Any computer, including desktop machines, games consoles and portable devices.
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Blue Gene is an IBM project aimed at designing supercomputers that can reach operating speeds in the PFLOPS (petaFLOPS) range, with low power consumption. The project created three generations of supercomputers, Blue Gene/L, Blue Gene/P, and Blue Gene/Q. Blue Gene systems have led for several years the Top500 and Green500 rankings of the most powerful and most power efficient supercomputers, respectively. Blue Gene systems have also consistently scored top positions in the Graph500 list. The project was awarded the 2008 National Medal of Technology and Innovation.
In December 1999, IBM announced a $100 million research initiative for a five-year effort to build a massively parallel computer, to be applied to the study of biomolecular phenomena such as protein folding. The project had two main goals: to advance our understanding of the mechanisms behind protein folding via large-scale simulation, and to explore novel ideas in massively parallel machine architecture and software. Major areas of investigation included: how to use this novel platform to effectively meet its scientific goals, how to make such massively parallel machines more usable, and how to achieve performance
The IBM System/3 (introduced 1969 discontinued 1985) was a low-end business computer aimed at new customers and organizations that still used IBM 1400 series computers or unit record equipment. It was the first member of what IBM refers to as their "mid range" line and introduced the RPG II programming language for which it was essentially an appliance for small business applications.
It featured a new punched card format that was smaller and stored 96 characters. Instead of the rectangular punches in the classic IBM card, the new cards had tiny (1 mm), circular holes much like paper tape. Data was stored in six-bit binary-coded decimal code, with three rows of 32 characters each, or 8-bit EBCDIC, with the two extra holes located in the top rows. Cards had room for 128 printed characters in four rows of 32 characters each. IBM System/370s with a proper card reader could also process the new cards. The new cards were about 1/3 the size of the original 80 column cards but held 20% more text data (96 characters). The smaller, and thus lighter card could be processed with faster with smaller equipment and with fewer jams. The system was targeted to smaller businesses who could not
The Apple II Plus (stylized as Apple ][+) is the second model of the Apple II series of personal computers produced by Apple Computer, Inc. It was sold new from June 1979 to December 1982.
The Apple II Plus shipped with 16 KB, 32 KB or 48 KB of main RAM, expandable to 64 KB by means of the Language Card, an expansion card that could be installed in the computer's slot 0. The Apple's 6502 microprocessor could support a maximum of 64 KB of address space, and a machine with 48KB RAM reached this limit because of the additional 12 KB of read-only memory and 4 KB of I/O addresses. For this reason, the extra RAM in the language card was bank-switched over the machine's built-in ROM, allowing code loaded into the additional memory to be used as if it actually were ROM. Users could thus load Integer BASIC into the language card from disk and switch between the Integer and Applesoft dialects of BASIC with DOS 3.3's INT and FP commands just as if they had the BASIC ROM expansion card. The Language Card was also required to use LOGO, Apple Pascal, and FORTRAN 77. Apple Pascal and FORTRAN ran under a non-DOS operating system based on UCSD P-System, which had its own disk format and included a
The Power Macintosh 9600 (Codename: "Kansas"; also sold with additional server software as the Apple Workgroup Server 9650) is a personal computer that is a part of Apple Computer's Power Macintosh series of Macintosh computers. It was introduced in February 1997 alongside the Power Macintosh 7300 and the Power Macintosh 8600, and replaced the Power Macintosh 9500 as Apple's flagship desktop computer. It was the last Macintosh model able to boot and run System 7 natively.
The 9600 came in the same new case as the 8600, but was internally very similar to the 9500 that preceded it, with 12 RAM slots and 6 PCI slots instead of the 8 RAM and 3 PCI slots on the 8600. The 9600 used the new PowerPC 604e CPU, an enhanced version of the 9500 604. On introduction, three processor configurations were available: single 200 MHz, dual 200 MHz and single 233 MHz. In August 1997, they were replaced by two new models, with a single 300 MHz or 350 MHz "Mach 5" 604ev with a larger L2 cache. The 350 MHz model was initially discontinued in October due to CPU supply problems, but reintroduced on February 17 when the 300 MHz model was discontinued in favor of the new Power Macintosh G3 minitower - while
The Power Macintosh G3 series (commonly known as the "Blue and White G3", or sometimes just the "B&W G3" to distinguish it from the original Power Macintosh G3) was a series of personal computers designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer Inc. as part of their Power Macintosh line. It was introduced in January 1999, succeeding the original "beige" Power Macintosh G3, with which it shared the name and processor architecture but little else; it was discontinued in favor of the Power Mac G4 line in August 1999.
The Blue & White G3 used a modified version of the memory/PCI controller, the Motorola MPC106 (codenamed "Grackle"); it used the MPC106 v4. The I/O "Heathrow" had been replaced by "Paddington" (adding 100 Mbit Ethernet and power save features), the audio chip "Screamer" (on the beige G3's "Personality Card") had been replaced by "Burgundy", and other controllers for Firewire (Texas Instruments PCI-Lynx), for USB etc. were added.
Note that "Paddington" only handles the slow IDE bus for CD/DVD and ZIP, in fact it provides up to 16.6 MB/s like its predecessor "Heathrow". The fast IDE bus for the hard disks is an extra chip and provides up to 33 MB/s; this one is the problem
The Atari Mega STE was Atari Corporation's last ST series personal computer, released in 1991. The MEGA STE was essentially a late-model 680x0-based STE mounted in the case of the otherwise unrelated Atari TT computer, although a number of TT features were also blended in. The resulting machine was a more business-like version of the ST line.
The MEGA STE is based on STE hardware. Physically, the 2 MB and 4 MB models shipped with a high resolution mono monitor, and an internal ACSI hard disk (the 1 MB model included neither a monitor, hard disk, nor hard disk controller). Despite offering better ST compatibility than the TT, it also included a number of TT features, from the ST-grey version of the TT case with separate keyboard and system unit, optional FPU, a VMEbus slot, two extra RS232 ports (all 9-pin rather than 25-pin as previous models had), a LocalTalk/RS-422 port (no AppleTalk software was ever produced) and a 1.44 MB HD floppy support. Support for a third/middle mouse button was included, too.
A unique feature of the MEGA STE in relation to previous Atari systems is the software-switchable CPU speed, which allows the CPU to operate at 16 MHz for faster processing or 8 MHz
The VTech Laser 200 was an early 8-bit home computer from 1983, also sold as the Salora Fellow (mainly in Scandinavia, particularly Finland), the Texet TX8000 (in the United Kingdom) and the Dick Smith VZ 200 (in Australia and New Zealand).
The machine ran basic games on cassette such as "Hoppy" Frogger, "Cosmic Rescue" Scramble, "VZ Invaders" Space Invaders and Moon Patrol. The computer was discontinued in 1985 to make way for more advanced home computers.
At its UK launch, Texet claimed that the £98 TX8000-branded version was the cheapest colour home microcomputer on the market. However, this was not enough to ensure its success against the dominant ZX Spectrum and similar machines already on sale. Most notably, the Spectrum-like Oric 1 was selling for £99 at this point, and offered a far higher specification than the Texet for little difference in cost.
The "Dick Smith"-badged VZ 200 was more successful in Australia, where it proved popular as a first computer.
An improved version known as the VTech Laser 310, or the Dick Smith VZ 300 was released in 1985 and continued until 1989.
The Laser 200 was designed and built by Video Technology (VTech) in Hong Kong and derived from the
The Game Boy (ゲームボーイ, Gēmu Bōi ) line is a line of battery-powered handheld game console sold by Nintendo. It is one of the world's best-selling game system lines, with a combined 200+ million units sold worldwide.
The original Game Boy and Game Boy Color combined sold 118.69 million units worldwide. All versions of the Game Boy Advance combined have sold 81.51 million units. All Game Boy systems combined have sold 200.20 million units worldwide.
The Game Boy line (including Game Boy Advance for Ambassadors) has made a retro return via the Nintendo 3DS Virtual Console.
Nintendo's Game Boy handheld was first released in 1989. The gaming device was the brainchild of long-time Nintendo employee Gunpei Yokoi, who was the person behind the Ultra Hand, an expanding arm toy created and produced by Nintendo in 1970, long before Nintendo would enter the video game market. Yokoi was also responsible for the Game & Watch series of handhelds when Nintendo made the move from toys to video games.
When Yokoi designed the original Game Boy, he knew that to be successful, the system needed to be small, light, inexpensive, and durable, as well as have a varied, recognizable library of games upon its
The Cray X1 is a non-uniform memory access, vector processor supercomputer manufactured and sold by Cray Inc. since 2003. The X1 is often described as the unification of the Cray T90, Cray SV1, and Cray T3E architectures into a single machine. The X1 shares the multistreaming processors, vector caches, and CMOS design of the SV1, the highly scalable distributed memory design of the T3E, and the high memory bandwidth and liquid cooling of the T90.
The X1 uses 1.2 ns (800 MHz) clock cycle, and 8-wide vector pipes in MSP mode, offering a peak speed of 12.8 gigaflops per processor. Air-cooled models are available with up to 64 processors. Liquid-cooled systems scale to a theoretical maximum of 4096 processors, comprising 1024 shared-memory nodes connected in a two-dimensional torus network, in 32 frames. Such a system would supply a peak speed of 50 teraflops. The largest unclassified X1 system was the 512 processor system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though this has since been upgraded to an X1E system.
The X1 can be programmed either with widely used message passing software like MPI and PVM, or with shared-memory languages like Unified Parallel C programming language or
The Sinclair ZX80 is a home computer brought to market in 1980 by Science of Cambridge Ltd. (later to be better known as Sinclair Research). It is notable for being the first computer (unless you consider the MK14) available in the United Kingdom for less than a hundred pounds (£99.95). It was available in kit form, where purchasers had to assemble and solder it together and as a ready-built version at a slightly higher cost. The ZX80 was very popular straight away, and for some time there was a waiting list of several months for either version of the machine.
The ZX80 was named after the Z80 processor with the 'X' for "the mystery ingredient".
Internally, the machine was designed by Jim Westwood around a Z80 central processing unit with a clock speed of 3.25 MHz, and was equipped with 1 kB of static RAM and 4 kB of read-only memory (ROM). The ZX80 was designed around readily available TTL chips; the only proprietary technology was the firmware. While the successor ZX81 used a semi-custom chip (a ULA or Uncommitted Logic Array), this merely combined the functions of the earlier hardware onto a single chip — the hardware and system programs (except the BASIC versions) were very
The LGP-30, standing for Librascope General Purpose and then Librascope General Precision, was an early off-the-shelf computer. It was manufactured by the Librascope company of Glendale, California (a division of General Precision Inc.), and sold and serviced by the Royal Precision Electronic Computer Company, a joint venture with the Royal McBee division of the Royal Typewriter Company. The LGP-30 was first manufactured in 1956 with a retail price of $47,000.
The LGP-30 was commonly referred to as a desk computer. It was 26 inches deep, 33 inches high, and 44 inches long, exclusive of the typewriter shelf. The computer weighed approximately 740 pounds and was mounted on sturdy casters which facilitated movement of the computer.
The primary design consultant for the Librascope computer was Stan Frankel, a Manhattan Project veteran and one of the first programmers of ENIAC. He designed a usable computer with a minimal amount of hardware. The single address instruction set had only 16 commands. Not only was the main memory on magnetic drum, but so were the CPU registers, timing information and the master bit clock, each on a dedicated track. The number of vacuum tubes were kept to a
The Power Macintosh 8500 (the 120 MHz model is also known as Power Macintosh 8515 in Europe and Japan) was a high-end Macintosh personal computer designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer from 1995 until 1997. Billed as a high-end graphics computer, the Power Macintosh 8500 was also the first Macintosh to ship with a replaceable daughtercard. Though slower than the 132 MHz Power Macintosh 9500, the first-generation 8500 featured several audio and video (S-Video and composite video) in/out ports not found in the 9500. In fact, the 8500 incorporated near-broadcast quality (640x480) A/V input and output and was the first personal computer to do so; unfortunately, no hard drive manufactured in 1997 could sustain the 18 MB/sec data rate required to capture video at that resolution.
As with the other models in the x500 series, the 8500 underwent several "speed bump" modifications during its production. It originally shipped with a 120 MHz PowerPC 604 CPU, later with the same chip running at 150 MHz, and finally with a PowerPC 604e running at 180 MHz. It was succeeded by the Power Macintosh 8600 in February 1997.
The ILLIAC IV was the first supercomputer ever built. One of a series of research machines (the ILLIACs from the University of Illinois), the ILLIAC IV design featured fairly high parallelism with up to 256 processors, used to allow the machine to work on large data sets in what would later be known as vector processing. Delayed due to protests on campus caused by student concern over the Vietnam War, the machine was moved to Burroughs Corporation's Paoli Research Center in Paoli, Pennsylvania. Despite that, and a cost overrun due to Burroughs' charging for the use of their facility, the computer was delivered to NASA'a Ames Research Center outside of San Francisco in 1971. After thorough testing and four years of NASA use, Illiac IV was connected to the ARPANet for distributed use in November 1975, becoming the first available supercomputer, beating Cray's Cray-1 by nearly 12 months.
By the early 1960s computer designs were approaching the point of diminishing returns. At the time, computer design focused on adding as many instructions as possible to the machine's CPU, a concept known as "orthogonality", which made programs smaller and more efficient in use of memory. It also made
The Neo Geo (ネオジオ, Neo Jio) is a cartridge-based arcade system board and home video game console released on January 31, 1990 by Japanese game company SNK. Being in the Fourth generation of Gaming, it was the first system in the former Neo Geo family, which only lived through the 1990s. The hardware featured comparatively colourful 2D graphics.
The MVS (Multi Video System), as the Neo Geo was known to the coin-operated arcade game industry, offered arcade operators the ability to put up to six different arcade titles into a single cabinet, a key economic consideration for operators with limited floorspace. With its games stored on self-contained cartridges, a game-cabinet could be exchanged for a different game-title by swapping the game's ROM-cartridge and cabinet artwork. Several popular franchise-series, including Fatal Fury, The King of Fighters, Metal Slug and Samurai Shodown, were released for the platform.
The Neo Geo system was also marketed as a very costly home console, commonly referred to today as the AES (Advanced Entertainment System). The Neo Geo was marketed as 24-bit, though it was technically a parallel processing 16 bit system with an 8-bit Zilog Z80 as
Game & Watch or G&W is a line of handheld electronic games produced by Nintendo from 1980 to 1991. Created by game designer Gunpei Yokoi, each Game & Watch features a single game to be played on an LCD screen in addition to a clock and an alarm. 43.4 million copies of the 59 games were sold worldwide. It was the earliest Nintendo product to garner major success. The device was known as Tricotronic in Germany.
In 1979, Gunpei Yokoi, traveling on the Shinkansen, saw a bored businessman playing with an LCD calculator by pressing the buttons. Yokoi then thought of an idea for a watch that doubled as a miniature game machine for killing time.
The units use LR4x/SR4x "button-cell" batteries, the same type used in most laser pointers or handheld calculators. Different models were manufactured, with some having two screens and a clam-shell design (the Multi Screen Series). The Nintendo DS and Game Boy Advance SP later reused this design.
Titles available in Game & Watch form vary from Mickey Mouse to Balloon Fight, including Nintendo staples such as Donkey Kong, The Legend of Zelda, and Mario Bros.. For a more complete list, see List of Game & Watch games.
The modern "cross" D-pad design
The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (also known as the Super NES, SNES or Super Nintendo) is a 16-bit video game console that was released by Nintendo in North America, Europe, Australasia (Oceania), and South America between 1990 and 1996. In Japan and Southeast Asia, the system is called the Super Famicom (スーパーファミコン, officially adopting the abbreviated name of its predecessor, the Family Computer), or SFC for short. In South Korea, it is known as the Super Comboy (슈퍼 컴보이) and was distributed by Hyundai Electronics. Although each version is essentially the same, several forms of regional lockout prevent the different versions from being compatible with one another.
The Super Nintendo Entertainment System is Nintendo's second home console, following the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). The console introduced advanced graphics and sound capabilities compared with other consoles at the time. Additionally, development of a variety of enhancement chips (which were integrated on game circuit boards) helped to keep it competitive in the marketplace.
The SNES was a global success, becoming the best-selling console of the 16-bit era despite its relatively late start and the fierce
Latitude is Dell's business laptop brand, designed and manufactured mainly by Compal and Quanta.
The Dell Latitude is targeted for business use. This means that standardized parts are used throughout the line and are available for several years for support purposes. By contrast, the Dell Inspiron is aimed at the consumer market and its specifications change regularly. Whereas Inspiron may change vendors on components several times over the course of a single model, the Latitude line generally retains identical components throughout its production. This design is intended to simplify maintenance and support tasks for large corporations, allowing components to be easily swapped between models.
Dell Latitude computers are also built to Dell's RoadReady specification which includes a durable magnesium-alloy casing (though budget version D500/E5000-series Latitudes are mainly plastic), internal metal frames and Strike Zone shock protection in case the computer is dropped or suffers a severe impact. Many models also feature free-fall sensors or solid-state drives. Latitude models are also considered more durable and higher quality than the Inspiron line, and even above the premium Studio
The Power Macintosh 8600 (Codename: "Kansas") is a personal computer that is a part of Apple Computer's Power Macintosh series of Macintosh computers. It was introduced at a processor speed of 200 MHz in February 1997 alongside the Power Macintosh 7300 and the Power Macintosh 9600. It replaced the Power Macintosh 8500. In August 1997, the original model was replaced with two faster ones, at 250 and 300 MHz. The 8600 was discontinued in February 1998, in favour of the Power Macintosh G3 minitower that had been introduced in November 1997.
Like the Power Macintoshes 7300 and 9600, the 8600 featured the new PowerPC 604e and 604ev CPU, an enhanced version of the PowerPC 604 used in the predecessor models 8500 and 9500. It used the same new case as the 9600, but was somewhat less expandable (8 instead of 12 RAM sockets, 3 instead of 6 PCI slots) at a lower price, a distinction that was carried over from the x500 generation. Like the 8500, it included advanced Audio-Video ports including RCA audio in and out, S-Video in and out and composite video in and out.The 8600 was plagued with supply problems from the beginning, and only in June 1997, four months after its introduction, the
The Power Macintosh 6400 (Codenames: "InstaTower", "Alchemy", "Hacksaw"; also sold under variations of the name Performa 6400) is a mid-range personal computer that is a part of Apple Computer's Power Macintosh and Macintosh Performa series of Macintosh computers. The two Performa variants were introduced in August 1996, while the Power Macintosh variant arrived two months later. They were discontinued in favor of the uniformly named Power Macintosh 6500 in August 1997, ending the Performa brand.
The 6400 shares its logic board with the Power Macintosh 5400, only without an integrated monitor. Its new "InstaTower“ case, however, features an integrated subwoofer. The Performa 6360 uses the same logic board in a Power Macintosh 6200-style desktop case. The 5400/6400 is generally believed to be superior to its 5200/6200 predecessors, since the issues that plagued those models had been resolved by then.
All 6400 series computers used a PowerPC 603e processor. This central processing unit (CPU) was soldered to the computer's "Alchemy" main logic board and cooled by a fanless heat-sink. Though initially considered non-upgradable, CPU upgrades did come to market that overrode the fixed
The Netronics ELF II was an early microcomputer trainer kit featuring the RCA 1802 microprocessor, 256 bytes of RAM, DMA-based bitmap graphics, hexadecimal keypad, two digit hexadecimal LED display , a single "Q" LED, and 5 expansion slots.
Available hardware accessories included:
Available software included:
In the code above, the "#" symbol is equivalent to the "Enter" key on a RPN calculator.
The ELF part of the name came from an earlier machine called the "COSMAC ELF", published as a construction project in Popular Electronics magazine. Improvements on its predecessor included an etched PCB, a hexadecimal keypad instead of toggle switches for program entry, the CDP1861 Pixie-graphics chip, and the 5 slot 86-line bus for expansion cards.
The Power Macintosh 7300 (Codename: "Montana"; also sold with server software as the Apple Workgroup Server 7350) is a personal computer that is a part of Apple Computer's Power Macintosh series of Macintosh computers. It was introduced at a processor speed of 180 or 200 MHz (in Europe and Asia, an additional 166 MHz configuration was available) in February 1997 alongside the Power Macintosh 8600 and the Power Macintosh 9600. It replaced both the Power Macintosh 7200 and the Power Macintosh 7600, and was itself discontinued in favor of the Power Macintosh G3 desktop model in November 1997.
The 7300 uses the same "Outrigger" case as its predecessors, but features an enhanced PowerPC 604e CPU. However, it no longer came with the video in capability the 7600 had, which possibly accounts for the fact that this is the only time that Apple used a lower model number for an upgraded model . Apart from that, the 7300 is more closely related to the 7600 than to the 7200, with features such as a processor daughtercard and interleaved RAM. The 7300/180 model was also available in a "PC compatible" configuration that included a 166 MHz Pentium processor with its own RAM (up to 64 MiB) on a PCI
The Atari ST is a home computer released by Atari Corporation in June 1985. It was commercially available from that summer into the early 1990s. The "ST" officially stands for "Sixteen/Thirty-two", which referred to the Motorola 68000's 16-bit external bus and 32-bit internals. Due to its graphical user inferface, it was known as the "Jackintosh", a reference to Jack Tramiel.
The Atari ST was part of the 16/32 bit generation of home computers, based on the Motorola 68000 CPU noted for 128 kB of RAM or more, a graphical user interface, and 3½" microfloppy disks as storage. It was similar to the Apple Macintosh and its simple design allowed the ST to precede the Commodore Amiga's commercial release by almost two months. The Atari ST was also the first personal computer to come with a bit-mapped color GUI, using a version of Digital Research's GEM released that February.
The ST was primarily a competitor to the Apple Macintosh and the Commodore Amiga systems. Where the Amiga had a graphics accelerator and wavetable synthesis, the ST had a simple frame buffer and a 3 voice synthesizer chip but with a CPU faster clocked, and had a high-resolution monochrome display mode, ideal for
Half a year following the release of the Macintosh IIx passed before Apple introduced the Macintosh IIcx in 1989. Despite resembling the IIx to a great extent and providing the same performance, the IIcx was quieter (due to its quieter fan on a smaller power supply) than its predecessor. The design was also made much more compact by reducing the number of NuBus slots from 6 to 3. The new case, Apple's first to be designed to operate in either horizontal or vertical orientation, remained in use for its successors the IIci and Quadra 700. The idea for vertical orientation, one of the first minitower cases, was suggested by Apple CEO John Sculley, who was running out of space on his desk. The model was designated IIcx for compact (echoing the earlier Apple IIc compact model in the Apple II series), and the x was Apple's designation for the 68030 processor.
Users liked the Mac IIcx in part because its components and parts (such as RAM, NuBus slots, and power supply) snapped into place inside the case without the need for screws. There was one central safety screw that tied the assembly together though it was often not reinstalled if ever removed. At the IIcx's introduction, Jean-Louis
The System p, formerly known as RS/6000, was IBM's RISC/UNIX-based server and workstation product line.
In April 2008, IBM announced a rebranding of the System p and its unification with the System i platform. The resulting product line is called IBM Power Systems.
It was originally a line of workstations and servers called RS/6000. The server line was then renamed to the eServer pSeries in 2000 as part of its e-Server branding initiative. With the advent of the POWER5 processor in 2004, the family was rebranded the eServer p5. With the global move of the server and storage brands to the System brand with the Systems Agenda, the family was renamed yet again to System p5 in 2005. The System p5 now encompasses the IBM OpenPower product line. With the introduction of POWER6 processor models, the new models are now being released under the System p brand, dropping the p5 designation.
Whereas RS/6000 used a mix of early POWER and PowerPC processors, when pSeries came along this had evolved into RS64-III and POWER3 across the board—POWER3 for its excellent floating-point performance and RS64 for its scalability, throughput, and integer performance.
IBM developed the POWER4 processor to
The Macintosh IIvi was a short-lived model of the Macintosh II series of Macintosh computers from Apple. The IIvi included either a 40, 160 or 400 MB hard drive, three NuBus slots and a PDS. The IIvi was essentially a Macintosh IIvx with a slower processor (16 MHz vs. 32 MHz) and no floating point unit. The Macintosh Performa 600 is essentially a IIvi with the IIvx's 32 MHz CPU. The IIvi was, on some benchmarks, faster than the crippled IIvx.
The Performa 600 was featured in the 1994 Disney movie Blank Check.
The Nintendo DS (ニンテンドーDS, Nintendō DS), is a dual-screen handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The console first launched in North America on November 21, 2004. The DS, short for dual screen, introduced distinctive new features to handheld gaming: an LCD screen working in tandem with a touchscreen, a built-in microphone, and support for wireless connectivity. Both screens are encompassed within a clamshell design similar to the Game Boy Advance SP. The Nintendo DS also features the ability for multiple DS consoles to directly interact with each other over Wi-Fi within a short range without the need to connect to an existing wireless network. Alternatively, they can interact online using the Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection service. The Nintendo DS is the first console from Nintendo to be released in North America before Japan.
Prior to its release, the Nintendo DS was marketed as a "third pillar" in Nintendo's console lineup, meant to complement the Game Boy Advance and GameCube. However, backward compatibility with Game Boy Advance titles and a strong market share led to the Nintendo DS becoming a successor to the Game Boy series. On March 2, 2006, Nintendo
The iMac is a range of all-in-one Macintosh desktop computers designed and built by Apple Inc.. It has been the primary part of Apple's consumer desktop offerings since its introduction in 1998, and has evolved through Six distinct forms.
In its original form, the iMac G3 had a gum-drop or egg-shaped look, with a CRT monitor, mainly enclosed by a colored, translucent plastic case, which was refreshed early on with a sleeker design notable for its slot-loaded optical drive. The second major revision, the iMac G4, moved the design to a hemispherical base containing all the main components and an LCD monitor on a freely moving arm attached to it. The third/fourth major revision, the iMac G5 and the Intel iMac placed all the components immediately behind the display, creating a slim unified design that tilts only up and down on a simple metal base. The current iMac shares the same form as the previous model, but is thinner and uses anodized aluminum and a glass panel over the entire front. It also adds an SDXC slot directly under the slot-loading SuperDrive. The newest version features quad-core Intel processors across the line, 1 (on 21.5″) or 2 (on 27″) Thunderbolt ports, and a
The Macintosh Quadra 630 (Codenames: "Crusader", "Show Biz", "Show & Tell"; also sold with minor variations as the Macintosh LC 630 in the educational market and as the Macintosh Performa 630 in the consumer market) is a personal computer that is a part of Apple Computer's (now Apple Inc.) Quadra series of Macintosh computers. It was introduced in July 1994, replacing the Quadra 610, and was discontinued in October 1995 with no direct replacement; however, the Power Macintosh 6200 and its Performa versions took a very similar position in Apple's product lineup later, and continued using the new case introduced with the 630.
The 630 was the last Quadra Macintosh introduced, though the earlier 950 remained available longer. A big change compared to previous Macintosh models was the choice of the internal hard drive interface: conforming to the standards of the IBM PC compatible platform, cheaper, but slower IDE drives were used instead of SCSI for the first time. An external SCSI port was still available on the machines, and the CD-ROM used SCSI internally, but the 630 used an older controller that was much slower than the ones used in higher-end Macs of the time.
The 630 was
Power Macintosh, later Power Mac, is a line of Apple Macintosh workstation-class personal computers based on various models of PowerPC microprocessors that were developed, marketed, and supported by Apple Inc. from March 1994 until August 2006. The first models were the Power Macintosh 6100, 7100, and 8100, which offered speeds ranging from 60 to 110 MHz. These machines replaced Apple's Quadra series of personal computers, and were housed in cases very similar to systems sold by Apple up to that point. The Power Mac went on to become the mainstay of Apple's top-end offerings for twelve years, through a succession of case designs, four major generations of PowerPC chips, and a great deal of press coverage, design accolades, and technical controversy. In August 2006, the Power Mac's retirement was announced at Apple's Worldwide Developers Conference by Steve Jobs and Phil Schiller, making way for its Intel-based replacement, the Mac Pro.
The following are recent Power Mac lines based on the New World ROM.
The Power Macintosh G3 All-In-One was replaced with the iMac series.
The ROM and Mac OS operating system released with the new Power Mac
The Commodore SX-64, also known as the Executive 64, or VIP-64 in Europe, is a portable, briefcase/suitcase-size "luggable" version of the popular Commodore 64 home computer and holds the distinction of being the first full-color portable computer.
The SX-64 features a built-in five-inch composite monitor and a built-in 1541 floppy drive. It weighs 10.5 kg (23lb). The machine is carried by its sturdy handle, which doubles as an adjustable stand. It was announced in January 1983 and released a year later, at US$ 995.
Aside from its built-in features and different form factor, there are several other differences between the SX-64 and the regular C64. The default screen color is changed to blue text on a white background for improved readability on the smaller screen. This can cause compatibility problems with programs that assume the C64's default blue background. The default device for load and save operations is changed to the floppy drive. The cassette port and RF port were omitted from the SX-64 because it has a built-in disk drive and monitor, and therefore no need for a tape drive or television connector. These changes make it impossible to use a standard unmodified C64
The Apple Macintosh Classic II (also known as the Performa 200) replaced the Macintosh SE/30 in the compact Macintosh line in 1991. Like the SE/30, the Classic II was powered by a 16 MHz Motorola 68030 CPU and 40 or 80 MB hard disk, but in contrast to its predecessor, it was limited by a 16-bit data bus (the SE/30 had a 32-bit data bus) and a 10 MB memory ceiling.
While the Classic II shares a case with the earlier Classic, architecturally it is more similar to the Macintosh LC. The use of custom ICs, identical to those used in the LC, enabled the Classic II to have a lower component count than older Macs. Unlike the LC and the SE/30 before it, the Classic II did not have an internal PDS expansion slot, making it the first slotless desktop Macintosh since the Macintosh Plus.
There were two Classic II cases. Later models came with a speaker grille on the left side for enhanced sound (as pictured).
The Classic II was the last black-and-white compact Macintosh. It was also the last desktop Macintosh to include a floppy disk port. Apple discontinued support for the Classic II on January 1, 2001.
