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Best Cranial nerve of All Time

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    1
    Nodose ganglion

    Nodose ganglion

    The nodose ganglion (ganglion of the trunk; inferior ganglion of vagus nerve) is cylindrical in form, of a reddish color, and 2.5 cm (0.98 in) in length. It is located in the height of the transverse process of the first cervical vertebra (atlas). Passing through it is the cranial portion of the accessory nerve, which blends with the vagus below the ganglion. As opposed to the jugular ganglion of the vagus nerve, the inferior or nodose ganglion is larger. It is chiefly visceral afferent in function concerning sensation of heart, larynx, lungs and alimentary tract from the pharynx to the transverse colon. These visceral afferents synapse centrally in the nucleus solitarius. Both ganglia are traversed by parasympathetic, and perhaps some sympathetic fibres. Preganglionic motor fibres (ganglionic branches) from the dorsal vagal nucleus and the special visceral efferents from the nucleus ambiguus, which descend to the inferior vagal ganglion form a band skirting the ganglion. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.17
    6 votes
    2
    Lacrimal nerve

    Lacrimal nerve

    The lacrimal nerve is the smallest of the three branches of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. It sometimes receives a filament from the trochlear nerve, but this is possibly derived from the branch that goes from the ophthalmic to the trochlear nerve. It passes forward in a separate tube of dura mater, and enters the orbit through the narrowest part of the superior orbital fissure. In the orbit it runs along the upper border of the lateral rectus, with the lacrimal artery, and communicates with the zygomatic branch of the maxillary nerve. It enters the lacrimal gland and gives off several filaments, which supply sensory innervation to the gland and the conjunctiva. Then, it pierces the orbital septum, and ends in the skin of the upper eyelid, joining with filaments of the facial nerve. The lacrimal nerve is occasionally absent, and its place is then taken by the zygomaticotemporal branch of the maxillary nerve. Sometimes the latter branch is absent, and a continuation of the lacrimal nerve is substituted for it. It provides sensory innervations for the lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, and the lateral upper eyelids. The zygomatic nerve carries sensory fibers from the skin
    8.20
    5 votes
    3
    Buccal branch of the facial nerve

    Buccal branch of the facial nerve

    The Buccal Branches of the facial nerve (infraorbital branches), of larger size than the rest of the branches, pass horizontally forward to be distributed below the orbit and around the mouth. The superficial branches run beneath the skin and above the superficial muscles of the face, which they supply: some are distributed to the Procerus, joining at the medial angle of the orbit with the infratrochlear and nasociliary branches of the ophthalmic. The deep branches pass beneath the Zygomaticus and the Quadratus labii superioris, supplying them and forming an infraorbital plexus with the infraorbital branch of the maxillary nerve. These branches also supply the small muscles of the nose. The lower deep branches supply the Buccinator and Orbicularis oris, and join with filaments of the buccinator branch of the mandibular nerve. The facial nerve innervates the muscles of facial expression. The buccal branch supplies these muscles This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.60
    5 votes
    4
    Nerve of pterygoid canal

    Nerve of pterygoid canal

    The nerve of the pterygoid canal (Vidian nerve) is formed by the junction of the great petrosal nerve and the deep petrosal nerve within the pterygoid canal containing the cartilaginous substance which fills the foramen lacerum. It passes forward through the pterygoid canal with its corresponding artery (artery of the pterygoid canal) and is joined by a small ascending sphenoidal branch from the otic ganglion. It then enters the pterygopalatine fossa and joins the posterior angle of the pterygopalatine ganglion. The postganglionic parasympathetic fibers of the greater petrosal nerve, upon synapsing in the pterygopalatine ganglion, will distribute to the nose, palate, and lacrimal gland through various nerves leaving the pterygopalatine fossa. The vidian nerve does not fill the foramen lacerum. The deep and great petrosal nerves join together to form the vidian nerve, which passes over the foramen lacerum. It is commonly stated that nothing passes through the foramen lacerum, but a more detailed look shows that emissary veins enter here. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it
    9.00
    4 votes
    5
    Nasopalatine nerve

    Nasopalatine nerve

    One branch of the posterior superior nasal branches (Trigeminal nerve, Maxillary branch), longer and larger than the others, is named the nasopalatine nerve (sometimes called the long sphenopalatine nerve). It enters the nasal cavity through the sphenopalatine foramen, passes across the roof of the nasal cavity below the orifice of the sphenoidal sinus to reach the septum, and then runs obliquely downward and forward between the periosteum and mucous membrane of the lower part of the septum. It descends to the roof of the mouth through the incisive canal and communicates with the corresponding nerve of the opposite side and with the greater palatine nerve. It supplies the palatal structures around the upper central and lateral incisors and the canines (the upper front six teeth). It also furnishes a few filaments to the mucous membrane of the nasal septum. The medial superior posterior nasal branches of maxillary nerve usually branches from the nasopalatine nerve. It was first discovered by Domenico Cotugno. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.40
    5 votes
    6
    Posterior superior alveolar nerve

    Posterior superior alveolar nerve

    The posterior superior alveolar branches (posterior superior dental branches) arise from the trunk of the maxillary nerve just before it enters the infraorbital groove; they are generally two in number, but sometimes arise by a single trunk. They descend on the tuberosity of the maxilla and give off several twigs to the gums and neighboring parts of the mucous membrane of the cheek. They then enter the alveolar canals on the infratemporal surface of the maxilla, and, passing from behind forward in the substance of the bone, communicate with the middle superior alveolar nerve, and give off branches to the lining membrane of the maxillary sinus and gingival and dental branches to each molar tooth from a superior dental plexus; these branches enter the apical foramina at the roots of the teeth. The posterior superior alveolar nerve innervates the second and third maxillary molars, and two of the three roots of the maxillary first molar (all but the mesiobuccal root). When giving a Posterior Superior Alveolar nerve block, it will anesthetize the mesialbuccal root of the maxillary first molar approximately 72% of the time. This article was originally based on an entry from a public
    7.00
    5 votes
    7

    Semilunar ganglion

    The Semilunar Ganglion (or Gasserian ganglion, or trigeminal ganglion) occupies a cavity (Meckel's cave) in the dura mater covering the trigeminal impression near the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone. It is somewhat crescentic in shape, with its convexity directed forward: medially, it is in relation with the internal carotid artery and the posterior part of the cavernous sinus. The motor root runs in front of and medial to the sensory root, and passes beneath the ganglion; it leaves the skull through the foramen ovale, and, immediately below this foramen, joins the mandibular nerve. The greater superficial petrosal nerve lies also underneath the ganglion. The ganglion receives, on its medial side, filaments from the carotid plexus of the sympathetic. It give off minute branches to the tentorium cerebelli, and to the dura mater in the middle fossa of the cranium. From its convex border, which is directed forward and lateralward, three large nerves proceed, viz., the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular. The ophthalmic and maxillary consist exclusively of sensory fibers; the mandibular is joined outside the cranium by the motor root.
    8.25
    4 votes
    8
    Frontal nerve

    Frontal nerve

    The frontal nerve is the largest branch of the ophthalmic nerve(V1), and may be regarded, both from its size and direction, as the continuation of the nerve. It enters the orbit through the superior orbital fissure, not running within the tendinous ring, and runs forward between the Levator palpebræ superioris and the periosteum. Midway between the apex and base of the orbit it divides into two branches, supratrochlear nerve and supraorbital nerve. It provides the sensory innervations for the skin of the forehead, mucosa of frontal sinus, and the skin of the upper eyelid via General Somatic Afferent (GSA) fibers. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.75
    4 votes
    9
    Pharyngeal nerve

