A culinary tool is any tool or device that can be used for food preparation and cooking.
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Non-stick pans are cooking pans made from or coated with materials designed to prevent food from sticking to their surface during the cooking process. Most non-stick pans are made using polytetrafluoroethylene (e.g.DuPont's Teflon) coating although newer materials are also used. Health concerns have been raised regarding use of PTFE as a cooking pan coating.
The first non-stick pans were made using a coating of Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene or PTFE). PTFE was invented serendipitously by Dr. Roy Plunkett in 1938, while working for a joint venture of the DuPont company. The substance was found to have several unique properties, including very good corrosion resistance and the lowest coefficient of friction of any substance yet manufactured. PTFE was used first to make seals resistant to the uranium hexafluoride gas used in the Manhattan Project during World War II and was regarded as a military secret. Dupont registered the Teflon trademark in 1944 and soon began planning for post-war commercial use of the new product.
By 1951, Dupont had developed applications for Teflon in commercial bread and cookie-making, however the company avoided the market for consumer cookware due to
A nutcracker is a mechanical device for cracking nuts. Nutcrackers usually work on the principle of moments as described in Archimedes' analysis of the lever. The earliest use of the term nutcracker in English dates to 1481.
Manufacturers produce modern nutcrackers — designed to crack hazel or cob nuts — usually somewhat resembling pliers, but with the pivot point at the end beyond the nut, rather than in the middle. The spring-jointed nutcracker was patented by Henry Quackenbush in 1913. These are also used for cracking the shells of crab and lobster to make the meat inside available for eating.
Nuts have long been a popular choice for desserts, particularly throughout Europe. The nutcrackers were placed on dining tables to serve as a fun and entertaining center of conversation while diners awaited their final course. At one time, nutcrackers were actually made of metals such as brass, and it wasn't until the 1800s in Germany that the popularity of wooden ones began to spread.
Parrots use their beaks as natural nutcrackers, in much the same way smaller birds crack seeds. In this case, the pivot point stands opposite the nut, at the jaw.
Some artists, among them the
A slow cooker, also known as a Crock-Pot, or Slo-Cooker, (trademarks that are often used generically in the US-Canada and Australia, or UK, respectively), is a countertop electrical cooking appliance that is used for simmering, which requires maintaining a relatively low temperature compared to other cooking methods (such as baking, boiling, and frying) for many hours, allowing unattended cooking of pot roast, stew, and other suitable dishes.
The Naxon Utilities Corporation of Chicago developed the Naxon Beanery All-Purpose Cooker. The Rival Company bought Naxon in 1970 and reintroduced it under the Crock-Pot name in 1971. In 1974, Rival introduced removable stoneware inserts. The brand now belongs to Sunbeam Products, a subsidiary of Jarden Corporation. Other brands of this appliance include Hamilton Beach, West Bend Housewares, GE, Magic Chef, and former American Electric Corporation.
A basic slow cooker consists of a lidded round or oval cooking pot made of glazed ceramic or porcelain, surrounded by a housing, usually metal, containing an electric heating element. The lid is often of glass seated in a groove in the pot edge; condensed vapour collects in the groove and provides a
A garlic press is a kitchen utensil to crush garlic cloves efficiently by forcing them through a grid of small holes, usually with some type of piston. Many garlic presses also have a device with a matching grid of blunt pins to clean out the holes.
Garlic presses present a convenient alternative to mincing garlic with a knife, especially because a clove of garlic can be passed through a sturdy press without even removing its peel. The peel remains in the press while the garlic is extruded out. Some sources also claim that pressing with the peel on makes cleaning the press easier.
Garlic crushed by a press is generally believed to have a different flavor from minced garlic; since more cell walls are broken, more of garlic's strong flavor compounds are liberated. A few sources prefer the flavor of pressed garlic. Raw-foods chef Renée Underkoffler says "a good garlic press makes dealing with garlic a clean pleasure. Pressed garlic has a lighter, more delicate flavor than minced garlic because it excludes the bitter center stem." The magazine Cook's Illustrated says "a good garlic press can break down cloves more finely and evenly than an average cook using a knife, which means better
A juicer is a tool for separating juice from fruits, herbs, leafy greens and other types of vegetables from its pulp in a process called juicing. In separating the pulp, juicers concentrate the nutrition naturally present in fruits and vegetables and allows the body to more easily absorb the nutrition than digesting the solid produce. The use of juicers also makes it easier to consume more raw produce.
Reamers are used for squeezing juice from citrus such as grapefruits, lemons, limes, and oranges. Juice is extracted by pressing or grinding a halved citrus along a juicer's ridged conical center and discarding the rind. Some reamers are stationary and requiring a user to press and turn the fruit, while others are electrical, automatically turning the ridged center when fruit is pressed upon. This style of juicer is typically the cheapest.
A centrifugal juicer cuts up the fruit or vegetable with a flat cutting blade. It then spins the produce at a high speed (3,000-14,000 RPMs) to separate the juice from the pulp. Although this style of juicer can juice most types of juiceable produce in comparison to a citrus reamer, it also costs more than most reamers. This style of juicer
A runcible spoon is a utensil that appears in nonsense poetry, which also uses the adjective "runcible" to describe objects other than spoons. It is considered by some to be a nonsense word.
Edward Lear's best-known poem, The Owl and the Pussycat, published in 1871, includes the passage:
Another mention of this piece of cutlery appears in the alphabetical illustrations Twenty-Six Nonsense Rhymes and Pictures. Its entry for D reads
Lear often illustrated his own poems, and he drew a picture of the "dolomphious duck" holding in its beak a round-bowled spoon containing a frog (right).
Lear does not appear to have had any firm idea of what the word "runcible" means. His whimsical nonsense verse celebrates words primarily for their sound, and a specific definition is not needed to appreciate his work. However, since the 1920s (several decades after Lear's death), modern dictionaries have generally defined a runcible spoon to be a fork with three broad curved prongs and a sharpened edge, used with pickles or hors d'oeuvres, such as a pickle fork. It is occasionally used as a synonym for spork. However, this definition is not consistent with Lear's drawing, in which it is a ladle, nor
A pizza stone is a flat stone or piece of ceramic used to evenly distribute oven heat to pizzas or other baked goods, more or less mimicking the effects of cooking a pizza in a masonry oven. Such bakeware has more thermal mass than metal or glass pans. The porous nature of the stone used also helps absorb moisture, resulting in a crisp crust.
Small pizza stones can be purchased to fit in any conventional cooking oven or an enclosed barbecue-style grill . High-end ovens sometimes offer optional pizza stones that are specifically designed for each oven model and may include a specialized heating element. A home made "pizza stone" can also be made by distributing one or two layers of unglazed tiles on top of an oven rack.
To prevent fracturing of the stone by thermal shock, the pizza stone should be placed on a cold oven and heated over at least 45 minutes, and it should be allowed to cool down slowly inside the oven after switching it off. Because of the possibility of rapid temperature change, pizza stones should not be left in an oven while it is in self cleaning mode.
Some cooks recommend sprinkling cornmeal, semolina or bread crumbs on the pizza stone to prevent the crust from
A milk watcher, milk saver, pot watcher, pot minder, milk guard, or boil over preventer is a cooking utensil placed at the bottom of a pot to prevent boiling over of liquids, and especially the burning (scorching) of milk.
A milk watcher is a disk with a raised rim, and is notched on one side (see images). Some milk savers are designed so they can be used with the obverse or reverse side facing up, so they appear to have two notches. The interior of the disk is not level; it slants upward toward the notched side creating a space just behind the notch where water vapor can collect. Water vapor is trapped under the Milk Saver causing the notched side to rise up, releasing the water vapor at the same time circulating liquid around the base of the pot and making a rattling noise.
Normally, boiling water does not boil over. When fats, starches, and some other substances are present in boiling water, for example by adding milk or pasta, boiling over can occur. A film forms on the surface of the boiling liquid; for example, cream can boil over as milk fat separates from the milk. The increased viscosity of the liquid causes the steam bubbles to form foam trapped under the film, pushing
A rice cooker or rice steamer is a container or kitchen appliance dedicated to cooking rice. Rice can also be cooked in general-purpose saucepans.
Rice cookers may be divided into a variety of rice cooking sauce pans or pots (e.g., risotto pan, paella pan, porridge pot), rice steamers (e.g., 釜 (zhēng lóng)), ceramic or plastic containers for microwave ovens, and gas and electrical appliances. Most dedicated home rice cookers are of the electric type. In commercial or industrial use, there are many varieties, such as large gas or electric rice cookers, a large-scale rice cooker that is called a "rice boiler", and fully automatic versions which handle the whole process of rice cooking from washing rice to the end of the cooking cycle. Dedicated rice cookers date from long ago in human history. A ceramic rice steamer dated to 1250 BC is on display in the British Museum.
Cooking rice has traditionally been a process which required attention to ensure the rice was cooked properly. Electric rice cookers automate the process by mechanically or electronically controlling heat and timing, thus freeing up a heating element on the cooking range that had to be occupied, otherwise for rice
A food processor is a kitchen appliance used to facilitate various repetitive tasks in the process of preparation of food. Today, the term almost always refers to an electric-motor-driven appliance, although there are some manual devices also referred to as "food processors".
Food processors are similar to blenders in many ways. The primary difference is that food processors use interchangeable blades and disks (attachments) instead of a fixed blade. Also, their bowls are wider and shorter, a more appropriate shape for the solid or semi-solid foods usually worked in a food processor. Usually, little or no liquid is required in the operation of the food processor, unlike a blender, which requires some amount of liquid to move the particles around its blade.
One of the first electric food processors was the Starmix, introduced by German company Electrostar in 1946. Although the basic unit resembles a simple blender, numerous accessories were available, including exotic attachments for slicing bread, milk centrifuges and ice cream bowls. In a time when electric motors were expensive, they also developed the piccolo, where the food processor's base unit could drive a vacuum cleaner. In
A wok (in Cantonese) (simplified Chinese: 镬; traditional Chinese: 鑊; Jyutping: wok6) is a versatile round-bottomed cooking vessel originating in China. It is one of the most common cooking utensils in China and also used in East and Southeast Asia.
Woks are often used for stir frying, steaming, pan frying, deep frying, poaching, boiling, braising, searing, stewing, making soup, smoking and roasting nuts. Wok cooking is done with a long handled chahn (spatula) or hoak (ladle). The long extensions of these utensils allow the cook to work with the food without burning the hand.
Mandarin Chinese uses different words for wok, simplified Chinese: 锅; traditional Chinese: 鍋; literally "cooking pot" guō or simplified Chinese: 炒菜锅; traditional Chinese: 炒菜鍋 chǎocàiguō. In Indonesia the wok is known as a penggorengan or wajan. In Malaysia it is called a kuali (small wok) or kawa (big wok). In the Philippines it is known as a kawali and also called a "wadjang". In Japan the wok is called a chukanabe (literally, "Chinese pot" or "中華鍋"). In India, two varieties of the wok exist: a more traditional Chinese style wok with a wider diameter called the "cheena chatti" (literally, "Chinese pot" in
A chinoise (sometimes chinois) is a conical sieve with an extremely fine mesh. It is used to strain custards, purees, soups, and sauces, producing a very smooth texture. It can also be used to dust pastry with a fine layer of powdered sugar.
Chinoise is pronounced shin'-wahz. Chinois is pronounced shin'-wah.
Both names, chinoise and chinois, are loanwords from French. The name chinoise comes from the feminine form of the French adjective meaning Chinese. The alternate name chinois comes from the masculine form and is the name of this utensil in French.
A related but far less expensive utensil, with a related name, is the China cap, a reference to the conical Asian hats common in China. It is a conical strainer of perforated metal with much larger holes than a chinoise. A China cap is used to remove seeds and other coarse matter from liquids and soft foods, but does not produce a very smooth texture.
Both the chinoise and the China cap often are used with a matching wooden cone with a handle. With its tip placed in the bottom of the strainer, the cone is moved against the sides of the strainer to work soft food through it. A China cap, used with this dowel, functions similar to a
In cooking, a chef's knife, also known as a French knife or a cook's knife, is a cutting tool used in food preparation. The chef's knife was originally designed primarily to slice and disjoint large cuts of beef. Today it is the primary general-utility knife for most Western cooks.
A chef's knife generally has a blade eight inches (20 centimeters) in length and 1+⁄2 inches (3.8 cm) in width, although individual models range from 6 to 14 inches (15 to 36 centimetres) in length. There are two common types of blade shape, French and German. German-style knives are more deeply and continuously curved along the whole cutting edge; the French style has an edge that is straighter until the end and then curves up to the tip. Neither style is inherently superior; personal preference will dictate the choice.
