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Best Condition prevention factors of All Time

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    1
    Mefloquine

    Mefloquine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Vivax malaria
    Mefloquine hydrochloride (Lariam, Mephaquin or Mefliam) is an orally administered medication used in the prevention and treatment of malaria. Mefloquine was developed in the 1970s at the United States Department of Defense's Walter Reed Army Institute of Research as a synthetic analogue of quinine. The brand name drug, Lariam, is manufactured by the Swiss company Hoffmann–La Roche. In August 2009, Roche stopped marketing Lariam in the United States. Generic mefloquine from other manufacturers is still widely available. Rare but serious neuropsychiatric problems have been associated with its use. Mefloquine is used to both prevent and treat certain forms of malaria. Mefloquine is useful for the prevention of malaria in all areas except for those where parasites may have resistance to multiple drugs. It is typically taken for one to two weeks before entering an area with malaria. Doxycycline and atovaquone/proguanil provide protection within one to two days and may be better tolerated. If a person becomes ill with malaria despite prophylaxis with mefloquine, the use of halofantrine and quinine for treatment may be ineffective. Once a person has contracted malaria, mefloquine is
    9.20
    5 votes
    2
    Potassium bicarbonate

    Potassium bicarbonate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Hypokalemia
    Potassium bicarbonate (also known as potassium hydrogen carbonate or potassium acid carbonate) is a colorless, odorless, slightly basic, salty substance. According to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), potassium bicarbonate is "generally recognized as safe". Potassium bicarbonate is soluble in water, and is often found added to bottled water to affect taste; however, it is not soluble in alcohol. Decomposition of the substance occurs between 100 °C and 120 °C into K2CO3 (potassium carbonate), H2O (water), and CO2 (carbon dioxide). In concentrations greater than 0.5%, KHCO3 can have toxic effects on plants (potassium bicarbonate has widespread use in crops, especially for neutralizing acidic soil, and is also under consideration as an organic fungicide), although there is no evidence of human carcinogenicity, no adverse effects of overexposure, and an undetermined LD50. Physically, potassium bicarbonate occurs as a crystal or a soft white granular powder. It is manufactured by reacting potassium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water: Potassium bicarbonate is very rarely found in its natural form, the mineral called kalicinite. The compound is used as a source of carbon
    7.83
    6 votes
    3
    Ranitidine

    Ranitidine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Gastrointestinal bleeding
    Ranitidine ( /rəˈnɪtɨdiːn/; trade name Zantac) is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production. It is commonly used in treatment of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Ranitidine is also used alongside fexofenadine and other antihistamines for the treatment of skin conditions such as hives. Ranitidine is also known to give false positives for methamphetamine on drug tests. Certain preparations of ranitidine are available over the counter (OTC) in various countries. In the United States, 75 mg and 150 mg tablets are available OTC. Zantac OTC is manufactured by Boehringer Ingelheim. In Australia, packs containing 7 or 14 doses of the 150 mg tablet are available in supermarkets, small packs of 150 mg and 300 mg tablets are Schedule 2 Pharmacy Medicines. Larger doses and pack sizes still require a prescription. Outside the United States and Canada, ranitidine is combined with bismuth (which acts as a mild antibiotic) as a citrate salt (ranitidine bismuth citrate, Tritec), to treat Helicobacter pylori infections. This combination is usually given with clarithromycin, an antibiotic. Ranitidine's main role is in treating
    6.00
    8 votes
    4
    Salmeterol

    Salmeterol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Bronchospasm
    Salmeterol is a long-acting beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist drug that is currently prescribed for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). It is currently available as a dry powder inhaler that releases a powdered form of the drug. Before 2008, it was also available as a metered-dose inhaler (MDI). Salmeterol has an aryl alkyl group with a chain length of 11-atoms from the amine. This bulkiness makes the compound more lipophilic and it also makes it β receptor selective. It is a long-acting beta-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA), usually prescribed only for severe persistent asthma following previous treatment with a short-acting beta agonist such as salbutamol and is prescribed concurrently with a corticosteroid, such as beclomethasone. The primary noticeable difference of salmeterol to salbutamol is that the duration of action lasts approximately 12 hours in comparison with 4–6 hours of salbutamol. When used regularly every day as prescribed, inhaled salmeterol decreases the number and severity of asthma attacks. However, like all LABA medications, it is not for use for relieving an asthma attack that has already started. Inhaled salmeterol works like
    8.60
    5 votes
    5
    Simvastatin

    Simvastatin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Coronary Artery Disease
    Simvastatin (INN) ( /ˈsɪmvəstætɨn/) is a hypolipidemic drug used to control elevated cholesterol, or hypercholesterolemia. It is a member of the statin class of pharmaceuticals. Simvastatin is a synthetic derivative of a fermentation product of Aspergillus terreus. The drug is marketed generically and under the trade name Zocor. The primary uses of simvastatin is for the treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. It is recommended to be used only after other measures such as diet, exercise, and weight reduction have not improved cholesterol levels sufficiently. Common side effects (>1% incidence) may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, indigestion, and a general feeling of weakness. Rare side effects include joint pain, memory loss, and muscle cramps. Cholestatic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, rhabdomyolysis (destruction of muscles and blockade of renal system) and myositis have been reported in patients receiving the drug chronically. A type of DNA variant known as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may help predict individuals prone to developing myopathy when taking simvastatin; a study ultimately including 32,000 patients concluded the carriers of
    8.60
    5 votes
    6
    Clindamycin

    Clindamycin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Bacterial Endocarditis
    Clindamycin rINN ( /klɪndəˈmaɪsɨn/) is a lincosamide antibiotic. It is usually used to treat infections with anaerobic bacteria but can also be used to treat some protozoal diseases, such as malaria. It is a common topical treatment for acne and can be useful against some methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. The most severe common adverse effect of clindamycin is Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (the most frequent cause of pseudomembranous colitis). Although this side effect occurs with almost all antibiotics, including beta-lactam antibiotics, it is classically linked to clindamycin use. Clindamycin is marketed under various trade names, including Dalacin, ''Daclin''. Combination products include Duac, BenzaClin, Clindoxyl and Acanya (in combination with benzoyl peroxide), and Ziana (with tretinoin). Clindamycin is also available as a generic drug. Clindamycin is used primarily to treat anaerobic infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria, including dental infections, and infections of the respiratory tract, skin and soft tissue infections, and peritonitis. In patients with hypersensitivity to penicillins, clindamycin may be used to
    8.40
    5 votes
    7
    Dicloxacillin

    Dicloxacillin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Gram-positive bacterial infection
    Dicloxacillin (INN) is a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class. It is used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria. It is active against beta-lactamase-producing organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, which would otherwise be resistant to most penicillins. It is very similar to flucloxacillin and these two agents are considered interchangeable. Dicloxacillin is available under a variety of trade names including Diclocil (BMS). Like other β-lactam antibiotics, dicloxacillin acts by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls. It inhibits cross-linkage between the linear peptidoglycan polymer chains that make up a major component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Dicloxacillin is insensitive to beta-lactamase (also known as penicillinase) enzymes secreted by many penicillin-resistant bacteria. The presence of the isoxazolyl group on the side-chain of the penicillin nucleus facilitates the β-lactamase resistance, since they are relatively intolerant of side-chain steric hindrance. Thus, it is able to bind to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and inhibit peptidoglycan crosslinking, but is not bound by or inactivated by
    8.40
    5 votes
    8
    Mosquito net

    Mosquito net

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Malaria
    A mosquito net offers protection against mosquitos, flies, and other insects, and thus against the diseases they may carry. Examples include malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and various forms of encephalitis, including the West Nile virus. To be effective the mesh of a mosquito net must be fine enough to exclude such insects without impeding visibility or the flow of air unacceptably. It is possible to increase the effectiveness of a mosquito net greatly by treating it with an appropriate insecticide or mosquito repellant. Mosquito netting has a long history. Though use of the term dates from the mid-18th century, use of mosquito nets has been dated to prehistoric times. It is said that Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, also slept under a mosquito net. Mosquito nets were used during the malaria-plagued construction of the Suez Canal. Mosquito net can be made from cotton, polyethylene, polyester, polypropylene, or nylon. A mesh size of 1.2 mm stops mosquitoes, and smaller, such as 0.6 mm, stops other biting insects such as biting midges/no-see-ums. A mosquito bar is an alternate form of a mosquito net. It is constructed of a fine see-through mesh fabric mounted on and draped over a
    6.29
    7 votes
    9
    Influenza vaccine

    Influenza vaccine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Influenza
    The influenza vaccination, also known as a flu shot, is an annual vaccination using a vaccine specific for a given year to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. Each seasonal influenza vaccine contains three influenza viruses: one influenza type A subtype H3N2 virus strain, one influenza type A subtype H1N1 (seasonal) virus strain, and one influenza type B virus strain. A quadrivalent flu vaccine administered by nasal mist was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in March 2012. "Influenza vaccination is the most effective method for preventing influenza virus infection and its potentially severe complications." (Update1) The concept of herd immunity is the foundation for all vaccinations. Herd immunity can be defined as immunity in a significant portion of a population, usually at least 80 percent, to a given disease. Whether they are immune because they have been vaccinated or because they have already encountered the illness and built their own natural immunity, they provide protection to others who are not immune because the illness has little chance of spreading in the population. Those in favor of the flu vaccine say it makes sense then for
    7.17
    6 votes
    10
    Oxybenzone

    Oxybenzone

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Sunburn
    Oxybenzone (trade names Eusolex 4360, Escalol 567, KAHSCREEN BZ-3) is an organic compound used in sunscreens. It forms colorless crystals that are readily soluble in most organic solvents. It is used as an ingredient in sunscreen and other cosmetics because it absorbs UVB and short-wave UVA (ultraviolet) rays. Oxybenzone was one of the first compounds incorporated into sunscreen formulations to offer enhanced UVA protection because its absorption spectrum extends to less than 350 nm. Oxybenzone's ability to absorb UV rays is due to a variety of molecular interactions. In this compound, both of the phenyl rings can interact with the C=O group through inductive effects and mesomeric effects. The overlapping of the π bonds of both phenyl rings and that of the C=O creates a completely conjugated molecule as evidenced by the MO diagram. This causes the C=O group to lose part of its individual character as it integrates with the two phenyl rings. This stabilizes the system due to the transference of electron deficiency from the carbon of the carbonyl towards three of the carbons of the phenyl rings. When examining the stability of the oxybenzone, which contributes to the absorption
    9.25
    4 votes
    11
    Lysine

    Lysine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nutritional and metabolic diseases
    Lysine (abbreviated as Lys or K) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)(CH2)4NH2. It is an essential amino acid for humans. Lysine's codons are AAA and AAG. Lysine is a base, as are arginine and histidine. The ε-amino group often participates in hydrogen bonding and as a general base in catalysis. (The ε-amino group, which is attached to the NH3 group, is the fifth carbon down from the α-carbon, which is attached to the carboxyl (C=OOH) group.) Common posttranslational modifications include methylation of the ε-amino group, giving methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyllysine. The latter occurs in calmodulin. Other posttranslational modifications at lysine residues include acetylation and ubiquitination. Collagen contains hydroxylysine, which is derived from lysine by lysyl hydroxylase. O-Glycosylation of hydroxylysine residues in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus is used to mark certain proteins for secretion from the cell. As an essential amino acid, lysine is not synthesized in animals, hence it must be ingested as lysine or lysine-containing proteins. In plants and bacteria, it is synthesized from aspartic acid (aspartate): Enzymes involved in this
    8.00
    5 votes
    12
    Heparin

    Heparin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Venous thrombosis
    Heparin (from Ancient Greek ηπαρ (hepar), liver), also known as unfractionated heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant, and has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. It can also be used to form an inner anticoagulant surface on various experimental and medical devices such as test tubes and renal dialysis machines. Although it is used principally in medicine for anticoagulation, its true physiological role in the body remains unclear, because blood anti-coagulation is achieved mostly by heparan sulfate proteoglycans derived from endothelial cells. Heparin is usually stored within the secretory granules of mast cells and released only into the vasculature at sites of tissue injury. It has been proposed that, rather than anticoagulation, the main purpose of heparin is defense at such sites against invading bacteria and other foreign materials. In addition, it is conserved across a number of widely different species, including some invertebrates that do not have a similar blood coagulation system. Native heparin is a polymer with a molecular weight ranging from 3 kDa to 30 kDa, although the average
    7.80
    5 votes
    13
    Levobupivacaine

    Levobupivacaine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Levobupivacaine (rINN) ( /liːvoʊbjuːˈpɪvəkeɪn/) is a local anaesthetic drug belonging to the amino amide group. It is the S-enantiomer of bupivacaine. Levobupivacaine hydrochloride is commonly marketed by Abbott under the trade name Chirocaine. Compared to bupivacaine, levobupivacaine is associated with less vasodilation and has a longer duration of action. It is approximately 13 percent less potent (by molarity) than racemic bupivacaine. Levobupivacaine is indicated for local anaesthesia including infiltration, nerve block, ophthalmic, epidural and intrathecal anaesthesia in adults; and infiltration analgesia in children. Levobupivacaine is contraindicated for IV regional anaesthesia (IVRA). Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are rare when it is administered correctly. Most ADRs relate to administration technique (resulting in systemic exposure) or pharmacological effects of anesthesia, however allergic reactions can rarely occur. Systemic exposure to excessive quantities of bupivacaine mainly result in central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular effects – CNS effects usually occur at lower blood plasma concentrations and additional cardiovascular effects present at higher
    9.00
    4 votes
    14
    Thyroid

    Thyroid

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Hypothyroidism
    The thyroid gland or simply, the thyroid /ˈθaɪərɔɪd/, in vertebrate anatomy, is one of the largest endocrine glands. The thyroid gland is found in the neck, below the thyroid cartilage (which forms the laryngeal prominence, or "Adam's apple"). The isthmus (the bridge between the two lobes of the thyroid) is located inferior to the cricoid cartilage. The thyroid gland controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body is to other hormones. It participates in these processes by producing thyroid hormones, the principal ones being triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine which can sometimes be referred to as tetraiodothyronine (T4). These hormones regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. T3 and T4 are synthesized from both iodine and tyrosine. The thyroid also produces calcitonin, which plays a role in calcium homeostasis. Hormonal output from the thyroid is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) produced by the anterior pituitary, which itself is regulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) produced by the hypothalamus. The thyroid gets its name from the Greek word
    7.60
    5 votes
    15
    Capsicum

    Capsicum

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Capsicum is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Its species are native to the Americas where they have been cultivated for thousands of years. In modern times, it is cultivated worldwide, and has become a key element in many regional cuisines. In addition to use as spices and food vegetables, capsicum has also found use in medicines. The fruit of Capsicum plants have a variety of names depending on place and type. The piquant (spicy) variety are commonly called chili peppers, or simply "chilies". The large mild form is called red pepper, green pepper or bell pepper in North America, sweet pepper in Britain, and typically just "capsicum" in Australia, New Zealand, and India. The fruit is called paprika in some other countries (although paprika can also refer to the powdered spice made from various capsicum fruit). The generic name is derived from the Greek word κάπτω (kapto), meaning "to bite" or "to swallow." The name "pepper" came into use because of their similar flavour to the condiment black pepper, Piper nigrum, although there is no botanical relationship with this plant, or with Sichuan pepper. The original Mexican term, chilli (now chile in
    8.75
    4 votes
    16
    Clarithromycin

    Clarithromycin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Atypical Mycobacterium Infections
    Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia (especially atypical pneumonias associated with Chlamydophila pneumoniae), skin and skin structure infections. In addition, it is sometimes used to treat legionellosis, Helicobacter pylori, and lyme disease. Clarithromycin is available under several brand names, for example Crixan, Claritt, Clarac, Biaxin, Klaricid, Klacid, Klaram, Klabax, Claripen, Clarem, Claridar, Fromilid, Clacid, Clacee, Vikrol, Infex, Clariwin, Resclar, Ranbaxy and Clarihexal. Clarithromycin was invented by researchers at the Japanese drug company Taisho Pharmaceutical in the 1970s. The product emerged through efforts to develop a version of the antibiotic erythromycin that did not experience acid instability in the digestive tract, causing side effects, such as nausea and stomach ache. Taisho filed for patent protection for the drug around 1980 and subsequently introduced a branded version of its drug, called Clarith, to the Japanese market in 1991. In 1985, Taisho partnered with the American company Abbott Laboratories for the international
    7.40
    5 votes
    17
    Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Diphtheria
    Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria. It is also known as the Klebs-Löffler bacillus, because it was discovered in 1884 by German bacteriologists Edwin Klebs (1834 – 1912) and Friedrich Löffler (1852 – 1915). Four subspecies are recognized: C. diphtheriae mitis, C. diphtheriae intermedius, C. diphtheriae gravis, and C. diphtheriae belfanti. The four subspecies differ slightly in their colonial morphology and biochemical properties, such as the ability to metabolize certain nutrients, but all may be toxigenic (and therefore cause diphtheria) or non-toxigenic. Corynebacterium diphtheriae produces Diphtheria toxin which alters protein function in the host by inactivating elongation factor (EF-2). This causes pharyngitis and 'pseudomembrane' in the throat. The diphtheria toxin gene is encoded by a bacteriophage found in toxigenic strains, integrated into the bacterial chromosome. In order to accurately identify C. diphtheriae, a Gram stain is performed to show gram-positive, highly pleomorphic organisms with no particular arrangement. Special stains like Alberts's stain and Ponder's stain are used to demonstrate the metachromatic granules formed
    8.50
    4 votes
    18
    Pentamidine

    Pentamidine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pneumocystis Pneumonia
    Pentamidine (formulated as a salt, pentamidine diisethionate or dimesilate) is an antimicrobial medication given for prevention and treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known as Pneumocystis carinii), a severe interstitial type of pneumonia often seen in patients with HIV infection. The drug is also the mainstay of treatment for stage I infection with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (West African Trypanosomiasis). Pentamidine is also used as a prophylactic against PCP in patients receiving chemotherapy, as they also have a depressed immune system as a direct side-effect of the drugs used. The mortality of untreated PCP is very high. Additionally, pentamidine has good clinical activity in treating leishmaniasis, and yeast infections caused by the organism Candida albicans. Pentamidine is also used as a prophylactic antibiotic for children undergoing treatment for leukemia. The exact mechanism of its anti-protozoal action is unknown (though it may involve reactions with ubiquitin), despite the fact that it is a basic therapeutic modality (in concurrence with multiple antifungal medications) when treating Acanthamoeba infections in the
    8.50
    4 votes
    19
    Ammonium ferric citrate

    Ammonium ferric citrate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Iron deficiency anemia
    Ammonium ferric citrate is a food additive with E number E381 used as an acidity regulator. It is a green or reddish-brown powder which is very soluble in water. The molecular formula of ammonium iron(III) citrate is variable. It can be prepared by adding Fe(OH)2 to an aqueous solution of citric acid and ammonia. The brown form is approximately 9% NH3, 16.5-18.5% Fe, and 65% hydrated citric acid; the green form is approximately 7.5% NH3, 14.5-16% Fe, and 75% hydrated citric acid. The green type is more readily reduced by light than the brown. Other uses for ammonium ferric citrate include water purification and printing (cyanotype). It is used as a reducing agent of metal salts of low activity like gold and silver and is also in a commonly used recipe with potassium ferricyanide to make cyanotype prints. Ammonium ferric citrate is also used in Kligler iron deeps to determine hydrogen sulfide production in microbial metabolism. Ammonium ferric citrate is present in Scottish carbonated soft drink Irn-Bru. In medicine, ammonium ferric citrate is used as a contrast medium. It is also used as a hematinic.
    7.20
    5 votes
    20
    Gardasil

    Gardasil

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Human papillomavirus infection
    Gardasil (Merck & Co.), also known as Gardisil or Silgard, is a vaccine for use in the prevention of certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV), specifically HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. HPV types 16 and 18 cause an estimated 70% of cervical cancers, and are responsible for most HPV-induced anal, vulvar, vaginal, and penile cancer cases. HPV types 6 and 11 cause an estimated 90% of genital warts cases. Though it does not treat existing infection, vaccination is still recommended for HPV positive individuals, as it may protect against one or more different strains of the disease. The HPV strains that Gardasil protects against are sexually transmitted. It was approved in the US on June 8, 2006 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA recommends vaccination before adolescence and potential sexual activity. The research that led to the development of the vaccine began in the 1980s by groups at the University of Rochester, Georgetown University, and the US National Cancer Institute (NCI). In 1991, Australian investigators at The University of Queensland found a way to form non-infectious virus-like particles (VLP), which could also strongly activate the immune system.
    7.20
    5 votes
    21
    Eugenol

    Eugenol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Toothache
    Eugenol is a phenylpropene, an allyl chain-substituted guaiacol. Eugenol is a member of the phenylpropanoids class of chemical compounds. It is a clear to pale yellow oily liquid extracted from certain essential oils especially from clove oil, nutmeg, cinnamon, basil and bay leaf. It is slightly soluble in water and soluble in organic solvents. It has a spicy, clove-like aroma. The name is derived from the scientific name for clove, Eugenia aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata. Eugenol is responsible for the aroma of cloves. It is the main component in the essential oil extracted from cloves, comprising 72–90% of the total. Eugenol is used in perfumeries, flavorings, essential oils and in medicine as a local antiseptic and anesthetic. It is a key ingredient in Indonesian kretek (clove) cigarettes. It was used in the production of isoeugenol for the manufacture of vanillin, though most vanillin is now produced from phenol or from lignin. Eugenol can be combined with zinc oxide to form a material - known as zinc oxide eugenol - which has restorative and prosthodontic applications in dentistry. Eugenol derivatives or methoxyphenol derivatives in wider classification are used in
    8.25
    4 votes
    22
    Magnesium chloride

    Magnesium chloride

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Magnesium deficiency
    Magnesium chloride is the name for the chemical compounds with the formulas MgCl2 and its various hydrates MgCl2(H2O)x. These salts are typical ionic halides, being highly soluble in water. The hydrated magnesium chloride can be extracted from brine or sea water. Magnesium chloride as the natural mineral bischofite is also extracted (solution mining) out of ancient seabeds; for example, the Zechstein seabed in northwest Europe. Anhydrous magnesium chloride is the principal precursor to magnesium metal, which is produced on a large scale. Hydrated magnesium chloride is the form usually used in prescription oral magnesium supplements. MgCl2 crystallizes in the cadmium chloride motif, which features octahedral Mg. A variety of hydrates are known with the formula MgCl2(H2O)x, and each loses water with increasing temperature: x = 12 (-16.4 °C), 8 (-3.4 °C), 6 (116.7 °C), 4 (181 °C), 2 (ca. 300 °C). In the hexahydrate, the Mg remains octahedral, but is coordinated to six water ligands. The thermal dehydration of the hydrates MgCl2(H2O)x (x = 6, 12) does not occur straightforwardly. As suggested by the existence of some hydrates, anhydrous MgCl2 is a Lewis acid, although a very weak one.
    8.25
    4 votes
    23
    Safe sex

    Safe sex

    • Conditions This May Prevent: HIV infection
    Safe sex is sexual activity engaged in by people who have taken precautions to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as HIV/AIDS. It is also referred to as safer sex or protected sex, while unsafe or unprotected sex is sexual activity engaged in without precautions. Some sources prefer the term safer sex to more precisely reflect the fact that these practices reduce, but do not completely eliminate, the risk of disease transmission. In recent years, the term "sexually transmitted infections" (STIs) has been preferred over "STDs", as it has a broader range of meaning; a person may be infected, and may potentially infect others, without showing signs of disease. Safe sex practices became more prominent in the late 1980s as a result of the AIDS epidemic. Promoting safe sex is now one of the aims of sex education. Safe sex is regarded as a harm reduction strategy aimed at reducing risks. The risk reduction of safe sex is not absolute; for example the reduced risk to the receptive partner of acquiring HIV from HIV seropositive partners not wearing condoms to compared to when they wear them is estimated to be about a four- to fivefold. Although some safe
    8.25
    4 votes
    24
    Rifabutin

    Rifabutin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Mycobacterium Avium Complex Infection
    Rifabutin (Rfb) is a bactericidal antibiotic drug primarily used in the treatment of tuberculosis. The drug is a semi-synthetic derivative of rifamycin S. Its effect is based on blocking the DNA-dependent RNA-polymerase of the bacteria. It is effective against Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria, but also against the highly resistant Mycobacteria, e.g. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. leprae, and M. avium intracellulare. Scientists at the Italian drug company Achifar discovered rifabutin in 1975. (Eventually Archifar became part of Farmitalia Carlo Erba, a unit of the conglomerate Montedison.) This company's Adria Laboratories subsidiary filed for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of rifabutin under the brand name Mycobutin in the early 1990s and the drug gained FDA approval in December 1992. Rifabutin (RFB) is primarily bactericidal antibiotic drug used to treat tuberculosis. Its effect on bacteria is based on the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase blocking drug rifamycin S., a semi-synthetic derivative. It is effective, for example, in highly resistant mycobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria (and some are effective against Gram-negative bacteria), but also against
    9.33
    3 votes
    25
    Cefadroxil

    Cefadroxil

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Bacterial Endocarditis
    Cefadroxil is a broad-spectrum antibiotic of the cephalosporin type, effective in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections. It is a bactericidal antibiotic. Cefadroxil is a first-generation cephalosporin antibacterial drug that is the para-hydroxy derivative of cefalexin, and is used similarly in the treatment of mild to moderate susceptible infections such as the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes, causing the disease popularly called strep throat or Streptococcal tonsillitis, urinary tract infection, reproductive tract infection and skin infections. Cefadroxil is almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. After doses of 500 mg and 1 g by mouth, peak plasma concentrations of about 16 and 30 micrograms/mL respectively are obtained after 1.5 to 2 hours. Although peak concentrations are similar to those of cefalexin, plasma concentrations are more sustained. Dosage with food does not appear to affect the absorption of cefadroxil. About 20% of cefadroxil is reported to be bound to plasma proteins. The plasma half-life of cefadroxil is about 1.5 hours and is prolonged in patients with renal impairment. Cefadroxil is widely distributed to body tissues and
    8.00
    4 votes
    26
    Hyaluronidase

    Hyaluronidase

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Extravasation
    The hyaluronidases (EC 3.2.1.35) are a family of enzymes that degrade hyaluronic acid. In humans, there are six associated genes, including HYAL1, HYAL2, HYAL3, and PH-20/SPAM1. By catalyzing the hydrolysis of hyaluronan, a constituent of the extracellular matrix (ECM), hyaluronidase lowers the viscosity of hyaluronan, thereby increasing tissue permeability. It is, therefore, used in medicine in conjunction with other drugs to speed their dispersion and delivery. Common applications are ophthalmic surgery, in combination with local anesthetics. It also increases the absorption rate of parenteral fluids given by hypodermoclysis, and is an adjunct in subcutaneous urography for improving resorption of radiopaque agents. Hyaluronidase is also used for extravasation of hyperosmolar solutions. Brand names of animal-derived hyaluronidase include Hydase (developed and manufactured by PrimaPharm Inc., distributed by Akorn Inc.), which has been FDA-approved as a "thimerosal-free" animal-derived hyaluronidase, Vitrase (ISTA Pharmaceuticals), Amphadase (Amphastar Pharmaceuticals), and Wydase. Wydase, however, is no longer manufactured. On December 2, 2005, the FDA approved a synthetic
    8.00
    4 votes
    27
    Physical exercise

    Physical exercise

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Diabetes mellitus
    Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, as well as for the purpose of enjoyment. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity. It also improves mental health, helps prevent depression, helps to promote or maintain positive self-esteem, and can even augment an individual's sex appeal or body image, which is also found to be linked with higher levels of self-esteem. Childhood obesity is a growing global concern and physical exercise may help decrease some of the effects of childhood and adult obesity. Health care providers often call exercise the "miracle" or "wonder" drug—alluding to the wide variety of proven benefits that it provides. Physical exercises are generally grouped into three types, depending on the overall effect they have on the human body: Sometimes the terms 'dynamic' and 'static' are used. 'Dynamic'
    8.00
    4 votes
    28
    Methylprednisolone

    Methylprednisolone

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Graft-versus-host disease
    Methylprednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid or corticosteroid drug. It is marketed in the USA and Canada under the brand names Medrol and Solu-Medrol. It is also available as a generic drug. It is a variant of prednisolone, methylated at carbon 6 of the B ring. Like most adrenocortical steroids, methylprednisolone is typically used for its anti-inflammatory effects. However, glucocorticoids have a wide range of effects, including changes to metabolism and immune responses. The list of medical conditions for which methylprednisolone is prescribed is rather long, and is similar to other corticosteroids such as prednisolone. Common uses include arthritis therapy and short-term treatment of bronchial inflammation or acute bronchitis due to various respiratory diseases. It is used both in the treatment of acute periods and long-term management of autoimmune diseases, most notably systemic lupus erythematosus. It is also used as a treatment for multiple sclerosis. Methylprednisolone is also prescribed for nonpenetrating spinal cord injuries. It has been shown that a dose of 30 mg/kg IV followed by IV drip at 5.4 mg/kg/hr for 23 hours improves sensory and motor recovery if given
    6.80
    5 votes
    29
    Potassium iodide

    Potassium iodide

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Surgical Wound Infection
    Potassium iodide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula KI. This white salt is the most commercially significant iodide compound, with approximately 37,000 tons produced in 1985. It is less hygroscopic (absorbs water less readily) than sodium iodide, making it easier to work with. Aged and impure samples are yellow because of aerial oxidation of the iodide to elemental iodine. Potassium iodide is medicinally supplied in 130 mg tablets (each containing 100 mg iodine as iodide) for emergency purposes related to blockade of radioiodine uptake. Potassium iodide may also be administered pharmaceutically for thyroid storm or as an expectorant, as a "saturated solution of potassium iodide" (SSKI) which in the U.S.P. generic formulation contains 1000 mg of KI per mL of solution. This represents 333 mg KI and about 250 mg iodide (I ) in a typical adult dose of 5 drops, assumed to be ⅓ mL. Because SSKI is a viscous liquid, it is normally assumed to contain 15 drops/milliliter, not 20 drops/milliliter as is often assumed for water. Thus, each drop of U.S.P. SSKI is assumed to contain about 50 mg iodine as iodide, I . Thus, two (2) drops of U.S.P. SSKI solution is equivalent to one
    6.80
    5 votes
    30
    Condom

    Condom

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Gonorrhea
    A condom (US /ˈkɒndəm/ or UK /ˈkɒndɒm/) is a barrier device commonly used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy and spreading sexually transmitted diseases. It is put on a man's erect penis and physically blocks ejaculated semen from entering the body of a sexual partner. Condoms are also used for collection of semen for use in infertility treatment. Because condoms are waterproof, elastic, and durable, they are also used for non-sexual purposes such as creating waterproof microphones and protecting rifle barrels from clogging. In the modern age, condoms are most often made from latex, but some are made from other materials such as polyurethane, polyisoprene, or lamb intestine. A female condom is also available, often made of nitrile. As a method of birth control, male condoms have the advantage of being inexpensive, easy to use, having few side effects, and offering protection against sexually transmitted diseases. With proper knowledge and application technique—and use at every act of intercourse—women whose partners use male condoms experience a 2% per-year pregnancy rate with perfect use and a 15% per-year pregnancy rate with typical use. Condoms have
    9.00
    3 votes
    31
    Padimate O

