Anne was described as being sprightly, pretty, witty and cultured, "the most beautiful among the learned and the most learned among the beautiful"; she succeeded in keeping the favour of the king until his death in 1547. The liaison received some official recognition; when the new Queen of France, Eleanor of Austria, entered Paris in 1530, the King and Anne occupied the same window. In 1533, Francis gave her in marriage to Jean IV de Brosse, whom he created Duke of Étampes.
The influence of the Duchess of Étampes, especially in the last years of the reign,
Cyril Lucaris born Constantine Lukaris or Loucaris (1572–1638, Greek: Κύριλλος Λούκαρις) was a Greek prelate and theologian, and a native of Candia, Crete (then under the Republic of Venice). He later became the Greek Patriarch of Alexandria as Cyril III and Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople as Cyril I. Loukaris strove for a reform of the Eastern Orthodox Church along Protestant and Calvinist lines. Attempts to bring Calvinism into the Orthodox Church were rejected, and Cyril's actions and motivations remain a matter of debate among the Orthodox.
Kyrillos Loukaris was born in Candia, Crete on 13 November 1572, when Crete was part of the Venetian Republic's maritime empire. In his youth he travelled through Europe, studying at Venice and Padua, and at Geneva where he came under the influence of the reformed faith as represented by John Calvin. Lucaris pursued theological studies in Venice and Padua, Wittenberg and Geneva where he came under the influence of Calvinism and developed strong antipathy for Roman Catholicism.
In 1596 Lucaris was sent to Poland by Meletios Pegas, Patriarch of Alexandria, to lead the Orthodox opposition to the Union of Brest-Litovsk, which proposed a
Nathaniel Peter Hill (February 18, 1832 – May 22, 1900) was a United States Senator from Colorado.
Born in Montgomery, Orange County, New York, at the Nathaniel Hill Brick House (now a museum). He married Alice Hale of Providence, Rhode Island, on July 26, 1860 (she was born January 19, 1840, and died July 19, 1908). Alice's father was Isaac Hale, born in the town of Newbury County of Essex, Mass, Sept. 17, 1807. He was a descendant of Thomas Hale, on of the first settlers in Newbury from England in 1635. Her mother, Harriet Johnson, daughter of David Johnson and Lucy Towne. She was born in the town of Newbury, VT, July 29, 1814. David was a son of Col. Thomas Johnson who distinguished himself in the Revolutionary War. N.P and Alice had three children, Crawford, Isabel, and Gertrude. N.P. took over the family farm in Montgomery, until he was 21, when his eldest brother, James King, attended Yale University. During this time he was a part time student at Montgomery Academy. He graduated from Brown University in 1856.
He was an instructor and later professor of chemistry at Brown from 1856 to 1864. He was the first to bring the idea of laboratories to Brown, which he copied from
Nicolas Coustou (9 January 1658 – 1 May 1733) was a French sculptor and academic.
Born in Lyon, Coustou was the son of a woodcarver, who gave him his first instruction in art. At eighteen he moved to Paris, to study under C.A. Coysevox, his maternal uncle, who presided over the recently-established Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture; and at twenty-three he gained the Colbert prize (the Prix de Rome, which entitled him to four years of education at the French Academy at Rome. Afterward he became rector and chancellor of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture. From the year 1700 he worked with Coysevox at the palaces of Marly and Versailles.
He was remarkable for his facility. Influenced by Michelangelo and Algardi, he tried to combine the best characteristics of each.
A number of his works were destroyed during the French Revolution; the most famous of those that remain are "La Seine at la Marne", the "Berger Chasseur", and "Daphne Pursued by Apollo" in the gardens of the Tuileries, the bas-relief "Le Passage du Rhin" in the Louvre, the statues of Julius Caesar and Louis XV in the Louvre, and the "Descent from the Cross" behind the choir altar of the cathedral of Notre Dame
Robert Houghwout Jackson (February 13, 1892 – October 9, 1954) was United States Attorney General (1940–1941) and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1941–1954). He was also the chief United States prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials. A "county-seat lawyer", he remains the last Supreme Court justice appointed who did not graduate from any law school (though Justice Stanley Reed who served from 1938–1957 was the last such justice to serve on the court), although he did attend Albany Law School in Albany, New York for one year. He is remembered for his famous advice, that "...any lawyer worth his salt will tell the suspect in no uncertain terms to make no statement to the police under any circumstances." and for his aphorism describing the Supreme Court, "We are not final because we are infallible, but we are infallible only because we are final." Many lawyers revere Justice Jackson as one of the best writers on the court, and one of the most committed to due process protections from overreaching federal agencies.
Born on a family farm in Spring Creek Township, Warren County, Pennsylvania and raised in Frewsburg, New York, Jackson graduated from Frewsburg High
Socrates ( /ˈsɒkrətiːz/; Greek: Σωκράτης, Ancient Greek pronunciation: [sɔːkrátɛːs], Sōkrátēs; c. 469 BC – 399 BC) was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon, and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Many would claim that Plato's dialogues are the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity.
Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics, and it is this Platonic Socrates who also lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method, or elenchus. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions are asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. It is Plato's Socrates that also made important and lasting contributions to the fields of epistemology and logic, and the influence of his ideas and approach remains strong in
Bernard Howell Leach, CBE, CH (5 January 1887 – 6 May 1979), was a British studio potter and art teacher. He is regarded as the "Father of British studio pottery"
Leach was born in Hong Kong and brought up in the Far East. His father, Andew, was a colonial judge in Hong Kong and his maternal grandparents, Edmund and Elizabeth Sharp, were missionaries in Japan. As a young man he studied etching at the London School of Art before settling in Japan where he became fascinated with pottery and studied under the great master Kenzan.
Leach was born in Hong Kong, but spent his young adult years in Japan where he came into contact with a group of young Japanese art lovers who called themselves Shirakaba (白樺). Through them he learned about William Morris and the Arts and Crafts Movement.
It was in Japan that Leach began potting under the direction of Shigekichi Urano (Kenzan VI) and befriended a young potter named Shoji Hamada. With Hamada, he set up the Leach Pottery at St. Ives, Cornwall in 1920, including the construction of a traditional Japanese wood burning kiln. The two of them promoted pottery as a combination of Western and Eastern arts and philosophies. In their work they focused
Place of burial:Calvary Cemetery, East Los Angeles
Austin Cedric Gibbons (March 23, 1893 – July 26, 1960) was an Irish American art director and production designer who was one of the most important and influential in the field in the history of American film. He also made a great impact on motion picture theater architecture through the 1930s to 1950s, the period considered the golden-era of theater architecture. He is credited as the designer of the Oscar statuette in 1928.
Gibbons was born in Dublin, Ireland and studied at the Art Students League of New York and worked for his architect father. While at Edison Studios from 1915, he first designed a set for a film released in 1919, assisting Hugo Ballin. But, after this first foray, the studio closed, and he signed with Samuel Goldwyn in 1918. This evolved to working for Louis B. Mayer at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer from 1924 to 1956—a 32-year career.
Gibbons was one of the original 36 founding members of The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and oversaw the design of the Academy Awards statuette in 1928, a trophy for which he himself would be nominated 39 times, winning 11—second only to Walt Disney, who won 26.
He retired in 1956 with about 1,500 films credited to him:
Sir Julian Sorell Huxley FRS (22 June 1887 – 14 February 1975) was an English evolutionary biologist, eugenicist and internationalist. He was a proponent of natural selection, and a leading figure in the mid-twentieth century evolutionary synthesis. He was Secretary of the Zoological Society of London (1935–1942), the first Director of UNESCO, and a founding member of the World Wildlife Fund.
Huxley was well known for his presentation of science in books and articles, and on radio and television. He directed an Oscar-winning wildlife film. He was awarded UNESCO's Kalinga Prize for the popularisation of science in 1953, the Darwin Medal of the Royal Society in 1956, and the Darwin–Wallace Medal of the Linnaean Society in 1958. He was also knighted in that same year, 1958, a hundred years after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace announced the theory of evolution by natural selection. In 1959 he received a Special Award of the Lasker Foundation in the category Planned Parenthood – World Population. Huxley was a prominent member of the British Eugenics Society and its president from 1959–1962.
Huxley came from the distinguished Huxley family. His brother was the writer Aldous
Peter John Badcoe VC (11 January 1934 – 7 April 1967) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Badcoe was born as Peter John Badcock on 11 January 1934 in the Adelaide suburb of Malvern, South Australia, to Leslie Allen Badcock, a public servant, and his wife Gladys Mary Ann May (née Overton). He was educated at Adelaide Technical High School, before gaining employment as a clerk with the South Australian Public Service. Despite his father's opposition to the prospect, Badcock held ambitions to join the Australian Army; he did so in April 1952. He served for a period of seven weeks with the 16th National Service Training Battalion, prior to receiving acceptance as an officer cadet at the Officer Cadet School, Portsea on 15 June that year. Following six month's of training, Badcock graduated nineteenth in his course out of forty-nine cadets on 13 December and was commissioned as a second lieutenant into the Royal Australian Artillery. In his assessment of Badcock, Portsea's commandant noted that he was a "very keen and sound student" and would "make a capable
Robert Aitken Rushworth (October 9, 1924—March 17, 1993) was a United States Air Force test pilot for the North American X-15 program. Born in Madison, Maine on October 9, 1924. He studied mechanical engineering at the University of Maine, receiving a BE in 1951. He received a BS in aeronautical engineering from the Air Force Institute of Technology in 1958. He was selected for the X-15 program in 1958, and made his first flight on November 4, 1960. Over the next six years, he made 34 flights in the X-15, the most of any pilot. This included a flight to an altitude of 285,000 feet, made on June 27, 1963. This flight above 50 miles qualified Rushworth for Astronaut Wings, though he would have attained that honor sooner had the Man In Space Soonest project proceeded according to plan.
On a later X-15 flight, he was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross for successfully landing an North American X-15 after its nose wheel extended while flying at nearly Mach 5. He made his final X-15 flight on July 1, 1966, then returned to regular Air Force duties. These included a tour in Vietnam as an F-4 Phantom II pilot, flying 189 combat missions. He also served as the Commander of the Air Force
Place of death:Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
Talmage Holt Farlow (June 7, 1921 – July 25, 1998) was an American jazz guitarist. Nicknamed the "Octopus", for his extremely large hands spread over the fretboard as if they were tentacles, he is considered one of the all-time great jazz guitarists. Where other similar players of his day combined rhythmic chords with linear melodies, Farlow preferred placing single notes together in clusters, varying between harmonically richened tones based on a startling new technique.
Farlow was born in Greensboro, North Carolina in 1921. Nearly as famous for his reluctance to perform publicly as for his outstanding abilities, he did not take up the instrument until he was 21, but within a year was playing professionally and in 1948 was with Marjorie Hyams' band. While with the Red Norvo Trio from 1949–1953, Farlow became famous in the jazz world. His huge hands and ability to play rapid yet light lines, which earned him the nickname "Octopus", made him one of the top guitarists of the era. After six months with Artie Shaw's Gramercy Five in 1953, Farlow put together his own group, which for a time included pianist Eddie Costa.
In 1958, Farlow retired from full-time performing and settled in
William Huntington Russell (12 August 1809 – 19 May 1885) was an American businessman, educator, and politician. He was the founder of the Yale University secret society Skull and Bones. He was a descendant of several old New England families, including those of Pierpont, Hooker, Willett, Bingham, and Russell. His ancestor Rev. Noadiah Russell was a founder and original trustee of Yale College.
Born in Middletown, Connecticut, Russell was a cadet at the American Literary, Scientific and Military Academy (later Norwich University) from 1826 until graduation in 1828, where he was taught under strict military discipline. In 1828, William's father died, piling family responsibility on to him. Under severe financial restraints, he entered Yale College. He supported himself throughout his college years.
Russell had planned on entering the ministry, but his financial problems forced him to obtain an immediate income through teaching. In September 1836, he opened a private prep school for boys in a small dwelling house. The school would become known as the New Haven Collegiate and Commercial Institute. To begin with, the school was only attended by a small number of boys, but by the time
Bud Westmore (13 January 1918 – 24 June 1973) was a make-up artist in Hollywood. Son of George Westmore, a member of the Westmore family prominent in Hollywood make-up. He is credited on over 450 movies and television shows, including To Kill a Mockingbird, Man of a Thousand Faces, The Andromeda Strain and Creature from the Black Lagoon. For his involvement in Creature from the Black Lagoon he assisted the designer of the Gill-man, Disney animator Millicent Patrick, though her role was deliberately downplayed and for half a century, Westmore would receive sole credit for the creature's conception.
He was also Martha Raye's first husband for five months in 1937. He was sometimes credited as George Hamilton Westmore. The largest building on the Universal Studios Backlot is named in his honor.
Filip Konowal VC (15 September 1888 – 3 June 1959) was a highly decorated Ukrainian Canadian soldier. He is the only Ukrainian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy given to British and Commonwealth forces. He was also entitled to the Cross of St George, 4th Class.
He is the patron of Royal Canadian Legion Branch 360 (Konowal Branch) in Toronto.
Konowal was born 15 September 1888 in Kutkivtsi, Ukraine, in the Russian Empire and went on to serve in the Imperial Russian Army. Konowal was 28 years old, and an Acting Corporal in the 47th (British Columbia) Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force during the First World War. During the period 22–24 August 1917, at the Battle of Hill 70 in Lens, France, he performed an act of bravery for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross.
The citation was published in a supplement to the London Gazette of 23 November 1917 (dated 26 November 1917):
Konowal's Victoria Cross medal was personally presented by King George V, and he was promoted to sergeant.
He was also awarded the British War Medal (1914–1920), Victory Medal (1914–1919), George VI Coronation Medal (1937), Elizabeth II Coronation Medal
Sir Francis Robert Benson (4 November 1858 – 31 December 1939), commonly known as Frank Benson or F. R. Benson, was a British actor-manager. He founded his own company in 1883 and produced all but two of Shakespeare's plays.
He was educated at Winchester and New College, Oxford, and at the university was distinguished both as an athlete (winning the Inter-university three miles) and as an amateur actor. In the latter respect he was notable for producing at Oxford the first performance of a Greek play, the Agamemnon, in which many Oxford men who afterwards became famous in other fields took part.
Benson, on leaving Oxford, took to the professional stage, and made his first appearance at the Lyceum, under Henry Irving, in Romeo and Juliet, as Paris, in 1882. In the next year he went into managership with a company of his own, taken over from Walter Bentley, and from this time he became gradually more and more prominent, both as an actor of leading parts himself and as the organizer of practically the only modern repertory company touring through the provinces.
Benson's chief successes were gained out of London for some years, but in 1890 he had a season in London at the Globe and in
Sigurd II Haraldsson (or Sigurd Munn) (Old Norse: Sigurðr Haraldsson) (1133–1155) was king of Norway from 1136 to 1155. He was son of Harald Gille, king of Norway and his mistress Tora Guttormsdotter (Þóra Guthormsdóttir). He served as co-ruler with his half-brothers, Inge Haraldsson and Eystein Haraldsson. His epithet Munn means "the Mouth" in Old Norse. He was killed in the power-struggle against his brother, Inge, in an early stage of the civil war era in Norway.
Sigurd was fostered by Guttorm (Guthormr) or Sådegyrd Bårdsson (Sáðagyrðr Bárðarson) in Trøndelag. When his father was murdered by the pretender Sigurd Slembe in 1136, Sigurd was made king at the thing of Eyrathing. At the same time, his brothers Inge and Magnus were also made kings and co-rulers. Their respective guardians joined forces against Sigurd Slembe and his ally, the former king Magnus the Blind. The battles against these pretenders dominated the early years of Sigurd's reign. In 1139, they were defeated and slain at the battle of Hvaler.
After this followed a period of peace. During the minority of the brothers, Sigurd, Inge and Magnus, the Norwegian nobility cooperated to rule the kingdom and advise the
Vincent Willem van Gogh (Dutch: [vɑŋ ˈɣɔχ] ( listen); 30 March 1853 – 29 July 1890) was a Dutch post-Impressionist painter whose work, notable for its rough beauty, emotional honesty and bold color, had a far-reaching influence on 20th-century art. After years of painful anxiety and frequent bouts of mental illness, he died at the age of 37 from a gunshot wound, generally accepted to be self-inflicted (although no gun was ever found). His work was then known to only a handful of people and appreciated by fewer still.
Van Gogh began to draw as a child, and he continued to draw throughout the years that led up to his decision to become an artist. He did not begin painting until his late twenties, completing many of his best-known works during the last two years of his life. In just over a decade, he produced more than 2,100 artworks, consisting of 860 oil paintings and more than 1,300 watercolors, drawings, sketches and prints. His work included self portraits, landscapes, still lifes of flowers, portraits and paintings of cypresses, wheat fields and sunflowers.
Van Gogh spent his early adulthood working for a firm of art dealers, traveling between The Hague, London and Paris, after
Dom Lambert Beauduin (1873–1960) was a Belgian monk who founded the monastery now known as Chevetogne Abbey in 1925.
He had previously been a monk of the Benedictine Mont César Abbey in Leuven, and been deeply involved with the liturgical movement in Belgium. When he came to know the Christian East, he realized the extent to which the Churches are divided and started to work on the foundation of the present monastery at Chevetogne devoted to Christian unity.
William J. Flynn (1867 - October 14, 1928) was the director of the Bureau of Investigation from July 1, 1919 to August 21, 1921.
Born in New York City Flynn began his government career in 1897 after receiving a public school education. His first assignment was as an Agent in the United States Secret Service. Flynn gained recognition in 1911 when he successfully reorganized the New York City Detective force and returned to the Secret Service as Chief (1912–1917). During World War I, he served as Chief of the United States Railroad Secret Service, investigating threats of sabotage.
In 1919, Flynn was named director of the Bureau of Investigation. Attorney General Palmer praised his new appointee as "the leading, organizing detective of America...Flynn is an anarchist chaser...the greatest anarchist expert in the United States." On September 27, 1921, Flynn resigned saying he had a "private business matter to accept." Attorney General Harry Daugherty accepted the resignation immediately and appointed William J. Burns to the position.
Flynn died of a heart attack in 1928 in Larchmont, New York.
Columbus Delano, (June 4, 1809 – October 23, 1896) was a lawyer and a statesman and a member of the prominent Delano family. Delano was elected U.S. Congressman from Ohio, serving two terms from 1865 to 1869. Delano served as President Grant's Secretary of Interior during a time of rapid Westward expansionism. Delano had to contend with conflicts between Native American tribes and settlers. Sec. Delano was instrumental in the establishment of America's first national park, supervising the first U.S. federally funded 1871 exploratory scientific expedition into Yellowstone. Delano believed the best Indian policy was to allot Native American tribes on Indian Territory reservations; believing that tribal communalism living led to Indian wars and impoverishment. Delano believed that the reservation system humanely protected Native Americans from the encroachment of western settlers. He advocated Indian assimilation and independence from federal funding. Delano supported the slaughter of buffalo, essential to the Plains Indians' lifestyle, in order to stop their nomadic hunting. Delano's tenure was marred by profiteering and corruption in his Interior Department by Indian Bureau agents
Lewis Baxter Schwellenbach (September 20, 1894 – June 10, 1948), was an American lawyer, politician, and judge. He was born in Superior, Wisconsin.
