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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best Court of All Time

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    1
    Supreme Administrative Court of Poland

    Supreme Administrative Court of Poland

    The Supreme Administrative Court of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Naczelny Sąd Administracyjny) is the court of last resort in administrative cases e.g. those betweens private citizens (or corporations) and administrative bodies. This court deals with appeals from lower administrative courts called Voivodship Administrative Courts. The Supreme Administrative Court is located in Warsaw. It consists of The President of Supreme Administrative Court, Vice Presidents and judges. The Supreme Administrative Court is divided into three chambers: Commercial Chamber, Financial Chamber and General Administrative Chamber. The Commercial Chamber supervises the jurisdiction of regional administrative courts as far as customs, and most business regulation is concerned. The Financial Chamber supervises the jurisdiction of regional administrative courts when it comes to fiscal obligations and other payments regulated by tax law. The General Administrative Chamber supervises the rest of the jurisdiction of regional administrative courts. Within its organization there are three organs: The President of The Supreme Administrative Court, The General Assembly of Judges and The Council of Judges. The
    7.43
    7 votes
    2
    Supreme Court

    Supreme Court

    The Supreme Court (Chinese: 最高法院) was the highest court in Hong Kong prior to the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China in 1997 and heard cases of first instance and appeals from the District and Magisrates Courts as well as certain tribunals. The Supreme Court was made up of the High Court of Justice (High Court) and the Court of Appeal. The Supreme Court was established in 1842 when Britain occupied Hong Kong under the Treaty of Nanking. For almost 70 years after establishment of the court, there was no Court of Appeal in Hong Kong. Appeals were either by way or re-hearing or direct to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. From 1910, appeals were heard by a Full Court made up of 3 judges. From 1910 to 1943, a judge of the British Supreme Court for China in Shanghai was eligible to sit on the Full Court. In the 1910s and 1920s, a Shanghai judge would regularly travel to Hong Kong to sit on the Full Court. Havilland de Sausmarez, a judge of the Shanghai court, was the President of the Full Court from 1910 to 1920. From 1925 to 1943, a judge of the Hong Kong Supreme Court would also sit on the full court of the British
    8.17
    6 votes
    3
    Supreme Court of Chile

    Supreme Court of Chile

    • Jurisdiction: Chile
    The Supreme Court of Chile is the highest court in Chile. It also administrates the lower courts in the nation. It is located in the capital Santiago. In the Chilean system, the court lacks the broader power of judicial review — it cannot set binding precedent or invalidate laws. Instead, it acts on a case-by-case basis. Trials are carried out in salas, chambers of at least five judges, presided over by the most senior member. The members of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President, but must be chosen from a list of five choices which is prepared by the sitting members of the court. Two of these choices must be senior judges from appellate courts; the other three need not have any judicial experience. The president's choice must then be ratified by the Senate. Supreme Court justices must be at least 36 years old. Once appointed, a Chilean Supreme Court justice is extremely difficult to remove from office. Justices are entitled to remain on the Court until the compulsory retirement age of 75. Otherwise, a justice can be removed only if he or she incurs in "notorious abandonment of duty" established in the Constitution. The Supreme Court has twenty-one members, called
    7.14
    7 votes
    4
    Court of Common Pleas

    Court of Common Pleas

    • Legal cases: Bret v JS
    The Court of Common Pleas, or Common Bench, was a common law court in the English legal system that covered "common pleas"; actions between subject and subject, which did not concern the king. Created in the late 12th to early 13th century after splitting from the Exchequer of Pleas, the Common Pleas served as one of the central English courts for around 600 years. Authorised by the Magna Carta to sit in a fixed location, the Common Pleas sat in Westminster Hall for its entire existence, joined by the Exchequer of Pleas and Court of King's Bench. The court's jurisdiction was gradually undercut by the King's Bench and Exchequer of Pleas with legal fictions, the Bill of Middlesex and Writ of Quominus respectively. The Common Pleas maintained its exclusive jurisdiction over matters of real property until its dissolution, and due to its wide remit was considered by Sir Edward Coke to be the "lock and key of the common law". It was staffed by one Chief Justice and a varying number of puisne justices, who were required to be Serjeants-at-Law, and until the mid 19th century only Serjeants were allowed to plead there. As one of the two principal common law courts with the King's Bench, the
    7.67
    6 votes
    5

    United States District Court for the Middle District of Alabama

    • Legal cases: Glassroth v. Moore
    The United States District Court for the Middle District of Alabama (in case citations, M.D. Ala.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the following counties: Autauga, Barbour, Bullock, Butler, Chambers, Chilton, Coffee, Coosa, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Elmore, Geneva, Henry, Houston, Lee, Lowndes, Macon, Montgomery, Pike, Randolph, Russell, and Tallapoosa. It has jurisdiction over the city of Montgomery. The District was created by the United States Congress on February 6, 1839, by 5 Stat. 315, from parts of the existing Northern and Southern Districts. The establishing legislation specified that the Middle District Court was to be held at Tuscaloosa, the Northern District Court at Huntsville, and the Southern District Court at Mobile. These Districts were again reorganized on August 7, 1848. Appeals from cases brought in the Middle District of Alabama are to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States Attorney's Office for the Middle District of Alabama represents the United States in civil and
    8.60
    5 votes
    6
    United States District Court for the Northern District of Iowa

    United States District Court for the Northern District of Iowa

    The United States District Court for the Northern District of Iowa (in case citations, N.D. Iowa) has jurisdiction over fifty-two of Iowa's ninety-nine counties. It is subject to the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States District Court for the District of Iowa, established on March 3, 1845, by 5 Stat. 789, was subdivided into the current Northern and Southern Districts on July 20, 1882, by 22 Stat. 172. Presently, the court has two district judges, Chief Judge Linda R. Reade and Judge Mark W. Bennett. There are also two senior judges, Edward J. McManus and Donald E. O'Brien. It is headquartered in Cedar Rapids, with satellite facilities in Fort Dodge and Sioux City. Stephanie M. Rose is the current United States Attorney.
    8.40
    5 votes
    7
    United States District Court for the Southern District of Illinois

    United States District Court for the Southern District of Illinois

    The United States District Court for the Southern District of Illinois (in case citations, S.D. Ill.) is a Federal district court covering approximately the southern half of the state of Illinois. Appeals from the Southern District of Illinois are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States District Court for the District of Illinois was established by a statute passed by the United States Congress on March 3, 1819, 3 Stat. 502. The act established a single office for a judge to preside over the court. Initially, the court was not within any existing judicial circuit, so the district court exercised the jurisdiction of both a district court and a circuit court, with appeals and writs of error taken directly to the United States Supreme Court. In 1837, Congress placed the District of Illinois within the newly created Seventh Circuit, and the district court resumed its normal jurisdiction, 5 Stat. 176. The Southern District itself was created by a statute passed on February 13, 1855, 10 Stat. 606, which subdivided
    8.40
    5 votes
    8
    Utah Supreme Court

    Utah Supreme Court

    The Utah Supreme Court is the supreme court of the state of Utah. It has final authority of interpretation of the Utah Constitution. he Utah Supreme Court is composed of five members: a chief justice, an associate chief justice, and three justices. All justices are appointed by the governor of Utah, with confirmation by the Utah Senate. The justices vote amongst themselves for the chief justice and associate chief justice, who each serve a term of four years. In 1998, the Utah Supreme Court moved into the Scott M. Matheson courthouse. The multimillion-dollar building was nicknamed the "Taj Mahal" by some critics over its cost. Prior to that, the court met in the Utah State Capitol. As of April 2012, the justices are: Media related to Supreme Court of Utah at Wikimedia Commons
    6.29
    7 votes
    9
    Iowa Supreme Court

    Iowa Supreme Court

    • Jurisdiction: Iowa
    • Legal cases: Varnum v. Brien
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Iowa Supreme Court is the highest court in the U.S. state of Iowa. As constitutional head of the Iowa Judicial Branch, the Court is composed of a Chief Justice and six Associate Justices. The Court holds its regular sessions in Des Moines in the Iowa Judicial Branch Building located at 1111 East Court Avenue on the state Capitol grounds just south of the Iowa State Capitol. In 1846, Iowa became the 29th state to join the United States. Following the constitution of the federal government, the powers of the government in Iowa were divided into the legislative branch, the executive branch, and the judicial branch. In the judicial branch, the Iowa General Assembly divided the state into four judicial districts, and Supreme Court justices were to serve six year terms, while district judges were elected for five year terms. The Iowa Constitution of 1857 increased the judicial districts from four to 11, and allowed the General Assembly to reorganize districts after 1860 and every four years thereafter. The Iowa Supreme Court is an appellate court. An appellate court reviews decisions of trial courts in which appeals have been allowed. An appellate court does not preside over trials.
    7.17
    6 votes
    10
    United States District Court for the Western District of Kentucky

    United States District Court for the Western District of Kentucky

    The United States District Court for the Western District of Kentucky (in case citations, W.D. Ky.) is the federal district court for the western part of the state of Kentucky. Appeals from the Western District of Kentucky are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). Jurisdiction includes the following Kentucky counties: Adair, Allen, Ballard, Barren, Breckinridge, Bullitt, Butler, Caldwell, Calloway, Carlisle, Casey, Christian, Clinton, Crittenden, Cumberland, Daviess, Edmonson, Fulton, Graves, Grayson, Green, Hancock, Hardin, Hart, Henderson, Hickman, Hopkins, Jefferson, Larue, Livingston, Logan, Lyon, Marion, Marshall, McCracken, McLean, Meade, Metcalfe, Monroe, Muhlenberg, Nelson, Ohio, Oldham, Russell, Simpson, Spencer, Taylor, Todd, Trigg, Union, Warren, Washington, and Webster. The following counties are in the Louisville Division: Breckinridge, Bullitt, Hardin, Jefferson, Larue, Marion, Meade, Nelson, Oldham, Spencer, and Washington. The following counties are in the Bowling Green Division: Adair, Allen, Barren, Butler,
    8.20
    5 votes
    11
    Supreme Court of Illinois

    Supreme Court of Illinois

    • Legal cases: In re Himmel
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Supreme Court of Illinois is the state supreme court of the state of Illinois. The court's authority is granted in Article VI of the current Illinois Constitution, which provides for seven justices elected from the five appellate judicial districts of the state: Three justices from the First District (Cook County) and one from each of the other four districts. Each justice is elected for a term of ten years and the chief justice is elected by the court from its members for a three-year term. The court has limited original jurisdiction and has final appellate jurisdiction. It has mandatory jurisdiction in capital cases and cases where the constitutionality of laws has been called into question, and discretionary jurisdiction from the Illinois Appellate Court. Along with the state legislature, the court promulgates rules for all state courts. Also, its members have the authority to elevate trial judges to the appellate court on a temporary basis. The court administers professional discipline through the Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Committee and they govern initial licensing through the Illinois Board of Admissions to the Bar. The official reporter of the Illinois
    9.25
    4 votes
    12
    Karnataka High Court

    Karnataka High Court

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of India
    The Karnataka High Court is the High Court of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located in Bangalore, the capital city of Karnataka. The High Court functions out of a red brick building known as Attara Kacheri. It is in front of Vidhana Soudha, which is the seat of the legislature of Karnataka. The history of the Karnataka High Court can be traced back to the year 1884 when the Chief Court of Mysore was created with three judges and was designated as the highest court of appeal, reference and revision in the State of Mysore, the earlier name of Karnataka. The court had District Courts, Sub-ordinate Judges' Courts and Munsiff Courts to assist it on civil cases and a Court of Sessions, District Magistrate and First, Second and Third Class Magistrates to assist it on criminal cases. In 1881, the office of the Chief Judge was created and the designated person had the utmost authority in the court. In 1930, it was renamed as the High Court of Mysore and the Chief Judge was given the new name of Chief Justice. In 1973, it got its present name of Karnataka High Court. The High Court is located in a building called as Attara Kacheri (meaning Eighteen offices). It is a two-storied
    8.00
    5 votes
    13
    Supreme Court of Liberia

    Supreme Court of Liberia

    The Supreme Court of Liberia is the highest judicial body in the West African nation of Liberia. The court consists of the Chief Justice of Liberia and four Associate Justices, who are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The justices hold court at the Temple of Justice on Capitol Hill in Monrovia. The court was originally authorized by the 1839 Constitution of the American Colonization Society signed on January 5, 1839. Subsequent constitutions continued to authorize a supreme court, with the 1984 Constitution as the most recent version. Powers and structure of the court are determined by Article VII of the 1984 constitution. The Supreme Court is granted original jurisdiction over constitutional questions by the Constitution of Liberia. The court has appellate jurisdiction over other matters with the next lowest court being the 15 courts of the Circuit Court. Headed by the Chief Justice, it is the highest body of the country's Judicial Branch. All justices are nominated by the President of Liberia and confirmed by the Senate. The Chief Justice also serves as the top official of the Judiciary. The Supreme Court also has original jurisdiction for cases in which
    8.00
    5 votes
    14
    Family Court of Australia

    Family Court of Australia

    • Jurisdiction: Australia
    • Legal cases: 2004 Fam CA 297
    The Family Court of Australia is a superior Australian federal court of record which deals with family law matters. The Family Court of Australia is housed in the Commonwealth Law Courts Building on the corner of La Trobe Street and William Street in Melbourne. Together with the Federal Magistrates Court, it covers family law matters in all states and territories of Australia except Western Australia. Its core function is to determine cases with the most complex law, facts and parties, to cover specialised areas in family law, and to provide national coverage as the national appellate court for family law matters. Established by the passing of Family Law Act 1975, under Chapter 3 of the Australian Constitution, it commenced operations on 5 January 1976. It currently comprises a Chief Justice, Deputy Chief Justice, Appeal Division judges and other judges. At July 2008, there were 44 judges (5 of whom were also Judges of the Family Court of Western Australia), 2 judicial registrars and 1 senior registrar. The Court maintains registries in all Australian states and territories except Western Australia. The Court has had three Chief Justices to date, Elizabeth Evatt AC, Alastair
    6.83
    6 votes
    15
    United States District Court for the Eastern District of California

    United States District Court for the Eastern District of California

    The U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of California (in case citations, E.D. Cal.) is composed of six divisions. The Bakersfield division has jurisdiction over certain cases in Inyo and Kern counties and on federal lands and National Parks. These cases are heard in courthouses in Bakersfield, Edwards Air Force Base, and Independence. The Fresno division covers Calaveras, Fresno, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Stanislaus, Tulare, and Tuolumne counties. The Redding/Susanville office hears misdemeanors and petty crimes for federal lands and National Parks in four locations: Alturas, Chester, Herlong, and Redding. The Sacramento division covers: Alpine, Amador, Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Glenn, Lassen, Modoc, Mono, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Shasta, Sierra, Siskiyou, Solano, Sutter, Tehama, Trinity, Yolo, and Yuba counties. The South Lake Tahoe office hears misdemeanors and petty crimes for federal lands and National Parks. The Yosemite office hears misdemeanors and petty crimes for Yosemite National Park. Cases from the Eastern District of California are appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (except for
    6.83
    6 votes
    16
    United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama

    United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama

    The United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama (in case citations, N.D. Ala.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the following counties: Bibb, Blount, Calhoun, Cherokee, Clay, Cleburne, Colbert, Cullman, De Kalb, Etowah, Fayette, Franklin, Greene, Jackson, Jefferson, Lamar, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Limestone, Madison, Marion, Marshall, Morgan, Pickens, Shelby, St. Clair, Sumter, Talladega, Tuscaloosa, Walker, and Winston. It has jurisdiction over the cities of Birmingham, Huntsville, Tuscaloosa, and Decatur. The District was created by the United States Congress on March 10, 1824, by 4 Stat. 9, when the United States District Court for the District of Alabama was subdivided into a Northern and Southern District. Presiding judge Charles Tait continued to serve as the sole judge for both districts. Parts of these two districts were subsequently removed to form the Middle District on February 6, 1839, by 5 Stat. 315, with legislation specifying that the Middle District Court was to be held at Tuscaloosa, the Northern District Court at Huntsville, and the Southern District Court at Mobile. These Districts were again reorganized on August 7,
    6.83
    6 votes
    17
    Federal Social Court of Germany

    Federal Social Court of Germany

    The Federal Social Court (Bundessozialgericht) is the German federal court of appeals for social security cases, mainly cases concerning the public health insurance, long-term care insurance, pension insurance and occupational accident insurance schemes. Trial courts for these cases are the Sozialgerichte (Social Courts). Appeals against decisions of these courts are heard by the Landessozialgerichte (Superior State Social Courts), before the cases may wind up at the Bundessozialgericht. The Bundessozialgericht is located in the city of Kassel.
    7.80
    5 votes
    18

    United States District Court for the Western District of New York

    • Legal cases: Kodak vs. Apple
    The United States District Court for the Western District of New York (in case citations, W.D.N.Y.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises only a part of New York. Appeals are taken to the Second Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The Western District of New York includes the following counties: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Chemung, Erie, Genesee, Livingston, Monroe, Niagara, Ontario, Orleans, Schuyler, Seneca, Steuben, Wayne, Wyoming, and Yates. It has jurisdiction over the cities of Buffalo, Rochester, and Elmira. From 1904 to 1916, the court met at the United States Post Office (Lockport, New York). The United States Government is represented in the district by the US Attorney for the Western District of New York. The current incumbent is William J. Hochul, Jr. There is one vacancy in the District, created when Judge Larimer assumed senior status on March 3, 2009.
    7.80
    5 votes
    19
    Patna High Court

    Patna High Court

    Patna High Court (Hindi: पटना उच्च न्यायालय) is the High Court of the state of Bihar. It was established on 3 February 1916 and later affiliated under the Government of India Act, 1915. The court is headquartered in Patna, the administrative capital of the state. Proclamation made by Governor-General of India on 22 March 1912. The foundation-stone of the High Court Building was laid on Monday, 1 December 1913 by His Excellency the late Viceroy and Governor-General of India, Sir Charles Hardinge of Penshurst. The Patna High Court building on its completion was formally opened by the same Viceroy on 3 February 1916. Hon'ble Sir Justice Edward Maynard Des Champs Chamier was the first Chief Justice of Patna High Court. The present Chief Justice of Patna High Court is Hon'ble Ms. Justice Rekha Manharlal Doshit. Her Ladyship was the senior most judge at Gujarat High Court until she assumed office as the Chief Justice of Patna High Court. List of the Former Chief Justices of Patna High Court
    9.00
    4 votes
    20
    District Court of Guam

    District Court of Guam

    The District Court of Guam (in case citations, D. Guam) is a United States territorial court with jurisdiction over the United States territory of Guam. It sits in the capital, Hagåtña. The District Court of Guam was established in 1950 by The Organic Act of Guam 48 U.S.C. § 1424, to have the same jurisdiction as a United States district court. Its judges, however, do not have life tenure and is therefore not a true Article III court. Because the District Court of Guam is a part of the Ninth Circuit, appeals of the court's decisions are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.
    6.67
    6 votes
    21

    General Court

    The General Court (EGC) is a jurisdictional instance of the Court of Justice of the European Union. From its inception on 1 January 1989 to 30 November 2009, it was known as the Court of First Instance (CFI). The General Court hears disputes (such as disputes brought by those refused a trademark by OHIM, the EU Trade Mark and designs registry). Appeals are sent to the European Court of Justice. The General Court is an independent Court attached to the European Court of Justice. The creation of the General Court instituted a judicial system based on two levels of jurisdiction: all cases heard at first instance by the General Court may be subject to a right of appeal to the Court of Justice on points of law only. In view of the increasing number of cases brought before the General Court in the last five years, in order to relieve it of some of the caseload, the Treaty of Nice, which entered into force on February 1, 2003, provides for the creation of ‘judicial panels’ in certain specific areas. On November 2, 2004 the Council adopted a decision establishing the European Union Civil Service Tribunal. This new specialised tribunal, composed of seven judges, will hear and determine at
    6.67
    6 votes
    22
    United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania

    United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania

    • Legal cases: Robbins v. Lower Merion School District
    The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania (in case citations, E.D. Pa.) is one of the original 13 federal judiciary districts created by the Judiciary Act of 1789. It originally sat in Independence Hall in Philadelphia as the United States District Court for the District of Pennsylvania, and is now located at the James Byrne Courthouse at 601 Market Street in Philadelphia. The Court's jurisdiction includes Philadelphia, as well as Berks, Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Lancaster, Lehigh, Montgomery and Northampton counties. The district is a part of the Third Circuit, and appeals are taken to that Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). Currently the Federal District Courts are undergoing some policy changes, which includes court fees associated with the filing and prosecution of a number of actions. According to the National Bulletin, Vol 60, Page 188 [12 August 2011] these changes are designed to 'eliminate undue litigation while promptly addressing issues brought forward for review by the general public,' and though the fees and costs were not specifically
    6.67
    6 votes
    23
    Supreme Court of South Korea

    Supreme Court of South Korea

    The Supreme Court of Korea is the highest court in South Korea. It is located in Seoul. Articles 101-110 of the Constitution of the Republic of Korea establish the Supreme Court and enumerates its powers and responsibilities. The Supreme Court of Korea is composed of the Chief Justice of the Republic of Korea, and 13 other Supreme Court Justices, 12 of which have adjudicatory functions. The 13th justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the Chief Justice as the Minister of Court Administration, and does not participate in rendering judicial opinions. The Chief Justice of Korea is appointed to the court by the President with the consent of the National Assembly, and serves a non-renewable term of six years from the time of appointment. The Chief Justice acts as the head of the judicial branch of the Republic of Korea, and has broad administrative powers under the Constitution, including the right to recommend other justices to the Supreme Court and the right to appoint judges of the inferior courts. The current Chief Justice is Yang Sung-Tae. The 13 other Justices are appointed to the court by the President on the recommendation of the Chief Justice and the consent of the
    7.60
    5 votes
    24
    United States District Court for the District of New Hampshire

    United States District Court for the District of New Hampshire

    The United States District Court for the District of New Hampshire (in case citations, D.N.H.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the state of New Hampshire. The Warren B. Rudman U.S. Courthouse for the New Hampshire district is located in Concord. Appeals from the District of New Hampshire are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States Attorney's Office for the District of New Hampshire represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The United States Attorney from 2001–2009 was Thomas P. Colantuono. John Kacavas has been nominated to replace interim U.S. Attorney Michael J. Gunnison.
    7.60
    5 votes
    25
    King's Bench

    King's Bench

    • Legal cases: Stockdale v Hansard
    The Queen's Bench (or, during the reign of a male monarch, the King's Bench) is the superior court in a number of jurisdictions within some of the Commonwealth realms. The original King's Bench, founded in 1215 in the United Kingdom, is one of the ancient courts of England, and is now a division of the High Court of Justice of England and Wales. The Court of Queen's Bench is the superior court in several Canadian provinces, including: There was formerly a Court of King's (later Queen's) Bench created in the British colony of Quebec in 1764, it was also known at the supreme or superior court until 1775. It was then abolished and re-established in 1777, following the Quebec Act. Following the separation of Upper and Lower Canada in 1791, the single court was replaced by several courts of king's bench of each region of the two new provinces. In 1849 the districts in were reunited once again. In the United Kingdom, the Court of King's Bench (or Court of Queen's Bench) was the name of two courts, in England and Wales and in Ireland respectively. Each was a senior court of common law, with civil and criminal jurisdiction, and a specific jurisdiction to restrain unlawful actions by public
    6.50
    6 votes
    26
    Colorado Supreme Court

    Colorado Supreme Court

    • Legal cases: Courvoisier v. Raymond
    The Colorado Supreme Court is the highest court in the U.S. state of Colorado. Located in Denver, the Court consists of a Chief Justice and six Associate Justices. The Court principally handles certiorari petitions in cases decided on appeal by the Colorado Court of Appeals in appeals from courts of general jurisdiction, and from appellate decisions of courts of general jurisdiction in appeals from courts of inferior jurisdiction. In addition, the Colorado Supreme Court has jurisdiction over direct appeals in cases where a trial court finds a law unconstitutional, in death penalty cases, in water law cases, in certain election cases, in interlocutory appeals (i.e., appeals in the middle of a case) in certain matters of exceptional importance for which an ordinary appeal is not a sufficient remedy, and in certain other cases. The Colorado Supreme Court also has original jurisdiction over attorney discipline proceedings, over advisory questions presented by the state legislature or the state attorney general, and questions referred to it by the federal courts. Furthermore, the Colorado Supreme Court has general supervisory and budget authority over the judicial branch, the court rule
    7.40
    5 votes
    27
    Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China

    Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China

    The Supreme People's Court (最高人民法院; pinyin: Zuìgāo Rénmín Fǎyuàn) is the highest court in the mainland area of the People's Republic of China. Hong Kong and Macau, as special administrative regions, have their own separate judicial systems based on British common law traditions and Portuguese civil-law traditions respectively, and are out of the jurisdiction of the Supreme People's Court. The court includes over 340 judges which meet in smaller tribunals to decide cases. Since March 2008, the President of the Supreme People's Court and Chief Grand Justice has been Wang Shengjun (王胜俊). The SPC trial process consists of a four level, two-hearing system. In 2005, the Supreme People's Court announced its intent to "[take] back authority for death penalty approval" over concerns about “sentencing quality”, and the National People's Congress officially changed the Organic Law on the People's Courts requiring all death sentences to be approved by the Supreme People's Court on 31 October 2006. It has been reported that since the new review process, the court has rejected 15 percent of the death sentences decided by lower courts. Courts of the SPC: There are also National Courts with ties
    7.40
    5 votes
    28
    New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division

    New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division

    The Supreme Court of the State of New York, Appellate Division is the intermediate appellate court in New York State. The Appellate Division is composed of four departments (the full title of the "Fourth Department," for example, is Supreme Court of the State of New York, Appellate Division, Fourth Department). The Appellate Division was created by the New York State Constitution of 1894 to succeed the General Term of the Supreme Court, effective January 1, 1896. The Appellate Division hears appeals from the New York Supreme Court, which is the state's general trial court. The Appellate Division also hears appeals from other specialized trial courts, such as the Surrogate's Court, Family Court, County Court, and Court of Claims. In addition, in civil cases the Appellate Division may hear from appeals from the County Court and the Appellate Term of the Supreme Court, when these courts have heard appeals from one of the lower trial courts. New York's rules of civil procedure allow for interlocutory appeals of right from nearly every order and decision of the trial court, meaning that most may be appealed to the appropriate appellate department while the case is still pending in the
    8.50
    4 votes
    29
    Supreme Court of South Australia

    Supreme Court of South Australia

    • Superior courts: High Court of Australia
    The Supreme Court of South Australia is the superior court for the Australian State of South Australia. It has unlimited jurisdiction within the state in civil matters, and hears the most serious criminal matters. The Supreme Court is the highest South Australian court in the Australian court hierarchy. It is presently constituted of a Chief Justice and 12 other judges (justices). The creation of a Supreme Court was unique in the case of South Australia. In South Australia the notion of a Supreme Court formed part of Edward Wakefield's theory of colonization, in contrast to the other Australian colonies, which established their courts long after the settlement of the colony. The court was established by Letters Patent on 2 January 1837, five days after the colony was founded. It was endowed with all the common law and probate jurisdiction of the courts of Westminster. The first sessions were not held until May of that year, presided over by Sir John Jeffcott, the first judge of the court. (The title of Chief Justice was not officially introduced until the coming into force of Act No 31 of 1855-1856.) After Sir John Jeffcott's death in December 1837, Henry Jickling was appointed as
    8.50
    4 votes
    30
    Magistrates' court

    Magistrates' court

    • Superior courts: Court of Appeal
    Magistrates' courts in Hong Kong are presided over by 'Permanent' and 'Special' Magistrates. Permanent Magistrates are professionally qualified. They come from barristers or solicitors. Special Magistrates need not be professionally qualified but can be appointed from persons with experience of the courts; they may have been court clerks, court interpreters or lay prosecutors. Permanent Magistrates have criminal jurisdiction over a wide range of indictable and summary offenses meriting up to 2 years of imprisonment and a fine of HK$100,000; a sentence of up to 3 years can be imposed in certain circumstances. Special Magistrates deal with minor offenses and cannot impose a prison sentence and are limited to impose a maximum fine of HK$50,000 only. There are certain professional qualifications required to become a Special Magistrate.
    8.25
    4 votes
    31
    United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island

    United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island

    • Legal cases: Fricke v. Lynch
    The United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island (in case citations, D.R.I.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Rhode Island. The District Court was created in 1790 when Rhode Island ratified the Constitution. The Federal Courthouse was built in 1908. Appeals from the District of Rhode Island are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States Attorney for the District of Rhode Island represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current United States Attorney is Peter F. Neronha. The United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island was established on June 23, 1790 by 1 Stat. 128. Congress authorized one judgeship for the Court, and assigned the district to the Eastern Circuit. On February 13, 1801, the outgoing lame duck Federalist-controlled Congress passed the controversial Judiciary Act of 1801 which reassigned the District of Rhode Island to the First Circuit. The incoming Congress repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801, but
    9.33
    3 votes
    32
    United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa

    United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa

    The United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa (in case citations, S.D. Iowa) has jurisdiction over forty-seven of Iowa's ninety-nine counties. It is subject to the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States District Court for the District of Iowa, established on March 3, 1845, by 5 Stat. 789, was subdivided into the current Northern and Southern Districts on July 20, 1882, by 22 Stat. 172. Initially, one judge was assigned to each District. By 1927, a backlog of unresolved cases dating back to 1920 had developed. In October 1927, Judge Martin Joseph Wade announced that he "was through" attempting to try cases requiring more than one day, but urged Congress to create a second judgeship for the Southern District of Iowa. On January 19, 1928, President Calvin Coolidge signed into law a bill that authorized a second judgeship for the District, with the proviso that when the existing judgeship (held by Judge Wade) becomes vacant, it shall not be filled unless authorized by Congress. When the original judgeship became vacant upon
    9.33
    3 votes
    33
    International Court of Justice

    International Court of Justice

    • Legal cases: Croatia–Serbia genocide case
    The International Court of Justice (French: Cour internationale de Justice; commonly referred to as the World Court or ICJ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. It is based in the Peace Palace in The Hague, the Netherlands. Its main functions are to settle legal disputes submitted to it by states and to provide advisory opinions on legal questions submitted to it by duly authorized international organs, agencies, and the UN General Assembly. Established in 1945 by the UN Charter, the Court began work in 1946 as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice. The Statute of the International Court of Justice, similar to that of its predecessor, is the main constitutional document constituting and regulating the Court. The Court's workload covers a wide range of judicial activity. To date, the ICJ has dealt with relatively few cases. However, since the 1980s there has been a clear increase in willingness to use the Court, especially among developing countries. After the court ruled that the U.S.'s covert war against Nicaragua was in violation of international law (Nicaragua v. United States), the United States withdrew from compulsory jurisdiction in
    8.00
    4 votes
    34
    Ohio Seventh District Court of Appeals

    Ohio Seventh District Court of Appeals

    The Ohio Seventh District Court of Appeals is one of the 12 Ohio District Courts of Appeal, the state intermediate appellate courts of Ohio. It has jurisdiction over eight counties: Belmont, Carroll, Columbiana, Harrison, Jefferson, Mahoning, Monroe, and Noble. When a lower court in one of those eight counties has issued a final appealable order, the parties generally have the right to one appeal to the court of appeals. A further appeal may be attempted to the Ohio Supreme Court (which has discretionary jurisdiction and elects to hear a comparably small number of cases). The Seventh District Court of Appeals is composed of four judges, each elected to six-year terms by the citizens of the eight counties in the district. An appellate judge in Ohio must be a licensed attorney within Ohio, and have six or more years of Ohio legal practice or have served as a judge in any jurisdiction for at least six years. The current judges of the court (as of September 2012) are: Gene Donofrio, Joseph J. Vukovich, Cheryl L. Waite, and Mary DeGenaro. Each case on appeal is decided by a panel of three judges. Cases are decided through a review of the record of the inferior court or tribunal, as
    8.00
    4 votes
    35

    United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit

    The United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit (in case citations, 10th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: These districts were part of the Eighth Circuit until 1929. The court is composed of twelve active judges and is based at the Byron White U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. It is one of thirteen United States courts of appeals. Congress created a new judicial circuit in 1929 to accommodate the increased caseload in the federal courts. Between 1866 and 1912, twelve new states had entered the Union and been incorporated into the Eighth and Ninth Circuits. The Eighth Circuit encompassed 13 states and had become the largest in the nation. Chief Justice William Howard Taft suggested the reorganization of the Eight Circuit Court in response to widespread opposition in 1928 to a proposal to reorganize the nation's entire circuit structure. The original plan had sprung from an American Bar Association committee in 1925 and would have changed the composition of all but two circuits. The House of Representatives considered two proposals to divide the existing Eighth Circuit. A bill by Representative
    8.00
    4 votes
    36
    Supreme Court of Norway

    Supreme Court of Norway

    The Supreme Court of Norway (Norwegian Bokmål: (Norges) Høyesterett; Norwegian Nynorsk: (Noregs) Høgsterett; lit. ‘the Highest Court’) was established in 1815 on the basis article 88 in the Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway, which prescribes an independent judiciary. It is located in the capital Oslo. In addition to serving as the court of final appeal for civilian and criminal cases, it can also rule whether the Cabinet has acted in accordance with Norwegian law and whether the Parliament has passed legislation consistent with the Constitution. The Supreme Court is Norway's highest court. It has the entire Kingdom as its jurisdiction. It is a court of appeal, i.e. cases cannot be brought before the court if they are not tried in a district court (Norwegian: tingrett) and in most cases also in a regional court (Norwegian: lagmannsrett). Nevertheless, the Supreme Court has the prerogative to decide itself which cases of appeal it shall hear. This leads the court to hear cases of principal importance, where clarification is needed or where standards need to be set. Rulings set substantial precedence for the lower courts as well as for the Supreme Court itself. As a subject to
    6.80
    5 votes
    37
    United States District Court for the District of Utah

    United States District Court for the District of Utah

    • Legal cases: SCO v. Novell
    The United States District Court for the District of Utah (in case citations, D. Utah) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Utah. The court is based in Salt Lake City with another courtroom in Ogden. Appeals from the District of Utah are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States Attorney's Office for the District of Utah represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. According to 28 U.S.C. § 133(a), the District of Utah is allowed five active district judges. These include: Chief Judge Ted Stewart, Judge Dee Benson and Judge Clark Waddoups, who was confirmed on September 26, 2008. Federal judicial districts are also allowed to utilize “Senior” Judges in addition to the limit set forth in 28 U.S.C. § 133(a). Currently the active Senior Judges within the District of Utah include: Bruce S. Jenkins, David Sam, Dale A. Kimball, who assumed senior status on November 30, 2009, and Tena Campbell, who assumed senior status on January 1, 2011.
    6.80
    5 votes
    38
    Supreme Court of Missouri

    Supreme Court of Missouri

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Supreme Court of Missouri is the highest court in the state of Missouri. It was established in 1820, and is located in Jefferson City, Missouri. Missouri voters have approved changes in the state's constitution to give the Supreme Court exclusive jurisdiction- the sole legal power to hear – five types of cases on appeal. Pursuant to Article V, Section 3 of the Missouri Constitution, these cases involve: Unless their case involves one of those five issues, people who want a trial court's decision reviewed must appeal to the Missouri Court of Appeals. Most of these cases involve routine legal questions and end there. The Court of Appeals is divided geographically into the Eastern District, Western District and Southern District. Certain cases, however, can be transferred to the Supreme Court – at the Court's discretion – if it determines that a question of general interest or importance is involved, that the laws should be re-examined, or that the lower court's decision conflicts with an earlier appellate decision. This is similar to the process the United States Supreme Court uses in accepting cases. In addition, the Court of Appeals may transfer a case to the Supreme Court
    9.00
    3 votes
    39
    Supreme Court of Sweden

    Supreme Court of Sweden

    The Supreme Court of Sweden (Swedish: Högsta domstolen, abbreviated HD) is the supreme court and the third and final instance in all civil and criminal cases in Sweden. Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, and with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent. The Supreme Court consists of 16 Councillors of Justice or justitieråd who are appointed by the government, but the court as an institution is independent of the Riksdag, and the government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court. Historically, all judicial power was vested in the Swedish monarchs, but in 1614 Gustavus Adolphus instituted Svea Hovrätt and authorized it to issue sentences in his name. Those not satisfied with sentencing were able to turn directly to the monarch, and appeals were handled by the Justice Department of the Privy Council (in Swedish: Justitierevisionen), a committee of that council. Under the authoritarian rule of King Gustav III, the Privy Council was suspended in 1789 on the basis of the Union and Security Act. Instead, on May 19, King's Supreme Court (Swedish: Konungens högsta
    9.00
    3 votes
    40
    United States District Court for the District of Delaware

    United States District Court for the District of Delaware

    The United States District Court for the District of Delaware (in case citations, D. Del.) is the Federal district court having jurisdiction over the entire state of Delaware. The Court sits in Wilmington. Currently, four district judges and three magistrate judges preside over the court. The Court is notable for hearing and trying a large number of patent and other complex commercial disputes. In addition, it has limited original and broad appellate jurisdiction over bankruptcy disputes which are filed with the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware. Appeals from the Court are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, which sits in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The current U.S. Attorney for the District of Delaware is David C. Weiss. The court was one of the original 13 courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73, on September 24, 1789. From its establishment until 1946, the court had a single judge. A temporary additional judgeship was authorized on July 24, 1946, by 60 Stat. 654, and was made
    9.00
    3 votes
    41
    United States District Court for the District of Wyoming

    United States District Court for the District of Wyoming

    The United States District Court for the District of Wyoming (in case citations, D. Wyo.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the state of Wyoming and those portions of Yellowstone National Park situated in Montana and Idaho. The court has locations in Cheyenne and Casper. Appeals from this court are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States Attorney's Office for the District of Wyoming represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The district of Wyoming is the only federal court district that includes portions of more than one state. Law professor Brian C. Kalt has argued that it may be impossible to impanel a jury in compliance with the Vicinage Clause of the Sixth Amendment for a crime committed solely in the Idaho portion of the park (and that it would be difficult to do so for a crime committed solely in the Montana portion).
    9.00
    3 votes
    42
    United States District Court for the Western District of Arkansas

    United States District Court for the Western District of Arkansas

    The United States District Court for the Western District of Arkansas (in case citations, W.D. Ark.) is a United States District Court whose jurisdiction comprises the following counties: Ashley, Baxter, Benton, Boone, Bradley, Calhoun, Carroll, Clarke, Columbia, Crawford, Franklin, Garland, Hempstead, Hot Springs, Howard, Johnson, Lafayette, Little River, Logan, Madison, Marion, Miller, Montgomery, Nevada, Newton, Ouachita, Pike, Polk, Scott, Searcy, Sebastian, Sevier, Union, and Washington. Appeals from the Western District of Arkansas are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the Western District of Arkansas is Paul K. Holmes III. The current United States Marshal for the District Court for the Western District of Arkansas is Richard James O'Connell. On Wednesday, June 9, 2010, President Barack Obama nominated Harold Michael Oglesby to the Senate to succeed Marshal O'Connell as United States Marshal for the Western District of Arkansas. Arkansas was originally part
    9.00
    3 votes
    43
    Federal Administrative Court of Germany

    Federal Administrative Court of Germany

    The Federal Administrative Court (Bundesverwaltungsgericht) is one of the five federal supreme courts of Germany. It is the court of the last resort for generally all cases of administrative law, mainly disputes between citizens and the state. It hears appeals from the Oberverwaltungsgerichte, or Superior Administrative Courts, which, in turn, are the courts of appeals for decisions of the Verwaltungsgerichte (Administrative Courts). However, cases concerning social security law belong to the jurisdiction of the Sozialgerichte (Social Courts) with the Bundessozialgericht as federal court of appeals, and cases of tax and customs law are decided by the Finanzgerichte (Finance Courts), and, ultimately, by the Bundesfinanzhof. The Bundesverwaltungsgericht has its seat at the former Reichsgericht (Imperial Court of Justice) building in Leipzig.
    7.75
    4 votes
    44
    Carlill v. Carbolic Smoke Ball Company

    Carlill v. Carbolic Smoke Ball Company

    Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company [1893] EWCA Civ 1 is an English contract law decision by the Court of Appeal, which held an advertisement containing certain terms to get a reward constituted a binding unilateral offer that could be accepted by anyone who performed its terms. It is notable for its curious subject matter and how the influential judges (particularly Lindley LJ and Bowen LJ) developed the law in inventive ways. Carlill is frequently discussed as an introductory contract case, and may often be the first legal case a law student studies. The case concerned a flu remedy called the "carbolic smoke ball". The manufacturer advertised that buyers who found it did not work would be awarded £100, a considerable amount of money at the time. The company was found to have been bound by its advertisement, which it construed as creating a contract. The Court of Appeal held the essential elements of a contract were all present, including offer and acceptance, consideration and an intention to create legal relations. The Carbolic Smoke Ball Company made a product called the "smoke ball". It claimed to be a cure for influenza and a number of other diseases, in the context of the
    7.50
    4 votes
    45
    Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt

    Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt

    The Supreme Constitutional Court (Arabic: المحكمة الدستورية العليا‎, Al-Mahkamah al-Dustūrīyah al-‘Ulyā) (or SCC) is an independent judiciary body in the Arab Republic of Egypt, with its new seat in the Cairo suburb of Maadi. The Court is the highest judicial power in Egypt and it alone undertakes the judicial control in respect of the constitutionality of the laws and regulations and shall undertake the interpretation of the legislative texts in the manner prescribed by law. In addition the supreme court is empowered to settle competence disputes between the judicial and the administrative courts. The establishment of the Supreme Constitutional Court goes back to the argument which was raised over the right of courts or any judicial bodies to pronounce on the constitutionality of the laws issued by the Legislative power. Such a judicial argument has been advocated in arguing that considering the issue of the constitutionality of laws is included in the competence of the courts. Therefore, it does not prejudice in any way the principle of separation of powers. The argument of such a party was, however, based on a basic assertion that discussing this issue is but a sheer legal act
    7.50
    4 votes
    46
    United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois

    United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois

    • Legal cases: Dart v. Craigslist, Inc.
    The United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois (in case citations, N.D. Ill.) is the trial-level court with jurisdiction over the northern counties of Illinois. Appeals from the Northern District of Illinois are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The court is divided into two geographical divisions: The eastern division includes Cook, DuPage, Grundy, Kane, Kendall, La Salle, Lake, and Will counties. Its sessions are held in Chicago and Wheaton. The western division includes Boone, Carroll, De Kalb, Jo Daviess, Lee, McHenry, Ogle, Stephenson, Whiteside, and Winnebago. Its sessions are held in Freeport and Rockford. The United States District Court for the District of Illinois was established by a statute passed by the United States Congress on March 3, 1819, 3 Stat. 502. The act established a single office for a judge to preside over the court. Initially, the court was not within any existing judicial circuit, and appeals from the court were taken directly to the United States Supreme Court. In
    7.50
    4 votes
    47
    Bombay High Court

    Bombay High Court

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of India
    Bombay High Court (Marathi: मुंबई उच्च न्यायालय) at Mumbai, Maharashtra, is one of the oldest High Courts of India with jurisdiction over the states of Maharashtra & Goa, and, the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The High Court has regional benches at Nagpur and Aurangabad in Maharashtra and Panaji, Goa. The court is one of the most distinguished high courts in the country. The first Chief Justice, the Attorney General and Solicitor General of Independent India were from this court. Since India's Independence, 22 judges from this court have been elevated to the Supreme Court and 8 of them have been Chief Justice of India. The court has Original Jurisdiction in addition to its Appellate. The decisions of this court can be appealed only to the Supreme Court of India. The Bombay High Court has the sanctioned strength of 75 judges. The Bombay High Court was inaugurated on 14 August 1862. Although the name of the city was changed from Bombay to Mumbai in 1995, the Court as an institution did not follow suit and remained as the Bombay High Court. The work on the present building of the High Court was commenced in April 1871 and completed in November 1878. It
    8.67
    3 votes
    48
    Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania

    Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania

    The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian: Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucinis Teismas) is a special court established by the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania of 1992; it began the activities after the adoption of the Law on Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania on February 3, 1993. Since its inception, the Court has been located in the city of Vilnius, Gediminas Avenue. The main task of the court is judicial review. It may therefore declare the acts of the Seimas unconstitutional and thus render them ineffective. As such, it is somewhat similar to the Supreme Court of the United States. However, it differs from it and other supreme courts in that it is not part of the regular judicial system, but more a unique judicial branch. Most importantly, it does not serve as a regular court of appeals from lower courts or as a sort of “superappellate court” on any violation of national laws. Its jurisdiction is focused on constitutional issues, the integrity of the Constitution. Moreover, it adjudicates on the conformance of the acts of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania to the laws, compliance with the Constitution of international
    8.67
    3 votes
    49
    Gulating Court of Appeal

    Gulating Court of Appeal

    Gulating Court of Appeal (Norwegian: Gulating lagmannsrett) is a Norwegian Court of Appeal. Gulating Court of Appeal is based in Bergen, Norway. Gulating Court of Appeal holding many hearings in Stavanger and also maintains permanent offices in the Stavanger Courthouse. Gulating Court of Appeal serves as appeal for district courts located in Rogaland, Hordaland and Sogn og Fjordane. Gulating Court of Appeals is one of six lower courts in Norway. It can rule on both civil and criminal cases. Court decisions can be, to a limited extent, appealed to the Supreme Court of Norway. Gulating lagmannsrett is from 2011 located in a new, modern Courthouse at Gulatings plass 1 in Bergen. The court has its historical roots originating with the Gulating, one of the first Norwegian legislative assemblies or Þing which was established before the year 900.
    8.67
    3 votes
    50
    Rhode Island Supreme Court

    Rhode Island Supreme Court

    • Legal cases: Angel v. Murray
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Rhode Island Supreme Court, founded in 1747, is the court of last resort in the U.S. State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. The Court consists of a chief justice and four associate justices. In 1747, the Rhode Island General Assembly authorized the creation of a Superior Court of Judicature, Court of Assize, and General Gaol Delivery, consisting of one chief justice and four associates, all serving one year terms. The 1747 enactment replaced an earlier appeals court of the same name, which had been composed of the governor or deputy governor and at least six of the elected "assistants," which dated to 1729 under the same name and the composition dated back to the 1663 charter when it was known as the "General Court of Trials." This court had replaced an even earlier court formed under the Charter of 1644, a 1647 enactment of a code of laws, and a 1651 amendment creating appellate jurisdiction. Most of the judges during the 18th century were laymen, merchants or farmers and did not possess formal legal training, and therefore the court did not explicitly follow British common law. Parties, however, could still appeal to either the British monarch, English courts or
    8.67
    3 votes
    51
    Supreme Court of Bangladesh

    Supreme Court of Bangladesh

    The Supreme Court of Bangladesh (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ সুপ্রীম কোর্ট) is the highest court of law in Bangladesh. It is composed of the High Court Division and the Appellate division, and was created by Part VI Chapter I of the Constitution of Bangladesh adopted in 1972. This is also the office of the Chief Justice, Appellate Division Justices, and High Court Division Justices of Bangladesh. As of October 2012, there are 7 Justices in Appellate Division and 98 (78 are permanent and 20 are additional) in High Court Division. Supreme Court of Bangladesh divided in two parts. First, the Appellate Division and second is the High Court Division. The High Court Division hears appeals from lower courts and tribunals; it also has original jurisdiction in certain limited cases, such as writ applications under article 102 of the Constitution of Bangladesh, and company and admiralty matters. The Appellate division has jurisdiction to hear appeals from the High Court Division. The Supreme Court is independent of the executive branch, and is able to rule against the government in politically controversial cases. The Chief Justice of Bangladesh and other judges of the supreme court are appointed by
    8.67
    3 votes
    52
    Supreme Court of the Republic of China

    Supreme Court of the Republic of China

    The Supreme Court of the Republic of China (Chinese: 中華民國最高法院 is the court of last resort in the Republic of China, although matters regarding interpretation of the Constitution and unifying the interpretation of laws and orders are decided by the Constitutional Court of the Judicial Yuan. In 1927, the government of the Republic of China renamed Dali Yuan (大理院) to the Supreme Court. In 1949, the Supreme Court was moved to Taipei, Taiwan, where the Kuomintang government retreated after the Chinese Civil War. The Organic Law of the Court states that the judicial system shall be composed of the Supreme Court, High Courts, and District Courts, in which the system of “three-level and three-instance” is used. The Supreme Court is the court of last resort for civil and criminal cases. Except for civil cases involving amounts not exceeding NT $1,500,000 and petty offences enumerated in Article 376 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, any civil or criminal case may be appealed to the Court. More specifically, the Court exercises jurisdiction over the following cases: Cases are forwarded to either the Civil Section or the Criminal Section, which will record the case according to the year,
    10.00
    2 votes
    53
    United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

    United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

    • Legal cases: Peloza v. Capistrano School District
    The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (in case citations, 9th Cir.) is a U.S. federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: It also has appellate jurisdiction over the following territorial courts: Headquartered in San Francisco, California, the Ninth Circuit is by far the largest of the thirteen courts of appeals, with 29 active judgeships. The court's regular meeting places are Seattle at the William K. Nakamura Courthouse, Portland at the Pioneer Courthouse, San Francisco at the James R. Browning U.S. Court of Appeals Building, and Pasadena at the Richard H. Chambers U.S. Court of Appeals, but panels of the court occasionally travel to hear cases in other locations within its territorial jurisdiction. Although the judges travel around the circuit, the court arranges its hearings so that cases from the northern region of the circuit are heard in Seattle or Portland, cases from southern California are heard in Pasadena, and cases from northern California, Nevada, Arizona, and Hawaii are heard in San Francisco. For lawyers who must come and present their cases to the court in person, this administrative grouping of
    10.00
    2 votes
    54
    Oregon Supreme Court

    Oregon Supreme Court

    • Jurisdiction: Oregon
    • Legal cases: Gustafson v. Payless
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Oregon Supreme Court (OSC) is the highest state court in the U.S. state of Oregon. The only court that may reverse or modify a decision of the Oregon Supreme Court is the Supreme Court of the United States. The OSC holds court at the Oregon Supreme Court Building in Salem, Oregon, near the capitol building on State Street. The building was finished in 1914 and also houses the state's law library, while the courtroom is also used by the Oregon Court of Appeals. Tracing its heritage to 1841 when Oregon pioneers selected a supreme judge with probate powers, the court has grown from a single judge to its current make up of seven justices. Justices of the court serve six year terms upon election, however vacancies are filled by appointments of the Governor of Oregon until the next general election when any qualified candidate may run for the position, including the appointee. These seven justices then select one member to serve a six-year term as Chief Justice. The court’s Chief Justice is not only responsible for assigning cases to the other justices to write the court’s opinions, but is also the chief executive of the Oregon Judicial Department. Primarily an appeals court, the
    6.40
    5 votes
    55
    Constitutional Court of Korea

    Constitutional Court of Korea

    The Constitutional Court of Korea is an independent and specialised court in South Korea, whose primary role is the reviewing of constitutionality under the Constitution of the Republic of Korea. It also has administrative law functions such as ruling on competence disputes between governmental entities, giving final decisions on impeachments, and making judgments on the dissolution of political parties. The Korean Constitutional Court has jurisdiction over constitutional review of statutes, constitutional complaints, competence disputes between governmental entities, impeachment of high governmental officials, and dissolution of political parties. A decision of the Constitutional Court cannot be appealed and binds all state agencies and local governments. The Constitutional Court, along with the ordinary courts, protects the Constitution through adjudication procedures. Jurisdiction belonging to the Constitutional Court, all interpret and apply the Constitution, aiming to solve constitutional conflicts and protect the Constitution from violation. The Constitutional Court also protects basic rights. When basic rights guaranteed by the Constitution are violated by the exercise or
    7.25
    4 votes
    56
    Constitutional Court of Thailand

    Constitutional Court of Thailand

    The Constitutional Court of Thailand (Thai: ศาลรัฐธรรมนูญ; RTGS: San Ratthathammanun; Thai pronunciation: [sǎːn•rat•tʰà•tʰam•má•nuːn]) is an independent Thai court originally established under the 1997 Constitution with jurisdiction over the constitutionality of parliamentary acts, royal decrees, draft legislation, as well as the appointment and removal of public officials and issues regarding political parties. The Court, along with the Constitution of Thailand, was dissolved in 2006 following the Thai military's overthrow of the government. While the Constitutional Court had 15 members, 7 from the judiciary and 8 appointed by the Senate, the Constitution Tribunal had 9 members, all from the judiciary. A similar institution was established under the 2007 Constitution. The court is part of the judicial branch of the Government. The 1998 establishment of the Constitutional Court provoked much public debate, both regarding the Court's jurisdiction and composition as well as the initial selection of justices. A long-standing issue has been the degree of control exerted by the judiciary over the Court. The various versions of the Court have made several significant rulings. These
    7.25
    4 votes
    57

    United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit

    • Legal cases: Selman v. Cobb County School District
    The United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit (in case citations, 11th Cir. or CA11) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: These districts were originally part of the Fifth Circuit, but were split off to form the Eleventh effective October 1, 1981. For this reason, Fifth Circuit decisions from before this split are considered binding precedent in the Eleventh Circuit. The court is based at the Elbert P. Tuttle U.S. Court of Appeals Building in Atlanta, Georgia, named for Elbert Tuttle. It is one of thirteen United States courts of appeals. -A vacancy was created on February 16, 2012 when Stanley F. Birch retired. Jill A. Pryor was nominated on February 16, 2012 to fill the seat. -A second vacancy was created on July 15, 2012, when Judge James Larry Edmondson assume senior status. No replacement nomination is pending at this time. The judges on the court are: Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, and preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice (i.e., the Supreme Court justice responsible for the circuit) is also on the panel. Unlike the
    7.25
    4 votes
    58

    United States District Court for the District of Kansas

    The United States District Court for the District of Kansas (in case citations, D. Kan.) is the federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Kansas. The Court operates out of the Robert J. Dole United States Courthouse in Kansas City, the Frank Carlson Federal Building in Topeka, and the United States Courthouse in Wichita. The District of Kansas was created in 1861, replacing the territorial court that preceded it, and President Abraham Lincoln appointed Archibald Williams as the Court's first judge. Appeals from the District of Kansas are made to the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The Court's Article III judges include four senior judges and five active judges. A vacancy was created in the District when Judge John W. Lungstrum assumed senior status on November 2, 2010. All judges The Clerk of Court is Timothy M. O'Brien, who is located in Kansas City.
    7.25
    4 votes
    59
    United States Tax Court

    United States Tax Court

    • Legal cases: Midland Empire Packing Company v. Commissioner
    The United States Tax Court is a federal trial court of record established by Congress under Article I of the U.S. Constitution, section 8 of which provides (in part) that the Congress has the power to "constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court". The Tax Court specializes in adjudicating disputes over federal income tax, generally prior to the time at which formal tax assessments are made by the Internal Revenue Service. Though taxpayers may choose to litigate tax matters in a variety of legal settings, outside of bankruptcy, the Tax Court is the only forum in which taxpayers may do so without having first paid the disputed tax in full. Parties who contest the imposition of a tax may also bring an action in any United States District Court, or in the United States Court of Federal Claims; however these venues require that the tax be paid first, and that the party then file a lawsuit to recover the contested amount paid (the "full payment rule" of Flora v. United States). Tax Court judges are appointed for a term of 15 years, subject to removal for cause. The first incarnation of the Tax Court was the "U.S. Board of Tax Appeals", established by Congress in the Revenue Act
    7.25
    4 votes
    60
    Calcutta High Court

    Calcutta High Court

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of India
    The Calcutta High Court (Bengali: কলকাতা উচ্চ আদালত) is the oldest High Court in India. It was established as the High Court of Judicature at Fort William on 1 July 1862 under the High Courts Act, 1861. It has jurisdiction over the state of West Bengal and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The High Court building is an exact replica of the Stand Haus in Ypres, Belgium. It is recorded that when the original Stand Haus burnt down, a blue print of Granville's Calcutta High Court had to be consulted before rebuilding it. The court has a sanctioned judge strength of 63. Despite the name of the city having officially changed from Calcutta to Kolkata in 2001, the old name is retained by the court as it is an institution. the Indian high court was establish in 1862 The seat of the Calcutta High Court is at Kolkata, capital of West Bengal. As per the Calcutta High Court (Extension of Jurisdiction) Act, 1953, the Calcutta High Court's jurisdiction was extended to cover Chandernagore (now called Chandannagar) and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands as of May 2nd, 1950. The Calcutta High Court maintains a permanent circuit bench in Port Blair, the capital of the Andaman and
    8.33
    3 votes
    61
    Federal Constitutional Court of Germany

    Federal Constitutional Court of Germany

    The Federal Constitutional Court (German: Bundesverfassungsgericht, or BVerfG) is a supreme constitutional court established by the constitution or Basic Law of Germany. Since its inception with the beginning of the Federal Republic of Germany, the court has been located in the city of Karlsruhe—intentionally distanced from the other federal institutions in Berlin (earlier in Bonn), Munich, and Frankfurt. The sole task of the court is judicial review, and it may declare legislation unconstitutional, thus rendering them ineffective. In this respect, it is similar to other supreme courts with judicial review powers, like the Supreme Court of the United States; yet the Court possesses a number of additional powers, and is regarded as among the most interventionist and powerful national courts in the world. Unlike other supreme courts, the constitutional court is not an integral stage of the judicial or appeals process (aside from in cases concerning constitutional or public international law), and does not serve as a regular appellate court from lower courts or the Federal Supreme Courts on any violation of federal laws. The court's jurisdiction is focused on constitutional issues and
    8.33
    3 votes
    62