    Padimate O

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Sunburn
    Padimate O is an organic compound related to the water-soluble compound PABA (4-aminobenzoic acid) that is used as an ingredient in some sunscreens. This yellowish water-insoluble oily liquid is an ester formed by the condensation of 2-ethylhexanol with dimethylaminobenzoic acid. Other names for padimate O include 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate, Escalol 507, octyldimethyl PABA, and OD-PABA. Padimate O has been implicated in the sunscreen controversy. Padimate O absorbs ultraviolet rays, thereby preventing direct DNA damage by UV-B. However, the thus-excited padimate O molecule may then react with DNA to produce indirect DNA damage, similar to the effects of ionizing radiation. An in vitro yeast study conducted in 1993 demonstrated the sunlight-induced mutagenicity of padimate O. The photobiological properties of padimate O resemble those of Michler's ketone, which is considered photocarcinogenic in rats and mice. These findings suggest that padimate O might also be photocarcinogenic. However, multiple in vivo studies conducted in hairless mice following topical application of padimate O have demonstrated no carcinogenic effects and that padimate O reduces the number of and
    9.00
    3 votes
    32
    Azithromycin

    Azithromycin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Atypical Mycobacterium Infections
    Azithromycin (Zithromax, Azithrocin, Zmax) is an azalide, a subclass of macrolide antibiotics. Azithromycin is one of the world's best-selling antibiotics. It is derived from erythromycin, with a methyl-substituted nitrogen atom incorporated into the lactone ring, thus making the lactone ring 15-membered. Azithromycin is used to treat or prevent certain bacterial infections, most often those causing middle ear infections, strep throat, pneumonia, typhoid, and sinusitis. In recent years, it has been used primarily to prevent bacterial infections in infants and those with weaker immune systems. It is also effective against certain sexually transmitted infections, such as nongonococcal urethritis, chlamydia, and cervicitis. Recent studies have indicated it also to be effective against late-onset asthma, but these findings are controversial and not widely accepted. Azithromycin is used to treat many different infections, including acute otitis media, nonstreptococcal bacterial pharyngitis, gastrointestinal infections such as traveler's diarrhea, respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia, cellulitis, babesiosis, Bartonella infection, chancroid cholera, donovanosis, leptospirosis,
    7.75
    4 votes
    33
    Mycophenolic acid

    Mycophenolic acid

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Graft-versus-host disease
    Mycophenolic acid INN ( /ˌmaɪkoʊfɨˈnɒlɪk/) or mycophenolate is an immunosuppressant drug used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation. It inhibits an enzyme needed for the growth of T cells and B cells. It was initially marketed as the prodrug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) to improve oral bioavailability. More recently, the salt mycophenolate sodium has also been introduced. Mycophenolic acid is commonly marketed under the trade names CellCept (mycophenolate mofetil; Roche) and Myfortic (mycophenolate sodium; Novartis). In general, mycophenolate is used for the prevention of organ transplant rejection. Mycophenolate mofetil is indicated for the prevention of organ transplant rejection in adults and renal transplant rejection in children over 2 years; whereas mycophenolate sodium is indicated for the prevention of renal transplant rejection in adults. Mycophenolate sodium has also been used for the prevention of rejection in liver, heart, and/or lung transplants in children older than two years. An immunosuppressant that has drastically decreased the incidence of acute rejection in solid transplant recipients, mycophenolate is increasingly utilized as a steroid sparing treatment
    7.75
    4 votes
    34
    Famotidine

    Famotidine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Gastrointestinal bleeding
    Famotidine (INN) ( /fəˈmɒtɪdiːn/) is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production, and it is commonly used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD/GORD). It is commonly marketed by Johnson & Johnson/Merck under the trade names Pepcidine and Pepcid and by Astellas under the trade name Gaster. Unlike cimetidine, the first H2 antagonist, famotidine has no effect on the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, and does not appear to interact with other drugs. Famotidine was developed by Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co. It was licensed in the mid-80s by Merck & Co. and is marketed by a joint venture between Merck and Johnson & Johnson. The imidazole-ring of cimetidine was replaced with a 2-guanidinothiazole ring. Famotidine proved to be 30 times more active than cimetidine. It was first marketed in 1981. Pepcid RPD orally-disintegrating tablets (that are not swallowed) were released in 1999. Generic preparations became available in 2001, e.g. Fluxid (Schwarz) or Quamatel (Gedeon Richter Ltd.). In the United States, a product called Pepcid Complete is available that combines famotidine with an antacid in a chewable tablet to
    5.83
    6 votes
    35
    Avobenzone

    Avobenzone

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Sunburn
    Avobenzone (trade names Parsol 1789, Eusolex 9020, Escalol 517 and others, INCI Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane) is an oil soluble ingredient used in sunscreen products to absorb the full spectrum of UVA rays. It is a dibenzoylmethane derivative. Avobenzone exists in the ground state as a mixture of the enol and keto forms, favoring the chelated enol. Its ability to absorb ultraviolet light over a wider range of wavelengths than many organic sunscreen agents has led to its use in many commercial preparations marketed as "broad spectrum" sunscreens. Avobenzone has an absorption maximum of 357 nm. Avobenzone was patented in 1973 and was approved in the EU in 1978. It was approved by the FDA in 1988. Its use is approved worldwide. Avobenzone is sensitive to the properties of the solvent, being relatively stable in polar protic solvents and unstable in nonpolar environments. Also, when it is irradiated with UVA light, it generates a triplet excited state in the keto form which can either cause the avobenzone to degrade or it can transfer energy to biological targets and cause deleterious effects. Avobenzone has been shown to degrade significantly in light, resulting in less protection
    6.60
    5 votes
    36
    Tacrolimus

    Tacrolimus

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Graft-versus-host disease
    Tacrolimus (also FK-506 or fujimycin, trade names Prograf, Advagraf, Protopic) is an immunosuppressive drug that is mainly used after allogeneic organ transplant to reduce the activity of the patient's immune system and so lower the risk of organ rejection. It is also used in a topical preparation in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema), severe refractory uveitis after bone marrow transplants, exacerbations of minimal change disease, and the skin condition vitiligo. It is a 23-membered macrolide lactone discovered in 1984 from the fermentation broth of a Japanese soil sample that contained the bacteria Streptomyces tsukubaensis. It reduces interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by T-cells. Tacrolimus was discovered in 1984; it was among the first macrolide immunosuppressants discovered, preceded by the discovery of rapamycin (sirolimus) on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) in 1975. It is produced by a type of soil bacterium, Streptomyces tsukubaensis. The name tacrolimus is derived from 'Tsukuba macrolide immunosuppressant'. Tacrolimus was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1994 for use in liver transplantation; this has been extended to include kidney, heart, small
    6.60
    5 votes
    37
    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

    Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (or Bacille Calmette–Guérin, BCG) is a vaccine against tuberculosis that is prepared from a strain of the attenuated (weakened) live bovine tuberculosis bacillus, Mycobacterium bovis, that has lost its virulence in humans by being specially subcultured (230 passages) in an artificial medium for 13 years, and also prepared from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacilli have retained enough strong antigenicity to become a somewhat effective vaccine for the prevention of human tuberculosis. At best, the BCG vaccine is 80% effective in preventing tuberculosis for a duration of 15 years; however, its protective effect appears to vary according to geography. The history of BCG is tied to that of smallpox. Jean Antoine Villemin first recognized bovine tuberculosis in 1854 and transmitted it, and Robert Koch first distinguished Mycobacterium bovis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. After the success of vaccination in preventing smallpox, scientists thought to find a corollary in tuberculosis by drawing a parallel between bovine tuberculosis and cowpox: It was hypothesized that infection with bovine tuberculosis might protect against infection with human tuberculosis.
    7.50
    4 votes
    38
    Colchicine

    Colchicine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Gout
    Colchicine is a medication used for gout. It is a toxic natural product and secondary metabolite, originally extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum (autumn crocus, Colchicum autumnale, also known as "meadow saffron"). It was used originally to treat rheumatic complaints, especially gout, and still finds use for these purposes today despite dosing issues concerning its toxicity. It was also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects. In addition to gout, colchicine's present medicinal use is in the treatment of familial Mediterranean fever, pericarditis and Behçet's disease. It is also being investigated for its use as an anticancer drug. The plant source of colchicine, the autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale), was described for treatment of rheumatism and swelling in the Ebers Papyrus (ca. 1500 B.C.), an Egyptian medical papyrus. The use of the bulb-like corms of Colchicum for gout probably traces back to ca. 550 A.D., as the "hermodactyl" recommended by Alexander of Tralles. Colchicum extract was first described as a treatment for gout in De Materia Medica by Pedanius Dioscorides in the first century CE. Colchicum corms were used by the Persian physician ibn Sina
    7.50
    4 votes
    39
    Cromoglicic acid

    Cromoglicic acid

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Exercise-induced asthma
    Cromoglicic acid (INN) (also referred to as cromolyn (USAN), cromoglycate (former BAN), or cromoglicate) is traditionally described as a mast cell stabilizer, and is commonly marketed as the sodium salt sodium cromoglicate or cromolyn sodium. This drug prevents the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine from mast cells. Because of their convenience (and perceived safety), leukotriene receptor antagonists have largely replaced it as the non-corticosteroid treatment of choice in the treatment of asthma. Cromoglicic acid requires administration four times daily, and does not provide additive benefit in combination with inhaled corticosteroids. Cromolyn sodium was discovered by Roger Altounyan who was himself a lifelong asthma sufferer. It is considered a breakthrough drug in management of asthma as the patients can be freed from steroids in many cases, however, it is mainly effective as a prophylaxis for allergic and exercise induced asthma, not as a treatment for acute attacks. Altounyan was investigating certain plants and herbs which have bronchodilating properties. One such plant was Khella (Ammi visnaga) which had been used as a muscle relaxant since ancient times in
    7.50
    4 votes
    40
    Estropipate

    Estropipate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Postmenopausal osteoporosis
    Estropipate is a form of estrogen sold under the brand names Ogen and Ortho-Est. It is a salt of estrone sulfate and piperazine. Estropipate is used to:
    7.50
    4 votes
    41
    Iron pentacarbonyl

    Iron pentacarbonyl

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Iron deficiency anemia
    Iron pentacarbonyl, also known as iron carbonyl, is the compound with formula Fe(CO)5. Under standard conditions Fe(CO)5 is a free-flowing, straw-colored liquid with a pungent odour. This compound is a common precursor to diverse iron compounds, including many that are useful in organic synthesis. Fe(CO)5 is prepared by the reaction of fine iron particles with carbon monoxide. Fe(CO)5 is inexpensively purchased. Iron pentacarbonyl is one of the homoleptic metal carbonyls; i.e. CO is the only ligand complexed with iron. Other examples include octahedral Cr(CO)6 and tetrahedral Ni(CO)4. Most metal carbonyls have 18 valence electrons, and Fe(CO)5 fits this pattern with 8 valence electrons on Fe and five pairs of electrons provided by the CO ligands. Reflecting its symmetrical structure and charge neutrality, Fe(CO)5 is volatile; it is one of the most frequently encountered liquid metal complexes. Fe(CO)5 adopts a trigonal bipyramidal structure with the Fe atom surrounded by five CO ligands: three in equatorial positions and two axially bound. The Fe-C-O linkages are each linear. Fe(CO)5 is the archetypal fluxional molecule due to the rapid interchange of the axial and equatorial CO
    7.50
    4 votes
    42
    Captopril

    Captopril

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction
    Captopril (rINN) ( /ˈkæptəprɪl/) is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of congestive heart failure. Captopril was the first ACE inhibitor developed and was considered a breakthrough both because of its novel mechanism of action and also because of the revolutionary development process. Captopril is commonly marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb under the trade name Capoten. Captopril's main uses are based on its vasodilation and inhibition of some renal function activities. These benefits are most clearly seen in the following conditions: 1) Hypertension 2) Cardiac conditions such as congestive heart failure and after myocardial infarction 3) Preservation of kidney function in diabetic nephropathy Additionally, it has shown mood-elevating properties in some patients. This is consistent with the observation that animal screening models indicate putative antidepressant activity for this compound, although there has been one negative study. Formal clinical trials in depressed patients have not been reported. It has also been investigated for use in the treatment of cancer. Captopril was developed in 1975 by three
    8.67
    3 votes
    43
    Nizatidine

    Nizatidine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Gastrointestinal bleeding
    Nizatidine is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production, and commonly used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It was developed by Eli Lilly and is marketed under the brand names Tazac and Axid. Certain preparations of nizatidine are now available over the counter in various countries including the United States. Nizatidine has been used experimentally to control weight gain associated with some antipsychotic medication. Nizatidine was developed by Eli Lilly, and was first marketed in 1987. It is considered to be equipotent with ranitidine and differs by the substitution of a thiazole-ring in place of the furan-ring in ranitidine. In September 2000 Eli Lilly announced they would sell the sales and marketing rights for Axid to Reliant Pharmaceuticals. Subsequently, Reliant developed the oral solution of Axid, marketing this in 2004, after gaining approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, a year later they sold rights of the Axid Oral Solution (including the issued patent US6,930,119 protecting the product) to Braintree Laboratories. Nizatidine proved to be the last new
    8.67
    3 votes
    44
    Potassium acetate

    Potassium acetate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Hypokalemia
    Potassium acetate (CH3CO2K) is the potassium salt of acetic acid. It can be prepared by treating a potassium-containing base such as potassium hydroxide or potassium carbonate with acetic acid: This sort of reaction is known as an acid-base neutralization reaction. Potassium acetate is the salt that forms along with water as acetic acid and potassium hydroxide are neutralized together. Conditions/substances to avoid are: moisture, heat, flames, ignition sources, and strong oxidizing agents. Potassium acetate is used as a catalyst in the production of polyurethanes. Potassium acetate can be used as a deicer instead of chloride salts such as calcium chloride or magnesium chloride. It offers the advantage of being less aggressive on soils and much less corrosive, and for this reason is preferred for airport runways. It is, however, more expensive. Potassium acetate is also the extinguishing agent used in class K fire extinguishers because of its ability to cool and form a crust over burning oils. Potassium acetate is used as a food additive as a preservative and acidity regulator. In the European Union, it is labeled by the E number E261; it is also approved for usage in the USA and
    8.67
    3 votes
    45
    Thyroglobulin

    Thyroglobulin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Hypothyroidism
    Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric protein produced by and used entirely within the thyroid gland. In earlier literature, Tg was referred to as colloid. Thyroglobulin should not be confused with Thyroxine-binding globulin, a carrier protein responsible for carrying the thyroid hormones in the blood. Tg is used by the thyroid gland to produce the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The active form of triiodothyronine, 3, 5, 3' triiodothyronine, is produced both within the thyroid gland and in the periphery by 5'-deiodinase (which has been referred to as tetraiodothyronine 5' deiodinase). It is presumed that Tg and thyroid are also an important storage of iodine for all body needs, in particular, for many iodine-concentrating organs such as breast, stomach, salivary glands, thymus, etc. (see iodine in biology). In fact, the Tg molecule, which contains approximately 120 tyrosyl residues, is able to form only very small amounts of thyroid hormone (5-6 molecules of T4 and T3). Tg is produced by the thyroid epithelial cells, called thyrocytes, which form spherical follicles. Tg is secreted and stored in the follicular lumen. Via a reaction with the enzyme
    8.67
    3 votes
    46
    Chromium(III) chloride

    Chromium(III) chloride

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nutritional and metabolic diseases
    Chromium(III) chloride (also called chromic chloride) is a violet coloured solid with the formula CrCl3. The most common form of CrCl3 sold commercially is a dark green hexahydrate with the formula [CrCl2(H2O)4]Cl2H2O. Two other hydrates are known, pale green [CrCl(H2O)5]Cl2H2O and violet [Cr(H2O)6]Cl3. This unusual feature of chromium(III) chlorides, having a series of [CrCl3−n(H2O)n], each of which is isolable, is also found with other chromium(III) compounds. Anhydrous chromium(III) chloride adopts the YCl3 structure, with Cr occupying two thirds of the octahedral interstices in every other layer of a pseudo-cubic close packed lattice of Cl ions. The absence of cations in alternate layers leads to weak bonding between adjacent layers. For this reason, crystals of CrCl3 cleave easily along the planes between layers, which results in the flaky appearance of samples of chromium(III) chloride. Commercially anhydrous chromium(III) chloride may be prepared by chlorination of chromium metal directly, or indirectly by chlorination of chromium(III) oxide in the presence of carbon at 800 °C, with carbon monoxide as a side-product: It may also be prepared by treating the hexahydrate with
    7.25
    4 votes
    47
    Aspirin

    Aspirin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Myocardial infarction
    Aspirin (USAN), also known as acetylsalicylic acid (/əˌsɛtəlˌsælɨˈsɪlɨk/ ə-SET-əl-SAL-i-SIL-ik; abbreviated ASA), is a salicylate drug, often used as an analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin was first isolated by Felix Hoffmann, a chemist with the German company Bayer in 1897. Salicylic acid, the main metabolite of aspirin, is an integral part of human and animal metabolism. While in humans much of it is attributable to diet, a substantial part is synthesized endogenously. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet effect by inhibiting the production of thromboxane, which under normal circumstances binds platelet molecules together to create a patch over damaged walls of blood vessels. Because the platelet patch can become too large and also block blood flow, locally and downstream, aspirin is also used long-term, at low doses, to help prevent heart attacks, strokes, and blood clot formation in people at high risk of developing blood clots. It has also been established that low doses of aspirin may be given immediately after a heart attack to reduce the risk of another heart attack or of the death of
    8.33
    3 votes
    48
    Sodium thiosulfate

    Sodium thiosulfate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Drug Toxicity
    Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3), also spelled sodium thiosulphate, is a colorless crystalline compound that is more familiar as the pentahydrate, Na2S2O3·5H2O, an efflorescent, monoclinic crystalline substance also called sodium hyposulfite or “hypo.” The thiosulfate anion is tetrahedral in shape and is notionally derived by replacing one of the oxygen atoms by a sulfur atom in a sulfate anion. The S-S distance indicates a single bond, implying that the sulfur bears significant negative charge and the S-O interactions have more double bond character. The first protonation of thiosulfate occurs at sulfur. On an industrial scale, sodium thiosulfate is produced chiefly from liquid waste products of sodium sulfide or sulfur dye manufacture. In the laboratory, this salt can be prepared by heating an aqueous solution of sodium sulfite with sulfur. Thiosulfate anion characteristically reacts with dilute acids to produce sulfur, sulfur dioxide and water: This reaction is known as a "clock reaction", because when the sulfur reaches a certain concentration the solution turns from colourless to a pale yellow. This reaction has been employed to generate colloidal sulfur. When the protonation is
    8.33
    3 votes
    49
    Levothyroxine

    Levothyroxine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Hypothyroidism
    Levothyroxine, also L-thyroxine or T4, is a synthetic form of thyroid hormone (or thyroxine), the hormone normally secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. Levothyroxine is used to treat thyroid hormone deficiency, and occasionally to prevent the recurrence of thyroid cancer. Like its naturally secreted counterpart, levothyroxine is chemically in the chiral L-form. The related drug dextrothyroxine (D-thyroxine) was used in the past as a treatment for hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) but was withdrawn due to cardiac side-effects. Thyroxine was first isolated in pure form in 1914 at the Mayo Clinic by Edward Calvin Kendall from extracts of hog thyroid glands. The hormone was synthesised in 1927 by British chemists Charles Robert Harington and George Barger. Levothyroxine is typically used to treat hypothyroidism. It may also be used to treat goiter via its ability to lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that is considered goiter-inducing. Dosing must be carefully controlled to achieve TSH levels within the normal reference range. Long-term suppression of TSH values below normal values will frequently cause cardiac side-effects and
    6.20
    5 votes
    50
    Apraclonidine

    Apraclonidine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Ocular hypertension
    Apraclonidine (INN), also known as Iopidine, is a sympathomimetic used in glaucoma therapy. It is an α2-adrenergic agonist and a weak alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist. Apraclonidine is administered at a concentration of 1% for the prevention and treatment of postsurgical intraocular pressure elevation and 0.5% for short-term adjunctive therapy in patients on maximally tolerated medical therapy who require additional redirection of intraocular pressure. One drop is usually added one hour prior to laser eye surgery and another drop is given after the procedure is complete. Apraclonidine is indicated for the short-term adjunctive treatment of patients on maximally tolerated medical therapy who require additional reduction. Patients on maximally tolerated medical therapy who are treated with apraclonidine to delay surgery should have frequent followup examinations and treatment should be discontinued if the intraocular pressure rises significantly. Apraclonidine may be useful in the diagnosis of Horner's syndrome. In Horner's syndrome, the sympathetic innervation to the pupillary dilator muscle is lost. The affected pupil is thus miotic and the pupillary dilator responds to
    9.50
    2 votes
    51
    Tranexamic acid

    Tranexamic acid

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Oral bleeding
    Tranexamic acid (commonly marketed in tablet form as Lysteda and in IV form as Cyklokapron in the U.S. and Australia and as Transamin,Transcam in Asia, and Espercil in South America. Also marketed as TRAXYL (Nuvista Pharma) in Bangladesh, Cyclo-F and Femstrual in UK.) is a synthetic derivative of the amino acid lysine. It is used to treat or prevent excessive blood loss during surgery and in various other medical conditions. It is an antifibrinolytic that competitively inhibits the activation of plasminogen to plasmin, by binding to specific sites of both plasminogen and plasmin, a molecule responsible for the degradation of fibrin. Fibrin is a protein that forms the framework of blood clots. It has roughly eight times the antifibrinolytic activity of an older analogue, ε-aminocaproic acid. Tranexamic acid is frequently used in surgeries with high risk of blood loss such as cardiac, liver, vascular and large orthopedic procedures. Its oral form is now being evaluated for use in outpatient conditions involving heavy bleeding. Tranexamic acid has been found to decrease the risk of death in people who have significant bleeding due to trauma. However, it may actually increase the risk
    9.50
    2 votes
    52
    Ergocalciferol

    Ergocalciferol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Osteoporosis
    Ergocalciferol is a form of vitamin D, also called vitamin D2. It is marketed under various names including Deltalin (Eli Lilly and Company), Drisdol (Sanofi-Synthelabo) and Calcidol (Patrin Pharma). Created from viosterol when ultraviolet light activates ergosterol (found in fungi, it is named as a sterol from ergot), with fungi as the primary plant source. Ergocalciferol may be used as a vitamin D supplement, and a 2011 clinical guideline considered it to be as effective as cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), which is produced naturally by the skin when exposed to ultraviolet light. Conflicting evidence exists for how similarly D2 and D3 behave in the body and whether they are equally active, with some studies suggesting D3 is more potent, while others report equal efficacy. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is sensitive to UV radiation and rapidly, but reversibly, forms other sterols which can further irreversibly convert to ergosterol. Fungus, from USDA nutrient database Plantae Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is produced in fungus synthetically from radiating an ergosterol. Human bioavailability of vitamin D2 from vitamin D2-enhanced button mushrooms via UV-B irradiation is effective in
    7.00
    4 votes
    53
    Etidocaine

    Etidocaine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Post-Operative Pain
    Etidocaine, marketed under the trade name Duranest, is a local anesthetic given by injection during surgical procedures and labor and delivery. Etidocaine has a long duration of activity, and the main disadvantage of using during dentistry is increased bleeding during surgery.
    7.00
    4 votes
    54
    Etomidate

    Etomidate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Etomidate (USAN, INN, BAN) (marketed as Amidate) is a short acting intravenous anaesthetic agent used for the induction of general anaesthesia and for sedation for short procedures such as reduction of dislocated joints, tracheal intubation and cardioversion. It was discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1964 and it was introduced as an intravenous agent in 1972 in Europe and in 1983 in United States. Etomidate is a carboxylated imidazole derivative that has anesthetic and amnestic properties, but that has no analgesic properties. In emergency settings, etomidate is one of the most frequently used sedative hypnotic agents. It is used by physicians for conscious sedation and as a part of a rapid sequence induction to induce anaesthesia. It is used as an anaesthetic agent since it has a rapid onset of action and a safe cardiovascular risk profile, and therefore is less likely to cause a significant drop in blood pressure than other induction agents. In addition, etomidate is often used because of its easy dosing profile, limited suppression of ventilation, lack of histamine liberation and protection from myocardial and cerebral ischemia. Thus, etomidate is an ideal induction agent
    7.00
    4 votes
    55
    Mefenamic acid

    Mefenamic acid

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Mefenamic acid is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to treat pain, including menstrual pain. It is typically prescribed for oral administration. Mefenamic acid is marketed in the USA as Ponstel and is commonly known in UK as Ponstan. Mefenamic acid decreases inflammation (swelling) and uterine contractions by a still unknown mechanism. However it is thought to be related to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. There is also evidence that supports the use of mefenamic acid for perimenstrual migraine headache prophylaxis, with treatment starting 2 days prior to the onset of flow or 1 day prior to the expected onset of the headache and continuing for the duration of menstruation. Since hepatic metabolism plays a significant role in mefenamic acid elimination, patients with known liver deficiency may be prescribed lower doses. Kidney deficiency may also cause accumulation of the drug and its metabolites in the excretory system. Therefore patients suffering from renal conditions should not be prescribed mefenamic acid. Known mild side effects of mefenamic acid include headaches, nervousness and vomiting. Serious side effects may include diarrhoea, hematemesis (vomiting
    7.00
    4 votes
    56
    Triamcinolone

    Triamcinolone

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Asthma
    Triamcinolone (trade names Aristocort, Kenacort, Tri-Nasal, Triaderm, Azmacort, Trilone, Volon A, Tristoject, and Tricortone) is a long-acting synthetic corticosteroid given orally, by injection, inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream. Triamcinolone is used to treat several different medical conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis, arthritis, allergies, ulcerative colitis, lupus, sympathetic ophthalmia, temporal arteritis, uveitis, ocular inflammation, visualization during vitrectomy and the prevention of asthma attacks. It will not treat an asthma attack once it has already begun. Prior to 2007 it was manufactured under the name Azmacort as a corticosteroid inhaler for asthma long-term care. The patent holder, Sanofi, sold it under the brand name Nasacort. In 2010, TEVA and Perrigo launched the first generic inhalable triamcinolone. Triamcinolone is used to alleviate infection-induced eczema in fungal skin infections in the combination drug of econazole/triamcinolone. Triamcinolone acetonide is one of the ingredients of Ledermix - an endodontic (tooth's root canal) lotion used between sessions. Different triamcinolone salts are available, including acetonide, benetonide,
    7.00
    4 votes
    57
    Pralidoxime

    Pralidoxime

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Drug Toxicity
    Pralidoxime (2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride,) or 2-PAM, usually as the chloride or methiodide salts, belongs to a family of compounds called oximes that bind to organophosphate-inactivated acetylcholinesterase. It is used to combat poisoning by organophosphates or acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (nerve agents) in conjunction with atropine and diazepam. In India, it is marketed by Nucleus Inc. with the brand names LyoPAM and PurePAM. Pralidoxime, typically used in cases of organophosphate poisoning (which causes AChase inhibition), attaches to the site where a cholinesterase inhibitor has attached, then attaches to the inhibitor, removing the organophosphate from cholinesterase, allowing it to work normally again. This is known as "regenerating" or "reactivating" acetylcholinesterase allowing the breakdown of Ach at the synapse. After some time though, some inhibitors can develop a permanent bond with cholinesterase, known as aging, where oximes such as pralidoxime can not reverse the bond. Pralidoxime is often used with atropine (a muscarinic antagonist) to help reduce the parasympathetic effects of organophosphate poisoning. Pralidoxime can also be used to treat neostigmine
    8.00
    3 votes
    58
    Chromium(III) picolinate

    Chromium(III) picolinate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nutritional and metabolic diseases
    Chromium(III) picolinate is a chemical compound sold as a nutritional supplement to prevent or treat chromium deficiency. Another is chromium polynicotinate, and six forms of Chromium are sold for this purpose. This bright-red coordination compound is derived from chromium(III) and picolinic acid. Small quantities of chromium are needed for glucose utilization by insulin in normal health, but deficiency is extremely rare and has only been observed in hospital patients on long-term defined diets. No biochemical basis for the human body's need for chromium has been identified. Chromium(III) picolinate has been described as a "poor choice as a nutritional supplement". A pilot trial of 15 patients suggested that chromium picolinate might have antidepressant effects in atypical depression. A larger follow-up trial failed to reproduce this effect, but indicated that the use of chromium picolinate could help to reduce carbohydrate cravings and regulate appetite in these patients. A post-hoc analysis of a subpopulation of patients in this study that experienced high carbohydrate cravings suggested that patients treated with chromium picolinate experienced significant improvements in their
    6.75
    4 votes
    59
    Flumazenil

    Flumazenil

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Drug Toxicity
    Flumazenil (also known as flumazepil, code name Ro 15-1788, trade names Anexate, Lanexat, Mazicon, Romazicon) is a GABA antagonist available for injection only, and the only benzodiazepine receptor antagonist on the market today. It was first introduced in 1987 by Hoffmann-La Roche under the trade name Anexate, but only approved by the FDA on December 20, 1991. Some years ago an oral preparation was under development , though it had low bio-availability and was thus abandoned. There is hope that oral flumazenil or other benzodiazepine antagonists such as B-carbolines will be developed in the future. Flumazenil is of benefit in patients who become excessively drowsy after benzodiazepines are used for either diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. It has been used as an antidote in the treatment of benzodiazepine overdoses. It reverses the effects of benzodiazepines by competitive inhibition at the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABAA receptor. There are many complications that must be taken into consideration when used in the acute care setting. It has been found to be effective in overdoses of non-benzodiazepine sleep enhancers, namely zolpidem and zaleplon. There is some
    6.75
    4 votes
    60
    Vaccine

    Vaccine

    A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters. Vaccines can be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g. vaccines against cancer are also being investigated; see cancer vaccine). The term vaccine derives from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cow pox (Latin variola vaccinia, adapted from the Latin vaccīn-us, from vacca, cow), to inoculate humans, providing them protection against smallpox. "With the exception of safe water, no other modality, not even antibiotics, has had such a major effect on mortality reduction and population growth." Vaccines do not guarantee complete protection from a disease. Sometimes, this is because the host's
    6.75
    4 votes
    61
    Doxapram

    Doxapram

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Respiratory Insufficiency
    Doxapram hydrochloride (marketed as Dopram, Stimulex or Respiram) is a respiratory stimulant. Administered intravenously, doxapram stimulates an increase in tidal volume, and respiratory rate. Doxapram stimulates chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies of the carotid arteries, which in turn, stimulates the respiratory centre in the brain stem. Doxapram is a white to off-white, odorless, crystalline powder that is stable in light and air. It is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in alcohol and practically insoluble in ether. Injectable products have a pH from 3.5-5. Benzyl alcohol or chlorobutanol is added as a preservative agent in the commercially available injections. Doxapram is used in intensive care settings to stimulate the respiratory rate in patients with respiratory failure. It may be useful for treating respiratory depression in patients who have taken excessive doses of drugs such as buprenorphine which may fail to respond adequately to treatment with naloxone. It is equally effective as pethidine in suppressing shivering after surgery. High blood pressure, panic attacks, tachycardia (rapid heart rate), tremor, sweating and vomiting may occur. Convulsions have been
    9.00
    2 votes
    62
    Naproxen

