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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best Computing Platform of All Time

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    1

    Windows 3.1x

    • File Formats Supported: 386
    Windows 3.1x is a series of 16-bit operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers. The series began with Windows 3.1, which was first sold during March 1992 as a successor to Windows 3.0. Further editions were released between 1992 and 1994 until the series was superseded by Windows 95. Windows 3.1 (originally codenamed Janus, of which two betas were published), released on April 6, 1992, includes a TrueType font system (and a set of highly legible fonts), which effectively made Windows a viable desktop publishing platform for the first time. Similar functionality was available for Windows 3.0 through the Adobe Type Manager (ATM) font system from Adobe. Windows 3.1 was designed to have backward compatibility with older Windows platforms. As with Windows 3.0, version 3.1 had File Manager and Program Manager, but unlike all previous versions, Windows 3.1 and later support 32-bit disk access, cannot run in real mode, and included Minesweeper instead of Reversi (though Reversi was included in some copies). Windows 3.1 Multimedia PC Version (Beta only, released Nov 1992 – codenamed Bombay) included a media viewer, and the ability to play video files. It was
    6.63
    8 votes
    2
    8.00
    6 votes
    3

    TI Connect

    TI Connect is an application available from Texas Instruments (TI) that allows users to transfer files between a TI graphing calculator and a computer via a link cable. While all models that are capable of linking are supported with the Mac OS version of TI-Connect, the TI-82 and TI-85 are not currently supported with the Windows version. On November 7, 2009, a patch (1.6.1) for 64-bit systems was posted by Texas Instruments and can be downloaded from TI Download Central TI Connect is the successor of the TI-Graph Link software and contains similar functionality. Even though TI Connect was released 6 years after Windows 95 came out, this was TI’s first attempt to move out of the 16-bit software paradigm made prevalent in Windows 3.1. One feature which TI Connect did not retain from TI-Graph Link was the ability to edit TI-BASIC on a computer, but unlike TI-Graph Link, does not require a software version specific to each calculator. Many slowdowns are experienced with the software, usually resulting from the slow USB connection between the computer and calculator. Unexplained errors sometimes occur with the software, preventing users from transferring programs over. One solution is
    8.00
    6 votes
    4

    IBM 602

    The IBM 602 Calculating Punch (photo), introduced in 1946, was an electromechanical calculator capable of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. It was programmed using a plugboard control panel and was IBM's first machine that did division. The 602 was available in four models: Model 1, Model 2, Model 50, and Model 51. The "Series 50" models were low cost versions that ran at a slower speed, with half as many program steps, and fewer storage registers and counters. Two additional counters were available as an optional feature. Program steps execute in one machine cycle, except for steps performing multiplication or division which take as many machine cycles as needed for the operation. Punching rate is roughly four columns per machine cycle. The total number of machine cycles required per card varies depending on the data and programming. Programming the 602 for each problem involved two things:
    6.86
    7 votes
    5
    7.50
    6 votes
    6

    IBM 6400 Series

    The IBM 6400 series is a series of four calculating and accounting machines produced by IBM starting in 1962. The IBM 6405 was a desk-size calculator, and the 6410, 6420, and 6430 were more advanced accounting machines. The output for each machine was facilitated a keyboardless IBM Selectric typewriter mounted above the CPU. Programming was done by a control panel. Calculations were done by electronics (SMS) and program steps were controlled by relays. Optional input/output devices included a card reader and punch, a paper tape reader and punch, and a magnetic card reader. The magnetic card reader used a large card (30 cm x 35 cm) with the top part used as a printer ledger. A 2.5 cm 4-track magnetic strip was across the bottom of the card. The 6405, 6410, and 6420 were developed by IBM in Lexington, Kentucky, United States, in the early 1960s. Manufacturing was done by IBM in Lexington and by IBM in Don Mills, Ontario, Canada. In 1966 all work was transferred to Don Mills. In 1968 an IBM 6430 was developed in Don Mills. The programming was done on cards and the programs steps were controlled by electronics (SMS). Production of all models in the 6400 series ended in the early
    7.00
    6 votes
    7
    TI SR-50

    TI SR-50

    The SR-50 was Texas Instruments' first scientific pocket calculator with trigonometric and logarithm functions. It enhanced their earlier SR-10 and SR-11 calculators, introduced in 1973, which had featured scientific notation, squares, square root, and reciprocals, but had no trig or log functions. The SR-50 was introduced in 1974 and sold for US$170. An unusual feature of the SR-50 was that its functions included the hyperbolic trig functions sinh, cosh, and tanh and their inverses, which were found on very few calculators (including the HP-35 and HP-45) at the time. The user invoked the hyperbolic functions by entering the function argument and then pressing the "hyp" key, followed by the "sin", "cos", or "tan" function key. The inverse hyperbolic functions were accessed by first pressing the "arc" and "hyp" keys (in any order) and then pressing the "sin", "cos", or "tan" key. Hyperbolic trig arguments were always assumed to be in radians regardless of the setting of the degree/radian (D/R) mode switch. In addition to its three-register operational stack, consisting of X, Y, and Z registers, the SR-50 also included one memory (M) register to which the value in the X (display)
    7.00
    6 votes
    8
    Acorn MOS

    Acorn MOS

    • File Formats Supported: Sprite
    Acorn's Machine Operating System (MOS) or OS was a computer operating system used in the Acorn BBC computer range. It included support for four-channel sound and graphics, file system abstraction, and digital and analogue I/O including a daisy-chained fast expansion bus. The implementation was single-tasking, monolithic and non-reentrant. Versions 0.10 to 1.20 were used on the BBC Micro, version 1.00 on the Electron, version 2 was used on the B+, and versions 3 to 5 were used in the BBC Master Series range. The final BBC computer, the BBC A3000, was 32-bit and ran RISC OS. Its operating system used portions of the Acorn MOS architecture and shared a number of characteristics (commands, VDU system) with the earlier 8-bit MOS. Versions 0 and 1 of the MOS were 16KiB in size, written in 6502 machine code, and held in ROM on the motherboard. The upper quarter of the 16-bit address space (0xC000 to 0xFFFF) is reserved for its ROM code and I/O space. Versions 2 to 5 were still restricted to a 16KiB address space but managed to hold more code and hence more complex routines, partly because of the alternative 65C102 CPU with its denser instruction set plus the careful use of paging. The
    8.00
    5 votes
    9
    HP-71B

    HP-71B

    The HP-71B was a hand-held computer or calculator programmable in BASIC, made by Hewlett-Packard from 1984 to 1989. The HP-71B was known as the "supreme" hand-held calculator/computer of choice at the time for those seeking the ultimate in hand-held devices. It was particularly popular at The University of California at Berkeley where most of the sales volume was made. It was fully compatible with the huge volume of programs written for the HP-41 series of calculators via a plug in ROM that emulated the HP-41 but at about 5x the speed. Thus, owners could take advantages of the massive power of the HP-71B without sacrificing any of the advantages innate to the long time popular 41 series. Smaller and less expensive (595 USD MSRP) than the preceding model HP-75, the 71B had a single-line 22-character liquid crystal display, 64K system ROM and 17.5K user memory. It operated on four AAA batteries. Four plug-in ports permitted ROM-based programs or additional user memory to be added. Separate compartments could accommodate an optional magnetic card reader and an optional HP-IL interface (HP 82401A) that could be used to connect printers, storage and electronic test equipment. The 71B
    9.25
    4 votes
    10

    IBM mainframe

    • File Formats Supported: Cbi
    IBM mainframes are large computer systems produced by IBM from 1952 to the present. During the 1960s and 1970s, the term mainframe computer was almost synonymous with IBM products due to their marketshare. Current mainframes in IBM's line of business computers are developments of the basic design of the IBM System/360. From 1952 into the late 1960s, IBM manufactured and marketed several large computer models, known as the IBM 700/7000 series. The first-generation 700s were based on vacuum tubes, while the later, second-generation 7000s used transistors. These machines established IBM's dominance in electronic data processing. IBM had two model categories: one (701, 704, 709, 7090, 7040) for engineering and scientific use, and one (702, 705, 7080, 7070, 7010) for commercial or data processing use. The two categories, scientific and commercial, generally used common peripherals but had completely different instruction sets, and there were incompatibilities even within each category. IBM initially sold its computers without any software, expecting customers to write their own; programs were manually initiated, one at a time. Later, IBM provided compilers for the newly developed
    6.67
    6 votes
    11

    Windows 95

    Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. It was released on August 24, 1995 by Microsoft, and was a significant progression from the company's previous Windows products. During development, it was referred to as Windows 4.0 or by the internal codename Chicago. Windows 95 integrated Microsoft's formerly separate MS-DOS and Windows products. It featured significant improvements over its predecessor, Windows 3.1, most notably in the graphical user interface (GUI) and in its relatively simplified "plug-n-play" features. There were also major changes made at lower levels of the operating system, such as moving from a mainly 16-bit architecture to a pre-emptively multitasked 32-bit architecture. Accompanied by an extensive marketing campaign, Windows 95 was a major success in the marketplace at launch and shortly became the most popular desktop operating system. It also introduced numerous functions and features that were featured in later Windows versions, such as the taskbar, the 'Start' button, and the way the user navigates. It was also suggested that Windows 95 had an effect of driving other major players (including OS/2) out of business,
    6.67
    6 votes
    12
    7.40
    5 votes
    14
    7.40
    5 votes
    15

    VAX

    • File Formats Supported: Hlb
    VAX (Virtual Address eXtension) was an instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the mid-1970s. A 32-bit complex instruction set computer (CISC) ISA, it was designed to extend or replace DEC's various Programmed Data Processor (PDP) ISAs. The VAX name was also used by DEC for a family of computer systems based on this processor architecture. The VAX architecture's primary features were virtual addressing (for example demand paged virtual memory) and its orthogonal instruction set. VAX has been perceived as the quintessential CISC ISA, with its very large number of programmer-friendly addressing modes and machine instructions, highly orthogonal architecture, and instructions for complex operations such as queue insertion or deletion and polynomial evaluation. "VAX" is originally an acronym for Virtual Address eXtension, both because the VAX was seen as a 32-bit extension of the older 16-bit PDP-11 and because it was (after Prime Computer) an early adopter of virtual memory to manage this larger address space. Early versions of the VAX processor implemented a "compatibility mode" that emulated many of the PDP-11's instructions, and were in
    7.40
    5 votes
    16
    Memory Stick

    Memory Stick

    • File Formats Supported: Msv
    Memory Stick is a removable flash memory card format, launched by Sony in October 1998, and is also used in general to describe the whole family of Memory Sticks. In addition to the original Memory Stick, this family includes the Memory Stick PRO, a revision that allows greater maximum storage capacity and faster file transfer speeds; Memory Stick Duo, a small-form-factor version of the Memory Stick (including the PRO Duo); and the even smaller Memory Stick Micro (M2). In December 2006 Sony added the Memory Stick PRO-HG, a high speed variant of the PRO to be used in high-definition video and still cameras. Memory Stick cards can be used in Sony XDCAM EX camcorders via the MEAD-SD01 adapter. The original memory stick was launched in October 1998, was available in sizes up to 128 MB, and a sub-version, Memory Stick Select allowed two banks of 128 MB selectable by a slider switch, essentially two cards squeezed into one. The largest capacity Memory Sticks currently available is 32 GB. According to Sony, the Memory Stick PRO has a maximum theoretical size of 2 TB. As of January 2010, it appears that Sony is beginning to combine support for SD/SDHC and Memory Stick formats in their
    6.33
    6 votes
    17
    Camcorder

    Camcorder

    • File Formats Supported: mts
    A camcorder (formally a video camera recorder) is an electronic device that combines a video camera and a video recorder into one unit; typically for out-of-studio consumer video recording. Equipment manufacturers do not seem to have strict guidelines for the term usage; for instance marketing materials may present the device by its colloquial term camcorder, while full name on the package and manual is often video camera recorder. The majority of devices that are capable of recording video are camera phones and digital cameras primarily intended for still pictures, but the term "camcorder" is often restricted to mean a portable, self-contained device having video capture and recording as its primary function. The earliest types were tape-based camcorders, which recorded analog signals onto videotape cassettes. In the 21st century digital recording became the norm, with tape dwindling away gradually, replaced with other storage media such as internal flash memory, hard drive, and SD card. Camcorders that do not use magnetic tape are often called tapeless camcorders, while camcorders that permit using more than one type of medium, like built-in hard disk drive and memory card, are
    7.20
    5 votes
    18

    Nokia OS

    • File Formats Supported: Np
    Nokia OS (NOS) Finnish mobile phone manufacturer Nokia's non-smartphone system named. These are from the official Nokia device library . It is a proprietary platform for Nokia's internal use only. No direct application programming interface (API) is provided, but most ISA phones can be programmed with Java Platform, Micro Edition (Java ME). It is sometimes called the "domestic OS". ISA is used on Nokia Series 40 and Series 30 user interface based mobile phones.
    6.17
    6 votes
    19
    Casio FX-850P

    Casio FX-850P

    The Casio FX-850P is a scientific calculator introduced in 1987 and sold until 1992. User's manual at http://www.usersmanualguide.com/casio/calculators/fx-850p The calculator had a BASIC interpreter, MEMO function, a formula library. The built-in 8 kB memory could be expanded using the optional Casio RP-8 (8 kB) or RP-33 (32 kB) RAM expansion modules. An optional Casio FA-6 interface board provided a cassette tape recorder connector, a Centronics printer connector and an RS-232C port. The calculator could print data and listings on any Centronics printer; printing graphics required the Casio FP-100 plotter-printer. Later, Casio released the FX-880P, which had 32 kB built-in memory. With a RP-33 expansion module, this model could be upgraded to a total of 64 kB. The memory layout is: Memory area A000-FFFF was either available as user memory (if expansion was present), or would simply repeat the contents of 0000-1FFF A few glitches are: The internal function library was programmed in BASIC itself and could be extracted with a BASIC decompiler. Any function in the library can be executed from a regular BASIC program by using GOTO "LIB0:NNNN" where NNNN is the function number (e.g.
    8.25
    4 votes
    20
    HP-75

    HP-75

    The HP-75C and HP-75D were hand-held computers programmable in BASIC, made by Hewlett-Packard from 1982 to 1986. The HP-75 had a single-line liquid crystal display, 48 KiB system ROM and 16 KiB RAM, a comparatively large keyboard (albeit without separate numeric pad), a manually operated magnetic card reader (2×650 bytes per card), 4 ports for memory expansion (1 for RAM and 3 for ROM modules), and an HP-IL interface that could be used to connect printers, storage and electronic test equipment. The BASIC interpreter also acted as a primitive operating system, providing file handling capabilities for program storage using RAM, cards, or cassettes/diskettes (via HP-IL). Other features included a text editor as well as an appointment reminder with alarms, similar to functions of modern PDAs. The HP-75D (1984–1986) added a port for a bar code wand, often used for inventory control tasks. The HP-75 was comparatively expensive with an MSRP of $995 ($2,014 in 2005) for the 75C or $1095 ($2,058 in 2005) for the 75D, making it less popular than the cheaper successor model, the HP-71B. The HP-75C has a KANGAROO printed on its PCB, as its codename (see link for picture). HP-75D codename's is
    8.25
    4 votes
    21
    TI-81

    TI-81

    The TI-81 is the first graphing calculator made by Texas Instruments. It was designed in 1990 for use in algebra and precalculus courses. Since its original release, it has been superseded several times by newer calculators - the TI-82, the TI-83, the TI-83 Plus, TI-83 Plus Silver Edition, the TI-84 Plus, the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition, and most recently the TI-Nspire and TI-Nspire CAS; most of these share the original feature set and 96×64-pixel display that began with this calculator. The TI-81 is powered by a Zilog Z80 microprocessor, like those used in almost every other Texas Instruments graphing calculator (except the TI-80, TI-89, TI-89 Titanium, TI-92, TI-92 Plus, Voyage 200 and TI-Nspire series). However, the processor runs at only 2 MHz whereas the other Z80-powered Texas Instruments calculators run at a speed of at least 6 MHz (the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition, TI-84 Plus, and TI-84 Plus Silver Edition run at 15 MHz). It contained 2400 bytes of RAM. The TI-81's user interactions are provided by its so-called Equation Operation System. This is comparable to the interface provided by the more recent TI-82, TI-83, and so on. This system is capable of such tasks as
    8.25
    4 votes
    22
    TiEmu