    Pharyngeal nerve

    The pharyngeal nerve (pterygopalatine nerve) is a small branch arising from the posterior part of the pterygopalatine ganglion. It passes through the palatovaginal canal with the pharyngeal branch of the maxillary nerve, and is distributed to the mucous membrane of the nasal part of the pharynx, behind the auditory tube. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.75
    4 votes
    10
    Vagus nerve

    Vagus nerve

    The vagus nerve ( /ˈveɪɡəs/ VAY-gəs), also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X, is the tenth of twelve (excluding CN0) paired cranial nerves. Upon leaving the medulla between the medullary pyramid and the inferior cerebellar peduncle, it extends through the jugular foramen, then passing into the carotid sheath between the internal carotid artery and the internal jugular vein down below the head, to the neck, chest and abdomen, where it contributes to the innervation of the viscera. Besides output to the various organs in the body, the vagus nerve conveys sensory information about the state of the body's organs to the central nervous system. 80-90% of the nerve fibers in the vagus nerve are afferent (sensory) nerves communicating the state of the viscera to the brain. The medieval Latin word vagus means literally "wandering" (the words vagrant, vagabond, and vague come from the same root). Sometimes the branches are spoken of in the plural and are thus called vagi (/ˈveɪdʒaɪ/, US dict: vā′·jī). The vagus is also called the pneumogastric nerve since it innervates both the lungs and the stomach. The motor division of the vagus nerve is derived from the basal plate of the
    7.75
    4 votes
    11
    Supraorbital nerve

    Supraorbital nerve

    The supraorbital nerve is a terminal branch of the frontal nerve. It passes through the supraorbital foramen, and gives off, in this situation, palpebral filaments to the upper eyelid. Additionally it supplies the conjunctiva of the eye, the frontal sinus and the skin from the forehead extending back to the middle of the scalp. It then ascends upon the forehead, and ends in two branches, a medial and a lateral, which supply the integument of the scalp, reaching nearly as far back as the lambdoidal suture; they are at first situated beneath the Frontalis: Both branches supply small twigs to the pericranium. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.40
    5 votes
    12
    Middle superior alveolar nerve

    Middle superior alveolar nerve

    The middle superior alveolar nerve is a nerve that drops from the infraorbital portion of the maxillary nerve to supply the sinus mucosa, the roots of the maxillary premolars, and the mesiobuccal root of the first maxillary molar. It is not always present; and in the majority of cases it is non existent with the posterior superior alveolar nerve innervating the premolars and molars alone.
    7.50
    4 votes
    13
    Cervical branch of the facial nerve

    Cervical branch of the facial nerve

    The cervical branch of the facial nerve runs forward beneath the Platysma, and forms a series of arches across the side of the neck over the suprahyoid region. One branch descends to join the cervical cutaneous nerve from the cervical plexus; others supply the Platysma. Also supplies the depressor anguli oris. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.67
    3 votes
    14
    External nasal nerve

    External nasal nerve

    The external nasal branches (or external nasal nerve) are terminal branches of the anterior ethmoidal nerves (from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, CN V), and provide sensory innervation to the skin of the side of the nose and of the septum mobile nasi. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    4 votes
    15
    Zygomatic nerve

    Zygomatic nerve

    The zygomatic nerve (temporomalar nerve; orbital nerve) is a branch of the maxillary nerve (a trigeminal nerve branch) that enters the orbit and helps to supply the skin over the zygomatic and temporal bones. The zygomatic nerve is not to be confused with the zygomatic branches of the facial nerve. The zygomatic nerve arises in the pterygopalatine fossa. It enters the orbit by the inferior orbital fissure, and divides at the back of that cavity into two branches, the zygomaticotemporal nerve and zygomaticofacial nerve. The zygomatic nerve carries sensory fibers from the skin. It also carries post-synaptic parasympathetic fibers (originating in the pterygopalatine ganglion) to the lacrimal nerve via a communication. These fibers will eventually provide innervation to the lacrimal gland.These parasympathetic fibers come from the facial cranial nerve which is the seventh CN. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    4 votes
    16
    Hypoglossal nerve

    Hypoglossal nerve

    The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve (XII), leading to the tongue. The nerve arises from the hypoglossal nucleus and emerges from the medulla oblongata in the preolivary sulcus separating the olive and the pyramid. It then passes through the hypoglossal canal. On emerging from the hypoglossal canal, it gives off a small meningeal branch and picks up a branch from the anterior ramus of C1. It spirals behind the vagus nerve and passes between the internal carotid artery and internal jugular vein lying on the carotid sheath. After passing deep to the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, it passes to the submandibular region, passes lateral to the Hyoglossus muscle, and inferior to the lingual nerve to reach and efferently innervate the tongue. It supplies motor fibres to all of the muscles of the tongue, except the palatoglossus muscle, which is innervated by the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) or, according to some classifications, by fibres from the glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX) that "hitchhike" within the vagus. It controls tongue movements of speech, food manipulation, and swallowing. The hypoglossal nerve is derived from the basal plate of the
    8.33
    3 votes
    17
    Accessory nerve

    Accessory nerve

    In anatomy, the accessory nerve is a nerve that controls specific muscles of the shoulder and neck. As part of it was formerly believed to originate in the brain, it is considered a cranial nerve. Based on its location relative to other such nerves, it is designated the eleventh of twelve cranial nerves, and is thus abbreviated CN XI. Traditional descriptions of the accessory nerve divide it into two parts: a spinal part and a cranial part. But because the cranial component rapidly joins the vagus nerve and serves the same function as other vagal nerve fibers, modern descriptions often consider the cranial component part of the vagus nerve and not part of the accessory nerve proper. Thus in contemporary discussions of the accessory nerve, the common practice is to dismiss the cranial part altogether, referring to the accessory nerve specifically as the spinal accessory nerve. The spinal accessory nerve provides motor innervation from the central nervous system to two muscles of the neck: the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the trapezius muscle. The sternocleidomastoid muscle tilts and rotates the head, while the trapezius muscle has several actions on the scapula, including shoulder
    6.75
    4 votes
    18
    Jugular ganglion

    Jugular ganglion

    The vagus presents a well-marked ganglionic enlargement, which is called the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve. It contains afferent somatosensory neuronal cell bodies that provide sensory information from the external auditory meatus (auricular branch), cranial meninges (meningeal branch), and the external surface of the tympanic membrane. Their central fibers synapse in the sensory trigeminal nucleus. It is of a grayish color, spherical in form, and about 4 mm. in diameter. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.75
    4 votes
    19
    Masseteric nerve

    Masseteric nerve

    The masseteric nerve passes laterally, above the Pterygoideus externus, in front of the temporomandibular articulation, and behind the tendon of the Temporalis; it crosses the mandibular notch with the masseteric artery, to the deep surface of the Masseter, in which it ramifies nearly as far as its anterior border. It is a branch of the mandibular nerve (V3). It gives a filament to the temporomandibular joint. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.00
    3 votes
    20
    Zygomatic branches of facial nerve

    Zygomatic branches of facial nerve

    The Zygomatic branches of the facial nerve (malar branches) run across the zygomatic bone to the lateral angle of the orbit, where they supply the Orbicularis oculi, and join with filaments from the lacrimal nerve and the zygomaticofacial branch of the maxillary nerve. To test the zygomatic branches of the facial nerve, a patient is asked to close their eyes tightly. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.00
    3 votes
    21
    Olfactory nerve