    Naproxen

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Naproxen sodium (INN) ( /nəˈprɒksən/) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Naproxen and naproxen sodium are marketed under various trade names, including: Aleve, Anaprox, Antalgin, Feminax Ultra, Flanax, Inza, Midol Extended Relief, Nalgesin, Naposin, Naprelan, Naprogesic, Naprosyn, Narocin, Proxen, Synflex and Xenobid. Naproxen was originally marketed as the prescription drug Naprosyn by Syntex in 1976, and naproxen sodium was first marketed under the trade name Anaprox in 1980. It remains a prescription-only drug in much of the world. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved its use as an over-the-counter (OTC) drug in 1994; OTC preparations in the U.S. are mainly marketed by Bayer HealthCare under the trade name Aleve and generic store brand formulations. In Australia, packets of 275-mg tablets of naproxen sodium are Schedule 2 pharmacy medicines, with a maximum daily dose of five tablets or 1375 mg. In the United Kingdom, 250-mg tablets of naproxen were approved for OTC sale under the brand name Feminax Ultra in 2008, for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in women aged 15 to 50. Aleve became available over-the-counter in most
    9.00
    2 votes
    63
    Smoking cessation

    Smoking cessation

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Diabetes mellitus
    Smoking cessation (colloquially quitting smoking) is the process of discontinuing the practice of inhaling a smoked substance. This article focuses exclusively on cessation of tobacco smoking; however, the methods described may apply to cessation of smoking other substances that can be difficult to stop using due to the development of strong physical substance dependence or psychological dependence (in more common parlance, addiction). Smoking cessation can be achieved with or without assistance from healthcare professionals or the use of medications. Methods that have been found to be effective include interventions directed at or via health care providers and health care systems; medications including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and varenicline; individual and group counselling; and Web-based or stand-alone and computer programs. Although stopping smoking can cause short-term side effects such as reversible weight gain, smoking cessation services and activities are cost-effective because of the positive health benefits. Tobacco contains the chemical nicotine. Smoking cigarettes can lead to nicotine addiction. The addiction begins when nicotine acts on nicotinic
    9.00
    2 votes
    64
    Dexamethasone

    Dexamethasone

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nausea
    Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid drugs. It acts as an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant. When taken orally, it is 26.6 times more potent than the naturally occurring hormone cortisol and 6.6 times more potent than prednisone. Dexamethasone is used to treat many inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and bronchospasm. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, decreased numbers of platelets due to an immune problem, responds to 40 mg daily for four days; it may be administered in 14-day cycles. It is unclear whether dexamethasone in this condition is significantly better than other glucocorticoids. It is also given in small amounts (usually five or six tablets) before and/or after some forms of dental surgery, such as the extraction of the wisdom teeth, an operation which often leaves the patient with puffy, swollen cheeks. It is injected into the heel when treating plantar fasciitis, sometimes in conjunction with triamcinolone acetonide. It is useful to counteract allergic anaphylactic shock, if given in high doses. It is present in certain eye drops – particularly after eye surgery– and as a nasal spray
    5.80
    5 votes
    65
    Ketotifen

    Ketotifen

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Perennial Allergic Rhinitis
    Ketotifen is a second-generation noncompetitive H1-antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer. It is most commonly sold as a salt of fumaric acid, ketotifen fumarate, and is available in two forms. In its ophthalmic form, it is used to treat allergic conjunctivitis, or the itchy red eyes caused by allergies. In its oral form, it is used to prevent asthma attacks. Side effects include drowsiness, weight gain, dry mouth, irritability, and increased nosebleeds. The drug is marketed as ophthalmic solutions under the brand names Zaditor/Zaditen (Novartis), Alaway (Bausch and Lomb), Zyrtec Itchy-Eye Drops, and Claritin Eye. A generic version of Novartis' Zaditor, ketotifen fumarate ophthalmic solution, 0.025%, is available from Perrigo and distributed as store brands. Ketotifen relieves and prevents eye itchiness and/or irritation associated with most seasonal allergies. It starts working within minutes after administering the drops. The drug has not been studied in children under three. The mean elimination half life is 12 hours. Besides its anti-histaminic activity, it is also a functional leukotriene antagonist and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. The drug may also help relieve the symptoms
    5.80
    5 votes
    66
    Aprepitant

    Aprepitant

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nausea
    Aprepitant (Emend (US, EU)) is an antiemetic chemical compound that belongs to a class of drugs called substance P antagonists (SPA). It mediates its effect by blocking the neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor. Aprepitant is manufactured by Merck & Co. under the brand name Emend for prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. It was approved by the FDA in 2003. Aprepitant may also be useful in the treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome but there are few studies to date. On January 2008, the FDA approved fosaprepitant, an intravenous form of aprepitant, which is to be sold under the tradename Emend Injection in the US and as Ivemend in some other countries. Acute or delayed CINV is an unpleasant side effect experienced by over 80% of patients undergoing initial and repeated highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, for example cisplatin. Throughout the 1990s a noticeable increase occurred in the number of diagnosed cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and therefore experiencing CINV. As a result of this, toward the end of the decade, initial research was conducted to try to develop a drug that eases
    7.67
    3 votes
    67
    Aprotinin

    Aprotinin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Surgical Blood Loss
    The drug aprotinin (Trasylol, Bayer), is the bovine version of the small protein basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, or BPTI, which inhibits trypsin and related proteolytic enzymes. Under the trade name Trasylol, aprotinin was used as a medication administered by injection to reduce bleeding during complex surgery, such as heart and liver surgery. Its main effect is the slowing down of fibrinolysis, the process that leads to the breakdown of blood clots. The aim in its use was to decrease the need for blood transfusions during surgery, as well as end-organ damage due to hypotension (low blood pressure) as a result of marked blood loss. The drug was temporarily withdrawn worldwide in 2007 after studies suggested that its use increased the risk of complications or death; this was confirmed by follow-up studies. Trasylol sales were suspended in May 2008, except for very restricted research use. In February 2012 the European Medicines Agency (EMA) scientific committee reverted its previous standpoint regarding aprotinin, and has recommended that the suspension be lifted. Aprotinin is a monomeric (single-chain) globular polypeptide derived from bovine lung tissue. It has a molecular
    7.67
    3 votes
    68
    Cholestyramine

    Cholestyramine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Coronary Artery Disease
    Cholestyramine or colestyramine (Questran, Questran Light, Cholybar) is a bile acid sequestrant, which binds bile in the gastrointestinal tract to prevent its reabsorption. It is a strong ion exchange resin, which means that it can exchange its chloride anions with anionic bile acids in the gastrointestinal tract and bind them strongly in the resin matrix. The functional group of the anion exchange resin is a quaternary ammonium group attached to an inert styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer. Cholestyramine removes bile acids from the body by forming insoluble complexes with bile acids in the intestine, which are then excreted in the feces. When bile acids are excreted, plasma cholesterol is converted to bile acid to normalize bile acid levels. This conversion of cholesterol into bile acids lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations. Bile acid sequestrants such as cholestyramine are primarily used to treat hypercholesterolemia, but can also be used to treat the pruritus, or itching, that often occurs during liver failure, due to the liver's inability to eliminate bile. Cholestyramine is also used to prevent diarrhea in Crohn's disease patients who have undergone ileal resection. The
    7.67
    3 votes
    69
    Neomycin

    Neomycin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Bacterial disease
    Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments, and eyedrops. The discovery of neomycin dates back to 1949. It was discovered in the lab of Selman Waksman, who was later awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and medicine in 1951. Neomycin belongs to aminoglycoside class of antibiotics that contain two or more aminosugars connected by glycosidic bonds. Neamine (two rings), ribostamycin (three rings), paromomycin (four rings), and lividomycin (five rings) are some other examples of aminoglycosides. They have shown tremendous potential as antibacterials. One of them, gentamicin, has been used extensively in clinical practice. Due to the inherent oto- and nephrotoxicity of these substances, systemic use has declined, as safer alternatives have become available. Neomycin is overwhelmingly used as a topical preparation, such as Neosporin. It can also be given orally, where it is usually combined with other antibiotics. Neomycin is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and has been used as a preventive measure for hepatic encephalopathy and hypercholesterolemia. By killing bacteria in the intestinal tract, it keeps ammonia
    7.67
    3 votes
    70
    Adenosine

    Adenosine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nutritional and metabolic diseases
    Adenosine (ADO) is a purine nucleoside comprising a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. In the USA, it is marketed as Adenocard. Adenosine plays an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer—as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)—as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cAMP. It is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter, believed to play a role in promoting sleep and suppressing arousal, with levels increasing with each hour an organism is awake. Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that modulates many physiological processes. Cellular signaling by adenosine occurs through four known adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3). Extracellular adenosine concentrations from normal cells are approximately 300 nM; however, in response to cellular damage (e.g. in inflammatory or ischemic tissue), these concentrations are quickly elevated (600–1,200 nM). Thus, in regard to stress or injury, the function of adenosine is primarily that of cytoprotection preventing tissue damage during instances of hypoxia, ischemia, and seizure
    10.00
    1 votes
    71
    Desflurane

    Desflurane

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Desflurane (1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether) is a highly fluorinated methyl ethyl ether used for maintenance of general anesthesia. Like halothane, enflurane and isoflurane, it is a racemic mixture of (R) and (S) optical isomers (enantiomers). Together with sevoflurane, it is gradually replacing isoflurane for human use, except in the third world, where its high cost precludes its use. It has the most rapid onset and offset of the volatile anesthetic drugs used for general anesthesia due to its low solubility in blood. Some drawbacks of desflurane are its low potency, its pungency and its high cost. It may cause tachycardia and airway irritability when administered at concentrations greater than 10 vol%. Due to this airway irritability, desflurane is infrequently used to induce anesthesia via inhalation techniques. Additionally, desflurane is a greenhouse gas. Anesthesia gases used globally contribute the equivalent of 1 million cars to global warming. Desflurane has a global warming potential of 3714. One tonne of desflurane emitted is equivalent to 3714 tonnes of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, much higher than sevoflurane or isoflurane. Taking into account the
    10.00
    1 votes
    72
    Enalapril

    Enalapril

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction
    Enalapril (marketed as Vasotec in the USA, Enaladex in some other countries, and Enacard for veterinary use) is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension and some types of chronic heart failure. ACE converts the peptide hormone angiotensin I to angiotensin II. One of the actions of angiotensin II is the vasoconstriction of blood vessels resulting in an increase in blood pressure. ACE inhibitors such as enalapril prevent this effect. Enalapril has been shown to lower the death rate in systolic heart failure. Enalapril was the first member of the group known as the dicarboxylate-containing ACE inhibitors. Enalapril as a treatment for high blood pressure works by modulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Squibb developed the first inhibitor, captopril, but it had adverse effects such as a metallic taste (which, as it turned out, was due to the sulfhydryl group). Merck & Co. developed enalapril as a competing prodrug. Enalaprilat, the first dicarboxylate-containing ACE inhibitor, was developed partly to overcome these limitations of captopril. The sulfhydryl moiety was replaced by a carboxylate moiety, but additional
    10.00
    1 votes
    73
    Estradiol

    Estradiol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Postmenopausal osteoporosis
    Estradiol (E2 or 17β-estradiol, also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. Estradiol is abbreviated E2 as it has two hydroxyl groups in its molecular structure. Estrone has one (E1) and estriol has three (E3). Estradiol is about 10 times as potent as estrone and about 80 times as potent as estriol in its estrogenic effect. Except during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, its serum levels are somewhat higher than that of estrone during the reproductive years of the human female. Thus it is the predominant estrogen during reproductive years both in terms of absolute serum levels as well as in terms of estrogenic activity. During menopause, estrone is the predominant circulating estrogen and during pregnancy estriol is the predominant circulating estrogen in terms of serum levels. Estradiol is also present in males, being produced as an active metabolic product of testosterone. The serum levels of estradiol in males (14 - 55 pg/mL) are roughly comparable to those of postmenopausal women (
    10.00
    1 votes
    74
    Magnesium oxide

    Magnesium oxide

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Magnesium deficiency
    Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide). It has an empirical formula of MgO and consists of a lattice of Mg ions and O ions held together by ionic bonds. Magnesium hydroxide forms in the presence of water (MgO + H2O → Mg(OH)2), but it can be reversed by heating it to separate moisture. Magnesium oxide was historically known as magnesia alba (literally, the white mineral from Magnesia), to differentiate it from magnesia negra, a black mineral containing what is now known as manganese. Magnesium oxide is produced by the calcination of magnesium carbonate or magnesium hydroxide or by the treatment of magnesium chloride with lime followed by heat. A refractory material is one that is physically and chemically stable at high temperatures. "By far the largest consumer of magnesia worldwide is the refractory industry, which consumed about 56% of the magnesia in the United States in 2004, the remaining 44% being used in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental, and other industrial applications." MgO is one of the raw materials for making Portland cement in dry
    10.00
    1 votes
    75
    Magnesium stearate

    Magnesium stearate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Magnesium deficiency
    Magnesium stearate, also called octadecanoic acid, magnesium salt, is a white substance which is solid at room temperature. It has the chemical formula Mg(C18H35O2)2. It is a salt containing two equivalents of stearate (the anion of stearic acid) and one magnesium cation (Mg). Magnesium stearate melts at about 120 °C, is not soluble in water, and is generally considered safe for human consumption at levels below 2500 mg/kg per day. In 1979, the FDA's Subcommittee on GRAS (generally recognized as safe) Substances (SCOGS) reported, "There is no evidence in the available information on ... magnesium stearate ... that demonstrates, or suggests reasonable grounds to suspect, a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current and in the manner now practiced, or which might reasonably be expected in the future." Magnesium stearate is created by the reaction of sodium stearate with magnesium sulfate. Magnesium stearate is often used as a diluent in the manufacture of medical tablets, capsules and powders. In this regard, the substance is also useful, because it has lubricating properties, preventing ingredients from sticking to manufacturing equipment during the
    10.00
    1 votes
    76
    Magnesium sulfate

    Magnesium sulfate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Seizure
    Magnesium sulfate (or magnesium sulphate) is an inorganic salt (chemical compound) containing magnesium, sulfur and oxygen, with the formula MgSO4. It is often encountered as the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O), commonly called Epsom salt, named for a bitter saline spring from the town of Epsom in Surrey, England, where the salt was produced from the springs that arise where the porous chalk of the North Downs meets non-porous London clay. Epsom salt occurs naturally as a pure mineral. Another hydrate form is kieserite. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is used as a drying agent. Since the anhydrous form is hygroscopic (readily absorbs water from the air) and is therefore difficult to weigh accurately, the hydrate is often preferred when preparing solutions, for example in medical preparations. Epsom salt has been traditionally used as a component of bath salts. Epsom salt can also be used as a beauty product. Athletes use it to soothe sore muscles, while gardeners use it to improve crops. It has a variety of other uses. Magnesium sulfate is highly soluble in water. The anhydrous form is strongly hygroscopic, and can be used as a desiccant. Epsom salts have medicinal
    10.00
    1 votes
    77
    Sodium chloride

    Sodium chloride

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Dehydration
    Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt or halite, is an ionic compound with the formula NaCl, representing equal proportions of sodium and chloride. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of the ocean and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. As the major ingredient in edible salt, it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. In solid sodium chloride, each ion is surrounded by six ions of the opposite charge as expected on electrostatic grounds. The surrounding ions are located at the vertices of a regular octahedron. In the language of close-packing, the larger chloride ions are arranged in a cubic array whereas the smaller sodium ions fill all the cubic gaps (octahedral voids) between them. This same basic structure is found in many other compounds and is commonly known as the halite or rock-salt crystal structure. It can be represented as a face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice with a two-atom basis or as two interpenetrating face centered cubic lattices. The first atom is located at each lattice point, and the second atom is located half way between lattice points along the fcc unit cell edge. Thermal
    10.00
    1 votes
    78
    Argipressin

    Argipressin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Postoperative Complications
    Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as vasopressin, argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a neurohypophysial hormone found in most mammals. Vasopressin is responsible for regulating the body's retention of water by acting to increase water absorption in the collecting ducts of the kidney nephron. Vasopressin increases water permeability of the kidney's collecting duct and distal convoluted tubule by inducing translocation of aquaporin-CD water channels in the kidney nephron collecting duct plasma membrane. Vasopressin is a peptide hormone that controls the reabsorption of molecules in the tubules of the kidneys by affecting the tissue's permeability. It also increases peripheral vascular resistance, which in turn increases arterial blood pressure. It plays a key role in homeostasis, by the regulation of water, glucose, and salts in the blood. It is derived from a preprohormone precursor that is synthesized in the hypothalamus and stored in vesicles at the posterior pituitary. Most of it is stored in the posterior pituitary to be released into the bloodstream. However, some AVP may also be released directly into the brain, and accumulating evidence suggests it plays an
    6.50
    4 votes
    79
    Azathioprine

    Azathioprine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Graft-versus-host disease
    Azathioprine (INN,  /ˌæzəˈθaɪɵpriːn/, abbreviated AZA) is an immunosuppressive drug used in organ transplantation and autoimmune diseases and belongs to the chemical class of purine analogues. Synthesized originally as a chemotherapy drug and a pro-drug for mercaptopurine in 1957, it has been widely used as a immunosuppressant for more than 50 years. It is believed that azathioprine acts as a pro-drug for mercaptopurine, inhibiting an enzyme that is required for the synthesis of DNA. Thus it most strongly affects proliferating cells, such as the T cells and B cells of the immune system. Despite more than 50 years of widespread clinical use of azathioprine, the understanding of its mechanism of action is still incomplete. The main adverse effect of azathioprine is bone marrow suppression, and people with a genetic deficiency of the enzyme thiopurine S-methyltransferase this can be serious. It is also listed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a Group 1 carcinogen (carcinogenic to humans). Azathioprine is produced by a number of manufacturers under different brand names (Azasan by Salix in the U.S., Imuran by GlaxoSmithKline in Canada, the U.S., Australia, Ireland
    6.50
    4 votes
    80
    Capsaicin

    Capsaicin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Capsaicin ( /kæpˈseɪ.ɨsɪn/; 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide, ( (CH3)2CHCH=CH(CH2)4CONHCH2C6H3-4-(OH)-3-(OCH3) ) is the active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. It is an irritant for mammals, including humans, and produces a sensation of burning in any tissue with which it comes into contact. Capsaicin and several related compounds are called capsaicinoids and are produced as a secondary metabolite by chili peppers, probably as deterrents against certain herbivores and fungi. Pure capsaicin is a hydrophobic, colorless, odorless, crystalline to waxy compound. The compound was first extracted (albeit in impure form) in 1816 by Christian Friedrich Bucholz (1770–1818). He called it "capsicin," after the genus Capsicum from which it was extracted. John Clough Thresh (1850–1932), who had isolated capsaicin in almost pure form, gave it the name "capsaicin" in 1876. But it was Karl Micko who first isolated capsaicin in pure form in 1898. Capsaicin's empirical formula (chemical composition) was first determined by E. K. Nelson in 1919; he also partially elucidated capsaicin's chemical structure. Capsaicin was first synthesized in 1930 by E. Spath
    6.50
    4 votes
    81
    HPV vaccine

    HPV vaccine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Human papillomavirus infection
    The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine prevents infection with certain species of human papillomavirus associated with the development of cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers. Two HPV vaccines are currently on the market: Gardasil and Cervarix. Both vaccines protect against the two HPV types (HPV-16 and HPV-18) that cause 70% of cervical cancers, 80% of anal cancers, 60% of vaginal cancers, and 40% of vulvar cancers. These HPV types also cause most HPV induced oral cancers, and some other rare genital cancers. Gardasil also protects against the two HPV types (HPV-6 and HPV-11) that cause 90% of genital warts. Both vaccines have been shown to prevent potentially precancerous lesions of the cervix. Gardasil has been shown to prevent potential precursors to anal, vulvar, vaginal, and penile cancers. HPV vaccines are expected to protect against HPV induced cancers of these areas as well as HPV induced oral cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO), as well as public health officials in Australia, Canada, Europe, and the United States recommend vaccination of young women against HPV to prevent cervical cancer, and to reduce the number of treatments for
    6.50
    4 votes
    82
    Selenous acid

    Selenous acid

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Deficiency Diseases
    Selenous acid (or selenious acid) is the chemical compound with the formula H2SeO3. Structurally, it is more accurately described by (HO)2SeO. It is the principal oxoacid of selenium; the other being selenic acid. Selenous acid is analogous to sulfurous acid, but it is more readily isolated. Selenous acid is easily formed upon the addition of selenium dioxide to water. As a crystalline solid, the compound can be seen as pyramidal molecules that are interconnected with hydrogen bonds. In solution it is a diprotic acid: It is moderately oxidizing in nature, but kinetically slow. In 1 M H: In 1 M OH: It is used in organic synthesis for the synthesis of 1,2-diketones (e.g. glyoxal). The major use is in changing the color of steel, especially the steel in guns, the so-called "blueing" process which uses selenous acid, copper(II) nitrate, and nitric acid to change the color of the steel from silver-grey to blue-grey. Some older razor blades were also made of blued steel. Another use for selenious acid is the chemical darkening and patination of copper, brass and bronze, producing a rich dark brown color that can be further enhanced with mechanical abrasion. Selenious acid is a key
    6.50
    4 votes
    83
    Ampicillin

    Ampicillin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Bacterial Endocarditis
    Ampicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic that is part of the aminopenicillin family and is roughly equivalent to its successor, amoxicillin in terms of spectrum and level of activity. It can sometimes result in reactions that range in severity from a rash (in the case of patients that may unwittingly have mononucleosis) to potentially lethal allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis. However, as with other penicillin drugs, it is relatively non-toxic and adverse effects of a serious nature are encountered only rarely. Belonging to the penicillin group of beta-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin is able to penetrate Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria. It differs from penicillin only by the presence of an amino group. That amino group helps the drug penetrate the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. Ampicillin acts as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme transpeptidase, which is needed by bacteria to make their cell walls. It inhibits the third and final stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis in binary fission, which ultimately leads to cell lysis. Ampicillin has received FDA approval for its mechanism of action. Ampicillin, like other β-lactam antibiotics, not only blocks the
    8.50
    2 votes
    84
    Atorvastatin

    Atorvastatin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Coronary Artery Disease
    Atorvastatin (INN) ( /əˌtɔrvəˈstætən/), marketed by Pfizer as a calcium salt under the trade name Lipitor, is a member of the drug class known as statins, used for lowering blood cholesterol. It also stabilizes plaque and prevents strokes through anti-inflammatory and other mechanisms. Like all statins, atorvastatin works by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme found in liver tissue that plays a key role in production of cholesterol in the body. Atorvastatin was first synthesized in 1985 by Bruce Roth of Parke-Davis Warner-Lambert Company (now Pfizer). The best selling drug in pharmaceutical history, sales of Lipitor since it was approved in 1996 exceed US$125 billion, and the drug has topped the list of best-selling branded pharmaceuticals in the world for nearly a decade. Generic atorvastatin, manufactured only by generic drugmakers Watson Pharmaceuticals and India's Ranbaxy Laboratories, became available in the United States on November 30, 2011, but prices for the generic version did not drop to the level of other generics—$10 or less for a month's supply—until other manufacturers were able to supply in May 2012. The primary uses of atorvastatin is for the treatment of
    8.50
    2 votes
    85
    Chloride

    Chloride

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nutritional and metabolic diseases
    The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine, a halogen, gains an electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl. The salts of hydrochloric acid contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. The chloride ion, and its salts such as sodium chloride, are very soluble in water. It is an essential electrolyte located in all body fluids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve impulses and regulating fluid in and out of cells. The word chloride can also form part of the name of chemical compounds in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded. For example, methyl chloride, more commonly called chloromethane, (CH3Cl) is an organic covalently bonded compound, which does not contain a chloride ion. The presence of chlorides, e.g. in seawater, significantly aggravates the conditions for pitting corrosion of most metals (including stainless steels and high-alloyed materials) by enhancing the formation and growth of the pits through an autocatalytic process. Chloride is used to form salts that can preserve food such as sodium chloride. Other salts such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, potassium chloride have varied uses
    8.50
    2 votes
    86
    Dyclonine

    Dyclonine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Dyclonine is an oral anaesthetic found in Sucrets, an over the counter throat lozenge. It is also found in some varieties of the Cepacol sore throat spray. It is a bactericidal and fungicidal local anesthetic, used topically as the hydrochloride salt.
    8.50
    2 votes
    87
    Phenytoin

    Phenytoin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Post-traumatic epilepsy
    Phenytoin sodium (/fəˈnɪtoʊɨn/) is a commonly used antiepileptic. Phenytoin acts to suppress the abnormal brain activity seen in seizure by reducing electrical conductance among brain cells by stabilizing the inactive state of voltage-gated sodium channels. Aside from seizures, it is an option in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia in the event that carbamazepine or other first-line treatment seems inappropriate. It is sometimes considered a class 1b antiarrhythmic. Phenytoin sodium has been marketed as Phenytek by Mylan Laboratories, previously Bertek Pharmaceuticals, and Dilantin; Australia also Dilantin Kapseals and Dilantin Infatabs in the USA, Eptoin by Abbott Group in India and as Epanutin in the UK and Israel, by Parke-Davis, now part of Pfizer. In the USSR and post-USSR countries, it was/is marketed as Дифенин (Diphenin, Dipheninum). Phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin) was first synthesized by German chemist Heinrich Biltz in 1908. Biltz sold his discovery to Parke-Davis, which did not find an immediate use for it. In 1938, outside scientists including H. Houston Merritt and Tracy Putnam discovered phenytoin's usefulness for controlling seizures, without the sedative effects
    8.50
    2 votes
    88
    Potassium bitartrate

    Potassium bitartrate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Hypokalemia
    Potassium bitartrate, also known as potassium hydrogen tartrate, has formula KC4H5O6, is a byproduct of winemaking. In cooking it is known as cream of tartar. It is the potassium acid salt of tartaric acid, a carboxylic acid. Potassium bitartrate crystallizes in wine casks during the fermentation of grape juice, and can precipitate out of wine in bottles. The crystals (wine diamonds) will often form on the underside of a cork in wine-filled bottles that have been stored at temperatures below 10 °C (50 °F), and will seldom, if ever, dissolve naturally into the wine. These crystals also precipitate out of fresh grape juice that has been chilled or allowed to stand for some time. To prevent crystals forming in homemade grape jam or jelly, fresh grape juice should be chilled overnight to promote crystallisation. The potassium bitartrate crystals are removed by filtering through two layers of cheesecloth; the filtered juice may then be made into jam or jelly. In some cases they adhere to the side of the chilled container, making filtering unnecessary. The crude form (known as beeswing) is collected and purified to produce the white, odorless, acidic powder used for many culinary and
    8.50
    2 votes
    89
    Lidocaine

    Lidocaine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Lidocaine (INN) ( /ˈlaɪdɵkeɪn/), Xylocaine, or lignocaine (former BAN) ( /ˈlɪɡnɵkeɪn/) is a common local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drug. Lidocaine is used topically to relieve itching, burning and pain from skin inflammations, injected as a dental anesthetic or as a local anesthetic for minor surgery. Lidocaine, the first amino amide–type local anesthetic, was first synthesized under the name Xylocaine by Swedish chemist Nils Löfgren in 1943. His colleague Bengt Lundqvist performed the first injection anesthesia experiments on himself. It was first marketed in 1949. The efficacy profile of lidocaine as a local anesthetic is characterized by a rapid onset of action and intermediate duration of efficacy. Therefore, lidocaine is suitable for infiltration, block and surface anesthesia. Longer-acting substances such as bupivacaine are sometimes given preference for spinal and peridural anesthesias; lidocaine, on the other hand, has the advantage of a rapid onset of action. Epinephrine vasoconstricts arteries reducing bleeding and also delays the resorption of Lidocaine, almost doubling the duration of anaesthesia. For surface anesthesia several formulations are available that can be
    7.33
    3 votes
    90
    Nitrofural

    Nitrofural

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Septicemia
    Nitrofural (INN, trade name Furacin) is a bactericidal compound used as an antibiotic most commonly in the form of ointments. Its use in medicine has become less frequent as safer and more effective products have become available, and it has been discontinued in the US. The substance is pale yellow and crystalline. Other names include nitrofurazone and furacilin. Synthesis:
    7.33
    3 votes
    91
    Sucralfate

    Sucralfate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Duodenal ulcer
    Sucralfate is a cytoprotective agent, an oral gastrointestinal medication primarily indicated for the treatment of active duodenal ulcers. Brand names include Sucramal in Italy; Carafate in U.S.A.; Pepsigard, Sucral, Sucrafil, Hapifate in India; Sutra or Musin in parts of South-East Asia; Sulcrate in Canada; Ulsanic in South Africa and Israel; and Antepsin in Turkey. Sucralfate is also used for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and stress ulcers. Unlike the other classes of medications used for treatment of peptic ulcers, sucralfate is a sucrose sulfate-aluminium complex that binds to the mucosa, thus creating a physical barrier that impairs diffusion of hydrochloric acid in the gastrointestinal tract and prevents degradation of mucus by acid. It also stimulates bicarbonate output and acts like an acid buffer with cytoprotective properties. Sucralfate was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1981. Sucralfate is a locally acting substance that in an acidic environment (pH
    7.33
    3 votes
    92
    Benzocaine

    Benzocaine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Benzocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain reliever or in cough drops. It is the active ingredient in many over-the-counter anesthetic ointments such as products for oral ulcers. It is also combined with antipyrine to form A/B Otic Drops to relieve ear pain and remove earwax. Benzocaine is the ethyl ester of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). It can be prepared from PABA and ethanol by Fischer esterification or via the reduction of ethyl p-nitrobenzoate. Benzocaine is sparingly soluble in water; it is more soluble in dilute acids and very soluble in ethanol, chloroform and ethyl ether. The melting point of benzocaine is 88-90 degrees Celsius, and the boiling point is about 310 °C. The density of benzocaine is 1.17 g/cm. Benzocaine was first synthesized in 1890 by the German chemist Eduard Ritsert (1859-1946), in the town of Eberbach and introduced to the market in 1902 under the name "Anästhesin". Pain is caused by the stimulation of free nerve endings. When the nerve endings are stimulated, sodium enters the neuron, causing depolarization of the nerve and subsequent initiation of an action potential. The action potential is propagated down the nerve toward the
    6.25
    4 votes
    93
    Boric acid

    Boric acid

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Otitis externa
    Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak acid of boron often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds. It has the chemical formula H3BO3 (sometimes written B(OH)3), and exists in the form of colorless crystals or a white powder that dissolves in water. When occurring as a mineral, it is called sassolite. The free acid is found native in certain volcanic districts such as Tuscany, the Lipari Islands and Nevada, issuing, mixed with steam, from fissures in the ground; it is also found as a constituent of many minerals – borax, boracite, boronatrocaicite and colemanite. The presence of boric acid and its salts has been noted in seawater. It also exists in plants and especially in almost all fruits. Boric acid was first prepared by Wilhelm Homberg (1652–1715) from borax, by the action of mineral acids, and was given the name sal sedativum Hombergi ("sedative salt of Homberg"). However Borates, including boric acid, have been used since the time of the Greeks for cleaning, preserving food, and other activities. Boric acid may be prepared by reacting borax
    6.25
    4 votes
    94
    Itraconazole