    TiEmu

    TiEmu is an emulator that works on many different operating systems like Linux/Unix, Mac OS X, FreeBSD, Microsoft Windows and so on. It emulates the Motorola 68000 series Texas Instruments graphing calculators (TI-89, TI-89 Titanium, TI-92, TI-92 Plus and Voyage 200). TiEmu is licensed under the GPL. TiEmu 3 has many features: With the development of tilibs2 and improvements made to TiEmu code, TiEmu 3 is quite stable. The TiEmu team currently consists of these team members:
    8.25
    4 votes
    23
    8.00
    4 votes
    24
    Casio FZ1

    Casio FZ1

    • File Formats Supported: Fzb
    The FZ-1 was a 5-octave keyboard (61-keys from C to C) and hybrid sampler/synthesizer released by Casio Computer Co in 1987. Its original list price in the UK was just under £2000, making it one of the more affordable samplers on the market with features such as waveform drawing and 16-bit sampling resolution that were previously only available on more expensive equipment, such as the Fairlight CMI Series III of 1985. The FZ-1, for the time, offered impressive sampling features: A 1 MB (1024 bytes) sampling memory (expandable to 2 MB), booting from ROM rather than an OS diskette, harmonic additive synthesis and digital subtractive synthesis in one complete package. Like the Fairlight CMI the FZ-1 used a GUI-driven menu system in which all functions were listed under specific menus and sub-menus. However, unlike the Fairlight, the FZ-1 did not use a stylus and qwerty keyboard for input. Instead, the FZ-1 used data sliders (like those present on the Yamaha DX range of synthesizers), 4-way cursor keys, an alphanumeric key-pad, plus 'yes'/'no' buttons that also acted as a means of data increment or decrement. The FZ-1 was often criticised for its unintuitive interface, which at times
    6.80
    5 votes
    25
    HP-49 series

    HP-49 series

    The HP 49G series are Hewlett-Packard (HP) manufactured graphing calculators. They are the successors of the popular HP-48 series. There are four calculators in the 49 series of HP graphing calculators. These calculators have both algebraic and RPN entry modes, and can perform numeric and symbolic calculations using the built-in Computer Algebra System (CAS), which is an improved ALG48 and Erable combination from the HP-48 series. Released in August 1999, this calculator was the first HP unit to break from the more traditional subdued coloration. In addition to having a metallic blue color, the keyboard material was rubber and did not have the traditional HP calculator hinged keyboard feel. In addition, it lacked a large ENTER key which was seen by many as the defining characteristic of an HP calculator. These changes were disliked by many traditional HP calculator users. The 49G incorporated many of the most powerful interface and mathematics tools available on the HP-48 series into the firmware of the new 49G, including the ability to easily decompile and compile both SysRPL and Saturn assembly code on the unit. The 49G was the first HP calculator to use flash memory and have an
    6.80
    5 votes
    26

    Jini

    Jini (pronounced like genie i.e. /ˈdʒini/), also called Apache River, is a network architecture for the construction of distributed systems in the form of modular co-operating services. Originally developed by Sun, Jini was released under an open source license (Apache license). Responsibility for Jini has been transferred to Apache under the project name "River". Jini technology is a service oriented architecture that defines a programming model which exploits and extends Java technology to enable the construction of secure, distributed systems consisting of federations of well-behaved network services and clients. Jini technology can be used to build adaptive network systems that are scalable, evolvable and flexible as typically required in dynamic computing environments. Jini offers a number of powerful capabilities such as service discovery and mobile code. Jini is similar to Java Remote Method Invocation but more advanced. The term Jini refers to a set of specifications and an implementation; the latter is referred to as the Jini Starter Kit. Both the specifications and the Starter Kit have been released under the Apache 2.0 license and have been offered to the Apache Software
    6.80
    5 votes
    27
    Macintosh

    Macintosh

    • File Formats Supported: PICT
    The Macintosh (/ˈmækɨntɒʃ/ MAK-in-tosh), or Mac, is a series of personal computers (PCs) designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. The first Macintosh was introduced by Apple Inc.'s then-chairman Steve Jobs on January 24, 1984; it was the first commercially successful personal computer to feature a mouse and a graphical user interface rather than a command-line interface. The company continued to have success through the second half of the 1980s, primarily because the sales of the Apple II series remained strong even after the introduction of the Macintosh, only to see it dissipate in the 1990s as the personal computer market shifted toward the "Wintel" platform: IBM PC compatible machines running MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows. In 1998, Apple consolidated its multiple consumer-level desktop models into the iMac all-in-one. This proved to be a sales success and saw the Macintosh brand revitalized. Current Mac systems are mainly targeted at the home, education, and creative professional markets. These include the descendants of the original iMac, the entry-level Mac mini desktop model, the Mac Pro tower graphics workstation, and the MacBook Air and MacBook Pro laptops. The
    9.33
    3 votes
    28

    TIGCC

    TIGCC (from "TI" and "GCC") is a software development environment which allows developers to program and compile A68K assembly, GNU assembly, and C code for the Motorola 68000 series Texas Instruments graphing calculators (TI-89 (Titanium), TI-92 Plus and Voyage 200, as well as experimental support for the TI-92 with the Fargo shell). TIGCC is licensed under the GNU General Public License. The TIGCC project includes many things that help developers create and manage projects. Development of the TIGCC project has decreased drastically recently due to the leaving of many team members. While TIGCC is still quite active, it is not growing as fast as it once was. Due to disputes between a small group of users and the current maintainer, a fork named GCC4TI was announced on January 3, 2009. It currently has 2 active committers. The TIGCC project was originally developed by an international team of developers , most of whom have since resigned due to lack of time and/or interest. It is currently being maintained by Kevin Kofler. As in many free software projects, several more people contributed small amounts of code to TIGCC. There are tools which may aid programmers using TIGCC.
    9.33
    3 votes
    29
    7.75
    4 votes
    30
    TI-57

    TI-57

    The TI-57 was a programmable calculator made by Texas Instruments between 1977 and 1982. There were three machines by this name made by TI, the first was the TI-57 with LED display released in September 1977 along the more powerful TI-58 and TI-59. It had 50 program steps and 8 memory registers. Two later versions named TI-57 LCD and TI-57 LCD-II have a LCD display, but were less powerful (ran much slower) and had much less memory: 48 bytes to be allocated between program 'steps' and storage registers. The TI-57 lacked non-volatile memory, so any programs entered were lost when the calculator was switched off or the battery ran out. The LED display version of the TI-57 had a rechargeable Nickel-Cadmium battery pack BP7 which contains two AA size batteries and some electronic to raise the voltage to the 9V required by the calculator. A popular modification is to power it from a 9V battery and use the battery cover of a LED TI-30 or a part of the dismantled battery pack. This modification provides a better battery life than the original battery pack. Included, with at least the original version was a book entitled "Making Tracks Into Programming". It was self described as "A
    7.75
    4 votes
    31

    Monroe Epic

    The Monroe EPIC was a programmable calculator that came on the market in the 1960s. It consisted of a large desktop unit which attached to a floor-standing logic tower, and was capable of being programmed to perform many computer-like functions. However the only form of a branching instruction available was a hard-coded unconditional branch (GOTO) that always executed at program completion (the end of the operation stack) to return to the starting instruction of the program (looped back to beginning of operation stack). This made the creation of conditional branching logic, such as IF-THEN-ELSE, impossible.
    6.60
    5 votes
    32
    Casio CFX-9850GB PLUS

    Casio CFX-9850GB PLUS

    The Casio CFX-9850G series is a series of graphing calculators manufactured by Casio Computer Co., Ltd. from 1996 to 2008. The Casio CFX-9850G was introduced in 1996. As a higher-end version of the FX-9750G series, The CFX-9850G introduced a number of enhancements over that series, the most noticeable being a color LCD display capable of displaying orange, green, and blue. The CFX-9850G was later replaced with updated models that added features and fixed bugs, the CFX-9850G Plus, Ga Plus, GB Plus, and GC Plus. The CFX-9850GB Plus includes a built-in software library, and the CFX-9850GC Plus increases memory from 32k to 64k. Two other models were sold alongside the CFX-9850G series, the CFX-9950G series, which has 64k of memory, and the CFX-9970G, which has symbolic algebra. The series was discontinued with the CFX-9850GC Plus in 2008. There are French versions where the ab/c and EXP buttons are labelled differently. (French versions: 9750=Graph 30,35,fx-8930GT; 9850,9950=Graph 60,65,CFX-9930GT,9940,9960; 9970=Graph 80) The calculators weigh about 190 grams including batteries, and measure about 19.7 mm x 83 mm x 176 mm. Features include scientific calculations, including calculus,
    7.50
    4 votes
    33
    IBM PC

    IBM PC

    • File Formats Supported: Ob
    The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform. It is IBM model number 5150, and was introduced on August 12, 1981. It was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida. Alongside "microcomputer" and "home computer", the term "personal computer" was already in use before 1981. It was used as early as 1972 to characterize Xerox PARC's Alto. However, because of the success of the IBM Personal Computer, the term PC came to mean more specifically a microcomputer compatible with IBM's PC products. Desktop sized programmable calculators by Hewlett Packard had evolved into the HP 9830 BASIC language computer by 1972, with IBM's releasing its own IBM 5100 in 1975. It was a complete computer system programmable in BASIC or APL, with a small built-in CRT monitor, keyboard, and tape drive for data storage. It was also very expensive — up to $20,000 USD. It was specifically designed for professional and scientific problem-solvers, not business users or hobbyists. When the PC was introduced in 1981, it was
    7.50
    4 votes
    34
    Remington Rand 409

    Remington Rand 409

    The Remington Rand 409 control panel programmed punched card calculator, designed in 1949, was sold in two models: the UNIVAC 60 (1952) and the UNIVAC 120 (1953). The model number referred to the number of decimal digits of vacuum tube memory storage provided for data. The machine was designed in "The Barn", at 33 Highland Ave. in Rowayton, Connecticut, a building that currently houses the Rowayton Public Library and Community Center. These machines were discontinued when the UNIVAC 1004 was introduced in 1962. About 1000 total had been produced by 1961. Numbers were fixed point variable length (1 to 10 digits). Arithmetic was done in floating point, but all results were converted to fixed point when stored in memory. Digits are represented in bi-quinary coded decimal. Each digit of memory storage contained 5 tubes. Four of these represented the digits 1, 3, 5, and 7, while for fifth tube represented 9 if activated alone but added 1 to the value if activated together with another tube.
    7.50
    4 votes
    35

    CP/M

    • File Formats Supported: Msx
    CP/M (Control Program/Monitor) was a mass-market operating system created for Intel 8080/85 based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. Initially confined to single-tasking on 8-bit processors and no more than 64 kilobytes of memory, later versions of CP/M added multi-user variations, and were migrated to 16-bit processors. The combination of CP/M and S-100 bus computers loosely patterned on the MITS Altair was an early "industry standard" for microcomputers, and this computer platform was widely used in business through the late 1970s and into the mid-1980s, expanding to include 16-bit CPUs and multiuser capability. By greatly reducing the amount of programming required to install an application on a new manufacturer's computer, CP/M increased the market size for both hardware and software. The acronym CP/M for "Control Program/Monitor" was later backronymed "Control Program for Microcomputers". A minimal 8-bit CP/M system would contain the following components: The only hardware system that CP/M, as sold by Digital Research, would support was the Intel 8080 Development System. Manufacturers of CP/M compatible systems customized portions of the operating system
    8.67
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    36
    8.67
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    37

    Real-time operating system

    A key characteristic of an RTOS is the level of its consistency concerning the amount of time it takes to accept and complete an application's task; the variability is jitter. A hard real-time operating system has less jitter than a soft real-time operating system. The chief design goal is not high throughput, but rather a guarantee of a soft or hard performance category. An RTOS that can usually or generally meet a deadline is a soft real-time OS, but if it can meet a deadline deterministically it is a hard real-time OS. An RTOS has an advanced algorithm for scheduling. Scheduler flexibility enables a wider, computer-system orchestration of process priorities, but a real-time OS is more frequently dedicated to a narrow set of applications. Key factors in a real-time OS are minimal interrupt latency and minimal thread switching latency; a real-time OS is valued more for how quickly or how predictably it can respond than for the amount of work it can perform in a given period of time. The most common designs are: Time-sharing designs switch tasks more often than strictly needed, but give smoother multitasking, giving the illusion that a process or user has sole use of a
    6.20
    5 votes
    38

    SideKick

    • File Formats Supported: Sdb
    Borland's Sidekick was an early Personal Information Manager (PIM) software application launched in 1983 under Philippe Kahn's leadership. It was notable for being a Terminate and Stay Resident (TSR) program, which enabled it to load into memory then return the computer to the DOS command prompt, allowing the user to load another application, but still activate SideKick using a hot key combination (by default: Ctrl-Alt). This approach allowed instantaneous task switching in the otherwise-single-tasking DOS. Although a text mode program, its window-based interface echoed that of the Apple Macintosh, and anticipated the eventual look of Microsoft Windows 2.0. It featured a personal calendar, text editor (with WordStar-like command interface), calculator, ASCII chart, and address book/phone dialer. According to the Borland IPO prospectus, SideKick sold more than one million copies in its first three years. Sidekick 1.0 included Calculator, Notepad, Appointment Calendar, Auto Dialer, ASCII Table and other tools. Sidekick 1.0 Plus included a broader selection of calculators (Business, Scientific, Programmer, Formula), a 9-file Notepad text editor, Appointment Book and Scheduler, a
    7.25
    4 votes
    39

    .NET Framework

    The .NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows. It includes a large library and provides language interoperability (each language can use code written in other languages) across several programming languages. Programs written for the .NET Framework execute in a software environment (as contrasted to hardware environment), known as the Common Language Runtime (CLR), an application virtual machine that provides services such as security, memory management, and exception handling. The class library and the CLR together constitute the .NET Framework. The .NET Framework's Base Class Library provides user interface, data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application development, numeric algorithms, and network communications. Programmers produce software by combining their own source code with the .NET Framework and other libraries. The .NET Framework is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform. Microsoft also produces an integrated development environment largely for .NET software called Visual Studio. Microsoft started development of the .NET Framework in
    10.00
    2 votes
    40
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    2 votes
    41
    7.00
    4 votes
    42
    OpenBSD

    OpenBSD

    OpenBSD is a Unix computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. It was forked from NetBSD by project leader Theo de Raadt in late 1995. As well as the operating system, the OpenBSD Project has produced portable versions of numerous subsystems, most notably PF, OpenSSH and OpenSSL, which are very widely available as packages in other operating systems. The project is also widely known for the developers' insistence on open-source code and quality documentation, uncompromising position on software licensing, and focus on security and code correctness. The project is coordinated from de Raadt's home in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Its logo and mascot is a pufferfish named Puffy. OpenBSD includes a number of security features absent or optional in other operating systems, and has a tradition in which developers audit the source code for software bugs and security problems. The project maintains strict policies on licensing and prefers the open-source BSD licence and its variants—in the past this has led to a comprehensive license audit and moves to remove or replace code under licences
    7.00
    4 votes
    43
    7.00
    4 votes
    44
    9.50
    2 votes
    45
    Casio fx-7000G

    Casio fx-7000G

    The Casio FX-7000G is a calculator which is widely known as being the world's first graphing calculator available to the public. It was introduced to the public and later manufactured between 1985 and 1987. Notable features are its ability to graph functions, and that it is programmable. The calculator offers 82 scientific functions and is capable of manual computation for basic arithmetic problems. The calculator can compute basic arithmetic functions with a precision up to 13 digits. Many functions integrated into the calculator include arithmetic and algebraic computations such as: Other specialized functions also implemented into the calculator include hyperbolic and statistical functions, binary/octal/hexadecimal/sexagesimal conversions and graph plotting. Like many Casio calculators, the FX-7000G includes a programming mode, in addition to its display and graphing mode. It holds 422 bytes of programming memory, less than half a kilobyte. However the calculator does allow for expanded/additional memory by a method of reducing the number of steps within a program. This is done by optimizing the amount of steps a program has to fill a single unit of memory, instead of several.
    8.00
    3 votes
    46
    8.00
    3 votes
    47
    8.00
    3 votes
    48

    TI-74

    The Texas Instruments TI-74 Basicalc is a type of programmable calculator, which was released in 1985 to replace the Texas Instruments Compact Computer 40. One variant, the TI-74S, has a blank faceplate instead of secondary functions to allow for customization (otherwise it is the same as the 74). Both models accepted customized ROM-modules. The TI-95, released at the same time, was a keystroke programmable descendant of the TI-59 and TI-66, with the same general form factor, but a two-line display (the second line was for function key definitions).
    8.00
    3 votes
    49

