Conductor refers to a musical conductor. In classical music this person would typically conduct an orchestra; this may also be a bandleader of a jazz band or any other similar group.Currently, Conductor is only explicitly connected to Opera Productions by a property. Otherwise, conductors are considered to be part of the group they conduct, with a Performance Role of Conducting. This model may change; please join discussions in the Music Modeling Interest Group if you have an opinion on the subject.
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Korla Awgust Kocor (3 December 1822 – 19 May 1904; German: Karl August Katzer) was a Sorbian composer and conductor.
Kocor was born in Großpostwitz. He was the composer of the music of the Lusatian national anthem Rjana Łužica. He has been called the "founding father of secular Sorbian music."
Hans Bronsart von Schellendorff (11 February 1830 – 3 November 1913) was a classical musician and composer who studied under Franz Liszt.
(Some sources write Schellendorf with one F, but the correct German surname of this family is written with double FF). (Source: Adelslexikon)
Bronsart von Schellendorff (also called Bronsart - see) was born into a Prussian military family, and educated at Berlin University. He studied piano with Adolph Jullack. He went to Weimar in 1853 where he met Liszt and became familiar with all the musicians in Liszt's circle at the time, including Hector Berlioz and Johannes Brahms. It is a measure of his close relationship with Liszt that it was he who played the solo part in the first Weimar performance of Liszt's second piano concerto, with the composer conducting. When the concerto was published, Liszt dedicated it to Bronsart. After having trained for several years with Liszt, he worked as a conductor in Leipzig and Berlin, and then took the post of general manager of the royal theatre in Hanover from 1867 to 1887. He held a similar post in Weimar from 1887 until his retirement in 1895.
He met his second wife Ingeborg Bronsart von Schellendorf (née
Kent George Nagano (born November 22, 1951) is an American conductor and opera administrator. He is currently the music director of the Orchestre Symphonique de Montréal and the Bavarian State Opera.
Nagano was born in Berkeley, California, while his parents were in graduate school at the University of California, Berkeley. He grew up in Morro Bay, a city located on the Central Coast of California. He is Japanese American. He studied sociology and music at the University of California, Santa Cruz. After graduation he moved to San Francisco State University to study music. While there, he took composition courses from Grosvenor Cooper and Roger Nixon. He also studied at the École Normale de Musique in Paris.
Nagano's first conducting job was with the Opera Company of Boston, where he was assistant conductor to Sarah Caldwell. In 1978, he became the conductor of the Berkeley Symphony, his first music directorship. He stepped down from this position in 2009. During his tenure in Berkeley, Nagano became a champion of the music of Olivier Messiaen and initiated a correspondence with him.
In 1982, Nagano conducted the London Symphony Orchestra in several of Frank Zappa's completely
Henry Doktorski III (born January 30, 1956) is one of America's premier concert accordionists. He has performed on accordion with cellist Mstislav Rostropovich, violinists Gil Shaham and Itzhak Perlman during concerts and recording sessions with the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra under conductors Lorin Maazel, John Williams, Mariss Jansons, Julius Rudel, David Del Tredici and Howard Shore.
Henry Doktorski III was born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, to Polish-American parents Henry A. Doktorski and Theresa Maria Czartowicz, and grew up in East Brunswick. He cites his Polish background—accordions being often featured in Polish folk music—as a main factor in his childhood decision to take up the accordion rather than a different instrument. At the age of seven he began studying accordion and early on was considered a prodigy.
As a pre-teenager during the mid-1960s he played ethnic music and jazz standards (inspired by Myron Floren from the Lawrence Welk television show), but as a teenager during the late 1960s and early 1970s his musical tastes changed, and he began playing the accordion in a rock band which performed the music of The Beatles, Grand Funk Railroad, Carlos Santana and
Karl Eduard Maria Elmendorff (October 25, 1891 – October 21, 1962) was a German opera conductor.
Born in Düsseldorf, Elmendorff studied music at the Cologne College of Music and Hochschule für Musik Köln from 1913 to 1916 under Fritz Steinbach and Hermann Abendroth. Early in his career, he conducted for a number of cities including:
Elmendorff also was a regular guest conductor in various European cities, including at La Scala. In 1937 he joined the NSDAP.
William Brade (1560 – 26 February 1630) was an English composer, violinist, and viol player of the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras, mainly active in northern Germany. He was the first Englishman to write a canzona, an Italian form, and probably the first to write a piece for solo violin.
Little is known about his early life. Around 1590 he left England to pursue a musical career in Germany, as did several other prominent English musicians, sensing better job opportunities abroad. He switched employments often between the various courts in north Germany and Denmark. Between his arrival in Germany, sometime around 1590, and 1594 he worked for the Brandenburg court; between 1594 and 1596 he worked for Christian IV of Denmark in Copenhagen; then until 1599 he was back in Brandenburg. He returned that year to Copenhagen, where he stayed until 1606. From 1606 to 1608 he worked at Bückeburg in Brunswick-Lüneburg. From 1608 to 1610 he was employed in Hamburg, but he returned to Bückeburg in 1610. Evidently by 1612 he was again planning on switching jobs, for a letter surviving from that year, written by the count at Bückeburg, tells the Hamburg court pithily that he was a "wanton,
Bruno Walter (September 15, 1876 – February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor. Born in Berlin, he lived in several countries between 1933 and 1939, before finally settling in the United States in 1939. Though he was born Bruno Schlesinger, he began using Walter as his surname in 1896, and officially changed his surname to Walter upon becoming a naturalised Austrian in 1911. Walter was active as a composer for many years, but his works have not entered the repertoire.
Born near Alexanderplatz in Berlin to a middle-class Jewish family as Bruno Schlesinger, he began his musical education at the Stern Conservatory at the age of eight, making his first public appearance as a pianist when he was nine. However, following visits to one of Hans von Bülow's concerts in 1889 and to Bayreuth in 1891, he changed his mind and decided upon a conducting career. He made his conducting début at the Cologne Opera with Albert Lortzing's Der Waffenschmied in 1894. Later that year he left for the Hamburg Opera to work as a chorus director. There he first met and worked with Gustav Mahler, whom he idolized and with whose music he later became strongly identified.
In 1896, Schlesinger took a
Sir Hugh Percy Allen GCVO (23 December 1869 – 20 February 1946) was an English musician, academic and administrator. He was a leading influence on British musical life in the first half of the 20th century.
Hugh Allen was born in Reading, Berkshire, England. His musical talent was apparent from an early age, and at 11 he was organist of a local parish church. He won an organ scholarship to Christ's College, Cambridge, graduating BA from Cambridge in 1895. He became cathedral organist at St Asaph Cathedral and then Ely Cathedral, before, in 1901, becoming organist of New College, Oxford, where he revitalised the musical life of the whole university.
In 1907 he was appointed conductor of the Bach Choir in London and in 1913 he shared the Leeds Festival with Artur Nikisch and Sir Edward Elgar.
In 1918 Sir Walter Parratt resigned the professorship of music at Oxford, and Allen succeeded him. But when Sir Hubert Parry died later in the year Allen was appointed director of the Royal College of Music in London, and Oxford thought it would lose him. Allen in fact retained his professorship for the rest of his life. He kept his rooms at New College, and for another seven years conducted
Steven Reineke (born September 14, 1970) is a conductor, composer, and arranger from Cincinnati, Ohio. He is the Music Director of The New York Pops. He currently resides in New York City.
Reineke was born in 1970 in Tipp City, Ohio and developed an interest in his musical talents at an early age on the trumpet. At age fifteen, he taught himself how to play the piano. He continued his trumpet studies at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, receiving two bachelors of music degrees with honors in both trumpet performance and music composition.
Steven Reineke started his tenure as Music Director of The New York Pops in the 2009-2010 season. Mr. Reineke conducts the orchestra’s annual concert series at Carnegie Hall as well as tours, recordings, and nationwide telecasts, including the Macy’s 4 July Fireworks Spectacular on NBC Television. New York’s only permanent and professional symphonic pops orchestra, The New York Pops is the largest independent pops orchestra in the United States.
Reineke was appointed Principal Pops Conductor of the National Symphony Orchestra and began his first season in 2011/12. He also serves as Principal Pops Conductor of the Long Beach and Modesto Symphony
Sir Simon Denis Rattle, CBE (born 19 January 1955), is an English conductor. He rose to international prominence during the 1980s and 1990s as conductor of the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra and since 2002 has been principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic (BPO).
Rattle was born in Liverpool, the son of Pauline Lila Violet (Greening) and Denis Guttridge Rattle, a Commander in the Royal Navy. He was educated at Liverpool College. Although Rattle studied piano and violin, his early work with orchestras was as a percussionist. He entered the Royal Academy of Music, University of London, in 1971. There, his teachers included John Carewe. In 1974, his graduation year, Rattle won the John Player International Conducting Competition. After organising and conducting a performance of Mahler's Second Symphony whilst still at the Academy, he was talent-spotted by the music agent Martin Campbell-White, of Harold Holt Ltd (now Askonas Holt Ltd), who has since managed Rattle's career. He spent the academic year 1980/81 at St Anne's College, Oxford studying English Language and Literature. He had been attracted to the college by the reputation of Dorothy Bednarowska, Fellow and Tutor
Nicolas Slonimsky (April 27 [O.S. April 15] 1894 – December 25, 1995) was a Russian born American composer, conductor, musician, music critic, lexicographer and author. He described himself as a "diaskeuast" (from Greek διασκευαστής); "a reviser or interpolator."
Slonimsky was born Nikolai Leonidovich Slonimskiy in Saint Petersburg. He was of Jewish origin, but his parents adopted the Orthodox faith after the birth of his older brother, and Nicolas was baptized in the Russian Orthodox Church. His maternal aunt, Isabelle Vengerova, was his first piano teacher.
Slonimsky was brought to the United States in 1923 by Vladimir Rosing to work as an accompanist in the newly formed Opera Department at the Eastman School of Music in Rochester, New York, where he continued his composition and conducting studies. He also accompanied Rosing at many of his vocal recitals, including a performance at Carnegie Hall in October 1924. After two years, Slonimsky moved to Boston to work as an assistant for Boston Symphony Orchestra conductor Serge Koussevitzky, for whom he had earlier worked as a rehearsal pianist in Paris. During this time, Slonimsky taught music theory at Boston Conservatory and the
Walter Henry Rothwell (22 September 1872 – 13 March 1927) was an English conductor. He was born in London to an English father and an Austrian mother. After initial training from his mother, who had been a piano pupil of Friedrich Wieck, he entered the Royal Academy of Music in Vienna at the age of nine. On graduating from the Academy he undertook further studies in piano and composition in Vienna before becoming a coach at the Court Opera in that city. In this role he was discovered by an impresario named Pollini who brought him to Hamburg where he was assistant conductor to Gustav Mahler.
After a two year apprenticeship under Mahler, Rothwell left Hamburg to conduct operatic performances in many European cities, becoming director of the Royal Opera in Amsterdam. In 1904-5 he went on a large tour of the United States with the Henry W. Savage company conducting Parsifal by Wagner: this was so successful that he later undertook a similar tour of Madama Butterfly by Puccini (eventually marrying Elizabeth Wolff, the soprano in the latter work's title role).
He returned to Europe to conduct opera in Frankfurt, but soon sought release to take the podium of the St Paul Symphony
Oskar Fried (August 10, 1871 – July 5, 1941) was a German conductor and composer. An admirer of Gustav Mahler, Fried was the first conductor to record a Mahler symphony. Fried also held the distinction of being the first foreign conductor to perform in Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution, Fried eventually left his homeland to work in the Soviet Union after the political rise of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party, and became a Soviet citizen in 1940.
Born in Berlin, the son of a Jewish shopkeeper, he worked as a clown, a stable boy and a dog trainer before studying composition with Iwan Knorr (1891-92, Hoch Conservatory) and Engelbert Humperdinck (as private student) in Frankfurt. He later moved to Düsseldorf to study painting and art history. After a spell in Paris, he returned to Berlin in 1898 to study counterpoint with Xaver Scharwenka.
The performance of his composition Das trunkene Lied ("the drunken song") for chorus and orchestra brought Fried his first public success and led to his appointment in 1904 as the conductor of a Berlin choral society.
Fried first met Gustav Mahler in 1905. The meeting resulted in an invitation to conduct Mahler's "Resurrection" Symphony in Berlin in
Paul Hindemith (16 November 1895 – 28 December 1963) was a German composer, violist, violinist, teacher, music theorist and conductor.
Born in Hanau, near Frankfurt am Main, Hindemith was taught the violin as a child. He entered Frankfurt's Hoch’sche Konservatorium, where he studied violin with Adolf Rebner, as well as conducting and composition with Arnold Mendelssohn and Bernhard Sekles. At first he supported himself by playing in dance bands and musical-comedy groups. He became deputy leader of the Frankfurt Opera Orchestra in 1914, and was promoted to leader in 1917. He played second violin in the Rebner String Quartet from 1914. In 1921 he founded the Amar Quartet, playing viola, and extensively toured Europe.
In 1922, some of his pieces were played in the International Society for Contemporary Music festival at Salzburg, which first brought him to the attention of an international audience. The following year, he began to work as an organizer of the Donaueschingen Festival, where he programmed works by several avant garde composers, including Anton Webern and Arnold Schoenberg. From 1927 he taught composition at the Berliner Hochschule für Musik in Berlin. Hindemith wrote the
Carl Heinrich Carsten Reinecke (June 23, 1824 – March 10, 1910) was a German composer, conductor, and pianist.
Reinecke was born in Altona, Hamburg, Germany; until 1864 the town was under Danish rule. He studied with his father, Johann Peter Rudolph Reinecke, a music teacher. Carl began to compose at the age of seven, and his first public appearance as a pianist was when he was twelve years old.
At the age of 19, he undertook his first concert tour in 1843, through Denmark and Sweden. After a stay in Leipzig, where he studied under Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann and Franz Liszt, Reinecke went on tour with Königslöw and Wilhelm Joseph von Wasielewski (later Schumann's biographer), in North Germany and Denmark. In 1846, Reinecke was appointed Court Pianist for Christian VIII in Copenhagen. There he remained until 1848, when he resigned and went to Paris. Overall he wrote four concertos for his instrument (and many cadenzas for others' works, including a large set published as his Opus 87), as well as concertos for violin, cello, harp and flute. In the winter of 1850/51, Carl Schurz reports attending weekly “musical evenings” in Paris where Reinecke was in attendance.
Sigiswald Kuijken (Dutch pronunciation: [ˌsiɣɪsʋɑlt ˈkœykən], born 16 February 1944) is a Belgian violinist, violist, and conductor known for playing on authentic instruments.
Kuijken was born in Dilbeek, near Brussels. He was a member of the Alarius Ensemble of Brussels between 1964 and 1972 and formed La Petite Bande in 1972. Since 1971 he has taught Baroque violin at the Royal Conservatory of The Hague and the Koninklijk Muziekconservatorium in Brussels. He is noted for using the older technique of resting the violin on the shoulder without a shoulder rest, rather than held under the chin. He is a member of the Kuijken String Quartet, which he formed in 1986. In recent years, he has also performed as conductor of symphonies of the Romantic era.
His brothers are also known for historically informed performance: Barthold Kuijken is a flautist and recorder player and Wieland Kuijken, also a member of the Kuijken Quartet, is a cellist and gambist. They have all worked extensively with harpsichordist Gustav Leonhardt.
On 2 February 2007, he was awarded the degree of Doctor Honoris Causa by the Catholic University of Leuven (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium).
Based on the
Ferdinand Löwe (19 February 1865 – 6 January 1925) was an Austrian conductor.
Löwe was born in Vienna, Austria where along with Munich, Germany his career was primarily centered. From 1896 Löwe conducted the Kaim Orchestra, today's Munich Philharmonic, where he returned from 1908 to 1914. In 1900 Löwe founded and conducted the Wiener Concertvereinsorchester, today the Vienna Symphony. He taught at the Vienna Conservatoire from 1884. He was elected director in 1919 and served until 1922.
A pupil of Anton Bruckner, Löwe was one of the main popularizers of Bruckner's symphonies. He would sometimes persuade the composer to rearrange his music in order to make it more palatable to the public. In the case of Bruckner's Symphony No. 9, Löwe himself made significant changes to the harmony, orchestration, phrasing and dynamics before the posthumous premiere. Bruckner's original conception of the symphony was not heard until 1932 when it was revived by Siegmund von Hausegger, Löwe's successor at Munich. The symphony is today performed without Löwe's changes.
Chris Maden is a data analyst, Libertarian politician, musician, and former martial arts instructor. He lives in Grafton, Massachusetts, and is active in traditional and maritime music communities throughout New England, particularly in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
Chris was employed by Metaweb Technologies, Inc., creators of Freebase.com, from 2005 until 2009; his career since college has been entirely in electronic and print publishing and semantic data analysis.
He ran for the California state Assembly in San Francisco as a Libertarian in 2002 and 2004, and has held several leadership positions in the Libertarian Party at the local level. He moved to New Hampshire in 2008 as part of the Free State Project, though he has gone into exile to follow his girlfriend’s academic career.
As a student with Triangle Martial Arts Association, a non-profit martial arts club founded in San Francisco, he earned his fourth degree black belt (junior master) in taekwondo in 2007 and a second degree black belt in hapkido in 2006, and is certified to teach both arts. Chris is on the Board of Directors of TMAA and is the New Hampshire regional president.
Chris graduated from Brown University with a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering. Before that, he attended public schools in Bloomfield, Connecticut.
He is fond of singing, politics, good food, and strongly flavored drinks such as espresso, black tea, and malt whisky.
Johann Gottfried Schicht (29 September 1753 in Reichenau, Saxony – 16 February 1823 in Leipzig) was a German composer and conductor.
He was the conductor of the Gewandhausorchester from 1785 to 1810, and then the cantor of the Thomanerchor until 1823.
His most important work is a great choirbook from 1819. Besides that, he wrote masses, motets, cantatas, a setting of the 100th Psalm, four Te deums, one piano concerto, sonatas and capriccio.
Steven Byess is an American orchestral conductor.
Byess attended Georgia State University, receiving a Bachelor of Music Degree in classical performance and jazz studies, and Cleveland Institute of Music, from which he received Master of Music degree. While there he studied with Louis Lane,Carl Topilow in the area of conducting. He also attended the Pierre Monteux Memorial School for Conductors. Byess was an assistant to conductor Robert Shaw at the Shaw Institute in Souilliac, France.
Byess conducts symphony orchestras and opera companies, also working in the genres of Broadway, jazz and television. He recently finished an 11 year tenure as the Associate Music Director of the Ohio Light Opera where he conducted over 400 performances of 50 diverse operas, operettas, and musical theater works.
Byess is the Music Director of the Tupelo Symphony Orchestra and serves as Cover Conductor for the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Music Director for the Arkansas Philharmonic, Opera Conductor for the Cleveland Institute of Music and California State University, Los Angeles.
With the Ohio Light Opera, Byess is featured on 11 CD recordings by Newport Classic, Albany Records, and Operetta Archives.
Vernon West Barford (10 September 1876 – 22 April 1963) was an English photographer, musician, organist, choirmaster and teacher. Barford, nicknamed "Man of Many Talents," was born in Crowthorne in Berkshire, England. He began piano lessons at four and attended the choir school of Worcester Cathedral from 1887-92. Having failed entrance exams to Oxford University, he moved to Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan, Canada in 1895 and began to farm. After a year, he began to teach piano.
He started piano lessons at age four and attended the Worcester Cathedral choir school from 1887 - 1892. Barford won an organ scholarship to Oxford University in 1895, but after two years, he left to farm in Canada in 1897. Vernon Barford moved to Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan in 1898 where he stayed for two years and taught school. Then on 15 January 1900 he moved to Edmonton, Alberta and became choirmaster for All Saints Cathedral (now Edmonton Cathedral) and stayed in that post for fifty-six years. In 1903 Vernon Barford organized the Edmonton Amateur Operatic Society, and was Musical Director for seven years. In 1904 he created Edmonton's first opera: The Chimes of Normandy. On 1 September 1905, when Alberta had
Brian Tyler (born May 8, 1978) is an American composer, producer, conductor, and film producer most known for his scores of Eagle Eye, The Expendables, Battle: Los Angeles, The Final Destination, Rambo, Fast & Furious, Fast Five, Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3, Transformers: Prime, Need for Speed: The Run, Final Destination 5 and The Expendables 2. Tyler is a symphonic conductor and conducts his own scores. He is signed with Sony Music as a songwriter. He was nominated for Film Composer of the Year by the International Film Music Critics Association. In 2010 Tyler was inducted into the music branch of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
Born in Los Angeles, California, Tyler attended UCLA and Harvard University. His musical career began at an early age, after being inspired by his Academy Award winning art director grandfather, Walter H. Tyler. He traveled to United States and Russia, performing at concerts with his own written and composed pieces. After a couple of years, Tyler began playing for orchestras, ensembles, choirs, using instruments, such as piano, classical percussion, guitar, bass, bouzouki, mandolin, keyboards, and drums. Tyler was also featured in a
David Eaton (born July 2, 1949) is an American composer and conductor who has been the music director of the New York City Symphony since 1985. He has also been an active composer and arranger, with 47 original compositions and over 600 arrangements and original songs to his credit. He has appeared as a guest conductor with orchestras in Asia, Canada, Israel, Europe, Central and South America, Russia, Ukraine. and the United States. His compositions and arrangements have been performed at Carnegie Hall, Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, the United Nations and by orchestras in the United States, Asia, Israel, South America and Europe. He also served at the conductor of the historic Goldman Band from 1998 to 2000 conducting concerts throughout the New York metropolitan area including performances at Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, Coney Island and the New York Botanical Garden.
He studied formally at the Cleveland Music School Settlement, Ohio State University, and at the Tanglewood Institute. He has attended conducting master classes with Seiji Ozawa, Roger Norrington, Gustav Meier, and Gunther Herbig. He composed his first symphony while a freshman at Ohio State and
David Richard Campbell (born February 7, 1948) is a Canadian-American arranger, composer and conductor. He has worked on over 450 gold and platinum albums including Death Magnetic (Metallica), Minutes to Midnight (Linkin Park), KISS Symphony: Alive IV (KISS) Spirit (Leona Lewis), These Days (Bon Jovi), Fallen (Evanescence), ANThology (Alien Ant Farm), and various albums by his son Beck.
He has two sons and one daughter: American musician Beck Hansen, artist Channing Hansen, and musician Alyssa Suede. He is married to theatrical composer Raven Kane
David Campbell was born February 7, 1948 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. He moved to Seattle at a young age and took up the violin at age 9. At 12 he began venturing into orchestration, studying the works of Bartók, Schoenberg and Stravinsky
In the late '60s, after studying at Manhattan School of Music, Campbell moved from New York to Los Angeles and began studying pop music. He studied the music of The Beatles, Leonard Cohen and The Rolling Stones, and he played bluegrass music for crowds in line for movies in Westwood Village.
At the age of 23, Campbell played on his first major album, Tapestry, by Carole King. This led to his first
Donato Cabrera (born February 4, 1970) is an American conductor with an active international career. He is the Resident Conductor of the San Francisco Symphony, the Wattis Foundation Music Director of the San Francisco Symphony Youth Orchestra and the Music Director of the Green Bay Symphony Orchestra.
Cabrera grew up in Reno, Nevada and graduated from Reed High School in 1988 where he played French horn in the school band. He then studied at the University of Nevada, receiving his Bachelor of Music in 1996, and the University of Illinois, receiving his Master of Music degree in conducting in 1998. He made his professional debut with the Reno Chamber Orchestra in 1997 at the age of 24 and in 1998 made his European debut conducting the Zwei Groschen Oper Summer Festival productions of The Barber of Seville and Rigoletto. As a post-graduate, he also studied conducting at Indiana University under Imre Pallo and David Effron and at the Manhattan School of Music under Zdenek Macal. In 2002 he received a Herbert von Karajan Conducting Fellowship from the Vienna Philharmonic.
While based in New York, Cabrera served as the Music Director for the Manhattan School of Music's Opera Scenes
Herbert Blomstedt (born July 11, 1927) is a Swedish conductor.
Herbert Blomstedt was born in Springfield, Massachusetts and two years after his birth, his Swedish parents moved the family back to their country of origin. He studied at the Stockholm Royal College of Music and the University of Uppsala, followed by studies of contemporary music at Darmstadt in 1949, Baroque music with Paul Sacher at the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, and further conducting studies with Igor Markevitch, Jean Morel at the Juilliard School, and Leonard Bernstein at Tanglewood's Berkshire Music Center.
He won the Koussevitzky Conducting Prize in 1953 and the Salzburg Conducting Competition in 1955.
Blomstedt is most noted for his performances of German and Austrian composers, such as Beethoven, Felix Mendelssohn, Franz Schubert, Anton Bruckner and Richard Strauss, and also as a champion of Scandinavian composers, such as Edvard Grieg, Franz Berwald, Jean Sibelius and Carl Nielsen.
A devout Seventh-day Adventist, Blomstedt does not rehearse on Friday nights or Saturdays, the Sabbath in Seventh-day Adventism. He does, however, conduct concerts, since he considers actual performances to be an expression of
Stu Phillips (born September 9, 1929) is an American composer of film scores and television-series theme music, conductor and record producer. He is perhaps best known for composing the themes to the 1980s television series Knight Rider and Battlestar Galactica
Phillips studied music at The High School of Music & Art in New York City, New York, and at the Eastman School of Music in Rochester, New York. While at Eastman, he began arranging music for the Rochester Civic Orchestra.
In 1958, Phillips began composing television and film scores. One of his first scores was for Columbia's 1964 movie, Ride the Wild Surf. He also founded Colpix Records and produced hits for Shelley Fabares, Nina Simone, and The Skyliners.
In the mid-1960s, he worked for Capitol Records and created, produced and arranged for the Hollyridge Strings.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Phillips continued scoring films and television series including music for the films Beyond the Valley of the Dolls (1970), The Seven Minutes (1971) and the television series The Monkees and Get Christie Love!.
In 1974, he began working at Universal Studios scoring television series. During this time, he scored music for the
Dr. Timothy B. Rhea (born June 18, 1967) is the Director of Bands at Texas A&M University in College Station, TX. Timothy Rhea is the conductor of the Texas A&M Wind Symphony and the director of the Fightin’ Texas Aggie Band. Additionally, he is the administrative head of the instrumental music department and contributing composer and arranger for all Texas A&M Band Department Ensembles.
Timothy Rhea attended high school in DeKalb, TX, graduating from DeKalb High School in 1983. He received a Bachelor of Music Education with honors from the University of Arkansas, privately studying conducting under Eldon A. Janzen. Later, he earned a Master of Music in Wind Conducting from Texas Tech University. While at Texas Tech, he studied with James Sudduth, served as an assistant conductor for the University Symphonic Band, and served as a graduate assistant director and musical arranger for the Texas Tech University Goin' Band from Raiderland. In May 1999, Timothy Rhea received his Doctor of Musical Arts in Wind Conducting and Composition from the University of Houston.
Timothy Rhea joined the Texas A&M University band staff in June 1993. In 1995, Rhea was named conductor of the Texas A&M
Hans Wilhelm Gustav Winderstein (Lüneburg, Hanover, 29 October 1856 - 1925) was a German conductor and composer.
Winderstein studied from 1877 to 1880 at Leipzig Conservatoire, under Henry Schradieck and Fr. Hermann (violin), E. Fr. Richter and W. Rust (theory). He also played in the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra. From 1880 to 1884, he led Baron von Derwies' private orchestra at Nice after which he was violin teacher at the Winterthur Conservatoire in Switzerland until 1887. He then conducted an orchestra at Nuremberg for three years. From 1890 to 1893 he conducted the concerts of the Philharmonic Societies of Nuremberg and Fürth. Between 1893 to 1896 Winderstein directed the newly established Kaim Orchestra. In Leipzig in 1896 he organized, the "Winderstein Orchestra." He conducted this group of 60 musicians continually until at least 1918.
Winderstein founded the philharmonic concerts at Leipzig and Halle, and made successful concert tours to other cities. From 1898 to 1899 he conducted the Leipzig "Singakademie."
His compositions for orchestra include Trauermarsch, Valse-Caprice, and Ständchen. Winderstein also wrote several works for violin and piano.
This article incorporates
Ilan Volkov (born September 8, 1976, Tel Aviv, Israel) is an orchestral conductor. His father, Alexander Volkov, was a concert pianist of Ukrainian ancestry. His mother, Professor Shulamit Volkov of The School of Historical Studies in Tel Aviv University, is of German ancestry. His formative years were spent with the conductor Mendi Rodan at the Rubin Academy in Jerusalem, before continuing at the Royal Academy of Music in London. At age 19, he was named Young Conductor in Association to the Northern Sinfonia. He later served as conductor of Young Sinfonia, the youth orchestra of the Northern Sinfonia. In 1997, he became Principal Conductor of the London Philharmonic Youth Orchestra. In 1999, Seiji Ozawa named Volkov the Assistant Conductor with the Boston Symphony Orchestra.
Volkov became Chief Conductor of the BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra (BBC SSO) in January 2003, having made his debut with them in 1998. At the time, he was the youngest chief conductor appointed to a BBC orchestra. He was named the Royal Philharmonic Society Young Musician of the Year in 2004, in recognition of his work with the BBC SSO. In September 2007, the orchestra announced Volkov's departure from the
Karl Haas (December 6, 1913 – February 6, 2005) was a German-American classical music radio host, whose distinctively sonorous voice and humanistic approach to making music appreciation contagious made him well received by many. He was the host of the classical music radio program Adventures in Good Music, which was syndicated to commercial and public radio stations around the world. He also published a book, Inside Music. In addition to being a musicologist, Haas was also an accomplished pianist and conductor.
Haas was born in Speyer, Palatinate in 1913. He studied at the Mannheim Conservatory, and earned a doctorate in music literature from the University of Heidelberg. He studied piano with Artur Schnabel. Haas, who was Jewish, left Germany in 1936 with the rise of Nazism. He first settled in Detroit, Michigan, but lived in other places before returning to Detroit near the end of his life.
Haas began his radio program Adventures in Good Music on WJR in Detroit, Michigan in 1959. Syndicated broadcasts of the show across the United States began in 1970 on WCLV, a Cleveland, Ohio radio station. Eventually syndicated to commercial and public radio stations around the world, the show
JoAnn Falletta (born February 27, 1954, in Queens, New York City) is an American classical musician and orchestral conductor.