A modern chef's knife is a utility knife designed to perform well at many differing kitchen tasks, rather than excelling at any one in particular. It can be used for mincing, slicing, and chopping vegetables, slicing meat, and disjointing large cuts.
Recently, a Japanese development of the chef's knife, the santoku (literally: "three good things"), a general-purpose utility knife, has
An egg-timer is a device the primary function of which is to assist in timing the cooking of eggs. Early designs simply counted down for a specific period of time. Some modern designs are able to time more accurately by depending on water temperature rather than an absolute time. Countdown timers not specifically for eggs are also available for general kitchen and timing use.
Traditionally egg-timers were small hourglasses and the name has come to be synonymous with this form. As technology progressed mechanical countdown timers were developed which had an adjustable dial and could be applied to a wide range of timed cooking tasks. Most recently digital timers have also been manufactured and a wide selection of software is available to perform this task on a computer or mobile phone. The task is simple to perform on most microwaves and oven timers.
New products have been developed which potentially allow for better egg timing; these use the temperature of the water in which the eggs are being cooked to indicate the cooking state of the eggs. This kind of timer has the potential to more accurately indicate the state of the egg while it is being cooked as they do not rely on certain
Tongs are used for gripping and lifting tools, of which there are many forms adapted to their specific use. Some are merely large pincers or nippers, but the greatest number fall into three classes:
The tongs are the most-used cooking utensil when grilling or barbecuing, as they provide a way to move, rotate and turn the food with delicate precision.
An electric stove converts electrical energy into heat to cook and bake. Invented in the late 19th century, electric stoves became popular as replacements for solid-fuel (wood or coal) stoves which required more labor to operate and maintain.
On September 20, 1859, George B. Simpson was awarded US patent #25532 for an 'electro-heater' surface heated by a platinum-wire coil powered by batteries:]; in his words, useful to "warm rooms, boil water, cook victuals...".
Canadian inventor Thomas Ahearn filed patent number no. 39916 in 1892 for an "Electric Oven," a device he likely employed in preparing a meal for an Ottawa hotel that year. Ahearn and Warren Y. Soper were owners of Ottawa's Chaudiere Electric Light and Power Company. The electric stove was showcased at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893, where an electrified model kitchen was shown. Unlike the gas stove, the electrical stove was slow to catch on, partly due to the unfamiliar technology, and the need for cities and towns to be electrified. By the 1930s, the technology had matured and the electrical stove slowly began to replace the gas stove, especially in household kitchens.
In 1897, William Hadaway was granted US patent #
A molcajete (Mexican Spanish, from Nahuatl mulcazitl) is a stone tool, the traditional Mexican version of the mortar and pestle tool, similar to the South American batan (stone) used for grinding various food products. The molcajete was used by pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican cultures, including the Aztec and Maya, stretching back several thousand years, and likely evolved from the more primitive metate grinding slab. Traditionally carved out of a single block of vesicular basalt, molcajetes are typically round in shape and supported by three short legs. They are frequently decorated with the carved head of an animal on the outside edge of the bowl, giving the molcajete the appearance of a short, stout, three-legged animal. The pig is the most common animal head used for decoration of this type. The matching hand-held grinding tool, known as a tejolote (Mexican Spanish, from Nahuatl texolotl), is also made of the same basalt material. Most pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican molcajetes were made of ceramic rather than stone, especially among the Aztecs.
Molcajetes are used to crush and grind spices, and prepare salsas, and guacamole. The rough surface of the basalt stone creates a superb grinding
A cocaine spoon, referred to as a "coke spoon", or simply "spoon", is an instrument used in the process of insufflating ("snorting", sniffing) cocaine. The spoons are usually long and slender metallic objects with varying designs and patterns, with a small bowl at the end. The bowls on cocaine spoons usually have more depth in relation to width than other spoons, and hold about 1/2 a usual dose of cocaine when filled. Thus, they are usually filled twice for a single dose (once for each nostril). Spoons, although enjoying a high popularity during the 1980s, have fallen out of favor to the more common "line" preparation today.
A kitchen knife is any knife that is intended to be used in food preparation. While much of this work can be accomplished with a few general-purpose knives – notably a large chef's knife, a tough cleaver, and a small paring knife – there are also many specialized knives that are designed for specific tasks. Kitchen knives can be made from several different materials.
Steel blades can be manufactured either by being forged or stamped.
The edge of the knife can be sharpened to a cutting surface in a number of different ways. There are three main features:
Kitchen knives generally either feature a curve near the tip, as in a chef's knife, or are straight for their entire length. The edge itself may be generally smooth (a "straight" or "clean" edge), or may be serrated or scalloped (have "teeth") in some way. Lastly, the point may differ in shape: most common is a sharp, triangular point (not pictured), as in a chef's knife or paring knife, though the French point (also called "Sheep's foot") is common in santokus, and a round point is sometimes found on long slicing knives.
Some companies have names for their own serration patterns and apply them to an entire line of knives. Examples
A burr mill or burr grinder is a device to grind hard, small food products between two revolving abrasive surfaces separated by a distance usually set by the user. Usually the device includes a revolving screw that pushes the food through. It may be powered electrically or manually.
Devices with rapidly rotating blades which chop repeatedly (see food processor) are often described as grinders, but are not burr grinders. Burr mills do not heat the ground product by friction as much as blade grinders, and produce particles of a uniform size determined by the separation between the grinding surfaces.
Food burr mills are usually manufactured for a single purpose: coffee, pepper, coarse salt, spices, and poppy seeds, for example. Coffee mills are usually powered by electric motors; domestic pepper, salt, and spice mills, used to sprinkle a little seasoning on food, are usually operated manually, sometimes by a battery powered motor.
The uniform particle size is desirable for the specific case of coffee preparation by any of the various methods. Some methods may be more tolerant of a range of sizes produced by a blade grinder; this may be the case for drip (percolated) coffee.
A mandoline (/ˌmændɵˈlɪn/; French pronunciation: [mɑ̃doˈlin]) is a cooking utensil used for slicing and for cutting juliennes; with suitable attachments, it can make crinkle-cuts. It consists of two parallel working surfaces, one of which can be adjusted in height. A food item is slid along the adjustable surface until it reaches a blade mounted on the fixed surface, slicing it and letting it fall. The tool has been popularized among non-professional and casual cooks, in the form of a plastic version, without many of the attachments found on professional models.
Other blades perpendicular to the main blade are often mounted so that the slice is cut into strips. The mandoline juliennes in several widths and thicknesses. It also makes slices, waffle cuts crinkle cuts, and dice with firm vegetables and fruits.
With a mandoline, slices are uniform in thickness, which is important with foods that are deep-fried or baked (e.g. potato chips), as well as for presentation. Slices can be very thin, and be made very quickly, with significantly less skill and effort than would be required if cutting with a knife or other blade.
A mandoline is used by running a piece of food (with some
A measuring spoon is a spoon used to measure an amount of an ingredient, either liquid or dry, when cooking. Measuring spoons may be made of plastic, metal, and other materials. They are available in many sizes, including teaspoon and tablespoon. In the U.S., a measuring spoon is number of pieces, especially four or six. This usually includes ¼, ½, and 1 teaspoons and 1 tablespoon.
In Japan, usually two spoons are used: a large spoon and a small spoon. A large spoon is 15 milliliter, and a small spoon is 5 milliliter. Sometimes much smaller spoon may be used; usually a 2.5 milliliter spoon.
The term spatula is used to refer to various small implements with a broad, flat, flexible blade used to mix, spread and lift materials including foods, drugs, plaster and paints. The term derives from the Latin word for a flat piece of wood or splint (a diminutive form of the Latin spatha, meaning broadsword), and hence can also refer to a tongue depressor. The words spade (digging tool) and spathe are similarly derived. The word spatula is known to have been used in English since 1525.
Spatulas have a handle long enough to keep the holder's hand away from what is being lifted, or flipped. The blade often has one side longer than the other. The right side (as used) tends to be longer than the left, as this is more effective for right-handed people. Left-handed spatulas exist, but are rare. The blade may be perforated with holes or slots allowing liquids to flow through.
In referring to kitchen utensils, spatula can often refer to any utensil fitting the above description. One variety is alternately referred to as a turner, and is used to lift and turn food items during cooking, such as pancakes and fillets. These are usually made of plastic, with a wooden or plastic handle to
A ladle is a type of serving spoon used for soup, stew, or other foods. Although designs vary, a typical ladle has a long handle terminating in a deep bowl, frequently with the bowl oriented at an angle to the handle to facilitate lifting liquid out of a pot or other vessel and conveying it to a bowl. Some ladles involve a point on the side of the basin to allow for finer stream when pouring the liquid; however, this can create difficulty for left handed users, as it is easier to pour towards one's self. Thus, many of these ladles feature such pinches on both sides.
Ladles are usually made of the same stainless steel alloys as other kitchen utensils; however, they can be made of aluminium, silver, plastics, melamine resin, wood, bamboo or other materials. Ladles are made in a variety of sizes depending upon use; for example, the smaller sizes of less than 5 inches in length are used for sauces or condiments, while extra large sizes of more than 15 inches in length are used for soup or punch.
A lemon squeezer is a small kitchen utensil designed to extract juice from lemons or other citrus fruits such as oranges, grapefruit, or lime. It is designed to separate and crush the pulp of the fruit in a way that is easy to operate. Lemon squeezers can be made from any solid, acid-resistant material, such as plastic, glass, metal (usually aluminium) or ceramic.
The oldest known lemon squeezers were found in Kütahya, Turkey and date to the first quarter of the 18th century. These ceramic presses are in the traditional style of Turkish pottery of the 18th century and have a superficial resemblance to today's press equipment with cones, though they are designed differently. These examples were individually made, and specially designed for making the then popular citrus drink sorbet. Lemons are not native to northern Turkey, though during the 17th and 18th centuries they were imported in bulk to Constantinople.
At the end of the 19th century a large number of different models of lemon squeezers were patented in the United States. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office lists over 200 patents for lemon squeezers, the majority of which were registered between 1880 and 1910. The oldest of
A mated colander pot is used to boil pasta. It is a large colander of the identical shape and a slightly smaller size than the pot it fits into. As such pasta need not be fished out of its boiling pot as the colander portion can simply be removed leaving the water behind.
A refrigerator (colloquially fridge) is a common household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic, or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room. Cooling is a popular food storage technique in developed countries. Lower temperatures in a confined volume lowers the reproduction rate of bacteria, so the refrigerator reduces the rate of spoilage.
A refrigerator maintains a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water. Optimum temperature range for perishable food storage is 3 to 5 °C (37 to 41 °F). A similar device that maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is called a freezer. The refrigerator is a relatively modern invention. It replaced the icebox, which was a common household appliance for almost a century and a half prior. For this reason, a refrigerator is sometimes referred to as an icebox.
Freezer units are used in households and in industry and commerce. Food stored at or below 0 °F (-18 °C) is safe indefinitely. Most household freezers
A wooden spoon is a utensil commonly used in food preparation.
The word spoon derives from an ancient word meaning a chip of wood or horn carved from a larger piece. Wooden spoons were easy to carve and thus inexpensive, making them common throughout history.
The Iron Age Celts (C. 250BC) of Britain used them. This is evidenced by an example of a small ladle discovered during archaeological excavations at the Glastonbury Lake Village. Roman period spoons have been recovered from excavations in the City of London. The Anglo Saxons were great workers of wood, as were the Vikings, and both these groups of settlers to the British Isles produced wooden spoons for domestic uses.
Today, wooden spoons in western cultures are generally large spoons used for mixing ingredients for cooking or baking.
Before electric mixers became common, wooden spoons were often used to cream together butter and sugar in recipes such as shortbread or Victoria sponge cake.
They are still used for stirring many different kinds of food and beverages especially soups and casseroles during preparation, although they tend to absorb strong smells such as onion and garlic. Wooden spoons are generally preferred for
Lusikkahaarukka (Finnish pronunciation: [ˈlusikːɑhɑːrukːɑ], spoon-fork) is a stainless steel, folding spoon-fork combination issued together with a mess kit in the Finnish Army. It is widely used in camping and outdoors activities.
The spoon portion is a slightly oversized soup spoon which makes it useful for stirring when the mess kit is used to cook rations in the field. The fork portion is rarely used as most foods are more easily eaten with the spoon. When folded, the lusikkahaarukka can be fitted inside the Finnish army mess kit, although this is discouraged because, more often than not it slips off from the fittings and starts to rattle around inside the kit. The Finnish army conscripts are allowed to carry their civilian puukkos while in uniform, and everyone is assumed to own one, so a separate knife is not needed.