    Unix

    • File Formats Supported: Bfm
    Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix in small caps) is a multitasking, multi-user computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs, including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Brian Kernighan, Douglas McIlroy, Michael Lesk and Joe Ossanna. The Unix operating system was first developed in assembly language, but by 1973 had been almost entirely recoded in C, greatly facilitating its further development and porting to other hardware. Today's Unix system evolution is split into various branches, developed over time by AT&T as well as various commercial vendors, universities (such as University of California, Berkeley's BSD), and non-profit organizations. The Open Group, an industry standards consortium, owns the UNIX trademark. Only systems fully compliant with and certified according to the Single UNIX Specification are qualified to use the trademark; others might be called Unix system-like or Unix-like, although the Open Group disapproves of this term. However, the term Unix is often used informally to denote any operating system that closely resembles the trademarked system. During the late 1970s and early
    8.00
    3 votes
    50
    MSX

    MSX

    • File Formats Supported: COM file
    MSX was the name of a standardized home computer architecture in the 1980s conceived by Kazuhiko Nishi, then Vice-president at Microsoft Japan and Director at ASCII Corporation. It is said that Microsoft led the project as an attempt to create unified standards among hardware makers. Despite Microsoft's involvement, the MSX-based machines were seldom seen in the United States, but they were mostly popular in Japan, the Middle East, the Soviet Union, the Netherlands, Spain, Brazil and to a lesser extent, several other European countries. It is difficult to estimate how many MSX computers were sold worldwide, but eventually 5 million MSX-based units were sold in Japan alone, many of which were the later models. Before the appearance and great success of Nintendo's Family Computer, MSX was the platform for which major Japanese game studios, such as Konami and Hudson Soft, produced their titles. The Metal Gear series was originally written for MSX hardware. In the 1980s, Japan was in the midst of an economic awakening. Large Japanese electronics firms might have been successful in the early computer market had they made a concerted effort in the late 1970s. Their combined design and
    6.75
    4 votes
    51
    7.67
    3 votes
    52
    7.67
    3 votes
    53
    7.67
    3 votes
    54
    Sharp EL-5120

    Sharp EL-5120

    The Sharp EL-5120 is a scientific programmable calculator. It has about 1 KB of total RAM available to the user, and has 4 basic operational modes: Please note that the actual notation might be different, as some special EL-5120 characters cannot be directly typed on a PC, e.g. the square root and fraction operator:
    7.67
    3 votes
    55

    IBM CPC

    The IBM Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator or CPC was announced by IBM in May 1949. Later that year an improved machine, the CPC-II was also announced. The original CPC Calculator had the following machines interconnected by cables: The CPC-II Calculator had the following machines interconnected by cables: From the IBM Archives: The IBM Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator was announced in May 1949 as a versatile general purpose computer designed to perform any predetermined sequence of arithmetical operations coded on standard 80-column punched cards. It was also capable of selecting and following one of several sequences of instructions as a result of operations already performed, and it could store instructions for self-programmed operation. The Calculator consisted of a Type 605 Electronic Calculating Punch and a Type 412 or 418 Accounting Machine. A Type 941 Auxiliary Storage Unit was available as an optional feature. All units composing the Calculator were interconnected by flexible cables. If desired, the Type 412 or 418, with or without the Type 941, could be operated independently of the other machines. The Type 605 could be used as a Calculating Punch and the punch
    9.00
    2 votes
    56
    TI-84 Plus series

    TI-84 Plus series

    The TI-84 Plus is a graphing calculator made by Texas Instruments which was released in early 2004. There is no original TI-84, only the TI-84 Plus and TI-84 Plus Silver Edition models. The TI-84 Plus is an enhanced version of the TI-83 Plus. The key-by-key correspondence is relatively the same, but the 84 features some improved hardware. The memory is about 3 times as large, and CPU about 2.5 times as fast (over the TI-83 and TI-83 Plus). A USB port and built-in clock functionality were also added. The USB port on the TI-84 Plus series is USB On-The-Go compliant, similar to the next generation TI-Nspire calculator, which supports connecting to USB based data collection devices and probes, and supports device to device transfers over USB rather than over the serial link port. The TI-84 Plus Silver Edition was released in 2004 as an upgrade to the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition. Like the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition, it features a 15 MHz Zilog Z80 processor and 24 kB user available RAM. The chip has 128 kB, but TI has not made an OS that uses all of it. Newer calculators have a RAM chip that is only 48 kB. All calculators with the letter H or later as the last letter in the serial code have
    9.00
    2 votes
    57
    Cygwin

    Cygwin

    Cygwin ( /ˈsɪɡwɪn/ SIG-win) is a Unix-like environment and command-line interface for Microsoft Windows. Cygwin provides native integration of Windows-based applications, data, and other system resources with applications, software tools, and data of the Unix-like environment. Thus it is possible to launch Windows applications from the Cygwin environment, as well as to use Cygwin tools and applications within the Windows operating context. Cygwin consists of two parts: a dynamic-link library (DLL) as an API compatibility layer providing a substantial part of the POSIX API functionality, and an extensive collection of software tools and applications that provide a Unix-like look and feel. Cygwin was originally developed by Cygnus Solutions, which was later acquired by Red Hat. It is free and open source software, released under the GNU General Public License version 3. Today it is maintained by employees of Red Hat, NetApp and many other volunteers. Cygwin consists of a library that implements the POSIX system call API in terms of Win32 system calls, a GNU development toolchain (including GCC and GDB) to allow software development, and a large number of application programs
    6.50
    4 votes
    58

    OS/2

    • File Formats Supported: Flf
    OS/2 is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM, then later developed by IBM exclusively. The name stands for "Operating System/2," because it was introduced as part of the same generation change release as IBM's "Personal System/2 (PS/2)" line of second-generation personal computers. The first version was released in December 1987 and many newer versions were released after, until December 2001. OS/2 was intended as a protected mode successor of PC-DOS. Notably, basic system calls were modeled after MS-DOS calls; their names even started with "Dos" and it was possible to create "Family Mode" applications: text mode applications that could work on both systems. Because of this heritage, OS/2 shares similarities with Unix, Xenix, and Windows NT in many ways. OS/2 is no longer marketed by IBM, and IBM standard support for OS/2 was discontinued on 31 December 2006. The development of OS/2 began when IBM and Microsoft signed the "Joint Development Agreement" in August 1985. It was code-named "CP/DOS" and it took two years for the first product to be delivered. OS/2 1.0 was announced in April 1987 and released in December. The original release was
    6.50
    4 votes
    59
    5.40
    5 votes
    60
    10.00
    1 votes
    61
    10.00
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    10.00
    1 votes
    63
    10.00
    1 votes
    64
    HP-41

    HP-41

    The HP-41C series are programmable, expandable, continuous memory handheld RPN calculators made by Hewlett-Packard from 1979 to 1990. The original model, HP-41C, was the first of its kind to offer alphanumeric display capabilities. Later came the HP-41CV and HP-41CX, offering more memory and functionality. The alphanumeric LCD screen of the HP-41C revolutionized the way a calculator could be used, providing user friendliness (for its time) and expandability (keyboard-unassigned functions could be spelled out alphabetically). By using an alphanumeric display, the calculator could tell the user what was going on: it could display meaningful error messages ("ZERO DIVIDE") instead of simply a blinking zero; it could also specifically prompt the user for arguments ("ENTER RADIUS") instead of just displaying a question mark. Earlier calculators needed a key, or key combination, for every available function. The HP-67 had three shift keys; the competing Texas Instruments calculators had two (2nd and INV) and close to 50 keys (the TI-59 had 45). Hewlett-Packard were constrained by their one byte only instruction format. The more flexible storage format for programs in the TI-59 allowed
    10.00
    1 votes
    65
    TI-59

    TI-59

    The TI-59 was an early programmable calculator, manufactured by Texas Instruments from 1977. It was the successor to the TI SR-52, quadrupling the number of "program steps" of storage, and adding "ROM Program Modules" (an insertable ROM chip, capable of holding 5000 program steps) and a magnetic card reader for external storage. It was one of the first LED calculators with the capability and flexibility to take on many real-world calculation challenges, and quickly became popular with professionals in many fields. The TI-58, and later TI-58C, were low-end versions of the TI-59, lacking the magnetic card reader and having half the memory, but otherwise identical. Although the TI-58C used a different chip than the TI-58, the technical data remained identical. The "C" in a TI (or HP) model name indicated that the calculator had a constant memory (or continuous memory, respectively) allowing retention of programs and data when turned off. The calculator could be powered from an external adapter or from its internal NiCd rechargeable battery pack. The red LED display showed 10 decimal digits of precision. Programming simple problems with the TI-59 or TI-58 was a very straightforward
    10.00
    1 votes
    66
    10.00
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    67
    TI-92 series

    TI-92 series

    The TI-92 series of graphing calculators are a line of calculators produced by Texas Instruments. They include: the TI-92 (1995), the TI-92 Plus (1998,1999), and the Voyage 200 (2002). The design of these relatively large calculators includes a QWERTY keyboard. Because of this keyboard, it was given the status of a "computer" rather than "calculator" by American testing facilities and cannot be used on tests such as the SAT or AP Exams while the similar TI-89 can be. The TI-92 was originally released in 1995, and was the first symbolic calculator made by Texas Instruments. It came with a computer algebra system (CAS) based on Derive, and was one of the first calculators to offer 3D graphing. The TI-92 was not allowed on most standardized tests due mostly to its QWERTY keyboard. Its larger size was also rather cumbersome compared to other graphing calculators. In response to these concerns, Texas Instruments introduced the TI-89 which is functionally similar to the original TI-92, but featured Flash ROM and 188 KB RAM, and a smaller design without the QWERTY keyboard. The TI-92 was then replaced by the TI-92 Plus, which was essentially a TI-89 with the larger QWERTY keyboard design
    6.25
    4 votes
    68

    Ultrix

    Ultrix (officially all-caps ULTRIX) was the brand name of Digital Equipment Corporation's (DEC) native Unix systems. While ultrix is the Latin word for avenger, the name was chosen solely for its sound. The initial development of Unix occurred on DEC equipment, notably DEC PDP-7 and PDP-11 (Programmable Data Processor) systems. Later DEC computers, such as their VAX systems, were also popular platforms on which to run Unix; the first port to VAX, UNIX/32V, was finished in 1978 (the VAX was only released in October 1977). However DEC only supplied their own proprietary operating system, VMS, prior to officially supporting Unix. Absolutely key to bringing Unix to inside the company, DEC's Unix Engineering Group (UEG) was started by Bill Munson with Jerry Brenner and Fred Canter, both from DEC's premier Customer Service Engineering group, Bill Shannon (from Case Western Reserve University), and Armando Stettner (from Bell Labs). Other later members of UEG included Joel Magid, Bill Doll, and Jim Barclay recruited from DEC's various marketing and product management groups. The UEG team, under Canter's direction, released V7M, a modified version of Unix 7th Edition (q.v.). Shannon and
    6.25
    4 votes
    69
    7.33
    3 votes
    70

    TI-73 series

    TI-73 series are graphing calculators made by Texas Instruments. The original TI-73 was originally designed in 1998 as a replacement for the TI-80 for use at a middle school level (grades 6-9). Its primary advantage over the TI-80 is its 512 KB of flash memory, which holds the calculator's operating system and thereby allows the calculator to be upgraded. Other advantages over the TI-80 are the TI-73's standard sized screen (as opposed to the TI-80's smaller screen), the addition of a link port, 25 KB of RAM (as compared to the TI-80's 7 KB of RAM), and a faster 6 MHz Zilog Z80 processor (as compared with the TI-80's 980 kHz proprietary processor). The TI-73 also uses the standard 4 AAA batteries with a lithium backup battery (instead of the TI-80's 2 CR2032 lithium batteries). In 2003, the TI-73 was redesigned with a sleek new body shape and redesignated the TI-73 Explorer to indicate its currently intended use as a bridge between the TI-15 Explorer and similar calculators and the TI-83 Plus, TI-84 Plus, and similar calculators. Due to lack of demand in middle schools, the TI-73 and TI-73 Explorer have not been huge sellers for TI and are not carried by most retail stores. Most
    7.33
    3 votes
    71

    TI-89 series

    The TI-89 and the TI-89 Titanium are graphing calculators developed by Texas Instruments. They are differentiated from most other TI graphing calculators by their computer algebra system, which allows symbolic manipulation of algebraic expressions——equations can be solved in terms of variables, whereas the TI-83/84 series can only give a numeric result. The TI-89 is a graphing calculator developed by Texas Instruments (TI) in 1998. The unit features a 160×100 pixel resolution LCD screen and a large amount of flash memory, and includes TI's Advanced Mathematics Software. The TI-89 is one of the highest model lines in TI's calculator products, along with the TI-Nspire. In the summer of 2004, the standard TI-89 was replaced by the TI-89 Titanium. The TI-89 runs on a 32-bit microprocessor, the Motorola 68000, which nominally runs at 10, 12, or 16 MHz, depending on the calculator's hardware version. Texas Instruments has allocated 256 total kB of RAM for the unit (190 kB of which are available to the user) and 2 MB of flash memory (700 kB of which is available to the user). The RAM and Flash ROM are used to store expressions, variables, programs, tables, text files, and lists. The TI-89
    7.33
    3 votes
    72

    DR-DOS

    • File Formats Supported: Acc
    DR-DOS (DR DOS, without hyphen up to including v6.0) is an operating system of the DOS family, written for IBM PC-compatible personal computers. It was originally developed by Gary Kildall's Digital Research and derived from Concurrent PC DOS 6.0, which was an advanced successor of CP/M-86. As ownership changed, various later versions were produced as Novell DOS, Caldera OpenDOS, etc. Digital Research's original CP/M for the 8-bit Intel 8080 and Z-80 based systems spawned numerous spin-off versions, most notably CP/M-86 for the Intel 8086/8088 family of processors. Although CP/M had dominated the market, and was shipped with the vast majority of non-proprietary-architecture personal computers, the IBM PC in 1981 brought the beginning of what was eventually to be a massive change. IBM originally approached Digital Research, seeking an x86 version of CP/M. However, there were disagreements over the contract, and IBM withdrew. Instead, a deal was struck with Microsoft, who purchased another operating system, 86-DOS, from Seattle Computer Products. This became Microsoft MS-DOS and IBM PC DOS. 86-DOS' command structure and application programming interface imitated that of CP/M. Digital
    8.50
    2 votes
    73

    TI-10

    The TI-10 is one of the most basic educational calculators offered by Texas Instruments, aimed at students in grades K-3. It is the successor to the TI-7 MathMate. Its main improvement over the MathMate was the inclusion of a two-line dot-matrix display with scrollable entries. For older students, TI recommends the TI-15 Explorer.
    8.50
    2 votes
    74

    Berkeley Software Distribution

    • File Formats Supported: Mbox
    Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD, sometimes called Berkeley Unix) is a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995. Today the term "BSD" is often used non-specifically to refer to any of the BSD descendants which together form a branch of the family of Unix-like operating systems. Operating systems derived from the original BSD code remain actively developed and widely used. Historically, BSD has been considered a branch of UNIX—"BSD UNIX", because it shared the initial codebase and design with the original AT&T UNIX operating system. In the 1980s, BSD was widely adopted by vendors of workstation-class systems in the form of proprietary UNIX variants such as DEC ULTRIX and Sun Microsystems SunOS. This can be attributed to the ease with which it could be licensed, and the familiarity it found among the founders of many technology companies of this era. Though these proprietary BSD derivatives were largely superseded by the UNIX System V Release 4 and OSF/1 systems in the 1990s (both of which incorporated BSD code and are the basis of other modern Unix
    7.00
    3 votes
    75
    7.00
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    76
    Nintendo 64