Falletta was educated at the Mannes College of Music and The Juilliard School in New York City. She began her musical career as a virtuoso guitar and mandolin player, and in her twenties was often called to perform with the Metropolitan Opera and New York Philharmonic when a work called for a mandolin or guitar obbligato. She entered Mannes in 1972 as a guitar student, but began conducting the student orchestra in her freshman year, immediately precipitating her desire for a career as a conductor. While the Mannes administration at that time expressed doubts about the ability of any woman to gain a music directorship, it consented to an official transfer of emphasis for Falletta. After graduation, she pursued further study at Queens College (M.A. in orchestral conducting) and the Juilliard School of Music (M.M., D.M.A. in orchestral conducting). Falletta studied conducting with Jorge Mester, Semyon Bychkov, and others, including master classes under Leonard Bernstein.
In 1991, Falletta was appointed the eleventh music director of the Virginia Symphony
Ádám Fischer (born in Budapest September 9, 1949) is a Hungarian conductor of Jewish family origin. He is the general music director of the Austro-Hungarian Haydn Orchestra, with which he has recorded the complete Haydn symphonies for the Nimbus label, the first digital recording of the cycle. He is also Music Director of the Hungarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, and Chief Conductor of the Danish National Chamber Orchestra.
Ádám Fischer is an elder brother of the conductor Iván Fischer. The two belonged to the children's choir of Budapest National Opera house, and sang as two of the three boys in Mozart's Die Zauberflöte.
Ádám Fischer studied piano and composition at the Bartók Conservatory in Budapest, and conducting with Hans Swarowsky in Vienna. He won first prize in the Milan Guido Cantelli Competition. His career began with opera conducting in Munich, Freiburg, and other German cities. In 1982 he made his Paris Opéra debut, leading Der Rosenkavalier, and in 1986 he made his debut at La Scala, Milan, leading Die Zauberflöte. Between 1987 and 1992 he was the general music director in Kassel.
He has led symphonic concerts since the mid-1970s with such orchestras as the Helsinki
Franz Paul Lachner (2 April 1803 – 20 January 1890) was a German composer and conductor.
Lachner was born in Rain am Lech to a musical family (his brothers Ignaz, Theodor and Vinzenz also became musicians). He studied music with Simon Sechter and Maximilian, the Abbé Stadler. He conducted at the Theater am Kärntnertor in Vienna. In 1834, he became Kapellmeister at Mannheim. In 1835 he received the first prize for symphonic composition at Vienna with his Sinfonia passionata, and became royal Kapellmeister at Munich, becoming a major figure in its musical life, conducting at the opera and various concerts and festivals. His career there came to a sudden end in 1864 after Richard Wagner's disciple Hans von Bülow took over Lachner's duties. Lachner remained officially in his post on extended leave for a few years until his contract expired.
Lachner was a well-known and prolific composer in his day, though he is not now considered a major composer. His work, influenced by Ludwig van Beethoven and his friend Franz Schubert, is regarded as competent and craftsman-like, but is now generally little known. Among his greatest successes were his opera Catharina Cornaro (1841, preceding
Conradin Kreutzer or Kreuzer (Messkirch in Baden, 22 November 1780 – Riga, 14 December 1849) was a German composer and conductor. His works include the opera for which he is remembered, Das Nachtlager in Granada, and Der Verschwender, both produced in 1834.
Kreutzer owes his fame almost exclusively to Das Nachtlager in Granada (1834), which kept the stage for half a century in spite of changes in musical taste. It was written in the style of Carl Maria von Weber, and is remarkable especially for its flow of genuine melody and depth of feeling. The same qualities are found in Kreutzer's part-songs for men's voices, which at one time were extremely popular in Germany, and are still listened to with pleasure. Among these Das ist der Tag des Herrn ("The Lord's Day") may be named as the most excellent. His Septet for winds and strings, Op. 62, remains in the chamber music repertory. He was one of the 50 composers who wrote a Variation on a waltz of Anton Diabelli for Part II of the Vaterländischer Künstlerverein (published 1824).
Kreutzer abandoned his studies in the law and went to Vienna about 1804, where he met Haydn and may have studied with Albrechtsberger, while he tried his hand
Emil Albertovich Cooper, also known as Emil Kuper (December 13 [OS December 1], 1877, Kherson – November 16, 1960, New York) was a Russian conductor and violinist, of English ancestry.
He graduated music school in Odessa as violinist and composer. Until 1898 he played recitals as violinist and learned conducting independently. He also studied conducting with Arthur Nikisch. In 1899 together with Leonid Sobinov and Feodor Chaliapin he performed on tour around Russia cities as operatic conductor. He conducted in a variety of locations in Russia, Western Europe and the USA during his career.
He premiered Rimsky-Korsakov's opera The Golden Cockerel in 1909.
Kuper / Cooper conducted the first performance of Reinhold Glière's epic Third Symphony, 'Ilya of Murom', on 23 March 1912.
He also conducted Rimsky-Korsakov's Kashchey the Immortal in January 1917 at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow.
Emil Cooper emigrated to the West in 1924. He was a long-time staff conductor at the Metropolitan Opera in New York.
From 1944 until his death in 1960 Cooper conducted for Pauline Donalda's Opera Guild of Montreal.
Joseph Curiale (born July 1, 1955) is an American composer and conductor. Born in Bridgeport, Connecticut he attended the University of Bridgeport and earned a Bachelor of Science Degree in Music Education. Curiale is most notably recognized for his two symphonic compositions Awakening and The Music of Life. Awakening was recorded in 1997 by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra and The Music of Life, in 2001 by the London Symphony Orchestra. The Music of Life premiered in the United States in April, 2002 and was performed by the Akron Symphony Orchestra.
Curiale has also composed separate pieces, most notably “Wind River” which was commissioned by the University of Wyoming Symphony Orchestra in commemoration of the new millennium. He also composed the piece “Blue Windows” written for trumpet and orchestra, and originally performed by Doc Severinsen.
Curiale has guest conducted his work with the Hollywood, Milwaukee, Phoenix, London and Royal Philharmonic orchestras among several others. Many of his compositions incorporate Japanese themes and traditional Japanese instruments, as well as American movie themes including those of film noir and more recent periods.
Alfredo Silipigni (April 9, 1931-March 25, 2006) was a conductor and specialist in lesser-known Italian operas who founded the New Jersey State Opera and ran it for four decades.
Alfredo Silipigni was born in Atlantic City on April 9, 1931, a son of Italian immigrants. He attended the Westminster Choir College in Princeton, New Jersey and the Juilliard School. He made his Carnegie Hall debut at 25 with the NBC Symphony Orchestra, and went on to conduct at the Vienna State Opera and the English National Opera.
He was principal conductor and artistic director of the NJSOpera since its founding 39 years ago, guiding the company from an amateur venture to a respected professional company. Silipigni was known for his talent conducting verismo opera.
New Jersey State Opera conductor Alfredo Silipigni died on March 25 at the age of 74 in Livingston, New Jersey. His death was caused by complications of pneumonia. Silipigni is survived by his wife of 45 years, Gloria; daughters Marisa and Elizabeth Silipigni; son Alfred Silipigni; and two grandchildren.
Silipigni was born in Atlantic City and educated at the Juilliard School and Westminster Choir College of Rider University. He made his
Carl Bergmann (born Ebersbach, Saxony, April 12, 1821, died New York, August 10, 1876) was a German-American cellist and conductor.
In 1827, he began studies with Adolph Zimmerman in Zittau, and later he studied with organist-composer Adolph Hesse in Breslau. By 1842, he was conducting and playing the cello in Breslau. Eventually, Bergmann conducted orchestras in Vienna, Breslau, Budapest, Warsaw, and Venice.
Motivated by his implication in the revolutions of 1848 in Vienna, Bergmann came to the United States in 1850 as first cellist in the Germania Orchestra, a touring band of young German musicians, mostly refugees. When the conductor of that orchestra resigned the same year, Bergmann took over. The Germania Orchestra subsequently based itself in Boston before disbanding in 1854 after giving 800 concerts over its career. During this period Bergmann directed the Germanians in performances with the Handel and Haydn Society of that city, including the Boston premiere of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. After this Bergmann went to Chicago and was immediately invited to direct the Chicago Philharmonic Society. However, he left after giving only two concerts because the Chicago musicians
Carlo Maria Giulini (Italian pronunciation: [ˈkarlo maˈriːa dʒuˈliːni]; May 9, 1914 – June 14, 2005) was an Italian conductor.
Giulini was born in Barletta, Italy, to a father born in Lombardy and a mother born in Naples; but he was raised in Bolzano, which at the time of his birth was part of Austria (it was given to Italy in the Treaty of London (1915)). Therefore, most of the neighbors spoke a dialect of German, and the local music he heard tended to be Austrian/ Tyrolean. He recalled being transfixed by the town band.
Giulini was given a violin for Christmas in 1919, when he was five, and progressed rapidly with local instructors, notably a Bohemian violinist (and local pharmacist) whom he called "Brahms." In 1928, the distinguished Italian violinist/composer Remy Principe (1889–1977) gave a recital in Bolzano, and auditioned Giulini; he invited Giulini to study with him at Italy's foremost conservatory, the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome. Giulini undertook his studies there two years later, at the age of 16. He studied viola with Principe, composition with Alessandro Bustini (1876–1970), and conducting with Bernardino Molinari.
At the age of 18, in order to
Franz-Paul Decker (June 26, 1923) is a German-born conductor.
Decker was born in Cologne, Germany, where he studied at the Hochschule für Musik with Philip Jarnach and Eugen Papst. He made his conducting début at the age of 22 at the Cologne Opera, and four years later was appointed to the Staatsoper Wiesbaden and subsequently to the positions of conductor of the Wiesbaden Symphony Orchestra and Generalmusikdirecktor in Bochum. In 1948, Decker was introduced to the composer Richard Strauss at a card game of whist. Strauss casually mentioned that he had just finished orchestrating four songs he had recently composed (the Four Last Songs).
Although comfortable conducting virtually any work in the orchestral repertoire, Decker is famous for his mastery and approach to the music of Wagner, Richard Strauss, Anton Bruckner, Max Reger and Gustav Mahler. His performances of works by Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven have been praised for their balance and clarity. His approach to Spanish and South American music is bold and charismatic. He has conducted the world premieres of dozens of orchestral works by Canadian composers, and has conducted 85 different operas during his distinguished career.
Carl Adolph Schuricht (German pronunciation: [kaʁl ˈaːdɔlf ˈʃuːʁɪçt]) (3 July 1880 – 7 January 1967) was a German conductor.
Schuricht was born in Danzig (Gdańsk), German Empire; his father's family had been respected organ-builders. His mother, Amanda Wusinowska, a widow soon after her marriage (Carl's father drowned saving a friend three weeks before he was born), brought up her son alone. His childhood was surrounded by music - "every Sunday in summer we used to hire three large open carriages and go out into the country. After the picnic we would join in singing choral works by Bach, Handel and Mendelssohn." He showed a talent for music at an early age, studying piano and violin from the age of six. By eleven he was composing, and continued his academic and musical studies when his mother moved to Berlin, then to Wiesbaden.
At 20 he obtained the post of Korrepetitor at the Stadttheater in Mainz and two years later won the Kuczynski Foundation prize for composition and a Felix von Mendelssohn scholarship. He then returned to Berlin to study piano under Ernst Rudorff and composition with Engelbert Humperdinck, later working under Max Reger in Leipzig, publishing chamber pieces,
Hermann Scherchen (21 June 1891 in Berlin – 12 June 1966 in Florence) was a German conductor.
Scherchen was originally a violist and played among the violas of the Bluthner Orchestra of Berlin while still in his teens. He conducted in Riga from 1914 to 1916 and in Königsberg from 1928 to 1933, after which he left Germany in protest at the Nazi regime and worked in Switzerland. Along with the philanthropist Werner Reinhart, Scherchen played a leading role in shaping the musical life of Winterthur for many years, with numerous premiere performances, the emphasis being placed on contemporary music. From 1922 to 1950 he was the principal conductor of the city orchestra Winterthur (today known as Orchester Musikkollegium Winterthur)
Making his debut with Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire, he was a champion of 20th century composers such as Richard Strauss, Webern, Berg and Varèse, and actively promoted the work of younger contemporary composers including Xenakis and Nono.
He was the teacher of Marc Bélanger, Françoys Bernier, Frieda Belinfante and Karl Amadeus Hartmann, and contributed to the libretto of Hartmann's opera Simplicius Simplicissimus. He also premiered Hartmann's early work
Johann Adam Hiller (25 December 1728, Wendisch-Ossig, Saxony – 16 June 1804, Leipzig) was a German composer, conductor and writer on music, regarded as the creator of the Singspiel, an early form of German opera. In many of these operas he collaborated with the poet Christian Felix Weiße. Furthermore, Hiller was a teacher who encouraged musical education for women, his pupils including Elisabeth Mara and Corona Schröter. He was Kapellmeister of Abel Seyler's theatrical company, and became the first Kapellmeister of Leipzig Gewandhaus.
By the death of his father in 1734, Hiller was left dependent to a large extent on the charity of friends. He came from a musical family, and also learned the basics of music from a school master in his home town, Wendisch-Ossig. From 1740 to 1745, he was a student at the Gymnasium in Görlitz, where his fine soprano voice earned him free tuition. In 1746 he went to study at the famous Kreuzschule in Dresden. There he took keyboard and basso continuo lessons with Gottfried August Homilius.
In 1751, he enrolled in the University of Leipzig to study law, supporting himself by giving music lessons, and also by performing at concerts both on the flute and
Joshua Rifkin (born April 22, 1944 in New York) is an American conductor, keyboard player, and musicologist. He is best known by the general public for having played a central role in the ragtime revival in the 1970s with the three albums he recorded of Scott Joplin's works for Nonesuch Records, and to classical musicians for his theory that most of Bach's choral works were sung with only one singer per choral line.
Rifkin's Joplin albums (the first of which was Scott Joplin: Piano Rags in November 1970 on the classical label Nonesuch) - which were presented as classical music recordings - were critically acclaimed, commercially successful and led to other artists exploring the ragtime genre. It sold 100,000 copies in its first year and eventually became Nonesuch's first million-selling record. The Billboard "Best-Selling Classical LPs" chart for 28 September 1974 has the record at #5, with the follow-up "Volume 2" at #4, and a combined set of both volumes at #3. Separately both volumes had been on the chart for 64 weeks. The album was nominated in 1971 for two Grammy Award categories: Best Album Notes and Best Instrumental Soloist Performance (without orchestra), but at the
Otto Klemperer (14 May 1885 – 6 July 1973) was a German conductor and composer. He is widely regarded as one of the leading conductors of the 20th century.
Otto Klemperer was born in Breslau, Silesia Province, then in Germany (now Wrocław, Poland), as a son of Nathan Klemperer, a native of Prague, Bohemia (today's Czech Republic). Klemperer studied music first at the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt, and later at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin under James Kwast and Hans Pfitzner. He followed Kwast to three institutions and credited him with the whole basis of his musical development. In 1905 he met Gustav Mahler while conducting the off-stage brass at a performance of Mahler's Symphony No. 2, 'Resurrection'. He also made a piano reduction of the second symphony. The two men became friends, and Klemperer became conductor at the German Opera in Prague in 1907 on Mahler's recommendation. Mahler wrote a short testimonial, recommending Klemperer, on a small card which Klemperer kept for the rest of his life. Later, in 1910, Klemperer assisted Mahler in the premiere of his Symphony No. 8, Symphony of a Thousand.
Klemperer went on to hold a number of positions, in Hamburg (1910–1912); in
Christoph Eschenbach (pronounced [ˈkʁɪstɔf ˈɛʃn̩bax]), born February 20, 1940, Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland) is a German-born pianist and conductor. He currently holds positions in Washington, D.C. as music director of the National Symphony Orchestra and music director of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts.
Eschenbach's parents were Margarethe (née Jaross) and Heribert Ringmann. He was orphaned during World War II. His mother died giving birth to him; his father, a politically active anti-Nazi, was sent to the Eastern front as part of a Nazi punishment battalion where he was killed. As a result of this trauma, Eschenbach did not speak for a year, until he was asked if he wanted to play music. Wallydore Eschenbach (née Jaross), his mother's cousin, adopted him in 1946 and began to teach him to play the piano. At age 11, he attended a concert conducted by Wilhelm Furtwängler which had a great impact on the youngster. In 1955 Eschenbach enrolled at the Musikhochschule in Cologne, studying piano with Hans-Otto Schmidt-Neuhaus and conducting with Wilhelm Brückner-Rüggeberg.
As a pianist, Eschenbach has won numerous first-place piano competition prizes, including
Gustav Mahler (German pronunciation: [ˈɡʊstaf ˈmaːlɐ]; 7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was a late-Romantic Austrian composer and one of the leading conductors of his generation. He was born in the village of Kalischt, Bohemia, in what was then the Austrian Empire, now Kaliště in the Czech Republic. Then his family moved to nearby Iglau (now Jihlava) where Mahler grew up.
As a composer, he acted as a bridge between the 19th-century Austro-German tradition and the modernism of the early 20th century. While in his lifetime his status as a conductor was established beyond question, his own music gained wide popularity only after periods of relative neglect which included a ban on its performance in much of Europe during the Nazi era. After 1945 the music was discovered and championed by a new generation of listeners; Mahler then became one of the most frequently performed and recorded of all composers, a position he has sustained into the 21st century.
Born in humble circumstances, Mahler displayed his musical gifts at an early age. After graduating from the Vienna Conservatory in 1878, he held a succession of conducting posts of rising importance in the opera houses of Europe, culminating
Ureli Corelli Hill (born New York, 1802 - died Paterson, New Jersey, September 2, 1875) was an American conductor, and the first president and conductor of the New York Philharmonic Society. His grandfather, Frederick Hill, was a fifer in the Revolutionary army. His father, Uri Keeler Hill, was a music teacher and composer. Ureli’s only sibling, George Handel “Yankee” Hill, was a writer and actor noted for his depiction of Yankee characters.
Hill served alternately as conductor and violinist with the New York Sacred Music Society between 1828 and 1835. In 1838 he directed the first American performance of Mendelssohn's cantata St. Paul. He studied in Germany for two years with the composer, conductor, and violinist Louis Spohr. After returning to New York, Hill organized the meeting on April 2, 1842, at which the New York Philharmonic Society was founded. At the meeting, Hill was named the first President of the Society.
Hill opened the Society's inaugural concert on December 7, 1842 by conducting Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. As was typical of this era, the concert featured several different conductors and a mixture of opera excerpts, full orchestral works, and chamber music. Later
Václav Neumann (September 29, 1920 – September 2, 1995) was a Czech conductor, violinist and viola player.
Neumann was born in Prague where he studied at the Prague Conservatory, with Josef Micka (violin), and with Pavel Dědeček and Metod Doležil (conducting). He co-founded the Smetana Quartet playing 1st violin and then viola before holding conducting posts in Karlovy Vary and Brno. In 1956 he became conductor at the Komische Oper in Berlin, leaving in 1964 he left to become conductor of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra. He stayed there until 1968 when he became principal conductor of the Czech Philharmonic, a post he held until 1990.
Neumann taught conducting at the Prague Academy for Music, where his students included Oliver von Dohnányi and Vítězslav Podrazil.
Neumann was particularly noted as a champion of Czech music, and made the first studio recording of Leoš Janáček's opera The Excursions of Mr. Brouček in 1962.
Wilhelm Gericke (18 May 1845 – 27 October 1925) was an Austrian-born conductor and composer who worked in Vienna and Boston.
He was born in Schwanberg, Austria. Initially he trained in Graz to be a schoolmaster. This didn't work out, though he did get a position playing violin in a theatre orchestra. In 1862 he entered the Vienna Conservatory, where he studied under Dessoff. Leaving the conservatory in 1865, he became kapellmeister of the theatre at Linz, directing opera there and in Vienna. In 1874, he became second kapellmeister and chorus master at the Vienna Court Opera, where his lifelong friend Hans Richter was first kapellmeister. There he gave the Viennese premiere of Richard Wagner's Tannhäuser. He also made a name for himself producing French and Italian operas. On the retirement of Brahms from the conductorship of the Vienna Society (German: Wiener Geselleschaft der Musikfreunde) concerts (German: Gesellschaftsconcerte) in 1880, Gericke succeeded him, and also became the conductor of its choral society (German: Singverein).
His fame as a conductor, and particularly as a drillmaster, induced Henry Lee Higginson of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (BSO) to secure him as its
Josef (or Joseph) Stransky (September 9, 1872 – March 6, 1936) was a Czech conductor, composer, and art collector/dealer who moved to the United States and conducted the New York Philharmonic from 1911 to 1923.
Born in Humpolec (Bohemia), he worked as a conductor in Prague and Berlin before being selected by the New York Philharmonic to replace Gustav Mahler on Mahler's death in 1911. Some commentators did not see Stransky as a worthy successor to Mahler: the periodical Musical America wrote:
An article in the New York Times about the appointment began, "The financial backers of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra will be interested to learn that the German artistic world is filled with astonishment over the engagement of Josef Stransky of Berlin as the successor to the late Gustav Mahler.", before going on to allege that Stransky was chosen over other candidates such as Oskar Fried and Bruno Walter because of his low financial demands.
During his tenure with the Phiharmonic, Stransky received praise for his interpretations of Franz Liszt and Richard Strauss by the prominent critic Henry T. Finck of the New York Evening Post. However, Daniel Gregory Mason expressed his
Samuel Hans Adler (born March 4, 1928) is an American (German-born) composer and conductor.
Adler was born to a Jewish family in Mannheim, Germany, the son of Hugo Chaim Adler, a cantor and composer, and Selma Adler. The family fled to the United States in 1939, where Hugo became the cantor of Temple Emanuel in Worcester, Massachusetts. Sam followed his father into the music profession, earning degrees from Boston University and Harvard University (where he studied with Aaron Copland, Paul Hindemith, Paul Pisk, Walter Piston, and Randall Thompson and earned an M.A. in 1950). He studied conducting with Serge Koussevitzky at Tanglewood in 1949. Adler has been awarded honorary doctorates from Southern Methodist and Wake Forest Universities, St. Mary’s College of Notre Dame and the St. Louis Conservatory of Music.
While serving in the United States Army (1950–1952), Adler founded and conducted the Seventh Army Symphony Orchestra. After his military service he was offered a conducting position just vacated by Leonard Bernstein on the faculty of Brandeis University but instead accepted a position as music director at Temple Emanu-El in Dallas, Texas, where the rabbi, Levi Olan, was a
Victor Kolar (February 12, 1888 – June 16, 1957) was a Hungarian-born American composer and conductor. Kolar was born in Budapest and studied at the Prague Conservatory, where he was a pupil of Otakar Ševčík (violin) and Antonín Dvořák (composition). From 1905 until 1920 he was a violinist with the Pittsburgh Symphony and New York Symphony, joining the Detroit Symphony in 1920 as an assistant conductor. He remained with the orchestra until 1941, eventually assuming the post of principal conductor. Active as a composer as well, he wrote a symphony, some tone poems and a few orchestral suites. Of these last, his Americana won first prize in a 1914 contest sponsored by the Illinois State Teachers Association.
Kolar died in Detroit in 1957.
Victor Kolar became a US citizen March 19, 1906, in the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania.
Kolar was born February 12, 1888 to Bohemian parents in Budapest.
Michael Balling (27 August 1866 in Heidingsfeld, near Würzburg – 1 September 1925 in Darmstadt) was a German violist and conductor. He served as principal conductor of The Hallé, Manchester, England from 1912 to 1914.
Balling studied violin with Hermann Ritter at the Hochschule für Musik Würzburg and was an early convert to the viola alta, a large scale viola introduced by Ritter in 1876. By the late 1880s, Balling had established himself as a viola player of some note playing the instrument with great success in Wagner operas at the Bayreuth Festival, and later conducted there from 1906 to 1909 and 1914. Balling also promoted the viola alta in England.
Max Fiedler (21 December 1859 – 1 December 1939) was a German conductor and composer, born August Max Fiedler in Zittau, Saxony, Germany. He was especially noted as an interpreter of Brahms.
He first studied the piano with his father, who conducted the accompanying orchestra when Max made his first public appearance at the age of ten in 1870, playing Mozart's Piano Concerto in A, K.488. Continuing his musical studies in Zittau with the organist Gustav Albrecht, who had been a pupil of Mendelssohn, Fiedler then entered the Leipzig Conservatory in 1877, where the director, Carl Reinecke, was his piano teacher. He graduated in 1882, with exceptional honours, alongside his friend and colleague Karl Muck. Fiedler also studied composition and was active in the city's musical life, developing a close relationship with Julius Spengel, a friend of Brahms.
Fiedler himself knew Brahms sufficiently well for the composer to ask him to substitute for him in a performance of his Piano Concerto No. 2, an invitation which Fiedler politely declined. He almost certainly heard Brahms conduct the first Leipzig performances of his Symphony No. 2 early in 1878 (though Ethel Smyth later wrote that Brahms
Lothar Kempter (5 February 1844 – 14 July 1918) was a German-Swiss composer and conductor.
He was born in 1844 in Lauingen. His father was music teacher Friedrich Kempter. Following his father's wishes he started studying law at the University of Munich. In 1868, after his father had died, he changed to studying music. At the Royal Music Academy in Munich he studied Musical ensemble with Hans von Bülow, composition with Josef Rheinberger, choir singing with Franz Wüllner, and piano with Carl Baermann.
In 1871, he moved to Magdeburg, where he became second Kapellmeister of the orchestra of Stadttheater Magdeburg. The same year he married singer Caroline Leonoff.
He then conducted for three years the orchestra at the Strasbourg theatre. In 1875 he became Kapellmeister at the Aktientheather in Zürich, a position which he held until 1915. In 1879 he became director of the Tonhalle Orchester Zürich.
In 1886 he began teaching music theory and composition at the Zurich Conservatory. In 1892 he became a citizen of Zürich.
In 1911 he was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Zurich.
In 1899, eleven years after his first wife Caroline had died, he married Hedwig Ratzinger, who
Vladimir Golschmann (16 December 1893 – 1 March 1972) was a French conductor.
Vladimir Golschmann was born in Paris. He studied violin at the Schola Cantorum in Paris. He was a notable advocate of the music of the composers known as Les six. In Paris, he had his own concert series, the Concerts Golschmann, which began in 1919. He became the director of music activities at the Sorbonne, at the behest of the French government. Golschmann also conducted performances at the Ballets Russes of Sergei Diaghilev.
In the United States, Golschmann was the music director of the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra (SLSO) from 1931 to 1958, their longest-serving music director. His initial contract was for 3 years, and the successive contracts were renewed yearly. For the last three years of his tenure, he was named conductor emeritus, during their search for a successor music director. He was initiated as an honorary member of the New Zeta Chapter of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia music fraternity in 1949.
In his later years, Golschmann also worked with the orchestras of Tulsa and Denver. He died in New York City.
David Alan Miller (born 1961 in Los Angeles, California) is a prominent American classical music symphony orchestra conductor, and for the past several years, the conductor of the Albany Symphony Orchestra.
Miller was raised in the Los Angeles area. He graduated with a bachelor’s degree from the University of California, Berkeley. He then earned a master’s degree in orchestral conducting from The Juilliard School. Miller was Music Director of the New York Youth Symphony from 1982 to 1988. He was also a two-term conducting fellow at the Los Angeles Philharmonic Institute.
In 1987, he was appointed as Assistant Conductor of the Los Angeles Philharmonic by Music Director Andre Previn; he was later promoted to Associate Conductor in 1990 and held that position for two years. During his tenure with the orchestra, he conducted children's concert, "Green Umbrella" New Music Group concerts, and community concerts, along with regular programs at the Hollywood Bowl. In the fall of 1987, Miller replaced Previn on only 36-hours notice during a week of regular Philharmonic subscription concerts when the Music Director fell ill.
Miller has been musical director and conductor of the Albany
Adolf Friedrich Hesse (30 August 1809 – 5 August 1863) was a German organist and composer.
Hesse was born and died in Breslau. He studied in his home city with the organists Friedrich Wilhelm Berner and Ernst Köhler. In 1831, he became the First Organist at the Bernhardinkirche in his hometown. Considered one of the most important organists in Germany, he also excited audiences in Paris and London with his virtuosic pedalwork. Back in Breslau, he conducted the symphonic concerts of the city's Opera Orchestra. One of Hesse's pupils was Jacques-Nicolas Lemmens, who would later teach Alexandre Guilmant and Charles-Marie Widor.
Dates of publication with publisher where known. Os. = "Orgelsachen"
Franz Schalk (27 May 1863 – 3 September 1931) was an Austrian conductor. From 1918 to 1929 he was director of the Vienna State Opera, a post he held jointly with Richard Strauss from 1919 to 1924. Later, Schalk was involved in the establishment of the Salzburg Festival.
Schalk was born in Vienna, Austria, where he later studied under composer Anton Bruckner. From 1900 he was first kapellmeister of the Vienna Court Opera. Between 1904 and 1921 he was head of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde Vienna. In 1918 he became director of the Vienna State Opera; however from 1919 he was co-director with Richard Strauss, and the well-known composer was "blatantly (though unofficially) the 'greater equal' of the pair". Tensions resulting from unclear division of responsibility between the two men eventually led to Strauss's resignation.
Schalk's most famous quote is "Every theatre is an insane asylum, but an opera theatre is the ward for the incurables."
Today Schalk is most famous for his work popularizing and revising the symphonies of his teacher Bruckner. He gave the premiere of Bruckner's Symphony No. 5 in 1894, but in a version much affected by cuts and changes, most of which are thought
Georg Schnéevoigt (8 November 1872 – 28 November 1947) was a Finnish conductor and cellist, born in Vyborg, Grand Duchy of Finland, which is now in Russia.
Schnéevoigt began his career as a cellist performing throughout Europe in the 1890s. He was principal cellist of the Helsinki Philharmonic from 1896 to 1902. After this, he conducted many orchestras including the Kaim Orchestra (now the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra), Riga Philharmonic Orchestra which he founded, the Stockholm Concert Society (later the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra), the Sydney Symphony, and the Los Angeles Philharmonic. From 1930 until his death in 1947, Schnéevoigt was chief conductor of the Malmö Symphony Orchestra.