Originally invented along pakki (mess kit) in Imperial Germany in late 19th or early 20th century it came to Finland along Jägers in 1918. The copy of original model of the lusikkahaarukka is manufactured by Hackman and is one of the oldest items still in use by the Finnish army. The lusikkahaarukka are very hard wearing, indeed current conscripts are commonly
A French sauce spoon or saucier spoon is a spoon that is typically the size and shape of a dessert spoon, but with a flattened bowl that has a thinner edge and a small notch on one side. As the name suggests, a French sauce spoon is used to eat the sauce accompanying a dish. The spoon's flattened bowl and thin edge aids scooping a thin layer of sauce from a plate without resorting to tipping the plate; the notch in the bowl allows oil or fat to drain away from the sauce.
Originally found mainly in France, French sauce spoons are becoming increasingly popular in high-end restaurants elsewhere.
French sauce spoons are sometimes referred to simply as "sauce spoons," but note that that term can also be used to refer to a spoon used to serve sauce.
A whisk is a cooking utensil used in food preparation to blend ingredients smooth, or to incorporate air into a mixture, in a process known as whisking or whipping. Most whisks consist of a long, narrow handle with a series of wire loops joined at the end. The wires are usually metal, but some are plastic for use with nonstick cookware. Whisks are also made from bamboo.
Whisks are commonly used to whip egg whites into a firm foam to make meringue, or to whip cream into whipped cream.
A makeshift whisk may be constructed by taking two forks and placing them together so the tines interlock and make a cage. This is far more effective than a single fork at incorporating air into a mixture.
Whisks have differently-shaped loops depending on their intended functions:
Additionally, a mechanical device known as a rotary whisk consists of 2 sets of beaters that are joined together with a hand-operated crank and handle.
Although the modern whisk may have only appeared at the end of the 19th century, evidence of whisk-like tools exist even further back in history. A bundle of twigs fastened together make an effective whisk; often the wood used would lend a certain fragrance to the dish. An
A colander is a bowl-shaped kitchen utensil with holes in it used for draining food such as pasta or rice.
The perforated nature of the colander allows liquid to drain through while retaining the solids inside. It is sometimes also called a pasta strainer or kitchen sieve.
Conventionally, colanders are made of a light metal, such as aluminium or thinly rolled stainless steel, but some colanders are made of plastic or silicone.
The word colander comes from the Latin colum meaning sieve.
A grater (also known as a shredder in parts of the eastern United States) is a kitchen utensil used to grate foods into fine pieces. It was invented by François Boullier in the 1540s.
Several types of graters feature different sizes of grating slots, and can therefore aid in the preparation of a variety of foods. They are commonly used to grate cheese and lemon or orange peel (to create zest), and can also be used to grate other soft foods. They are commonly used in the preparation of toasted cheese, Welsh rarebit, and macaroni and cheese.
In Slavic cuisine, graters are commonly used to grate potatoes, for preparation of, e.g., draniki, bramborak or potato babka.
In tropical nations, graters are also used to grate coconut meat.
In Jamaica, coconut graters are used as a traditional musical instrument (along with drums, fife, and other instruments) in the performance of kumina, jonkanoo, and sometimes mento.
The cheese grater was invented by François Boullier in the 1540s with the idea that hard cheeses could still be used.
There are also complex food-processing machines with grater-like mechanisms. These mechanisms rotate by the turn of a cluster or electric motor.
An oven glove, or oven mitt, is an insulated glove or mitten usually worn in the kitchen to protect the wearer's hand from hot objects such as ovens, stoves, cookware, etc.
Fabric gloves consist of heat insulation surrounded by cotton fabric, usually consisting of decorative patterns. Newer oven gloves are often treated with silicone, which makes them resistant to water and stains, or made of stronger synthetic materials such as Kevlar or Nomex.
Oven mitts are often sold singly rather than in a pair, designed to be worn on either hand.
Oven gloves should only be used when dry and only for short periods at a time. The gloves should not come into contact with heating elements, gas flames or similar sources of high temperature. Fabric gloves will not protect against hot liquids.
Furnace gloves, or furnace mitts, are more heavily insulated, longer, and can protect the user from intense heat for longer periods of time.
A ramekin or ramequin, also known as a bouillon bowl, is a small glazed ceramic or glass serving bowl used for the preparation and serving of various food dishes. The word is from French (as ramequin), and before that Middle Dutch and Middle Low German – see ramekin for details.
With a typical volume of 50–250 ml (1.8–8.8 imp fl oz; 1.7–8.5 US fl oz), ramekins are commonly used for serving a variety of dishes such as crème brûlée, French onion soup, molten chocolate cake, moin moin, cheese or egg dishes, poi, potted shrimps, ice cream, soufflé, baked cocottes, crumbles, or scallops, or used to serve side garnishes and condiments alongside an entree. They also can be used for appetizers such as mixed olives.
Traditionally circular with a fluted exterior, ramekins can also be found in novelty shapes, such as flowers, hearts or stars.
Ramekins are often built to withstand high temperatures, as they are frequently used in ovens, or in the case of crème brûlée, exposed to the flare of a cooking torch.
A soup spoon is a type of spoon with a large or rounded bowl, used for consuming soup. The term either can either refer to the British soup spoon or the Chinese spoon.
The Chinese soup spoon, usually ceramic and of a distinct Chinese soup spoon shape, which can vary in size from normal soup spoon size to near-platter size.
The British soup spoon, is the size of a dessert spoon (i.e. smaller than a tablespoon), but with a deeper, more circular bowl for holding liquid. Modern soup spoons are usually stainless steel or silver plated, but in the past wooden and horn spoons were more common. The idea of including a separate soup spoon in a table setting originated in the eighteenth century, when the bowl shapes varied widely, deep or shallow, oval, pointed, egg-shaped or circular. Spoon shapes became more standardized in nineteenth century silverware. The rounded form of soup spoon does not however apply to continental Europe, where traditionally an oval shaped spoon is used.
"Spoonman" is a song by the American rock band Soundgarden. Written by frontman Chris Cornell, "Spoonman" was released on February 15, 1994 as the first single from the band's fourth studio album, Superunknown (1994). "Spoonman" is often credited as one of the songs that launched Soundgarden's career into the mainstream. The song peaked at number three on the Billboard Mainstream Rock Tracks chart. A remixed version of the song by Steve Fisk appears on the "Black Hole Sun" and "My Wave" singles. The song was included on Soundgarden's 1997 greatest hits album, A-Sides and the 2010 compilation album Telephantasm.
"Spoonman" was originally written for the soundtrack to the 1992 film, Singles. At this time, Soundgarden, along with fellow alternative rock band Pearl Jam, was working on the soundtrack for the film. Pearl Jam bassist Jeff Ament had been put in charge of creating the name for a fictional band that would appear in the film. Before finally choosing Citizen Dick for its name, Ament had compiled a list of potential names which included the name "Spoonman". The name was inspired by Artis the Spoonman, a street performer from Santa Cruz, California and later Seattle, Washington,
A casserole, from the French word for "saucepan", is a large, deep dish used both in the oven and as a serving vessel. The word casserole is also used for the food cooked and served in such a vessel, with the cookware itself called a casserole dish or casserole pan. In British English, this type of dish is frequently also called a bake, coinciding with the cooking technique used to cook casseroles. In Minnesota, this type of dish is sometimes called "hotdish."
Casseroles usually consist of pieces of meat (such as chicken) or fish (such as tuna), various chopped vegetables, a starchy binder such as flour, potato or pasta, and, often, a crunchy or cheesy topping. Liquids are released from the meat and vegetables during cooking, and further liquid in the form of stock, wine, beer (for example lapin à la Gueuze), gin, cider, or vegetable juice may be added when the dish is assembled. Casseroles are usually cooked slowly in the oven, often uncovered. They may be served as a main course or a side dish, and may be served in the vessel in which they were cooked.
Types of casserole include ragout, hotpot, cassoulet, tajine, moussaka, lasagne, shepherd's pie, gratin, rice or macaroni
A kitchen stove, usually called a stove (especially but not only in US English), range, or cooker, or oven is a kitchen appliance designed for the purpose of cooking food. Kitchen stoves rely on the application of direct heat for the cooking process and may also contain an oven, used for baking.
In the industrialized world, as stoves replaced open fires and braziers as a source of more efficient and reliable heating, models were developed that could also be used for cooking; these came to be known as kitchen stoves.re: cooking in the Middle Ages "The division of stoves into several compartments as in our day was seldom seen. The dishes were cooked on the fire itself. When homes began to be heated with central heating systems, there was less need for an appliance that served as both heat source and cooker and stand-alone cookers replaced them. Cooker and stove are often used interchangeably.
The fuel-burning stove is the most basic design of kitchen stove. In the developing world, such stoves are still the most common cooking appliances and new, more fuel efficient and environmentally sound biomass cook stoves are being developed for use there. Modern kitchen stoves may use
A pizza cutter (or pizza wheel) is a utensil that is used to cut pizzas.
There are two main types of pizza cutters. The most common uses a wheel that rotates in a circle while a person moves the cutter in a direction that they would like to cut the pizza. The other type is a large curved knife called a mezzaluna (Italian for "half moon"), which is rocked back and forth to cut the pizza. These two types of pizza cutters come in many different sizes. Many people might use the wheel pizza cutter for other things, including craft work. Some types of mezzalunas (particularly the double-bladed type) are often used to mince herbs or chop vegetables.
In the US and parts of Canada, a tablespoon is the largest type of spoon used for eating from a bowl. In the UK and most Commonwealth countries, a tablespoon is a type of large spoon usually used for serving. In countries where a tablespoon is a serving spoon, the nearest equivalent to the US tablespoon is either the dessert spoon or the soup spoon.
A tablespoonful, nominally the capacity of one tablespoon, is commonly used as a measure of volume in cooking. It is abbreviated as T, tb, tbs, tbsp, tblsp, or tblspn. The capacity of ordinary tablespoons is not regulated by law and is subject to considerable variation.
In the USA one tablespoon (measurement unit) is approximately 15 mL; the capacity of an actual tablespoon (dining utensil) ranges from 7 mL to 14 mL. In Australia one tablespoon (measurement unit) is approximately 20 mL.
Before about 1700, people generally brought their own spoons to the table. Spoons were carried as personal property in much the same way as people today carry wallets, key rings, etc. From about 1700 the place setting became popular, and with it the "table-spoon," "table-fork," and "table-knife." The 18th century witnessed a proliferation of different
As a piece of cutlery or kitchenware, a fork is a tool consisting of a handle with several narrow tines on one end. The fork as an eating utensil has been a feature primarily of the West, whereas in East Asia chopsticks have been more prevalent. Today, forks are increasingly available throughout East Asia. The utensil (usually metal) is used to lift food to the mouth or to hold ingredients in place while cooking or cutting them. Food can be lifted either by spearing it on the tines, or by holding it on top of the tines, which are often curved slightly. For this former function, in the American style of fork etiquette, the fork is held with tines curving up; however, in continental style, the fork is held with the tines curving down. A fork is also shaped in the form of a trident but curved at the joint of the handle to the points.
Though the fork's early history is obscure, the fork as a kitchen and dining utensil is generally believed to have originated in the Roman Empire, or perhaps in Ancient Greece (though there are some evidence of its use in Mesopotamia ). The personal table fork most likely originated in the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire. Its use spread to what is
A muffin tray is a mold in which muffins or cupcakes are baked. A single cup within a regular muffin tin is 3 and 1/2 ounces and most often has room for 12 muffins, although tins holding 6, 8, 11, 24, and 35 muffins do exist. A single cup within a mini muffin tin is 2 and 1/8 ounces, and because these are more uncommon, there is no standard number of cups per tin. Mini muffin tins of 6, 12, and 24 cups per tin do exist. A single cup within a jumbo muffin tin is 8 and 3/16 ounces, and again because these are more uncommon, there is no standard number of cups per tin. Jumbo muffin tins of 4, 6, and 12 cups per tin do exist.
Muffin tins can be made out of aluminum, stainless steel, cast iron, or silicone. In addition, aluminum and stainless steel muffin tins may be coated with Teflon or other non-stick coatings. Historically, galvanized steel has been used for muffin tins, but this is no longer common.
A frying pan, frypan, or skillet is a flat-bottomed pan used for frying, searing, and browning foods. It is typically 200 to 300 mm (8 to 12 in) in diameter with relatively low sides that flare outwards, a long handle, and no lid. Larger pans may have a small grab handle opposite the main handle. A pan of similar dimensions, but with vertical sides and often with a lid, is called a sauté pan or sauté. While a sauté pan can be used like a frying pan, it is designed for lower heat cooking methods such as sautéing.