    Nintendo 64

    • File Formats Supported: N64
    The Nintendo 64 (ニンテンドウ64, Nintendō Rokujūyon), often referred to as N64 (stylized as NINTENDO⁶⁴, formerly known as the Nintendo Ultra 64, and codenamed Project Reality) is Nintendo's third home video game console for the international market. Named for its 64-bit central processing unit, it was released in June 1996 in Japan, September 1996 in North America, March 1997 in Europe and Australia, September 1997 in France and December 1997 in Brazil. It is Nintendo's last home console to use ROM cartridges to store games (Nintendo switched to a MiniDVD-based format for the successor GameCube); handhelds in the Game Boy line, however, continued to use Game Paks. As part of the fifth generation of gaming, it primarily competed with the Sony PlayStation and the Sega Saturn. The N64 was discontinued in 2003 in Japan Europe North America and PAL regions by the launch of Nintendo's GameCube. The N64 was released with two launch games, Super Mario 64 and Pilotwings 64, and a third in Japan, Saikyō Habu Shōgi. The N64's suggested retail price was US $249.99 at its launch and it was later marketed with the slogan "Get N, or get Out!". The console was released in at least eight variants with
    7.00
    3 votes
    77
    7.00
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    78

    TI-95

    The TI-95, also called the TI-95 Procalc, is a keystroke programmable calculator and was introduced in 1987 by Texas Instruments. It was rather large, measuring 3.7" by 8" by 1" and had a dot-matrix display. It had 8kB of RAM and could be connected to PC-324 compatible printers. Compatible ROM and extra RAM could be placed in the expansion slot at the upper right corner of the device. The compatible ROM were labeled Mathematics, Statistics, and Chemistry, indicating their respective applications.
    7.00
    3 votes
    79
    7.00
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    80
    Harvard Mark I

    Harvard Mark I

    The IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), called the Mark I by Harvard University, was an electro-mechanical computer. The electromechanical ASCC was devised by Howard H. Aiken, built at IBM and shipped to Harvard in February 1944. It began computations for the U.S. Navy Bureau of Ships in May and was officially presented to the university on August 7, 1944. The ASCC was built from switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches. It used 765,000 components and hundreds of miles of wire, comprising a volume of 51 feet (16 m) in length, eight feet (2.4 m) in height, and two feet (~61 cm) deep. It had a weight of about 10,000 pounds (4500 kg). The basic calculating units had to be synchronized mechanically, so they were run by a 50-foot (~15.5 m) shaft driven by a five-horsepower (4 kW) electric motor. From the IBM Archives: The Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (Harvard Mark I) was the first operating machine that could execute long computations automatically. A project conceived by Harvard University's Dr. Howard Aiken, the Mark I was built by IBM engineers in Endicott, N.Y. A steel frame 51 feet (16 m) long and eight feet high held the calculator, which
    8.00
    2 votes
    81

    IBM 603

    The IBM 603 Electronic Multiplier was the first mass-produced commercial electronic calculating device; it used vacuum tubes to perform multiplication and addition. The IBM 603 was adapted as the arithmetic unit in the IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator. It was designed by James W. Bryce, and included circuits patented by A. Halsey Dickenson in 1937. The IBM 603 was developed in Endicott, New York, and announced on September 27, 1946. Only about 20 were built since the bulky tubes made it hard to manufacture, but the demand showed that the product was filling a need. The IBM 603 was the predecessor of the IBM 604, a programmable device with more complex capabilities. The 604 used a patented technique of using pluggable modules, which made the product more easily manufactured and serviced.
    8.00
    2 votes
    83
    8.00
    2 votes
    84
    6.67
    3 votes
    85
    Atari ST

    Atari ST

    • File Formats Supported: ANI
    The Atari ST is a home computer released by Atari Corporation in June 1985. It was commercially available from that summer into the early 1990s. The "ST" officially stands for "Sixteen/Thirty-two", which referred to the Motorola 68000's 16-bit external bus and 32-bit internals. Due to its graphical user inferface, it was known as the "Jackintosh", a reference to Jack Tramiel. The Atari ST was part of the 16/32 bit generation of home computers, based on the Motorola 68000 CPU noted for 128 kB of RAM or more, a graphical user interface, and 3½" microfloppy disks as storage. It was similar to the Apple Macintosh and its simple design allowed the ST to precede the Commodore Amiga's commercial release by almost two months. The Atari ST was also the first personal computer to come with a bit-mapped color GUI, using a version of Digital Research's GEM released that February. The ST was primarily a competitor to the Apple Macintosh and the Commodore Amiga systems. Where the Amiga had a graphics accelerator and wavetable synthesis, the ST had a simple frame buffer and a 3 voice synthesizer chip but with a CPU faster clocked, and had a high-resolution monochrome display mode, ideal for
    6.67
    3 votes
    86
    SSEC

    SSEC

    The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) was an electromechanical computer built by IBM. Its design was started in late 1944, and it operated from January 1948 to 1952. It had many of the features of a stored-program computer and was the first operational machine able to treat its instructions as data, but it was not fully electronic. Although the SSEC proved useful for several high-profile applications it soon became obsolete. As the last large electromechanical computer ever built, its greatest success was the publicity it provided for IBM. During World War II, International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) funded the construction of an Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC) for Howard H. Aiken at Harvard University. The machine, formally dedicated in August 1944, was widely known as the Harvard Mark I. The President of IBM, Thomas J. Watson, Sr., did not like Aiken's press release that gave no credit to IBM for its funding and engineering effort. Watson and Aiken decided to go their separate ways, and IBM began work on a project to build their own larger and more visible machine. Astronomer Wallace John Eckert of Columbia University provided
    6.67
    3 votes
    87
    TI-30

    TI-30

    The TI-30 was a scientific calculator manufactured by Texas Instruments, the first model of which was introduced in 1976. While the original TI-30 left production in 1983 after several design revisions, TI maintains the TI-30 designation as a branding for its low and mid-range scientific calculators. The original TI-30 was notable for its very low cost for the time, around US$25. This was much less than the retail prices of other scientific calculators of the era; for example, Hewlett-Packard's cheapest scientific at the time was still well over US$100. The Casio FX-20, another popular scientific calculator, sold for roughly double the price of the TI-30. The TI-30 sold for less than the cost of a professional grade slide rule, which became rapidly obsolete. The TI-30 sold an estimated 15 million units during its lifespan from 1976–1983. It is rumored that the original TI-30 got its name from a planned retail price of US$29.95 or US$30. Even if true, however, the MSRP was $24.95 at introduction, and all current models in the line are less than US$20 as of December 2007. However more elaborate graphing calculators such as the TI-84 which cost over $100 would become standardized in
    6.67
    3 votes
    88

    Windows NT

    • File Formats Supported: Udf
    Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. It was a powerful high-level-language-based, processor-independent, multiprocessing, multiuser operating system with features comparable to Unix. It was intended to complement consumer versions of Windows that were based on MS-DOS. NT was the first fully 32-bit version of Windows, whereas its consumer-oriented counterparts, Windows 3.1x and Windows 9x, were 16-bit/32-bit hybrids. Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, Windows Home Server, Windows Server 2008, Windows 7, Windows 8, and Windows Server 2012 are members of the Windows NT family, although they are not branded using the name "Windows NT". It is popularly believed that Dave Cutler intended the initialism "WNT" as a pun on VMS, incrementing each letter by one. However, the project was originally intended as a follow-on to OS/2 and was referred to as "NT OS/2" before receiving the Windows brand. One of the original NT developers, Mark Lucovsky, states that the name was taken from the original target processor—the Intel i860, code-named N10 ("N-Ten"). Various Microsoft publications,
    6.67
    3 votes
    89
    Calculator gaming

    Calculator gaming

    Calculator gaming is the phenomenon of programming and playing games on programmable calculators, especially graphing calculators. It is largely a pastime of high school and college students, who generally are required to use such powerful calculators in advanced mathematics classes; as a result, it is sometimes a clandestine activity done during class. A few games exist for even some of the earliest programmable calculators (including the Hewlett-Packard 9100A, one of the first full-fledged scientific calculators), including the long-popular Lunar Lander game often used as an early programming exercise. However, limited program address space and lack of easy program storage made calculator gaming a rarity even as programmables became cheap and relatively easy to obtain. It wasn't until the early 1990s when graphing calculators became powerful enough and cheap enough to be common among high school students for use in mathematics class; Handheld game consoles have always been popular and suddenly the newly powerful graphing calculators, with their ability to transfer files to one another and from a computer for backup, could double as game consoles. Calculators such as HP-48 and
    9.00
    1 votes
    90
    HP-10C series

    HP-10C series

    The HP-10C series calculators were introduced by Hewlett-Packard in 1981. Also known as the "Voyager" series, all are programmable, use Reverse Polish Notation, and feature continuous memory. Nearly identical in appearance, each model provided different capabilities and was aimed at different user markets. The HP calculators 10C series consisted of five models (with original retail price and years of production): The HP-12C remains in widespread use today. The HP-10C is the last and lowest-featured calculator in this line, even though its number would suggest an earlier origin. The 10C was a basic scientific programmable. While a useful general purpose RPN calculator, the HP-11C offered twice as much for only a slight increase in price. Designed to be an introductory calculator, it was still costly compared to the competition, and many looking at an HP would just step up to the better HP-11C. Poor sales led to a very short market life. The HP-11C is a mid-range scientific programmable calculator. The HP-12C is a popular financial calculator. It was such a successful model that Hewlett-Packard redesigned it from scratch, added several new functions, and introduced it as the HP-12C
    9.00
    1 votes
    91
    HP-48 series

    HP-48 series

    The HP-48 is a series of graphing calculators using Reverse Polish notation (RPN) and the RPL programming language, produced by Hewlett-Packard (HP) from 1990 until 2003. The series include the HP-48S, HP-48SX, HP-48G, HP-48GX, and HP-48G+, the G models being expanded and improved versions of the S models. The models with an X suffix are expandable via special RAM (memory expansion) and ROM (software application) cards. In particular, the GX models have more onboard memory than the G models. The G+ models have more onboard memory only. The SX and S models have the same amount of onboard memory. Note that the similarly named HP-48GII (2004) is not really a member of the series, but rather much more closely related to the HP-49G and HP-49G+. The hardware architecture developed for the HP-48 series became the basis for the HP-38G, with a simplified user interface and an infix input method, and the HP-49G with various software enhancements. Likewise, the hardware and software design of the HP-48 calculators are themselves strongly influenced by other calculators in the HP line, most of all by the HP-18C and the HP-28 series. The HP-48 series' Saturn microprocessor is a hybrid 64-bit /
    9.00
    1 votes
    92
    9.00
    1 votes
    93

    Apple DOS

    Apple DOS refers to operating systems for the Apple II series of microcomputers from late 1978 through early 1983. Apple DOS had three major releases: DOS 3.1, DOS 3.2, and DOS 3.3; each one of these three releases was followed by a second, minor "bug-fix" release, but only in the case of Apple DOS 3.2 did that minor release receive its own version number, Apple DOS 3.2.1. The best-known and most-used version was Apple DOS 3.3 in the 1980 and 1983 releases. Prior to the release of Apple DOS 3.1, Apple users had to rely on audio cassette tapes for data storage and retrieval, but that method was notoriously slow, inconvenient and unreliable. Apple DOS was largely written by Steve Wozniak, Randy Wigginton, and outside contractor Paul Laughton. To the dismay of many programmers, Apple published no official documentation until release 3.2. There was no Apple DOS 1 or 2, per se. Versions 0.1 through 2.8 were serially enumerated revisions during development (which might as well have been called builds 1 through 28). Apple DOS 3.0 (a renamed issue of version 2.8) was never publicly released due to bugs. Apple DOS 3.1 was publicly released in June 1978 (slightly less than one year after the
    7.50
    2 votes
    94
    BlackBerry

    BlackBerry

    • File Formats Supported: Ipd
    BlackBerry is a brand of wireless handheld devices and services developed by Research In Motion (RIM). The first BlackBerry device, an email pager, was released in 1999; the 100 millionth BlackBerry smartphone was shipped in June quarter of 2010 and the 200 millionth smartphone was shipped in September quarter of 2012. Most BlackBerry devices are smartphones and are primarily known for their ability to send and receive push email and instant messages while maintaining a high level of security through on-device message encryption. They are also designed to function as personal digital assistants, portable media players, internet browsers, gaming devices, cameras and more. BlackBerry devices support a large variety of instant messaging features, with the most popular being the proprietary BlackBerry Messenger service. The BlackBerry PlayBook is a tablet computer offered by RIM. BlackBerry accounts for 3% of mobile device sales worldwide in 2011, making its manufacturer RIM the sixth most popular device maker (25% of mobile device sales are smartphones). The consumer BlackBerry Internet Service is available in 91 countries worldwide on over 500 mobile service operators using various
    7.50
    2 votes
    95
    Gravis Ultrasound

    Gravis Ultrasound

    • File Formats Supported: Pat
    Gravis UltraSound or GUS is a sound card for the IBM PC compatible system platform, made by Canada-based Advanced Gravis Computer Technology Ltd. It was very popular in the demo scene in the 1990s, due to its superior sound quality compared to similarly-priced soundcards of its time. The Gravis UltraSound was unique at the time of its launch (1992) with its use of 'wavetable' sample-based music synthesis technology on the IBM PC platform — the ability to use real-world sound recordings rather than artificial computer-generated waveforms to base a musical instrument on; so a piano sounds like an actual real piano, a trumpet like an actual trumpet, etc. The GUS was remarkable for MIDI playback quality with a large set of instrument patches that could be stored in its own RAM, having up to 32 hardware audio channels. The cards (all manufactured on red PCBs, similar to fellow Canadian company ATI) were very agreeably priced, although a little more expensive than Creative cards; they undercut many equivalent professional cards aimed at musicians by a huge margin, and brought CD quality audio reproduction (44.1 kHz ; 16-bit ; stereo) within the grasp of home PC users. The first
    7.50
    2 votes
    96

    HP-40G

    The HP-40G is an algebraic entry only graphing calculator from HP. Based on the HP-38G design, numerous firmware improvements and the inclusion of a CAS made this a very capable math platform. The hardware is identical to the HP-49/39G series (complete with rubber keyboard), and the CAS is identical to that used in the HP-49G. Unlike its "bigger brothers", the HP-40G has no flags to set/mis-set resulting in a "better behaved" calculator for straightforward math analysis. Additionally the HP-40G does not have infrared connectivity, and is limited to 27 variables. A list-based solver, and other handicaps make this simple-to-use calculator less adapted to higher end use. The HP-40G is not allowed for use in many standardized tests including the ACT and SAT tests. Comparison of HP graphing calculators
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    2 votes
    97
    IPAQ

    IPAQ

    • File Formats Supported: Tsk
    iPAQ presently refers to a Pocket PC and personal digital assistant first unveiled by Compaq in April 2000; the name was borrowed from Compaq's earlier iPAQ Desktop Personal Computers. Since Hewlett-Packard's acquisition of Compaq, the product has been marketed by HP. The devices use a Windows Mobile interface. In addition to this, there are several Linux distributions that will also operate on some of these devices. Earlier, units were modular. "Sleeve" accessories, technically called jackets, which slide around the unit and add functionality such as a card reader, wireless networking, GPS, and even extra batteries were used. Current iPAQs have most of these features integrated into the base device itself. Hewlett-Packard introduced the first SmartPhone iPaq Pocket PC that looks like a regular cell phone and has VoIP capability. The series is the HP iPAQ 500 Series Voice Messenger. HP's current line-up of iPAQ devices includes PDA-devices, Smartphones and GPS-navigators. A substantial number of current and past devices are outsourced from Taiwanese HTC corporation. The iPAQ was developed by Compaq based on the SA-1110 "Assabet" and SA-1111 "Neponset" reference boards that were
    7.50
    2 votes
    98

    Mac OS X

    • File Formats Supported: Tagged Image File Format
    OS X ( /oʊ ˌɛs ˈtɛn/), formerly Mac OS X, is a series of Unix-based graphical interface operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. OS X is designed to run exclusively on Macintosh computers, having been pre-loaded on all Macs since 2002. OS X, whose X is the Roman numeral for 10 and is a prominent part of its brand identity, is built on technologies developed at NeXT between the second half of the 1980s and Apple's purchase of the company in late 1996. It was the successor to Mac OS 9, released in 1999, the final release of the "classic" Mac OS, which had been Apple's primary operating system since 1984. Apple also uses 'X' in 'OS X' to emphasize the relatedness between OS X and UNIX. Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard" running on Intel processors, Mac OS X v10.6 "Snow Leopard", OS X v10.7 "Lion" and OS X v10.8 "Mountain Lion" have obtained UNIX 03 certification. iOS, which runs on the iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad, and the 2nd and 3rd generation Apple TV, shares the Darwin core and many frameworks with OS X. An unnamed variant of Mac OS X 10.4 powered the first generation Apple TV. OS X originally ran on PowerPC-based Macs. In 2006, the first Intel Macs had a specialized
    7.50
    2 votes
    99