†The Classic II has a 50-pin internal expansion slot intended for either an FPU
The Timex Sinclair 2068 (TS2068), released in November 1983, was Timex Sinclair's fourth and last home computer for the United States market. It was also marketed in Portugal and Poland, as the Timex Computer 2068.
A variant of the machine was later sold in Poland under the name Unipolbrit Komputer 2086.
The TS2068 was based on the ZX Spectrum and followed Timex's ZX81-based TS1000 and TS1500, and the Spectrum-based TC2048.
Like the TS2048 was announced as a 40K memory machine (16K RAM + 24K ROM), so the 2068 was announced as a 72K machine (48K RAM + 24K ROM).
The TS2068 was a more sophisticated device, significantly changed from its UK ancestor. Arguably one of the first Sinclair clones to significantly improve on the original design, it added a number of new features:
Sinclair BASIC was extended with new keywords (STICK, SOUND, ON ERR, FREE, DELETE, RESET) to address the new hardware and the machine offered bank-switched memory, allowing ROM cartridges to be mapped in.
However, these changes made the machine incompatible with most Spectrum machine-code software, which is to say virtually all commercial titles; less than 10% would run successfully. In an attempt to remedy this,
The Commodore Amiga 4000, or A4000, is the successor of the A2000 and A3000 computers. There are two models, the A4000/040 released in October 1992 with a Motorola 68040 CPU, and the A4000/030 released in April 1993 with a Motorola 68EC030.
The A4000 is housed in a white desktop box with a separate keyboard. Later Commodore released an expanded tower version called the A4000T.
Unlike previous Amiga models, early A4000 machines have the CPU mounted in an expansion board; the motherboard does not have an integrated CPU. Later revisions of the A4000 have the CPU and 2 MB RAM surface-mounted on the motherboard in an effort to reduce costs. These machines are known as the A4000-CR (Cost Reduced) and the surface mounted CPU is a 68EC030. The cost reduced models also made use of a non-rechargeable lithium battery for real-time clock battery backup rather than a rechargeable NiCd battery. The NiCd backup battery is one of the most common causes of problems in an aging A4000 because it has a tendency to eventually leak. The released fluids are somewhat corrosive and can eventually damage the motherboard.
The stock A4000 shipped with either a Motorola 68EC030 or 68040 CPU, 2 MB of Amiga Chip
The BBC Microcomputer System, or BBC Micro, was a series of microcomputers and associated peripherals designed and built by the Acorn Computer company for the BBC Computer Literacy Project, operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation. Designed with an emphasis on education, it was notable for its ruggedness, expandability and the quality of its operating system.
After the Literacy Project's call for bids for a computer to accompany the TV programmes and literature, Acorn won the contract with the Proton, a successor of its Atom computer prototyped at short notice. Renamed the BBC Micro, the system was adopted by most schools in the United Kingdom, changing Acorn's fortunes. It was also moderately successful as a home computer in the UK despite its high cost. Acorn also employed the machine to simulate and develop the ARM architecture which is much used for embedded systems as of 2012.
While nine models were eventually produced with the BBC brand, the term "BBC Micro" is usually used colloquially to refer to the first six (Model A, B, B+64, B+128, Master 128, and Master Compact), with the subsequent models considered as part of Acorn's Archimedes series.
During the early 1980s,
The Cray XT3 is a distributed memory massively parallel MIMD supercomputer designed by Cray Inc. with Sandia National Laboratories under the codename Red Storm. Cray turned the design into a commercial product in 2004. The XT3 derives much of its architecture from the previous Cray T3E system, and also from the Intel ASCI Red supercomputer.
The XT3 consists of between 192 and 32,768 processing elements (PEs), where each PE comprises a 2.4 or 2.6 GHz AMD Opteron processor with up to two cores, a custom "SeaStar" communications chip, and between 1 and 8 GB of RAM. The PowerPC 440 based SeaStar device provides a 6.4 gigabyte per second connection to the processor across HyperTransport, as well as six 8-gigabyte per second links to neighboring PEs. The PEs are arranged in a 3-dimensional torus topology, with 96 PEs in each cabinet.
The XT3 runs an operating system called UNICOS/lc that partitions the machine into three sections, the largest comprising the Compute nodes, and two smaller sections for Service nodes and IO nodes. In UNICOS/lc 1.x, the Compute PEs run a Sandia developed microkernel called Catamount, which is descended from the SUNMOS OS of the Intel Paragon; in UNICOS/lc
The Power Macintosh 6200 (Codename: "Crusader" / "Elixir", also sold under variations of the name Performa 6200, Performa 6300 and Power Macintosh 6300) is a series of mid-range personal computers that are a part of Apple Computer's Power Macintosh and Macintosh Performa series of Macintosh computers. It was introduced in May 1995 with a PowerPC 603 CPU at 75 MHz as a PowerPC-based replacement of the Quadra 630, and continued using the 630's case. In June 1996 new models using a PowerPC 603e CPU at 100 MHz followed, and in April 1996 the series culminated in models using a 603e at 120 MHz. In early 1997, the rather different Power Macintosh 6300/160 / Performa 6360 based on the Power Macintosh 6400 were introduced. In July 1997 the whole 6x00 line was discontinued in favor of the desktop model of the Power Macintosh G3.
The 6200's naming conventions confused many; in addition to the many Performa variants, it also includes model numbers above 6300 (which would normally indicate a different model). The model numbers above 6260 use a PowerPC 603e processor, but are otherwise virtually identical. Finally, some computers with model numbers that indicate they belong to the 6200/6300
The Macintosh SE is a personal computer manufactured by Apple between March 1987 and October 1990. This computer marked a significant improvement on the Macintosh Plus design and was introduced by Apple at the same time as the Macintosh II. It had a similar case to the original Macintosh computer, but with slight differences in color and styling.
The SE's notable new features, compared to its similar predecessor the Macintosh Plus, were:
The SE was designed to accommodate either one or two floppy drives, or a floppy drive and a hard drive. After-market brackets were designed to allow the SE to accommodate two floppy drives as well as a hard drive, however it was not a configuration supported by Apple. In addition an external floppy disk drive could also be connected, making the SE the only other Macintosh besides the Macintosh Portable which could support three floppy drives, though its increased storage, RAM capacity and optional internal hard drive rendered the external drives less of a necessity than for its predecessors. After Apple introduced the Macintosh SE/30 in January 1989, a logic board upgrade was sold by Apple dealers as a high-cost upgrade for the SE, consisting of a
DEC 3000 AXP was the name given to a series of computer workstations and servers, produced from 1992 to around 1995 by Digital Equipment Corporation. The DEC 3000 AXP series formed part of the first generation of computer systems based on the 64-bit Alpha AXP architecture. Supported operating systems for the DEC 3000 AXP series were DEC OSF/1 AXP (later renamed Digital UNIX) and OpenVMS AXP (later renamed OpenVMS).
All DEC 3000 AXP models used the DECchip 21064 (EV4) or DECchip 21064A (EV45) processor and inherited various features from the earlier MIPS architecture-based DECstation models, such as the TURBOchannel bus and the I/O subsystem.
The DEC 3000 AXP series was superseded in late 1994, with workstation models replaced by the AlphaStation line and server models replaced by the AlphaServer line.
There were three DEC 3000 model families, codenamed Pelican, Sandpiper, and Flamingo. Within Digital, this led to the DEC 3000 series being affectionately referred to as "the seabirds".
Note: Server configurations of the Model 400/500/600/700/800/900 systems were suffixed with "S".
The logic in Flamingo- and Sandpiper-based systems are contained on two modules (printed circuit
The IBM System/360 (S/360) was a mainframe computer system family announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978. It was the first family of computers designed to cover the complete range of applications, from small to large, both commercial and scientific. The design made a clear distinction between architecture and implementation, allowing IBM to release a suite of compatible designs at different prices. All but the most expensive systems used microcode to implement the instruction set, which featured 8-bit byte addressing and binary, decimal and floating-point calculations.
The slowest System/360 models announced in 1964 ranged in speed from 0.0018 to 0.034 MIPS; the fastest System/360 models were approximately 50 times as fast with 8 kB and up to 8 MB of internal main memory, though the latter was unusual, and up to 8 megabytes of slower Large Core Storage (LCS). A large system might have as little as 256 kB of main storage, but 512 kB, 768 kB or 1024 kB was more common.
The 360s were extremely successful in the market, allowing customers to purchase a smaller system with the knowledge they would always be able to migrate upward if their needs grew,
TurboGrafx-16, fully titled as TurboGrafx-16 Entertainment SuperSystem and known in Japan as the PC Engine (PCエンジン, Pī Shī Enjin), is a video game console developed by Hudson Soft and NEC, released in Japan on October 30, 1987, and in North America on August 29, 1989.
The TurboGrafx-16 has an 8-bit CPU and a dual 16-bit GPU; and is capable of displaying 482 colors simultaneously, out of 512. With dimensions of 14 cm × 14 cm × 3.8 cm (5.5in × 5.5in × 1.5in), the NEC PC Engine holds the record for the world's smallest game console ever made. (Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition (2008))
In the United Kingdom, Telegames released a slightly altered version of the US model simply as the TurboGrafx around 1990 in extremely limited quantities. Although there was no full-scale PAL region release of the system, imported PC Engine consoles were largely available in France and Benelux through major retailers thanks to the unlicensed importer Sodipeng (Société de Distribution de la PC Engine, a subsidiary of Guillemot International).
In 2009, the TurboGrafx-16 was ranked as the 13th greatest video game console of all time by IGN, despite citing a lack of third party support and the absence
The Aster CT-80, an early home/personal computer developed by the small Dutch company MCP (later renamed to Aster Computers), was sold in its first incarnation as a kit for hobbyists. Later it was sold ready to use. It consisted of several Eurocard PCB's with DIN 41612 connectors, and a backplane all based on a 19-inch rack configuration. It was the first commercially available Dutch personal/home computer. The Aster computer could use the software written for the popular Tandy TRS-80 computer while fixing many of the problems of that computer, but it could also run CP/M software, with a big amount of free memory (Transient Program Area, TPA) and a full 80×25 display, and it could be used as a Videotext terminal. Although the Aster was a clone of the TRS-80 model I it was in fact more compatible with the TRS-80 model III, and ran all the software of these systems including games. It also had a built in speaker which was compatible with such games software.
Three models were sold. The first model looked like the later IBM PC (which came on the market years later), a rectangular base unit with two floppy drives on the front, and a monitor on top with a separate detachable keyboard.
The Game Boy Color (ゲームボーイカラー, Gēmu Bōi Karā") is Nintendo's successor to the Game Boy handheld game console, and was released on October 21, 1998 in Japan, November 18, 1998 in North America, November 23, 1998 in Europe and November 27, 1998 in Australia. It features a color screen and is slightly thicker and taller than the Game Boy Pocket. As with the original Game Boy, it has an 8-bit processor. The Game Boy and Game Boy Color combined have sold 118.69 million units worldwide.
The Game Boy Color was a response to pressure from game developers for a new and much more sophisticated system of playing, as they felt that the Game Boy, even in its latest incarnation, the Game Boy Pocket, was insufficient. The resultant product was backward compatible, a first for a handheld system, and leveraged the large library of games and great installed base of the predecessor system. This became a major feature of the Game Boy line, since it allowed each new launch to begin with a significantly larger library than any of its competitors.
Wesley and Barczak feel the Game Boy Color was "little more than an incremental improvement" over the original Game Boy, and that real change would not arrive
The IBM 701, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was announced to the public on April 29, 1952, and was IBM’s first commercial scientific computer. Its business computer siblings were the IBM 702 and IBM 650.
The system used electrostatic storage, consisting of 72 Williams tubes with a capacity of 1024 bits each, giving a total memory of 2048 words of 36 bits each. Each of the 72 Williams tubes was three inches in diameter. Memory could be expanded to a maximum of 4096 words of 36 bits by the addition of a second set of 72 Williams tubes or by replacing the entire memory with magnetic core memory. The Williams tube memory and later core memory each had a memory cycle time of 12 microseconds. The Williams tube memory required periodic refreshing, mandating the insertion of refresh cycles into the 701's timing. An addition operation required five 12 microsecond cycles, two of which were refresh cycles, while a multiplication or division operation required 38 cycles (456 microseconds).
Instructions were 18 bits long, single address.
Numbers were either 36 bits or 18 bits long, signed magnitude, fixed point.
The IBM 701 had only 2 programmer accessible registers:
The Macintosh Quadra 700 was introduced along with the Quadra 900 in October 1991 as Apple's first computers to use the Motorola 68040 processor, as well as the first to feature built-in Ethernet networking as many Unix workstations did. The Quadra 700 was encased in the same form-factor as the popular Macintosh IIcx and Macintosh IIci models, allowing users to easily upgrade to the more powerful computer. Users sometimes placed the older case vertically in a minitower orientation and the Quadra 700 recognized this by having the Apple logo and model name printed in the vertical orientation. It remains the only Mac to be "officially" convertible between desktop and tower designs.
The Quadra 700 could be upgraded to 68 megabytes of RAM, which with its 25 MHz processor made it a very useful computer for scientific or design work. It was also a prime candidate for processor upgrade when the PowerPC 601 accelerator cards came along in 1994. Like the IIci it had integrated graphics built into the system board, but unlike the earlier model, the 700 used dedicated VRAM for its video memory.
The onboard video came with 512 kilobytes VRAM soldered to the motherboard, and supported
The SAM Coupé (Pronounced: "Sam Koo-Pay" from its original British English branding) is an 8-bit British home computer that was first released in late 1989. It is commonly considered a clone of the Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer, since it features a compatible screen mode and emulated compatibility, and it was marketed as a logical upgrade from the Spectrum. It was originally manufactured by Miles Gordon Technology (MGT), based in Swansea in the United Kingdom.
The machine is based around a Z80B CPU clocked at 6 MHz, and contains an ASIC that is comparable to the Spectrum's ULA. Memory is accessible within the 64 KB range of the Z80B CPU by slicing it into 16 KB blocks and accessing IO ports to switch which blocks appeared in the 4 slots available to the CPU. The basic model has 256 KB of RAM, upgradable internally to 512 KB and externally with an additional 4 MB (added in 1 MB packs). The computer's primary storage medium is a cassette tape, though one or two 3.5 inch floppy disk drives can be installed internally as well. Six channel, 8 octave stereo sound is provided by a Philips SAA 1099 chip. The ASIC also includes a line triggered interrupt counter, allowing video effects to
The Star workstation, officially known as the Xerox 8010 Information System, was introduced by Xerox Corporation in 1981. It was the first commercial system to incorporate various technologies that today have become commonplace in personal computers, including a bitmapped display, a window-based graphical user interface, icons, folders, mouse (two-button), Ethernet networking, file servers, print servers and e-mail.
The name "Star" technically refers only to the software sold with the system for the office automation market. The 8010 workstations were also sold with LISP- and Smalltalk-based software, for the smaller research and software development market.
The Xerox Star systems concept owes much to the Xerox Alto, an experimental workstation designed by the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). The first Alto became operational in 1972. At first, only few Altos were built. Although by 1979 nearly 1000 Ethernet-linked Altos were in use at Xerox and another 500 at collaborating universities and government offices, it was never intended to be a commercial product. While Xerox had started in 1977 a development project which worked to incorporate those innovations into a commercial
The Commodore 64, commonly called C64, C=64 (after the graphic logo on the case) or occasionally CBM 64 (for Commodore Business Machines), or VIC-64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International.
Volume production started in the spring of 1982, with machines being released on to the market in August at a price of US$ 595. Preceded by the Commodore VIC-20 and Commodore PET, the C64 took its name from its 64 kilobytes (65,536 bytes) of RAM, and had favourable sound and graphical specifications when compared to contemporary systems such as the Apple II, at a price that was well below the circa US$ 1200 demanded by Apple.
During the C64's lifetime, sales totalled between 12.5 and 17 million units, making it the best-selling single personal computer model of all time. For a substantial period of time (1983–1986), the C64 dominated the market with between 30% and 40% share and 2 million units sold per year, outselling the IBM PC compatibles, Apple Inc. computers, and Atari 8-bit family computers. Sam Tramiel, a later Atari president and the son of Commodore's founder, said in a 1989 interview "When I was at Commodore we were building 400,000 C64s a
The Macintosh Plus computer was the third model in the Macintosh line, introduced on January 16, 1986, two years after the original Macintosh and a little more than a year after the Macintosh 512K, with a price tag of US$2599. As an evolutionary improvement over the 512K, it shipped with 1 MB of RAM standard, expandable to 4 MB, and an external SCSI peripheral bus, among smaller improvements. It originally had the same generally beige-colored case as the original Macintosh ("Pantone 453"), but in 1987, the case color was changed to the long-lived, warm gray "Platinum" color. It is the earliest Macintosh model able to run System 7 OS.
Introduced as the Macintosh Plus, it was the first Macintosh model to include a SCSI port, which launched the popularity of external SCSI devices for Macs, including hard disks, tape drives, CD-ROM drives, printers, and even monitors. The SCSI implementation of the Plus was engineered shortly before the initial SCSI spec was finalized and, as such, is not 100% SCSI-compliant. SCSI ports remained standard equipment for all Macs until the introduction of the iMac in 1998, which replaced most of Apple's legacy ports with USB.
The Macintosh Plus was the
TRS-80 was Tandy Corporation's desktop microcomputer model line, sold through Tandy's Radio Shack stores in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and one of the earliest mass-produced personal computers. The first units, ordered unseen, were delivered in November 1977, and rolled out to the stores the third week of December. The line won popularity with hobbyists, home users, and small-businesses. Tandy Corporation's leading position in what Byte Magazine called the "1977 Trinity" (Apple, Commodore and Tandy) had much to do with Tandy's retailing the computer through more than 3,000 of its Radio Shack storefronts. Notable features of the original TRS-80 included its full-stroke QWERTY keyboard, small size, its floating point BASIC programming language, an included monitor, and a starting price of $600. The pre-release price was $500 and a $50 deposit was required, with a money back guarantee at time of delivery. One major drawback of the original system was the massive RF interference it caused in surrounding electronics. Stricter FCC regulations on interference led to the Model I's replacement by the Model III.
By 1979, the TRS-80 had the largest available selection of software in the
The Amstrad CPC (short for Colour Personal Computer) is a series of 8-bit home computers produced by Amstrad between 1984 and 1990. It was designed to compete in the mid-1980s home computer market dominated by the Commodore 64 and the Sinclair ZX Spectrum, where it successfully established itself primarily in the United Kingdom, France, Spain, and the German-speaking parts of Europe.
The series spawned a total of six distinct models: The CPC464, CPC664, and CPC6128 were highly successful competitors in the European home computer market. The later plus models, 464plus and 6128plus, efforts to prolong the system's lifecycle with hardware updates, were considerably less successful, as was the attempt to repackage the plus hardware into a game console as the GX4000.
The CPC models' hardware is based on the Zilog Z80A CPU, complemented with either 64 or 128 kB of memory. Their computer-in-a-keyboard design prominently features an integrated storage device, either a compact cassette deck or 3" floppy disk drive. The main units were only sold bundled with a colour or monochrome monitor that doubles as the main unit's power supply. Additionally, a wide range of first and third party
The IBM 305 RAMAC, publicly announced on September 13, 1956, was the first commercial computer that used a moving head hard disk drive (magnetic disk storage) for secondary storage. RAMAC stood for "Random Access Method of Accounting and Control". Its design was motivated by the need for real-time accounting in business. The first RAMAC to be used in the U.S. auto industry was installed at Chrysler's MOPAR Division in 1957. It replaced a huge tub file which was part of MOPAR's parts inventory control and order processing system. The 305 was one of the last vacuum tube computers that IBM built. It weighed over a ton. The IBM 350 disk system stored 5 million 8-bit (7 data bits plus 1 parity bit) characters (5MB). It had fifty 24-inch-diameter (610 mm) disks. Two independent access arms moved up and down to select a disk, and in and out to select a recording track, all under servo control. Average time to locate a single record was 600 milliseconds. Several improved models were added in the 1950s. The IBM RAMAC 305 system with 350 disk storage leased for $3,200 per month in 1957 dollars, equivalent to a purchase price of about $160,000. More than 1,000 systems were built. Production
The Macintosh 128K, released as the "Apple Macintosh", is the original Apple Macintosh personal computer. Its beige case contained a 9 in (23 cm) monitor and came with a keyboard and mouse. A handle in the top of the case made it easier for the computer to be lifted and carried. It had a selling price of US$2,495. The Macintosh was introduced by the now famous $900,000 television commercial by Ridley Scott, "1984", that most notably aired on CBS during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on January 22, 1984. The sales of the Macintosh were strong from its initial release and reached 70,000 units on May 3, 1984. After its successor, the Macintosh 512K, was introduced, it was rebadged as the Macintosh 128K.
The Macintosh was designed to achieve adequate graphics performance, which had previously required hardware costing over US$10,000, at a price accessible to the middle class. This narrow goal resulted in an efficient design which traded off expandability but met or exceeded the baseline performance of its competitors.
The centerpiece of the machine was a Motorola 68000 microprocessor connected to a 128 kB DRAM by a 16-bit data bus. Lack of RAM proved to be a fatal constraint to
The Whirlwind computer was developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is the first computer that operated in real time, used video displays for output, and the first that was not simply an electronic replacement of older mechanical systems. Its development led directly to the United States Air Force's Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system, and indirectly to almost all business computers and minicomputers in the 1960s.
During World War II, the U.S. Navy approached MIT about the possibility of creating a computer to drive a flight simulator for training bomber crews. They envisioned a fairly simple system in which the computer would continually update a simulated instrument panel based on control inputs from the pilots. Unlike older systems like the Link Trainer, the system they envisioned would have a considerably more realistic aerodynamics model that could be adapted to any type of plane. This was an important consideration at the time, when many new designs were being introduced into service.
A short study by the MIT Servomechanisms Laboratory concluded that such a system was certainly possible. The Navy decided to fund development under Project
The PDP-10 was a mainframe computer family manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from the late 1960s on; the name stands for "Programmed Data Processor model 10". The first model was delivered in 1966. It was the machine that made time-sharing common; it looms large in hacker folklore because of its adoption in the 1970s by many university computing facilities and research labs, the most notable of which were MIT's AI Lab and Project MAC, Stanford's SAIL, Computer Center Corporation (CCC), and Carnegie Mellon University.
The PDP-10 architecture was an almost identical version of the earlier PDP-6 architecture, sharing the same 36-bit word length and slightly extending the instruction set (but with improved hardware implementation). Some aspects of the instruction set are unique, most notably the "byte" instructions, which operated on bit fields of any size from 1 to 36 bits inclusive according to the general definition of a byte as a contiguous sequence of a fixed number of bits.
The original PDP-10 processor was the KA10, introduced in 1968. It used discrete transistors packaged in DEC's Flip-Chip technology, with backplanes wire wrapped via a semi-automated
Manufacturer:Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems
The MITS Altair 8800 was a microcomputer design from 1975 based on the Intel 8080 CPU. Interest grew quickly after it was featured on the cover of the January, 1975, issue of Popular Electronics, and was sold by mail order through advertisements there, in Radio-Electronics and other hobbyist magazines. The designers hoped to sell a few hundred build-it-yourself kits to hobbyists, and were surprised when they sold thousands in the first month. The Altair also appealed to individuals and businesses that just wanted a computer and purchased the assembled version. Today the Altair is widely recognized as the spark that led to the microcomputer revolution of the next few years: The computer bus designed for the Altair was to become a de facto standard in the form of the S-100 bus, and the first programming language for the machine was Microsoft's founding product, Altair BASIC.
While serving at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory at Kirtland Air Force Base, Ed Roberts and Forrest M. Mims III decided to use their electronics background to produce small kits for model rocket hobbyists. In 1969, Roberts and Mims, along with Stan Cagle and Robert Zaller, founded Micro Instrumentation and
The Gateway Handbook was a very small and lightweight subnotebook originally introduced by Gateway Computers in 1992. It quickly achieved critical acclaim and a cult-like following, especially in Japan.
It was designed by IQV and Tottori Sanyo and manufactured by Tottori Sanyo in Japan. The lead engineer on the product was Howard Fullmer and other significant contributors included Bob Burnett and Rick Murayama.
The product was only 9.7 in (250 mm) wide, 5.9 in (150 mm) deep, and 1.6 in (41 mm) high, and weighed less than 3 lb (1.4 kg). While it used a Chips and Technologies 8680 microprocessor, it was marketed as having 286-level performance. The C&T chip set included hardware emulation of the Intel 80186 processor and the Handbook used a special feature of the chip set called SuperSet whereby 80286 instructions were trapped and then emulated in software. This same feature was used to emulate the 8051 keyboard controller, serial port and numerous other I/O functions. Intel worked closely with IQV to include similar capabilities in the SL chip sets which were introduced in the mid-90s.
The Handbook had 640 KiB of RAM, a 20 MB hard drive, and a monochrome blue-white CGA-compatible
The MacBook Pro is a line of Macintosh portable computers introduced in January 2006 by Apple Inc., and now in its third generation. Replacing the PowerBook G4, the MacBook Pro was the second model, after the iMac, to be announced in the Apple–Intel transition. It is also the high-end model of the MacBook family and is currently produced with 13- and 15-inch screens, although a 17-inch version has been offered previously.
The first generation MacBook Pro appeared externally similar to the PowerBook G4, but used the Intel Core processors instead of PowerPC G4 chips. The 15-inch model was released in January 2006, a 17-inch model in April, both of which received several updates and Core 2 Duo processors later in the year.
The second model, known as the "unibody" model, has a more tapered design and a casing made from a single block of aluminum. It debuted in October 2008 as the 15-inch MacBook Pro and the 13-inch aluminum unibody MacBook. The following January brought the design to the 17-inch model, along with the built-in battery that joined the rest of the MacBook Pro line in June, including the 13-inch model which Apple absorbed into the MacBook Pro line. Subsequent updates
The Macintosh LC 500 series is a series of personal computers that is a part of Apple Computer's LC line of Macintosh computers. It was Apple's mid-1990s upper low end-range series, positioned below the Centris and Quadra but above the Classic II and Color Classic models. All of these computers were also sold under the Macintosh Performa brand, in some cases under slightly different model numbers. These computers all share the same case, a new all-in-one desktop that includes a large 14" CRT display, CD-ROM drive, and stereo speakers. Designed as a successor to the outdated compact all-in-one Macintosh, the case is reminiscent of Apple's earlier Compact Macintosh series but considerably larger and bulkier, with a screen diagonal of 14 inches (compared to the Compact's 9- or 10-inch screens) and a bulging midsection to contain the larger electronics, in stark contrast to the compact Macs' slimmer designs.
The 500 series included four main models, the 520, 550, 575, and 580, with the 520 and 550 being very similar to each other, and the 575 and 580 sharing a new processor and motherboard but differing somewhat on the rest of the hardware. The LC models in particular became very
The MIT Lincoln Laboratory TX-2 computer was the successor to the Lincoln TX-0 and was known for its role in advancing both artificial intelligence and human-computer interaction.
The TX-2 was a transistor-based computer using the then-huge amount of 64K 36-bit words of core memory. The TX-2 became operational in 1958. Because of its then powerful capabilities Ivan Sutherland's revolutionary Sketchpad program was developed for and ran on the TX-2.
The Digital Equipment Corporation was a spin-off of the TX-0 and TX-2 projects. A TX-1 was planned as the successor for the TX-0, but the project was deemed too ambitious and was scaled back to the TX-2. The TX-2 Tape System was a block addressable 1/2" tape developed for the TX-2 by Tom Stockebrand which evolved into LINCtape and DECtape.
The Amiga 2000, or A2000, is a personal computer released by Commodore in March 1987. It is the successor to the Amiga 1000.
Aimed at the high-end market, the original Europe-only model adds a Zorro II backplane, implemented in programmable logic, to the custom Amiga chipset used in the Amiga 1000. Later improved models have redesigned hardware using the more highly integrated A500 chipset, with the additional of a gate-array called "Buster", which integrates the Zorro subsystem. This also enabled handoff of the system control to a coprocessor slot device, and implemented the full video slot for add-on video devices.
Like the earlier Amiga 1000 and most typical PCs, and unlike the Amiga 500, the A2000 came in a desktop case with a separate keyboard. The case was taller than the A1000 to accommodate expansion cards, two 3.5" and one 5.25" drive bays and, like a traditional PC, it lacks the "keyboard garage" of the Amiga 1000. The A2000 has space for five Zorro II proprietary expansion slots, two 16-bit and two 8-bit ISA slots, a CPU upgrade slot, a video slot, and includes a battery-backed real-time clock.
The A2000 offered graphics capabilities only exceeded among its
The Cray-2 was a four-processor ECL vector supercomputer made by Cray Research starting in 1985. It was the fastest machine in the world when it was released, replacing the Cray Research X-MP designed by Steve Chen in that spot. The Cray-2 was capable of 1.9 GFLOPS peak performance and was only bumped off of the top spot by the ETA-10G in 1990.
With the successful launch of his famed Cray-1, Seymour Cray turned to the design of its successor. By 1979 he had become fed up with management interruptions in what was now a large company, and as he had done in the past, decided to resign his management post and move to form a new lab. As with his original move to Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin from Control Data HQ in Minneapolis, MN, Cray management understood his needs and supported his move to a new lab in Boulder, Colorado. Working as an independent consultant at these new Cray Labs, he put together a team and started on a completely new design. This Lab would later close, and a decade later a new facility in Colorado Springs would open.
Cray had previously attacked the problem of increased speed with three simultaneous advances: more functional units to give the system higher parallelism,
The Macintosh TV was Apple's first attempt at computer-television integration. It shared the external appearance of the Macintosh LC 500 series, but in black. The Macintosh TV was essentially a Performa 520 that could switch its built-in 14" Sony Trinitron CRT from being a computer display to a cable-ready television. It was incapable of showing television in a desktop window, although it could capture still frames to PICT files.
One of the reasons cited for its failure was its sub-par graphics performance.
It came with a small credit card-sized remote control that was also compatible with Sony televisions. It was the first Macintosh to be made in black and came with a custom black keyboard and mouse. Later Apple would issue a custom black Performa 5420 in markets outside the United States with many of the features of the Mac TV. The Mac TV tuner card was a popular option for the LC & Performa series.