    Itraconazole

    • Conditions This May Prevent: AIDS Associated Opportunistic Infection
    Itraconazole (R51211), invented in 1984, is a triazole antifungal agent prescribed to patients with fungal infections. The drug may be given orally or intravenously. Itraconazole has a broader spectrum of activity than fluconazole (but not as broad as voriconazole or posaconazole). In particular, it is active against Aspergillus, which fluconazole is not. It is also licensed for use in blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, and onychomycosis. Itraconazole is over 99% protein-bound and has virtually no penetration into cerebrospinal fluid. Therefore, it should never be used to treat meningitis or other central nervous system infections. According to the Johns Hopkins Abx Guide, it has "negligible CSF penetration, however treatment has been successful for cryptococcal and coccidioidal meningitis". It is also prescribed for systemic infections, such as aspergillosis, candidiasis, and cryptococcosis, where other antifungal drugs are inappropriate or ineffective. Itraconazole is currently being explored as an anticancer agent for patients with basal cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and prostate cancer. The mechanism of action of itraconazole is the same as the other azole
    5.40
    5 votes
    95
    Alfentanil

    Alfentanil

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Alfentanil (R-39209, trade name Alfenta, Rapifen in Australia) is a potent but short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug, used for anaesthesia in surgery. It is an analogue of fentanyl with around 1/4 the potency of fentanyl and around 1/3 of the duration of action, but with an onset of effects 4x faster than fentanyl. It is an agonist at mu opioid receptors. While alfentanil tends to cause fewer cardiovascular complications than other similar drugs such as fentanyl and remifentanil, it tends to give stronger respiratory depression and so requires careful monitoring of breathing and vital signs. Alfentanil is administered by the parenteral (injected) route for fast onset of effects and precise control of dosage. Alfentanil is a restricted drug which is classified as Schedule II in the USA, according to the U.S. DEA website. Alfentanil was discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1976.
    7.00
    3 votes
    96
    Cerivastatin

    Cerivastatin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Coronary Artery Disease
    Cerivastatin (brand names: Baycol, Lipobay) is a synthetic member of the class of statins used to lower cholesterol and prevent cardiovascular disease. It was marketed by the pharmaceutical company Bayer A.G. in the late 1990s, competing with Pfizer's highly successful atorvastatin (Lipitor). Cerivastatin was voluntarily withdrawn from the market worldwide in 2001, due to reports of fatal rhabdomyolysis. During post-marketing surveillance, 52 deaths were reported in patients using cerivastatin, mainly from rhabdomyolysis and its resultant renal failure. Risks were higher in patients using fibrates, mainly gemfibrozil (Lopid), and in patients using the highest (0.8 mg/day) dose of cerivastatin. Bayer A.G. added a contraindication for the concomitant use of cerivastatin and gemfibrozil to the package 18 months after the drug interaction was found. The frequency of deadly cases of rhabdomyolysis with cerivastatin was 16 to 80 times higher than with other statins. Another 385 nonfatal cases of rhabdomyolysis were reported. This put the risk of this (rare) complication at 5-10 times that of the other statins. Cerivastatin also induced myopathy in a dose-dependent manner when
    7.00
    3 votes
    97
    Cholesterol

    Cholesterol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nutrition disorder
    Cholesterol, from the Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid) followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol, is an organic chemical substance classified as a waxy steroid of fat. It is an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes and is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity. In addition to its importance within cells, cholesterol also serves as a precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. Cholesterol is the principal sterol synthesized by animals; in vertebrates it is formed predominantly in the liver. Small quantities are synthesized in other cellular organisms (eukaryotes) such as plants and fungi. It is almost completely absent among prokaryotes (i.e., bacteria). Although cholesterol is important and necessary for human health, high levels of cholesterol in the blood have been linked to damage to arteries and cardiovascular disease. François Poulletier de la Salle first identified cholesterol in solid form in gallstones, in 1769. However, it was only in 1815 that chemist Eugène Chevreul named the compound "cholesterine". Since cholesterol is essential for all animal life, each cell synthesizes it
    7.00
    3 votes
    98
    Fluticasone

    Fluticasone

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nasal polyp
    Fluticasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid. Both the furoate and propionate forms are used as topical anti-inflammatories:
    7.00
    3 votes
    99
    Sodium acetate

    Sodium acetate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Hyponatremia
    Sodium acetate, CH3COONa, also abbreviated NaOAc, also sodium ethanoate, is the sodium salt of acetic acid. This colourless salt has a wide range of uses. Sodium acetate is used in the textile industry to neutralize sulfuric acid waste streams, and as a photoresist while using aniline dyes. It is also a pickling agent in chrome tanning, and it helps to retard vulcanization of chloroprene in synthetic rubber production. In processing cotton for disposable cotton pads, sodium acetate is used to eliminate the buildup of static electricity. Sodium acetate is used to reduce the damage water can potentially do to concrete by acting as a Concrete sealant, while also being environmentally benign and cheaper than the epoxy alternative that is usually employed for sealing concrete against water permeation . Sodium acetate may be added to foods as a seasoning. It may be used in the form of sodium diacetate — a 1:1 complex of sodium acetate and acetic acid, given the E-number E262. A frequent use of this form is in salt and vinegar chips in the United States. Many US brands, including national manufacturer Frito-Lay, sell "salt and vinegar flavored" chips that use this chemical, with lactose
    7.00
    3 votes
    100
    Budesonide

    Budesonide

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nasal polyp
    Budesonide is a glucocorticoid steroid for the treatment of asthma and non-infectious rhinitis (including hay fever and other allergies), and for treatment and prevention of nasal polyposis. In addition, it is used for Crohn's disease (inflammatory bowel disease). It is marketed by AstraZeneca as a nasal inhalant under the brand name Rhinocort (in Denmark, as Rhinosol), as an oral inhalant under the brand name Pulmicort (in Israel, Budicort), and as either an enema or a modified-release oral capsule under the brand name Entocort. It is also sold in combination with formoterol (Oxis) in a single inhaler, under the brand name Symbicort. In Brazil it is marketed by Eurofarma under the brand name Noex. Entocort EC is an oral capsule marketed in the United States by Prometheus Laboratories. A new formulation is in clinical trials for ulcerative colitis. Budesonide has a high first-pass metabolism. It has efficacy in the terminal ileum and the right colon. Budesonide in comparison with prednisolone has been associated with fewer bone density losses, and, unlike other corticosteroids, has little influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which also limits the need of tapering
    6.00
    4 votes
    101
    Methylergometrine

    Methylergometrine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Postpartum hemorrhage
    Methylergometrine (other names include methylergonovine, methylergobasin, methergine, and d-lysergic acid 1-butanolamide) is a synthetic analogue of ergonovine, a psychedelic alkaloid found in ergot, and many species of morning glory. It is a member of the ergoline family and chemically similar to LSD, ergine, ergometrine, and lysergic acid. Due to its oxytocic properties, it has a medical use in obstetrics. According to Jonathan Ott, methylergonovine has LSD-like actions above 2 milligrams. Clinical dosages are ten times lower. Methylergometrine maleate is marketed under the trade name Methergine. Methylergometrine is a smooth muscle constrictor that mostly acts on the uterus. It is most commonly used to prevent or control excessive bleeding following childbirth and spontaneous or elective abortion, and also to aid in expulsion of retained products of conception after a missed abortion (miscarriage in which all or part of the fetus remains in the uterus) and to help deliver the placenta after childbirth. It is available as tablets or injection (IM or IV) or in liquid form to be taken orally. Methylergometrine is sometimes used for both prevention and acute treatment of migraine.
    6.00
    4 votes
    102
    Permethrin

    Permethrin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pediculosis
    Permethrin is a common synthetic chemical, widely used as an insecticide, acaricide, and insect repellent. It belongs to the family of synthetic chemicals called pyrethroids and functions as a neurotoxin, affecting neuron membranes by prolonging sodium channel activation. It is not known to rapidly harm most mammals or birds, but is dangerously toxic to cats and fish. In general, it has a low mammalian toxicity and is poorly absorbed by skin. In medicine, permethrin is a first-line treatment for scabies; a 5% (w/w) cream is marketed by Johnson & Johnson under the name Lyclear. In Nordic countries and Canada, it is marketed under trade name Nix, often available over the counter. Permethrin is used: In agriculture, permethrin is mainly used on cotton, wheat, maize, and alfalfa crops. Its use is controversial because, as a broad-spectrum chemical, it kills indiscriminately; as well as the intended pests, it can harm beneficial insects including honey bees, and aquatic life. Permethrin kills ticks on contact with treated clothing. A method of reducing deer tick populations by treating rodent vectors involves stuffing biodegradable cardboard tubes with permethrin-treated cotton. Mice
    6.00
    4 votes
    103
    Bacitracin

    Bacitracin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Bacterial skin disease
    Bacitracin is a mixture of related cyclic polypeptides produced by organisms of the licheniformis group of Bacillus subtilis var Tracy, isolation of which was first reported in 1945. As a toxic and difficult-to-use antibiotic, bacitracin does not work well orally. However, it is very effective topically, and is a common ingredient of eye and skin antibiotic preparations. Its action is on Gram-positive cell walls. It can cause contact dermatitis and cross-reacts with allergic sensitivity to sulfa-drugs. When given intramuscularly, bacitracin's absorption is rapid and complete, but its nephrotoxicity (kidney damage potential) has limited its use to infants only, and then in very specific circumstances. In 2010 it was approved by the US FDA by this route for the very narrow indication of treatment of infants with staphylococcal pneumonia and empyema when due to organisms shown to be susceptible to bacitracin. It can only be used where adequate laboratory facilities are available for checking the drug's concentration in blood. The drug's unique name derives from the fact that it was isolated by John T. Goorley from a girl named Tracy: One strain isolated from tissue debrided from a
    8.00
    2 votes
    104
    Cefazolin

    Cefazolin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Surgical Wound Infection
    Cefazolin (INN), also known as cefazoline or cephazolin, is a first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. The drug is usually administrated by either intramuscular injection (injection into a large muscle) or intravenous infusion (intravenous fluid into a vein). Cefazolin is mainly used to treat bacterial infections of the skin. It can also be used to treat moderately severe bacterial infections involving the lung, bone, joint, stomach, blood, heart valve, and urinary tract. It is clinically effective against infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci of Gram-positive bacteria. These organisms are common on normal human skin. Resistance to cefazolin is seen in several species of bacteria. Cefazolin is extensively used as prophylaxis antibiotic before wide range of surgical operations. Adverse drug reactions from cefazolin are not common. Possible side effects include diarrhea, stomach pain or upset stomach, vomiting, and rash. Like that of several other cephalosporins, the chemical structure of cefazolin contains an N-methylthiotetrazole (NMTT or 1-MTT) side-chain. As the antibiotic is broken down in the body, it releases free NMTT, which can cause hypoprothrombinemia
    8.00
    2 votes
    105
    Fenofibrate

    Fenofibrate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Coronary Artery Disease
    Fenofibrate (Abbot's Tricor) is a drug of the fibrate class. It is mainly used to reduce cholesterol levels in patients at risk of cardiovascular disease. Like other fibrates, it reduces both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels, as well as increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and reducing triglycerides level. It is used alone or in conjunction with statins in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Fenofibrate was developed by Groupe Fournier SA, before it was acquired in 2005 by Solvay Pharmaceutical, a business unit owned by the Belgian corporation, Solvay S.A.. In 2009 Solvay Pharmaceutical was in turn acquired by Abbott Laboratories, which now markets the drug. The pharmaceutical form and the strength may change from one country to another, and from one brand to another. In the United States, Tricor was reformulated in 2005 and is available in tablets of 48 and 145 mg. This reformulation is controversial, as it is seen as an attempt to stifle competition from generic equivalents of the drug, and is the subject of antitrust litigation by generic drug manufacturer Teva. Also available in the United
    8.00
    2 votes
    106
    Ganciclovir

    Ganciclovir

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Cytomegalovirus Infections
    Ganciclovir INN ( /ɡænˈsaɪkləvɪər/) is an antiviral medication used to treat or prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections.Ganciclovir sodium is marketed under the trade names Cytovene and Cymevene (Roche). Ganciclovir for ocular use is marketed under the trade name Vitrasert (Bausch & Lomb). A prodrug form with improved oral bioavailability (valganciclovir) has also been developed. Ganciclovir is a synthetic analogue of 2'-deoxy-guanosine. It is first phosphorylated to a deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) analogue. This competitively inhibits the incorporation of dGTP by viral DNA polymerase, resulting in the termination of elongation of viral DNA. Ganciclovir is indicated for: It is also used for acute CMV colitis in HIV/AIDS and CMV pneumonitis in immunosuppressed patients. Ganciclovir has also been used with some success in treating human herpesvirus-6 infections. Ganciclovir is commonly associated with a range of serious haematological adverse effects. Common adverse drug reactions (≥1% of patients) include: granulocytopenia, neutropenia, anaemia, thrombocytopenia, fever, nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, flatulence, anorexia, raised liver enzymes,
    8.00
    2 votes
    107
    Isoniazid

    Isoniazid

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Tuberculosis
    Isoniazid (Laniazid, Nydrazid), also known as isonicotinylhydrazine (INH), is an organic compound that is the first-line medication in prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. The compound was first synthesized in the early 20th century, but its activity against tuberculosis was first reported in the early 1950s, and three pharmaceutical companies attempted unsuccessfully to simultaneously patent the drug (the most prominent one being Roche, which launched its version, Rimifon, in 1952). With the introduction of isoniazid, a cure for tuberculosis was first considered reasonable. Isoniazid is available in tablet, syrup, and injectable forms (given intramuscularly or intravenously). It is available worldwide, is inexpensive and is generally well tolerated. It is manufactured from isonicotinic acid, which is produced from 4-methylpyridine. Isoniazid may be prepared by the base hydrolysis of 4-cyanopyridine to give the amide, followed by displacement of ammonia by hydrazine: Isoniazid is a prodrug and must be activated by a bacterial catalase-peroxidase enzyme that in M. tuberculosis is called KatG. KatG couples the isonicotinic acyl with NADH to form isonicotinic acyl-NADH complex.
    8.00
    2 votes
    108
    Manganese(II) chloride

    Manganese(II) chloride

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Deficiency Diseases
    Manganese(II) chloride describes a series of compounds with the formula MnCl2(H2O)x, where the value of x can be 0, 2, or 4. The tetrahydrate is the most common form of "manganese(II) chloride". MnCl2·4H2O, but the anhydrous form and dihydrate MnCl2·2H2O are also known. Like many Mn(II) species, these salts are pink, the paleness of the color being characteristic of transition metal complexes with high spin d configurations. Manganese chloride is produced by treating manganese(IV) oxide with concentrated hydrochloric acid. This reaction was once used for the manufacture of chlorine. By carefully neutralizing the resulting solution with MnCO3, one can selectively precipitate iron salts, which are common impurities in manganese dioxide. In the laboratory, manganese chloride can be prepared by treating manganese metal or manganese(II) carbonate and hydrochloric acid: Anhydrous MnCl2 is a polymeric solid, which adopts a layered cadmium chloride-like structure. The tetrahydrate consists of octahedral trans-Mn(H2O)4Cl2 molecules The hydrates dissolve in water to give mildly acidic solutions with a pH of around 4. It is a weak Lewis acid, reacting with chloride ions to produce a series of
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    2 votes
    109
    Nitrofurantoin

    Nitrofurantoin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Urinary tract infection
    Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic which is marketed under the following brand names; Niftran, Furadantin, Furabid, Macrobid, Macrodantin, Nitrofur Mac, Nitro Macro, Nifty-SR, Martifur-MR, Martifur-100 (in India), Urantoin, Nifuran (in Macedonia) and Uvamin (in Middle East). It is usually used in treating urinary tract infection. It is often used against E. coli. Resistance to other antibiotics has led to increased interest in this agent. It is sometimes described as being appropriate to use in pregnant patients (along with other agents such as sulfisoxazole or cephalexin). This is in contrast to agents such as trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin which may not be appropriate for pregnant women. Organisms are said to be susceptible to nitrofurantoin if their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is 32 μg/mL or less. The peak blood concentration of nitrofurantoin following an oral dose of nitrofurantoin 100 mg, is less than 1 μg/mL and may be undetectable; tissue penetration is negligible; the drug is well concentrated in the urine: 75% of the dose is rapidly metabolised by the liver, but 25% of the dose is excreted in the urine unchanged, reliably achieving levels of 200 μg/ml or more. For
    8.00
    2 votes
    110
    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs—but also referred to as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents/analgesics (NSAIAs) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIMs)—are a class of drugs that provide analgesic and antipyretic (fever-reducing) effects, and, in higher doses, anti-inflammatory effects. The term "nonsteroidal" distinguishes these drugs from steroids, which, among a broad range of other effects, have a similar eicosanoid-depressing, anti-inflammatory action. As analgesics, NSAIDs are unusual in that they are non narcotic. The most prominent members of this group of drugs are aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen, all of which are available over the counter in most countries. NSAIDs are usually indicated for the treatment of acute or chronic conditions where pain and inflammation are present. Research continues into their potential for prevention of colorectal cancer, and treatment of other conditions, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. NSAIDs are generally indicated for the symptomatic relief of the following conditions: Aspirin, the only NSAID able to irreversibly inhibit COX-1, is also indicated for inhibition of platelet
    8.00
    2 votes
    111
    Alanine

    Alanine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nutritional and metabolic diseases
    Alanine (abbreviated as Ala or A) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula CH3CH(NH2)COOH. The L-isomer is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the genetic code. Its codons are GCU, GCC, GCA, and GCG. It is classified as a nonpolar amino acid. L-Alanine is second only to leucine in rate of occurrence, accounting for 7.8% of the primary structure in a sample of 1,150 proteins. D-Alanine occurs in bacterial cell walls and in some peptide antibiotics. The α-carbon atom of alanine is bound with a methyl group (-CH3), making it one of the simplest α-amino acids with respect to molecular structure and also resulting in alanine's being classified as an aliphatic amino acid. The methyl group of alanine is non-reactive and is thus almost never directly involved in protein function. Alanine is a nonessential amino acid, meaning it can be manufactured by the human body, and does not need to be obtained directly through the diet. Alanine is found in a wide variety of foods, but is particularly concentrated in meats. Good sources of alanine include Alanine can be manufactured in the body from pyruvate and branched chain amino acids such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine. Alanine is most
    9.00
    1 votes
    112
    Atovaquone

    Atovaquone

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Cerebral Toxoplasmosis
    Atovaquone (alternative spelling: atavaquone) is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of naphthalenes. Atovaquone is a hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, an analog of ubiquinone, with antipneumocystic activity. It is manufactured in the US in the liquid form, or oral suspension, under the brand name Mepron. Atovaquone is a medication used to treat or prevent: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX, Bactrim) is generally considered first-line therapy for PCP or toxoplasmosis. However, atovaquone may be used in patients who cannot tolerate, or are allergic to, TMP-SMX. In addition, atovaquone has the advantage of not causing myelosuppression, which is an important issue in patients who have undergone bone marrow transplantation. Atovaquone, as a combination preparation with proguanil, has been commercially available from GlaxoSmithKline since 2000 as Malarone for the treatment and prevention of malaria.
    9.00
    1 votes
    113
    Bitolterol

    Bitolterol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Bronchospasm
    Bitolterol mesylate (Tornalate) is a β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and COPD. Bitolterol has a rapid onset of action (2–5 minutes) and may last up to 6–8 hours. Bitolterol was withdrawn from the market by Élan Pharmaceuticals in 2001.
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    1 votes
    114
    Calcium carbonate

    Calcium carbonate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Gastrointestinal bleeding
    Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world, and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime, and is usually the principal cause of hard water. It is commonly used medicinally as a calcium supplement or as an antacid, but excessive consumption can be hazardous. Calcium carbonate shares the typical properties of other carbonates. Notably: Calcium carbonate will react with water that is saturated with carbon dioxide to form the soluble calcium bicarbonate. This reaction is important in the erosion of carbonate rocks, forming caverns, and leads to hard water in many regions. The vast majority of calcium carbonate used in industry is extracted by mining or quarrying. Pure calcium carbonate (e.g. for food or pharmaceutical use), can be produced from a pure quarried source (usually marble). Alternatively, calcium carbonate is prepared by calcining crude calcium oxide. Water is added to give calcium hydroxide, and carbon dioxide is passed through this solution to precipitate the desired
    9.00
    1 votes
    115
    Deferoxamine

    Deferoxamine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Iron overload disorder
    Deferoxamine (also known as desferrioxamine B, desferoxamine B, DFO-B, DFOA, DFB or desferal) is a bacterial siderophore produced by the actinobacteria Streptomyces pilosus. It has medical applications as a chelating agent used to remove excess iron from the body. The mesylate salt of DFO-B is commercially available. Deferoxamine acts by binding free iron in the bloodstream and enhancing its elimination in the urine. By removing excess iron, the agent reduces the damage done to various organs and tissues, such as the liver. A recent study also shows that it speeds healing of nerve damage (and minimizes the extent of recent nerve trauma). Deferoxamine may modulate expression and release of inflammatory mediators by specific cell types. Deferoxamine is used to treat acute iron poisoning, especially in small children. This agent is also frequently used to treat hemochromatosis, a disease of iron accumulation that can be either genetic or acquired. Acquired hemochromatosis is common in patients with certain types of chronic anemia (e.g. thalassemia and myelodysplastic syndrome) who require many blood transfusions, which can greatly increase the amount of iron in the body.
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    1 votes
    116
    Digitoxin

    Digitoxin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Heart failure
    Digitoxin is a cardiac glycoside. It has similar structure and effects to digoxin (though the effects are longer-lasting). Unlike digoxin (which is eliminated from the body via the kidneys), it is eliminated via the liver, so could be used in patients with poor or erratic kidney function. However, it is now rarely used in current Western medical practice. While several controlled trials have shown digoxin to be effective in a proportion of patients treated for heart failure, the evidence base for digitoxin is not as strong, although it is presumed to be similarly effective. Digitoxin exhibits similar toxic effects to the more commonly used digoxin, namely: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, confusion, visual disturbances, and cardiac arrhythmias. Antidigoxin antibody fragments, the specific treatment for digoxin poisoning, are also effective in serious digitoxin toxicity. The first description of the use of foxglove dates back to 1775. For quite some time, the active compound was not isolated. Oswald Schmiedeberg was able to obtain a pure sample in 1875. The modern therapeutic use of this molecule was made possible by the works of the pharmacist and the French chemist
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    1 votes
    117
    Dihydrotachysterol

    Dihydrotachysterol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Tetany
    Dihydrotachysterol (DHT) is a synthetic vitamin D analog activated in the liver that does not require renal hydroxylation like vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). DHT has a rapid onset of action (2 hours), a shorter half-life, and a greater effect on mineralization of bone salts than does vitamin D.
    9.00
    1 votes
    118
    Fluconazole

    Fluconazole

    • Conditions This May Prevent: AIDS Associated Opportunistic Infection
    Fluconazole ( /fluːˈkɒnəzoʊl/) is a triazole antifungal drug used in the treatment and prevention of superficial and systemic fungal infections. In a bulk powder form, it appears as a white crystalline powder, and it is very slightly soluble in water and soluble in alcohol. It is commonly marketed under the trade names Diflucan and Trican (Pfizer). Like other imidazole- and triazole-class antifungals, fluconazole inhibits the fungal cytochrome P450 enzyme 14α-demethylase. Mammalian demethylase activity is much less sensitive to fluconazole than fungal demethylase. This inhibition prevents the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol, an essential component of the fungal cytoplasmic membrane, and subsequent accumulation of 14α-methyl sterols. Fluconazole is primarily fungistatic; however, it may be fungicidal against certain organisms in a dose-dependent manner, specifically Cryptococcus. It is interesting to note, when fluconazole was in development at Pfizer, it was decided early in the process to avoid producing any chiral centers in the drug so subsequent synthesis and purification would not encounter difficulties with enantiomer separation and associated variations in biological
    9.00
    1 votes
    119
    Insect repellent

    Insect repellent

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Malaria
    An insect repellent is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface. There are also insect repellent products available based on sound production, particularly ultrasound (inaudibly high frequency sounds). These electronic devices have been shown to have no effect as a mosquito repellent by studies done by the EPA and many universities. Insect repellents help prevent and control the outbreak of insect-borne diseases such as malaria, Lyme disease, dengue fever, bubonic plague, and West Nile fever. Pest animals commonly serving as vectors for disease include the insects flea, fly, and mosquito; and the arachnid tick. Synthetic repellents tend to be more effective and/or longer lasting than "natural" repellents. In comparative studies, IR3535 was as effective or better than DEET in protection against mosquitoes. However, some plant-based repellents may provide effective relief as well. Essential oil repellents can be short-lived in their effectiveness, since essential oils can evaporate completely. A test of various insect repellents by an independent consumer organization found
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    1 votes
    120
    Isosorbide dinitrate

    Isosorbide dinitrate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Angina Pectoris
    Isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) (also known as Dilatrate) is a nitrate used pharmacologically as a vasodilator, e.g. in angina pectoris but also for anal fissure, a condition which is known to involve decreased blood supply leading to poor healing. It is also used as a direct vasodilator to treat congestive heart failure. Isosorbide dinitrate is sold under the brand names Isordil by Biovail, Cedocard, Sorbitrate and Isotrate. In UK, Argentina and Hong Kong, a trade name of it is Isoket. It is also a component of BiDil. It is more useful in preventing angina attacks than reversing them once they have commenced. It may be given as a tablet for the treatment of an angina attack. Long acting nitrates can be more useful as they are generally more effective and stable in the short term. After long term use for treating chronic conditions, tolerance may develop in a patient reducing its effectiveness. The mechanisms of nitrate tolerance have been thoroughly investigated in the last 30 years and several hypotheses have been proposed. These include: Recent evidence suggests that the latter hypothesis might represent a unifying hypothesis, and an ISDN-induced inappropriate production of oxygen
    9.00
    1 votes
    121
    Misoprostol

    Misoprostol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Gastric Ulcers
    Misoprostol is a drug that is used for the prevention of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastric ulcers, to treat missed miscarriage, to induce labor, and as an abortifacient. The latter use is controversial in the United States. Misoprostol was invented and marketed by G.D. Searle & Company (now Pfizer) under the trade name Cytotec (often misspelled Cyotec), but other brand-name and generic formulations are now available as well. Pharmacologically, misoprostol is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) analogue. Misoprostol is approved for use in the prevention of NSAID induced gastric ulcers. It acts upon gastric parietal cells, inhibiting the secretion of gastric acid via G-protein coupled receptor mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase, which leads to decreased intracellular cyclic AMP levels and decreased proton pump activity at the apical surface of the parietal cell. Because other classes of drugs, especially H2-receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors, are more effective for the treatment of acute peptic ulcers, Misoprostol is only indicated for use by people who are both taking NSAIDs and are at high risk for NSAID induced ulcers, including the
    9.00
    1 votes
    122
    Nicotine

    Nicotine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Substance Withdrawal Syndrome
    Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae) that acts as a nicotinic acetylcholine agonist and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. The biosynthesis takes place in the roots and accumulation occurs in the leaves of the Solanaceae. It constitutes approximately 0.6–3.0% of the dry weight of tobacco and is present in the range of 2–7 µg/kg of various edible plants. It functions as an antiherbivore chemical; therefore, nicotine was widely used as an insecticide in the past and nicotine analogs such as imidacloprid are currently widely used. In low doses (an average cigarette yields about 1 mg of absorbed nicotine), the substance acts as a stimulant in mammals, while high amounts (30–60 mg) can be fatal. This stimulant effect is the main factor responsible for the dependence-forming properties of tobacco smoking. According to the American Heart Association, nicotine addiction has historically been one of the hardest addictions to break, while the pharmacological and behavioral characteristics that determine tobacco addiction are similar to those determining addiction to heroin and cocaine. The nicotine content of popular American-brand cigarettes has slowly
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    1 votes
    123
    Prednisone

    Prednisone

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Neuralgia
    Prednisone is a glucocorticoid prodrug that is converted by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the liver into the active form, prednisolone. It is used to treat certain inflammatory diseases (such as severe allergic reactions) and (at higher doses) some types of cancer, but has many significant adverse effects. It is usually taken orally but can be delivered by intramuscular injection or intravenous injection. Prednisone is used for many different indications including: asthma, COPD, CIDP, rheumatic disorders, allergic disorders, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, adrenocortical insufficiency, hypercalcemia due to cancer, thyroiditis, laryngitis, severe tuberculosis, lipid pneumonitis, multiple sclerosis, nephrotic syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and as part of a drug regimen to prevent rejection post organ transplant. Prednisone has also been used in the treatment of migraine headaches and cluster headaches and for severe aphthous ulcer. Prednisone is used as an antitumor drug. Prednisone is important in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Non-Hodgkin lymphomas, Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma and other hormone-sensitive tumors, in combination with other
    9.00
    1 votes
    124
    Salbutamol

    Salbutamol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Exercise-induced asthma
    Salbutamol (INN) or albuterol (USAN) is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is marketed as Ventolin among other brand names. Salbutamol was the first selective β2-receptor agonist to be marketed — in 1968. It was first sold by Allen & Hanburys under the brand name Ventolin. The drug was an instant success, and has been used for the treatment of asthma ever since. Salbutamol sulfate is usually given by the inhaled route for direct effect on bronchial smooth muscle. This is usually achieved through a metered dose inhaler (MDI), nebulizer or other proprietary delivery devices (e.g. Rotahaler or Autohaler). In these forms of delivery, the maximal effect of salbutamol can take place within five to 20 minutes of dosing, though some relief is immediately seen. It can also be given orally, as an inhalant, or intravenously. Salbutamol is typically used to treat bronchospasm (due to either allergen asthma or exercise-induced), as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Other uses include in cystic fibrosis, along with ipratropium bromide, acetylcysteine, and
    9.00
    1 votes
    125
    Timolol

    Timolol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Heart Disease
    Timolol maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker. In its oral form (Blocadren), it is used: In its ophthalmic form (brand names Timoptol in Italy; Timoptic), it is used to treat open-angle and occasionally secondary glaucoma by reducing aqueous humour production through blockage of the beta receptors on the ciliary epithelium. The pharmacological mechanism by which it actually does this is still unknown. First beta-blocker approved for topical use in treatment of glaucoma in the USA (1978). With monotherapy, depresses IOP 18-34% below baseline within first few treatments. However, there are short-term escape and long-term drift effects in some patients. That is, tolerance develops. May reduce extent of diurnal IOP curve up to 50%. IOP higher during sleep. 5-10x more potent beta-blocker than propranolol. Light sensitive; preserved with 0.01% benzalkonium Cl (and also comes BAC free). Can also be used in adjunctive therapy with pilocarpine or CAIs. The most serious possible side effects include cardiac arrhythmias and severe bronchospasms. Timolol can also lead to fainting, congestive heart failure, depression, confusion, worsening of Raynaud's syndrome and
    9.00
    1 votes
    126
    Calcitriol

