Best Classic, Vintage, and Antique Cars of All Time
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The Sunbeam Talbot 90 was a sporting car built by the Rootes Group in Ryton Coventry under their Sunbeam-Talbot brand.
The car was launched in 1948 along with the smaller-engined Sunbeam-Talbot 80 but many features dated back to the pre war Sunbeam-Talbot Ten. The body was completely new and available as a four-door saloon or two-door drophead coupé. The saloon featured a "pillarless" join between the glass on the rear door and the rear quarter window.
The car went through three versions before the name was changed to Sunbeam MkIII (without "Talbot") in 1954. It was the last car to bear the Sunbeam-Talbot name.
The original version had a 64 bhp (48 kW) 1,944 cc side-valve four-cylinder engine derived from a pre-war Humber unit carried over from the Sunbeam-Talbot 2-Litre. The chassis was derived from the Ten model but with wider track and had beam axles front and rear and leaf springs. The brakes were updated to have hydraulic operation. Saloon and Drophead coupé bodies were fitted to the chassis and the rear wheel openings were covered by metal "spats".
4000 were made.
The Mk II got a new chassis with independent front suspension using coil springs. The engine was enlarged to 2267
The Mercedes-Benz 770, also known as the Großer Mercedes (large Mercedes) was a luxury automobile built by Mercedes-Benz from 1930 to 1943. It is probably best known from archival footage of high-ranking Nazi officials before and during World War II, including Adolf Hitler and Hermann Göring.
The 770 was introduced with the internal code W07 in 1930. These cars were mainly used by governments as state vehicles.
The W07 version of the 770 was powered by an inline eight-cylinder engine of 7,655 cc (467.1 cu in) capacity with overhead valves and aluminium pistons. This engine produced 150 brake horsepower (110 kW) at 2800 rpm without supercharging. An optional Roots type supercharger, which was engaged at full throttle, would raise the output to 200 brake horsepower (150 kW) at 2800 rpm, which could propel the car to 160 km/h (99 mph). The transmission had four forward ratios, of which third was direct and fourth was an overdrive.
The W07 had a contemporary boxed chassis suspended by semi-elliptic leaf springs onto beam axles front and rear. Dimensions would vary with coachwork, but the chassis had a wheelbase of 3,750 mm (147.6 in) and a front track equal to the rear track of
The Studebaker Commander is the model-name of a long succession of automobiles produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana (USA) and Studebaker of Canada Ltd of Walkerville and, later, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Studebaker began using the Commander name in 1927 and continued to use it until 1964, with the exception of 1936 and 1959-63. The model-name was applied to various positions in the company's product line-up from year to year.
Until the appearance of the 8-cylinder President in January 1928, all Studebaker cars of the 1920s were sixes. There were three basic models — the Light, the Special and the Big Six, developing 40 bhp (30 kW; 41 PS), 50 bhp (37 kW; 51 PS), and 60 bhp (45 kW; 61 PS) respectively at 2000 rpm. The first Commander, in 1927, was a continuation of the mid-range Special Six, with a 226 cu in (3.7 L) engine. Their inbuilt durability and toughness gained them great renown under worldwide conditions. The 1928 GB Commander was a descendant of the Big Six, being powered with the proven 354 cu in (5.8 L) engine, modified to deliver 75 bhp (56 kW; 76 PS) at 2400 rpm. In October 1928, three Commander sixes lined up at the Atlantic City speedway to
The Alvis TA 14 was the first car to be produced by Alvis cars after World War II. It was made from 1946 until 1950 when it was replaced by the Alvis TA 21.
The car was available as a four-door saloon by Mulliners of Birmingham but there were also Tickford and Carbodies drophead versions. The bodies were mounted on an updated pre-war Alvis 12/70 chassis that was widened and lengthened but retained the non-independent leaf spring suspension and mechanically operated brakes. Disc wheels replaced the 12/70s wires.