When Schwellenbach was eight years old, his family moved to Spokane, Washington. Later he attended the University of Washington and its law school, where he first became active in politics, becoming a Democrat because (according to Time) he could get in on the ground floor, since the state was full of Republicans. He became a lawyer in 1921, gaining some prominence for his unsuccessful defense in a well-publicized murder case.
He had a very active practice working with and for labor unions, eventually becoming active in businesses which were owned by the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. He was a director of the Brotherhood Bank and Trust Company. He became the president of Superior Services Laundry Inc., which eventually failed. He unsuccessfully ran for governor of Washington in 1932, but he succeeded in winning election to the United States Senate in 1934.
As a senator, Schwellenbach led the supporters of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal legislation in the senate. He was an ally of senators Sherman Minton of Indiana, Joe Guffey of
Paul Gustave Marie Camille Hazard (30 August 1878, Noordpeene, Nord — 13 April 1944, Paris), was a French scholar, professor and historian of ideas.
Hazard was the son of a school teacher. Starting in 1900, he attended the École Normale Supérieure in Paris. He received a doctorate from the Sorbonne in 1910 and became famous for his Ph.D. dissertation La Révolution française et les lettres italiennes (1910). He began his teaching at the University of Lyon in 1910 teaching comparative literature. In 1919 he began teaching also at the Sorbonne. In 1925 he was appointed to the chair of comparative literature at the Collège de France in Paris. In alternating years, from 1932 until 1940, he was a visiting lecturer at Columbia University in New York. During the 1920's and 1930's he also lectured at other American schools. He was elected to the French Academy in 1939. After finishing his semester of teaching at Columbia University in 1940, Hazard voluntarily returned to Nazi occupied France in January 1941. He continued to teach, at Lyon and Paris, and to study. Later that same year he was nominated to the rectorship of the University of Paris, but was rejected by the Nazis as
Gerald Massey (29 May 1828 – 29 October 1907) was an English poet and self-educated Egyptologist. He was born near Tring, Hertfordshire in England.
Massey's parents were poor. When little more than a child, he was made to work hard in a silk factory, which he afterward deserted for the equally laborious occupation of straw plaiting. These early years were rendered gloomy by much distress and deprivation, against which the young man strove with increasing spirit and virility, educating himself in his spare time, and gradually cultivating his innate taste for literary work. He was attracted by the movement known as Christian Socialism, into which he threw himself with whole-hearted vigour, and so became associated with Maurice and Kingsley.
"During the later years of his life, (from about 1870 onwards) Massey became interested increasingly in Egyptology and the similarities that exist between ancient Egyptian mythology and the Gospel stories. He studied the extensive Egyptian records housed in the British Museum, eventually teaching himself to decipher the hieroglyphics."
Massey's first public appearance as a writer was in connection with a journal called the Spirit of Freedom, of
Harald Halfdansson (Old Norse: Haraldr Hálfdanarson; c. 850 – c. 932), better known as Harald Fairhair (Old Norse: Haraldr hárfagri, Norwegian: Harald Hårfagre), was the first King of Norway, reigning from c. 872 to 930. Most of his life remains uncertain, since the most detailed accounts of his life are written around three hundred years after his own lifetime. A few contemporary skaldic poems exist which give only brief information, while the oldest and youngest sagas often disagree on important aspects of his life. Two of his sons, Eric Bloodaxe and Haakon the Good, followed Harald to become kings of Norway after his death.
The only contemporary sources mentioning him are the two skaldic poems Haraldskvæði and Glymdrápa, which have been attributed to Þorbjörn Hornklofi or alternatively (in the case of the first poem) to Þjóðólfr of Hvinir. The first poem has only been preserved in fragments in 13th century Kings' sagas. It describes life at Harald's court, mentions that he took a Danish wife, and that he won a battle at Hafrsfjord. The second relates a series of battles Harald won. The validity of this evidence is doubtful and the facts offered by the poems are scant. Their
John Crawford Crosby (June 15, 1859–October 14, 1943) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Crosby was born in Sheffield, Massachusetts. He attended the public schools of Pittsfield and graduated from Eastman Business College in Poughkeepsie, New York and from Boston University School of Law in Boston.
Crosby was admitted to the bar in 1882 and began practice in Pittsfield. He began his political career as a member of the school committee of Pittsfield from 1884 to 1890. During the later part of his service on the school committee, Crosby also served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives (1886–1887) and the Massachusetts Senate (1888–1889).
Crosby served as the director of a bank and later of fire and life insurance companies. He was elected in the 1890 election as a Democrat to the U.S. House of Representatives, representing Massachusetts's 12th district for the 52nd United States Congress (1891-03-04 to 1893-03-03).
Crosby lost his campaign for reelection in the 1892 election. He was elected Mayor of Pittsfield, serving from 1894 to 1895, and was a delegate to the 1896 Democratic National Convention.
Crosby was city solicitor from 1896 to 1900
John Rollin Ridge (Cherokee name: Cheesquatalawny, or Yellow Bird, March 19, 1827–October 5, 1867), a member of the Cherokee Nation, is considered the first Native American novelist.
Born in New Echota, Georgia, he was the son of John Ridge, and the grandson of Major Ridge, both of whom were signatories to the Treaty of New Echota, which Congress affirmed in early 1836, ceding Cherokee lands east of the Mississippi River and ultimately leading to the Trail of Tears. At the age of 12, Ridge witnessed both their deaths at the hands of supporters of Cherokee leader John Ross, who had vehemently opposed the treaty. His mother, a white woman, took him and fled to Fayetteville, Arkansas. In 1843, he was sent to the Great Barrington School in Great Barrington, Massachusetts for two years, after which he returned to Fayetteville to study law. He himself married a white woman, Elizabeth Wilson, in 1847 and they had one daughter, Alice, in 1848.
In 1849, he killed Ross sympathizer David Kell, whom he thought had been involved with his father's assassination, over a horse dispute. Despite having a good argument for self-defense, he fled to Missouri to avoid prosecution. The next year, he
Sister Maria Celeste (16 August 1600 – 2 April 1634), born Virginia Gamba, was the daughter of the famous Italian scientist Galileo Galilei and Marina Gamba. She was the eldest of three siblings, with a sister Livia and a brother Vincenzio. All three children were born out of wedlock, and their father considered his daughters Virginia and Livia to be unmarriageable. He placed them in the San Matteo convent shortly after Virginia's thirteenth birthday. Virginia chose a new name, Maria Celeste, in honor of the virgin Mary, and her father's love of astronomy.
Although Maria Celeste was confined inside the walls of the convent at San Matteo for the remainder of her life, she was a constant source of support for both her father, whose books began a controversy in the Catholic Church, and the convent. Maria Celeste served as San Matteo's apothecary, and also kept the convent afloat through the influence of her father. She sent him herbal cures for his various maladies while additionally seeing to the convent's finances and occasionally staging plays from inside the convent's cloistered walls. There is evidence she prepared the manuscripts for some of Galileo's books.
Group Captain Peter Wooldridge Townsend, CVO, DSO, DFC and Bar, RAF (22 November 1914 – 19 June 1995) was Equerry to King George VI 1944–1952 and held the same position for Queen Elizabeth II 1952–1953. Group Captain Townsend is best known for his ill-fated romance with Princess Margaret.
Townsend was born 1914 in Rangoon, Burma, and was educated at Haileybury School.
Townsend joined the Royal Air Force in 1933, and trained at Cranwell. He served in Training Command, and as a flying instructor at RAF Montrose. He was stationed at RAF Tangmere in 1937 and was a member of No. 43 Squadron RAF. The first enemy aircraft to crash on English soil during World War Two fell victim to fighters from Acklington on 3 February 1940 when three Hurricanes of ‘B’ flight, 43 Squadron, shot down a Heinkel 111 of 4./KG26 near Whitby. The pilots were F/L Townsend, F/O ‘Tiger’ Folkes and Sgt. James Hallowes. He was awarded the DFC in April 1940. Two more He 111s were claimed by Townsend, on 22 February and 8 April, and a sixth share on 22 April.
By May 1940, now a Squadron Leader, Townsend was one of the most capable Squadron leaders of the Battle of Britain, serving throughout the battle as CO of No.
Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: Алексе́й Никола́евич Толсто́й; 10 January 1883 [O.S. 29 December 1882] – 23 February 1945), nicknamed the Comrade Count, was a Russian and Soviet writer who wrote in many genres but specialized in science fiction and historical novels.
During World War II, his role in the Extraordinary State Commission was recognised by the Nuremberg Trials of the Nazi war criminals and their attempted genocide of Europe's Jews by means of gas vans.
Aleksey was the son of Count Nikolay Alexandrovich Tolstoy (1849-1900) and Alexandra Leontievna Turgeneva (1854-1906). His mother was a grand-niece of Decembrist Nikolay Turgenev and a relative of a renowned Russian writer Ivan Turgenev. His father belonged to Tolstoy family of Russian nobles and was a remote relative of Leo Tolstoy.
According to author and historian, Nikolai Tolstoy (a distant relative),
"The circumstances of Alexei Tolstoy's birth parallel in striking resemblance those of another relative, Alexei Constantinovich, the great lyric poet, after whom he was named. His father had been a rake--hell cavalry officer, whose rowdy excesses proved too much even for his fellow hussars. He was obliged to leave
Arthur Gardiner Butler (born 27 June 1844 in Beckenham, Kent - died 28 May 1925 in Beckenham, Kent, 28 May 1925) was an English entomologist, arachnologist and ornithologist. He worked at the British Museum working on the taxonomy of birds, insects, and spiders.
He also published articles on spiders of Australia, Galapagos, of Madagascar, etc.
Buddhadasa Bhikkhu (Thai: พุทธทาสภิกขุ, May 27, 1906 – May 25, 1993) was a famous and influential ascetic-philosopher of the 20th century. Known as an innovative reinterpreter of Buddhist doctrine and Thai folk beliefs, Buddhadasa fostered a reformation in conventional religious perceptions in his home country, Thailand, as well as abroad. Although he was a formally ordained ascetic, or "monk," having at the age of twenty years submitted to mandatory government religious controls, Buddhadasa developed a personal view that rejected specific religious identification and considered all faiths as principally one. His ground-breaking thought inspired such persons as French schooled Pridi Phanomyong, leader of Siam's 1932 revolution, and a group of Thai social activists and artists of the 1960s and 70s.
He was born Nguam Panitch (Thai: เงื่อม พานิช) in 1906 in Ban Phumriang (Chaiya district), southern Siam. His father, Sieng Panitch, was a shopkeeper of second generation Sino-Thai (Hokkien) ancestry and his mother, Klaun, was Siamese. He renounced civilian life in 1926. Typical of young monks during the time, he traveled to the Siamese capital of Bangkok for doctrinal training. But he
Dana Andrews (January 1, 1909 – December 17, 1992) was an American film actor. He was one of Hollywood's major stars of the 1940s, and continued acting, though generally in less prestigious roles, into the 1980s.
He was born Carver Dana Andrews on a farmstead outside Collins, Covington County, Mississippi, the third of nine children of Charles Forrest Andrews, a Baptist minister, and his wife Annis (née Speed). The family subsequently moved to Huntsville, Texas, where his younger siblings (including actor Steve Forrest) were born.
Andrews attended college at Sam Houston State University and also studied business administration in Houston, Texas, working briefly as an accountant for Gulf+Western . In 1931, he travelled to Los Angeles, California seeking opportunities as a singer. He worked at various jobs to earn a living, including pumping gas at a filling station in Van Nuys. One of his employers believed in him and paid for his studies in opera and also at the Pasadena Playhouse, a theater and acting school.
Andrews signed a contract with Samuel Goldwyn and nine years after arriving in Los Angeles was offered his first movie role in William Wyler's The Westerner (1940), starring
Sir Donald Mann (March 23, 1853 - November 10, 1934) was a Canadian railway contractor and entrepreneur.
Born at Acton, Ontario, Mann studied as a Methodist minister but worked in lumber camps in Ontario and Michigan before moving to Winnipeg, Manitoba. During the 1880s he worked as a contractor under Chief Engineer James Ross, building sections of the Canadian Pacific Railway across the prairies and through the Rocky Mountains.
Partnering with William Mackenzie, Mann built railway lines in western Canada, Maine, Brazil, and China. In 1895, together with Mackenzie he began the process of purchasing and building the lines in western Canada which would later become the Canadian Northern Railway (CNoR), a system which would stretch from Vancouver Island to Cape Breton Island and form Canada's second transcontinental railway system.
Both Mann and Mackenzie were knighted in 1911 for their efforts in the Canadian railway industry; however, personal and company financial difficulties eventually resulted in the bankruptcy of the CNoR. It was nationalized by the federal government on September 6, 1918, and ultimately became part of the Canadian National Railway.
He is also known for
Godfrey Higgins (January 30, 1772 in Owston, Yorkshire, England – August 9, 1833), was an archaeologist, Freemason and Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, humanist, social reformer, and author of various now-esoteric and rare books. He was remembered by his parish as a "political radical, reforming county magistrate and idiosyncratic historian of religions".
His father and son both shared the same name; neither achieved a similar degree of notability.
Godfrey Higgins the son of Godfrey Higgins of Skellow Grange, near Doncaster. He was educated in Hemsworth before being admitted to Emmanuel College, Cambridge in 1790, and migrating to Trinity Hall in 1791. He later studied law at the Inner Temple; however, he was not called to the Bar and refrained from practice. When Napoleon threatened an invasion of the United Kingdom, Higgins joined the Volunteer Corps and became a Captain in the Third West York Militia. In 1800, he married Jane Thorpe, who gave birth to his son, also named Godfrey, and two daughters, Jane and Charlotte. After Higgins' promotion to the rank of major in 1808, he resigned from the Volunteer Corps citing a severe fever as reason. Soon thereafter he was appointed
Francisco Javier de Burgos y del Olmo (October 22, 1778, Motril—January 22, 1849, Madrid) was a Spanish jurist, politician, journalist, and translator.
Born into a noble but poor family, he was destined for a career in the Roman Catholic Church, but soon abandoned his studies in Granada and left for Madrid - where he took law courses. When the French invaded under Napoleon I, at the start of the Peninsular War (1808-1814), Burgos, as one of the afrancesados (supporters of King Joseph I), took up administrative duties in Andalusia. His willingness to collaborate had made him an enemy of the House of Bourbon, and made him leave for Paris in 1812.
In France, Burgos completed his academic training by studying the works of the Classics, and started translating the works of Horace into Castilian (a version notably analysed by Andrés Bello, who deemed Burgos "a poor translator, but an excellent commentator"). Much later (1844), Burgos published a revised version, which, although still flawed, has remained a reference - for instance, it is appreciated for its use of the sapphic stanza with free verse.
He returned to Madrid in 1819, and was appointed editor of El Imparcial in 1822 (the
Joseph Santley (January 10, 1889 – August 8, 1971) was an American actor, singer, dancer, writer, director, and producer of musical theatrical plays and motion pictures.
Born Joseph Mansfield in Salt Lake City, Utah, he adopted the stage name of his stepfather, actor Eugene Santley. As a boy, he and older brother Fred began performing in live theatre appearing in summer stock and touring with their parents. In 1906, at age seventeen, Joseph Santley co-wrote and starred on Broadway in the play, Billy the Kid. In 1907, he acted in film for the first time for Sidney Olcott at the Kalem Company in a silent Western film short called Pony Express.
Santley continued to work almost exclusively in musical comedy plays, returning to Broadway five more times as well as touring nationally. A gifted dancer, Santley created the Santley Tango and the Hawaiian Butterfly. After he married actress/singer and cabaret dancer Ivy Sawyer, beginning in 1916 the two danced as a team, performing together in a number of Broadway musicals beginning with “Betty” and “Oh, My Dear!” and eventually other productions at major venues across the United States such as the National Theatre in Washington, D.C.. Their
Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to four government investigations, the sniper who assassinated John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963.
A former U.S. Marine who had defected to the Soviet Union between October 1959 and June 1962, Oswald was initially arrested for the murder of police officer J. D. Tippit, on a Dallas street approximately 40 minutes after Kennedy was shot. Suspected in the assassination of Kennedy as well, Oswald denied involvement in either of the killings. Two days later, while being transferred from police headquarters to the county jail, Oswald was shot and killed by nightclub owner Jack Ruby in full view of television cameras broadcasting live.
In 1964, the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald acted alone in assassinating Kennedy, firing three shots, a conclusion also reached by prior investigations carried out by the FBI and Dallas Police Department, yet rejected by much of the U.S. public over the years. In 1979, the House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded that Oswald fired the shots which killed Kennedy, but differed from previous investigations in
Commander Lloyd Mark "Pete" Bucher (1 September 1927 – 28 January 2004) was an officer in the United States Navy, who is best remembered as the Captain of the USS Pueblo (AGER-2), which was captured on January 23, 1968 by North Korea.
Bucher was born in Pocatello, Idaho, where he was given up for adoption by his birth mother, and was orphaned at an early age (his adoptive mother dying of cancer when he was age 3). He was raised by his father, grandparents, various other family members, his father again, then drifted through a series of Catholic orphanages in Idaho until he read a magazine article about Father Flanagan's Boy's Town in Nebraska. He wrote to Father Flanagan and was surprised when he wrote back to Bucher. Bucher was accepted at Boy's Town in the Summer of 1941, and for the rest of his life considered it to be his home. Bucher flourished at Boy's Town, making honor roll the majority of his time there and playing football, basketball, track and baseball. Like most young men during World War II, he dropped out his senior year to enlist in the Navy, serving the last year of the war and for 2 years afterward (1945–1947). As an enlisted man, Bucher reached the rank of
Philip Becker (1830–1898) was Mayor of the City of Buffalo, New York, serving 1876–1877 and 1886–1889. He was born in Oberotterbach, Bavaria, Germany, on April 25, 1830. He graduated from college in Germany at sixteen years of age. In 1847, Philip and his older brother were provided the means to pay the fare to America and he settled in Buffalo, where his aunt and uncle lived. In 1852, he married Sarah Goetz. He entered the retail and wholesale grocery business. Becker was instrumental in organizing the German Insurance Company in 1867 and was President of the company from 1869 until his death.
He was elected mayor on November 2, 1875, as the Republican candidate. He was the first German-American elected mayor of Buffalo. During his first term, in March, 1876, the new County and City Hall was opened. He was defeated by Solomon Scheu in the election of 1877. On November 3, 1885, Becker was once again elected Mayor of Buffalo. He was reelected on November 8, 1887 At the end of his third term, he did not seek re-election. He returned to his business enterprises and retired in 1893. Becker died on July 4, 1898, with an estate valued over $750,000. He was buried in Forest Lawn
Pyotr Lavrovich Lavrov (Russian: Пётр Ла́врович Лавро́в; alias Mirtov (Миртов); (June 2 (June 14 N.S.), 1823 – January 25 (February 6 N.S.), 1900) was a prominent Russian theorist of narodism, philosopher, publicist, and sociologist.