Schnéevoigt was a close friend of composer Jean Sibelius and often performed Sibelius's orchestral music. He conducted the first performance in Finland of Luonnotar in January 1914. He discovered the manuscripts of Sibelius's pieces Lemminkäinen and the Maidens, and Lemminkäinen in Tuonela, which had been thought lost, and gave their first performance since 1894. He also made the first recording of Sibelius's Symphony No. 6.
In Europe young Schneevoigt was considered at best a genius.
Kurt Masur (born 18 July 1927) is a German conductor, particularly noted for his interpretation of German Romantic music.
Masur was born in Brieg, Lower Silesia, Germany (now Brzeg in Poland) and studied piano, composition and conducting in Leipzig, Saxony. Masur has been married three times. His second wife, with whom he had a daughter, died in 1972 in a car accident in which Masur was severely injured. He and his third wife, Tomoko Sakurai, have a son, Ken-David, a classical singer and conductor.
Masur conducted the Dresden Philharmonic Orchestra for three years ending in 1958 and again from 1967 to 1972. He also worked with the Komische Oper of East Berlin. In 1970, he became Kapellmeister of the Gewandhausorchester Leipzig, serving in that post until 1996.
In 1991, Masur succeeded Zubin Mehta as music director of the New York Philharmonic (NYP). During his tenure, there were reports of tension between Masur and the NYP's Executive Director at the time, Deborah Borda, which eventually contributed to his contract not being renewed beyond 2002. In a television interview with Charlie Rose, Masur stated that regarding his leaving the NYP, "it was not my wish". The root of the
Benjamin Zander (born March 9, 1939, Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire, England) is an American conductor from the United Kingdom.
Benjamin Zander was born in Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire, England on March 9, 1939. His parents had emigrated from Berlin in 1937 to escape the Nazis, and raise their four children; Michael, Luke, Angelica, and Benjamin. Benjamin Zander started to compose music at the age of nine. Several of his compositions came to the attention of composer Benjamin Britten, who invited the Zander family to spend three summers in Aldeburgh, England the beautiful seaside village in Suffolk where he lived. Benjamin Zander took lessons with Benjamin Britten and became a student of theory of Britten’s amanuensis and assistant, Imogen Holst, daughter of composer Gustav Holst.
Benjamin’s main instrument was the cello. He began studying at the age of ten and became the youngest member of the National Youth Orchestra of Great Britain at the age of twelve. He went as a boarder to Uppingham, one of England’s leading public schools, as a music scholar at the age of thirteen and then to St. Paul’s School in London so he could continue his cello studies with Herbert Withers. At
George Edward Percy Careless (September 24, 1839 – March 5, 1932) was a prominent Latter-day Saint composer and conductor.
Careless was born in London, England. As a child he studied at the Royal Academy in London. He performed at Exeter Hall, Drury Lane and the Crystal Palace.
In the early 1860s Careless joined The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and in 1864 he immigrated to Utah Territory. It was after his ship had docked in New York City that he wrote a musical arrangement for Parley P. Pratt's hymn "The Morning Breaks, the Shadows Flee".
Shortly after coming to Salt Lake City, Careless became the conductor of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir as well as of the Salt Lake Theatre orchestra. He also conducted performances by the Salt Lake Opera Company. Among his students was the future conductor of the Tabernacle choir, J. Spencer Cornwall.
Besides "The Morning Breaks" (hymn #1), Careless also composed the music to the following hymns in the 1985 Latter-day Saint hymnal: #40 "Arise, O Glorious Zion", #122 "Though Deepening Trials", #145 "Prayer Is the Soul's Sincere Desire", #150 "O Thou Kind and Gracious Father", #178 "O Lord of Hosts", #186 "Again We Meet Around the
Leonard Edward Slatkin (born September 1, 1944) is an American conductor and composer.
Slatkin was born in Los Angeles to a musical family that came from areas of the Russian Empire now in Ukraine. His father Felix Slatkin was the violinist, conductor and founder of the Hollywood String Quartet, and his mother Eleanor Aller was cellist with the quartet. His brother Frederick, now a cellist, traced the family's original name as Zlotkin, and adopted that form of the family surname for himself professionally. Frederick Zlotkin has spoken of the family lineage as follows:
"The Zlotkin/Slatkin lineage is Russian-Jewish. The first Zlotkin arrival to the US was Felix's father, grandpa Chaim Peretz Zlotkin, who came to settle with relatives in St. Louis in 1904; he (or the clerk at Ellis Island) changed the name. He probably came from the town of Mogilev [now Mohyliv-Podilskyi], from a shtetl (the Russians forced most Jews to live in villages outside of the major cities)...The Altschuler [Aller] side of the family is really rife with musicians. Grisha's uncle, Modest Altschuler, was a cellist (making me 4th generation) and he had quite a career. Among other things, he did the St.
Maestro Anton Coppola (born Antonio March 21, 1917) is an American opera conductor and composer. He is the uncle of film director Francis Ford Coppola and actress Talia Shire, as well as the great-uncle of Nicolas Cage, Sofia Coppola, Gian-Carlo Coppola, Jason Schwartzman and Robert Schwartzman, and is the brother of American composer and musician Carmine Coppola.
Coppola started his career at the age of eight with the Metropolitan Opera Children’s Chorus. He served as an army bandmaster during World War II, conductor at Radio City Music Hall and director of both the Symphony and Opera Departments at the Manhattan School of Music. He earned a Bachelor's degree (1964) and a Master's degree (1965) in composition from Manhattan School of Music and received honorary Doctorates from the University of Tampa and Quinnipiac University in Connecticut.
Coppola's initial marriage was Marion Jane Miller, a ballet dancer, with whom he had one child, Susan Marion Coppola (1943–2008). After their divorce, he wed Almarinda Drago, also a ballet dancer, with whom he had two children, Lucia and Bruno Coppola.
Among his works are a violin concerto, a symphony, and Sacco and Vanzetti, an opera in both
Bernhard E. Scholz, (March 30, 1835 – December 26, 1916) was a German conductor, composer and teacher of music.
Bernhard Scholz was born in Mainz in 1835. He was intended by his father to take over his father's business (Lithographische Druckerei und Verlag Jos. Scholz) and studied to be a printer at Imp. Lemercier in Paris. But music became his career. He was a student of Ernst Pauer (piano) in Mainz, and 1855-56 of Siegfried Dehn (counterpoint) in Berlin. He also took voice lessons with Antonio Sangiovanni in Milan.
He first taught at the Munich Conservatory and was court Kapellmeister in Zürich, Nuremberg and 1859-65 in Hanover. Between 1865 and 1866 he was director of the Cherubini Society in Florence and also taught at the Stern Conservatory and the Kullak Conservatory. From 1871-83 he directed the Orchestra Society in Breslau. In 1883 he was appointed director of the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt, a post he held until 1908.
He died in Munich in 1916.
His Piano Concerto was championed by Clara Schumann, who included it in her repertory.
He was one of four signatories to an anti-"Music of the Future" (anti-New-Weimar-School) Manifesto published in the Berliner Musik-Zeitung
Henry or Henri Berger (August 4, 1844, Berlin – October 14, 1929, Honolulu) was a Prussian Kapellmeister composer and royal bandmaster of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi from 1872 to his death.
Berger was born Heinrich August Wilhelm Berger in Prussia and became a member of Germany's imperial army band. He worked under the composer and royal bandmaster of Germany, Johann Strauss, Jr. Originally, the Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany loaned Berger from his Potsdam station to King Kamehameha V to conduct the king's band. In 1877, King Kalākaua appointed Berger to full leadership of the Royal Hawaiian Band. In 1879, he became a naturalized citizen of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
Berger befriended the future Queen Liliʻuokalani, a composer in her own right. Berger arranged the songs she wrote, performed by the brass band. The queen named Berger "Father of the Hawaiian Music". From 1893 to 1903, the bandmaster worked with the Kamehameha Schools to develop its music program. He also built what is today the Honolulu Symphony.
Later in his tenure as royal bandmaster, Berger took it upon himself to record traditional Hawaiian hymns, chants and other Hawaiian music in print to ensure their survival, a task never
August Wilhelm Julius Rietz (28 December 1812, Berlin – 12 September 1877, Dresden) was a German composer, conductor and cellist. He was a teacher among whose students were Woldemar Bargiel, Salomon Jadassohn and Arthur Sullivan. He also edited many works by Felix Mendelssohn for publication.
He studied the cello under Schmidt, Bernhard Romberg, and Gans. At 16, he joined the orchestra of the Königstädter Theater, for which he wrote the music to Holtei's play Lorbeerbaum und Bettelstab. In 1834, he was appointed assistant conductor at the Düsseldorf Opera under Mendelssohn, whom he succeeded the following year. In 1847, he was called to Leipzig as theatre kapellmeister and conductor of the Singakademie. In 1848, he succeeded Mendelssohn as conductor of the Gewandhaus concerts and as teacher of composition at the Conservatory. He was called to Dresden in 1860 to succeed Reissiger as court kapellmeister. Here he conducted the opera and afterwards undertook the direction of the royal conservatory. He died at Dresden.
As a composer, he belongs to the younger classic school and was strongly opposed to the Neo-German movement. Among his works are the operas, three symphonies, several
Claudio Abbado, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (Italian pronunciation: [ˈklaudio abˈbaːdo]; born June 26, 1933), is an Italian conductor. He has served as music director of the La Scala opera house in Milan, principal conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra, principal guest conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, music director of the Vienna State Opera, and principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic orchestra from 1989 to 2002, when he retired from the position for health reasons.
Born in Milan, Italy, Abbado is the son of the violinist and composer Michelangelo Abbado, who was his first piano teacher, and the brother of musician Marcello Abbado. After studying piano at the Milan Conservatory, in 1955 Claudio Abbado studied conducting with Hans Swarowsky at the Vienna Academy of Music. In 1958 he won the international Koussevitsky Competition for conductors, which resulted in a number of operatic conducting engagements in Italy, and in 1963 he won the Dimitri Mitropoulos Prize for conductors, allowing him to work for five months with the New York Philharmonic.
Abbado recalls desiring to become a conductor for the first time as a child, when he heard a performance of
Gustav Dannreuther (July 21, 1853 – December 19, 1923) was a violinist and conductor from Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1871, at the age of 18, he was sent to the Berlin University of the Arts, where he studied violin under Heinrich De Ahna, famed violinist Joseph Joachim (recent reorganizer of the school), and Heitel (for theory).
He left the school in 1874, spent six months in Paris, and then publicly taught and played in London until 1877. Later, until 1880, he was a member of the Mendelssohn Quintette Club of Boston, traveling through the United States, and Canada, including Newfoundland. Dannreuther and his ensemble's high musical standards contributed to the establishment of widespread Chamber music playing in the United States.
Dannreuther became a member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1880, and played in its first concert in Boston's Symphony Hall on October 22, 1881. He then returned to his preferred chamber music ensemble, and conducted the Buffalo Philharmonic Society from 1882 to 1884, marrying local resident Nellie M. Taylor in 1882.
In 1884, he formed the Dannreuther String Quartet (formerly the Beethoven String Quartet), a predecessor to the Kneisel Quartet. For a time,
Helmut Kickton (born June 28, 1956 in Cologne ) is a German church musician, publisher and multi-instrumentalist.
Kickton studied church music at the Robert Schumann Hochschule in Düsseldorf with Hans-Dieter Möller and Hartmut Schmidt. In 1986 he passed his examination (A) with distinction for improvisation and music history. The following years he learned to play most common instruments. He regularly performs on the organ, recorder, violin, viola, cello, double bass, euphonium, guitar and kettledrums.
Since 1987 he has been cantor of the diakonie church in Bad Kreuznach. Together with the kreuznacher-diakonie-kantorei he developed the model of the Integrative Kantorei, which unites voices and instruments. Inspired by historical sources, in 2000 he introduced the layout with the choir in front of the orchestra.
In 2002 he founded the kantoreiarchiv of free digital sheet music. He published more than 10000 files (PDF) for choir, orchestra, brass band, recorder and organ.
Karol Mikuli, often seen as Carl Mikuli or Charles Mikuli (Armenian: Կարոլ Միկըլի or Կարոլ Պստիկյան; 20 October 1819 – 21 May 1897) was an Armenian-Polish pianist, composer, conductor and teacher.
Mikuli (aka Bsdikian) was born in Czerniowce, then part of the Austrian Empire (now Chernivtsi, Ukraine) to an Armenian family. He studied under Frédéric Chopin for piano (later becoming his teaching assistant) and Anton Reicha for composition. He toured widely as a concert pianist, becoming Director of the Lviv Conservatory in 1858. He founded his own school there in 1888.
His students included Moriz Rosenthal, Raoul Koczalski, Aleksander Michałowski, Jaroslaw Zieliński and Kornelia Parnas. He died in Lemberg, then part of Austria-Hungary (now Lviv, Ukraine) and is buried in the courtyard of the Armenian church in Lviv.
He is most well known as an editor of works by Chopin. Dover Publications currently publishes reprints of his 1879 editions of Chopin's piano music, originally published by F. Kistner (Leipzig). His goal, as stated in the foreword of the edition, was to provide more reliable editions. He used several verified sources, most of which were written or corrected by Chopin
Ernest Henry Schelling (26 July 1876 – 8 December 1939) was an American pianist, composer, and conductor.
Born in Belvidere, New Jersey, Schelling was a child prodigy. His first teacher was his father. He entered the Academy of Music in Philadelphia at age 4. At age 7, Schelling traveled to Europe to study. He was admitted to the Paris Conservatoire. While in Europe he worked with many great masters including Percy Goetschius, Hans Huber, Richard Barth, Moritz Moszkowski and Theodor Leschetizky. At the age of 20, he began studying with Ignace Paderewski and was his only pupil for three years. He toured Europe and North and South America, gaining a reputation as a remarkable pianist.
Schelling wrote numerous works for piano, orchestra and chamber groups which were often performed during his lifetime, but have since fallen from the repertoire. His most popular work was A Victory Ball, a symphonic poem for orchestra based on an anti-war poem by Alfred Noyes. Willem Mengelberg and the New York Philharmonic Orchestra made an early electrical recording of the music for the Victor Talking Machine Company.
He was elected an honorary member of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity, the national
Fred Ho (Chinese name: 侯维翰; pinyin: Hóu Wéihàn; born Fred Wei-han Houn in Palo Alto, California, August 10, 1957) is an American jazz baritone saxophonist, composer, bandleader, playwright, writer, and social activist.
While he is sometimes associated with the Asian American jazz or avant-garde jazz movements, Ho himself is opposed to the use of term "jazz" to describe traditional African American music because the word "jazz" was used pejoratively by white Americans to denigrate the music of African Americans. Also an activist, many of his works fuse the melodies of indigenous and traditional Asian and African musics, which as Ho would say is the music of the majority of the world's people. He has also co-edited two books: Legacy to Liberation: Politics and Culture of Revolutionary Asian Pacific America and Sounding Off! Music as Subversion/ Resistance/ Revolution. He has a third book in progress about African Americans and Asians working together in civil rights, which he is co-writing with Purdue University professor of African American studies Bill Mullen. Ho's contributions to the Asian American empowerment movement are varied and many. He is credited with co-founding several
Launy Grøndahl (June 30, 1886 – January 21, 1960) was a Danish composer and conductor. Grøndahl studied the violin from the age of eight. His first work as a professional musician was as a violinist was with the Orchestra of the Casino Theatre in Copenhagen when he was aged just thirteen.
He was also for a long period (1925–1956) the resident conductor of the Danish National Symphony Orchestra, Denmark's most prestigious orchestra.
Some of his first works included a symphony, works for small string ensembles and a violin concerto.
However he is best known for his trombone concerto, written in 1924 during Grøndahl's time in Italy. It was reportedly written for the trombone section of the Orchestra of the Casino Theatre in Copenhagen (of which Grøndahl was a member) due to their high standard of playing.
He is also remembered for his pioneering recordings of the symphonies of fellow Dane Carl Nielsen and his original score for Benjamin Christensen's classic silent film Häxan.
Neeme Järvi (Estonian pronunciation: [ˈneːme ˈjærʋi]) (born June 7, 1937, Tallinn) is an Estonian-born conductor.
Järvi studied music first in Tallinn, and later in Leningrad at the Leningrad Conservatory under Yevgeny Mravinsky, and Nikolai Rabinovich, among others. Early in his career, he held posts with the Estonian Radio and Television Symphony Orchestra, the Estonian National Symphony Orchestra and the Opera in Tallinn. In 1971 he won first prize in the International Conductors Competition at the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome. Järvi emigrated to the United States in 1980 with his family. He became an American citizen in 1987.
In 1982, he became the principal conductor of the Gothenburg Symphony, and held the post for 22 years, the longest-serving principal conductor in the orchestra's history. During his Gothenburg tenure, the recording profile and reputation of the orchestra greatly increased. He also helped to secure corporate sponsorship from Volvo that allowed the orchestra to increase in size from 80 to 110 players. He retained his post in Gothenburg until 2004, and now holds the title of Principal Conductor Emeritus (Chefdirigent Emeritus) with the
Wilhelm Jahn (24 November 1835, Dvorce u Bruntálu, Moravia – 21 April 1900, Vienna) was an Austro-Hungarian conductor. He served as director of the Vienna Court Opera from 1880 to 1897 and principal conductor of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra from 1882 to 1883. He gave the partial premiere of Bruckner's Symphony No. 6, performing the middle two movements in 1883.
Anton Webern (help·info) (3 December 1883 – 15 September 1945) was an Austrian composer and conductor. He was a member of the Second Viennese School. As a student and significant follower of Arnold Schoenberg, he became one of the best-known exponents of the twelve-tone technique; in addition, his innovations regarding schematic organization of pitch, rhythm and dynamics were formative in the musical technique later known as total serialism.
Webern was born in Vienna, Austria, as Anton Friedrich Wilhelm von Webern. He was the only surviving son of Carl von Webern, a civil servant, and Amelie (née Geer) who was a competent pianist and accomplished singer — the only obvious source of the future composer's talent. He never used his middle names and dropped the von in 1918 as directed by the Austrian government's reforms after World War I. After spending much of his youth in Graz and Klagenfurt, Webern attended Vienna University from 1902. There he studied musicology with Guido Adler, writing his thesis on the Choralis Constantinus of Heinrich Isaac. This interest in early music would greatly influence his compositional technique in later years by employing palindromic form on both
Eugene Ormandy (November 18, 1899 – March 12, 1985) was a Hungarian-born conductor and violinist.
Ormandy was born Jenő Blau in Budapest, Hungary, the son of Jewish parents Rosalie and Benjamin Blau, a dentist who was also an amateur violinist. Ormandy began studying violin at the Royal National Hungarian Academy of Music (now the Franz Liszt Academy of Music) at the age of five. He gave his first concerts as a violinist at age seven and, studying with Jenő Hubay, graduated at 14 with a master's degree. In 1920, he obtained a university degree in philosophy. In 1921, he moved to the United States of America. Around this time Blau changed his name to "Eugene Ormandy," "Eugene" being the equivalent of the Hungarian "Jenő." Accounts differ on the origin of "Ormandy"; it may have either been Blau's own middle name at birth, or his mother's. He was first engaged by conductor Erno Rapee, a former Budapest friend and fellow Academy graduate, as a violinist in the orchestra of the Capitol Theatre in New York City, a 77-player ensemble which accompanied silent movies. He became the concertmaster within five days of joining and soon became one of the conductors of this group. Ormandy also
Luciano Berio, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (October 24, 1925 – May 27, 2003) was an Italian composer. He is noted for his experimental work (in particular his 1968 composition Sinfonia for voices and orchestra and his series of numbered solo pieces titled Sequenza) and also for his pioneering work in electronic music.
Berio was born at Oneglia (now part of Imperia). He was taught the piano by his father and grandfather who were both organists. During World War II he was conscripted into the army, but on his first day he injured his hand while learning how a gun worked, and spent time in a military hospital. Following the war, Berio studied at the Milan Conservatory under Giulio Cesare Paribeni and Giorgio Federico Ghedini. He was unable to continue studying the piano because of his injured hand, so instead concentrated on composition. In 1947 came the first public performance of one of his works, a suite for piano. Berio made a living at this time accompanying singing classes, and it was in doing this that he met American mezzo-soprano Cathy Berberian, whom he married shortly after graduating (they divorced in 1964). Berio would write many pieces aimed at exploiting her very
Felix Otto Dessoff (14 January 1835 – 28 October 1892) was a German conductor and composer.
Dessoff was born in Leipzig and entered the conservatory there where he studied composition, piano and conducting with some of the foremost teachers of the day, including Ignaz Moscheles for piano and Moritz Hauptmann and Julius Rietz for composition. It was as a conductor that he primarily established his reputation. By age nineteen, he was theater director in Düsseldorf and a mere five years later was offered a guest position with the Vienna Court Opera. He left his conducting post in Vienna in 1875. In Vienna, he became professor at the Vienna Conservatory. He also befriended Johannes Brahms and later was to premiere several of that composer's orchestral works, including the Symphony No. 1 in 1876. Although he had composed some works during the 1850s and early 1860s, he gave up composing when his career as a conductor blossomed. He later made a name for himself as the director of the Frankfurt Opera House.
His close friendship with Brahms can be seen in an exchange of letters between the two in 1878 when Dessoff wished to dedicate what is probably his best known work, his String Quartet
Frank Valentine Van der Stucken (October 15, 1858 – August 16, 1929) was an American composer and conductor, and founder of the Cincinnati Symphony in 1895.
Van der Stucken was born in Fredericksburg, Texas, to Frank and Sophie Van der Stucken, née Schönewolf. He received his musical education at the conservatory of music conducted by Peter Benoit in Antwerp, Belgium. He was kapellmeister of the city theatre of Breslau, later giving concerts of his own compositions, in Weimar and elsewhere in Germany, under the patronage of Liszt.
He returned to the United States in 1884, and became the leader of the Arion society of New York, conducting novelty concerts in Steinway hall and symphonic concerts in Chickering hall. Van der Stucken gave a series of American concerts at the Paris exposition of 1889, made a concert tour in Europe with the Arion Society in 1892, and after 1895 conducted the symphony concerts in Cincinnati, in which city he was the dean of the college of music.
He is particularly remembered for his symphonic prologue to Heinrich Heine's tragedy William Ratcliffe. He was elected an honorary member of the Eta Chapter of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity in 1906.
He died in
Sir George Henschel (Isidor Georg Henschel) (18 February 1850 – 10 September 1934), was a German-born British baritone, pianist, conductor, and composer.
Henschel was born at Breslau, then part of Germany, of Polish-Jewish parentage, and educated as a pianist, making his first public appearance in Berlin in 1862. He subsequently took up singing, initially and briefly as a basso profundo but developing a fine baritone voice. In 1868, he sang the part of Hans Sachs in a concert performance of Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg at Munich. With one minor and unplanned exception, he never sang on stage, confining himself to concert appearances.
He was a close friend of Johannes Brahms, whom he met in May 1874 at the Lower Rhenish Music Festival in Cologne, where Henschel sang the role of Harapha in Handel's oratorio Samson. The friendship lasted until Brahms's death; Henschel reports in his memoirs that he arrived in Vienna only hours too late to see Brahms before his passing, and that their last meeting had been at a restaurant in Leipzig in 1896, where they were joined by Edvard Grieg and Arthur Nikisch.
In 1877, Henschel began a successful career in England, singing at the principal
Gil Aldema (Hebrew: גיל אלדמע) (born 1928) is an Israeli composer and conductor.
Aldema was born in Giv'atayim in Mandate Palestine on September 17, 1928. He graduated from the Jerusalem Academy of Music and Mannes College of Music in New York.
Aldema taught music at Hadassim youth village. Later he worked as a program producer and arranger for the Israel Broadcasting Authority. He composed and arranged songs for folk-ensembles and choirs.
In 2004, Aldema was awarded the Israel Prize, for Hebrew song.
Ossip Gabrilowitsch (Осип Сoломонович Габрилович, Osip Solomonovich Gabrilovich; he used the German transliteration Gabrilowitsch in the West) (7 February [O.S. 26 January] 1878 – 14 September 1936) was a Russian-born American pianist, conductor and composer.
Ossip Gabrilowitsch was born in Saint Petersburg. He studied the piano and composition at the Saint Petersburg Conservatory, with Anton Rubinstein, Anatoly Lyadov, Alexander Glazunov and Nikolai Medtner among others. After graduating in 1894, he spent two years studying piano with Theodor Leschetizky in Vienna.
In July 1905 he recorded ten pieces for the reproducing piano Welte-Mignon, one of the first pianists to do so.
From 1910 to 1914, he was conductor of the Munich Konzertverein (later known as the Munich Philharmonic). He was still in Munich in 1917 and was put in jail following a pogrom. Through the intervention of the nuncio to Bavaria, Archbishop Eugenio Pacelli (later Pope Pius XII), Gabrilowitsch was freed from jail, and then he headed to Zürich and the United States.
He settled in the US, and in 1918 was appointed the founding director of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, while still maintaining his life as a concert
Suzi Digby, Baroness Eatwell, (née: Susan Watts; born 1 July 1958) OBE is a British conductor, musician and teacher.
Susan Elizabeth Digby read music at King's College London where she studied piano and singing. She lived in Mexico and the Philippines, and then spent 12 years in Hong Kong where she had a television series as well as radio broadcasting, teaching and performing.
In 1990 she was awarded a Winston Churchill Fellowship, which she used to travel and study in Finland, Hungary, Canada and the USA, focusing on methods of choral training and music education. She also trained with Péter Erdei, Head of Choral Studies at the Franz Liszt Academy in Budapest.
In 1993 she founded a national music education charity The Voices Foundation whose methodology is based on that of Hungarian music educator Zoltán Kodály. The same year, Yehudi Menuhin appointed her to spearhead the UK branch of his MUS-E project. The Voices Foundation Children's Choir, a multi-ethnic choir comprising children from throughout the UK, has performed at State occasions including the VE Day Head of State ceremony and the first National Holocaust Memorial Day and has toured in Europe.
Ms Digby currently serves as
Vilem Sokol (May 22, 1915 – August 19, 2011) was a Czech-American conductor and professor of music at the University of Washington from 1948 to 1985, where he taught violin, viola, conducting, as well as music appreciation classes directed primarily toward non-music majors. He was conductor of the Seattle Youth Symphony Orchestras from 1960 to 1988, and principal violist of the Seattle Symphony from 1959 to 1963. He was the featured soloist with the Seattle Symphony for subscription concerts held March 7 and 8, 1960, performing Harold in Italy by Hector Berlioz.
Sokol was raised in Ambridge, Pennsylvania. At the age of 15, he studied with Otakar Ševčík in Boston. He received a bachelor's degree in music from Oberlin College in 1938, where he studied violin with Raymond Cerf, and studied for one year on scholarship with Jaroslav Kocián at the State Conservatory of Music in Prague. He studied under a fellowship grant at the Juilliard School in New York City.
Upon his return from Prague, he taught at Shorter College in Rome, Georgia for two years. He returned in 1941 to Oberlin College to pursue graduate work, but was drafted when the United States entered the Second World War. He
Arturo Toscanini (Italian pronunciation: [arˈtuːro toskaˈniːni]; March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian conductor. He was one of the most acclaimed musicians of the late 19th and 20th century, renowned for his intensity, his perfectionism, his ear for orchestral detail and sonority, and his photographic memory. He was at various times the music director of La Scala Milan, the Metropolitan Opera in New York, and the New York Philharmonic Orchestra. Later in his career he was appointed the first music director of the NBC Symphony Orchestra (1937-54), and this led to his becoming a household name (especially in the United States) through his radio and television broadcasts and many recordings of the operatic and symphonic repertoire.
Toscanini was born in Parma, Emilia-Romagna, and won a scholarship to the local music conservatory, where he studied the cello. He joined the orchestra of an opera company, with which he toured South America in 1886. While presenting Aida in Rio de Janeiro, Leopoldo Miguez, the locally hired conductor, reached the summit of a two-month escalating conflict with the performers due to his rather poor command of the work, to the point that the
Charles Albert Edward Harriss (16 or 17 December 1862 - 31 July 1929) was an English then Canadian composer, impresario, educator, organist-choirmaster and conductor.
In 1897, Charles Albert Edwin Harriss married Ella Beatty-Shoeberger, daughter of John Beatty, Esquire, M.D., Professor of Sciences in Victoria University, Cobourg, Ontario., and his wife, Eleanor Armstrong. Ella was born and educated in Cobourg, Ontario. In 1883 she married her first husband, George K. Shoenberger, Esquire, of "Scarlet Oaks," Cincinnati, one of the "Iron Kings" of Pennsylvania (he died 1892). After Sir John A. Macdonald's death, Mrs. Harriss purchased and occupied "Earnscliffe," a Victoria Manor house which had been his former place of residence at Ottawa, Ontario. She served as President of the Woman's Morning Music Club, and other official positions of that character.
Julius Christian Stockhausen (22 July 1826, Paris – 22 September 1906, Frankfurt am Main) was a German singer and singer master.
Stockhausen's parents, Franz Stockhausen Sr. (1792–1868), harpist and composer, and Margarethe Stockhausen née Schmuck, soprano, were musicians of some ability who recognized his talent and encouraged his development.
Before he had reached his 20th year he was an excellent performer on the piano, organ, violin, and cello. In 1845 he entered the Conservatoire de Paris, where he studied piano with Charles Hallé and Camille-Marie Stamaty and singing with Manuel García. In 1849 he continued his studies with Garcia in London. He quickly won fame as a remarkable concert singer (baritone). From 1862 to 1869 he resided in Hamburg as conductor of the Philharmonic Society and Singakademie.
He spent the next five years in Stuttgart as Kammersänger to the King of Württemberg, then he became conductor of Stern's Gesangverein at Berlin, where he remained until 1878, being then called to Hoch Conservatory at Frankfurt as professor of singing. Differences with Joachim Raff, the director, led to his resignation the following year and the establishment of his own school,
Riccardo Muti, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (Italian pronunciation: [rikˈkardo ˈmuːti]; born 28 July 1941) is an Italian conductor and music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.