    Hawaii Intermediate Court of Appeals

    The Hawaii State Intermediate Court of Appeals (ICA) is the intermediate appellate court of the Hawaii State Judiciary. It shares jurisdiction over appeals from lower courts with the Hawaii State Supreme Court. While the state supreme court reviews cases over the formulation of law, the ICA reviews cases for errors. The ICA is composed of six judges, who sit in randomly selected panels of three. Each judge is appointed to an initial ten-year term by the Governor. Judges are nominated by the Governor from a list of between four and six names submitted by the Judicial Selection Commission. A judge's nomination is subject to confirmation by the Hawaii Senate, but reappointments require only approval of the Judicial Selection Commission. Under Article VI §§3–4 of the Hawaii Constitution, all judges of the Court of Appeals, like the judges of the state Supreme Court, have a mandatory retirement age of 70. As of 2010 the judges were:
    8.33
    3 votes
    63
    Oslo District Court

    Oslo District Court

    Oslo District Court (Norwegian: Oslo tingrett) is the district court serving Oslo, Norway. Cases may be appealed to Borgarting Court of Appeal. As the largest district court in Norway, it handles about 20% of all cases in the country. The court handled 3,000 criminal and 2,200 civil cases, as well as 7,200 summary proceedings in 2007. It is led by a chief justice, and has 100 appointed professional and deputy judges. These are divided into eight sections. In addition, the court has 105 administrative employees, of which 30 are in central administration, 59 in judicial-related jobs and 16 in security. These are led by a managing director. Oslo is the most frequent user of interpreters of all the courts in the country, accounting for about half the use of interpreters. The most frequent languages are Arabic, English, Somali and Polish. In 2007, 23% of all cases used interpreters. The court also has a witness support program in cooperation with Oslo Red Cross. Starting in 1999, the court initiated a court conciliation program to encourage negotiations in civil cases. This allows the parties to find a middle ground they are both satisfied with, without creating winners and losers. At
    8.33
    3 votes
    64
    United States District Court for the District of South Carolina

    United States District Court for the District of South Carolina

    The United States District Court for the District of South Carolina (in case citations, D.S.C.) is the federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of South Carolina. Court is held in the cities of Aiken, Anderson, Beaufort, Charleston, Columbia, Florence, Greenville, and Spartanburg. Appeals from the District of South Carolina are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The District of South Carolina was one of the original 13 courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73, on September 24, 1789. It was subdivided into the United States District Court for the Eastern District of South Carolina and the United States District Court for the Western District of South Carolina Districts on February 21, 1823 by 3 Stat. 726. The Eastern District was headquartered at Florence, and the Western District was headquartered in Greenville. The division was solely for the purposes of holding court – a single judge presided over both districts, and the act authorized no additional court staff. In 1898 the United States
    6.20
    5 votes
    65
    Court of Criminal Appeal

    Court of Criminal Appeal

    • Legal cases: DPP v Morgan
    The Court of Criminal Appeal is the name of existing courts of Scotland and Ireland, and an historic court in England and Wales. See Court of Criminal Appeal (Ireland) The Court of Criminal Appeal hears cases which have been appealed from the Circuit Court, Central Criminal Court and Special Criminal Court. It is made up of three judges and has a majority decision. Leave to appeal is only given where there is a disagreement on a point of law, although an exception can be made when new evidence becomes available which could not have been presented before the original court. Following the Criminal Appeal (Scotland) Act 1926 (16 & 17 Geo. V), when the Scottish High Court of Justiciary hears criminal appeals, it is known as the Court of Criminal Appeal. The Criminal Appeal (Scotland) Act 1927 was passed the following year specifically to deal with the Case of Oscar Slater. The court consists of at least three judges when hearing appeals against conviction and two when hearing appeals against sentence, although more judges may sit when the court is dealing with exceptionally difficult cases or those where important matters of law may be considered. This is known as a Full Bench. Appeals
    9.50
    2 votes
    66
    Court of Final Appeal

    Court of Final Appeal

    • Legal cases: Fateh Muhammad v. Commissioner of Registration
    The Court of Final Appeal (Chinese: 終審法院) of Hong Kong is the court with the final adjudication power on the laws of Hong Kong. Before 1 July 1997, Hong Kong was a British dependent territory, and the power of final adjudication on the laws of Hong Kong was vested in the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London. The sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China on 1 July 1997, and the Court of Final Appeal was thereby established in Central, Hong Kong. Since then, it serves as the court of last resort, thus executing the power of final adjudication on the laws of Hong Kong. Under the Basic Law, the constitutional document of Hong Kong, the special administrative region remains a common law jurisdiction. Judges from other common law jurisdictions (including England and Wales) can be recruited and serve in the judiciary according to Article 92 of the Basic Law. The court has the power of final interpretation with regard to all laws in force in Hong Kong save the Basic Law. The power of interpretation of the Basic Law is vested in the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China (NPCSC) by virtue of Article
    9.50
    2 votes
    67
    District Courts of New Zealand

    District Courts of New Zealand

    • Superior courts: High Court of New Zealand
    The District Courts of New Zealand (Māori: Ngā Kōti ā Rōhe) are low-level trial courts in New Zealand. The District Courts can hear civil claims up to $200,000 ($500,000 if recovery of land is claimed) and criminal cases involving relatively minor offences. There are 66 District Courts throughout New Zealand and the vast majority of both civil and criminal actions in New Zealand are commenced in a District Court. The District Courts are governed by the District Courts Act 1947 as well as the District Court Rules which are periodically revised by the Rules Committee (last revised 2009). The District Courts were established in 1980 to replace Magistrates Courts, which had dealt with minor criminal matters and civil claims since 1893. The establishment of the District Courts was the result of the recommendations made in the 1978 Royal Commission on the Courts. report. District Courts were given an expanded jurisdiction and the Family Court was created as a division of the District Court in 1981. The Youth Court is another specialist division of the District Court, dealing with people under the age of 17 who have been charged with criminal offending. Today there are 66 District Courts
    9.50
    2 votes
    68
    Supreme Court of Estonia

    Supreme Court of Estonia

    The Supreme Court of Estonia (Estonian: Riigikohus) is the court of last resort in Estonia. It is both a court of cassation and a constitutional court. The courthouse is in Tartu.
    7.00
    4 votes
    69

    Nova Scotia Supreme Court

    The Nova Scotia Supreme Court is a superior court in the province of Nova Scotia. The Court comprises the Chief Justice (who is also the Chief Justice of the Nova Scotia Court of Appeal), the Associate Chief justice, twenty-one judges and six supernumerary (or semiretired) Justices, who sit in 18 different locations around the province. As with all superior courts across the country, the court is said to have inherent jurisdiction. It hears civil and criminal trials. The criminal trials can be judge alone or judge and jury. It is the only court that can hear indictable offences. The court will also hear appeals from the provincial court, small claims court, Family court, and various provincial tribunals. Appeals are then made to the Nova Scotia Court of Appeal. While the first court administering the Common Law was established in Annapolis Royal in 1721, the creation of a Supreme Court took place on October 21, 1754, several years before the Province was granted a legislative assembly. The court is the oldest court in Canada and is among the oldest in North America. Jonathan Belcher was appointed the first Chief Justice of the Nova Scotia Supreme Court. The court’s jurisdiction
    8.00
    3 votes
    70
    Supreme Court of Sierra Leone

    Supreme Court of Sierra Leone

    The Supreme Court of Sierra Leone is the highest court in Sierra Leone. It has final jurisdiction in all civil and criminal matters within Sierra Leone and its decisions cannot be appealed. The Supreme Court has the exclusive constitutional power to overturn ruling of lower courts within the jurisdiction of Sierra Leone. The Supreme Court, along with the Court of Appeals, High Court of Justice, and magistrate courts form the Judicial branch of the Government of Sierra Leone. The Supreme Court of Sierra Leone consists of five Supreme Court justices, headed by the Chief Justice. The Judges are appointed by the president of Sierra Leone and must be confirmed by the Parliament of Sierra Leone by at least 60% majority vote in order to take office. Four of Sierra Leone's five current Supreme Court judges are women . The Supreme Court building is located on Siaka Stevens Street in the Central business district in Downtown Freetown.
    8.00
    3 votes
    71
    Supreme Court of Western Australia

    Supreme Court of Western Australia

    • Superior courts: High Court of Australia
    The Supreme Court of Western Australia is the highest state court in the Australian State of Western Australia. It has unlimited jurisdiction within the state in civil matters (although it usually only hears matters involving sums of A$750,000 or more), and hears the most serious criminal matters. The Supreme Court consists of a General Division (equivalent to the Trial Division in other states) and the Court of Appeal. The General Division deals with serious criminal matters, civil cases where the amount claimed is greater than $750,000, criminal appeals from the Magistrates Court and appeals from other bodies such as the State Administrative Tribunal. The Court of Appeal hears both civil and criminal appeals from cases in the General Division, the District Court and the State Administrative Tribunal. When required, Supreme Court judges may also constitute the Industrial Court of Western Australia and the Court of Disputed Returns. The current Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is the Hon Wayne Martin AC who was formally appointed to the position on 4 April 2006. Martin was appointed after a lengthy selection process which followed the retirement of David Malcolm on 7 February.
    8.00
    3 votes
    72
    United States District Court for the District of Columbia

    United States District Court for the District of Columbia

    • Legal cases: Linda R. Tripp v. Department of Defense
    The United States District Court for the District of Columbia (in case citations, D.D.C.) is a federal district court. Appeals from the District are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The court was established by Congress in 1863 as the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, replacing the abolished circuit and district courts of the District of Columbia that had been in place since 1801. The court consisted of four justices, including a chief justice, and was granted the same powers and jurisdiction as the earlier circuit court. Any of the justices could convene a United States circuit court or a local criminal court. In 1936, Congress renamed the court the District Court for the District of Columbia. Its current name was adopted in 1948, and from then on justices were known as judges. Originally housed in the former District of Columbia City Hall, the court now sits in the E. Barrett Prettyman Federal Courthouse located at 333 Constitution Avenue, Northwest, Washington, D.C. The District has no local
    8.00
    3 votes
    73

    United States District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina

    The U.S. District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina (in case citations, M.D.N.C.) is a United States district court with jurisdiction over 24 counties in the center of North Carolina. It consists of five divisions with a headquarters in Greensboro, North Carolina. Appeals from the Middle District of North Carolina are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The Durham division covers Chatham, Durham, Lee, Orange, and Person counties. The Greensboro division includes: Alamance, Caswell, Guilford, Randolph, and Rockingham counties. The Rockingham division hears cases for: Hoke, Montgomery, Moore, Richmond, and Scotland. The Salisbury division includes: Cabarrus, Davidson, Davie, Rowan, and Stanly counties. The Winston-Salem division covers: Forsyth, Stokes, Surry, and Yadkin counties. The United States District Court for the District of North Carolina was established on June 4, 1790, by 1 Stat. 126. On June 9, 1794 it was subdivided into three districts by 1 Stat. 395, but on March 3, 1797, the three districts were
    8.00
    3 votes
    74
    Rajasthan High Court

    Rajasthan High Court

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of India
    The Rajasthan High Court is the High Court of the state of Rajasthan. It was established on 21 June 1949 under the Rajasthan High Court Ordinance, 1949. The seat of the court is at Jodhpur. The court has a sanctioned judge strength of 40. The High Court of Rajasthan was founded in 1949 at Jodhpur, and was inaugurated by the Rajpramukh, Maharaja Sawai Man Singh on 29 August 1949. The first Chief Justice was Kamala Kant Verma. A bench was formed at Jaipur which was dissolved in 1958 and was again formed on 31 January 1977. Currently the sanctioned strength of the judges is 40 and actual strength is 22. The current Chief Justice of the Rajasthan High Court is Arun Kumar Mishra. He assumed the charge on 26 November 2010. Chif Of Rajasthan
    9.00
    2 votes
    75
    Supreme Court of New Zealand

    Supreme Court of New Zealand

    The Supreme Court of New Zealand (in Māori: Te Kōti Matua o Aotearoa) is the highest court and the court of last resort in New Zealand, having formally come into existence on 1 January 2004. The court sat for the first time on 1 July 2004. It replaced the right of appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, based in London. It was created with the passing of the Supreme Court Act 2003, on 15 October 2003. At the time, the creation of the Supreme Court and the abolition of appeals to the Privy Council were controversial constitutional changes in New Zealand. It should not be confused with New Zealand's "old" Supreme Court, which was a superior court that was established in 1841 and continued in 1980 as the High Court of New Zealand. The name was changed in anticipation of the eventual creation of a final court of appeal for New Zealand that would be called the "Supreme Court". The inaugural bench (with the exception of the Chief Justice, who had automatic appointment) were the most senior judges of the New Zealand Court of Appeal at the time. Their appointment to the new Court was said to have been based on seniority and merit. The maximum bench under statute is six
    9.00
    2 votes
    76
    Supreme Court of Pennsylvania

    Supreme Court of Pennsylvania

    • Legal cases: J.S. v. Bethlehem Area School District
    The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania is the court of last resort for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The original Pennsylvania constitutions, drafted by William Penn, established a Provincial Court under the control of his British governors. The General Assembly, however, espoused the principle of separation of powers and formally called for a third branch of government starting with the 1701 Judiciary Bill. In 1722, the appointed British governor needed the House to raise revenues. House leaders agreed to raise taxes in return for an independent Supreme Court. Predating the United States Supreme Court by 67 years, Pennsylvania's highest court was established by the General Assembly on May 22, 1722. Interpreting the Pennsylvania Constitution, it was the first independent Supreme Court in the United States with the power to declare laws made by an elected legislative body unconstitutional. The court meets in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Supreme Court consists of seven justices, each elected to ten year terms. Supreme Court judicial candidates may run on party tickets. The justice with the longest continuous service on the court
    9.00
    2 votes
    77
    United States District Court for the District of Maine

    United States District Court for the District of Maine

    The U.S. District Court for the District of Maine (in case citations, D. Me.) is the U.S. district court for the state of Maine. The District of Maine was one of the original thirteen district courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, even though Maine was not a separate state from Massachusetts until 1820. The court is headquartered in Portland, Maine and has a second courthouse in Bangor, Maine. The U.S. Attorney for the District of Maine represents the United States in criminal and civil litigation before the court. The current United States Attorney is Thomas E. Delahanty II. Appeals from the District of Maine are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The District of Maine was one of the thirteen original districts created on September 24, 1789, by the Judiciary Act of 1789, Stat. 73. At the time, Maine was part of the state of Massachusetts. As with other jurisdictions of the time, the District of Maine was originally assigned a single judgeship. Not being assigned to a judicial circuit, it was granted the same
    9.00
    2 votes
    78
    Hoge Raad der Nederlanden

    Hoge Raad der Nederlanden

    The Supreme Court of the Netherlands (Dutch: Hoge Raad der Nederlanden, literally 'High Council of the Netherlands') is the highest court of the Netherlands, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and Aruba. The Court was established on 1 October 1838 and sits in The Hague, Netherlands. The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court is limited primarily to civil, criminal and tax-related cases. The Court has the authority to overturn rulings by appellate courts (cassation) and therefore establishes case law, but only if the lower court applied the law incorrectly or the ruling lacks sufficient reasoning; facts are no longer subject of discussion. The Court may not rule on the constitutionality of laws passed by the States-General and treaties. Hence the Netherlands has no constitutional court. The Supreme Court consists of 41 judges: a president, 6 vice-presidents, 31 justices (raadsheren) and 3 justices in exceptional service (buitengewone dienst). All judges are appointed for life, until they retire at their own request or at the age of 70. The development of cassation in the Netherlands was heavily influenced by the French during the Batavian Revolution at the end of 18th century. The establishment of
    7.67
    3 votes
    79
    New Jersey Supreme Court

    New Jersey Supreme Court

    • Jurisdiction: New Jersey
    • Legal cases: State v. Kelly
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Supreme Court of New Jersey is the highest court in the U.S. state of New Jersey. "The Supreme Court of New Jersey sits alone atop the State judiciary, entertaining appeals from the Appellate Division and, on rare occasions, directly by order of the Court from other cases within the judicial and administrative system." It has existed in three different forms under the three different state constitutions since the independence of the state in 1776, but until the Constitution of 1947, the Supreme Court was an intermediate court. "The New Jersey Supreme Court as currently constituted was created and its role established by the delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1947. As the highest court in the State, it replaced the prior Court of Errors and Appeals, created under the Constitution of 1844." In its current form, the Supreme Court of New Jersey is the highest and final judicial authority on all cases in the state court system, the sole determinant of the constitutionality of state laws with respect to the state constitution, and the arbiter and overseer of the decennial legislative redistricting. Throughout its history it has been responsible for numerous precedents,
    7.67
    3 votes
    80
    Portuguese Constitutional Court

    Portuguese Constitutional Court

    The Portuguese Constitutional Court (Portuguese: Tribunal Constitucional, pronounced: [tɾibuˈnaɫ kõʃtitusiuˈnaɫ]) is a special court, defined by the Portuguese Constitution as part of the judicial branch of the Portuguese political organization. Unlike the rest of the country's courts, the Constitutional Court has important characteristics, such as a special composition, and unique competences. The main task of the court is to review the constitutionality of the newly approved laws, but it also has important powers related to the President of the Republic, the political parties and referenda. The Portuguese Constitution defines the Constitutional Court as a completely independent organ, that operates independently from the other branches of government, such as the Executive or the Legislative. The judges of the Constitutional Court are independent and cannot be impeached. The decisions of the court are above the decisions of any other authority. The court works in Lisbon, in the Ratton Palace located in Bairro Alto. The court is composed by thirteen judges, ten of them are elected by the Assembly of the Republic, the main legislative branch of the country, and must be elected by
    7.67
    3 votes
    81
    Punjab Bar Council

    Punjab Bar Council

    The Punjab Bar Council (Urdu: پنجاب بار کونسل) is a supreme statutory & Deliberative assembly of lawyers in Punjab for safeguarding the rights, interests and privileges of practicing lawyers, regulating their conduct and helping in the administration of justice and it is also 1st biggest Bar Council of Pakistan in-respect of its licensees. More than 70,000 advocates are Licensee of Punjab Bar Council. It is the assembly responsible for regulating the practice of advocates in Punjab, Pakistan. All Bar associations of Punjab including District Bar Associations and High Court Bar Associations works under the Jurisdiction of Punjab Bar Council. The Punjab Bar Council, based in Lahore, Pakistan, came into being as a result of the promulgation of the Legal Practitioners and Bar Councils Act, 1973 (Act XXXV of 1973). The Council commenced functioning with effect from 1 January 1974. The Punjab Bar Council consists of Chairman Executive Committee & Vice Chairman, both elected by Members of Punjab Bar Council each Year and Members of Punjab Bar Council elected by the advocates from different constituencies across the Punjab Province. Members serve a term of five years, beginning on January
    7.67
    3 votes
    82
    Supreme Administrative Court of the Czech Republic

    Supreme Administrative Court of the Czech Republic

    The Supreme Administrative Court of the Czech Republic (Czech: Nejvyšší správní soud České republiky) is the court of highest authority on issues of procedural and administrative propriety. It also has jurisdiction over many political matters, such as the formation and closure of political parties, jurisdictional boundaries between government entities, and the eligibility of persons to stand for public office. Like many administrative courts in Europe it is considered a separate part of the judiciary. The modern SAC can trace its origins back to Bohemia and Moravia under the Austro-Hungarian Empire. From the mid-19th century until the formation of Czechoslovakia, Czech rights with respect to administrative law were safeguarded by the Verwaltungsgerichtshof, or Austrian administrative court, which sat in Vienna. The Administrative Courts of the Czech Republic and Austria thus have a common ancestor. The Czechoslovak Republic set up its own administrative court which continued to function until the Czech coup of 1948, whereupon it lingered as a theoretical institution for a few years until it was wholly disbanded in 1952. In 1991, the Czechoslovak Federal Republic implied that it
    7.67
    3 votes
    83
    United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana

    United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana

    The U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana (in case citations, E.D. La.) is a federal trial court based in New Orleans. Like all U.S. district courts, the court has original jurisdiction over civil actions arising under the Constitution, laws, and treaties of the United States; certain civil actions between citizens of different states; civil actions within the admiralty or maritime jurisdiction of the United States; criminal prosecutions brought by the United States; and many other types of cases and controversies. It also has appellate jurisdiction over a very limited class of judgments, orders, and decrees. Appeals from the Eastern District of Louisiana are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). This district comprises the following parishes: Assumption, Jefferson, Lafourche, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Charles, St. James, St. John the Baptist, St. Tammany, Tangipahoa, Terrebonne and Washington. On March 26, 1804, Congress organized the Territory of Orleans and created the United States
    7.67
    3 votes
    84
    Vermont Supreme Court

    Vermont Supreme Court

    • Jurisdiction: Vermont
    • Legal cases: Baker v. Vermont
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Vermont Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority of the U.S. state of Vermont and is one of seven state courts of Vermont. The Court consists of a chief justice and four associate justices; the Court mostly hears appeals of cases that have been decided by other courts. The Supreme Court justices are appointed by the Governor of Vermont with confirmation by the Vermont Senate. When a judicial vacancy occurs, the judicial nominating board submits to the governor the names of as many persons as it deems qualified for appointment. All Supreme Court justices come up for retention at the same time every six years. The next retention date is March 31, 2017. The Joint Committee on Judicial Retention reviews a justice's performance during the previous term and recommends to the Vermont General Assembly whether the justice should be retained. The committee consists of four House members appointed by the Speaker of the House and four Senate members appointed by the Committee on Committees. After open debate and discussion, the General Assembly votes by secret ballot, with a majority having to vote against reappointment for a justice to be denied another term. In addition to the
    7.67
    3 votes
    85
    Court of Session

    Court of Session

    • Jurisdiction: Scotland
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
    The Court of Session (Scottish Gaelic: Cùirt an t-Seisein, Scots: Coort o Session) is the supreme civil court of Scotland, and constitutes part of the College of Justice. It sits in Parliament House in Edinburgh and is both a court of first instance and a court of appeal. The court has a largely coextensive jurisdiction with the Sheriff Court—the other Scottish civil court, which sits locally—with the choice of court being given first to the pursuer; but the majority of complex or high value cases are brought in the Court of Session. Legal aid, administered by the Scottish Legal Aid Board, is available to some persons for cases of the Court of Session. The Court of Session is notionally a unitary collegiate court, with all judges other than the Lord President and the Lord Justice Clerk holding the same rank and title: Senator of the College of Justice and also Lord or Lady of Council and Session. There are thirty-four judges (four of whom are women), in addition to a number of temporary judges—who are typically either sheriffs or advocates in private practice. The judges sit also in the High Court of Justiciary, where the Lord President is named, as president of that court, the
    10.00
    1 votes
    86
    High Court of Singapore

    High Court of Singapore

    • Legal cases: Teo Soh Lung v. Minister for Home Affairs
    The High Court of the Republic of Singapore is the lower division of the Supreme Court of Singapore, the upper being the Court of Appeal. It consists of the Chief Justice of Singapore and the Judges of the High Court. Judicial Commissioners are often appointed to assist with the Court's caseload. There are two specialist commercial courts, the Admiralty Court and the Intellectual Property Court, and a number of judges are designated to hear arbitration-related matters. The seat of the High Court is the Supreme Court Building. The High Court exercises both original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters. By possessing original jurisdiction, the Court is able to hear cases at first instance – it can deal with trials of matters coming before the courts for the first time. A special aspect of the Court's original jurisdiction is its judicial review jurisdiction, under which it determines the constitutionality of legislation and actions taken by the Government. The Court exercises its appellate jurisdiction when it hears appeals from trials originating in the Subordinate Courts such as District Courts and Magistrates' Courts. The Court also exercises
    10.00
    1 votes
    87
    Orissa High Court

    Orissa High Court

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of India
    The Orissa High Court (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶାର ଉଚ୍ଚ ନ୍ୟାୟାଳୟ)(Hindi: ओडिशा प्रदेश उच्च न्यायालय) is the High Court of the state of Orissa. Bengal Presidency was a vast province including present day Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, and West Bengal. It was difficult to administratively manage such a vast area, inhabited by people speaking in different languages and having different traditions. Administrative exigencies required separation of such areas which originally did not from part of Bengal. So, new province of Bihar and Orissa was formed on March 22, 1912. However, the said new province of Bihar and Orissa was under the jurisdiction of Calcutta High Court. On February 9, 1916, in exercise of the powers under Section 113 of the Government of India Act, 1915, the King of England issued letters of patent constituting High Court of Patna. Orissa was placed under the jurisdiction of Patna High Court. Although, on May 18, 1916, Circuit Court of Patna High Court for Orissa held its first sitting at Cuttack. On April 1, 1936, Orissa was made a separate province but no separate High Court was provided for it. People raised their voice for a separate High Court in their state. After a long
    10.00
    1 votes
    88

    Permanent Court of Arbitration

    The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands. The court was established in 1899 as one of the acts of the first Hague Peace Conference, which makes it the oldest institution for international dispute resolution. The creation of the PCA is set out under Articles 20 to 29 of the 1899 Hague Convention for the pacific settlement of international disputes, which was a result of the first Hague Peace Conference. At the second Hague Peace Conference, the earlier Convention was revised by the 1907 Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes. As of February 2012, 115 countries are party to one or both of these founding Conventions of the PCA. Unlike the ICJ, the PCA is not just open to states but also to other parties. The PCA provides services for the resolution of disputes involving various combinations of states, state entities, intergovernmental organizations, and private parties. The PCA is not a “court in the conventional understanding of that term, but an administrative organization with the object of having permanent and readily available means to serve as the registry for purposes of
    10.00
    1 votes
    89
    Quebec Court of Appeal

    Quebec Court of Appeal

    The Court of Appeal for Quebec (frequently referred to as Quebec Court of Appeal or QCA) is the highest judicial court in Quebec, Canada. The Court of Appeal of Quebec (in French: la Cour d'appel du Québec) It hears cases in Quebec City and Montreal. The quorum of the Court of Appeal of Quebec is three judges. As a "Superior Court" under section 96 of the Constitution Act, 1867, Court of Appeal judges are appointed by the Governor-General of Canada (in practical terms, the Prime Minister of Canada). Appointees must be members of the Quebec Bar, but need not have had previous experience as a judge. However, appointees almost always have some experience as a judge, usually on the Superior Court of Quebec. Under the Code of Civil Procedure of Quebec and the Criminal Code of Canada, someone wishing to appeal a decision of the Superior Court of Quebec generally has 30 days to file an appeal with the Court of Appeal. Civil cases usually must have at least $50,000 in dispute to be heard. The Court of Appeal will overrule a lower court decision if it is "incorrect" on a question of law or "patently unreasonable" on an important factual finding. The Court of Appeal almost never hears
    10.00
    1 votes
    90
    United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit

    United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit

    • Legal cases: Doe v. Bush
    The United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit (in case citations, 1st Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: The court is based at the John Joseph Moakley Federal Courthouse in Boston, Massachusetts. Most sittings are held in Boston, but the court sits for two weeks each year in Old San Juan, Puerto Rico and occasionally at other locations within the circuit. With five active and three senior judges, the First Circuit is the smallest of the thirteen United States courts of appeals. Since retiring as an active Justice of the United States Supreme Court, Associate Justice David Souter has sat on the First Circuit by designation in several cases. As of January 23, 2012 (2012 -01-23), the active judges on the court are as follows: A vacancy exists as of December 31, 2011 due to the decision of Kermit Lipez to assume senior status. On January 23, 2012, President Obama nominated William J. Kayatta, Jr. to the seat. Three judges currently serve on the court on senior status. Additionally, Retired Supreme Court Justice David Souter frequently sits by designation. Twenty-one judges have served on the 1st Circuit
    10.00
    1 votes
    91
    United States District Court for the District of Arizona

    United States District Court for the District of Arizona

    • Legal cases: United States of America v. Arizona
    The United States District Court for the District of Arizona (in case citations, D. Ariz.) is the federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Arizona. Court is held in the cities of Phoenix, Tucson, Flagstaff, Yuma, and Prescott. The district was created on June 20, 1910, by 36 Stat. 557. By that statute, the United States Congress organized Arizona as one judicial district, authorized one judgeship for the court, and assigned the district to the Ninth Circuit. The act became effective upon the admission of the State of Arizona on February 14, 1912. Cases from the District of Arizona are appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). From 1930 to 2000, Tucson courts were housed in the James A. Walsh U.S. Courthouse. Presently, courts are located in the Sandra Day O'Connor United States Courthouse in downtown Phoenix. Following the murder (during the 2011 Tucson shooting, by Jared Loughner) of the Arizona District's Chief Judge at the time, Judge John M. Roll, a federal courthouse named for him that will serve the
    10.00
    1 votes
    92
    United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts

    United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts

    • Legal cases: Massachusetts v. United States Department of Health and Human Services
    The United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts (in case citations, D. Mass.) is the federal district court whose jurisdiction is the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, USA. The first court session was held in Boston in 1789. The second term was held in Salem in 1790 and until 1813 court session locations alternated between the two cities. That year, Boston became the court's permanent home. A western division was opened in Springfield in 1979 and a central division was opened in Worcester in 1987. The court's main building is the John Joseph Moakley Federal Courthouse on Fan Pier in South Boston. Appeals from the District of Massachusetts are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, also located in the Moakley courthouse (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States Attorney's Office for the District of Massachusetts represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current U.S. Attorney is Carmen Ortiz.
    10.00
    1 votes
    93