    Olfactory nerve

    The olfactory nerve, or cranial nerve I, is the first of twelve cranial nerves. It is instrumental in the sense of smell. Derived from the embryonic nasal placode, the olfactory nerve is capable of regeneration. The specialized olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory nerve are located in the olfactory mucosa of the upper parts of the nasal cavity. The olfactory nerves do not form two trunks as do the remaining cranial nerves. Rather, they consist of a collection of many sensory nerve fibers that extend from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb, passing through the many openings of the Cribriform plate of the Ethmoid bone, a sieve-like structure. Olfactory receptor neurons continue to be born throughout life and extend new axons to the olfactory bulb. Olfactory ensheathing glia wrap bundles of these axons and are thought to facilitate their passage into the central nervous system. The sense of smell (olfaction) arises from the stimulation of olfactory (or odorant) receptors by small molecules of different spatial, chemical, and electrical properties that pass over the nasal epithelium in the nasal cavity during inhalation. These interactions are transduced into
    6.50
    4 votes
    22
    Mandibular nerve

    Mandibular nerve

    The mandibular nerve (V3) is the largest of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve. It is made up of two roots: The two roots (sensory and motor) exit the middle cranial fossa through the foramen ovale. The two roots then combine. Immediately in the infratemporal fossa beneath the base of the skull, the nerve gives off two branches from its medial side: a recurrent branch (nervus spinosus) and the nerve to the medial pterygoid muscle. The mandibular nerve then divides into two trunks, an anterior and a posterior. The mandibular nerve gives off the following branches: The mandibular nerve also gives off branches to the otic ganglion The mandibular nerve innervates:
    9.50
    2 votes
    23

    Nerve to the stapedius

    The Nerve to the Stapedius (tympanic branch) arises opposite the pyramidal eminence. It passes through a small canal in this eminence to reach the muscle. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.67
    3 votes
    24
    Stylohyoid branch of facial nerve

    Stylohyoid branch of facial nerve

    In human neuroanatomy of the face, the stylohyoid branch of facial nerve frequently arises in conjunction with the digastric branch; it is long and slender, and enters the Stylohyoideus about its middle. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.67
    3 votes
    25
    Middle meningeal nerve

    Middle meningeal nerve

    The middle meningeal nerve (meningeal or dural branch) is given off from the maxillary nerve directly after its origin from the semilunar ganglion It accompanies the middle meningeal artery and supplies the dura mater. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    5.00
    5 votes
    26
    Deep temporal nerves

    Deep temporal nerves

    The deep temporal nerves, branches of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, are two in number, anterior and posterior. They pass above the upper border of the pterygoideus externus and enter the deep surface of the temporalis. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.00
    4 votes
    27
    Long root of the ciliary ganglion

    Long root of the ciliary ganglion

    The long root of the ciliary ganglion usually arises from the nasociliary between the two heads of the lateral rectus muscle. It is also called the nasociliary nerve's communicating branch to the ciliary ganglion. It passes forward on the lateral side of the optic nerve, and enters the posterosuperior angle of the ciliary ganglion; it is sometimes joined by a filament from the cavernous plexus of the sympathetic, or from the superior ramus of the trochlear nerve.
    7.33
    3 votes
    28
    Recurrent laryngeal nerve

    Recurrent laryngeal nerve

    The recurrent (inferior) laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve (tenth cranial nerve) that supplies motor function and sensation to the larynx (voice box). It travels within the endoneurium. It is the nerve of the 6th Pharyngeal arch. It is referred to as "recurrent" because the branches of the nerve innervate the laryngeal muscles in the neck through a rather circuitous route: it descends into the thorax before rising up between the trachea and esophagus to reach the neck. The left laryngeal nerve, which is longer, branches from the vagus nerve to loop under the arch of the aorta, posterior to the ligamentum arteriosum before ascending. On the other hand, the right branch loops around the right subclavian artery. As the recurrent nerve hooks around the subclavian artery or aorta, it gives off several cardiac filaments to the deep part of the cardiac plexus. As it ascends in the neck it gives off branches, more numerous on the left than on the right side, to the mucous membrane and muscular coat of the esophagus; branches to the mucous membrane and muscular fibers of the trachea; and some pharyngeal filaments to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle. The nerve splits
    7.33
    3 votes
    29
    Submandibular ganglion

    Submandibular ganglion

    The submandibular ganglion (or submaxillary ganglion in older texts) is part of the human autonomic nervous system. It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. (The others are the otic ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, and ciliary ganglion). The submandibular ganglion is responsible for innervation of two salivary glands: the submandibular gland and sublingual gland. The submandibular ganglion is small and fusiform in shape. It is situated above the deep portion of the submandibular gland, on the hyoglossus muscle, near the posterior border of the mylohyoid muscle. The ganglion 'hangs' by two nerve filaments from the lower border of the lingual nerve (itself a branch of the mandibular nerve, CN V3). It is suspended from the lingual nerve by two filaments, one anterior and one posterior. Through the posterior of these it receives a branch from the chorda tympani nerve which runs in the sheath of the lingual nerve. Like other parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck, the submandibular ganglion is the site of synapse for parasympathetic fibers and carries other types of nerve fiber that do not synapse in the ganglion. In summary, the fibers carried in the
    7.33
    3 votes
    30
    Vestibulocochlear nerve

    Vestibulocochlear nerve

    The vestibulocochlear nerve (auditory vestibular nerve) is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves, and is responsible for transmitting sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain. The acoustic nerve is derived from the embryonic otic placode. This is the nerve along which the sensory cells (the hair cells) of the inner ear transmit information to the brain. It consists of the cochlear nerve, carrying information about hearing, and the vestibular nerve, carrying information about balance. It emerges from the pons and exits the inner skull via the internal acoustic meatus (or internal auditory meatus) in the temporal bone. The vestibulocochlear nerve consists mostly of bipolar neurons and splits into two large divisions: the cochlear nerve and the vestibular nerve. The cochlear nerve travels away from the cochlea of the inner ear where it starts as the spiral ganglia. Processes from the organ of Corti conduct afferent transmission to the spiral ganglia. It is the inner hair cells of the organ of Corti that are responsible for activation of afferent receptors in response to pressure waves reaching the basilar membrane through the transduction of sound. The
    9.00
    2 votes
    31
    Nasociliary nerve

    Nasociliary nerve

    The nasociliary nerve is a branch of the ophthalmic nerve. It is intermediate in size between the two other main branches of the ophthalmic nerve, the frontal nerve and the lacrimal nerve, and is more deeply placed. The nasociliary nerve enters the orbit between the two heads of the lateral rectus muscles and between the superior and inferior rami of the oculomotor nerve (CN III). It passes across the optic nerve (CN II) and runs obliquely beneath the superior rectus muscle and superior oblique muscle to the medial wall of the orbital cavity. It passes through the anterior ethmoidal opening as the anterior ethmoidal nerve and enters the cranial cavity just above the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. It supplies branches to the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity and finally emerges between the inferior border of the nasal bone and the side nasal cartilages as the external nasal branch. Since both the short and long ciliary nerves carry the afferent limb of the corneal blink reflex, one can test the integrity of the nasociliary nerve (and, ultimately, the trigeminal nerve) by examining this reflex in the patient. Normally both eyes should blink when either cornea (not the
    5.75
    4 votes
    32
    Alderman's nerve

    Alderman's nerve

    The auricular branch of the vagus nerve is often termed the Alderman's nerve or Arnold's nerve. The latter name is an eponym for Friedrich Arnold. It supplies sensory innervation to the skin of the ear canal. It arises from the jugular ganglion, and is joined soon after its origin by a filament from the petrous ganglion of the glossopharyngeal; it passes behind the internal jugular vein, and enters the mastoid canaliculus on the lateral wall of the jugular fossa. Traversing the substance of the temporal bone, it crosses the facial canal about 4 mm (0.16 in) above the stylomastoid foramen, and here it gives off an ascending branch which joins the facial nerve. The nerve reaches the surface by passing through the tympanomastoid fissure between the mastoid process and the tympanic part of the temporal bone, and divides into two branches: This nerve may be involved by the glomus jugulare tumour. Laryngeal cancer can present with pain behind the ear and in the ear - this is a referred pain through the vagus nerve to the nerve of Arnold. In a small portion of individuals, the auricular nerve is the afferent limb of the Ear-Cough or Arnold Reflex. Physical stimulation of the external
    7.00
    3 votes
    33
    Cranial nerves