Muti was born in Naples but spent his early childhood in Molfetta, near Bari, in the long region of Apulia on Italy's southern Adriatic coast. His father was a doctor in Molfetta and an amateur singer; his mother, a Neapolitan, was a professional singer. As wryly explained in the conductor's 2010 autobiography, it was a family pattern for the children to be born in Naples.
Muti graduated from Liceo classico (Classical Lyceum) Vittorio Emanuele II in Naples, then studied piano at the Conservatory of San Pietro a Majella under Vincenzo Vitale; here Muti was awarded a diploma cum laude. He was subsequently awarded a diploma in Composition and Conducting by the Conservatory "Giuseppe Verdi", Milan, where he studied with the composer Bruno Bettinelli and the conductor Antonino Votto. He has also studied composition with Nino Rota, whom he considers a mentor. He was unanimously awarded first place by the jury of the "Guido Cantelli" competition for conductors in Milan in 1967 and became, the next year,
Sir Thomas Beecham, 2nd Baronet, CH (29 April 1879 – 8 March 1961) was an English conductor and impresario best known for his association with the London Philharmonic and the Royal Philharmonic orchestras. He was also closely associated with the Liverpool Philharmonic and Hallé orchestras. From the early 20th century until his death, Beecham was a major influence on the musical life of Britain and, according to the BBC, was Britain's first international conductor.
Born to a rich industrial family, Beecham began his career as a conductor in 1899. He used his access to the family fortune to finance opera from the 1910s until the start of the Second World War, staging seasons at Covent Garden, Drury Lane and His Majesty's Theatre with international stars, his own orchestra and a wide repertoire. Among the works he introduced to England were Richard Strauss's Elektra, Salome and Der Rosenkavalier and three operas by Frederick Delius.
Together with his younger colleague Malcolm Sargent, Beecham founded the London Philharmonic, and he conducted its first performance at the Queen's Hall in 1932. In the 1940s, he worked for three years in the United States, where he was music director of
Toshiyuki Shimada is a Japanese American orchestral conductor. He is Music Director of both Eastern Connecticut Symphony Orchestra in New London, CT, and Orchestra of the Southern Finger Lakes in Corning, NY. He has been Music Director of the Yale Symphony Orchestra of Yale University since 2005, and has been Principal Conducting of the Vienna Modern Masters, in Vienna, Austria, since 1998. He is also Music Director Laureate of the Portland Symphony Orchestra, in Portland, Maine, which he was Music Director from 1986 to 2006. Prior to Portland, he was Associate Conductor of the Houston Symphony Orchestra for six years, beginning in 1981. He also serves as Principal Conductor of the Vienna Modern Masters, in Austria since 1998.
Shimada has been a frequent guest conductor of the European orchestras such as the Lithuanian State Symphony Orchestra, the Moravian Philharmonic Orchestra, the Karlovy Vary Symphony Orchestra, the Prague Chamber Orchestra, the Slovak Philharmonic, NÖ Tonkünstler Orchestra in Vienna, Le Orchestre National de Lille, in France, and the Royal Scottish National Orchestra at the Edinburgh Festival. He has conducted in Mexico, with la Orquesta Filhamonico de
William Dehning (born August 13, 1942) is an American conductor, teacher, and author who spent almost his entire career in the collegiate realm. He is known primarily for his work as conductor of the University of Southern California Thornton Chamber Choir and as author of the book, Chorus Confidential: Decoding the Secrets of the Choral Art, published in 2003. Under his leadership, the Thornton Chamber Choir won seven prizes in international European competitions, including Grand Prizes in Varna, Bulgaria and Tours, France. After winning the choral competition with the USC Chamber Choir in Bulgaria, Dehning was awarded the Judges' Conducting Prize by a panel of ten judges in 1999. During his tenure, the ensemble also appeared at American Choral Directors Association (ACDA) conventions six times, including nationals in 2001 and 2005. They also completed a tour of East Asia in 2006, performing at the National Concert Hall in Taipei. While at Northern Michigan University from 1970–1972, Dehning was the founder of the Marquette Choral Society, which is still active. Later, he was from 1985-1995 the founder/conductor of the California Choral Company, a semi-professional chamber chorus
Carl Gottlieb Reißiger (also Karl Reissiger, Carl Reissiger, Karl Reißiger) (31 January 1798, Belzig – 7 November 1859, Dresden) was a German Kapellmeister and composer.
Reißiger attended the Thomasschule zu Leipzig and was the pupil of Johann Gottfried Schicht and Peter von Winter. In 1821, he followed the example of the young Beethoven and went to Vienna to study with Antonio Salieri and also studied theology at the University of Leipzig. Reißiger continued his musical studies in France and Italy in 1824, under the sponsorship of the Prussian Ministry of Cultural Affairs. After working for two years as the musical director of the Dresden Opera, he succeeded Carl Maria von Weber as the Kapellmeister of the Dresden Court in 1828, and would hold this office until his death in 1859. A famous piece known as Weber's Last Waltz was actually written by Reißiger (one of his opus 26 Danses brillantes) and is mentioned in Edgar Allan Poe's The Fall of the House of Usher (1839) as one of Roderick Usher's favorite pieces of music; it is also the title of a 1912 film.
Reißiger left behind an extensive oeuvre that was distinguished above all by his vocal music, which included nine operas, one
Leopold Damrosch (October 22, 1832 – February 15, 1885) was a German American orchestral conductor.
Damrosch was born in Posen (Poznań), Kingdom of Prussia, the son of Heinrich Damrosch. His father was Jewish and his mother was Lutheran. Leopold Damrosch was baptized a Lutheran when marrying his wife, former opera singer Helene von Heimburg.
Damrosch began his musical education at the age of nine, learning the violin against the wishes of his parents, who wanted him to become a doctor. Capitulating to the wishes of his parents he entered the University of Berlin and completed his PhD in medicine but during his spare time he studied violin under Ries, and thorough bass with Dehn and Bohmer. After he completed his degree Damrosch decided to dedicate his life and energy to music. He gained fame as a violinist and began to play to large audiences in many major German cities including Berlin and Hamburg. He went to Weimar, and was received by Franz Liszt, who appointed him solo-violinist in the Ducal orchestra.
Liszt dedicated a symphonic poem (Tasso, Lamento e Trionfo) to Damrosch.
Damrosch first appeared as a conductor during the season of 1859 where he conducted the Philharmonic
Theodore Thomas (October 11, 1835 – January 4, 1905) was an American violinist and conductor of German birth. He is considered the first renowned American orchestral conductor and was the founder and first music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra (1890–1905).
Theodore Christian Friedrich Thomas was born in Esens, Germany on October 11, 1835, the son of Johann August Thomas. His mother, Sophia, was the daughter of a physician from Göttingen. He received his musical education principally from his father, who was a violinist of ability, and at the age of six years he played the violin in public concerts. His father was the town Stadtpfeifer (bandleader) who also arranged music for state occasions.
Thomas showed interest in the violin at an early age, and by age ten, he was practically the breadwinner of the family, performing at weddings, balls, and even in taverns. By 1845, Johann Thomas and his family, convinced there was a better life for a respected musician in America, packed their belongings and made the six-week journey to New York City.
In 1848, Thomas and his father joined the Navy Band, but in 1849 his father ceased to support him, and he set out on his own. Thomas
Yehudi Menuhin, Baron Menuhin, OM, KBE (22 April 1916 – 12 March 1999) was an American violinist and conductor who spent most of his performing career in the United Kingdom. He was born to Russian Jewish parents in the United States, but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1970, and of the United Kingdom in 1985. He is often considered to be one of the greatest violinists of the 20th century.
Yehudi Menuhin was born in New York City, United States, to Jewish parents from what is now Belarus. His sisters were the concert pianist and human rights worker Hephzibah Menuhin and the pianist, painter, and poet Yaltah Menuhin. Through his father Moshe Menuhin, a former rabbinical student and anti-Zionist writer, Menuhin was descended from a distinguished rabbinical dynasty.
Menuhin began violin instruction at age four under violinist Sigmund Anker; his parents had wanted Louis Persinger to be his teacher, but Persinger refused. Menuhin displayed extraordinary talents at an early age. His first solo violin performance was at the age of seven with the San Francisco Symphony in 1923. Persinger then agreed to take Menuhin as a student. When the Menuhins went to Paris, Persinger suggested Yehudi
Craig D. Jessop is an American academic, musician and singer best known for his tenure as the music director of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir from 1999 to 2008.
A native of Millville, Utah, Jessop has been a lifelong member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He was a student of Robert Shaw and received his B.A. from Utah State University, M.A. from Brigham Young University and D.M.A. from Stanford University.
He has been the director of the National High School Choir Festival since its founding in 2005. The event, held at New York's Carnegie Hall, auditions schools from around the country to inspire and enable young singers in learning great works of music and performing with renowned musicians from around the world.
He has also spent seven years as a baritone with the Robert Shaw Festival Singers and performed in the choirs of Helmuth Rilling and John Rutter. Jessop earned a doctorate of musical arts in conducting and performance practice from Stanford University (1980), with an earlier master’s degree in music education from Brigham Young University. He completed a bachelor’s degree in music education at USU in 1973. Prior to his association with the Mormon
Geraint Bowen is an English conductor and organist. He is artistic director of the Hereford Three Choirs Festival.
He became organist and director of music at Hereford Cathedral in 2001. He is also conductor of the Hereford Choral Society. Previously he had been assistant organist at Hereford Cathedral (1989–94) before becoming organist and master of the choristers at St Davids Cathedral, Pembrokeshire, and artistic director of the St Davids Cathedral Festival (1995–2001).
Bowen was born in London in 1963 and graduated from Jesus College, Cambridge, where he was organ scholar from 1982 to 1985 and from where he started his conducting career and recorded an LP of early music with the choir. Whilst assistant organist at St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin (1986–89) he took the external MusB degree at Trinity College, Dublin. While at St Davids, he oversaw the re-building of the cathedral's Father Willis organ by Harrison & Harrison, a major project which was completed in 2000. With the choirs of St Davids Cathedral and Hereford Cathedral he has toured the USA and Australia; he has also directed choral workshops and courses in the USA, including three for the Royal School of Church Music.
Gustav Uwe Jenner, (3 December 1865 - 29 August 1920), was a German composer, conductor and musical scholar whose chief claim to fame is that he was the only formal composition pupil of Johannes Brahms.
Jenner was born in Keitum on the island of Sylt. His father, a doctor, came from a Scottish family: he claimed descent from Edward Jenner, the discoverer of smallpox vaccine, and was related to the family who built the eponymous Art-Nouveau style department store which is one of the landmarks of Edinburgh’s Princes Street. While at school in Kiel, Jenner started to teach himself to write music but, after his father committed suicide in 1884 (he had been accused of abusing female patients), he was befriended and assisted by the poet Klaus Groth, who arranged for him to study with Brahms’s old teacher Eduard Marxsen in Hamburg. Marxsen in his turn handed Jenner over to Brahms, with whom he studied in Vienna from February 1888 to 1895, also receiving instruction from Eusebius Mandyczewski. Though Brahms was a merciless critic of Jenner’s compositional attempts, he took great care over his welfare. He had him appointed Secretary of the Vienna Tonkünstlerverein and in 1895 arranged for
Walter Hendl (January 12, 1917 – April 10, 2007) was an American conductor, composer and pianist.
Hendl was born in West New York, New Jersey, and later went on to study with Fritz Reiner at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia. From 1939 to 1941 he taught at Sarah Lawrence College in New York City. In 1941 and 1942, he was a pianist and conductor at the Berkshire Music Center under Serge Koussevitzky. In 1945, he became associate conductor of the New York Philharmonic. In 1949, he was appointed music director of the Dallas Symphony Orchestra, and he held this position until 1958. In 1953, Hendl became the music director of the Chautauqua Symphony Orchestra. He remained with Chautauqua until temporary ill health necessitated his resignation in 1972. He was also active in the Symphony of the Air and conducted its 1955 tour of east Asia.
In 1958, Reiner appointed Hendl associate conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, and he served in this post until 1963. At the same time, he was the first artistic director of the Ravinia Festival and served there from 1959 to 1963. He left the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in 1964. From 1964 to 1972, Hendl served as director of the
Angela Gehann-Dernbach (born February 21, 1958, in Bucharest, Romania) is a German conductor, organist and singer based in Darmstadt, Germany.
Gehann-Dehrbach has chaired both the Internationale Gesellschaft für Deutsche Romantik (the International Society for German Romanticism) and the Baussnern Society, an organization dedicated to the music of composer Waldemar von Baußnern (1866-1931). She has won prizes in international choral competitions and led choir tours of 12 European countries and the United States.
At present she conducts both the chamber choir of Marienhöhe Darmstadt and the vocal ensemble Cantabile Darmstadt; since 2006, both the Bach-Chor Darmstadt and Kammerorchester Pro Musica have been under her musical direction.
Louis (Ludwig) Alexander Balthasar Schindelmeisser (December 8, 1811 - March 30 1864) was a nineteenth century German clarinetist, conductor and composer. He was born Königsberg, Prussia, and studied in Berlin and Leipzig. He was an early and enthusiastic partisan of Richard Wagner, arranging his first performances in Wiesbaden and Darmstadt of Tannhäuser, of which he conducted the premiere, Rienzi and Lohengrin.
Schindelmeisser attended High School for music in Berlin where he studied clarinet under the guidance of French virtuoso J. M. Hostié who had moved to Berlin in 1824. However, it is possible that he taught him earlier in Königsberg since Hostié had settled there already in 1812.. He died in Darmstadt.
His own operas were in the tradition of von Weber and Spohr and "he kept the lyrical and dramatic components in balance". Of note is his Sinfonia Concertante Op. 2 for four clarinets and orchestra composed in 1833, believed to be the only one of its kind, Georg Druschetzky wrote a piece for three clarinets and orchestra.
Paul Schuyler Phillips (born April 28, 1956) is an American conductor, composer and music scholar. He is Director of Orchestras and Chamber Music, with the rank of Senior Lecturer in Music, at Brown University. He is also Music Director and Conductor of the Pioneer Valley Symphony and Chorus, and maintains an international career as a guest conductor and composer. As a scholar, he is best known for his works on Igor Stravinsky and Anthony Burgess.
In 1982, Phillips accepted Michael Gielen’s invitation to become his conducting assistant at the Frankfurt Opera, and was appointed 1st Kapellmeister and Chorus Director at Stadttheater Lüneburg the following year. Upon winning 1st Prize in the NOS International Conductors Course in Holland (1983) and selection as a Finalist in the Exxon/Arts Endowment Conductors Program (1984), he left Germany and returned to the US as Associate Conductor of the Greensboro Symphony, Music Director of the Greensboro Symphony Youth Orchestra, and Assistant Conductor of the Greensboro Opera. In 1985, he began a 14-year affiliation with the Maryland Symphony Orchestra as Youth Concert Conductor, conducting the annual MSO Citibank Youth Concerts from
Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known for his operas, which include Der Rosenkavalier and Salome; his lieder, especially his Four Last Songs; and his tone poems and other orchestral works, such as Death and Transfiguration, Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, Also sprach Zarathustra, An Alpine Symphony, and Metamorphosen. Strauss was also a prominent conductor throughout Germany and Austria.
Strauss, along with Gustav Mahler, represents the late flowering of German Romanticism after Richard Wagner, in which pioneering subtleties of orchestration are combined with an advanced harmonic style.
Strauss was born on 11 June 1864, in Munich, the son of Franz Strauss, who was the principal horn player at the Court Opera in Munich. In his youth, he received a thorough musical education from his father. He wrote his first composition at the age of six, and continued to write music almost until his death.
During his boyhood Strauss attended orchestra rehearsals of the Munich Court Orchestra, and he also received private instruction in music theory and orchestration from an assistant conductor
Wilhelm Richard Wagner ( /ˈvɑːɡnər/; German pronunciation: [ˈʁiçaʁt ˈvaːɡnɐ]; 22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, theatre director and polemicist primarily known for his operas (or "music dramas", as he later called them). Wagner's compositions, particularly those of his later period, are notable for their complex texture, rich harmonies and orchestration, and the elaborate use of leitmotifs: musical themes associated with individual characters, places, ideas or plot elements. Unlike most other opera composers, Wagner wrote both the music and libretto for every one of his stage works. Perhaps the two best-known extracts from his works are the Ride of the Valkyries from the opera Die Walküre, and the Wedding March (Bridal Chorus) from the opera Lohengrin.
Initially establishing his reputation as a composer of works such as The Flying Dutchman and Tannhäuser, which were broadly in the romantic vein of Weber and Meyerbeer, Wagner transformed operatic thought through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk ("total work of art"). This would achieve the synthesis of all the poetic, visual, musical and dramatic arts and was announced in a series of essays between
Walter Bache ( /ˈbeɪtʃ/; 19 June 1842 – 26 March 1888) was an English pianist and conductor noted for his championing the music of Franz Liszt and other music of the New German School in England. He studied privately with Liszt in Italy from 1863 to 1865, one of the few students allowed to do so, and continued to attend Liszt's master classes in Weimar, Germany regularly until 1885, even after embarking on a solo career. This period of study was unparalleled by any other student of Liszt and led to a particularly close bond between Bache and Liszt. After initial hesitation on the part of English music critics because he was a Liszt pupil, Bache was publicly embraced for his keyboard prowess, even as parts of his repertoire were questioned.
Bache's major accomplishment was the establishment of Liszt's music in England, to which he selflessly devoted himself between 1865 and his death in 1888. This was at the height of the War of the Romantics, when conservative and liberal musical factions openly argued about the future of classical music and the merits of the compositions written in their respective schools. Bache featured several of the orchestral and choral works through an
Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (German pronunciation: [ˈjaːkɔp ˈluːtvɪç ˈfeːlɪks ˈmɛndl̩szoːn baʁˈtɔldi]), born, and generally known in English-speaking countries, as Felix Mendelssohn (3 February 1809 – 4 November 1847) was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period.
The grandson of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, Felix Mendelssohn was born into a prominent Jewish family, although initially he was raised without religion and was later baptised as a Lutheran Christian. Mendelssohn was recognised early as a musical prodigy, but his parents were cautious and did not seek to capitalise on his talent.
Early success in Germany, where he also revived interest in the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, was followed by travel throughout Europe. Mendelssohn was particularly well received in Britain as a composer, conductor and soloist, and his ten visits there – during which many of his major works were premiered – form an important part of his adult career. His essentially conservative musical tastes, however, set him apart from many of his more adventurous musical contemporaries such as Franz Liszt, Richard Wagner and Hector Berlioz. The
Ferdinand (von) Hiller (24 October 1811 – 11 May 1885) was a German composer, conductor, writer and music-director.
Ferdinand Hiller was born to a wealthy Jewish family in Frankfurt am Main, where his father Justus (originally Isaac Hildesheim) was a merchant in English textiles – a business eventually continued by Ferdinand’s brother Joseph. Hiller’s talent was discovered early and he was taught piano by the leading Frankfurt musician Alois Schmitt, violin by Hofmann, and harmony and counterpoint by Vollweiler; at 10 he performed a Mozart concerto in public; and two years later, he produced his first composition.
In 1822 the 13-year old Felix Mendelssohn entered his life. The Mendelssohn family was at that time staying briefly in Frankfurt and the young Hiller visited them where he was immensely impressed by the playing of Felix (and even more so by that of his sister Fanny Mendelssohn). When their acquaintance was renewed in 1825 the two boys found an immediate close friendship, which was to last until 1843. Hiller tactfully describes their falling out as arising from "social, and not from personal susceptibilities." But in fact it seems to have been more to do with Hiller’s
Franz Wüllner (28 January 1832 – 7 September 1902) was a German composer and conductor. He led the premieres of Richard Wagner's operas Das Rheingold and Die Walküre, but was much criticized by Wagner himself, who greatly preferred the more celebrated conductors Hans von Bülow and Hermann Levi.
Wüllner was born in Münster and studied in his native place, and at Frankfurt, Berlin, Brussels, and Munich. Among his teachers was Anton Schindler, who styled himself Beethoven's amanuensis carrying on the true traditions of the master's style, a claim disputed by Beethoven's pupil Carl Czerny. In 1856 Wüllner became instructor in piano at the Munich Conservatory. He held the position of town musical director at Aix-la-Chapelle from 1858 to 1864. In 1867 he became director of the choral classes in the reorganized School of Music at Munich and wrote for them Chorübungen der Münchener Musikschule, text of score reading and singing (Solfege).
He succeeded the temperamental Bülow in 1869 as conductor of the Court Opera and the Academy Courts. Here he conducted the first performances of Rheingold and Walküre (1869, 1870) before the production of the entire Ring cycle at the first Bayreuth
Mary Berry, CBE (in religion Sister Thomas More 29 June 1917 – 1 May 2008) was an Augustinian canoness and noted choral conductor and musicologist. She was an authority on the performance of Gregorian chant.
Berry studied at Girton College, Cambridge with Thurston Dart as well going to Paris to study with Nadia Boulanger. In 1970 she received her doctorate from Cambridge after submitting a thesis on the performance of plainsong in the late Middle Ages and the 16th century, and afterwards became a Fellow at Newnham College.
In 1975 Berry founded the Schola Gregoriana of Cambridge for the study and performance of Gregorian chant. The Cantors of the Schola are a group of young, largely professional singers and have performed and recorded extensively under her direction, often working from primary sources. The Schola was one of the first ensembles to perform (and certainly the first to record) music from the Winchester troper after research by Mary Berry and others made the music accessible from the manuscripts.
Berry travelled widely to promote the teaching and singing of Gregorian chant, and organised and participated in many workshops and courses, including Spode Music Week, of
Hans Erich Pfitzner (5 May 1869 – 22 May 1949) was a German composer and self-described anti-modernist. His best known work is the post-Romantic opera Palestrina, loosely based on the life of the great sixteenth-century composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina.
Pfitzner was born in Moscow, Russia, where his father played violin in a theater orchestra. The family returned to his father's native Frankfurt in 1872 when Pfitzner was two years old, and he always considered Frankfurt his home town. He received early instruction in violin from his father, and his earliest compositions were composed at age 11. In 1884 he wrote his first songs. From 1886 to 1890 he studied composition with Iwan Knorr and piano with James Kwast at the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt. (He later married Kwast's daughter Mimi Kwast, a grand-daughter of Ferdinand Hiller, after she had rejected the advances of Percy Grainger.) He taught piano and theory at the Koblenz Conservatory from 1892 to 1893. In 1894 he was appointed conductor at the Stadttheater in Mainz where he worked for a few months. These were all low-paying jobs, and Pfitzner was working as Erster (First) Kapellmeister with the Berlin Theater des
Sir Malcolm Henry Arnold, CBE (21 October 1921 – 23 September 2006) was an English composer and symphonist.
Arnold began his career playing trumpet professionally, but by age thirty his life was devoted to composition. He was ranked with Benjamin Britten as one of the most sought-after composers in Britain. His natural melodic gift earned him a reputation as a composer of light music in works such as in some of his concert overtures and the sets of Welsh, English, Scottish, Irish and Cornish Dances. He was also a highly successful composer of film music, penning the scores to over a hundred features and documentaries, including titles such as The Bridge on the River Kwai, Hobson's Choice and the St Trinian's series. His nine symphonies are often deeply personal and show a more serious side to his work, which has proved more controversial. Arnold also wrote a variety of concertos and chamber works, as well as music for the theatre including major ballets. His brass music is widely acclaimed.
Malcolm Arnold was born in Northampton, England, the youngest of five children from a prosperous Northampton family of shoemakers. As a rebellious teenager, he was attracted to the creative
Daniel Barenboim, KBE (born 15 November 1942) is an Israeli Argentine-born pianist and conductor. He has served as music director of several major symphonic and operatic orchestras and made numerous recordings.
Currently, he is general music director of La Scala in Milan, the Berlin State Opera, and the Staatskapelle Berlin; he previously served as Music Director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the Orchestre de Paris. Barenboim is also known for his work with the West-Eastern Divan Orchestra, a Seville-based orchestra of young Arab and Israeli musicians, and as an outspoken critic of the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories.
Barenboim has received many awards and prizes, including an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire, France's Légion d'honneur both as a Commander and Grand Officier, the German Großes Bundesverdienstkreuz and Willy Brandt Award, and, together with the Palestinian-American scholar Edward Said, Spain's Prince of Asturias Concord Award. He has won seven Grammy awards for his work and discography.
Daniel Barenboim was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, to parents of Russian Jewish descent. He started piano lessons at the age of
Daniel Harding (born 31 August 1975 in Oxford) is a British conductor.
Harding studied trumpet at Chetham's School of Music and was a member of the National Youth Orchestra at age 13. At age 17, Harding assembled a group of musicians to perform Pierrot Lunaire of Arnold Schoenberg, and sent a tape of the performance to Simon Rattle in Birmingham. After listening to this tape, Rattle hired Harding as an assistant to him at the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra for a year, from 1993-1994. Harding then attended the University of Cambridge, but after his first year at university, Abbado named him his assistant with the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. Harding first conducted the Berlin Philharmonic at age 21. At the time of his first conducting appearance at The Proms in 1996, he was then the youngest-ever conductor to appear there. Harding has stated that he has never had formal conducting lessons.
Harding has been music director of the Trondheim Symphony Orchestra (1997–2000), the Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie Bremen (1999–2003) and the Mahler Chamber Orchestra (since 2003). He conducted the 2005 opening night at La Scala, Milan in Idomeneo, as a substitute after the resignation of
Frank Tiberi (born December 4, 1928) is the leader of the Woody Herman Orchestra. He was hand-picked by Woody Herman shortly before Herman's death, to lead the band, and he has been doing it since 1987. He plays the alto and tenor saxophone, clarinet, flute, and the bassoon. He has been performing and recording since the age of thirteen. He is also a part time professor at the Berklee College of Music, where he teaches improvisational techniques and pedagogy. Tiberi served as the director for the Camden Jazz Festival.
Tiberi specializes in modern and contemporary jazz techniques and has released eponymous CDs and with fellow Berklee instructor George Garzone.
Frank Tiberi is from Camden, New Jersey.
Johann Christian Friedrich Schneider (born Alt-Waltersdorf, January 3, 1786 - Dessau, November 23, 1853) was a German composer and conductor.
Schneider studied piano first with his father Johann Gottlob Schneider (senior), and then at the Zittau Gymnasium with Schönfelder and Unger. His first published works were a set of three piano sonatas in 1804. In 1805, he commenced studies at the University of Leipzig. He became an organist at St. Thomas Church, Leipzig in 1812, and was named conductor in Dessau in 1821. It is thought that Schneider premiered Ludwig van Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 5 in Leipzig in 1811. In 1824, he was festival director of the Lower Rhenish Music Festival and his oratorio "Die Sündflut" was premiered during this event.
Schneider composed copiously. Among his works are seven operas, four masses, six oratorios, 25 cantatas, 23 symphonies, seven piano concertos, sonatas for violin, flute, and cello, and a number of shorter works for voice and for piano, as well as both solo and part songs.
Friedrich Lux was one of his pupils.
His brothers Johann Gottlob Schneider (junior; 1789-1864) and Johann Gottlieb Schneider (1797-1856) were organists, the former
Gianluigi Gelmetti (born 11 September 1945, Rome) is an Italian conductor and composer.
He studied conducting with Franco Ferrara, Sergiu Celibidache and Hans Swarowsky. He first conducted an orchestra in Siena at age 16.
Gelmetti has served as principal conductor of the Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra (1989-1998) and of the Monte-Carlo Philharmonic Orchestra (1990-1992). Gelmetti became chief conductor of the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma in 2001. In July 2006, he and the company announced that he would conclude his tenure with the Opera di Roma at the end of his contract, in 2008.
Gelmetti premiered Hans Werner Henze's Seventh Symphony with the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra in 1984, Lorenzo Ferrero's opera Marilyn at the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma in 1980, and Sergio Rendine's Hermes 594 with the BBC Symphony Orchestra in 1987. Gelmetti made his first guest-conducting appearance with the Sydney Symphony Orchestra in 1994. He became chief conductor and artistic director of the orchestra in 2004, staying until the end of 2008. He has participated in conducting courses and masterclasses for young Australian conductors. In March 2006, the orchestra announced that Gelmetti would
Gustavo Adolfo Dudamel Ramírez (born January 26, 1981) is a Venezuelan conductor and violinist. He is the principal conductor of the Gothenburg Symphony in Gothenburg, Sweden, and music director of the Los Angeles Philharmonic in Los Angeles, California. Dudamel is also the artistic director of the Orquesta Sinfónica Simón Bolívar in Caracas, Venezuela.
Dudamel was born in Barquisimeto, Venezuela, the son of a trombonist and a voice teacher. He studied music from an early age, becoming involved with El Sistema, the famous Venezuelan musical education program, and took up the violin at age ten. He soon began to study composition. He attended the Jacinto Lara Conservatory, where he was taught the violin by José Luis Jiménez. He then went on to work with José Francisco del Castillo at the Latin-American Violin Academy. He began to study conducting in 1995, first with Rodolfo Saglimbeni, then later with José Antonio Abreu. In 1999, he was appointed music director of the Orquesta Sinfónica Simón Bolívar, the national youth orchestra of Venezuela, and toured several countries. He attended Charles Dutoit's master class in Buenos Aires in 2002, and worked as assistant for Simon Rattle in
Johannes Hendrikus Philip "Hans" Kindler (January 8, 1892 – August 30, 1949) was an American cellist and conductor.
Kindler was born in Rotterdam, The Netherlands where he attended the Rotterdams Conservatorium.
In 1914, he was offered first cello chair with the Philadelphia Orchestra where he played for—depending on the source—six or sixteen years. He gave first performances of works by Ravel and Schoenberg and Ferruccio Busoni dedicated an arrangement of Bach's Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue for cello and piano to him. He founded the National Symphony Orchestra in 1931 and was its conductor until 1949, performing many works of new composers. The Kindler Foundation Trust Fund was established in 1983 by the Kindler Foundation to offer concerts and to commission new chamber music in his memory.
According to the WPA Guide to Washington, originally published in 1942: "Potential symphony players had left Washington during the years of musical drought, and Kindler found it necessary to combine local talent with musicians imported from New York, Philadelphia and Boston." However even in the worst year of the Great Depression Kindler managed to create his orchestra. According to violinist
Hermann Levi (November 7, 1839 – May 13, 1900) was a German Jewish orchestral conductor.