    United States District Court for the District of Montana

    The United States District Court for the District of Montana (in case citations, D. Mont.) is the United States District Court whose jurisdiction is the state of Montana (except the part of the state within Yellowstone National Park, which is under the jurisdiction of the United States District Court for the District of Wyoming). The court is located in Billings, Butte, Great Falls, Helena and Missoula. Cases from the District of Montana are appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States Attorney's Office for the District of Montana represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current U.S. Attorney for the District of Montana is Michael Cotter. The District of Montana was organized on February 22, 1889, by 25 Stat. 676, following Montana's admission to statehood. Congress organized Montana as a single judicial district, and authorized one judgeship for the district court, which was assigned to the Ninth Circuit. A temporary second judgeship was added on September 14, 1922, by 42
    10.00
    1 votes
    94

    United States District Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina

    The United States District Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina (in case citations, E.D.N.C.) is the United States District Court that serves the eastern 44 counties in North Carolina. Appeals from the Eastern District of North Carolina are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The District has three staffed offices and holds court in six cities: Elizabeth City, Fayetteville, Greenville, New Bern, Raleigh, and Wilmington. Its main office is in Raleigh. It is broken down into four divisions. The eastern division is headquartered in Greenville and handles cases from Beaufort, Carteret, Craven, Edgecombe, Greene, Halifax, Hyde, Jones, Lenoir, Martin, Pamlico, and Pitt counties. The southern division is based in Wilmington and serves the counties of: Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Duplin, New Hanover, Onslow, Pender, Robeson, and Sampson. Its cases are heard in Wilmington. The northern and western divisions are based in Raleigh. The western covers: Cumberland, Franklin, Granville, Harnett, Johnston, Nash, Vance, Wake,
    10.00
    1 votes
    95
    United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas

    United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas

    • Legal cases: Konami Corporation v. Roxor Games Inc.
    The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas (in case citations, E.D. Tex.) is the Federal district court with jurisdiction over the eastern part of Texas and is a part of the Fifth Circuit. The court's headquarters are in Tyler, Texas and has five subdivision offices in Beaumont, Lufkin, Marshall, Sherman, and Texarkana. The district covers 43 counties in Texas. The United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Texas represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. Appeals from cases brought in the Eastern District of Texas are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit. Judge Leonard Davis, who was appointed to the Court by President George W. Bush, is the current Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas. John Malcolm Bates, nominated by President Barack Obama, currently serves as the United States Attorney for the Court. The first federal judge in Texas was John C. Watrous, who was appointed on May 26, 1846, and had previously served as
    10.00
    1 votes
    96
    Madras High Court

    Madras High Court

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of India
    The Madras High Court is a senior court located at Chennai (Madras), in India. The court buildings, which are believed to be the second largest judicial complex in the world, are located near the beach, in one of the city's major business districts. The jurisdiction of the Madras High Court covers Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry. British India's three presidency towns of Madras (Chennai), Bombay (Mumbai), and Calcutta (Kolkata) were each granted a High Court by letters patent dated 26 June 1862. The letters patent were issued by Queen Victoria under the authority of the British parliament's Indian High Courts Act 1861. The three courts remain unique in modern India, having been established under British royal charter; this is in contrast with the country's other high courts, which have been directly established under Indian legislation. However, the Constitution of India recognises the status of the older courts. The Madras High Court was formed by merging the Supreme Court of Judicature at Madras, and the Sudder Dewanny Adawlut. The Court was required to decide cases in accordance with justice, equity and good conscience. The earliest judges of the High Court included Judges Holloway,
    6.50
    4 votes
    97

    Tax Court of Canada

    The Tax Court of Canada (TCC), established in 1983 by the Tax Court of Canada Act, is a federal superior court which deals with matters involving companies or individuals and tax issues with the Government of Canada. Appeals of decisions of the Tax Court of Canada are exclusively within the jurisdiction of the Federal Court of Appeal. On occasion, the Supreme Court of Canada grants leave to appeal a federal tax case from a decision of the Federal Court of Appeal where the question involved is considered to be of public importance. The litigation of a federal tax dispute is commenced by a taxpayer filing a Notice of Appeal in the Tax Court of Canada. Cases may proceed either by way of Informal or General Procedure – the former where the amount in issue is CAD$12,000 or less and the latter where the amount in issue exceeds that threshold. In General Procedure cases, discoveries are held by exchange of documents followed by the examination, without a judge, of one witness on behalf of each party. One or both parties may then apply for a hearing date where witnesses will be examined and cross-examined before a judge and documents formally entered into evidence. Trials in the Tax Court
    6.50
    4 votes
    98
    Supreme Court of the Czech Republic

    Supreme Court of the Czech Republic

    The Supreme Court of the Czech Republic (Czech: Nejvyšší soud České republiky) is the court of highest appeal for almost all legal cases heard in the Czech Republic. As set forth in the Constitution of the Czech Republic, however, cases of constitutionality, administrative law and political jurisdiction are heard by other courts. Along with the Supreme Administrative and Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court forms a triumvirate of courts at the summit of the Czech judiciary. It is on Burešova Street 20, Brno.
    8.50
    2 votes
    99
    Kerala High Court

    Kerala High Court

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of India
    The High Court of Kerala is the highest court in the Indian state of Kerala and in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep. The High Court of Kerala is headquartered at Kochi. Drawing its powers under Article 226 of the Constitution of India, the High Court has the power to issue directions, orders and writs including the writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari for ensuring the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights guaranteed by the Constitution to citizens or for other specified purposes. The High Court is empowered with original, appellate and revisional jurisdiction in civil as well as criminal matters, and the power to answer references to it under some statutes. The High Court has the superintendence and visitorial jurisdiction over all courts and tribunals of inferior jurisdiction covered under its territorial jurisdiction. At present, the sanctioned Judge strength of the High Court of Kerala is 27 Permanent Judges including the Chief Justice and 12 Additional Judges. Depending on the importance and nature of the question to be adjudicated, the judges sit as Single (one judge), Division (two judges), Full (three judges) or such other benches of
    7.33
    3 votes
    100
    United States District Court for the Western District of Louisiana

    United States District Court for the Western District of Louisiana

    The United States District Court for the Western District of Louisiana (in case citations, W.D. La.) is a United States federal court with jurisdiction over approximately two thirds of the state of Louisiana, with courts in Alexandria, Lafayette, Lake Charles, Monroe and Shreveport. These cities comprise the Western District of Louisiana. Appeals from the Western District of Louisiana are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The parishes that fall under the jurisdiction of this district are as follows: Acadia Parish, Louisiana; Allen Parish, Louisiana; Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana; Beauregard Parish, Louisiana; Bienville Parish, Louisiana; Bossier Parish, Louisiana; Caddo Parish, Louisiana; Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana; Caldwell Parish, Louisiana; Cameron Parish, Louisiana; Catahoula Parish, Louisiana; Claiborne Parish, Louisiana; Concordia Parish, Louisiana; Jefferson Davis Parish, Louisiana; De Soto Parish, Louisiana; East Carroll Parish, Louisiana; Evangeline Parish, Louisiana, Franklin Parish, Louisiana, Grant Parish,
    7.33
    3 votes
    101
    High Court of Justiciary

    High Court of Justiciary

    • Legal cases: Smart v HMA
    The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court of Scotland. The High Court is both a court of first instance and a court of appeal. As a court of first instance, the High Court sits mainly in Parliament House, or in the former Sheriff Court building, in Edinburgh, but also sits from time to time at various other locations in Scotland. As a court of appeal, it sits only in Edinburgh. The High Court of Justiciary has also sat once outwith Scotland, at Zeist in the Netherlands during the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial, as the Scottish Court in the Netherlands. The individuals who sit in the High Court often hold a seat simultaneously in Scotland's civil court system. The judges of the High Court are the same ones who sit in the Court of Session, Scotland's supreme civil court. The Court of Session's Lord President is also the High Court's Lord Justice General. The Lord Justice Clerk holds his or her office in both courts. The remaining judges are referred to as Lords Commissioners of Justiciary in the context of the High Court, and Lords of Council and Session or Senators of the College of Justice in the context of the Court of Session. When sitting as a court of first
    6.25
    4 votes
    102
    Balfour v. Balfour

    Balfour v. Balfour

    Balfour v Balfour [1919] 2 KB 571 is a leading English contract law case. It held that there is a rebuttable presumption against an intention to create a legally enforceable agreement when the agreement is domestic in nature. Mr Balfour was a civil engineer, and worked for the Government as the Director of Irrigation in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). Mrs Balfour was living with him. In 1915, they both came back to England during Mr Balfour's leave. But Mrs Balfour got rheumatic arthritis. Her doctor advised her to stay, because a jungle climate was not conducive to her health. As Mr Balfour's boat was about to set sail, he promised her £30 a month until she came back to Ceylon. They drifted apart, and Mr Balfour wrote saying it was better that they remain apart. In March 1918, Mrs Balfour sued him to keep up with the monthly £30 payments. In July she got a decree nisi and in December she obtained an order for alimony. At first instance, Sargant J held that Mr Balfour was under an obligation to support his wife. The Court of appeal unanimously held that there was no enforceable agreement, although the depth of their reasoning differed. Warrington LJ delivered his opinion first, the core
    7.00
    3 votes
    103

    House of Lords

    • Legal cases: Cundy v Lindsay
    The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. The House of Lords is independent from, and complements the work of, the House of Commons; the Lords share responsibility for making laws and checking government action. Bills can be introduced into either the House of Lords or the House of Commons and members of the Lords may also take on roles as Government Ministers. The House of Lords has its own support services, separate from the Commons, including the House of Lords Library Unlike the elected House of Commons, most new members of the House of Lords are appointed. Membership of the House of Lords is made up of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal. There are currently 26 Lords Spiritual who sit in the Lords by virtue of their ecclesiastical role in the established Church of England. The Lords Temporal make up the rest of the membership; of these, the majority are life peers who are appointed by the Monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, or on the advice of the House of Lords Appointments Commission. Membership was once a right of birth to hereditary peers but, following a series
    7.00
    3 votes
    104
    New Hampshire Supreme Court

    New Hampshire Supreme Court

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The New Hampshire Supreme Court is the supreme court of the U. S. state of New Hampshire and sole appellate court of the state. The Supreme Court is seated in the state capital, Concord. The Court is composed of a Chief Justice and four Associate Justices appointed by the Governor and Executive Council to serve during "good behavior" until retirement or the age of seventy. The senior member of the Court is able to specially assign lower-court judges, as well as retired justices, to fill vacancies on the Court. The Supreme Court is the administrative authority over the state's judicial system. The Court has both mandatory and discretionary appellate jurisdiction. In 2000, the Court created a "Three Judges Expedited" or 3JX panel to issue decisions in cases of less precedential value, with its decision only binding on the present case. In 2004, the court began accepting all appeals from the trial courts for the first time in 25 years. From 1776 to 1876, the then four-member court was known as the "Superior Court of Judicature," until the name was changed by an act of the New Hampshire General Court. In 1901, the number of justices was increased from four to five. Two Supreme Court
    7.00
    3 votes
    105
    Supreme Court of the Irish Free State

    Supreme Court of the Irish Free State

    The Supreme Court of the Irish Free State was the state's Court of Final Appeal. It was created in Article 64 of the Irish Free State Constitution. It was presided over by a Chief Justice. The number of judges on the court was laid down in the Courts of Justice Act 1924. Though the Irish Free State and its constitution were abolished with the commencement of a new constitution, the Constitution of Ireland on 29 December 1937, the Free State Supreme Court continued in existence as the provisional supreme court of the new state until 1961 when the new Supreme Court of Ireland, which had been created in 1937, was formally brought into being. The Supreme Court of the Irish Free State met in two locations during its existence. Until 1931, while its headquarters, which had been destroyed during the Irish Civil War was being rebuilt, it met in St. Patrick's Hall in Dublin Castle. From 1931 onwards it met in the Four Courts in Dublin.
    7.00
    3 votes
    106
    United States District Court for the District of Connecticut

    United States District Court for the District of Connecticut

    • Legal cases: Pedersen v. Office of Personnel Management
    The United States District Court for the District of Connecticut (in case citations, D. Conn.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Connecticut. The court has offices in Bridgeport, Hartford and New Haven. Appeals from the court are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. It was one of the original 13 courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73, on September 24, 1789. The Court initially had a single judge, and remained so composed until March 3, 1927, when a second judge was added by 1927 44 Stat. 1348. Six additional judgeships were created between 1961 and 1990 to bring about the current total of eight judges. Court offices at Hartford are located in the William R. Cotter Federal Building. Cases decided by the District of Connecticut are appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States Attorney's Office for the District of Connecticut represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current United States
    7.00
    3 votes
    107
    Supreme Court of New South Wales

    Supreme Court of New South Wales

    • Jurisdiction: New South Wales
    • Legal cases: Burger King Corporation v Hungry Jack's
    • Superior courts: High Court of Australia
    The Supreme Court of New South Wales is the highest state court of the Australian State of New South Wales. It has unlimited jurisdiction within the state in civil matters, and hears the most serious criminal matters. Whilst the Supreme Court is the highest New South Wales court in the Australian court hierarchy, an appeal by special leave can be made to the High Court of Australia. Matters of appeal can be submitted to the New South Wales Court of Appeal and Court of Criminal Appeal, both of which are constituted by members of the Supreme Court, in the case of the Court of Appeal from those who have been commissioned as judges of appeal. The Supreme Court consists of 48 judges, including the Chief Justice of New South Wales, presently Tom Bathurst, the President of the Court of Appeal, nine Judges of Appeal, the Chief Judge in Equity, and the Chief Judge in Common Law. The Supreme Court operates under the Constitution Act 1902 (NSW), the Supreme Court Act 1970 (NSW) and the Civil Procedure Act 2005 (NSW). The Supreme Court building is physically located in Queen's Square, Sydney, New South Wales. The first superior court of the Colony of New South Wales (known as the Supreme Court
    6.00
    4 votes
    108
    United States District Court for the Central District of California

    United States District Court for the Central District of California

    • Legal cases: Association of Christian Schools International et al. v. Roman Stearns et al.
    The United States District Court for the Central District of California (in case citations, C.D. Cal.; commonly referred to as the CDCA or CACD) serves over 18 million people in southern and central California, making it the largest federal judicial district by population. The Central District was created on September 18, 1966. Cases from the Central District are appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the United States government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). California was admitted as a state on September 9, 1850, and was initially divided into two districts, the Northern and the Southern, by Act of Congress approved September 28, 1850, 9 Stat. 521. The boundary line was at the 37th parallel of North Latitude. The Southern District of California was abolished and the State made to constitute a single district – the United States District Court for the District of California – by Act of Congress approved July 27, 1866, 14 Stat. 300. Twenty years later, on August 5, 1886, Congress re-created the Southern District of California by 24 Stat. 308, but it was not until March 18,
    6.00
    4 votes
    109
    United States District Court for the Eastern District of Kentucky

    United States District Court for the Eastern District of Kentucky

    The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Kentucky (in case citations, E.D. Ky.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises approximately the Eastern half of the state of Kentucky. The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit in Cincinnati, Ohio maintains appellate jurisdiction for the district (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The Eastern District of Kentucky encompasses the following counties: Anderson, Bath, Bell, Boone, Bourbon, Boyd, Boyle, Bracken, Breathitt, Campbell, Carroll, Carter, Clark, Clay, Elliott, Estill, Fayette, Fleming, Floyd, Franklin, Gallatin, Garrard, Grant, Greenup, Harlan, Harrison, Henry, Jackson, Jessamine, Johnson, Kenton, Knott, Knox, Laurel, Lawrence, Lee, Leslie, Letcher, Lewis, Lincoln, McCreary, Madison, Magoffin, Martin, Mason, Menifee, Mercer, Montgomery, Morgan, Nicholas, Owen, Owsley, Pendleton, Perry, Pike, Powell, Pulaski, Robertson, Rockcastle, Rowan, Scott, Shelby, Trimble, Wayne, Whitley, Wolfe, and Woodford. The United States District Court for the District of Kentucky was one of the original 13
    6.00
    4 votes
    110
    United States District Court for the Eastern District of Washington

    United States District Court for the Eastern District of Washington

    The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Washington (in case citations, E.D. Wash.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the following counties of the state of Washington: Adams, Asotin, Benton, Chelan, Columbia, Douglas, Ferry, Franklin, Garfield, Grant, Kittitas, Klickitat, Lincoln, Okanogan, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Stevens, Walla Walla, Whitman, and Yakima. As of the 2000 census, 1.3 million people resided in the Eastern District, representing 22% of the state's population. The district includes the cities of Richland, Spokane, and Yakima, amongst others. Courts at Yakima are located at the William O. Douglas Federal Building. Cases from the Eastern District of Washington are appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States Attorney's Office for the Eastern District of Washington represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current U.S. Attorney for the district is Michael C. Ormsby. He was appointed in 2009.
    6.00
    4 votes
    111
    American Samoa Territory Supreme Court

    American Samoa Territory Supreme Court

    The High Court of American Samoa is an Article IV court and the highest court below the United States Supreme Court in American Samoa. The Court is located in the capital of Fagatogo. It consists of a Chief Justice and an Associate Justice, appointed by the United States Secretary of the Interior, holding office during "good behavior" and removable for cause. The High Court of American Samoa also has several Samoan Associate Judges which sit with the Chief Justice and Associate Justice. Normally, two Associate Judges will preside with the Chief Justice/Associate Justice on every case. The Secretary of the Interior retains ultimate authority over the courts. The justics of the court:
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    2 votes
    112
    Court of First Instance

    Court of First Instance

    • Legal cases: Vallejos v. Commissioner of Registration
    • Superior courts: Court of Appeal
    The Court of First Instance is one of two courts in the High Court (formerly known as the Supreme Court) of Hong Kong. Before 1997 it was known as the High Court of Justice. On one hand it is a court of record with unlimited jurisdiction in both civil and criminal matters. In the other hand it is also an appellate court hearing appeals from:
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    2 votes
    113
    Fisher v. Bell

    Fisher v. Bell

    Fisher v Bell [1961] 1 QB 394 is an English contract law case concerning the requirements of offer and acceptance in the formation of a contract. The case established that, where goods are displayed in a shop together with a price label, such display is treated as an invitation to treat by the seller, and not an offer. The offer is instead made when the customer presents the item to the cashier together with payment. Acceptance occurs at the point the cashier takes payment. The Defendant displayed a flick knife in the window of his shop next to a ticket bearing the words "Ejector knife – 4s." Under the Restriction of Offensive Weapons Act 1959, section 1(1), it was illegal to manufacture, sell, hire, or offer for sale or hire, or lend to any other person, amongst other things, any knife "which has a blade which opens automatically by hand pressure applied to a button, spring or other device in or attached to the handle of the knife". On 14 December 1959, the Claimant, a chief inspector of police force, brought forward information against the Defendant alleging the Defendant has contravened section 1(1) by offering the flick knife for sale. This loophole was closed by Restriction of
    8.00
    2 votes
    114
    Supreme Court of Namibia

    Supreme Court of Namibia

    The Supreme Court of Namibia is the supreme court in all legal matters of the laws of Namibia. It is the court of last resort and the highest appellate court in the country. It is located in the centre of Namibia's capital city, Windhoek. A Supreme Court decision is supreme in that it can only be reverted by an Act of Parliament that contradicts it, or by another ruling of the Supreme Court itself. Namibia's Supreme Court was founded on 21 March 1990, the day of Namibian Independence. Although it has the Supreme Court of South-West Africa as its predecessor, the latter was not a supreme court in the sense that appeals against its rulings would be allowed; the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court of South Africa would hear those, and they would be prosecuted by the Supreme Court of South-West Africa. At its inception in 1990, the Supreme Court did not have its own building. The Supreme Court building, situated in Michael Scott Street on Eliakim Namundjebo Plaza in central Windhoek, was built between 1994 and 1996 as an "imposing and functional building" to represent "the integrity and soul of the [...] Constitution". It was designed in a north African style in order to avoid
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    2 votes
    115
    Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory

    Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory

    • Superior courts: High Court of Australia
    The Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory is the superior court for the ACT. It has unlimited jurisdiction within the territory in civil matters (although it usually only hears matters involving more than A$250,000), and hears the most serious criminal matters. In the Australian court hierarchy it is one of 8 state and territory Supreme Courts having unlimited jurisdiction in their respective parts of Australia. The court was established on 1 January 1934 by the Seat of Government Supreme Court Act 1933 (Cth). The first judge of the court was Lionel Lukin. The first Chief Judge was Russell Walter Fox, appointed when the office was created in 1977. It was substituted with the office of Chief Justice in 1982. The first Chief Justice was Richard Blackburn. Pursuant to section 37E of the Supreme Court Act 1933, the court is known as the Court of Appeal when it exercises its appellate jurisdiction under Part 2A of the Act.
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    2 votes
    116
    United States District Court for the Southern District of New York

    United States District Court for the Southern District of New York

    • Legal cases: New York Law School v. Ascot Partners, L.P. et al
    The United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (in case citations, S.D.N.Y.) is a federal district court. Appeals from the Southern District of New York are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The Southern District is one of the most influential and active federal district courts in the United States, largely because of its jurisdiction over New York's major financial centers. The current U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York is Preet Bharara. The Court's jurisdiction comprises the following counties: New York (Manhattan), Bronx, Westchester, Putnam, Rockland, Orange, Dutchess, and Sullivan. The United States Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. Courthouses are located in Manhattan, White Plains, and Middletown. The United States District Court for the District of New York was one of the original 13 courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73, on September 24, 1789. According
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    2 votes
    117
    Chhattisgarh High Court

    Chhattisgarh High Court

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of India
    The Chhattisgarh High Court (Hindi: छत्तीसगढ़ उच्च न्यायालय) is one of the newest High Courts in India. It was established on 1 November 2000 after the Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000 was passed. It has jurisdiction over the state of Chhattisgarh. The High Court of Bilaspur is the 19th High Court of India Justice R. S. Garg was the first Acting CJ of the Chhattisgarh High Court.. It is located in Bilaspur. The court has a sanctioned judge strength of eighteen. Justice Rajeev Gupta, the current Chief Justice was born at Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh on 10-October-1950. He studied his B.A and LL.B Degrees from Jiwaji University, Gwalior and later practiced in Madhya Pradesh High Court from November 1973 and continued till 1994. He was appointed as Judge of the Madhya Pradesh High Court in September 1994 and later assumed charge as Chief Justice of Kerala High Court on 27-04-2005 . Transferred to Uttarakhand High Court at Nainital and assumed charge on 14 January 2006 as Chief Justice. On 2 February 2008 he took oath of secrecy as the Chief Justice of the Chhattisgarh High Court at Bilaspur. His retirement is due on 10 October 2012 (1) Hon'ble Mr. Justice H.L. Dattu (2) Hon'ble
    9.00
    1 votes
    118
    Glasgow Sheriff Court

    Glasgow Sheriff Court

    Glasgow Sheriff Court is a Sheriff Court in the Gorbals area of Glasgow, within the Sheriffdom of Glasgow and Strathkelvin. It is reputedly the busiest court in Europe. The court deals with both criminal and civil cases. There are currently twenty-eight sheriffs in post at Glasgow Sheriff Court (five of whom are floating sheriffs). They sit alone in civil cases and are assisted by a jury of fifteen members of the electoral roll in some criminal cases (cases using solemn procedure only). The Sheriff Principal is James Alastair Taylor QC, who replaced Sheriff Edward F Bowen QC in 2005. The Court is located at 1 Carlton Place in the Gorbals area of Glasgow, on the banks of the River Clyde and adjacent to Glasgow Central Mosque. It is a three-storey building of large cut stone construction and was formally opened by HRH Queen Elizabeth II on 29 July 1986. In 2008, the roof of the building was fitted with 700 square metres of solar panels, with the capacity to create some 97 kW of power. The system cost £500,000 to install, has an expected life-span of forty years, and is predicted to cut £20,000 from the Court's electricity bill, whilst saving around forty tonnes of carbon dioxide per
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    119

    Hawaii Tax Appeal Court

    The Hawaii State Tax Appeal Court of the Hawaii State Judiciary has jurisdiction over cases involving property, excise, liquor, tobacco, income and insurance taxes.
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    120
    R. v. Collins

    R. v. Collins

    R. v. Collins [1987] 1 S.C.R. 265 1987 SCC 11 is a leading decision of the Supreme Court of Canada on section 8 and was a leading case on section 24(2) of the Constitution Act, 1982 which allowed for the exclusion of evidence upon infringing the Charter. The Collins test for section 24(2) was developed for determining if the administration of justice was brought into disrepute by the inclusion of the evidence. The test was later replaced in R. v. Grant. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Drug Squad in Vancouver had Ruby Collins under surveillance as part of an investigation into a "heroin problem". One of the officers approached her in a local pub, told her that he was a police officer, and then grabbed her by the throat and in the process dragged her down to the floor in what is known as a "throat hold" used to prevent suspects from swallowing drug filled balloons. The officer then told her to let go of a heroin filled balloon she had in her hand, and she did so. The officer then arrested Collins for drug possession. At the voir dire, Crown counsel sought to justify the search under what was then section 10 of the Narcotics Control Act (NCA). The search power in s. 10 required the
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    121

    United States District Court for the District of Colorado

    The United States District Court for the District of Colorado (in case citations, D. Colo. or D. Col.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Colorado. The United States Congress organized Colorado as a single judicial district on June 26, 1876, by 19 Stat. 61. The initial legislation authorized one judgeship for the District Court, and assigned the district to the Eighth Circuit. The District was reassigned to the newly-organized United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit on February 28, 1929, by 45 Stat. 1346, and appeals are taken to that Court of Appeals (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). Between 1954 and 1984, six new judgeships were authorized for the court, bringing the current number of judges to seven. The United States Attorney's Office for the District of Colorado represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current U.S. Attorney for the District of Colorado is David Gaouette. Former United States Attorney Troy Eid resigned effective midnight, Friday, January 9, 2009. Eid has officially left government
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    122

    United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court

    The United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (or FISC) is a U.S. federal court authorized under 50 U.S.C. § 1803, Pub.L. 95-511, 92 Stat. 1788, enacted October 25, 1978. It was established by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA). The FISC oversees requests for surveillance warrants against suspected foreign intelligence agents inside the United States by federal law enforcement agencies (primarily the F.B.I.). The FISA and FISC were inspired by the recommendations of the Church Committee. Each application for one of these surveillance warrants (called a FISA warrant) is made before an individual judge of the court. Like a grand jury, FISC is not an adversarial court: the federal government is the only party to its proceedings. However, the court may allow third parties to submit briefs as amici curiae. When the Attorney General determines that an emergency exists he may authorize the emergency employment of electronic surveillance before obtaining the necessary authorization from the FISA court, after which the Attorney General or his designee must notify a judge of the court not more than 72 hours after the Attorney General authorizes such
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    Constitutional Court of Slovenia

    Constitutional Court of Slovenia

    The Constitutional Court of Slovenia (in Slovene: Ustavno sodišče Republike Slovenije, US RS) is a special court established by the Slovenian Constitution. Since its inception, the Court has been located in the city of Ljubljana. Most powers of the Constitutional Court are explicitly determined by the Constitution. In accordance with the Constitution, the Constitutional Court decides in particular on the conformity of laws (and other statutory instruments) with the Constitution (and with laws, respectively), on constitutional complaints of violation of human rights and fundamental freedoms by individual acts, on jurisdictional disputes between various state actors, on the unconstitutionality of the acts and activities of political parties, on appeals against a decision of the National Assembly regarding the confirmation of the election of deputies, on the accountability of the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister, and ministers, as well as on the conformity of a treaty with the Constitution in the process of ratifying the treaty. The Constitution determines that also other matters may be vested in the Constitutional Court by laws. In accordance with this provision the
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    Guam Supreme Court

    Guam Supreme Court

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Supreme Court of Guam is the highest judicial body of the United States territory of Guam. The Court hears all appeals from the Superior Court of Guam and is subject to original jurisdiction only in cases where a certified question is submitted to it by a U.S. Federal Court, the Governor of Guam, or the Guam Legislature. The Supreme Court of Guam is the ultimate judicial authority on local matters, and an appeal of its decisions can only be heard by the Supreme Court of the United States. The Court sits in the Monessa G. Lujan Memorial Courtroom, which is on the third floor of the Guam Judicial Center in Hagatna, Guam The Court is composed of three justices who are appointed by the Governor of Guam and confirmed by the Guam Legislature. Justices serve for life, subject to a retention election every ten years after his/her appointment. The three justices issue judgment on all cases brought before them, and they all sit on the Judicial Council of Guam, which is ultimately in charge of the administration of the Guam Judiciary. The current justices of the Supreme Court of Guam are: The justice's full biographies can be found at the Supreme Court's website
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    Supreme Court of Israel