Only 10,000 were made in the model's short time on the market.
The Commodore Amiga 3000, or A3000, was the third major release in the Amiga computer family. Released in June 1990, it features improved processing speed, improved rendering of graphics, and a new revision of the operating system. It is the successor to the Amiga 2000.
Its predecessors, the Amiga 500, 1000 and 2000, shared the same fundamental system architecture and consequently performed without much variation in processing speed despite considerable variation in purchase price. The A3000 however, was entirely reworked and rethought as a high-end workstation. The new Motorola 32-bit 68030 CPU, 68882 math co-processor, and 32-bit system memory increase the "integer" processing speed by a factor of 5 to 18, and the "floating point" processing speed by a factor of 7 to 200 times. The new 32-bit Zorro III expansion slots provide for faster and more powerful expansion capabilities.
In common with earlier Amigas it runs a 32-bit operating system called AmigaOS. Version 2.0 is generally considered to have a more ergonomic and attractive interface than previous versions. Access for application developers was simplified.
The A3000UX was an A3000 variant bundled with the UNIX System V
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform. It is IBM model number 5150, and was introduced on August 12, 1981. It was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida.
Alongside "microcomputer" and "home computer", the term "personal computer" was already in use before 1981. It was used as early as 1972 to characterize Xerox PARC's Alto. However, because of the success of the IBM Personal Computer, the term PC came to mean more specifically a microcomputer compatible with IBM's PC products.
Desktop sized programmable calculators by Hewlett Packard had evolved into the HP 9830 BASIC language computer by 1972, with IBM's releasing its own IBM 5100 in 1975. It was a complete computer system programmable in BASIC or APL, with a small built-in CRT monitor, keyboard, and tape drive for data storage. It was also very expensive — up to $20,000 USD. It was specifically designed for professional and scientific problem-solvers, not business users or hobbyists. When the PC was introduced in 1981, it was
The Macintosh Performa series is Apple Computer's consumer product family of Apple Macintosh personal computers sold through department stores and mass-market retailers from 1992 until 1997, when it was superseded by the Power Macintosh 5x00 series. The Performa series was not a new line of computers, but simply renamed models from Apple's regular line of computers — such as Quadra, Centris, LC, and Power Macintosh — sold by authorized Apple resellers.
With a strong education market share throughout the 1990s, Apple wanted to push its computers into the home, with the idea that a child would experience the same Macintosh computer both in the home and at school, and later grow to use Macintosh computers at work.
Before the existence of the Apple Store, Apple sold computers through authorized resellers, either brick and mortar or mail order. A typical reseller sold Macintosh computers to professionals, who purchased high-level applications and required performance and expansion capabilities. Consumers, however, purchased computers based on the best value, and weren't as concerned about expansion or performance. Apple wanted to sell their computers through department store chains
The Macintosh Portable was Apple Inc.'s first battery-powered portable Macintosh personal computer. It was also the first commercial off-the-shelf portable computer used in space and the first to send an email from space, in 1991 aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-43.
Released on September 20, 1989, it was received with excitement from most critics but consumer sales were quite low. It featured a fast, sharp, and expensive black and white active matrix LCD screen in a hinged design that covered the keyboard when the machine was not in use. The Portable was perhaps the first consumer laptop to employ an active matrix panel, and only the most expensive of the initial Powerbook line, the Powerbook 170, used one, due to the high cost. The cursor pointing function was handled by a built-in trackball that could be removed and located on either side of the keyboard. It used expensive SRAM in an effort to maximize battery life and to provide an "instant on" low power sleep mode. The machine was designed to be high-performance, at the cost of price and weight.
Unlike later portable computers from Apple and other manufacturers, the battery is charged in series with the supply of power to the
The Power Macintosh 4400 (also known as the Power Macintosh 7220 in some markets) was a mid-to-high-end Macintosh personal computer designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer from 1996 until 1998. The Power Macintosh 4400 was rather different from most other Macintosh models, in that the floppy disk drive is on the left rather than right, and like the Centris 650, the casing is made of metal rather than plastic. Apple did this to reduce production costs, in addition to using more industry standard components such as IDE and ATX power supply.
It was also available in a PC compatible system with a 166 MHz DOS card containing 16 Mb of RAM and a cyrix 6x86 processor. The first 4400 model was only sold to the Europe market, an updated 200 MHz 603e model was released in the United States in February 1997 as the Power Macintosh 4400.
The Power Macintosh 4400 is known as the Power Macintosh 7220 in Australia and Asia, where the number 4 is considered unlucky.
The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) was an electromechanical computer built by IBM. Its design was started in late 1944, and it operated from January 1948 to 1952. It had many of the features of a stored-program computer and was the first operational machine able to treat its instructions as data, but it was not fully electronic. Although the SSEC proved useful for several high-profile applications it soon became obsolete. As the last large electromechanical computer ever built, its greatest success was the publicity it provided for IBM.
During World War II, International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) funded the construction of an Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC) for Howard H. Aiken at Harvard University. The machine, formally dedicated in August 1944, was widely known as the Harvard Mark I. The President of IBM, Thomas J. Watson, Sr., did not like Aiken's press release that gave no credit to IBM for its funding and engineering effort. Watson and Aiken decided to go their separate ways, and IBM began work on a project to build their own larger and more visible machine. Astronomer Wallace John Eckert of Columbia University provided
The Commodore 65 (also known as the C64DX, not to be confused with the Commodore SX-64 portable unit) was a prototype computer created by Fred Bowen and others at Commodore Business Machines (CBM) (part of Commodore International) in 1990–1991. The project was cancelled by CEO Irving Gould.
The C65 was an improved version of the Commodore 64, and it was meant to be backwards-compatible with the older computer, while still providing a number of advanced features close to those of the Amiga. It can be regarded as a counterpart to the Apple IIgs in providing 16-bit-equivalent technology on an 8-bit platform, though the IIgs used an 8/16 bit 65C816 processor. When Commodore International was liquidated in 1994, a number of prototypes were sold on the open market, and thus a few people actually own a Commodore 65. Estimates as to the actual number of machines found on the open market range from 50 to 2000 units.
As the C65 project was cancelled, the final 8-bit offering from CBM remained the triple-mode, 1–2 MHz, 128 kB (expandable), C64-compatible Commodore 128 of 1985.
The Macintosh Classic is a personal computer manufactured by Apple Computer. Introduced on October 15, 1990, it was the first Apple Macintosh to sell for less than US$1,000. Production of the Classic was prompted by the success of the Macintosh Plus and the SE. The system specifications of the Classic were very similar to its predecessors, with the same 9-inch (23 cm) monochrome CRT display, 512×384 pixel resolution, and 4 megabyte (MB) memory limit of the older Macintosh computers. Apple's decision to not update the Classic with newer technology such as a 68010 CPU, higher RAM capacity or color display ensured compatibility with the Mac's by-then healthy software base as well as enabled it to fit the lower price-point Apple intended for it. Nevertheless, the Classic featured several improvements over the aging Macintosh Plus, which it replaced as Apple's low-end Mac computer. It was up to 25 percent faster than the Plus and included an Apple SuperDrive 3.5-inch (9 cm) floppy disk drive as standard.
The Classic was an adaptation of Jerry Manock's and Terry Oyama's 1984 Macintosh 128K industrial design, as had been the earlier Macintosh SE. Apple released two versions that ranged
The Sinclair QL (for Quantum Leap), was a personal computer launched by Sinclair Research in 1984, as the successor to the Sinclair ZX Spectrum. The QL, based on the Motorola 68008 microprocessor, was aimed at the hobbyist and small business markets, but failed to achieve commercial success.
The QL was originally conceived in 1981 under the code-name ZX83, as a portable computer for business users, with a built-in ultra-thin flat-screen CRT display (similar to the later TV80 pocket TV), printer and modem. As development progressed, and ZX83 became ZX84, it eventually became clear that the portability features were over-ambitious and the specification was reduced to a conventional desktop configuration. It was designed to be more powerful than the IBM Personal Computer, and comparable to Apple's Macintosh.
Based on a Motorola 68008 processor clocked at 7.5 MHz, the QL included 128 kB of RAM (officially expandable to 640 kB) and could be connected to a monitor or TV for display. Two built-in ZX Microdrive tape-loop cartridge drives provided mass storage, in place of the more expensive floppy disk drives found on similar systems of the era. Microdrives had been introduced for the
The Apple Network Server (ANS) was a short-lived line of PowerPC-based server computers manufactured by Apple Computer from February 1996 to April 1997, when it was discontinued due to very poor sales. It was codenamed "Shiner" and originally consisted of two models, the Network Server 500/132 ("Shiner LE", i.e., "low-end") and the Network Server 700/150 ("Shiner HE", i.e. "high-end"), which got a companion model, the Network Server 700/200 (also "Shiner HE") with a faster CPU in September 1996. They are not a part of the Apple Macintosh line of computers; they were designed to run IBM's AIX operating system and their ROM specifically prevented booting Mac OS. This makes them the last non-Macintosh desktop computers made by Apple to date. The 500/132, 700/150, and 700/200 sold for US$11,000, US$15,000 and US$19,000, respectively.
Apple Network Servers are not to be confused with the Apple Workgroup Servers and the Macintosh Servers, which were Macintosh workstations that shipped with server software and used Mac OS; the sole exception, the Workgroup Server 95—a Quadra 950 with an added SCSI controller that shipped with A/UX—was still able to run Mac OS. Apple did not have
Named in honor of the crew who died in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, Columbia is a supercomputer built by Silicon Graphics (SGI) for the National Aeornautics and Space Administration (NASA).
It was installed at the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) facility located at Moffett Field, California in 2004 and increased NASA's supercomputing capacity 10-fold for the agency's science, aeronautics and exploration programs. Some of the missions run on Columbia include high-fidelity simulations of the Space Shuttle vehicle and launch systems, hurricane track prediction, global ocean circulation, and the physics of supernova detonations.
Columbia debuted as the second most powerful supercomputer on the TOP500 list in November 2004 at a LINPACK rating of 51.87 teraflops, or 51.87 trillion floating point calculations per second. By June 2007 it had dropped to 13th, and by June 2008 was at 25th.
It was originally composed of 20 interconnected SGI Altix 3700 512-processor multi-rack systems running SUSE Linux Enterprise, using Intel Itanium 2 Montecito and Montvale processors. In 2006, NASA and SGI added four new Altix 4700 nodes containing 256 dual-core processors, which decreased the
The Cray J90 series (code-named Jedi during development) was an air-cooled vector processor supercomputer first sold by Cray Research in 1994. The J90 evolved from the Cray Y-MP EL minisupercomputer, and is compatible with Y-MP software, running the same UNICOS operating system. The J90 supported up to 32 CMOS processors with a 10 ns (100 MHz) clock. It supported up to 4 GB of main memory and up to 48 GB/s of memory bandwidth, giving it considerably less performance than the contemporary Cray T90, but making it a strong competitor to other technical computers in its price range. All input/output in a J90 system was handled by an IOS (Input/Output Subsystem) called IOS Model V. The IOS-V was based around the VME64 bus and SPARC I/O processors (IOPs) running the VxWorks RTOS. The IOS was programmed to emulate the IOS Model E, used in the larger Cray Y-MP systems, in order to minimize changes in the UNICOS operating system. By using standard VME boards, a wide variety of commodity peripherals could be used.
The J90 was available in three basic configurations, the J98 with up to eight processors, the J916 with up to 16 processors, and the J932 with up to 32 processors.
Manufacturer:Moore School of Electrical Engineering
ENIAC ( /ˈɛni.æk/; Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) was the first electronic general-purpose computer. It was Turing-complete, digital, and capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems.
ENIAC was designed to calculate artillery firing tables for the United States Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory. When ENIAC was announced in 1946 it was heralded in the press as a "Giant Brain". It boasted speeds one thousand times faster than electro-mechanical machines, a leap in computing power that no single machine has since matched. This mathematical power, coupled with general-purpose programmability, excited scientists and industrialists. The inventors promoted the spread of these new ideas by conducting a series of lectures on computer architecture.
ENIAC's design and construction was financed by the United States Army during World War II. The construction contract was signed on June 5, 1943, and work on the computer began in secret by the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering starting the following month under the code name "Project PX". The completed machine was announced to the public the evening of February 14,
The Macintosh Quadra 610 and Macintosh Centris 610 are two closely related personal computers that are a part of Apple Computer's Quadra and Centris series of Macintosh computers, respectively. When the Centris 610 was introduced in February 1993 alongside the larger Centris 650, it was intended as the start of the new midrange Centris line of computers. However, that proved confusing, and the Centris 610 was renamed to Quadra 610 in October 1993, and the CPU was upgraded from a 20 MHz 68LC040 to a full 68040 at 25 MHz - although there was one configuration, the Quadra 610 8/160, that retained the 68LC040. The Quadra 610 was discontinued in favor of the Quadra 630 in July 1994.
The 610 came in a new "pizza box" case which looks similar to the Amiga 1000. It was later also used for the Centris / Quadra 660AV and the Power Macintosh 6100. The Quadra 610 was also available in a "DOS compatible" model with an additional 486SX processor at 25 MHz on a Processor Direct Slot card.
Macintosh case designs
The Nokia 770 Internet tablet is a wireless Internet appliance from Nokia, originally announced at the LinuxWorld Summit in New York City on 25 May 2005. It is designed for wireless Internet browsing and e-mail functions and includes software such as Internet radio, an RSS news reader, ebook reader, image viewer and media players for selected types of media.
The device went on sale in Europe on 3 November 2005, at a suggested retail price of €349 to €369 (£245 in the United Kingdom). In the United States, the device became available for purchase through Nokia USA's web site on 14 November 2005 for $359.99. On 8 January 2007, Nokia announced the Nokia N800, the successor to the 770. In July 2007, the price for the Nokia 770 fell to under USD 150 / EUR 150 / GBP 100.
The device was manufactured in Estonia and Germany.
The 770, like all Nokia Internet Tablets, runs Maemo, which is similar to many handheld operating systems, and provides a "Home" screen—the central point from which all applications and settings are accessed. The Home Screen is divided into areas for launching applications, a menu bar, and a large customisable area that can display information such as an RSS reader,
The Power Macintosh 7600 was a PowerPC 604 based desktop computer sold by Apple in three speeds (120MHz, 132MHz and 200MHz - the last model was not available in North America) between April 1996 and November 1997. The 7600 was essentially a Power Macintosh 7500 with a different CPU card, the change in model number occurring because of the move from the 7500's PPC601 to the 7600's PPC604. Like the 7500, it included advanced Audio-Video ports including RCA audio in and out, S-Video in, composite video in and standard Apple video ports. It was eventually replaced by the Power Macintosh 7300, one of the very few times that Apple updated a computer but gave it a lower model number - the reason is that the 7300 was a joint replacement for the 7600 and the Power Macintosh 7200.
The 7600 features the easy-access outrigger desktop case first introduced with the Power Macintosh 7200.
The SV-318 was the basic model of the Spectravideo range. It was fitted with a chiclet style keyboard, difficult to use, alongside which sat a combination cursor pad/joystick. This was a curious disc-shaped affair with a hole in the centre; put a red plastic 'stick' in the hole and you had a built-in joystick, remove the stick and it was a directional arrow pad for word processing etc. This machine also had only 16kb of user RAM (plus an additional 16kb of video RAM), which limited its usefulness, though this could be expanded via an external peripheral box.
This machine was basically identical to its big brother the SV-328, the only differences being in the keyboard and amount of memory. The ROM, expandability, mainboard and case of the two machines were identical.
The Coleco Adam is a home computer released in 1983 by American toy manufacturer Coleco. It was an attempt to follow on the success of the company's ColecoVision video game console. The Adam was not very successful, partly because of early production problems.
Coleco announced the Adam in June 1983 at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show (CES) and executives predicted sales of 500,000 by Christmas 1983. From the time of the computer's introduction to the time of its shipment, the price increased, from USD $525 to $725.
The Adam is famous for an incident connected with its showing at the June, 1983 CES. To showcase the machine, Coleco decided to demonstrate a port of its ColecoVision conversion of Donkey Kong on the system. Nintendo was in the midst of negotiating a deal with Atari to license its Famicom for distribution outside of Japan, and the final signing would have been done at CES. Atari had exclusive rights to Donkey Kong for home computers (as Coleco had for game consoles), and when Atari saw that Coleco was showing Donkey Kong on a computer, its proposed deal with Nintendo was delayed. Coleco had to agree not to sell the Adam version of Donkey Kong. Ultimately, it had no
The Commodore Plus/4 was a home computer released by Commodore International in 1984. The "Plus/4" name refers to the four-application ROM resident office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, database, and graphing); it was billed as "the productivity computer with software built-in". It had some success in Europe, though it was a total flop in the United States, where it was derided as the "Minus/60"—a pun on the numerical difference between the Plus/4 and the dominant Commodore 64.
In the early 1980s, Commodore found itself engaged in a price war in the home computer market. Companies like Texas Instruments and Timex Corporation were releasing computers that undercut the price of Commodore's PET line. Commodore's MOS Technology division had designed a video chip but could not find any third-party buyers. The VIC-20 resulted from the confluence of these events and it was introduced in 1980 at a list price of $299.95. Later, spurred by the competition, Commodore was able to reduce the VIC's street price to $99, and it became the first computer to sell over 1 million units. The Commodore 64, the first 64-kB computer to sell for under 600 US$, was another salvo in the price war but it
The IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), called the Mark I by Harvard University, was an electro-mechanical computer.
The electromechanical ASCC was devised by Howard H. Aiken, built at IBM and shipped to Harvard in February 1944. It began computations for the U.S. Navy Bureau of Ships in May and was officially presented to the university on August 7, 1944.
The ASCC was built from switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches. It used 765,000 components and hundreds of miles of wire, comprising a volume of 51 feet (16 m) in length, eight feet (2.4 m) in height, and two feet (~61 cm) deep. It had a weight of about 10,000 pounds (4500 kg). The basic calculating units had to be synchronized mechanically, so they were run by a 50-foot (~15.5 m) shaft driven by a five-horsepower (4 kW) electric motor. From the IBM Archives:
The Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (Harvard Mark I) was the first operating machine that could execute long computations automatically. A project conceived by Harvard University's Dr. Howard Aiken, the Mark I was built by IBM engineers in Endicott, N.Y. A steel frame 51 feet (16 m) long and eight feet high held the calculator, which
Intergraph Corporation is an American software development and services company. It provides enterprise engineering and geospatially powered software to businesses, governments, and organizations around the world. Intergraph operates through two divisions: Process, Power & Marine (PP&M) and Security, Government & Infrastructure (SG&I). The company’s headquarters is in Huntsville, Alabama, USA. In 2008, Intergraph was one of the hundred largest software companies in the world. In 2010, Intergraph was acquired by Hexagon AB.
Intergraph was founded in 1969 as M&S Computing, Inc., by former IBM engineers who had been working with NASA and the U.S. Army in developing systems that would apply digital computing to real-time missile guidance.
From this initial work, M&S Computing was among the pioneers in the development of interactive computer graphics systems, which allowed engineers to display and interact with drawings and associated alphanumeric information. The company changed its name to Intergraph Corporation in 1980 to reflect this activity.
In 2000, Intergraph exited the hardware business and became purely a software company. On July 21, 2000, it sold its Intense3D graphics
The Enterprise is a Zilog Z80-based home computer first produced in 1985. It was developed by British company Intelligent Software and marketed by Enterprise Computers. Its two variants are the Enterprise 64, with 64 kilobytes (kB) of Random Access Memory (RAM), and the Enterprise 128, with 128 kB of RAM.
The Enterprise has a 4 megahertz (MHz) Z80 Central processing unit (CPU), 64 kB or 128 kB of RAM, and 32 kB of internal read-only memory (ROM) that contains the EXOS operating system and a screen editor / word processor. The BASIC programming language was supplied on a 16 kB ROM module.
Two application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips take some of the workload off of the central processor. They are named "Nick" and "Dave" after their designers, Nick Toop, who had previously worked on the Acorn Atom, and Dave Woodfield. "Nick" manages graphics, while "Dave" handles sound and memory paging (bank switching).
A bank switching scheme allows the memory to be expanded to a maximum of 4 megabytes (MB). The highest 2 address lines from the Z80 are used to select one of the four 8-bit Page Registers in Dave chip. The output from the selected register is used as the highest 8 bits of
NeXTstation was a high-end workstation computer developed, manufactured and sold by NeXT from 1990 until 1993. It ran the NeXTSTEP operating system. The NeXTstation was released as a more affordable alternative to the NeXTcube at about US $4,995 or about half the price. Several models were produced, including the NeXTstation (25 MHz), NeXTstation Turbo (33 MHz), NeXTstation Color (25 MHz) and NeXTstation Turbo Color (33 MHz). In total, NeXT sold about 50,000 computers (not including sales to government organizations), making the NeXTstation a rarity today.
The NeXTstation came with a NeXT MegaPixel 17" monitor (with built-in speakers) and a keyboard and mouse. It was affectionately known as "the slab", since the flat shape contrasted quite sharply with the original NeXT Computer (otherwise known as "the cube").
The Pilot ACE was one of the first computers built in the United Kingdom, at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the early 1950s.
It was a preliminary version of the full ACE, which had been designed by Alan Turing. After Turing left NPL (in part because he was disillusioned by the lack of progress on building the ACE), James H. Wilkinson took over the project, Harry Huskey helped with the design. The Pilot ACE ran its first program on May 10, 1950 and was demonstrated to the press in December 1950.
Although originally intended as a prototype, it became clear that the machine was a potentially very useful resource, especially given the lack of other computing devices at the time. After some upgrades to make operational use practical, it went into service in late 1951, and saw considerable operational service over the next several years. One reason the ACE was useful is that it was able to perform Floating point arithmetic necessary for scientific calculations. Wilkinson tells the story of how this came to be. The pilot ACE was built without hardware for multiplication or long division, in contrast to other computers at that time. The ACE started out using fixed-point
The Power Macintosh 7100 was a mid-range Apple Macintosh personal computer that was designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer from March 1994 to January 1996. The PowerMac 7100 was faster and more expandable than the Power Macintosh 6100, and was a part of the original Power Macintosh line along with the 6100 and the Power Macintosh 8100. It came in a slightly restyled Macintosh IIvx case, and received a speed increase to 80 MHz (from its original 66 MHz) in January 1995. When it was discontinued it was succeeded by two new models, the Power Macintosh 7200 and the Power Macintosh 7500.
A higher-priced audio-visual variant (the 7100AV) included a 2 MB VRAM card with s-video in/out. Non-AV 7100s had a video card containing 1 MB VRAM and no s-video in/out capability.
The Power Macintosh 7100's internal code name was "Carl Sagan", the in-joke being that the mid-range PowerMac 7100 would make Apple "billions and billions." Though the project name was strictly internal and never used in public marketing, when Sagan learned of this internal usage he sued Apple Computer to force the use of a different project name. Other models released conjointly were codenamed "Cold fusion" and
The Wii ( /ˈwiː/) is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19, 2006. As a seventh-generation console, the Wii competes with Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Sony's PlayStation 3. Nintendo states that its console targets a broader demographic than that of the two others. As of the first quarter of 2012, the Wii leads the generation over the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 in worldwide sales, and in December 2009, the console broke the record for best-selling console in a single month in the United States.
The Wii has many advanced features, compared to the previous Nintendo consoles. For example, the primary wireless controller, the Wii Remote, can be used as a handheld pointing device and detects movement in three dimensions. Another notable feature of the console is WiiConnect24, which enables it to receive messages and updates over the Internet while in standby mode.
The Wii is Nintendo's fifth home console, and the successor of the Nintendo GameCube, with most models being fully backwardly compatible with all GameCube games and most accessories. Nintendo first spoke of the console at the 2004 E3 press conference and later unveiled the console at the 2005 E3. Nintendo CEO
The Apple Macintosh IIci was an improvement on the Macintosh IIcx. Sharing the same compact case design with three expansion slots, the IIci improved upon the IIcx's 16 MHz Motorola 68030 CPU and 68882 FPU, replacing them with 25 MHz versions of these chips. The IIci came with either a 40 or an 80 megabyte hard disk. A logic board upgrade was available for IIcx owners.
The IIci introduced a lot of technical and architectural enhancements, some of which were important in preparing for System 7 (which was then called the Blue project) and would influence future Macs, though some of them came at the cost of compatibility:
The IIci was one of the most popular and longest lived Mac models of all time. For a short time in 1989, before the introduction of the 40 MHz Macintosh IIfx, the IIci was the fastest Mac available.
Possible upgrades include 25, 33, 40 or 50 MHz Daystar 68030 boards, a couple of different 68040 upgrades, and two PowerPC 601 upgrade cards running at either 66 MHz or 100 MHz, exclusively from Daystar Digital, which was bought by XLR8, which still holds the Daystar product logo and name for its line of products. 68030 and 68040 upgrades were also made by Sonnet, Diimo
The Macintosh Quadra 900 was a high-end personal computer introduced with the Quadra 700 in October 1991 as Apple Computer's first computers in the Quadra series using the Motorola 68040 processor. It was discontinued in 1992, and succeeded by the very similar Quadra 950. The Quadra 900 was more expandable than the Quadra 700 but cost $7,200 in the U.S. The Quadra 900 could be upgraded to 256 megabytes of RAM—an astronomical amount for the time. The standard, as-shipped configuration for the 900 was 4MB. The high RAM and storage capacity, along with the expandability of 5 NuBus 90 slots and fast 25 MHz processor made it a very useful computer for scientific or design work. It was the first Mac to be built in a full tower case, featuring a single 5.25" bay initially intended to hold a tape backup drive. Quadra 900 and 950s with full complements of RAM were exceedingly rare with 16-30 pin SIMM RAM slots, due to the high cost (many thousands of dollars) of the SIMMs at the time. It is the earliest Macintosh model able to run Mac OS 8.
The Power Macintosh G3, commonly called "beige G3s" or "platinum G3s" for the color of their cases, was a series of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from November 1997 to January 1999. It was the first Macintosh to use the PowerPC G3 (PPC750) microprocessor, and replaced a number of earlier Power Macintosh models, in particular the 7300, 8600 and 9600 models. It was succeeded by the Power Macintosh G3 (Blue & White), which kept the name but introduced a radically different design. The introduction of the Desktop and Minitower G3 models coincided with Apple starting to sell user-configurable Macs directly from its web site in an online store , which was innovative for the time as Dell was the only other major manufacturer then doing this.
The Power Mac G3 introduced a fast and large Level 2 backside cache to Apple's product lineup, running at half processor speed. As a result, these machines were widely considered to be faster than Intel PCs of similar CPU clock speed at launch, an assertion that was backed up by benchmarks performed by Byte Magazine, which prompted Apple to create the "Snail" and "Toasted Bunnies" television
The PowerBook 2400c (codenames: "Comet", "Nautilus") is a subnotebook in Apple Computer's PowerBook range of Macintosh computers, weighing 4.4 pounds (2.0 kg). Manufacturing was contracted to IBM. In a return to the PowerBook 100 form factor, It was introduced in May 1997 as a late replacement for the PowerBook Duo 2300c, which had been the last of the subnotebook PowerBook Duo series. The 2400c was discontinued in March 1998, with no immediate replacement — the model that followed it was the much larger PowerBook G3 Series (known as "Wallstreet"/"Mainstreet"). However, in Japan a 2400c with a 240 MHz CPU (codenamed "Mighty Cat") was offered shortly after the original model's discontinuation, until the end of the year.
The 2400c uses the same PowerPC 603e processor as the preceding Duo 2300c, but at a much higher CPU clock — 180 instead of 100 MHz. However, the 2400 is unable to utilize the DuoDock like the 2300c was, making the lack of an internal removable drive much more noticeable. Like the PowerBook 100 and Duo series before it, it was sold with an external floppy drive. Apple did not offer a CD-ROM drive for it which was otherwise standard for all other PowerBooks. Unlike the
The PowerBook 500 series (codenamed Blackbird, which it shared with the older Macintosh IIfx) was a range of Apple Macintosh PowerBook portable computers first introduced by Apple Computer with the 540c model on 16 May 1994. The 500 series was the first laptop computer to use a trackpad instead of a trackball as a built-in pointing device and the first to have Ethernet networking built-in.
It was the first PowerBook series to use a Motorola 68LC040 CPU (simultaneous with Duo 280) and be upgradeable to the PowerPC architecture via a swap out CPU daughter card (with the PowerPC and 68040 upgrades for sale), use 9.5" Dual Scan passive color/B&W displays, 16bit stereo sound with stereo speakers, have an expansion bay, PC Card capability, two battery bays (and a ten minute sleep/clock battery, which allowed for main batteries to be swapped out while in sleep mode), full size keyboard with F1-F12 function keys, be able to sleep while connected to an external monitor and have a battery contact cover included on the actual batteries. It included a single serial port which could be to connect to a serial printer or a network via Apple's LocalTalk. In another first, it also included an AAUI
The Amiga 600, also known as the A600 (codenamed "June Bug" after a B-52s song), is a home computer that was introduced at the CeBIT show in March 1992. The A600 was Commodore International's final model based on the Motorola 68000 CPU and the ECS chipset. It is essentially a redesign of the Amiga 500 Plus, with the option of an internal hard disk drive. A notable aspect of the A600 is its small size. Lacking a numeric keypad, the A600 is only slightly larger than a standard PC keyboard (14" long by 9.5" deep by 3" high and weighing approximately 6 pounds). It shipped with AmigaOS 2.0, which was generally considered more user-friendly than earlier versions of the operating system.
Like the A500 before it, the A600 was aimed at the lower "consumer" end of the market, with the higher end being dominated by the Amiga 3000. It was intended by manufacturer, Commodore, to revitalize sales of the A500 line before the introduction of the 32-bit Amiga 1200. According to Dave Haynie, the A600 "was supposed to be 50 – 60 US$ cheaper than the A500, but it came in at about that much more expensive than the A500." This is supported by the fact that the A600 was originally to have been numbered
The Earth Simulator (ES) (地球シミュレータ, Chikyū Shimyurēta), developed by the Japanese government's initiative "Earth Simulator Project", was a highly parallel vector supercomputer system for running global climate models to evaluate the effects of global warming and problems in solid earth geophysics. The system was developed for Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC) in 1997. Construction started in October 1999, and the site officially opened on March 11, 2002. The project cost 60 billion yen.