Levi was born in Gießen, Germany, the son of a rabbi. He was educated at Gießen and Mannheim, and came to Vinzenz Lachner's notice. From 1855 to 1858 Levi studied at the Leipzig conservatorium, and after a series of travels which took him to Paris, he obtained his first post as music director at Saarbrücken, which post he exchanged for that at Mannheim in 1861. From 1862 to 1864 he was chief conductor of the German opera in Rotterdam, then till 1872 at Karlsruhe, when he went to Munich, a post he held until 1896, when ill-health compelled him to resign. Levi also taught at the Leipzig Conservatory where one of his pupils was conductor Emil Steinbach.
Levi's name is indissolubly connected with the increased public appreciation of Wagner's music. A longtime friend of Wagner, he conducted the first performance of Parsifal at Bayreuth in 1882, and was connected with the musical life of that place during the remainder of his career. He visited London in 1895, and died in Munich in 1900 and was interred in a Mausoleum in the grounds of his villa later that year in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.
János Ferencsik (18 October 1907 – 12 June 1984) was a Hungarian conductor.
Ferencsik was born in Budapest; he actively played music even as a very young boy. He took violin lessons and taught himself to play the organ. He studied at the National Conservatory of Music in Budapest, where his major subjects were organ performance and composition. He joined the Budapest State Opera at the age of twenty, where he was engaged as a rehearsal coach. In this capacity he took part in the Bayreuth Festival in 1930 and 1931. In Bayreuth, he assisted Arturo Toscanini, an experience which was to be of decisive importance for the remainder of his career.
Ferencsik's international career began in 1937. By the end of the 1930s, he was one of the Hungarian Opera's leading conductors. His artistic career came to fuil fruition after 1945. He was appointed General Music Director of the Budapest Opera, Principal Conductor of the Hungarian National Philharmonic Orchestra in Budapest and, from 1960 until 1967, Conductor Chairman of the Budapest Philharmonic Orchestra. From 1948 until 1950, Ferencsik was principal guest conductor of the Vienna State Opera. He toured widely abroad, conducting on every
Johann Heinrich Walch (1776–1855), was a German conductor, chamber musician and choral master for both the Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg as well as of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in Gotha in the current German state Thüringen. He was also the composer of many well-known marches.
Napoleon's war took on its final end, when the allies of Austria, Prussia and Russia marched into Paris on March 31, 1814 to the tune of the "Pariser Einzugsmarsch". This tune was also used as the climax of 1940 Victory parade of the Germans through Paris. Although attributed initially to Beethoven, Walch is the composer.
Another march by Walch, is the famous "Beethoven Funeral March Number 1" played at the funeral of King Edward VII and also on Remembrance Sunday Services in London each year on the Sunday nearest to November 11. It is played after the playing of the Last Post, and during the Wreath Laying Ceremony. It is also announced as "Beethoven's Funeral March" on the BBC Television commentary. For a long time, the march was wrongly attributed to Beethoven, and catalogued as WoO= (work without opus number), Anh. 13.
Many marches supposedly written for several cavalry regiments by Queen
John T. Madden (born c. 1962) is Director of the Spartan Marching Band, Associate Director of Bands and Associate Professor of Music at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan. He is the conductor of the MSU Symphony Band and Associate Conductor of the MSU Wind Symphony. As Director of Athletic Bands, Madden conducts the 300-member Spartan Marching Band and guides all aspects of the Spartan Brass. Madden also serves on the MSU Music Education faculty, teaching undergraduate conducting and marching band techniques.
Madden is a 1985 graduate of the Michigan State University School of Music, where he received his Bachelor of Music Education Degree. During his undergraduate years he was also a member of the Spartan Marching Band, eventually serving as a Trumpet Section Leader and Vice President of the Band. Madden marched in the Phantom Regiment Drum and Bugle Corps, and was a solo lead soprano bugle player. He received his Master of Music Education and Conducting degrees from Wichita State University.
Madden served as a Graduate Assistant to the Wichita State University Bands while completing his Masters' Degree. He briefly held the post of Associate Director of Bands and
Karl Muck (October 22, 1859 – March 3, 1940) was a German-born conductor of classical music. He based his activities principally in Europe and mostly in opera. His American career comprised two stints at the Boston Symphony Orchestra. He endured a public outcry in 1917 that questioned whether his loyalties lay with Germany or the United States during World War I. Though he was a Swiss citizen, he was arrested and interned in a camp in Georgia from March 1918 until August 1919. His later career included notable engagements in Hamburg and at the Bayreuth Festival.
Born in Darmstadt, Germany, Muck's father, a senior court official and amateur musician, moved the family to Switzerland in 1867 and acquired Swiss citizenship. Karl Muck acquired Swiss citizenship when he was 21. Muck studied piano as a child and made his first public appearance at the age of 11 when he gave a piano solo at a chamber music recital. He also played the violin in a local symphony orchestra as a boy. He graduated from the gymnasium at Würzburg and entered the University of Heidelberg at 16. In May 1878 he entered the University of Leipzig, where he took his degree as Doctor of Philosophy in 1880. While there
Michel Corboz (born February 14, 1934) is a Swiss conductor.
Corboz was born in Marsens, Switzerland and educated in his native canton of Fribourg. He founded the Ensemble Vocal de Lausanne, with which he has recorded and toured extensively. He also has an association with the Gulbenkien Chorus of Lisbon, Portugal and teaches at the Geneva Conservatory of Music.
He has become known for his recordings of Baroque and Renaissance music, particularly Monteverdi.
George Szell ( /ˈsɛl/; June 7, 1897 – July 30, 1970), originally György Széll, György Endre Szél, or Georg Szell, was a Hungarian-born American conductor and composer. He is remembered today for his long and successful tenure as music director of the Cleveland Orchestra, and for the recordings of the standard classical repertoire he made in Cleveland and with other orchestras.
Szell came to Cleveland in 1946 to take over a respected if undersized orchestra, which was struggling to recover from the disruptions of World War II. By the time of his death he was credited, to quote the critic Donal Henahan, with having built it into "what many critics regarded as the world's keenest symphonic instrument." Through his recordings, Szell has remained a presence in the classical music world long after his death, and his name remains synonymous with that of the Cleveland Orchestra. While on tour with the Orchestra in the late 1980s, then-Music Director Christoph von Dohnányi remarked, "We give a great concert, and George Szell gets a great review."
Szell was born in Budapest but grew up in Vienna. He began his formal music training as a pianist, studying with Richard Robert. One of Robert's
Andrew Parrott (born 10 March 1947) is a British conductor, perhaps best known for his pioneering historically informed performances of pre-classical music. He conducts a wide range of repertoire, including contemporary music. He conducted the premiere of Judith Weir's A Night at the Chinese Opera (as well as its first recording). He has recorded new music by other modern British composers (including John Tavener), and by Vladimír Godár.
In 1973 he founded the Taverner Choir, Consort and Players, a period instrument ensemble based in London. He was music director of the London Mozart Players for several years until September 2006. Currently, Parrott is music director of the New York Collegium in New York City, New York.
Parrott has published major articles on Bach, Monteverdi and Purcell, is co-editor of the New Oxford Book of Carols and author of The Essential Bach Choir, which was informed by his work with Joshua Rifkin on one-voice-per-part performance of Bach's vocal works.
He is a Patron of Bampton Classical Opera.
Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse (French pronunciation: [ɛdɡaːʁ viktɔːʁ aʃil ʃaʁl vaʁɛːz]; also spelled Edgar Varèse; December 22, 1883 – November 6, 1965) was an innovative French-born composer who spent the greater part of his career in the United States.
Varèse's music emphasizes timbre and rhythm. He was the inventor of the term "organized sound", a phrase meaning that certain timbres and rhythms can be grouped together, sublimating into a whole new definition of music. Although his complete surviving works only last about three hours, he has been recognised as an influence by several major composers of the late 20th century. His use of new instruments and electronic resources led to his being known as the "Father of Electronic Music" while Henry Miller described him as "The stratospheric Colossus of Sound".
Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse was born in Paris, but when he was only a few weeks old, he was sent to be raised by his great-uncle and other relations in the small town of Le Villars in the Burgundy region of France. There he developed a very strong attachment to his maternal grandfather, Claude Cortot. Through his mother's family he was related to the pianist
Robert Kapilow (December 22, 1952) is an American composer, conductor, and music commentator. He is a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Yale University, a graduate of the Eastman School of Music, and a student of Nadia Boulanger. He initially gained recognition for his classical music radio program, What Makes It Great?, which is under the umbrella of National Public Radio's Performance Today. On the program he presents live full-length concert evenings and series throughout North America. Kapilow's program has become a recurring event at New York's Lincoln Center (where Kapilow has the distinction of being the only artist to have his own series), in Boston, Los Angeles and Kansas City among other venues.
As a composer, Kapilow wrote the first musical setting of a Dr. Seuss's Green Eggs and Ham, which was premiered by the New Jersey Chamber Music Society in 1995. It has since achieved great popularity in the children's theater world, prompting Boston Globe music critic Richard Dyer to name it "the most popular children's piece since Peter and the Wolf". A prolific composer of symphonic works, Kapilow has written pieces for the Kansas City Symphony, the National Symphony Orchestra, the
Walter Johannes Damrosch (January 30, 1862 – December 22, 1950) was a German-born American conductor and composer. He is best remembered today as long-time director of the New York Symphony Orchestra and for conducting the world premiere performances of George Gershwin's Piano Concerto in F (1925), and An American in Paris (1928).
Damrosch was born in Breslau, Silesia, a son of Helene von Heimburg, a former opera singer, and the conductor Leopold Damrosch, and brother of conductor Frank Damrosch and music teacher Clara Mannes. His parents were Lutheran (his paternal grandfather was Jewish). He exhibited an interest in music at an early age and was instructed by his father in harmony and also studied under Wilhelm Albert Rischbieter and Felix Draeseke at the Dresden Conservatory. He emigrated with his parents in 1871 to the United States.
During the great music festival given by his father in May 1881, he first acted as conductor in drilling several sections of the large chorus, one in New York City, and another in Newark, New Jersey. The latter, consisting chiefly of members of the Harmonic Society, elected him to be their conductor. During this time a series of concerts was given
Willem Kes (16 February 1856 – 22 February 1934), was a Dutch conductor and violinist.
He was the first principal conductor of the Concertgebouw Orchestra of Amsterdam, holding that position from 1888 to 1895. He left the Concertgebouw Orchestra to take up a conducting post with the Scottish Orchestra in Glasgow. From 1905 to 1926, Kes was director of a music conservatory in Koblenz.
Carlos Di Sarli (January 7, 1903 – January 12, 1960) was an Argentine tango musician, orchestra leader, composer and pianist.
Carlos di Sarli was born at 511 Buenos Aires street (now Yrigoyen) in the town of Bahía Blanca, located in Southern Argentina. He was the eighth child of the Italian immigrant Miguel Di Sarli, the owner of a gunsmith store, and Serafina Russomano, daughter of the tenor singer Tito Russomano. Baptized as Cayetano di Sarli in accordance with the solid Catholic tradition of his parents, he later changed his name to Carlos. Music played an important role in the family: Carlos' older brother Domingo was a teacher at the Williams music conservatory in Bahía Blanca, Nicolas, another older child, became a famous baritone, and Carlos' younger brother, Roque, turned into a pianist. Carlos received training in classical music in the conservatory where his brother was teaching.
In 1916, working in his father's store, he suffered an accident that cost him an eye and which forced him to wear glasses for the rest of his life. Once recovered from the accident, 13 year old Carlos joined a company of traveling musicians, touring various provinces and playing popular music
Fritz Busch (13 March 1890 - 14 September 1951) was a German conductor.
Busch was born in Siegen, Province of Westphalia. He held posts conducting opera at Aachen, Stuttgart and Dresden. In 1933 he was dismissed from his post at Dresden because of his opposition to the new Nazi government of Germany. He went on to work in South America and Scandinavia before becoming the music director of Glyndebourne Festival Opera in England in 1934. He remained at Glyndebourne until the outbreak of World War II. After this he focused on work in South America and at the Metropolitan Opera in New York. From 1934 to 1951 he was principal guest conductor of the Danish National Symphony Orchestra in Copenhagen. He resumed the Glyndebourne musical directorship in 1950.
He was a National Patron of Delta Omicron, an international professional music fraternity.
Busch was the brother of the distinguished violinist Adolf Busch and of the cellist Hermann Busch. He died in London in 1951.
Source: Fritz Busch discography (in German)
Jonathan May (October 9, 1958 – February 27, 2010) was an American cellist and conductor. He resided in the Orlando, Florida area and was noted for founding and directing numerous youth orchestras and music programs throughout the region.
One of seven children, May was born in Eau Claire, Wisconsin to Walter and Eleanor May, each an accomplished musician and teacher. Jonathan would learn to play the cello at a young age, and after the family moved, he would spend his formative years in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. He earned a bachelor's degree at Augustana College in Sioux Falls, where his father was chairman of the music department. During this time, he met his future wife, Maureen Getting, also an accomplished cellist and student of his mother. Jonathan received his master's degree at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, where he and Maureen would begin a lifelong pursuit of teaching music that would take them across the country.
The May family moved to Central Florida in the early 1990s, where Jonathan would join the faculty of Stetson University in DeLand. As his reputation as a music teacher in the region grew, he was made Artistic Director of the Florida Symphony Youth
Lukas Foss (August 15, 1922 – February 1, 2009) was an American composer, pianist, and conductor.
Born 'Lukas Fuchs' in Berlin, Germany in 1922, Foss was soon recognized as a child prodigy. He began piano and theory lessons with Julius Goldstein [Herford] in Berlin at the age of six. His father was the philosopher and scholar Martin Fuchs. Upon moving with his family to Paris in 1933, where he studied piano with Lazare Lévy, composition with Noël Gallon, orchestration with Felix Wolfes, and flute with Louis Moyse. In 1937 he moved with his parents and brother to the United States, where his father (on advice from the Quakers who had taken the family in upon arrival in Philadelphia) changed the family name from Fuchs to Foss. He studied at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, with Isabelle Vengerova (piano), Rosario Scalero (composition) and Fritz Reiner (conducting).
At Curtis, Foss began a lifelong friendship with classmate Leonard Bernstein, who later described Foss as an "authentic genius." In 1961 Bernstein would conduct the premiere of Foss's Time Cycle, while Foss would conduct the premiere of Bernstein's Symphonic Dances from West Side Story.
Foss also studied with
Paul Salamunovich KCSG (born June 7, 1927) is a Grammy-Nominated, American choral conductor and educator.
He is the Music Director Emeritus of the Los Angeles Master Chorale, after having served as Music Director from 1991 to 2001. He served as Director of Music at St. Charles Borromeo Church in North Hollywood, California, for 60 years between 1949 and 2009. In addition, he has held academic positions at a number of Southern California universities.
He is acknowledged as an expert in Gregorian chant and has long been recognized for his contributions in the field of sacred music, most notably receiving a Papal knighthood in the Order of St. Gregory the Great from Pope Paul VI in 1969. He is also a master clinician, having been invited to conduct just under 1000 festivals and workshops around the world including an unprecedented four consecutive ACDA national conventions—all with different groups.
The youngest of five sons born to immigrant parents from what is now Croatia, he was born in Redondo Beach, California where he attended St. James Elementary School. When a young priest arrived at the parish and started a boy's choir, Salamunovich joined and, as he says, "I was hooked."
William Grant Still (May 11, 1895 – December 3, 1978) was an African-American classical composer who wrote more than 150 compositions. He was the first African-American to conduct a major American symphony orchestra, the first to have a symphony (his first symphony) performed by a leading orchestra, the first to have an opera performed by a major opera company, and the first to have an opera performed on national television. He is often referred to as "the Dean" of African-American composers.
William Grant Still was born in Woodville, Mississippi. He was the son of two teachers, Carrie Lena Fambro Still (1872–1927) and William Grant Still (1871–1895), who was also a partner in a grocery store and performed as a local bandleader. His father William Grant Still Sr. died when his infant son was 3 months old. All are descendants of the famous 19th century abolitionist William Still.
Still moved to Little Rock, Arkansas with his mother, Carrie Lena Fambro Still, where she taught high school English for 33 years. She met and married Charles B. Shepperson, who nurtured his stepson William's musical interests by taking him to operettas and buying Red Seal recordings of classical music,
Arthur Fiedler (December 17, 1894 – July 10, 1979) was a long-time conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra, a symphony orchestra that specializes in popular and light classical music. With a combination of musicianship and showmanship, he made the Boston Pops one of the best-known orchestras in the country. Some people criticized him for over-popularizing music, particularly when adapting popular songs or edited portions of the classical repertoire, but Fiedler kept performances informal and sometimes self-mocking to attract more customers.
Fiedler was born in Boston, Massachusetts to Emanuel and Johanna Fiedler. His father was a Polish-born violinist who played in the Boston Symphony Orchestra, and his mother was a pianist and musician. He grew up in Boston, and attended Boston Latin School until his father retired (in the early 1900s), and they moved to Vienna, Austria, in 1910. The family soon moved again, to Berlin, where from 1911 to 1915 young Fiedler studied violin at the Royal Academy of Music (Hochschule für Musik Berlin) under Willy Hess. Fiedler returned to Boston at the beginning of World War I. In 1915 he joined the Boston Symphony Orchestra under Karl Muck as a
Brett Mitchell (born July 2, 1979) is an American conductor, currently serving as the ninth Music Director of the Saginaw Bay Symphony Orchestra. He was Assistant Conductor of the Orchestre National de France from 2006 to 2009, and Assistant Conductor of the Houston Symphony from 2007 to 2011.
Born in Seattle, Washington, Brett Mitchell began piano studies at age 6, and studied piano, percussion, and saxophone throughout elementary, middle, and high school. He gave his first public performances as a conductor while at Lynnwood High School in 1995 at the age of 16, leading both orchestra and wind ensemble concerts, and served as music director for his first musical in the spring of 1996 while still a high-school junior.
Mitchell began undergraduate work on a degree in music composition at Western Washington University in the fall of 1997. During his four years there, he studied composition and conducting with Roger Briggs and piano with Margaret Brink and Jeffrey Gilliam. As a conductor, he organized many student performances, conducted the school's orchestra, collaborated with faculty in concerto performances, and served as music director for multiple summer stock and other music
Efrem Zimbalist, Sr. (21 April [O.S. 9 April] 1889 or 1890 Rostov on Don, Russia – February 22, 1985, Reno, Nevada, USA) was an internationally known concert violinist, composer, teacher, conductor and director of the Curtis Institute of Music.
Zimbalist was born in the southwestern Russian city of Rostov-on-Don, the son of Jewish parents Maria (née Litvinoff) and Aron Zimbalist, who was a conductor. By the age of nine, Efrem Zimbalist was first violin in his father’s orchestra. At age 12 he entered the Saint Petersburg Conservatory and studied under Leopold Auer. He graduated from the Conservatory in 1907 after winning a gold medal and the Rubinstein Prize, and by age 21 was considered one of the world's greatest violinists.
After graduation he debuted in Berlin (playing the Brahms Concerto) and London in 1907 and in the United States in 1911, with the Boston Symphony Orchestra. In 1912, he played the Glazunov Concerto in a concert marking Leopold Stokowski's first appearance with the London Symphony Orchestra. He then settled in the United States. He did much to popularize the performance of early music. In 1917, he was elected as an honorary member of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia,
Frederick Stock (Friedrich August Stock) (November 11, 1872, Jülich, Rhine Province – October 20, 1942, Chicago, Illinois) was a German conductor and composer, most famous for his 37-year tenure as music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.
Born in Jülich, Germany, Stock was given his early musical education by his army bandmaster father. At the age of 14, he was admitted to the Cologne Conservatory as a student of violin and composition, where he counted composer Engelbert Humperdinck as one of his teachers and conductor Willem Mengelberg among his classmates. After graduating from the conservatory in 1890, Stock joined the Municipal Orchestra of Cologne as a violinist.
In 1895, Stock met with Theodore Thomas, founder and first music director of the then fledgling Chicago Symphony Orchestra, who was to have a decisive impact on his future. Thomas, who was then visiting Germany in search of recruits for his new Chicago orchestra, auditioned Stock and hired him as a violist. Thomas soon realized, however, that his new violist was also a very talented conductor and, in 1899, Stock was promoted to assistant conductor.
After Thomas' death on January 4, 1905, Stock succeeded him
Hugo Riesenfeld (January 26, 1879 – September 10, 1939) was a Jewish Austrian-American composer. As a film director, he began to write his own orchestral compositions for silent films in 1917, and co-created modern production techniques where film scoring serves an integral part of the action. Riesenfeld composed about 100 film scores in his career.
His most successful compositions were for Cecil B. DeMille's Joan the Woman (1917), The Ten Commandments (1923) and The King of Kings (1927); D. W. Griffith's Abraham Lincoln (1930); and the original scores to F. W. Murnau's Sunrise (1927) and Tabu (1931).
Hugo Riesenfeld's musical career began at the age of seven with a violin study at the Conservatory of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna, where he graduated at the age of 17 in piano, violin and composition degrees. He briefly played in the Vienna Philharmonic. By the end of the 19th century, he was playing with Arnold Schönberg, Arthur Bodanzky, and Edward Falck in a local string quartet.
In 1907, Riesenfeld emigrated to New York City, where he worked until 1911 as concert-master for Oscar Hammerstein's Manhattan Opera Company. He served three seasons as bandleader of the
Johann Gottfried Piefke (9 September 1817 – 25 January 1884) was a German conductor, Kapellmeister and composer of military music.
Piefke was born in Schwerin an der Warthe in the Grand Duchy of Posen. In the 1850s, he was Bandmaster for the 8th Infantry Regiment in Berlin. His famous marches include Preußens Gloria (Prussia's Glory), Düppeler Schanzen-Marsch and the Königgrätzer Marsch (composed after the Battle of Königgratz, 1866, the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War). Piefke arranged Franz Liszt's symphonic poem - Tasso for military band and may also have similarly arranged some of Liszt's marches. He died in Frankfurt an der Oder.
Piefke received the following medals:
Lorin Varencove Maazel (born March 6, 1930) is an American conductor, violinist and composer.
Maazel was born to Jewish-American parents of Russian origin in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France and brought up in the United States, primarily at his parents' home in Pittsburgh's Oakland neighborhood. His father, Lincoln Maazel (1903–2009), was a singer, teacher of voice and piano, and an actor (he co-starred in George A. Romero's 1977 horror movie Martin); and his mother, Marion "Marie" Shulman Maazel (1894–1992), founded the Pittsburgh Youth Symphony Orchestra. His grandfather Isaac was a violinist in the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra for twenty years. Both Lincoln and Marie gave interviews for the Oral History Collection at the University of Pittsburgh, Lincoln’s in 1994, and Marie’s in 1974. These can be heard online.
Lorin Maazel was a child prodigy, taking his first conducting lesson at age seven with Vladimir Bakaleinikov and making his debut at age eight. At the age of eleven, he guest conducted the NBC Symphony Orchestra on the radio. At twelve he toured America to conduct major orchestras. He made his violin debut at the age of fifteen. He attended Peabody High School and the
Valentin Radu is founder, artistic director and conductor of Vox Ama Deus, (currently consisting of the Camerata Ama Deus, the Ama Deus Ensemble and the Vox Renaissance Consort) with performances at the Kimmel Center in Philadelphia and other various city, suburban, and Main Line area venues, has led numerous orchestras and vocal ensembles in Europe and the U.S., including the Hungarian National Philharmonic, Bucharest, Arad, Oradea Philharmonics, the Budapest Chamber Orchestra and the Romania National Radio Orchestra. In 1996 he conducted the Bucharest Philharmonic in Handel's Messiah, and in 1997 led the Romanian National Radio Orchestra in Handel's Acis and Galatea (both English language premieres).
He has conducted Vox Ama Deus in various programs ranging from motets and madrigals to authentically staged Renaissance operas performed on original instruments. Since 1997, he has conducted the Ama Deus Ensemble and Maestro Dan Grigore, a Romanian pianist, in Viennese Gala concerts in Philadelphia. He also conducted Ama Deus Ensemble in its yearly Good Friday performances at Cathedral Basilica of SS Peter and Paul in Philadelphia.
Valentin Radu and the Ama Deus Ensemble have
Carlos Antonio de Padua Chávez y Ramírez (13 June 1899 – 2 August 1978) was a Mexican composer, conductor, music theorist, educator, journalist, and founder and director of the Mexican Symphonic Orchestra. He was influenced by native Mexican cultures. Of his six symphonies, the second, or Sinfonía india, which uses native Yaqui percussion instruments, is probably the most popular.
The seventh child of a creole family, Chávez was born on Tacuba avenue in Mexico City, near the suburb of Popotla (García Morillo 1960, 11). His paternal grandfather, José María Chávez Alonso, served as governor of the state of Aguascalientes and was ordered executed by Emperor Maximilian in 1864. His father, Augustín Chávez, invented a plough that was produced and used in the United States, and died when Carlos was barely three years old (Parker 1998, 3).
Carlos had his first piano lessons from his brother Manuel, and later on he was taught by Asunción Parra, Manuel Ponce and Pedro Luis Ozagón, for piano, and later Juan Fuentes for harmony. His family often went on vacations to Tlaxcala, Michoacán, Guanajuato, Oaxaca and other places where the cultural influence of the Mexican indigenous peoples was
David Mannes (1866–1959) was an American violinist, conductor, and educator.
Mannes studied in Berlin with Karol Haliř and was a violinist in the New York Symphony Orchestra from 1891 and its concertmaster from 1898 to 1912. In 1912 he helped found the Colored Music Settlement School and in 1916, with his wife Clara Mannes, the Mannes Music School, both in New York City. Music Is My Faith is his autobiography. Mannes is also discussed in Maurice Peress' "Dvorak to Duke Ellington: A Conductor Explores America's Music and Its African American Roots."
His children were musician Leopold Mannes and writer Marya Mannes.
Eleazar de Carvalho (28 June 1912, Iguatu, Ceará – 12 September 1996, São Paulo) was a Brazilian conductor and composer.
De Carvalho's parents were Manuel Alfonso de Carvalho and Dalila Mendonça. He studied in the United States with Sergei Koussevitzky at the Berkshire Music Center, and later became a conducting assistant to Koussevitzky, at the same time as Leonard Bernstein. He received a Ph.D. in music from Washington State University in 1963.
In Brazil, de Carvalho held principal conducting positions with the Orquestra Sinfônica Brasileira of Rio de Janeiro, Orquestra Sinfônica do Estado de São Paulo, Orquestra Sinfônica do Recife, Orquestra Sinfônica da Paraiba and also with the Orquestra Sinfônica de Porto Alegre. In the United States, his major post was as music director of the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra (SLSO), from 1963 to 1968. During his Saint Louis tenure, he was noted as a champion of contemporary music. He also conducted the first SLSO performances of Igor Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring, Ludwig van Beethoven's Missa solemnis, and the Grande messe des morts of Hector Berlioz.
De Carvalho taught at Hofstra University and the Juilliard School of Music. In 1987, he
Leonard Bernstein ( /ˈbɜrnstaɪn/ US dict: bûrn′·stīn; August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American composer, conductor, author, music lecturer and pianist. He was among the first conductors born and educated in the United States of America to receive worldwide acclaim. According to The New York Times, he was "one of the most prodigiously talented and successful musicians in American history." He is quite possibly the conductor whose name is best known to the public in general, especially the American public.
His fame derived from his long tenure as the music director of the New York Philharmonic, from his conducting of concerts with most of the world's leading orchestras, and from his music for West Side Story, as well as Candide, Wonderful Town, On the Town and his own Mass.
Bernstein was also the first conductor to give numerous television lectures on classical music, starting in 1954 and continuing until his death. In addition, he was a skilled pianist, often conducting piano concertos from the keyboard.
As a composer he wrote in many styles encompassing symphonic and orchestral music, ballet, film and theatre music, choral works, opera, chamber music and pieces for the
Alfred Cellier (1 December 1844 – 28 December 1891) was an English composer, orchestrator and conductor.
In addition to conducting and music directing the original productions of several of the most famous Gilbert and Sullivan works and writing the overtures to some of them, Cellier conducted at many theatres in London, New York and on tour in Britain, America and Australia. He composed over a dozen operas and other works for the theatre, as well as for orchestra, but his 1886 comic opera, Dorothy, was by far his most successful work. It became the longest-running piece of musical theatre in the nineteenth century.
Cellier was born at Hackney, in London. His parents were Arsène Cellier from France, a professor of languages at Hackney grammar school, and his wife Mary Ann. He was educated at the grammar school in Hackney. From 1855 to 1860, he was a chorister at the Chapel Royal, St. James's, under the Rev. Thomas Helmore, where Arthur Sullivan was one of his schoolmates. Cellier later married Harriet Emily. Cellier's brother, François, also became a conductor.
Cellier's first appointments were as organist at All Saints' Church, Blackheath and as conductor of the Belfast
Allan Dennis is the founder and director of the Midwest Young Artists youth orchestra program based in Highwood, Illinois. He received his doctorate from Indiana University, his Bachelor's and Master's degrees from the State University of New York at Fredonia and has also studied at the Eastman School of Music and The Royal Flemish Conservatory of Music, in Antwerp. He also conducts the Kankakee Valley Symphony Orchestra.
He has also won the Illinois Music Council's Director of the Year Award, and MYA has won the Best Youth Orchestra, Best Chamber Music Program, Best Staff, and Best Volunteers awards several times. Students call him Dr D.
Robert "Bobby" McFerrin, Jr. (born March 11, 1950) is a versatile American vocalist and conductor. He is best known for his 1988 hit song "Don't Worry, Be Happy". He is a ten-time Grammy Award winner. He is well known for his unique vocal techniques and singing styles.
Bobby McFerrin was born in Manhattan, New York City, the son of operatic baritone Robert McFerrin and singer Sara Copper. Robert Sr. was the first African American to be a regular with New York's Metropolitan Opera. Sara is a former soloist with regional opera companies and in Broadway shows, and is a professor emeritus of music at Fullerton College in Fullerton, California.
Bobby McFerrin married Debbie Green in 1975. They have three children.