He entered a military academy and graduated in 1842 as an army officer. He became well-versed in natural science, history, logic, philosophy, and psychology. He also became an instructor in mathematics for two decades.
Lavrov joined the revolutionary movement as a radical in 1862. His actions led to his being exiled to the Ural Mountains in 1868 from which he soon escaped and fled abroad. In France, he lived mostly in Paris, where he became a member of the Anthropological Society. Lavrov had been attracted to European socialist ideas early on, though at first he did not know how they applied to Russia. While he was in Paris, Lavrov fully committed himself to the revolutionary socialist movement. He became a member of the Ternes section of the International Workingmen's Association in 1870. He was also present at the start of the Paris Commune, and soon went abroad to generate international support.
Lavrov arrived in Zürich in November 1872, and became
James Browning Allen (December 28, 1912 – June 1, 1978) was a Democratic U.S. Senator from Gadsden, Alabama.
The Gadsden native attended the University of Alabama and the University of Alabama School of Law, both located in Tuscaloosa. At the University of Alabama he was a member of Alpha Sigma Phi. He practiced law in Gadsden from 1935 to 1968 and was a member of the Alabama House of Representatives from 1938 to 1942. He resigned from the state legislature to enter active duty in the United States Naval Reserve from 1943 to 1946. He again ran for office after World War II and was a member of the Alabama Senate from 1946 to 1950. He was the 17th and 20th Lieutenant Governor of Alabama from 1951 to 1955 and again from 1963 to 1967.
In 1968, Allen was elected to succeed the retiring Democratic U.S. Senator J. Lister Hill of Montgomery. Allen won 638,774 (76 percent) to 201,227 (24 percent) for his Republican opponent, Perry O. Hooper, Sr..
Like his Republican Senate colleague, Jesse Helms of North Carolina, Allen was a master of parliamentary procedure. He was considered to have revived the filibuster rule during his nearly nine years as a senator. Allen was known as one of the most
Dr Lillias Anna Hamilton M.D., (7 February 1858–6 January 1925) was an English pioneer female doctor and author. After attending Cheltenham Ladies' College, she trained first as a nurse, in Liverpool, before going on to study medicine in Scotland, qualifying as a Doctor of Medicine in 1890.
She was a court physician to Amir Abdur Rahman Khan in Afghanistan in the 1890s, and wrote a fictionalized account of her experiences in her book A Vizier's Daughter: A Tale of the Hazara War, published in 1900.
After a spell in private practice in London, she became Warden of Studley Horticultural College in the years before World War I, leaving the College in 1915 to serve in a typhoid hospital in Montenegro under the auspices of the Wounded Allies Relief Committee. Her other published works include A Nurse's Bequest, 1907.
Peter Motzfeldt (3 August 1777 – 1 April 1854) was a member of the constitutional assembly in Norway in 1814, then a Norwegian member of the Council of State Division in Stockholm 1814-1816, 1818-1819, 1824-1825, 1828-1829, 1831-1832, and 1834-1835, Minister of the Army 1816-1818 and 1819-1822, and Minister of Auditing 1829-1831, 1832-1834, 1835-1836 and 1836-1837.
Wilbur Joseph Cohen (June 10, 1913, Milwaukee, Wisconsin – May 17, 1987, Seoul, South Korea) was an American social scientist and federal civil servant. He was one of the key architects in the creation and expansion of the American welfare state and was involved in the creation of both the New Deal and Great Society programs.
Wilbur Cohen was known by several nicknames. He was once dubbed "The Man Who Built Medicare" and John F. Kennedy tagged him "Mr. Social Security," although, it was Frances Perkins, the first woman Secretary of Labor (under FDR) who was the architect of social security. With The Social Security Act Perkins established unemployment benefits, pensions for the many uncovered elderly Americans, and welfare for the poorest Americans. The New York Times called him "one of the country's foremost technicians in public welfare." Time portrayed him as a man of "boundless energy, infectious enthusiasm, and a drive for action." He was a leading expert on Social Security and a member of Americans for Democratic Action.
After graduating from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1934, Cohen moved to Washington, D.C. where he was a research assistant for the committee which
Edward L. Stratemeyer (October 4, 1862 – May 10, 1930) was an American publisher and writer of children's fiction.
He was one of the most prolific writers in the world, producing in excess of 1,300 books himself, selling in excess of 500 million copies, and created the well-known fictional-book series for juveniles including The Rover Boys (starting in 1899), The Bobbsey Twins (starting in 1904), Tom Swift (starting in 1910), The Hardy Boys (starting in 1927), and the Nancy Drew (starting in 1930) series, among others.
He was born in Elizabeth, New Jersey.
In 1893, Stratemeyer was hired by the popular dime-novel writer Gilbert Patten to write for the Street & Smith publication Good News.
He pioneered the book-packaging technique of producing a consistent, long-running, series of books using a team of freelance writers. All of the books in the series used the same characters in similar situations. All of the free lance writers were published under a pen name owned by his company.
Through his Stratemeyer Syndicate, founded in 1906, Stratemeyer employed a massive number of editors, copy writers, stenographers, co-authors, and secretaries. With their help, he greatly contributed to a
Isaac Grünewald (2 September 1889 - 22 May 1946) was a Swedish-Jewish expressionist painter born in Stockholm. He was the leading and central name in the first generation of Swedish modernists from 1910 up until his death in 1946, in other words during almost his entire career spanning four decades. He was a highly productive painter as well as a writer and public speaker.
Having studied at an influential Swedish art school for three years, at age 19 Grünewald travelled to Paris where he soon began studies at Henri Matisse's academy. In 1909 he gained recognition in his homeland when he exhibited his work with a group of Scandinavian artists known as The Young Ones.
He met his future wife Sigrid Hjertén in 1909 and encouraged her to study painting with him in Paris. Having married in 1911, Grünewald and Hjertén from 1912 on regularly exhibited together at home and abroad. Art historians nowadays often cite them as being responsible for introducing modernism to Sweden. At a time in history when anti-Semitism was both widespread and politically correct and women artists were frowned upon, their works were often the subject of ridicule in the press. In fact, recent research has shown
Ploutis Servas (Πλουτής Σέρβας in Greek; 22 May 1907 — 14 February 2001), was a Cypriot former politician, reporter, and author. Servas was born Ploutarhos Loizou Savvidis (Πλούταρχος Λοΐζου Σαββίδης) and changed his surname to Servas while still a student in secondary education.
Servas was born in Limassol, Cyprus in 1907. He studied social sciences in Moscow. He returned to Cyprus in the 1930s and had to sign a declaration saying he would not be involved in politics in order to be allowed to set foot in the country. He became the general secretary of the illegal Communist party of Cyprus and founder and first general secretary of AKEL (1941–1945). He was also the first elected Mayor of Limassol 1943-1946 and 1946-1949. As a mayor he participated in the consultative assembly and advocated accepting the British plan of self government for Cyprus in 1948. For that opinion he became isolated within his party and was expelled in 1952.
He supported Ioannis Clerides in the 1960 elections, but wasn't an active politician again himself. He worked mainly as a reporter and a writer. He wrote books such as: Spain on Fire (1936), The Labour Issue (1936), AKEL and Local Issues (1942),
Ramón Castilla y Marquesado (Tarapacá, 31 August 1797 – Tiviliche, 25 May 1867) was a Peruvian caudillo and President of Peru four times. His earliest prominent appearance in Peruvian history began with his participation in a commanding role of the army of the Libertadores that helped Peru become an independent nation. Later, he led the country when the economy boomed due to the exploitation of guano deposits. Castilla's government abolished slavery and modernized the state.
He assumed the presidency for the first time after general Domingo Nieto's death for a short period in 1844, then in 1845 until 1851, again from 1855 to 1862 and, finally, during a brief period in 1863.
Born in Tarapacá (then part of the Viceroyalty of Peru), the second son of Pedro Castilla, of Spanish-Argentine origin, and Juana Marquezado de Romero, who was of part Aymara descent. In 1807 he traveled to Lima at the age of 10 to study with his brother and later continued his education in Concepción, Chile, also helping his brother with his business. In 1817 he enrolled in the Spanish colonial army during Peru's War of Independence, fighting against the independence forces sent by Argentine general José de San
Place of burial:Mount Sinai Memorial Park Cemetery
Virginia Christine (March 5, 1920 – July 24, 1996) was an American film and television actress and voice artist. Christine had a long career as a character actress in film and television. She played "Mrs. Olsen" (or the "Folgers Coffee Woman") in a number of television commercials for Folgers.
Born as Virginia Christine Ricketts in Stanton, Iowa. Her name later changed to Virginia Christine Kraft when her mother remarried. She attended kindergarten and early elementary classes at Elmwood Elementary School. She graduated high school at Mediapolis High School in 1937 with a dream of becoming a concert pianist. She began working in radio while attending UCLA. She was trained for a theatrical career by actor/director Fritz Feld, whom she married in 1940. In 1942, she signed a contract with Warner Bros., and started appearing in various films. Her first film was Edge of Darkness (1942), in which she played a Norwegian peasant girl. In 1946 she played a notable supporting role in the film noir classic The Killers (1946 film). Also in 1946 she appeared in The Scarlet Horseman a 13 chapter Universal serial playing Carla Marquette aka Matosca.
She was adept at imitating foreign accents when
Prince Maurice of Battenberg, KCVO, (Maurice Victor Donald; 3 October 1891 – 27 October 1914) was a member of the Hessian princely Battenberg family and the extended British Royal Family, the youngest grandchild of Queen Victoria. He was known as Prince Maurice of Battenberg throughout his life, since he died before the British Royal Family relinquished their German titles during World War I and the Battenbergs changed their name to Mountbatten.
Prince Maurice was born on 3 October 1891. He was given the name Maurice after his father Prince Henry of Battenberg and the great-grandfather, Count Maurice von Hauke, Victor after his grandmother the Queen, and Donald in honour of Scotland, as he was born at Balmoral Castle. His father was Prince Henry of Battenberg, the son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine and Julie Therese née Countess Hauke. His mother was Princess Henry of Battenberg (née The Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom), the fifth daughter and the youngest child of Queen Victoria and Albert, Prince Consort.
As his father was the child of a morganatic marriage, Prince Henry of Battenberg took his style of Prince of Battenberg from his mother, Countess Julia Hauke
Rudolf Walter Richard Hess, also spelled Heß (26 April 1894 – 17 August 1987), was a prominent Nazi politician who was Adolf Hitler's deputy in the Nazi Party during the 1930s and early 1940s. On the eve of war with the Soviet Union, he flew solo to Scotland in an attempt to negotiate peace with the United Kingdom, where he was arrested and became a prisoner of war. Hess was tried at Nuremberg and sentenced to life imprisonment, which he served at Spandau Prison, Berlin, where he died in 1987. After World War II Winston Churchill wrote of Hess, "He was a medical and not a criminal case, and should be so regarded."
On 27–28 September 2007, British news services published descriptions of disagreement between his Western and Soviet captors over his treatment and how the Soviet captors were steadfast in denying his release. In July 2011, the remains of Hess were exhumed from a grave in Bavaria after it became a focus of a pilgrimage for neo-Nazis.
Hess, the eldest of four children, was born in Alexandria, Egypt, to Fritz H. Hess, a prosperous German Lutheran importer/exporter from Bavaria, and Clara Hess (née Münch). The family lived in luxury on the Egyptian coast near Alexandria, and
Xanthippe is the wife of Socrates and mother of his three children, Lamprocles (named for her father), Sophroniscus (named for Socrates's father), and Menexenus. She is believed to have been much younger than Socrates, as the children were very young when he died of hemlock poisoning.
Adam Loftus (c. 1533 – 5 April 1605) was Archbishop of Armagh, and later Dublin, and Lord Chancellor of Ireland from 1581. He was also the first Provost of Trinity College, Dublin.
Adam Loftus was born in 1533, the second son of a monastic bailiff, Edward Loftus, in the heart of the English Yorkshire Dales. Edward died when Loftus was only 8, leaving his estates to his elder brother Robert Loftus.
Edward had made his living through the Catholic Church, but Adam embraced the Protestant faith early in his development. He was an undergraduate at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he reportedly attracted the notice of the young Queen Elizabeth, as much by his physique as through the power of his intellect, having shone before her in oratory. There is good reason to believe that this particular encounter may never have taken place; but they certainly met more than once and the Queen became his patron. The relationship was to last her entire reign, coming to Adam's rescue at times in his career when less tolerant patrons might have held back. At Cambridge he took holy orders (as a Catholic priest, though England had just turned Protestant) and was named rector of Outwell St Clement in
Count Fredrik Axel von Fersen (5 April 1719 - 24 April 1794 ) was a Swedish statesman and soldier.
A son of Lieutenant-General Hans Reinhold von Fersen, he entered the Swedish Life Guards in 1740, and from 1743 to 1748 was in the French service in the Royal-Suedois, where he rose to the rank of brigadier.
In the Seven Years' War Fersen distinguished himself during the operations round Usedom and Wollin in 1759, when he inflicted serious loss on the Prussians. But it is as a politician that he is best known. At the Riksdag of 1755-1756 he was elected lantmarskalk, or marshal of the diet, until the revolution of 1772, led the Hat party. In 1756 he defeated the projects of the court for increasing the royal power; but, after the disasters of the Seven Years' War, returned to court.
On the accession of the Caps to power in 1766, Fersen refused to employ the Guards to keep order in the capital when King Adolf Frederick of Sweden, driven to desperation by the demands of the Caps, abdicated, and a seven days’ interregnum ensued. At the ensuing riksdag of 1769, when the Hats returned to power, Fersen was again elected marshal of the diet; but he made no attempt to redeem his pledges to
Carl Gustaf Wrangel (also Carl Gustav Wrangel; 23 December 1613 – 5 July 1676) was a high-ranking Swedish noble, statesman and military commander in the Thirty Years', Torstenson, Bremen, Second Northern and Scanian Wars.
He held the ranks of a field marshal, commander-in-chief of the Swedish forces in Germany (1646–1648), and Lord High Admiral of Sweden (since 1657). Wrangel was gouvernor-general of Swedish Pomerania (1648–1652 and 1656–1676) and since 1664, Lord High Constable of Sweden and a member of the Privy Council. He held the title of a Count of Salmis until 1665, thereafter he was Count of Sölvesborg; by 1673, Wrangel's title was "Count of Sölvesborg, freiherr of Lindeberg and Ludenhof, lord of Skokloster, Bremervörde, Wrangelsburg, Spyker, Rappin, Ekebyhov, Gripenberg and Rostorp".
From 1658, Wrangel was supreme judge in Uppland, and from 1660, chancellor of the University of Greifswald. He held several estates, primarily in the Swedish dominions, where he constructed representative mansions - Wrangelsburg in Pomerania bears his name until today. Wrangel was a close friend of Charles X Gustav of Sweden.
Carl Gustav Wrangel was born near Uppsala to baroness Margareta Grip
Daisy, Princess of Pless (Mary Theresa Olivia; née Cornwallis-West; 28 June 1873 – 29 June 1943), was a noted society beauty in the Edwardian period.
Born Mary Theresa Olivia Cornwallis-West at Ruthin Castle in Denbighshire, Wales, she was the daughter of Col. William Cornwallis-West (1835–1917) and his wife Mary "Patsy" FitzPatrick (1856–1920). Her father, born William West, was a great-grandson of John West, 2nd Earl De La Warr. Her mother was a daughter of Reverend Frederick FitzPatrick and Lady Olivia Taylour, herself daughter of the 2nd Marquess of Headfort.
On 8 December 1891, in London, she married Hans Heinrich XV, Prince of Pless, Count of Hochberg, Baron of Fürstenstein (1861–1938), one of the wealthiest heirs in the German Empire, becoming hostess of Fürstenstein Castle and Pless Castle in Silesia.
They had three children:
The Princess of Pless was a Dame of the Order of Theresa of Bavaria and of the Order of Isabella the Catholic of Spain, and was awarded the German Red Cross Decoration.
During her marriage Daisy, known in German as the Fürstin von Pless, became a social reformer and militated for peace with her friends William II, German Emperor and King Edward VII of
Francis Albert "Frank" Sinatra, /sɨˈnɑːtrə/, (December 12, 1915 – May 14, 1998) was an American singer and film actor.
Beginning his musical career in the swing era with Harry James and Tommy Dorsey, Sinatra became an unprecedentedly successful solo artist from the early to mid-1940s, after being signed to Columbia Records in 1943. Being the idol of the "bobby soxers", he released his first album, The Voice of Frank Sinatra in 1946. His professional career had stalled by the 1950s, but it was reborn in 1953 after he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in From Here to Eternity.
He signed with Capitol Records in 1953 and released several critically lauded albums (such as In the Wee Small Hours, Songs for Swingin' Lovers, Come Fly with Me, Only the Lonely and Nice 'n' Easy). Sinatra left Capitol to found his own record label, Reprise Records in 1961 (finding success with albums such as Ring-a-Ding-Ding!, Sinatra at the Sands and Francis Albert Sinatra & Antonio Carlos Jobim), toured internationally, was a founding member of the Rat Pack and fraternized with celebrities and statesmen, including John F. Kennedy. Sinatra turned 50 in 1965, recorded the
George Raymond Wagner (March 24, 1915 – December 26, 1963) was an American professional wrestler best known by his ring name Gorgeous George. In the United States, during the First Golden Age of Professional Wrestling in the 1940s-1950s, Gorgeous George gained mainstream popularity and became one of the biggest stars of this period, gaining media attention for his outrageous character, which was described as flamboyant and charismatic. He was inducted into Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame in 2002 and the WWE Hall of Fame as part of the Class of 2010.
George Raymond Wagner was born March 24, 1915 in Butte, Nebraska. For a time, he and his parents lived on a farm near the village of Phoenix in Holt County and probably in Seward County before they moved to Waterloo, Iowa and later Sioux City. When George was age seven, his family moved to Houston, Texas, where he associated with kids from a tough neighborhood. As a child, he trained at the local YMCA and often staged matches against his friends. In 1929, Wagner dropped out of Milby High School at age 14, and worked odd jobs to help support his family. At this time, he competed at carnivals, where he could earn 35 cents for a win.
Jean Louis Joseph Lebeau (3 January 1794 - 19 March 1865) was a Belgian liberal politician and statesman, the second Prime Minister.
