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Downhill biking (DH) is a time trial mountain biking event held on a course with a net decrease in elevation. As the name of this discipline implies, downhill races are held on steep, downhill terrain, resulting in high speed descents and, most commonly, with extended air time off jumps and other obstacles. A continuous course is defined on each side by a strip of tape. The width of the course can vary greatly over the length of the course, but it is typically between about 2m and 10m wide. Riders have one attempt to reach the finish line in the shortest amount of time while remaining between the tape. The rider must choose their path (or line) by compromising between the shortest possible line and the line that can be travelled at the highest speed. If a rider leaves the course by crossing or breaking the tape, he must return to the course at the point of exit. Riders start at intervals, often seeded from slowest to fastest. Courses typically take two to five minutes to complete and winning margins are often less than a second. Riders are timed with equipment similar to that used in Downhill skiing.
The 1st downhill time-trial race took place in Fairfax, California on October 22,
Cycle speedway is a form of bicycle racing on short oval dirt tracks, usually outdoors, occasionally indoors, typically 70-90 metres long. Like motorcycle speedway, riders use machines without brakes or multiple gears but, unlike motor speedway, the object is not to slide bikes round the turns.
The origins of cycle speedway are obscure. It existed by the 1920s but appears to have taken off in the wreckage of post-war cities in Britain. With tracks cleared through the rubble, on bikes not otherwise roadworthy, and under the influence of motorcycle speedway, cycle speedway grew haphazardly as a way for young people to enjoy themselves in cities.
London, with most bomb sites, led in organising races, in 1945. There were more than 200 clubs in East London by 1950, with more than 20 in Walthamstow alone. The sport spread across the country. The Birmingham league had 22 teams in its first season. Coventry, Leicester, Wolverhampton and Cradley Heath followed.
Intercity matches began in 1946. They were hampered by inconsistent rules, a problem resolved with the formation in 1950 of the National Amateur Cycle Speedway Association (NACSA). Consistent rules opened the way to national
Syncros is a brand of bicycle components, with an emphasis on off-road bicycle parts. Founded by Peter Hamilton and Pippin Osborne in 1986 and originally based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Syncros had its heyday in the early 1990s as one of the most respected names in high end off-road bicycle parts, when its trademark black stems and seatposts were de rigueur on high end mountain bikes. In the late 1990s, the company had financial difficulties and was sold to the large U.S. based bicycle company GT. Shortly thereafter, GT itself was purchased by Schwinn, which in turn was purchased by Pacific Bicycle Group, a large Taiwanese conglomerate known mainly for low end, mass market bicycles and parts. Pacific was quick to try to capitalize on the Syncros brand name, and used the Syncros label on many cheaply produced OEM parts, severely damaging the brand's reputation. Due to a lapse in trademark registration in the early 2000s, the Syncros brand name was briefly grabbed in the UK by Super Cycles of Nottingham. However, a settlement was reached between Super Cycles and Pacific, resulting in Pacific regaining control of the brand name.
Among Syncros' most successful and well known
Unicycling is the activity of riding a unicycle. Traditionally, unicycling has been connected with parades or the circus. This is because the unicycle requires a great degree of skill to ride, and many people that could ride them became entertainers. Recent developments in the strength and durability of bicycle (and consequently unicycle) parts have given rise to many riding styles such as trials unicycling and mountain unicycling. Unicycling has therefore developed from primarily an entertainment activity, to a competitive sport and recreational vehicle.
The unicycle's history began with the invention of the bicycle. Comte De Sivrac first developed bicycles during the late eighteenth century. His device, called a celerifere, was a wooden horse that had two wheels joined by a wooden beam. Germany￢ﾀﾙs Baron von Drais improved the design by adding a steering mechanism and introduce his Draisienne or Hobby Horse in 1818. Macmillan, a Scottish blacksmith, added cranks and pedals to the front wheel in 1839, and called it the Velocipede. The first mass-produced riding machine, the Michaux Velocipede, was designed in 1863. In 1866, James Stanley invented a unique bicycle called the
A triathlon is a multiple-stage competition involving the completion of three continuous and sequential endurance disciplines. While many variations of the sport exist, triathlon, in its most popular form, involves swimming, cycling, and running in immediate succession over various distances. Triathletes compete for fastest overall course completion time, including timed "transitions" between the individual swim, bike, and run components. The word "triathlon" is of Greek origin from τρεις or trei (three) and αθλος or athlos (contest).