McFerrin's song "Don't Worry, Be Happy" was a No. 1 U.S. pop hit in 1988 and won Song of the Year and Record of the Year honors. McFerrin has also worked in collaboration with instrumental performers, including pianists Chick Corea, Herbie Hancock, and Joe Zawinul, drummer Tony Williams, and cellist Yo-Yo Ma.
As a vocalist, McFerrin often switches rapidly between modal and falsetto registers to create polyphonic effects, performing both the main melody and the accompanying
Horst Walter Stein (born 2 May 1928 in Elberfeld, Germany; died 27 July 2008 in Vandœuvres, Switzerland) was a German conductor.
Stein's father was a mechanic. At school in Frankfurt, he studied piano, oboe, and singing. Later, he continued studies at the university in Cologne, including lessons in composition with Busoni's disciple Philipp Jarnach. From 1947 to 1951, he was a repetiteur in Wuppertal.
In 1955, at the invitation of Erich Kleiber Stein conducted at the opening of the restored Berlin State Opera (Unter den Linden), and subsequently worked there as a Staatskapellmeister. From 1961 to 1963, he worked under the leadership of Rolf Liebermann as deputy chief conductor at the Hamburg State Opera. From 1963 to 1970, Stein served as chief conductor and director of opera at the Mannheim National Theatre. Stein held a regular post at the Vienna State Opera from 1969 to 1971, where he conducted 500 performances. He returned to the Hamburg State Opera as General Music Director from 1972 to 1977.
In 1952, Stein began work as a conducting assistant at the Bayreuth Festival to such conductors as Joseph Keilberth, Hans Knappertsbusch, Clemens Krauss and Herbert von Karajan. From 1969
James Anderson DePreist (born November 21, 1936; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is an American conductor. One of the few African-American conductors on the world stage, he is currently the director of conducting and orchestral studies at the Juilliard School and laureate music director of the Oregon Symphony.
DePreist was born in Philadelphia to James (died 1942) and Ethel Anderson DePreist (1902–1990), and is the nephew of contralto Marian Anderson, his mother's sister. He has served for more than three decades in multiple roles as Music Director of Orchestre Symphonique de Québec, the Malmö Symphony Orchestra in Sweden, Monte-Carlo Philharmonic Orchestra and the Oregon Symphony. He currently serves as Artistic Advisor to the Pasadena Symphony.
As guest conductor, DePreist has appeared with every major North American orchestra. He has also led orchestras in Amsterdam, Berlin, Budapest, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Manchester, Melbourne, Munich, Prague, Rome, Rotterdam, Seoul, Stockholm, Stuttgart, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Tokyo and Vienna. He made his London debut with the London Symphony Orchestra at the Barbican Arts Centre in April 2005.
James DePreist appears regularly at the Aspen Music
Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich, KBE (Russian: Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич, Mstislav Leopol'dovič Rostropovič, pronounced [rəstrɐˈpɔvʲɪtɕ]; March 27, 1927 – April 27, 2007), was a Soviet and Russian cellist and conductor. He was married to the soprano Galina Vishnevskaya. He is widely considered to have been the greatest cellist of the second half of the 20th century, and one of the greatest of all time. In addition to his outstanding interpretations and technique, he was well known for both inspiring and commissioning new works which enlarged the cello repertoire more than any cellist before or since. He gave the premieres of over 100 pieces, forming long-standing friendships and artistic partnerships with composers including Dmitri Shostakovich, Sergei Prokofiev, Henri Dutilleux, Witold Lutoslawski, Alfred Schnittke, Andreas Makris and especially Benjamin Britten.
Rostropovich was internationally recognized as a staunch advocate of human rights, and was awarded the 1974 Award of the International League of Human Rights.
Rostropovich was born in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, USSR, to parents who had moved from Orenburg. Rostropovich was of mostly ethnic Russian ancestry; his
Anthony Holland is the Associate Professor of Music at Skidmore College, conductor of the Skidmore College Orchestra and Director of the electronic music program. He is well known as a contemporary American composer and music technology professor. He has had several world premiere recordings of his works most recently including his Concerto for Organ and Orchestra.
Dr. Holland is also an accomplished amateur science researcher in electrical fields and fields phenomenon. His actual experimentation has ranged from fields in aerodynamics to fields in bio-electronic applications. Most recently Dr. Holland has been investigating the experimental claims of electric frequency transmission devices being able to cure cancer. Details are found on his web page under "Science Experiments". As in his music work, his science experiments are careful, "hands on" work, but completely creative.
Holland attended the Baldwin-Wallace Conservatory of Music in Berea, Ohio, and received a Bachelor of Music degree in 1978. He received his Masters degree from the Cleveland Institute of Music and Case-Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1982. From 1978-82 He was a scholarship student at The
Ernst Edler von Schuch, born Ernst Gottfried Schuch (23 November 1846, Graz – 10 May 1914, Niederlößnitz/Radebeul Dresden) was an Austrian conductor, who became famous through his working collaborations with Richard Strauss at the Dresden Court Opera.
Schuch first studied law, and later turned to music, being trained at first by E. Stolz. He studied in Graz and later in Vienna, briefly with Felix Otto Dessoff, and began in 1867 as Kapellmeister at Lobe's Theatre in Breslau. There followed engagements in Würzburg (1868–1870), Graz (1870/1871) and Basle, until he was employed in 1872 by Pollini's Italian Opera for Dresden. There in 1872 he became Music director at the Court Opera, from 1873 Royal Kapellmeister with Julius Rietz, later with Franz Wüllner. In 1878 he became a Royal Professor. In 1882 he undertook the direction of the Court Opera as Privy Councillor, and in 1889 he became General Music Director. He took up residence in 1882 in Niederlößnitz in the Weintraubenstraße (in 1883 on his own suggestion renamed as Schuchstraße 15/17). In 1898 Schuch was ennobled by the Austrian emperor and in 1899 was appointed to the Saxon Confidential Privy Council. His period of influence is
Herbert Lincoln Clarke (September 12, 1867–January 30, 1945) was a well-known American cornet player, feature soloist, bandmaster, and composer.
Clarke’s legacy includes composing a portion of the standard repertoire for the instrument, many recordings, as well as a seminal school of playing which emphasized not only technical aptitude, but also increased warmth and lyricism of tone. He also produced several method books that are still used by brass students to this day.
Clarke was born in Woburn, Massachusetts in 1867. The son of composer, organist, and organbuilder William Horatio Clarke, Herbert's family moved often to accommodate William's work engagements, from Massachusetts to Ohio, to Indiana, back to Massachusetts, and finally to Toronto in 1880. There were three brothers, Edwin, Ernest, and Herbert; all became prominent musicians, Edwin on cornet and flugelhorn (he also managed Sousa's Band in its 1911 world tour), Ernest on trombone (and later professor of trombone at Juilliard), and Herbert on cornet.
Clarke's early musical instruction had been on the violin; by 1881, he was a second violinist in the Toronto Philharmonic Society. However, according to his autobiography,
Howard Harold Hanson (October 28, 1896 – February 26, 1981) was an American composer, conductor, educator, music theorist, and champion of American classical music. As director for 40 years of the Eastman School of Music, he built a high-quality school and provided opportunities for commissioning and performing American music. He won a Pulitzer Prize for one of his works and received numerous other awards.
Hanson was born in Wahoo, Nebraska, to Swedish immigrant parents, Hans and Hilma (Eckstrom) Hanson. In his youth he studied music with his mother. Later, he studied at Luther College in Wahoo, receiving a diploma in 1911, then at the Institute of Musical Art, the forerunner of the Juilliard School, in New York City, where he studied with the composer and music theorist Percy Goetschius in 1914. Afterward he attended Northwestern University, where he studied composition with church music expert Peter Lutkin and Arne Oldberg in Chicago. Throughout his education, Hanson studied piano, cello and trombone. Hanson earned his BA degree in music from Northwestern in 1916, where he began his teaching career as a teacher's assistant.
In 1916, Hanson was hired for his first full-time
Karl Anton Florian Eckert (17 December 1820 – 14 October 1879) was a German conductor and composer.
Eckert was born in Berlin, Germany, and by the age of five, had already proved himself as a musical child prodigy. After coming to the attention of Sing-Akademie zu Berlin director Carl Friedrich Zelter, he was entered into the academy in 1832, and with Zelter's support had his debut piano concert in the fall of that year.
He was later appointed Kapellmeister of Staatsoper Unter den Linden where he remained until the spring of 1848. After the end of the political turmoil of the Revolutions of 1848, Eckert left Berlin for Amsterdam, and later Brussels.
Eckert died in Berlin at age 58.
Rudolph Ganz (24 February 1877 – 2 August 1972) was a Swiss pianist, conductor and composer. He claimed direct descent from Charlemagne.
Ganz was born in Zürich, Switzerland. A pupil of Ferruccio Busoni in Berlin, he became head of piano studies at the Chicago Musical College in 1901. From 1921 to 1927 he was the conductor of the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra and did much to raise it to the top rank of orchestras. While in St. Louis, he was initiated as an honorary member of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia music fraternity in 1924 at the University of Missouri. From 1928 he returned to teach at the Chicago Musical College, serving as its president from 1934 to 1958. He died in Chicago.
Ganz was active in the promotion of new music throughout his career. In 1923 he received the Légion d'honneur of France for his introduction of the works of Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel to American audiences, and in later years he performed and conducted pieces by Pierre Boulez, John Cage and Arthur Honegger. Ravel, in a letter to Ganz, thanked him for his performances of Ravel's work, and dedicated Scarbo the third part of his composition Gaspard de la Nuit to him in gratitude.
His pupils included Marion
Zdeněk Mácal (Czech pronunciation: [ma:tsal]) (born 8 January 1936, Brno, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech conductor.
Mácal began violin lessons with his father at age four. He later attended the Brno Conservatory and the Janáček Academy of Music and Performing Arts, where he graduated in 1960 with top honors. He became principal conductor of the Prague Symphony Orchestra and conducted both symphonic concerts and operas. He won the 1965 International Conducting Competition in Besançon, France, and the 1966 Dimitri Mitropoulos Competition in New York, under the direction of Leonard Bernstein. Leaving behind a promising career in Czechoslovakia, he left the country after the Soviet-led invasion of 1968 crushed the Prague Spring, finding work first at the WDR Symphony Orchestra Cologne, followed by the Radio Orchestra of Hanover.
Mácal made his American debut with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in 1972. He served as Artistic Advisor of the San Antonio Symphony and principal conductor of Chicago's Grant Park Music Festival.
Mácal was appointed Chief Conductor of the Sydney Symphony Orchestra for a three-year contract, beginning with the 1986 season. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation
Alfred Wallenstein (October 7, 1898 – February 8, 1983) was an American cellist and conductor, born in Chicago, Illinois. At the age of 17, he joined the San Francisco Symphony as a cellist. He subsequently played cello with the Los Angeles Philharmonic, and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra before becoming principal cello of the New York Philharmonic under Arturo Toscanini in 1929. He frequently performed with these orchestras as a soloist.
Toscanini, also a cellist, advised Wallenstein to become a conductor. He conducted the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra and then conducted frequently on the radio. From 1943 to 1956, he was music director of the Los Angeles Philharmonic. He later taught at the Juilliard School in New York, where he died in 1983 at age 84.
In 1941, Wallenstein was given a personal Peabody Award for Outstanding Entertainment in Music.
He was a descendant of Albrecht von Wallenstein.
Dr. Brady Allred is an American conductor of choral and orchestral music who currently serves as the Artistic Director and Conductor of the Salt Lake Choral Artists, a regional choir organization with five choirs with a total of approximately 350 singers that has been critically acclaimed for its innovative concerts and Summer Choral Institute program.
Prior to resigning in October 2010, Dr. Allred served as the Director of Choral Studies at the University of Utah, where he conducted the award-winning University of Utah Singers and the A Cappella Choir.
Allred's ensembles have been invited to participate in major festivals and have received honors including the Grand Prize at the Florilège Vocal de Tours International Choir Competition and First Prizes at the Marktoberdorf International Chamber Choir Competition with 2 different choirs, as well as an award for Best Interpretation of 20th Century Music and the Conductor's Prize. The University of Utah Singers, under Dr. Allred's direction, won the Grand Prize at the 2006 European Grand Prix for Choral Singing International Choral Competition.
Under his leadership, Dr. Allred's choirs have completed nine international tours of Europe
James W. Sample (October 8, 1910 – October 7, 1995) was an American conductor.
Sample was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and began studying the violin at age ten and piano at age eleven. By the age of twenty he conducted his first symphony in Minneapolis. He earned his bachelor’s in music degree at the MacPhail School of Music in 1930. In Europe, he studied for four years receiving a diploma at the Mozarteum Salzburg in 1934, and also studied with Pierre Monteux who was conducting the Paris Symphony. Sample also studied with Henri Verbrugghen and Bernhard Paumgartner. He also received a doctorate in music in 1942 from the New York College of Music and a doctor of laws degree from Gannon College in 1963.
James Sample was the Master of Music at The Blake School in Minneapolis 1929-1933. He also organized the Little Symphony of Minneapolis 1931-1933. Guest conducting in Austria and France occupied his musical efforts in 1933-1937. He was the conductor for the symphony and opera music project in Los Angeles, 1938-1942. In this capacity he led the premier of Igor Stravinsky’s choral and orchestral setting of The Star-Spangled Banner on October 14, 1941 at the Embassy Auditorium in Los
Jong Won Park (Korean: 박종원 September 23) is a professional choral conductor in the United States.
Dr. Jong Won Park received his Bachelor of Music degree in Voice Performance from Yonsei University in Seoul, Korea, a Master of Music in Voice Performance from the Cleveland Institute of Music, a Master of Music in Choral Conducting from Cleveland State University, and his Doctor of Musical Arts degree in Choral Conducting from Michigan State University. Dr. Park studied voice under Ethel Armeling, Ivrin Bushmann, and studied conducting under Charles Smith.
Dr. Park, a baritone, has appeared as a recitalist and soloist in many performances of Oratorio and Mass. He has frequently sung with Robert Shaw (conductor), including performances with the Robert Shaw Festival Singers at Souillac in France 1990 and the concerts at Carnegie Hall in 1991 and 1992. Park has guest conducted several professional choirs in Korea such as Seoul City Choir, the Seoul Ladies Singers, the Chon-Ahn City Chorus, and the Chejoo Concert Choir. He is a founder of the Atlanta Master Chorale, a community chorus, and the JW Chorale, which is a semi-professional female choir. Also, he was a co-founder of Sonorium,
Carl Otto Ehrenfried Nicolai (9 June 1810 – 11 May 1849) was a German composer, conductor, and founder of the Vienna Philharmonic. Nicolai is best known for his operatic version of Shakespeare's comedy The Merry Wives of Windsor (Die lustigen Weiber von Windsor). In addition to five operas, Nicolai composed lieder, works for orchestra, chorus, ensemble, and solo instruments.
Nicolai, a child prodigy, was born in Königsberg, Prussia. He received his first musical education from his father, himself a composer and musical director, Carl Ernst Daniel Nicolai. During his childhood his parents divorced, and while still a youth, early in June 1826, Nicolai ran away from his parents' "loveless" home, taking refuge in Stargard with a senior legal official called August Adler who treated the musical prodigy like a son and, when Nikolai was seventeen, sent him to Berlin to study with Carl Friedrich Zelter.
After initial successes in Germany, including his first Symphony (1831) and public concerts, he became musician to the Prussian Embassy in Rome. During the early 1840s he established himself as a major figure in the concert life of Vienna. In 1844 he was offered the position, vacated by
Philip Brunelle is an American conductor and organist. He founded VocalEssence (previously known as the Plymouth Music Series) in 1969 and remains the artistic director today. Brunelle has conducted such noted groups as the BBC Singers, the Houston Symphony, the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra, the New York Philharmonic, the Minnesota Orchestra, the Seattle Symphony and the Cleveland Orchestra among others. He has also been a guest conductor at several notable music festivals including the Berkshire Choral Festival and the Oregon Bach Festival. His engagements have taken him across the United States, South America and Europe. Brunelle served for many years on the board of directors of Chorus America and the National Council on the Arts and he currently serves on the Board of Regents at St. Olaf College and the Board of Directors of the Greater Minneapolis Convention and Visitors Association. In 2001, he was inducted into the Minnesota Music Hall of Fame and he has won a myriad of awards including the Kodaly Medal from the government of Hungary, the Stig Andersson Award for contributions to Swedish music and the Minneapolis Award presented to him by Mayor Sharon Sayles Belton. He has
William D. Revelli (February 12, 1902 - July 16, 1994) was the director of bands, including the Michigan Marching Band, at the University of Michigan for 36 years from 1935-1971. During his 36 years as director, the Michigan Marching Band won international acclaim for its musical precision. Revelli is also credited with innovations that moved college marching bands across the country away from rigid military formations. Among other things, Revelli’s Michigan Marching Band was the first to synchronize music and movement and the first to use an announcer.
Born in Spring Gulch, Colorado, Revelli studied violin as a child, graduated from the Beethoven Conservatory of Music in St. Louis, and received degrees from the Chicago Musical College, Columbia School of Music and Vandercook School of Music. He also played in various pit orchestras in Chicago before accepting a high-school conducting job at Hobart High School in Hobart, Indiana in 1925. Revelli transformed the Hobart High School Band into one of the best small high school bands in the country. He was music director at Hobart from 1925–1935, where his bands won either five or six national championships. In 1934, Revelli's Hobart
Witold Rowicki (true surname Kałka, 26 February 1914 in Taganrog – 1 October 1989 in Warsaw) was a Polish conductor. He held principal conducting positions with the Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra and the Bamberg Symphony Orchestra.
His recordings include:
Review of a concert in the Royal Festival Hall London with the Warsaw Philharmonic. Works include the 4th symphony of Tchaikovsky and, with Wanda Wilkomirska, a performance of the Britten Violin Concerto
John Philip Sousa (/ˈsuːsə/; November 6, 1854 – March 6, 1932) was an American composer and conductor of the late Romantic era, known particularly for American military and patriotic marches. Because of his mastery of march composition, he is known as "The March King" or the "American March King" due to his British counterpart Kenneth J. Alford also being known as "The March King". Among his best known marches are "The Washington Post", "Semper Fidelis" (Official March of the United States Marine Corps), and "The Stars and Stripes Forever" (National March of the United States of America).
His father was Portuguese, and his mother of Bavarian ancestry. Sousa began his career playing violin and studying music theory and composition under John Esputa and George Felix Benkert. His father eventually enlisted him in the United States Marine Band as an apprentice in 1868. After departing the band in 1875, Sousa eventually learned to conduct. From 1880 until his death, Sousa began focusing exclusively on conducting and wrote marches during this time. He eventually rejoined the Marine Band and served there for 12 years as director. Upon leaving the Marine Band, Sousa organized his own band.
Georg Høeberg (December 27, 1872 – August 3, 1950) was a Danish composer and conductor. His 1933 performance of Carl Nielsen's Fifth Symphony is thought to be the earliest surviving recorded performance of any Nielsen symphony. His grandfather was the Danish composer and conductor at Tivoli Gardens, Hans Christian Lumbye.
Hans Knappertsbusch (12 March 1888 – 25 October 1965) was a German conductor, best known for his performances of the music of Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner and Richard Strauss.
Knappertsbusch was born in Elberfeld, today's Wuppertal. He studied philosophy at Bonn University and conducting at the Cologne Conservatory with Fritz Steinbach. For a few summers, he assisted Siegfried Wagner and Hans Richter at Bayreuth. He began his career with conducting jobs in Elberfeld (1913-1918), Leipzig (1918-1919) and Dessau (1919-1922). When Bruno Walter left Munich for New York, Knappertsbusch succeeded him as General Music Director of the Bavarian State Orchestra and the Bavarian State Opera, with a lifelong contract. Knappertsbusch later refused to join the Nazi party.
He incurred the wrath of Goebbels by asking a German diplomat in the Netherlands whether he was a "Muss-Nazi" (someone who was forced to join the Nazi Party for career reasons): as a result his Munich contract was revoked. Hitler himself was involved in the decision to dismiss him. In 1936 Sir Thomas Beecham invited him to Covent Garden to conduct but his permit to leave Germany was withheld. In the late 1930s he went to
Jordan Lancaster Brown is an American conductor. He has conducted the National Symphony Orchestra, the Albano Ballet Company; the Wiener Kammeroper; and Denmark’s Odense Symphony Orchestra. Of his National Symphony Orchestra debut, the Washington Post wrote: “Brown conducted with vigor and authority…the orchestra played brilliantly for him, and the evening ended with a warm ovation.”
Jordan Lancaster Brown attended the Yale School of Music where he held the Charles Ives Fellowship and conducted the New Music Ensemble. He studied conducting with Phillip Spurgeon, Michael Tilson Thomas, Leonard Slatkin, and Otto-Werner Mueller, and attended the Salzburg Mozarteum International Summer Academy. Brown also holds degrees in Conducting and Cello Performance from the Florida State University College of Music.
Jordan Brown made his major orchestra debut in 2003 conducting the National Symphony Orchestra at the Kennedy Center, after twice participating in the National Conducting Institute under the guidance of Leonard Slatkin. Since his debut Mr. Brown has been in demand as a guest conductor and conductor of opera. He has also conducted the Seattle Symphony, Houston Symphony, Atlanta
Sir Julius Benedict (27 November 1804 – 5 June 1885) was a German-born composer and conductor, resident in England for most of his career.
Benedict was born in Stuttgart, the son of a Jewish banker, and learnt composition from Johann Nepomuk Hummel at Weimar and Carl Maria von Weber at Dresden; it was Weber who introduced him in Vienna to Beethoven on 5 October 1823. In the same year he was appointed Kapellmeister of the Kärnthnerthor theatre at Vienna, and two years later in 1825, he became Kapellmeister of the San Carlo theatre at Naples. It was here he gave piano lessons to the young prodigy Theodor Döhler.
In Naples his first opera, Giacinta ed Ernesto, premiered in 1827, and another, written for his native city, I Portoghesi in Goa, was given there in 1830; neither of these was a great success, and in 1834 he went to Paris, leaving it in 1835 at the suggestion of Maria Malibran for London, where he spent the remainder of his life. In 1836 he was given the conductorship of an operatic enterprise at the Lyceum Theatre, and brought out a short opera, Un anno ed un giorno, previously given in Naples.
In 1838 he became conductor of the English opera at Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
Leo Blech (21 April 1871 – 25 August 1958) was a German opera composer and conductor who is perhaps most famous for his work at the Königliches Schauspielhaus (later the Berlin State Opera (Staatsoper Unter den Linden) from 1906 to 1937, and later as the conductor of Berlin's Städtische Oper from 1949 to 1953. Blech was known for his reliable, clear, and elegant performances, especially of works by Wagner, Verdi, and Bizet's Carmen (which he conducted over 600 times), and for his sensitivity as an accompanist.
Blech was born to a Jewish family in Aachen, Rhenish Prussia. After attending the Hochschule in Berlin where he studied piano with Ernst Rudorff and composition from Woldemar Bargiel, he studied privately with Engelbert Humperdinck.
After working briefly in sales, he landed a position conducting at the Stadttheater Aachen in 1893. From 1899 to 1906, he conducted at the Neues Deutsches Theater in Prague before moving to the Königliches Schauspielhaus in Berlin. In 1913, he was promoted to General Music Director. Between 1923 and 1926, he took various positions at opera houses in Berlin and Vienna, including the Deutsches Opernhaus, the Volksoper Berlin and the Vienna
Walter Herbert (né Seligmann, February 18, 1898 – September 14, 1975) was an American conductor and impresario of German birth, as well as a world champion at contract bridge.
He was born Walter Seligmann in Frankfurt, and studied composition under Arnold Schönberg in Vienna. He gained experience as a conductor in Germany and Switzerland, as well as chief conductor at the Vienna Volksoper (1931–38). His operatic debut was with Carmen, at the Stadttheater Bern, in 1925. Just before the 1938 Anschluss of Germany and Austria, Herbert visited Japan to introduce modern western music. From there he migrated to the United States, where he became an American citizen in 1944.
Herbert was director of Opera in English (San Francisco, 1940–43), and in 1943 was appointed the first general director of the New Orleans Opera Association, where he held the post until 1954. He proceeded to found the Houston Grand Opera in 1955, where he remained as both general director and conductor until 1972, and was music director of Opera/South (which was founded by Sister M. Elise Sisson, SBS) in Jackson, Mississippi. He founded the San Diego Opera in 1965, and became its general director and conductor from
William Eddins (born December 9, 1964 in Buffalo, New York) is an American pianist and conductor. He is the Music Director of the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra.
Eddins started playing piano at age 5 after his parents purchased a piano at a garage sale. He studied with David Effron at the Eastman School of Music in Rochester, New York, and completed his degree in piano performance in 1983 at age 18, one of the youngest graduates in the institution's history. He subsequently studied conducting with Daniel Lewis at the University of Southern California Thornton School of Music. In 1987, he was a founding member of the New World Symphony Orchestra in Miami, Florida.
Eddins has served as Associate Conductor of the Minnesota Orchestra, Resident Conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Principal Guest Conductor of the RTÉ National Symphony Orchestra, and assistant to Daniel Barenboim at the Berlin State Opera.
In 2000, Eddins received the Seaver Conducting Award (funded by the Seaver Institute and the National Endowment for the Arts), a triennial grant awarded to exceptionally gifted young American conductors.
As a conductor, Eddins is eclectic in his preferences. A classicist in his
Adolf Heinrich Anton Magnus Neuendorff, also known as Adolph Neuendorff (June 13, 1843 - December 4, 1897) was a German-American composer, violinist, pianist and conductor, stage director and theater manager.
Born in Hamburg, Germany, Neuendorff emigrated with his father to New York in 1855. Here he studied music, violin lessons with G. Matzka and Joseph Weinlich, and lessons of piano, music theory and composition with Dr. Gustav Schilling. In 1859 he made his début as a concert pianist at Dodworth Hall. In 1861 went on a tour around Brazil, playing the violin.
In 1864 he returned to the United States, now living in Milwaukee. Here he was conductor of the orchestra at the German Theatre and chorus-master of Carl Anschutz's German Opera Company. Later he succeeded Anschutz as conductor.
In 1867 he became music-director of the New Stadt Theatre in New York. Here he conducted the American first performances of Wagner's Lohengrin, on April 3, 1871, and Die Walküre, on April 2, 1877. In 1872 he brought Theodor Wachtel to the United States, and, with Carl Rosa, gave a season of Italian opera at the Academy of music. In that year he also established the Germania Theatre in New York, of
Dimitri Zinovievich Tiomkin (May 10, 1894 – November 11, 1979) was a Ukrainian-born Hollywood film score composer and conductor. He is considered "one of the giants of Hollywood movie music." Musically trained in Russia, he is best known for his westerns, "where his expansive, muscular style had its greatest impact." Tiomkin received 22 Academy Award nominations and won four Oscars.
Dimitri Tiomkin (Ukrainian: Дмитро Зиновійович Тьомкін, Dmytro Zynoviyovych Tiomkin, Russian: Дмитрий Зиновьевич Тёмкин, Dmitrij Zinov'evič Tjomkin, sometimes transliterated as Dmitri Tiomkin) was born in Kremenchuk, Ukraine, then part of the Russian Empire.
His family was of Jewish descent, with his father a "distinguished pathologist" and associate of Professor Paul Ehrlich, the inventor and Nobel laureate noted for discovering a cure for syphilis and for his research in autoimmunity, later becoming chemotherapy. His mother was a musician who began teaching the young Tiomkin piano at an early age. Her hope was to have her son become a professional pianist, according to Tiomkin biographer, Christopher Palmer. Tiomkin described his mother as being "small, blonde, merry and vivacious."
He was educated at
Fabien Sevitzky (September 29, 1893, Vyshny Volochyok - February 3, 1967, Athens) was a Russian-born American conductor. He was the nephew of Serge Koussevitsky.
Sevitzky became music director of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra in 1937, after his first conducting appearance with the ensemble in the winter of 1936. He served in the post until 1955.
Sevitzky married the harpist Mary Spaulding in 1959, and the couple subsequently moved to Miami to take up faculty positions at the University of Miami. In addition, Ms. Spaulding gave private harp lessons. Sevitzky became a guest conductor of the University of Miami orchestra after his arrival, and subsequently its permanent conductor in 1963. He was a champion of the music of William Grant Still and commissioned works from Still, including the Threnody: In Memory of Jan Sibelius. Sevitzky conducted the premiere of Still's opera Highway 1, U.S.A. in 1960. He also served as music director of the Greater Miami Philharmonic Orchestra, until his sudden death in 1967.
Sevitzky's wife Mary (later Mary Spaulding Portanova) survived him.
Gustav Leonhardt (30 May 1928, 's-Graveland – 16 January 2012, Amsterdam) was a renowned Dutch keyboard player, conductor, musicologist, teacher and editor. Leonhardt was a leading figure in the movement to perform music on period instruments. He professionally played many instruments, including the harpsichord, pipe organ, claviorganum (a combination of harpsichord and organ), clavichord and fortepiano. He also conducted orchestras and choruses.
He was born in 's-Graveland, North Holland and studied organ and harpsichord from 1947 to 1950 with Eduard Müller at the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis in Basel. In 1950, he made his debut as a harpsichordist in Vienna, where he studied musicology. He was professor of harpsichord at the Academy of Music from 1952 to 1955 and at the Amsterdam Conservatory from 1954. He was also a church organist.
Leonhardt performed and conducted a variety of solo, chamber, orchestral, operatic, and choral music from the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical periods. Among the dozens of composers whose music he recorded as a harpsichordist, organist, clavichordist, fortepianist, chamber musician or conductor were Johann Sebastian Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach,
Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886 – November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer. He is widely considered to have been one of the greatest symphonic and operatic conductors of the 20th century. During the 1920s and 1930s he became one of the leading conductors in Europe - as principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic from 1922, as principal conductor of the Gewandhaus Orchestra from 1922-6, and as a major guest conductor of other leading orchestras such as the Vienna Philharmonic. He was the leading conductor who remained in Germany during the Second World War, and although not an adherent to the Nazi regime this decision caused controversy for the rest of his life. The extent to which his presence lent prestige to the Third Reich is still debated. Furtwängler's interpretive art is well documented in commercial and off-air recordings and this has led to him being revered by a large number of musicians, critics and record collectors since his death. His conducting style is often contrasted to that of his older contemporary Arturo Toscanini, whose work during this period was also widely documented. Like Toscanini, Furtwängler was a major influence on many later
Fabio Luisi (born 17 January 1959, Genoa) is an Italian conductor. On September 6, 2011, he was named Principal Conductor of the Metropolitan Opera.