Built by NEC, ES was based on their SX-6 architecture. It consisted of 640 nodes with eight vector processors and 16 gibibytes of computer memory at each node, for a total of 5120 processors and 10 terabytes of memory. Two nodes were installed per 1 metre x 1.4 metre x 2 metre cabinet. Each cabinet consumed 20 kW of power. The system had 700 terabytes of disk storage (450 for the system and 250 for the users) and 1.6 petabytes of mass storage in tape drives. It was able to run holistic simulations of global climate in both the atmosphere and the oceans down to a resolution of 10 km. Its performance on
The PDP-11 was a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series. The PDP-11 replaced the PDP-8 in many real-time applications, although both product lines lived in parallel for more than 10 years. The PDP-11 had several uniquely innovative features, and was easier to program than its predecessors with its use of general registers. Its successor in the mid-range minicomputer niche was the 32-bit VAX-11.
Design features of the PDP-11 influenced the design of microprocessors such as the Motorola 68000; design features of its operating systems, as well as other operating systems from Digital Equipment, influenced the design of other operating systems such as CP/M and hence also MS-DOS. The first officially named version of Unix ran on the PDP-11/20 in 1970. It is commonly stated that the C programming language took advantage of several low-level PDP-11–dependent programming features, albeit not originally by design.
DEC developed the 16-bit PDP 11 as a response to the introduction of the Data General NOVA, which had a 16-bit word length; DEC's previous PDP-8 had only 12 bit words.
The System/38 was a midrange computer server platform manufactured and sold by the IBM Corporation. The system offered a number of innovative features, and was the brainchild of IBM engineer Dr. Frank Soltis. Developed under the code-name "Pacific", the System/38 was commercially available in August 1979.
The System/38 was a descendant of the abandoned IBM Future Systems project, which had been designed as the replacement for the System/360 and System/370 mainframe architectures. The midrange predecessors to the System/38 included the System/3, System/32, and System/34. The System/38 offered more capacity than the previous System/34. Somewhat confusingly, the System/38 chronologically preceded the System/36, which was a successor to the System/34.
The System/38 was superseded by the AS/400 (which also supported System/36 data & programs, at least to some extent). The AS/400 evolved into the iSeries, which in turn evolved into the System i. The System/38 legacy lives on in the enterprise-class IBM POWER Systems server which superseded System i in 2008.
The System/38 had 48-bit addressing, which was unique for the time, and a novel database-like storage schema. The operating system
The Commodore Amiga 500 Plus (often A500 Plus or simply A500+) is an enhanced version of the original Amiga 500 computer. It was notable for introducing new versions of Kickstart and Workbench, and for some minor improvements in the custom chips, known as the Enhanced Chip Set (or ECS).
The A500+ was released in several markets (including many European countries), but was never sold officially in the U.S.
Although officially introduced in 1992, some Amiga 500 Plus units had already been sold (masquerading as Amiga 500 models, and with no prior announcement) during late 1991. It has been speculated that Commodore had already sold out the remaining stocks of Amiga 500s, before the run up to the profitable Christmas sales period. In order to make enough A500s before Christmas, Commodore used stocks of the new 8A revision motherboards destined for the A500+. Many users were unaware that they were purchasing anything other than a standard Amiga 500. Although the Amiga 500+ was an improvement to the Amiga 500, it was minor. It was discontinued and replaced by the Amiga 600 in summer 1992, making it the shortest lived Amiga model
Commodore created the A500+ for a couple of reasons. The
The Mac Mini (marketed as Mac mini) is a small form factor desktop computer manufactured by Apple Inc. Like earlier mini-ITX PC designs, it is quite small for a desktop computer: 7.7 inches (20 cm) square and 1.4 inches (3.6 cm) tall. It weighs 2.7 pounds (1.2 kg). Before the mid-2011 revision, all models, except the mid-2010 server model, came with an internal optical disc drive. Models pre-2010 used an external power supply and were narrower but taller at 2.0×6.5×6.5 inches (5.1×17×17 cm). The Mac Mini is one of three desktop computers in the current Macintosh lineup, the other two being the iMac and Mac Pro, although it generally uses components usually featured in laptops, hence its small size.
The Mac Mini was the first consumer level Macintosh desktop to ship without a display, keyboard, or mouse since Apple's success following the release of the iMac, with Apple marketing it as BYODKM (Bring Your Own Display, Keyboard, and Mouse) to reinforce this fact. The primary intended market for the Mac Mini was users switching from a traditional Windows PC to a Mac who might already own a compatible display, keyboard and mouse, though these could be easily purchased if needed. A
The Apple IIc, the fourth model in the Apple II series of personal computers, was Apple Computer’s first endeavor to produce a portable computer. The result was a 7.5 lb (3.4 kg) notebook-sized version of the Apple II that could be transported from place to place. The c in the name stood for compact, referring to the fact it was essentially a complete Apple II computer setup (minus display and power supply) squeezed into a small notebook-sized housing. While sporting a built-in floppy drive and new rear peripheral expansion ports integrated onto the main logic board, it lacked the internal expansion slots and direct motherboard access of earlier Apple IIs, making it a closed system like the Macintosh. However, that was the intended direction for this model — a more appliance-like machine, ready to use out of the box, requiring no technical know-how or experience to hook up and therefore attractive to first-time users.
The Apple IIc was released on April 24th, 1984, during an Apple-held event called Apple II Forever. The new machine was proclaimed as proof of Apple’s long-term commitment to the Apple II series and its users, an assurance the company’s older technology would not be
The Commodore 128 (C128, CBM 128, C=128) home/personal computer was the last 8-bit machine commercially released by Commodore Business Machines (CBM). Introduced in January 1985 at the CES in Las Vegas, it appeared three years after its predecessor, the bestselling Commodore 64.
The C128 was a significantly expanded successor to the C64 and unlike the earlier Commodore Plus/4, nearly full compatibility with the C64 was retained, in both hardware and software. The new machine featured 128 KB of RAM, in two 64 KB banks and an 80-column RGBI video output (driven by the 8563 VDC chip with 16 KB dedicated video RAM), as well as a substantially redesigned case and keyboard. Also included was a Zilog Z80 CPU which allowed the C128 to run CP/M, as an alternate to the usual Commodore BASIC environment.
The primary hardware designer of the C128 was Bil Herd, who had worked on the Plus/4. Other hardware engineers were Dave Haynie and Frank Palaia, while the IC design work was done by Dave DiOrio. The main Commodore system software was developed by Fred Bowen and Terry Ryan, while the CP/M subsystem was developed by Von Ertwine.
The C128's keyboard included four cursor keys (previous
The PowerBook is a line of Macintosh laptop computers that was designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1991 to 2006. During its lifetime, the PowerBook went through several major revisions and redesigns, often being the first to incorporate features that would later become standard in competing laptops. The PowerBook line was targeted at the professional market, and received numerous awards, especially in the second half of its life, such as the 2001 Industrial Design Excellence Awards "Gold" status, and Engadget's 2005 "Laptop of the Year". In 1999, the line was supplemented by the low-end iBook range. The PowerBook and iBook lines were discontinued and replaced by the MacBook Pro and MacBook families respectively by 2006.
In September 1989, Apple Inc. released the Macintosh Portable, the first Macintosh computer intended to be easily portable. However, its price ($6500), size, and weight made actual portability nearly impossible. Because of this, the demand for a true portable Macintosh was not met.
In October 1991 Apple released the first three PowerBooks: the low-end PowerBook 100, the more powerful PowerBook 140, and the high end PowerBook 170, the only
The IBM 7950, also known as Harvest, was a one-of-a-kind adjunct to the Stretch computer which was installed at the US National Security Agency (NSA). Built by IBM, it was delivered in 1962 and operated until 1976, when it was decommissioned. Harvest was designed to be used for cryptanalysis.
In April 1958, the final design for the NSA-customized version of IBM's Stretch computer had been approved, and the machine was installed in February 1962. The design engineer was James H. Pomerene, and it was built by IBM in Poughkeepsie, New York. Its electronics (fabricated of the same kind of discrete transistors used for Stretch) were physically about twice as big as the Stretch to which it was attached. Harvest added a small number of instructions to Stretch, and could not operate independently.
An NSA-conducted evaluation found that Harvest was more powerful than the best commercially available machine by a factor of 50 to 200, depending on the task.
The equipment added to the Stretch computer consisted of the following special peripherals:
With the stream processing unit, Harvest was able to process 3 million characters a second.
The Tractor tape system which was part of the Harvest
The Apple Macintosh II was the first personal computer model of the Macintosh II series in the Apple Macintosh line and the first Macintosh to support a color display.
The Macintosh II was designed by hardware engineers Michael Dhuey (computer) and Brian Berkeley (monitor). A basic system with 20 MB drive and monitor cost about $5200, A complete color-capable system could cost as much as $10,000 once the cost of the color monitor, video card, hard disk, keyboard and RAM were added. This price point placed it in competition with workstations from Silicon Graphics, Sun Microsystems and Hewlett-Packard although it still used the single user Mac OS instead of the Unix of those systems. While the hardware features were comparable to workstation-class systems, the OS features placed it more squarely in competition with i386 based PCs and the Amiga 2000.
The project was begun by Dhuey and Berkeley without the knowledge of Apple head Steve Jobs (who opposed features like expansion slots). Initially referred to as "Little Big Mac", it was codenamed "Milwaukee" after Dhuey's hometown, and later went through a series of new names, including "Reno", "Uzi" and "Paris" (after Jean-Louis Gassee,
The PlayStation (プレイステーション, Pureisutēshon, officially abbreviated as PS; unofficially referred to as the PSX or PS1) is a 32-bit fifth-generation video game console first released by Sony Computer Entertainment in Japan on December 3, 1994. The PlayStation was the first of the PlayStation series of consoles and handheld game devices. The PlayStation was also the first console offered by an Japanese company after the TurboDuo ceased production in 1995. In 2000, a re-designed, "slim" version was released, called the PSone, replacing the original grey console, and also being renamed to avoid confusion with its successor, the newly-released PlayStation 2.
The PlayStation was the first "computer entertainment platform" to ship 100 million units, which it had reached 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch. The last game for the system was FIFA Football 2005 released in October 2004, and the last PSone units were sold on Christmas 2004 for a total of 102 million units shipped. Games continued to sell until Sony ceased production of PlayStation games on March 23, 2006; eleven years after it was released, and just over half a year before the release of the PlayStation 3.
The Power Mac G4 was a series of personal computers that was designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple between 1999 and 2004. They used the PowerPC G4 (PPC74xx) series of microprocessors. They were heralded by Apple to be the first personal supercomputers, reaching speeds of 4 to 20 Gigaflops. They were both the last Macintoshes to boot natively into Classic Mac OS and the first to boot exclusively into Mac OS X.
The original Apple Power Mac G4, code name "Yikes!", was introduced at the Seybold conference in San Francisco on August 31, 1999, with 400 MHz, 450 MHz and 500 MHz configurations available. In October 1999, Apple was forced to postpone the 500 MHz because of poor yield of the 500 MHz chips. In response, Apple “speed dumped” the processor speed in each configuration by 50 MHz but caused some controversy by not decreasing the price of the machines.
The early 400 MHz (later 350 MHz) PCI-based version used a motherboard identical to the one used in Power Macintosh G3 (Blue & White) computers (minus the ADB port), in a "graphite" colored case and with the new Motorola PowerPC 7400 (G4) CPU. The higher-speed models, code name "Sawtooth", used a greatly modified motherboard
The Power Mac G5 was Apple's marketing name for models of the Power Macintosh that contained the IBM PowerPC G5 CPU. The professional-grade computer was the most powerful in Apple's lineup when it was introduced, widely hailed as the first 64-bit PC, and was touted by Apple as the fastest personal computer ever built. It was officially launched as part of Steve Jobs' keynote presentation in June 2003 at the Worldwide Developers Conference, and saw three revisions to the line before being retired in August 2006 to make way for its Intel replacement, the Mac Pro. The Power Mac G5 has an anodized aluminium chassis.
The Power Mac G5 was introduced with three models, sharing the same physical case, but differing in features and performance. The 1.6 GHz model shipped with 256 megabytes (MB) of RAM, an 80 GB hard drive, and could hold a maximum of 4 GB of RAM, and an nVidia GeForce 5200 graphics card with 64 MB VRAM with one ADC output and one DVI output. The 1.8 and dual-processor and 2.0 GHz models shipped with 512 MB of RAM, and could employ a maximum of 8 gigabytes (GB) of RAM. The dual-processor model came with an ATI Radeon 9600 graphics card with a Radeon 9800 as an option. The
The Acorn Electron is a budget version of the BBC Micro educational/home computer made by Acorn Computers Ltd. It has 32 kilobytes of RAM, and its ROM includes BBC BASIC v2 along with its operating system.
The Electron was able to save and load programs onto audio cassette via a supplied converter cable that connected it to any standard tape recorder that had the correct sockets. It was capable of basic graphics, and could display onto either a television set, a colour (RGB) monitor or a "green screen" monitor.
At its peak, the Electron was the third best selling micro in the United Kingdom, and total lifetime game sales for the Electron exceeded those of the BBC Micro. There are at least 500 known games for the Electron and the true total is probably in the thousands.
The hardware of the BBC Micro was emulated by a single customized ULA chip designed by Acorn in conjunction with Ferranti. It had feature limitations such as being unable to output more than one channel of sound, (and provided fewer Envelope-shaping options) where the BBC was capable of three-way polyphony (plus one noise channel) and the inability to provide teletext mode. Unlike the BBC Micro, the Edge-connector on
The MacBook was a brand of Macintosh notebook computers manufactured by Apple Inc. from 2006 to 2011. It replaced the iBook series and 12-inch PowerBook series of notebooks as a part of the Apple–Intel transition. Positioned as the low end of the MacBook family, the Apple MacBook was aimed at the consumer and education markets. It was the best-selling Macintosh in history, and according to the sales-research organization NPD Group in October 2008, the mid-range model of the MacBook was the single best-selling laptop of any brand in US retail stores for the preceding five months.
There have been three separate designs of the MacBook: the original model used a combination of polycarbonate and fiberglass casing that was modeled after the iBook G4. The second type, introduced in October 2008 alongside the 15-inch MacBook Pro, used a similar unibody aluminum casing to the 15-inch Pro, and was updated and rebranded as the 13-inch MacBook Pro at the 2009 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference in June 2009. A third design, introduced in October 2009, used a unibody polycarbonate shell as aluminium is now reserved for the higher-end MacBook Pro. On July 20, 2011, the MacBook was quietly
The Power Macintosh 7500 was one of the first PCI capable Macs manufactured by Apple Computer. It was released alongside the Power Macintosh 7200, and the Power Macintosh 8500 in October 1995. The 7500 had a PowerPC 601 processor rated at 100 MHz that was replaceable via a daughtercard. It also featured full composite video and s-video input capability, but no output, as the 7500 was designed to be a video conferencing system, not a multimedia editing machine—this was the 8500's task. The 7500 and 7200 featured a unique swing open chassis called "Outrigger" that allowed for easy upgrades, as the entire motherboard was accessible to the user after the hinged drive sleds were opened.
There were two derivative models: the Power Macintosh 7600, was identical to the 7500 except for the CPU; the 7600 used a PowerPC 604 or 604e processor instead of the 601. The Power Macintosh 7300, was identical to the 7600, but lacked the video inputs found in both the 7500 and 7600.
In the 7500 and its derivatives, the main bus runs at 45MHz or 50MHz (set by the CPU daughtercard), and the cpu at integer or half-integer multiples of this speed. The bus is temperamental, and can show sensitivity to
Dell gives the name PowerEdge (PE) to its server product line.
Most PowerEdge servers use the x86 architecture. The early exceptions to this, the PowerEdge 3250, PowerEdge 7150, and PowerEdge 7250, used Intel's Itanium processor, but Dell abandoned Itanium in 2005 after failing to find adoption in the marketplace. The partnership between Intel and Dell remained close, with Intel remaining the exclusive source of processors in Dell's servers until 2006. In May 2006 Dell announced that it also intended to develop servers using AMD Opteron processors. The first Opteron-based PowerEdge systems, the PowerEdge 6950 and the PowerEdge SC1435, appeared in October 2006
PowerEdge machines come configured as tower, rack-mounted, or blade servers. Dell uses a consistent chip-set across servers in the same generation regardless of packaging, allowing for a common set of drivers and system-images.
OEMs and VARs also offer solutions based on PowerEdge servers. Loaded with custom software and with minor cosmetic changes, Dell's servers form the underlying hardware in certain appliances from IronPort, Google, Exinda Networks, and Enterasys.
In 2007 the PowerEdge line accounted for approximately 15%
The TC 2048 or Timex Computer 2048 is a computer created by "Timex of Portugal, Lda", a branch of Timex Corporation.
It was highly compatible with the Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer, although differences in the ROM prevented 100% compatibility. Timex Portugal sold the TC 2048 in Portugal and Poland, where it was very successful. Also, a NTSC version was sold in Chile. This computer forms the basis of an improved Spectrum-compatible machine, the Spectrum SE.
[By separate purchase the Joystick/Sound Unit was available to enhance sound and provide a joystick port.]
The Connection Machine was a series of supercomputers that grew out of Danny Hillis' research in the early 1980s at MIT on alternatives to the traditional von Neumann architecture of computation. The Connection Machine was originally intended for applications in artificial intelligence and symbolic processing, but later versions found greater success in the field of computational science.
Danny Hillis' original thesis paper on which the CM-1 Connection Machine was based is The Connection Machine (MIT Press Series in Artificial Intelligence) (ISBN 0-262-08157-1). The title is out of print as of 2005. The book provides an overview of the philosophy, architecture and software for the Connection Machine, including data routing between CPU nodes, memory handling, Lisp programming for parallel machines, etc.
Danny Hillis and Sheryl Handler founded Thinking Machines in Waltham, Massachusetts (it was later moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts) in 1983 and assembled a team to develop the CM-1 Connection Machine. This was a "massively parallel" hypercubic arrangement of thousands of microprocessors, each with its own 4 kbits of RAM, which together executed in a SIMD fashion. The CM-1, depending
The Game Boy Advance SP (ゲームボーイアドバンスSP, Gēmu Bōi Adobansu Essu Pī), released in February 2003, is an upgraded version of Nintendo's Game Boy Advance. The "SP" in Game Boy Advance SP stands for Special. The SP was marketed at US$99.99 at launch. In September 2004, Nintendo lowered the price to US$79.99. The SP is accompanied by the Nintendo DS (released in November 2004) and the Game Boy Micro (released in September 2005).
In Japan, it was marketed at ¥12,500 on February 14, 2003. In Canada, it was marketed at CA$149.95 on March 22, 2003. In Australia, it was marketed at A$199.99 on March 28, 2003. In Europe, it was marketed at €129.99 on March 28, 2003.
The GBA SP is slightly more than half the size of the GBA when closed and roughly the height of Nintendo's Game Boy Color when open. The clamshell or laptop design protects the screen from scratches and dust, reminiscent of two-screen Game & Watch units. However, the casing is made from a different material, making it more prone to scratches than previous Game Boy systems. The slot for cartridges has been moved to the front of the system, facing towards the user.
The GBA SP AC adapter comes with the package to recharge its lithium
The IBM 1401 was a variable wordlength decimal computer that was announced by IBM on October 5, 1959. The first member of the highly successful IBM 1400 series, it was aimed at replacing electromechanical unit record equipment for processing data stored on punched cards. Over 10,000 units were produced and many were leased or resold in less developed countries after they were replaced with newer technology. The 1401 was withdrawn on February 8, 1971.
From the announcement:
The all-transistorized IBM 1401 Data Processing System places the features found in electronic data processing systems at the disposal of smaller businesses, previously limited to the use of conventional punched card equipment. These features include: high speed card punching and reading, magnetic tape input and output, high speed printing, stored program, and arithmetic and logical ability.'
The 1401 may be operated as an independent system, in conjunction with IBM punched card equipment, or as auxiliary equipment to IBM 700 or 7000 series systems.
Monthly rental for 1401 configurations started at US$2,500.
"IBM was pleasantly surprised (perhaps shocked) to receive 5,200 orders in just the first five weeks –
The Macintosh LC (meaning low-cost color) is Apple Computer's product family of low-end consumer Macintosh personal computers in the early 1990s. The original Macintosh LC was released in 1990 and was the first affordable color-capable Macintosh. Due to its affordability and Apple II compatibility the LC was adopted primarily in the education and home markets. Together with the Mac IIsi, it introduced built-in audio input on the Mac. The "LC" name was subsequently used for a line of low-end Macintosh computers for several years and spanned the 68k to PowerPC transition.
After Apple co-founder Steve Jobs left Apple in 1985, product development was handed to Jean-Louis Gassée, formerly manager of Apple France. Gassée consistently pushed the Apple product line in two directions, towards more "openness" in terms of expandability and interoperability, and towards higher price. Gassée long argued that Apple should not market their computers towards the low end of the market, where profits were thin, but instead concentrate on the high end and higher profit margins. He illustrated the concept using a graph showing the price/performance ratio of computers with low-power, low-cost machines
The Commodore Amiga 1000, also known as the A1000 and originally simply as the Amiga, was the first in the Amiga line of personal computers released by Commodore International.
The A1000 had a number of characteristics that distinguished it from later Amiga models: It was the only model to feature the short-lived Amiga "checkmark" logo on its case; the case was elevated slightly to give a storage area for the keyboard when not in use (a "keyboard garage"); and the inside of the case was engraved with the signatures of the Amiga designers (similar to the Macintosh), including Jay Miner, and the paw print of his dog Mitchy. The A1000's case was designed by Howard Stolz As Senior Industrial Designer at Commodore, Stolz was the mechanical lead and primary interface with Sanyo in Japan, the contract manufacturer for the A1000 casing.
There are two distinct variants of the Amiga 1000 using different television standards, namely, NTSC and PAL. The NTSC variant was the initial model manufactured and sold in North America. The later PAL model was manufactured in Germany and sold in countries using the PAL television standard. Notably, the first NTSC systems lack the EHB video mode which is
The Apple IIGS (stylized as IIGS) is the fifth and most powerful model in the Apple II series of personal computers produced by Apple Computer. The "GS" in the name stands for Graphics and Sound, referring to its enhanced multimedia capabilities, especially its state-of-the-art sound and music synthesis, which greatly surpassed previous models of the line and most contemporary machines like the Macintosh and IBM PC.
The machine was a radical departure from any previous Apple II, with its true 16-bit architecture, increased processing speed, direct access to megabytes of RAM, wavetable music synthesizer, graphical user interface, and mouse. While still maintaining full backwards compatibility with earlier Apple II models, it blended the Apple II and aspects of Macintosh technology into one. Keeping with Apple's "Apple II Forever" slogan of the time, the IIGS set forth a promising future and evolutionary advancement of the Apple II line, but Apple paid it relatively little attention as the company increasingly focused on the Macintosh platform.
The Apple IIGS was the first computer produced by Apple to use a color graphical user interface, as well as the "Platinum" (light grey) color
The COSMAC ELF was an RCA 1802 microprocessor-based computer based on a series of construction articles in Popular Electronics magazine in 1976 and 1977. Through the back pages of electronics magazines, both Netronics and Quest Electronics offered low-priced kits that were based on this design. The system was a very early personal computer. It was operated without built-in ROMs and programs were entered directly with help of the CPU integrated DMA.
It featured two hexadecimal LED displays for output and a set of toggle switches or a hexadecimal keypad for input. The base configuration had 256 bytes of RAM, but expansion boards could raise that to 4096 or 32,768 bytes of RAM.
The original ELF design used a crystal with a frequency in the range of 1 to 2 MHz with the 1802's built in oscillator circuit.
A simple circuit used the DMA feature of the 1802 to permit entry of programs and data into RAM through the toggle switches. Entering a byte via the toggle switches and pressing the "input" button would enter a byte into RAM and display it on the pair of hex LEDs, then advance the DMA counter to the next location. A "memory protect" switch could be used to disable memory alteration. If
The Cray-3 was a vector supercomputer intended to be Cray Research's successor to the Cray-2. The system was to be the first major application of gallium arsenide (GaAs) semiconductors in computing. The project was not considered a success, and the parent company in Minneapolis decided to end work on the Cray-3 in favour of their own design, the Cray C90. The Cray-3 project was spun off to the newly formed Cray Computer Corporation, but only one Cray-3 was delivered, and never paid for. Seymour Cray moved onto the Cray-4 design, but the company went bankrupt before the project was completed.
Cray generally set himself the goal of producing new machines with ten times the performance of the previous models. Although the machines did not always meet this goal, this was a useful technique in defining the project and clarifying what sort of process improvements would be needed to meet it. Cray had always attacked the problem of increased speed with three simultaneous advances: more functional units to give the system higher parallelism, tighter packaging to decrease signal delays, and faster components to allow for a higher clock speed. Of the three, Cray was normally least aggressive
Dell XPS (Xtreme Performance System) is a line of gaming and performance computers manufactured by Dell.
The XPS (Xtreme Performance System) name dates back to 1993 when Dell at that time was more focused on corporate business than consumers. Gateway was number one in the high-end consumer market. In early 1993 there was a staff meeting to address how to pursue this emerging market. At this time Dell turned over less than 500 million dollars a year and Michael Dell was involved in most decisions. At this meeting it was decided to launch a new high-end product line to beat Gateway. Vernon Weiss was assigned as product manager to spearhead and manage the new product. In September 1993 the first two versions of the new XPS line were announced. The first generation of the XPS system was available as either a desktop or a tower. This new product line was so far ahead of the competition that it was featured on the cover of the October 1993 issue of PC Computing. For the next 3 years with Vernon Weiss managing the product line, the XPS systems won over 100 magazine reviews and covers, being the first to adopt the latest PC technology available and bring it to the consumers at an
The Pentagon (Пентагон) home computer was a clone of the British-made Sinclair ZX Spectrum 128. It was manufactured by amateurs in the former Soviet Union. Its PCB was copied all over the USSR, which made it the most widespread Soviet ZX Spectrum clone. Many simple devices (upgrades) were invented to connect to the Pentagon with a soldering iron.
The last Pentagon model was the Pentagon 1024SL v2.3, which included most of the upgrades of the standard Spectrum architecture, including 1024 KB RAM, Beta 128 Disk Interface and ZX-BUS slots (especially for IDE and General Sound cards). This model also featured a "turbo" mode (7 MHz instead of the original's 3.50 MHz).
The Power Macintosh 8100 (Codenames: "Cold Fusion", "Flagship"; also sold in Japan as the Power Macintosh 8115 and with bundled server software as the Apple Workgroup Server 8150) is a personal computer that is a part of Apple Computer's Power Macintosh series of Macintosh computers. It was introduced in March 1994 alongside the Power Macintosh 6100 and the Power Macintosh 7100 as the high end model of the original Power Macintosh series and a direct continuation of the prior Macintosh Quadra 800. It also shares the 800's notoriously cramped case.
The 8100 originally featured a PowerPC 601 at 80 MHz, but was upgraded to 100 MHz in November 1994, and further to 110 MHz in January 1995. In August 1995, the 8100 was discontinued in favor of the Power Macintosh 8500. The main variant of the 8100 are the 8100AV models, which came with an analog video in/out card in its Processor Direct Slot.
The Master System (マスターシステム, Masutā Shisutemu), often called the Sega Master System or SMS, is a third-generation video game console that was manufactured and released by Sega in 1985 in Japan (as the Sega Mark III), 1986 in North America and 1987 in Europe.
The original Master System could play both cartridges and the credit card-sized "Sega Cards," which retailed for cheaper prices than cartridges but had lower storage capacity. The Master System also featured accessories such as a light gun and 3D glasses which were designed to work with a range of specially coded games.
The Master System was released as a direct competitor to the Nintendo Entertainment System in the third videogame generation. The Master System was technically superior to the NES, which predated its release by nine months in North America, but failed to overturn Nintendo's significant market share advantage in Japan and North America.
In the European, Oceanic and Brazilian markets, this console allowed Sega to outsell Nintendo, due to its wider availability. It enjoyed over a decade of life in those territories and was supported in Europe up until 1996. Up until 1994, it was the console with the largest active
The NeXTcube was a high-end workstation computer developed, manufactured and sold by NeXT from 1990 until 1993. It superseded the original NeXT Computer workstation and was housed in a similar cube-shaped magnesium enclosure. The workstation ran the NeXTSTEP operating system.
The NeXTcube was a development of the original NeXT Computer. It differed from its predecessor in having a 25 MHz 68040 processor, larger hard disks in place of the MO drive and an optional floppy disk drive. A 33 MHz NeXTcube Turbo was produced later.
NeXT also released the NeXTdimension for the NeXTcube, a circuit board based on an Intel i860 processor, which offers 32-bit PostScript color display and video sampling features.
There was also a rare accelerator board known as the Pyro. It increased the speed of a NeXTcube by replacing the standard 25 MHz processor with a 50 MHz one.
The PowerBook 5300 series was the first generation of PowerBook laptops manufactured by Apple Computer to use the PowerPC processor. Released in August 1995, these PowerBooks were notable for being the first to feature hot-swappable expansion modules for a variety of different units such as ZIP drives; PC card slots as standard; and an infrared communication port. In common with most preceding Macintosh portables, SCSI, Serial, and ADB ports were available as standard. An internal expansion slot was also available for installing a variety of modules including Ethernet and video cards to drive a second monitor in mirroring or dual-screen modes.
Although a significant advance over preceding portable Macs, the PowerBook 5300 suffered from a number of design decisions and manufacturing problems that have led to it being cited as among the worst Apple products of all time. Amongst other issues, it was one of the first laptops to suffer negative publicity from battery fires, and featured a hot-swappable drive bay with insufficient space for an internal CD-ROM drive.
There were four models in the 5300 series, ranging from the low-end greyscale 5300 to the deluxe high resolution
The Apple IIe (styled as Apple //e) is the third model in the Apple II series of personal computers produced by Apple Computer. The e in the name stands for enhanced, referring to the fact that several popular features were now built-in that were only available as upgrades and add-ons in earlier models. It also improved upon expandability and added a few new features, which, all combined, made it very attractive to first-time computer shoppers as a general-purpose machine. The Apple IIe has the distinction of being the longest-lived computer in Apple's history, having been manufactured and sold for nearly 11 years with relatively few changes.