    Radeon

    • File Formats Supported: Ara
    Radeon  /ˈreɪdiːɒn/ is a brand of graphics processing units and random access memory produced by Advanced Micro Devices. The brand was launched in 2000 by ATI Technologies, which was acquired by AMD in 2006. Radeon is the successor to the Rage line. There are four different groups, which can be differentiated by the DirectX generation they support. More specific distinctions can also be followed, such as the HyperZ version, the number of pixel pipelines, and of course, the memory and processor clock speeds. AMD no longer sells Radeon cards directly at the retail level. Instead, it sells Radeon GPUs to third-party manufacturers, who build and sell the Radeon-based video cards to the OEM and retail channels. Manufacturers of the Radeon cards include Sapphire, XFX, Asus, Gigabyte, MSI, Biostar, Gainward, Diamond, HIS, PowerColor, Club 3D, VisionTek and Force3D. Currently, ATI names each card by generation, series, and by performance. The first number is the generation number (e.g. 5000) and is related to the chipset used by the video card. The second number indicates the series quality in the generation, starting from: The third digit is the relative quality, within a series–a 5850 is
    7.50
    2 votes
    100
    7.50
    2 votes
    101
    Sound Blaster

    Sound Blaster

    • File Formats Supported: Voc
    The Sound Blaster family of sound cards was the de facto standard for consumer audio on the IBM PC compatible system platform, until the widespread transition to Microsoft Windows 95, which standardized the programming interface at application level (eliminating the importance of backward compatibility with Sound Blaster), and the evolution in PC design led to onboard motherboard-audio, which commoditized PC audio functionality. The creator of Sound Blaster is the Singapore-based firm Creative Technology, also known by the name of its United States subsidiary, Creative Labs. The history of Creative sound cards started with the release of the Creative Music System ("C/MS") board in August 1987. It contained two Philips SAA 1099 circuits, which, together, provided 12 voices of square-wave bee-in-a-box stereo sound plus some noise channels. These circuits were featured earlier in various popular electronics magazines around the world. For many years Creative tended to use off-the-shelf components and manufacturers' reference designs for their early products. The various integrated circuits had white or black paper sheets fully covering their top thus hiding their identity. On the C/MS
    7.50
    2 votes
    102

    Windows 98

    Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system by Microsoft. It is the second major release in the Windows 9x line of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on May 15, 1998 and to retail on June 25, 1998. Windows 98 is the successor to Windows 95. Like its predecessor, it is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit monolithic product with an MS-DOS based boot stage. Windows 98 was succeeded by Windows 98 Second Edition on May 5, 1999, then by Windows Me (Millennium Edition) on September 14, 2000. Microsoft ended support for Windows 98 on July 11, 2006. Development of Windows 98 began in the 1990s, initially using the codename "Memphis" to refer to the product. Many builds were released or leaked, starting with build 1351 on December 15, 1996 and ending with Windows 98 Second Edition. The startup and shutdown sounds of Windows 98's final version was composed during circa September 1997 and were first featured in the Beta 2.1 (build 1602) in October that year. Windows 98 includes Internet Explorer 4.01. Besides Internet Explorer, many other Internet companion applications are included such as Outlook Express, Windows Address Book, FrontPage Express, Microsoft Chat,
    7.50
    2 votes
    103
    CASIO fx-9860G Series

    CASIO fx-9860G Series

    The 9860 series are CASIO manufactured graphing calculators. Some of the improvements compared to older models are: Natural Display, a USB port, flash memory, upgradeable OS (through ROM updates) and a high contrast display LCD. There are several versions of the fx-9860G; the standard fx-9860G, often referred to as the 'vanilla' flavor, and the SD, AU and Slim versions. The usual fx-9860G and fx-9860G SD are marketed in France as Graph85 and Graph85 SD. The French versions of the GII models are the Graph 75 and Graph 95. The Australian version of the GII is the fx-9860G AU PLUS. The calculators can be programmed through a couple of ways. The fx-9860G's come with a built-in BASIC-like interpreter (Casio BASIC), allowing the user to create simple programs using built-in functionality. The other method is to create an add-in. Add-ins are binary programs, executing directly on the calculator's CPU. CASIO has released two official add-ins, GEOMETRY and PHYSIUM. An SDK was released by CASIO in 22/01/2007, allowing users to create their own add-ins, though no support is provided for this by CASIO. The add-ins and the SDK are available for registered users at CASIO's website. Add-ins and
    6.33
    3 votes
    104
    Elektronika MK-61

    Elektronika MK-61

    The Elektronika MK-61 (Russian: Электро́ника МК-61) is a third-generation non-BASIC, RPN programmable calculator which was manufactured in the Soviet Union during the years 1983 to 1991. Its original selling price was 85 rubles. The functionality of the MK-61 is identical to that of the MK-52, except the MK-52 has an internal non-volatile EEPROM memory module, for permanent data storage and also has the capability of using external EEPROM modules. The MK-61 is functionally very similar to the MK-54, the B3-34 and B3-21 Elektronika calculators, all of which are renowned for having a very large number of undocumented functions. The MK-61 has 105 steps of volatile program memory and 15 memory registers. It functions using either three AA-size battery cells or a wall plug. It has a ten-digit (eight digit mantissa, two digit exponent) green vacuum fluorescent display. The MK-61 was in production from 1985 to 1993.
    6.33
    3 votes
    105
    IPhone

    IPhone

    • File Formats Supported: PNG
    The iPhone ( /ˈaɪfoʊn/ EYE-fohn) is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPhone runs Apple's iOS mobile operating system, originally named "iPhone OS". The first iPhone was released on June 29, 2007; the most recent iPhone, the 6th-generation iPhone 5, was released on September 21, 2012. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard rather than a physical one. The iPhone has Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity (2G, 3G and 4G (iPhone 5 only)). An iPhone can shoot video (though this was not a standard feature until the iPhone 3GS), take photos, play music, send and receive email, browse the web, send texts, and receive visual voicemail. Other functions—games, reference, GPS navigation, social networking, etc.—can be enabled by downloading apps; as of 2012, the App Store offered more than 700,000 apps by Apple and third parties. There are six generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the six major releases of iOS (formerly iPhone OS). The original iPhone was a GSM phone, and established design precedents, such as screen size and button placement, that have persisted through all models. The iPhone 3G
    6.33
    3 votes
    106

    QNX

    QNX (/ˌkjuː ˌɛn ˈɛks/ or /ˈkjuːnɨks/) is a commercial Unix-like real-time operating system, aimed primarily at the embedded systems market. The product was originally developed by Canadian company QNX Software Systems, which was later acquired by Research In Motion. As a microkernel-based OS, QNX is based on the idea of running most of the OS in the form of a number of small tasks, known as servers. This differs from the more traditional monolithic kernel, in which the operating system is a single very large program composed of a huge number of "parts" with special abilities. In the case of QNX, the use of a microkernel allows users (developers) to turn off any functionality they do not require without having to change the OS itself; instead, those servers are simply not run. The system is quite small, with earlier versions fitting on a single floppy disk. QNX Neutrino (2001) has been ported to a number of platforms and now runs on practically any modern CPU that is used in the embedded market. This includes the PowerPC, x86 family, MIPS, SH-4 and the closely related family of ARM, StrongARM and XScale CPUs. QNX offers a license for non-commercial & academic users. QNX Neutrino is
    6.33
    3 votes
    107
    TI-68

    TI-68

    The TI-68 was a scientific pocket/desktop calculator produced by Texas Instruments. It was introduced in 1989 and was modified in 1991 to a cheaper to produce and possibly more durable version. The picture to the right is the later version. It was discontinued in 2002. A wealth of features made it a versatile calculator. Named variables, and interactive formulas of up to 79 keystrokes, could be stored, subject to a total memory usage of 440 bytes. Some features included a simultaneous equations solver, a polynomial root finder, two-variable statistics, complex numbers, and a recall feature, which would display the last equation entered and its answer. It had several features useful to computer programmers, such as radix modes and conversions and bitset operators. It had an alphanumeric keyboard and display. It was also produced by Radio Shack as model EC-4044, but in a different color scheme.
    6.33
    3 votes
    108
    TiLP

    TiLP

    TiLP2 is a linking program that sends/receives files from Texas Instruments Graphing Calculators. TiLP2 works on many different operating systems like Linux/Unix, Mac OS X, FreeBSD, Microsoft Windows (including 64-bit versions) and so on. It supports all the Link Cables and many calculators such as the TI-83+, TI-89 (Titanium) and is licensed under the GPL. The TiLP team consists of these team members:
    6.33
    3 votes
    109

    Solaris Operating System

    Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in 1993. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known, has been owned by Oracle Corporation since Oracle's acquisition of Sun in January 2010. Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider. Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86-based workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors, with efforts underway to port to additional platforms. Solaris is registered as compliant with the Single Unix Specification. Solaris was historically developed as proprietary software, then in June 2005 Sun Microsystems released most of the codebase under the CDDL license, and founded the OpenSolaris open source project. With OpenSolaris, Sun wanted to build a developer and user community around the software. After the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in January 2010, Oracle decided to discontinue the OpenSolaris distribution and the development model. Just ten days before the internal Oracle memo announcing this decision to employees was "leaked", Garrett D'Amore had announced the illumos project,
    6.00
    3 votes
    110
    Sony Mavica

    Sony Mavica

    • File Formats Supported: Mvc
    Mavica was a brand of Sony cameras which used removable disks as the main recording media. In August, 1981, Sony announced the Sony Mavica (Magnetic Video Camera) electronic still camera, the first commercial electronic still camera. It was not a digital camera, as its CCD sensor produced an analog video signal in the NTSC format at a resolution of 570 × 490 pixels. Mavipak 2.0" diskettes (later adopted industry-wide as the Video Floppy and labelled "VF") were used to write 50 still frames. The pictures were viewed on a television screen. Otherwise, this camera is positioned as the "pioneer of the digital era". The unreleased original MAVICA as well as the later ProMavica MVC-5000 and MVC-7000 were designed as single lens reflex systems with interchangeable lenses. At least the ProMavica MVC-7000 also featured lens mount adapters for Nikon and Canon lenses. The VF format soon evolved into the backward-compatible Hi-VF format, supported by the ProMavica MVC-7000 and the Hi-Band Mavica models. The later Digital Mavicas recorded onto 3.5" 1.4 MiB 2HD floppy disks in computer-readable DOS FAT12 format, a feature that made them very popular in the North American market. With the
    6.00
    3 votes
    111
    7.00
    2 votes
    112

    AmigaOS

    AmigaOS is the proprietary native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. It was developed first by Commodore International and introduced with the launch of the first Amiga, the Amiga 1000, in 1985. Early versions of AmigaOS required the Motorola 68000 series of 16-bit and 32-bit microprocessors. Later versions were developed by Haage & Partner (AmigaOS 3.5 and 3.9) and then Hyperion Entertainment (AmigaOS 4.0-4.1). A PowerPC microprocessor is required for the most recent release, AmigaOS 4. AmigaOS is a single-user operating system based on a preemptive multitasking kernel, called Exec. It includes an abstraction of the Amiga's hardware, a disk operating system called AmigaDOS, a windowing system API called Intuition and a desktop file manager called Workbench. A command-line interface (CLI), called AmigaShell, is also integrated into the system, though it too is entirely window based. The CLI and Workbench components share the same privileges. Notably, early versions of AmigaOS lack any built-in memory protection. The current holder of the Amiga intellectual properties is Amiga Inc. In 2001 they contracted AmigaOS 4 development to Hyperion Entertainment and in 2009 they
    7.00
    2 votes
    113

    Command-line interface

    A command-line interface (CLI) is a means of interaction with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines). The command-line interface evolved from a form of dialog once conducted by humans over teleprinter machines, in which human operators remotely exchanged information, usually one line of text at a time. Early computer systems often used teleprinter machines as the means of interaction with a human operator. The computer became one end of the human-to-human teleprinter model. So instead of a human communicating with another human over a teleprinter, a human communicated with a computer. In time, the actual mechanical teleprinter was replaced by a glass tty (keyboard and screen, but emulating the teleprinter), and then by a terminal (where the computer software could address all of the screen, rather than only print successive lines). Due to its text-based nature, a command-line interface is sometimes confused with the text-based user interface, a kind of user interface which uses only text, but not necessarily presented in successive lines. Text may be formatted and appear in fixed locations
    7.00
    2 votes
    114
    7.00
    2 votes
    115
    TI-58 C

    TI-58 C

    The TI-58 was a programmable pocket calculator made by Texas Instruments (TI). The TI-58 was introduced in May 1977 and replaced by TI-58C in 1979. The TI-58 cost US$125 at its introduction, the TI-58C sold on average for about US$90. The calculator was removed from TI's product line in 1983. Although the TI-58C used a different chip than the TI-58, the technical data remained identical. The "C" in a TI (or HP) model name indicated that the calculator had a constant memory (or continuous memory, respectively) allowing retention of programs and data when turned off. The calculator included a socket for a master module chip that added additional programs to the function set of the calculator. It was compatible with the TI-59, albeit with half the memory and no magnetic card reader. A power cradle/thermal printer was also available for the TI-58, sold separately. The TI-58 and TI-58C were competitors to the HP-25 and HP-25C calculators produced by Hewlett-Packard.
    7.00
    2 votes
    116
    HP-UX

    HP-UX

    HP-UX (Hewlett-Packard UniX) is Hewlett-Packard's proprietary implementation of the Unix operating system, based on UNIX System V (initially System III) and first released in 1984. Recent versions support the HP 9000 series of computer systems, based on the PA-RISC processor architecture, and HP Integrity systems, based on Intel's Itanium architecture. Earlier versions of HP-UX supported the HP Integral PC and HP 9000 Series 200, 300, and 400 computer systems based on the Motorola 68000 series of processors, as well as the HP 9000 Series 500 computers based on HP's proprietary FOCUS processor architecture. HP-UX was the first Unix to offer access control lists for file access permissions as an alternative to the standard Unix permissions system. HP-UX was also among the first Unix systems to include a built-in logical volume manager. HP has had a long partnership with Veritas Software, and integrates VxFS as the primary file system. In 2008 HP-UX 11i was credited with leadership in integrated mission-critical virtualization, observed performance, high availability and manageability. The current shipping release is HP-UX 11i v3 with the March 2012 update release (the 10th update for
    8.00
    1 votes
    117
    Kurzweil K2000

    Kurzweil K2000

    • File Formats Supported: Kr1
    The Kurzweil K2000 is a 16 bit sampler with a complex synthesis architecture by Kurzweil Music Systems, similar to the EMU Emulator III. The K2000 features a technology dubbed V.A.S.T., which stands for "Variable Architecture Synthesis Technology", a marketing term for the K2000's digital signal processing (DSP) based sound processing system. V.A.S.T stand for variable-architecture synthesis technology. It is variable in that the user can select different signal paths, which contain different DSP functions, for use in creating and shaping a sound. V.A.S.T. also includes an extensive modulation system, similar in concept to that of analog modular synthesizers. A wide array of modulation sources can be assigned to various parameters within a signal path, and modulation sources can be combined to create new modulation sources. The basic component of a V.A.S.T. program is a "layer". A layer on the K2000 contains a single "algorithm", which contains up to four slots for user-assignable DSP functions. The algorithm assigned to a layer is preceded by several other functions, or "blocks". There is the "keymap" block, which determines which (if any) samples are assigned to the keyboard in
    8.00
    1 votes
    118
    FidoNet

    FidoNet

    • File Formats Supported: Pkt
    FidoNet is a worldwide computer network that is used for communication between bulletin board systems (BBSs). It uses a store and forward system to exchange private (email) and public (forum) messages between the BBSs in the network, as well as other files and protocols in some cases. To save on long distance calling charges when those were expensive, FidoNet used a number of techniques to ensure data was compressed using the then-latest methods of data compression. As a side-effect of its creation history, FidoNet was based on a number of small interacting programs. Only one of these interacted with the BBS system directly, and was the only portion that had to be ported to support other BBS software. As a result, FidoNet was one of the few networks that was widely supported by almost all BBS software, as well as a number of systems for talking to non-BBS online services. The rapid improvement in modem speeds during the early 1990s, combined with the rapid decrease in price of computer systems and storage, made BBSes increasingly popular, and FidoNet along with it. By the mid-1990s it was possible to communicate with millions of users on tens of thousands of FidoNet systems around
    5.67
    3 votes
    119
    5.67
    3 votes
    120
    6.50
    2 votes
    121