Triathlon races vary in distance. According to the International Triathlon Union, and USA Triathlon, the main international race distances are Sprint Distance, which has a 750 metres (0.47 mi) swim, 20 kilometres (12 mi) cycling, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) run; Intermediate (or Standard) distance, commonly referred to as "Olympic distance" (1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) swim, 40 kilometres (25 mi) bike, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) run; the Long Course (1.2 miles (1.9 km) swim, 56 miles (90 km) ride, 13.1 miles (21.1 km) run, such as the Half Ironman), and Ultra Distance (2.4 miles (3.9 km) swim, 112 miles (180 km) ride, and a full marathon: 26.2 miles (42.2 km)
Freestyle BMX is a synonym for BMX stunt riding, a sport branch that hails from extreme sports. It consists of five disciplines: street, park, vert, trails, and flatland.
Freestyling can be traced back to 1975 when kids started riding bikes in concrete Escondido reservoir channels in San Diego, California. And, bike riders were seen in 1976 riding at Carlsbad Skatepark in Carlsbad, California. Skateboarder Magazine published photos of kids on bikes riding in empty swimming pools in 1975.
Bob Haro and John Swanguen rode BMX bikes at Skateboard Heaven, a concrete skatepark in San Diego, California in late 1976. Later they transformed freestyle beyond skateparks by creating new bike tricks on flat streets. In the fall of 1977 Bob Haro was hired as a staff artist at BMX Action Magazine where he befriended R.L. Osborn, son of the magazine publisher Bob Osborn. Haro and R.L. often practiced freestyle moves in their free time.
In the summer of 1978 Paramount, Lakewood, and other Southern California skateparks began reserving sessions or whole days exclusively for BMX bikes. BMX racer Tinker Juarez was innovating freestyle moves in vert bowls.
BMX Action Magazine published the first
Mountain biking is a sport which consists of riding bicycles off-road, often over rough terrain, using specially adapted mountain bikes. Mountain bikes share similarities with other bikes, but incorporate features designed to enhance durability and performance in rough terrain.
Mountain biking can generally be broken down into multiple categories: cross country (XC), trail riding, all mountain, downhill, freeride, slopestyle, dirt jumping and trials. The vast majority of mountain biking falls into the recreational XC, and Trail Riding categories.
This individual sport requires endurance, core strength and balance, bike handling skills, and self-reliance. XC type mountain biking generally requires a different range of skills and a higher level of fitness than other types of mountain biking. Advanced riders pursue steep technical descents and, in the case of freeriding, downhilling, and dirt jumping, aerial maneuvers off of specially constructed jumps and ramps.
Mountain biking can be performed almost anywhere from a back yard to a gravel road, but the majority of mountain bikers ride off-road trails, whether country back roads, fire roads, or singletrack (narrow trails that wind
Cycology specialises in providing online services for cyclists.
cycolo.gy - the social network for cyclists
buy.cycolo.gy - an online store for performance cyclists
cycl.it - a link-shortening service for cyclists
BMX racing is a type of off-road bicycle racing. The format of BMX was derived from motocross racing. BMX bicycle races are sprint races on purpose-built off-road single-lap race tracks. The track usually consists of a starting gate for up to eight racers, a groomed, serpentine, dirt race course made of various jumps and rollers and a finish line. The course is usually flat, about 15-foot (4.6 m) wide and has large banked corners that help the riders maintain speed. The sport of BMX racing is facilitated by a number of regional and international sanctioning bodies. They provide rules for governing the conduct of the flying, specify age group and skill-level classifications among the racers, and maintain some kind of points-accumulation system over the racing season. The sport is very family oriented and largely participant-driven, with riders ranging in age from 10 to 60, and over. Professional ranks exist for both men and women, where the age ranges from 19 to 40 years old.
A BMX "Class" bike is a strong, quick-handling, lightweight derivative of the standard 20-inch (510 mm)-wheel
While BMX racing is an individual sport, teams are often formed from racers in different
Track Cycling is a bicycle racing sport usually held on specially built banked tracks or velodromes (but many events are held at older velodromes where the track banking is relatively shallow) using track bicycles.