The 1892 cc engine is a slightly larger-bore version of the one used in the 12/70 and produced 65 bhp (48 kW) . It is fitted with a single SU type H4 1 ⁄2-inch horizontal carburettor.
The top speed is around 74 mph (119 km/h) and acceleration from 0 to 60 mph (97 km/h) in 22.2 seconds.
The Fiat 500, commonly known as Topolino ("little mouse" in Italian, possibly also influenced by Mickey Mouse, known in Italy as Topolino), is an Italian automobile model manufactured by Fiat from 1936 to 1955.
The Topolino was one of the smallest cars in the world at the time of its production. Launched in 1937, three models were produced until 1955, all with only minor mechanical and cosmetic changes. It was equipped with a 569 cc four-cylinder, side-valve, water-cooled engine mounted in front of the front axle,( later an overhead valve motor ) and so was a full-scale car rather than a cyclecar. The radiator was located behind the engine which made possible a lowered aerodynamic nose profile at a time when competitors had a flat, nearly vertical grill. The shape of the car's front allowed exceptional forward visibility.
Rear suspension initially used quarter-elliptic rear springs, but buyers frequently squeezed four or five people into the nominally two-seater car, and in later models the chassis was extended at the rear to allow for more robust semi-elliptic springs.
With horsepower of about 13 bhp, its top speed was about 53 mph (85 km/h), and it could achieve about 39.2 miles
The MGA is a sports car produced by MG division of the British Motor Corporation from 1955 to 1962.
The MGA replaced the older T-type cars and represented a complete styling break from the older vehicles. The car was officially launched at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 1955. A total of 101,081 units were sold through the end of production in July 1962, the vast majority of which were exported. Only 5869 cars were sold on the home market, the highest export percentage of any British car. It was replaced by the MGB.
The MGA design dates back to 1951, when MG designer Syd Enever created a streamlined body for George Philips' TD Le Mans car. The problem with this car was the high seating position of the driver because of the limitations of using the TD chassis. A new chassis was designed with the side members further apart and the floor attached to the bottom rather than the top of the frame sections. A prototype was built and shown to the BMC chairman Leonard Lord. He turned down the idea of producing the new car as he had just signed a deal with Donald Healey to produce Austin-Healey cars two weeks before. Falling sales of the traditional MG models caused a change of heart, and the
The Peugeot 404 is a large family car produced by French automobile manufacturer Peugeot from 1960 to 1975, with the exception of the truck which was sold until 1988. It was also made under licence in various African countries until 1991 (in Kenya). It was also built in Argentina by Safrar/Sevel in El Palomar and in Chile by Automotores Franco Chilena S.A. in Los Andes.
Styled by Pininfarina, the 404 was offered initially as a saloon, estate, and pickup. A convertible was added in 1962, and a coupé in 1963. The 404 was fitted with a 1.6 L petrol engine, with either a Solex carburetor or Kugelfischer mechanical fuel injection or a 1.9 L diesel engine available as options. Introduced at the Paris Motor Show as an option was the inclusion of a 3-speed ZF automatic transmission, similar to the unit already offered on certain BMW models, as an alternative to the standard column-mounted manual unit.
Popular as a taxicab, the 404 enjoyed a reputation for durability and value. Peugeot's French production run of 1,847,568 404s ended in 1975. Still relatively common in developing nations (especially in pickup form), an additional 2,885,374 units were produced under licence until 1988.
The Mercedes-Benz 260 D was the first diesel engined series produced passenger car and was introduced in 1936. It was named in reference to its engine's cubic capacity. Nearly 2,000 vehicles were assembled until 1940, when the Daimler-Benz group had to devote itself entirely to military manufacture.
The 2545 cc overhead valve, 4-cylinder engine employed the Bosch diesel injection system and produced 45 bhp (34 kW) at 3000 rpm. The car weighed approximately 1,530 kg (3,373 lb) and could attain a top speed of 95 km/h (59 mph).
The chassis was based on contemporary Mercedes technology and had transverse leaf spring independent front suspension and swing axles at the rear. The brakes were hydraulic. A range of body types were made including saloons, landaulettes and cabriolets.