    IRIX

    IRIX is a computer operating system developed by Silicon Graphics, Inc. (SGI) to run natively on their MIPS architecture workstations and servers. It was based on UNIX System V with BSD extensions. IRIX was the first operating system to include the XFS file system. The last major version of IRIX was IRIX 6.5 which was released in May 1998. New minor versions of IRIX 6.5 were released every quarter until 2005; since then there have been four further minor releases. Through version 6.5.22, there were two branches of each release: a maintenance release (identified by an m suffix to the version number) that included only fixes to the original IRIX 6.5 code, and a feature release (with an f suffix) that included improvements and enhancements. An overlay upgrade from 6.5.x to the 6.5.22 maintenance release is available as a free download, whereas versions 6.5.23 and higher require an active Silicon Graphics support contract, despite only running on Silicon Graphics hardware. The IRIX name was first used around the time of release 3.0 of the operating system for SGI's IRIS 4D series of workstations and servers, in 1988. Previous releases were identified only by the release number prefixed
    6.50
    2 votes
    122
    6.50
    2 votes
    123
    6.50
    2 votes
    124
    Windows CE

    Windows CE

    • File Formats Supported: Htc
    Microsoft Windows CE (now officially known as Windows Embedded Compact and previously also known as Windows Embedded CE, and sometimes abbreviated WinCE) is an operating system developed by Microsoft for embedded systems. Windows CE is a distinct operating system and kernel, rather than a trimmed-down version of desktop Windows. It is not to be confused with Windows Embedded Standard which is an NT-based componentized version of desktop Microsoft Windows. Microsoft licenses Windows CE to OEMs and device makers. The OEMs and device makers can modify and create their own user interfaces and experiences, with Windows CE providing the technical foundation to do so. The current version of Windows Embedded Compact supports Intel x86 and compatibles, MIPS, and ARM processors. Windows CE is optimized for devices that have minimal storage; a Windows CE kernel may run in under a megabyte of memory. Devices are often configured without disk storage, and may be configured as a "closed" system that does not allow for end-user extension (for instance, it can be burned into ROM). Windows CE conforms to the definition of a real-time operating system, with a deterministic interrupt latency. From
    6.50
    2 votes
    125
    TI PLT SHH1

    TI PLT SHH1

    TI PLT SHH1 (Personal Learning Tool, Spot Hand Held) is a prototype calculator created by Texas Instruments as an early attempt to develop a Linux based calculator. It features an ARM based OMAP 1510 processor, 16 MB RAM, and an SD slot. In conjunction with its TI PLT-FHH1 Personal Learning Tool, Fido Hand Held and TI PLT-SU1 Personal Learning Tool, second generation are prototype calculators. The project was eventually scrapped by TI in early 2004. However, a few of the early prototypes such as the PLT SSH1 leaked to the public, making it one of a few rare prototypes among collectors. A few elements of its design, including its large screen and casing, seem to have been reappropriated for use in the TI-Nspire. PLT-FHH1 Personal Learning Tool, Fido Hand Held · PLT-WS1 Personal Learning Tool, Wireless Sled (PET project was canceled)
    5.33
    3 votes
    126
    Windows Vista

    Windows Vista

    Windows Vista is an operating system released in several variations by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs, and media center PCs. Prior to its announcement on July 22, 2005, Windows Vista was known by its codename "Longhorn". Development was completed on November 8, 2006, and over the following three months, it was released in stages to computer hardware and software manufacturers, business customers and retail channels. On January 30, 2007, it was released worldwide and was made available for purchase and download from Microsoft's website. The release of Windows Vista came more than five years after the introduction of its predecessor, Windows XP, the longest time span between successive releases of Microsoft Windows desktop operating systems. It was succeeded by Windows 7, which was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009 and released worldwide for retail on October 22, 2009. Windows Vista contained many changes and new features, including an updated graphical user interface and visual style dubbed Aero, a redesigned search function, multimedia tools including Windows DVD Maker, and redesigned networking, audio,
    7.00
    1 votes
    127
    6.00
    2 votes
    128
    OpenVMS

    OpenVMS

    • File Formats Supported: Bck
    OpenVMS (Open Virtual Memory System), previously known as VAX-11/VMS, VAX/VMS or (informally) VMS, is a computer server operating system that runs on VAX, Alpha and Itanium-based families of computers. Contrary to what its name suggests, OpenVMS is not open source software; however, the source listings are available for purchase. Unlike many other mainframe-oriented operating systems, OpenVMS has a graphical user interface (GUI) with complete graphics support. Digital Equipment Corporation's VAX was one of the three top-selling workstations lines in the 1980s and 1990s. VMS had support for professional DTP and CAE software. Software for AXP based systems was promoted by Digital's ASAP program (Association of Software and Application Partners) and could be found in the extensive "Alpha Applications Catalog". AXP VMS supported OpenGL and Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) graphics adapters. OpenVMS is a multi-user, multiprocessing virtual memory-based operating system (OS) designed for use in time sharing, batch processing, real-time (where process priorities can be set higher than OS kernel jobs), and transaction processing. It offers high system availability through clustering, or the
    6.00
    2 votes
    129
    6.00
    2 votes
    130

    Sharp PC-1401

    The Sharp PC-1401 is a small pocket computer manufactured by Sharp. It was introduced in 1983 and represents a combination of scientific calculator and computer with BASIC interpreter. The PC-1402 has the same features but includes 10K of RAM.
    6.00
    2 votes
    131
    TI-86

    TI-86

    The TI-86 is a programmable graphing calculator introduced in 1997 and produced by Texas Instruments. The TI-86 uses the Zilog Z80 microprocessor. It is partially backwards-compatible with its predecessor, the TI-85. The TI-86 can be thought of as the tier among various Texas Instruments calculators directly above the TI-83 and TI-84 line. In addition to having a larger screen than the TI-83, the TI-86 also allows the user to type in lower case and Greek letters and features five softkeys, which improve menu navigation and can be programmed by the user for quick access to common operations such as decimal-to-fraction conversion. The calculator also handles vectors, matrices and complex numbers better than the TI-83. One drawback, however, is that the statistics package on the TI-83 range doesn't come preloaded on the TI-86. However, it can be downloaded from the Texas Instruments program archive and installed on the calculator using the link cable. The TI-86 has been discontinued.
    6.00
    2 votes
    132
    Nintendo Entertainment System

    Nintendo Entertainment System

    • File Formats Supported: Nez
    The Nintendo Entertainment System (also abbreviated as NES or simply called Nintendo) is an 8-bit video game console that was released by Nintendo in North America during 1985, in Europe during 1986 and Australia in 1987. In most of Asia, including Japan (where it was first launched in 1983), China, Vietnam, Singapore, the Middle East and Hong Kong, it was released as the Family Computer (ファミリーコンピュータ, Famirī Konpyūta), commonly shortened as either the Famicom (ファミコン, Famikon), or abbreviated to FC. In South Korea, it was known as the Hyundai Comboy (현대 컴보이) and was distributed by Hynix which then was known as Hyundai Electronics. It was succeeded by the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983, and set the standard for subsequent consoles of its generation. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute software for Nintendo's platform. In 2009, the Nintendo Entertainment System was named the single greatest video game console in history by IGN, out of a
    5.50
    2 votes
    133
    Super Nintendo Entertainment System

    Super Nintendo Entertainment System

    • File Formats Supported: Fig
    The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (also known as the Super NES, SNES or Super Nintendo) is a 16-bit video game console that was released by Nintendo in North America, Europe, Australasia (Oceania), and South America between 1990 and 1996. In Japan and Southeast Asia, the system is called the Super Famicom (スーパーファミコン, officially adopting the abbreviated name of its predecessor, the Family Computer), or SFC for short. In South Korea, it is known as the Super Comboy (슈퍼 컴보이) and was distributed by Hyundai Electronics. Although each version is essentially the same, several forms of regional lockout prevent the different versions from being compatible with one another. The Super Nintendo Entertainment System is Nintendo's second home console, following the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). The console introduced advanced graphics and sound capabilities compared with other consoles at the time. Additionally, development of a variety of enhancement chips (which were integrated on game circuit boards) helped to keep it competitive in the marketplace. The SNES was a global success, becoming the best-selling console of the 16-bit era despite its relatively late start and the fierce
    5.50
    2 votes
    134
    TI-Nspire CAS

    TI-Nspire CAS

    The TI-Nspire product line is a series of graphing calculators developed by Texas Instruments. This line currently includes the TI-Nspire, TI-Nspire CAS, TI-Nspire CX and TI-Nspire CX CAS. There is also software available for Windows and Mac OS X that act in similar ways to the calculators and allow the user to create compatible files. In 2010, Texas Instruments updated the calculators to the Touchpad versions which come with the Nspire or Nspire CAS computer software and support optional rechargeable batteries. In 2011, TI announced two new models of the TI-Nspire series: Nspire CX and Nspire CX CAS. The main new features are the color screen, rechargeable battery and thinner design. The TI-Nspire series is completely different from the previous versions of the Texas Instruments's calculators. Because TI wanted the calculator to feel more familiar for new users, the TI-Nspire uses a user interface that is more similar to PCs than regular calculators. It also handles documents in a similar way to PCs. The TI-Nspire was the first to be released in two models; a numeric and CAS version. The numeric is slightly similar in features to the TI-84, except with a bigger and higher
    5.50
    2 votes
    135
    Casio fx-3650P

    Casio fx-3650P

    Casio fx-3650P is a programmable scientific calculator manufactured by Casio Computer Co., Ltd. It can store 12 digits for the mantissa and 2 digits for the exponent together with the expression each time when the "EXE" button is pressed. Also, the calculator can use the previous result to do calculations by pressing "Ans". The calculator is available in 6 modes: In this mode, if the result have both real and imaginary part, an "R↔I" symbol will appear at the top-right corner. This mode is for statistical calculation. For some input data, sum of squares of values (Σx), sum of values (Σx), number of data (n), sample standard deviation (xσn-1) and population standard deviation (xσn) can be calculated. This mode is for statistical calculation and can be divided further into For some input ordered pairs, one of the below can be calculated. (The availability differs from modes.) Σx, Σx, n, Σy, Σy, Σxy, , xσn, xσn-1, , yσn, yσn-1, Regression coefficient A, Regression coefficient B, Correlation coefficient r, , , Σx, Σxy, Σx, Regression coefficient C, 1and 2 The calculator can hold up to 4 programs with total capacity of 360 bt Program commands: Conditional jumps should be used in the
    4.67
    3 votes
    136
    Arduino

    Arduino

    Arduino is an open-source single-board microcontroller, descendant of the open-source Wiring platform, designed to make the process of using electronics in multidisciplinary projects more accessible. The hardware consists of a simple open hardware design for the Arduino board with an Atmel AVR processor and on-board input/output support. The software consists of a standard programming language compiler and the boot loader that runs on the board. Arduino hardware is programmed using a Wiring-based language (syntax and libraries), similar to C++ with some slight simplifications and modifications, and a Processing-based integrated development environment. Current versions can be purchased pre-assembled; hardware design information is available for those who would like to assemble an Arduino by hand. Additionally, variations of the Italian-made Arduino—with varying levels of compatibility—have been released by third parties; some of them are programmed using the Arduino software. The Arduino project received an honorary mention in the Digital Communities category at the 2006 Prix Ars Electronica. In 2005, in Ivrea, Italy (the site of the computer company Olivetti), a project was
    6.00
    1 votes
    137

    Gecko

    Gecko is a free and open source layout engine used in many applications developed by Mozilla Foundation and the Mozilla Corporation (notably the Firefox web browser), as well as in many other open source software projects. It is designed to support open Internet standards, and is used by different applications to display web pages and, in some cases, an application's user interface itself (by rendering XUL). Gecko offers a rich programming API that makes it suitable for a wide variety of roles in Internet-enabled applications, such as web browsers, content presentation, and client/server. Gecko is written in C++ and is cross-platform, and runs on various operating systems including BSDs, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, OS/2, AIX, OpenVMS, and Microsoft Windows. Its development is now overseen by the Mozilla Foundation and is licensed under version 2 of the Mozilla Public License. Gecko is the third most-common layout engine on the World Wide Web, after Trident (used by Internet Explorer for Windows since version 4) and WebKit (used by Safari and Google Chrome), and followed by Presto (used by Opera). Development of the layout engine now known as Gecko began at Netscape in 1997, following
    6.00
    1 votes
    138
    6.00
    1 votes
    139
    IBM 632

    IBM 632

    The IBM 632 was a valve-and-relay driven basic (very basic) accounting machine, introduced in 1958, that was available in seven different models. It consisted of an IBM Electric typewriter and at least a punched card unit (like the IBM 024) that housed the "electronics" in two gates (a relay gate and an electronic gate). Some machines also had a card reader unit (like the IBM 026). A small core memory provided storage for 8 numeric 12 digit words. The machine was programmed primarily with a plastic tape that moved synchronously with the typewriter carriage. Each tape would typically handle one application. The tape mechanism was mounted behind the carriage in the typewriter unit. Further programming was provided in the card machines program drums. Programs were only executed as the machine typed or spaced over a column - tabbing or carriage returning was not recognised. As the typewriter carriage moved from field to field three program entries were available in the last three columns of each field - as I recall they were Calc1, Calc2, and Pgm. One calculation was allowed in each Calc column. The PGM field allowed a program instruction - a jump in the form of a "jump" to a new
    6.00
    1 votes
    140
    MK-52

    MK-52

    The Elektronika MK-52 (Russian: Электро́ника МК-52) is RPN-programmable calculator which was manufactured in the Soviet Union during the years 1983 to 1992. The functionality of the MK-52 is identical to that of the MK-61, except the MK-52 has an internal non-volatile EEPROM memory module, for permanent data storage, diagnostic slot, and slot for ROM modules. Programming language and functionality of MK-52 and MK-61 are extensions of the MK-54, the B3-34 and B3-21 Elektronika calculators. It is the only known calculator to have internal storage in the form of an EEPROM module. All Soviet calculators are renowned for having a very large number of undocumented functions. The MK-52 has 105 steps of volatile program memory, an internal EEPROM module (with 512 bytes of memory) and 15 memory registers. It functions using either four AA-size battery cells or a wall plug. It has a relatively dim, ten-digit (8 digit mantissa, 2 digit exponent) green vacuum fluorescent display. The MK-52 has an expansion port to which various ROM (Read-only memory) modules may be attached. Its system clock speed is approximately 455 kHz (derived from a ceramic resonator), its weight is approximately 0.4
    6.00
    1 votes
    141
    MS-DOS

    MS-DOS

    • File Formats Supported: Deb
    MS-DOS ( /ˌɛmɛsˈdɒs/ EM-es-DOSS; short for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers. It was the most commonly used member of the DOS family of operating systems, and was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible personal computers during the 1980s to the mid 1990s, until it was gradually superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface (GUI), in particular by various generations of the Microsoft Windows operating system. MS-DOS grew from a 1981 request by IBM for an operating system for its IBM PC range of personal computers. Microsoft quickly bought the rights to QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System), also known as 86-DOS, from Seattle Computer Products, and began work on modifying it to meet IBM's specification. The first edition, MS-DOS 1.0, was launched in 1982. The version shipped with IBM's PCs was called PC DOS. Although MS-DOS and PC DOS were initially developed in parallel by Microsoft and IBM, the two products eventually went their separate ways. During its life, several competing products were released for the x86 platform, and MS-DOS itself would go through eight versions, until development
    6.00
    1 votes
    142

    NEXTSTEP

    • File Formats Supported: Nxt
    NeXTSTEP (also written NeXTstep, NeXTStep, and NEXTSTEP) was an object-oriented, multitasking operating system developed by NeXT Computer to run on its range of proprietary workstation computers, such as the NeXTcube. It was later ported to several other computer architectures. A preview release of NeXTSTEP (version 0.8) was shown at the launch of the NeXT Computer on October 12, 1988. The first full release, NeXTSTEP 1.0, shipped on September 18, 1989. The last version, 3.3, was released in early 1995, by which time it ran not only on the Motorola 68000 family processors used in NeXT computers, but also Intel x86, Sun SPARC, and HP PA-RISC-based systems. NeXTSTEP was later modified to separate the underlying operating system from the higher-level object libraries. The result was OpenStep API, which ran on multiple underlying operating systems, including NeXT's own OPENSTEP. Apple's OS X and iOS are direct descendants of NeXTSTEP, through the OPENSTEP lineage. NeXTSTEP was a combination of several parts: NeXTSTEP was notable for the last three items. The toolkits offered considerable power, and were used to build all of the software on the machine. Distinctive features of the
    6.00
    1 votes
    143
    Nokia 9000