    Supreme Court of Israel

    • Jurisdiction: Israel
    The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון‎, Beit HaMishpat HaElyon, Arabic: المحكمة العليا‎, Al-Mahkamah al-‘Ulyā) is at the head of the court system and highest judicial instance in Israel. The Supreme Court sits in Jerusalem. The area of its jurisdiction is all of Israel and the Israeli-occupied territories. A ruling of the Supreme Court is binding upon every court, other than the Supreme Court itself. This is the principle of binding precedent (stare decisis) in Israel. The Supreme Court can sit as an appellate court and a court of first instance. The Court has ruled on numerous issues relating to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the rights of Arab citizens of Israel, and on discrimination between Jewish groups in Israel. It is unique in that its rulings can intervene in Israel Defense Forces military operations. Supreme Court Justices are appointed by the Judicial Selection Committee. The Selection Committee is composed of nine members: Three Supreme Court Justices (including the President of the Supreme Court), two cabinet ministers (one of them being the Minister of Justice), two Knesset members, and two representatives of the Israel Bar Association. The committee is
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    3 votes
    126
    United States District Court for the Central District of Illinois

    United States District Court for the Central District of Illinois

    The U.S. District Court for the Central District of Illinois (in case citations, C.D. Ill.) serves the residents of forty-six counties from its four courthouses. The counties are: Adams, Brown, Bureau, Cass, Champaign, Christian, Coles, DeWitt, Douglas, Edgar, Ford, Fulton, Greene, Hancock, Henderson, Henry, Iroquois, Kankakee, Knox, Livingston, Logan, McDonough, McLean, Macoupin, Macon, Marshall, Mason, Menard, Mercer, Montgomery, Morgan, Moultrie, Peoria, Piatt, Pike, Putnam, Rock Island, Sangamon, Schuyler, Scott, Shelby, Stark, Tazewell, Vermilion, Warren, and Woodford counties. The courthouses are in Peoria, Rock Island, Springfield, and Urbana. Appeals are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States District Court for the District of Illinois was established by a statute passed by the United States Congress on March 3, 1819, 3 Stat. 502. The act established a single office for a judge to preside over the court. Initially, the court was not within any existing judicial circuit, and appeals from the court
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    United States District Court for the District of Vermont

    United States District Court for the District of Vermont

    The United States District Court for the District of Vermont (in case citations, D. Vt.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the federal district of Vermont. The court has locations in Brattleboro, Burlington, and Rutland. The Court was created under the Judiciary Act of 1791 under the jurisdiction of the Eastern Circuit Court. Under the Midnight Judges Act, the Circuits were reorganised and this Court was assigned to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit where it has remained since. Originally created with one Judgeship, in 1966 a second Judgeship was added. Appeals from the District of Vermont are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States Attorney's Office for the District of Vermont represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current United States Attorney is Tristram Coffin.
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    128
    EBay v. Bidder's Edge

    EBay v. Bidder's Edge

    eBay v. Bidder's Edge, 100 F.Supp.2d 1058 (N.D. Cal. 2000), was a leading case applying the trespass to chattels doctrine to online activities. In 2000, eBay, an online auction company, successfully used the 'trespass to chattels' theory to obtain a preliminary injunction preventing Bidder’s Edge, an auction data aggregator, from using a 'crawler' to gather data from eBay’s website. The opinion was a leading case applying 'trespass to chattels' to online activities, although its analysis has been criticized in more recent jurisprudence. Bidder’s Edge (“BE”) was founded in 1997 as an “aggregator” of auction listings. Its website provided a database of auction listings that BE automatically collected from various auction sites, including eBay. Accordingly, BE’s users could easily search auction listings from throughout the web rather than having to go to each individual auction site. An archived version of the Bidder’s Edge web page from November 9, 2000 from Archive.org is available here.. In early 1998, eBay allowed BE to include Beanie Babies and Furby auction listings in BE’s database. It is unclear whether BE scraped these listings from eBay or linked to them in some other
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    129
    New York Court of Appeals

    New York Court of Appeals

    • Legal cases: Lansing v. Smith
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The New York Court of Appeals is the highest court in the U.S. state of New York. The Court of Appeals consists of seven judges: the Chief Judge and six associate judges who are appointed by the Governor to 14-year terms. The Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals also heads administration of the state's court system, thus also known as the Chief Judge of the State of New York. The present Chief Judge is Jonathan Lippman. The 1842 Neoclassical courthouse is located in New York's capital, Albany. New York, unlike most other U.S. states, calls its trial and intermediate appellate courts, the "Supreme Court." New York's Supreme Court is not the court of last resort. This sometimes leads to confusion. Another source of confusion is the title of the jurists who sit on these courts. In most states and the federal court system, members of the highest court are titled "Justices." In New York, the members of the Court of Appeals are titled "Judges," while those sitting on the bench of the State Supreme Court are titled "Justices." The Court of Appeals was created by the New York State Constitution of 1846 to replace both the Court for the Correction of Errors and the Court of Chancery, and had
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    130
    Supreme Court of Croatia

    Supreme Court of Croatia

    The Supreme Court of the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Vrhovni sud Republike Hrvatske) is a highest court and it ensures the uniform application of laws and equal justice to all. Courts protect the legal order of the Republic of Croatia as established by the Constitution and law, and provide for the uniform application of law and equal justice for all. Administration of justice in the Republic of Croatia is carried out by: Supreme Court basic duties: The President of the Supreme Court is elected and relieved of duty by the Croatian Parliament at the proposal of the President of the Republic. Judicial office is permanent, but exceptionally, at assuming the judicial office for the first time, judges are appointed for a five-year term. After the renewal of the appointment, judges assume their duty as permanent. All judges are appointed by the National Judicial Council and relieves them of judicial duty, as well as decides on their disciplinary responsibility. A judge can be relieved of judicial office:
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    131
    Supreme Court of Japan

    Supreme Court of Japan

    The Supreme Court of Japan (最高裁判所 Saikō-Saibansho; called 最高裁 Saikō-Sai for short), located in Chiyoda, Tokyo is the highest court in Japan. It has ultimate judicial authority to interpret the Japanese constitution and decide questions of national law (including local bylaws). It has the power of judicial review; that is, it can declare Acts of Diet and Local Assembly, and administrative actions, to be unconstitutional. The first Western-style supreme court in Japan was the Supreme Court of Judicature (大審院 Dai-shin'in) organized by the Ministry of Justice in 1875. This court was composed of 120 judges in both civil and criminal divisions. Five judges would be empaneled for any given case. The criminal division of the court was the court of first instance for crimes against the Emperor (e.g. lèse majesté) and for high crimes against public order. The statute creating the Court was abolished in 1947, and the modern Supreme Court was formed that year under the constitution of 1946. The new court was first convened in May 1947 in the former Privy Council quarters of the Tokyo Imperial Palace. It moved to the Tokyo District Court building in September, then assumed the former quarters
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    132
    Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

    Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

    • Legal cases: HJ and HT v Home Secretary
    The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law. It is the court of last resort and highest appellate court in the United Kingdom; however the High Court of Justiciary remains the supreme court for criminal cases in Scotland. The Supreme Court also has jurisdiction to resolve disputes relating to devolution in the United Kingdom and concerning the legal powers of the three devolved governments or laws made by the devolved legislatures. The Supreme Court was established by Part 3 of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 and started work on 1 October 2009. It assumed the judicial functions of the House of Lords, which were exercised by the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary (commonly called "Law Lords"), the 12 professional judges appointed as members of the House of Lords to carry out its judicial business. Its jurisdiction over devolution matters had previously been held by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Because of the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty, the court is limited in its powers of judicial review, unlike the constitutional and supreme courts of some other countries. This means
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    United States District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania

    United States District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania

    • Legal cases: Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District
    The United States District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania (in case citations, M.D. Pa.) is district level federal court with jurisdiction over approximately one half of Pennsylvania. The court was created in 1901 by subdividing the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania and the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania. The court is under the jurisdiction of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). Because Harrisburg, the state capital, is located within the district's jurisdiction, most suits against the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania are filed in the Middle District. Similarly, because York County Prison served as the largest Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) facility in the Northeast, the Middle District also adjudicated a large number of immigration cases. The courts of appeal are now responsible for most judicial review of immigration decisions, bypassing the Middle District and other district courts. Judge Yvette Kane is the Chief Judge for the
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    134
    Federal Court of Australia

    Federal Court of Australia

    • Jurisdiction: Australia
    • Legal cases: Ruddock v Vadarlis
    The Federal Court of Australia is an Australian superior court of record which has jurisdiction to deal with most civil disputes governed by federal law (with the exception of family law matters), along with some summary criminal matters. Cases are heard at first instance by single Judges. The Court includes an appeal division referred to as the Full Court comprising three Judges, the only avenue of appeal from which lies to the High Court of Australia. In the Australian court hierarchy, the Federal Court occupies a position equivalent to the Supreme Courts of each of the states and territories. In relation to the other Courts in the federal stream, it is equal to the Family Court of Australia, and superior to the Federal Magistrates' Court. It was established in 1976 by the Federal Court of Australia Act. The Chief Justice of the Federal Court is Patrick Keane. The Federal Court has no inherent jurisdiction. Its jurisdiction flows from statute. The Court's original jurisdiction include matters arising from Commonwealth legislation such as, for example, matters relating to taxation, trade practices, native title, intellectual property, industrial relations, corporations, and
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    135
    Supreme Court of Cassation

    Supreme Court of Cassation

    The Supreme Court of Cassation (Serbian: Врховни касациони суд/Vrhovni kasacioni sud) is the court of last resort in the Republic of Serbia. Formerly called the Supreme Court of Serbia, it is the Court of cassation which reviews and possibly overturns previous rulings made by lower courts. It was established in 1846 by a decree of Prince Aleksandar Karađorđević. In the last 160 years since it was established, the Court has asserted its authority within judiciary in Serbia and beyond. The Supreme Court of Cassation is today authorized by the Constitution of Serbia and the Law on Organization of Courts. The building of the Court is located in Belgrade. The court is composed of 24 judges, one of them being the President of the Court. The current President of the Supreme Court of Cassation is Nata Mesarović. The Supreme Land Court (Врховни суд земаљски) of the Principality of Serbia was formed in 1846 as the court of last resort by the decree of Prince Aleksandar Karađorđević. It was composed of the President and four judges. The president and the judges were appointed by the Prince on the recommendation of the Minister of Justice. This Court was a trial court, while the appeals were
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    Supreme Court of Peru

    Supreme Court of Peru

    The Supreme Court of Justice is the highest judicial court in Peru. Its jurisdiction extends over the entire territory of the nation. It is headquartered in the Palace of Justice in Lima. The supreme court is composed of three Supreme Sectors: Integrated into the Supreme Court are the Supreme Speakers and Supreme Provisionary Speakers, who substitute the Supreme Speakers in case of absence. The Supreme Speakers are distributed into each one of the Supreme Sectors that the law establishes. The President of the Supreme Court and the Chief Speaker of the Office of the Control of the Magistrature are not integrated into any Supreme Sector. The Supreme Court consists of three permanent Supreme Sectors (Civil, Criminal, and Constitutional and Social). Each Supreme Sector has five Supreme Speakers who elect a president within each other. The Constitution guarantees the right to the double instance, which the Supreme Court recognizes. In event that this right is failed, the appeals in the processes that interpose before the Superior Sectors, or it is brought before the Supreme Court. The Abrogation doctrine is also recognized by this court.
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    Ontario Court of Appeal

    The Court of Appeal for Ontario (frequently referred to as Ontario Court of Appeal or OCA) is headquartered in downtown Toronto, in historic Osgoode Hall. The Court is composed of 23 judges who hear over 1,500 appeals each year, on issues of private law, constitutional law, criminal law, administrative law, and other matters. The Supreme Court of Canada hears appeals from less than 3% of the decisions of the Court of Appeal; in a very practical sense, the Court of Appeal is the last avenue of appeal for most litigants in Canada's most populous province. Among the Court of Appeal's most notable decisions was a 2003 ruling that legalized same-sex marriage in Ontario, making Canada the first jurisdiction in the world where same-sex marriage was legalized by a court ruling. Among many judges from the Court who have been elevated to the Supreme Court of Canada are Justices Rosalie Abella, Louise Arbour, Peter Cory, Louise Charron, Andromache Karakatsanis, Bora Laskin, Michael Moldaver and Bertha Wilson. Justice Bertha Wilson was the first female justice on both the Ontario Court of Appeal (1975) and the Supreme Court of Canada (1982). The court derives its jurisdiction from Ontario's
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    138
    Supreme Court of Finland

    Supreme Court of Finland

    The Supreme Court of Finland (Finnish: korkein oikeus, Swedish: högsta domstolen), located in Helsinki, consists of a President and at minimum 15, currently 18 other Justices, usually working in five-judge panels. Its jurisdiction does not extend to the administrative court system or the Supreme Administrative Court of Finland. The precedents are usually created in cases for which the applicable Acts of Parliament and Decrees do not provide a clear solution for a question of law or in which there is room for interpretation. Approximately 150 such precedents are decided each year. Under the Finnish legal system a judicial precedent is not binding. Courts of appeal and even district courts may depart from earlier decisions made by the Supreme Court, for example when the social circumstances have considerably changed. In practice, however, precedents of the Supreme Court are followed in cases arising after the precedent has been created and involving a similar point of law. The Supreme Court may also itself depart from its earlier precedents, provided that the case is considered by an enlarged chamber (11 members) or by a full court. Precedents in the Supreme Court cases are published
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    139
    Federal Labor Court of Germany

    Federal Labor Court of Germany

    The Federal Labor Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht) is the court of the last resort for cases of labour law in Germany, both for individual labour law (mostly concerning contracts of employment) and collective labour law (e.g. cases concerning strikes and collective bargaining). The court hears cases from the Landesarbeitsgerichte (Superior State Labour Courts), which, in turn, are the courts of appeals against decisions of the Arbeitsgerichte (Inferior State Labour Courts). The Bundesarbeitsgericht is located in the city of Erfurt.
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    140
    Gujarat High Court

    Gujarat High Court

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of India
    The Gujarat High Court (Gujarati: ગુજરાત ઉચ્ચ ન્યાયાલય) is the High Court of the state of Gujarat. It was established on 1 May 1960 under the Bombay Re-organisation Act, 1960 after the state split from Bombay State. The seat of the court is Ahmedabad. The court has a sanctioned judge strength of 42. Justice Bhaskar Bhattacharya of the Calcutta High Court was transferred to the Gujarat High Court on November 8, 2011 and was appointed as the Acting Chief Justice, replacing Shri Justice Ashok L. Dave, who was officiating as the Chief Justice following the elevation of Chief Justice S J Mukhopadhaya to the Supreme Court of India. Hon'ble Shri Justice Bhaskar Bhattacharya was confirmed as the Chief Justice and was sworn-in by Governor of Gujarat HE Dr Kamla at the Raj Bhavan, Gandhinagar, on July 21, 2012.
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    141
    High Court of Australia

    High Court of Australia

    • Jurisdiction: Australia
    • Legal cases: Commonwealth v Tasmania
    The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia. It has both original and appellate jurisdiction, has the power of judicial review over laws passed by the Parliament of Australia and the parliaments of the States, and interprets the Constitution of Australia. The High Court is mandated by Constitution section 71, which vests in it the judicial power of the Commonwealth of Australia. The Court was constituted by, and its first members were appointed under, the Judiciary Act 1903. It now operates under Constitution sections 71 to 75, the Judiciary Act and the High Court of Australia Act 1979. It is composed of seven Justices: the Chief Justice of Australia, presently Robert French, and six other Justices. They are appointed by the Governor-General of Australia, on the advice of the federal government, and must retire at age 70. The High Court has been located since 1980 in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. The majority of its sittings are held there—in the High Court building, situated in the Parliamentary Triangle and overlooking Lake Burley Griffin. Sittings are also held in the State capitals,
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    142

    Judicial functions of the House of Lords

    • Legal cases: Haughton v Smith
    The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, historically also had a judicial function. It functioned as a court of first instance for the trials of peers, for impeachment cases, and as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. In the latter case the House's jurisdiction was essentially limited to the hearing of appeals from the lower courts. Appeals were technically not to the House of Lords, but rather to the Queen-in-Parliament. By constitutional convention, only those lords who were legally qualified (Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, or Law Lords) heard the appeals, since World War II usually in what was known as the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords rather than in the chamber of the House. During the 20th and early 21st centuries, the judicial functions were gradually removed. The final trial of a peer in the House of Lords was in 1935, and in 1948, the use of special courts for trials of peers was abolished. In 2009 the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom assumed the functions as the new court of final resort in the UK. Parliament's role in deciding litigation originated from the similar role of the Royal Court, where the King dispensed
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    143
    New Mexico Supreme Court

    New Mexico Supreme Court

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The New Mexico Supreme Court is the highest court in the U.S. state of New Mexico. It is established and its powers defined by Article VI of the New Mexico Constitution. It is primarily an appellate court which reviews civil and criminal decisions of New Mexico's trial courts of general jurisdiction and certain specialized legislative courts, only having original jurisdiction in a limited number of actions. The New Mexico Supreme Court meets in Santa Fe, the state capital. The court's five justices are chosen by statewide election, or appointed by the Governor if to fill a seat that has become vacant mid-term; the justices in turn choose who among them will serve as Chief Justice. The second time they face popular election, they must first pass review by a judicial standards committee, and then face a retention election in which they must receive at least 57% of the vote. In 1846, what is now New Mexico was seized by the United States from Mexico at the outset of the Mexican-American War. Brigadier General Stephen Watts Kearny was installed as military governor at Santa Fe, and appointed Joab Houghton the first Chief Justice of New Mexico, in the provisional civilian government,
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    144
    Supreme Court of Argentina

    Supreme Court of Argentina

    The Supreme Court of Argentina (in Spanish, Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación) is the highest court of law of the Argentine Republic. It was inaugurated on 15 January 1863. However, during much of the 20th century, the Court and, in general, the Argentine judicial system, has lacked autonomy from the executive power. The Court has recently been reformed (in 2003) by the decree 222/03. The Supreme Court functions as a last resort tribunal. Its rulings cannot be appealed. It also decides on cases dealing with the interpretation of the constitution (for example, it can overturn a law passed by Congress if it deems it unconstitutional). The members of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President and can only be removed by an impeachment process called juicio político ("political trial"), carried out by the Senate, exclusively on grounds of improper behaviour. The Palace of Justice was designed by French architect Norbert Maillart in 1906, and was initially inaugurated in 1910. Subsequent works, both logisltical and aesthetic, continued until 1942, and among its most noteworthy monuments are Justice, by Rogelio Yrurtia, and José de San Martín, by Luis Perlotti. The current
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    2 votes
    145

    Supreme Court of Pakistan

    • Jurisdiction: Pakistan
    • Legal cases: PCO Judges case
    The Supreme Court of Pakistan (SCOP) (Urdu: عدالت عظمیٰ پاکستان) is the apex court in the judicial hierarchy of Pakistan, the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes. The Supreme Court has a permanent seat in Islamabad. It also has a number of Branch Registries where cases are heard. The court has a number of de jure powers, outlined in the Constitution. Through several periods of military rule and constitutional suspensions (see Doctrine of necessity), the court has also established itself as a de facto check on military power. It has the appellate jurisdiction over all high courts (including provincial high courts, district courts, and special courts) and federal courts, as well as original jurisdiction over a few types of cases. The Supreme Court is made up of a chief justice and a number of senior justices who are nominated by the President after consulting the Prime minister. Once appointed justices are expected to complete a designated term and then retire, unless they are removed by the Supreme Judicial Council after receiving a presidential reference regarding misconduct of judge(s). Part VII, Chapter 2 of the Constitution (articles 176 through 191) deals with
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    146

    United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit

    • Legal cases: C.H. v. Oliva et al.
    The United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit (in case citations, 3d Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts for the following districts: It also has appellate jurisdiction over the District Court of the Virgin Islands which, in spite of the name, is a territorial court and belongs to no federal judicial district. The court is composed of 14 active judges and is based at the James A. Byrne Courthouse in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is one of thirteen United States courts of appeals. Due to the court's appellate jurisdiction over Delaware (where more than half of publicly traded companies in the United States incorporate), the court handles a significant number of influential complex commercial cases. As of June 2011, the active judges on the court are as follows (chief judge in bold): On June 30, 2011, Maryanne Trump Barry assumed senior status and created a vacancy on the court. On October 5, 2011, President Obama nominated New Jersey federal magistrate judge Patty Shwartz to fill this seat. Her nomination is currently pending. Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, and preside over any
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    147
    United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri

    United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri

    The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri is a trial level federal district court based in St. Louis, Missouri, with jurisdiction over fifty counties in the eastern half of Missouri. The court is one of ninety-four district-level courts which make up the first tier of the U.S. federal judicial system. Judges of this court preside over civil and criminal trials on federal matters that originate within the borders of its jurisdiction. It is organized into three divisions, with court held in St. Louis, Hannibal, and Cape Girardeau. The court was formed when the District of Missouri was divided into East and West in 1857, and its boundaries have changed little since that division. In its history it has heard a number of important cases that made it to the United States Supreme Court, covering issues related to freedom of speech, abortion, property rights, and campaign finance. There are currently eight active judges, five judges in senior status, one vacant seat, and seven magistrate judges attached to the court. As a United States district court, the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri conducts civil trials and issues orders.
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    United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York

    United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York

    • Legal cases: Microsoft Corp. v. Harmony Comps. & Elecs., Inc.
    The United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York (in case citations, E.D.N.Y.) is the federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the entirety of Long Island (including the portion in New York City) and Staten Island. The court's territorial jurisdiction includes the Counties of Kings (Brooklyn), Queens, Richmond (Staten Island), Nassau, and Suffolk as well as, concurrently with the Southern District of New York, the waters of New York and Bronx counties (including New York Harbor and the East River). Courthouses are located in Brooklyn and Central Islip. The United States Attorney's Office for the Eastern District of New York represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current United States Attorney for the Eastern District of New York is Loretta E. Lynch. Appeals from the Eastern District of New York are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The main courthouse is at 225 Cadman Plaza East in the civic center of Brooklyn. The 15-story building was designed by
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    149

    United States District Court for the Northern District of New York

    The United States District Court for the Northern District of New York (in case citations, N.D.N.Y.) serves one of the 94 judicial districts in the United States and one of four in the state of New York. The U.S. Attorney for the district is Richard S. Hartunian. Appeals from the Northern District of New York are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, which has jurisdiction over the four districts of New York, the District of Connecticut and the District of Vermont (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The Northern District is a successor to the original District of New York, which was split into Northern and Southern Districts on April 9, 1814. The United States District Court for the District of New York was the first District Court ever convened under the sovereignty of the United States, with Judge James Duane presiding on November 3, 1789. The Northern District was split again in 1900, giving rise to the United States District Court for the Western District of New York. The first judge in the Northern District of New York was Matthias Burnett Tallmadge. The
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    2 votes
    150

    United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida

    The United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida (in case citations, S.D. Fla. or S.D. Fl.) is the federal United States district court with jurisdiction over the southern part of the state of Florida. Appeals from cases brought in the Southern District of Florida are to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). On the same day that Florida was admitted as a state, March 3, 1845, Congress enacted legislation creating the United States District Court for the District of Florida, 5 Stat. 788. On February 23, 1847, this District was subdivided into Northern and Southern Districts, by 9 Stat. 131. The statute effecting this division set forth the boundaries of the Districts: On July 30, 1962 the Middle District was created from portions of these districts by 76 Stat. 247. Famous cases that have been heard in the district include Bush v. Gore, United States v. Noriega (the prosecution of the former Manuel Noriega), González v. Reno (the Elián González case), notorious Ponzi schemer Scott Rothstein, and United States v.
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    2 votes
    151
    Indonesian Supreme Court

    Indonesian Supreme Court

    The Supreme Court of Indonesia (Indonesian: Mahkamah Agung Republik Indonesia) is the independent judicial arm of the state. It maintains a system of courts and sits above the other courts and is the final court of appeal. It can also reexamine cases if new evidence emerges. The Supreme Court is independent as of the third amendment to the Constitution of Indonesia. The Supreme Court has oversight over the high courts (Pengadilan Tinggi) of which there are about 20 throughout Indonesia and district courts (Pengadilan Negeri) of which there are around 250 with additional district courts being created from time to time. The Supreme Court is the final court of appeal following appeals from the district courts to the high courts. The Supreme Court can also reexamine cases if sufficient new evidence is found. Constitutional matters, however, fall within the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court of Indonesia, established in 2003. According to the Constitution, candidates for Supreme Court Justices must have integrity and be of good character as well as be experienced in law. Candidates are proposed to the House of Representatives by the Judicial Commission. If the House of
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    152
    Supreme Court of Colombia

    Supreme Court of Colombia

    The Supreme Court of Colombia (Spanish: Corte Suprema de Justicia de Colombia) in Bogotá is the highest judicial body in civil and penal matters and issues of criminal and civil procedure in Colombia. The Supreme Court of Colombia is not the highest authority in regards to the interpretation of administrative law, constitutional law, and the administration of the judiciary. The court consists of twenty three magistrates, elected by the same institution in list conformed by the Superior Council of the Judiciary for individual terms of eight years. The court meets at the Palace of Justice in the Bolívar Square of Bogota. After the Colombian first declaration of independence from Spain on July 20, 1810, a number of independent States like Tunja (1811), Antioquia (1812), Cartagena de Indias (1812) and Cundinamarca (1812) were established. Each State had its own body in charge of the administration of justice. Later, when these States established the Provincias Unidad de la Nueva Granada (United Provinces of New Granada), on September 23, 1814, the Alto Tribunal de Justicia (High Tribunal of Justice) was established. In 1819, the Republic of Colombia (the Gran Colombia) was born. A
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    3 votes
    153
    Supreme Court of Virginia

    Supreme Court of Virginia

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Supreme Court of Virginia is the highest court in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It primarily hears appeals from the trial-level city and county Circuit Courts, as well as the criminal law, family law and administrative law cases that go through the Court of Appeals of Virginia. It is one of the oldest continuously active judicial bodies in the United States. It was known as the Supreme Court of Appeals until 1970, when it was renamed the Supreme Court of Virginia. The present Supreme Court of Virginia is made up of seven justices elected by a majority vote of both houses of the General Assembly for a term of twelve years. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be a resident of Virginia and must have been a member of the Virginia Bar for at least five years. Vacancies on the court occurring between sessions of the General Assembly may be filled by the Governor for a term expiring thirty days after the commencement of the next session of the General Assembly. By statute, the Chief Justice is chosen by a majority vote of the seven justices. By statute, the court may designate a retired justice to serve as Senior Justice for a renewable one year term. The court may designate
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    3 votes
    154

    United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit

    • Legal cases: Dettmer v. Landon
    The United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit is a federal court located in Richmond, Virginia, with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: The court is based at the Lewis F. Powell, Jr. U.S. Courthouse in Richmond, Virginia. With 15 authorized judgeships (currently there are 15 active judges, one senior judge who continues to hear cases part-time, and two retired judges who no longer hear cases) it is mid-sized among the 13 United States courts of appeals. As of April 16, 2012, the active judges on the court are as follows (chief judge in bold): One former circuit judge continues to hear cases on senior status: Thirty judges used to serve on the court, but no longer do: Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, and preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice (i.e., the Supreme Court justice responsible for the circuit) is also on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is specifically nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one
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    155
    United States District Court for the Eastern District of Illinois

    United States District Court for the Eastern District of Illinois

    The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Illinois is a former federal district court for the state of Illinois. The court was established March 3, 1905, by 33 Stat. 992. The Northern and Southern Districts had been established February 13, 1855. The statute establishing the Eastern District specified the counties to be included in that District as follows: On October 2, 1978, Illinois was reorganized into the Northern, Central, and Southern Districts, with thirteen judgeships authorized for the Northern District, two for the Central District, and two for the Southern District.
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    156
    United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas

    United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas

    The United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas (in case citations, S.D. Tex.) is the Federal district court with jurisdiction over the southern part of Texas. The court's headquarters is in Houston, Texas and has six additional offices in the district. Appeals from cases brought in the Southern District of Texas are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). Since its foundation, the Southern District of Texas has been served by forty-one District Judges and six Clerks of Court. The first federal judge in Texas was John C. Watrous, who was appointed on May 26, 1846, and had previously served as Attorney General of the Republic of Texas. He was assigned to hold court in Galveston, at the time, the largest city in the state. As seat of the Texas Judicial District, the Galveston court had jurisdiction over the whole state. On February 21, 1857, the state was divided into two districts, Eastern and Western, with Judge Watrous continuing in the Eastern district. Judge Watrous and Judge Thomas H. DuVal, of the
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    157
    Punjab and Haryana High Court