Born in Huy, he received his early education from an uncle who was parish priest in Hannut, and became a clerk. He raised money to study Law at the University of Liège, and was called to the bar association in 1819. While in Liège, he formed a fast friendship with Charles Rogier and Paul Devaux, together with whom he founded at Liege in 1824 the Mathieu Laensbergh, afterwards Le politique, a journal which helped to unite the Catholic Party with the Liberals in their opposition to the cabinet, without manifesting any open disaffection to the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Lebeau had not aimed for the separation of the Netherlands and Belgium, but his hand was forced by the August Revolution of 1830. He was sent by his native district to the National Congress, and became minister of foreign affairs in March 1831 during the interim regency of Érasme-Louis Surlet de Chokier. By proposing the election of Leopold of Saxe-Coburg as King of the Belgians he secured a benevolent attitude on the part of the United Kingdom, but the restoration to the
William Alexander Harris (October 29, 1841 – December 20, 1909) was a United States Representative and Senator from Kansas.
A son of U.S. Congressman William Alexander Harris (1805–1864), William Alexander Harris, Jr. was born either in Loudoun County, Virginia or Luray, Virginia, while his father was serving in Congress. Harris attended the common schools and later attended and graduated from Columbian College (later George Washington University), Washington, D.C., in 1859. A year later, he matriculated as part of the third or sophomore class at the Virginia Military Institute on 16 January 1860. Official records reveal that he matriculated from Page County, though he actually had done so from Pike County, Missouri. In a class composed of future notables such as future commanding officer of the Stuart Horse Artillery, Roger Preston Chew, Harris fared well in class standing, graduating early in December, 1861 as 7 of 35.
After a brief stint as drillmaster with an artillery company formed in Page County, Harris was assigned to duty with Col. William N. Pendleton and, in the same month (Nov. 1861) transferred as assistant adjutant general on the staff of General Cadmus Wilcox.
Francesca Lebrun, née Danzi (March 24, 1756 – May 14, 1791), was a noted 18th-century German singer and composer.
She was born Franziska Dorothea Danzi in Mannheim, Germany. Her father was the Italian-born cellist Innocenz Danzi and her younger brother was the composer and cellist Franz Danzi (1763–1826). She was renowned for her vocal dexterity and highly sought after by notable contemporaries, such as Anton Schweitzer, Ignaz Holzbauer, and Antonio Salieri, for the lead roles in their most challenging opuses.
Her talent extended beyond the stage to the manuscript tablet and the keyboard; twelve sonatas for fortepiano and violin of hers survive, six of which have been recorded.
Francesca was the eldest child in the family of gifted musicians. Her mother (Barbara Toeschi), a dancer, and her father (Innozenz Danzi), an Italian cellist, were the core of the elite elector Mannheim court performers in the late 1750s. Her brothers, Franz (Ignaz) Johann Baptist were cellist and violinist respectively and were successful composers.
She made her first public appearance as a singer at the age of 16 and the following year was engaged by the Mannheim Opera. There seems to be some debate
Charles Fleetwood (c. 1618 – 4 October 1692) was an English Parliamentary soldier and politician, Lord Deputy of Ireland from 1652–55, where he enforced the Cromwellian Settlement. At the Restoration he was included in the Act of Indemnity as among the twenty liable to penalties other than capital, and was finally incapacitated from holding any office of trust. His public career then closed.
Charles Fleetwood was the third son of Sir Miles Fleetwood of Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire, and of Anne, daughter of Nicholas Luke of Woodend, Bedfordshire. He may have been educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, before being admitted into Gray's Inn on 30 November 1638.
At the beginning of the English Civil War, like many other young lawyers who afterwards distinguished themselves in the field, he joined Essex’s life-guard, was wounded at the first battle of Newbury, 1643 obtained a regiment in 1644 and fought at Naseby. He had already been appointed receiver of the court of wards, and in 1646 became member of parliament for Marlborough. In the dispute between the army and parliament he played a chief part, and was said to have been the principal author of the plot to seize King Charles at
Emil Orlik (July 21, 1870 – September 28, 1932) was a painter, etcher and lithographer. He was born in Prague, which was at that time part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and lived and worked in Prague, Austria and Germany.
Emil Orlik was the son of a tailor. He first studied art at the private art school of Heinrich Knirr, and from 1891, at the Munich Academy under Wilhelm Lindenschmit. Later he learned engraving from Johann Leonhard Raab and proceeded to experiment with various printmaking processes.
After performing his military service in Prague, he returned to Munich, where he worked for the magazine Jugend. He spent most of 1898, travelling through Europe, visiting the Netherlands, Great Britain, Belgium, and Paris. During this time he became aware of Japanese art, and the impact it was having in Europe, and decided to visit Japan to learn woodcut techniques. He left for Asia in March 1900, stopping off in Hong Kong, before reaching Japan, where he stayed until February 1901.
In 1905 Emil Orlik moved to Berlin and took a post at the "School for Graphic and Book Art" of the Museum of Decorative Arts (Kunstgewerbemuseum), now part of the Berlin State Museums.
Nikolai Petrovich Linevich, also Lenevich and Linevitch (Russian: Николай Петрович Линевич, 5 January 1839 [O.S. 24 December 1838] – 23 April [O.S. 10 April] 1908) was a career military officer, General of Infantry (1903) and Adjutant general in the Imperial Russian Army in the Far East during the latter part of the Russo-Japanese War.
Born in Saint Petersburg, Linevich entered military service as a cadet in 1855. Stationed with the 75th Infantry Regiment at Sevastopol, his first combat experience was against the mountain tribes of the western Caucasus Mountains. He made a name for himself in the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878), and was appointed commander of the South Ussuri Division in 1895.
During the Boxer Rebellion, Linevich was commander of the 1st Siberian Army Corps. He participated in the Battle of Peking in 1901. In 1903, he was appointed commander of the Amur Military District as Governor General of Dauria.
At the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War he was temporarily in charge of the Russian Manchurian Army until the arrival of General Aleksey Kuropatkin on March 15, 1904. He was again placed in command of the Manchurian Army from October 1904 to March 3, 1905. After the
Okill Massey Learmonth, VC, MC (20 February 1894 – 19 August 1917), was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to Commonwealth forces.
Learmonth was 23 years old, and an acting Major in the 2nd (Eastern Ontario) Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force, during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.
On 18 August 1917 east of Loos, France, during a determined counter-attack on our new positions, Major Learmonth, when his company was momentarily surprised, instantly charged and personally disposed of the attackers. Later, although under intense barrage fire and mortally wounded, he stood on the parapet of the trench, bombing the enemy and on several occasions he actually caught bombs thrown at him and threw them back. When unable to carry on the fight, he still refused to be evacuated and continued giving instructions and invaluable advice, finally handing over all his duties before he was moved to hospital where he died.
Born in Quebec City, Canada, he was elected a member of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec in March 1914. He is
Susan Mary Barrantes nee Wright (9 June 1937 – 19 September 1998) was the mother of Sarah, Duchess of York, and the maternal grandmother of Princesses Beatrice and Eugenie of York.
She was known as 'the bolter', following her elopement with an Argentinian polo-player, causing a stir in social circles. After his death, she became a film-producer in Buenos Aires, but was tragically killed in a road accident.
She was born Susan Mary Wright in Bramcote, Nottinghamshire, the daughter of FitzHerbert Wright and the Honourable Doreen Wingfield. The Wrights can be traced back at least to John Wright alias Camplyon of Stowmarket who made his will in 1557, although wills and deeds show the family holding land in Suffolk and Norfolk at least a century earlier. His son, John Wright, a captain in Colonel Whalley's Regiment of Horse, was imprisoned in Newark Castle for his attachment to the Parliamentary cause, but later acquired estates in Nottinghamshire and Suffolk. Captain Wright's grandson, Ichabod, was a banker who owned estates in Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire, and established Wright's Bank with two of his sons. His great-grandson, Samuel Wright of Gunthorpe, married a daughter of Lord
Thomas Arundell, 1st Baron Arundell of Wardour (ca. 1560 – 7 November 1639) was the eldest son of Sir Matthew Arundell of Wardour Castle in Wiltshire (ca. 1532/34–24 December 1598), and Margaret Willoughby, the daughter of Sir Henry Willoughby, of Wollaton, Nottinghamshire. He distinguished himself in battle against the Ottoman Turks in the service of the Emperor Rudolf II, and was created a Count of the Holy Roman Empire. His assumption of the title displeased Queen Elizabeth, who refused to recognize it, and imprisoned him in the Fleet. In 1605 Arundell was created 1st Baron Arundell of Wardour. In the same year he was briefly suspected of complicity in the Gunpowder Plot.
Sir Thomas Arundell (ca. 1560 – 7 November 1639) was the eldest son of Sir Matthew Arundell of Wardour Castle in Wiltshire (ca. 1532/34–24 December 1598), a member of the ancient family of Arundell of Cornwall, and Margaret Willoughby, the daughter of Sir Henry Willoughby, of Wollaton, Nottinghamshire. His father inherited extensive former monastic lands, and served in a number of administrative capacities, including high sheriff, custos rotulorum, and Deputy Lieutenant of Dorset. In her youth his mother served
Camarón de la Isla (December 5, 1950 – July 2, 1992), was the stage name of a Spanish flamenco singer José Monje Cruz. Considered one of the all time greatest flamenco singers, he was noted for his collaborations with Paco de Lucia and Tomatito, and between them they were of major importance to the revival of flamenco in the second half of the 20th century.
He was born in San Fernando, Cádiz, Spain into a gypsy family, the second of eight children. His mother was Juana Cruz Castro, a basket weaver ("La Canastera"), whose gift of singing was a strong early influence. His father, Juan Luis Monje, was also a singer as well as a blacksmith, and had a forge where Camarón worked as a boy. His uncle José nicknamed him Camarón (Spanish for "Shrimp") because he was blonde and fair skinned. When his father died of asthma, while still very young, the family went through financial hardship. At the age of eight he began to sing at inns and bus stops with Rancapino to earn money. At sixteen, he won first prize at the Festival del Cante Jondo in Mairena de Alcor. Camarón then went to Madrid with Miguel de los Reyes and in 1968 became a resident artist at the Tablao Torres Bermejas where he
Celia Feinman Adler (December 6, 1889 – January 31, 1979) was an American Jewish actress, known as the "First Lady of the Yiddish Theatre".
She was the daughter of Jacob Adler and Dinah Shtettin, and the older half-sister of Stella, Luther Adler and Jacob Adler's five other children. Unlike Stella and Luther, who became well known for their work with the Group Theater, their film work and as theorists of the craft of acting, she was almost exclusively a stage actress.
Mainly known for her work in Yiddish theater, where she was associated with the Yiddish Art Theater movement of the 1920s and 1930s, she also gave one of the first theatrical portrayals of a Holocaust survivor, in Luther Adler's 1946 Broadway production of A Flag Is Born (written by Ben Hecht and featuring a 22-year-old Marlon Brando, Stella Adler's prize pupil in method acting). Adler, along with co-stars Paul Muni and Marlon Brando, refused to accept compensation above the Actor's Equity minimum wage because of her commitment to the cause of creating a Jewish State in Israel.
In 1937, Celia Adler starred in the Henry Lynn Yiddish film, Where Is My Child. From 1937-1952, she appeared in several films and television
Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (25 September 1906 – 9 August 1975) was a Soviet Russian composer and pianist and a prominent figure of 20th century music.
Shostakovich achieved fame in the Soviet Union under the patronage of Leon Trotsky's chief of staff Mikhail Tukhachevsky, but later had a complex and difficult relationship with the government. Nevertheless, he received accolades and state awards and served in the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR (1947–1962) and the USSR (from 1962 until death).
After a period influenced by Sergei Prokofiev and Igor Stravinsky, Shostakovich developed a hybrid style, as exemplified by Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District (1934). This single work juxtaposed a wide variety of trends, including the neo-classical style (showing the influence of Stravinsky) and post-Romanticism (after Gustav Mahler). Sharp contrasts and elements of the grotesque characterize much of his music.
Shostakovich's orchestral works include 15 symphonies and six concerti. His chamber output includes 15 string quartets, a piano quintet, two piano trios, and two pieces for string octet. His piano works include two solo sonatas, an early set of preludes, and a later set of 24
Dwight Lyman Moody (February 5, 1837 – December 22, 1899), also known as D.L. Moody, was an American evangelist and publisher who founded the Moody Church, Northfield School and Mount Hermon School in Massachusetts (now Northfield Mount Hermon School), the Moody Bible Institute and Moody Publishers.
Dwight Moody was born in Northfield, Massachusetts to a large family. His father, a small farmer and stonemason, died at the age of 41, when Dwight was only four years old. He had five older brothers and a younger sister, with an additional twin brother and sister born one month after his father's death. His mother struggled to support the family, but even with her best effort, some of her children had to be sent off to work for their room and board. Dwight too was sent off, where he went he received cornmeal, porridge, and milk, three times a day. He complained to his mother, but when she found out that he had all that he wanted to eat, she sent him back. Even during this time, she continued to send them to church. Together with his eight siblings he was raised in the Unitarian church. His oldest brother ran away and was not heard from by the family until many years later.
Adeline Virginia Woolf (/ˈwʊlf/; 25 January 1882 – 28 March 1941) was an English writer, regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century.
During the interwar period, Woolf was a significant figure in London literary society and a member of the Bloomsbury Group. Her most famous works include the novels Mrs Dalloway (1925), To the Lighthouse (1927) and Orlando (1928), and the book-length essay A Room of One's Own (1929), with its famous dictum, "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction."
Virginia Woolf was born Adeline Virginia Stephen in London in 1882 to Sir Leslie Stephen and Julia Prinsep Stephen (née Jackson).
Virginia's father, Sir Leslie Stephen (1832–1904), was a notable historian, author, critic and mountaineer. He was the editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, a work that would influence Woolf's later experimental biographies.
Virginia's mother Julia Stephen (1846–1895) was a renowned beauty, born in India to Dr. John and Maria Pattle Jackson. She was also the niece of Julia Margaret Cameron née Pattle, the famous photographer. Julia moved to England with her mother, where she served as a model for
Waldo (Goronwy) Williams (30 September 1904 – 20 May 1971) was one of the leading Welsh language poets of the twentieth century. He was also a notable pacifist, anti-war campaigner, and Welsh nationalist.
Williams was born in Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire. His father, a primary school teacher from Pembrokeshire, spoke Welsh and his mother spoke English. In his early years he himself spoke only English.
In 1911 his father was appointed headteacher of the primary school at Mynachlog-ddu, Pembrokeshire and it was there that Waldo Williams learnt to speak Welsh. In 1915 Williams's father moved to be headteacher of Brynconin School, the primary school at Llandysilio, Pembrokeshire.
After attending the Grammar School at Narberth, Pembrokeshire he studied at the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth where he graduated in English in 1926. Afterwards he trained as a teacher and worked in various schools in Pembrokeshire, the rest of Wales and England including Kimbolton School. He also taught night classes organised by the Department of Extre-Mural Studies, University College of Wales, Aberystwyth.
Williams married in 1941, but his wife died in 1943, and he did not remarry.
Adolf Hitler (German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ] ( listen); 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP); National Socialist German Workers Party). Hitler was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany (as Führer und Reichskanzler) from 1934 to 1945. He was at the centre of the founding of Nazism, the start of World War II, and the Holocaust.
A decorated veteran of World War I, Hitler joined the German Workers' Party, precursor of the Nazi Party, in 1919, and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he attempted a coup d'état, known as the Beer Hall Putsch, in Munich. The failed coup resulted in Hitler's imprisonment, during which time he wrote his memoir, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism, and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. After his appointment as chancellor in 1933, he transformed the Weimar Republic into the Third Reich, a single-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and
William David Ford (August 6, 1927 – August 14, 2004) was a U.S. Representative from Michigan.
Ford was born in Detroit and attended Henry Ford Trade School, Melvindale High School, Nebraska State Teachers College, and Wayne State University.
He interrupted his studies to serve in the United States Navy during World War II, 1944–1946. He also served in the United States Air Force Reserve from 1950 to 1958.
After the war, he received a B.A. from the University of Denver in 1949, and an J.D. from that university's College of Law in 1951. He was admitted to the bar in 1951 and practiced law in Taylor, Michigan. He was justice of the peace for Taylor Township, 1955–1957; city attorney for Melvindale, 1957–1959; and attorney for Taylor Township, 1957–1964.
He was a delegate to the Michigan constitutional convention, 1961–1962, which drafted the state constitution adopted in 1963. He was a member of the Michigan State Senate, 1962–1964; member and officer of Michigan's Sixteenth District Democratic Organization, 1952–1964; delegate to Michigan Democratic conventions, 1952–1970, and to the Democratic National Convention in 1968. He was elected as a Democrat to the United States House of
Adolphe Napoleon Didron (13 March 1806 – 13 November 1867) was a French art historian and archaeologist.
Didron was born at Hautvillers, in the département of Marne, and began his education as a student of law. After completing his early studies at the preparatory seminaries of Meaux and Reims, he went to Paris in 1826, became there a professor of history, and devoted his leisure hours to following courses of law, medicine, etc. In 1830 he began, on the advice of Victor Hugo, a study of the Christian archaeology of the Middle Ages. After visiting and examining the principal churches, first of Normandy, then of central and southern France, he was on his return in 1835 appointed by Guizot secretary to the Historical Committee of Arts and Monuments; and in the following years he delivered several courses of lectures on Christian iconography at the Bibliothèque Royale.
In 1839 he visited Greece for the purpose of examining the art of the Eastern Church, both in its buildings and its manuscripts. In 1844 he originated the Annales archéologiques, a periodical devoted to his favorite subject, which he edited until his death. In 1845 he established at Paris a special archaeological press,
Saint Agnes of Bohemia, O.S.C., (Czech: Svatá Anežka Česká), or Agnes of Prague (20 June 1211 - 2 March 1282), was a medieval Bohemian princess who opted for a life of charity and piety over a life of luxury and comfort. Although she was venerated soon after her death, Agnes was not beatified or canonized for over 700 years.
Agnes was the daughter of King Ottokar I of Bohemia, making her a descendant of Saint Ludmila and Saint Wenceslaus, patron saints of Bohemia. Agnes' mother was Constance of Hungary, who was the sister of King Andrew II of Hungary, so Agnes was a first cousin to St. Elizabeth of Hungary.
When she was three years old, Agnes was entrusted to the care of another aunt, St. Hedwig of Andechs, the wife of Duke Henry I the Bearded of Silesia. Hedwig placed her to be educated by a community of Cistercian nuns in a monastery which she herself had founded in Trzebnica. Upon her return to Prague, Agnes was entrusted to a priory of Premonstratensian Canonesses to continue her education.
At the age of eight, Agnes was engaged to Henry, son of the Emperor Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry was ten years old and had just been crowned as King of the Romans. According to
Andrzej Juliusz Małkowski (31 October 1888, Trębki - 15 January 1919) was a Polish Scoutmaster (harcmistrz) activist of youth and independence organisations. He and his wife, Olga, are widely regarded as the founders of Scouting in Poland. To honor his name, his troop wrote a song about him called Na Polanie.