Track Cycling has been around since at least 1870. When cycling was in its infancy, wooden indoor tracks were laid which resemble those of modern velodromes, consisting of two straights and slightly banked turns.
One appeal of indoor track racing was that spectators could be easily controlled, and hence an entrance fee could be charged, making track racing a lucrative sport. Early track races attracted crowds of up to 2000 people. Indoor tracks also enabled year-round cycling for the first time. The main early centres for track racing in Britain were Birmingham, Sheffield, Liverpool, Manchester (national cycling centre) and London.
The most noticeable changes in over a century of track cycling have concerned the bikes themselves, engineered to be lighter and more aerodynamic to enable ever-faster times.
With the exception of the 1912 Olympics, track cycling has been featured in every modern Olympic Games. Women's track cycling was first included in the modern Olympics in
Trek Bicycle Corporation is a major bicycle and cycling product manufacturer and distributor under brand names Trek, Gary Fisher, Bontrager, Klein and until recently, LeMond Racing Cycles. With its headquarters in Waterloo, Wisconsin, Trek bicycles are marketed through 1,700 dealers across North America, subsidiaries in Europe and Asia as well as distributors in 90 countries worldwide.
Trek's domestic high-end frames are manufactured in Waterloo, Wisconsin with assembly in Whitewater, Wisconsin — with the majority of company's bicycles manufactured in Taiwan and China.
In December, 1975, Richard (Dick) Burke and Bevil Hogg established Trek Bicycle as a wholly owned subsidiary of Roth Corporation, a Milwaukee-based appliance distributor. In early 1976, with a payroll of five, Trek started manufacturing steel touring frames in Waterloo, Wisconsin, taking aim at the mid to high-end market dominated by Japanese and Italian made models. Trek built nearly 900 custom hand-brazed framesets that first year, each selling for just under $200. Later that same year Trek Bicycle was incorporated. In 1977, Penn Cycle [Richfield, MN; est. 1957] became the first Trek dealer in the world. Within
The Tour de France (French pronunciation: [tuʁ də fʁɑ̃s]) is an annual multiple stage bicycle race primarily held in France, while also occasionally making passes through nearby countries. The race was first organized in 1903 to increase paper sales for the magazine L'Auto; it is currently run by the Amaury Sport Organization. The race has been held annually since its first edition in 1903 except for when it was stopped for the two World Wars. As the Tour gained prominence and popularity the race was lengthened and its reach began to extend around the globe. Participation expanded from a primarily French field, as riders from all over the world began to participate in the race each year. The Tour is a UCI World Tour event, which means that the teams that compete in the race are mostly UCI ProTeams, with the exception of the teams that the organizers invite.
Along with the Giro d'Italia and Vuelta a España, the Tour makes up cycling's prestigious, three-week-long Grand Tours. Traditionally, the race is usually held primarily in the month of July. While the route changes each year, the format of the race stays the same with the appearance of at least two time trials, the passage
Milan – San Remo (Italian: Milano–Sanremo), "the Spring classic" ("la classica di Primavera"), is an annual cycle race between Milan and Sanremo. It is the longest professional one-day race at 298 km. The first was in 1907, when Lucien Petit-Breton won. Today it is one of the 'Monuments' of European cycling, and results contribute towards the UCI World Ranking; until 2007 it was part of the UCI ProTour. From 1999 to 2005, a women's race, the Primavera Rosa was organised alongside the men's but at a shorter distance.
Milan – San Remo is often called the sprinters' classic while its sister Italian race the Giro di Lombardia held in autumn is the climbers' classic.
In the early years the main difficulty was the Passo del Turchino, but when cycling became more professional the climb was too far from the finish to be decisive. In 1960 the Poggio, a few kilometres before the finish, was introduced. In 1982 the Cipressa, near Imperia was added. The other hills are the 'capi', the Capo Mele, Capo Berta and Capo Cervo. From 2008 on the organisers added 'Le Manie' as well, between the Turchino and the 'capi'. The 'Turchino' and the 'Manie' are longer climbs, while 'capi', Cipressa and Poggio
The Giro d'Italia (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdʒiːro diˈtaːlja]; English: Tour of Italy) is an annual multiple stage bicycle race primarily held in Italy, while also occasionally passing through nearby countries. The race was first organized in 1909 to increase the sales for the newspaper La Gazzetta dello Sport; however it's now currently run by RCS Sport. The race has been held annually since its first edition in 1909 except for when it was stopped for the two World Wars. As the Giro gained prominence and popularity the race was lengthened and its reach began to extend around the globe. The peloton expanded from primarily Italian participation to riders from all over the world now participating each year. The Giro is a UCI World Tour event, which means that the teams that compete in the race are mostly UCI Proteams, with the exception of the teams that the organizers can invite.