Copper frying pans were used in ancient Mesopotamia. Frying pans were also known in ancient Greece (where they were called téganon) and Rome (where they were called patella or sartago). Pan derives from the Old English panna. Before the introduction of the kitchen stove in the mid-19th century, a commonly used cast iron cooking pan called a spider had a handle and three legs used to stand up in the coals and ashes of the fire. Cooking pots and pans with legless, flat bottoms were designed when cooking stoves became popular; this period of the late 19th century saw the introduction of the flat cast iron skillet.
A versatile pan that combines the best of both the sauté pan
Melon balls are balls of melon made using a melon baller that varies from around 1 centimeter to 3 centimeters (about 3/8 inch to 1 inch). They are generally used in fruit salad.
A melon baller, formally called a Parisienne scoop, is a small spoon-like tool used to cut round- or oval-shaped sections of melon, known as melon balls, by pressing them into the melon's flesh and rotating. It can also be used to cut other soft fruit. The diameter of a melon baller's bowl varies from around 1 centimeter to 3 centimeters (about 3/8 inch to 1 inch), and it is typically made of stainless steel with a handle of wood, metal, or hard plastic. Some varieties have the handle in the middle and a different-sized bowl on each end, and the bowl typically has a small hole in the middle to allow air and juice through.
A bar spoon is a long handled spoon used in bartending for mixing and layering of both alcoholic and non-alcoholic mixed drinks. Its length ensures that it can reach to bottom of the tallest jug or tumbler to mix ingredients directly in the glass. A bar spoon holds about 5 millilitres of liquid (the same as a conventional teaspoon). Its long handle is similar to an iced tea spoon but is usually decorative and elegant - some variations mimic large swizzle sticks, with a disc at one end.
An espresso machine is used to produce the traditional Italian coffee beverage called espresso.
The first machine for making espresso was built and patented by Angelo Moriondo of Turin, Italy, who demonstrated a working example at the Turin General Exposition of 1884. He was granted patent no. 33/256 dated 16th May 1884 (according to the “Bollettino delle privative industriali del Regno d’Italia”, 2nd Series, Volume 15, Year 1884, pages 635 – 655). A certificate of industrial title was awarded to Mr. Moriondo Angelo, of Turin, for an invention called “New steam machinery for the economic and instantaneous confection of coffee beverage, method ‘A. Moriondo’, Plate CXL".
In 1901 Luigi Bezzera of Milan patented improvements to the machine. Bezzera was not an engineer, but a mechanic. He patented a number of improvements to the existing machine, the first of which was applied for on the 19th of December 1901. It was titled “Innovations in the machinery to prepare and immediately serve coffee beverage” (Patent No. 153/94, 61707, granted on the 5th of June 1902). In 1905 the patent was bought by Desiderio Pavoni who founded the “La Pavoni” company and began to produce the machine
A meat thermometer is a thermometer used to measure the internal temperature of meat, especially roasts and steaks, and other cooked foods. The degree of "doneness" of meat correlates closely with the internal temperature, so that a thermometer reading indicates when it is cooked as desired. Meat should always be cooked so that the interior reaches a temperature sufficient to kill pathogens that may cause foodborne illness; the thermometer helps to ensure this.
A meat thermometer is a unit which will measure core temperature of meats whilst cooking. It will have a metal probe with a sharp point which is pushed into the meat, and a dial or digital display. Some show the temperature only; others also have markings to indicate when different kinds of meat are done to a specified degree (e.g., "beef medium rare").
Meat thermometers are usually designed to have the probe in the meat during cooking. Some use a bimetallic strip which rotates a needle which shows the temperature on a dial; the whole thermometer can be left inside the oven during cooking. Another variety commonly used on turkey is the pop-up timer, which uses a spring held in by a soft material that "pops up" when the meat
Silpat® is the brand name of a silicone mat used in baking and in the production of candy to provide a non-stick surface without fat or parchment paper. Silpat® contains a Fiberglass weave that reinforces the silicone. It was invented by the French chemist Guy Demarle and is produced by the company he founded, called Demarle.
Silpat® is produced in a range of sizes, suitable for domestic and commercial ovens.
Tin foil, also spelled tinfoil, is a thin foil made of tin. Actual tin foil was superseded by cheaper and more durable aluminium foil after World War II, and aluminium foil is sometimes confused with "tin foil" because of its similarity to the former material.
Foil made from a thin leaf of tin was commercially available before its aluminium counterpart. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, tin foil was in common use, and some people continue to refer to the new product by the name of the old one. Tin foil is stiffer than aluminium foil. It tends to give a slight tin taste to food wrapped in it, which is a major reason it has largely been replaced by aluminium and other materials for wrapping food.
Tin foil was used as a filling for tooth cavities prior to the 20th century.
The first audio recordings on phonograph cylinders were made on tin foil.
Tin was first replaced by aluminium starting in 1910, when the first aluminium foil rolling plant, “Dr. Lauber, Neher & Cie., Emmishofen.” was opened in Kreuzlingen, Switzerland. The plant, owned by aluminium manufacturers J.G. Neher & Sons, started in 1886 in Schaffhausen, Switzerland, at the foot of the Rhine Falls—capturing
An egg spoon is a specialised spoon for use in eating boiled eggs. In comparison to a teaspoon it typically has a shorter handle and bowl, a more pointed tip and often a more rounded bowl. These characteristics are intended to facilitate the removal of an egg's contents from the shell, through a small hole in one end. For this purpose the egg spoon is easier to use than a normal teaspoon.
A Splayd (plural 'Splayds') is a brand of sporf, an eating utensil combining the functions of spoon, fork, and knife. It was created by William McArthur in the 1940s in Sydney, Australia.
In addition to an overall spoon shape with four fork tines, it has two hard, flat edges on either side, suitable for cutting through soft food.
The UK Licensee for manufacturing and distribution of "Splayds" was held by Viners of Sheffield during the 1970s. At that time they were one of the biggest cutlery manufacturers in Great Britain.
The Splayd is exclusively distributed worldwide by Cambur Industries Pty Ltd (Australia).
Splayd may seem to be an unusually-spelled portmanteau of "spoon" and "blade", but according to the Splayd website, the name is "after the verb to splay - to slant, slope or spread outwards".
A slotted spoon is an implement used in food preparation. The term can be used to describe any spoon with slots, holes or other openings in the bowl of the spoon which let liquid pass through while preserving the larger solids on top. It is similar in function to a sieve; however, a ladle-sized slotted spoon is most typically used to retrieve items from a cooking liquid while preserving the liquid in the pot, while table-sized slotted spoons are often used to serve foods prepared or packaged in juices, such as canned fruit and vegetables.
One peculiar example of a slotted spoon is used in the traditional absinthe ritual. In the beginning of absinthe preparation, a special absinthe spoon helps to flavor the cocktail. The spoon holds a sugar cube above a glass while the preparer pours cold water over the sugar.
A sugar spoon is a piece of cutlery used for serving granulated sugar. This type of spoon resembles a teaspoon except that the bowl is deeper and often molded in the shape of a sea shell, giving it the name sugar shell. Sugar spoons are sometimes called "sugar shovels" because of their rectangular shape and deep bowl. Sterling silver sugar spoons are used with formal silver coffee or tea sets.
The toaster is typically a small electric kitchen appliance designed to toast multiple types of bread products. A typical modern two-slice toaster draws from 600 to 1200 watts and makes toast in 1 to 3 minutes. There are also non-electrical toasters that can be used to toast bread products over an open fire or flame.
Before the development of the electric toaster, sliced bread was toasted by placing it in a metal frame or a long-handled fork and holding it near a fire or kitchen grill. Simple utensils for toasting bread over open flames appeared in the early 19th century. Earlier, people simply speared bread with a stick, sword or knife and held it over a fire.
In 1905, Irishman Conor Neeson (1877–1944) of Detroit, Michigan, and his employer, American chemist, electrical engineer, inventor and entrepreneur William Hoskins (1862–1934) of Chicago, Illinois, invented (and in 1906 patented) chromel, an alloy from which could be made the first high-resistance wire of the sort used in all early electric heating appliances (and many modern ones).
The first electric bread toaster was created by Alan MacMasters in Edinburgh, Scotland. In 1893, Crompton, Stephen J. Cook & Company of the UK
An apostle spoon is a spoon (usually silver or silver-plated, but sometimes of other metals, such as pewter) with an image of an apostle or other Christian religious figure as the termination of the handle, each bearing his distinctive emblem. Apostle spoons were particularly popular in Pre-Reformation times when belief in the services of a patron saint was still strong. They symbolize the Last Supper of Christ in the company of the Apostles. Apostle spoons were especially popular in England, but were also found in large numbers in Germany.
Originating in early-fifteenth century in Europe as spoons used at table (often produced in sets of thirteen, the thirteenth, showing Jesus, usually being referred to as the 'Saviour' or 'Master' spoon). The British Museum in London has a set from England dating from 1536-7 which has a figure of the Virgin Mary on the thirteenth spoon. By the sixteenth century they had become popular as baptismal presents for godchildren, but were dying out by the 1660s. In some communities this tradition continued until at least the mid-twentieth century.
They first appeared as a bequest in the will of one Amy Brent who, in 1516, bequeathed "XIII sylver spones
A dessert spoon is a spoon designed specifically for eating dessert and sometimes used for soup or cereals. Similar in size to a soup spoon (intermediate between a teaspoon and a tablespoon) but with an oval rather than round bowl, it typically has a capacity around twice that of a teaspoon.
The use of dessert spoons around the world varies greatly; in some areas, they are very common while in other places the use of the dessert spoon is almost unheard of—with diners using forks or teaspoons for their desserts instead.
In most traditional table settings, the dessert spoon is placed above the plate or bowl, separated from the rest of the cutlery, or it may be brought in with the dessert.
As a unit of culinary measure, a level dessertspoon (abbreviation: dstspn) equals two teaspoons or 10 milliliters (about 3 fluidrams). For dry ingredients, a rounded or heaped spoonful is often specified instead.
As a unit of Apothecary measure, the dessert-spoon was an unofficial but widely used unit of fluid measure equal to two fluid drams, or ⁄4 fluid ounce. In the USA and pre-1824 England, the fluid ounce was ⁄128 of a Queen Anne wine gallon (which was defined as exactly 231 cubic inches) thus
A grapefruit spoon is a utensil usually similar in design to a teaspoon that tapers to a sharp edge or teeth, the intent of the front serration being to separate the flesh of a grapefruit from its rind. Also called orange spoon, it is used for other citrus fruits, as well as kiwifruit and melons.
A variation of the design has a blunt front edge with serrated sides, enabling the user to dig the spoon into the fruit before using the serrated side edges as a knife to separate the flesh from the rind.
These spoons are not generally found in most cutlery sets but may be purchased separately from specialty stores.
A microwave oven, often colloquially shortened to microwave, is a kitchen appliance that heats food by dielectric heating accomplished with radiation used to heat polarized molecules in food. Microwave ovens heat foods quickly and efficiently because excitation is fairly uniform in the outer 25–38 mm of a dense (high water content) food item; food is more evenly heated throughout (except in thick, dense objects) than generally occurs in other cooking techniques.
Percy Spencer invented the first microwave oven after World War II from radar technology developed during the war. Named the "Radarange", it was first sold in 1947. Raytheon later licensed its patents for a home-use microwave oven that was first introduced by Tappan in 1955, but these units were still too large and expensive for general home use. The countertop microwave oven was first introduced in 1967 by the Amana Corporation, which had been acquired in 1965 by Raytheon.
Microwave ovens are popular for reheating previously cooked foods and cooking vegetables. They are also useful for rapid heating of otherwise slowly prepared cooking items, such as hot butter and fats,chocolate. Unlike conventional ovens, microwave ovens
A mixer is a kitchen appliance intended for mixing, folding, beating, and whipping food ingredients. Mixers come in two major variations, hand mixers and stand mixers.
A hand mixer, as the name implies, is a hand-held mixing device. The modern electrically powered type consists of a handle mounted over a large enclosure containing the motor, which drives one or two beaters. The beaters are immersed in the food to be mixed. A simpler manually operated type, which preceded electric mixers and is still used today, consists of a handle with a hand-operated crank on the side, geared to two beaters. The handle is held with one hand and the crank is turned with the other, turning the beaters.
A stand mixer is essentially the same as a hand mixer, but is mounted on a stand which bears the weight of the device. Stand mixers are larger and have more powerful motors than their hand-held counterparts. They generally have a special bowl that is locked in place while the mixer is operating. Heavy duty commercial models can have bowl capacities well in excess of 100 quarts (95 L) and weigh thousands of pounds, but more typical home and light commercial models are equipped with bowls of around 4
A cookie cutter in American English and biscuit cutter in Commonwealth English is a tool to cut out cookie/biscuit dough in a particular shape. They are often used for seasonal occasions when well-known decorative shapes are desired, or for large batches of cookies where simplicity and uniformity are required. Cookie cutters have also been used for, among other uses, cutting and shaping tea sandwiches.