    Calcitriol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Vitamin D Deficiency
    Calcitriol (INN) (US /ˌkælsɨˈtraɪ.ɒl/; UK /kælˈsɪtri.ɒl/), also called 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is the hormonally active form of vitamin D with three hydroxyl groups (abbreviated 1,25-(OH)2D3 or simply 1,25(OH)2D), which was identified by Michael F. Holick. It increases the level of calcium (Ca) in the blood by (1) increasing the uptake of calcium from the gut into the blood, and (2) possibly increasing the release of calcium into the blood from bone. Calcitriol usually refers specifically to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, but may also sometimes include 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (when specified). Because cholecalciferol already has one hydroxyl group, only two are further specified in the nomenclature. Calcitriol is marketed under various trade names including Rocaltrol (Roche), Calcijex (Abbott), Decostriol (Mibe, Jesalis) and Vectical (Galderma). Calcitriol increases blood calcium levels ( [Ca] ) by promoting absorption of dietary calcium from the gastrointestinal tract and increasing renal tubular reabsorption of calcium thus reducing the loss of calcium in the urine. Calcitriol also stimulates release of calcium from bone by its action on
    6.67
    3 votes
    127
    Famciclovir

    Famciclovir

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Herpes genitalis
    Famciclovir (INN) ( /fæmˈsaɪklɵvɪər/) is a guanosine analogue antiviral drug used for the treatment of various herpesvirus infections, most commonly for herpes zoster (shingles). It is a prodrug form of penciclovir with improved oral bioavailability. Famciclovir is marketed under the trade name Famvir (Novartis). On August 24, 2007, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved the first generic version of famciclovir. Generic Famciclovir Tablets (125 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg) are manufactured by TEVA Pharmaceuticals and Mylan Pharmaceuticals. Famciclovir is indicated for the treatment of herpes zoster (shingles),treatment of herpes simplex virus 2 (genital herpes) ,herpes labialis (cold sores) in immunocompetent patients and for the suppression of recurring episodes of herpes simplex virus 2. It is also indicated for treatment of recurrent episodes of herpes simplex in HIV patients. Famciclovir comes as an oral tablet in 125 mg, 250 mg, and 500 mg dosage forms. To treat herpes zoster, Famciclovir is taken 500 mg every 8 hours (three times a day) for 7 days. To treat genital herpes it is taken twice a day for 1 day. To treat herpes labialis (cold sores), famciclovir is given as
    6.67
    3 votes
    128
    Formoterol

    Formoterol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Bronchospasm
    Formoterol (INN) or eformoterol (former BAN) is a long-acting β2-agonist used in the management of asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is marketed in four forms: a dry-powder inhaler (DPI), a metered-dose inhaler (MDI), an oral tablet, and an inhalation solution, under various trade names including Foradil/Foradile (Schering-Plough in the U.S., Novartis rest of world), Oxeze/Oxis (AstraZeneca), Atock (Astellas), Atimos (Modulite) (Chiesi), and Perforomist (Dey). Formoterol is a long-acting β2 agonist (LABA) that has an extended duration of action (up to 12 hours) compared to short-acting β2 agonists such as salbutamol, which are effective for 4–6 hours. LABAs such as formoterol are used as "symptom controllers" to supplement prophylactic corticosteroid therapy (e.g., fluticasone). A "reliever" short-acting β2 agonist (e.g., salbutamol) is still required, since LABAs are not recommended for the treatment of acute asthma. Inhaled formoterol works like other β2-agonists, causing bronchodilation by relaxing the smooth muscle in the airway so as to treat the exacerbation of asthma. The long duration of formoterol action occurs because the formoterol molecules
    6.67
    3 votes
    129
    Iron oxide

    Iron oxide

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Iron deficiency anemia
    Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3. It is one of the three main oxides of iron, the other two being iron(II) oxide (FeO), which is rare, and iron(II,III) oxide (Fe3O4), which also occurs naturally as the mineral magnetite. As the mineral known as hematite, Fe2O3 is the main source of the iron for the steel industry. Fe2O3 is ferromagnetic, dark red, and readily attacked by acids. Iron(III) oxide is often called rust, and to some extent this label is useful, because rust shares several properties and has a similar composition. To a chemist, rust is considered an ill-defined material, described as hydrated ferric oxide. Fe2O3 can be obtained in various polymorphs. In the main ones, α and γ, iron adopts octahedral coordination geometry. That is, each Fe center is bound to six oxygen ligands. α-Fe2O3 has the rhombohedral, corundum (α-Al2O3) structure and is the most common form. It occurs naturally as the mineral hematite which is mined as the main ore of iron. It is antiferromagnetic below ~260 K (Morin transition temperature), and exhibits weak ferromagnetism between 260 K and the Néel temperature, 950 K. It is easy to prepare using both
    6.67
    3 votes
    130
    Ondansetron

    Ondansetron

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nausea
    Ondansetron (INN) ( /ɒnˈdænsɛtrɒn/; developed and first marketed by GlaxoSmithKline as Zofran) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly as an antiemetic (to treat nausea and vomiting), often following chemotherapy. It affects both peripheral and central nerves. Ondansetron reduces the activity of the vagus nerve, which deactivates the vomiting center in the medulla oblongata, and also blocks serotonin receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone. It has little effect on vomiting caused by motion sickness, and does not have any effect on dopamine receptors or muscarinic receptors. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are the primary drugs used to treat and prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). A common use case is to give them intravenously about 30 minutes before commencement of a chemotherapy treatment. Ondansetron is also effective in controlling post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and post-radiation nausea and vomiting, and is a possible therapy for nausea and vomiting due to acute or chronic medical illness or acute gastroenteritis. Although it is highly effective, the high cost of the brand-name version had limited its use to controlling PONV and
    6.67
    3 votes
    131
    Rifampicin

    Rifampicin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Tuberculosis
    Rifampicin (INN) ( /rɪˈfæmpəsɪn/) or rifampin (USAN) is a bactericidal antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. It is a semisynthetic compound derived from Amycolatopsis rifamycinica (formerly known as Amycolatopsis mediterranei and Streptomyces mediterranei). Rifampicin may be abbreviated R, RMP, RA, RF, or RIF (US). In 1957, a soil sample from a pine forest on the French Riviera was brought for analysis to the Lepetit Pharmaceuticals research lab in Milan, Italy. There, a research group headed by Prof. Piero Sensi (1920-) and Dr. Maria Teresa Timbal (1925 - 1969) discovered a new bacterium. This new species appeared immediately of great scientific interest since it was producing a new class of molecules with antibiotic activity. Because Sensi, Timbal and the researchers were particularly fond of the French crime story Rififi (about a jewel heist and rival gangs), they decided to call these compounds "rifamycins". After two years of attempts to obtain more stable semisynthetic products, a new molecule with high efficacy and good tolerability was produced in 1959 and was named "rifampicin". Rifampicin is also known as rifaldazine, R/AMP, rofact (in Canada), and rifampin in the
    6.67
    3 votes
    132
    Ropivacaine

    Ropivacaine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Ropivacaine (rINN) ( /roʊˈpɪvəkeɪn/) is a local anaesthetic drug belonging to the amino amide group. The name ropivacaine refers to both the racemate and the marketed S-enantiomer. Ropivacaine hydrochloride is commonly marketed by AstraZeneca under the trade name Naropin. Ropivacaine was developed after bupivacaine was noted to be associated with cardiac arrest, particularly in pregnant women. Ropivacaine was found to have less cardiotoxicity than bupivacaine in animal models. Ropivacaine is indicated for local anaesthesia including infiltration, nerve block, epidural and intrathecal anaesthesia in adults and children over 12 years. It is also indicated for peripheral nerve block and caudal epidural in children 1–12 years for surgical pain. It is also sometimes used for infiltration anaesthesia for surgical pain in children. Ropivacaine is often coadministered with fentanyl for epidural analgesia, for example in pregnant women during labour. Ropivacaine is contraindicated for intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA). However, new data suggested both ropivacaine (1.2-1.8mg/kg in 40ml) and levobupivacaine (40ml of 0.125% solution) can be used, because they have less cardiovascular and
    6.67
    3 votes
    133
    Droperidol

    Droperidol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Droperidol /droʊˈpɛrIdɔːl/ (Inapsine, Droleptan, Dridol, Xomolix, Innovar [combination with fentanyl]) is an antidopaminergic drug used as an antiemetic and antipsychotic. Droperidol is also often used for neuroleptanalgesic anesthesia and sedation in intensive-care treatment. Discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1961, droperidol is a butyrophenone, and is a potent D2 (dopamine receptor) antagonist with some histamine and serotonin antagonist activity. It has a central antiemetic action and effectively prevents postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults using doses as low as 0.625 mg. It has also been used as an antipsychotic in doses ranging from 5 to 10 mg given as an intramuscular injection, generally in cases of severe agitation in a psychotic patient who is refusing oral medication. Its use in intramuscular sedation has been replaced by intramuscular preparations of haloperidol, midazolam, clonazepam and olanzapine. Some practitioners recommend the use of 0.5 mg to 1 mg intravenously for the treatment of vertigo in an otherwise healthy elderly patients who have not responded to Epley maneuvers. In 2001, the FDA changed the labeling requirements for droperidol injection, to
    5.75
    4 votes
    134
    Tyrosine

    Tyrosine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nutritional and metabolic diseases
    Tyrosine (abbreviated as Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, is one of the 22 amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins. Its codons are UAC and UAU. It is a non-essential amino acid with a polar side group. The word "tyrosine" is from the Greek tyri, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese. It is called tyrosyl when referred to as a functional group or side chain. Aside from being a proteinogenic amino acid, tyrosine has a special role by virtue of the phenol functionality. It occurs in proteins that are part of signal transduction processes. It functions as a receiver of phosphate groups that are transferred by way of protein kinases (so-called receptor tyrosine kinases). Phosphorylation of the hydroxyl group changes the activity of the target protein. A tyrosine residue also plays an important role in photosynthesis. In chloroplasts (photosystem II), it acts as an electron donor in the reduction of oxidized chlorophyll. In this process, it undergoes deprotonation of its phenolic OH-group. This radical is subsequently reduced in the photosystem II by the four core manganese clusters.
    5.75
    4 votes
    135
    Calcium citrate

    Calcium citrate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Osteoporosis
    Calcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid. It is commonly used as a food additive (E333), usually as a preservative, but sometimes for flavor. In this sense, it is similar to sodium citrate. Calcium citrate is also used as a water softener because the citrate ions can chelate unwanted metal ions. Calcium citrate is also found in some dietary calcium supplements (e.g. Citracal). Calcium makes up 21% of calcium citrate by weight. Calcium citrate is an odorless white powder, practically insoluble in cold water. Like citric acid, calcium citrate has a sour taste. Like other salts, however, it also has a salty taste. This should not be confused with the product commonly found in grocery stores labeled as "sour salt", which is simply powdered citric acid (which only resembles salt superficially). Calcium citrate is an intermediate in the isolation of citric acid from the fermentation process by which citric acid is produced industrially. The citric acid in the broth solution is neutralized by calcium hydroxide, precipitating insoluble calcium citrate. This is then filtered off from the rest of the broth and washed to give clean calcium citrate. The calcium citrate thus produced
    7.50
    2 votes
    136
    Calcium lactate

    Calcium lactate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Osteoporosis
    Calcium lactate is a white crystalline salt made by the action of lactic acid on calcium carbonate. It is used in foods (as a baking powder) and given medicinally. Its E number is E327. It is created by the reaction of lactic acid with calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. Calcium lactate is often found in aged cheeses. Small crystals of it precipitate out when lactic acid is converted into a less soluble form by the bacteria active during the ripening process. In medicine, calcium lactate is most commonly used as an antacid and also to treat calcium deficiencies. Calcium lactate can be absorbed at various pHs and does not need to be taken with food for absorption for these reasons. Calcium lactate is added to sugar-free foods to prevent tooth decay. When added to chewing gum containing xylitol, it increases the remineralization of tooth enamel. It is also added to fresh-cut fruits such as cantaloupes to keep them firm and extend their shelf life, without the bitter taste caused by calcium chloride, which can also be used for this purpose. It is also found in some over the counter (OTC) mouth washes.
    7.50
    2 votes
    137
    Choline

    Choline

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Infant nutrition disorders
    Choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient. It is usually grouped within the B-complex vitamins. Choline generally refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation. (X on the right denotes an undefined counteranion). The cation appears in the head groups of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, two classes of phospholipid that are abundant in cell membranes. Choline is the precursor molecule for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which is involved in many functions including memory and muscle control. Choline must be consumed through the diet in order for the body to remain healthy. It is used in the synthesis of the constructional components in the body's cell membranes. Despite the perceived benefits of choline, dietary recommendations have discouraged people from eating certain high choline foods, such as egg and fatty meats. The 2005 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey stated that only 2% of postmenopausal women consume the recommended intake for choline. Choline was discovered by Adolph Strecker in 1864 and chemically synthesized in 1866. In 1998 choline was classified as an essential nutrient by the Food and
    7.50
    2 votes
    138
    Clostridium tetani

    Clostridium tetani

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Tetanus
    Clostridium tetani is a rod-shaped, anaerobic bacterium of the genus species Clostridium. Like other Clostridium genus species, it is Gram-positive, and its appearance on a gram stain resembles tennis rackets or drumsticks. C. tetani is found as spores in soil or in the gastrointestinal tract of animals. C. tetani produces a potent biological toxin, tetanospasmin, and is the causative agent of tetanus, a disease characterized by painful muscular spasms that can lead to respiratory failure and, in up to 40% of cases, death. Tetanus was known to ancient people, who recognized the relationship between wounds and fatal muscle spasms. In 1884, Arthur Nicolaier isolated the strychnine-like toxin of tetanus from free-living, anaerobic soil bacteria. The etiology of the disease was further elucidated in 1890 by Antonie Carl and Giorgio Rattone, who demonstrated the transmissibility of tetanus for the first time. They produced tetanus in rabbits by injecting their sciatic nerve with pus from a fatal human tetanus case in that same year. In 1889, C. tetani was isolated from a human victim, by Kitasato Shibasaburō, who later showed that the organism could produce disease when injected into
    7.50
    2 votes
    139
    Cod liver oil

    Cod liver oil

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Vitamin D Deficiency
    Cod liver oil is a nutritional supplement derived from liver of cod fish. As with most fish oils, it has high levels of the omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA. Cod liver oil also contains vitamin A and vitamin D. It has historically been taken because of its vitamin A and vitamin D content. It was once commonly given to children, because vitamin D has been shown to prevent rickets and other symptoms of vitamin D deficiency. Cod liver oil was traditionally manufactured by filling a wooden barrel with fresh cod livers and seawater and allowing the mixture to ferment for up to a year before removing the oil. Modern cod liver oil is made by cooking the whole cod body tissues of fatty fish during the manufacture of fish meal. Cod liver oil is widely taken to ease the pain and joint stiffness associated with arthritis. It may have a positive effect on heart, bone, as well as helping to repair wounded skin, hair, nails, and teeth. Cod liver oil and fish oil are similar, but cod liver oil has higher levels of vitamins A and D. People consuming cod liver oil as a source of omega-3 fatty acids should pay attention to how much vitamin A and vitamin D this adds to their diet. Cod liver oil may
    7.50
    2 votes
    140
    Ergometrine

    Ergometrine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Postpartum hemorrhage
    Ergometrine (other names include ergonovine and d-lysergic acid beta-propanolamide), is an ergoline (and lysergamide) derivative, and one of the primary ergot and morning glory alkaloids . It is chemically similar to lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), ergine, and lysergic acid. While it acts at alpha-adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonin receptors (the 5-HT2 receptor), it exerts on the uterus (and other smooth muscles) a powerful stimulant effect not clearly associated with a specific receptor type. It has a medical use in obstetrics to facilitate delivery of the placenta and to prevent bleeding after childbirth by causing smooth muscle tissue in the blood vessel walls to narrow, thereby reducing blood flow. It is usually combined with oxytocin (Syntocinon) as syntometrine. It can induce spasm of the coronary arteries. It is used to diagnose Variant (Prinzmetal's) angina. According to the book TiHKAL by Alexander Shulgin, ergometrine has LSD-like action at levels of 2–10 milligrams. Clinical dosages are about ten times lower. Ergometrine is listed as Table I precursors under the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, as
    7.50
    2 votes
    141
    Fish oil

    Fish oil

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Cardiac arrhythmia
    Fish oil is oil derived from the tissues of oily fish. Fish oils contain the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), precursors of certain eicosanoids that are known to reduce inflammation throughout the body, and have other health benefits. Fish do not actually produce omega-3 fatty acids, but instead accumulate them by consuming either microalgae or prey fish that have accumulated omega-3 fatty acids, together with a high quantity of antioxidants such as iodide and selenium, from microalgae, where these antioxidants are able to protect the fragile polyunsaturated lipids from peroxidation. Fatty predatory fish like sharks, swordfish, tilefish, and albacore tuna may be high in omega-3 fatty acids, but due to their position at the top of the food chain, these species can also accumulate toxic substances through biomagnification. For this reason, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends limiting consumption of certain (predatory) fish species (e.g. albacore tuna, shark, king mackerel, tilefish and swordfish) due to high levels of toxic contaminants such as mercury, dioxin, PCBs and chlordane. Fish oil is used as a component in
    7.50
    2 votes
    142
    Mannitol

    Mannitol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Oliguria
    Mannitol is a white, crystalline sugar alcohol with the chemical formula (C6H8(OH)6). It is used as an osmotic diuretic agent and a weak renal vasodilator. It was originally isolated from the secretions of the flowering ash, called manna after their resemblance to the Biblical food, and is also referred to as mannite and manna sugar. In plants, it is used to induce osmotic stress. Mannitol is a sugar alcohol; that is, it is derived from a sugar by reduction, with a molecular weight of 182.17 g/mol, and a density of 1.52 g/mL. Other sugar alcohols include xylitol and sorbitol. Mannitol and sorbitol are isomers, the only difference being the orientation of the hydroxyl group on carbon 2. Aqueous solutions of mannitol are mildly acidic and sometimes such solutions are treated to lower the pH. Chemical Abstracts Registry Numbers for mannitol are 123897-58-5, 69-65-8 (D-Mannitol), 75398-80-0, 85085-15-0, and 87-78-5 (mannitol with unspecified stereochemistry). D-Mannitol (CAS# 69-65-8) has a solubility of 22g mannitol/ 100mL water (25 °C), and a relative sweetness of 50 (sucrose=100). It melts between 165 and 169 °C (7.6 torr), and boils at 295 °C at 3.5 torr, indicating a greater
    7.50
    2 votes
    143
    Neostigmine

    Neostigmine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Urinary bladder disease
    Neostigmine (Prostigmin, Vagostigmin) is a parasympathomimetic that acts as a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Neostigmine was first synthesized by Aeschlimann and Reinert in 1931. Neostigmine is made by first reacting 3-dimethylaminophenol with N-dimethylcarbamoyl chloride, which forms a dimethylcarbamate. Next, that product is alkylated using dimethylsulfate, which forms neostigmine. By interfering with the breakdown of acetylcholine, neostigmine indirectly stimulates both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Unlike physostigmine, neostigmine has a quaternary nitrogen; hence, it is more polar and does not enter the CNS. Its effect on skeletal muscle is greater than that of physostigmine, and it can stimulate contractility before it paralyzes. Neostigmine has moderate duration of action, usually two to four hours. Neostigmine binds to the anionic site of cholinesterase. The drug blocks the active site of acetylcholinesterase so the enzyme can no longer break down the acetylcholine molecules before they reach the postsynaptic membrane receptors. This allows for the threshold to be reached so a new impulse can be triggered in the next neuron. In myasthenia gravis there are
    7.50
    2 votes
    144
    Raloxifene

    Raloxifene

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Postmenopausal osteoporosis
    Raloxifene (marketed as Evista by Eli Lilly and Company) is an oral selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that has estrogenic actions on bone and anti-estrogenic actions on the uterus and breast. It is used in the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. In 2006, the National Cancer Institute announced that raloxifene was as effective as tamoxifen in reducing the incidence of breast cancer in postmenopausal women at increased risk. A major adverse effect of tamoxifen is uterine cancer; raloxifene had fewer uterine cancers. Tamoxifen increased the risk of cataracts, but raloxifene did not. Both groups had more blood clots in veins and the lungs, but that side effect was more common with tamoxifen than raloxifene. On September 14, 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced approval of raloxifene for reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and in postmenopausal women at high risk for invasive breast cancer. An editorial in Lancet Oncology criticized the way that information about the drug was released. Raloxifene hydrochloride (HCl) has the empirical formula C28H27NO4S•HCl, which corresponds to a molecular
    7.50
    2 votes
    145
    Vitamin B-12

    Vitamin B-12

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia
    Vitamin B12, vitamin B12 or vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood. It is one of the eight B vitamins. It is normally involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body, especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, but also fatty acid synthesis and energy production. Neither fungi, plants or animals are capable of producing vitamin B12. Only bacteria and archaea have the enzymes required for its synthesis, and they therefore form its only sources in nature. The vitamin is the largest and most structurally complicated vitamin and can be produced industrially only through bacterial fermentation-synthesis. Vitamin B12 consists of a class of chemically related compounds (vitamers), all of which have vitamin activity. It contains the biochemically rare element cobalt. Biosynthesis of the basic structure of the vitamin is accomplished only by bacteria (which usually produce hydroxocobalamin), but conversion between different forms of the vitamin can be accomplished in the human body. A common semi-synthetic form of the vitamin, cyanocobalamin,
    7.50
    2 votes
    146
    Zileuton

    Zileuton

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Asthma
    Zileuton (trade name ZYFLO) is an orally active inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, and thus inhibits leukotrienes (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) formation. Zileuton is used for the maintenance treatment of asthma. Zileuton was introduced in 1996 by Abbott Laboratories and is now marketed in two formulations by Cornerstone Therapeutics Inc. under the brand names ZYFLO and ZYFLO CR. The original immediate-release formulation of zileuton, known as ZYFLO, is taken four times per day. The extended-release formulation, ZYFLO CR, is taken twice daily. Although the extended release formulation of zileuton is still available (Zyflo CR), the immediate release tablet was withdrawn from the U.S. market on February 12, 2008. Zileuton is indicated for the prophylaxis and chronic treatment of asthma in adults and children 12 years of age and older. Zileuton is not indicated for use in the reversal of bronchospasm in acute asthma attacks. Therapy with zileuton can be continued during acute exacerbations of asthma. The recommended dose of ZYFLO is one 600 mg tablet, four times per day. The tablets may be split in half to make them easier to swallow. The recommended dose of ZYFLO CR is two 600 mg
    7.50
    2 votes
    147
    Zinc oxide

    Zinc oxide

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Sunburn
    Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO. ZnO is a white powder that is insoluble in water, which is widely used as an additive in numerous materials and products including plastics, ceramics, glass, cement, lubricants, paints, ointments, adhesives, sealants, pigments, foods (source of Zn nutrient), batteries, ferrites, fire retardants, and first aid tapes. It occurs naturally as the mineral zincite but most zinc oxide is produced synthetically. In materials science, ZnO is a wide-bandgap semiconductor of the II-VI semiconductor group (since oxygen was classed as an element of VIA group (the 6th main group, now referred to as 16th) of the periodic table and zinc, a transition metal, as a member of the IIB (2nd B), now 12th, group). The native doping of the semiconductor (due to oxygen vacancies) is n-type. This semiconductor has several favorable properties, including good transparency, high electron mobility, wide bandgap, and strong room-temperature luminescence. Those properties are used in emerging applications for transparent electrodes in liquid crystal displays, in energy-saving or heat-protecting windows, and in electronics as thin-film transistors and
    7.50
    2 votes
    148
    Low-carbohydrate diet

    Low-carbohydrate diet

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Candidiasis
    Low-carbohydrate diets or low-carb diets are dietary programs that restrict carbohydrate consumption usually for weight control or for the treatment of obesity. Foods high in digestible carbohydrates (e.g. bread, pasta) are limited or replaced with foods containing a higher percentage of proteins and fats (e.g. meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, cheese, tree nuts, and seeds) and other foods low in carbohydrates (e.g. most salad vegetables), although other vegetables and fruits (especially berries) are often allowed. The amount of carbohydrate allowed varies with different low-carbohydrate diets. Such diets are sometimes ketogenic (i.e. they restrict carbohydrate intake sufficiently to cause ketosis). The Induction phase of the Atkins diet is ketogenic. The term "low-carbohydrate diet" is generally applied to diets that restrict carbohydrates to less than 20% of caloric intake, but can also refer to diets that simply restrict or limit carbohydrates. Low-carbohydrate diets are used to treat or prevent some chronic diseases and conditions including: cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure and diabetes, epilepsy, chronic fatigue syndrome (see ketosis) and
    5.50
    4 votes
    149
    Pyrazinamide

    Pyrazinamide

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Tuberculosis
    Pyrazinamide is a drug used to treat tuberculosis. The drug is largely bacteriostatic, but can be bacteriocidal on actively replicating tuberculosis bacteria. The abbreviations PZA and Z are standard, and used commonly in the medical literature. The British Thoracic Society guidelines are for 1.5 g daily for patients weighing less than 50 kg, and 2 g daily for patients weighing 50 kg or more. Pyrazinamide is a generic drug and is available in a wide variety of presentations. Pyrazinamide tablets are usually 500 mg and form the bulkiest part of the standard tuberculosis treatment regimen. Pyrazinamide tablets are so large that some patients find them impossible to swallow: pyrazinamide syrup is an option for these patients. Pyrazinamide is also available as part of fixed dose combinations with other TB drugs such as isoniazid and rifampicin (Rifater is an example). Pyrazinamide is well absorbed orally. It crosses inflamed meninges and is an essential part of the treatment of tuberculous meningitis. It is metabolised by the liver and the metabolic products are excreted by the kidneys. Pyrazinamide is routinely used in pregnancy in the UK and the rest of the world; the WHO recommend
    5.50
    4 votes
    150
    Fondaparinux

    Fondaparinux

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Venous thrombosis
    Fondaparinux (trade name Arixtra) is an anticoagulant medication chemically related to low molecular weight heparins. It is marketed by GlaxoSmithKline. A generic version developed by Alchemia is marketed within the US by Dr. Reddy's Laboratories. Fondaparinux is a synthetic pentasaccharide Factor Xa inhibitor. Apart from the O-methyl group at the reducing end of the molecule, the identity and sequence of the five monomeric sugar units contained in fondaparinux is identical to a sequence of five monomeric sugar units that can be isolated after either chemical or enzymatic cleavage of the polymeric glycosaminoglycans heparin and heparan sulfate (HS). Within heparin and heparan sulfate this monomeric sequence is thought to form the high affinity binding site for the anti-coagulant factor antithrombin III (ATIII). Binding of heparin/HS to ATIII has been shown to increase the anti-coagulant activity of antithrombin III 1000 fold. In contrast to heparin, fondaparinux does not inhibit thrombin. Fondaparinux is given subcutaneously daily. Clinically, it is used for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis in patients who have had orthopedic surgery as well as for the treatment of deep vein
    6.33
    3 votes
    151
    Mafenide

    Mafenide

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Septicemia
    Mafenide (INN; usually as mafenide acetate, trade name Sulfamylon) is a sulfonamide. It is used to treat severe burns. Mafenide (Sulfamylon) can interfere with the kidney's role in hydrogen ion excretion, resulting in metabolic acidosis. Mafenide is a topical sulfonamide used as adjunctive therapy of second- and third-degree burns. It is bacteriostatic against many gram-positive and gram-negative organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mafenide is metabolized to a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, which could result in metabolic acidosis. This drug was approved by the FDA in 1948. Some sources state that mafenide is more appropriate for non-facial burns, while chloramphenicol/prednisolone or bacitracin are more appropriate for facial burns. Mechanism of Action: Mafenide works by reducing the bacterial population present in the avascular tissues of burns and permits spontaneous healing of deep partial-thickness burns. Contraindications/Precautions:Sulfonamide hypersensitivity; renal impairment. Superinfection, pain or burning upon application, rash, pruritus, tachypnea, hyperventilation, metabolic acidosis. Drug Interactions: No significant interactions For use adjunctive therapy of
    6.33
    3 votes
    152
    Povidone-iodine

    Povidone-iodine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Surgical Wound Infection
    Povidone-iodine (PVP-I) is a stable chemical complex of polyvinylpyrrolidone (povidone, PVP) and elemental iodine. It contains from 9.0% to 12.0% available iodine, calculated on a dry basis. This unique complex was discovered at the Industrial Toxicology Laboratories in Philadelphia by H. A. Shelanski and M. V. Shelanski. They carried out tests in vitro to demonstrate anti-bacterial activity, and found that the complex was less toxic than tincture of iodine in mice. Human clinical trials showed the product to be superior to other iodine formulations. It was first sold in 1955, and has since become the universally preferred iodine antiseptic. PVP-I is completely soluble in cold and mild-warm water, ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, and glycerol. Its stability in solution is much greater than that of tincture of iodine or Lugol's solution. Free iodine, slowly liberated from the poviodine-iodine (PVP-I) complex in solution, kills eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells through iodination of lipids and oxidation of cytoplasmic and membrane compounds. This agent exhibits a broad range of microbicidal activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Slow release of
    6.33
    3 votes
    153
    Arginine

    Arginine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nutritional and metabolic diseases
    Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R) is an α-amino acid. It was first isolated in 1886. The L-form is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids. At the level of molecular genetics, in the structure of the messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA, CGU, CGC, CGA, CGG, AGA, and AGG, are the triplets of nucleotide bases or codons that codify for arginine during protein synthesis. In mammals, arginine is classified as a semiessential or conditionally essential amino acid, depending on the developmental stage and health status of the individual. Preterm infants are unable to synthesize or create arginine internally, making the amino acid nutritionally essential for them. There are some conditions that put an increased demand on the body for the synthesis of L-arginine, including surgical or other trauma, sepsis and burns. Arginine was first isolated from a lupin seedling extract in 1886 by the Swiss chemist Ernst Schultze. In general, most people do not need to take arginine supplements because the body usually produces enough. The amino acid side-chain of arginine consists of a 3-carbon aliphatic straight chain, the distal end of which is capped by a complex guanidinium group. With a pKa of
    8.00
    1 votes
    154
    Buclizine

    Buclizine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nausea
    Buclizine is an antihistamine and anticholinergic of the piperazine derivative family. It is considered to be an antiemetic, similar to meclozine. In the United Kingdom, buclizine is one of three drugs contained in Migraleve tablets, marketed by McNeil Healthcare at migraine sufferers.
    8.00
    1 votes
    155
    Calcidiol

    Calcidiol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Vitamin D Deficiency
    Calcifediol (INN), also known as calcidiol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (abbreviated 25(OH)D), is a prehormone that is produced in the liver by hydroxylation of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) by the enzyme cholecalciferol 25-hydroxylase which was isolated by Michael F. Holick. This metabolite is being measured by physicians worldwide to determine a patient's vitamin d status. Calcifediol is then converted in the kidneys (by the enzyme 25(OH)D-1α-hydroxylase) into calcitriol (1,25-(OH)2D3), a secosteroid hormone that is the active form of vitamin D. It can also be converted into 24-hydroxycalcidiol in the kidneys via 24-hydroxylation. In medicine, a 25-hydroxy vitamin D (calcidiol) blood test is used to determine how much vitamin D is in the body. The blood concentration of calcidiol is considered the best indicator of vitamin D status. It is the most sensitive measure, though experts have called for improved standardization and reproducibility across different laboratories. According to MedlinePlus, the normal range of calcidiol is 30.0 to 74.0 ng/mL. The normal range varies widely depending on several factors, including age and geographic location. A broad
    8.00
    1 votes
    156
    Cimetidine