Apple had planned to retire the Apple II series after the introduction of the Apple III in 1980; after that machine turned out to be a disastrous failure, management decided the further continuation of the Apple II was in the company's best interest. So after three and a half years at a stand-still, came the introduction of a new Apple II model — the Apple IIe (codenamed "Diana" and "Super II"). The Apple IIe was released in January 1983, the successor to the Apple II Plus. Some of the hardware and software features of the Apple III were
FUJIC was the first in operation electronic digital computer in Japan. It was finished in March 1956, the project having been effectively started in 1949, and was essentially built almost entirely by one person – Dr. Okazaki Bunji. Originally designed to perform calculations for lens design by Fuji, the ultimate goal of FUJIC's construction was to achieve a speed 1,000 times that of human calculation for the same purpose – amazingly, the actual performance achieved was double that number.
Employing approximately 1,700 vacuum tubes, the computer's word length was 33 bits. It had an ultrasonic mercury delay line memory of 255 words, with an average access time of 500 microseconds. An addition or subtraction was clocked at 100 microseconds, multiplication at 1,600 microseconds, and division at 2,100 microseconds.
Used extensively for two years at the Fuji factory in Odawara, it was given later to Waseda University before taking up residence in the National Science Museum of Japan in Tokyo.
The Macintosh Quadra 660AV (Codename: "Tempest") is a personal computer that is a part of Apple Computer's Quadra series of Macintosh computers. When it was originally introduced in July 1993 alongside the Quadra 840 AV it was called the Macintosh Centris 660AV, but it was renamed without any major changes in the hardware when the Centris line was abandoned in October 1993. It was discontinued in September 1994, with no immediate replacement - however, the AV versions of the Power Macintosh 6100 that had already been introduced had a very similar position in Apple's product lineup.
The 660AV uses the "pizza box" case of the earlier Centris 610, which somewhat resembled the case of the Amiga 1000, another computer commonly used in desktop video during the era. The 660AV has a full Motorola 68040 instead of the 610's FPU-less 68LC040. Like the 840AV, the 660AV features video input/output capability and an onboard AT&T 3210 digital signal processor (here clocked at 55 MHz) to make the video handling less of a burden on the CPU.
Some of the earliest Centris 660AVs have the older 'auto-inject' floppy drive opening similar to the 610 (as seen in the image), but most of the Centris models
The Nintendo Entertainment System (also abbreviated as NES or simply called Nintendo) is an 8-bit video game console that was released by Nintendo in North America during 1985, in Europe during 1986 and Australia in 1987. In most of Asia, including Japan (where it was first launched in 1983), China, Vietnam, Singapore, the Middle East and Hong Kong, it was released as the Family Computer (ファミリーコンピュータ, Famirī Konpyūta), commonly shortened as either the Famicom (ファミコン, Famikon), or abbreviated to FC. In South Korea, it was known as the Hyundai Comboy (현대 컴보이) and was distributed by Hynix which then was known as Hyundai Electronics. It was succeeded by the Super Nintendo Entertainment System.
The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983, and set the standard for subsequent consoles of its generation. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute software for Nintendo's platform.
In 2009, the Nintendo Entertainment System was named the single greatest video game console in history by IGN, out of a
The PalmPilot Personal and PalmPilot Professional are the second generation of Palm PDA devices produced by Palm Inc (then a subsidiary of U.S. Robotics). These devices were launched on March 10, 1996.
Palm also sold the 10201U modem at 14.4 kbit/s, introduced at a price of $129 (this modem is also compatible with the Palm III and Palm IIIx devices). An upgrade kit was also available, which allowed users of the earlier Pilot 1000/5000 devices to upgrade the OS, ROM, and RAM to match the PalmPilot Professional. Initially suggested retail prices upon launch were $399 for the PalmPilot Professional, $299 for the PalmPilot Personal, and $199 for the Upgrade Kit. Upgrade kits were also available to existing registered Pilot users for $99 for a limited time after the launch. These kits included IR capability, a new plastic memory door to accommodate the IR diodes, a memory card with 1 MB, the new ROM for Palm OS 2.0, and a CD ROM with updated desktop software.
The PowerBook 1400 was a notebook computer designed and sold by Apple Computer (now Apple Inc.) from 1996 to 1998 as part of their PowerBook series of Macintosh computers. Introduced in November 1996 at a starting price of $2499, it was the first new PowerBook after the controversial PowerBook 5300. After the introduction of the more powerful PowerBook 3400 in February 1997, the 1400 took on the role of Apple's entry level notebook and remained there until its discontinuation in May 1998. Its successor, the PowerBook G3 Series (i.e. - "Wallstreet"/"Mainstreet") would ultimately go on to replace and consolidate not only the 1400, but the 2400 and 3400 as well.
Throughout its 18 months on the market, the PowerBook 1400 was available in a number of different configurations. It was originally released with a 117 MHz PowerPC 603e processor; a 133 MHz processor was added in July 1997, and the line topped out with a 166 MHz processor the following December. Each version was available as either a "c" or a "cs" model, differentiated largely by type of LCD technology used. While both models came with 11.3" color displays with 800 x 600 resolution, the pricier 1400c came equipped with an
The ThinkPad is a line of laptop computers and tablets originally designed, developed and sold by IBM but now produced by Lenovo. They are known for their boxy black design, which was modeled after a traditional Japanese Bento lunchbox. Lenovo purchased IBM's personal computer business and acquired the ThinkPad brand in 2005.
ThinkPads are popular with large businesses and schools. Older model ThinkPads are revered by technology enthusiasts, collectors and power users due to their durable design, relatively high resale value, and abundance of aftermarket replacement parts. The ThinkPad has been used in space, and is the only laptop certified for use on the International Space Station.
IBM introduced the ThinkPad line in 1992.
The name "ThinkPad" is a product of IBM's corporate history and culture. Thomas J. Watson, Sr, had first introduced "THINK" as an IBM slogan in the 1920s. For decades IBM distributed small notepads with the word "THINK" emblazoned on a brown leatherette cover to customers and employees. The name ThinkPad was suggested by IBM employee Denny Wainwright, who had a "THINK" notepad in his pocket. The name faced disagreements from the IBM corporate naming committee
The Linksys WRT54G (and variants WRT54GS, WRT54GL, and WRTSL54GS) is a Wi-Fi capable residential gateway from Linksys. The device is capable of sharing Internet connections among several computers via 802.3 Ethernet and 802.11b/g wireless data links.
The original WRT54G was first released in December 2002. It has a 4+1 port network switch (the Internet/WAN port is part of the same internal network switch, but on a different VLAN). The devices have two removable antennas connected through Reverse Polarity TNC connectors. The WRT54GC router is an exception and has an internal antenna with optional external antenna. As a cost-cutting measure, the design of the latest version of the WRT54G no longer has detachable antennas or TNC connectors. Instead, version 8 routers simply route thin wires into antenna 'shells' eliminating the connector. As a result, Linksys HGA7T and similar external antennas are no longer compatible with this model. Until version 5 WRT54G shipped with Linux based firmware.
The WRT54GS is nearly identical to WRT54G except for additional RAM, flash memory, and SpeedBooster software. Versions 1 to 3 of this router have 8 MB of flash memory. Since most third parties'
Xserve was a line of rack unit computers designed by Apple Inc. for use as servers. When the Xserve was introduced in 2002, it was Apple's first designated server hardware design since the Apple Network Server in 1996. It initially featured one or two PowerPC G4 processors, but was later switched over to the then new PowerPC G5, and subsequently switched again to two quad-core Intel Nehalem microprocessors.
The Xserve can be used for a variety of applications, including file server, web server or even high-performance computing applications using clustering – a dedicated cluster Xserve, the Xserve Cluster Node, without a video card and optical drives was also available. On November 5, 2010, Apple announced that the Xserve line would be discontinued on January 31, 2011 and replaced with the Mac Pro Server and the Mac Mini Server.
Apple introduced the Xserve on May 14, 2002 (released in June). Originally, it had one or two PowerPC G4 processors running at 1.0 GHz and supported up to 2 GB of PC-2100 memory on a 64-bit memory bus. Three FireWire 400 ports (one in front, two in rear), two USB 1.1 ports (rear), an RS-232 management interface (rear), and a single onboard Gigabit Ethernet
EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) was one of the earliest electronic computers. Unlike its predecessor the ENIAC, it was binary rather than decimal, and was a stored program computer.
ENIAC inventors John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert proposed the EDVAC's construction in August 1944, and design work for the EDVAC commenced before the ENIAC was fully operational. The design would implement a number of important architectural and logical improvements conceived during the ENIAC's construction and would incorporate a high speed serial access memory. Like the ENIAC, the EDVAC was built for the U.S. Army's Ballistics Research Laboratory at the Aberdeen Proving Ground by the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering. Eckert and Mauchly and the other ENIAC designers were joined by John von Neumann in a consulting role; von Neumann summarized and discussed logical design developments in the 1945 First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC.
A contract to build the new computer was signed in April 1946 with an initial budget of US$100,000. The contract named the device the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Calculator. The final cost of EDVAC,
Designed by Tim Moore the Newbear 77-68 was a kit of parts from which a purchaser could construct a first generation home computer based around a Motorola 6800 microprocessor. The 77-68 was offered for sale by Bear Microcomputer Systems of Newbury, Berkshire, England from June 1977. It was among the first, if not the first, of British home computers and was featured in the launch edition of Personal Computer World magazine in May 1978.
The basic 77-68 comprised an 8-inch square printed circuit board accommodating the microprocessor, Static RAM of 256 8 bit words and the bare essentials in terms of input/output and timing logic to make a working computer. The processor ran with an instruction cycle time of around 1.25 microseconds with most instructions executing in 3 to 7 microseconds.
In the short time for which the 77-68 represented an economic and reasonably current technology for home computing, an active user group distributed designs for additional components such as memory cards, video display cards and teletype interfaces which enthusiasts could, and did, construct themselves. It was even possible to run BASIC. All the components to build the basic machine could be bought
The MessagePad is the first series of personal digital assistant devices developed by Apple for the Newton platform in 1993. Some electronic engineering and the manufacture of Apple's MessagePad devices was done in Japan by the Sharp Corporation. The devices were based on the ARM 610 RISC processor and all featured handwriting recognition software and were developed and marketed by Apple. The devices ran the Newton OS.
With the MessagePad 120 with Newton OS 2.0, the Newton Keyboard by Apple became available, which can also be used via the dongle on Newton devices with a Newton InterConnect port, most notably the Apple MessagePad 2000/2100 series, as well as the Apple eMate 300.
Newton devices featuring Newton OS 2.1 or higher can be used with the screen turned horizontally ("landscape") as well as vertically ("portrait"). A change of a setting rotates the contents of the display by 90, 180 or 270 degrees. Handwriting recognition still works properly with the display rotated, although display calibration is needed when rotation in any direction is used for the first time or when the Newton device is reset.
In initial versions (Newton OS 1.x) the handwriting recognition gave
The Power Macintosh 9500 (the 132 MHz model is also known as Power Macintosh 9515 in Europe and Japan) was a high-end Macintosh personal computer which was designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer from May 1995 until early 1997. It was powered by a PowerPC 604 processor, a second-generation PowerPC chip which was faster than the earlier PowerPC 601 chip. The 180MP and 200 used the enhanced PowerPC 604e processor. The CPU was connected via a daughterboard, and so could be swapped easily. Available were single-processor cards ranging from 120 to 200 MHz, and a dual processor card with two 180 MHz CPUs. It was the first Macintosh to use the PCI standard, with six PCI slots available, with one always needed for the graphics card. The basic design of the logic board, called "Tsunami", was used by various Macintosh clone makers as a reference design and a modified version was used in the non-Macintosh Apple Network Server series. The 9500 was superseded by the Power Macintosh 9600 in February 1997.
Utilizing a third party G4 CPU upgrade and the XPostFacto installation utility it is possible to run up to Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard" on a 9500, making it the oldest model capable of
The Toshiba Satellite is a line of consumer-grade notebook computers marketed by Toshiba. Models in the Satellite family vary greatly. Most consumers will only see the entry-level models which are sold at major retailers; but there is also a fast "Best of the Best" full-fledged media center-class notebook available; (these have the additional label of Qosmio added along side the Satellite name). The differences between the entry level Satellites and the more expensive Qosmio Satellites are significant and easy to recognize. The Qosmio models tend to be two or three times thicker, they have added features like two hard drive bays, multiple graphics cards, a large number of input/output ports of varying design, unique case styling, LED backlit keyboards, significantly more powerful sound systems (built in subwoofer and amplifier)along with any other new feature that was recently invented. The "Satellite" name is simply a model brand name and therefore the laptops bear no technical association to terminologies used in "satellite phone/satphone" or any modes of data transfer via orbital satellites.
The early models did not come with an internal CD-ROM drive, but these eventually came
The Commodore Amiga 3000UX is a model of the Amiga computer family that was released with Amiga Unix, a full port of AT&T Unix System V Release 4 (SVR4), installed along with AmigaOS. The system was otherwise equivalent to the standard A3000, once the Right-Mouse-Button initiated a boot to Kickstart (Amiga's BIOS).
At one point, Sun Microsystems approached Commodore-Amiga Inc. with the offer to produce the A3000UX under license as a low- to mid-range alternative to their high-end Sun workstations. That this offer was declined was one of the many management decisions that led to the popular belief that Amiga would have been a real success story but for the Commodore management.
It is possible that Commodore (or a third party) repurposed A3000UX machines for standard AmigaOS, as some standard A3000 models have been found with labeling suggesting they were originally to be sold as A3000UX machines.
The original Apple Computer, also known retroactively as the Apple I, or Apple-1, is a personal computer released by the Apple Computer Company (now Apple Inc.) in 1976. They were designed and hand-built by Steve Wozniak. Wozniak's friend Steve Jobs had the idea of selling the computer. The Apple I was Apple's first product, and to finance its creation, Jobs sold his only means of transportation, a VW van and Wozniak sold his HP-65 calculator for $500. It was demonstrated in July 1976 at the Homebrew Computer Club in Palo Alto, California.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 at a price of US$666.66, because Wozniak "liked repeating digits" and because they originally sold it to a local shop for $500 plus a one-third markup. About 200 units were produced. Unlike other hobbyist computers of its day, which were sold as kits, the Apple I was a fully assembled circuit board containing about 60+ chips. However, to make a working computer, users still had to add a case, power supply transformers, power switch, ASCII keyboard, and composite video display. An optional board providing a cassette interface for storage was later released at a cost of $72.
The Apple I's built-in computer
The VIC-20 (Germany: VC-20; Japan: VIC-1001) is an 8-bit home computer which was sold by Commodore Business Machines. The VIC-20 was announced in 1980, roughly three years after Commodore's first personal computer, the PET. The VIC-20 was the first computer of any description to sell one million units.
The VIC-20 was intended to be more economical than the PET computer. It was equipped with only 5 kB of RAM (of this, only 3583 bytes were available to the BASIC programmer) and used the same MOS 6502 CPU as the PET. The VIC-20's video chip, the MOS Technology VIC, was a general-purpose color video chip designed by Al Charpentier in 1977 and intended for use in inexpensive display terminals and game consoles, but Commodore could not find a market for the chip. As the Apple II gained momentum with the advent of VisiCalc in 1979, Jack Tramiel wanted a product that would compete in the same segment, to be presented at the January 1980 CES. For this reason Chuck Peddle and Bill Seiler started to design a computer named TOI (The Other Intellect).
The TOI computer failed to materialize, mostly due to the fact that it required an 80-column character display which in turn required the MOS
The Cray T3E was Cray Research's second-generation massively parallel supercomputer architecture, launched in late November 1995. The first T3E was installed at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center in 1996. Like the previous Cray T3D, it was a fully distributed memory machine using a 3D torus topology interconnection network. The T3E initially used the DEC Alpha 21164 (EV5) microprocessor and was designed to scale from 8 to 2,176 Processing Elements (PEs). Each PE had between 64 MB and 2 GB of DRAM and a 6-way interconnect router with a payload bandwidth of 480 MB/s in each direction. Unlike many other MPP systems, including the T3D, the T3E was fully self-hosted and ran the UNICOS/mk distributed operating system with a GigaRing I/O subsystem integrated into the torus for network, disk and tape I/O.
The original T3E (retrospectively known as the T3E-600) had a 300 MHz processor clock. Later variants, using the faster 21164A (EV56) processor, comprised the T3E-900 (450 MHz), T3E-1200 (600 MHz), T3E-1200E (with improved memory and interconnect performance) and T3E-1350 (675 MHz). The T3E was available in both air-cooled (AC) and liquid-cooled (LC) configurations. AC systems were
The eMac, short for education Mac, is a Macintosh desktop computer made by Apple Inc. It was originally aimed at the education market, but was later made available as a cheaper mass market alternative to Apple's second-generation LCD display iMac.
The eMac design closely resembles the first-generation iMac. Compared to the first iMac, eMacs feature a PowerPC G4 processor that is significantly faster than the previous generation G3 processors, as well as a 17-inch flat CRT display. Unlike the iMac G3, however, the eMac is not meant to be portable as it weighs 50 lb (23 kg) and lacks a carrying handle.
The eMac was pulled from retail on October 12, 2005 and was sold exclusively to educational institutions thereafter. It was finally discontinued by Apple on July 5, 2006 and replaced by a cheaper, low-end iMac that, like the eMac, was originally sold exclusively to educational institutions.
The eMac generally caters to the mass market, eventually taking over from the soon-to-be-discontinued iMac G3 to become the entry level Macintosh from 2003 to 2005, while the iMac G4 was positioned as a premium offering throughout its lifetime. The eMac generally offered similar performance and
The Macintosh IIfx was a model of Apple Macintosh computer, introduced in 1990 and discontinued in 1992. At introduction it cost from US $9,000 to US $12,000, depending on configuration, and was the fastest Mac. It had many code-names, including Stealth, Blackbird, F-16, F-19, Four Square, IIxi, Zone 5 and Weed-Whacker.
Dubbed "Wicked Fast" by the Product Manager, Frank Casanova - who came to Apple from Apollo Computer in Boston, Massachusetts where the term "wicked" was commonly used to define anything extreme - the system ran at a clock rate of a then impressive 40 megahertz, had 32 KB of Level 2 cache, six NuBus slots and included a number of proprietary ASICs and coprocessors designed to speed up the machine further. These required software written specifically for the IIfx to take advantage of them. The 40 MHz speed referred to the main logic board clock (the bus), the Motorola 68030 CPU, and the computer's Motorola 68882 FPU. The machine had eight RAM slots, for a maximum of 128 MB RAM, an enormous amount at the time.
The IIfx featured specialized high-speed (80 ns) RAM using 64-pin dual-ported SIMMs, at a time when all other Macintosh models used 30-pin SIMMs. The extra pins
The Quadra 605 is an entry level 68040 microprocessor-based Apple Macintosh personal computer code-named "Aladdin" or "Primus" which was released on October 21, 1993 as part of the Quadra series and discontinued on October 16, 1994. It is one of few Macintosh models to not share a case with another machine (although the internal layout is shared with the Performa/LC 475 family.)
Recording is possible at 11 or 22 k samples/second, with filters applied at 3.5 kHz and 7 kHz respectively while recording.
The Quadra 605 contains one LC III style 68030-compatible LC Processor Direct Slot. While this is mechanically compatible with previous models' LC PDS (it will take 96-pin or 114-pin LC PDS slot cards) it is not a true LC PDS, but emulates the previous machine's 68030 slot. Due to the success of the LC PDS in earlier Macs and with many expansion options already manufactured Apple kept the same slot type in these 68040 machines. While the Quadra 605's LC PDS is mostly 68030 compatible, expansion cards made specifically for 030 processors such as 68881 or 68882 FPUs will not work. In addition it could utilize the Apple IIe Card, which allowed the 605 to emulate an Apple IIe.
The Macintosh Quadra 800 (Codenames: "Fridge", "Wombat 33", also sold with bundled server software as the Apple Workgroup Server 80) is a personal computer that is a part of Apple Computer's Quadra series of Macintosh computers.
Introduced in February 1993 alongside the first Macintosh Centris models, it was the first totally new Quadra model since the original Quadras, the 700 and the 900 / 950. It was positioned below the 950 (and the previous midrange Quadra, the 700, was discontinued shortly after the 800's introduction). Debuting at half the price of the 950, the 800 featured the same Motorola 68040 33 MHz processor as the 950 but its additional interleaved RAM, as well as an enhanced video system and SCSI bus, enabled it to outperform the 950.
However, its tower case was smaller and much less accessible, giving it the reputation of being one of Apple's worst cases of all time. The Quadra 800 was later joined by an outwardly similar model, the Macintosh Quadra 840AV, and was discontinued in March 1994 in favor of its Power Macintosh replacement, the Power Macintosh 8100, which used the same case. The case was further used for the 8100's successor, the Power Macintosh 8500, and
MSX was the name of a standardized home computer architecture in the 1980s conceived by Kazuhiko Nishi, then Vice-president at Microsoft Japan and Director at ASCII Corporation. It is said that Microsoft led the project as an attempt to create unified standards among hardware makers.
Despite Microsoft's involvement, the MSX-based machines were seldom seen in the United States, but they were mostly popular in Japan, the Middle East, the Soviet Union, the Netherlands, Spain, Brazil and to a lesser extent, several other European countries. It is difficult to estimate how many MSX computers were sold worldwide, but eventually 5 million MSX-based units were sold in Japan alone, many of which were the later models.
Before the appearance and great success of Nintendo's Family Computer, MSX was the platform for which major Japanese game studios, such as Konami and Hudson Soft, produced their titles. The Metal Gear series was originally written for MSX hardware.
In the 1980s, Japan was in the midst of an economic awakening. Large Japanese electronics firms might have been successful in the early computer market had they made a concerted effort in the late 1970s. Their combined design and
The Power Mac G4 Cube is a small form factor Macintosh personal computer from Apple Inc. It was sold from 2000 to 2001. Its cube shape is reminiscent of the NeXTcube from NeXT, acquired by Apple in 1996. The machine was designed by Apple industrial designer Sir Jonathan Ive. The New York Museum of Modern Art holds a G4 Cube, along with its distinctive Harman Kardon transparent speakers, as part of its collection.
The diminutive 7" x 7" x 7" cube, suspended in a 7.65" x 7.65" x 10" acrylic glass enclosure, housed a PowerPC G4 processor running at 450 or 500 megahertz, and had an unconventional vertical slot-loading DVD-ROM or CD-RW drive. A separate monitor — with either an ADC or VGA connection — was required for the Cube, in contrast to the all-in-one iMac series. Also unlike the iMacs, it had an upgradeable video card in a standard AGP slot. However, there was not enough space for full-length cards. The Cube also featured two FireWire ports and two USB ports for connecting peripherals. Sound was provided by an external USB amplifier and a pair of Harman Kardon speakers. Although the USB amplifier had a standard mini-plug headphone output, it lacked any audio input. The Cube also
The Power Macintosh 6100 was Apple Computer's first computer to use the new PowerPC RISC type processor created by IBM and Motorola. It came in the Centris 610's "pizza box" low-profile case, and superseded the Quadra series that used Motorola's 68040 processor, Apple's previous high end workstation line. It is the earliest Macintosh model able to run Mac OS 9.
Power Macintosh 6100 was first introduced in 1994, and featured a 60 MHz (later 66 MHz) PowerPC 601 processor. It was later complemented by an AV version, which featured additional audio and visual enhancements such as composite and S-video input/output and full 48 kHz 16-bit DAT-resolution sound processing, invaluable to multimedia professionals. The Power Macintosh 6100 was also re-branded as the Performa 6100.
Apple also released a PC-compatible model of the 6100 called the Power Macintosh 6100 DOS Compatible. This version came with a card that featured a Cyrix CX486 DX2/66 80486 processor and a single SIMM RAM slot that used the same type of RAM to that in the Power Mac itself, and could hold up to 32mb of RAM, a Creative Technology Vibra 16 sound chipset, and also sported standard PC VGA and joystick ports. One could
The Z3 was an electromechanical computer designed by Konrad Zuse. It was the world's first working programmable, fully automatic computing machine. It was Turing-complete, at least in theory (see below), and by modern standards the Z3 was one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine, although it lacked the conditional branch operation. The Z3 was built with 2,000 relays, implementing a 22 bit word length that operated at a clock frequency of about 5–10 Hz. Program code and data were stored on punched film.
The Z3 was completed in Berlin in 1941. The German Aircraft Research Institute used it to perform statistical analyses of wing flutter.
The original Z3 was destroyed in 1943 during an Allied bombardment of Berlin. A fully functioning replica was built in the 1960s by Zuse's company, Zuse KG, and is on permanent display in the Deutsches Museum.
Zuse asked the German government for funding to replace the relays with fully electronic switches, but funding was denied during World War II since such development was deemed "not war-important".
Zuse designed the Z1 in 1935 to 1936 and built it from 1936 to 1938. The Z1 was wholly mechanical and only
The Acorn Archimedes was Acorn Computers' first general purpose home computer to be based on their own ARM architecture.
Using a RISC design with a 32-bit CPU, at its launch in June 1987, the Archimedes was stated as running at 4 MIPS, with a claim of 18 MIPS during tests.
The name is commonly used to describe any of Acorn's contemporary designs based on the same architecture, even where Acorn did not include Archimedes in the official name.
The first models were released in June 1987, as the 300 and 400 series. The 400 series included 4 expansion slots (although a 2 slot backplane could be added to the 300 series as an official upgrade, and third parties produced their own 4 slot backplanes) and an ST506 controller for an internal hard drive. Both models included the Arthur operating system (later replaced by RISC OS as a paid-for upgrade), BBC BASIC programming language and an emulator for Acorn's earlier BBC Micro, and were mounted in two-part cases with a small central unit, monitor on top, and a separate keyboard and three-button mouse. All models featured onboard 8 channel stereo sound and were capable of displaying 256 colours on screen.
Four models were initially released
The Apple II (styled as Apple ][) is an 8-bit home computer, one of the first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed primarily by Steve Wozniak, manufactured by Apple Computer (now Apple Inc.) and introduced in 1977. It is the first model in a series of computers which were produced until Apple IIe production ceased in November 1993.
The first Apple II computers went on sale on June 10, 1977 with a MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor running at 1 MHz, 4 kB of RAM, an audio cassette interface for loading programs and storing data, and the Integer BASIC programming language built into the ROMs. The video controller displayed 24 lines by 40 columns of monochrome, upper-case-only (the original character set matches ASCII characters 20h to 5Fh) text on the screen, with NTSC composite video output suitable for display on a TV monitor, or on a regular TV set by way of a separate RF modulator. The original retail price of the computer was 1298 USD (with 4 kB of RAM) and 2638 USD (with the maximum 48 kB of RAM). To reflect the computer's color graphics capability, the Apple logo on the casing was represented using rainbow stripes, which remained a part of Apple's
The Goodyear Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) was a massively parallel processing supercomputer built by Goodyear Aerospace for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It was designed to deliver enormous computational power at lower cost than other existing supercomputer architectures, by using thousands of simple processing elements, rather than one or a few highly complex CPUs. Development of the MPP began circa 1979; it was delivered in May 1983, and was in general use from 1985 until 1991.
It was based on Goodyear's earlier STARAN array processor, a 4x256 1-bit processing element (PE) computer. The MPP was a 128x128 2-dimensional array of 1-bit wide PEs. In actuality 132x128 PEs were configured with a 4x128 configuration added for fault tolerance to substitute for up to 4 rows (or columns) of processors in the presence of problems. The PEs operated in an SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) fashion - each processor performed the same operations simultaneously, on different data elements, under the control of a microprogrammed control unit.
After the MPP was retired in 1991, it was donated to the Smithsonian Institution, and is now in the collection of the National Air and
The Macintosh Color Classic (also in Great Britain front says Macintosh Colour Classic) was the first color compact Apple Macintosh computer. It had an integrated 10″ Sony Trinitron color display with the same 512×384 pixel resolution as the Macintosh 12″ RGB monitor. This integrated unit resembled the original Mac series, albeit redesigned to Apple's "neoclassical" design language of the era.
Like the Macintosh SE and SE/30 before it, the Color Classic did come with a single expansion slot: an LC-type Processor Direct Slot (PDS), otherwise incompatible with the SE slots. This was primarily intended for the Apple IIe Card (the primary reason for the Color Classic's switchable 560x384 display, essentially quadruple the IIe's 280x192 High-Resolution graphics), which was offered with education models of the LCs. The card allowed the LCs to emulate an Apple IIe. The combination of the low-cost color Macintosh and Apple IIe compatibility was intended to encourage the education market's transition from Apple II models to Macintoshes. Other cards, such as CPU accelerators, ethernet and video cards were also made available for the Color Classic's PDS slot.
The Color Classic shipped with
The Memotech MTX500, MTX512 and RS128 were a series of Zilog Z80A processor-based home computers released by Memotech in 1983 and 1984. They were technically similar to MSX computers, but were not compatible.
The MTX500 had 32KiB of RAM, the MTX512 had 64KiB, and the RS128 had 128KiB (a significant amount at that time). Although the Z80A could only address a maximum of 64KiB at a time, the MTX and RS128's extra memory, up to a maximum of 768KiB, was accessible through the technique of page switching. All models had 32KiB of ROM accessible in the first 24KiB of address space. The extra 8KiB of ROM was available through page switching. The ROM could be switched out entirely, allowing the full 16-bit address space to be used for RAM.
The computers featured an all-aluminium case and full size keyboard with real keys (unlike others of the same vintage such as the Sinclair ZX Spectrum). In addition to the standard (for the time) BASIC language interpreter, it included some interesting variations:
The computers also featured support for plug-in ROM cartridges (a little like the BBC Micro). The most popular of these was the ISO Pascal language from HiSoft which was much faster than
The Nintendo DS Lite (ニンテンドーDS Lite, Nintendō Dī Esu Raito) is a dual-screen handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. It is a slimmer, brighter, and more lightweight redesign of the old Nintendo DS, designed to be aesthetically sleeker, while taking styling cues from the Game Boy Advance SP, and to appeal to broader commercial audiences. It was announced on January 26, 2006, more than a month before its initial release in Japan on March 2, 2006 due to overwhelming demand for the original model. It has been released in Australia, North America, Europe, New Zealand, Singapore, and defined regions in South America, the Middle East, and East Asia. As of December 31, 2009, shipments of the DS Lite have reached 89.19 million units worldwide, according to Nintendo.