"Cookie cutter," when used as an adjective, is defined as a "lack of originality or distinction", a reference to the uniformity that results from the use of a cookie cutter. An example might be a reference to a suburban subdivision's housing, all looking pretty much alike, as "cookie cutter homes".
An egg slicer is a food preparation utensil used to slice peeled, hard-boiled eggs quickly and evenly. The egg slicer was invented in 1952 by Chef Christopher Faison at his California restaurant. An egg slicer consists of a slotted dish for holding the egg and a hinged plate of wires or blades that can be closed to slice.
A potato ricer is a kitchen implement used to process potatoes or other food by forcing it through a sheet of small holes, which are often not much wider than a grain of rice. In technical terms, it works by a process of food extrusion. Mashed potatoes is a food commonly made using this utensil, and it can be used to squeeze excess water from sliced or grated potatoes, improving the quality of potato chips or hash browns made from them.
There are at least three kinds of potato ricers. The simplest variety is little more than a grid on a handle. Food is processed against a flat surface or inside a container. Slightly more elaborate models resemble a large garlic press. A rotary type, called a food mill, where the food is driven toward the grid by a large screw, is similar to a meat grinder but without the rotary blade.
Potato ricers are used in the making of lefse (a popular Norwegian flatbread) and spätzle (German noodles), as well as for making homemade passatelli (a type of Italian pasta). The utensils may also be used to process ice cream when making the German dish spaghettieis.
A spife is a tool where the blade of a knife is used as the handle of the spoon, often used for cutting kiwi fruit. Its name is a portmanteau of the words "spoon" and "knife". More commonly today, a spife is sold with a handle guard that covers the blade of the handle to prevent injury while using the utensil as a spoon. Spifes have been featured on many Food Network television shows shown being used to cut a wider variety of fruit than just the original use for cutting kiwi fruit.
An early spife appears in the 1942 children's book The Boxcar Children by Gertrude Chandler Warner.
Other spifes put a small, dull blade along the edge of the spoon. These are often also referred to as knoons.
A can opener (or tin opener) is a device used to open metal cans. Although preservation of food using tin cans had been practiced since at least 1772 in the Netherlands, the first can openers were patented only in 1855 in England and in 1858 in the United States. Those openers were basically variations of a knife, and the 1855 design continues to be produced. The first can opener consisting of the now familiar sharp rotating cutting wheel, which travels around the can's ring slicing open the lid, was invented in 1870 but people found it difficult to operate. A breakthrough came in 1925 when a second, serrated wheel was added to hold the cutting wheel on the ring of the can. This easy to use design has become one of the most popular can opener models.
Around the time of World War II, several can openers were developed for military use, such as the American P-38 and P-51. These featured a robust and simple design where a folding cutting blade and absence of a handle significantly reduced the opener size. Electric can openers were introduced in the late 1950s and met with success. The development of new can opener types continues with the recent addition of a side-cutting model.
Used in recipes:Baked Risotto with Asparagus, Spinach, and Sausage
A Dutch oven is a thick-walled (usually cast iron) cooking pot with a tight-fitting lid. Dutch ovens have been used as cooking vessels for hundreds of years. They are called casserole dishes in English speaking countries other than the USA ("casserole" means "pot" in French), and cocottes in French, They are similar to both the Japanese tetsunabe and the Sač, a traditional Balkan cast-iron oven, and are related to the South African Potjie and the Australian Bedourie oven.
During the late 17th century, the Dutch system of producing these cast metal cooking vessels was more advanced than the English system. The Dutch used dry sand to make their molds, giving their pots a smoother surface. Consequently, metal cooking vessels produced in the Netherlands were imported into Britain. In 1704, an Englishman named Abraham Darby decided to go to the Netherlands to observe the Dutch system for making these cooking vessels. Four years later, back in England, Darby patented a casting procedure similar to the Dutch process and began to produce cast-metal cooking vessels for Britain and her new American colonies. Thus the term “Dutch oven” has endured for over 300 years, since at least 1710.
A food mill (also called passatutto, purée sieve, moulinette, mouli légumes, or passe-vite) is a food preparation utensil for mashing and sieving soft foods. Typically, a food mill consists of three parts: a bowl, a bottom plate with holes like those in a colander, and a crank fitted with a bent metal blade which crushes the food and forces it through the holes in the bottom plate as the crank is turned. The bottom plate may be a permanent part of the device, or interchangeable plates with different hole sizes may be supplied. Three corrugated feet on the base, or two ears on the rim plus the handle, fit on the rim of a cooking pot and hold the mill in position over it.
Food mills are usually made of stainless steel or aluminum. The bowl may be plastic, particularly for smaller sizes marketed for preparing baby food. Older "heirloom" utensils were usually made from tinplate.
This piece of kitchen equipment, of long-proven efficiency, bridges the gap between a sieve (or tamis, china cap, or chinoise) and the electric blender or food processor. Its function is similar to that of a potato ricer or "hob" type of spätzle maker.
Uses of a food mill include removing the seeds from cooked
An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking or drying of a substance. It is most commonly used for cooking. Kilns and furnaces are special-purpose ovens. The first being used mainly for the fabrication of pottery and the second being used for forging.
The earliest ovens were found in Central Europe, and dated to 29,000 BC, it was used as roasting and boiling pits located within yurt structures. They were used to cook mammoth. In Ukraine from 20,000 BC they used pits with hot coals covered in ashes. The food was wrapped in leaves and set on top, then covered with earth. In camps found in Mezhirich, each mammoth bone house had a hearth used for heating and cooking.
Ovens have been used since prehistoric times by cultures who lived in the Indus Valley and pre-dynastic Egypt. Settlements across the Indus Valley had an oven within each mud-brick house by 3200 BC. The obvious explanation for the popular use of the oven in the homes would most likely involve its use for cooking food. However, baked brick sewers were also found at the Indus Valley civilization, which shows that they used the oven for masonry as well. Other ancient cultures that had use for the
A rolling pin is a cylindrical food preparation utensil used to shape and flatten dough. Two styles of rolling pins are found; roller and rods. Roller types consists of a thick cylindrical roller with small handles at each end; rod type rolling pins are usually thin tapered batons. Rolling pins of different styles and materials offer advantages over another, as they are used for different tasks in cooking and baking.
In South Asia, the rolling pin (belan) is used in combination with chakla (flat circular rolling board). The dough for chapatis is rolled on chakla with the help of the belan. A modern electronic device called Roti Maker (or Tortilla maker) combines the function of chakla, belan and round tava cooking griddle.
Rolling pins come in a variety of sizes, shapes and materials including glass, ceramic, acrylic, bakelite, copper, brass, aluminium, silicone, wood, stainless steel, marble, and plastic. Some are hollow and are able to be filled with cold or warm water to better roll a desired food. Marble rolling pins are often cooled in a refrigerator for maintaining a cold dough while making puff pastry.
Rolling pins have been depicted as a stereotypical weapon of angry
A spider (simplified Chinese: 笊篱; traditional Chinese: 笊籬) (Romanized: Zhào lí)is a type of skimmer used in Asian and Dutch cooking in the form of a wide shallow wire-mesh basket with a long handle, used for removing hot food from a liquid or skimming foam off when making broths. The name is derived from the wire pattern, which looks like a spider's web.
Unlike sieves or strainers, which have fine mesh screens for straining away liquids as food is retrieved, the spider can be used as a strainer for larger pieces of food. However, most often it is used as a skimming tool to add or remove foods from hot liquids such as water or oil. Spiders may be somewhat flat and round or small round spoon-like utensils shaped into the form of an open basket. They may also be referred to as sieves, spoon sieves, spoon skimmers, or basket skimmers.
A spider is ideal for lifting and draining foods from hot oil, soups, stocks and boiling water. It is the perfect tool for skimming stocks, blanching vegetables and deep frying foods. This kitchen utensil is most often used to retrieve foods that are being cooked in pots or pans of hot water. The spider can be dipped into steaming hot water or oil and
A cauldron (or caldron) is a large metal pot (kettle) for cooking and/or boiling over an open fire, with a large mouth and frequently with an arc-shaped hanger.
The word cauldron is first recorded in Middle English as caudroun (13th c.). It was borrowed from Old Northern French or Anglo-Norman caudron (Norman-Picard caudron, French chaudron). It represents the phonetical evolution of Vulgar Latin *caldario for Classical Latin caldārium "hot bath", that derives from cal(i)dus "hot".
The Norman-French word replaces probably the initial Old English word ċetel (German (Koch)Kessel "cauldron", Dutch (kook)ketel "cauldron"), Middle English chetel. The word kettle comes from the Old Norse variant spelling ketill "cauldron".
Cauldrons have largely fallen out of use in the developed world as cooking vessels. While still used for practical purposes, a more common association in Western culture is the cauldron's use in witchcraft—a cliché popularized by various works of fiction, such as Shakespeare's play Macbeth. In fiction, witches often prepare their potions in a cauldron. Also, in Irish folklore, a cauldron is purported to be where leprechauns keep their gold and treasure.
In some forms
A cutting board is a durable board on which to place material for cutting. The kitchen cutting board is commonly used in preparing food; other types exist for cutting raw materials such as leather or plastic. Kitchen cutting boards are often made of wood or plastic and come in various widths and sizes. There are also cutting boards made of glass, steel or marble, which are easier to clean than wooden or plastic ones such as nylon or corian, but tend to damage knives due to their hardness. Rough cutting edges — such as serrated knives — abrade and damage a cutting surface more rapidly than do smooth cutting implements.
Regardless of the material, regular maintenance of a cutting board is important.
A knife edge is a delicate structure and can easily be blunted by too abrasive a surface. Alternatively, it can be chipped if used on a surface that is too hard. A good cutting board material must be soft, easy to clean, and non-abrasive, but not fragile to the point of being destroyed. Hard cutting boards can, however, be used for food preparation tasks that do not require a sharp knife, like cutting cheese or making sandwiches.
Wood has some advantages over plastic in that it is
A double boiler, also known as a bain-marie, is a stove top apparatus used to cook delicate sauces such as beurre blanc, to melt chocolate without burning or seizing, or cook any other thick liquid or porridge that would normally burn if not stirred constantly. It consists of an upper vessel containing the substance to be cooked that is situated above a lower pot of water. When brought to a boil, the steam produced in the lower pot transfers heat to the upper pot.
This apparatus utilizes the properties of water to establish a constant temperature. The phase transition of water from liquid to vapor occurs at 100°C (212°F). Therefore, as long as the lower pot does not become pressurized or boiled dry, the maximum temperature contacted by the upper vessel will be the boiling point of water, and scalding or uneven heat is avoided. The steam will either condense on the upper vessel or escape, but the temperature of the vapor phase will remain constant. In order to maximize the efficiency of the heat transfer process, the base of the upper vessel is constructed of a thinner, lower-gauge metal than the lower pot.
The lid on the upper vessel must fit tightly, or else steam may enter the
A griddle is a cooking device consisting of a broad flat surface that can be heated using a variety of means, and is used in both residential and commercial applications for a variety of cooking operations. The word may be used to refer to a relatively large device or surface heated in one place, or to a smaller item moved on and off a source of heat. Most commonly, the griddle consists of a flat metal plate, but in the non-industrialized world or more traditional cultures or uses it may also be made of a brick slab or tablet.
In residential applications, a griddle may be composed of cast or wrought iron, aluminium or carbon steel. The vast majority of commercial-grade griddles are made from A36 steel, though some are composed of stainless steel or even composites of aluminium and stainless steel. Almost all residential and commercial griddles are heated directly or indirectly by open flame or electrical elements.
Commercial grade griddles may be either free-standing countertop equipment that sits on a stand or refrigerated base, or part of a larger piece of equipment such as a restaurant range. Nominal unit width (left-to-right) sizes are in increments of 12 in (305 mm), most
A measuring cup or measuring jug is a kitchen utensil used primarily to measure the volume of liquid or bulk solid cooking ingredients such as flour and sugar, especially for volumes from about 50 mL (2 fl oz) upwards. The cup will usually have a scale marked in cups and fractions of a cup, and often with fluid measure and weight of a selection of dry foodstuffs. Measuring cups are also used to measure washing powder, liquid detergents or bleach, with a measuring cup not also used for food.
Measuring cups may be made of plastic, glass, or metal. Transparent (or translucent) cups can be read from an external scale; metal ones only from a scale marked on the inside. Smaller measuring spoons lack a scale and are filled and leveled to maximum capacity. Its mostly used to measure things such as flour, water, or any type of liquid.