    Nokia 9000

    • File Formats Supported: Aos
    The Nokia 9000 Communicator was the first product in Nokia's Communicator series, introduced in 1996. The phone was large and heavy (397 g) in comparison with its modern equivalent the Nokia E90. The Communicator part is driven by an Intel 24 MHz i386 CPU. It has 8 MB of memory, which is divided between applications (4 MB), program memory (2 MB) and user data (2 MB). The operating system is GEOS 3.0. The Nokia 9000 Communicator was used by Val Kilmer when he played Simon Templar in the 1997 remake of The Saint. The Nokia 9000 also is mentioned in Bret Easton Ellis book Glamorama, page 282 where one of the characters in the book has this model Nokia in her bag. The Nokia 9000 is used by Anthony Hopkins and Chris Rock in the action comedy Bad Company (2002 film). The Nokia 9110 Communicator is the updated model of the Nokia 9000 Communicator in the Communicator series. Its biggest change from the 9000 is that it weighs much less. The product line was continued in 2000 by the introduction of Nokia 9210 Communicator which introduced a wide TFT colour internal screen, 32-bit ARM9-based RISC CPU at 52 MHz, 16 MB of internal memory, enhanced web abilities and most importantly saw the
    6.00
    1 votes
    144

    Red Hat Linux

    • File Formats Supported: RPM File Format
    Red Hat Linux, assembled by the company Red Hat, was a popular Linux based operating system until its discontinuation in 2004. Red Hat Linux 1.0 was released on November 3, 1994. It was originally called "Red Hat Commercial Linux" It was the first Linux distribution to use the RPM Package Manager as its packaging format, and over time has served as the starting point for several other distributions, such as Mandriva Linux and Yellow Dog Linux. Since 2003, Red Hat has discontinued the Red Hat Linux line in favor of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) for enterprise environments. Fedora, developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat, is the free version best suited for home use. Red Hat Linux 9, the final release, hit its official end-of-life on 2004-04-30, although updates were published for it through 2006 by the Fedora Legacy project until that shut down in early 2007. Version 3.0.3 was one of the first Linux distributions to support Executable and Linkable Format instead of the older a.out format. Red Hat Linux introduced a graphical installer called Anaconda, intended to be easy to use for novices, and which has since been adopted by some other Linux
    6.00
    1 votes
    145

    Symbian

    • File Formats Supported: Opl
    Symbian is a mobile operating system (OS) and computing platform designed for smartphones and currently maintained by Accenture. The Symbian platform is the successor to Symbian OS and Nokia Series 60; unlike Symbian OS, which needed an additional user interface system, Symbian includes a user interface component based on S60 5th Edition. The latest version, Symbian^3, was officially released in Q4 2010, first used in the Nokia N8. In May 2011 an update, Symbian Anna, was officially announced, followed by Nokia Belle (previously Symbian Belle) in August 2011. Symbian OS was originally developed by Symbian Ltd. It is a descendant of Psion's EPOC and runs exclusively on ARM processors, although an unreleased x86 port existed. Some estimates indicate that the number of mobile devices shipped with the Symbian OS up to the end of Q2 2010 is 385 million. By 5 April 2011, Nokia released Symbian under a new license and converted to a proprietary model as opposed to an open source project. On 11 February 2011, Nokia announced that it would migrate from Symbian to Microsoft's Windows Phone OS. Nokia CEO Stephen Elop announced Nokia's first Windows phones at Nokia World 2011: the Lumia 800
    6.00
    1 votes
    146

    TI-15 Explorer

    TI-15 Explorer is a calculator designed by Texas Instruments, intended for use in classes from grades 3-5. It is the successor to the TI-12 Math Explorer. For younger students, TI recommends the use of the TI-10. For older students, TI recommends the use of the TI-73 Explorer. Features include a 2-line pixel display (as opposed to the 7-segment display of several other calculators), and a quiz-like "problem-solving" mode. It also supports limited scientific capabilities, such as parentheses, fixed decimal, fractions, pi, and exponents. It is recommended by Everyday Mathemathics.
    6.00
    1 votes
    147

    Mac OS

    Mac OS is a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh line of computer systems. Mac OS is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. The original form of what Apple now calls OS X was the integral and unnamed system software first introduced in 1984 with the original Macintosh, and referred to simply as the System software. Apple deliberately sought to minimize the user's conceptual awareness of the operating system: Tasks which required more operating system knowledge on other systems would be accomplished by intuitive mouse gestures and simple graphic controls on a Macintosh, making the system more user-friendly and easily mastered. This would differentiate it from then current systems such as MS-DOS which were more technically challenging to operate. The core of the system software was held in ROM, with updates provided free of charge by Apple dealers (on floppy disk). The user's involvement in an upgrade of the operating system was also minimized to running an installer, or simply replacing system files, the simplicity of which again differentiated the product from others. Early versions of Mac OS were
    4.33
    3 votes
    148

    Graphical user interface

    In computing, a graphical user interface (GUI, commonly pronounced gooey) is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices using images rather than text commands. GUIs can be used in computers, hand-held devices such as MP3 players, portable media players or gaming devices, household appliances and office equipment. A GUI represents the information and actions available to a user through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation. The actions are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements. The term GUI is restricted to the scope of two-dimensional display screens with display resolutions able to describe generic information, in the tradition of the computer science research at the PARC (Palo Alto Research Center). The term GUI is rarely applied to other low-resolution types of interfaces that are non-generic, such as video games (where HUD is preferred), or not restricted to flat screens, like volumetric displays. A precursor to GUIs was invented by researchers at the Stanford Research Institute, led by Douglas Engelbart.
    5.00
    2 votes
    149
    5.00
    2 votes
    150
    4.50
    2 votes
    151
    Unisys

    Unisys

    • File Formats Supported: Sdf
    Unisys Corporation is an American global information technology (IT) company based in Blue Bell, Pennsylvania, USA. The company provides a portfolio of IT services, software, and technology. Unisys has a long history in the technology industry. The company traces its roots back to the founding of American Arithmometer Company (later Burroughs Corporation) in 1886 and the Sperry Gyroscope Company in 1910. Unisys predecessor companies also include the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation, which developed the world's first commercial digital computers, the BINAC, and the UNIVAC. In September 1986 Unisys was formed through the merger of the mainframe corporations Sperry and Burroughs, with Burroughs buying Sperry for $4.8 billion. The name was chosen in an internal competition when an intern, Charles Ayoub, came up with the UNISYS acronym from United Information Systems. The merger was the largest in the computer industry at the time and made Unisys the second largest computer company with annual revenue of $10.5 billion. At the time of the merger, Unisys had approximately 120,000 employees. In addition to hardware, both Burroughs and Sperry had a history of working on U.S. government
    4.50
    2 votes
    152
    4.50
    2 votes
    153

    Windows XP

    • File Formats Supported: Psw
    Windows XP is an operating system produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops and media centers. First released to computer manufacturers on August 24, 2001, it is the second most popular version of Windows, based on installed user base. The name "XP" is short for "eXPerience", highlighting the enhanced user experience. Windows XP, the successor to Windows 2000 and Windows Me, was the first consumer-oriented operating system produced by Microsoft to be built on the Windows NT kernel. Windows XP was released worldwide for retail sale on October 25, 2001, and over 400 million copies were in use in January 2006. It was succeeded by Windows Vista in January 2007. Direct OEM and retail sales of Windows XP ceased on June 30, 2008. Microsoft continued to sell Windows XP through their System Builders (smaller OEMs who sell assembled computers) program until January 31, 2009. On April 10, 2012, Microsoft reaffirmed that extended support for Windows XP and Office 2003 would end on April 8, 2014 and suggested that administrators begin preparing to migrate to a newer OS. The NT-based versions of Windows, which are programmed in C, C++, and
    4.50
    2 votes
    154
    FX-3900PV

    FX-3900PV

    The Casio FX-3900PV is a programmable scientific calculator with 300 steps. Introduced in 1992, its production has since stopped with the introduction of FX-3650 and FX-3950.
    5.00
    1 votes
    155
    HP-34C

    HP-34C

    Part of the series of HP calculators. HP-34C Continuous Memory Calculator (1.7.1979 ($150) – 1.4.1983 ($100)) was an Advanced Scientific Programmable calculator that was differentiated by the fact that programs and storage were maintained in memory when the calculator was turned off (continuous memory), unlike most calculators of that time. However this feature had been implemented in the HP calculator line on certain models since 1976. Significant to the HP-34C calculator was the capability for integration and root finding (a first for any pocket calculator). Integration and root finding worked by having the user input a formula as a program. Multiple roots are found using the technique of first finding a root, then dividing the equation by (1-root value), thus driving the solution of the equation away from the root at that point. This technique for multiple root finding is referred to as "deflation". The user would usually programmatically recall the root value from a storage register to improve its precision. The common method of converting registers to program memory allowed the calculator a maximum of 210 program steps. Programming features such as indirect jumps provided
    5.00
    1 votes
    156
    5.00
    1 votes
    157
    Psion Organiser

    Psion Organiser

    • File Formats Supported: Psi
    The Psion Organiser was the brand name of a range of pocket computer developed by the British company Psion in the 1980s. The Organiser I (launched in 1984) and Organiser II (launched in 1986) had a characteristic hard plastic sliding cover protecting a 6x6 keyboard with letters arranged alphabetically. The Organiser II can be considered the first usable PDA in that it combined an electronic diary and searchable address database in a small, portable device. Early Psions are very robust (as witnessed by tech support people who were able to retrieve data from machines run over by cars and even forklift trucks) and they have been sold in very large numbers (about a million). Some continue to be used commercially, although the firmware of the two-line models fails to acknowledge dates after the end of 1999. However, there is a patch available. The Organiser had an independent user group (IPSO) for nine years, with a worldwide following, until the establishment of the Series 3 made it largely redundant. Production of consumer hand-held devices by Psion has now ceased; the company, after corporate changes, now concentrates on hardware and software for industrial and commercial data
    5.00
    1 votes
    158
    Sharp PC-1211

    Sharp PC-1211

    Sharp PC-1211 is a small handheld computer, also marketed as Tandy TRS-80 PC1. This model was powered by a 4-bit CPU laid out in power-saving CMOS circuitry.
    5.00
    1 votes
    159
    TI-80

    TI-80

    TI-80 is a graphing calculator made by Texas Instruments. It was originally designed in 1995 to be used at a middle school level (grades 6-9). The TI-80 featured the smallest screen and slowest processor (980 kHz proprietary) of any TI graphing calculator. In comparison, the TI-81, released in 1990, featured a 2 MHz Zilog Z80 processor. However, the TI-80 did feature 7 KB of RAM (compared with the TI-81's 2.4 KB). The TI-80 also had more built-in functions than the TI-81 (such as list and table functions, as well as fraction and decimal conversions). Like the TI-81, the TI-80 did not feature a link port. The TI-80 was also the only graphing calculator to use 2 CR2032 lithium batteries (instead of the standard 4 AAA batteries with a lithium backup battery). Since its release, it has been superseded by the superior TI-73 and TI-73 Explorer. The TI-80 has been discontinued.
    5.00
    1 votes
    160
    TI-83 series

    TI-83 series

    • File Formats Supported: Flash Debugger
    The TI-83 series of graphing calculators is manufactured by Texas Instruments. The original TI-83 is itself an upgraded version of the TI-82. Released in 1996, it is one of the most used graphing calculators for students. In addition to the functions present on normal scientific calculators, the TI-83 includes many features, including function graphing, polar/parametric/sequence graphing modes, statistics, trigonometric, and algebraic functions. Although it does not include as many calculus functions, applications (for the TI-83 Plus—see below) and programs can be downloaded from certain websites, or written on the calculator. TI replaced the TI-83 with the TI-83 Plus calculator in 1999, which included flash memory, enabling the device's operating system to be updated if needed, or for large new Flash Applications to be stored, accessible through a new Apps key. The Flash memory can also be used to store user programs and data. In 2001, the TI-83 Plus Silver Edition was released, which featured approximately nine times the available Flash memory, and over twice the processing speed (15 MHz) of a standard TI-83 Plus, all in a translucent "sparkle" grey case. The TI-83 was the first
    5.00
    1 votes
    161

    Windows 2000

    • File Formats Supported: Sdb
    Windows 2000 is an operating system produced by Microsoft for use on both client and server computers. Windows 2000 was released to manufacturing on December 15, 1999 and launched to retail on February 17, 2000. It is the successor to Windows NT 4.0, and is the last version of Microsoft Windows to display the "Windows NT" designation. It is succeeded by Windows XP for (released in October 2001) and Windows Server 2003 (release in April 2003). During development, Windows 2000 was known as Windows NT 5.0. Four editions of Windows 2000 were released: Professional, Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server. Additionally, Microsoft sold Windows 2000 Advanced Server Limited Edition and Windows 2000 Datacenter Server Limited Edition, which ran on 64-bit Intel Itanium microprocessors and they were released in 2001. While each edition of Windows 2000 was targeted at a different market, they shared a core set of features, including many system utilities such as the Microsoft Management Console and standard system administration applications. Support for people with disabilities has been improved over Windows NT 4.0 with a number of new assistive technologies, and Microsoft increased
    5.00
    1 votes
    162
    HP-38G

    HP-38G

    The HP-38G is a programmable graphing calculator by Hewlett Packard. It was introduced in 1995 with a suggested retail price of 79.95 USD. HP credits a committee of eight high school, community college, and university teachers with assisting in the design of the calculator. The HP-38G, unlike most of HP's other calculators, uses infix notation rather than Reverse Polish notation. Given the calculator's intended userbase of high school maths and science teachers and students, this is not surprising. The calculator is programmable, supporting small, interactive applications called "aplets" [sic]. The production of the hp38g has been discontinued (since approx 2004). Its replacement was the HP-39G (for which a 'pirate' CAS aplet came into circulation), hence there is also an HP-39G+ which has no known CAS aplet implementable. Also, for European and some other authorities an HP-40G has been available, with an 'on-board' CAS facility. Since 2006, the HP-40G is replaced by the HP-40GS, built on the ARM architecture, and offering both USB and RS232 connectivity.
    4.00
    2 votes
    163
    Commodore 64

    Commodore 64

    • File Formats Supported: Jj
    The Commodore 64, commonly called C64, C=64 (after the graphic logo on the case) or occasionally CBM 64 (for Commodore Business Machines), or VIC-64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International. Volume production started in the spring of 1982, with machines being released on to the market in August at a price of US$ 595. Preceded by the Commodore VIC-20 and Commodore PET, the C64 took its name from its 64 kilobytes (65,536 bytes) of RAM, and had favourable sound and graphical specifications when compared to contemporary systems such as the Apple II, at a price that was well below the circa US$ 1200 demanded by Apple. During the C64's lifetime, sales totalled between 12.5 and 17 million units, making it the best-selling single personal computer model of all time. For a substantial period of time (1983–1986), the C64 dominated the market with between 30% and 40% share and 2 million units sold per year, outselling the IBM PC compatibles, Apple Inc. computers, and Atari 8-bit family computers. Sam Tramiel, a later Atari president and the son of Commodore's founder, said in a 1989 interview "When I was at Commodore we were building 400,000 C64s a
    4.00
    1 votes
    164

    FreeBSD

    FreeBSD is a free Unix-like operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via BSD UNIX.  Although for legal reasons FreeBSD cannot be called "UNIX", as the direct descendant of BSD UNIX (many of whose original developers became FreeBSD developers), FreeBSD's internals and system APIs are UNIX-compliant. Thanks to its permissive licensing terms, much of FreeBSD’s code base has become an integral part of other operating systems such as Apple's OS X that have subsequently been certified as UNIX-compliant and have formally received UNIX branding.  With the exception of the proprietary OS X, FreeBSD is the most widely used BSD-derived operating system in terms of number of installed computers, and is the most widely used freely licensed, open-source BSD distribution, accounting for more than three-quarters of all installed systems running free, open-source BSD derivatives. FreeBSD, characterised in 2005 as "the unknown giant among free operating systems", is a complete operating system. The kernel, device drivers, and all of the userland utilities, such as the shell, are held in the same source code revision tracking tree. (This is in contrast to Linux distributions, for which the kernel,
    4.00
    1 votes
    165
    HP 9g