As a child, Luisi suffered from asthma. Luisi attended the Conservatorio Nicolò Paganini and was a student of Memi Schiavina. After receiving his degree in piano studies, he continued piano instruction with Aldo Ciccolini and Antonio Bacchelli.
Luisi developed an interest in conducting while working as a piano accompanist, and he studied conducting at the conservatory in Graz with Milan Horvat. He worked at the Graz Opera as an accompanist and conductor. His first conducting appearance was in Italy in 1984. From 1990 to 1995, he was principal conductor of the Graz Symphony Orchestra. From 1995 to 2000, he served as Artistic Director and Chief Conductor of the Tonkünstlerorchester in Vienna. From 1996 to 1999, he was one of three main conductors (Hauptdirigenten) of the MDR Symphony Orchestra (Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk Sinfonieorchester) in Leipzig, along with Marcello Viotti and Manfred Honeck. From 1999 to 2007, he was sole principal conductor of the MDR orchestra. He was the principal conductor of l'Orchestre de la Suisse Romande from
André George Previn, KBE (born Andreas Ludwig Priwin; April 6, 1929) is a German-American pianist, conductor, and composer. He is considered one of the most versatile musicians in the world and is the winner of four Academy Awards for his film work and ten Grammy Awards for his recordings (and one more for his Lifetime Achievement).
Previn was born in Berlin, Germany, the son of Charlotte (née Epstein) and Jack Previn, who was a lawyer, judge, and music teacher. He is said to be "a distant relative of" the composer Gustav Mahler. However, In a pre-concert public interview at the Lincoln Center, in May 2012, Previn laughed at the suggestion that he is related to Mahler. The year of his birth is uncertain. Whilst most published reports give 1929, Previn himself has stated that 1930 is his birth year. This situation is a consequence of his the family losing Previn's birth certificate when they left Germany in 1938. His elder brother was director Steve Previn. The Previn family, which was Jewish, emigrated to the United States in 1939 to escape the Nazi regime in Germany.
In 1939, his family moved to Los Angeles, where his great-uncle, Charles Previn, was music director of Universal
Emmanuelle Haïm (French pronunciation: [emanɥɛl aim]) (born in Paris, France, 1967) is a French harpsichordist and conductor with a particular interest in early music and Baroque music.
Haïm grew up in Paris, and was raised as a Catholic, though her father is Jewish. Her musical education began early, or, in her words:
She spent 13 years studying at the Conservatoire Supérieur de Musique et de Danse in Paris, where she studied organ with André Isoir. She came to focus on the harpsichord, which she studied with Kenneth Gilbert and Christophe Rousset, and was awarded five first prizes at the Conservatoire. William Christie invited her to work with his ensemble Les Arts Florissants, as a continuo player and musical assistant. On Christie's recommendation, she later worked as a coach and assistant to Simon Rattle, as well as a guest artist with Rattle.
After several years, she left Les Arts Florissants to become a conductor. In 2000, she formed her own baroque era ensemble, Le Concert d’Astrée. She and her ensemble have performed at such venues as the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées (Paris) and the Barbican Centre (London).
Haïm's 2001 conducting debut with Glyndebourne Touring Opera, in a
Sir Gilbert Levine, KC*SG (born January 22, 1948, Brooklyn, New York) is an American conductor. He is considered an "outstanding personality in the world of international music television."
Levine attended the Juilliard School of Music, and holds an A.B. degree from Princeton University and a M.A. degree from Yale University. He studied bassoon with Stephen Maxym and Sherman Walt, piano with Gilbert Kalish, Music History with Lewis Lockwood and Arthur Mendel, Music Theory with Edward T. Cone, Peter Westergaard and Milton Babbitt, ear training and score reading with Nadia Boulanger, Renée Longy, and Luise Vosgerchian, and conducting with Jacques-Louis Monod and Franco Ferrara.
Levine was assistant to Sir Georg Solti in London at the London Philharmonic Orchestra and at the Royal Opera House (Covent Garden), and in Paris with l'Orchestre de Paris. Levine was also a protégé of Klaus Tennstedt.
Levine has lectured at Harvard University, Princeton University, and Yale University, and has taught conducting both at Yale and the Manhattan School of Music. His conducting students have included the American composer Aaron Jay Kernis. Levine maintains current ties to his two alma maters. He
Ignatz Waghalter (15 March 1881 – 7 April 1949) was a Polish-German composer and conductor.
Waghalter was born into a poor but musically-accomplished Jewish family in Warsaw. His eldest brother, Henryk Waghalter (1869-1961), became a renowned cellist at the Warsaw Conservatory. Wladyslaw (1885-1940), the youngest Waghalter brother, became a noted violinist. Ignatz Waghalter made his way to Berlin at the age of 17 where he first studied with Philipp Scharwenka. Waghalter came to the attention of Joseph Joachim, the great violinist and close friend of Johannes Brahms. With the support of Joachim, Waghalter was admitted into the Berlin Akademie der Künste, where he studied composition and conducting under the direction of Friedrich Gernsheim. Waghalter’s early chamber music revealed an intense melodic imagination that was to remain a distinctive characteristic of his compositional work. An early String Quartet in D Major, Opus 3, was highly praised by Joachim. Waghalter’s Sonata for Violin and Pianoforte in F Minor, Opus 5, received the prestigious Mendelssohn-Preis in 1902, when the composer was only 21.
In 1907 Waghalter secured a post as conductor at the Komische Oper in Berlin,
Manfred Honeck (born 17 September 1958 in Nenzing) is an Austrian conductor, the son of Otto and Frieda Honeck, from a family of nine children. One of his brothers is the Vienna Philharmonic leader Rainer Honeck.
As a youth, Honeck studied violin. He attended the Academy of Music in Vienna, and later played the viola. He was later a musician in the Vienna Philharmonic and the Vienna State Opera Orchestra. His early work as a conductor included a period as assistant to Claudio Abbado with the Gustav Mahler Jugendorchester (Youth Orchestra).
From 1991 to 1996, Honeck conducted regularly at the Zurich Opera House. From 1997-1998, he was Music Director of the Norwegian National Opera in Oslo. He also held a regular position from 1996 to 1999 with the MDR Symphony Orchestra Leipzig. In 1998, he was named the Principal Guest Conductor of the Oslo Philharmonic. From 2000 to 2006, Honeck was Music Director of the Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra, where his work included conducting the 2006 premiere of Sven-David Sandström's Ordet - en passion (24 March, Stockholm). Honeck became Generalmusikdirektor (GMD) of the Staatsoper Stuttgart with the 2007-2008 season, with an initial contract for
Marin Alsop (born October 16, 1956) is an American conductor and violinist. She is the music director of the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra and principal conductor of the São Paulo State Symphony Orchestra.
Alsop was born in New York City to professional musician parents. She attended Yale University, but later transferred to the Juilliard School, where she earned a bachelor's and a master's degree in violin. She founded the string ensemble String Fever in 1981. She won the Koussevitzky Prize as outstanding student conductor at the Tanglewood Music Center in 1989.
Alsop has been music director of the Cabrillo Festival of Contemporary Music in Santa Cruz, California, since 1992. The festival specializes in contemporary orchestral music. From 1993 to 2005, she was first principal conductor and then music director of the Colorado Symphony Orchestra. She is now the orchestra's conductor laureate. Alsop has also served as music director of the Eugene Symphony in Eugene, Oregon. She was associate conductor of the Richmond Symphony in Richmond, Virginia, from 1988 to 1990. On September 20, 2005, Alsop became the first conductor ever to receive a MacArthur Fellowship.
In September 2007,
Camille Chevillard (14 October 1859 – 30 May 1923) was a French composer and conductor.
He was born in Paris, France. He led the Lamoureux Orchestra in the premieres of Debussy's Nocturnes (1900 and 1901) and La mer (1905). He was the son-in-law of conductor Charles Lamoureux. He died in Chatou.
His pupils included Suzanne Chaigneau, Clotilde Coulombe, Sophie Carmen Eckhardt-Gramatté, Yvonne Hubert, and Robert Soetens.
Esa-Pekka Salonen ( pronunciation (help·info); born June 30, 1958 in Helsinki) is a Finnish orchestral conductor and composer. He is currently Principal Conductor and Artistic Advisor of the Philharmonia Orchestra in London and Conductor Laureate of the Los Angeles Philharmonic.
Salonen, born in Helsinki, Finland, studied horn and composition at the Sibelius Academy in Helsinki, as well as conducting with Jorma Panula. His conducting classmates included Jukka-Pekka Saraste and Osmo Vänskä. Another classmate on the composition side was the composer Magnus Lindberg and together they formed the new-music appreciation group Korvat auki ("Ears open" in the Finnish language) and the experimental ensemble Toimii (lit. "It works"). Later, Salonen studied with the composers Franco Donatoni, Niccolò Castiglioni and Einojuhani Rautavaara.
His first experience with conducting came in 1979 with the Finnish Radio Symphony Orchestra, though he still thought of himself principally as a composer; in fact, Salonen has said that the primary reason he took up conducting was to ensure that someone would conduct his own compositions. In 1983, however, he replaced an indisposed Michael Tilson Thomas to
Izler Solomon (January 11, 1910, Saint Paul, Minnesota - 6 December 1987, Fort Wayne, Indiana) was an American orchestra conductor, active mostly in the Midwest.
From 1936 to 1941 he conducted the Illinois Symphony Orchestra, where he premiered more than 150 American works. Subsequently he was music director of the Columbus Philharmonic Orchestra (1941–1949), and of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra (1956–1976). As a guest conductor Solomon appeared with the Philadelphia Orchestra, Chicago Symphony, Israel Philharmonic, and Indiana University Philharmonic Orchestra. His career was cut short by a stroke in 1976.
He made a number of fine recordings, including the world premiere recording of Max Bruch's Violin Concerto No. 2, with the RCA Victor Symphony Orchestra, and Jascha Heifetz as soloist, in 1954.
Johann Joseph Abert (20 September 1832, Kochowitz, Bohemia, now Kochovice, Hoštka, Czech Republic – 1 April 1915, Stuttgart) was a German composer. An ethnic German from the Sudetenland, he is also known by his Czech name Jan Josef Abert.
Abert studied double bass at the Prague Conservatory with Josef Hrabě and also received lessons in theory from Johann Friedrich Kittl and August Wilhelm Ambros. In 1853, Peter Josef von Lindpaintner selected him as a double bassist for the Court Orchestra at Stuttgart, the royal capital of Württemberg. He became the Court Kapellmeister in 1867 and remained in this office, previously occupied by Lindpainter, Friedrich Wilhelm Kücken, and Carl Anton Eckerts, until 1888.
Abert composed chamber music and lieder, as well as several successful operas. Of his seven symphonies, the Frühlingssinfonie (Spring Symphony, No. 7) in C, the program symphony Columbus (No. 4), and the Symphony in C minor (No. 2) are generally considered to be the best. The Württembergische Landesbibliothek in Stuttgart and the Deutsches Literaturarchiv Marbach currently share responsibility for the preservation of his manuscripts and other personal papers.
Abert's son, Hermann,
Karl Wilhelm, also Carl Wilhelm (5 September 1815, Schmalkalden – 26 August 1873, Schmalkalden) was a German choral director. He is best known as the composer of the song “Die Wacht am Rhein.”
Wilhelm was born in Schmalkalden. He studied at Cassel under Louis Spohr, and then in Frankfurt am Main with Aloys Schmitt and A. André. From 1841 to 1864 he was the director of the Krefeld Liedertafel for which he composed numerous male choruses. In Krefeld in 1854 he set to words “Die Wacht am Rhein,” the poem Max Schneckenburger wrote in 1840. In recognition of the success and the national importance of this song, he received the title of “Royal Prussian Musical Director” in 1860, and four years later received a gold medal from Queen (later Empress) Augusta.
On 24 June 1871, he received a personal acknowledgement from Chancellor of the German Empire Otto von Bismarck. In the same year, he received an annual gift from the government of 3,000 marks, which was then more than four times a typical salary.
From 1865 on, Wilhelm worked as the director of the music society in Schmalkalden, where he died eight years later.
Frederick Martin “Fritz” Reiner (December 19, 1888 – November 15, 1963) was a prominent conductor of opera and symphonic music in the twentieth century. Hungarian born and trained, he emigrated to the United States, in 1922, where he rose to prominence as a conductor with several orchestras. He reached the pinnacle of his career, while music director with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in the 1950s and early 1960s.
Reiner was born in Budapest, Hungary into a secular Jewish family that resided in the Pest area of the city. After preliminary studies in law at his father’s urging, Reiner pursued the study of piano, piano pedagogy, and composition at the Franz Liszt Academy. During his last two years there his piano teacher was the young Béla Bartók. After early engagements at opera houses in Budapest and Dresden where he worked closely with Richard Strauss, he moved to the United States of America in 1922 to take the post of Principal Conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra. He remained until 1931, having become a naturalized citizen in 1928, then began to teach at the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where his pupils included Leonard Bernstein and Lukas Foss. He
Zubin Mehta (ज़ुबिन मेहता); pronounced [ˈzuːbɪn ˈmeːɦt̪aː] (born 29 April 1936) is an Indian Parsi conductor of western classical music. He is the Music Director for Life of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra.
Zubin Mehta was born into a Parsi family in Bombay, British India, the son of Mehli and Tehmina Mehta. His father Mehli Mehta was a violinist and founding conductor of the Bombay Symphony Orchestra. Mehta is an alumnus of St. Mary's School, Mumbai, and St. Xavier's College, Mumbai. While in school, Zubin was taught to play the piano by Joseph de Lima, who was his first piano teacher. Mehta initially intended to study medicine, but eventually became a music student in Vienna at the age of 18, under Hans Swarowsky. Also at the same academy along with Mehta were conductor Claudio Abbado and conductor–pianist Daniel Barenboim.
Mehta's first marriage was to Canadian soprano Carmen Lasky in 1958. They have a son, Mervon and a daughter, Zarina. In 1964, they divorced. Two years after the divorce, Carmen married Zubin's brother, Zarin Mehta, now the Executive Director of the New York Philharmonic. In July 1969, Mehta married Nancy Kovack, a former American film and television actress.
Artur Bodanzky (also written as Artur Bodzansky) (16 December 1877 in Vienna – 23 November 1939 in New York) was an Austrian-American conductor particularly associated with the operas of Wagner.
The son of Jewish merchants, Bodanzky studied the violin and composition with Alexander Zemlinsky Bodanzky then became conducting assistant to Gustav Mahler in Vienna, later going on to jobs in Berlin, the Neues Deutsches Theater in Prague (August 1907), where he was briefly a colleague of Otto Klemperer and Mannheim. In 1915 he emigrated to the United States to work for the Metropolitan Opera, being replaced at Mannheim by Wilhelm Furtwängler. He was head of German repertory at the Met, being accepted by Toscanini on the recommendation of Ferruccio Busoni. In 1921 he was engaged by the New York Philharmonic as a guest conductor. In 1928, Bodanzky announced his resignation from the Met and was replaced by Joseph Rosenstock. However, Rosenstock received such criticism in the press that he himself resigned almost immediately on medical advice, and Bodanzky was rehired, and remained at the Met until his death. He was approached by Thomas Beecham to conduct at Covent Garden in 1936, but his
Franz Wilhelm Abt (22 December 1819 – 31 March 1885) was a German composer and choral conductor. He composed roughly 3,000 individual works mostly in the area of vocal music. Several of his songs were at one time universally sung, and have obtained a more or less permanent place in the popular repertory. During his lifetime, Abt was a renowned choral conductor and he spent much of the last three decades of his life working as a guest conductor with choirs throughout Europe and in the United States.
Abt was born at Eilenburg in Prussian Saxony, and showed musical talent at an early age. His father was a clergyman and a talented pianist, and it is he who gave Franz his earliest instruction in music. Like his father, Abt was interested in both music and theology, and he followed both pursuits at the Thomasschule Leipzig and the University of Leipzig with the ultimate intention of becoming a member of the clergy. While in school, Abt became friends with Albert Lortzing, Felix Mendelssohn, and Robert Schumann.
Upon the death of his father in 1837, Abt abandoned his theological studies and decided to concentrate entirely on music. It is at this time that he began to compose and publish
Bernhard Stavenhagen (24 November 1862 – 25 December 1914) was a German pianist, composer and conductor. His musical style was influenced by Franz Liszt, and as a conductor he was a strong advocate of new music.
Born in Greiz, he commenced piano study in 1868. His family moved to Berlin in 1874 where he began studying with Theodor Kullak. He entered university there in 1878, privately studying composition with Friedrich Kiel.
In 1885 Stavenhagen became a pupil of Franz Liszt in Weimar, travelling with him to Rome, Budapest, Paris, London and Bayreuth. After Liszt's death in 1886, Stavenhagen embarked on a ten-year series of piano concert tours in Europe and to North America. In April 1890 he was appointed court pianist to the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar and the following July he married Agnes Denninghof (better known as Agnes Denis-Stavenhagen, 1860-1945), a soprano with the Weimar Court Opera. In 1893 he composed his Third Piano Concerto in B minor.
He fulfilled conducting appointments in Weimar, where he was appointed court Kapellmeister and conducted Weimar premieres of six new operas in eighteen months, and from 1898 a similar appointment in Munich. Then in 1907 he moved to
Edgar Stillman Kelley (April 14, 1857 – November 12, 1944) was an American composer, conductor, teacher, and writer on music. He is sometimes associated with the Indianist movement in American music.
Kelley was of New England stock, his ancestors having come to America from England before 1650. He himself was born in Sparta, Wisconsin. His mother was from a musical family, and herself was skilled in music; she became his first teacher. Kelley's own college career was interrupted by bouts of poor health. He was a talented artist and writer, but he decided to devote his life to music after a performance of Felix Mendelssohn's music for A Midsummer Night's Dream. Consequently, he traveled to Chicago at 17, there to study with Clarence Eddy and Napoleon Ledochowski. Two years later he went to Stuttgart, where he studied organ, piano, and composition. His teachers there were Frederich Finck, Wilhelm Krüger, Wilhelm Speidel, and Max Seifriz. His friendship with Edward MacDowell began in Stuttgart, and later Kelley worked at the MacDowell Colony.
Kelley graduated from the conservatory in Stuttgart in 1880, and performed around Europe for a time with a number of orchestras. Upon his return
Emil Paur (July 19, 1855 – June 7, 1932) was an Austrian orchestra conductor. Paur was born in Czernowitz, Austria, now Ukraine, and trained in Vienna before working as a conductor in Kassel, Königsberg and Leipzig. He then emigrated to the United States where he led the Boston Symphony Orchestra, New York Philharmonic and Pittsburgh Symphony. After returning to Germany, he went on to conduct Berlin State Opera. Paur was considered a serious conductor, favouring the works of Johannes Brahms, which were at the time considered heavy listening.
Paur died in Místek, Czechoslovakia, now the Czech Republic.
Frederic Archer (16 June 1838 – 22 October 1901) was a British, composer, conductor and organist, born at Oxford, England. He studied music in London and Leipzig, and held musical positions in England and Scotland until 1880, when he was became organist of Plymouth Church in Brooklyn, New York. Archer was later appointed conductor of the Boston, Massachusetts Oratorio Society, director of Carnegie Music Hall in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and in 1899 organist of the Church of the Ascension in Pittsburgh. In 1896 he established the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra. He founded, in 1885, The Keynote, which for a time he edited, and also published several books and numerous organ compositions.
Henryk Melcer-Szczawiński (September 21, 1869 – April 18, 1928) was a Polish composer, pianist, conductor, and teacher.
His works include two piano concertos, one in E minor (1892-4) and one in C minor (1898); a violin sonata (1907), and a piano trio in G minor (probably written 1892-4); a tragedy "Protesilas i Laodamia" (1902, libretto by S. Wyspiański), and a Symphony in C minor.
Both piano concertos were recorded in the past on Olympia and on Muza, and in 2007 on Hyperion. The Violin Sonata for Violine in G major, the Dumka for Violin and Piano and the Piano Trio, Op. 2 were recorded by the Warsaw Trio for the AP label.
Jeffri W. Bantz (1954-July 31, 2006) was an American classical conductor and teacher.
A native of Marion, Indiana, Bantz moved with his family to Florida in 1969 when his father, the Rev. Wayne Bantz started First Methodist Church of Coral Springs, Florida. He attended Pompano Beach High School and graduated from Deerfield Beach High School, where he was concertmaster of the school orchestra.
Bantz received his formal music education at Florida Atlantic University and the University of Miami, where he studied organ performance. Throughout his conducting career, he continued his studies with many great choral luminaries including Robert Shaw, George Bragg, Joseph Flummerfelt, Sir David Willcocks, John Rutter, Howard Swan, Gerre Hancock and James Litton.
His first church job in Florida was at the First Baptist Church in Deerfield Beach, Florida. He served several churches, including First Methodist Church of Pompano Beach, Florida and St. Stephens Episcopal in Coconut Grove, Florida. In 1981, he became the organist and Associate Director of Music at the First Presbyterian Church of Pompano Beach (known as the Pink Church), where he had begun organ study with Dr. Arden Whitacre some
John Barnard (born 1948) is a Fellow of the Royal College of Organists (FRCO), an Associate of the Royal School of Church Music (ARSCM) and an active developer of church music as a composer, arranger, choir director and organist in North West London, England. He is on the Council of the Hymn Society of Great Britain and Ireland and has been active in helping to assemble such publications as Hymns for Today's Church, Carols for Today and Psalms for Today. He has been Director of Music at a series of high profile churches, which include Emmanuel Church (Northwood), St Alban's Church (North Harrow), John Keble Church (Mill Hill) and St John the Evangelist Church (Stanmore). He returned to John Keble Church in September 2010, following the appointment of Canon Chris Chivers as Vicar.
Barnard was educated at The John Lyon School, Harrow (JLS) between 1959 and 1966 where he excelled as a pupil and later went up to Cambridge to study Modern Languages at Selwyn College.
He was and remains very fond of JLS and was offered a teaching job there shortly after leaving Cambridge. He remained as a dedicated and loyal German and French teacher, often organising and leading school trips to
For the baseball player, see Keith Lockhart (baseball)
Keith Lockhart (born November 7, 1959, Poughkeepsie, New York), to Newton Frederick and Marilyn Jean Woodyard Lockhart, is an American orchestral conductor.
Lockhart began his musical studies with piano lessons from Gwen Stevens at age seven. He holds degrees from Furman University and Carnegie Mellon University, as well as the honorary Doctor of Music degree from Muskingum College in New Concord, Ohio. He studied conducting at the Brevard Music Center.
He is an alumnus of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia, the national men's music fraternity. Lockhart became a Sinfonian at Furman University, joining the Gamma Eta chapter of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia in 1978.
Lockhart was a conducting fellow at the Los Angeles Philharmonic Institute. For 5 years, he served as an associate conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra and the Cincinnati Pops. He was music director of the Cincinnati Chamber Orchestra from 1992 to 1999.
Lockhart became the 20th Conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra in 1995. In addition to regular in Symphony Hall, national and overseas tours, Fourth of July concerts on Boston's Esplanade, and performances at Carnegie Hall, he
Ludwig Wilhelm Maurer (February 2, 1789 – October 13–25, 1878) was a German composer, conductor, and violinist born in Potsdam. In 1802, he debuted in Berlin with his first major violin performance. After a brief period of studying French violin style in Mitau (Latvia), Maurer went to Russia at age 17 in 1806, where he would stay for most of his life. For this reason, Maurer is considered both a German and a Russian composer.
Upon his arrival in St. Petersburg, Maurer performed extensively until the French violinist and composer Pierre Baillot aided Maurer in becoming the conductor of the Count Vsevolozhsky's orchestra in Moscow. Maurer conducted the orchestra until 1817 when he toured as a performer in Germany and Paris. In 1819 Maurer began using Hanover as a base for directing and conducting, while touring and composing. During this period Maurer also maintained a composing partnership Aleksey Nikolayevich Verstovsky in the opera-vaudeville form. Toward the end of this period in Maurer's life, he toured Germany with his sons Vsevolod and Alexis, who played violin and cello respectively.
By 1833, however, Maurer was back in St. Petersburg, where he would remain for the rest of
Plácido Domingo (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈplaθiðo ðoˈmiŋɡo]; born 21 January 1941), born José Plácido Domingo Embil, is a Spanish tenor and conductor known for his versatile and strong voice, possessing a ringing and dramatic tone throughout its range. As of September 2012 he has sung 140 different roles, and he is scheduled to debut two more new roles in 2013.
One of The Three Tenors, he has also taken on conducting opera and concert performances, and he is the general director of the Los Angeles Opera in California.
Plácido Domingo was born on January 21, 1941, in the distrito de Retiro section of Madrid, Spain, and in 1949 moved to Mexico with his family, who ran a zarzuela company. He studied piano at first privately and later at the National Conservatory of Music in Mexico City.
In 1957, Domingo made his first professional appearance, performing with his mother in a concert at Mérida, Yucatán. He made his opera debut performing in Manuel Fernández Caballero's zarzuela, Gigantes y cabezudos, singing a baritone role. At that time, he was working with his parents' zarzuela company, taking baritone roles and as an accompanist for other singers. Among his first performances was a
Sean Bradley (birthday unknown) is an American conductor, composer, violinist, music theorist, educator, and impresario (producer) of large scale symphonic and operatic events. Bradley is the director of City Opera, a Los Angeles performing arts organization dedicated to the presentation of contemporary classical, crossover, and world music, and founder of Bravoflix, the first online performing arts venue of its kind in the U.S.
Bradley first gained a reputation as a conductor and active proponent of new music while serving as the artistic director of Opera Nova Santa Monica (Gail Gordon, founding executive director). His tenure at Opera Nova was closely associated with a group of five Spanish-speaking composers living and working in Los Angeles known as Los Cinco. Bradley helped to establish this collective as a notable geographic and aesthetic school of contemporary composition.
Bradley founded City Opera in 2004. His first leadership initiative was the establishment of an extensive education and outreach program. Under his guidance, City Opera won a significant contract authorizing the company to deliver music education services to schools throughout the entire Los Angeles
Steven Sloane (b. 1958, Los Angeles, California) is an American-born conductor based in Germany.
He has been musical director of the Symphony Orchestra in Bochum since 1994. He is also musical director of the Stavanger Symphony Orchestra in Stavanger, Norway, a post he has held since 2007.
In August 1999, Sloane was appointed Music Director of Opera North. He remained in this position until 2002, when he became Music Director of the American Composers Orchestra in New York City.
He previously worked with the Frankfurt Opera, the Long Beach Opera and the Tel Aviv Philharmonic Choir.
Fürchtegott Theodor Kirchner (10 December 1823 – 18 September 1903) was a significant German composer and pianist of the Romantic era.
Kirchner enjoyed the friendship and admiration of many leading composers of the 19th century yet was unable to maintain a successful career, apparently due to a disordered way of life which included extravagant spending and an addiction to gambling.
He was born at Neukirchen near Chemnitz, and was an accomplished organist and pianist at the age of eight. From 1838 to 1842, he studied in Leipzig under J. Knorr (piano) and K. F. Becker (organ and theory). He subsequently was a pupil of J. Schneider in Dresden, and attended the Leipzig Conservatory for a short time. In 1843, he became organist in Winterthur, Switzerland on the recommendation of Mendelssohn. He remained there for nearly 20 years, but travelled much in Germany, befriending Robert and Clara Schumann and Brahms. Clara Schumann was very fond of him, though she wrote that 'in his character there is no stability', and it appears they had a discreet affair in the early 1860s. In 1862 Kirchner moved to Zurich as the director of the subscription concerts there. This only lasted three years. From
Eugene Linden was an American conductor. He conducted the first public performance of the Tacoma Philharmonic Orchestra in March 1934 and directed the Seattle Symphony from 1948 to 1950. He is also credited as founder of the now defunct Pacific Northwest Grand Opera Company.
Eugene Linden, was born to a musical family in Chicago in 1902. Linden's father was Harry Linden, concertmaster of the Chicago opera orchestra, and his mother was a violinist who began playing at age twelve and was musical director at Chicago's La Salle Hotel. Harry's four brothers were also musicians, one of which was Anthony Linden, a flautist for the San Francisco Symphony and radio soloist. According to Hilmar Grondahl of the Portland Spectator, Linden led his first orchestra when he was in grade school and knew then of his desire to be a professional conductor. Eugene attended Jefferson High School in Portland, Oregon, where he was conductor of the band. Under his leadership the ensemble placed first in three state high school contests and placed second in a fourth. In May 1930, he gained attention as conductor when the Jefferson band participated in the national high school band contest in Flint,
F. Melius Christiansen (April 1, 1871-June 1, 1955) was a Norwegian-born violinist and choral conductor in the Lutheran choral tradition.
Fredrik Melius Christiansen, the son of a Norwegian factory worker, was born in Eidsvold, municipality in Akershus county, Norway and emigrated to the United States at the age of 17. He settled in Washburn, Wisconsin. He studied at Augsburg College. In 1897, he returned to Europe to study three years at the Royal Conservatory of Music in Leipzig, Germany.
In 1901, Christiansen was recruited by St. Olaf College president John N. Kildahl. The St. Olaf Choir was founded as an outgrowth of the St. John's Lutheran Church Choir in Northfield. For the next 30 years, Christiansen led the St. Olaf Choir, striving for perfect intonation, blend, diction and phrasing. He was a skilled conductor, directing bands and choirs alike. He assumed direction of the St. Olaf Band in 1903, and took the ensemble on tour to Norway in 1906 to play for King Haakon VII, making it the first college music ensemble to conduct a tour abroad. Though his first love was the violin, he received international fame as founding director of the St. Olaf Choir of St. Olaf College in
John O’Hea Crosby (12 July 1926, Bronxville, New York – 15 December 2002, Rancho Mirage, California) was an American musician, conductor and arts administrator. He is most celebrated as the founding general director of The Santa Fe Opera.
A bout of asthma interrupted Crosby’s early studies in Connecticut; this caused him to attend the Los Alamos Ranch School in New Mexico for a year. It was Crosby’s first introduction to the West and, specifically, to the Santa Fe area. After graduating from high school, Crosby served in the US Army for two years between 1944 to 1946, with time spent in Europe and some with the 18th Regimental Band handling piano, violin, trombone and double bass.