Małkowski decided to join the Polish Legions, along with many of the boys in his Scout troop. Before he left, he organised a cottage for his wife and the boys and girls who had no homes, and she opened a café to earn her living. After he left, there was one Boy Scout troop and one large Girl Guide Company of 300 girls. They paraded each morning in the central square and gave reports to and took orders from his wife. They took on a huge number of tasks including supplementing the postal service, organising a children's home, helping with the harvest, and setting up a hospital.
In 1915 they were forced to leave Zakopane by the Austrian government, and they moved through Switzerland to the United States. Their son, Lutyk, was born in the United States on 30 October 1915. Afterwards they returned to Switzerland in 1916, where she worked as a teacher and custodian of the Polish
Demosthenes (English pronunciation: /dɪˈmɒs.θəniːz/, Greek: Δημοσθένης, Dēmosthénēs [dɛːmostʰénɛːs]; 384–322 BC) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. His orations constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. Demosthenes learned rhetoric by studying the speeches of previous great orators. He delivered his first judicial speeches at the age of 20, in which he argued effectively to gain from his guardians what was left of his inheritance. For a time, Demosthenes made his living as a professional speech-writer (logographer) and a lawyer, writing speeches for use in private legal suits.
Demosthenes grew interested in politics during his time as a logographer, and in 354 BC he gave his first public political speeches. He went on to devote his most productive years to opposing Macedon's expansion. He idealized his city and strove throughout his life to restore Athens' supremacy and motivate his compatriots against Philip II of Macedon. He sought to preserve his city's freedom and to establish an alliance against Macedon, in an
John Gregg Fee (September 9, 1816 - January 11, 1901) was an abolitionist, minister and educator, the founder of the town of Berea, Kentucky, and Berea College (1855), the first in the state with interracial and coeducational admissions. During the American Civil War, Fee worked at Camp Nelson to have facilities constructed to support freedmen and their families, and to provide them with education and preaching while the men were being taught to be soldiers.
Fee was born in Bracken County, Kentucky on September 9, 1816, the son of John Fee, of English and Scots descent, and Elizabeth Bradford, of Scots-Irish descent, whose mother was a Quaker from Pennsylvania. His father inherited a bondsman who reached the term of his indenture. He then began to buy slaves, finally holding thirteen. Later he recognized more of its problems and invested in lands in free states, but held on to his slaves through the war and opposed his son's abolitionism.
Following a conversion to the Christian faith at age 14, John Fee, Jr., wanted to join the Methodist Episcopal Church. His father encouraged him to wait, and a couple of years later they both joined the Presbyterian Church. He studied at Augusta
John Howard (2 September 1726 – 20 January 1790) was a philanthropist and the first English prison reformer.
Howard was born in Lower Clapton, London. His father, also John, was a wealthy upholsterer at Smithfield Market in the city. His mother died when he was five years old, and, described as a "sickly child", he was sent to live at Cardington, Bedfordshire, some forty miles from London, where his father owned property. His father, a strict disciplinarian with strong religious beliefs, sent the young John to a school in Hertford and then to John Eames's dissenting academy in London.
After school, John was apprenticed to a wholesale grocer to learn business methods, but he was unhappy. When his father died in 1742, he was left with a sizeable inheritance but no true vocation. His Calvinist faith and quiet, serious disposition meant he had little desire for the fashionable endeavours of an English aristocratic lifestyle. In 1748, he left England for a grand tour of the continent.
Upon his return, he lived in lodgings in Stoke Newington, where he again became seriously ill. He was nursed back to health by his landlady, Sarah Loidore, whom he then married despite her being thirty
John Pope (February 1770 – July 12, 1845) was a United States Senator from Kentucky, a member of the United States House of Representatives from Kentucky, Secretary of State of Kentucky, and the third Governor of Arkansas Territory.
Pope was born in Prince William County, Virginia in 1770. He lost his arm during his youth and was known as "One-Arm Pope". He graduated from William and Mary College, studied law and moved to Springfield, Kentucky where he was admitted to the bar. He practiced law in Washington, Shelby, and Fayette County, Kentucky.
Pope served as the Presidential Elector from Kentucky in 1801, and was elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1802. He served in the House again from 1806 to 1807.
Pope was elected as a Jeffersonian Republican to the United States Senate, serving from 1807 to 1813, and served as President pro tempore of the Senate during the Eleventh Congress. Pope was Secretary of State of Kentucky from 1816 to 1819, under Governor Gabriel Slaughter.
He served as a member of the Kentucky Senate from 1825 to 1829, and was elected three times as a Whig to the United States House of Representatives serving Kentucky's District 7 between 1837 and
Karl Gorman Taylor, Sr. (July 14, 1939 – December 8, 1968) was a United States Marine who posthumously received the United States' highest military decoration – the Medal of Honor – for his actions in Vietnam in December 1968.
Karl Taylor was born on July 14, 1939 in Laurel, Maryland. He graduated from Arundel Junior High School in 1953, then attended Arundel Senior High School for three years until 1956. After leaving high school, he was employed by a construction company as a Tournapull-Scraper Operator. In 1961, he received a high school equivalency diploma from the Armed Forces Institute in Madison, Wisconsin.
He enlisted in the United States Marine Corps along with his brother, Walter William Taylor, at Recruiting Station Baltimore on January 15, 1959. Upon completion of recruit training with the 3rd Recruit Training Battalion, at Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island, he went on to infantry combat training with the 1st Infantry Training Regiment, Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. After completing infantry training in July 1959, he was assigned duty as a rifleman, section leader, and a platoon guide, successively, with Company A, 1st Battalion 6th Marines, 2nd Marine
Lucy Walter or Lucy Barlow (c. 1630 – 1658) was a mistress of King Charles II of England and mother of James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth. She is believed to have been born in 1630 or a little later at Roch Castle near Haverfordwest, Wales into a family of middling gentry. Rumours that she had married the king during his exile (and thus that she was Queen of England) appeared by the mid-1650s, but the question was later seized upon during the Exclusion Crisis, when a Protestant faction wished to make her son the heir to the throne, while the king denied any marriage, and supported the claim of his brother, the Duke of York.
Lucy Walter, a Welsh noblewoman, was the daughter of Richard or William Walter, of Roch Castle and of Haverfordwest and wife Elizabeth Protheroe, daughter of John Protheroe, of Hawkesbrook and wife Elinor Vaughan, maternal granddaughter of Walter Vaughan, of Grove and wife Mary or Katherine ferch Gruffud FitzUryan, in turn daughter of Griffith ap Rice FitzUryan (d. 1592) and wife Eleanor Jones, daughter of Sir Thomas Jones, and paternal granddaughter of Rhys FitzUryan and wife Lady Katherine Howard (c. 1518 - 12 April 1554, interred 11 May 1554), daughter of
Mary Russell Mitford (16 December 1787 – 10 January 1855), was an English author and dramatist. She was born at Alresford, Hampshire. Her place in English literature is as the author of Our Village. This series of sketches of village scenes and vividly drawn characters was based upon life in Three Mile Cross, a hamlet in the parish of Shinfield, near Reading in Berkshire, where she lived.
She was the only daughter of Dr George Mitford, or Midford, who spent his mother's fortune in a few years. Then he spent the greater part of £20,000, which in 1797 Mary, then aged ten, drew as a prize in a lottery. The family lived in large properties in Reading and then Grazeley (in Sulhamstead Abbots parish), but, when the money was all gone, they lived on a small remnant of the doctor's lost fortune and the proceeds of his daughter's literary career. He is thought to have inspired Mary with the keen delight in incongruities, the lively sympathy, self-willed vigorous individuality, and the womanly tolerance which inspire so many of her sketches of character. She was devoted to him, refused all holiday invitations because he could not live without her, and worked incessantly for him except when
Slobodan Milošević (pronounced [slɔbɔ̌dan milɔ̌ːʃɛʋitɕ] ( listen); Serbian Cyrillic: Слободан Милошевић; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was the President of Serbia (originally the Socialist Republic of Serbia) from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000. Amongst his supporters Milosevic was known by the nickname of "Sloba", similar to the nickname of "Tito" adopted as a surname by Josip Broz Tito during World War II. He also led the Socialist Party of Serbia from its foundation in 1990. His presidency was marked by the breakup of Yugoslavia and the subsequent Yugoslav Wars. In the midst of the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, Milošević was charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity in connection with the wars in Bosnia, Croatia and Kosovo by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY).
Milošević resigned the Yugoslav presidency amid demonstrations, following the disputed presidential election of 24 September 2000. He was arrested by Yugoslav federal authorities on Saturday, 31 March 2001, on suspicion of corruption, abuse of power, and embezzlement. The initial investigation into Milošević faltered for
Colonel Thomas Blood (1618 – 24 August 1680) was an Irish colonel best known for attempting to steal the Crown Jewels of England from the Tower of London in 1671. Described as a "noted bravo and desperado", he was implicated in the attempted kidnapping and, later, attempted murder of his enemy the Duke of Ormonde. He had switched allegiances from Royalist to Roundhead during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, and later, despite his notorious reputation, found favour at the court of King Charles II.
Blood was born in County Clare, the son of a successful blacksmith and raised in Sarney Dunboyne County Meath in Ireland. His family was respectable and his grandfather a member of Parliament and resident at Kilnaboy Castle. He was educated in England. At age 20, he married Maria Holcroft, the daughter of John Holcroft a Lancashire gentleman from Golborne, and returned to Ireland.
At the outbreak of the First English Civil War in 1642, Blood returned to England and initially took up arms with the Royalist forces loyal to Charles I. However, as the conflict progressed he switched sides and became a lieutenant in Oliver Cromwell's Roundheads. In 1653 at the cessation of hostilities Cromwell
William Murdoch (sometimes spelled Murdock) (21 August 1754 – 15 November 1839) was a Scottish engineer and long-term inventor.
Murdoch was employed by the firm of Boulton and Watt and worked for them in Cornwall, as a steam engine erector for ten years, spending most of the rest of his life in Birmingham, England.
Murdoch was the inventor of the oscillating cylinder steam engine, and gas lighting is attributed to him in the early 1790s, also the term "gasometer". However, Archibald Cochrane, ninth Earl of Dundonald, had already in 1789 used gas for lighting his family estate. Murdoch also made innovations to the steam engine, including the sun and planet gear and D slide valve. He invented the steam gun and the pneumatic tube message system, and worked on one of the first British paddle steamers to cross the English Channel. Murdoch built a prototype steam locomotive in 1784 and made a number of discoveries in chemistry.
Murdoch remained an employee and later a partner of Boulton & Watt until the 1830s, and his reputation as an inventor has been obscured by the reputations of Boulton and Watt and the firm they founded.
William Murdoch was born in Lugar near Cumnock, East Ayrshire,
Belle da Costa Greene (December 13, 1883 in Washington, D.C. - May 10, 1950 in New York City, New York) was the librarian to J. P. Morgan and after his death in 1913, Belle continued as librarian under his son, Jack Morgan. In 1924 the private collection was incorporated by the State of New York as a library for public uses, and the Board of Trustees appointed Belle first director of the Pierpont Morgan Library.
She was born Belle Marion Greener in Washington, D.C., and grew up there and in New York City. Her biographer Heidi Ardizzone lists Belle's birth date as November 26, 1879. Her mother was Genevieve Ida Fleet, a member of a well-known African American family in the nation's capital, while her father was Richard Theodore Greener, an attorney who served as dean of the Howard University School of Law and was the first black student and first black graduate of Harvard (class of 1870). After his separation from his wife (they never divorced), Greener became a U.S. diplomat posted to Siberia, where he produced a second family with a Japanese woman. Once Belle took the job with Morgan, she likely never spoke to her father again. She may have met him once in Chicago around 1913, but
Georg Calixtus, Kallisøn/Kallisön, or Callisen (December 14, 1586 – March 19, 1656) was a German Lutheran theologian who looked to reconcile all Christendom by removing all unimportant differences.
Calixtus was born in Medelby, Schleswig. After studying philology, philosophy and theology at Helmstedt, Jena, Giessen, Tübingen and Heidelberg, he travelled through Holland, France and England, where he became acquainted with the leading reformers. On his return in 1614, he was appointed professor of theology at Helmstedt by the duke of Brunswick, who had admired the ability he displayed when a young man in a dispute with the Jesuit Augustine Turrianus.
Learning different Protestant and Roman Catholic teachings, he tried to create a "unifying theology". In 1613 he published a book, Disputationes de Praecipuis Religionis Christianae Capitibus, which provoked the hostile criticism of orthodox Lutheran scholars; in 1619 he published his Epitome theologiae, and some years later his Theologia Moralis (1634) and De Arte Nova Nihusii. Roman Catholics felt them to be aimed at their own system, but they gave so great offence to Lutherans as to induce Statius Buscher to charge the author with a
Sir Halford John Mackinder PC (15 February 1861 – 6 March 1947) was an English geographer and is considered one of the founding fathers of both geopolitics and geostrategy.
He was born in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England, the son of a doctor, and educated at Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Gainsborough (now Queen Elizabeth's High School), Epsom College and Christ Church, Oxford. At Oxford he started studying natural sciences, specialising in zoology under Henry Nottidge Moseley, who had been the naturalist on Challenger expedition. When he turned to the study of history, he remarked that he was returning "to an old interest and took up modern history with the idea of seeing how the theory of evolution would appear in human development". He was a strong proponent of treating both physical geography and human geography as a single discipline. Mackinder served as President of the Oxford Union in 1883.
In 1887, he published "On the Scope and Methods of Geography", a manifesto for the New Geography. A few months later, he was appointed as Reader in Geography at the University of Oxford, where he introduced the teaching of the subject. As Mackinder himself put it, "a platform has
John Joseph Gotti, Jr (October 27, 1940 – June 10, 2002) was an American mobster who became the Boss of the Gambino crime family in New York City. Gotti and his brothers grew up in poverty and turned to a life of crime at an early age. Operating out of the Ozone Park neighborhood of Queens, Gotti quickly rose to prominence, becoming one of the crime family's biggest earners and a protégé of Gambino family underboss Aniello Dellacroce.
After the FBI indicted members of Gotti's crew for selling narcotics, Gotti took advantage of growing dissent over the leadership of the crime family. Fearing he and his men would be killed by Gambino crime family Boss Paul Castellano for selling drugs, Gotti organized the murder of Castellano in December 1985 and took over the family shortly thereafter. This left Gotti as the boss of one of the most powerful crime families in America, one that made hundreds of millions of dollars a year from construction, hijacking, loan sharking, gambling, extortion and other criminal activities. Gotti was one of the most powerful crime bosses during his era and became widely known for his outspoken personality and flamboyant style, which gained him favor with much
José Echegaray y Eizaguirre (April 19, 1832 – September 14, 1916) was a Spanish civil engineer, mathematician, statesman, and one of the leading Spanish dramatists of the last quarter of the 19th century.
Along with the Provençal poet Frédéric Mistral, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1904, making him the first Spaniard to win the prize. His most famous play is El gran Galeoto, a drama written in the grand nineteenth century manner of melodrama. It is about the poisonous effect that unfounded gossip has on a middle-aged man's happiness. Echegaray filled it with elaborate stage instructions that illuminate what we would now consider a hammy style of acting popular in the 19th century. Paramount Pictures filmed it as a silent with the title changed to The World and His Wife. His most remarkable plays are Saint or Madman? (O locura o santidad, 1877); Mariana (1892); El estigma (1895); The Calum (La duda, 1898); and El loco Dios (1900).
The Echegaray street named after him in Madrid is famed for its Flamenco taverns.
William Albert "Bill" Steiger (May 15, 1938 – December 4, 1978) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1967 until his death in 1978. He served as a Republican from Wisconsin.
Steiger was born in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. He attended the youth government and leadership program Badger Boys State in 1955 where he was elected Governor and then represented his state at Boys Nation. In 1960, he graduated from the University of Wisconsin in Madison. After college, Steiger entered the business world, becoming a part owner of the Oshkosh Motor Lodge. Later, he became the president of Steiger-Ratke Development. In 1960, the young Steiger made his first run for elected office and became a member of Wisconsin State Assembly from 1961 to 1965. His wife was Janet Dempsey Steiger; they were married on August 10, 1963.
In 1966, Steiger was elected to Congress. While in the House, he was a strong supporter of tax cuts as a way to stimulate the economy. He sponsored legislation reducing the capital gains tax, establishing OSHA, and securing environmental protection for the Great Lakes. The bills he authored on these topics include the Williams-Steiger Bill establishing OSHA in
Edwin Joseph Hill was an American sailor who was stationed on the USS Nevada (BB-36) during the attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7, 1941. He posthumously received the Medal of Honor for his heroism during the battle.
Hill is most noted for having released the USS Nevada from its mooring, and then as the battleship began to steam away, jumping into the harbor, swimming after the ship, and then climbing up the battleship onto its deck to continue the fight.
Hill's birth records indicate that he was born October 4, 1894 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; however his family was from the island of Saba in the Lesser Antilles.
Hill enlisted in the United States Navy in 1912, rising to the rank of Chief Boatswain. He is a first cousin to Captain (later Rear Admiral) Herman J. Kossler, commander of the submarine USS Cavalla (SS-244) during World War II and a recipient of the Navy Cross and three Silver Stars.
During the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, he was serving on board USS Nevada (BB-36). The Nevada was the only battleship that morning to attempt to make its way out of Pearl Harbor. In the midst of the attack, Hill led the ship's line-handling detail in
Filippo Barigioni (1690–1753) was an Italian sculptor and architect working in the Late Baroque tradition.
Bariogioni was born in Rome. His career was spent largely on papal commissions, including aqueducts and fountains, in and around Rome. As a professor of architecture at the Accademia di San Luca, his most important pupil was Carlo Marchionni.
He died in Rome in 1753.
Karl Gustaf Patrik de Laval (May 9, 1845 - February 2, 1913) was a Swedish engineer and inventor who made important contributions to the design of steam turbines and, more importantly, dairy machinery.
De Laval was born at Orsa in Dalarna. He enrolled at the Institute of Technology in Stockholm (later the Royal Institute of Technology) in 1863, receiving a degree in mechanical engineering in 1866, after which he matriculated at Uppsala University in 1867. He was then employed by the Swedish mining company, Stora Kopparberg. From there he returned to Uppsala University and completed his doctorate in 1872. He as further employed in Kloster Iron works in Husby parish, Sweden. Gustaf de Laval was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences from 1886. He was a successful engineer and businessman. He also held the national office, being elected to Swedish parliament, from 1888–1890 and later became a member of senate. De Laval died in Stockholm in 1912 at the age of 67.
In 1882 he introduced his concept of an impulse steam turbine and in 1887 built a small steam turbine to demonstrate that such devices could be constructed on that scale. In 1890 Laval developed a nozzle to increase
Richard Roberts (22 April 1789 – 11 March 1864) was a British patternmaker and engineer whose development of high-precision machine tools contributed to the birth of production engineering and mass production.
Roberts was born at Llanymynech, on the border between England and Wales. He was the son of William Roberts, a shoemaker, who also kept the New Bridge tollgate. Roberts was educated by the parish priest, and early found employment with a boatman on the Ellesmere Canal and later at the local limestone quarries. He received some instruction in drawing from Robert Bough, a road surveyor, who was working under Thomas Telford.