A larger model of the DS Lite was an unreleased alternative to the DS Lite. It was ready for mass production but Nintendo decided against its release as sales of the DS Lite were still strong. Instead Nintendo prepared the DSi and released a "DSiXL" version of that console a year later.
This larger DS Lite featured an increased screen size of 3.8 inches (9.7 cm) (slightly smaller than the DSi XL's 4.2-inch
The IBM System/36 (often abbreviated as S/36) was a minicomputer marketed by IBM from 1983 to 2000. It was a multi-user, multi-tasking successor to the System/34. Like the System/34 and the older System/32, the System/36 was primarily programmed in the RPG II language. One of the machine's more interesting optional features was an off-line storage mechanism (on the 5360 model) that utilized "magazines" - boxes of 8-inch floppies that the machine could load and eject in a nonsequential fashion. The System/36 also had many mainframe features such as programmable job queues and scheduling priority levels.
IBM described the System/32,System/34 and System/36 as "small systems" although they were later grouped with the System/38 - and the succeeding AS/400 range - as "midrange" computers.
The IBM System/36 was a simple and popular small business computer system, first announced on 16 May 1983 and shipped later that year. It had a 17-year product lifespan.
The first model of the System/36 was the 5360. It weighed 700 lb (318 kg), cost (US) $100,000 and up, and is believed to have had processor speeds of about 2 MHz and 8 MHz for its two processors, which in 1983 was faster than the
The IMSAI 8080 was an early microcomputer released in late 1975, based on the Intel 8080 and later 8085 and S-100 bus. It was a clone of its main competitor, the earlier MITS Altair 8800. The IMSAI is largely regarded as the first "clone" computer. The IMSAI machine ran a highly modified version of the CP/M operating system called IMDOS. It was developed, manufactured and sold by IMS Associates, Inc. (later renamed IMSAI Manufacturing Corp). In total, between 17,000 and 20,000 units were produced from 1975 until 1978.
In May 1972, William Millard started businesses individually as IMS Associates (IMS) in the areas of computer consulting and engineering, using his home as an office. By 1973, Millard founded IMS Associates, Inc. Millard soon found capital for his business, and received several contracts, all for software.
In 1974, IMS was contacted by a client which wanted a "workstation system" that could complete jobs for any General Motors new-car dealership. IMS planned a system including a terminal, small computer, printer, and special software. Five of these work stations were to have common access to a hard disk drive, which would be controlled by a small computer. Eventually
The Macintosh IIx was introduced by Apple in 1988 as an incremental update of the original Macintosh II model. It replaced the 16 MHz Motorola 68020 CPU and 68881 FPU of the II with a 68030 CPU and 68882 FPU (running at the same clock speed); and the 800 KB floppy drive with the 1.44 MB SuperDrive (in fact, it was the first Mac to have one). The initial price of the IIx was US$7,769 or $9,300 for a version with the 40 MB hard disk drive. The Mac IIx, like the Mac II, sported 0.25 KiB of L1 CPU cache, a 16 MHz bus (1:1 with CPU speed), and supported up to System 7.5.5.
The IIx was the second of three Macintosh models to be built in this case with 6 NuBus slots; the last was the Macintosh IIfx. Apple's nomenclature of the time used the 'x' to indicate the presence of the '030 CPU as used in the Macintosh IIcx and IIvx.
Apple's codenames for the IIx included "Spock" and "Stratos". Support and spare parts for the IIx were discontinued on August 31, 1998.
The PowerBook 180 was a portable computer released by Apple Computer, Inc. along with the PowerBook 160 in October 1992. At the time, it constituted the new top-of-the-range model replacing the previous PowerBook 170. Its case design and features are the same as that of the 170, but it shipped with the more powerful 33 MHz Motorola 68030 CPU and Motorola 68882 FPU. Along with the 160, it introduced a new power saving feature which allowed the processor to run at a slower 16 MHz rate, the same speed as the original 140.
The PowerBook 180 came with a 9.5 in (240 mm) (diagonal) active matrix LCD screen, capable of displaying 4-bit grayscale, and a trackball was mounted beneath the keyboard. A 1.44 MB floppy disk drive and 80 MB 2.5-inch hard drive were also standard.
The Apple Powerbook also gave an option of possible expansion to a 120 MB hard drive. They are equipped with keyboard stands to slant the keyboard.
Like the Macintosh Portable before it, with the addition of an external color video port missing on the 170, the 180 became a full featured un-compromised portable desktop replacement, equivalent in performance to the Macintosh LC III+. It was sold until May 1994.
The ZX Spectrum (pronounced "Zed-Ex") is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research Ltd.
Referred to during development as the ZX81 Colour and ZX82, the machine was launched as the ZX Spectrum by Sinclair to highlight the machine's colour display, compared with the black-and-white of its predecessor, the ZX81. The Spectrum was ultimately released as eight different models, ranging from the entry level model with 16 kB RAM released in 1982 to the ZX Spectrum +3 with 128 kB RAM and built in floppy disk drive in 1987; together they sold in excess of 5 million units worldwide (not counting numerous clones).
The Spectrum was among the first mainstream audience home computers in the UK, similar in significance to the Commodore 64 in the USA. The introduction of the ZX Spectrum led to a boom in companies producing software and hardware for the machine, the effects of which are still seen; some credit it as the machine which launched the UK IT industry. Licensing deals and clones followed, and earned Clive Sinclair a knighthood for "services to British industry".
The Commodore 64, BBC Microcomputer and later the Amstrad CPC range were major
The IBM AN/FSQ-7 Combat Direction Central (colloq. "Q7") was a computerized command and control system for Cold War ground-controlled interception used in the USAF Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) air defense network. The largest computer system ever built, each of the 24 centrals weighed 250 tons and had two computers. The AN/FSQ-7 used a total of 60,000 vacuum tubes (49,000 in the computers) and up to 3 megawatts of electricity, performing about 75,000 instructions per second for networking regional radars. The AN/FSQ-7 calculated one or more predicted interception points for assigning manned aircraft or CIM-10 Bomarc missiles to intercept an intruder using the Automatic Target and Battery Evaluation (ATABE) algorithm. Also used in the Nike AN/FSG-1 system, ATABE automated the "Whiz Wheel" (Felsenthal CPU-73 A/P Air Navigation Attack Computer) method used in manual command post operations.
The Q7 fire button launched the Bomarc, and an additional Q7 algorithm automatically directed the missile during climb and cruise to the beginning of "its supersonic dive on the target" when guidance transferred to "the missile seeker system" for the "homing dive". Later improvements
DECmate was the name of a series of PDP-8-compatible computers produced by the Digital Equipment Corporation in the late 1970s and early 1980s. All of the models used an Intersil 6100 (later known as the Harris 6100) or Harris 6120 (an improved Intersil 6100) microprocessor which emulated the 12-bit DEC PDP-8 CPU. They were text-only and used the OS/78 or OS/278 operating systems, which were extensions of OS/8 for the PDP-8. Aimed for the word processing market, they typically ran the WPS-8 word-processing program.
Later models optionally had Intel 8080 or Z80 microprocessors which allowed them to run CP/M.
The range was a development of the VT78 which was introduced in July 1977.
Introduced in July 1977, this machine was built into a VT52 case and had an Intersil 6100 microprocessor running at 2.2 MHz. The standard configuration included an RX02 dual 8-inch floppy disk unit which was housed in the pedestal the computer rested on.
Introduced in 1980, this machine was built into a VT100 case. It had a 10 MHz clock and 32 Kwords of memory. It was also known as the VT278.
As part of a three-pronged strategy against IBM, the company released this model at the same time as the
Inslaw, Inc. is a small, Washington, D.C.-based, information technology company. In the mid-1970s, Inslaw developed for the United States Department of Justice a highly efficient, people-tracking, computer program known as Prosecutor's Management Information System (Promis). Inslaw's principal owners, William Anthony Hamilton and his wife, Nancy Burke Hamilton, later sued the United States Government (acting as principal to the Department of Justice) for not complying with the terms of the Promis contract and for refusing to pay for an enhanced version of Promis once delivered. This allegation of software piracy led to three trials in separate federal courts and two congressional hearings.
During ensuing investigations, the Department of Justice was accused of deliberately attempting to drive Inslaw into Chapter 7 liquidation; and of distributing and selling stolen software for covert intelligence operations of foreign governments such as Canada, Israel, Singapore, Iraq, Egypt, and Jordan; and of becoming directly involved in murder.
Later developments implied that derivative versions of Enhanced Promis sold on the black market may have become the high-tech tools of worldwide
The Macintosh (/ˈmækɨntɒʃ/ MAK-in-tosh), or Mac, is a series of personal computers (PCs) designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. The first Macintosh was introduced by Apple Inc.'s then-chairman Steve Jobs on January 24, 1984; it was the first commercially successful personal computer to feature a mouse and a graphical user interface rather than a command-line interface. The company continued to have success through the second half of the 1980s, primarily because the sales of the Apple II series remained strong even after the introduction of the Macintosh, only to see it dissipate in the 1990s as the personal computer market shifted toward the "Wintel" platform: IBM PC compatible machines running MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows.
In 1998, Apple consolidated its multiple consumer-level desktop models into the iMac all-in-one. This proved to be a sales success and saw the Macintosh brand revitalized. Current Mac systems are mainly targeted at the home, education, and creative professional markets. These include the descendants of the original iMac, the entry-level Mac mini desktop model, the Mac Pro tower graphics workstation, and the MacBook Air and MacBook Pro laptops. The
The BRLESC I (Ballistic Research Laboratories Electronic Scientific Computer) was a first-generation electronic computer built by the United States Army's Ballistics Research Laboratory (BRL) at Aberdeen Proving Ground with assistance from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and was designed to take over the computational workload of EDVAC and ORDVAC, which themselves were successors of ENIAC. It began operation in 1962.
BRLESC was designed primarily for scientific and military tasks requiring high precision and high computational speed, such as ballistics problems, army logistical problems, and weapons systems evaluations. It contained 1727 vacuum tubes and 853 transistors and had a memory of 4096 72-bit words. BRLESC employed punched cards, magnetic tape, and a magnetic drum as input-output devices, which could be operated simultaneously.
It was capable of five million (bitwise) operations per second. A fixed point addition took 5 microseconds, a floating-point addition took 5 to 10 microseconds, a multiplication (fixed or floating-point) took 25 microseconds, and a division (fixed or floating-point) took 65 microseconds. (These times are including the
The Digi-Comp I was a functioning, mechanical digital computer sold in kit form. It was originally manufactured from polystyrene parts by E.S.R., Inc. starting in 1963 and sold as an educational toy for US$5.95.
In essence, the Digi-Comp I contained three mechanical flip-flops, providing an ability to connect them together in a programmable way using thin vertical wires that are either pushed, or blocked from moving, by a number of cylindrical pegs. The whole arrangement was 'clocked' by moving a lever back and forth. Different configurations of these cylinders caused the Digi-Comp to compute different boolean logic operations. With a three binary digit (3-bit) readout of the state of the flip-flops, it could be programmed to demonstrate binary logic, to perform various operations such as addition and subtraction, and to play some simple logic games such as Nim.
The Digi-Comp I version 2.0 was made available by Minds-On Toys in 2005 as a relatively inexpensive cardboard version of the original Digi-Comp with a much enhanced instruction manual.
A successor, the Digi-Comp II, was much more elaborate. A two-level masonite platform with guides served as the medium for a supply of
Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC) was an early British computer. The machine, having been inspired by John von Neumann's seminal First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, was constructed by Maurice Wilkes and his team at the University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory in England. EDSAC was the second usefully operational electronic digital stored-program computer.
Later the project was supported by J. Lyons & Co. Ltd., a British firm, who were rewarded with the first commercially applied computer, LEO I, based on the EDSAC design. EDSAC ran its first programs on 6 May 1949, when it calculated a table of squares and a list of prime numbers.
As soon as EDSAC was completed, it began serving the University's research needs. None of its components were experimental. It used mercury delay lines for memory, and derated vacuum tubes for logic. Input was via five-hole punched tape and output was via a teleprinter.
Initially registers were limited to an accumulator and a multiplier register. In 1953, David Wheeler, returning from a stay at the University of Illinois, designed an index register as an extension to the original EDSAC hardware.
The EDSAC's memory consisted of
The IBM 7090 was a second-generation transistorized version of the earlier IBM 709 vacuum tube mainframe computers and was designed for "large-scale scientific and technological applications". The 7090 was the third member of the IBM 700/7000 series scientific computers. The first 7090 installation was in November 1959. In 1960, a typical system sold for $2,900,000 or could be rented for $63,500 a month.
The 7090 used a 36-bit word length, with an address-space of 32K (32,768) words. It operated with a basic memory cycle of 2.18 μs, using the IBM 7302 Core Storage core memory technology from the IBM 7030 (Stretch) project.
The 7090 was six times faster than the 709, and could be rented for half the price.
Although the 709 was a superior machine to its predecessor, the 704, it was being built and sold at the time that transistor circuitry was supplanting vacuum tube circuits. Hence, IBM redeployed its 709 engineering group to the design of a transistorized successor. That project became called the 709-T (for Transistorized), which because of the sound when spoken, quickly shifted to the nomenclature 7090 (i.e., seven - oh - ninety). Similarly, the related machines such as the 7070
The IBM System x computers form a sub-brand of International Business Machines (IBM's) System brand servers (the other System sub-brands having the names IBM System i, IBM System p, IBM System z and IBM System Storage). In addition IBM System x is the main component of the IBM System Cluster 1350 solution.
Starting out as IBM PC Server, rebranded Netfinity, then eServer xSeries and now System x, these servers are distinguished by being based on off-the-shelf x86 CPUs; IBM positions them as their "low end" or "entry" offering.
Previously IBM servers based on AMD Opteron CPUs did not share the xSeries brand; instead they fell directly under the eServer umbrella. However, current AMD Opteron-based servers fall under the System x brand.
Not to be confused with a different IBM product with a similar name, NetFinity (notice the capital F).
The numbering scheme started off similar to that of the IBM PC Servers, but additional ranges were added, like the entry-level 1000 later on. Models ending with an R, are rack-mount.
Some Netfinity servers used IBM's C2T cabling scheme for Keyboard/Video/Mouse.
Many xSeries servers used IBM's C2T cabling scheme for Keyboard/Video/Mouse.
The Nintendo 64 (ニンテンドウ64, Nintendō Rokujūyon), often referred to as N64 (stylized as NINTENDO⁶⁴, formerly known as the Nintendo Ultra 64, and codenamed Project Reality) is Nintendo's third home video game console for the international market. Named for its 64-bit central processing unit, it was released in June 1996 in Japan, September 1996 in North America, March 1997 in Europe and Australia, September 1997 in France and December 1997 in Brazil. It is Nintendo's last home console to use ROM cartridges to store games (Nintendo switched to a MiniDVD-based format for the successor GameCube); handhelds in the Game Boy line, however, continued to use Game Paks. As part of the fifth generation of gaming, it primarily competed with the Sony PlayStation and the Sega Saturn. The N64 was discontinued in 2003 in Japan Europe North America and PAL regions by the launch of Nintendo's GameCube.
The N64 was released with two launch games, Super Mario 64 and Pilotwings 64, and a third in Japan, Saikyō Habu Shōgi. The N64's suggested retail price was US $249.99 at its launch and it was later marketed with the slogan "Get N, or get Out!". The console was released in at least eight variants with
The Z4 was the world's first commercial digital computer, designed by German engineer Konrad Zuse and built by his company Zuse Apparatebau between 1942 and 1945. The Z4 was Zuse's final target for the Z3 design, and like it, was an electromechanical, not an electronic machine.
The Z4 was very similar to the Z3 in its design but was significantly enhanced in a number of respects. The memory consisted of 32 bit rather than 22 bit floating point words. A special unit called the Planfertigungsteil (program construction unit), which punched the program tapes made programming and correcting programs for the machine much easier by the use of symbolic operations and memory cells. Numbers were entered and output as decimal floating point even though the internal working was in binary. The machine had a large repertoire of instructions including square root, MAX, MIN and sign. Conditional tests included tests for infinity. When delivered to ETH Zurich the machine had a conditional branch facility added and could print on a Mercedes typewriter. There were two program tapes where the second could be used to hold a subroutine (originally six were planned).
In 1944 Zuse was working on the Z4
The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician Charles Babbage.
It was first described in 1837 as the successor to Babbage's Difference Engine, a design for a mechanical computer. The Analytical Engine incorporated an arithmetic logic unit, control flow in the form of conditional branching and loops, and integrated memory, making it the first design for a general-purpose computer that could be described in modern terms as Turing-complete.
Babbage was never able to complete construction of any of his machines due to conflicts with his chief engineer and inadequate funding. It was not until the 1940s that the first general-purpose computers were actually built.
Babbage's first attempt at a mechanical computing device, the Difference Engine, was a special-purpose calculator designed to tabulate logarithms and trigonometric functions by evaluating finite differences to create approximating polynomials. Construction of this machine was never completed; Babbage had conflicts with his chief engineer, Joseph Clement, and ultimately the British government withdrew its funding for the project.
During this project he realized that a
The Canon Cat was a task-dedicated, desktop computer released by Canon Inc. in 1987 at a price of $1495 USD. On the surface it was not unlike the dedicated word processors popular in the late 1970s to early 1980s, but it was far more powerful and incorporated many unique ideas for data manipulation.
The Cat was primarily the brainchild of Jef Raskin, originator of the Macintosh project at Apple in 1979. It featured a text user interface, not making use of any mouse, icons, or graphics. All data was seen as a long "stream" of text broken into several pages. Instead of using a traditional command line interface or menu system, the Cat made use of its special keyboard, with commands being activated by holding down a "Use Front" key and pressing another key. The Cat also used special "Leap keys" which, when held down, allowed the user to incrementally search for strings of characters.
The machine's hardware consisted of a 9 inch (229 mm) black-and-white monitor, a single 3½ inch 256 KB floppy disk drive and an IBM Selectric-compatible keyboard. It used a Motorola 68000 CPU (like the Macintosh, Lisa and Amiga) running at 5 MHz, had 256 KB of RAM, and an internal 300/1200 bit/s modem.
The Commodore MAX Machine, also known as Ultimax in the United States and VC-10 in Germany, was a home computer designed and sold by Commodore International in Japan, beginning in early 1982, a predecessor to the popular Commodore 64. The Commodore 64 manual mentions the machine by name, suggesting that Commodore intended to sell the machine internationally; however, it is unclear whether the machine was ever actually sold outside of Japan. It is considered a rarity.
Software was loaded from plug-in cartridges and the unit had a membrane keyboard and 2.0 KiB of RAM internally and 0.5 KiB of color RAM (1024*4bit). It used a television set for a display. It used the same chipset and 6510 CPU as the Commodore 64, the same SID sound chip, and compatible ROM cartridge architecture so that MAX cartridges will work in the C-64. The MAX compatibility mode in C-64 was later frequently used for "freezer" cartridges (such as the Action Replay), as a convenient way to take control of the currently running program. It was possible to use a tape drive for storage, but it lacked the serial and user ports necessary to connect a disk drive, printer, or modem.
It was intended to sell for around 200
The Electronika BK was a series of 16-bit PDP-11-compatible Soviet home computers developed by NPO Scientific Center, the leading Soviet microcomputer design team at the time. It was also responsible for the more powerful UKNC and DVK micros. First released in 1985, they were based on the К1801ВМ1 (Soviet LSI-11-compatible CPU) and were the only "official" Soviet home computer design in mass production.
They initially sold for about 600-650 rubles. This was expensive, but marginally affordable, so they became one of the most popular home computer models in the Soviet Union despite numerous problems. Later, when that price edge was eclipsed by cheaper ZX Spectrum clones, their powerful CPU and straightforward, easy to program design made them popular as demo machines. BK (БК) is a Russian abbreviation which stands for "Бытовой Компьютер" -- domestic (or home) computer. It was also for a short time used as cash register, for example, in the State Universal Store.
Although the BK series was included in a governmental economic plan, customer support apparently was not, as it was essentially a barebones machine, without any peripherals or development tools. The only software available
The Galaksija (pronounced Galaxiya, meaning Galaxy) was originally a build-it-yourself computer designed by Voja Antonić. It was featured in the special edition Računari u vašoj kući (Computers in your home, written by Dejan Ristanović) of a popular eponymous science magazine, published late December 1983 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Kits were available but not required as it could be built entirely out of standard off-the-shelf parts. It was later also available in complete form.
In the early eighties, various laws in Yugoslavia prevented importing computers into the country. At the same time, even the cheapest computers available in the West were nearing average monthly salaries. This meant that regardless of demand for home computers, only a relative minority of people owned one - mostly a ZX Spectrum or a Commodore 64.
According to his own words, some time in 1983, Voja Antonić, while vacationing in Hotel Teuta in Risan, was reading the application handbook for the RCA CDP1802 CPU and stumbled upon CPU-assisted video generation. Since the CDP1802 was very primitive, he decided that a Zilog Z80 processor could perform the task as well.
Before he returned home to Belgrade, he already
The Game Boy Advance (ゲームボーイアドバンス, Gēmu Bōi Adobansu, often shortened to GBA) is a 32-bit handheld video game console developed, manufactured and marketed by Nintendo. It is the successor to the Game Boy Color. It was released in Japan on March 21, 2001; in North America on June 11, 2001; in Australia and Europe on June 22, 2001; and in the People's Republic of China on June 8, 2004 (excluding Hong Kong).
The technical specifications of the original Game Boy Advance are, as provided by Nintendo:
Backward compatibility for Game Boy and Game Boy Color games is provided by an 4/8 MHz Z80 coprocessor (Game Boy Advance software can use the audio tone generators to supplement the primary sound system), while a link port at the top of the unit allows it to be connected to other devices via use of a Nintendo Game Link cable or GameCube cable. When playing Game Boy or Game Boy Color games on the Game Boy Advance, the L and R buttons can be used to toggle between a stretched widescreen format (240×144) and the original screen ratio of the Game Boy (160×144). Game Boy games can be played using the same selectable color palettes as on the Game Boy Color. Every Nintendo handheld system
The IBM 7030, also known as Stretch, was IBM's first transistorized supercomputer. Originally designed to meet a requirement formulated by Edward Teller at Lawrence Livermore, the first example was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1961, and a second customized version, the IBM 7950 Harvest, to the National Security Agency in 1962.
Originally priced at $13.5 million, its failure to meet its aggressive performance estimates forced the price to be dropped to only $7.78 million and its withdrawal from sales to customers beyond those having already negotiated contracts. Even though the 7030 was much slower than expected, it was the fastest computer in the world from 1961 until the first CDC 6600 became operational in 1964.
In spite of Stretch's failure to meet its own performance goals, it served as the basis for many of the design features of the fantastically successful IBM System/360, which shipped in 1964. The project lead was initially blackballed for his role in the "failure", but as the success of the 360 became obvious he was given an official apology and make an IBM Fellow.
In early 1955, Dr. Edward Teller of the University of California Radiation Laboratory
The ILLIAC II was a revolutionary super-computer built by the University of Illinois that became operational in 1962.
The concept, proposed in 1958, pioneered Emitter-coupled logic (ECL) circuitry, pipelining, and transistor memory with a design goal of 100x speedup compared to ILLIAC I.
ILLIAC II had 8192 words of core memory, backed up by 65,536 words of storage on magnetic drums. The core memory access time was 1.8 to 2 µs. The magnetic drum access time was 7 µs. A "fast buffer" was also provided for storage of short loops and intermediate results (similar in concept to what is now called cache). The "fast buffer" access time was 0.25 µs.
The word size was 52 bits.
Floating point numbers used a format with 7 bits of exponent (power of 4) and 45 bits of mantissa.
Instructions were either 26 bits or 13 bits long, allowing packing of up to 4 instructions per memory word.
Rather than naming the pipeline stages, "Fetch, Decode, and Execute" (as on Stretch), the pipelined stages were named, "Advanced Control, Delayed Control, and Interplay".
During check-out of the ILLIAC II, before it became fully operational, faculty member Donald B. Gillies programmed ILLIAC II to search for
The Macintosh IIvx (code name Brazil) was the last of the Macintosh II series of Macintosh computers from Apple. The IIvx included either a 40, 80, 160 or 400 MB hard drive, three NuBus slots, and a Processor Direct Slot. It was the first Macintosh to have a metal case and the first case design of any personal computer to provide for an internal CD-ROM drive. An internal double speed CD-ROM drive which used a disc caddy was available as an option from Apple.
The Mac IIvx began its life in development as a proof-of-concept to see how an internal CD-ROM drive could be added to a Mac. But after Apple CEO John Sculley gave a speech at MacWorld Tokyo which promised a Mac with a CD-ROM drive, the IIvx was rushed into production. Several shortcuts were taken in its design, most notably that its 32 MHz processor was crippled by its 16 MHz bus, making it slightly slower than the popular but aging Macintosh IIci. Its serial port was limited to 57.6 kbit/s, which could cause problems with serial connections and MIDI hardware. The Macintosh IIvi (a slower version of the IIvx) was introduced at the same time but discontinued only four months later. The IIvx shared the processor with the
The Power Macintosh 6500 (Codename: "Gazelle") is a mid-range desktop computer in Apple Computer's Power Macintosh series. It was introduced in February 1997 in speeds of 225 and 250 MHz, replacing the very similar Power Macintosh 6400. In April 1997, two faster models at 275 and 300 MHz were added. The 6500 was discontinued in March 1998, with the Power Macintosh G3 minitower remaining as the only similar model. The Power Macintosh 5500 uses the same logic board in an 5200 style all-in one case.
The 6500 uses the same "InstaTower" case as the 6400, and is also internally similar. However, there are some differences apart from the faster processor: The 6500 has no RAM soldered to the logic board (the 6400 had 8 MiB, which also explains its higher memory ceiling), and uses a different graphics processor. Models from 250 MHz upward also include video in/out capability, some of them with a hardware-accelerated Avid capture card. Some models also include a Zip drive.
The Power Macintosh 6500 was the first personal computer, Mac or PC, to reach 300MHz.
The Commodore 16 was a home computer made by Commodore with a 6502-compatible 8501 CPU, released in 1984. It was intended to be an entry-level computer to replace the VIC-20 and it often sold for 99 USD. A cost-reduced version, the Commodore 116, was sold only in Europe.
The C16 was intended to compete with other sub-$100 computers from Timex Corporation, Mattel, and Texas Instruments (TI). Timex's and Mattel's computers were less expensive than the VIC-20, and although the VIC-20 offered better expandability, a full-travel keyboard, and in some cases more memory, the C16 offered a chance to improve upon those advantages. The TI-99/4A was priced in-between Commodore's VIC-20 and Commodore 64, and was somewhat between them in capability, but TI was lowering its prices. On paper, the C16 was a closer match for the TI-99/4A than the aging VIC-20.
Commodore president Jack Tramiel feared that one or more Japanese companies would introduce a consumer-oriented computer and undercut everyone's prices. Although the Japanese would soon dominate the U.S. video game console market, their feared dominance of the home computer field never materialized. Additionally, Timex, Mattel, and TI
The Cray-1 was a supercomputer designed, manufactured, and marketed by Cray Research. The first Cray-1 system was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1976, and it went on to become one of the best known and most successful supercomputers in history. The Cray-1's architect was Seymour Cray and the chief engineer was Cray Research co-founder Lester Davis.
In the years 1968 to 1972, Cray was working at Control Data Corporation (CDC) on a new machine known as the CDC 8600, the logical successor to his earlier CDC 6600 and CDC 7600 designs. The 8600 was essentially made up of four 7600s in a box, with an additional special mode that allowed them to operate lock-step in a SIMD fashion.
Jim Thornton, formerly Cray's engineering partner on earlier designs, had started a more radical project known as the CDC STAR-100. Unlike the 8600's brute-force approach to performance, the STAR took an entirely different route. In fact the main processor of the STAR had less performance than the 7600, but added additional hardware and instructions to speed up particularly common supercomputer tasks.
By 1972, the 8600 had reached a dead end; the machine was so incredibly complex that it was
The iBook is a line of laptop computers sold by Apple Computer from 1999 to 2006. The line targeted the consumer and education markets, with lower specifications and prices than the PowerBook, Apple's higher-end line of laptop computers.
Three distinct designs of the iBook were introduced during its lifetime. The first, known as the "Clamshell", was influenced by the design of Apple's popular iMac line at the time. It was a significant departure from previous portable computer designs due to its shape, bright colors, incorporation of a handle into the casing, lack of a hinged cover over the external ports, and built-in wireless networking. Two years later, the second generation abandoned the original form factor in favor of a more conventional rectangular design. In October 2003, a third iteration was released that added a PowerPC G4 chip and a slot-loading drive.
Apple replaced the iBook line with the MacBook in May 2006 during Apple’s transition to Intel processors.
They were also a major name for education, with Henrico County Public Schools being the first of many school systems in the USA to distribute one to every student.
In the late 1990s Apple was trimming its product line
The Macintosh 512K enhanced (512Ke) was introduced in April 1986 as a cheaper alternative to the top-of-the-line Macintosh Plus, which had debuted three months previously. It was the same as the Macintosh 512K but with the 800K disk drive and 128K of ROM used in the Macintosh Plus. Like its predecessors, there was little room for expansion. Some companies did create memory upgrades that would bring the machine up to 2 MB or more. It is the earliest Macintosh model able to run System 6 OS.
Originally, the case was identical to its predecessor, except for the model number listed on the rear bucket's agency approval label. It used the same beige-like color as well. But like the Macintosh Plus, at some point in 1987 the 512Ke adopted the standard Apple "Platinum" color, as well as exactly the same case-front design as the Plus (without the name), though keeping its original rear bucket. Later in its lifespan, the 512Ke was discounted and offered to the educational market, badged as the Macintosh ED (M0001D & later M0001ED).