    Punjab and Haryana High Court

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of India
    Punjab and Haryana High Court is a common High Court for both the States of Punjab and Haryana and Union territory of Chandigarh, in India. It is situated at Chandigarh, the capital of the States of Punjab and Haryana. The sanctioned strenghth of this High Court is 68 judges consisting of Chief Justice, 36 Permanent Judges and 31 Additional Judges. As on 5th October, 2012, there are 42 Judges (including the Chief Justice) working at High Court. There are 47 judges on the strength of the High Court. Before the partition of India on 15 August 1947, the areas which are now parts of the Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, some parts of Himachal Pradesh and some areas falling in West Pakistan, formed the Punjab besides many princely states. Lahore was its capital. The Sadder Adulate Court (Chief Court) at Lahore was the sole Court in the Punjab province during Maharaja Ranjit Singh's period. There were officers dealing with fiscal and military matters, but none specifically to dispense civil or criminal justice. The annexation of the Punjab by the British was immediately followed by the creation of a Board of Administration in 1849 consisting of three Members. The Board had powers of a Sudder
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    4 votes
    158
    Constitutional Court of Spain

    Constitutional Court of Spain

    The Constitutional Court of Spain (Spanish: Tribunal Constitucional de España) is the highest judicial body with the power to determine the constitutionality of acts and statutes of the Spanish Government. It is defined in Part IX (i.e. sections 159 through 165) of the Constitution of Spain, and further governed by Organic Laws 2/1979 (aka Law of the Constitutional Court of October 3, 1979), 8/1984, 4/1985, 6/1988, 7/1999 and 1/2000. The court is the "supreme interpreter" of the Constitution, but since the court is not a part of the rest of the Spanish Judiciary, for almost all other judicial matters, the Supreme Court is the highest court. The Constitutional Court is authorized to rule on the constitutionality of laws, acts, or regulations set forth by the national or the regional parliaments. It also may rule on the constitutionality of international treaties before they are ratified, if requested to do so by the government, the Congress of Deputies, or the Senate. The Constitution further declares that individual citizens may appeal to the Constitutional Court for protection against governmental acts that violate their "fundamental rights or freedoms". Only individuals directly
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    3 votes
    159
    Hawaii State Supreme Court

    Hawaii State Supreme Court

    • Legal cases: Baehr v. Miike
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Supreme Court of Hawaii is the highest court of the State of Hawaii in the United States. Its decisions are binding on all other courts of the Hawaii State Judiciary. The principal purpose of the Supreme Court is to review the decisions of the trial courts in which appeals have been granted. Appeals are decided by the members of the Supreme Court based on written records and in some cases may grant oral arguments in the main Supreme Court chamber. Like its mainland United States counterparts, the Supreme Court does not take evidence and uses only evidence provided in previous trials. The court meets in Aliʻiōlani Hale in Honolulu. The Hawaii State Supreme Court has original jurisdiction to answer questions of law that have been passed to it from trial courts or the federal court, hear civil cases submitted to the Supreme Court on agreed statements of facts, and decide questions coming from proceedings of writs of mandamus, prohibition and habeas corpus. The court had its roots during the Kingdom of Hawaii. Some early notable justices were: The Supreme Court consists of five justices who are initially appointed to ten-year terms by the Governor of Hawaii, who makes his or her
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    160
    Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court

    Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court

    • Legal cases: Commonwealth v. Kneeland
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (SJC) is the highest court in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The SJC has the distinction of being the oldest continuously functioning appellate court in the Western Hemisphere, with a recognized history dating to the establishment of the Massachusetts Superior Court of Judicature in 1692 under the charter of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. Although it was historically composed of four associate and one chief justice, the court currently has seven members. The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court traces its history back to the high court of the British Province of Massachusetts Bay, which was chartered in 1692. Under the terms of that charter, Governor Sir William Phips established the Superior Court of Judicature as the province's local court of last resort (some of the court's decisions could be appealed to courts in England). When the Massachusetts State Constitution was established in 1780, legislative and judicial records show that the state's high court, although renamed, was a continuation of provincial high court. During and after the period of the American Revolution the court had members who were appointed by royal governors,
    5.67
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    161
    Reichsgericht

    Reichsgericht

    The Reichsgericht (Imperial Court of Justice) was the supreme criminal and civil court in the Deutsches Reich from 1879 to 1945. It was based in Leipzig, Germany. The Supreme Court was established when the Reichsjustizgesetze (Imperial Justice Laws) came into effect and it built a widely regarded body of jurisprudence during the period of the German Empire and Weimar Republic. During the rise of the Third Reich, the Reichsgericht became deeply embroiled in the National Socialist agenda. It even involved itself in matters of Nazi Matrimonial and Contract Law before enactment of the Nuremberg Laws. During and after the Nazi period it received criticism for the ease, and even willingness, with which it provided the highest level of formal legal justification for Nazi programs. Immediately after the end of World War II the Reichsgericht was dissolved, and reformed into the German High Court for the Unified Economic Region, the Allied occupation zones of France, the United Kingdom and the United States. Located in Leipzig, Saxony, Germany, the building (German: Reichsgerichtsgebäude) was designed by Ludwig Hoffmann and Peter Dybwad, and construction was completed in 1895. It is
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    162
    Federal Administrative Court of Switzerland

    Federal Administrative Court of Switzerland

    The Federal Administrative Court of Switzerland (FAC; German: Bundesverwaltungsgericht, French: Tribunal administratif fédéral, Italian: Tribunale amministrativo federale; Romansh: Tribunal administrativ federal) is the judicial authority to which decisions of the federal authorities of Switzerland can be appealed. The FAC's decisions can generally be appealed, in turn, to the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland. The FAC was created with the federal judicial reform in 2005 to replace some thirty boards of appeal that exercised judicial oversight over the various departments of the federal administration. Up until 2007, the Swiss Federal Council, the supreme executive authority of Switzerland, also served as a final court of appeal in certain areas of administrative law. These judicial functions were also taken over by the FAC, ensuring that every decision of the administration can be reviewed in the last instance by an independent court of law. The FAC is organised in five divisions with 72 judges in total: The judges are elected by the Federal Assembly of Switzerland and serve for six years; reelections are possible. Since 2011, the president of the FAC is Markus Metz. The FAC
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    163
    Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland

    Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland

    • Jurisdiction: Switzerland
    The Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland (German: Bundesgericht; French: Tribunal fédéral; Italian: Tribunale federale; Romansh: Tribunal federal) is the supreme court of Switzerland. It is located in Lausanne. According to the Constitution of Switzerland, the court has jurisdiction over violations of: Because of an emphasis on direct democracy through referendum, the Constitution precludes the court from reviewing acts of the Federal Parliament, unless such review is specifically provided for by statute.
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    164
    International Criminal Court

    International Criminal Court

    The International Criminal Court (commonly referred to as the ICC or ICCt) is a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression (although it cannot, until at least 2017, exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression). It came into being on 1 July 2002—the date its founding treaty, the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, came into force—and it can prosecute only crimes committed on or after that date. The Court's official seat is in The Hague, Netherlands, but its proceedings may take place anywhere. As of July 2012, 121 states are states parties to the Statute of the Court, including all of South America, nearly all of Europe and roughly half the countries in Africa. A further 32 countries, including Russia, have signed but not ratified the Rome Statute; one of them, Côte d'Ivoire, has accepted the Court's jurisdiction. The law of treaties obliges these states to refrain from “acts which would defeat the object and purpose” of the treaty until they declare they do not intend to become a party to the treaty. Three of these states—Israel, Sudan and the United States—have informed the UN
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    165
    Michigan Supreme Court

    Michigan Supreme Court

    • Legal cases: People v. Salem
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Michigan Supreme Court is the highest court in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is known as Michigan's "court of last resort" and consists of seven justices who are elected to eight-year terms. Candidates are nominated by political parties and are elected on a nonpartisan ballot. Supreme Court candidates must be qualified electors, licensed to practice law in Michigan for at least five years, and under 70 years of age at the time of election. Vacancies are filled by appointment of the Governor until the next general election. Every two years, the justices elect a member of the Court to serve as Chief Justice. Each year, the Court receives approximately 2,000 new case filings. In most cases, the litigants seek review of Michigan Court of Appeals decisions, but the Supreme Court also hears cases of attorney and judicial misconduct, as well as a small number of matters over which the Court has original jurisdiction. The Court issues a decision by order or opinion in all cases filed with it. Opinions and orders of the Court are reported in an official publication, Michigan Reports, as well as in Thomson West's privately-published North Western Reporter. The Court's other duties
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    166
    Minnesota Supreme Court

    Minnesota Supreme Court

    • Jurisdiction: Minnesota
    • Legal cases: Lefkowitz v. Great Minneapolis Surplus Store, Inc
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Minnesota Supreme Court is the highest court in the U.S. state of Minnesota and consists of seven members. The court was first assembled as a three-judge panel in 1849 when Minnesota was still a territory. The first members were lawyers from outside of the region who were appointed by President Zachary Taylor. The state court system was rearranged in 1858 when Minnesota became a state, and justices are now elected to six-year terms unless a mid-term vacancy occurs, in which case the governor appoints a replacement to finish the term. Justices have a mandatory retirement age of 70. Most vacancies occur during a term and are filled by the governor. The most recent election to an open seat on the court was in 1992, when former Minnesota Vikings player Alan Page was elected. Appeals from the Minnesota District Courts went directly to the Supreme Court until the Minnesota Court of Appeals, an intermediate appellate court, was created in 1983 to handle most of those cases. The court now considers about 900 appeals per year and the court accepts review in about 1 in eight cases. Before the Court of Appeals was created the number of cases handled by the Minnesota Supreme Court amounted
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    167
    Supreme Court of the Northern Territory

    Supreme Court of the Northern Territory

    • Superior courts: High Court of Australia
    The Supreme Court of the Northern Territory is the superior court for the Australian Territory of the Northern Territory. It has unlimited jurisdiction within the territory in civil matters, and hears the most serious criminal matters. It is around the middle of the Australian court hierarchy. Shortly after the first settlement at Palmerston, Port Darwin in 1869-70, pressure was placed upon the South Australian government to establish a superior court in the then Northern Territory of South Australia. Although such a court was mooted, it was decided to send judges to Palmerston on circuit. The first circuit court was held in February 1875. Thereafter, from 1875 to 1884, the government appointed persons as commissioners (usually the Government Resident) to exercise the power of a judge of the Supreme Court in all but trials of capital offences. From 1884 to 1911, a resident judge, with the title "Judge of the Northern Territory" exercised the full powers of the Supreme Court under the Northern Territory Justice Act. The court was established on 30 May 1911, shortly after South Australia surrendered the territory to the Commonwealth. The first judge of the court was Samuel James
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    168

    United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit

    • Legal cases: Castle Rock Entertainment, Inc. v. Carol Publishing Group
    The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (in case citations, 2d Cir.) is one of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals. Its territory comprises the states of Connecticut, New York, and Vermont, and the court has appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: The Second Circuit ordinarily has its clerk's office and hears oral arguments at the Thurgood Marshall United States Courthouse in Foley Square in Lower Manhattan. Due to renovations at that building, during the summer of 2006 the court temporarily relocated to the Daniel Patrick Moynihan United States Courthouse in New York City across Pearl Street from the Marshall Courthouse. Some of the Court's offices, including the Office of Legal Affairs, have moved to the Woolworth Building for the duration of the renovations, which are expected to take several years. With 13 active and 10 senior judges, the Second Circuit is midsized among the thirteen United States courts of appeals. As of December 1, 2011 (2011 -12-01), the active judges on the court are as follows: Ten former circuit judges continue to serve on senior status: Forty five judges used to serve on the court, but no
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    169
    United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico

    United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico

    The United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico (in case citations, D.P.R.; Spanish: Tribunal del Distrito de Puerto Rico) is the federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The court is based in San Juan. The main building is the Clemente Ruiz Nazario U.S. Courthouse located in the Hato Rey district of San Juan. The magistrate judges are located in the adjacent Federico Degetau Federal Building, and several senior district judges hold court at the and housed at the Jose V. Toledo Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Old San Juan. The old courthouse also houses the U.S. Bankruptcy Court. Most appeals from this court are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, which is headquartered in Boston but hears appeals at the Old San Juan courthouse for two sessions each year. Patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act are appealed to the Federal Circuit. The Foraker Act of 1900 created a federal territorial court operating within an unincorporated territory of the United States, the Article IV territorial Court for the district of Puerto Rico hears cases in a framework
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    170

    United States District Court for the Southern District of Alabama

    The United States District Court for the Southern District of Alabama (in case citations, S.D. Ala.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the following counties: Baldwin, Choctaw, Clarke, Conecuh, Dallas, Escambia, Hale, Marengo, Mobile, Monroe, Perry, Washington, and Wilcox. It has jurisdiction over the city of Mobile. The District was created by the United States Congress on March 10, 1824, by 4 Stat. 9, when the United States District Court for the District of Alabama was subdivided into a Northern and Southern District. Presiding judge Charles Tait continued to serve as the sole judge for both districts. Parts of these two districts were subsequently removed to form the Middle District on February 6, 1839, by 5 Stat. 315, with legislation specifying that the Middle District Court was to be held at Tuscaloosa, the Northern District Court at Huntsville, and the Southern District Court at Mobile. These Districts were again reorganized on August 7, 1848. Appeals from cases brought in the Southern District of Alabama are to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the
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    171
    Judicial system of Iran

    Judicial system of Iran

    A nationwide judicial system in Iran was first implemented and established by Abdolhossein Teymourtash under Reza Shah, with further changes during the second Pahlavi era. After the 1979 overthrow of the Pahlavi Dynasty by the Islamic Revolution, the system was greatly changed. The legal code is now based on Shi'a Islamic law or sharia, although many aspects of civil law have been retained, and it is integrated into a civil law legal system. According to the constitution of the Islamic Republic, the judiciary in Iran "is an independent power." The entire legal system - "from the Supreme Court to regional courts, all the way down to local and revolutionary courts" - is under the purview of the Ministry of Justice, but in addition to a Minister of Justice and head of the Supreme Court, there is also a separate appointed head of the judiciary. Parliamentary bills pertaining to the constitution are vetted by the Council of Guardians. According to one scholar, the administration of justice in Islamic Iran has been until recent times a loosely sewn and frequently resewn patchwork of conflicting authority in which the different and sometimes conflicting sources for Islamic law - the
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    4 votes
    172
    Arches Court

    Arches Court

    The Arches Court, presided over by the Dean of Arches, is an ecclesiastical court of the Church of England covering the Province of Canterbury. Its equivalent in the Province of York is the Chancery Court. The Court of Arches is the provincial court for Canterbury. It has both appellate and original jurisdiction. It is presided over by the Dean of the Arches, who is styled The Right Honourable and Right Worshipful the Official Principal and Dean of the Arches. The dean must be a barrister of ten years' High Court standing or the holder or former holder of high judicial office. The appointment is made by the two archbishops jointly. At various times the court has sat in the church of St Mary-le-Bow (Sancta Maria de arcubus, formerly the archbishop's principal peculiar in London), whose arches give the court its name; later in Doctors' Commons and also at 1 The Sanctuary, Westminster and St Paul's Cathedral. Its permanent home remains St Mary le Bow, where regular sittings include those to confirm the election of each new diocesan bishop in the province. The Provincial Registry is at 16 Beaumont Street, Oxford OX1 2LZ. The proper jurisdiction of the court is only over the 13 peculiar
    7.00
    1 votes
    173
    European Court of Human Rights

    European Court of Human Rights

    • Legal cases: Demir and Baykara v Turkey
    The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR; French: Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) in Strasbourg is a supra-national court established by the European Convention on Human Rights and hears complaints that a contracting state has violated the human rights enshrined in the Convention and its protocols. Complaints can be brought by individuals or other contracting states, and the Court can also issue advisory opinions. The Convention was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe and all of its 47 member states are parties to the Convention. The court is not part of the European Union. The Court was established on the 21 January 1959 by virtue of Article 19 of the European Convention on Human Rights when eight signatories acknowledged the jurisdiction of the Court. The function of the Court is "to ensure the observance of the engagement undertaken" by the contracting states in relation to the Convention and its protocols. The jurisdiction of the Court has been recognised by 47 European states. Under Protocol no.11 of the Convention, effective since 1 November 1998, the Court became full-time and the European Commission of Human Rights was abolished. The accession of new
    7.00
    1 votes
    174
    High Court of Justice

    High Court of Justice

    • Legal cases: R. v. Dudley and Stephens
    • Superior courts: Court of Appeal of England and Wales
    The High Court of Justice (usually known simply as the High Court) is, together with the Court of Appeal and the Crown Court, one of the Senior Courts of England and Wales. It is also known as the High Court of England and Wales and abbreviated by EWHC. The High Court deals at first instance with all high value and high importance cases, and also has a supervisory jurisdiction over all subordinate courts and tribunals, with a few statutory exceptions. The High Court is based at the Royal Courts of Justice on the Strand, in central London. It has 'District Registries' all across England and Wales and almost all High Court proceedings may be issued and heard at a district registry. It is headed by the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales. The High Court has three main divisions: the Queen's Bench Division, the Chancery Division and the Family Division. The Senior Courts Costs Office, which quantifies legal costs pursuant to orders for costs, serves all divisions. The jurisdictions overlap in some cases, and cases started in one division may be transferred by Court order to another where appropriate. The differences of procedure and practice between divisions are partly historical,
    7.00
    1 votes
    175
    International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

    International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

    • Superior courts: International Criminal Court
    The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) (French: Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda, TPIR) is an international court established in November 1994 by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 955 in order to judge people responsible for the Rwandan Genocide and other serious violations of international law in Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between 1 January and 31 December 1994. In 1995 it became located in Arusha, Tanzania, under Resolution 977. (From 2006, Arusha also became the location of the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights). In 1998 the operation of the tribunal was expanded in Resolution 1165. Through several resolutions, the Security Council called on the tribunal to complete its investigations by end of 2004, complete all trial activities by end of 2008, and complete all work in 2012. The tribunal has jurisdiction over genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, which are defined as violations of Common Article Three and Additional Protocol II of the Geneva Conventions (dealing with war crimes committed during internal conflicts). So far, the tribunal has finished 50 trials and convicted 29 accused persons.
    7.00
    1 votes
    176
    Supreme Court

    Supreme Court

    The Supreme Court of Ireland (Irish: Cúirt Uachtarach na hÉireann) is the highest judicial authority in Ireland. It is a court of final appeal and exercises, in conjunction with the High Court, judicial review over Acts of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament). The Court also has jurisdiction to ensure compliance with the Constitution of Ireland by governmental bodies and private citizens. The Court sits in the Four Courts in Dublin. The Supreme Court consists of its president called the Chief Justice, the President of the High Court who is an ex officio member of the court and normally sits in the High Court, and at least seven ordinary members. The Supreme Court sits in divisions of three, five or seven judges. Two or more divisions may sit at the same time. When determining whether the President is permanently incapacitated within the meaning of Article 12 of the constitution, ruling on the constitutionality of a bill referred to it by the President under Article 26, or ruling on the constitutionality of any law the court must consist of at least five members. Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President of Ireland in accordance with the binding advice of the
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    1 votes
    177
    Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia

    Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia is the state supreme court of the state of West Virginia, the highest of West Virginia's state courts. It is located in the state capital, Charleston. Although the West Virginia Constitution allows for an intermediate court of appeals to be created, the Supreme Court currently provides the only review of the decisions of the state's trial courts of general jurisdiction, the West Virginia Circuit Courts. The justices of the court are elected to 12 year terms by staggered, state-wide, partisan elections. Pursuant to the West Virginia Code (chapter 51), the Court holds two regular sessions annually with the first session commencing on the second Tuesday in January and the second session commencing on the first Wednesday in September. The Court may also sit in special session as needed. The current members of the Court are Chief Justice Menis Ketchum, Brent Benjamin, Robin Davis, Thomas McHugh and Margaret Workman. On September 10, 2008, then-Chief Justice Eliot E. "Spike" Maynard named former justice Thomas McHugh to temporarily replace Justice Joseph P. Albright. Justice Albright had taken medical leave after being diagnosed with
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    178
    Supreme Court of Indiana

    Supreme Court of Indiana

    • Legal cases: Cahoon v. Cummings
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Supreme Court of Indiana, established by Article 7 of the Indiana Constitution, is the highest judicial authority in the state of Indiana. Located in Indianapolis, the Court's chambers are in the north wing of the Indiana Statehouse. In December 1816 the Supreme Court of Indiana succeeded the General Court of the Indiana Territory as the state's high court. During its long history the Court heard a number of high profile cases, including Lasselle v. State (1820). Originally begun as a three member judicial panel, the Court underwent major reforms in 1852 and 1971, as well as several other reorganizations. Court reforms led to a majority of Supreme Court cases being delegated to lower courts, an enlarged panel of justices, and employment of a large staff to assist as its caseload increases. In 2008 the Court consisted of one chief justice and four associate justices, the constitutional minimum; however, the Indiana General Assembly may increase the number of associate justices to a maximum of eight for a total of nine court justices. A board of five commissioners assists the Court in its administrative duties. Commissioners are nominated by the Judicial Nominating Commission and
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    1 votes
    179
    United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit

    United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit

    • Legal cases: Citizens for Equal Protection v. Bruning
    The United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit (in case citations, 8th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: The court is composed of eleven active judges and is based at the Thomas F. Eagleton United States Courthouse in St. Louis, Missouri. It is one of thirteen United States courts of appeals. Republican Presidents have appointed a greater percentage of judges to the Eighth Circuit (nine of eleven active judges, or 82%) than any other Court of Appeals in the United States. Seven judges were appointed by George W. Bush, making the Eighth Circuit the only Circuit to have a majority of its judges appointed by a single President. Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, and preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice (i.e., the Supreme Court justice responsible for the circuit) is also on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is specifically nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under
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    1 votes
    180
    United States District Court for the District of Oregon

    United States District Court for the District of Oregon

    • Legal cases: Byron v. Rajneesh Foundation International
    • Superior courts: United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
    The United States District Court for the District of Oregon (in case citations, D. Ore. or D. Or.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the state of Oregon. It was created in 1859 when the state was admitted to the Union. Appellate jurisdiction belongs to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). Matthew P. Deady served as its first judge. Ann Aiken is the current (2009) chief judge, the first woman to hold that position on the court. The United States Attorney's Office for the District of Oregon represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current United States Attorney is Amanda Marshall. The court has four divisional offices within the state (three with staff): Portland, Eugene, Medford, and Pendleton. Portland’s division holds court at the Mark O. Hatfield United States Courthouse and handles cases from Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Hood River, Jefferson, Multnomah, Polk, Tillamook, Wasco, Washington, and Yamhill counties. The Medford Division covers Curry, Jackson, Josephine,
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    181

    United States District Court for the Northern District of California

    • Legal cases: Goddard v. Google, Inc.
    The United States District Court for the Northern District of California (in case citations, N.D. Cal.) is the federal United States district court whose jurisdiction comprises following counties of California: Alameda, Contra Costa, Del Norte, Humboldt, Lake, Marin, Mendocino, Monterey, Napa, San Benito, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and Sonoma. The court hears cases in its courtrooms in Eureka, Oakland, San Francisco, and San Jose. It is headquartered in San Francisco. Cases from the Northern District of California are appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). California was admitted as a state on September 9, 1850, and was initially divided into two districts, the Northern and the Southern, by Act of Congress approved September 28, 1850, 9 Stat. 521. The boundary line was at the 37th parallel of North Latitude. The creating act provided that: The Act of August 31, 1852 made the Judge of the Northern District be Judge of the Southern District as well until otherwise provided, by 10 Stat. 76, 84,
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    182
    Melbourne Magistrates' Court

    Melbourne Magistrates' Court

    The Melbourne Magistrates' Court is a venue of the Magistrates' Court of Victoria. It is a court in Melbourne, Australia that deals with a range of criminal offences, money claims and disputes up to $100,000 and family violence and family law proceedings. It is the largest venue of the Magistrates' Court of Victoria. Though the current court inception is established by the Magistrates' Court Act 1989 (Parliament of Victoria). There has been a magistrate in Victoria essentially since 1836, when the people of Melbourne elected an Arbitrator of the city to resolve minor disputes. A Police Magistrate, Captain Lonsdale was appointed also in 1836 and the first case was heard at a location near the present site of Southern Cross (Spencer Street) Station. In 1838 a third court, the Court of Petty Sessions was created. And all three types of Courts by 1890 were held at 235 locations throughout Victoria. On 20 January 1914, the new City Court at Russell St. was opened in Melbourne, and Phillip Blashki, J.P. was the first Chairman of the City Court Bench. The Prime Minister Alfred Deakin presented Blashki with an illuminated address signed by 30 of the court's solicitors when he retired, aged
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    3 votes
    183
    United States District Court for the Northern District of Indiana

    United States District Court for the Northern District of Indiana

    The U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Indiana (in case citations, N.D. Ind.) was created in 1928 by an act of Congress that split Indiana into two separate districts, northern and southern. As part of the act, the Northern District was divided into three divisions, South Bend, Fort Wayne and Hammond (which has a sub-office in Lafayette). Appeals from this court are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The court has eight judges and four magistrate judges. The United States District Court for the District of Indiana was established on March 3, 1817, by 3 Stat. 390. The District was subdivided into Northern and Southern Districts on April 21, 1928, by 45 Stat. 437. Of all district courts to be subdivided, Indiana existed for the longest time as a single court, 111 years.
    5.33
    3 votes
    184
    European Court of Justice

    European Court of Justice

    • Legal cases: International Transport Workers Federation v Viking Line ABP
    The European Court of Justice is the highest court in the European Union in matters of European Union law. As a part of the Court of Justice of the European Union institution it is tasked with interpreting EU law and ensuring its equal application across all EU member states. The Court was established in 1952 and is based in Luxembourg. It is composed of one judge per member state — currently 27 — although it normally hears cases in panels of three, five or thirteen judges. The court has been led by President Vassilios Skouris since 2003. The court was established in 1952, by the Treaty of Paris (1951) as part of the European Coal and Steel Community. It was established with seven judges, allowing both representation of each of the six member States and being an unequal number of judges in case of a tie. One judge was appointed from each member state and the seventh seat rotated between the "large Member States" (Germany, France and Italy). It became an institution of two additional Communities in 1957 when the European Economic Community (EEC), and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) were created, sharing the same courts with the European Coal and Steel Community. The
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    2 votes
    185
    Federal Court of Justice of Germany

    Federal Court of Justice of Germany

    The Federal Court of Justice of Germany (German: Bundesgerichtshof, BGH) in Karlsruhe is the highest court in the system of ordinary jurisdiction (ordentliche Gerichtsbarkeit) in Germany. It is the supreme court (court of last resort) in all matters of criminal and private law. A decision handed down by the BGH can only be reversed by the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany in rare cases when the Constitutional Court rules on constitutionality (compatibility with the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany). Before the Federal Court of Justice of Germany was created in its present form, Germany has had several prior highest courts: As early as 1495 there was the so called Reichskammergericht, which existed until 1806. As from 1870, in the time of the North German Confederation, there was the Bundesoberhandelsgericht in Leipzig. Later, in 1871, it was renamed to Reichsoberhandelsgericht and its area of responsibility was amplified as well. This court was unsoldered by the Reichsgericht at October 1, 1879, which was also in Leipzig. Five years after the German Reich had collapsed, the Bundesgerichtshof —as it exists nowadays— was founded. Together with the Federal
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    2 votes
    186
    High Court

    High Court

    • Superior courts: Court of Final Appeal
    The High Court (Chinese: 高等法院) in Hong Kong consists of the Court of Appeal and the Court of First Instance. It deals with criminal and civil cases which have risen beyond the lower courts. It was named the Supreme Court before 1997. The High Court Building is located on 38 Queensway. The 20-storey building was built in 1985 as the home of the then Supreme Court of Hong Kong, which was renamed in 1997. It was named the Supreme Court Building, and the road leading to its main entrance is still named Supreme Court Road. The structure is a white clad tower and has a water fountain outside its front door. The current judges of the High Court are: Chief Judge of the High Court Justices of Appeal of the Court of Appeal of the High Court Judges of the Court of First Instance of the High Court
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    2 votes
    187
    Judicial Committee of the Privy Council

    Judicial Committee of the Privy Council

    • Legal cases: Canada Steamship Lines Ltd v R
    The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. Established by the Judicial Committee Act 1833 to hear appeals formerly heard by the King in Council (s. 3), it is the highest court of appeal (or court of last resort) for several independent Commonwealth countries, as well as for the United Kingdom's overseas territories, and the British Crown Dependencies. It is often referred to as the Privy Council, as in most cases appeals are made to "Her Majesty in Council" (i.e. the British monarch as formally advised by her Privy Counsellors), who then refers the case to the Judicial Committee for "advice"; the "report" of the Judicial Committee is always accepted by the Queen in Council as judgment. The panel of judges (typically five in number) hearing a particular case is known as "the Board". In Commonwealth republics retaining the JCPC as their final court of appeal, appeals are made directly to the Judicial Committee itself. In the case of Brunei, appeals are made to the Sultan of Brunei, who then refers the case to the Judicial Committee for advice. Formerly the Judicial Committee gave a unanimous report, but since the 1960s
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    2 votes
    188
    Supreme Court of California