Roberts then found employment as a patternmaker at Bradley Iron works, Staffordshire, and, probably in 1813, moved to a supervisory position in the pattern shop of the Horsely Iron works, Tipton. He had gained skills in turning, wheel-wrighting and the repair of mill work. He was drawn for the militia and to avoid this made for Liverpool, but finding no work there shifted to Manchester, where he found work as a turner for a cabinet-maker. He then moved to Salford working at lathe- and tool-making. Because the militia was still seeking him, he walked to
Solon Borland (September 21, 1808 – January 1, 1864) was a newspaperman, soldier, diplomat, Democratic United States Senator from the State of Arkansas and a Confederate officer during the American Civil War.
Borland was born in Suffolk, Virginia. When he was a youth, his family moved to North Carolina, where he attended preparatory schools. He later studied medicine and opened a practice. He married three times, first in 1831 to Hildah Wright of Virginia, who died in 1837, and with whom he had two sons. He then married Eliza Buck Hart of Memphis, Tennessee in 1839, but she died in 1842, with no offspring. In 1843 following his second wife's death, he moved to Little Rock, Arkansas, where he founded the Arkansas Banner, which became an influential newspaper in state-wide Democratic politics. Three years later, he challenged the editor of the rival Arkansas Gazette, a Whig paper, to a duel due to a slander published against Doctor Borland. In 1845 he had met Mary Isabel Melbourne, of Little Rock, with whom he would marry that same year and later have three children.
During the Mexican-American War, Borland was commissioned as a major in the Arkansas Volunteer Cavalry, serving under
Arthur Krock (November 16, 1886–April 12, 1974) was a journalist and received the nickname "Dean of Washington newsmen". Born in Glasgow, Kentucky in 1887, he grew up with his grandparents, Emmanuel and Henrietta Morris. He attended Princeton University for one year.
He began his career in journalism with the Louisville Herald, then went to Washington, D.C., as a correspondent for the Louisville Times and Louisville Courier-Journal. In 1927, Krock joined the New York Times and soon became its Washington correspondent and bureau chief. His column, "In the Nation," was noted for its opinions on public policy.
Among the most noteworthy of Krock's articles was one from Oct 3, 1963, titled "The Intra-Administration War in Vietnam." In the article he quoted a high-ranking official in the government as saying "The CIA's growth was 'likened to a malignancy" which the "very high official was not even sure the White House could control...any longer." "If the United States ever experiences [an attempt at a coup to overthrow the government] it will come from the CIA and not the Pentagon." The "agency represents a tremendous power and total unaccountability to anyone." President Kennedy was
Eberhard Frederich Ferdinand Hopf (April 17, 1902, Salzburg, Austria-Hungary – July 24, 1983, Bloomington, Indiana) was a mathematician and astronomer, one of the founding fathers of ergodic theory and a pioneer of bifurcation theory who also made significant contributions to the subjects of partial differential equations and integral equations, fluid dynamics, and differential geometry. The Hopf maximum principle is an early result of his (1927) which is one of the most important techniques in the theory of elliptic partial differential equations.
Eberhard Hopf was born in Salzburg, Austria-Hungary, but his scientific career was divided between Germany and the United States. He received his Ph.D. in Mathematics in 1926 and his Habilitation in Mathematical Astronomy from the University of Berlin in 1929.
In 1930 he received a fellowship from the Rockefeller Foundation to study classical mechanics with George Birkhoff at Harvard, but his appointment was at the Harvard College Observatory. In late 1931, with the help of Norbert Wiener, Hopf joined the Department of Mathematics of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, accepting the position of Assistant Professor. While at MIT,
François Devienne (January 31, 1759 – September 5, 1803) was a French composer and professor for flute at the Paris Conservatory.
François Devienne was born in Joinville (Haute-Marne), as the youngest of fourteen children of a saddlemaker. After receiving his first musical training as a choirboy in his hometown, he was playing in various Parisian ensembles as soloist and orchestra player. He studied the flute with Félix Rault and in 1780 he joined the household of Cardinal de Rohan. He was active in Paris as a flautist, bassoonist and composer, and played bassoon at the Paris Opera. He wrote successful operas in the 1790s, including Les visitandines (1792) which brought him much success.
He was also a member of the 'Military Band of the French Guard' where he was given the rank of sergeant with the duty of teaching the children of his colleagues in the military band in its Free School of Music. After the Revolutionary period, when Free School became the National Institute of Music, later chartered as the Paris Conservatory in 1795, François Devienne was appointed an administrator and flute professor. He wrote Méthode de Flûte Théorique et Pratique (1793), which was reprinted
Robert Frederick Chelsea "Bobby" Moore, OBE (12 April 1941 – 24 February 1993) was an English footballer. He captained West Ham United for more than ten years and was captain of the England team that won the 1966 World Cup. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest players of all time, and was cited by Pelé as the greatest defender that he had ever played against.
He won a total of 108 caps for the England team, which at the time of his international retirement in 1973 was a national record. This record was later broken by 125-cap goalkeeper Peter Shilton. Moore's total of 108 caps continued as a record for outfield players until 28 March 2009, when David Beckham gained his 109th cap. However, unlike Beckham, Moore played every minute of every one of his caps.
Born in Barking, Essex, Moore attended Westbury Primary School and Tom Hood School, Leyton.
He played for both schools.
Moore joined West Ham United as a player in 1956 and, after advancing through their youth set-up, he played his first game on 8 September 1958 against Manchester United. In putting on the number six shirt, he replaced his mentor Malcolm Allison, who was suffering from tuberculosis.
Allison never played
Huayna Capac (1464/1468–1525/1527) was the eleventh Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire and sixth of the Hanan dynasty. He was the successor to Tupac Inca Yupanqui.
In Quechua, his name is spelled Wayna Qhapaq, and in Southern Quechua, it is Vaina Ghapakh. In English, his name translates to the "rich youth" or the "youthful prince." His original name was Tito Husi Hualpa.
Huayna Capac was born in Tomebamba, possibly in 1488. He was the son of Topa Inca and the Inca's sister and wife.
Huayna Capac's legitimate wife and full sister was Coya Cusirimay. The couple produced no male heirs, but Huayna Capac sired as many as 50 or more children with other women, including Ninan Cuyochi, Huáscar, Atahualpa, Túpac Huallpa, Manco Inca Yupanqui, General Atoc, Paullu Inca and Quispe Sisa, all of whom could be said to be his successors.
Huayna Capac extended the Inca empire (Tahuantinsuyu) significantly to the south into present-day Chile and Argentina. For many years, he and his armies fought to annex territories north of his empire in what is now Ecuador (and a small region of Colombia) to the northernmost province. The capital city of the empire was far to the south in Cuzco, and Huayna Capac hoped
Kim Yushin (595 – 1 July 673) was a general in 7th-century Silla. He led the unification of the Korean peninsula by Silla under the reign of King Muyeol of Silla and King Munmu of Silla. He is said to have been the great-grandchild of King Guhae of Geumgwan Gaya, the last ruler of the Geumgwan Gaya state. This would have given him a very high position in the Silla bone rank system, which governed the political and military status that a person could attain.
Much of what we know about Kim's life comes from the detailed account in the Samguk Sagi, Yeoljeon 1-3, and the much briefer record in the Samguk Yusa, vol. 1.
Kim Yushin was the son of General Kim Seohyeon and Lady Manmyeong, who was a daughter of King Jinheung of Silla. He was born in Gyeyang, Jincheon County in 595, became a Hwarang warrior at just 15 and was an accomplished swordsman and a Gukseon (국선, 國仙; Hwarang leader) by the time he was 18 years old. By the age of 34 (in 629) he had been given total command of the Silla armed forces. Three years after Princess Deokman became Queen Seondeok of Silla, who kept Kim Yushin as commander in chief of the royal army.
Kim's first military engagement in command is believed to have
Louis Thomas Jordan (July 8, 1908 – February 4, 1975) was a pioneering American jazz, blues and rhythm & blues musician, songwriter and bandleader who enjoyed his greatest popularity from the late 1930s to the early 1950s. Known as "The King of the Jukebox", he was highly popular with both black and white audiences in the later years of the swing era. In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine ranked him no. 59 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.
Jordan was one of the most successful African-American musicians of the 20th century, ranking fifth in the list of the all-time most successful black recording artists according to Billboard magazine's chart methodology. Though comprehensive sales figures are not available, he scored at least four million-selling hits during his career. Jordan regularly topped the R&B "race" charts, and was one of the first black recording artists to achieve a significant "crossover" in popularity into the mainstream (predominantly white) American audience, scoring simultaneous Top Ten hits on the white pop charts on several occasions. After Duke Ellington and Count Basie, Louis Jordan was probably the most popular and successful African-American
General William Martin Cafe VC (26 March 1826 – 6 August 1906) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Cafe was 32 years old, and a captain in the 56th Bengal Native Infantry, Indian Army during the Indian Mutiny when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC. On 15 April 1858, during the attack on Fort Ruhya, India, Captain Cafe, with other volunteers (Edward Spence and Alexander Thompson) carried away the body of a lieutenant of the 14th Punjab Rifles from the top of the glacis in a most exposed position under very heavy fire. He then went to the rescue of one of the privates who had been severely wounded. His citation in the London Gazette reads:
His Victoria Cross is displayed at the National Army Museum at Chelsea, London.
He later achieved the rank of General. Cafe is buried in Brompton Cemetery, London.
Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (September 27, 1677 – December 1, 1750) was a German mathematician, astronomer, cartographer, and wrote about sundials. (His surname is also spelled Doppelmayer and Doppelmair.)
He was born in Nuremberg, the son of the merchant Johann Siegmund Doppelmayr. He entered the Aegidien-Gymnasium in Nuremberg in 1689, then the University of Altdorf in 1696. His studies included mathematics, physics, and jurisprudence. Later he continued his studies in Halle and graduated in 1698 with a dissertion on the Sun.
During studying at the University of Halle, he also learned French and Italian. After giving up his legal studies he then spent two years travelling and studying. In addition to his native Germany, he is known to have passed through the Netherlands and England, spending time at Utrecht, Leiden, Oxford, and London.
His career was academic, and he became professor of mathematics at the Aegidien-Gymnasium from 1704 until his death. He is not noted for any discoveries, but he did publish several works of a scientific nature. His publications covered topics on mathematics and astronomy, including sundials, spherical trigonometry, and celestial maps and globes. One
Sir Richard John Cartwright, (Canadian) PC, GCMG, (Imperial) PC (December 4, 1835 – September 24, 1912) was a Canadian businessman and politician. He was born and raised in Kingston, Ontario in a United Empire Loyalist family, the son of Harriet Dobbs Cartwright and the grandson of Richard Cartwright. He was a major landowner in the area, and became prominent in Kingston's financial community as president of the Commercial Bank of Canada. He suffered a major blow when his bank failed in 1867.
Cartwright entered politics when he was elected as a Conservative Party member and supporter of John A. Macdonald in the Province of Canada's legislative assembly in 1863. In 1867, the Province of Canada became part of the new Canadian confederation. Cartwright was elected to the newly formed Canadian House of Commons, again as a Tory. In 1869, he broke with the Conservatives over Macdonald's appointment of Sir Francis Hincks as Minister of Finance, and crossed the floor to join the Liberal Party of Canada.
With the Liberal party's victory in the 1874 election, Cartwright was appointed Minister of Finance by Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie. He supported free trade, but sought limited
Nicholas I (Николай I Павлович, r Nikolai I Pavlovich; 6 July [O.S. 25 June] 1796 – 2 March [O.S. 18 February] 1855) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. On the eve of his death, the Russian Empire reached its historical zenith spanning over 20 million square kilometers (7.7 million square miles). He was also the nominal King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland.
Nicholas was born in Gatchina to Emperor Paul I and Empress Maria Feodorovna. He was a younger brother to Alexander I of Russia and Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia.
Nicholas was not brought up to be the Emperor of Russia; he had two elder brothers. In 1825, when Alexander I suddenly died of typhus, Nicholas was caught between swearing allegiance to his second-eldest brother Constantine Pavlovich and accepting the throne for himself. The interregnum lasted until Constantine Pavlovich, who was in Warsaw at that time, confirmed his refusal. Additionally, on 25 December (13 Old Style) Nicholas issued the manifesto claiming his accession to the throne. That manifesto retroactively named 1 December (19 November Old Style), the date of Alexander
Benjamin Franklin James (August 1, 1885 – January 26, 1961) was a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.
Benjamin F. James was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He extensively studied in graphic arts. In 1910, he moved to Radnor Township in Delaware County, Pennsylvania. During World War I, he enlisted in the United States Army and was assigned to the Central Officers Training School. He was honorably discharged in November 1918 as a second lieutenant in the United States Army Reserves. He was president and chairman of the board of directors of the Franklin Printing Co. of Philadelphia (founded in 1728 by Benjamin Franklin). He was a member of the Radnor Township Board of Commissioners from 1929 to 1936. He served in the Pennsylvania State House of Representatives from 1939 through 1947. He was elected as a Republican to the Eighty-first and to the four succeeding Congresses. He was not a candidate for renomination in 1958.
He is buried at Arlington Cemetery Co in Drexel Hill, Pennsylvania.
Like his famous ancestor, James served as president of the Poor Richard Club and also was the first president of the Printing Industries of Philadelphia, an
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist and poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers in the modernist avant-garde of the early 20th century. Joyce is best known for Ulysses (1922), a landmark work in which the episodes of Homer's Odyssey are paralleled in an array of contrasting literary styles, perhaps most prominently the stream of consciousness technique he perfected. Other major works are the short-story collection Dubliners (1914), and the novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) and Finnegans Wake (1939). His complete oeuvre includes three books of poetry, a play, occasional journalism, and his published letters.
Joyce was born to a middle class family in Dublin, where he excelled as a student at the Jesuit schools Clongowes and Belvedere, then at University College Dublin. In his early twenties he emigrated permanently to continental Europe, living in Trieste, Paris and Zurich. Though most of his adult life was spent abroad, Joyce's fictional universe does not extend beyond Dublin, and is populated largely by characters who closely resemble family members, enemies and friends from his time there;
Margaret Lindsay (September 19, 1910 - May 9, 1981) was an American film actress. Her time as a Warner Bros. contract player during the 1930s was particularly productive. She was noted for her supporting work in successful films of the 1930s and 1940s such as Jezebel (1938) and Scarlet Street (1945) and her leading roles in lower-budgeted B movie films such as the Ellery Queen series at Columbia in the early 1940s. Critics regard her portrayal of Nathaniel Hawthorne's Hepzibah Pyncheon in the 1940 film adaptation of The House of the Seven Gables as Lindsay's standout career role.
Born as Margaret Kies in Dubuque, Iowa, she was the oldest of six children of a pharmacist father who died in 1930 before her Hollywood career began. According to Tom Longden of the Des Moines Register, "Peg" was "a tomboy who liked to climb pear trees" and was a "roller-skating fiend". She graduated in 1930 from Visitation Academy in Dubuque.
After attending National Park Seminary in Washington, D.C., Lindsay convinced her parents to enroll her at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York. She then went abroad to England to make her stage debut. She appeared in plays such as Escape, Death Takes a
William Henry West Betty (September 13, 1791 – August 24, 1874) was a British child actor.
Betty was born at Shrewsbury. His first appearance on the stage at was at Belfast before he was twelve years old, as Osman in Aaron Hill's Zara, an English version of Voltaire's Zaïre. His success was immediate, and he shortly afterwards appeared in Dublin, where it is said that in three hours of study he committed the part of Hamlet to memory. His precocious talents aroused great enthusiasm in Glasgow and Edinburgh, and he was favorably compared with some of the greatest tragedians. In 1801, he first appeared at Covent Garden, when the troops had to be called out to preserve order, so great was the crush to obtain admittance. At Drury Lane, the house was similarly packed, and he played for the then unprecedented salary of over 75 guineas a night. He was a great success socially, George III himself presenting him to the queen, and Pitt upon one occasion adjourning the House of Commons that members might be in time for his performance. But this enthusiasm gradually subsided, and in 1808, he made his final appearance as a boy actor, and entered Christ's College, Cambridge. He re-appeared four
Octave Garnier (December 25, 1889 - May 14, 1912) was a French anarchist and founding member of the infamous Bonnot Gang.
Born in Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne on Christmas Day 1889, Garnier worked as a butcher and baker at an early age. He took up theft at the age of thirteen and had served his first prison term by age seventeen. Garnier later wrote, "prison had made me even more rebellious."
Following his release from prison, Garnier dabbled in, and then became disillusioned with, both union syndicalism and revolutionary politics before turning to anarchism.
Following two additional stints in prison (one for assault), Garnier fled to Belgium in 1910 to avoid France's military draft. Abroad, he learned the art of burglary and counterfeiting from anarchist associates. In April 1911, Garnier and his partner Marie Vuillemin moved to Romainville to live with future gang members Raymond Callemin, Jean De Boe, and Edouard Carouy as well as Victor Kibalchich, then editor of l'Anarchie. Within this group, Garnier's political sympathies grew rapidly towards illegalism, a radical form of individualist anarchism that was heavily influenced by German philosopher Max Stirner.
Thomas Francis "Tommy" Dorsey, Jr. (November 19, 1905 - November 26, 1956) was an American jazz trombonist, trumpeter, composer, and bandleader of the Big Band era. He was known as "The Sentimental Gentleman of Swing", due to his smooth-toned trombone playing. He was the younger brother of bandleader Jimmy Dorsey. After Dorsey broke with his brother in the mid-1930s, he led an extremely popular and highly successful band from the late 1930s into the 1950s.
Thomas Francis Dorsey, Jr. was born in Shenandoah, Pennsylvania, the second of four children born to Thomas Francis Dorsey, Sr. and Theresa (née Langton) Dorsey. He and Jimmy, his older brother by slightly less than two years, would become famous as the "Dorsey Brothers". The two younger siblings were Mary and Edward (who died young).
At age 15, Jimmy recommended Tommy as the replacement for Russ Morgan in the 1920s territory band "The Scranton Sirens." Tommy and Jimmy worked in several bands, including those of Tal Henry, Rudy Vallee, Vincent Lopez, Nathaniel Shilkret, and especially Paul Whiteman. In 1929, the Dorsey Brothers had their first hit with "Coquette" for OKeh records.
In 1934 the Dorsey Brothers band signed with
Sir Adam Wilson (September 22, 1814 – December 28, 1891) was a lawyer, judge and political figure in Canada West. He served as mayor of Toronto in 1859 and 1860.