Two series were manufactured, 170 pullman-landaulets used only as taxis based on the W21 chassis, called the Nullserie from 1936 to 1937, with a three-speed plus overdrive transmission, without syncromesh on the first gear, and, from 1937 on, the regular production 260D based on the W143 chassis, with a four-speed fully synchronized transmission.
A surviving example of the car is displayed at the Mercedes-Benz
The Renault 4CV (French pronunciation CAT shuVOH) is an economy car produced by the French manufacturer Renault from August 1947-July 1961. The first French car to sell over a million units, the 4CV was superseded by the Dauphine.
The 4CV was a four-door sedan of monocoque construction, 3.6 m (11 ft 10 in) in length with front suicide doors and using Renault's Ventoux engine in a rear-engine, rear-wheel drive layout.
The car's name, 4CV, refers to the French abbreviation, CV, for the French equivalent to "horsepower" as a unit of power, translating from cheval vapeur." At the time, a vehicle's horsepower was used as its tax classification, which in the case of the 4CV was four taxable horsepower.
In 1996, Renault presented a concept car — the Renault Fiftie — to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the 4CV's debut. It was a two-door, mid-engine design with styling similar to the 4CV.
The 4CV was originally conceived and designed covertly by Renault engineers during the World War II German occupation of France, when the manufacturer was under strict orders to design and produce only commercial and military vehicles. Between 1941 and 1944 Renault was placed under the Technical
The Rolls-Royce 20/25 built between 1929 and 1936 succeeded the 20 hp as Rolls-Royce's "small car". It was intended to appeal to owner drivers, but many were sold to customers with chauffeurs.
The in-line 6-cylinder overhead-valve engine was similar to that used in the 20 hp but was enlarged to 3699 cc by increasing the bore from 76 mm to 82 mm, with the stroke remaining at 114 mm. A single Rolls-Royce carburettor was used, and both coil and magneto ignition were fitted. The four-speed gearbox was mounted in unit with the engine and a traditional right-hand change used. Synchromesh was fitted to third and top gears from 1932.
The substantial chassis had rigid front and rear axles suspended by half-elliptic springs with braking on all four wheels assisted by a mechanical servo. Separate rear brakes were fitted for the handbrake. The famous Rolls-Royce radiator with triangular top was used with vertical louvres, the angle of which could be adjusted to control engine cooling. To begin with, the radiator shutters were operated manually via a lever on the dash; later cars were fitted with automatic control via a thermostat.
The larger engine allowed the top speed to increase to 75 mph
The Fiat 505 is a passenger car produced by Fiat between 1919 and 1925. The 505 was based on same technic as the four cylinder Fiat 501, but it had a larger engine and bigger exterior dimensions. With 2296 cc (30 hp) engine the car could reach a top speed of 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph).
30,000 examples of the Fiat 505 were produced.
The Tatra T11 was the first Tatra model to use the unique combination of major components that are still in use on the trucks produced by Tatra to this day.
Hans Ledwinka created the design of the T11 while working for Steyr in Austria. He believed there was a need for a small car, and carried out the work in his own time. His design offered to the Steyr management was rejected. He left the company soon after to work for a previous employer, Nesseldorfer, in Moravia, soon to become Tatra. This was in 1921 and the development of the T11 started soon after. The T11 was produced between 1923 and 1927 with 3,847 examples made. It was then replaced by the T12 a development of the design, 7,222 being produced by 1936 when it was discontinued.
The Tatra T11 had its engine and gearbox in unit, bolted to the front of a tubular backbone with propeller shaft enclosed, that also doubled as the chassis. Bolted to the rear of the backbone is a final drive unit that, using an assembly of gears, not only changes the direction and speed of the drive, but facilitate the movement of swing axles without the need for flexible drive joints.