Measuring cups usually have capacities from 250 ml (approx. 1 cup (volume) to 1000 ml (approx. 4 cups = 2 pints = 1 quart), though larger sizes are also available for commercial use. They usually have scale markings at different heights: the substance being measured is added to the cup until it reaches the wanted level. Dry measure cups without a scale are
A spork or a foon is a hybrid form of cutlery taking the form of a spoon-like shallow scoop with three or four fork tines. Spork-like utensils, such as the terrapin fork or ice cream fork, have been manufactured since the late 19th century; patents for spork-like designs date back to at least 1874, and the word "spork" was registered as a trademark in the US and the UK decades later. They are used by fast food restaurants, schools, prisons, the military, and backpackers.
The spork is a portmanteau word combining spoon and fork. Similarly, the word foon is a blend of fork and spoon. The word "spork" appeared in the 1909 supplement to the Century Dictionary, where it was described as a trade name and "a 'portmanteau-word' applied to a long, slender spoon having, at the end of the bowl, projections resembling the tines of a fork".
In the US, patents for sporks and proto-sporks have been issued. A combined spoon, fork, and knife closely resembling the modern spork was invented by Samuel W. Francis and issued US Patent 147,119 in February 1874. Other early patents predating the modern spork include US Patent 904,553, for a "cutting spoon", granted on November 24, 1908 to Harry L. McCoy
A souvenir spoon is a decorative spoon used to signify or hold a memory of a place or event, or to display as a 'trophy' of having been there. The spoons may be made from a number of different materials such as sterling silver, nickel, steel, and in some cases wood. They are often hung on a spoon rack and are typically ornamental, depicting sights, coat of arms, associated characters, etc. The year the spoon was made may be inscribed in the bowl, or on the back. The entire spoon, including the bowl, handle, and finial may be used to convey the theme. The first souvenir spoons in the United States were made in 1890 by Galt & Bros., Inc. of Washington D.C., featuring the profile of George Washington. One year later, a souvenir Salem Witch spoon was made, and sold seven thousand copies. It was created by Daniel Low, a jeweler in Salem, Massachusetts, after he saw souvenir spoons on vacation in Germany. The Witch Spoon is given credit for starting the souvenir spoon hobby in the U.S.
Spoons can be played as a makeshift percussion instrument, or more specifically, an idiophone related to the castanets. "Playing the spoons" originated in Ireland as "playing the bones," in which the convex sides of a pair of sheep rib bones were rattled in the same way.
As percussion, spoons accompany fiddle playing and other folk sets. An example is seen in Midsomer Murders Series 6, episode 2, where Detective Sergeant Gavin Troy plays the spoons at a house party joining a fiddle player who is entertaining the guests. He uses the first technique. The guests also contribute percussion by hand clapping in time with the music.
The spoons in Greece, as a percussion instrument are known as koutalakia (Greek: κουταλακια), which means also, spoon. The dancers hold the wooden koutalakia, to accompany with a variety of knocks their dance rhythms. The most of them, are very beautifully sculpted or painted.
In the United States spoons as instrument are associated with American folk music, minstrelsy, and jug and spasm bands. These musical genres make use of other everyday objects as instruments, such as the washboard and the jug. In addition to common tableware, musical instrument suppliers
A bain-marie (pronounced: [bɛ̃ maʁi]; also known as a water bath in English, Italian: bagno maria, [ˈbaɲːo maˈɾia], Portuguese: banho-maria or Spanish: baño maría) is a French term for a piece of equipment used in science, industry, and cooking to heat materials gently and gradually to fixed temperatures, or to keep materials warm over a period of time.
The bain-marie comes in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and types, but traditionally is a wide, cylindrical, usually metal container made of three or four basic parts: a handle, an outer (or lower) container that holds the working liquid, an inner (or upper), smaller container that fits inside the outer one and which holds the material to be heated or cooked, and sometimes a base underneath. Under the outer container of the bain-marie (or built into its base) is a heat source.
Typically the inner container is immersed about halfway into the working liquid.
The smaller container, filled with the substance to be heated, fits inside the outer container, filled with the working liquid (usually water), and the whole is heated at, or below, the base, causing the temperature of the materials in both containers to rise as needed. The
The word freezer is generally used to describe an appliance that keeps foods frozen. Freezers are common as household units for storing food but are also used in commercial settings. Most Freezers operate around -18ￂﾰC (0ￂﾰF).
Domestic freezers can be included with a refrigerator or can be stand alone units. Domestic freezers are generally upright units, resembling a refrigerator, or a chest, which resemble an upright unit laid on its back.
Early refrigerator models (1916 and on) featured a cold compartment for ice cube trays. Successful processing of fresh vegetables through freezing began in the late 1920s by the Postum Company (the forerunner of General Foods) which had acquired the technology when it bought the rights to Clarence Birdseye￢ﾀﾙs successful fresh freezing methods.
The first successful example of the benefits of frozen foods occurred when General Foods heiress Marjorie Merriweather Post (then wife of Joseph E. Davies, United States Ambassador to the Soviet Union ) deployed commercial grade freezers to Spasso House (US Embassy) in Moscow in advance of the Davies￢ﾀﾙ arrival. Post, fearful of the food processing safety observed in the USSR, then fully stocked
Parchment paper and bakery release paper are cellulose-based papers that are used in baking as a disposable non-stick surface. Both are also called bakery paper.
Modern parchment paper is made by running sheets of paper pulp through a bath of sulfuric acid (a method similar to how tracing paper is made) or sometimes zinc chloride. This process partially dissolves or gelatinizes the paper, a process which is reversed by washing the chemicals off followed by drying. This treatment forms a sulfurized cross-linked material with high density, stability, and heat resistance, and low surface energy – thereby imparting good non-stick or release properties. The treated paper has an appearance similar to that of traditional parchment.
The stickless properties can be also achieved by employing a coated paper, for which a suitable release agent — a coating with a low surface energy and capability to withstand the temperatures involved in the baking or roasting process — is deposited onto the paper's surface; silicone (cured with a suitable catalyst) is frequently used.
A common use is to eliminate the need to grease sheet pans and the like, allowing very rapid turn-around of batches of baked
A pastry brush, also known as a basting brush, is a cooking utensil used to spread oil or glaze on food. Traditional pastry brushes are made with natural bristles or a plastic or nylon fiber similar to a paint brush, while modern kitchen brushes may have silicone bristles. In baking breads and pastries, a pastry brush is used to spread a glaze or egg wash on the crust or surface of the food. In roasting meats, a pastry brush may be used to sop up juices or drippings from under pan and spread them on the surface of the meat to crisp the skin.
A potato masher or bean masher is a food preparation utensil used to crush soft food for such dishes as mashed potatoes, apple sauce, or refried beans.
The potato masher consists of an upright or sideways handle connected to a mashing head. The head is most often a large-gauge wire in a rounded zig-zag shape, or a plate with holes or slits. Basic designs made from a single piece of wood were used in Victorian times, before the more complex modern designs which are now used. The original design was patented by Lee Copeman in 1847. The idea resulted from his love of smooth, lump-free mashed potatoes.
Potato mashers are used to mash a variety of foods, but most often potatoes, hence the name. They are normally used in a home kitchen, but also may be used in commercial kitchens. Commercial mashers are often of larger design (up to 32 inches in base width). Other common uses include mashing pumpkins and rutabagas for soup, making hummus, guacamole, chili, baking mix, egg salad, or even purées (depending on the fineness of the ridges).
In common usage, a scoop is any specialized spoon used to serve food.
In the technical terms used by the food service industry and in the retail and wholsale food utensil industries, there is a clear distinction between two types of scoop: the disher, which is used to serve ice cream, measure a portion e.g. cookie dough, or to make melon balls; and the scoop which is used to measure or to transfer an unspecified amount of a bulk dry foodstuff such as rice, flour, or sugar.
Dishers are usually hemispherical like an ice cream scoop, while measuring scoops are usually cylindrical, and transfer scoops are usually shovel-shaped.
Some dishers have mechanical devices which help get the contents out of the scoop. Some ice cream scoops are liquid-filled to keep the ice cream from freezing to the scoop's metal. Traditionally dishers are sized by the number of scoops per quart but may also be sized by ounces, the diameter of the bowl, or the number of tablespoons they hold.
A tamis (pronounced "tammy", also known as a drum sieve, or chalni in Indian cooking) is a kitchen utensil, shaped somewhat like a snare drum, that acts as a strainer, grater, or food mill. A tamis has a cylindrical edge, made of metal or wood, that supports a disc of fine metal, nylon, or horsehair mesh. To use one, the cook places the tamis above a bowl and adds the ingredient to be strained in the center of the mesh. The food is then pushed through using a scraper or pestle. Tamises were invented in the Middle Ages.
Because the tamis' mesh is flat, downward pressure can be applied with little effort simply by scraping with a horizontal motion. In comparison, a chef using a chinoise must push down through the tip. A tamis should be used with the inner hoop uppermost, first because it holds more, and second so that the bowl below will rest on the hoop rather than the mesh. Tamises sift and grate ingredients finer than any other utensil, and the texture of the strained material is evenly consistent.
Tamises range in size from 6 to 16 inches (15 to 41 cm) and the mesh is available in different gauges. The nylon mesh is more resilient than wire and keeps its shape better. It is the
A lame (pronounced "lahm") is a double-sided blade that is used to slash the tops of bread loaves in artisan baking. A lame is used to score (also called slashing or docking) bread just before the bread is placed in the oven. Often the blade's cutting edge will be slightly concave-shaped, which allows users to cut flaps (called shag) considerably thinner than would be possible with a traditional straight razor.
A slash on the loaf's surface allows the dough to properly expand in the oven without tearing the skin or crust and also allows moisture to escape from the loaf. It also releases some of the gas, mainly carbon dioxide, that is trapped inside the dough. Proper scoring also allows the baker to control exactly where the loaf will open or bloom. This significantly improves the appearance of baked breads. Scoring, finally, creates varieties in forms and appearance. It brings out the bread baker's artistic talent, allowing a unique signature.
A salt spoon is a miniature utensil used with an open salt cellar for individual service. It is an historical and nostalgic item from a time before table salt was free-flowing, as it is today. The spoon itself ranges from 2 to 3 inches (5 to 7.5 cm) long and has a circular bowl measuring approximately 0.5 to 0.75 inches (1.25 to 2 cm). They can be found in a wide range of materials including glass, Sterling silver, plastic, wood, ivory, bone and shell.
Salt absorbs moisture from its surroundings, and had a tendency to clump together into one large lump. The head of the household usually presided over the distribution of salt at the dining table. This lump of salt was placed into a small dish, called by various names - open salt, salt cellar, Table salt. Today we also refer to these as Master salts. It was then broken up with a knife handle or other utensil and placed into smaller, individual salt cellars, often matching the larger one in design. Since it was such a precious seasoning, only small portions were given to each person at the table. The food was either dipped into the small individual salt cellars or was scooped out with the small salt spoons and sprinkled over the
A skewer is a thin metal or wood stick used to hold pieces of food together. They are used while grilling or roasting meats, and in other culinary applications.
Metal skewers are typically stainless steel and will have a pointed tip on one end and a grip of some kind on the other end for ease of removing the food. When grilling, wooden skewers must be soaked to avoid burning. Wooden skewers are often made from bamboo; however, other woods may be used.
Small, often decorative, skewers of glass, metal, wood or bamboo known as "olive picks" are used for garnishes on cocktails and other alcoholic beverages.
Many types of snack food are sold and served "on a stick" or skewer, especially at outdoor markets, fairs, and sidewalk or roadside stands.
A tomato knife is a small serrated kitchen knife designed to slice through tomatoes. The serrated edge allows the knife to penetrate the tomatoes’ skin quickly and with a minimum of pressure without crushing the flesh. Many tomato knives have forked tips that allow the user to lift and move the tomato slices after they have been cut.
Serrations are not required to cut tomatoes – a sharp straight blade works – but the serrations allow the knife to cut tomatoes and other foods even when dull. The reason for this being most of the cutting takes place in the serrations themselves. Some knives have serrations on both sides allowing easy slicing for both left-handed and right-handed users. Compare bread knife and steak knife, which are similarly serrated.
Cheesecloth is a loose-woven gauze-like cotton cloth used primarily in cheese making and cooking.
Cheesecloth is available in at least seven different grades, from open to extra-fine weave. Grades are distinguished by the number of threads per inch in each direction.