    Cimetidine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Gastrointestinal bleeding
    Cimetidine INN ( /sɨˈmɛtɨdiːn/ or /saɪˈmɛtɨdiːn/) is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production. It is largely used in the treatment of heartburn and peptic ulcers. It has been marketed by GlaxoSmithKline (which is selling the brand to Prestige Brands) under the trade name Tagamet (sometimes Tagamet HB or Tagamet HB200). Cimetidine was approved in the UK in 1976 and was approved in the US by the Food and Drug Administration for prescriptions starting January 1, 1979. Cimetidine, approved by the FDA for inhibition of gastric acid secretion, has been advocated for a number of dermatological diseases. Cimetidine was the prototypical histamine H2-receptor antagonist from which the later members of the class were developed. Cimetidine was the culmination of a project at Smith, Kline and French (SK&F; now GlaxoSmithKline) by James W. Black, C. Robin Ganellin, and others to develop a histamine receptor antagonist to suppress stomach acid secretion. This was one of the first drugs discovered using a rational drug design approach. Sir James W. Black shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of propranolol and also is credited for
    8.00
    1 votes
    157
    Basiliximab

    Basiliximab

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Graft-versus-host disease
    Basiliximab (trade name Simulect) is a chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibody to the α chain (CD25) of the IL-2 receptor of T cells. It is used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation, especially in kidney transplants. It is a Novartis Pharmaceuticals product and was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1998. It is a chimeric CD25 monoclonal antibody of the IgG1 isotype. It acts as an antagonist at the interleukin-2(IL-2) binding site of the p55 subunit (Tac antigen) of the high affinity IL-2 receptor (CD25) on the surface of the activated T lymphocytes. Minimum serum level should be 0.2 ug/ml(ELISA) Dose is 20 mg two times 4 days apart generally in an adult. It is given in two doses, the first within 2 hours of the start of the transplant operation and the second 4 days after the transplant. These saturate the receptors and prevent T cells from replication and also from activating the B cells, which are responsible for the production of antibodies, which would bind to the transplanted organ and stimulate an immune response against the transplant. Like the similar drug daclizumab, basiliximab reduces the incidence and severity of acute rejection in kidney
    7.00
    2 votes
    158
    Bivalirudin

    Bivalirudin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Myocardial Ischemia
    Bivalirudin (Angiomax or Angiox, manufactured by The Medicines Company) is a specific and reversible direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI). Chemically, it is a synthetic congener of the naturally occurring drug hirudin (found in the saliva of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis). Bivalirudin is a DTI that overcomes many limitations seen with indirect thrombin inhibitors, such as heparin. Bivalirudin is a short, synthetic peptide that is potent, highly specific, and a reversible inhibitor of thrombin. It inhibits both circulating and clot-bound thrombin, while also inhibiting thrombin-mediated platelet activation and aggregation. Bivalirudin has a quick onset of action and a short half-life. It does not bind to plasma proteins (other than thrombin) or to red blood cells. Therefore it has a predictable antithrombotic response. There is no risk for Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia/Heparin Induced Thrombosis-Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (HIT/HITTS). It does not require a binding cofactor such as antithrombin and does not activate platelets. These characteristics make bivalirudin an ideal alternative to heparin. Bivalirudin clinical studies demonstrated consistent positive outcomes in
    7.00
    2 votes
    159
    Disulfiram

    Disulfiram

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Alcoholism
    Disulfiram is a drug discovered in the 1920s and used to support the treatment of chronic alcoholism by producing an acute sensitivity to alcohol. It blocks the processing of alcohol in the body, thus causing an unpleasant reaction when alcohol is consumed. Disulfiram should be used in conjunction with counseling and support. Trade names for disulfiram in different countries are Antabuse and Antabus manufactured by Odyssey Pharmaceuticals. Disulfiram is also being studied as a treatment for cocaine dependence, as it prevents the breakdown of dopamine (a neurotransmitter whose release is stimulated by cocaine); the excess dopamine results in increased anxiety, higher blood pressure, restlessness and other unpleasant symptoms. Several studies have reported that it has anti-protozoal activity as well. Research for possible disulfiram use in cancer therapy has been announced. The drug's action was discovered by accident in 1948 by the researchers Erik Jacobsen, Jens Hald, and Keneth Ferguson at the Danish drug company Medicinalco. The substance was intended to provide a remedy for parasitic infestations; however, workers testing the substance on themselves reported severe symptoms
    7.00
    2 votes
    160
    Gentian violet

    Gentian violet

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Candidiasis of skin and nails
    Gentian violet (crystal violet, methyl violet 10B, hexamethyl pararosaniline chloride) is a bactericide and an antifungal agent, the primary agent used in the Gram stain test, perhaps the single most important bacterial identification test in use today, and it is also used by hospitals for the treatment of serious heat burns and other injuries to the skin and gums. Typically prepared as a weak (e.g. 1%) solution in water, it is painted on skin or gums to treat or prevent fungal infections. Gentian violet does not require a doctor's prescription (in the US), but is not easily found in drug stores. Tampons treated with gentian violet are sometimes used for vaginal applications. The name "gentian violet" refers to its colour, being like that of the petals of a gentian flower; it is not made from gentians or from violets. Gentian violet is commonly used for In forensics, gentian violet was used to develop fingerprints. Crystal violet is also used as a tissue stain in the preparation of light microscopy sections. In laboratory, solutions containing crystal violet and formalin are often used to simultaneously fix and stain cells grown in tissue culture to preserve them and make them
    7.00
    2 votes
    161
    Glycerol

    Glycerol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Dermatitis
    Glycerol (or glycerine, glycerin) is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. The glycerol backbone is central to all lipids known as triglycerides. Glycerol is sweet-tasting and of low toxicity. Glycerol forms the backbone of triglycerides, and is chiefly produced by saponification of fats as a byproduct of soap-making. It is also a byproduct of the production of biodiesel via transesterification. This form of crude glycerin is often dark in appearance with a thick, syrup-like consistency. Triglycerides (1) are treated with an alcohol such as ethanol (2) with catalytic base to give ethyl esters of fatty acids (3) and glycerol (4): Glycerol is also produced by various routes from propylene. The epichlorohydrin process is the most important; it involves the chlorination of propylene to give allyl chloride, which is oxidized with hypochlorite to dichlorohydrins, which reacts with a strong base to give epichlorohydrin. Epichlorohydrin is then hydrolyzed to give glycerol. Because of the emphasis
    7.00
    2 votes
    162
    Glycolic acid

    Glycolic acid

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Dermatitis
    Glycolic acid (or hydroxyacetic acid) is the smallest α-hydroxy acid (AHA). This colorless, odorless, and hygroscopic crystalline solid is highly soluble in water. It is used in various skin-care products. Glycolic acid is found in some sugar-crops. It is prepared by the reaction of chloroacetic acid with sodium hydroxide followed by re-acidification. The net reaction can be summarized as follows: In this way, a few million kilograms are produced annually. Catalyzed reaction of formaldehyde with synthesis gas (carbonylation of formaldehyde) is a particularly economical preparative route. Other methods, not apparently in use, include hydrogenation of oxalic acid with nascent hydrogen and the hydrolysis of the cyanohydrin derived from formaldehyde. Some of today's glycolic acids are formaldehyde and formic acid free. Glycolic acid can be isolated from natural sources, such as sugarcane, sugar beets, pineapple, cantaloupe, and unripe grapes. Glycolic acid can also be prepared using an enzymatic biochemical process which produces fewer impurities compared to traditional chemical synthesis, requires less energy in production and produces less co-product. Each route can be evaluated for
    7.00
    2 votes
    163
    Granisetron

    Granisetron

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nausea
    Granisetron is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy. Its main effect is to reduce the activity of the vagus nerve, which is a nerve that activates the vomiting center in the medulla oblongata. It does not have much effect on vomiting due to motion sickness. This drug does not have any effect on dopamine receptors or muscarinic receptors. Granisetron was developed by chemists working at the British drug company Beecham around 1988 and is available as a generic. It is produced by Roche Laboratories under the trade name Kytril. The drug was approved in the United Kingdom in 1991 and in United States in 1994 by the FDA. A granisetron transdermal patch with the trade name Sancuso was approved by the US FDA on September 12, 2008. Sancuso is manufactured by ProStrakan, Inc., a pharmaceutical company headquartered in Bedminster, NJ, with global headquarters in Scotland. Granisetron breaks down slowly, staying in the body for a long time. One dose usually lasts 4 to 9 hours and is usually administered once or twice daily. This drug is removed from the body by the liver and kidneys. Granisetron is a well-tolerated
    7.00
    2 votes
    164
    Methylene blue

    Methylene blue

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Cyanosis
    Methylene blue (CI 52015) is a heterocyclic aromatic chemical compound with the molecular formula C16H18N3SCl. It has many uses in a range of different fields, such as biology and chemistry. At room temperature it appears as a solid, odorless, dark green powder, that yields a blue solution when dissolved in water. The hydrated form has 3 molecules of water per molecule of methylene blue. Methylene blue should not be confused with methyl blue, another histology stain, new methylene blue, nor with the methyl violets often used as pH indicators. The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) of methylene blue is methylthioninium chloride. Methylene blue is a potent cationic dye with maximum absorption of light around 670 nm. The specifics of absorption depend on a number of factors, including protonation, adsorption to other materials, and metachromasy - the formation of dimers and higher-order aggregates depending on concentration and other interactions: Methylene blue is widely used as a redox indicator in analytical chemistry. Solutions of this substance are blue when in an oxidizing environment, but will turn colorless if exposed to a reducing agent. The redox properties can be seen
    7.00
    2 votes
    165
    Procaine

    Procaine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Procaine is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group. It was used primarily to reduce the pain of intramuscular injection of penicillin, and it was also used in dentistry. Owing to the ubiquity of the trade name Novocain, in some regions procaine is referred to generically as novocaine. It acts mainly by being a sodium channel blocker. Procaine was first synthesized in 1905, shortly after amylocaine. It was created by the German chemist Alfred Einhorn who gave the chemical the trade name Novocaine, from the Latin nov- (meaning new) and -caine, a common ending for alkaloids used as anesthetics. It was introduced into medical use by surgeon Heinrich Braun. Prior to the discovery of Stovaine and Novocaine, cocaine was the most commonly used local anesthetic. The primary use for procaine is as a topical anaesthetic. Procaine is used less frequently today since more effective (and hypoallergenic) alternatives such as lidocaine (Xylocaine) exist. It has been discontinued from US markets. Like other local anesthetics (such as mepivacaine, and prilocaine), procaine is a vasodilator, and is often coadministered with epinephrine for the purpose of vasoconstriction. Vasoconstriction
    7.00
    2 votes
    166
    Sodium fluoride

    Sodium fluoride

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Dental plaque
    Sodium fluoride is an inorganic chemical compound with the formula NaF. A colorless solid, it is a source of the fluoride ion in diverse applications. Sodium fluoride is less expensive and less hygroscopic than the related salt potassium fluoride. Sodium fluoride is an ionic compound, dissolving to give separated Na and F ions. Like sodium chloride, it crystallizes in a cubic motif where both Na and F occupy octahedral coordination sites; its lattice spacing, approximately 462 pm, is somewhat smaller than that of sodium chloride. The mineral form of NaF, villiaumite, is moderately rare. It is known from plutonic nepheline syenite rocks. NaF is prepared by neutralizing hydrofluoric acid or hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6), byproducts of the production of superphosphate fertilizer. Neutralizing agents include sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate. Alcohols are sometimes used to precipitate the NaF: From solutions containing HF, sodium fluoride precipitates as the bifluoride salt NaHF2. Heating the latter releases HF and gives NaF. In a 1986 report, the annual worldwide consumption of NaF was estimated to be several million tonnes. Fluoride salts are used to enhance the strength of
    7.00
    2 votes
    167
    Flunisolide

    Flunisolide

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nasal polyp
    Flunisolide (marketed as AeroBid, Nasalide, Nasarel) is a corticosteroid often prescribed as treatment for allergic rhinitis. In the United Kingdom it was formerly marketed as Syntaris, but this was recently discontinued by the manufacturers. The principal mechanism of action of flunisolide is to activate glucocorticoid receptors, meaning it has an anti-inflammatory action.
    5.00
    4 votes
    168
    Vancomycin

    Vancomycin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Bacterial Endocarditis
    Vancomycin INN ( /væŋkɵˈmaɪsɨn/) is a glycopeptide antibiotic used in the prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Vancomycin was first isolated in 1953 at Eli Lilly, from a soil sample collected from the interior jungles of Borneo by a missionary. It is a naturally occurring antibiotic made by the soil bacterium Actinobacteria species Amycolatopsis orientalis (formerly designated Nocardia orientalis). It is a complex chemical compound and an example of a comparatively rare haloorganic natural compound, containing two organically bonded chlorine atoms. The compound was industrially produced by fermentation and given the generic name vancomycin, derived from the term "vanquish." The original indication for vancomycin was for the treatment of penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a use kept alive for many years by the fact that compound had to be given intravenously and was thus not abused outside hospitals, and the fact that organisms were relatively slow to evolve to adapt to it, even in experiments. For many years since its initial use, vancomycin has traditionally been reserved as a drug of "last resort", used only after treatment with other
    5.00
    4 votes
    169
    Fomepizole

    Fomepizole

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Renal failure
    Fomepizole or 4-methylpyrazole is indicated for use as an antidote in confirmed or suspected methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning. It may be used alone or in combination with hemodialysis. Apart from medical uses, the role of 4-methylpyrazole in coordination chemistry has been studied. Fomepizole is a competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme that catalyzes the initial steps in the metabolism of ethylene glycol and methanol to their toxic metabolites. When used as an antidote in cases of methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning, fomepizole is administered by injection. Fomepizole is supplied as brand name Antizol in 1.5 mL vials containing 1500 mg of fomepizole. The cost per vial is around $1000 when purchased as a brand name product as of 2010, and therefore is not widely stocked in some hospital pharmacy stocks. Raptor Pharmaceuticals is investigating 4-methylpyrazole as possible solution to curing "Asian Glow" or "Asian Flush" due to ALDH2 deficiency. The drug is currently named Convivia and has completed Phase 2a of FDA clinical trails showing that it did have success in reducing acetaldehyde levels in subjects with ALDH2 deficiency. Fomepizole distributes
    5.67
    3 votes
    170
    Articaine

    Articaine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Articaine is a dental local anesthetic. It is the most widely used local anesthetic in a number of European countries and is available in many countries around the world. This drug was first synthesized by Rusching in 1969, and brought to the market in Germany by Hoechst AG, a life-sciences German company, under the brand name Ultracain. This drug was originally referred to as "carticaine" until 1984. In 1983 it was brought into the North American market, to Canada, under the name Ultracaine for dental use, manufactured in Germany and distributed by Hoechst-Marion-Roussel. This brand is currently manufactured in Germany by Sanofi-Aventis and distributed in North America by Hansamed Limited (since 1999). After Ultracaine's patent protection expired, new generic versions arrived to the Canadian market: (in order of appearance) Septanest (Septodont), Astracaine, (originally by AstraZeneca and now a Dentsply product), and Zorcaine (Carestream Health/Kodak). It was approved by the FDA in April 2000, and became available in the United States of America two months later under the brand name Septocaine, an anesthetic/vasoconstrictor combination with Epinephrine 1:100,000 (trade name
    6.50
    2 votes
    171
    Ciclosporin

    Ciclosporin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Graft-versus-host disease
    Ciclosporin (INN/BAN) (pronounced /ˌsaɪkləˈspɔrɪn/), cyclosporine (USAN), cyclosporin (former BAN), or cyclosporin A (often shortened to CsA) is an immunosuppressant drug widely used in organ transplantation to prevent rejection. It reduces the activity of the immune system by interfering with the activity and growth of T cells. It was initially isolated from the fungus Tolypocladium inflatum (Beauveria nivea), found in a soil sample obtained in 1969 from Hardangervidda, Norway by Dr. Hans Peter Frey, a Sandoz biologist. Most peptides are synthesized by ribosomes, but ciclosporin is a cyclic nonribosomal peptide of 11 amino acids and contains a single D-amino acid, which are rarely encountered in nature. The immunosuppressive effect of ciclosporin was discovered on 31 January 1972 by employees of Sandoz (now Novartis) in Basel, Switzerland, in a screening test on immune suppression designed and implemented by Hartmann F. Stähelin, M.D. The success of ciclosporin in preventing organ rejection was shown in kidney transplants by Calne and colleagues at the University of Cambridge, and in liver transplants performed by Dr. Thomas Starzl at the University of Pittsburgh Hospital. The
    6.50
    2 votes
    172
    Clotrimazole

    Clotrimazole

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Oral candidiasis
    Clotrimazole (brand name Canesten or Lotrimin) is an antifungal medication commonly used in the treatment of fungal infections (of both humans and other animals) such as vaginal yeast infections, oral thrush, and ringworm. It is also used to treat athlete's foot and the Dhobi itch, a.k.a. jock itch. It is commonly available as an over-the-counter substance in various dosage forms, such as a cream, and also (especially in the case of ear infection) as a combination medicine. It is also available as a troche or throat lozenge (prescription only). For ear infection, it is often applied in liquid form, as ear drops. Fungal infections can be slow to clear up, so the usual course for an antifungal agent is, in general, longer than the typical three to seven days of an antibiotic. Clotrimazole is also commonly found in conjunction with betamethasone, known as Lotriderm, to add steroid properties. Additionally, clotrimazole is used to treat the sickling of cells (related to sickle cell anemia) by blocking ion channels in the red blood cell membrane, keeping ions and water within the cell. The primary mechanism of action of clotrimazole is against the division and growing of fungi.
    6.50
    2 votes
    173
    Doxycycline

    Doxycycline

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Malaria
    Doxycycline is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics group, and is commonly used to treat a variety of infections. Doxycycline is a semisynthetic tetracycline invented and clinically developed in the early 1960s by Pfizer Inc. and marketed under the brand name Vibramycin. Vibramycin received US Food and Drug Administration approval in 1967, becoming Pfizer's first once-a-day, broad-spectrum antibiotic. Other brand names include Monodox, Microdox, Periostat, Vibra-Tabs, Oracea, Doryx, Vibrox, Adoxa, Doxyhexal, Doxylin, Doxoral, Doxy-1 and Atridox (topical doxycycline hyclate for periodontitis). In addition to the general indications for all members of the tetracycline antibiotics group, doxycycline is frequently used to treat Lyme disease, chronic prostatitis, sinusitis, syphilis, chlamydia infection, pelvic inflammatory disease, acne, rosacea, and rickettsial infections. It is used in prophylaxis against malaria. It should not be used alone for initial treatment of malaria, even when the parasite is doxycycline-sensitive, because the antimalarial effect of doxycycline is delayed. This delay is related to its mechanism of action, which is to specifically impair the progeny of the
    6.50
    2 votes
    174
    Hexachlorophene

    Hexachlorophene

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Staphylococcal Skin Infections
    Hexachlorophene, also known as Nabac, is a disinfectant. The compound occurs as a white to light-tan crystalline powder, which either is odorless or produces a slightly phenolic odor. In medicine, hexachlorophene is very useful as a topical anti-infective, anti-bacterial agent, often used in soaps and toothpaste. It is also used in agriculture as a soil fungicide, plant bactericide, and acaricide. Hexachlorophene products can be lethal from percutaneous (through the skin) absorption. Children may be specifically susceptible. Hexachlorophene (6.3%) was added to “baby powder” in France due to a manufacturing error. It, or possibly contaminating dioxins, caused encephalopathy and ulcerative skin lesions. 36 of 204 exposed children died within a few days of exposure. Two companies manufactured over-the-counter preparations. One, by The Mennen Company, Morristown, NJ, was Baby Magic Bath. Mennen recalled the product, and it was removed from retail distribution. Right after the withdrawal, there was an outbreak of Staphylococcus infections in hospitals across the USA. A commercial preparation of the drug, pHisoHex, was widely used as an effective antibacterial skin cleanser in the
    6.50
    2 votes
    175
    Iron di-D-gluconate

    Iron di-D-gluconate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Iron deficiency anemia
    Iron(II) gluconate, or ferrous gluconate, is a black compound often used as an iron supplement. It is the iron(II) salt of gluconic acid. It is marketed under brand names such as Fergon, Ferralet, and Simron. Ferrous gluconate is effectively used in the treatment of hypochromic anemia. The use of this compound compared with other iron preparations results in satisfactory reticulocyte responses, a high percentage utilization of iron, and daily increase in hemoglobin that a normal level occurs in a reasonably short time. Ferrous gluconate is also used as a food additive when processing black olives. It imparts a uniform jet black colour to the olives. Ferrous gluconate may be toxic in case of overdose. Children may show signs of toxicity with ingestions of 10–20 mg/kg of elemental iron. Serious toxicity may result from ingestions of more than 60 mg/kg. Iron exerts both local and systemic effects and is corrosive to the GI mucosa and can have a negative impact on the heart and blood (dehydration, low blood pressure, fast and weak pulse, shock), lungs, liver, gastrointestinal system (diarrhea, nausea, vomiting blood), nervous system (chills, dizziness, coma, convulsions, headache), and
    6.50
    2 votes
    176
    Magnesium hydroxide

    Magnesium hydroxide

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Gastrointestinal bleeding
    Magnesium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2. As a suspension in water, it is often called milk of magnesia because of its milk-like appearance. The solid mineral form of magnesium hydroxide is known as brucite. Magnesium hydroxide is a common component of antacids and laxatives; it interferes with the absorption of folic acid and iron. Magnesium hydroxide has low solubility in water, with a Ksp of 1.5×10; however all of the magnesium hydroxide that does dissolve dissociates. Since the dissociation of this small amount of dissolved magnesium hydroxide is complete, magnesium hydroxide is considered a strong electrolyte. On May 4, 1818, an American inventor named John Callen, received a patent ( No. X2952) for medicated liquid Magnesia In 1829, Sir James Murray used a fluid magnesia preparation of his own design to treat the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the Marquis of Anglesey. This was so successful (advertised in Australia and approved by the Royal College of Surgeons in 1838) that he was appointed resident physician to Anglesey and two subsequent Lords Lieutenants, and knighted. His fluid magnesia product was patented two years after his death in
    6.50
    2 votes
    177
    Polio vaccine

    Polio vaccine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Poliomyelitis
    Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat poliomyelitis (or polio). The first was developed by Jonas Salk and first tested in 1952. Announced to the world by Salk on April 12, 1955, it consists of an injected dose of inactivated (dead) poliovirus. An oral vaccine was developed by Albert Sabin using attenuated poliovirus. Human trials of Sabin's vaccine began in 1957 and it was licensed in 1962. Because there is no long term carrier state for poliovirus in immunocompetent individuals, polioviruses have no non-primate reservoir in nature, and survival of the virus in the environment for an extended period of time appears to be remote. Therefore, interruption of person to person transmission of the virus by vaccination is the critical step in global polio eradication. The two vaccines have eliminated polio from most countries in the world, and reduced the worldwide incidence from an estimated 350,000 cases in 1988 to 1,652 cases in 2007. In generic sense, vaccination works by priming the immune system with an 'immunogen'. Stimulating immune response, via use of an infectious agent, is known as immunization. The development of immunity to polio efficiently blocks
    6.50
    2 votes
    178
    Potassium chloride

    Potassium chloride

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Hypokalemia
    The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. In its pure state, it is odorless and has a white or colorless vitreous crystal appearance, with a crystal structure that cleaves easily in three directions. Potassium chloride crystals are face-centered cubic. Potassium chloride was historically known as "muriate of potash," this name is occasionally still encountered in association with its use as a fertilizer. Potash varies in color from pink or red to white depending on the mining and recovery process used. White potash, sometimes referred to as soluble potash, is usually higher in analysis and is used primarily for making liquid starter fertilizers. KCl is used in medicine, scientific applications, and food processing. It occurs naturally as the mineral sylvite and in combination with sodium chloride as sylvinite. In chemistry and physics, it is a very commonly used standard, for example as a calibration standard solution in measuring electrical conductivity of (ionic) solutions, since carefully prepared KCl solutions have well-reproducible and well-repeatable measurable properties. Potassium chloride can react as a source
    6.50
    2 votes
    179
    Smallpox vaccine

    Smallpox vaccine

    The smallpox vaccine was the first successful vaccine to be developed. The process of vaccination was first publicised by Edward Jenner in 1796, who acted upon his observation that milkmaids who caught the cowpox virus did not catch smallpox. Prior to widespread vaccination, mortality rates in individuals with smallpox were high—up to 35% in some cases. Before the introduction of a vaccine, the mortality of the severe form of smallpox—variola major—was very high. Historical records show that a method of inducing immunity was already known. A process called inoculation, also known as insufflation or variolation was practiced in India as early as 1000 BC. This interpretation is disputed, however: other investigators contend the ancient Sanskrit medical texts of India do not describe these techniques. The first clear reference to smallpox inoculation was made by the Chinese author Wan Quan (1499–1582) in his Douzhen xinfa (痘疹心法) published in 1549. Inoculation for smallpox does not appear to have been widespread in China until the reign era of the Longqing Emperor (r. 1567–1572) during the Ming Dynasty. In China powdered smallpox scabs were blown up the noses of the healthy. The
    6.50
    2 votes
    180
    Cefuroxime

    Cefuroxime

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Surgical Wound Infection
    Cefuroxime is a second generation parenteral cephalosporin antibiotic. It was discovered by Glaxo now GlaxoSmithKline and introduced in 1978 as Zinacef. It was approved by FDA on Oct 19, 1983. In US it is available as Zinacef by Covis Pharmaceuticals as the company acquired the US rights of the product from GSK. In India it is available as Supacef by GSK. Cefuroxime axetil is an acetoxyetyl ester prodrug of cefuroxime which is effective orally. As for the other cephalosporins, although as a second-generation it is less susceptible to beta-lactamase and so may have greater activity against Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Lyme disease. Unlike other second generation cephalosporins, cefuroxime can cross the blood-brain-barrier. Cefuroxime is generally well tolerated and side effects are usually transient. Cefuroxime, if ingested after food, is both better absorbed and less likely to cause its most common side effects of diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headaches/migraines, dizziness and abdominal pain compared to most antibiotics in its class. Although there is a widely quoted cross-allergy risk of 10% between cephalosporins and penicillin, recent assessments have shown
    7.00
    1 votes
    181
    Di-potassium monohydrogen phosphate

    Di-potassium monohydrogen phosphate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Hypophosphatemia
    Dipotassium phosphate (K2HPO4) - also phosphoric acid, dipotassium salt; dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate; potassium phosphate, dibasic - is a highly water-soluble salt which is often used as a fertilizer, food additive and buffering agent. It is a common source of phosphorus and potassium. A dipotassium phosphate solution is formed by the stoichiometric reaction of phosphoric acid with two equivalents of potassium hydroxide: As a food additive, Dipotassium phosphate is on the FDA's Generally recognized as safe, or GRAS, list of substances. It is used in non-dairy creamers to prevent coagulation. It is used in the production of Trypticase Soy Broth, used to make Agar Plates for culturing bacteria.
    7.00
    1 votes
    182
    Glutamic acid

    Glutamic acid

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nutritional and metabolic diseases
    Glutamic acid (abbreviated as Glu or E) is one of the 20-22 proteinogenic amino acids, and its codons are GAA and GAG. It is a non-essential amino acid. The carboxylate anions and salts of glutamic acid are known as glutamates. In neuroscience, glutamate is an important neurotransmitter that plays a key role in long-term potentiation and is important for learning and memory. The side chain carboxylic acid functional group has a pKa of 4.1 and exists in its negatively charged deprotonated carboxylate form at pHs greater than 4.1 therefore it is also negatively charged at physiological pH ranging from 7.35 to 7.45. Although they occur naturally in many foods, the flavor contributions made by glutamic acid and other amino acids were only scientifically identified early in the twentieth century. The substance was discovered and identified in the year 1866, by the German chemist Karl Heinrich Leopold Ritthausen who treated wheat gluten (for which it was named) with sulfuric acid. In 1907 Japanese researcher Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University identified brown crystals left behind after the evaporation of a large amount of kombu broth as glutamic acid. These crystals, when
    7.00
    1 votes
    183
    Quinine

    Quinine

    Quinine (US  /ˈkwaɪnaɪn/, UK /ˈkwɪniːn/ or /kwɪˈniːn/ KWIN-een) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), antimalarial, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. It is a stereoisomer of quinidine which, unlike quinine, is an antiarrhythmic. Quinine contains two major fused-ring systems: the aromatic quinoline and the bicyclic quinuclidine. Though it has been synthesized in the lab, quinine occurs naturally in the bark of the cinchona tree. The medicinal properties of the cinchona tree were originally discovered by the Quechua, who are indigenous to Peru and Bolivia; later, the Jesuits were the first to bring the cinchona to Europe. Quinine was the first effective treatment for malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, appearing in therapeutics in the 17th century. It remained the antimalarial drug of choice until the 1940s, when other drugs replaced it that have less unpleasant side effects. Since then, many effective antimalarials have been introduced, although quinine is still used to treat the disease in certain critical circumstances, such as severe malaria, and in impoverished regions due to its low cost.
    7.00
    1 votes
    184
    Riboflavin

    Riboflavin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Ariboflavinosis
    Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2 is an easily absorbed colored micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in humans and animals. It is the central component of the cofactors FAD and FMN, and is therefore required by all flavoproteins. As such, vitamin B2 is required for a wide variety of cellular processes. It plays a key role in energy metabolism, and for the metabolism of fats, ketone bodies, carbohydrates, and proteins. Milk, cheese, leaf vegetables, liver, kidneys, legumes, yeast, mushrooms, and almonds are good sources of vitamin B2, but exposure to light destroys riboflavin. The name "riboflavin" comes from "ribose" (the sugar whose reduced form, ribitol, forms part of its structure) and "flavin", the ring-moiety which imparts the yellow color to the oxidized molecule (from Latin flavus, "yellow"). The reduced form, which occurs in metabolism along with the oxidized form, is colorless. Riboflavin is best known visually as the vitamin which imparts the orange color to solid B-vitamin preparations, the yellow color to vitamin supplement solutions, and the unusual fluorescent-yellow color to the urine of persons who supplement with high-dose B-complex preparations
    7.00
    1 votes
    185
    Tocopherol

    Tocopherol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
    Tocopherols (or TCP) are a class of chemical compounds of which many have vitamin E activity. It is a series of organic compounds consisting of various methylated phenols. Because the vitamin activity was first identified in 1936 from a dietary fertility factor in rats, it was given the name "tocopherol" from the Greek words "τόκος" [birth], and "φέρειν", [to bear or carry] meaning in sum "to carry a pregnancy," with the ending "-ol" signifying its status as a chemical alcohol. alpha-Tocopherol is the main source found in supplements and in the European diet, where the main dietary sources are olive and sunflower oils, while gamma-tocopherol is the most common form in the American diet due to a higher intake of soybean and corn oil. Tocotrienols, which are related compounds, also have vitamin E activity. All of these various derivatives with vitamin activity may correctly be referred to as "vitamin E". Tocopherols and tocotrienols are fat-soluble antioxidants but also seem to have many other functions in the body. Vitamin E exists in eight different forms, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. All feature a chromanol ring, with a hydroxyl group that can donate a hydrogen atom to
    7.00
    1 votes
    186
    Valaciclovir