The T11's engine was a fan-cooled horizontally opposed twin
The Monaquatre (Type UY1) was a small family car or compact automobile assembled by Renault between 1931 and 1936. It used a conventional front engine / rear wheel drive configuration and was powered by a four-cylinder water-cooled engine.
Launched in October 1931, the Monaquatre was similar in design to Renault Primaquatre mid-size car.
At the 1932 Paris Motor Show the new Type YN1 version appeared, the engine size increased from 1289 cc to 1463 cc.
In 1933 the type YN2 appeared at the Paris Motor Show, featuring a redesigned bonnet / hood and a new engine of 2120 cc straight-4, 35 HP. This engine remained in production until in 1936), but the YN2 itself was produced for only three months before the new more aerodynamic Type YN3 1934 appeared in 1934.
In September 1935 the production of the final version, the Type YN4, ceased like models 1936 Type YN4. The Monaquatre was replaced by the Renault Celtaquatre.
The Rolls-Royce Phantom II was the third and last of Rolls-Royce's 40/50 hp models, replacing the New Phantom in 1929. It used an improved version of the Phantom I engine in an all-new chassis. A "Continental" version, with a short wheelbase and stiffer springs, was offered.
The Phantom II used a refinement of the Phantom I's 7.7 L (7,668 cc/467.9 cu in) pushrod-OHV straight-6 engine with a new crossflow cylinder head. Unlike on previous 40/50 hp models, the engine was bolted directly to the 4-speed manual transmission. Synchromesh was added on gears 3 and 4 in 1932 and on gear 2 in 1935. Power was transmitted to the rear wheels using an open driveshaft, a hypoid bevel final drive, and Hotchkiss drive, replacing of the torque tube from a remotely mounted gearbox used on earlier 40/50 hp models.
The chassis of the Phantom II was completely new. The front axle was mounted on semi-elliptical leaf springs as on earlier 40/50 hp models, but the rear axle was now also mounted on semi-elliptical springs instead of cantilever springs. This, along with the drivetrain changes, allowed the frame to be lower than before, improving the handling. The 4-wheel servo-assisted brakes from the
The Ford Fairlane was an automobile model sold between 1955 and 1970 by the Ford Motor Company in North America. The name was taken from Henry Ford's estate, Fair Lane, near Dearborn, Michigan.
Over time, the name referred to a number of different cars in different classes; the Fairlane was initially a full-size car, but became a mid-size car from the 1962 model year. The mid-sized model spawned the Australian-built Fairlane in 1967, although it was considered a large car there.
For 1955, the Fairlane name replaced the Crestline as Ford's premier full-size offering. Six different body styles were offered, including the Crown Victoria Skyliner with a tinted, transparent plastic roof, the regular Crown Victoria coupe with lots of stainless steel trim, a convertible Sunliner, the Victoria coupe, and traditional sedans. All featured the trademark stainless-steel "Fairlane stripe" on the side. Power options were a 223 CID (3.7 L) straight-6 engine and a 272 CID (4.5 L) V8.
Few changes were made for 1956; a four-door Victoria hardtop and two new, more powerful V8 options, of 292 CID (4.8 L) and 312 CID (5.1 L), the latter available up to 225 brake horsepower (168 kW), were introduced.
The Mercedes 500K (type W29) is a sports car built by Mercedes-Benz between 1934 and 1936, and first exhibited at the 1934 Berlin Motor Show. It carried the factory designation W29. Distinguished from the 500 sedan by the "K" in its name which denoted the kompressor (supercharger) only fitted to the sports cars, it succeeded the Mercedes-Benz 380 which had been introduced only the previous year, using a larger, more powerful engine and more opulent coachwork to meet customers' demands for greater luxury and performance.
The 500K used the same independent suspension setup as had been introduced on the 380, with a double wishbone front axle, double-joint swing axle at the rear, and separate wheel location, coil springs and damping, a world first. Consequently it was a more comfortable and better handling car than Mercedes' previous S/SS/SSK generation of roadsters from the 1920s, and offered greater appeal to buyers, particularly the growing number of well-heeled female drivers of the time.