    Cranial nerves

    Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain, in contrast to spinal nerves, which emerge from segments of the spinal cord. In humans, there are traditionally twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Only the first and the second pair emerge from the cerebrum; the remaining ten pairs emerge from the brainstem. Human cranial nerves are nerves similar to those found in many other vertebrates. Cranial nerves XI and XII evolved in other species to amniotes (non-amphibian tetrapods), thus totaling twelve pairs. In some primitive cartilaginous fishes, such as the spiny dogfish or mud shark (Squalus acanthias), there is a terminal nerve numbered zero, since it exits the brain before the traditionally designated first cranial nerve. Because they exit from the brainstem as opposed to the spinal column, these are part of the central nervous system. As the list is important to keep in mind during the examination of the nervous system, there are many mnemonic devices in circulation to help remember the names and order of the cranial nerves. Because the mind recalls rhymes well, the best mnemonics often use rhyming schemes. An example mnemonic sentence for the initial letters
    7.00
    3 votes
    34
    Deep petrosal nerve

    Deep petrosal nerve

    The deep petrosal nerve (large deep petrosal nerve) is given off from the carotid plexus, and runs through the carotid canal lateral to the internal carotid artery. It then enters the cartilaginous substance which fills the foramen lacerum, and joins with the greater superficial petrosal nerve to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal, also known as the Vidian nerve. It carries postsynaptic sympathetic nerve fibers to the pterygopalatine ganglion, also known as the sphenopalatine ganglion. These fibers innervate blood vessels and mucous glands of the head and neck. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.50
    2 votes
    35
    Maxillary nerve

    Maxillary nerve

    The maxillary nerve (CN V2) is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth cranial nerve. It comprises the principal functions of sensation from the maxillary, nasal cavity, sinuses, the palate and subsequently that of the mid-face, and is intermediate, both in position and size, between the ophthalmic nerve and the mandibular nerve. Its function is the transmission of sensory fibers from the maxillary teeth, the skin between the palpebral fissure and the mouth, and from the nasal cavity and sinuses. Anterior to the trigeminal ganglion, the maxillary nerve passes through the cavernous sinus and exits the skull through the foramen rotundum. It begins at the middle of the trigeminal ganglion as a flattened plexiform band, and, passing horizontally forward, it leaves the skull through the foramen rotundum, where it becomes more cylindrical in form, and firmer in texture. It then crosses the pterygopalatine fossa, inclines lateralward on the back of the maxilla, and enters the orbit through the inferior orbital fissure; it traverses the infraorbital groove and canal in the floor of the orbit, and appears upon the face at the infraorbital foramen. Here is it referred
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    Tympanic nerve

    Tympanic nerve

    The tympanic nerve (nerve of Jacobson) is a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve found near the ear. It arises from the petrous ganglion, and ascends to the tympanic cavity through a small canal, the fossula petrosa/tympanic canaliculus, on the under surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone on the ridge which separates the carotid canal from the jugular fossa. In the tympanic cavity it divides into branches which form the tympanic plexus and are contained in grooves upon the surface of the promontory. Jacobson's nerve contains both sensory and secretory fibers. The postganglionic parasympathetic fibers are then distributed via the auriculotemporal nerve (branch of the trigeminal nerve) to the parotid gland. This nerve may be involved by paraganglioma, in this location referred to as glomus jugulare or glomus tympanicum tumours. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Digastric branch of facial nerve

    Digastric branch of facial nerve

    The digastric branch of facial nerve arises close to the stylomastoid foramen, and divides into several filaments, which supply the posterior belly of the Digastricus; one of these filaments joins the glossopharyngeal nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant.
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    Petrous ganglion

    Petrous ganglion

    The inferior ganglion of the glossopharyngeal nerve (petrous ganglion) is larger than the superior ganglion and is situated in a depression in the lower border of the petrous portion of the temporal bone. It contains the bodies of general somatic sensory neurons for innervation of the pharynx, tonsils, tongue, middle ear, auditory tube and the ear canal. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Anterior superior alveolar nerve

    Anterior superior alveolar nerve

    The anterior superior alveolar branch (anterior superior dental branch), of considerable size, is given off from the maxillary nerve just before its exit from the infraorbital foramen; it descends in a canal in the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus, and divides into branches which supply the incisor and canine teeth. It communicates with the middle superior alveolar branch, and gives off a nasal branch, which passes through a minute canal in the lateral wall of the inferior meatus, and supplies the mucous membrane of the anterior part of the inferior meatus and the floor of the nasal cavity, communicating with the nasal branches from the sphenopalatine ganglion. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Ethmoidal nerves

    Ethmoidal nerves

    The ethmoidal nerves, which arise from the nasociliary nerve, supply the ethmoidal cells; the posterior branch leaves the orbital cavity through the posterior ethmoidal foramen and gives some filaments to the sphenoidal sinus. There are two ethmoidal nerves on each side of the face: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Glossopharyngeal nerve

    Glossopharyngeal nerve

    The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth (IX) of twelve pairs of cranial nerves (24 nerves total). It exits the brainstem out from the sides of the upper medulla, just rostral (closer to the nose) to the vagus nerve. The motor division of the glossopharyngeal nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic medulla oblongata, while the sensory division originates from the cranial neural crest. There are a number of functions of the glossopharyngeal nerve: (From: inferior salivary nucleus - through jugular foramen - tympanic n.(of Jacobson)- lesser petrosal n. - through foramen ovale - Otic ganglion (Pre-Ganglionic Parasympathetic fibers synapse, to start Post-Ganglionic Parasympathetic fibers) - Auriculotemporal n.(Parasympathetics hitchhikes to reach Parotid gland) The glossopharyngeal nerve consists of five components with distinct functions: Branchial motor (special visceral efferent) - supplies the stylopharyngeus muscle. Visceral motor (general visceral efferent) provides parasympathetic innervation of the parotid gland. Visceral sensory (general visceral afferent) carries visceral sensory information from the carotid sinus and body. General sensory (general somatic
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    Vestibular nerve

    Vestibular nerve

    The vestibular nerve is one of the two branches of the Vestibulocochlear nerve (the cochlear nerve being the other). In humans the vestibular nerve transmits sensory information transmitted by vestibular hair cells located in the two otolith organs (the utricle and the saccule) and the three semicircular canals via the vestibular ganglion. Information from the otolith organs reflects gravity and linear accelerations of the head. Information from the semicircular canals reflects rotational movement of the head. Both are necessary for the sensation of body position and gaze stability in relation to a moving environment. Axons of the vestibular nerve synapse in the vestibular nucleus on the lateral floor and wall of the fourth ventricle in the pons and medulla. It arises from bipolar cells in the vestibular ganglion, ganglion of Scarpa, which is situated in the upper part of the outer end of the internal auditory meatus. The peripheral fibers divide into three branches (some sources list two): This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Superior laryngeal nerve