The primary use of cheesecloth is in some styles of cheesemaking, where it is used to remove whey from cheese curds, and to help hold the curds together as the cheese is formed. Cheesecloth is also used in straining stocks and custards, bundling herbs, making tofu, and thickening yogurt. Queso blanco and queso fresco are Spanish and Mexican cheeses that are made from whole milk using cheesecloth. Quark is a type of German unsalted cheese that is sometimes formed with cheesecloth. Paneer is a kind of South Asian fresh cheese that is commonly made with cheesecloth.
Cheesecloth can also be used for several printmaking processes including lithography for wiping up gum arabic. In intaglio a heavily starched cheesecloth called tarlatan is used for wiping away excess ink from the printing surface.
Cheesecloth #60 is used in product safety and regulatory testing for potential fire hazards. Cheesecloth is wrapped tightly over
A Lovespoon is a wooden spoon decoratively carved that was traditionally presented as a gift of romantic intent. The spoon is normally decorated with symbols of love, and was intended to reflect the skill of the carver. Due to the intricate designs, lovespoons are no longer used as functioning spoons and are now decorative craft items.
The lovespoon is a traditional craft that dates back to the seventeenth century. Over generations, decorative carvings were added to the spoon and it lost its original practical use and became a treasured decorative item to be hung on a wall.
The earliest known dated lovespoon from Wales, displayed in the St Fagans National History Museum near Cardiff, is from 1667, although the tradition is believed to date back long before that. The earliest dated lovespoon worldwide originates from Germany, and is dated as 1664.
The lovespoon was given to a young woman by her suitor. It was important for the girl's father to see that the young man was capable of providing for the family and woodworking.
Sailors would often carve lovespoons during their long journeys, which is why anchors would often be incorporated into the carvings.
Certain symbols came to have
A muddling spoon is a long handled spoon used in bartending. It resembles an iced tea spoon, but typically has a smaller head. Muddling spoons are not the same as muddlers, though both are used to make mixed (typically) alcoholic drinks.
There are several types of kitchen implements which are termed scrapers. They can be made of metal, plastics such as polyethylene, nylon, or polypropylene, wood, rubber or silicone rubber. In practice, one type of scraper is often interchanged with another or with a spatula (thus scrapers are often called spatulas) for some of the various uses.
Bowl scrapers are, as the name suggests, used to remove material from mixing bowls. Often, a plate scraper is used for this purpose, particularly since the long handle allows it to be used to remove contents of bowls as well as jars, such as mayonnaise jars; however, for bowls, dedicated scrapers are available, lacking the handle, and consisting of a flat, flexible piece of plastic or silicone rubber sized for convenient holding with the palm and fingers, with a curved edge to match the curvature of the average bowl. The degree of curvature can vary from a slight curvature along one edge of a rectangle, to a complex shape composed of changing radii to adapt better to bowls of different sizes. Sometimes a hole is provided in one corner, to allow for hanging the utensil, as well as for placement of the thumb to allow for more secure grip.
A blender is a kitchen and laboratory appliance used to mix, puree, or emulsify food and other substances. A stationary blender consists of a blender jar with blade at the bottom, rotated by a motor in the base. The newer immersion blender configuration has a motor on top connected by a shaft to a blade at the bottom, which can be used with any container.
The blending container can be made of glass, plastic, stainless steel, or porcelain, and often has graduated markings for approximate measuring purposes. In cases where the blades are removable, the container should have an o-ring or gasket between the body of the container and the base to seal the container and prevent the contents from leaking. The blending container is generally shaped in a way that encourages material to circulate through the blades, rather than simply spinning around.
The container rests upon a base that contains a motor for turning the blade assembly and has controls on its surface. Most modern blenders offer a number of possible speeds. Low-powered blenders require some liquid to be added for the blender to operate correctly. This is because the lid is used to move the solids around the jar and bring it in
A knife (plural knives) is a cutting tool with an exposed cutting edge or blade, hand-held or otherwise, with or without a handle. Knife-like tools were used at least two-and-a-half million years ago, as evidenced by the Oldowan tools. Originally made of rock, flint, and obsidian, knives have evolved in construction as technology has, with blades being made from bronze, copper, iron, steel, ceramics, and titanium. Many cultures have their unique version of the knife. Due to its role as humankind's first tool, certain cultures have attached spiritual and religious significance to the knife.
Most modern-day knives follow either a fixed-blade or a folding construction style, with blade patterns and styles as varied as their makers and countries of origin.
Today, knives come in many forms but can be generally categorized between two broad types: fixed blade knives and folding, or pocket knives.
Modern knives consist of a blade (1) and handle (2). The blade edge can be plain or serrated or a combination of both. The handle, used to grip and manipulate the blade safely, may include the tang, a portion of the blade that extends into the handle. Knives are made with partial tangs
A lemon reamer (sometimes, a "citrus reamer" or simply a "reamer") is a small kitchen utensil used to extract the juice from a lemon or other small citrus fruit.
It consists at one end of a convexly tapered conical blade, with deep straight troughs running the length of the blade. The very tip of the blade is often a smooth spike. The other end is a cylindrical handle. The blade may be made of wood, plastic, or metal. The simplest reamers, which many consider the best, are solid pieces of milled and carved soft wood.
To use a reamer, the user first slices a chosen fruit in half with a knife along its equatorial midsection. Grasping the fruit in one hand and the reamer in the other, the user first pierces the exposed flesh of the fruit with the tip of the reamer blade, then grinds out the inside with a twisting wrist motion until nearly all of the juice is extracted. This dislodges the seeds and some amount of pith, so the juice must generally be strained before use.
Reamers are prized for their simplicity, durability, safety, high yield, ease of use and cleaning, and low cost relative to other juice extractors.
A zester (also, citrus zester or lemon zester) is a kitchen utensil for obtaining zest from lemons and other citrus fruit. A kitchen zester is approximately four inches long, with a handle and a curved metal end, the top of which is perforated with a row of round holes with sharpened rims. To operate, the zester is pressed with moderate force against the fruit and drawn across its peel. The rims cut the zest from the pith underneath. The zest is cut into ribbons, one drawn through each hole.
Other tools are also sometimes called zesters because they too are able to separate the zest from a citrus fruit. For example, when Microplane discovered that its surform type wood rasps had become popular as food graters and zesters, it adapted the woodworking tools and marketed them as "zester / graters".
Media related to Zesters at Wikimedia Commons
Scissors are hand-operated cutting instruments. They consist of a pair of metal blades pivoted so that the sharpened edges slide against each other when the handles (bows) opposite to the pivot are closed. Scissors are used for cutting various thin materials, such as paper, cardboard, metal foil, thin plastic, cloth, rope, and wire. Scissors can also be used to cut hair and food. Scissors and shears are functionally equivalent, but larger implements tend to be called shears.
There are many types of scissors and shears for different purposes. For example, children's scissors, used only on paper, have dull blades and rounded corners to ensure safety. Scissors used to cut hair or fabric must be much sharper. The largest shears used to cut metal or to trim shrubs must have very strong, sharp blades.
Specialized scissors include sewing scissors, which often have one sharp point and one blunt point for intricate cutting of fabric, and nail scissors, which sometimes have curved blades for cutting fingernails and toenails.
Special kinds of shears include pinking shears, which have notched blades that cut cloth to give it a wavy edge, and thinning shears, which have teeth that cut every
Sheet pans, baking trays or baking sheets are flat, rectangular metal pans used in an oven. They are often used for baking bread rolls, pastries and flat products such as cookies, sheet cakes, and swiss rolls.
These pans, like all bakeware, can be made of a variety of materials, but are primarily aluminum or stainless steel. The most basic sheet pan is literally a sheet of metal. Common additional features that may be found in sheet pans include a lip on one or more edges to prevent food from sliding off, handles to aid in placing the pan into the oven, and removing it again, or a layer of insulation or air (air bake pan) designed to protect delicate food from burning.
A sheet pan that has a continuous lip around all four sides may be called a jelly roll pan. A pan that has at least one side flat, so that it is easy to slide the baked product off the end, may be called a cookie sheet.
Professional sheet pans used in commercial kitchens typically are made of aluminum, with a (1", 2,5 cm) raised lip around the edge, and come in standard sizes. The full-size sheet pan is 26 by 18 inches, which is too large for most home ovens. A two thirds sheet pan (also referred to as a three
A spoon is a utensil consisting of a small shallow bowl, oval or round, at the end of a handle. A type of cutlery (sometimes called flatware in the United States), especially as part of a place setting, it is used primarily for serving. Spoons are also used in food preparation to measure, mix, stir and toss ingredients. Present day spoons can be made from metal (notably flat silver or silverware, plated or solid), wood, porcelain or plastic.
Preserved examples of various forms of spoons used by the ancient Egyptians include those composed of ivory, flint, slate and wood; many of them carved with religious symbols. During the Neolithic Ozieri civilization in Sardinia, ceramic ladles and spoons were already in use. Ancient Indian texts also refer to the use of spoons. For example, the Rigveda refers to spoons during a passage describing the reflection of light as it "touches the spoon's mouth" (RV 8.43.10). The spoons of the Greeks and Romans were chiefly made of bronze and silver and the handle usually takes the form of a spike or pointed stem. There are many examples in the British Museum from which the forms of the various types can be ascertained, the chief points of difference
A weighing scale (usually just "scales" in UK and Australian English, "weighing machine" in south Asian English or "scale" in US English) is a measuring instrument for determining the weight or mass of an object.
A spring scale measures weight by the distance a spring deflects under its load. A balance compares the torque on the arm due to the sample weight to the torque on the arm due to a standard reference weight using a horizontal lever. Balances are different from scales, in that a balance measures mass (or more specifically gravitational mass), where as a scale measures weight (or more specifically, either the tension or compression force of constraint provided by the scale). Weighing scales are used in many industrial and commercial applications, and products from feathers to loaded tractor-trailers are sold by weight. Specialized medical scales and bathroom scales are used to measure the body weight of human beings.
The balance scale is such a simple device that its usage likely far predates the evidence. What has allowed archaeologists to link artifacts to weighing scales are the stones for determining absolute weight. The balance scale itself was probably used to
A mortar and pestle is a tool used to crush, grind, and mix solid substances (trituration). The mortar is a bowl, typically made of hard wood, ceramic or stone. The pestle is a heavy club-shaped object, the end of which is used for crushing and grinding.The substance to be ground is placed in the mortar and ground, crushed or mixed with the pestle. Sometimes referred to as an "Apothecary Grinder" by individuals unfamiliar with its use, the proper historical name is "mortar and pestle".
The English word mortar derives from classical Latin mortarium, meaning, among several other usages, "receptacle for pounding" and "product of grinding or pounding". The classical Latin pistillum, meaning "pounder", led to English pestle. The Roman poet Juvenal applied both mortarium and pistillum to articles used in the preparation of drugs, reflecting the early use of the mortar and pestle as a pharmacist's or apothecary's symbol. The antiquity of these tools is well documented in early literature, such as the Egyptian Ebers Papyrus of ~1550 BCE (the oldest preserved piece of medical literature) and the Old Testament (Numbers 11:8 and Proverbs 27:22).
Mortars and pestles were traditionally used in
Used in recipes:Braised Brussels Sprouts with Bacon
Cast iron cookware has excellent heat retention properties and can be produced and formed with a relatively low level of technology. Seasoning is used to protect bare cast iron from rust and to create a non-stick surface.
Types of bare cast-iron cookware include panini presses, waffle irons, crepe makers, dutch ovens, frying pans, deep fryers, tetsubin, woks, potjies, karahi, flattop grills and griddles.
Bare cast-iron vessels have been used for cooking for hundreds of years. Cast iron cauldrons and cooking pots were treasured as kitchen items for their durability and their ability to retain heat, thus improving the quality of cooking meals. Before the introduction of the kitchen stove in the middle of the 19th century, meals were cooked in the hearth or fireplace, and cooking pots and pans were designed for use in the hearth. This meant that all cooking vessels had to be designed to be suspended on, or in, a fireplace. Cast iron pots were made with handles to allow them to be hung over a fire, or with legs so that they could stand up in the fireplace. In addition to dutch ovens, which were developed with the onset of the Industrial Revolution, a commonly used cast iron cooking pan
A pastry bag (or piping bag in the Commonwealth) is an often cone- or triangular-shaped, hand-held bag made from cloth, paper, or plastic that is used to pipe semi-solid foods by pressing them through a narrow opening at one end, for many purposes including cake decoration. It is filled through a wider opening at the opposite end, rolled or twisted closed, and then squeezed to extrude its contents.
Though a circular nozzle is quite useful for making round shapes and for filling pastries such as profiteroles, many differently-shaped nozzles are commonly used to produce star, leaf, and flower-petal shapes.