Pressing the throttle pedal fully engaged the Roots supercharger, inducing the five litre straight-eight engine to produce up to 160 horsepower (120 kW) and making the car capable of over 160
Tatra T80 is an automobile from Tatra designed by Hans Ledwinka in 1931. It was the flagship of Tatra at the time, powered by water-cooled 5991 cc V12 engine, including the familiar backbone chassis and swing axle suspension. With engine power of 120 bhp (89 kW) the car has top speed of 140 kilometres per hour (87 mph).
The Hudson Hornet is an automobile that was produced by the Hudson Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan, between 1951 and 1954. The Hornet was also built by American Motors Corporation (AMC) in Kenosha, Wisconsin, and marketed under the Hudson brand between 1955 and 1957.
The first-generation Hudson Hornets featured a functional "step-down" design with dropped floorpan and a chassis with a lower center of gravity than contemporary vehicles that helped the car handle well – a bonus for racing. The Hornet's lower and sleeker look was accented by streamlined styling. The car's "unique, low slung appearance and silky handling earned Hudson an image that – for many buyers – eclipsed luxury marques like Cadillac's."
The second-generation Hudson Hornets became a restyled Nash that was badge engineered as a Hudson.
The Hornet, introduced for the 1951 model year, was based on Hudson's "step-down" design that was first seen in the 1948 model year on the Commodore. The design merged body and frame into a single structure, with the floor pan recessed between the car's frame rails instead of sitting on top of the frame. Thus one "stepped down" into a Hudson. The step-down chassis's "lower
The Maserati Biturbo is a sports car introduced by Maserati in 1981. The Biturbo is a two-door, four-seater notchback coupé (of somewhat smaller dimensions than the BMW 3 Series of the time) featuring, as the name implies, a two-litre V6 engine with two turbochargers and a luxurious interior. The car was designed by Pierangelo Andreani, an engineer from the De Tomaso team, somewhat influenced by the design of the newer Quattroporte III (Italdesign Giugiaro), as can be observed on the front fascia.
All Maserati models from the Biturbo's introduction in 1981 until 1997 (except the Quattroporte) were based on the original Biturbo architecture, among them the four-door 420/425 and 4.24v, the Spyder, the Karif, the 228 and 2.24v, the Maserati Racing and the later Shamal and Ghibli II, as well as Maserati Barchetta which used an ultimate version of the V6 engine.
When Alejandro de Tomaso acquired Maserati in 1976, he had ambitious plans for the marque. His plan was to combine the prestige of the Maserati brand with a sports car that would be more affordable than the earlier high-priced models that had traditionally made up the Maserati range. In fact, Maserati ceased making supercars
The Volvo PV51 is an automobile introduced by Volvo in December 1936. It was replaced by the mildly restyled PV53 in 1938. This car remained in production until the end of the Second World War.
The Volvo cars were quite expensive compared to their imported competitors. The PV51 was the answer to a request from Volvo’s dealers to offer a smaller and less expensive model. The rear end of the body was similar to the Carioca, but the front was new and the interior was simplified, to cut the price. The PV51 had to make do with a live front axle.
In early 1937 the de luxe model PV52 was introduced. The equipment list included twin sun visors, twin windscreen wipers, a watch, a heater and armrests on all four doors.
In March 1938 the PV51 Special and the PV52 Special were introduced. On these cars the spare wheel was moved from the bootlid to the boot floor. The cars had an expanded boot to increase the luggage space.
In the autumn of 1938 the PV51-52 was replaced by the PV53-56. These cars had a new front end, modified suspension and steering, uprated interior and dashboard.
After the outbreak of the Second World War production continued, to provide transportation to the Swedish Armed
The Jaguar Mark IV (pronounced mark four) is a saloon car built by Jaguar from 1945 to 1949. It was a relaunch of a pre-Second World War model made by SS Cars Ltd from 1936.