Attending Yale as an undergraduate soon followed; with it came consideration of several future professions, including law and becoming an airline pilot. But at Yale he studied composition with Paul Hindemith and created musical arrangements for musical productions. He graduated with a degree in music in 1950.
Having decided that music was to be his life, Crosby spent a few months as an assistant arranger for Broadway musicals before returning to graduate studies at Columbia University between 1951 and
Karl Richter (15 October 1926 – 15 February 1981) was a German conductor, organist, and harpsichordist. He was born in Plauen and studied first in Dresden, where he was a member of the Dresdner Kreuzchor and later in Leipzig, where he received his degree in 1949. He studied with Günther Ramin, Carl Straube and Rudolf Mauersberger. In the same year, he became organist at St. Thomas Church, Leipzig, where Johann Sebastian Bach once held the position as Musical Director. In 1951, he moved to Munich, where he taught at the conservatory and was cantor and organist at St. Mark's Church. He also conducted the Münchener Bach-Chor starting in 1954 and the Münchener Bach-Orchester. In the 1960s and 1970s, he did a great deal of recording and undertook tours to Japan, the United States, Canada, Latin America, Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.
He conducted a wide range of music (sacred music from Heinrich Schütz to Max Reger, as well as the symphonic and concerto repertoire of the Classical and Romantic period, including Bruckner's symphonies) but he is best remembered for his interpretations of Johann Sebastian Bach's and Handel's music. Richter avoided the fluctuations in tempi that were
Michael Tilson Thomas (born December 21, 1944) is an American conductor, pianist and composer. He is currently music director of the San Francisco Symphony, and artistic director of the New World Symphony Orchestra.
Tilson Thomas was born in Los Angeles, California to Ted and Roberta Thomas, a Broadway stage manager and a middle school history teacher respectively. He is the grandson of noted Yiddish theater stars Boris and Bessie Thomashefsky. Tilson Thomas studied at the University of Southern California, studying piano with John Crown and composition and conducting under Ingolf Dahl. As a student of Friedelind Wagner, Tilson Thomas was a Musical Assistant and Assistant Conductor at the Bayreuth Festival.
Tilson Thomas is openly gay and lives in San Francisco with his partner of thirty years, Joshua Robison.
Tilson Thomas has conducted a wide variety of music and is a particular champion of modern American works. He is also renowned for his interpretation of the works of Gustav Mahler; he has recorded all nine Mahler symphonies and other major orchestral works with the San Francisco Symphony. These recordings have been released on the high resolution audio format, Super Audio CD
Roberto Abbado (born 30 December 1954, in Milan, Italy) is an Italian conductor. He is the son of musician Marcello Abbado and the nephew of conductor Claudio Abbado. He studied conducting under Franco Ferrara at La Fenice, Venice, and at the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia where he became the only student of the academy ever to be asked to conduct the Orchestra dell'Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia. He led his first opera, Simon Boccanegra, at the age of 23, and during his 20s performed at numerous opera houses in Italy and elsewhere. He has since conducted many operas and orchestras worldwide.
Abbado was Chief Conductor of the Munich Radio Orchestra from 1991 to 1998. In the U.S., Abbado was appointed an Artistic Partner of the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra (SPCO) starting with the 2005-2006 season. In November 2006, he extended this contract with the SPCO through the 2010-2011 season.
Albert Wolff (19 January 1884 – 20 February 1970) was a French conductor and composer of Dutch descent. Most of his career was spent in European venues, with the exception of two years that he spent as a conductor at the Metropolitan Opera and a few years in Buenos Aires during the Second World War. He is most known for holding the position of principal conductor with the Opéra-Comique in Paris for several years. He was married to the French mezzo-soprano Simone Ballard.
Wolff was born in Paris, of Dutch parents, though he was a French citizen from birth, never lived in the Netherlands, and never had a Dutch passport. When only 12 years old, he began his musical education at the Paris Conservatoire. There, he studied with such teachers as André Gedalge, Xavier Leroux, and Paul Antonin Vidal. At the same time he played the piano in cabarets and was organist at St Thomas-d'Aquin, Paris for four years. Upon graduation at the age of 22, Wolff was awarded first prizes in harmony and accompaniment.
In 1906 Wolff joined the staff of the Opéra-Comique, the theatre which became the centre of his career, while leading ensembles elsewhere in the city of Paris. He made his conducting debut at
Violinist Andor John Toth (1925–2006), earned international celebrity as a soloist, concert artist, conductor and educator with a musical career spanning over six decades. Toth played his violin on the World War II battlefields of Aachen, Germany; performed with the NBC Symphony Orchestra under Arturo Toscanini in 1943 at age 18; and formed several chamber music ensembles, including the Oberlin String Quartet, the New Hungarian Quartet, and the Stanford String Quartet. For 15 years he was the violinist in the famed Alma Trio . Toth conducted orchestras in Cleveland, Denver and Houston. In 1969, he was the founding concertmaster of the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra under Neville Mariner. Toth taught at five important colleges and universities, and recorded for Vox, Decca Records and Eclectra Records.
Born in Manhattan in 1925, Andor Toth began playing violin as a child. While he was still a graduate student at the Juilliard School, he launched his career in 1942 at age 17 as solo violinist with the original Ballets Russes. In 1943 at age 18, he joined the NBC Symphony Orchestra under Arturo Toscanini . At Juilliard he studied with Hans Letz (formerly of the Kneisel quartet and a
Arthur Farwell (March 23, 1872 – January 20, 1952) was an American composer, conductor, educationalist, lithographer, esoteric savant, and music publisher.
Farwell was born in St Paul, Minnesota. He trained as an engineer at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, graduating in 1893, but was turned towards a musical career by contact with the eccentric Boston-based composer Rudolf Gott. After studying in Boston, he became a pupil of Engelbert Humperdinck in Berlin and Alexandre Guilmant in Paris. Returning to the U.S., he lectured in music at Cornell University from 1899 to 1901, and founded the Wa-Wan Press, dedicated to publishing the works of the American Indianist composers, among whom Farwell himself was a leading figure. From 1910 to 1913 Farwell directed municipal concerts in New York City, including massed performances of choral works, some of them his own, by up to 1,000 voices. He directed the Music School Settlement (Now Third Street Music School Settlement) in NY from 1915-18 before moving to California, where his private pupils included the young Roy Harris. Acting Head of music department at the University of California, Berkeley in 1918-19, he founded the Santa
Artur Rodziński (January 1, 1892 – November 27, 1958) was a Polish conductor of opera and symphonic music. He is especially noted for his tenures as music director of the Cleveland Orchestra and the New York Philharmonic in the 1930s and 1940s.
Artur Rodziński was born in Split, the capital of Dalmatia on January 1, 1892. Soon after, his father, of Polish descent, and a general in the army of the Habsburg empire returned with his family to Lwów, Poland. Artur studied music in Lwów, and then law in Vienna, where he simultaneously enrolled at the Academy of Music; his teachers there included Josef Marx and Franz Schreker (composition), Franz Schalk (conducting), and Emil von Sauer and Jerzy Lalewicz (piano). He returned to Lwów where he was engaged as chorus master at the Opera House, making his debut as a conductor in 1920 with Verdi's Ernani. The following year saw him conducting the Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra and at the Warsaw Opera House. While visiting Poland, Leopold Stokowski heard Rodziński leading a performance of Wagner's Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg and exclaimed "I have found that rare thing, a born conductor!" and invited him to conduct the Philadelphia
Sir Charles Hallé (11 April 1819 – 25 October 1895) was an Anglo-German pianist and conductor, and founder of The Hallé orchestra in 1858.
Hallé was born in Hagen, Westphalia, Germany who after settling in England changed his name from Karl Halle. His first lessons were from his father, an organist, studying in Darmstadt and later Paris.
In 1848, Hallé moved to England, settling in Manchester where he started a series of classical music concerts. He conducted elsewhere in the country also, as well as performing as a pianist. He was the first pianist to play the complete series of Beethoven’s piano sonatas in England.
He studied under Rink at Darmstadt in 1835, and as early as 1836 went to Paris, where for twelve years he often assoociated with Luigi Cherubini, Frédéric Chopin, Franz Liszt and other musicians, and enjoyed the friendship of such great literary figures as Alfred de Musset and George Sand. He had started a set of chamber concerts with Jean Delphin Alard and Auguste Franchomme with great success, and had completed one series of them when the revolution of 1848 drove him from Paris, and he settled, with his wife and two children, in London.
Hallé's piano recitals, given
Robert David "Dave" Grusin (born June 26, 1934) is an American composer, arranger and pianist. Grusin has composed many scores for feature films and television, and has won numerous awards for his soundtrack and record work, including an Academy award and 12 Grammys. He has had a prolific recording career as an artist, arranger, producer and executive producer.
Born in Littleton, Colorado, he studied music at the University of Colorado at Boulder and was awarded his bachelor's degree in 1956. He produced his first single, "Subways are for Sleeping" in 1962 and composed the score to his first feature film, Divorce American Style five years later. Other scores followed including Winning in 1969, The Friends of Eddie Coyle (1973), The Midnight Man (1974) and Three Days of the Condor in 1975.
In the late 70s, he formed GRP records along with his partner, Larry Rosen, and began to create some of the first commercial digital recordings. Grusin was also at the forefront of soundtrack albums. He was the composer for the legendary Mike Nichols Oscar-winning film, The Graduate. The film is noted for being one of the first films to integrate popular songs into a film score. Later scores
Ernesto Acher, born on October 9, 1939, in Buenos Aires, Argentina, is a composer, multi-instrumentalist and orchestral conductor. He was a member of Les Luthiers between 1971 and 1986, where he worked as songwriter, actor, instrument designer, choir master, singer and played over thirty different instruments. Before leaving the group he was involved in some individual projects as composer, including a soundtrack, two movements for clarinet and strigs, a string sextet and a symphonic poem for viola and orchestra. From 1987 to 1992 he co-founded what would become 'La Banda Elastica', where he composed, arranged, played piano, synthesiser, saxophone, vibraphone and trombone. Then he had a stint as stand-up comedian for about eighteen months (starting on May 1993), and then became a full-time orchestral conductor, a labour he still executes currently.
As a kid, he studied piano and then moved on to clarinet when he became interested in jazz during his adolescence. Later on, he'd return to piano and learn notions of classical music as well. After secondary school, he graduated from college as an architect and in January 1971 he quit his job in order to become a full-time musician. A
Franz Ignaz Danzi (June 15, 1763 – April 13, 1826) was a German cellist, composer and conductor, the son of the noted Italian cellist Innocenz Danzi. Born in Schwetzingen, Franz Danzi worked in Mannheim, Munich, Stuttgart and Karlsruhe, where he died.
Danzi lived at a significant time in the history of European concert music. His career, spanning the transition from the late Classical to the early Romantic styles, coincided with the origin of much of the music that lives in our concert halls and is familiar to contemporary classical-music audiences. As a young man he knew Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, whom he revered; he was a contemporary of Ludwig van Beethoven, about whom he—like many of his generation—had strong but mixed feelings; and he was a mentor for the young Carl Maria von Weber, whose music he respected and promoted.
Born in Schwetzingen and raised in Mannheim, Danzi studied with his father and with Georg Joseph Vogler before he joined the superlative orchestra of the Elector Karl Theodor in 1778 as a teenager. In 1780 the first of his woodwind compositions was published at Mannheim. His father, principal cellist of the orchestra, was praised by Mozart for his playing at the
Friedrich Gernsheim (17 July 1839 – 10 September 1916) was a German composer, conductor and pianist.
Gernsheim was born in Worms. He was given his first musical training at home under his mother's care, then starting from the age of seven under Worms' musical director, Louis Liebe, a former pupil of Louis Spohr. His father, a prominent Jewish physician, moved the family to Frankfurt am Main in the aftermath of the year of revolutions, 1848, where he studied with Edward Rosenhain, brother of Jakob Rosenhain. He made his first public appearance as a concert pianist in 1850 and toured for two seasons, then settled with his family in Leipzig, where he studied piano with Ignaz Moscheles from 1852. He spent the years 1855–1860 in Paris, meeting Gioachino Rossini, Édouard Lalo and Camille Saint-Saëns.
His travels afterwards took him to Saarbrücken, where in 1861 he took the conductor post vacated by Hermann Levi; to Cologne, where in 1865 Ferdinand Hiller appointed him to the staff of the Conservatory (his pupils there included Engelbert Humperdinck and Carl Lachmund); he then served as musical director of the Philharmonic Society of Rotterdam, 1874-1890. In the latter year he became a
Johann Friedrich Ludwig “Fritz” Scheel (7 November 1852 – 13 March 1907) was a German conductor born in Fackenburg, Schleswig-Holstein. Scheel was the founder and first music director of the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1900. He conducted rehearsals in German, and played mostly German music. After its first season, he fired half the musicians and replaced them with European players.
Scheel continued as the Philadelphia Orchestra's music director until his death in Philadelphia in 1907. He died at age 54 and is buried in West Laurel Hill Cemetery, Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania.
Colonel George S. Howard (February 24, 1902-September 18, 1995) was commander and conductor of The United States Air Force Band between 1944 and 1963.
A native of Reamstown, Pennsylvania, Howard became a student of Patrick Conway at the Ithaca Conservatory of Music and played clarinet in Conway's professional band. He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in music education and taught at the Ohio Wesleyan University (where he became a member of Phi Kappa Tau Fraternity), Mansfield University and later at Penn State University. In 1942, Howard was commissioned into the Army Specialist Corps, and in 1947 Howard's reputation as a conductor led to his commission as leader of the newly formed Air Force Band.
Howard was elected President of the American Bandmasters Association in 1956, and became an Honorary Life Member in 1984. He served as Honorary Life President from 1986 until his death in 1995. The John Philip Sousa Foundation awards the The Colonel George S. Howard Citation of Musical Excellence for Military Concert Bands in Col. Howard's memory and the Air Force Band's annual young artists competition is named in his memory.
Howard, George, A Symphony in the Sky. San Antonio, TX: The
Gerard Schwarz (born August 19, 1947) is an American conductor. He was music director of the Seattle Symphony Orchestra from 1985 to 2011.
In 2007 Schwarz was named music director of the Eastern Music Festival in North Carolina, having served as principal conductor since 2005. There he has expanded the festival's audiences to the largest in its history, enhanced education and programming (to include a composer in residence and three new concert series), and increased collaboration with An Appalachian Summer Festival, where he is artistic partner for symphonic music programming.
From 2001 to 2006, Schwarz was music director of the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra (RLPO). Earlier he served as music director of the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra and of a chamber orchestra in New York.
Schwarz was born in Weehawken, New Jersey, to Austrian parents. He graduated from New York City's High School of Performing Arts and Juilliard School of Music and began his musical career as a trumpeter, performing until 1973 as principal of the New York Philharmonic under Pierre Boulez, but also began conducting in 1966. In 1971 he won the Young Concert Artists International Auditions. He has been
Henry Kimball Hadley (Somerville, Massachusetts, December 20, 1871 – New York, New York, September 6, 1937) was an American composer and conductor.
Hadley was born in in Somerville, Massachusetts to a musical family. His father, from whom he received his first musical instruction in violin and piano, was a secondary school music teacher, his mother was active in church music, and his brother Arthur went on to a successful career as a professional cellist. In the Hadley home, the two brothers played string quartets with their father on viola and the composer Henry Gilbert on second violin.
Hadley also studied harmony with his father and with Stephen Emery, and, from the age of fourteen, he studied composition with the prominent American composer George Whitefield Chadwick. Under Chadwick's tuteladge, Hadley composed many works, including songs, chamber music, a musical, and an orchestral overture.
In 1893, Hadley toured with the Laura Schirmer-Mapleson Opera Company as a violinist. But he left the tour when the company encountered financial difficulties and was unable to pay his salary.
In 1894, he travelled to Vienna to further his studies with Eusebius Mandyczewski. Hadley loved
Johann Abraham Peter Schulz (March 31, 1747 in Lüneburg – June 10, 1800 in Schwedt) was a German musician and composer. Today he is best known as the composer of the melody for Matthias Claudius's poem "Der Mond ist aufgegangen" and the Christmas carol "Ihr Kinderlein kommet".
Schulz attended the Michaelis School from 1757 to 1759 and then the Johanneum in Lüneburg from 1759 to 1764. In 1765, he was the student in Berlin of composer Johann Kirnberger, and then taught in Berlin himself. He served as the conductor of the French Theatre in Berlin from 1776 to 1780 and from 1780 to 1787 he was the Kapellmeister of Prince Henry in Rheinsberg. Schulz then went on to serve as Court Kapellmeister in Copenhagen from 1787 to 1795 before returning to Berlin.
Schulz wrote operas, stage music, oratorios, and cantatas, as well as piano pieces and folk songs. Furthermore, he also wrote articles on music theory for Johann Georg Sulzer's (1720–1779) Allgemeinen Theorie der schönen Künste in four volumes.
Melody of Der Mond ist aufgegangen (help·info)
Melody of Wir pflügen und wir streuen (help·info)
Leon Botstein (born December 14, 1946 in Switzerland) is an American conductor, scholar, and the President of Bard College.
Botstein is the brother of biologist David Botstein and husband of art historian Barbara Haskell. Both of Botstein's parents were physicians.
Botstein is the music director and principal conductor of the American Symphony Orchestra (ASO) and conductor laureate of the Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra (JSO), where he served as music director and principal conductor from 2003-2010. He is also the founder and co-Artistic Director of the Bard Music Festival. He is a member of the Board of Directors of The After-School Corporation, a nonprofit organization dedicated to expanding educational opportunities for all students. He also serves as the Board Chairman of the Central European University.
Botstein is a leading advocate of progressive education. He is the author of Jefferson’s Children: Education and the Promise of American Culture and Judentum und Modernitaet and has published widely on music, education, history, and culture. He graduated at age 16 from the High School of Music and Art in New York, and earned a bachelor's degree from the University of Chicago and a
Leopold Anthony Stokowski (April 18, 1882 – September 13, 1977) was a British orchestral conductor, well known for his free-hand performing style that spurned the traditional baton and for obtaining a characteristically sumptuous sound from the orchestras he conducted.
In America, Stokowski performed with the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, New York Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra, the Houston Symphony Orchestra, the Symphony of the Air and many others. He was also the founder of the All-American Youth Orchestra, the New York City Symphony, the Hollywood Bowl Symphony Orchestra and the American Symphony Orchestra. He conducted the music for and appeared in Disney's Fantasia and was a lifelong champion of contemporary composers, giving many premieres of new music during his 60-year conducting career. Stokowski, who made his official conducting debut in 1909, appeared in public for the last time in 1975 but continued making recordings until June 1977, a few months before his death at the age of 95.
Stokowski was the son of an English-born cabinet-maker of Polish heritage, Kopernik Joseph Boleslav Stokowski, and his Irish-born
Lothar Zagrosek (born 13 November 1942 in Otting, Germany) is a German conductor. As a youth, he sang in the Regensburg Cathedral choir, including performances as the First Boy in The Magic Flute at the 1954 Salzburg Festival. From 1962 to 1967, Zagrosek studied conducting with Hans Swarowsky, István Kertész, Bruno Maderna and Herbert von Karajan.
Zagrosek was chief conductor of the Vienna Radio Symphony Orchestra from 1982 to 1986. He was principal guest conductor of the BBC Symphony Orchestra from 1985 to 1988. Between 1990 and 1992, he conducted regularly at the Leipzig Opera. In 1995, he became principal guest conductor of the Junge Deutsche Philharmonie. From 1997 to 2006, he was chief conductor at the Württemberg opera house in Stuttgart. From 2006 to 2011, he was chief conductor of the Konzerthausorchester Berlin, the former Berlin Symphony Orchestra (Berliner Sinfonie-Orchester).
Among Zagrosek's commercial recordings are several issues in Decca's Entartete Musik series, including the following works:
Zagrosek conducted and recorded Wagner's opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen with the Stuttgart State Opera on the Naxos label (NXS 8660170). In addition, Zagrosek has
Martin Fischer-Dieskau (born 1954) is a German conductor, currently Music Director-Designate of the Taipei Symphony Orchestra.
Fischer-Dieskau was born in Berlin to a musical family; his father was the singer Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau. Fischer-Dieskau's older brother, Mathias, is a highly regarded stage designer, and his younger brother, Manuel, is a cellist. Fischer-Dieskau claims that his desire to be a conductor dates from 1961, when he and his older brother visited a rehearsal of Don Giovanni at the Deutsche Oper Berlin, in which his father was starring.
Fischer-Dieskau studied conducting, violin and piano in at the Hochschule für Musik in Vienna, the Hochschule der Künste in Berlin and the Accademia Chigiana di Siena. He participated in masterclasses with Franco Ferrara, Seiji Ozawa and Leonard Bernstein. From 1976 to 1977 he was a laureate in the German Music League's National Selection of Young Artists, and in 1978 and 1988 was awarded scholarships by the Leonard Bernstein Fellowship Program at Tanglewood.
In the 1978/79 season, he was assistant conductor to Antal Doráti at the Detroit Symphony Orchestra. After positions in Augsburg, Aachen and Hagen, Fischer-Dieskau became
Max Christian Friedrich Bruch (6 January 1838 – 2 October 1920), also known as Max Karl August Bruch, was a German Romantic composer and conductor who wrote over 200 works, including three violin concertos, the first of which has become a staple of the violin repertory.
Bruch was born in Cologne, Rhine Province, where he received his early musical training under the composer and pianist Ferdinand Hiller, to whom Robert Schumann dedicated his piano concerto. Ignaz Moscheles recognized his aptitude. Bruch had a long career as a teacher, conductor and composer, moving among musical posts in Germany: Mannheim (1862-1864), Koblenz (1865-1867), Sondershausen, (1867-1870), Berlin (1870-1872), and Bonn, where he spent 1873-78 working privately. At the height of his reputation he spent three seasons as conductor of the Liverpool Philharmonic Society (1880-83). There he met his wife, Clara Tuczek. He taught composition at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik from 1890 until his retirement in 1910. Bruch died in his house in Berlin-Friedenau.
His complex and well-structured works, in the German romantic musical tradition, placed him in the camp of Romantic classicism exemplified by Johannes
Pierre Boulez (French pronunciation: [pjɛʁ bu.lɛːz]) (born 26 March 1925) is a French composer of contemporary classical music, a conductor, and a pianist.
Boulez was born March 26, 1925 in Montbrison, Loire, France. As a child he began piano lessons and demonstrated aptitude in both music and mathematics. He pursued the latter at Lyon before pursuing music at the Paris Conservatoire under Olivier Messiaen and the wife of Arthur Honegger, Andrée Vaurabourg.
Through Messiaen, Boulez discovered twelve-tone technique — which he would later study privately with René Leibowitz — and went on to write atonal music in a post-Webernian serial style. Boulez was initially part of a cadre of early supporters of Leibowitz, but due to an altercation with Leibowitz, their relations turned divisive, as Boulez spent much of his career promoting the music of Messiaen instead.
The first fruits of this were his cantatas Le visage nuptial and Le soleil des eaux for female voices and orchestra, both composed in the late 1940s and revised several times since, as well as the Second Piano Sonata of 1948, a well-received 32-minute work that Boulez composed at the age of 23. Thereafter, Boulez was influenced
Raymond Everett Reach, Jr. (born August 3, 1948) is an American pianist, vocalist and educator residing in Birmingham, Alabama, now serving as Director of Student Jazz Programs for the Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame, director of the Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame All-Stars and President and CEO of Ray Reach Music and Magic City Music Productions. In addition, he is an accomplished guitarist, arranger, composer, conductor and music producer. Although he has composed, arranged and performed in a variety of genre (including classical, pop, R & B, gospel, contemporary Christian and jazz), he is perhaps best known for his work in the jazz idiom, combining straight-ahead jazz piano stylings with Sinatra-style vocals. Like many male jazz vocalists, such as Frank Sinatra, Tony Bennett, Vic Damone, Mel Torme, Harry Connick, Jr. and Michael Bublé, Ray's repertoire centers around the classic popular standards and jazz standards of the Great American Songbook. However, Ray differs from many of his jazz vocal colleagues in the fact that he does most of his own arrangements and accompanies himself on the piano.
Born in Birmingham, Alabama, Ray is the only child of Erma Elizabeth Hillman (a beautician) and
Richard Hageman (9 July 1881, Leeuwarden – 6 March 1966, Beverly Hills) was a Dutch-born American conductor, pianist, composer, and actor.
Hageman was born and raised in Leeuwarden, Friesland, Netherlands. He was the son of Maurits Hageman of Zutphen and Hester Westerhoven of Amsterdam. A child prodigy, he was a concert pianist by the age of six. He studied in Amsterdam and gave lessons as a piano teacher. As a young man he was an accompanist for singers and with the Amsterdam Royal Opera Company, of which he became the conductor in 1899. For a short time he was accompanist to Mathilde Marchesi in Paris. He travelled to the United States in 1906 to accompany Yvette Guilbert on a national tour. He stayed and eventually became an American citizen.
He was a conductor for the Metropolitan Opera between 1914 and 1932, head of the opera department at the Curtis Institute from 1932 to 1936, and music director of the Chicago Civic Opera and the Ravinia Park Opera for seven years. He was a guest director of orchestras like the Chicago, Philadelphia, and Los Angeles symphony orchestras. He conducted the Philadelphia Orchestra summer concerts for four years and from 1938 on he conducted at
Rico Saccani (born April 16, 1952) is an Italian conductor who served as Music Director/Artistic Adviser of the Budapest Philharmonic Orchestra between 1996 and 2005 and was principal guest conductor of the Hungarian State Opera from 1985 to 2005.
Saccani began his music career with piano studies at age six. He attended the National Music Camp in Interlochen, Michigan from 1965–1968 and went on to the Chautauqua Summer Music Institute from 1969-1972. In 1973, he attended the Summer Academy at Fontainebleau where he worked with Nadia Boulanger. Following 300 Community Concert piano recitals from 1974–1978, he participated in the 1978 Leeds and Tchaikowsky International Piano Competitions.
In 1974, Saccani graduated from the University of Arizona with a B.S. in Business and returned in 1980 for a B.M. in Music. From 1980-1982 he attended the University of Michigan School of Music where he obtained his M.M. in Conducting under Gustav Meier and his D.M.A. under Louis Nagel.
Saccani attended the 1983 summer conducting seminar for young conductors at Tanglewood where he worked with Seiji Ozawa, Leonard Bernstein and Maurice Abravanel. During a seven year apprentice internship with
Robert "Bob" Bernhardt is an American conductor, currently the musical director and conductor of the Chattanooga Symphony & Opera, and the principal pops conductor of the Louisville Orchestra. For most of the 1980s, he was also associate conductor Louisville Orchestra.
Born in Rochester, New York, Robert Bernhardt holds a master's degree from the University of Southern California Thornton School of Music, where he studied with Daniel Lewis. He is also a Phi Beta Kappa, summa cum laude graduate of Union College in Schenectady, New York, where he was an academic baseball player.
Siegmund von Hausegger (16 August 1872 – 10 October 1948) was an Austrian composer and conductor.
Siegmund was born in Graz, the son of Friedrich von Hausegger (1837-1899), a lawyer and writer on music. According to Siegmund's own account, Friedrich was "one of the first in Austria to recognize the greatness of Richard Wagner and to exert himself to the utmost in propagating his music and his ideas". According to one account, the young von Hausegger may have been made the vehicle of his critic-father's ideals. Siegmund studied music initially under his father, and a strong Wagnerian tinge is found in his own compositions, which included masses, operas and symphonic poems as well as many choruses and songs.
At the age of nineteen, von Hausegger composed a Mass for chorus and orchestra that he described as "my first serious composition". Originally intended to be performed at his college, the work proved too challenging for his fellow-pupils. His father helped him arrange a private performance before an invited audience. This event marked von Hausegger's debut both as a conductor and as a composer.
He was talked of in Austria and Germany in the first years of the 20th century as one
Takuo Yuasa (湯浅 卓雄, Yuasa Takuo, born 1949) is a Japanese conductor. Yuasa has directed major orchestras in Japan and the UK, and recording on more than 50 CDs as an exclusive artist for Naxos Records.
Takuo Yuasa was born in Osaka, Japan, where he studied piano, cello, flute, and clarinet. At age 18, he received a scholarship to study in the USA at the University of Cincinnati , eventually completing a Bachelor Degree in Theory and Composition. Later on, he moved to Europe to study conducting at the Hochschule in Vienna with Hans Swarowsky, after which he studied with Igor Markevitch in France and Franco Ferrara in Siena. He then became assistant to Lovro von Matačić, working with him in Monte Carlo, Milan, and Vienna. Since winning a Special Award at the Fitelberg International Conducting Competition in Katowice, Poland, Yuasa has frequently conducted the major orchestras there, including the Warsaw National Philharmonic and the Polish Radio National Symphony Orchestras.
Back in his home of Japan, Yuasa conducts several major Japanese orchestras including the Japan Philharmonic, Osaka Philharmonic, the New Japan Philharmonic orchestra,Tokyo Philhamonic, and been principal
Vladimir Mikhailovich Jurowski (Russian: Владимир Михайлович Юровский; born 4 April 1972, Moscow, Russia) is a Russian conductor. He is the son of conductor Mikhail Jurowski.
Jurowski began his musical studies at the Moscow Conservatory. In 1990, he moved with his family, including his brother Dmitri, to Germany, where he completed his education at the music schools at the Hochschule für Musik Carl Maria von Weber Dresden and the Hochschule für Musik Hanns Eisler. He studied conducting with Rolf Reuter and vocal coaching with Semion Skigin. He participated in a conducting master class with Sir Colin Davis on Sibelius' Symphony No. 7 in 1991.
Jurowski first appeared on the international scene in 1995 at the Wexford Festival, where he conducted Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov's opera May Night, and he returned the following year for Giacomo Meyerbeer's L'étoile du nord, which was recorded by Naxos Records. In April 1996, he made his debut at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, conducting Nabucco.
In the 1996/1997 season, Jurowski joined the ensemble of the Komische Oper Berlin, as an assistant to Yakov Kreizberg and second Kapellmeister. He received the title first Kapellmeister a year