Aside from icing, pastry bags are commonly used to shape meringue and whipped cream, and to fill doughnuts with jelly or custard. They are used to form cream puffs, éclairs, and ladyfingers. When presentation is especially important, fluted tips can be used to shape savory foods such as filling for deviled eggs, whipped butter, and mashed potatoes (especially for Pommes duchesse).
A high-quality reusable bag is often made from tightly woven nylon, polyester, rubber or waterproofed cotton. Medium quality bags are similar, except they are not so tightly woven and may let some
The modern version was invented during the early 20th century in Norway. The cheese slicer's mass production started in 1927. The design was based on the carpenter's plane.
This style of slicer is very common in the Nordic countries, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, France, and Switzerland. The success of the cheese slicer in these countries is based on the fact that cheese is eaten mainly sliced, on bread and that the most traditional cheese varieties in these countries are hard enough to be sliced.
A stock pot is larger than a sauce pan, containing 2 handles on either side with a taller height to allow large cuts of meat, vegetables and perhaps a soup base or gumbo to boil without worrying about the liquid boiling over the rim during periods of high heat. Typically used to reduce (slightly thicken) the broth or stock (water) for soups from poultry and meats.
Food storage containers are widespread in use throughout the world and have probably been in use since the first human civilisations.
In early civilizations cereal grains such as maize, wheat, barley etc. were stored in large airy buildings, often raised up from the ground to reduce infestation by pests and vermin. Egyptian and early Hebrew writings include reference to such buildings and their successors can still be seen in use in less developed countries and regions.
Smaller quantities of food were stored in baskets made from woven grasses or leaves and such designs have remained in use to the current day.
In the modern developed world, a very wide range of food packaging and containers is now available made from many different materials.
Many products use low density polyethylene formed into plastic bags or plastic boxes. There are a large number of manufactures and ranges of plastic boxes some such as Tupperware and Lock&Lock are known throughout much of the developed world.
Longer term storage or storage of items needing a higher degree of protection from the elements may use sheet metal. A common form of such storage is the biscuit tin.
Perhaps the most ubiquitous domestic
Artis the Spoonman (born October 3, 1948, Kodiak, Alaska) is an American street performer from Seattle, Washington, who uses spoons as a musical instrument.
He frequents the Pike Place Market accompanying singer/songwriter and guitarist Jim Page with his collection of spoons of different shapes and sizes and materials spread out on a blanket. To the larger public, he is probably best known for his collaborations with Soundgarden and Frank Zappa.
Artis had been active since 1972 as a street artist when he had his first collaboration with a major artist, appearing on stage with Frank Zappa in Eugene, Oregon, and at New York's Palladium, in 1981. Artis appeared on stage, in his own right, at the 1988 Seattle Bumbershoot music and arts festival.
In 1994, an NPR's Morning Edition focused on him and his artistic rejection of material values. His song "Wake Up Call" opened the 1994 compilation Northwest Post-Grunge.
In the same year, he recorded "Spoonman" with Soundgarden, a song named for and featuring Artis. He played the spoons in the song and appeared in the music video. On their 1994 tour, he opened up for the band in New York City. The single charted at number three on the US
A barbecue grill is a device for cooking food by applying heat directly from below. There are several varieties of such grills, with most falling into one of two categories: gas-fueled and charcoal. There is a great debate over the merits of charcoal or gas for use as the cooking method between barbecue grillers.
Barbecuing is a pervasive tradition in much of the world. Almost all competition grillers use charcoal, most often in large, custom designed brick or steel grills. They can range from a few 55 gallon oil drums sawed lengthwise on their sides to make a lid and grill base, to large, vehicle sized grills made of brick, weighing nearly a ton.
Grilling existed in the Americas since pre-colonial times. The Arawak people used a wooden structure to roast meat on, which was called barbacoa in Spanish. For some time, the word referred to the wooden structure and not the act of grilling, but this word was eventually applied to the pit style cooking techniques used in the Southeastern United States. Originally used to slow cook hogs, different ways of preparing the food lead to regional variations. In time, other food were cooked in a similar fashion, with hamburgers and hot dogs
A banneton is a type of basket used to proof sourdough breads. Traditionally these baskets are made out of cane, but many modern proofing baskets are made out of silicone. Frequently baneton will have a cloth liner to prevent dough from sticking to the sides of the basket. These baskets are used both to provide the loaf with shape and to wick moisture from the crust. Banneton baskets are also known as Bratform or proofing baskets.
A dough scraper is a tool used by bakers to manipulate dough and to clean surfaces on which dough has been worked. It is generally a small sheet of stainless steel (approximately 3"×5" or 8 cm × 13 cm) with a handle of wood, plastic, or simply a roll in the steel blade along one of the long sides.
Bakers and pastry chefs use this tool to help pick up, turn, and portion dough. When finished, the dough scraper can be used to scrape up the little bits of dough that have dried onto the kneading surface during the forming process. It can also be used in a more generic kitchen role to transfer sliced or diced foods from cutting board to pan.
This tool is known by a variety of names, including dough scraper, dough cutter, dough knife, pastry cutter, bench scraper, board scraper, and bench knife.
Some modern varieties of this tool have handles of nylon or silicone and even feature both straight and curved edges. These are intended primarily for the use of scraping cutting boards and bowls rather than working dough. These uses have introduced further variants of the name, including terms such as bowl scraper or chopper, scooper, scraper.
A bread making machine or bread maker is a home appliance for baking bread. It consists of a bread pan (or "tin"), at the bottom of which are one or more built-in paddles, mounted in the center of a small special-purpose oven. This small oven is usually controlled by a simple built-in computer, the settings for which are inputted at a control panel. Most bread machines have different cycles for different kinds of dough—including white bread, whole grain, European-style (sometimes labelled "French"), and dough-only (for pizza dough and shaped loaves baked in a conventional oven). Many also have a timer to allow the bread machine to activate without operator attendance, and some high-end models allow the user to program a custom cycle.
The first breadmaker was released in Japan in 1986 by the Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. (now Panasonic). A decade later they had become popular in the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States. While not viable for commercial use due to the fixed loaf shape and the limited duty cycle, bread machines are very suitable for home use, producing their best results when dealing with kneaded doughs.
To create a loaf of bread, ingredients are
A candy thermometer, also known as a sugar thermometer, is a thermometer used to measure the temperature and therefore the stage of a cooking sugar solution. (See Candy for a description of sugar stages.) These thermometers can also be used to measure hot oil for deep frying.
There are several kinds of candy thermometers available. These include traditional liquid thermometers, coil spring "dial" thermometers and digital thermometers. The digital thermometers tend to read the temperature more quickly and accurately, and some models have an alarm when the thermometer hits a certain temperature. Many models have markers for the various stages of sugar cooking.
A candy thermometer is similar to a meat thermometer except that it can read higher temperatures (usually 400 °F/200 °C or more).
A dough mixer is an appliance used for household or industrial purposes. It is used for kneading large quantities of dough. It is electrical, having timers and various controls to suit the user's needs. Some of the special features are:
An iced tea spoon, also called a soda spoon, is a thin spoon with a very long handle. It is used primarily in the United States, for stirring sugar or other sweeteners into iced tea, which is traditionally served in a tall glass. This is why the spoon has a very long handle.
It is also commonly used for eating ice cream, especially floats and sundaes. As these desserts are usually served in tall glasses, regular teaspoons or dessert spoons become inconvenient choices due to their limited reach.
A peel is a shovel-like tool used by bakers to slide loaves of bread, pizzas, pastries, and other baked goods into and out of an oven. It is usually made of wood, with a flat carrying surface (like a shovel's blade) for holding the baked good and a handle extending from one side of that surface. Alternatively, the carrying surface may be made of sheet metal, which is attached to a wooden handle. Wood however, has the advantage if it is frequently in the oven, that it does not become hot enough to burn hands like metal can. The word presumably derives from the French pelle, which describes both a peel and a shovel.
A peel's intended functions are to:
Prior to use, peels are often sprinkled with flour, cornmeal, or milled wheat bran, to allow baked goods to easily slide onto and off them.
There are peels of many sizes, with the length of the handle suited to the depth of the oven, and the size of the carrying surface suited to the size of the food it is meant to carry (for instance, slightly larger than the diameter of a pizza). Household peels commonly have handles around 15 cm long and carrying surfaces around 35 cm square, though handles range in length from vestigial (~6
A peeler (potato peeler or apple peeler) is a metal blade attached to a wooden, metal or plastic handle that is used to remove the outer skin or peel thus peeling certain vegetables, frequently potatoes, and fruits such as apples, pears, et cetera.
There are four main varieties, with preferences between those very much an acquired taste.
The Lancashire and Econome designs involve the blade as an extension of a handle, in much the same way as the blade is attached to a knife. A right hander typically holds the potato in his left hand and holding the peeler in the fingers of the right hand and the top of the potato with the thumb of the right hand. The action then involves using the fingers of the right hand to pull the peeler's blade over the skin of the potato, turning it slightly so that it digs in and removes the potato skin, in a movement towards the right thumb. This also uses the grip of the right thumb to allow the movement of the fingers of the right hand to be based on the contraction of the right hand in a claw movement which is easier to accomplish than if the movement of the right fingers were to be controlled by the right arm or wrist.
Left-handed people usually
The English language expression silver spoon is synonymous with wealth, especially inherited wealth; someone born into a wealthy family is said to have "been born with a silver spoon in his mouth". As an adjective, "silver-spoon" describes someone who has a prosperous background or is of a well-to-do family environment. In Australia the expression "silvertail" is also used, although it has an almost identical meaning. It has been used in cultural or political situations to describe someone as aristocratic or out of touch with the common people.
Before the place setting became popular around 1700, people brought their own spoons to the table, carrying them in the same way that people today carry wallet and keys. In pre-modern times, ownership of a silver spoon was an indication of social class, denoting membership in the land-owning classes. In the Middle Ages, when farmers and craftsmen worked long hours and frequently got dirt under their fingernails, it was important to not be mistaken for a serf or escaped slave. Under these circumstances, a silver spoon served the functional equivalent of passport, driving licence, and credit card. Since most members of the land-owning classes
A teaspoon, an item of cutlery, is a small spoon, commonly part of a silverware (usually silver plated, German silver or now, stainless steel) place setting, suitable for stirring and sipping the contents of a cup of tea or coffee. Utilitarian versions are used for measuring.
Teaspoons with longer handles, such as iced tea spoons, are commonly used also for ice cream desserts or floats. Similar spoons include the tablespoon and the dessert spoon, the latter intermediate in size between a teaspoon and a tablespoon, used in eating dessert and sometimes soup or cereals. Much less common is the coffee spoon, which is a smaller version of the teaspoon. Another teaspoon, called an orange spoon (in American English: grapefruit spoon), tapers to a sharp point or teeth, and is used to separate citrus fruits from their membranes. A bar spoon, equivalent to a teaspoon, is used in measuring ingredients for mixed drinks.
A container designed to hold extra teaspoons, called a spooner, usually in a set with a covered sugar container, formed a part of Victorian table service.
The teaspoon is first mentioned in an advertisement in an 1686 edition of the London Gazette.
In some countries, a teaspoon
A trivet ( /ˈtrɪvɨt/) is an object placed between a serving dish or bowl, and a dining table, usually to protect the table from heat or water damage.
Trivet also refers to a tripod used to elevate pots from the coals of an open fire (the word trivet itself ultimately comes from Latin tripes meaning "tripod"). Metal trivets are often tripod-like structures with three legs to support the trivet horizontally in order to hold the dish or pot above the table surface. These are often included with modern non-electric pressure cookers. A trivet may often contain a receptacle for a candle that can be lit to keep food warm.
A three-legged design is optimal because it eliminates wobbling on uneven surfaces.
Modern trivets are made from metal, wood, ceramic, fabric, silicone or cork.
A waffle iron is a cooking appliance used to make waffles. It usually consists of two hinged metal plates, molded to create the honeycomb pattern found on waffles. The iron is heated and either batter is poured or dough is placed between the plates, which are then closed to bake the waffle.
Traditional waffle irons are attached to tongs with wooden handles and are held over an open flame, or set on a stove. Most modern waffle irons are self-contained tabletop electrical appliances, heated by an electric heating element controlled by an internal thermostat. Professional waffle makers are usually made of cast-iron whereas domestic models are made of teflon instead. Many have a light that goes off when the iron is at the set temperature. Most modern waffle irons - particularly teflon and cast aluminum ones - are coated with a non-stick coating to prevent the waffles from sticking to them. Cast-iron waffle makers are usually not coated and require seasoning instead.
Modern waffle iron makers offer a large variety of choices. Some waffle irons can make a very thin waffle, capable of making waffle cones or Pizzelle. While there is no set standard of classification for waffle shapes or