He was born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1815 and came to Halton County, Upper Canada in 1830 to work with his uncle. In 1834, he moved to Toronto where he studied law Robert Baldwin Sullivan and was called to the bar in 1839. In 1850, he became Queen's Counsel. Wilson was elected to Toronto city council in 1855, later serving two terms as mayor. In 1856, he was named to a commission whose work formed the basis for the l Statutes of the Province of Canada. He was elected to the Legislative Council of the Province of Canada in an 1860 by-election in the North riding of York; he was re-elected in ral for Canada West in the Executive Council. He resigned from politics in 1863 and was named judge in the Court of Queen's Bench. He served on the Ontario Law Reform Commission. In 1878, Wilson became chief justice in the Court of Common Pleas and, in 1884, was named to the same function in the Court of Queen's Bench. In 1887, he was retired and was knighted. He died in Toronto on 28 December 1891.
Adamantios Korais or Coraïs (Greek: Ἀδαμάντιος Κοραῆς) (27 April 1748 – 6 April 1833) was a humanist scholar credited with laying the foundations of Modern Greek literature and a major figure in the Greek Enlightenment. His activities paved the way for the Greek War of Independence and the emergence of a purified form of the Greek language, known as Katharevousa. Encyclopædia Britannica asserts that "his influence on the modern Greek language and culture has been compared to that of Dante on Italian and Martin Luther on German".
Korais was born in Smyrna, in 1748. He was exceptionally passionate about philosophy, literacy and linguistics and studied greatly throughout his youth. He initially studied in his home place, where he graduated from the Evangelical Greek School. As an adult Korais traveled to Paris where he would continue his enthusiasm for knowledge. He translated ancient Greek authors and produced thirty volumes of those translations.
Korais graduated from the famous school of medicine of the University of Montpellier in 1788 and was to spend most of his life as an expatriate in Paris. A classical scholar, Korais was repelled by the Byzantine influence in Greek society
Howard Duane Allman (November 20, 1946 – October 29, 1971) was an American guitarist, session musician and the primary leader and co-founder of the The Allman Brothers Band, until his death in a motorcycle accident in 1971 at the age of 24.
The Allman Brothers Band was formed in 1969 and, unusual for the time, based in the Southeastern United States. In the early 1970s the band was hugely successful. Duane is best remembered for his brief but influential tenure in the band, and in particular for his expressive slide guitar playing and inventive improvisational skills. In 2003, Rolling Stone magazine ranked Allman at #2 in their list of the 100 greatest guitarists of all time, second only to Jimi Hendrix and in 2011 he was ranked #9. His tone (achieved with a Gibson Les Paul and two 50-watt bass Marshall amplifiers) was named one of the greatest guitar tones of all time by Guitar Player.
A sought-after session musician both before and during his tenure with the band, Duane Allman performed with such established stars as King Curtis, Aretha Franklin, Wilson Pickett, and Herbie Mann. He also contributed heavily to the 1970 album Layla and Other Assorted Love Songs by Derek and the
Edmund Gibson Ross (December 7, 1826 – May 8, 1907) was a politician who represented the state of Kansas after the American Civil War and was later governor of the New Mexico Territory. His vote against convicting President Andrew Johnson of "high crimes and misdemeanors" allowed Johnson to stay in office by the margin of one vote. As the seventh of seven Republican U.S. Senators to break with his party, Ross proved to be the person whose decision would result in conviction or acquittal. When he chose the latter, the vote of 35–19 in favor of Johnson's conviction failed to reach the required two-thirds vote. Ross lost his bid for re-election two years later.
Ross was born in Ashland, Ohio, and attended high school in Sandusky, Ohio. He worked in the newspaper business, first in Sandusky, Ohio, then in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and Topeka, Kansas. After the suicide of James H. Lane in 1866, Ross was appointed and then elected to the United States Senate as a member of the Republican Party.
He was a Union army veteran and hero. A captain in the Eleventh Kansas Infantry, and later when the regiment became mounted cavalry, Ross had two horses shot out from under him during the skirmishing
Ignaty Gryniewietsky (Party name: Kotik, Russian for "Kitten"; ), 1856 – 13 March 1881) was a member of the People's Will and the assassin of Tsar Alexander II of Russia.
Hryniewiecki was born in 1856 in Kalinovka, a village in Klichev district, nowaday Belarus into an impoverished Polish szlachta family at a small manor.
In 1875 Hryniewiecki left for Saint Petersburg, where he enrolled in mathematics at the Polytechnic. Under the influence of his teachers and fellow students, he quickly became Russified. This was probably why he was invited to meetings of the Russian revolutionary Narodnaya Volya (People's Will) movement.
In 1880 Hryniewiecki, Andrei Zhelyabov, Sophia Perovskaya and others were in charge of revolutionary propaganda among students and workers. Hryniewiecki was an organizer of the Workers' Gazette and a typesetter at a clandestine printing establishment.
In February 1881 Hryniewiecki joined as a part of the bombthrower unit, created for the purpose of assassinating the Tsar Alexander II.
One evening in mid-February the four bomb-throwers (Timofei Mikhailov, Ivan Emelyanov, Nikolai Rysakov and Hryniewiecki) gathered in a newly rented apartment on Telezhnaya Street,
Caroline Schelling, née Michaelis, widowed Böhmer, divorced Schlegel (September 2, 1763 — September 7, 1809) was a noted German intellectual.
She was born at Göttingen, the daughter of the orientalist Johann David Michaelis.
In 1784, she married a district medical officer named Böhmer, in Clausthal in the Harz. After his death, in 1788, she returned to Göttingen, where she became familiar with the poet Gottfried August Burger and the critic of the Romantic school, August Wilhelm Schlegel. In 1791, she took up residence in Mainz, joining the famous French revolutionary society of the Clubbists (Klubbisten), and suffering a short period of imprisonment on account of her political opinions.
In 1796, she went to Jena and married Schlegel, who was appointed extraordinary professor. They were divorced in 1803. She became the wife of the philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. She died at Maulbronn in 1809.
Caroline Schelling played a considerable role in the intellectual movement of her time, especially in her role with Jena Romanticism. Here she debated with poets and philosophers like Novalis, Fichte, Hegel, Schiller and her later husband Schelling, and was considered as the
Lois Wilson (June 28, 1894 - March 3, 1988) was an American actress best known for her work during the silent film era. She also directed two short films and was a scenario writer.
Born in Pennsylvania, Wilson's family moved to Alabama when she was still very young. She earned a degree from Alabama Normal College (now the University of West Alabama), and became a school teacher. Wilson moved to California when she won a beauty contest put on by Universal Studios and the Birmingham News in 1915. This pageant was the predecessor to the Miss Alabama/Miss America pageant system, and Wilson is considered the first Miss Alabama. Upon arriving in Hollywood, she secured a small part in The Dumb Girl of Portici, which starred the ballerina Anna Pavlova.
After appearing in several films at various studios, Wilson settled in at Paramount Pictures in 1919, where she remained until 1927. She was a WAMPAS Baby Star of 1922, and all told, appeared in 150 movies. Her most recognized screen portrayals are Molly Wingate in The Covered Wagon (1923) and Daisy Buchanan in the silent film version of The Great Gatsby (1926). She acted opposite such leading male stars of her era as Rudolph Valentino and
Karl Emil Julius Ulrich Salchow (7 August 1877 – 19 April 1949) was a Swedish figure skater, who dominated the sport in the first decade of the 20th century.
Salchow won the World Figure Skating Championships ten times, from 1901 to 1905, and from 1907 to 1911. This is still a record, which he shares with Sonja Henie who also won 10 titles in the 1920s and 1930s, and with Irina Rodnina who won 10 titles in the 1960s and 1970s. Salchow didn't compete at the 1906 World Championships that were held in Munich, as he feared that he wouldn't be judged fairly against Gilbert Fuchs of Germany. When figure skating was first contested at the Summer Olympic Games in London (1908), Salchow also won the title with ease. In addition, Salchow won the European Championships record number of nine times (1898–1900, 1904, 1906–1907, 1909–1910, 1913) and placed second in the World Championships three times.
In 1909, Ulrich Salchow first landed a jump in competition in which he took off on the back inside edge, and landed on the back outside edge of his other foot. This jump is now known as the salchow jump in his honor.
After his competitive days, Salchow remained active in the sport, and was
Hermann Ehrhardt (29 November 1881 – 27 September 1971) was a German Freikorps commander during the period of turmoil in Weimar Republic Germany from 1918 to 1920, he commanded the famous II.Marine Brigade, better known as the Ehrhardt Brigade or Marinebrigade Ehrhardt.
Born in Diersburg, now part of Hohberg, Baden-Württemberg, he later joined the German Imperial Navy and served as a Korvettenkapitän. A strong opponent of the Treaty of Versailles, he developed strong monarchist views. During the period after the defeat of the German Empire, Ehrhardt formed the II.Marine Brigade.
Holding the rank of Korvettenkapitän, his army equivalent rank was only that of a major, yet he still commanded a force of around 6,000 men. His force fought in north-west Germany, central Germany, Upper Silesia, and Bavaria and participated in the unsuccessful Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch of 1920, afterwards he fled Germany, but later returned. In Bavaria, which was ruled by Gustav von Kahr at that time, he formed the Organisation Consul, , and later the Viking Bund, a secret military society.
During the Beer Hall Putsch, Ehrhardt and his deputy commander Eberhard Kautter refused to have the league help Adolf
Wilbur Daigh Mills (May 24, 1909 – May 2, 1992) was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from the state of Arkansas. He was chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee in the 1960s, and briefly a candidate for President of the United States in 1972.
Mills was born in Kensett in White County to Abbie Lois Daigh Mills and Ardra Pickens Mills. Kensett was the first public school in Arkansas to integrate, under Mills' father, who was first superintendent and then chairman of the school board and the banker for the school district. Mills attended public schools in Kensett but graduated as valedictorian from Searcy High School in the county seat of White County. He thereafter graduated from Hendrix College in Conway as salutatorian, having resided in Martin Hall. He studied constitutional law at Harvard Law School in Cambridge, Massachusetts under Felix Frankfurter, who was subsequently nominated and confirmed (1939) as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Mills received his law degree and was admitted to the bar in 1933.
Mills served as the 29th County Judge of White County, between 1935 and 1938, and began a county-funded program to
Aratus (271 BC – 213 BC) was a statesman of the ancient Greek city-state of Sicyon and a leader of the Achaean League. He deposed the Sicyonian tyrant Nicocles in 251 BC. Aratus was an advocate of Greek unity and brought Sicyon into the Achaean League, which he led to its maximum extent. He was elected strategos numerous times and led the Achaeans against Macedonia, the Aetolians and the Spartans. After the Spartans defeated and nearly destroyed the cities of the Achaean League, he requested Antigonus Doson of Macedonia to help fight against the Aetolians and Spartans. After Antigonus died in 222 BC, Aratus did not get along with Philip V of Macedon, who wanted to make the Achaean League subject to Macedonia. Polybius and Plutarch record that Philip had Aratus poisoned.
Aratus was born in 271 BC in Sicyon. His father, Clinias, was governing this city as magistrate. Clinias was pacifying the country after ending a long succession of tyrants.
In 264 BC, Abantidas led a new revolt. Clinias was slain. Abantidas sought to kill the 7 years old Aratus. Aratus escaped after wandering into the home of Soso, Abantidas' sister, who had also been married to Prophantus (Clinias' brother). She
Charles Carroll of Carrollton (September 19, 1737 – November 14, 1832) was a wealthy Maryland planter and an early advocate of independence from Great Britain. He served as a delegate to the Continental Congress and later as first United States Senator for Maryland. He was the only Catholic and the longest-lived (and last surviving) signatory of the Declaration of Independence, dying at the age of 95.
The Carroll family were descendants of the Ó Cearbhaill lords of Éile (Lords of Ely) in King's County (now County Offaly). Carroll's grandfather was the Irish-born Charles Carroll the Settler (1660–1720) from Litterluna; he was a descendant of Daniel O'Carroll of Aghagurty Clareen, three miles south of Kinnitty, and a clerk in the office of Lord Powis. Carroll left his native Ireland (King's County) around the year 1659, and emigrated to St. Mary's City, capital of the colony of Maryland, in 1689, with a commission as Attorney General from the colony's Catholic proprietor, Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore.
Charles Carroll the Settler was the son of Daniel O'Carroll of Litterluna. The "O'" in Irish surnames was often dropped due to the Anglicisation policy of the occupying English,
George Fosbery Lyster (1821 – 1899) succeeded John Hartley as Engineer in Chief to the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board. He was followed by his son, A.G. Lyster in 1897.
He was responsible for most of the Birkenhead docks and docks at the north end of the dock estate. He also built the Herculaneum Dock, Harrington Dock and Toxteth Dock.
Jan Piotr Sapieha (1569–1611) was a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman (szlachcic). Starosta uświacki, pułkownik królewski, son of Paweł Sapieha (1523–1580) and Anna Chodkiewiczowna (1540–1595), married to Zofia Weiher, father of Paweł Jan Sapieha. Participant of the Polish-Swedish War - brought a private chorągiew of 100 Cossacks, and commanded he right wing (400 hussars, 700 Cossack cavalry) of Polish-Lithuanian army during the famous Battle of Kircholm in 1605. Participant of the Polish-Muscovite War (1605-1618), where he commanded the failed siege of Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra in 1608 and later fought anti-Polish Muscovite forces near Moscow (the so called First Volunteer Army, led by Prokopy Lyapunov). Died on October 15 during the siege of Moscow Kremlin, buried at Leipalingis.
Jan Piotr Sapieha is one of the personas on the famous painting by Jan Matejko: the sermons of Piotr Skarga.
Karl Schwarzschild (/'shvarts shĭld/) (October 9, 1873 – May 11, 1916) was a German physicist. He is also the father of astrophysicist Martin Schwarzschild.
He is best known for providing the first exact solution to the Einstein field equations of general relativity, for the limited case of a single spherical non-rotating mass, which he accomplished in 1915, the same year that Einstein first introduced general relativity. The Schwarzschild solution, which makes use of Schwarzschild coordinates and the Schwarzschild metric, leads to the well-known Schwarzschild radius, which is the size of the event horizon of a non-rotating black hole.
Schwarzschild accomplished this triumph while serving in the German army during World War I. He died the following year from pemphigus, a painful autoimmune disease which he developed while at the Russian front.
Asteroid 837 Schwarzschilda is named in his honor.
Schwarzschild was born in Frankfurt am Main to Jewish parents. His father was active in the business community of the city, and the family had ancestors in the city dating back to the sixteenth century. Karl attended a Jewish primary school until 11 years of age. He was something of a child
Sancho I (died 966), called the Fat, was a king of León.
He was the son of Ramiro II of León and queen Urraca Sánchez of Pamplona. He succeeded his half-brother Ordoño III in 956 and reigned until his death, except for a two year interruption from 958 to 960, when Ordoño the Wicked usurped the throne. He was a grandson of Sancho I of Pamplona and Toda Aznárez.
At first, Sancho disputed the throne with Ordoño III who had succeeded their father in 951. Upon Ordoño's death, he took the vacant throne, but only two years later he was deposed by the nobles led by the Fernán González of Castile, because of his extreme obesity.
During his exile in Andalus, according to Dozy, Sancho managed to shed at least some portion of his girth under the treatment of Hasdai ibn Shaprut. At the same time, he began endeavoring to reclaim his throne. He first went to his grandmother Toda and asked for aid; next he concluded a treaty with the Moors and, with the help of the Leonese and Navarrese noblesse, he took Zamora in 959 and took his throne back soon afterwards.
As he did not respect his treaty with the Muslims, he experienced many punishing raids in response. The final years of his reign were
Alfred Stevens (January 28, 1818 – May 1, 1875), British sculptor, was born at Blandford Forum in Dorset.
Stevens was the son of a decorator and joiner, and at the age of ten, entered his father's workshop as an assistant. In 1833, the rector of his parish enabled him to go to Italy, where he spent nine years studying at Naples, Bologna, Siena, Pompeii, Capri, Rome, Milan, Venice, and Florence where he studied for a time at the Accademia di Belle Arti. Stevens had never attended an English school. In 1841, Bertel Thorvaldsen employed him for a year in Rome.
After a significant period of study and training throughout Italy, Stevens returned to England. In 1845 he obtained a tutorial position in the School of Design at Somerset House, London, where he remained until 1847. In 1850 he became chief artist to the Sheffield firm of H.E. Hoole and Co. who specialised in bronze and metal work. While in Sheffield it is thought that Stevens devised plans which were eventually integrated into the design of the ornate gateway of the Green Lane Works of 1860. In 1852 he returned to London. To this period belongs his design for the vases on the railings in front of the British Museum, and also
Ann Putnam (October 18, 1679 – 1716), along with Elizabeth "Betty" Parris, Mary Walcott and Abigail Williams, was an important witness at the Salem Witch Trials of Massachusetts during the later portion of 17th century Colonial America. Born 1679 in Salem Village, Essex County, Massachusetts, she was the eldest child of Thomas Putnam (1652–1699) and Ann Carr (1661–1699). She was friends with some of the girls who claimed to be afflicted by witchcraft and, in March 1692, proclaimed to be afflicted herself.
In 1706, Ann Putnam publicly apologized for the part she had played in the witch trials.
I desire to be humbled before God for that sad and humbling providence that befell my father's family in the year about ninety-two; that I, then being in my childhood, should, by such a providence of God, be made an instrument for the accusing of serveral people for grievous crimes, whereby their lives was taken away from them, whom, now I have just grounds and good reason to believe they were innocent persons; and that it was a great delusion of Satan that deceived me in that sad time, whereby I justly fear I have been instrumental, with others, though ignorantly and unwittingly, to bring
Anton Freiherr von Eiselsberg was born on July 31, 1860 at Schloss Steinhaus, Upper Austria.
A student of Theodor Billroth, Eiselsberg served as professor of medicine at Utrecht University and at University of Königsberg before being appointed head of the First Department of Surgery at the University of Vienna. He was one of the founders of neurosurgery, co-founder of the Austrian Cancer Society in 1910, and an honorary member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. It was his initiative that lead to the creation of the world-first emergency surgery station in Vienna, dramatically increasing the effectiveness of medical intervention after accidents.
Eiselsberg was awarded the second Lister Medal in 1927 for his contributions to surgical science. As part of the award, he was invited to give the Lister Memorial Lecture at the Royal College of Surgeons of England in July 1927.
He himself died during the early days of World War II in an accident caused by the collision of two trains in the vicinity of St. Valentin, Lower Austria, on October 25, 1939.
Sultan Qutb-ud-Din Bahadur Shah, who reigned 1526–1535 and 1536–1537, was a sultan of Gujarat Sultanate, a late medieval kingdom in India.