    Superior laryngeal nerve

    The superior laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve. It arises from the middle of the ganglion nodosum and in its course receives a branch from the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic. It descends, by the side of the pharynx, behind the internal carotid artery, and divides into two branches: A superior laryngeal nerve palsy changes the pitch of the voice and causes an inability to make explosive sounds. If no recovery is evident three months after the palsy initially presents, the damage is most likely to be permanent. A bilateral palsy presents as a tiring and hoarse voice. It can be injured in surgery involving the removal of the Thyroid gland (Thyroidectomy) This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Zygomaticofacial nerve

    Zygomaticofacial nerve

    The zygomaticofacial nerve or zygomaticofacial branch of zygomatic nerve (malar branch) passes along the infero-lateral angle of the orbit, emerges upon the face through the zygomaticofacial foramen in the zygomatic bone, and, perforating the Orbicularis oculi to reach the skin of the malar area. It joins with the zygomatic branches of the facial nerve and with the inferior palpebral branches of the maxillary nerve. The area of skin supplied by this nerve is over the prominence of the cheek. This was recently confirmed in a study using microdissection of cadavers. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Trochlear nerve

    Trochlear nerve

    The trochlear nerve (the fourth cranial nerve, also called the fourth nerve, IV) is a motor nerve (a “somatic efferent” nerve) that innervates a single muscle: the superior oblique muscle of the eye. The trochlear nerve is unique among the cranial nerves in several respects. It is the smallest nerve in terms of the number of axons it contains. It has the greatest intracranial length. Other than the optic nerve (cranial nerve II), it is the only cranial nerve that decussates (crosses to the other side) before innervating its target. Finally, it is the only cranial nerve that exits from the dorsal aspect of the brainstem. Homologous trochlear nerves are found in all jawed vertebrates. The unique features of the trochlear nerve, including its dorsal exit from the brainstem and its contralateral innervation, are seen in the primitive brains of sharks. The human trochlear nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic midbrain. The trochlear nerve emerges from the dorsal aspect of the brainstem at the level of the caudal mesencephalon, just below the inferior colliculus. It circles anteriorly around the brainstem and runs forward toward the eye in the subarachnoid space. It
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    Superior labial nerve

    Superior labial nerve

    The superior labial branches (labial branches), the largest and most numerous, descend behind the Quadratus labii superioris, and are distributed to the skin of the upper lip, the mucous membrane of the mouth, and labial glands. They are joined, immediately beneath the orbit, by filaments from the facial nerve, forming with them the infraorbital plexus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Abducent nerve

    Abducent nerve

    The abducens nerve or abducent nerve (the sixth cranial nerve, also called the sixth nerve or simply VI) is a somatic efferent nerve that controls the movement of a single muscle, the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, in humans. In most other mammals it also innervates the musculus retractor bulbi, which can retract the eye for protection. Homologous abducens nerves are found in all vertebrates except lampreys and hagfishes. The human CN VI is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons. The Latin name for the sixth cranial nerve is nervus abducens. The Terminologia Anatomica officially recognizes two different English translations: abducent nerve and abducens nerve. Either term is correct. “Abducens” is more common in recent literature, while “abducent” predominates in the older literature. The United States National Library of Medicine uses “abducens nerve” in its Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) vocabulary to index the vast MEDLINE and PubMed biomedical databases. The 39th edition of Gray’s Anatomy (2005) also prefers “abducens nerve.” The abducens nerve leaves the brainstem at the junction of the pons and the medulla, medial to the facial nerve. In order to reach the eye,
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    External pterygoid nerve

    External pterygoid nerve

    External Pterygoid Nerve (or lateral pterygoid nerve): The nerve to the Pterygoideus externus frequently arises in conjunction with the buccinator nerve, but it may be given off separately from the anterior division of the mandibular nerve. It enters the deep surface of the muscle. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Ophthalmic nerve

    Ophthalmic nerve

    The ophthalmic nerve (V1) is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth cranial nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries only sensory fibers. The ophthalmic nerve supplies branches to the cornea, ciliary body, and iris; to the lacrimal gland and conjunctiva; to the part of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity; and to the skin of the eyelids, eyebrow, forehead and nose. It is the smallest of the three divisions of the trigeminal, and arises from the upper part of the trigeminal ganglion as a short, flattened band, about 2.5 cm. long, which passes forward along the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus, below the oculomotor and trochlear nerves; just before entering the orbit, through the superior orbital fissure, it divides into three branches, lacrimal, frontal, and nasociliary. The frontal branch passes through the orbit superiorly, then reenters the frontal bone briefly before exiting above the orbit through the supraorbital foramen and the supratrochlear notch to provide sensory innervation for the skin of the forehead and scalp. The lacrimal nerve passes through the orbit superiorly to innervate the lacrimal gland. The nasociliary branch gives off several sensory
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    Optic nerve

    Optic nerve

    The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve 2, transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. Derived from the embryonic retinal ganglion cell, a diverticulum located in the diencephalon, the optic nerve does not regenerate after transection. The optic nerve is the second of twelve paired cranial nerves but is considered to be part of the central nervous system, as it is derived from an outpouching of the diencephalon during embryonic development. As a consequence, the fibres are covered with myelin produced by oligodendrocytes, rather than Schwann cells, which are found in the peripheral nervous system, and are encased within the meninges. Peripheral neuropathies like Guillain-Barré syndrome do not affect the optic nerve. The optic nerve is ensheathed in all three meningeal layers (dura, arachnoid, and pia mater) rather than the epineurium, perineurium, and endoneurium found in peripheral nerves. Fibre tracks of the mammalian central nervous system (as opposed to the peripheral nervous system) are incapable of regeneration, and, hence, optic nerve damage produces irreversible blindness. The fibres from the retina run along the optic nerve to nine primary visual nuclei
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    Posterior auricular nerve

    Posterior auricular nerve

    The posterior auricular nerve arises from the facial nerve close to the stylomastoid foramen and runs upward in front of the mastoid process; here it is joined by a filament from the auricular branch of the vagus and communicates with the posterior branch of the great auricular as well as with the lesser occipital. As it ascends between the external acoustic meatus and mastoid process it divides into auricular and occipital branches. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Supratrochlear nerve

    Supratrochlear nerve

    In human cranial neuroanatomy, the supratrochlear nerve is a branch of the frontal nerve, which itself comes from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal (or fifth) cranial nerve. It is smaller than the nearby supraorbital nerve. It passes above the pulley of the Superior oblique muscle, and gives off a descending filament that joins the infratrochlear branch of the nasociliary nerve. The supratrochlear nerve then exits the orbit between the pulley of the superior oblique and the supraorbital foramen, curves up on to the forehead close to the bone, and ascends beneath the Corrugator supercilii and Frontalis muscles. It then divides into branches which pierce these muscles and supplies the following areas: Supratrochlear means "above the trochlea". The term trochlea means "pulley" in Latin. Specifically, the trochlea referred to is a loop inside the orbit of the eye, through which the tendon of the superior oblique muscle passes. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Chorda tympani

    Chorda tympani

    The chorda tympani is a nerve that branches from the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) inside the facial canal, just before the facial nerve exits the skull via the Stylomastoid foramen. It serves the taste buds in the front of the tongue, runs through the middle ear, and carries taste messages to the brain. The chorda tympani is part of one of three cranial nerves that are involved in taste. The taste system involves a complicated feedback loop, with each nerve acting to inhibit the signals of other nerves. The chorda tympani appears to exert a particularly strong inhibitory influence on other taste nerves, as well as on pain fibers in the tongue. When the chorda tympani is damaged, its inhibitory function is disrupted, leading to less inhibited activity in the other nerves. The chorda tympani carries two types of nerve fibers from their origin with the facial nerve to the lingual nerve that carries them to their destinations: Exits the skull through the internal acoustic meatus as part of the facial nerve, then it travels through the middle ear, where it runs from posterior to anterior across the tympanic membrane. It passes between the malleus and the incus, on the medial surface
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    Buccal nerve