The 512Ke shipped with the original short Macintosh Keyboard, but the extended Macintosh Plus Keyboard with built-in numeric keypad could be purchased optionally. A
The Macintosh II series (or sometimes simply Mac II series) is a series of personal computers in Apple's Macintosh line.
Unlike prior Macintosh models, which were all compact Macintosh designs, the Macintosh II models were "modular" systems which did not include built-in monitors and were expandable. Beginning with the Macintosh II and culminating in the Macintosh IIfx, the Mac II series was Apple Computer's high-end line from 1987 until the introduction of the Motorola 68040-based Macintosh Quadra computers in 1991.
The II series introduced NuBus which would become the standard expansion bus for the entire Macintosh line for almost a decade. The Mac II models were the first to support color displays and display resolutions larger than the 512×342 of the compact Macintosh design.
The Mac II series were the first Macintosh models to use a m68k processor other than the Motorola 68000. Except for the original Mac II which launched the line with a 68020 clocked at 16MHz, they exclusively used the Motorola 68030 microprocessor, even after the Motorola 68040 was introduced. Apple would eventually adopt the '040 with the introduction of the Quadra 700 and 900.
During the Macintosh II
The PowerBook G4 is a series of notebook computers that were manufactured, marketed, and sold by Apple, Inc. (then Apple Computer, Inc) between 2001 and 2006 as part of its PowerBook line. It uses the PowerPC G4 processor, initially produced by Motorola and later by Freescale, after Motorola spun off its semiconductor business under that name in 2004. The PowerBook G4 had two different designs: one enclosed in a titanium body with a translucent black keyboard and a 15" screen; and another in an aluminum body with an aluminum-colored keyboard, in 12", 15", and 17" sizes.
Between 2001 and 2003, Apple produced the Titanium PowerBook G4; between 2003 and 2006, the Aluminum models were produced. Both models were hailed for their modern design, long battery life, and processing power. When the Aluminum PowerBook G4s were first released in January 2003, however, only 12 and 17-inch models were available. The 15-inch retained the titanium body until September 2003 when a new aluminum 15-inch PowerBook was released. In addition to the change from titanium to aluminum, the new 15-inch model featured a FireWire 800 port, which had been included with the 17-inch model since its debut nine
The Timex Sinclair 1000 (TS1000) was the first computer produced by Timex Sinclair, a joint-venture between Timex Corporation and Sinclair Research. It was launched in July 1982.
The TS1000 was a slightly modified Sinclair ZX81 with an NTSC RF modulator instead of a UK PAL (Units sold in Portugal have a PAL RF modulator) device and the onboard RAM doubled to 2 kB. The TS1000's casing had slightly more internal shielding but remained the same as Sinclair's, including the membrane keyboard. It had black and white graphics, and no sound. It was followed by an improved version, the Timex Sinclair 1500.
Like the Sinclair ZX81, the TS1000 used a form of BASIC as its primary interface and programming language. To make the membrane keyboard less cumbersome for program entry, the TS1000 used a shortcut system of one-letter "keywords" for most commands (i.e. pressing "P" while the cursor was in "keyword mode" would generate the keyword "PRINT"). Some keywords required a short sequence of keystrokes (e.g. SHIFT-ENTER S would generate the keyword "LPRINT"). The TS1000 clued the user in on what to expect by changing the cursor to reflect the current input mode.
The TS1000 sold for $99.95 in the
The bomba, or bomba kryptologiczna (Polish for "bomb" or "cryptologic bomb") was a special-purpose machine designed about October 1938 by Polish Cipher Bureau cryptologist Marian Rejewski to break German Enigma-machine ciphers.
The German Enigma used a combination key to control the operation of the machine: rotor order, which rotors to install, which ring setting for each rotor, which initial setting for each rotor, and the settings of the stecker plugboard. The rotor settings were trigrams (for example, "NJR") to indicate the way the operator was to set the machine. German Enigma operators were issued lists of these keys, one key for each day. For added security, however, each individual message was encrypted using an additional key modification. The operator randomly selected a trigram rotor setting for each message (for example, "PDN"). This message key would be typed twice ("PDNPDN") and encrypted, using the daily key (all the rest of those settings). At this point each operator would reset his machine to the message key, which would then be used for the rest of the message. Because the configuration of the Enigma's rotor set changed with each depression of a key, the
The Commodore CBM-II series was a short-lived range of 8-bit personal computers from Commodore Business Machines (CBM), intended as a follow-on to the Commodore PET series, released in 1982.
The CBM-II had two incarnations, the P series (P = personal, or, home use) and the B series (B = business use). The B series was available with a built-in monochrome monitor (hi-profile) with detached keyboard, and also as a single unit with built-in keyboard but no monitor (lo-profile). These machines were known as the "Porsche PETs" for their unique styling.
The P series used the VIC-II 40-column color video chip like the C64. It also included two standard Atari-style joystick ports. The 6509 CPU ran at 1 MHz in the P series due to the use of the VIC-II chip.
The B series used a 6545 CRTC video chip to give an 80-column "green screen" monochrome output more suitable for word processing and other business use than the VIC-II's 40-column display. Most models have the Motorola 68B45 installed which is a pin compatible variant rather than the MOS 6545A1 2 MHz part. On the B series the 6509 CPU ran at 2 MHz.
Features common to both the P and B series included an MOS Technology 6509 CPU, an
HP 9000 is the name for a line of workstation and server computer systems produced by the Hewlett-Packard Company (HP). The native operating system for almost all HP 9000 systems is HP-UX, a derivative of Unix. The HP 9000 brand was introduced in 1984 to encompass several existing technical workstations models previously launched in the early 1980s. HP 9000 finally reached end of sales life in 2008, being superseded by the HP Integrity (Itanium) server platform running HP-UX. HP-UX workstations are no longer offered.
The first HP 9000 models comprised the HP 9000 Series 200 and Series 500 ranges. These were rebadged existing models, the Series 200 including various Motorola 68000-based workstations such as the HP 9826 and HP 9836, and the Series 500 using HP's FOCUS microprocessor architecture introduced in the HP 9020 workstation. These were followed by the HP 9000 Series 300 and Series 400 workstations which also used 68k-series microprocessors. From the mid-1980s onwards, HP started to switch over to its own microprocessors based on its proprietary PA-RISC ISA, for the Series 600, 700, 800, and later lines. More recent models use either the PA-RISC or its successor, the HP/Intel
The Macintosh SE/30 is a personal computer that was designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1989 until 1991. It was the fastest and most expandable of the original black-and-white compact Macintosh series.
The SE/30 is essentially a Macintosh IIx in the same case as the Macintosh SE, with a black-and-white monitor and a single PDS slot (rather than the NuBus slots of the IIx) which supported third-party accelerators, network cards, or a display adapter. Although officially only able to support 32 MB, the SE/30 could expand up to 128 MB of RAM (a ludicrous amount of RAM at the time), and included a 40 or 80 MB hard drive. It was also the first compact Mac to include a 1.44 MB high density floppy disk drive as standard (late versions of the SE had one, but earlier versions did not). In keeping with Apple's practice from the Apple II+ until the Power Macintosh G3 was announced, a logic board upgrade was available to convert a regular SE to a SE/30. The SE would then have exactly the same specs as an SE/30, with the difference only in the floppy drive if the SE had an 800k drive. The set included a new front bezel to replace the original SE bezel with that of an
A Pinwheel calculator was a class of mechanical calculator popular in the 19th and 20th century using, for its calculating engine, a set of wheels that had an adjustable number of teeth. These wheels, also called pinwheels, could be set by using a side lever which could expose anywhere from 0 to 9 teeth, and therefore when coupled to a counter they could, at each rotation, add a number from 0 to 9 to the result. By linking these wheels with carry mechanisms a new kind of calculator engine was invented. Turn the wheels one way and one performs an addition, the other way a subtraction. As part of a redesign of the arithmometer, they reduced the cost and the size of a mechanical calculators on which one could easily do the four basic operations (add, subtract, multiply and divide) by an order of magnitude.
Pinwheel calculators became extremely popular with the success of the Odhner Arithmometer.
"The operation of machines of this type was accomplished by means of pulling levers or knobs to set up the desired number. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division were accomplished by means of revolving drums. For addition they revolved in one direction, and for subtraction the
Vaio ( /ˈvaɪ.oʊ/) (styled by Sony as VAIO) is a sub-brand used for many of Sony's computer products.
Although Sony made computers in the 1980s exclusively for the local (Japan) market, the company withdrew from the computer business around the turn of the decade. Sony's re-entry to the global computer market under the new Vaio brand, began in 1996 with the PCV series of desktops.
Originally an acronym of Video Audio Integrated Operation, this was amended to Visual Audio Intelligent Organizer in 2008 to celebrate the brand's 10th anniversary. The branding was created by Timothy Healy to distinguish items that integrate consumer audio and video with conventional computing products, such as the Sony Vaio W Series personal computer, which functioned as a regular computer and a miniature entertainment center. The Vaio logo also represents the integration of analog and digital technology with the 'VA' representing an analog wave and the 'IO' representing a digital binary code.
Sony has expanded its use of the Vaio brand, which can now be found on notebooks, subnotebooks, desktops and media centres. Network media solutions by Sony will also carry the Vaio brand.
Vaio notebooks are
The Z1 was a mechanical computer designed by Konrad Zuse from 1935 to 1936 and built by him from 1936 to 1938. It was a binary electrically driven mechanical calculator with limited programmability, reading instructions from punched tape.
The Z1 was the first freely programmable computer in the world which used Boolean logic and binary floating point numbers, however it was unreliable in operation. It was completed in 1938 and financed completely from private funds. This computer was destroyed in the bombardment of Berlin in December 1943, during World War II, together with all construction plans.
The Z1 was the first in a series of computers that Zuse designed. The Z2 and Z3 were follow-ups based on many of the same ideas as the Z1.
The Z1 contained almost all parts of a modern computer, i.e. control unit, memory, micro sequences, floating point logic (the Boolean logic unit was not realized) and input-output devices. The Z1 was freely programmable via punched tape and a punched tape reader. There was a clear separation between the punched tape reader, the control unit for supervising the whole machine and the execution of the instructions, the arithmetic unit, and the input and
The Virtual Boy (バーチャルボーイ, Bācharu Bōi) was a table-top video game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. It was the first video game console that was supposed to be capable of displaying "true 3D graphics" out of the box, in a form of virtual reality. Whereas most video games use monocular cues to achieve the illusion of three dimensions on a two-dimensional screen, The Virtual Boy creates an illusion of depth through the effect known as parallax. In a manner similar to using a head-mounted display, the user looks into an eyepiece made of neoprene on the front of the machine, and then an eyeglass-style projector allows viewing of the monochromatic (in this case, red) image.
It was released on July 21, 1995 in Japan and August 14, 1995 in North America at a price of around US$180. It was not released in PAL markets. It met with a lukewarm reception that was unaffected by continued price drops. Nintendo discontinued it the following year.
The Virtual Boy was first announced via press release on 14 November 1994. Nintendo promised that Virtual Boy would "Totally immerse players into their own private universe." The system was formally unveiled the next day at the Shoshinkai
Deep Blue was a chess-playing computer developed by IBM. On May 11, 1997, the machine, with human intervention between games, won the second six-game match against world champion Garry Kasparov by two wins to one with three draws . Kasparov accused IBM of cheating and demanded a rematch, but IBM refused and dismantled Deep Blue. Kasparov had beaten a previous version of Deep Blue in 1996.
The project was started as ChipTest at Carnegie Mellon University by Feng-hsiung Hsu, followed by its successor, Deep Thought. After their graduation from Carnegie Mellon, Hsu, Thomas Anantharaman, and Murray Campbell from the Deep Thought team were hired by IBM Research to continue their quest to build a chess machine that could defeat the world champion. Hsu and Campbell joined IBM in autumn 1989, with Anantharaman following later. Anantharaman subsequently left IBM for Wall Street and Arthur Joseph Hoane joined the team to perform programming tasks. Jerry Brody, a long-time employee of IBM Research, was recruited for the team in 1990. The team was managed first by Randy Moulic, followed by Chung-Jen (C J) Tan.
After Deep Thought's 1989 match against Kasparov, IBM held a contest to rename the
Roadrunner is a supercomputer built by IBM at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, USA. The US$133-million Roadrunner is designed for a peak performance of 1.7 petaflops, achieving 1.026 on May 25, 2008 to become the world's first TOP500 Linpack sustained 1.0 petaflops system. It is a one-of-a-kind supercomputer, built from off the shelf parts, with many novel design features.
In November 2008, it reached a top performance of 1.456 petaflops, retaining its top spot in the TOP500 list. It was also the fourth-most energy-efficient supercomputer in the world on the Supermicro Green500 list, with an operational rate of 444.94 megaflops per watt of power used. The hybrid Roadrunner design was then reused for several other energy efficient supercomputers.
IBM built the computer for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration. It is a hybrid design with 12,960 IBM PowerXCell 8i and 6,480 AMD Opteron dual-core processors in specially designed blade servers connected by Infiniband. The Roadrunner uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux along with Fedora as its operating systems and is managed with xCAT distributed computing software. It also uses the
Sun-3 was the name given to a series of UNIX computer workstations and servers produced by Sun Microsystems, launched on September 9th, 1985. The Sun-3 series were VMEbus-based systems similar to some of the earlier Sun-2 series, but using the Motorola 68020 microprocessor, in combination with the Motorola 68881 floating-point co-processor (optional on the Sun 3/50) and a proprietary Sun MMU. Sun-3 systems were supported in SunOS versions 3.0 to 4.1.1_U1 and also have current support in NetBSD and Linux.
Models are listed in approximately chronological order.
(Max. RAM sizes may be greater when third-party memory board were used).
In 1989, coincident with the launch of the SPARCstation 1, Sun launched three new Sun-3 models, the 3/80, 3/470 and 3/480. Unlike previous Sun-3s, these used a Motorola 68030 processor, 68882 floating-point unit, and the 68030's integral MMU. This 68030-based architecture was called Sun-3x.
Sun 3/260s upgraded with Sun 3400 CPU boards were known as Sun 3/460s.
The PlayStation Portable (プレイステーション・ポータブル, Pureisutēshon Pōrutaburu, officially abbreviated PSP) is a handheld game console manufactured and marketed by Sony Corporation Development of the console was announced during E3 2003, and it was unveiled on May 11, 2004, at a Sony press conference before E3 2004. The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, and in the PAL region on September 1, 2005.
The PlayStation Portable is the only handheld video game console to use an optical disc format, Universal Media Disc (UMD), as its primary storage medium. Other distinguishing features of the console include its large viewing screen, robust multi-media capabilities, and connectivity with the PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, other PSPs and the Internet.
After the release of a slimmer, lighter, remodeled version of the PlayStation Portable (the PSP-2000/"Slim & Lite") in early September 2007, sales quadrupled in the United Kingdom the following week and increased by nearly 200% in North America for the month of October. This model was later replaced by another remodeling, the PSP-3000, which included a new screen and an inbuilt microphone. Since then, a
The Acorn Eurocard systems were a series of modular microcomputer systems based on rack-mounted Eurocards developed by Acorn Computers from 1979 to 1982, aimed primarily at industrial and laboratory use, but also home enthusiasts.
The experience gained in developing this modular system strongly influenced the design of Acorn's first all-in-one home computer, the Acorn Atom, released in March 1980; and also much of the circuitry in its successor, the BBC Micro, first shown in late 1981.
Acorn's final rack-based machine was the System 5, released in late 1982. The Eurocard business was then sold on to one of its principal resellers, Control Universal Ltd, which continued to develop various cards for industrial use based on the Acorn-standard bus during the 1980s, but ultimately went into receivership in 1989.
Placing the two Eurocards from the original Acorn Microcomputer onto a backplane made the system straightforward to expand in a modular way. The original I/O card, minus its keypad and LCD display, became the cassette interface card; while the original 6502 CPU card, slightly adapted with the addition of a keyboard interface, became the basic CPU card of the system.
A series of
The Atari TT030 is a 32-bit version of the 16/32-bit Atari ST family. It was based on the Motorola 68030 running at 16 MHz, and ran both Atari TOS and (for a short time) a version of Unix known as TT/X.
Atari Corporation realized that to remain competitive, they needed to begin taking steps to exploit the power offered by other processors in the Motorola 68000 series. At that time, the best option was the 68020. It was the first true "thirty-two bit bus/thirty-two bit instruction" chip from Motorola. Unlike the original 68000 used in the STs, the 68020 was capable of fetching a 32-bit value in one cycle, while the older STs took two cycles to fetch a 32-bit value.
The TT was initially designed around the 68020 CPU, however as the project progressed, Atari Corp. realized that the 68020 was not the best option for the TT. The 68020 still lacked certain important features offered by the next successor in the 68000 line, the new 68030. The new 68030 featured a full 32-bit address/data bus and internal registers; separate Supervisor, User, Program, and Data virtual memory spaces; built-in memory-management hardware; and 256-byte on-chip instruction and data caches.
When the decision was
"Compact Macintosh" or "Classic Macintosh" are informal terms that refer to the direct descendants of the original Macintosh personal computer case design by Apple Computer, Inc. All of them are all-in-one desktop computer designs with the display integrated in the computer case, but not the keyboard. These terms are only used for the models using the case style of the original Macintosh sold between 1984 and the mid-90s — later, larger all-in-one models like the Macintosh LC 500 series, the Macintosh Performa 5xxx series or the iMac are not usually called "Compact" and definitely not "Classic". The Apple Lisa-derived Macintosh XL is a borderline case, and is included by Apple in their "Classic" spec page, but not counted among the Compact range by others.
Apple divides these models into five form factors: The Macintosh 128K and the very similar Macintosh SE, the also similar but already "retro" Macintosh Classic (all of them with a 9 in (23 cm) black and white screen), the modernized Macintosh Color Classic with a 10 in (25 cm) color screen and the very different Macintosh XL.
*220V international models are appended with the letter "P" (e.g. M0001P)
The IBM 5100 Portable Computer was a portable computer introduced in September 1975, six years before the IBM PC. It was the evolution of a prototype called the SCAMP (Special Computer APL Machine Portable) that was developed at the IBM Palo Alto Scientific Center in 1973. In January 1978 IBM announced the IBM 5110, its larger cousin, and in February 1980 IBM announced the IBM 5120. The 5100 was withdrawn in March 1982.
When the IBM PC was introduced in 1981, it was originally designated as the IBM 5150, putting it in the "5100" series, though its architecture was not directly descended from the IBM 5100.
The IBM 5100 is based on a 16-bit processor module called PALM (Put All Logic in Microcode). The IBM 5100 Maintenance Information Manual also referred to the PALM module as the controller. The PALM could directly address 64 KB of memory. Some configurations of the IBM 5100 had Executable ROS (ROM) and RAM memory totalling more than 64 KB, so a simple bank switching scheme was used. The actual APL and/or BASIC interpreters were stored in a separate Language ROS address space which the PALM treats as a peripheral device. Prices ranged from $11,000 (16k model) to $20,000 (64k).
The Nokia N800 Internet tablet is a wireless Internet appliance from Nokia, originally announced at the Las Vegas CES 2007 Summit in January 2007. N800 allows the user to browse the Internet and communicate using Wi-Fi networks or with mobile phone via Bluetooth. The N800 was developed as the successor to the Nokia 770. It includes FM and Internet radio, an RSS news reader, image viewer and a media player for audio and video files.
Note that the USB port uses a mini-B socket instead of mini-AB so that a specially grounded adaptor is required to make full use of the USB OTG client/host auto-switching. Switching can be done in software with regular adaptors, though. USB OTG only provides 100 mA of current (versus full-size USB's 500 mA), so devices with larger current requirements will need to be used with a powered USB hub.
The N800, like all Nokia Internet Tablets, runs Maemo, which is similar to many handheld operating systems, and provides a "Home" screen—the central point from which all applications and settings are accessed. The Home screen is divided into areas for launching applications, a menu bar, and a large customisable area that can display information such as an RSS
The Power Macintosh 5000 series is a series of all-in-one (meaning the cases feature an integrated monitor) personal computers that are a part of Apple Computer's Macintosh LC, Power Macintosh and Macintosh Performa series of Macintosh computers.
The Power Macintosh 5200 LC was introduced in April 1995 with a PowerPC 603 CPU at 75 MHz as a PowerPC-based replacement of the Macintosh LC 500 series. Later models switched to the PowerPC 603e CPU and used model numbers above 5260, but kept the same motherboard design. Unlike previous education models, which prepended the model number with "LC", the 5200 series uses the Power Macintosh designation of Apple's main workstation line of the time and appends the LC to the end of the model name. All models in the 5xxx series featured an integrated 15-inch (12.8" viewable) monitor.
The 5200 series is closely related to the 6200 series, which features the same logic boards in desktop cases without integrated monitors. This means that it also shares the 6200's massive and confusing number of model designations and its unusual architecture with a 64-bit data path PowerPC CPU on a 32-bit data path logic board adapted from the Quadra 605. This is
The Amiga 1200, or A1200 (code-named 'Channel Z'), was Commodore International's third-generation Amiga computer, aimed at the home market. It was launched on October 21, 1992, at a base price of 399 GBP in the United Kingdom and 599 USD in the United States.
Like its predecessor, the Amiga 500, the A1200 is an all-in-one design incorporating the CPU, keyboard, and disk drives (including the option of an internal 2.5" hard disk drive) in one physical unit. The A1200 has a similar hardware architecture to Commodore's Amiga CD32 game console, and is technically close to the Atari Falcon, which was intended as the A1200's competitor.
Initially, only 30,000 A1200s were available at the UK launch. During the first year of its life the system reportedly sold well, but Commodore ran into cash flow problems and filed for bankruptcy. World wide sales figures for the A1200 are unknown but 95,000 systems were sold in Germany before Commodore's bankruptcy.
After Commodore’s demise in 1994 the A1200 almost disappeared from the market but was later re-launched by Escom in 1995. The new Escom A1200 was priced at £399 and it came bundled with two games, seven applications and Amiga OS 3.1. It was
The Lisa is a personal computer designed by Apple Computer, Inc. during the early 1980s. It was the first personal computer to offer a graphical user interface in an inexpensive machine aimed at individual business users.
Development of the Lisa began in 1978 as a powerful personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI) targeted toward business customers.
In 1982, Steve Jobs was forced out of the Lisa project, so he joined the Macintosh project instead. The Macintosh is not a direct descendant of Lisa, although there are obvious similarities between the systems and the final revision, the Lisa 2/10, was modified and sold as the Macintosh XL.
The Lisa was a more advanced system than the Macintosh of that time in many respects, such as its inclusion of protected memory, cooperative multitasking, a generally more sophisticated hard disk based operating system, a built-in screensaver, an advanced calculator with a paper tape and RPN, support for up to 2 megabytes (MB) of RAM, expansion slots, a numeric keypad, data corruption protection schemes such as block sparing, non-physical file names (with the ability to have multiple documents with the same name), and a larger
IBM System z, or earlier IBM eServer zSeries, is a brand name designated by IBM to all its mainframe computers as of the year 2000.
In 2000, IBM rebranded the existing System/390 to IBM eServer zSeries with the e depicted in IBM's red trademarked symbol, but because no specific machine names were changed for System/390, the zSeries in common use refers only to one generation of mainframes, starting with z900.
Since April 2006, with another generation of products, the official designation has changed to IBM System z, which now includes both older IBM eServer zSeries, the IBM System z9 models, the IBM System z10 models, and the newer IBM zEnterprise.
Both zSeries and System z brands are named for their availability — z stands for zero downtime. The systems are built with spare components capable of hot failovers to ensure continuous operations.
The zSeries line succeeded the System/390 line (S/390 for short), maintaining full backward compatibility. In effect, zSeries machines are the direct, lineal descendants of System/360, announced in 1964, and the System/370 from 1970s. Applications written for these systems can still run, unmodified, with only few exceptions, on the newest
The Amiga 500 - also known as the A500 (or its code name "Rock Lobster") - was the first “low-end” Commodore Amiga 16/32-bit multimedia home/personal computer. It was announced at the winter Consumer Electronics Show in January 1987 - at the same time as the high-end Amiga 2000 - and competed directly against the Atari 520ST. Before Amiga 500 was shipped, Commodore suggested that the list price of the Amiga 500 was $595.95 USD without a monitor. At delivery in October 1987, Commodore announced that the Amiga 500 would carry a $699 USD/£499 GBP list price.
The Amiga 500 represented a return to Commodore's roots by being sold in the same mass retail outlets as the Commodore 64 - to which it was a spiritual successor - as opposed to the computer-store-only Amiga 1000.
The original Amiga 500 proved to be Commodore’s best-selling Amiga model, enjoying particular success in Europe. Although popular with hobbyists, arguably its most widespread use was as a gaming machine, where its advanced graphics and sound for the time were of significant benefit.
In October 1989, the Amiga 500 dropped its price from £499 GBP to £399 and was bundled with the Batman Pack in the United Kingdom. This
The Cray X-MP was a supercomputer designed, built and sold by Cray Research. It was announced in 1982 as the "cleaned up" successor to the 1975 Cray-1, and was the world's fastest computer from 1983 to 1985. The principal designer was Steve Chen.
The X-MP's main improvement over the Cray-1 was that it was a shared-memory parallel vector processor, the first such computer from Cray Research. It housed two CPUs in a mainframe that was near identical in outside appearance, to the Cray-1.
The X-MP CPU had a faster 9.5 nanosecond clock cycle (105 MHz), compared to 12.5 ns for the Cray-1A. It was built from bipolar gate-array integrated circuits containing 16 emitter-coupled logic gates each. The CPU was very similar to the Cray-1 CPU in architecture, but had better memory bandwidth (with two read ports and one write port to the main memory instead of one) and improved chaining support. Each CPU had a theoretical peak performance of 200 MFLOPS, for a peak system performance of 400 MFLOPS.
The X-MP initially supported 2 million 64-bit words (16 MB) of main memory in 16 banks, respectively. Memory bandwidth was significantly improved over the Cray-1—instead of one port for both reads and
The Game Boy (ゲームボーイ, Gēmu Bōi), is an 8-bit handheld video game device developed and manufactured by Nintendo. It was released in Japan on April 21, 1989 (1989-04-21), in North America in August 1989 (1989-08), and in Europe on September 28, 1990 (1990-09-28). It is the first handheld console in the Game Boy line, and was created by Gunpei Yokoi and Nintendo Research & Development 1—the same staff who had designed the Game & Watch series as well as several popular games for the Nintendo Entertainment System.
The Game Boy is Nintendo's second handheld system following the Game & Watch series introduced in 1980, and it combined features from both the Nintendo Entertainment System and Game & Watch and its B&W. It was originally bundled with the puzzle game Tetris.
Despite many other technologically superior handheld consoles introduced during its lifetime, the Game Boy was a tremendous success. The Game Boy and Game Boy Color combined have sold 118.69 million units worldwide. Upon its release in the United States, it sold its entire shipment of one million units within weeks.
The Game Boy has four operation buttons labeled "A", "B", "SELECT", and "START", as well as a directional
The IBM System i is IBM's previous generation of midrange computer systems for IBM i users, and was subsequently replaced by the IBM Power Systems in April 2008.
The platform was first introduced as the AS/400 (Application System/400) on June 21, 1988 and later renamed to the eServer iSeries in 2000. As part of IBM's Systems branding initiative in 2006, it was again renamed to System i. The codename of the AS/400 project was "Silver Lake", named for the lake in downtown Rochester, Minnesota, where development of the system took place.
In April 2008, IBM announced its integration with the System p platform. The unified product line is called IBM Power Systems and features support for the IBM i (previously known as i5/OS or OS/400), AIX and GNU/Linux operating systems.
The predecessor to AS/400, IBM System/38, was first made available in August 1979 and was marketed as a minicomputer for general business and departmental use. It was sold along side two other product lines, each with a different architecture. The confusion that resulted from IBM offering three overlapping product lines that weren't compatible with each other along with the sluggish performance of System/38
The KIM-1, short for Keyboard Input Monitor, was a small 6502-based single-board computer developed and produced by MOS Technology, Inc. and launched in 1976. It was very successful in terms of that period, due to its low price (following from the inexpensive 6502) and easy-access expandability.
MOS Technology's first processor, the 6501, could be plugged into existing motherboards that used the Motorola 6800, allowing potential users (i.e. engineers and hobbyists) to get a development system up and running very easily using existing hardware. Motorola immediately sued, forcing MOS to pull the 6501 from the market. Changing the pin layout produced the "lawsuit-friendly" 6502. Otherwise identical to the 6501, it nevertheless had the disadvantage of having no machine in which new users could quickly start playing with the CPU.
Chuck Peddle, leader of the 650x group at MOS (and former member of Motorola's 6800 team), designed the KIM-1 in order to fill this need. The KIM-1 came to market in 1976. While the machine was originally intended to be used by engineers, it quickly found a large audience with hobbyists. A complete system could be constructed for under 500 US$ with the purchase
The Mac Pro is a Intel Xeon-based workstation computer manufactured by Apple Inc. The Mac Pro, in most configurations, is the fastest computer that Apple offers, and is one of three desktop computers in the current Macintosh lineup, the other two being the iMac and Mac Mini. The machine is also the basis for the Mac Pro Server, which bundles the Mac Pro hardware with Mac OS X Server as a replacement for the Xserve line of servers.
Outwardly, the Mac Pro resembles the last version of the Power Mac G5, and has similar expansion capabilities. An Intel-based replacement for those machines had been expected for some time before the Pro was formally announced on August 7, 2006 at the annual Apple Worldwide Developer's Conference. The first Mac Pro was based on dual Dual-core Xeon Woodcrest processors. This was replaced by a dual Quad-core Xeon Clovertown model on April 4, 2007, and again on January 8, 2008 by a dual Quad-core Xeon Harpertown model.
The current model Mac Pro was announced on July 27, 2010 and features Intel Xeon processors based on the Nehalem/Westmere architectures. A "speed bumped" version was released in 2012. These systems offer options of up to 12 processing cores,
The Macintosh Quadra 650 and the Macintosh Centris 650 are two closely related personal computers that are a part of Apple Computer's Quadra and Centris series of Macintosh computers, respectively. When the Centris 650 was introduced in February 1993 alongside the smaller Centris 610, it was intended as the start of the new midrange Centris line of computers, a niche formerly occupied by the Quadra 700 which was discontinued. However, that proved confusing, and the Centris 650 was renamed to Quadra 650 in October 1993, with the CPU upgraded from a 25 MHz to 33 MHz. The Quadra 650 was discontinued without a direct replacement in September 1994, although the Power Macintosh 7100, introduced a few months earlier, which used the same case as the 650 (originally used on the Macintosh IIvx), had a similar target audience.