    HP 9g

    The HP 9g is a Hewlett-Packard graphing calculator designed by Kinpo Electronics, Inc.. It has basic graphing, scientific and programming features designed for use by students. It departs from HP calculator tradition because it does not have an RPN mode.
    4.00
    1 votes
    166
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    167
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    1 votes
    168
    Programma 101

    Programma 101

    The Programma 101 was the first commercial "desktop computer". Produced by Italian manufacturer Olivetti, it was launched at the 1964 New York World's Fair, volume production started in 1965. A futuristic design for its time, the Programma 101 was priced at $3,200 ($23,000 if adjusted to 2011). About 44,000 units were sold, primarily in the US. It's usually considered a printing programmable calculator or desktop calculator because three years later the Hewlett-Packard 9100A, a model that took inspiration from the P101, was advertised by HP as a "portable calculator", in order to be able to overcome the fears of computers and be able to sell it to corporations without passing through the corporate computer department. The Programma 101 was able to calculate the basic four arithmetic functions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division), plus square root, absolute value, and fractional part. Also clear, transfer, exchange, and stop for input. There were 16 jump instructions and 16 conditional jump instructions. 32 label statements were available as destinations for the 32 jump instructions and/or the four start keys (V, W, Y, Z). Each full register held a 22-digit number
    4.00
    1 votes
    169
    Sega Master System

    Sega Master System

    • File Formats Supported: Sms
    The Master System (マスターシステム, Masutā Shisutemu), often called the Sega Master System or SMS, is a third-generation video game console that was manufactured and released by Sega in 1985 in Japan (as the Sega Mark III), 1986 in North America and 1987 in Europe. The original Master System could play both cartridges and the credit card-sized "Sega Cards," which retailed for cheaper prices than cartridges but had lower storage capacity. The Master System also featured accessories such as a light gun and 3D glasses which were designed to work with a range of specially coded games. The Master System was released as a direct competitor to the Nintendo Entertainment System in the third videogame generation. The Master System was technically superior to the NES, which predated its release by nine months in North America, but failed to overturn Nintendo's significant market share advantage in Japan and North America. In the European, Oceanic and Brazilian markets, this console allowed Sega to outsell Nintendo, due to its wider availability. It enjoyed over a decade of life in those territories and was supported in Europe up until 1996. Up until 1994, it was the console with the largest active
    4.00
    1 votes
    170

    Amiga

    • File Formats Supported: MOD
    The Amiga is a family of personal computers marketed by Commodore in the 1980s and 1990s. The first model was launched in 1985 as a high-end home computer and became popular for its graphical, audio and multi-tasking abilities. The Amiga provided a significant upgrade from 8-bit computers, such as the Commodore 64, and the platform quickly grew in popularity among computer enthusiasts. The best selling model, the Amiga 500, was introduced in 1987 and became the leading home computer of the late 1980s and early 1990s in much of Western Europe. In North America success was more modest. The Amiga went on to sell approximately six million units. Second generation Amiga systems (the A1200 and the A4000) were released in 1992. However, poor marketing and failure to repeat the technological advances of the first systems meant that the Amiga quickly lost its market share to competing platforms, such as the fourth generation game consoles, Apple Macintosh and IBM PC compatibles. Based on the Motorola 68000 family of microprocessors, the machine sports a custom chipset with graphics and sound capabilities that were unprecedented for the price, and a pre-emptive multitasking operating system
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    171
    Atari TOS

    Atari TOS

    • File Formats Supported: Arr
    TOS (The Operating System) is the operating system of the Atari ST range of computers. This range includes the 520 and 1040ST, their STF/M/FM and STE variants and the Mega ST/STE. Later, 32-bit machines (TT, Falcon030) were developed using a new version of TOS, called MultiTOS, which allowed multitasking. More recently, users have developed TOS further into FreeMiNT. The Atari TOS (The Operating System) debuted with the Atari 520ST in 1985. TOS combines Digital Research's GEM GUI running on top of the DOS-like GEMDOS. Features include a flat memory model, MS-DOS-compatible disk format, support for MIDI, and a variant of SCSI called ACSI in later versions. Atari's TOS is usually run from ROM chips contained in the computer: Thus, before local hard drives were available in home computers, it was an almost instant-running OS. TOS booted off floppy disks in the very first STs, but only about half a year after the ST was introduced, all ST models started shipping with the latest version of TOS in ROM. TOS consisted of the following: The following were extensions to TOS (loaded separately): True multitasking was not directly supported, TOS allows desk accessories to be loaded into the
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    172
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    173
    Creative NOMAD

    Creative NOMAD

    • File Formats Supported: Sc4
    The NOMAD was a range of digital audio players designed and sold by Creative Technology, and later discontinued in 2004. Subsequent players now fall exclusively under the MuVo and ZEN brands. The NOMAD series consisted of two distinct brands: These models appear as a USB mass storage device to the operating system so that the device can be accessed like any other removable disk, a floppy disk for example. Older MuVo devices and all Jukebox models use a custom protocol named PDE (Portable Digital Entertainment, a Creative internal device designation) that requires the installation of drivers before the device can be recognised by the operating system. Creative's foray into the MP3 player market began with the Creative NOMAD, a rebranded Samsung Electronics Yepp YP-D40 player with 64 megabytes of solid-state memory. IEEE 1284 Parallel port connection USB 1.1 connection USB 2.0 connection The first NOMAD Jukebox used the OASiS operating system, which was developed in India. Later NOMAD Jukeboxes used Creative's own firmware. Most players use Texas Instruments TMS320DA25x ARM plus digital signal processor as their CPU and support some version of Creative's environmental audio
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    174
    Graphing calculator

    Graphing calculator

    A graphing calculator (also graphics / graphic calculator) typically refers to a class of handheld calculators that are capable of plotting graphs, solving simultaneous equations, and performing numerous other tasks with variables. Most popular graphing calculators are also programmable, allowing the user to create customized programs, typically for scientific/engineering and education applications. Due to their large displays intended for graphing, they can also accommodate several lines of text and calculations at a time. Some of the more recent graphing calculators are capable of color output, and also feature animated and interactive drawing of math plots (2D and 3D), other figures such as animated Geometry theorems, preparation of documents which can include these plots and drawings, etc. This is giving the new graphing calculators a presence even in high school courses where they were formerly disallowed. Some calculator manufacturers also offer computer software for emulating and working with handheld graphing calculators. Many graphing calculators can be attached to devices like electronic thermometers, pH gauges, weather instruments, decibel and light meters,
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    0 votes
    175
    HP-65

    HP-65

    The HP-65 was the first magnetic card-programmable handheld calculator. Introduced by Hewlett-Packard in 1974 at an MSRP of $795, it featured nine storage registers and room for 100 keystroke instructions. It also included a magnetic card reader/writer to save and load programs. Like all Hewlett-Packard calculators of the era and most since, the HP-65 used reverse Polish notation (RPN) and a four-level automatic operand stack. Bill Hewlett's design requirement was that the calculator should fit in his shirt pocket. That is one reason for the tapered depth of the calculator. The magnetic program cards are fed in at the thick end of the calculator under the LED display. The documentation for the programs in the calculator is very complete, including algorithms for hundreds of applications, including the solutions of differential equations, stock price estimation, statistics, and so forth. The HP-65 introduced the "tall", trapezoid-shaped keys that would become iconic for many generations of HP calculators. Each of the keys had up to 4 functions. In addition to the "normal function" printed on the key's face, a "gold" function printed on the case above the key and a "blue" function
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    176

    IBM 604

    The IBM 604 was a control panel programmable Electronic Calculating Punch introduced in 1948, and was a machine on which considerable expectations for the future of IBM were pinned and in which a corresponding amount of planning talent was invested. It could be considered a hybrid between an accounting machine and a modern general purpose computer like the IBM 701 introduced in 1953. Most of the circuitry was based on modifications of circuit designs used in the earlier 603 Electronic Multiplier and was packaged in small one-tube-replaceable pluggable units. The calculation unit contained 1,400 tubes. Clock speed was increased from the 603's rate of 35kHz to 50 kHz. The 604 performed fixed point addition, subtraction, multiplication and division using BCD arithmetic. Initial versions supported 40 program steps, and this was soon expanded to 60. Processing was still locked to the reader/punch cycle time, thus program execution had to complete within the time between a punched card leaving the read station and entering the punch station. The 604 and a modified version, the 605, were used as components of the Card Programmed Electronic Calculators (CPC and CPC II). The 604 was also a
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    0 votes
    177
    Linux kernel

    Linux kernel

    • File Formats Supported: Second Extended File System
    The Linux kernel is the operating system kernel used by the Linux family of Unix-like operating systems. It is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software. The Linux kernel is released under the GNU General Public License version 2 (GPLv2) (plus some firmware images with various non-free licenses), and is developed by contributors worldwide. Day-to-day development discussions take place on the Linux kernel mailing list. The Linux kernel was initially conceived and created by Finnish computer science student Linus Torvalds in 1991. Linux rapidly accumulated developers and users who adapted code from other free software projects for use with the new operating system. The Linux kernel has received contributions from thousands of programmers. Many Linux distributions have been released based upon the Linux kernel. In April 1991, Linus Torvalds, a 21-year-old student at the University of Helsinki, Finland started working on some simple ideas for an operating system. He started with a task switcher in Intel 80386 assembly language and a terminal driver. On 25 August 1991, Torvalds posted the following to comp.os.minix, a newsgroup on Usenet: After that, many
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    0 votes
    178

    Microsoft Windows

    • File Formats Supported: Audio Video Interleave
    Microsoft Windows is a series of graphical interface operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. The most recent client version of Windows is Windows 7; the most recent server version is Windows Server 2012; the most recent mobile version is Windows Phone 7.5. The term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are generally categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to September 1981, when Chase Bishop, a computer scientist, designed the first model of an electronic device and project "Interface Manager" was started. It was announced in November 1983 (after the Apple Lisa, but before the Macintosh) under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985. The shell of Windows 1.0 was a program known as the MS-DOS Executive.
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    179
    Psion 3

    Psion 3

    • File Formats Supported: Agn
    The Psion Series 3 range of personal digital assistants were made by Psion PLC. The four main variants are the Psion Series 3 (1991), the Psion Series 3a (1993), the Psion Series 3c (1996), and the Psion Series 3mx (1998), all sized 165 × 85 × 22 mm. In addition, a Psion Series 3a variant with factory installed software for the Russian language was called a Psion Series 3aR, and Acorn Computers sold a rebadged version of the Psion Series 3 and 3a marketed as the Acorn Pocket Book and Acorn Pocket Book II. The Psion Series 3 range is regarded by Scottish writer Charles Stross as an unsurpassed PDA because of its long battery life (20 to 35 hours), its stable and versatile software, and its durable hardware. About 1.5 million Psion 3s were made. The Psion Series 3 models were a major advance on the Psion Organiser. They had an original way of managing files: the available program icons are shown in a horizontal line and the associated files drop down beneath them. Manufacture of Psion 3s was discontinued in 1998 shortly after the launch of the Psion Series 5 (a Psion Series 4 does not exist, due to Psion's concern of tetraphobia in their Asian markets) and the Psion Siena. Psion's
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    180

    Simple DirectMedia Layer

    Simple DirectMedia Layer (SDL) is a cross-platform, free and open source multimedia library written in C that presents a simple interface to various platforms' graphics, sound, and input devices. SDL has the word "layer" in its title because it is actually a wrapper around operating-system-specific functions. The main purpose of SDL is to provide a common framework for accessing these functions. For further functionality beyond this goal, many libraries have been created to work on top of SDL. Software developers use it to write computer games or other multimedia applications that can run on many operating systems including Android, AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4, FreeBSD, BeOS/Haiku, iOS, Linux, Mac OS 9, Mac OS X, MorphOS, OpenVMS, PlayStation Portable, Syllable, Symbian, webOS, and Windows. It manages video, events, digital audio, CD-ROM, sound, threads, shared object loading, networking and timers. SDL itself is very simple; it merely acts as a thin, cross-platform wrapper, providing support for 2D pixel operations, sound, file access, event handling, timing, threading, and more. It is often used to complement OpenGL by setting up the graphical output and providing mouse and keyboard
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    181
    The Internet

    The Internet

    • File Formats Supported: BitTorrent
    The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (often called TCP/IP, although not all applications use TCP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support email. Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to Web site technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major
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    182
    TI-82

    TI-82

    The TI-82 is a graphing calculator made by Texas Instruments. The TI-82 was designed in 1993 as a stripped down, more user friendly version of the TI-85, and as a replacement for the TI-81. It was the direct predecessor of the TI-83. It shares with the TI-85 a 6 MHz Zilog Z80 microprocessor. Like the TI-81, the TI-82 features a 96x64 pixel display, and the core feature set of the TI-81 with many new features. The TI-82 is powered by the same processor that powered its cousin, the TI-85, a 6 MHz Zilog Z80 microprocessor. This was an improvement over the TI-81's 2 MHz Z80 processor. In addition, the available RAM was increased more than tenfold — from 2400 bytes to 28734 bytes (slightly more than the TI-85). Some of the more notable improvements of the TI-82 over the TI-81 include the following: the addition of a link port to enable programs and other data to be transferred between two calculators or between a calculator and a computer; the addition of two new graphing types—polar and sequence, the addition of a new type of data — the list, the expansion of the size limit of matrices to 50x50, and the (unintentional) addition of the ability to program the calculator in assembly
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    183
    TI-85

    TI-85

    The TI-85 was a graphing calculator made by Texas Instruments based around the Zilog Z80 microprocessor. Designed in 1992 as TI's second graphing calculator (the first was the TI-81), it has since been replaced by the TI-86, which has also been discontinued. The TI-85 was significantly more powerful than the TI-81, as it was designed as a calculator primarily for use in engineering and calculus courses. Texas Instruments had included a version of BASIC on the device to allow programming. Each calculator came with a cable to connect calculators (simply a three-conductor cable with 2.5 mm jack plugs on each end). Another cable known as the TI-Graph Link was also sold, along with appropriate software, to connect the calculator to a personal computer. These cables made it possible to save programs and make backups. Enthusiasts analyzed memory backups and discovered that entries in the calculator's CUSTOM menu pointed at specific memory locations. With this knowledge, a hack was devised where a special string could be inserted into the backup at the proper location to allow the calculator to execute assembly language programs. These programs could run much faster than their BASIC
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    184
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    185

    Windows 3.0

    • File Formats Supported: Par
    Windows 3.0, a graphical environment, is the third major release of Microsoft Windows, and was released on May 22, 1990. It became the first widely successful version of Windows and a rival to Apple Macintosh and the Commodore Amiga on the GUI front. It was followed by Windows 3.1. Windows 3.0 originated in 1989 when a group of Microsoft programmers independently decided to develop a protected mode Windows as an experiment. They cobbled together a rough prototype and presented it to company executives, who were impressed enough to approve it as an official project. Windows 3.0 succeeded Windows 2.1x and included a significantly revamped user interface as well as technical improvements to make better use of the memory management capabilities of Intel's 80286 and 80386 processors. Text-mode programs written for MS-DOS could be run within a window (a feature previously available in a more limited form with Windows/386 2.1), making the system usable as a crude multitasking base for legacy programs. However, this was of limited use for the home market, where most games and entertainment programs continued to require raw DOS access. The MS-DOS Executive file manager/program launcher was
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    186

    Windows 9x

    • File Formats Supported: Theme
    Windows 9x is a generic term referring to a series of Microsoft Windows computer operating systems produced since 1995, which were based on the Windows 95 kernel and its underlying foundation of MS-DOS, both of which were updated in subsequent versions. This includes all versions of Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows Me. Windows 9x is predominantly known for its use in desktops. In 1998, Windows made up 82% of operating system market share. Internal release versions for versions of Windows 9x are 4.x. Previous MS-DOS based versions of Windows used version numbers of 3.2 or lower. Windows NT, which was aimed at professional users such as networks and businesses, used a similar but separate version number between 3.1 and 4.0. The final version of Windows 9x was Windows Me, released in September of 2000 with an internal version number of 4.9. All future versions of Windows, starting with Windows 2000 and Windows XP would be based on the Windows NT codebase. The first independent version of Microsoft Windows, version 1.0, released on 20 November 1985, achieved little popularity. It was originally going to be called "Interface Manager" but Rowland Hanson, the head of marketing at
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    187
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