Along with the Tour de France and Vuelta a España, the Giro makes up cycling's prestigious, three week-long Grand Tours. The Giro is usually held during late May and early June. While the route changes each year, the format of the race stays the same with the appearance of at least two time trials, the
Road cycling is the most widespread form of cycling. It includes recreational, racing, and utility cycling. Road cyclists are generally expected to obey the same rules and laws as other vehicle drivers or riders and may also be vehicular cyclists.
Road cycling, which may also be referred to as road biking, bicycling or simply biking is an activity most commonly performed on a bicycle. There are many types of bicycles that are used on the roads including: BMX, recumbents, racing, touring and utility bicycles.
Dedicated road bicycles have drop handlebars and multiple gears, although there are single and fixed gear varieties. Road bikes also use narrow, high-pressure tires to decrease rolling resistance, and tend to be somewhat lighter than other types of bicycle. The light weight and aerodynamics of a road bike allows this type of bicycle to be the most efficient self-powered means of transportation a person can use to get from one place to another. The drop handlebars are often positioned lower than the saddle in order to put the rider in a more aerodynamic position.
Mountain bikes fitted with slick or semi-slick tires are also popular for commuters. Though less efficient, the
Paris–Roubaix is a one-day professional bicycle road race in northern France near the Belgian frontier. From its beginning in 1896 until 1967 it started in Paris and ended in Roubaix (hence the name); since 1968 the start city has been Compiègne (about 60 kilometres (37 mi) north-east from Paris centre) whilst the finish is still in Roubaix. Famous for rough terrain and cobblestones (setts), it is one of the 'Monuments' or Classics of the European calendar, and contributes points towards the UCI World Ranking. It has been called the Hell of the North, a Sunday in Hell (also the title of a film about the 1976 edition of the race), the Queen of the Classics or la Pascale: the Easter race. The race is organised by the media group Amaury Sport Organisation annually in mid-April.
First run in 1896, Paris–Roubaix is one of cycling's oldest races. It is well known for the many 'cobbled sectors' over which it runs, being considered, along with the Ronde van Vlaanderen and Gent–Wevelgem to be one of the cobbled classics. Since 1977, the winner of Paris–Roubaix has received a sett (cobble stone) as part of his prize. The terrain has led to the development of specialised frames, wheels and
Cyclo-cross (sometimes cyclocross, CX, CCX, cyclo-X or 'cross') is a form of bicycle racing. Races typically take place in the autumn and winter (the international or "World Cup" season is October–February), and consists of many laps of a short (2.5–3.5 km or 1.5–2 mile) course featuring pavement, wooded trails, grass, steep hills and obstacles requiring the rider to quickly dismount, carry the bike while navigating the obstruction and remount. Races for senior categories are generally between 30 minutes and an hour long, with the distance varying depending on the ground conditions. The sport is strongest in the traditional road cycling countries such as Belgium (and Flanders in particular), France and the Netherlands.
Cyclo-cross has some obvious parallels with mountain bike racing, cross-country cycling and criterium racing. Many of the best cyclo-cross riders cross train in other cycling disciplines. However, cyclo-cross has reached such a size and popularity that some racers are specialists, and many never race anything but cyclo-cross races. Cyclo-cross bicycles are similar to racing bicycles: lightweight, with narrow tires and drop handlebars. However, they also share
The Tour of Flanders (Dutch: Ronde van Vlaanderen, French: Tour des Flandres) is a Flanders Classics road cycling race held in Belgium every spring, a week before the Paris–Roubaix road race. It is part of the UCI World Tour and one of the so-called monuments of the European professional calendar. It is the most important cycling race in Flanders. Its nickname is Vlaanderens mooiste (Dutch for "Flanders' finest").
The Tour of Flanders was conceived in 1913 by Karel Van Wijnendaele, co-founder of the sportspaper Sportwereld. In that era it was customary for publishers of newspapers and magazines to organise cycling races as a way of promoting circulation.