There are two versions of the Centris 650: One with 4 MiB of RAM soldered to the logic board and an FPU-less Motorola 68LC040 CPU, and one with 8 MiB of logic board RAM, a full Motorola 68040, and added an onboard AAUI port for Ethernet. The higher-end model also came with 1MB VRAM installed, enabling 16-bit color at 640x480 resolution. The availability of 16-bit color
My Life Online (mylo) was a device created and marketed by Sony for portable instant messaging and other Internet-based communications, browsing Internet web sites (using the Opera web browser) and playback and sharing of media files. The pocket-sized, tablet-shaped handheld device had a screen which slid up to reveal a QWERTY keyboard. The brand name 'mylo' stands for My Life Online. Using Wi-Fi instead of cellular networks the mylo was targeted to the 18–24 age group.
By using WiFi networks for Internet connectivity, mylo provided users the possibility of reducing connectivity costs by avoiding the necessity of using GSM, CDMA or 3G cellular networks which would usually be used for devices of this size and functionality.
The first version of the Sony mylo was launched on September 15, 2006 and includes 1 GB of onboard flash memory and a Memory Stick PRO Duo expansion slot.
The mylo is 23.9 mm (31/32 in) thick, 123 mm (4⅞ in) wide, 63 mm (2½ in) tall, and sports a 6.1 cm (2.4 in) QVGA (320 × 240) LCD screen. Its form factor is similar to the T-Mobile Sidekick in that it is held in landscape mode and has a slide out QWERTY keyboard. Its initial model colors were a glossy black and
Apple's Twentieth Anniversary Macintosh was a limited-edition personal computer that was released in 1997 in celebration of the company's 20th birthday. The MSRP was originally $7,499 USD.
The Twentieth Anniversary Macintosh was introduced as 20th year celebration of Apple Computer, Inc. Apple turned 20 on April 1, 1996, but the TAM was only announced at MacWorld Expo, San Francisco on January 7, 1997, with a release date of 20th March 1997 and a retail price of US$7,499.
Since the transference from wooden enclosures, Apple's own line up for the mid 1990s consisted largely of beige boxes, including their all-in-one PowerMacs.
The TAM's design was different from personal computers of its day. Codenamed Spartacus (as well as Pomona, and Smoke and Mirrors) the TAM featured metallic green/gold paint, and was one of the first desktop based computers to use an LCD display in its day, in an enclosure only 2.5" deep. Although its logic board was one of the only unique internal components, the exterior was designed to represent a state-of-the-art futuristic vision of where personal computing could go.
The TAM featured a 250 MHz PowerPC 603e processor and 12.1" active matrix LCD powered by
The Apple III (often rendered as Apple ///) is a business-oriented personal computer produced and released by Apple Computer that was intended as the successor to the Apple II series, but largely considered a failure in the market. Development work on the Apple III started in late 1978 under the guidance of Dr. Wendell Sander. It had the internal code name of "Sara", named after Sander's daughter. The machine was first announced and released on May 19, 1980, but due to serious stability issues that required a design overhaul and a recall of existing machines, it was formally reintroduced the following autumn. Development stopped and the Apple III was discontinued on April 24, 1984, and the III Plus was dropped from the Apple product line in September 1985.
The Apple III could be viewed as an enhanced Apple II – then the newest heir to a line of 8-bit machines dating back to 1976. However, the Apple III was not part of the Apple II line, but rather a close cousin. The key features business users wanted in a personal computer were a true typewriter-style upper/lowercase keyboard (as opposed to the Apple II which was based on a teletype keyboard) and 80 column display. In addition,
The Dragon 32 and Dragon 64 are home computers that were built in the 1980s. The Dragons are very similar to the TRS-80 Color Computer (CoCo), and were produced for the European market by Dragon Data, Ltd., in Port Talbot, Wales, and for the US market by Tano of New Orleans, Louisiana. The model numbers reflect the primary difference between the two machines, which have 32 and 64 kilobytes of RAM, respectively.
In the early 1980s, the British home computer market was booming. New machines were released almost monthly. In August 1982, Dragon Data joined the fray with the Dragon 32; the Dragon 64 followed a year later. The computers sold quite well initially and attracted the interest of several independent software developers, most notably Microdeal. A magazine, Dragon User also began publication shortly after the machine's launch.
In the private home computer market, where games were a significant driver, the Dragon suffered due to its graphical capabilities, which were inferior to contemporary machines such as the Sinclair ZX Spectrum and BBC Micro.
The Dragon was also unable to display lower-case letters easily. Some more sophisticated applications would synthesise them using
Game Boy Micro (ゲームボーイミクロ, Gēmu Bōi Mikuro) is a handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. It was first released in September 2005. The system is the last console of the Game Boy line.
The Game Boy Micro was officially unveiled by Nintendo of America's vice president of sales and marketing, Reggie Fils-Aime, at the company's E3 press conference on May 17, 2005. The system was released in Japan on September 13, 2005 and in North America on September 19, 2005. It was released in Europe on November 4, 2005 and Australia on November 3, 2005. In China, it was marketed as "iQue Game Boy Micro" on October 1, 2005, and later released in South Korea on November 9, 2005. It is the final handheld console to use the Game Boy name.
The Game Boy Micro retains some of the functionality of the Game Boy Advance SP, but with an updated form factor. It is unable to play original Game Boy and Game Boy Color games due to design changes. Even though it still has the required Z80 processor and graphics hardware necessary to run the old games, it is missing other circuitry necessary to be compatible with the old Game Boy cartridges. It is officially incompatible with the Nintendo
The Macintosh Quadra 950 was the third desktop computer in Apple Computer's Quadra line. It was based on Motorola's 68040 microprocessor rather than the 68LC040 (which lacked an on-board FPU). It replaced the Quadra 900, increasing the CPU clock rate from 25 MHz to 33 MHz, and improving the graphics support. The two computers were otherwise identical.
In 1993, the 950 was overtaken in performance by the less expensive Quadra 800 and 840AV. The newer Quadras had the addition of interleaved RAM, as well as an enhanced video system and SCSI bus. However, their more compact (minitower) case proved difficult to work with, and the 950 (due to its enormous case) was kept in continued production for the server market, outliving the 800 and 840AV.
The Quadra 950 was discontinued in 1995, being replaced by the more powerful Power Macintosh line of PowerPC computers. It was one of the last 68k models to be discontinued, due to its high RAM capacity and large number of NuBus slots.
This computer used a key to lock the power and reset buttons, or to lock the keyboard/mouse access.
The PlayStation 3 (プレイステーション3, Pureisutēshon Surī, officially abbreviated as PS3.) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment and the successor to the PlayStation 2 as part of the PlayStation series. The PlayStation 3 competes with Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles. It was first released on November 11, 2006, in Japan, with international markets following shortly thereafter.
Major features of the console include its unified online gaming service, the PlayStation Network, its multimedia capabilities, connectivity with the PlayStation Portable, and its use of the Blu-ray Disc as its primary storage medium.
Sony officially unveiled the PlayStation 3 (then marketed as PLAYSTATION 3) to the public on May 16, 2005 at the E3 2005 conference, along with a 'boomerang' shaped prototype design of the Sixaxis controller. A functional version of the system was not present there, nor at the Tokyo Game Show in September 2005, although demonstrations (such as Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots) were held at both events on software development kits and comparable personal computer hardware. Video
The PowerBook Duo was a line of small subnotebooks manufactured and sold by Apple Computer from 1992 until 1997 as a more compact companion to the PowerBook line. Improving upon the PowerBook 100's portability (its immediate predecessor and Apple's third smallest laptop), the Duo came in seven different models. They were the Duo 210, 230, 250, 270c, 280, 280c, and 2300c, with the 210 and 230 being the earliest, and 2300c being the final incarnation before the entire line was dropped in early 1997.
Weighing in at a mere 4.1 pounds and slightly smaller at 10.9 × 8.5 in (280 × 220 mm) than a sheet of paper, only 1.4" thick, it was the lightest and smallest of all of Apple's PowerBooks of its time. Only the MacBook Air weighs less, though wider and deeper, but considerably thinner making it the second smallest subnotebook overall. The Duo had the most in common with the original MacBook Air which only included one USB 2.0 port, one video port (requiring an adapter) and one speaker port, but no ability for expansion.
The PowerBook Duo line was replaced by the PowerBook 2400, which was slightly larger in size to the Duos, but still only the fifth smallest behind the 12 in (300 mm)
The Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), nicknamed Baby, was the world's first stored-program computer. It was built at the Victoria University of Manchester by Frederic C. Williams, Tom Kilburn and Geoff Tootill, and ran its first program on 21 June 1948.
The machine was not intended to be a practical computer but was instead designed as a testbed for the Williams tube, an early form of computer memory. Although considered "small and primitive" by the standards of its time, it was the first working machine to contain all of the elements essential to a modern electronic computer. As soon as the SSEM had demonstrated the feasibility of its design, a project was initiated at the university to develop it into a more usable computer, the Manchester Mark 1. The Mark 1 in turn quickly became the prototype for the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose computer.
The SSEM had a 32-bit word length and a memory of 32 words. As it was designed to be the simplest possible stored-program computer, the only arithmetic operations implemented in hardware were subtraction and negation; other arithmetic operations were implemented in software. The
The Radio Shack TRS-80 Color Computer (also marketed as the Tandy Color Computer and affectionately nicknamed CoCo) was a home computer launched in 1980. It was one of the earliest of the first generation of computers marketed for home use in English-speaking markets. While the model was eventually eclipsed by the onset of the IBM PC clones, enthusiasts have continued to affectionately tinker with the "CoCo" to the present day.
Despite bearing the TRS-80 name, the "Color Computer" was a radical departure from earlier TRS-80 Models - in particular it had a Motorola 6809E processor, rather than the TRS-80's Zilog Z80.
The Motorola 6809E was a very advanced processor, but was correspondingly more expensive than other more popular microprocessors. Competing machines such as the Apple II, Commodore VIC-20, the Commodore 64, the Atari 400, and the Atari 800 were designed around a combination of the much cheaper MOS 6502, itself essentially an enhanced clone of the Motorola 6800. Some of these competing machines were paired with dedicated sound and graphics chips and were much more commercially successful in the 1980s home computer market. Steve Wozniak once commented that the 6502 was
The Amiga 4000T, also known as A4000T, was a tower version of the A4000 computer. Using the AGA chipset, it was originally released in small quantities in 1994 with a 25 MHz Motorola 68040 CPU, and re-released in greater numbers by Escom in 1995, after Commodore's demise, along with a new variant which featured a 50 MHz Motorola 68060 CPU. Despite the subsequent demise of Escom, production was continued by QuikPak in North America into at least 1997.
The A4000T was the only Amiga ever to have both SCSI and IDE interfaces built-in on the motherboard. Having driver software for both interfaces in the 512 KB ROM meant that some other parts of AmigaOS had to be moved from the ROM, and thus the A4000T is the only machine to require the file "workbench.library" to be stored on disk. It was also the only Amiga to use a PC form factor for the motherboard (AT), and one of the few to use a Lithium Ion backup battery instead of a NiCd, vastly reducing the risk of an aging battery leaking corrosive fluids onto the motherboard and causing damage. Modularity was another unique aspect to the machine, with the CPU, audio, video, and input-output ports all on separate daughterboards.
The Apple IIc Plus is the sixth and final model in the Apple II line of personal computers, produced by Apple Computer. The "Plus" in the name was a reference to the additional features it offered over the original portable Apple IIc, such as greater storage capacity (a built-in 3.5-inch floppy drive replacing the classic 5.25-inch), increased processing speed, and a general standardization of the system components. In a notable change of direction, the Apple IIc Plus, for the most part, did not introduce new technology or any further evolutionary contributions to the Apple II series, instead merely integrating existing peripherals into the original Apple IIc design. The development of the 8-bit machine was criticized by quarters more interested in the significantly more advanced 16-bit Apple IIGS.
The Apple IIc Plus was introduced on September 16, 1988 at the AppleFest conference in San Francisco, with less fanfare than the Apple IIc had received four years earlier. Described as a little more than a "turbocharged version of the IIc with a high-capacity 3½ disk drive" by one magazine review of the time, some users were disappointed. Many IIc users already had add-ons giving them
The Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) was the first electronic digital computing device. Conceived in 1937, the machine was not programmable, being designed only to solve systems of linear equations. It was successfully tested in 1942. However, its intermediate result storage mechanism, a paper card writer/reader, was unreliable, and when inventor John Vincent Atanasoff left Iowa State College for World War II assignments, work on the machine was discontinued. The ABC pioneered important elements of modern computing, including binary arithmetic and electronic switching elements, but its special-purpose nature and lack of a changeable, stored program distinguish it from modern computers. The computer was designated an IEEE Milestone in 1990.
Atanasoff and Clifford Berry's computer work was not widely known until it was rediscovered in the 1960s, amidst conflicting claims about the first instance of an electronic computer. At that time, the ENIAC was considered to be the first computer in the modern sense, but in 1973 a U.S. District Court invalidated the ENIAC patent and concluded that the ENIAC inventors had derived the subject matter of the electronic digital computer from Atanasoff
The Commodore PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) was a home/personal computer produced in 1977 by Commodore International. A top-seller in the Canadian and United States educational markets, it was Commodore's first full-featured computer, and formed the basis for their entire 8-bit product line.
In the 1970s Commodore was one of many electronics companies selling calculators designed around Dallas-based Texas Instruments (TI) CPU chips. However, in 1975 TI increased the price of these components to the point where the chip set cost more than an entire TI calculator, and the industry that had built up around it was frozen out of the market.
Commodore responded to this by searching for a chip set they could purchase outright. They quickly found MOS Technology, who were in the process of bringing their 6502 microprocessor design to market, and with whom came Chuck Peddle's KIM-1 design, a small computer kit based on the 6502. At Commodore, Peddle convinced Jack Tramiel that calculators were a dead-end. In September 1976 Peddle got a demonstration of Jobs and Wozniak's Apple II prototype, when Jobs was offering to sell it to Commodore, but Commodore considered Jobs' offer too
The IBM 3270 is a class of block oriented terminals made by IBM originally introduced in 1972 (known as "display devices") normally used to communicate with IBM mainframes. The 3270 was the successor to the IBM 2260 display terminal. Due to the text colour on the original models, these terminals are informally known as green screen terminals. Unlike common serial ASCII terminals, the 3270 minimizes the number of I/O interrupts required by transferring large blocks of data known as data streams, and uses a high speed proprietary communications interface, using coaxial cable.
Although IBM no longer manufactures 3270 terminals the IBM 3270 protocol is still commonly used via terminal emulation to access some mainframe-based applications. Accordingly, such applications are sometimes referred to as green screen applications. Use of 3270 is slowly diminishing over time as more and more mainframe applications acquire Web interfaces, but some web applications use the technique of "screen scraping" to capture old screens and transfer the data to modern front-ends.
The 3270 series was designed to connect with mainframe computers, often at a remote location, using the technology then
The IBM 650 (photo) was one of IBM’s early computers, and the world’s first mass-produced (photo) computer. It was announced in 1953, and over 2000 systems were produced between the first shipment in 1954 and its final manufacture in 1962. Support for the 650 and its component units was withdrawn in 1969.
The 650 is a two-address, bi-quinary coded decimal machine (both data and addresses were decimal), with memory on a rotating drum. The 650 was marketed to scientific and engineering users as well as users of existing IBM unit record equipment (electro-mechanical punched card-processing machines) upgrading from so-called Calculating Punches, like the IBM 604 model, to computers proper. Because of its relatively low cost and simple programming, the 650 pioneered a wide variety of applications, from modeling submarine crew performance to teaching high school students computer programming.
The basic 650 system consisted of three components:
The rotating drum memory (photo) provided 2,000 signed 10-digit words of memory (five characters per word) at addresses 0000 to 1999, which is approximately 8.5 KB in today's units. A Model 4, introduced in 1959, doubled the
The IBM BladeCenter is IBM's blade server architecture.
Originally introduced in 2002, based on engineering work started in 1999, the IBM BladeCenter was a relative late comer to the blade market. But, it differed from prior offerings in that it supported the full range of high powered x86 Intel server processors and a variety of high performance input/output (I/O) options. In February 2006, IBM introduced the BladeCenter H with high-speed switch capabilities for 10 Gigabit Ethernet and InfiniBand 4X.
It is one of the leading open blade architecture products in the information technology (IT) market, with a focus on processor, memory, and I/O configurability delivered with multi-generational forward- and backward-compatibility through collaboration with major IT players including blade.org.
The open architecture is available to enable companies to develop and build compatible blades, networking and storage switches, and blade adapter cards (daughter cards). Hardware developers can now more easily develop and build compatible blade products in these categories and participate in the rapidly growing blades market served by the IBM BladeCenter by utilizing the Blade Open Specification
Apple TV is a digital media receiver developed and sold by Apple Inc. It is a small form factor network appliance designed to play digital content from the iTunes Store, Netflix, Hulu Plus, YouTube, Flickr, iCloud, MLB.tv, NBA League Pass, NHL GameCenter or any Mac OS X or Windows computer running iTunes onto an enhanced-definition or high-definition widescreen television.
Apple offered a preview of the device in September 2006, and began shipping it the following March. It initially shipped with a 40 GB hard disk; a 160 GB version was introduced two months later, and the earlier model was ultimately discontinued.
In September 2010, Apple announced a second-generation version of the Apple TV. About one-quarter of the size and one-third of the price of the original Apple TV, the new device could stream rented content from iTunes and video from computers or iOS devices via AirPlay. The new version no longer has the hard drive; however, it does have an undocumented internal 8 GB flash storage, speculated to be used for smoother playback of streamed media. All content is drawn from online or locally connected sources.
A third generation of the device was introduced at an Apple event on
The Macintosh 512K Personal Computer is the second of a long line of Apple Macintosh computers, and was the first update to the original Macintosh 128K. It was virtually identical to the previous Mac, differing primarily in the amount of built-in memory (RAM)
Like the 128K Macintosh before it, the 512K contained a Motorola 68000 connected to a 512 kB DRAM by a 16-bit data bus. Though the memory had been quadrupled, it could not be upgraded. A 64 kB ROM chip boosts the effective memory to 576 kB, but this is offset by the display's 22 kB framebuffer, which is shared with the DMA video controller. This shared arrangement reduces CPU performance by up to 35%. It shared a revised logic board with the re-badged Macintosh 128K (previously just called the Macintosh), which streamlined manufacturing. The display was the same, at 512x384.
The applications MacPaint and MacWrite were still bundled with the Mac. Soon after this model was released, several other applications became available, including MacDraw, MacProject, Macintosh Pascal and others. In particular, Microsoft Excel, which was written specifically for the Macintosh, required a minimum of 512 kB of RAM, but definitively
The Macintosh IIsi was a compact three-box desktop unit, effectively a cut-down Macintosh IIci in a smaller case (used for no other Macintosh model), made cheaper by the redesign of the motherboard and the deletion of all but one of the expansion card slots (a single Processor Direct Slot). It was introduced as a low-cost alternative to the professional desktop models for home use, but offered more features and performance than the LC series. It had color and could drive a number of different external monitors, with a maximum screen resolution of 640×480 in eight-bit color.
It shipped with either a 40-MB or 80-MB internal hard disk, and a 1.44-MB floppy disk drive. The MC 68882 FPU was an optional extra, mounted on a special plug-in card. Ports included SCSI, two serial ports, an ADB port, a floppy drive port, and 3.5mm stereo headphone sound output and microphone sound input sockets. The IIsi was the first Macintosh released with built-in sound-in capabilities. The Macintosh LC, which was announced at the same time and also had a sound-in port, was released a number of months after the IIsi.
A bridge card was available for the IIsi to convert the Processor Direct slot to a
The Macintosh Quadra series is Apple Computer's product family of professional high-end Apple Macintosh personal computers built using the Motorola 68040 CPU. The first two models in the Quadra line were introduced in 1991, and the name was used until the Power Mac was introduced in 1994. The product manager for the Quadra family was Frank Casanova who was also the Product Manager for the Macintosh IIfx. The first models were the Quadra 700 and Quadra 900, both introduced in 1991. The Quadra replaced the Macintosh II series as the high end computer in the Macintosh product line.
The first computers to be part of the Macintosh Quadra series were the Quadra 700 and Quadra 900, both introduced in 1991 with a Central processing unit (CPU) speed of 25 MHz. The 700 was a compact model using the same case dimensions as the Macintosh IIci, with a Processor Direct Slot (PDS) expansion slot, while the latter was a newly designed tower case with five NuBus expansion slots and one PDS slot. The 900 was replaced in 1992 with the Quadra 950, with a CPU speed of 33 MHz. The line was joined by a number of "800-series" machines in a new minitower case design, starting with the Quadra 800, and the
Macintosh XL was a modified version of the Apple Lisa personal computer made by Apple Computer, Inc. In the Macintosh XL configuration, the computer shipped with MacWorks XL, a Lisa program that allowed 64 K Macintosh ROM emulation. An identical machine was previously sold as the Lisa 2/10 with the Lisa OS only.
The Macintosh XL had a 400K 3.5" floppy drive and an internal 10 MB proprietary Widget hard drive with provision for an optional 5 or 10 MB external ProFile hard drive with the addition of a Parallel interface card. The processor speed was 5 MHz and had 1 core. At the time of release in January 1985, the Macintosh XL was colloquially referred to as the "Hackintosh", although this name has since been used more generally to describe Macintosh computers assembled from unusual combinations of parts or, after Apple's transition to Intel processors, to denote PCs running OSx86, a hacked version of Mac OS X.) The Macintosh XL was discontinued in August 1986
Because of its roots as a Lisa — and unlike all other Macintosh computers — the Macintosh XL did not use square pixels. The resolution of the Macintosh XL was 720x364. Square pixels were available via a physical screen upgrade
The PDP-1 (Programmed Data Processor-1) was the first computer in Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP series and was first produced in 1960. It is famous for being the computer most important in the creation of hacker culture at MIT, BBN and elsewhere. The PDP-1 was also the original hardware for playing history's first game on a minicomputer, Steve Russell's Spacewar!.
The PDP-1 used an 18-bit word size and had 4096 words as standard main memory (equivalent to 9,216 eight-bit bytes, though the system actually used six-bit bytes), upgradable to 65,536 words. The magnetic core memory's cycle time was 5 microseconds (corresponding roughly to a "clock speed" of 200 kilohertz; consequently most arithmetic instructions took 10 microseconds (100,000 operations per second) because they used two memory cycles: one for the instruction, one for the operand data fetch. Signed numbers were represented in one's complement.
The PDP-1 was built mostly of DEC 1000-series System Building Blocks, using Micro-Alloy and Micro-Alloy-Diffused transistors with a rated switching speed of 5 MHz. The System Building Blocks were packaged into several 19-inch racks. The racks were themselves packaged into a
The 12-bit PDP-8 was the first successful commercial minicomputer, produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the 1960s. DEC introduced it on 22 March 1965, and sold more than 50,000 systems, the most of any computer up to that date. It was the first widely sold computer in the DEC PDP series of computers (the PDP-5 was not originally intended to be a general-purpose computer). The chief engineer who designed the initial version of the PDP-8 was Edson de Castro, who later founded Data General.
The earliest PDP-8 model (informally known as a "Straight-8") used diode-transistor logic, packaged on flip chip cards, and was about the size of a minibar-fridge.
This was followed by the PDP-8/S, available in desktop and rack-mount models. By using a one-bit serial ALU implementation, the PDP-8/S was smaller, less expensive, but vastly slower than the original PDP-8. The only mass storage peripheral available for the PDP-8/S was the DF32 disk.
Later systems (the PDP-8/I and /L, the PDP-8/E, /F, and /M, and the PDP-8/A) returned to a faster, fully parallel implementation but used much less-expensive TTL MSI logic. Most surviving PDP-8s are from this era. The PDP-8/E is common, and
The PowerBook 190 and its companion PowerBook 190cs are laptop computers manufactured by Apple Computer as part of their PowerBook brand, introduced to the market in August 1995. The two models differ only in their screen: The 190 had a 9.5" greyscale display, while the 190cs featured a 10.4" color display. Apple's target sales audience for this model was the college student in need of a no-frills portable computer. In terms of hardware, along with the PowerBook 150, the 190 has much in common with Apple's "professional" laptop of the same period, the PowerBook 5300 series. In exchange for the cheaper price point (approximately $2200 US compared to over $6000 for the cutting-edge PowerBook 5300ce), the 190 was equipped with a passive matrix LCD rather than a crisper active matrix screen. More significantly, while the 5300s ran PowerPC 603e processors at 100 or 117 MHz, the 190 had only a Motorola 68LC040 clocked at 33 MHz - in fact, the 190s were the last Macintoshes to use an 68k CPU. However, Apple offered a PPC upgrade for the 190, a heavily marketed selling point for all new 68040 Macs at the time. In addition, a rather cramped 500 MB IDE hard drive was standard, and factory
The PowerBook 3400c was a laptop computer in the PowerBook line manufactured by Apple Computer from February to November 1997. It was, briefly, the swiftest laptop in the world. Using the PowerPC 603e processor running at speeds of up to 240 MHz, this PowerBook was the first to feature a PCI architecture, EDO memory, and a 64-bit wide, 40MHz internal bus. It was also the first PowerBook to feature a PC card slot capable of being used as a zoomed video port. Like all Apple laptops since the PowerBook 500 series, it featured a built-in trackpad as the pointing device.
The PowerBook 3400c series was issued in three different models, distinguished primarily by their processor speed. The base model ran at 180 MHz, and the two higher end models ran at 200 MHz and 240 MHz. Thus, the different models were referred to as the 3400c/180, 3400c/200, and 3400c/240. The 3400c/180 model was usually sold with only a built-in modem and a floppy drive; all 3400c/200 and 3400c/240 machines came with a built-in modem/Ethernet combination port and hot-swappable 1.4 MB floppy disk and CD drives. The only other difference between them was the size of the hard drive, ranging from 1.3 to 3.0 GB depending
The PowerBook G3 is a line of laptop Macintosh computers made by Apple Computer between 1997 and 2000. It was the first laptop to use the PowerPC G3 (PPC740/750) series of microprocessors. It was succeeded by the Titanium PowerBook G4 line in 2001, which used the PowerPC G4 (PPC74xx) series of microprocessors.
The first Macintosh PowerBook G3, codenamed "Kanga" was introduced in November 1997. At the time of its introduction, the PowerBook G3 was advertised as the fastest notebook computer available (a title formerly held by its predecessor, the 240 MHz PPC 603ev-based 3400c). This model was based on the PowerBook 3400, and was unofficially known as the PowerBook 3500. It uses the same case as a 3400, and a very similar motherboard. The motherboard was upclocked from 40 MHz to 50 MHz, resulting in some incompatibility with older 3400 RAM modules. Other changes to the motherboard included doubling the on-board RAM from 16 MB to 32 MB, and a faster version of the on-board Chips and Technologies graphics controller than the 3400 had. The G3 made the Kanga more than twice as fast as a 3400, and the improved graphics controller allowed it to refresh the screen 74 percent faster.
The ZX81, released in a slightly modified form in the United States as the Timex Sinclair 1000, was a home computer produced by Sinclair Research and manufactured in Scotland by Timex Corporation. It was launched in the United Kingdom in March 1981 as the successor to Sinclair's ZX80 and was designed to be a low-cost introduction to home computing for the general public. It was hugely successful and more than 1.5 million units were sold before it was eventually discontinued. The ZX81 found commercial success in many other countries, notably the United States, where Timex manufactured and distributed it under licence and enjoyed a substantial but brief boom in sales. Timex later produced its own versions of the ZX81 for the US market – the Timex Sinclair 1000 and Timex Sinclair 1500. Unauthorised clones of the ZX81 were produced in a number of countries.
The ZX81 was designed to be small, simple, and above all cheap, using as few components as possible to keep the cost down. Video output was to a television set rather than a dedicated monitor. Programs and data were loaded and saved onto audio tape cassettes. It had only four silicon chips on board and a mere 1 kB of memory. The
Titan was the prototype of the Atlas 2 computer developed by Ferranti and the University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory in Cambridge, England. It was designed starting in 1963, and in operation from 1964 to 1973.
Titan differed from the original Manchester Atlas by having a real, but cached, main memory, rather than the paged (or virtual) memory used in the Manchester machine. The Titan's main memory had 128K of 48-bit words and was implemented using ferrite core store rather than the part core, part rotating drum-store used on the Manchester Atlas. Titan had more memory than the Atlas, but it was slower at 2.5 microseconds access time. Titan also had two large hard-disk drives and several magnetic tape decks.
As with the Manchester Atlas, it used discrete components, in particular germanium transistors. Some of these components can be seen in the online relics collection of the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory.
As a prototype it had a reputation for technical excellence; but it was also often highly unreliable, and indeed some wiring anomalies were still being discovered several years after it was first commissioned.
One of Titan's most intensive uses was to
The Xerox Alto was one of the first computers designed for individual use (though not as a home computer), making it arguably what is now called a personal computer. It was developed at Xerox PARC in 1973. It was the first computer to use the desktop metaphor and mouse-driven graphical user interface (GUI).
It was not a commercial product, but several thousand units were built and were heavily used at PARC, other Xerox facilities, and at several universities for many years. The Alto greatly influenced the design of personal computers in the following decades, notably the Apple Macintosh and the first Sun workstations. It is now rare and a valued collector's item.
The Alto was conceived in 1972 in a memo written by Butler Lampson, inspired by the On-Line System (NLS) developed by Douglas Engelbart at SRI, and was designed primarily by Chuck Thacker. Industrial Design and manufacturing was sub-contracted to Clement Designlabs, whose team included Carl J. Clement, Ken Campbell (mechanical engineer), Terry West (industrial designer), and Fred Stengel. An initial run of 80 units was produced by Clement Designlabs, working with Doug Fairbairn at Xerox PARC, Tony Ciuffini and Rick