    Buccal nerve

    The buccal nerve (also called the long buccal nerve,) is a nerve in the face. It is a branch of the mandibular nerve (which is itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve) and transmits sensory information from skin over the buccal membrane (in general, the cheek) and from the second and third molar teeth. It courses between the two heads of the lateral pterygoid muscle, underneath the tendon of the temporalis muscle, and then under the masseter muscle to connect with the buccal branches of the facial nerve on the surface of the buccinator muscle. Small branches of the buccal nerve innervate the lateral pterygoid muscle. It also gives sensory branches to the cheek. The facial nerve (CN VII) also has buccal branches, which carry motor innervation to the buccinator muscle, a muscle of facial expression. This should not be confused with the buccal branch of the trigeminal nerve, which supplies motor innervation to the lateral pterygoid, a muscle of mastication. This follows from the trigeminal (V3) supplying all muscles of mastication and the facial (VII) supplying all muscles of facial expression.
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    Cochlear nerve

    Cochlear nerve

    The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic nerve) is a nerve in the head that carries signals from the cochlea of the inner ear to the brain. It is part of the vestibulocochlear nerve, the 8th cranial nerve which is found in higher vertebrates; the other portion of the 8th cranial nerve is the vestibular nerve which carries spatial orientation information from the semicircular canals. The cochlear nerve is a sensory nerve, one which conducts to the brain information about the environment, in this case acoustic energy impinging on the tympanic membrane (sound waves reaching the ear drum). The cochlear nerve arises from within the cochlea and extends to the brainstem, where its fibers make contact with the cochlear nucleus, the next stage of neural processing in the auditory system. In terms of their anatomy, auditory nerve fibers are bipolar, with the most distal portion being called the peripheral process and the central projection being called the axon; these two projections are also known as the "peripheral axon" and the "central axon". The peripheral process is sometimes referred to as a dendrite, although that term is somewhat inaccurate. Unlike the typical dendrite, the
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    Esophageal plexus

    Esophageal plexus

    The esophageal plexus is formed by nerve fibers from two sources: 1.branches of the vagus nerve 2.visceral branches of the sympathetic trunk. The esophageal plexus and the cardiac plexus contain the same types of fibers and are both considered thoracic autonomic plexus(es). 1. The Vagus nerve delivers two fiber types to the esophageal plexus: "Note": These vagal fibers in the esophageal plexus reform to make the anterior vagal trunk (left vagus) and the posterior vagal trunk (right vagus). Anterior and posterior being terms in relation to the esophagus. a mneumonic for which is 'LARP': Left becomes Anterior, Right becomes Posterior. 2. The visceral branches of the sympathetic trunk also deliver two fiber types to the esophageal plexus This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Auriculotemporal nerve

    Auriculotemporal nerve

    The auriculotemporal nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve that runs with the superficial temporal artery and vein, and provides sensory innervation to various regions on the side of the head. The auriculotemporal nerve arises as two roots from the posterior division of the mandibular nerve (The mandibular nerve is a branch of the trigeminal nerve). These roots encircle the middle meningeal artery (a branch of the mandibular part of the maxillary artery, which is in turn a terminal branch of the external carotid artery). The roots then converge to form a single nerve. The auriculotemporal nerve passes medially to the neck of the mandible, gives off parotid branches and then turns superiorly, posterior to its head and moving anteriorly, gives off anterior branches to the auricle. It then crosses over the root of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, deep to the superficial temporal artery. The somatosensory root (superior) originates from branches of the mandibular nerve, which pass through the otic ganglion without synapsing. Then they form the somatosensory (superior) root of the auriculotemporal nerve. The two roots re-unite and shortly after the branching of
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    Infraorbital plexus

    Infraorbital plexus

    The superior labial branches descend behind the Quadratus labii superioris, and are distributed to the skin of the upper lip, the mucous membrane of the mouth, and labial glands. They are joined, immediately beneath the orbit, by filaments from the facial nerve, forming with them the infraorbital plexus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated.
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    Inferior alveolar nerve

    Inferior alveolar nerve

    The inferior alveolar nerve (sometimes called the inferior dental nerve) is a branch of the mandibular nerve, which is itself the third branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). Before traversing the mandibular foramen, it first gives off the nerve to the mylohyoid, a motor nerve supplying the mylohyoid and the anterior belly of the digastric. It then enters the mandible via the mandibular foramen. While in the mandibular canal within the mandible, it supplies the mandibular (lower) teeth (molars and second premolar) with sensory branches that form into the inferior dental plexus and give off small gingival and dental nerves to the teeth. Anteriorly, the nerve gives off the mental nerve at about the level of the mandibular 2nd premolars, which exits the mandible via the mental foramen (supplying sensory branches to the chin and lower lip). The inferior alveolar nerve continues anteriorly as the mandibular incisive nerve to innervate the mandibular canines and incisors. Administration of anesthesia near the mandibular foramen causes blockage of the inferior alveolar nerve and the nearby lingual nerve (supplying the tongue). This is why the numbing of the lower jaw
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    Lingual nerve

    Lingual nerve

    The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve (CN V3), itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve, which supplies sensory innervation to the tongue. It also carries fibers from the facial nerve, which return taste information from the anterior two thirds of the tongue. The lingual nerve supplies general somatic afferent innervation from the mucous membrane of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. It also carries nerve fibers that are not part of the trigeminal nerve, including the chorda tympani nerve of the facial nerve, which provides special sensation (taste) to the anterior 2/3 part of the tongue as well as parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers. The submandibular ganglion is suspended by two nerve filaments from the lingual nerve. The lingual nerve lies at first beneath the lateral pterygoid muscle, medial to and in front of the inferior alveolar nerve, and is occasionally joined to this nerve by a branch which may cross the internal maxillary artery. The chorda tympani (a branch of the facial nerve, CN VII) joins it at an acute angle here, carrying taste fibers from the anterior two thirds of the tongue and parasympathetic fibers to the submandibular ganglion. The nerve
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    Oculomotor nerve

    Oculomotor nerve

    The oculomotor nerve is the 3rd of 12 paired cranial nerves. It enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure and controls most of the eye's movements, including constriction of the pupil and maintaining an open eyelid by innervating the levator palpebrae superioris muscle. The oculomotor nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic midbrain. Cranial nerves IV and VI also participate in control of eye movement. The oculomotor nerve (CN III) arises from the anterior aspect of mesencephalon (midbrain). There are two nuclei for the oculomotor nerve: Sympathetic postganglionic fibres also join the nerve from the plexus on the internal carotid artery in the wall of the cavernous sinus and are distributed through the nerve, e.g., to the smooth muscle of levator palpebrae superioris. On emerging from the brain, the nerve is invested with a sheath of pia mater, and enclosed in a prolongation from the arachnoid. It passes between the superior cerebellar (below) and posterior cerebral arteries (above), and then pierces the dura mater anterior and lateral to the posterior clinoid process, passing between the free and attached borders of the tentorium cerebelli. It runs along the
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    Facial nerve

    Facial nerve

    The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. It emerges from the brainstem between the pons and the medulla, and controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and oral cavity. It also supplies preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to several head and neck ganglia. The motor part of the facial nerve arises from the facial nerve nucleus in the pons while the sensory part of the facial nerve arises from the nervus intermedius. The motor part and sensory part of the facial nerve enters the petrous temporal bone via the internal auditory meatus (intimately close to the inner ear) then runs a tortuous course (including two tight turns) through the facial canal, emerges from the stylomastoid foramen and passes through the parotid gland, where it divides into five major branches. Though it passes through the parotid gland, it does not innervate the gland (This is the responsibility of cranial nerve IX, the glossopharyngeal nerve). The facial nerve forms the geniculate ganglion prior to entering the facial canal. Distal to stylomastoid foramen, the following nerves branch off
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    Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve

    Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve

    The marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve passes forward beneath the platysma and triangularis, supplying the muscles of the lower lip and chin, and communicating with the mental branch of the inferior alveolar nerve. The marginal mandibular branch innervates the following muscles: The marginal mandibular nerve may be injured during surgery in the neck region, especially during excision of the submandibular salivary gland or during neck dissections. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Zygomaticotemporal nerve

    Zygomaticotemporal nerve

    The zygomaticotemporal nerve or zygomaticotemporal branch (temporal branch) is derived from the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve (Cranial nerve V). It runs along the lateral wall of the orbit in a groove in the zygomatic bone, receives a branch of communication from the lacrimal, and passes through zygomaticotemporal foramen in the zygomatic bone to enter the temporal fossa. It ascends between the bone, and substance of the Temporalis muscle, pierces the temporal fascia about 2.5 cm. above the zygomatic arch, and is distributed to the skin of the side of the forehead, and communicates with the facial nerve and with the auriculotemporal branch of the mandibular nerve. As it pierces the temporal fascia, it gives off a slender twig, which runs between the two layers of the fascia to the lateral angle of the orbit. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Ciliary ganglion

    Ciliary ganglion

    The ciliary ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located in the posterior orbit. It measures 1–2 millimeters in diameter and contains approximately 2,500 neurons. Preganglionic axons from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus travel along the oculomotor nerve and form synapses with these cells. The postganglionic axons run in the short ciliary nerves and innervate two eye muscles: Both of these muscles are involuntary – they are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. (The others are the submandibular ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, and otic ganglion). Three types of nerve fibers run through the ciliary ganglion: parasympathetic fibers, sympathetic fibers and sensory fibers. Only parasympathetic fibers form synapses in the ganglion. The other two types of nerve fibers simply pass through. In classical anatomy, the ciliary ganglion is said to have three “roots:” Diseases of the ciliary ganglion produce a tonic pupil. This is a pupil that does not react to light (it is “fixed”) and has an abnormally slow and prolonged response to attempted near vision (accommodation). When a patient with an Adie pupil attempts to focus
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    Long ciliary nerves

    Long ciliary nerves

    The long ciliary nerves, two or three in number, are given off from the nasociliary, as it crosses the optic nerve. They accompany the short ciliary nerves from the ciliary ganglion, pierce the posterior part of the sclera, and running forward between it and the choroid, are distributed to the iris and cornea. The long ciliary nerves provide sensory innervation to the eyeball, including the cornea. In addition, they contain sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion to the dilator pupillæ muscle. The sympathetic fibers to the dilator pupillae muscle mainly travel in the nasociliary nerve but there are also sympathetic fibers in the short ciliary nerves that pass through the ciliary ganglion without forming synapses. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Infratrochlear nerve

    Infratrochlear nerve

    The infratrochlear nerve is given off from the nasociliary just before it enters the anterior ethmoidal foramen. It runs forward along the upper border of the medial rectus, and is joined, near the pulley of the superior oblique, by a filament from the supratrochlear nerve. It then passes to the medial commissure of the eye, and supplies the skin of the eyelids and side of the nose, the conjunctiva, lacrimal sac and caruncle. Infratrochlear means "below the trochlea". The term trochlea means "pulley" in Latin. Specifically, the trochlea referred to is a bony loop at the inner and upper corner of the eye socket (trochlea of superior oblique), through which the tendon of the superior oblique muscle passes. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Palatine nerves

    Palatine nerves

    The palatine nerves (descending branches) are distributed to the roof of the mouth, soft palate, tonsil, and lining membrane of the nasal cavity. Most of their fibers are derived from the sphenopalatine branches of the maxillary nerve. In older texts, they are usually categorized as three in number: anterior, middle, and posterior. (In newer texts, and in Terminologia anatomica, they are broken down into "greater palatine nerve" and "lesser palatine nerve".) This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Trigeminal nerve

    Trigeminal nerve

    The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, also called the fifth nerve, or simply CNV or CN5) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and certain motor functions such as biting, chewing, and swallowing. It is the largest of the cranial nerves. Its name ("trigeminal" = tri- or three, and -geminus or twin, or thrice twinned) derives from the fact that each trigeminal nerve, one on each side of the pons, has three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2), and the mandibular nerve (V3). The ophthalmic and maxillary nerves are purely sensory. The mandibular nerve has both sensory and motor functions. Sensory information from the face and body is processed by parallel pathways in the central nervous system. The motor division of the trigeminal nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic pons, while the sensory division originates from the cranial neural crest. The sensory function of the trigeminal nerve is to provide the tactile, proprioceptive, and nociceptive afference of the face and mouth. The motor function activates the muscles of mastication, the tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, mylohyoid, and anterior belly of the
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    Temporal branches of the facial nerve

    Temporal branches of the facial nerve

    The temporal branches of the facial nerve, also known as the frontal branch of the facial nerve, crosses the zygomatic arch to the temporal region, supplying the auriculares anterior and superior, and joining with the zygomaticotemporal branch of the maxillary, and with the auriculotemporal branch of the mandibular. The more anterior branches supply the frontalis, the orbicularis oculi, and corrugator supercilii, and join the supraorbital and lacrimal branches of the ophthalmic. The temporal branch acts as the efferent limb of the corneal reflex. To test the function of the temporal branches of the facial nerve, a patient is asked to frown and wrinkle his or her forehead. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Mental nerve

    Mental nerve

    Mental nerve is a general somatic afferent (sensory) nerve which provides sensation to the anterior aspects of the chin and lower lip as well as the buccal gingivae of the mandibular anterior teeth and the premolars. It is a branch of the posterior trunk of the inferior alveolar nerve, which is itself a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). The nerve emerges at the mental foramen in the mandibula, and divides beneath the Depressor anguli oris muscle into three branches: These branches communicate freely with the facial nerve. The mental nerve can be blocked with local anesthesia, a procedure used in surgery of the chin, lower lip and buccal mucosa from midline to the second premolar. In this technique, local anesthetic is infiltrated in the soft tissue surrounding the mental foramen. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Otic ganglion

    Otic ganglion

    The otic ganglion is a small, oval shaped, flattened parasympathetic ganglion of a reddish-gray color, located immediately below the foramen ovale in the infratemporal fossa. It gives innervation to the parotid gland for salivation. It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. (The others are the submandibular ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, and ciliary ganglion). It is occasionally absent. Filaments that pass through the ganglion without synapsing: Its sympathetic postganglionic fibers consists of a filament from the plexus surrounding the middle meningeal artery. Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers originate from the glossopharyngeal nerve via the lesser petrosal nerve. The lesser petrosal nerve is a continuation of the glossopharyngeal nerve after it exits the skull via the jugular foramen and innervates the tympanic plexus. Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers travel with the sympathetic fibers of the auriculotemporal nerve (a branch of CN V3) to supply the parotid gland. All postsynaptic parasympathetics will use some branch of the Trigeminal Nerve to get from one of four parasympatheic ganglia (Otic, Ciliary, Submandibular, and Pteryopalatine) to
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    Great petrosal nerve