The race was before the second world war usually on the same day as the Milan–San Remo competition in Italy. Prominent Italian and French racers preferred the latter which explains why there was only a single non-Belgian winner before the war. After the war the race grew in importance when it became a part of the Challenge Desgrange-Colombo, a precursor of today's UCI ProTour, of which it is now a major round. The record holders are the Belgians, Achiel Buysse, Eric Leman, Johan Museeuw, and Tom Boonen, and the Italian, Fiorenzo
Specialized Bicycle Components, Inc., more commonly known simply as Specialized, is a major American brand of bicycles and related products. It was founded in 1974 by Mike Sinyard and is based in Morgan Hill, California.
Specialized was founded in 1974 by Mike Sinyard, a cycling enthusiast who sold his Volkswagen Bus for $1,500 to fund a cycle tour of Europe, where he bought handlebars and stems made by Cinelli to take back to the US. Sinyard started out importing Italian bike components that were difficult to find in the United States, but the company began to produce its own bike parts by 1976, starting with the Specialized Touring Tire. In 1979, the company started to produce the Allez, a road bike, in Japan. Specialized introduced the first major production mountain bike in the world, the Stumpjumper, in 1981. This was actually a Fisher/Ritchey Mountain bike that Mike had bought, taken over to Taiwan and copied exactly Specialized continues to produce the Stumpjumper, which—like mountain bikes in general—has evolved significantly since 1981 and now comes in full suspension and hardtail options. An original Stumpjumper is displayed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington,
Cross-country (XC) cycling is the most common discipline of mountain biking. While less publicized than downhill cycling as it is more difficult to televise, it garners the highest levels of participation both recreationally and competitively. Cross-country cycling became an Olympic sport in 1996 and is the only form of mountain biking practiced at the Olympics.
Cross-country cycling is defined by the terrain on which it is performed. XC courses and trails consist of a mix of rough forest paths and singletrack (also referred to as doubletrack depending on width), smooth fireroads, and even paved paths connecting other trails. Riding or racing is also only deemed cross-country if the technical complexity of the trails is easy or moderate. Trails nearly impossible even to experienced riders are more often dubbed "all-mountain", "freeride", or "downhill".
Bicycle helmets are often used for cross-country riding. However, XC riders only rarely wear full-face helmets and do not wear the full body "armour" employed by downhill riders. Cross country cyclists are more prone to injuries than road cyclists; however, the injuries sustained by XC riders are usually not as severe.
Mountain unicycling is an adventure sport that consists of traversing rough terrain on a unicycle. Mountain unicycling ('muni') is undertaken on similar terrain to mountain biking. However, muni requires much more attention to the microfeatures of the short distance in front of the wheel. Unicycles' lack of a freewheel means that descents must be controlled all the way, and the typical lack a gear system (though two-gear hubs are available), prevents the rider from reaching high speeds. Muni usually takes place on specially designed unicycles, which are equipped with strong hubs, large, knobbly tires, high-grip pedals and rugged frames. Some are also equipped with rim or disc brakes, having the lever mounted under the nose of the saddle. The brake primarily helps to compensate the downhill-slope force, while more expert riders also use it to decelerate or stop.
Muni riders also need a few additional skills than required for either mountain biking or regular unicycling, with core strength and balance being key.
The Vuelta a España (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈβwelta a esˈpaɲa]; English: Tour of Spain) is an annual multiple stage bicycle race primarily held in Spain, while also occasionally making passes through nearby countries. Inspired by the success of the Giro d'Italia and the Tour de France, the race was first organized in 1935. The race was prevented from being run by the World Wars and the Spanish Civil War in the early years of its existence; however, the race has been held annually since 1955. As the Vuelta gained prestige and popularity the race was lengthened and its reach began to extend all around the globe. Since 1979, the event has been staged and managed by Unipublic. The peloton expanded from a primarily Spanish participation; riders from all over the world participate in the race each year. The Vuelta is a UCI World Tour event, which means that the teams that compete in the race are mostly UCI ProTeams, with the exception of the teams that the organizers can invite.
Along with the Tour de France and Giro d'Italia, the Vuelta makes up cycling's prestigious, three week-long Grand Tours. While the route changes each year, the format of the race stays the same with the