    Valaciclovir

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Herpes simplex
    Valaciclovir (INN) or valacyclovir (USAN) is an antiviral drug used in the management of herpes simplex, herpes zoster (shingles), and herpes B. It is a prodrug, being converted in vivo to aciclovir. It is marketed by GlaxoSmithKline under the trade names Valtrex and Zelitrex. Valaciclovir has been available as a generic drug in the U.S. since November 25, 2009. Valaciclovir is prepared starting from the natural proteinogenic amino acid L-valine. Valaciclovir is a prodrug, an esterified version of aciclovir that has greater oral bioavailability (about 55%) than aciclovir (10–20%). It is converted by esterases to the active drug aciclovir, as well as the amino acid valine, via hepatic first-pass metabolism. Aciclovir is selectively converted into a monophosphate form by viral thymidine kinase, which is far more effective (3000 times) in phosphorylation than cellular thymidine kinase. Subsequently, the monophosphate form is further phosphorylated into the active triphosphate form, aciclo-GTP, by cellular kinases. Aciclo-GTP is a very potent inhibitor of viral DNA polymerase; it has approximately 100 times higher affinity to viral than cellular polymerase. Its monophosphate form also
    7.00
    1 votes
    187
    Chloroxylenol

    Chloroxylenol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Infectious skin disease
    Chloroxylenol (4-chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol) is an antimicrobial chemical compound used to control bacteria, algae, and fungi in adhesives, emulsions, paints, and wash tanks. It is also commonly used in antibacterial soaps and household antiseptics such as Dettol liquid and cream, and ointments, such as the now discontinued Medicated Vaseline. Studies have shown a low anti microbial activity which is enhanced by additives. Its antibacterial action is due to disruption of cell membrane potentials. Chloroxylenol is not significantly toxic to humans and other mammals, is practically non-toxic to birds, moderately toxic to freshwater invertebrates and highly toxic to fish. It is a mild skin irritant and may trigger allergic reactions in some individuals. Cross sensitivity with chlorocresol is common.
    5.33
    3 votes
    188
    Copper gluconate

    Copper gluconate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nutritional and metabolic diseases
    Copper gluconate is the copper salt of D-gluconic acid. Toxic in large amounts. Side effects from too much copper gluconate may include breathing problems, chest pain, stomach upset, and rash or hives.
    5.33
    3 votes
    189
    Fluorine

    Fluorine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Dental plaque
    Fluorine (symbol F) is the chemical element with atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen. At standard pressure and temperature, fluorine is a pale yellow gas composed of diatomic molecules, F2. Fluorine is the most electronegative element and is extremely reactive, requiring great care in handling. It has a single stable isotope, fluorine-19. In stars fluorine is rare compared to other light elements. In Earth's crust fluorine is the thirteenth most abundant element. Fluorine's most important mineral, fluorite, was first formally described in 1530, in the context of smelting. The mineral's name derives from the Latin verb fluo, which means "flow", because fluorite was added to metal ores to lower their melting points. Suggested as a chemical element in 1811, fluorine was named after the source mineral, but resisted many attempts to isolate the element. In 1886, French chemist Henri Moissan succeeded. His method of electrolysis remains the industrial production method for fluorine gas. The main use of elemental fluorine, uranium enrichment, was developed during the Manhattan Project. Because of the difficulty in making elemental fluorine, most fluorine used in commerce is never
    5.33
    3 votes
    190
    Ketoconazole

    Ketoconazole

    • Conditions This May Prevent: AIDS Associated Opportunistic Infection
    Ketoconazole ( /ˌkiːtɵˈkoʊnəzɒl/) is a synthetic antifungal drug used to prevent and treat fungal skin infections, especially in immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS or those on chemotherapy. Ketoconazole is sold commercially as an antidandruff shampoo, topical cream, and oral tablet. Ketoconazole is very lipophilic, which leads to accumulation in fatty tissues. The less toxic and more effective triazole compounds fluconazole and itraconazole are sometimes preferred for internal use. Ketoconazole is best absorbed at highly acidic levels, so antacids or other causes of decreased stomach acid levels will lower the drug's absorption when taken orally. Absorption can be increased by taking it with an acidic beverage, such as cola. Ketoconazole is usually prescribed for topical infections such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (yeast infection or thrush), and jock itch. The over-the-counter shampoo version can also be used as a body wash for the treatment of tinea versicolor. Ketoconazole is used to treat eumycetoma, the fungal form of mycetoma. The side effects of ketoconazole are sometimes used to treat nonfungal problems. The decrease in testosterone caused by
    5.33
    3 votes
    191
    Calcium acetate

    Calcium acetate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Osteoporosis
    The chemical compound calcium acetate is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It has the formula Ca(C2H3OO)2. Its standard name is calcium acetate, while calcium ethanoate is the systematic IUPAC name. An older name is acetate of lime. The anhydrous form is very hygroscopic; therefore the monohydrate (Ca(CH3COO)2•H2O, CAS [5743-26-0]) is the common form. If an alcohol is added to a saturated solution of calcium acetate, a semisolid, flammable gel forms that is much like "canned heat" products such as Sterno. Chemistry teachers often prepare "California Snowballs", a mixture of calcium acetate solution and ethanol. The resulting gel is whitish in color, and can be formed to resemble a snowball. Calclacite is a name for calcium acetate chloride pentahydrate, which is treated as mineral species but possess anthropogenic origin. Because it is inexpensive, calcium acetate was once a common starting material for the synthesis of acetone before the development of the cumene process. Calcium acetate can be prepared by soaking calcium carbonate (found in eggshells, or in common carbonate rocks such as limestone or marble) in vinegar. Since both reagents would have been available
    6.00
    2 votes
    192
    Fluvastatin

    Fluvastatin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Coronary Artery Disease
    Fluvastatin (trade names Lescol, Canef, Vastin) is a member of the drug class of statins, used to treat hypercholesterolemia and to prevent cardiovascular disease. It has also been shown to exhibit antiviral activity against Hepatitis C in a study with 31 patients. This effect has been described as modest, variable, and often short-lived by the authors.
    6.00
    2 votes
    193
    Isosorbide

    Isosorbide

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Angina Pectoris
    Isosorbide is a heterocyclic compound that is derived from glucose. It is a white solid that is prepared from glucose. It is used in medicine and has been touted as a potential biofeedstock. Hydrogenation of glucose gives sorbitol. Isosorbide is obtain by double dehydration or this hexa-alcohol: An intermediate in the dehydration is the monocycle sorbitan. Isosorbide is a used as a diuretic used mainly to treat hydrocephalus and is also used to treat glaucoma. Other medications are derived from isosorbide, including isosorbide dinitrate and isosorbide mononitrate, are used to treat angina pectoris. Other isosorbide-based medicines are used as osmotic diuretics and for treatment of esophageal varices. Like other nitric oxide donors (see biological functions of nitric oxide), these drugs lower portal pressure by vasodilation and decreasing cardiac output. Isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine are the two components of the anti-hypertensive drug bidil.
    6.00
    2 votes
    194
    Propofol

    Propofol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Propofol (INN, marketed as Diprivan by AstraZeneca) is a short-acting, intravenously administered hypnotic agent. Its uses include the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, sedation for mechanically ventilated adults, and procedural sedation. Propofol is also commonly used in veterinary medicine. Propofol is approved for use in more than 50 countries, and generic versions are available. Chemically, propofol is unrelated to barbiturates and has largely replaced sodium thiopental (Pentothal) for induction of anesthesia because recovery from propofol is more rapid and "clear" when compared with thiopental. Propofol is not considered an analgesic, so opioids such as fentanyl may be combined with propofol to alleviate pain. Propofol has been referred to as "milk of amnesia" (a play on words of milk of magnesia), because of the milk-like appearance of its intravenous preparation. Propofol is used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia, having largely replaced sodium thiopental for this indication. Propofol is also used to sedate individuals who are receiving mechanical ventilation. In critically ill patients propofol has been found to be superior to lorazepam both in
    6.00
    2 votes
    195
    Metronidazole

    Metronidazole

    Metronidazole (INN) ( /mɛtrəˈnaɪdəzoʊl/) (Flagyl, and others) is a nitroimidazole antibiotic medication used particularly for anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. Metronidazole is an antibiotic, amebicide, and antiprotozoal. It is the drug of choice for first episodes of mild-to-moderate Clostridium difficile infection. It is marketed in the U.S.A. by Pfizer and globally by Sanofi under the trade name Flagyl, and is also sold under other brand names. Metronidazole was developed in 1960. Metronidazole is used also as a gel preparation in the treatment of the dermatological conditions such as rosacea (Rozex and MetroGel by Galderma) and fungating tumours (Anabact, Cambridge Healthcare Supplies). Metronidazole is indicated for the treatment of: Metronidazole has also been used in women to prevent preterm birth associated with bacterial vaginosis, amongst other risk factors including the presence of cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin (fFN). A randomised controlled trial demonstrated that metronidazole was ineffective in preventing preterm delivery in high-risk pregnant women and, conversely, the incidence of preterm delivery was actually higher in women treated with metronidazole. In a study
    5.00
    3 votes
    196
    Dextromethorphan

    Dextromethorphan

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Cough
    Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug. It is one of the active ingredients in many over-the-counter cold and cough medicines, such as Mucinex DM, Robitussin, NyQuil, Dimetapp, Vicks, Coricidin, Delsym, and others, including generic labels. Dextromethorphan has also found other uses in medicine, ranging from pain relief to psychological applications. It is sold in syrup, tablet, spray, and lozenge forms. In its pure form, dextromethorphan occurs as a white powder. DXM is also used recreationally. When exceeding label-specified maximum dosages, dextromethorphan acts as a dissociative hallucinogen. Its mechanism of action is via multiple effects, including actions as a nonselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and a sigma-1 receptor agonist and the action of its major metabolite dextrorphan as an NMDA receptor antagonist, producing effects similar yet distinguished from the dissociative substances ketamine and phencyclidine on the higher spectrum of doses or "plateaus", as well as the active metabolite 3-methoxymorphinan, which produces local anesthetic effects in rats with a potency above dextrorphan but below dextromethorphan itself. The primary use
    5.50
    2 votes
    197
    Healthy diet

    Healthy diet

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Iron deficiency anemia
    A healthy diet is one that helps maintain or improve general health. It is important for lowering many chronic health risks, such as obesity, heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and cancer. A healthy diet involves consuming appropriate amounts of all essential nutrients and an adequate amount of water. Nutrients can be obtained from many different foods, so there are numerous diets that may be considered healthy. A healthy diet needs to have a balance of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, calories to support energy need and micro nutrients to meet the needs for human nutrition without inducing toxicity or excessive weight gain from consuming excessive amounts. There are a number of diets and recommendations by numerous medical and governmental institutions that are designed to promote certain aspects of health. The World Health Organization (WHO) makes the following 5 recommendations with respect to both populations and individuals: Other recommendations include: The American Heart Association, World Cancer Research Fund, and American Institute for Cancer Research recommends a diet that consists mostly of unprocessed plant foods, with emphasis a wide range of whole grains,
    5.50
    2 votes
    198
    Hexamethylenetetramine

    Hexamethylenetetramine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Urinary tract infection
    Hexamethylenetetramine is a heterocyclic organic compound with the formula (CH2)6N4. This white crystalline compound is highly soluble in water and polar organic solvents. It has a cage-like structure similar to adamantane. It is useful in the synthesis of other chemical compounds, e.g. plastics, pharmaceuticals, rubber additives. It sublimes in a vacuum at 280 °C. The compound was discovered by Aleksandr Butlerov in 1859. Hexamethylenetetramine is prepared by the reaction of formaldehyde and ammonia. The reaction can be conducted in gas-phase and in solution. The molecule has a symmetric tetrahedral cage-like structure, similar to adamantane, whose four "corners" are nitrogen atoms and "edges" are methylene groups. Although the molecular shape defines a cage, no void space is available at the interior for binding other atoms or molecules, unlike crown ethers or larger cryptand structures. The molecule behaves like an amine base, undergoing protonation and N-alkylation . When reacted with nitric acid, hexamine forms cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine ( RDX ). The main use of hexamethylenetetramine is in the production of powdery or liquid preparations of phenolic resins and phenolic
    5.50
    2 votes
    199
    Orciprenaline

    Orciprenaline

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Exercise-induced asthma
    Orciprenaline (INN, also known as metaproterenol pronounced: "met a proe ter' e nole") is a bronchodilator used in the treatment of asthma. Orciprenaline is a moderately selective beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist that stimulates receptors of the smooth muscle in the lungs, uterus, and vasculature supplying skeletal muscle, with minimal or no effect on alpha-adrenergic receptors. The pharmacologic effects of beta adrenergic agonist drugs, such as orciprenaline, are at least in part attributable to stimulation through beta adrenergic receptors of intracellular adenyl cyclase, the enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP. Increased cAMP levels are associated with relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle and inhibition of release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity from many cells, especially from mast cells.
    5.50
    2 votes
    200
    Adenine

    Adenine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nutritional and metabolic diseases
    Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative) with a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and protein synthesis, as a chemical component of DNA and RNA. The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA. Adenine forms several tautomers, compounds that can be rapidly interconverted and are often considered equivalent. However, in isolated conditions, i.e. in an inert gas matrix and in the gas phase, mainly the 9H-adenine tautomer is found. Purine metabolism involves the formation of adenine and guanine. Both adenine and guanine are derived from the nucleotide inosine monophosphate (IMP), which is synthesised on a pre-existing ribose phosphate through a complex pathway using atoms from the amino acids glycine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, as well as fused with the enzyme tetrahydrofolate. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), the adenine pathway converts P-ribosyl-PP into adenine through a seven-step process. Adenine is one of the two purine nucleobases (the
    4.67
    3 votes
    201
    Magnesium carbonate

    Magnesium carbonate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Magnesium deficiency
    Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3, is a white solid that occurs in nature as a mineral. Several hydrated and basic forms of magnesium carbonate also exist as minerals. In addition, MgCO3 has a variety of uses. The most common magnesium carbonate forms are the anhydrous salt called magnesite (MgCO3) and the di, tri, and pentahydrates known as barringtonite (MgCO3·2H2O), nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O), and lansfordite (MgCO3·5H2O), respectively. Some basic forms such as artinite (MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·3H2O), hydromagnesite (4MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·4H2O), and dypingite (4MgCO3· Mg(OH)2·5H2O) also occur as minerals. Magnesite consists of white trigonal crystals. The anhydrous salt is practically insoluble in water, acetone, and ammonia. All forms of magnesium carbonate react in acids. Magnesium carbonate crystallizes in the calcite structure where in Mg is surrounded by six oxygen atoms. The dihydrate one has a triclinic structure, while the trihydrate has a monoclinic structure. References to 'light' and 'heavy' magnesium carbonates actually refer to the magnesium hydroxy carbonates hydromagnesite and dypingite (respectively). Although magnesium carbonate is ordinarily obtained by mining the mineral magnesite,
    4.67
    3 votes
    202
    Thalidomide

    Thalidomide

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Graft-versus-host disease
    Thalidomide ( /θəˈlɪdəmaɪd/) is a sedative drug introduced in the late 1950s that was used to treat morning sickness and to aid sleep. It was sold from 1957 until 1961, when it was withdrawn after being found to be a teratogen - a cause of birth defects. Modern uses of thalidomide (trademarked as Thalomid, according to FDA Orange Book) include treating multiple myeloma in combination with dexamethasone, and erythema nodosum leprosum, with strict controls on its use to prevent birth defects. Research is ongoing in its use to treat other cancers and autoimmune conditions, although its use is controversial; the thalidomide tragedy led to much stricter testing being introduced for drug and pesticide licensing. Thalidomide was developed by German pharmaceutical company Grünenthal in Stolberg near Aachen. Heinrich Mückter, a former Nazi Party member and army physician, had headed Grünenthal's research department since the foundation of the company and was responsible for inventing thalidomide. During World War II he had been responsible at the German Supreme High Command institute for virus and typhus research in Kraków to produce Rudolf Weigl's vaccine against epidemic
    4.67
    3 votes
    203
    Allopurinol

    Allopurinol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Tumor lysis syndrome
    Allopurinol (Zyloprim, and generics) is a drug used primarily to treat hyperuricemia (excess uric acid in blood plasma) and its complications, including chronic gout. Allopurinol is a purine analog; it is a structural isomer of hypoxanthine (a naturally occurring purine in the body) and is an inhibitor of the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Xanthine oxidase is responsible for the successive oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine, resulting in the production of uric acid, the product of human purine metabolism. In addition to blocking uric acid production, inhibition of xanthine oxidase causes an increase in hypoxanthine and xanthine. While xanthine cannot be not converted to purine ribotides, hypoxanthine can be salvaged to the purine ribotides adenosine and guanosine monophosphates. Increased levels of these ribotides may cause feedback inhibition of amidophosphoribosyl transferase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme of purine biosynthesis. Allopurinol, therefore, decreases uric acid formation and may also inhibit purine synthesis. Allopurinol inhibits the breakdown (catabolism) of the thiopurine drug mercaptopurine, and it was specifically invented by Gertrude Elion to enhance the
    6.00
    1 votes
    204
    Digoxin

    Digoxin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Heart failure
    Digoxin INN (/dɨˈdʒɒksɨn/) is a purified cardiac glycoside extracted from the foxglove plant, Digitalis lanata. Its corresponding aglycone is digoxigenin, and its acetyl derivative is acetyldigoxin. Digoxin is widely used in the treatment of various heart conditions, namely atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter and sometimes heart failure that cannot be controlled by other medication. Digoxin preparations are commonly marketed under the trade names Lanoxin, Digitek, and Lanoxicaps. It is also available as a 0.05 mg/ml oral solution and 0.25 mg/ml or 0.5 mg/ml injectable solution. It is marketed by GlaxoSmithKline and many other pharmaceutic manufacturers. Today, the most common indications for digoxin are atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter with rapid ventricular response. Beta blockers and/or calcium channel blockers should be the first choice. High ventricular rate leads to insufficient diastolic filling time. By slowing down the conduction in the AV node and increasing its refractory period, digoxin can reduce the ventricular rate. The arrhythmia itself is not affected, but the pumping function of the heart improves owing to improved filling. The use of digoxin in heart
    6.00
    1 votes
    205
    Lovastatin

    Lovastatin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Coronary Artery Disease
    Lovastatin (Merck's Mevacor) is a member of the drug class of statins, used for lowering cholesterol (hypolipidemic agent) in those with hypercholesterolemia and so preventing cardiovascular disease. Lovastatin is a naturally occurring drug found in food such as oyster mushrooms and red yeast rice. The primary uses of lovastatin is for the treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. It is recommended to be used only after other measures such as diet, exercise, and weight reduction have not improved cholesterol levels. Compactin and lovastatin, natural products with a powerful inhibitory effect on HMG-CoA reductase, were discovered in the 1970s, and taken into clinical development as potential drugs for lowering LDL cholesterol. In 1982, some small-scale clinical investigations of lovastatin, a polyketide-derived natural product isolated from Aspergillus terreus, in very high-risk patients were undertaken, in which dramatic reductions in LDL cholesterol were observed, with very few adverse effects. After the additional animal safety studies with lovastatin revealed no toxicity of the type thought to be associated with compactin, clinical studies
    6.00
    1 votes
    206
    Oatmeal

    Oatmeal

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Dermatitis
    Oatmeal, also known as white oats is ground oat groats (i.e. oat-meal, cf. cornmeal, peasemeal, etc.), or a porridge made from oats (also called oatmeal cereal or stirabout, in Ireland). Oatmeal can also be ground oat, steel-cut oats, crushed oats, or rolled oats. The oat grains are de-husked by impact, then heated and cooled to stabilize the "Oat groats", the seed inside the husk. The process of heating produces a nutty flavor in the oats. These oat groats may be milled to produce fine, medium or coarse oatmeal. Rolled oats are steamed and flattened whole oat groats. Steel cut oats may be small and broken groats from the de-husking process; these may be steamed and flattened to produce smaller rolled oats. Quick-cooking rolled oats (quick oats) are cut into small pieces before being steamed and rolled. Instant oatmeal is pre-cooked and dried, usually with sweetener and flavouring added. Both types of rolled oats may be eaten uncooked as in muesli or may be cooked to make porridge. It is also used as an ingredient in oatmeal cookies and oat cakes, or as an accent, as in the topping on many oat bran breads and the coating on Caboc cheese. Oatmeal is also sometimes porridge with the
    6.00
    1 votes
    207
    Quinestrol

    Quinestrol

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Postmenopausal osteoporosis
    Quinestrol (ethinyl estradiol 3-cyclopentyl ether) is synthetic estrogen used in hormone replacement therapy, and occasionally to treat breast cancer and prostate cancer.
    6.00
    1 votes
    208
    Sodium iodide

    Sodium iodide

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Deficiency Diseases
    Sodium iodide is a white, crystalline salt with the chemical formula NaI, and is used in radiation detection, treatment of iodine deficiency, and as a reactant in the Finkelstein reaction. Sodium iodide is manufactured from the reaction between iodine and sodium hydroxide. Sodium iodide, as well as potassium iodide, is commonly used to treat and prevent iodine deficiency. Iodized table salt contains one part sodium or potassium iodide to 100,000 parts of sodium chloride. Sodium iodide is used in the Finkelstein reaction, for conversion of an alkyl chloride into an alkyl iodide. This method relies on the insolubility of sodium chloride in acetone to drive the reaction: Sodium iodide activated with thallium, NaI(Tl), when subjected to ionizing radiation, emits photons (i.e., scintillate) and is used in scintillation detectors, traditionally in nuclear medicine, geophysics, nuclear physics, and environmental measurements. NaI(Tl) is the most widely used scintillation material and has the highest light yield of the commonly used scintillators. The crystals are usually coupled with a photomultiplier tube, in a hermetically sealed assembly, as sodium iodide is hygroscopic. Fine-tuning of
    6.00
    1 votes
    209
    Aspartic acid

    Aspartic acid

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nutritional and metabolic diseases
    Aspartic acid (abbreviated as Asp or D) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HOOCCH(NH2)CH2COOH. The carboxylate anion, salt, or ester of aspartic acid is known as aspartate. The L-isomer of aspartate is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins. Its codons are GAU and GAC. Aspartic acid is, together with glutamic acid, classified as an acidic amino acid with a pKa of 3.9, however in a peptide the pKa is highly dependent on the local environment. A pKa as high as 14 is not at all uncommon. Aspartate is pervasive in biosynthesis. As with all amino acids, the presence of acid protons depends on the residue's local chemical environment and the pH of the solution. Aspartic acid was first discovered in 1827 by Plisson, derived from asparagine, which had been isolated from asparagus juice in 1806, by boiling with a base. The term "aspartic acid" refers to either of two forms or a mixture of two. Of these two forms, only one, "L-aspartic acid", is directly incorporated into proteins. The biological roles of its counterpart, "D-aspartic acid" are more limited. Where enzymatic synthesis will produce one or the other, most chemical syntheses will
    5.00
    2 votes
    210
    Biotin

    Biotin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nutritional and metabolic diseases
    Biotin, also known as vitamin H or coenzyme R, is a water-soluble B-vitamin (vitamin B7). It is composed of a ureido (tetrahydroimidizalone) ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring. A valeric acid substituent is attached to one of the carbon atoms of the tetrahydrothiophene ring. Biotin is a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes, involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, isoleucine, and valine, and in gluconeogenesis. Biotin is necessary for cell growth, the production of fatty acids, and the metabolism of fats and amino acids. It plays a role in the citric acid cycle, which is the process by which biochemical energy is generated during aerobic respiration. Biotin not only assists in various metabolic reactions, but also helps to transfer carbon dioxide. It may also be helpful in maintaining a steady blood sugar level. Biotin is often recommended as a dietary supplement for strengthening hair and nails, though scientific data supporting this usage are weak. As a consequence, biotin is found in many cosmetics and health products for the hair and skin. Biotin deficiency is rare because, in general, intestinal bacteria produce biotin in excess of the body's daily requirements. For that
    5.00
    2 votes
    211
    Gentamicin

    Gentamicin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Bacterial Endocarditis
    Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, used to treat many types of bacterial infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative organisms. However, gentamicin is not used for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis or Legionella pneumophila. Gentamicin is also ototoxic and nephrotoxic, with this toxicity remaining a major problem in clinical use. It is synthesized by Micromonospora, a genus of Gram-positive bacteria widely present in the environment (water and soil). To highlight their specific biological origins, gentamicin and other related antibiotics produced by this genus (verdamicin, mutamicin, sisomicin, netilmicin, retymicin) generally have their spellings ending in ~micin and not in ~mycin. Gentamicin is a bactericidal antibiotic that works by binding the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, interrupting protein synthesis. Like all aminoglycosides, when gentamicin is given orally, it is not systemically active. This is because it is not absorbed to any appreciable extent from the small intestine. It is administered intravenously, intramuscularly or topically to treat infections. It appears to be completely eliminated unchanged in the urine. Urine must be
    5.00
    2 votes
    212
    Ketamine

    Ketamine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Ketamine is a drug used in human and veterinary medicine. Ketamine is primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, usually in combination with a sedative. Other uses include sedation in intensive care, analgesia (particularly in emergency medicine), and treatment of bronchospasm. Ketamine has a wide range of effects in humans, including analgesia, anesthesia, hallucinations, elevated blood pressure, and bronchodilation. It has been shown to be effective in treating depression in patients with bipolar disorder who have not responded to anti-depressants. In persons with major depressive disorder, it produces a rapid antidepressant effect, acting within two hours as opposed to the several weeks taken by typical antidepressants to work. It is also a popular anesthetic in veterinary medicine. Its hydrochloride salt is sold as Ketanest, Ketaset, and Ketalar. Pharmacologically, ketamine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist. At high, fully anesthetic level doses, ketamine has also been found to bind to opioid μ receptors type 2 in cultured human neuroblastoma cells – however, without agonist activity – and to sigma receptors in rats. Also, ketamine
    5.00
    2 votes
    213
    Metoclopramide

    Metoclopramide

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Postoperative nausea and vomiting
    Metoclopramide (INN) ( /ˌmɛtəˈklɒprəmaɪd/) is an antiemetic and gastroprokinetic agent. It is commonly used to treat nausea and vomiting, to facilitate gastric emptying in people with gastroparesis, and as a treatment for the gastric stasis often associated with migraine headaches. Metoclopramide is commonly used to treat nausea including that which is due to chemotherapy and that occurring post operatively. Evidence also supports its use for gastroparesis (poor stomach emptying) and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Metoclopramide is used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with conditions such as uremia, radiation sickness, malignancy, labor, infection, migraine headaches, and emetogenic drugs. In the setting of painful conditions such as migraine headaches, metoclopramide may be used in combination with paracetamol (acetaminophen) (available in the UK as Paramax, and in Australia as Metomax), or in combination with aspirin (MigraMax). Metoclopramide increases peristalsis of the jejunum and duodenum, increases tone and amplitude of gastric contractions, and relaxes the pyloric sphincter and duodenal bulb. These gastroprokinetic effects make metoclopramide useful in the
    5.00
    2 votes
    214
    Potassium permanganate

    Potassium permanganate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Bacterial skin disease
    Potassium permanganate is an inorganic chemical compound with the formula KMnO4. It is a salt consisting of K and MnO4 ions. Formerly known as permanganate of potash or Condy's crystals, it is a strong oxidizing agent. It dissolves in water to give intensely purple solutions, the evaporation of which leaves prismatic purplish-black glistening crystals. In 2000, worldwide production was estimated at 30,000 tonnes. In this compound, manganese is in the +7 oxidation state. In 1659, Johann Rudolf Glauber fused a mixture of the mineral pyrolusite and potassium carbonate to obtain a material that, when dissolved in water, gave a green solution (potassium manganate) which slowly shifted to violet and then finally red. This report represents the first description of the production of potassium permanganate. Just under two hundred years later London chemist Henry Bollmann Condy had an interest in disinfectants, and marketed several products including ozonised water. He found that fusing pyrolusite with NaOH and dissolving it in water produced a solution with disinfectant properties. He patented this solution, and marketed it as Condy's Fluid. Although effective, the solution was not very
    5.00
    2 votes
    215
    Prilocaine

    Prilocaine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Toothache
    Prilocaine ( /ˈpraɪlɵkeɪn/) is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type first prepared by Claes Tegner and Nils Löfgren. In its injectable form (trade name Citanest), it is often used in dentistry. It is also often combined with lidocaine as a preparation for dermal anesthesia (lidocaine/prilocaine or EMLA), for treatment of conditions like paresthesia. As it has low cardiac toxicity, it is commoly used for intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA). In some patients, a metabolite of prilocaine may cause the unusual side effect of methemoglobinemia, which may be treated with methylene blue. Maximum dosage for dental use: 8.0 mg/kg (2.7 mg/lb), with a maximum dose of 500 mg. It is given as a combination with the vasoconstrictor epinephrine under the trade name Citanest Forte.
    5.00
    2 votes
    216
    Hand washing

    Hand washing

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Common cold
    Hand washing for hand hygiene is the act of cleaning the hands with or without the use of water or another liquid, or with the use of soap, for the purpose of removing soil, dirt, and/or microorganisms. Medical hand hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices related to the administration of medicine and medical care that prevents or minimizes disease and the spreading of disease. The main medical purpose of washing hands is to cleanse the hands of pathogens (including bacteria or viruses) and chemicals which can cause personal harm or disease. This is especially important for people who handle food or work in the medical field, but it is also an important practice for the general public. People can become infected with respiratory illnesses such as influenza or the common cold, for example, if they don't wash their hands before touching their eyes, nose, or mouth. Indeed, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has stated: "It is well documented that one of the most important measures for preventing the spread of pathogens is effective hand washing." As a general rule, handwashing protects people poorly or not at all from droplet- and airborne diseases, such as measles,
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    217
    Methysergide

    Methysergide

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Vascular headache
    Methysergide (UML-491) is a prescription drug used for prophylaxis of migraine headaches and is sold under the brand names Sansert and Deseril in 2 mg dosages. Methysergide interacts with serotonin (5-HT) receptors. Its therapeutic effect in migraine prophylaxis has been associated with its antagonism at the 5-HT2B receptor. Furthermore, it is an antagonist at the 5-HT2C receptor and at the 5-HT1A receptor. It is known to have partial agonist effects on some of the other 5-HT receptors as well. Methysergide is metabolised into methylergometrine in humans, which is responsible for its psychedelic effects . Methysergide is used to treat headaches such as migraine and other recurrent throbbing headaches. Methysergide is one of the most effective medications for the prevention of migraine, but not for the treatment of an acute attack. It is also used in carcinoid syndrome to treat severe diarrhea. It has a known side effect, retroperitoneal fibrosis, which is severe, although uncommon. Other severe but uncommon side effects include pleural fibrosis, and subendocardial fibrosis. In addition, there is an increased risk of left-sided cardiac valve dysfunction. Methysergide was approved by
    4.50
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    218
    Acupuncture