    Great petrosal nerve

    The greater (superficial) petrosal nerve is a nerve in the skull that branches from the facial nerve; it forms part of a chain of nerves that innervates the lacrimal gland. The fibres have synapses in the pterygopalatine ganglion. The greater (superficial) petrosal nerve is a branch of the facial nerve that arises from the geniculate ganglion, a part of the facial nerve inside the facial canal. It enters the middle cranial fossa through the greater (superficial) petrosal foramen (on the anterior surface of the petrous temporal bone). It proceeds towards the foramen lacerum, where it joins the deep petrosal nerve (sympathetic) to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal. The nerve of the pterygoid canal passes through the pterygoid canal to reach the pterygopalatine ganglion. The greater (superficial) petrosal nerve carries gustatory (taste) and parasympathetic fibres. Postganglionic parasympathetic fibres from pterygopalatine ganglion supply lacrimal gland and the mucosal glands of the nose, palate, and pharynx. The gustatory fibres do not relay in the ganglion and are distributed to the palate.
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    Pterygopalatine ganglion

    Pterygopalatine ganglion

    The pterygopalatine ganglion (Synonym: ganglion pterygopalatinum, meckel's ganglion, nasal ganglion, sphenopalatine ganglion) is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the pterygopalatine fossa. It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck, the others being the submandibular ganglion, otic ganglion, and ciliary ganglion. The flow of blood to the nasal mucosa, in particular the venous plexus of the conchae, is regulated by the pterygopalatine ganglion and heats or cools the air in the nose. The pterygopalatine ganglion (of Meckel), the largest of the parasympathetic ganglia associated with the branches of the Maxillary Nerve, is deeply placed in the pterygopalatine fossa, close to the sphenopalatine foramen. It is triangular or heart-shaped, of a reddish-gray color, and is situated just below the maxillary nerve as it crosses the fossa. The pterygopalatine ganglion supplies the lacrimal gland, paranasal sinuses, glands of the mucosa of the nasal cavity and pharynx, the gingiva, and the mucous membrane and glands of the hard palate. It communicates anteriorly with the nasopalatine nerve. It receives a sensory, a parasympathetic, and a sympathetic root. Its sensory root
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    75
    Geniculate ganglion

    Geniculate ganglion

    The geniculate ganglion (from Latin genu, for "knee") is an L-shaped collection of fibers and sensory neurons of the facial nerve located in the facial canal of the head. It receives fibers from the motor, sensory, and parasympathetic components of the facial nerve and sends fibers that will innervate the lacrimal glands, submandibular glands, sublingual glands, tongue, palate, pharynx, external auditory meatus, stapedius, posterior belly of the digastric muscle, stylohyoid muscle, and muscles of facial expression. The geniculate ganglion contains special sensory neuronal cell bodies for taste, from fibers coming up from the tongue through the chorda tympani and from fibres coming up from the roof of the palate through the greater petrosal nerve (MJ Fitzgerald et al. Clinical Neuroanatomy and Neuroscience). Sensory and parasympathetic inputs are carried into the geniculate ganglion via the nervus intermedius. Motor fibers are carried via the facial nerve proper. The greater petrosal nerve, which carries sensory fibers as well as preganglionic parasympathetic fibers, emerges from the anterior aspect of the ganglion. The geniculate ganglion is one of several ganglia of the head and
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    Inferior palpebral nerve

    Inferior palpebral nerve

    The Inferior Palpebral Branches (palpebral branches) ascend behind the Orbicularis oculi. They supply the skin and conjunctiva of the lower eyelid, joining at the lateral angle of the orbit with the facial and zygomaticofacial nerves. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Internal pterygoid nerve

    Internal pterygoid nerve

    The medial pterygoid nerve (or internal pterygoid nerve) is a branch of the mandibular nerve that innervates the medial pterygoid muscle, tensor veli palatini and tensor tympani. The nerve to the medial pterygoid muscle is a slender branch of the mandibular nerve which enters the deep surface of the muscle; it gives off one or two filaments to the otic ganglion. The nerve provides physical support for the otic ganglion, but is neurologically distinct. Additionally, the tensor veli palatini is innervated by the nerve to tensor veli palatini, a branch of the nerve to the medial pterygoid. Of the five paired skeletal muscles to the soft palate, tensor veli palati is the only muscle not innervated by the pharyngeal plexus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated.
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    Mylohyoid nerve

    Mylohyoid nerve

    The mylohyoid nerve (or nerve to mylohyoid) is a nerve that innervates the mylohyoid muscle and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. The mylohyoid nerve branches from the inferior alveolar nerve (a branch of the mandibular nerve, the third part of the trigeminal nerve) just before it enters the mandibular foramen. It descends in a groove on the deep surface of the ramus of the mandible, and reaching the under surface of the mylohyoid muscle, it supplies both the mylohyoid and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Nervus spinosus

    Nervus spinosus

    The meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve (recurrent branch, nervus spinosus) is a branch of the mandibular nerve that supplies the dura mater. It enters the skull through the foramen spinosum with the middle meningeal artery. It divides into two branches, anterior and posterior, which accompany the main divisions of the artery and supply the dura mater: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve

    Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve

    The pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve, the principal motor nerve of the pharynx, arises from the upper part of the ganglion nodosum, and consists principally of filaments from the cranial portion of the accessory nerve. It passes across the internal carotid artery to the upper border of the Constrictor pharyngis medius, where it divides into numerous filaments, which join with branches from the glossopharyngeal, sympathetic, and external laryngeal to form the pharyngeal plexus. From the plexus, branches are distributed to the muscles and mucous membrane of the pharynx (except the stylopharyngeus) and the muscles of the soft palate, except the Tensor veli palatini. A minute filament descends and joins the hypoglossal nerve as it winds around the occipital artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Pulmonary branches of vagus nerve

    Pulmonary branches of vagus nerve

    The pulmonary branches of the vagus nerve can be divided into two groups: anterior and posterior. The Anterior Bronchial Branches (rami bronchiales anteriores; anterior or ventral pulmonary branches), two or three in number, and of small size, are distributed on the anterior surface of the root of the lung. They join with filaments from the sympathetic, and form the anterior pulmonary plexus. The Posterior Bronchial Branches (rami bronchiales posteriores; posterior or dorsal pulmonary branches), more numerous and larger than the anterior, are distributed on the posterior surface of the root of the lung; they are joined by filaments from the third and fourth (sometimes also from the first and second) thoracic ganglia of the sympathetic trunk, and form the posterior pulmonary plexus. Branches from this plexus accompany the ramifications of the bronchi through the substance of the lung. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Short ciliary nerves

    Short ciliary nerves

    The branches of the ciliary ganglion are the short ciliary nerves. These are delicate filaments, from six to ten in number, which arise from the forepart of the ganglion in two bundles connected with its superior and inferior angles; the lower bundle is the larger. They run forward with the ciliary arteries in a wavy course, one set above and the other below the optic nerve, and are accompanied by the long ciliary nerves from the nasociliary. They pierce the sclera at the back part of the bulb of the eye, pass forward in delicate grooves on the inner surface of the sclera, and are distributed to the Ciliaris muscle, iris, and cornea. The short ciliary nerve contains parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve fibers. The parasympathetics arise from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and synapse in the ciliary ganglion via the oculomotor nerve, the postganglionic parasympathetics leave the ciliary ganglion in the short ciliary nerve and supply the ciliary body and iris. Sympathetics are provided by the superior cervical ganglion and they reach the ganglion either as branches of the nasociliary nerve or directly from the extension of the plexus on the ophthalmic artery (sympathetic branch to
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    Sphenopalatine nerves

    Sphenopalatine nerves

    The pterygopalatine nerves (or sphenopalatine branches), two in number, descend to the pterygopalatine ganglion. Although it is closely related to the pterygopalatine ganglion, it is still considered a branch of the maxillary nerve and does not synapse in the ganglion. It is found in the pterygopalatine fossa. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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