    Supreme Court of California

    • Jurisdiction: California
    • Legal cases: Landeros v. Flood
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Supreme Court of California is the highest state court in California. It is headquartered in San Francisco and regularly holds sessions in Los Angeles and Sacramento. Its decisions are binding on all other California state courts. Under the original 1849 California Constitution, the Court started with a chief justice and two associate justices. The court was expanded to five justices in 1862. Under the current 1879 constitution, the Court expanded to six associate justices and one chief justice, for the current total of seven. The justices are appointed to 12-year terms by the Governor of California and are subject to retention elections by the voters. According to the California Constitution, to be considered for appointment, a person must be an attorney admitted to practice in California or have served as a judge of a California court for 10 years immediately preceding the appointment. After justices are appointed, they are subject to a retention vote at the next general election and thereafter at 12-year intervals. The electorate has occasionally exercised the power not to retain justices. Chief Justice Rose Bird and Associate Justices Cruz Reynoso and Joseph Grodin were
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    2 votes
    189
    Supreme Court of Ohio

    Supreme Court of Ohio

    • Legal cases: Cline v. American Aggregates Corporation
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Supreme Court of Ohio is the highest court in the U.S. state of Ohio, with final authority over interpretations of Ohio law and the Ohio Constitution. The court has seven members, a chief justice and six associate justices, each serving six-year terms. Since 2004, the court has met in the Ohio Judicial Center (formerly known as the Ohio Departments Building) on the east bank of the Scioto River in downtown Columbus. Prior to 2004, the court met in the James A. Rhodes State Office Tower and earlier in the Judiciary Annex (now the Senate Building) of the Ohio Statehouse. The Ohio Supreme Court and the rest of the judiciary is established and authorized within Article IV of the Ohio Constitution. All the seats on the court are elected at large by the voters of Ohio. Every two years, two of the associate justice seats are up for election. For one of those three elections in a cycle, the chief justice's seat is up for election. In order to run for a seat on the court, a person must be admitted to the Bar in Ohio, and have practiced as a lawyer or served as a judge for at least six years. There is an age limit: One may not run for a seat on any Ohio court if one is more than 70 years
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    2 votes
    190
    Supreme Court of Queensland

    Supreme Court of Queensland

    • Legal cases: Nudd v Taylor
    The Supreme Court of Queensland, which is based in the Queen Elizabeth II Courts of Law, is the superior court for the Australian State of Queensland and sits around the middle of the Australian court hierarchy. It has jurisdiction within the state in: The court has judges permanently appointed to sit in Rockhampton, Townsville and Cairns and regularly sits in other regional districts. In August 2012 the Supreme Court in Brisbane moved from the Law Courts Complex to the newly constructed Queen Elizabeth II Courts of Law building which jointly houses the Brisbane sitting places of the Supreme and District Court. In 1991 the Queensland Supreme Court was restructured into two divisions, the Trial Division and the Court of Appeal. The Court is headed by the Chief Justice of Queensland (currently Chief Justice Paul de Jersey) who sits in both the Trial Division and the Court of Appeal. The Court of Appeal comprises the President (currently Justice Margaret McMurdo) and four Judges of Appeal, who sit only in the Court of Appeal. Proceedings in the Court of Appeal are usually heard by three judges. The Trial Division comprises a number of trial judges, and is headed by the Senior Judge
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    2 votes
    191
    Supreme Court of Victoria

    Supreme Court of Victoria

    • Jurisdiction: Victoria
    • Legal cases: R v Davidson
    • Superior courts: High Court of Australia
    The Supreme Court of Victoria is the superior court for the State of Victoria, Australia. It was founded in 1852, and is a superior court of common law and equity, with unlimited jurisdiction within the state. Those courts lying below it include the County Court of Victoria, the Magistrates' Court of Victoria and the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal (which is technically not a court, but serves a judicial function). Above it lies the High Court of Australia. This places it around the middle of the Australian court hierarchy. The Supreme Court of Victoria is part of a complex known as the Melbourne Law Courts, and is located at 192 William Street Melbourne, Victoria. The design for the building was the winning entry for a competition conducted by The Public Works Department [1]. The building design was revealed in 1873 and construction was carried out between 1874-82. The architects were the English immigrant duo Alfred Louis Smith (1830–1907) and Arthur Ebdon Johnson (1859–95) of Smith and Johnson [2]. In 1852 Victoria separated from New South Wales and became an independent colony complete with its own Constitution and judicial institutions [3]. The Supreme Court of
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    2 votes
    192
    Supreme Federal Court

    Supreme Federal Court

    • Legal cases: ADI 4277 and ADPF 132 v. Brazilian civil union
    The Supreme Federal Court (Portuguese: Supremo Tribunal Federal, [suˈpɾẽmu tɾibuˈnaw fedeˈɾaw], also known as STF, IPA: [ˌɛsiteˈɛfi]) is the supreme court (court of last resort) of Brazil, serving primarily as the Constitutional Court of the country. It is the highest court of law in Brazil for constitutional issues and its rulings cannot be appealed. On questions involving exclusively lower legislation, the highest court is, by rule, the Superior Court of Justice. Alongside its appeal competence, mostly by the Extraordinary Appeal (Recurso Extraordinário), the Court has a small range of cases of original jurisdiction, including the power of judicial review, judging the constitutionality of laws passed by the National Congress, through a Direct Action of Unconstitutionality (Ação Direta de Inconstitucionalidade, or ADIn). The eleven judges of the court are called Ministers (Ministro), although having no similarity with the government body of ministers. They are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. There is a mandatory retirement age of 70. All judicial and administrative meetings of the Supreme Court have been broadcast live on television since 2002. The Court is
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    193

    Supreme Tribunal of Justice

    The Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Spanish: Tribunal Supremo de Justicia or TSJ) is the highest court of law in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and is the head of the judicial branch. The Supreme Tribunal may meet either in specialized chambers (of which there are six: constitutional, political/administrative, electoral, civil, criminal, and social) or in plenary session. Each chamber has five judges, except the constitutional, which has seven. Its main function is to control, according to the constitution and related laws, the constitutionality and legality of public acts. The Supreme Tribunal's 32 justices (magistrados) are appointed by the National Assembly and serve non-renewable 12-year terms. Appointments are made by a two-thirds majority, or a simple majority if efforts to appoint a judge fail three times in a row. Under article 265 of the 1999 Constitution, judges may be removed by a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly, if the Attorney General, Comptroller General, and Human Rights Ombudsperson have previously agreed a "serious failure" and suspended the judge accordingly. The Tribunal was created under the 1999 Constitution of Venezuela, replacing the Supreme
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    194

    United States District Court for the Eastern District of Oklahoma

    The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Oklahoma (in case citations, E.D. Okla. or E.D.Ok.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the following counties: Adair, Atoka, Bryan, Carter, Cherokee, Choctaw, Coal, Haskell, Hughes, Johnston, Latimer, Le Flore, Love, Marshall, McCurtain, McIntosh, Murray, Muskogee, Okfuskee, Okmulgee, Pittsburg, Pontotoc, Pushmataha, Seminole, Sequoyah, and Wagoner. It is based in Muskogee. James H. Payne is the current Chief Judge, Mark F. Green is the current United States Attorney, and Patrick J. Wilkerson has been nominated by President Barack Obama to serve as the U.S. Marshal. Appeals from the Eastern District of Oklahoma are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The court is housed in the Ed Edmondson U.S. Courthouse in Muskogee, Oklahoma. Judge Frank Howell Seay, appointed to the court by President Jimmy Carter in 1979, was the first Native American (Seminole) appointed to any U.S. district court. The United States Attorney's Office of the Eastern
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    195
    Constitutional Tribunal of Poland

    Constitutional Tribunal of Poland

    The Constitutional Tribunal (Polish: Trybunał Konstytucyjny) of the Republic of Poland is a judicial body established to resolve disputes on the constitutionality of the activities of state institutions; its main task is to supervise the compliance of statutory law with the Constitution. The Constitutional Tribunal adjudicates on the compliance with the Constitution of legislation and international agreements (also their ratification), on disputes over the powers of central constitutional bodies, and on compliance with the Constitution of the aims and activities of political parties. It also rules on constitutional complaints. The Constitutional Tribunal is made up of 15 judges chosen by Sejm for nine-year terms. They are fully independent. The Constitutional Tribunal constitutes one of the formal guarantees of a state grounded on the rule of law. Three judges, appointed by the President of the Tribunal, serve as members of the National Electoral Commission (Act of 12 April 2001 on elections to the Sejm of the Republic of Poland and to the Senate of the Republic of Poland).
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    3 votes
    196
    Oregon Tax Court

    Oregon Tax Court

    The Oregon Tax Court is a state court in the U.S. state of Oregon, which has jurisdiction in questions of law that regard state tax laws. Examples of matters that would come before this court include income taxes, corporate excise taxes, property taxes, timber taxes, cigarette taxes, local budget law, and property tax limitations. The purpose of the court is parallel to that of the United States Tax Court. Taxpayers and tax authorities can take advantage of a court that is familiar with taxation issues. Oregon Tax Court cases are usually filed by taxpayers who are unhappy with the decisions of the Oregon Department of Revenue or a county tax assessor. The Oregon Tax Court has a single judge who is elected in a statewide election to a 6-year term. The position has been held since 2001 by Judge Henry C. Breithaupt. His current term of office will expire in January 2009. The court is divided into two divisions: the Magistrate Division and the Regular Division. The Tax Court judge appoints one presiding tax court magistrate and some number of other magistrates, currently about three. Typically, the magistrate is a practicing attorney who is appointed by the court as a judicial officer
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    3 votes
    197
    United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces

    United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces

    The United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces (CAAF – in case citations, C.A.A.F. – or USCAAF) is an Article I court that exercises worldwide appellate jurisdiction over members of the United States armed forces on active duty and other persons subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice. The court is composed of five civilian judges appointed for 15-year terms by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the United States Senate. The court reviews decisions from the intermediate appellate courts of the services: The Army Court of Criminal Appeals, the Navy-Marine Corps Court of Criminal Appeals, the Coast Guard Court of Criminal Appeals, and the Air Force Court of Criminal Appeals. Courts-martial are judicial proceedings conducted by the armed forces. The Continental Congress first authorized the use of courts-martial in 1775. From the time of the American Revolutionary War through the middle of the twentieth century, courts-martial were governed by the Articles of War and the Articles for the Government of the Navy. Congress's authority "To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces" is contained in the United
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    3 votes
    198
    United States District Court for the District of Alaska

    United States District Court for the District of Alaska

    The United States District Court for the District of Alaska (in case citations, D. Alaska) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Alaska. Offices are located in Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, Ketchikan, and Nome. Appeals from the District are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States Congress organized Alaska as one judicial district on July 7, 1958 by 72 Stat. 339, authorizing one judgeship for the U.S. district court, and assigned the district to the Ninth Circuit. A second judgeship was authorized on May 19, 1961 by 75 Stat. 80, and a third was authorized on July 10, 1984 by 98 Stat. 333. The United States Attorney's Office for the District of Alaska represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The office was officially divided between Civil and Criminal Divisions during the early 1990s. Prior to that, Assistant United States Attorneys working out of Alaska could be expected to work on both types of cases. The current United States Attorney is Karen
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    3 votes
    199
    Court of Appeal

    Court of Appeal

    • Superior courts: Court of Final Appeal
    The Court of Appeal is the second most senior court in the Hong Kong legal system. It deals with appeals on all civil and criminal cases from the Court of First Instance and the District Courts of Hong Kong. It is one of two courts that makes up the High Court (which was formerly known as the Supreme Court) of Hong Kong. Sometimes criminal appeals from Magistrates' Courts with general public importance are also dealt with in Court of Appeal, either by referral by a single judge from the Court of First Instance, or upon granting of leave on application for review by the Secretary for Justice. This court also hears appeals from the Lands Tribunal and various Tribunals and Statutory Bodies.
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    1 votes
    200
    Court of the Lord Lyon

    Court of the Lord Lyon

    • Superior courts: Court of Session
    The Court of the Lord Lyon, also known as the Lyon Court or Lyon Office, is a standing court of law which regulates heraldry in Scotland. Like the College of Arms in England it maintains the register of grants of arms, known as the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland, as well as records of genealogies. The Lyon Court is a public body, and the fees for grants of arms are paid to HM Treasury. It is headed by the Lord Lyon King of Arms, who must be legally qualified, as he has criminal jurisdiction in heraldic matters, and the court is fully integrated into the Scottish legal system, including having a dedicated prosecutor, known in Scotland as a Procurator Fiscal. The Lord Lyon King of Arms, the chief heraldic officer of Scotland is both a Great Officer of State as well as a Judge in the Scottish judiciary. The Lord Lyon's judicial duties concerning Scottish heraldic business and heraldic laws are conducted through the machinery of the Court of the Lord Lyon. The Court exercises both civil and penal jurisdiction under the old Common Law of Scotland and many Acts of Parliament. The Lord Lyon Court is directly responsible for the establishment of the rights to arms and
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    201

    Federal Court of Canada

    • Jurisdiction: Canada
    The Federal Court of Canada was a national court of Canada that heard some types of disputes arising under the central government's legislative jurisdiction. The Court — which is now defunct — consisted of two divisions, a Trial Division and an Appeal Division (commonly known as the Federal Court of Appeal). The Court existed from 1971 to 2003 when it was split into two separate Courts, the Federal Court and the Federal Court of Appeal. The 2003 change in structure was largely "technical" in that it did not change the powers of the court, or any of the judges or the way they are appointed, but just split the court into two separate courts. The Federal Court of Canada's enabling legislation, the Federal Court Act, was renamed the Federal Courts Act. The Court consisted of a first-level trial court, known as the Federal Court of Canada – Trial Division, and an appellate Court, known as the Federal Court of Canada – Appeal Division (more commonly referred to as the Federal Court of Appeal). The Trial Division had jurisdiction to hear judicial review of decisions of federal boards and tribunals, including most immigration matters, as well as jurisdiction in admiralty, intellectual
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    1 votes
    202
    Supreme Court of the United States

    Supreme Court of the United States

    • Jurisdiction: United States of America
    • Legal cases: Roe v. Wade
    The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States. It has ultimate (but largely discretionary) appellate jurisdiction over all federal courts and over state court cases involving issues of federal law, and original jurisdiction over a small range of cases. The Court, which meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D.C., consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices who are nominated by the President and confirmed by the United States Senate. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed after impeachment. Under Chief Justices Jay, Rutledge, and Ellsworth (1789–1801), the Court heard few cases; its first decision was West v. Barnes (1791), a case involving a procedural issue. The Court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the highest-profile case of the era, Chisholm v. Georgia, which was immediately repudiated by the Eleventh Amendment. The Court's power and prestige waxed during the Marshall Court (1801–1835). Under Marshall, the Court established the principle of judicial review, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the
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    1 votes
    203
    United States District Court for the Middle District of Louisiana

    United States District Court for the Middle District of Louisiana

    The United States Court for the Middle District of Louisiana (in case citations, M.D. La.) comprises the parishes of Ascension, East Baton Rouge, East Feliciana, Iberville, Livingston, Pointe Coupee, Saint Helena, West Baton Rouge, and West Feliciana. Court is held at the United States Courthouse in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. It falls under the jurisdiction of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). On March 26, 1804, Congress organized the Territory of Orleans and created the United States District Court for the District of Orleans - the only time Congress provided a territory with a district court equal in its authority and jurisdiction to those of the states. The United States District Court for the District of Louisiana was established on April 8, 1812, by 2 Stat. 701, several weeks before Louisiana was formally admitted as a state of the union. The District was thereafter subdivided and reformed several times. It was first subdivided into Eastern and Western Districts on March 3, 1823, by 3 Stat. 774. On February 13, 1845, Louisiana
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    1 votes
    204
    Court of Appeal of England and Wales

    Court of Appeal of England and Wales

    • Jurisdiction: England and Wales
    • Legal cases: L'Estrange v Graucob
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
    The Court of Appeal of England and Wales is the second most senior court in the English legal system, with only the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom above it. Established in 1875, the Court and its staff of 37 Lords Justices of Appeal hear both criminal appeals in the Criminal Division and civil appeals in the Civil Division, led by the Lord Chief Justice and Master of the Rolls respectively. The Criminal Division hears appeals from the Crown Court, while the Civil Division hears appeals from the County Courts and High Court of Justice. Permission to appeal is required, either from the lower court or the Court of Appeal itself. Decisions may be additionally appealed to the Supreme Court. The appeal system before 1875 was "chaotic". The superior courts system consisted of 12 different courts, with appeal on common law matters to the Court of Exchequer Chamber, chancery matters to the Court of Appeal in Chancery and other matters to the Privy Council. This was the subject of a review by the Judicature Commission, established in 1867 to consider the creation of a "Supreme Court" (a High Court and Court of Appeal) which was published in 1869. The recommendation was that there should
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    3 votes
    205
    Oregon Court of Appeals

    Oregon Court of Appeals

    • Superior courts: Oregon Supreme Court
    The Oregon Court of Appeals is the state intermediate appellate court in the US state of Oregon. Part of the Oregon Judicial Department, it has ten judges and is located in Salem. Except for death penalty cases, which are reserved to the Oregon Supreme Court, and tax court cases, it has jurisdiction to hear all civil and criminal appeals from Oregon circuit courts, and to review actions of most state administrative agencies. The ten judges of the court are chosen by the people in statewide nonpartisan elections to six-year terms, and have as their administrative head a Chief Judge appointed from their number by the Chief Justice of the state Supreme Court. Appeals court decisions are subject to a petition by an aggrieved party for review by the Oregon Supreme Court. The petition must be made within 35 days of the decision, and the Supreme Court determines by vote of the Justices whether to review the case. The court holds session at the Oregon Supreme Court Building in Salem, with offices in the neighboring Justice Building. Established in 1969, the court originally had five seats before expanding to ten seats in 1977. The Oregon Legislature has debated adding additional judgeships
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    United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania

    United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania

    • Legal cases: United States ex rel. Gerald Mayo v. Satan and His Staff
    The United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania (in case citations, W.D. Pa.) sits in Pittsburgh, Erie, and Johnstown, Pennsylvania. It is composed of ten judges as authorized by federal law. Judge Gary L. Lancaster is currently Chief Judge of the Western Pennsylvania District. Steven Richard Frank is currently the nominee of President Barack Obama (as of June 2011) to be the United States Marshal for the Western Pennsylvania District Court. Appeals from this court are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States District Court for the District of Pennsylvania was one of the original 13 courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73, on September 24, 1789. It was subdivided on April 20, 1818, by 3 Stat. 462, into the Eastern and Western Districts to be headquartered in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, respectively. The court gaveled in its first session on December 7, 1818 at the Old County Courthouse in Pittsburgh. Portions of these districts were subsequently subdivided into
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    United States district court

    United States district court

    • Legal cases: Access Now v. Southwest Airlines
    The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. Both civil and criminal cases are filed in the district court, which is a court of law, equity, and admiralty. There is a United States bankruptcy court associated with each United States district court. Each federal judicial district has at least one courthouse, and many districts have more than one. The formal name of a district court is "the United States District Court for" the name of the district—for example, the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri. In contrast to the Supreme Court, which was established by Article III of the Constitution, the district courts were established by Congress. There is no constitutional requirement that district courts exist at all. Indeed, after the ratification of the Constitution, some opponents of a strong federal judiciary urged that the federal court system be limited to the Supreme Court, which would hear appeals from state courts. This view did not prevail, however, and the first Congress created the district court system that is still in place today. There is at least one judicial district for each state,
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    Constitutional Court of South Africa

    Constitutional Court of South Africa

    • Legal cases: S v Makwanyane and Another
    The Constitutional Court of South Africa was established in 1994 by South Africa's first democratic constitution: the Interim Constitution of 1993. In terms of the 1996 Constitution the Constitutional Court established in 1994 continues to hold office. The court began its first sessions in February 1995. Since February 2004, Constitution Hill in Johannesburg has been the seat of the court. The court consists of eleven judges, headed by a Chief Justice and Deputy Chief Justice. Currently eight of the judges are men and three are women. Their duty is to uphold the law and the constitution, which they must apply impartially and without fear, favour or prejudice. The constitution requires that a matter before the court be heard by at least eight judges. In practice, all eleven judges hear almost every case. If any judge is absent for a long period or a vacancy arises, an acting judge may be appointed by the President of the Republic on a temporary basis on the recommendation of the Minister of Justice acting with the concurrence of the Chief Justice. Decisions of the Court are reached by majority vote of the judges sitting in a case. Each judge must indicate his or her decision. The
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    Court of Appeal for Saskatchewan

    Court of Appeal for Saskatchewan

    The Court of Appeal for Saskatchewan (frequently referred to as Saskatchewan Court of Appeal or Sask. CA) is the highest superior appeal court in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. It hears appeals from the Court of Queen's Bench for Saskatchewan as well as the Provincial Court of Saskatchewan and administrative tribunals. The Court is based in Regina, Saskatchewan and consists of the chief justice, six other full-time justices, and a varying number of supernumerary justices. It has general appellate jurisdiction, a limited original jurisdiction, and an advisory opinion jurisdiction, known in Canada as a reference question. Appeals lie from the Court of Appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada. The Court of Appeal was created on March 1, 1918, upon the coming into force of The Court of Appeal Act of 1915. Prior to that date, there was a single superior court for Saskatchewan, known as the Supreme Court of Saskatchewan, which had both appellate and trial jurisdiction. Individual members of the Supreme Court sat as trial judges, while the full Supreme Court ourt (also known at the Supreme Court en banc) heard appeals. The 1915 legislation split the appellate functions and the trial
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    Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation

    Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation

    The Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation (Spanish: Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación (SCJN) is the highest federal court in the United Mexican States. It consists of a President of the Supreme Court (Chief Justice) and ten Ministers (Associate Justices) who are confirmed by the Senate from a list proposed by the President of the Republic. Justices of the SCJN serve for fifteen years and are not eligible to serve a second term. From among their number, the justices elect the President of the Court to serve a four-year period; a given justice may serve more than one term as president, but not in consecutive periods. The court itself is located just off the main plaza of Mexico City on the corners of Pino Suarez and Carranza Streets. It was built between 1935 and 1941 by Antonio Muñoz Garcia. Prior to the Conquest, this site was reserved for the ritual known as "Dance of the Flyers" which is still practice today in Papantla. Hernan Cortes claimed the property after the Conquest and its ownership was in dispute during much of the colonial period with Cortes' heirs, the city government and the Royal and Pontifical University all claiming rights. It was also the site of a very
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    United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit

    United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit

    • Legal cases: Price v. United States
    The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (in case citations, 5th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following Southern districts: The court is composed of seventeen active judges and is based at the John Minor Wisdom United States Court of Appeals Building in New Orleans, Louisiana, with the clerk's office located at the F. Edward Hebert Federal Building in New Orleans. It is one of thirteen United States courts of appeals. This court was created by the Evarts Act on June 16, 1891, which moved the circuit judges and appellate jurisdiction from the Circuit Courts of the Fifth Circuit to this court. At the time of its creation, the Fifth Circuit covered Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. On June 25, 1948, the Panama Canal Zone was added to the Fifth Circuit by 62 Stat. 870. On October 1, 1981, under Public Law 96-452, the Fifth Circuit was split: Alabama, Georgia, and Florida were moved to the new Eleventh Circuit. On March 31, 1982, the Fifth Circuit lost jurisdiction over the Panama Canal Zone as the Canal Zone transferred to Panamanian control. During the late 1950s, Chief Judge Elbert
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    United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit

    United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit

    • Legal cases: ACLU v. NSA
    The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit (in case citations, 6th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: The court is composed of sixteen judges and is based at the Potter Stewart U.S. Courthouse in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is one of thirteen United States courts of appeals. Elena Kagan is the circuit justice for the Sixth Circuit. William Howard Taft, the only person ever to serve as both President and Chief Justice of the United States once served on the circuit. Four judges of the Sixth Circuit have been elevated to serve on the Supreme Court. The judges on the court are: Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, and preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice (i.e., the Supreme Court justice responsible for the circuit) is also on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is specifically nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, and have not previously served as chief
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    United States District Court for the District of Hawaii

    United States District Court for the District of Hawaii

    The United States District Court for the District of Hawaii (in case citations, D. Haw.) is the principal trial court of the United States Federal Court System in the state of Hawaii. It is located at the Prince Kuhio Federal Building in downtown Honolulu, fronting the Aloha Tower and Honolulu Harbor. The court hears both civil and criminal cases as a court of law and equity. A branch of the district court is the United States Bankruptcy Court which also has chambers in the federal building. The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit has appellate jurisdiction over cases coming out of the District of Hawaii (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). When the Territory of Hawaii was formed in 1900, jurisdiction was placed in the Ninth Circuit. On March 18, 1959, when the State of Hawaii was formed, the district had two judgeships for the court. On July 10, 1984 a third judgeship was added, and a fourth added on December 1, 1990. As of June 27, 2012, a vacancy exists due to the fact that David Alan Ezra assumed senior status. No replacement nominee currently exists. Prior to 1959,
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    United States District Court for the District of South Dakota

    United States District Court for the District of South Dakota

    The United States District Court for the District of South Dakota (in case citations, D.S.D.) is the United States District Court or the Federal district court, whose jurisdiction for issues pertaining to federal law or diversity for the state of South Dakota. The court is based in Sioux Falls with other courthouses in Rapid City, Pierre, and Aberdeen. The district was created in 1889, when the Dakota Territory was divided into North and South Dakota. Appeals from the District of South Dakota are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States Attorney's Office for the District of South Dakota, represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current United States Attorney is Brendan V. Johnson, son of South Dakota United States Senator Tim Johnson.
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    United States District Court for the Southern District of California

    United States District Court for the Southern District of California

    • Legal cases: Playboy Enterprises, Inc. v. Welles
    The United States District Court for the Southern District of California (in case citations, S.D. Cal.) is the federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the following counties in California: Imperial and San Diego. In terms of filed indictments, it is one of the busiest criminal districts in the United States. Cases from the Southern District of California are appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). California was admitted as a state on September 9, 1850, and was initially divided into two districts, the Northern and the Southern, by Act of Congress approved September 28, 1850, 9 Stat. 521. The boundary line was at the 37th parallel of North Latitude. The creating act provided that: The Act of August 31, 1852 made the Judge of the Northern District be Judge of the Southern District as well until otherwise provided, by 10 Stat. 76, 84, effectively creating a single District in all but name until an Act of January 18, 1854 provided for the appointment of a Judge for the Southern District. The Southern District of
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    Supreme Court of Canada

    Supreme Court of Canada

    • Jurisdiction: Canada
    • Legal cases: Edwards v. Canada
    The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system. The court grants permission to between 40 and 75 litigants each year to appeal decisions rendered by provincial, territorial and federal appellate courts, and its decisions are stare decisis, binding upon all lower courts of Canada. The Supreme Court of Canada is composed of nine judges: the Chief Justice of Canada and eight Puisne Justices. The creation of the court was provided for by the British North America Act, 1867, renamed in 1982 the Constitution Act, 1867. The first bills for the creation of a federal supreme court, introduced in the Parliament of Canada in 1869 and in 1870, were withdrawn. It was not until 8 April 1875, that a bill was finally passed providing for the creation of a Supreme Court of Canada. Prior to 1949, however, the Supreme Court did not constitute the court of last resort; litigants could appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London. As well, some cases could bypass the court and go directly to the Judicial Committee from the provincial courts of appeal. The Supreme Court's
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    Tennessee Supreme Court

    • Jurisdiction: Tennessee
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Tennessee Supreme Court is the state supreme court of the state of Tennessee. Cornelia Clark is the current Chief Justice. Unlike other states, in which the state attorney general is directly elected or appointed by the governor or state legislature, the Tennessee Supreme Court appoints the Tennessee Attorney General. The current Tennessee State Constitution, adopted in 1870, calls for five justices, of which at least one but not more than two must be from each of the state's three Grand Divisions (East Tennessee, Middle Tennessee, and West Tennessee) in order to prevent regional bias. Additionally, the court is required to meet in Knoxville, Nashville and Jackson, also to prevent regional bias. In recent years this provision has been regarded as permissive rather than restrictive, and the court has also met in other cities throughout the state as part of a legal education project for high school students. The justices serve eight-year terms and can succeed themselves. The office of chief justice rotates among the justices. Justices are required to recuse themselves in cases in which they may have a personal interest; the whole court once had to step aside and a case be heard
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    Court of Chancery

    Court of Chancery

    • Jurisdiction: England and Wales
    • Legal cases: Matthewson v Stockdale
    The Court of Chancery was a court of equity in England and Wales that followed a set of loose rules to avoid the slow pace of change and possible harshness (or "inequity") of the common law. The Chancery had jurisdiction over all matters of equity, including trusts, land law, the administration of the estates of lunatics and the guardianship of infants. Its initial role was somewhat different, however; as an extension of the Lord Chancellor's role as Keeper of the King's Conscience, the Court was an administrative body primarily concerned with conscientious law. Thus the Court of Chancery had a far greater remit than the common law courts, whose decisions it had the jurisdiction to overrule for much of its existence, and was far more flexible. Until the 19th century, the Court of Chancery could apply a far wider range of remedies than the common law courts, such as specific performance and injunctions, and also had some power to grant damages in special circumstances. With the shift of the Exchequer of Pleas towards a common law court, the Chancery was the only equitable body in the English legal system. Academics estimate that the Court of Chancery formally split from and became
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    Crown Court