Bahadur Shah's father was Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah II, who had ascended to the throne of the Gujarat Sultanate in 1511. Muzaffar Shah II nominated Sikandar Shah (Bahadur Shah's elder brother) as the heir apparent to the throne. Bahadur Shah's relationship with his brother and father became tense as Sikandar Shah began to assume greater administrative control. Fearing for his life, Bahadur Shah fled Gujarat, first seeking refuge with Chittor, and then with Ibrahim Lodi. He was present at the Battle of Panipat, though he did not take part in fighting. When he received the news of the death of his father on April 5, 1526 he returned to Gujarat and almost all the nobles except the murderers of his eldest brother Sikandar, who succeeded his father Muzzaffar Shah II, joined him. The opposition was suppressed immediately and they were executed. After this Bahadur turned against his brothers, his nearest rival Latif was severely wounded in an action, taken prisoner and died. Mahmud II, the infant son of Muzaffar Shah II, who succeeded Sikandar after
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (Italian pronunciation: [karaˈvaddʒo]; 29 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian artist active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily between 1593 and 1610. His paintings, which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on the Baroque school of painting.
Caravaggio trained as a painter in Milan under Simone Peterzano who had himself trained under Titian. In his early twenties Caravaggio moved to Rome where, during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, many huge new churches and palazzi were being built and paintings were needed to fill them. During the Counter-Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church searched for religious art with which to counter the threat of Protestantism, and for this task the artificial conventions of Mannerism, which had ruled art for almost a century, no longer seemed adequate.
Caravaggio's novelty was a radical naturalism that combined close physical observation with a dramatic, even theatrical, use of chiaroscuro. This came to be known as Tenebrism, the shift from light to dark with little intermediate value. He burst upon
David Boyle, 1st Earl of Glasgow (c. 1666 – 31 October 1733) was a Scottish politician.
The son of John Boyle of Kelburn, Commissioner, and Marion Steuart, he was the Commissioner (MP) to the Parliament of Scotland from the Bute constituency from 1689–1699. He was raised to the Peerage of Scotland as Lord Boyle of Kelburn, Stewartoun, Cumbrae, Finnick, Largs and Dalry on 31 January 1699, and advanced to the titles of Viscount of Kelburn and Earl of Glasgow on 12 April 1703. After the Union, he sat as a Scottish representative peer from 1707 to 1710.
He was Rector of Glasgow University from 1690–1691 and was appointed Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1706 and in 1707 to 1710. He was also Lord Clerk Register prior to 1714.
David Leslie Hoggan (March 23, 1923 – August 7, 1988) was an American historical writer, author of The Forced War: When Peaceful Revision Failed and other works in the German and English languages.
Hoggan was born in Portland, Oregon, and received his education at Reed College and Harvard University. At Harvard, Hoggan was awarded a PhD in 1948 for a dissertation on relations between Germany and Poland in the years 1938–1939. His adviser described his dissertation as "no more than a solid, conscientious piece of work, critical of Polish and British policies, but not beyond what the evidence would tolerate". The American historian Peter Baldwin noted that Hoggan's dissertation, The Breakdown of German-Polish Relations in 1939: The Conflict Between the German New Order and the Polish Idea of Central Eastern Europe, was easily the most reasonable and sane of all Hoggan's writings. During his time at Harvard, Hoggan befriended Harry Elmer Barnes, whose thinking would have much influence on Hoggan. Subsequently, Hoggan had a series of teaching positions at the University of Munich, San Francisco State College, the University of California at Berkeley, the Massachusetts Institute of
Edward Dickinson Baker (February 24, 1811 – October 21, 1861) was an English-born American politician, lawyer, and military leader. In his political career, Baker served in the U.S. House of Representatives from Illinois and later as a U.S. Senator from Oregon. A long-time close friend of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, Baker served as U.S. Army colonel during both the Mexican-American War and the American Civil War. Baker was killed in the Battle of Ball's Bluff while leading a Union Army regiment, becoming the only sitting senator to be killed in the Civil War.
Born in London in 1811 to schoolteacher Edward Baker and Lucy Dickinson Baker, poor but educated Quakers, the boy Edward Baker and his family left England and immigrated to the United States in 1816, arriving in Philadelphia, where Baker's father established a school. Ned attended his father's school before quitting to apprentice as a loom operator in a weaving factory. In 1825, the family left Philadelphia and traveled to New Harmony, Indiana, a utopian community on the Ohio River led by Robert Owen and sought to follow communitarian ideals.
The family left New Harmony in 1826 and moved to Belleville in Illinois
Fawzi Selu (1905–1972) (Arabic: فوزي السلو) was a Syrian military leader, politician and head of state (December 3, 1951–July 11, 1953).
He studied at the Homs Military Academy and joined the French-sponsored Troupe Speciales that was created when France imposed its League of Nations mandate on Syria in July 1920. He had a successful military career, and when Syria became fully independent in 1946, he became the director of the academy. He was given a command in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War where he became close to chief of staff Husni al-Za'im. When Za'im came to power in a coup in March 1949, he appointed Selu military attaché to the Syrian-Israeli armistice talks, and he became the principal architect of the cease-fire that was signed in July of that year. Selu, supported by Za'im, demonstrated a willingness to pursue a comprehensive peace settlement with Israel, including a final border agreement, Palestinian refugees, and the establishment of a Syrian embassy in Tel Aviv. However Za'im was overthrown and killed, and civilian rule was restored with the administration of the nationalist Hashim al-Atassi. Atassi upheld the armistice agreement, but refused to consider peace with
Gerardo Machado y Morales (September 28, 1871, Camajuaní – March 29, 1939, Miami Beach, Florida) was President of Cuba (1925–1933) and a general of the Cuban War of Independence. He was born in the central Province of Las Villas (now Villa Clara) and was from a poor background.
He married Elvira Machado Nodal (28 October 1868 in Villa Clara – 1968) and they had three daughters; Laudelina (Nena), Ángela Elvira and Berta. Machado also had two children out of wedlock, Leonor and Heriberto Machado.
He was said to have been a cattle rustler before he joined the fight for independence.
He rustled cattle from the Spanish Imperial Army for distribution to the starving Cuban People, who were denied such food for their children. General Machado was the oldest brother of Colonel Lorenzo Machado-Morales of the Cuban Mambi army of Las Villas Province under General Calixto Garcia. General Machado was one of the youngest Cuban generals of the 1895 to 1898 Cuban War of Independence. Only two other War of Independence generals were younger: Calixto Enamorado (1874–1951) and Enrique Loynaz del Castillo (1871–1963),. Gerardo Machado fought in the middle provinces along with José Miguel Gómez
Joel Walker Sweeney (1810 – October 29, 1860), also known as Joe Sweeney, was a musician and early blackface minstrel performer. Born to a farming family in Buckingham County, Virginia, (now Appomattox) he claimed to have learned to play the banjo from local African-Americans and is the earliest documented white banjo player. In addition, he is the earliest known person to have played the banjo on stage. Aside from his important role in popularizing the instrument, he has often been credited with advancing the physical development of the modern five-string banjo. Whereas the instrument's resonating chamber had formerly been constructed from a gourd (like the banjo's African ancestors and cousins), Sweeney popularized the use of a drum-like resonating chamber (legend has it that he adapted a cheese box for this purpose). He has also been credited with adding the banjo's fifth string, which according to legend was for an instrument he created for his niece between 1831 and 1840. He supposedly added the fifth string because he was "allegedly unhappy with the limited rhythm and melodic variation of the four-string banjos popularly in use." In fact, there is no proof that Sweeney
Sir John Brown (6 December 1816 – 27 December 1896), British industrialist, was born in Sheffield. He was known as the Father of the South Yorkshire Iron Trade.
Brown was the son of a Fargate slater and was educated in the Portobello area of Sheffield at Robert Thompson's School. While there he met Mary Schofield, a daughter of a local auctioneer who was a year older than he was and whom he would later marry. He finished his studies at Mr. Wilkinson's School in Broomhall. Upon leaving school at 14 years old his father wanted him to become a linen draper, Brown however wanted to enter the emerging Sheffield steel industry and accepted an apprenticeship at Earl, Horton & Co earning six shillings a week. In 1837 Brown was offered a share in the firm by the senior partner Mr. Earl but was unable to accept it because of lack of finances. Nonetheless he did take over the company's factoring business with the help of a loan for £500 thanks to the backing of his father and uncle and for several years travelled the country selling goods.
He started his own company John Brown & company in 1844 manufacturing Steel at a small foundry on a site at what is the now Orchard Square Shopping centre.
John Robarts VC (1818 – 17 October 1888) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Robarts was born in Chacewater, Cornwall, and joined the Royal Navy in 1842. He was about 37 years old, and a gunner in the Royal Navy during the Crimean War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.
On 29 May 1855 in the Sea of Azov, Crimea, Gunner Robarts of HMS Ardent with two lieutenants (Cecil William Buckley and Hugh Talbot Burgoyne), one from HMS Miranda and the other from HMS Swallow, volunteered to land on a beach where the Russian army were in strength. They were out of covering gunshot range of the ships offshore and met considerable enemy opposition, but managed to set fire to corn stores and ammunition dumps and destroy enemy equipment before embarking again.
Jordan Anderson (born April 15th, 1991 in Forest Acres, South Carolina) is an American race car driver in the Legends car racing series. He is a two time Lowe's Motor Speedway Summer Shootout Pro division Champion (2007 and 2008) and is the only driver in the series' 17 year history to ever win two consecutive championships.
Jordan Anderson is closing in on his goal, the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series. Anderson, who is 18 and a freshman at Belmont Abbey College, has been working his way through the ranks of the auto racing world with a vengeance for the past ten years. Determined is how most would describe him, a focused competitor very similar to that of the late Dale Earnhardt, who was a gentleman off the track but a force of recognition once the green flag was out.
Anderson is quick to point out where his success comes from. “I’ve been blessed to have a relationship with Christ and I routinely pull from Psalm 37:4, which says ‘Delight yourself in the LORD and he will give you the desires of your heart.’ I have strived since the age of six to honor and glorify God in all I do, and I feel blessed to have the opportunity to use my racing career as a ministry.”
The month of October has
Josef Mánes (May 12, 1820, Prague – December 9, 1871, Prague) was a Czech painter.
He was taught by his father, Antonín Mánes (1784–1843), who was a landscape painter and the professor of arts; in addition, he was the nephew of Václav Mánes, and brother of Quido Mánes and Amalie Mánesová, all of whom were also painters. Through his career he produced landscape paintings, portraits, and historical paintings, as well as the first uniform of the Sokol in 1862. He was one of the most important representatives of Czech romanticism, captivated by rural life and slavic traditions. He is perhaps best known as the painter of the images of the twelve months added to the ancient Prague Astronomical Clock in 1870.
However, his personal life was unhappy, especially because he was separated from his only love, he also suffered from unknown brain disease. Decrepit and confused, he died prematurely in December 9, 1871.
Mánes gave his name to the Mánes Union of Fine Arts (S.U.V. Mánes), founded in 1887 in his honor.
Karl Eduard von Holtei (January 24, 1798 – February 12, 1880) was a German poet and actor.
Karl Eduard von Holtei was born at Breslau, the son of an officer of Hussars. Having served in the Prussian army as a volunteer in 1815, he shortly afterwards entered the University of Breslau as a student of law; but, attracted by the stage, he soon forsook academic life and made his debut in the Breslau theatre as Mortimer in Schiller's Mona Stuart. He led a wandering life for the next two years, appearing less on the stage as an actor than as a reciter of his own poems. In 1821 he married the actress Luise Roge (1800-1825), and was appointed theatre-poet to the Breslau stage. He next removed to Berlin, where his wife fulfilled an engagement at the Court theatre. During his sojourn here he produced the vaudevilles Die Wiener in Berlin (1824), and Die Berliner in Wien (1825), pieces which enjoyed at the time great popular favour.
In 1825 his wife died; but soon after her death he accepted an engagement at the Königsstädter theatre in Berlin, when he wrote a number of plays, notably Lenore (1828), based on Gottfried August Bürger's ballad, and Der alte Feldherr (1825). In 1830 he married
Madeleine de Bourbon (23 March 1898 – 1 September 1984 in Paris) was the Duchess of Parma (from 1974) and was also Carlist queen of Spain (from 1952) by virtue of marriage to Xavier of Parma, the Carlist pretender to the Spanish throne,.
She was born of a cadet branch of the Bourbon-Busset: her father was Georges, Count of Lignières, and her mother Marie Jeanne de Kerret de Quillien.
Prince Xavier, a younger son of Robert of Parma, and Madeleine were married 12 November 1927 in Lignières, France.
In 1936, Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime, the last undisputed head of the Carlist movement, appointed her husband Xavier as Regent.
The couple had issue:
Mons Monssen (January 20, 1867–February 10, 1930) was a sailor in the United States Navy who received the Medal of Honor for heroism while serving about the USS Missouri (BB-11).
Mons Monssen was born January 20, 1867 at the farm Tolleshaug on the island Radøy north of Bergen, Norway and enlisted in the United States Navy June 3, 1889
Warranted gunner in 1904, he was serving in USS Missouri (BB-11) April 13, when a charge ignited while a 12-inch gun was being loaded for target practice. Eighteen officers and men lost their lives. Monssen entered the burning magazine through the scuttle and threw water on the fire with his hands until a hose was passed to him. For his actions he received the Medal of Honor.
He was commissioned lieutenant in July 1918 and he retired December 15, 1925.
He died at the Naval Hospital, Brooklyn, New York, February 10, 1930 and is buried at Cypress Hills National Cemetery.
Rank and organization. Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: January 20, 1867, Norway. G.O. No.: 160, May 26, 1904.
Serving on board the U.S.S. Missouri, for extraordinary heroism in entering a burning magazine through the scuttle and endeavoring to extinguish the fire by
Orson Squire Fowler (October 11, 1809 – August 18, 1887) was a phrenologist who popularized the octagon house in the middle of the nineteenth century.
The son of Horace and Martha (Howe) Fowler, he was born in Cohocton, New York, He prepared for college at Ashland Academy and studied at Amherst College, graduating in the class of 1834. With his brother, Lorenzo Niles Fowler, he opened a phrenological office in New York City, and wrote and lectured on phrenology, preservation of health, popular education and social reform from 1834 to 1887. The Fowler brothers, and Orson's sister-in-law Lydia Folger Fowler, were "in large measure" responsible for the mid-19th century popularity of phrenology.
He edited and published the American Phrenological Journal, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from 1838 to 1842. He was a partner with Fowler & Wells, publishers, New York, from 1846 to 1854, residing in Fishkill, New York and Elizabeth, New Jersey. He moved his office to Boston in 1863, residing in Manchester from 1863 to 1880, and resided in Sharon, New York from 1883 until August 18, 1887, when he died.
Fowler was married three times: to Mrs. Eliza (Brevoort) Chevalier; to Mrs. Mary (Aiken) Poole;
Oscar II (21 January 1829 – 8 December 1907), baptised Oscar Fredrik, was King of Sweden from 1872 until his death and King of Norway from 1872 until 1905. The third son of King Oscar I of Sweden and Josephine of Leuchtenberg, he was a descendant of Gustav I of Sweden through his mother.
At his birth in Stockholm, Oscar Fredrik was created Duke of Östergötland. He entered the navy at the age of eleven, and was appointed junior lieutenant in July 1845. Later he studied at Uppsala University, where he distinguished himself in mathematics. On 13 December 1848, he was made an honorary member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
On 6 June 1857 he married in Wiesbaden-Biebrich, Germany, Princess Sophia Wilhelmina, youngest daughter of Duke William of Nassau.
From 1859, when his father died, he was first in line to the Swedish throne after his oldest brother King Charles, who then had no male heirs (his son had died in infancy in 1854). His middle brother Gustaf had died in 1852.
He succeeded his brother Charles XV and IV on 18 September 1872, and was crowned as king of Norway in the Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim on 18 July 1873. At the accession he adopted as his motto
Peter Lawson (January 10, 1821 – March 22, 1911) was an Ontario political figure. He represented Norfolk South in the 1st Canadian Parliament as a Liberal member.
He was born in Woodstock, Connecticut in 1821, the son of Thomas Lawson and Lucy Johnson, and came to Upper Canada with his family in 1830. He worked as a tanner in Port Dover. In 1842, he married Sarah Ladd. Lawson served as reeve for Woodhouse Township in Norfolk County. He died in Port Dover at the age of 90.
Presley Spruance (September 11, 1785 - February 13, 1863) was an American merchant and politician from Smyrna, in Kent County, Delaware. He was a member of the Federalist and later the Whig Party, who served in the Delaware General Assembly and as U.S. Senator from Delaware.
Spruance was born in Kent County, Delaware.
He was engaged in manufacturing and mercantile pursuits in Smyrna, Delaware, where he was a member of the State House for the 1823 and 1839/40 sessions. In between these he was elected to the State Senate for the sessions from 1826 through 1831, again in 1835/36 and 1837/38, and returned for the 1841/42 and 1843/44 sessions and finally in 1847, several times serving as Speaker. He was elected as a Whig to the United States Senate and served one term from March 4, 1847 to March 3, 1853. Following his term he returned to his business pursuits.
Spruance died in Smyrna and is buried there in the Presbyterian Cemetery.
Elections were held the first Tuesday of October. U.S. Representatives were popularly elected March 4 for a two year term. The General Assembly chose the U.S. Senators, who also took office March 4, but for a six year term.
Roger, count of Andria and Great Chamberlain of Sicily, was a claimant for the Sicilian throne after the death of William II in 1189. He is claimed by some to have been a great-grandson of Drogo of Hauteville, but this cannot be proven.
Roger, along with Romuald Guarna, Archbishop of Salerno, was sent by William in 1177 to attend discussions in Venice following the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa's defeat at Legnano—a victory in which Roger had participated—in the previous year. Together, the Sicilian envoys assented to the Treaty of Venice.
Roger initially resisted the claims of Tancred of Lecce in favour of those of Constance, daughter of the late Roger II, and wife of Henry VI, son of Barbarossa, though he was a candidate himself. He had most of the barons of the peninsula on side, but Tancred's chancellor, Matthew of Ajello, was spreading sordid tales of his private life and the count's support eroded fast. Roger joined with Count Richard of Carinola and Henry Testa, the marshal of Henry VI, and invaded Apulia. They captured Corneto, but at the siege of Ariano, Richard, Count of Acerra, tricked the count of Andira and captured him (1190). He executed him soon after.
Samuel Wilberforce (7 September 1805 – 19 July 1873) was an English bishop in the Church of England, third son of William Wilberforce. Known as "Soapy Sam", Wilberforce was one of the greatest public speakers of his day. The nickname derives from a comment by Benjamin Disraeli that the Bishop's manner was "unctuous, oleaginous, saponaceous" (slippery, evasive). He is probably best remembered today for his opposition to Charles Darwin's theory of evolution — most notably at a famous debate in 1860 during which he is said to have asked Thomas Henry Huxley whether it was through his grandfather or his grandmother that he claimed his descent from a monkey, and got as answer that "he would not be ashamed to have a monkey for his ancestor, but he would be ashamed to be connected with a man who used his great gifts to obscure the truth."
Wilberforce was born into an abolitionist family at Clapham Common, London. In 1823 he entered Oriel College, Oxford. In the United Debating Society, which afterwards developed into the Union, he distinguished himself as a zealous advocate of liberalism. The set of friends with whom he chiefly associated at Oxford—among them William Ewart Gladstone and