    Acupuncture

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Myofascial pain syndrome
    Acupuncture is an alternative medicine methodology originating in ancient China that treats patients by manipulating thin, solid needles that have been inserted into acupuncture points in the skin. According to Traditional Chinese medicine, stimulating these points can correct imbalances in the flow of qi through channels known as meridians. Scientific research has not found any histological or physiological correlates for qi, meridians and acupuncture points, and some contemporary practitioners needle the body without using the traditional theoretical framework. Current scientific research indicates that traditional forms of acupuncture are more effective than placebos in the relief of certain types of pain and post-operative nausea. Other reviews have concluded that positive results reported for acupuncture are too small to be of clinical relevance and may be the result of inadequate experimental blinding, or can be explained by placebo effects and publication bias. The invasiveness of acupuncture makes it difficult to design an experiment that adequately controls for placebo effects. A number of tests comparing traditional acupuncture to sham procedures found that both sham and
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    219
    Aluminium hydroxide

    Aluminium hydroxide

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Gastrointestinal bleeding
    Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, ATH, sometimes erroneously called Hydrate of alumina, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three, much more rare polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite and nordstrandite. Closely related are aluminium oxide hydroxide, AlO(OH), and aluminium oxide, Al2O3, differing only by loss of water. These compounds together are the major components of the aluminium ore bauxite. Freshly precipitated aluminium hydroxide forms gels, which is the basis for application of aluminium salts as flocculants in water purification. This gel crystallizes with time. Aluminium hydroxide gels can be dehydrated (e.g., using water-miscible non-aqueous solvents like ethanol) to form an amorphous aluminium hydroxide powder, which is readily soluble in acids. Aluminium hydroxide powder which has been heated to an elevated temperature under carefully controlled conditions is known as activated alumina and is used as a desiccant, an adsorbent, in gas purification, as a Claus catalyst support, water purification, and an adsorbent for the catalyst during the manufacture of polyethylene by the Sclairtech process. The naming for the different forms of
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    220
    Cinoxate

    Cinoxate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Sunburn
    Cinoxate is an organic compound used as an ingredient in some types of sunscreens. It is an ester formed from methoxycinnamic acid and 2-ethoxyethanol. It is a slightly yellow viscous liquid that is insoluble in water, but miscible with alcohols, esters, and vegetable oils. It protects skin against the sun by absorbing UV-A and UV-B rays.
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    221
    Dental floss

    Dental floss

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Dental caries
    Dental floss is made of either a bundle of thin nylon filaments or a plastic (Teflon or polyethylene) or a silk ribbon used to remove food and dental plaque from teeth. The floss is gently inserted between the teeth and scraped along the teeth sides, especially close to the gums. Dental floss may be flavored or unflavored, and waxed or unwaxed. An alternative tool to achieve the same effect is the interdental brush. A review of trials concluded that flossing in addition to toothbrushing reduces gingivitis compared to toothbrushing alone. In this review, researchers found "some evidence from twelve studies that flossing in addition to toothbrushing reduces gingivitis compared to toothbrushing alone" but only discovered "weak, very unreliable evidence from 10 studies that flossing plus toothbrushing may be associated with a small reduction in plaque at 1 and 3 months." Levi Spear Parmly, a dentist from New Orleans, is credited with inventing the first form of dental floss. He recommended that people should clean their teeth with silk floss in 1815. Dental floss was still unavailable to the consumer until the Codman and Shurtleft company started producing human-usable unwaxed silk
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    222
    Dihydroxyacetone

    Dihydroxyacetone

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Photodermatitis
    Dihydroxyacetone /ˌdaɪhaɪˌdrɒksiˈæsɨtoʊn/, or DHA, also known as glycerone, is a simple carbohydrate (a triose) with formula C3H6O3. DHA is primarily used as an ingredient in sunless tanning products. It is often derived from plant sources such as sugar beets and sugar cane, and by the fermentation of glycerin. DHA is a hygroscopic white crystalline powder. It has a sweet cooling taste and a characteristic odor. It is the simplest of all ketoses and, having no chiral center, is the only one that has no optical activity. The normal form is a dimer which is slowly soluble in one part water and 15 parts ethanol. When freshly prepared, it reverts rapidly to the monomer in solution. The monomer is very soluble in water, ethanol, diethyl ether and acetone and toluene. DHA may be prepared, along with glyceraldehyde, by the mild oxidation of glycerol, for example with hydrogen peroxide and a ferrous salt as catalyst. It can also be prepared in high yield and selectivity at room temperature from glycerol using a cationic neocuproine-based palladium catalyst with oxygen or air acting as the co-oxidant. Glyceraldehyde is a structural isomer of dihydroxyacetone. Its phosphate form,
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    223
    MMR vaccine

    MMR vaccine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Measles
    The MMR vaccine is an immunization shot against measles, mumps, and rubella (also called German measles). It was first developed by Maurice Hilleman while at Merck in the late 1960s. The vaccine is a mixture of three live attenuated viruses, administered via injection. The shot is generally administered to children around the age of one year, with a second dose before starting school (i.e. age 4/5). The second dose is a dose to produce immunity in the small number of persons (2–5%) who fail to develop measles immunity after the first dose. In the United States, the vaccine was licensed in 1971 and the second dose was introduced in 1989. It is widely used around the world; since introduction of its earliest versions in the 1970s, over 500 million doses have been used in over 60 countries. As with all vaccinations, long-term effects and efficacy are subject to continuing study. The vaccine is sold by Merck as M-M-R II, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals as Priorix, Serum Institute of India as Tresivac, and Sanofi Pasteur as Trimovax. It is usually considered a childhood vaccination. However, it is also recommended for use in some cases of adults with HIV. Before the widespread use of a
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    1 votes
    224
    Quinidine

    Quinidine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Falciparum malaria
    Quinidine is a pharmaceutical agent that acts as a class I antiarrhythmic agent (Ia) in the heart. It is a stereoisomer of quinine, originally derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. The drug causes increased action potential duration, as well as a prolonged QT interval. Like all other class I antiarrhythmic agents, quinidine primarily works by blocking the fast inward sodium current (INa). Quinidine's effect on INa is known as a 'use dependent block'. This means at higher heart rates, the block increases, while at lower heart rates, the block decreases. The effect of blocking the fast inward sodium current causes the phase 0 depolarization of the cardiac action potential to decrease (decreased Vmax). Quinidine also blocks the slowly inactivating, tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na current, the slow inward calcium current (ICa), the rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) components of the delayed potassium rectifier current, the inward potassium rectifier current (IKI), the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (IKATP) and Ito. At micromolar concentrations, quinidine inhibits Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase by binding to the same receptor sites as the digitalis glycosides such as ouabain. The effect of quinidine on the
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    225
    Sodium bicarbonate

    Sodium bicarbonate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Drug Toxicity
    Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs. Since it has long been known and is widely used, the salt has many related names such as baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda, and bicarbonate of soda. In colloquial usage, its name is shortened to sodium bicarb, bicarb soda, or simply bicarb. The word saleratus, from Latin sal æratus meaning aerated salt, was widely used in the 19th century for both sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate. The term has now fallen out of common usage. The ancient Egyptians used natural deposits of natron, a mixture consisting mostly of sodium carbonate decahydrate, and sodium bicarbonate. The natron was used as a cleansing agent like soap. In 1791, a French chemist, Nicolas Leblanc, produced sodium carbonate, also known as soda ash. In 1846, two New York bakers, John Dwight and Austin
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    226
    Sodium perborate

    Sodium perborate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Bacterial skin disease
    Sodium perborate (PBS) is a white, odorless, water-soluble chemical compound with the chemical composition NaBO3. It crystallizes as the monohydrate, NaBO3·H2O, trihydrate, NaBO3·3H2O and tetrahydrate, NaBO3·4H2O. The monohydrate and tetrahydrate are the commercially important forms. The elementary structural unit of sodium perborates is a dimer anion B2O4(OH)4, in which two boron atoms are joined by two peroxo bridges in a chair-shaped 6-membered ring, and the simplistic NaBO3·nH2O-type formulas are just a convenient way to express the average chemical composition. Sodium perborate is manufactured by reaction of disodium tetraborate pentahydrate, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hydroxide. The monohydrate form dissolves better than the tetrahydrate and has higher heat stability; it is prepared by heating the tetrahydrate. Sodium perborate undergoes hydrolysis in contact with water, producing hydrogen peroxide and borate. Unlike sodium percarbonate and perphosphate, the sodium perborate is not simply an adduct with hydrogen peroxide, and it does not contain an individual BO3 ion. Rather, there is a cyclic dimer anion B2O4(OH)4, in which two boron atoms are joined by two peroxo bridges
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    227
    Kanamycin

    Kanamycin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Bacterial disease
    Kanamycin (also known as kanamycin A) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, available in oral, intravenous, and intramuscular forms, and used to treat a wide variety of infections. Kanamycin is isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces kanamyceticus and used in form of the sulfate. Kanamycin interacts with the 30S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes. It induces substantial amounts of mistranslation and indirectly inhibits translocation during protein synthesis. Serious side effects include tinnitus or loss of hearing, toxicity to kidneys, and allergic reactions to the drug. Kanamycin is used in molecular biology as a selective agent most commonly to isolate bacteria (e.g., E. coli) which have taken up genes (e.g., of plasmids) coupled to a gene coding for kanamycin resistance (primarily Neomycin phosphotransferase II [NPT II/Neo]). Bacteria that have been transformed with a plasmid containing the kanamycin resistance gene are plated on kanamycin (50-100 ug/ml) containing agar plates or are grown in media containing kanamycin (50-100 ug/ml). Only the bacteria that have successfully taken up the kanamycin resistance gene become resistant and will grow under these conditions. As a powder
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    228
    Bupivacaine

    Bupivacaine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Bupivacaine (rINN) ( /bjuːˈpɪvəkeɪn/) is a local anaesthetic drug belonging to the amino amide group. It is commonly marketed under various trade names, including Marcain, Marcaine (CareStream Dental), Sensorcaine (Astra Zeneca) and Vivacaine (Septodont). Bupivacaine is indicated for local anesthesia including infiltration, nerve block, epidural, and intrathecal anesthesia. Bupivacaine often is administered by epidural injection before total hip arthroplasty. It also is commonly injected to surgical wound sites to reduce pain for up to 20 hours after the surgery. Sometimes, bupivacaine is co-administered with epinephrine to prolong the duration of its action, fentanyl for epidural analgesia, or glucose. Bupivacaine is contraindicated for intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA) because of potential risk of tourniquet failure and systemic absorption of the drug. Compared to other local anaesthetic, bupivacaine is markedly cardiotoxic. However, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are rare when it is administered correctly. Most ADRs relate to administration technique (resulting in systemic exposure) or pharmacological effects of anesthesia, however allergic reactions can rarely
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    229
    Caries vaccine

    Caries vaccine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Dental caries
    A caries vaccine is a vaccine to prevent and protect against tooth decay. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) has been identified as the major etiological agent of human dental caries. Several types of vaccines are being developed at research centers. Development of a vaccine for tooth decay has been under investigation for more than 30 years. In 1972, a caries vaccine was said to be in animal testing in England, and that it would have begun human testing soon. Intrinsic difficulties in developing it, coupled with lack of strong economic interests, are the reasons why no such vaccine is commercially available as of 2011. Early attempts followed a traditional approach to vaccination where normal S. mutans was introduced to promote a reaction from the immune system, stimulating antibody production. The corporation Planet Biotechnology has developed a synthetic antibody against S. mutans, branded CaroRx, which it produces using transgenic tobacco plants. This product may be considered a therapeutic vaccine, applied once every several months, and is in Phase II clinical trials as of October 2007. The International Association for Dental Research and American Association for Dental
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    230
    Manganese sulfate

    Manganese sulfate

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Deficiency Diseases
    Manganese(II) sulfate usually refers to the inorganic compound with the formula MnSO4(H2O). This pale pink deliquescent solid is a commercially significant manganese(II) salt. Approximately 260 thousand tonnes of manganese(II) sulfate were produced worldwide in 2005. It is the precursor to manganese metal and many other chemical compounds. Mn-deficient soil is remediated with this salt. Like many metal sulfates, manganese sulfate forms a variety of hydrates: monohydrate, tetrahydrate, pentahydrate, and heptahydrate. The monohydrate is most common. All of these salts dissolve to give faintly pink solutions of the aquo complex [Mn(H2O)6]. The pale pink colour of Mn(II) salts is highly characteristic. Typically, manganese ores are purified by their conversion to manganese(II) sulfate. Treatment of aqueous solutions of the sulfate with sodium carbonate leads to precipitation of manganese carbonate, which can be calcined to give the oxides MnOx. In the laboratory, manganese sulfate can be made by treating manganese dioxide with sulfur dioxide: Manganese sulfate is a by-product of various industrially significant oxidations that use manganese dioxide, including the manufacture of
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    231
    Niacin

    Niacin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Arteriosclerosis
    "Niacin" redirects here. For the neo-fusion band, see Niacin (band). Niacin (also known as vitamin B3, nicotinic acid and vitamin PP) is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NO2 and, depending on the definition used, one of the forty to eighty essential human nutrients. Niacin is one of five vitamins (when lacking in human diet) associated with a pandemic deficiency disease: niacin deficiency (pellagra), vitamin C deficiency (scurvy), thiamin deficiency (beriberi), vitamin D deficiency (rickets), vitamin A deficiency (night blindness and other symptoms). Niacin has been used for over 50 years to increase levels of HDL in the blood and has been found to modestly decrease the risk of cardiovascular events in a number of controlled human trials. This colorless, water-soluble solid is a derivative of pyridine, with a carboxyl group (COOH) at the 3-position. Other forms of vitamin B3 include the corresponding amide, nicotinamide ("niacinamide"), where the carboxyl group has been replaced by a carboxamide group (CONH2), as well as more complex amides and a variety of esters. Niacin cannot be directly converted to nicotinamide, but both compounds could be converted to NAD and NADP in
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    232
    Pravastatin

    Pravastatin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Coronary Artery Disease
    Pravastatin (marketed as Pravachol or Selektine) is a member of the drug class of statins, used for lowering cholesterol and preventing cardiovascular disease. The primary uses of prevastatin is for the treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. It is recommended to be used only after other measures such as diet, exercise, and weight reduction have not improved cholesterol levels. Pravastatin has undergone over 112,000 patient-years of double-blind randomized trials utilizing the 40mg once daily dose and placebos. These trials indicate that pravastatin is well tolerated and displays few non-cardiovascular abnormalities in patients. However, side effects may occur. A doctor should be consulted if symptoms such as heartburn or headache are severe and do not go away. The following is a list of uncommon side effects that may require attention: Pravastatin acts as a lipoprotein-lowering drug through two pathways. In the major pathway, pravastatin inhibits the function of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase. As a reversible competitive inhibitor, pravastatin sterically hinders the action of HMG-CoA reductase by occupying the active site of the
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    233
    Pyridoxine

    Pyridoxine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Drug Toxicity
    Pyridoxine is one of the compounds that can be called vitamin B6, along with pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. It differs from pyridoxamine by the substituent at the '4' position. It is often used as 'pyridoxine hydrochloride'. It is based on a pyridine ring, with hydroxyl, methyl, and hydroxymethyl substituents. It is converted to the biologically active form pyridoxal 5-phosphate. Pyridoxine assists in the balancing of sodium and potassium as well as promoting red blood cell production. It is linked to cardiovascular health by decreasing the formation of homocysteine. Pyridoxine may help balance hormonal changes in women and aid the immune system. Lack of pyridoxine may cause anemia, nerve damage, seizures, skin problems, and sores in the mouth. It is required for the production of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine, as it is the precursor to pyridoxal phosphate: cofactor for the enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. This enzyme is responsible for converting the precursors 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) into serotonin and levodopa (L-DOPA) into dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline. As such it has been implicated in the treatment of
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    234
    Aciclovir

    Aciclovir

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Herpes simplex
    Aciclovir (INN) ( /eɪˈsaɪklɵvɪər/) or acyclovir (USAN, former BAN), chemical name acycloguanosine, abbreviated as ACV, is a guanosine analogue antiviral drug, marketed under trade names such as Cyclovir, Herpex, Acivir, Acivirax, Zovirax, and Xovir. One of the most commonly used antiviral drugs, it is primarily used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections, as well as in the treatment of varicella zoster (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Aciclovir was seen as the start of a new era in antiviral therapy, as it is extremely selective and low in cytotoxicity. Nucleosides isolated from a Caribbean sponge, Cryptotethya crypta, were the basis for the synthesis of aciclovir. It was codiscovered by Howard Schaffer following his work with Robert Vince, S. Bittner and S. Gurwara on the adenosine analog acycloadenosine which showed promising antiviral activity. Later, Schaffer joined Burroghs-Wellcome and continued the development of aciclovir with Pharmacologist Gertrude B. Elion. Vince later went on to invent abacavir, the NNRTI drug for HIV patients. Elion was awarded the 1988 Nobel Prize in Medicine, partly for the development of aciclovir. Dr. Richard Whitley, a
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    235
    Activated carbon

    Activated carbon

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Flatulence
    Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, activated coal, or carbo activatus, is a form of carbon processed to be riddled with small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions. Activated is sometimes substituted with active. Due to its high degree of microporosity, just one gram of activated carbon has a surface area in excess of 500 m, as determined by adsorption isotherms of carbon dioxide gas at room or 0.0 °C temperature. An activation level sufficient for useful application may be attained solely from high surface area; however, further chemical treatment often enhances adsorption properties. Activated carbon is usually derived from charcoal. Activated carbon is carbon produced from carbonaceous source materials such as nutshells, peat, wood, coir, lignite, coal, and petroleum pitch. It can be produced by one of the following processes: Activated carbon is made from coconut shell mainly. It consists of 2 types; fine powder and pills or flakes. The fine powder is good at diffusing in water, so it is used in solution or liquid related industries. For example, it is used to bleach and absorb odor in sugar industry, to
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    236
    Amoxicillin

    Amoxicillin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Bacterial Endocarditis
    Amoxicillin (INN), formerly amoxycillin (BAN), and abbreviated amox, is a moderate-spectrum, bacteriolytic, β-lactam antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. It is usually the drug of choice within the class because it is better absorbed, following oral administration, than other β-lactam antibiotics. Amoxicillin is one of the most common antibiotics prescribed for children. Amoxicillin is susceptible to degradation by β-lactamase-producing bacteria, which are resistant to a broad spectrum of β-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillin. For this reason, it is often combined with clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor. This increases effectiveness by reducing its susceptibility to β-lactamase resistance. Amoxicillin is used in the treatment of a number of infections including: acute otitis media, streptococcal pharyngitis, pneumonia, skin infections, urinary tract infections, salmonella, lyme disease, and chlamydia infections. It is also used to prevent bacterial endocarditis in high risk people who are having dental work done, to prevent strep pneumococus infections in those without a spleen, and for both the prevention and the treatment of
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    237
    Amphotericin B

    Amphotericin B

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Mycosis
    Amphotericin B (Fungilin, Fungizone, Abelcet, AmBisome, Fungisome, Amphocil, Amphotec) is a polyene antifungal drug, often used intravenously for systemic fungal infections. It was originally extracted from Streptomyces nodosus, a filamentous bacterium, in 1955 at the Squibb Institute for Medical Research from cultures of an undescribed streptomycete isolated from the soil collected in the Orinoco River region of Venezuela. Its name originates from the chemical's amphoteric properties. Two amphotericins, amphotericin A and amphotericin B are known, but only B is used clinically, because it is significantly more active in vivo. Amphotericin A is almost identical to amphotericin B (having a double C=C bond between the 27th and 28th carbons), but has little antifungal activity. Currently, the drug is available as plain amphotericin B, as a cholesteryl sulfate complex (ABCD), as a lipid complex (ABLC), and as a liposomal formulation (LAmB). The latter formulations have been developed to improve tolerability for the patient, but may show considerably different pharmacokinetic characteristics compared to plain amphotericin B. The natural route to synthesis includes polyketide synthase
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    238
    Beclomethasone

    Beclomethasone

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Nasal polyp
    Beclomethasone is an anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of asthma.
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    239
    Clopidogrel

    Clopidogrel

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Myocardial infarction
    Clopidogrel (INN) is an oral, thienopyridine class antiplatelet agent used to inhibit blood clots in coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease. It is marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Sanofi under the trade name Plavix. The drug works by irreversibly inhibiting a receptor called P2Y12, an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) chemoreceptor on platelet cell membranes. Adverse effects include hemorrhage, severe neutropenia, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Clopidogrel is a prodrug, the action of which may be related to an ADP receptor on platelet cell membranes. The drug specifically and irreversibly inhibits the P2Y12 subtype of ADP receptor, which is important in activation of platelets and eventual cross-linking by the protein fibrin. The blockade of this receptor inhibits platelet aggregation by blocking activation of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa pathway. The IIb/IIIa complex functions as a receptor mainly for fibrinogen and vitronectin but also for fibronectin and von Willebrand factor. Activation of this receptor complex is the "final common pathway" for platelet aggregation and is important in the cross-linking of platelets by
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    240
    Cocoa butter

    Cocoa butter

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Dermatitis
    Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is a pale-yellow, pure, edible vegetable fat extracted from the cocoa bean. It is used to make chocolate, biscuits, and baked goods, as well as some pharmaceuticals, ointments, and toiletries. Cocoa butter has a mild chocolate flavor and aroma. Cocoa butter has a high content of saturated fats derived from stearic and palmitic acids. Cocoa butter, unlike cocoa solids, has no more than trace amounts of caffeine and theobromine. Cocoa butter is obtained from whole cacao beans, which are fermented, roasted, and then separated from their hulls. About 54–58% of the residue is cocoa butter. Chocolate liquor is pressed to separate the cocoa butter from the cocoa solids. The Broma process is used to extract cocoa butter from ground cacao beans. Cocoa butter is usually deodorized to remove its strong and undesirable taste. Some food manufacturers substitute less expensive materials such as vegetable oils and fats in place of cocoa butter. (See Fillers and over-sized packaging). Several analytical methods exist for testing for diluted cocoa butter. Adulterated cocoa butter is indicated by its lighter colour and its diminished fluorescence upon
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    241
    Diet

    Diet

    In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. Dietary habits are the habitual decisions an individual or culture makes when choosing what foods to eat. With the word diet, is often implied the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related). Although humans are omnivores, each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos, due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy. Proper nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of fiber, vitamins, minerals, and food energy in the form of carbohydrates, proteins, vegetable oils, and fats. Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in quality of life, health and longevity, and can define cultures and play a role in religion. Some cultures and religions have restrictions concerning what foods are acceptable in their diet. For example, only Kosher foods are permitted by Judaism, and Halal foods by Islam. Although Buddhists are generally vegetarians, the practice varies and meat-eating may be permitted depending on the sects. In Hinduism, vegetarianism is the ideal,
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    242
    Fosinopril

    Fosinopril

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction
    Fosinopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of chronic heart failure. Fosinopril is the only phosphinate-containing ACE inhibitor marketed. It is marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb under the trade name Monopril. Fosinoprilat proved to have the same problem as enalaprilat and the other carboxylate-containing ACE inhibitors (namely poor oral bioavailability). Addition of a hydrophobic side-chain modulated the ionisation characteristics of the molecule making it more bioavailable. Fosinopril is administered as a prodrug and is converted in vivo to the active form fosinoprilat. In congestive heart failure, the ability of the heart to pump enough blood to satisfy the physiological needs of the body is reduced. This condition has a variety of causes, including damaged heart valves, myocardial infarction, hypertension, vitamin B1 deficiency, and genetic mutations. When subsequent blood flow to the kidneys is reduced, the kidneys respond by increasing the secretion of renin from the juxtaglomerular apparatus. Renin converts the inactive angiotensinogen into angiotensin I, which is converted to angiotensin II (AII) by
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    243
    Ibuprofen

    Ibuprofen

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Ibuprofen (INN) ( /ˈaɪbjuːproʊfɛn/ or /aɪbjuːˈproʊfən/ EYE-bew-PROH-fən; from the nomenclature iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for relief of symptoms of arthritis, fever, as an analgesic (pain reliever), especially where there is an inflammatory component, and dysmenorrhea. Ibuprofen is known to have an antiplatelet effect, though it is relatively mild and somewhat short-lived when compared with aspirin or other better-known antiplatelet drugs. In general, ibuprofen also acts as a vasoconstrictor, having been shown to constrict coronary arteries and some other blood vessels mainly because it inhibits the vasodilating prostacyclin produced by cyclooxygenase 2 enzymes. Ibuprofen is a 'core' medicine in the World Health Organization's WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic healthcare system. Ibuprofen was derived from propanoic acid by the research arm of Boots Group during the 1960s. It was discovered by Andrew RM Dunlop, with colleagues Stewart Adams, John Nicholson, Vonleigh Simmons, Jeff Wilson and Colin Burrows, and was patented in 1961. Originally marketed as Brufen,
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    244
    Mepivacaine

    Mepivacaine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pain
    Mepivacaine ( /mɛˈpɪvəkeɪn/) is a local anesthetic of the amide type. Mepivacaine has a reasonably rapid onset (more rapid than that of procaine) and medium duration of action (shorter than that of procaine) and is marketed under various trade names including Carbocaine and Polocaine. Mepivacaine became available in the United States in the 1960s. Mepivacaine is used in any infiltration and regional anesthesia. It is supplied as the hydrochloride salt of the racemate. Two primary methods of synthesis have been suggested. According to the first, mepivacaine is synthesized by reacting the ethyl ester of 1-methylpiperindine-2-carboxylic acid with 2,6-dimethylanilinomagnesium bromide, which is synthesized from 2,6-dimethylaniline and ethylmagnesium bromide. According to the second method, reacting 2,6-dimethylaniline with the acid chloride of pyridine- carboxylic acid first gives the 2,6-xylidide of α-picolinic acid. Then the aromatic pyridine ring is reduced to piperidine by hydrogen in the presence of a platinum on carbon catalyst. The resulting 2,6-xylidide α-pipecolic acid is methylated to mepivacaine using formaldehyde with simultaneous reduction by hydrogen in the presence of
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    Nitroglycerin

    Nitroglycerin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Angina Pectoris
    Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, trinitroglycerine, or nitro, is more correctly known as glyceryl trinitrate or more formally: 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane. It is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by treating glycerol with nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester. Chemically, the substance is an organic nitrate compound rather than a nitro compound, but the traditional name is often retained. Since the 1860s, nitroglycerin has been used as an active ingredient in the manufacture of explosives, mostly dynamite, and as such it is employed in the construction, demolition, and mining industries. Similarly, since the 1880s, it has been used by the military as an active ingredient, and a gelatinizer for nitrocellulose, in some solid propellants, such as Cordite and Ballistite. Nitroglycerin is also a main component in double-based smokeless gunpowders used by reloaders. Combined with nitrocellulose, there are hundreds of (powder) combinations used by rifle, pistol, and shotgun reloaders. Nitroglycerin is also used medically as a vasodilator to treat heart conditions, such as angina and
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    Nonoxynol-9

    Nonoxynol-9

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Pregnancy
    Nonoxynol-9, sometimes abbreviated as N-9, is an organic compound that is used as a surfactant. It is a member of the nonoxynol family of nonionic surfactants. N-9 and related compounds are ingredients in various cleaning and cosmetic products. It is widely used in contraceptives for its spermicidal properties. However, its use in STD prevention is controversial. As a spermicide, it attacks the acrosomal membranes of the sperm, causing the sperm to be immobilized. Nonoxynol-9 is the active ingredient in most spermicidal creams, jellies, foams, gel, film, and suppositories. A 2004 study found that over a six-month period, the typical-use failure rates for five nonoxynol-9 vaginal contraceptives (film, suppository, and gels at three different concentrations) ranged from 10% to 20%. Many models of condoms are lubricated with solutions containing nonoxynol-9. In this role, it has been promoted as a backup method for avoiding pregnancy and a microbicide for sexually transmitted diseases in the event of condom failure. However, the 2001 WHO / CONRAD Technical Consultation on Nonoxynol-9 concluded that Compared to regular lubricated condoms, condoms containing nonoxynol-9 present another
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    Nystatin

    Nystatin

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Candidiasis of skin and nails
    Nystatin (originally named Fungicidin) is a polyene antifungal medication to which many molds and yeast infections are sensitive, including Candida. Due to its toxicity profile, there are currently no injectable formulations of this drug on the US market. However, nystatin may be safely given orally as well as applied topically due to its minimal absorption through mucocutaneous membranes such as the gut and the skin. Cutaneous, vaginal, mucosal and esophageal Candida infections usually respond well to treatment with nystatin. Cryptococcus is also sensitive to nystatin. In the UK its licence for treating neonatal oral thrush is restricted to those over the age of one month (miconazole is an appropriate alternative for younger babies). Nystatin is often used as prophylaxis in patients who are at risk for fungal infections, such as AIDS patients with a low CD4 count and patients receiving chemotherapy. It is prescribed in units, with doses varying from 100,000 (for oral infections) to 1 million (for intestinal ones). As it is not absorbed from the gut, it is safe for oral use and does not have problems of drug interactions. It is also used in cellular biology as an inhibitor of the
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    Pyridoxal

    Pyridoxal

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Drug Toxicity
    Pyridoxal is one of the three natural forms of vitamin B6, along with pyridoxamine and pyridoxine (also called "pyridoxol"). All of these forms are converted in the human body into a single biologically active form, pyridoxal 5-phosphate. All three forms of vitamin B6 are heterocyclic organic compounds. Green plants are a natural source of pyridoxal, and its deficiency in the human body can lead to serious complications such as epilepsy and seizures. There are generally three pyridoxal-phosphate (PLP) reactions: transamination, alpha elimination, and beta-elimination. Pyridoxal is involved in what is believed to be the most ancient reaction of aerobic metabolism on Earth, about 2.9 billion years ago, a forerunner of the Great Oxidation Event
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    Sulfadiazine

    Sulfadiazine

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Rheumatic fever
    Sulfadiazine is a sulfonamide antibiotic. It eliminates bacteria that cause infections by stopping the production of folic acid inside the bacterial cell, and is commonly used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs). In combination, sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine, can be used to treat toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Side effects reported for sulfadiazine include: nausea, upset stomach, loss of appetite, and dizziness. Lantrisul; Neotrizine; Sulfa-Triple #2; Sulfadiazine; Sulfaloid; Sulfonamides Duplex; Sulfose; Terfonyl; Triple Sulfa; Triple Sulfas; Triple Sulfoid
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    Vector control

    Vector control

    • Conditions This May Prevent: Dengue fever
    Vector control is any method to limit or eradicate the mammals, birds, insects or other arthropods which transmit disease pathogens. The most frequent type of vector control is mosquito control using a variety of strategies. Vector control focuses on utilizing preventative methods to control or eliminate vector populations. Common preventative measures are: Removing or reducing areas where vectors can easily breed can help limit population growth. For example, stagnant water removal, destruction of old tires and cans which serve as mosquito breeding habits and good management of used water can reduce areas of excessive vector incidence. Limiting exposure to insects or animals that are known disease vectors can reduce infection risks significantly. For example, bed nets, window screens on homes, or protective clothing can help reduce the likelihood contact with vectors. To be effective this requires education and promotion of methods amongst the population to raise the awareness of vector threats. Insecticides, larvicides, rodenticides and repellents can be used to control vectors. For example, larvicides can be used in mosquito breeding zones; insecticides can be applied to house
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