    Crown Court

    The Crown Court of England and Wales is, together with the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal, one of the constituent parts of the Senior Courts of England and Wales. It is the higher court of first instance in criminal cases; however, for some purposes the Crown Court is hierarchically subordinate to the High Court and its Divisional Courts. The Crown Court sits in around 92 locations in England and Wales. The administration of the Crown Court is conducted through HM Courts Service. Previously conducted across six circuits (Midland, Northern, North Eastern, South Eastern, Wales & Chester and Western), HM Courts Service is now divided into seven regions: Midlands, North East, North West, South East, South West, London and Wales. The Wales region was identified separately, having regard to the devolved legislative powers of the Welsh Assembly Government. The Central Criminal Court at the Old Bailey, originally established by its own Act of Parliament, is part of the Crown Court, and is the venue at which many of the most serious criminal cases are heard. The Crown Court carries out four principal types of activity: appeals from decisions of magistrates; sentencing of
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    International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

    International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

    The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia or ICTY, is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the wars in the former Yugoslavia, and to try their perpetrators. The tribunal is an ad hoc court which is located in The Hague, the Netherlands. The Court was established by Resolution 827 of the United Nations Security Council, which was passed on 25 May 1993. It has jurisdiction over four clusters of crimes committed on the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991: grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, violations of the laws or customs of war, genocide, and crimes against humanity. The maximum sentence it can impose is life imprisonment. Various countries have signed agreements with the UN to carry out custodial sentences. The final indictments were issued in December 2004, the last of which were confirmed and unsealed in the spring of 2005. The Tribunal aims to complete all trials by the end of
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    Supreme Court of India

    • Jurisdiction: India
    The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. According to the Constitution of India, the role of the Supreme Court is that of a federal court and guardian of the Constitution. Articles 124 to 147 of the Constitution of India lay down the composition and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India. The Supreme Court is meant to be the last resort and highest appellate court which takes up appeals against judgments of the High Courts of the states and territories. Also, disputes between states or petitions involving a serious infringement of fundamental and human rights are usually brought directly to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court of India held its inaugural sitting on 28 January 1950, and since then has delivered more than 24,000 reported judgments. On 28 January 1950, two days after India became a sovereign democratic republic, the Supreme Court came into being. The inauguration took place in the Chamber of Princes in the Parliament building. The Chamber of Princes had earlier been the seat of the Federal Court of India for 12 years, between 1937 and 1950, and was the seat
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    Supreme Court of Spain

    Supreme Court of Spain

    The Supreme Court of Spain (Spanish: Tribunal Supremo) is the highest court in Spain for all matters not pertaining to the Spanish Constitution. The court which meets in the Convent of the Salesas Reales in Madrid, consists of a president and an indeterminate number of magistrates appointed to the five chambers of the court. The Supreme Court is the tribunal of last resort which can provide finality in all legal issues. It can exercise original jurisdiction over matters of great importance, but usually functions as an Appellate court which is able investigate procedural irregularities arising from actions in the National courts or Provincial courts and can order ordinary and extraordinary remedies against decisions of lower courts according to the provisions of The Law of Spain. The Supreme Court is responsible for processing substantial complaints of wrongdoing against prominent persons such as government ministers, assembly of senators general assembly of representatives and members of the various regional parliaments, senior judges, including the President and judges of the Constitutional Court (the highest tribunal in the Kingdom) It also processes formal applications by the
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    United States District Court for the Northern District of Oklahoma

    The United States District Court for the Northern District of Oklahoma (in case citations, N.D. Okla. or N.D. Ok.) is the Federal district court for a portion of the state of Oklahoma. Appeals from the Northern District of Oklahoma are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The court's jurisdiction comprises the following counties: Craig, Creek, Delaware, Mayes, Nowata, Osage, Ottawa, Pawnee, Rogers, Tulsa, and Washington. It is based in Tulsa. The United States Attorney's Office for the Northern District of Oklahoma represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Oklahoma is Danny C. Williams, Sr., who was confirmed by unanimous consent by the Senate on August 2, 2012.
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    Andhra Pradesh High Court

    Andhra Pradesh High Court

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of India
    The Andhra Pradesh High Court (Telugu: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్ హై కోర్ట్) is the High Court of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It was set up on 5 July 1954 under the Andhra State Act, 1953. Its seat is in the administrative capital, Hyderabad and has a sanctioned judge strength of 39. The State of Andhra Pradesh was formed in 1956 by the merger of the Andhra State which was formed in year 1953(By Dividing Madras State) and the Telangana area of the Hyderabad State which was acceded by Govt. of India on 17 Sep 1948 from Nizam. The High Court stands on the south bank of the River Musi. This is one of the finest buildings in the city, built in red and white stones in Saracenic style, by Nizam VII Mir Osman Ali Khan the ruler of the princely state of Hyderabad The Plan of the High Court was drawn up by Shankar Lal of Jaipur and the local engineer who executed the design was Mehar Ali Fazil. The construction started on 15 April 1915 and was completed on 31 March 1919. On 20 April 1920 the High Court building was inaugurated by Nizam VII Mir Osman Ali Khan. While digging the foundation for the High Court, ruins of the Qutb Shahi Palaces, namely Hina Mahal and Nadi Mahal were unearthed. The
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    Areopagus

    Areopagus

    The Areopagus or Areios Pagos (Ancient Greek: Ἄρειος Πάγος) is the "Rock of Ares", north-west of the Acropolis, which in classical times functioned as the high Court of Appeal for criminal and civil cases in Athens. Ares was supposed to have been tried here by the gods for the murder of Poseidon's son Alirrothios (a typical example of an aetiological myth). The origin of its name is not clear. In Greek pagos means big piece of rock. Areios could have come from Ares or from the Erinyes, as on its foot was erected a temple dedicated to the Erinyes where murderers used to find shelter so as not to face the consequences of their actions. Later, the Romans referred to the rocky hill as "Mars Hill", after Mars, the Roman God of War. Near the Areopagus was also constructed the basilica of Dionysius Areopagites. In pre-classical times (before the 5th century BC), the Areopagus was the council of elders of the city, similar to the Roman Senate. Like the Senate, its membership was restricted to those who had held high public office, in this case that of Archon. In 594 BC, the Areopagus agreed to hand over its functions to Solon for reform. He instituted democratic reforms, reconstituted its
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    California Court of Appeal

    California Court of Appeal

    • Legal cases: Dastagir v. Dastagir
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of California
    The California Courts of Appeal are the state intermediate appellate courts in the U.S. state of California. The state is geographically divided into six appellate districts. The Courts of Appeal form the largest state-level intermediate appellate court system in the United States, with 105 justices. The decisions of the Courts of Appeal are binding on the Superior Courts of California, and both the Courts of Appeal and the Superior Courts are bound by the decisions of the Supreme Court of California. Notably, all published California appellate decisions are binding on all trial courts (distinct from the practice in the federal courts and in other state court systems in which trial courts are bound only by the appellate decisions from the particular circuit in which it sits, as well as the Supreme Court of the United States or the state supreme court). Court of Appeal decisions are not binding between divisions or even between panels of the same division. It is customary in federal courts and other state courts to indicate in case citations the particular circuit or district of an intermediate appellate court that issued the decision cited. But because the decisions of all six
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    Constitutional Court of Italy

    Constitutional Court of Italy

    The Constitutional Court of Italy (Italian: Corte costituzionale della Repubblica Italiana) is a supreme court of Italy, the other being the Court of Cassation. Sometimes, the name Consulta is used as a metonym for it, because its sessions are held in Palazzo della Consulta in Rome. The Constitutional Court is composed of 15 judges: 5 appointed by the President, 5 elected by the Parliament of Italy, and 5 elected by the ordinary and administrative supreme courts. The members then elect the President of the Court, since 6 June 2011 Alfonso Quaranta, from among its members in a secret ballot, by an absolute majority (8 votes in the case of a full court). If no person gets that many votes, a runoff election between the two judges with the most votes occurs. One or two vice-presidents, appointed by the President of the Court, stand in for the president in the event of his absence for any reason. The constitutional court passes on the constitutionality of laws with no right of appeal. The court is a post-World War II innovation. Since 12 October 2007, when reform of the Italian intelligence agencies approved in August 2007 came into force, the pretext of state secret cannot be used to
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    Constitutional Court of Ukraine

    Constitutional Court of Ukraine

    The Constitutional Court of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Конституційний Суд України) is the sole body of constitutional jurisdiction in Ukraine. The Constitutional Court of Ukraine interprets the Constitution of Ukraine and decides whether laws and other legal acts are constitutional. The Court initiated its activity on October 18, 1996. The first Court ruling was made on May 13, 1997. On urgent matters the Constitutional Court rules within weeks but on matters deemed less urgent it can take months or even longer. There have been political accusations of attempts to bribe and blackmail Constitutional Court judges in order to get a favourable ruling. The authority of the Constitutional Court is derived from Ukraine's Constitution - Chapter XII The Court: The Court's rulings are mandatory for execution in Ukraine, are final and cannot be appealed. Laws and other legal acts, or their separate provisions, that are deemed unconstitutional, lose legal force. The Court is composed of 18 judges, appointed in equal shares by the President, the parliament, and the Congress of Judges. A judge must be a citizen of Ukraine and must have: Judges are appointed for 9 years without the right of
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    Court of Appeal of New Zealand

    Court of Appeal of New Zealand

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of New Zealand
    The Court of Appeal of New Zealand, located in Wellington, is New Zealand’s principal intermediate appellate court. In practice, most appeals are resolved at this intermediate appellate level, rather than in the Supreme Court. The Court of Appeal has existed as a separate court since 1862 but, until 1957, it was composed of Judges of the Supreme Court (as the High Court was known then) sitting periodically in panels. In 1957 the Court of Appeal was reconstituted as a permanent court separate from the Supreme Court. The President and nine other permanent appellate Judges constitute the full-time working membership of the Court. The Court sits in panels of five Judges and three Judges depending on the nature and wider significance of the particular case. A considerable number of three-Judge cases are heard by divisional courts consisting of one permanent Judge and two High Court Judges seconded for that purpose. The Court deals with civil and criminal appeals from proceedings heard in the High Court, and indictable criminal proceedings in District Courts. As well, matters appealed to the High Court from a District Court can be taken to the Court of Appeal with leave if they are
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    Judicial Yuan

    Judicial Yuan

    The Judicial Yuan (Chinese: 司法院; pinyin: Sīfǎ Yuàn; Wade–Giles: Szu-fa Yüan; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Su-hoat Īⁿ) is one of five branches of the government of the Republic of China on Taiwan and serves as the highest judicial organ in the Republic of China. Its Justices of the Constitutional Court (大法官會議, literally ‘Council of Grand Justices’), with 15 members, is charged with interpreting the Constitution. The President and Vice President of the Judicial Yuan are chosen from among the Honorable Justices by the President. Eight of the grand justices, including the president and vice president of the Judicial Yuan, serve four-year terms, and the remaining Honorable Justices serve eight-year terms. The Judicial Yuan also supervises the lower courts, which consist of the Supreme Court, the high courts, district courts, the Administrative Court, and the Commission on the Disciplinary Sanctions of Public Functionaries. According to Articles 77 and 78 of the Constitution of the Republic of China, Article 5 of the Additional Articles of the Constitution, Articles 30, 43, and 75 of the Local Government Systems Act, the major functions of the Judicial Yuan are as follows: There are currently 21 District
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    New York Supreme Court

    New York Supreme Court

    • Legal cases: New York University v. Ariel Fund Ltd
    The Supreme Court of the State of New York is the trial-level court of general jurisdiction in the state court system of New York, United States. There is a branch of the New York Supreme Court in each of New York State's 62 counties. Counties with small populations share justices. For administrative purposes, one or more counties are allocated to judicial districts, with each of the five boroughs of New York City being in its own district, the only such counties in the state. There are 13 judicial districts. In most states of the United States, and in the U.S. federal court system, "Supreme Court" is the name of the highest court. The New York Supreme Court, however, is the main trial court, equivalent to a superior court in another state. The reason is that, in common-law jurisdictions, “Supreme Court” is not always the name of the highest court. There are 41 Supreme Courts and Supreme Courts of Judicature with general original jurisdiction. The oldest Supreme Court with general original jurisdiction is the New York Supreme Court. It was established on May 6, 1691, by the Colony of New York, as the Supreme Court of Judicature. That court was continued by the State of New York,
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    Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals

    Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals

    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals is one of the two highest judicial bodies in the U.S. state of Oklahoma and is part of the Oklahoma Court System, the judicial branch of the Oklahoma state government. The Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals meets in the Oklahoma Capitol Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The bifurcated system of separate final appeal courts for civil and criminal cases exists only in Oklahoma and neighboring Texas. The First Legislature (1907–1908), through House Bill 397, established the Criminal Court of Appeals and granted it the exclusive appellate jurisdiction in criminal cases. House Bill 397 provided that should the constitutionality of a criminal case be in question, the Criminal Court of Appeals would turn the issue over to the Oklahoma Supreme Court. Judges of the Court would be appointed by the Governor of Oklahoma, with the advice and consent of the Oklahoma Senate. The Judges appointed were to hold office until January 1, 1911, when the Court would be terminated unless continued by the Legislature. Henry Marshall Furman, Thomas H. Doyle, and H.G. Baker were appointed the first three Judges of the Court by Governor Charles Haskell. The Second
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    Oklahoma Supreme Court

    Oklahoma Supreme Court

    • Jurisdiction: Oklahoma
    • Legal cases: Peevyhouse v. Garland Coal & Mining Co.
    • Superior courts: Supreme Court of the United States
    The Supreme Court of Oklahoma is one of the two highest judicial bodies in the U.S. state of Oklahoma and leads the Oklahoma Court System, the judicial branch of the government of Oklahoma. The Oklahoma Supreme Court meets in the Wiley Post Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The court consists of the Chief Justice of Oklahoma, a Vice-Chief Justice, and seven Associate Justices, who are nominated by the Oklahoma Judicial Nominating Commission and are appointed by the Governor. After appointment, the justices serve until the next general state election. At that time, they must face a retention election. If retained, they begin a six-year term. After their first term, justices must file for direct election from the people of Oklahoma to retain their position. Unlike the Supreme Court of the United States, the Oklahoma Constitution specifies the size of the Supreme Court. However, the legislature maintains the power to fix the number of justices. According to Article VII, section 2 of the Oklahoma Constitution, the Supreme Court shall consist of nine justices, one justice from each of the nine judicial districts of the State. Each justice, at the time of his or her election or
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    234
    Supreme Administrative Court of Finland

    Supreme Administrative Court of Finland

    The Supreme Administrative Court of Finland (Finnish: korkein hallinto-oikeus, Swedish: högsta förvaltningsdomstolen) is the highest court in the Finnish administrative court system, parallel to the Supreme Court of Finland. Its jurisdiction covers the legality of the decisions of government officials, and its decisions are final. Appeals are made to the Supreme Administrative Court from the decisions of the administrative courts of Helsinki, Turku, Hämeenlinna, Kouvola, Kuopio, Vaasa, Oulu, Rovaniemi and Åland Islands, the Market Court, and the Council of State. In most issues, it is possible to appeal to the Supreme Administrative Court of Finland from the judgment of the administrative court. However, in some case areas of administrative law, an appeal requires a leave of appeal from the Supreme Administrative Court. The most important such area are insurance cases. In some restricted areas of law, for example, in parking fines, the decision of the administrative court is final and cannot be appealed to the Supreme Administrative Court. In administrative matters, the Supreme Administrative Court has the sole power to grant ertraordinary means of appeals, which are the annulment
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    235
    Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden

    Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden

    The Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden (Swedish: Högsta förvaltningsdsomstolen, before 2011 Regeringsrätten, acronym RR or RegR) is the supreme court and the third and final tier for administrative court cases in Sweden, and is located in Stockholm. It has a parallel status to that of the Supreme Court of Sweden (Högsta Domstolen), which is the supreme court for criminal and civil law cases. It hears cases which have been decided by one of the four Administrative courts of appeal, which represent the second tier for administrative court cases in Sweden. Before a case can be decided, a leave to appeal must be obtained, which is typically only granted when the case is of interest as a precedent. The bulk of its caseload consist of taxation and social security cases. Justices of the Supreme Administrative Court (the Swedish term is justitieråd) are appointed by government, but the court as an institution is independent of the Riksdag, and the government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court. By law, there shall be fourteen Justices of the Supreme Administrative Court or such a higher a number as may be required, at the government's discretion. As of 2009, there
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    236
    Supreme Court of Nevada

    Supreme Court of Nevada

    The Supreme Court of Nevada is the state supreme court of the state of Nevada. It is the highest judicial body of the Nevada state government. There are seven Justices of the court, who are elected to six-year terms in officially nonpartisan elections. The Governor appoints Justices in the case of a vacancy. The most senior justice becomes Chief Justice for a two-year term. The Court hears appeals from the Nevada District Courts. When Nevada established its statehood in 1864, three justices were elected to the Supreme Court for a term of 6 years. This was increased to five justices in 1967 and to seven justices in 1997. Despite a tremendous population boom in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, Nevada has never established an intermediate appellate court like the vast majority of U.S. states. Numerous attempts have failed due to a powerful cultural tradition among Nevada residents of keeping the state government and their tax burden as small as possible. The result has been extremely severe congestion at the appellate level, as all appeals must be processed through the state supreme court. The alternative would be to have no right to appeal, since the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that
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    237
    Supreme Court of Newfoundland and Labrador

    Supreme Court of Newfoundland and Labrador

    The Supreme Court of Newfoundland and Labrador is the superior court for the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Supreme Court of Newfoundland and Labrador (Court of Appeal) has jurisdiction to hear appeals in both criminal and civil matters from the Supreme Court of Newfoundland and Labrador (Trial Division), Supreme Court of Newfoundland and Labrador (Family Court), Provincial Court (indictable offenses) and designated boards and administrative tribunals. Under the court of appeal, but administratively within the Supreme Court, are two separate divisions: The Supreme Court's current home opened in 1904 and was formerly the site of the court since 1730 (with a brief absence from 1892 to 1904). The first court house built in 1730 and burned down in 1846. Rebuilt in 1847 with a market house and again burned down in 1892. The court relocated to the Colonial Building from 1892 to 1894. From 1894 to 1904 the court resided at the Star of the Sea Hall on Henry Street. The current home, a Romanesque Revival building was opened in 1904.
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    238
    Supreme Court of Poland

    Supreme Court of Poland

    The Supreme Court (Polish: Sąd Najwyższy) of the Republic of Poland supervises the adjudication in: The Supreme Court is the court of last resort of appeal against judgements in the lower courts. It also passes resolutions to clarify specific legal provisions and resolve disputable questions in specific cases. These however are not (at least technically) legally binding. It is located in Warsaw. The President of the Republic of Poland appoints Supreme Court judges for an indefinite period. This is done upon a motion of the National Judicial Council. The President also selects the First President of the court from candidates presented by the General Assembly of the Supreme Court. The First President holds office for a six-year term, though he or she may be dismissed by Sejm upon a motion by the President of the Republic of Poland. As of 2010, the First President of the Supreme Court is Stanisław Dąbrowski.
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    239
    Supreme Court of Puerto Rico

    Supreme Court of Puerto Rico

    The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico is the highest court of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, having judicial authority within Puerto Rico to interpret and decide questions of Commonwealth law. As the highest body of the judicial branch of the Puerto Rican government, it is analogous to one of the state supreme courts of the U.S. states. The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico holds its sessions in the city of San Juan. The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico was established by the Foraker Act in 1900 and maintained in the 1952 Constitution of Puerto Rico. It is the only appellate court required by the Constitution. All other courts are created by the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico. However, since Puerto Rico is under United States sovereignty, there is also a Federal District Court for the island. The justices (currently nine) are appointed by the Governor of Puerto Rico and confirmed by majority vote by the Senate. One of these nine justices serves as Chief Justice; the remaining members are designated Associate Justices. Unlike the Supreme Court of the United States, the justices of the Puerto Rico Supreme Court do not serve for life, as the Puerto Rico Constitution requires that all judges
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    240
    United States court of appeals

    United States court of appeals

    The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system. A court of appeals decides appeals from the district courts within its federal judicial circuit, and in some instances from other designated federal courts and administrative agencies. The United States Courts of Appeals are considered among the most powerful and influential courts in the United States. Because of their ability to set legal precedent in regions that cover millions of people, the United States Courts of Appeals have strong policy influence on U.S. law; however, this political recognition is controversial. Moreover, because the U.S. Supreme Court chooses to hear fewer than 100 of the more than 10,000 cases filed with it annually, the United States Courts of Appeals serve as the final arbiter on most federal cases. There are currently 179 judges on the United States Courts of Appeals authorized by Congress and Article III of the U.S. Constitution. These judges are nominated by the President of the United States, and if confirmed by the United States Senate have lifetime tenure, earning an annual salary of $184,500. There currently
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    241
    United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit

    United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit

    • Legal cases: USTA v. FCC
    The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (in case citations, D.C. Cir.) known informally as the D.C. Circuit, is the federal appellate court for the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. Appeals from the D.C. Circuit, as with all the U.S. Courts of Appeals, are heard on a discretionary basis by the Supreme Court. It should not be confused with the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, which is limited in jurisdiction by subject matter rather than geography, or with the District of Columbia Court of Appeals, which is roughly equivalent to a state supreme court in the District of Columbia, established in 1970 to relieve the D.C. Circuit from having to take appeals from the local D.C. trial court. While it has the smallest geographic jurisdiction of any of the United States courts of appeals, the D.C. Circuit, with eleven active judgeships, is arguably the most important inferior appellate court. The court is given the responsibility of directly reviewing the decisions and rulemaking of many federal independent agencies of the United States government based in the national capital, often without prior hearing by a district
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    242
    United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit

    United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit

    • Legal cases: Hosty v. Carter
    The United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit (in case citations, 7th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the courts in the following districts: The court is based at the Dirksen Federal Building in Chicago, Illinois. It is one of thirteen United States courts of appeals, composed of eleven judges. The court offers a unique internet presence that includes a wiki and RSS feeds of opinions and oral arguments. No other United States District or Appellate Court offers oral arguments using these feeds to the internet with the exception of United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit which offers RSS features. It is also notable for having two of the most prominent law and economics scholars, Chief Judge Easterbrook and Judge Posner, on its court. As of June 29, 2010, the judges on the court were as follows: Four judges currently serve on the court on senior status: Thirty-nine judges have served on the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals, but no longer do: In order to qualify for the office of Chief Judge, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, and have not previously served as Chief
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    243
    United States District Court for the District of Maryland

    United States District Court for the District of Maryland

    The United States District Court for the District of Maryland (in case citations, D. Md.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Maryland. Appeals from the District of Maryland are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). Notable judges in this district include William Paca, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. The United States Attorney's Office for the District of Maryland represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. Under 28 U.S.C. § 100, Maryland consists of a single federal judicial district with two statutory divisions. The Southern Division includes Calvert, Charles, Montgomery, Prince George's, and St. Mary's counties and sits in Greenbelt. The Northern Division includes the rest of the state and sits in Baltimore, although the statute also provides for the court to sit in Cumberland and Denton. The following judges hold Senior status: * designates interim U.S. Attorneys who served when there was no presidentially-appointed U.S. Attorney.
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    244
    United States District Court for the District of Minnesota

    United States District Court for the District of Minnesota

    The United States District Court for the District of Minnesota (in case citations, D. Minn.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Minnesota. Its two primary courthouses are in Minneapolis and Saint Paul. Cases are also heard in the federal courthouses of Duluth and Fergus Falls. Appeals from the District of Minnesota are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States Attorney's Office for the District of Minnesota represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. One notable former United States Attorney for the District was Cushman K. Davis who later went on to become governor of the state and was elected to the United States Senate. The current U.S. Attorney is B. Todd Jones.
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    245

    United States District Court for the District of Nebraska

    The United States District Court for the District of Nebraska (in case citations, D. Neb.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Nebraska. Court offices are in Omaha, Lincoln, and North Platte. Appeals from the District of Nebraska are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States Attorney's Office for the District of Nebraska represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current United States Attorney is Deborah R. Gilg. The Chief Judge of the District of Nebraska is Judge Laurie Smith Camp. In May 2005, Judge Joseph Bataillon struck down a constitutional amendment passed by Nebraska voters in 2000 that would have banned gay marriages. That decision, however, was reversed by the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. In its opinion issued on July 14, 2006, the Eighth Circuit held: the amendment rationally related to legitimate state interests, and therefore did not violate Equal Protection Clause; the amendment could not be considered
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    246
    United States District Court for the District of Nevada

    United States District Court for the District of Nevada

    • Legal cases: Righthaven LLC v. Democratic Underground LLC
    The United States District Court for the District of Nevada (in case citations, D. Nev.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Nevada. The court has locations in Las Vegas and Reno. Cases from the District of Nevada are appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The United States Attorney's Office for the District of Nevada represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current United States Attorney is Daniel Bogden. The Lloyd D. George Federal District Courthouse is the home for the district court in Las Vegas. The building of the courthouse was completed in 2002 and was the first federal building built to comply with the post-Oklahoma City blast resistance requirements. On January 4, 2010, a single gunman, identified as Johnny Lee Wicks, aged 66, went inside the lobby of the courthouse and opened fire, fatally wounding a security officer before being killed himself by return fire from other security officers and U.S. Marshals. Senators Harry Reid and John Ensign,
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    247
    United States District Court for the District of New Jersey

    United States District Court for the District of New Jersey

    The United States District Court for the District of New Jersey (in case citations, D.N.J.) is the federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of New Jersey. Cases brought in the District are appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The District of New Jersey was one of the original 13 courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73, on September 24, 1789. The District was subdivided into the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New Jersey and the United States District Court for the Western District of New Jersey on February 13, 1801, by the Judiciary Act of 1801, 2 Stat. 89, with the judicial districts being headquartered in New Brunswick, New Jersey, and Burlington, New Jersey, respectively. The repeal of the 1801 Act restored New Jersey as a single judicial district on March 8, 1802, 2 Stat. 132. New Jersey is the largest state by population to only have one district court, and is larger in population than several states that have multiple districts. In recent years, Congress has
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    248
    United States District Court for the Western District of Missouri

    United States District Court for the Western District of Missouri

    The United States District Court for the Western District of Missouri (in case citations, W.D. Mo.) is the federal judicial district encompassing 66 counties in the western half of the State of Missouri. The Court is based in the Charles Evans Whittaker Courthouse in Kansas City. The district is divided into five divisions: Western (Kansas City), Central (Jefferson City), Southern (Springfield), Southwestern (Joplin), and Northern (St. Joseph). There are divisional clerk's Offices in Jefferson City and Springfield in addition to the primary office in Kansas City. New cases and pleadings in the District Court may be filed in the clerk's offices in Kansas City, Jefferson City, and Springfield; Bankruptcy Court filings, however, only are accepted in the Kansas City clerk's office. The United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit across Missouri in St. Louis has jurisdiction over decisions appealed from the Western District of Missouri (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). As of July 2012, Judge Fernando J. Gaitan, Jr., is the current Chief Judge, and Angela Tammy Dickinson is
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    249

    United States District Court for the Western District of Tennessee

    The United States District Court for the Western District of Tennessee (in case citations, W.D. Tenn.) is the Federal district court covering the western part of the state of Tennessee. Appeals from the Western District of Tennessee are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit). The jurisdiction of the Western District of Tennessee comprises the following counties: Benton, Carroll, Chester, Crockett, Decatur, Dyer, Fayette, Gibson, Hardeman, Hardin, Haywood, Henderson, Henry, Lake, Lauderdale, Madison, McNairy, Obion, Perry, Shelby, Tipton, and Weakley. The court's jurisdiction includes the entirety of West Tennessee, plus Perry County in Middle Tennessee. This area includes the cities of Jackson and Memphis. The United States Attorney's Office for the Western District of Tennessee represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current United States Attorney is Edward L. Stanton, III. The United States District Court for the District of Tennessee was established with one judgeship on January 31,
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    250
    Washington Supreme Court

    Washington Supreme Court

    • Jurisdiction: Washington
    The Washington Supreme Court is the highest court in the judiciary of the U.S. state of Washington. The Court is composed of a Chief Justice and eight Justices. Members of the Court are elected to six-year terms. Justices must retire at the end of the calendar year in which they reach the age of 75, per the Washington State Constitution. The court convenes in the Temple of Justice, a historic building on the Washington State Capitol campus in Olympia, Washington. The persuasiveness of the Court's decisions reaches far beyond Washington's borders. A Supreme Court of California study published in 2007 found that the Washington Supreme Court's decisions were the second most widely followed by the appellate courts of all other U.S. states in the period from 1940 to 2005 (second only to California).
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