Before the Second World War the name Jaguar was the model name given to the complete range of cars built by SS Cars Ltd. The saloons were titled SS Jaguar 1½ litre, 2½ litre or 3½ litre. The two-seater sports car was titled the SS Jaguar 100 2½ litre or 3½ litre.
After the war the company name was changed to Jaguar Cars Ltd. Although the post-war saloons were officially the Jaguar 1½ litre, 2½ litre etc., the term "Mark IV" was sometimes applied retrospectively by the trade to differentiate them from the officially named Mark V.
All the cars were built on a separate chassis frame with suspension by semi-elliptic leaf springs front and rear.
The smallest model of the range originally featured a 1608 cc side valve Standard engine but from 1938 this was replaced by a 1776 cc overhead-valve unit still from Standard who also supplied the four-speed manual transmission.
Pre-war the car was available as a saloon or drophead coupé but post war only the closed model was made. Up to 1938 body construction on all the
The Studebaker Light Six was a car built by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1918-1927.
The Light Six originally came out in 1918.
In August, 1924, the car was renamed the Studebaker Standard Six.
While in production, the Light Six / Standard Six represented Studebaker's least expensive model. The car was available in a full array of body styles throughout its production.
In 1927, the car was renamed the Studebaker Standard Six Dictator in preparation for the 1928 model year when the car would be henceforth known as the Studebaker Dictator.
The new car price included the following items:
The following equipment on new cars was available at extra charge:
Source: Slauson, Harold Whiting; Greene, Howard (1926). "Leading American Motor Cars". Everyman’s Guide to Motor Efficiency. Leslie-Judge.
The Peugeot 302 is a mid-weight saloon introduced in 1936 Paris Motor Show by Peugeot and sold until 1938.
The 302 was effectively a shortened version of the Peugeot 402 with a smaller engine. It was launched a year after the 402.
The aerodynamic 402 was enthusiastically received by the market, but it was half a class larger than the Citroën Traction Avant which had in many ways rewritten the rule book when launched in 1934, and which during the later 1930s acquired a range of different engine sizes and wheelbase lengths. The 302 could compete more directly with the Citroën as the consumer boom of the late 1930s pointed to a growth in market demand for middle sized saloons.
The 302 faithfully followed the style of the longer 402, complete with a sloping front grill behind which lurked the head lights. An eye catching detail was the hole for the starter handle on lower part of the front grill, and which passed through the middle digit of the name 302 inscribed patriotically in blue, white and red on the grill.
In addition to the saloons, a small number of special bodied versions were produced including a Darl'mat built 302 roadster and a cabriolet incorporating the automatic
The Alfa Romeo P3, P3 monoposto or Tipo B was a classic Grand Prix car designed by Vittorio Jano, one of the Alfa Romeo 8C models. The P3 was first genuine single-seat Grand Prix racing car and Alfa Romeo's second monoposto after Tipo A monoposto (1931). It was based on the earlier successful Alfa Romeo P2. Taking lessons learned from that car, Jano went back to the drawing board to design a car that could last longer race distances. The P3 was the first genuine single seater racing car, and was powered by a supercharged eight-cylinder engine. The car was very light for the period, weighing just over 1,500 lb (680 kg) despite using a cast iron engine block.
The P3 was introduced in June, halfway through the 1932 Grand Prix season in Europe, winning its first race at the hands of Tazio Nuvolari, and going on to win 6 races that year driven by both Nuvolari and Rudolf Caracciola, including all 3 major Grands Prix in Italy, France and Germany.
The 1933 Grand Prix season brought financial difficulties to Alfa Corse so the cars were simply locked away and Alfa attempted to rest on their laurels. Enzo Ferrari had to run his breakaway 'works' Alfa team as Scuderia Ferrari, using the
The Fiat 518 Ardita was a model of car produced by Italian automotive company, Fiat between 1933 and 1938. There was also a 2.5-liter version called "Ardita", this has the model code 527.
8.794 were produced in total in Italy.
About 2,200 were built as Simca-Fiat 11CVs in France, all fitted with the 1,944 cc engine of 45 PS (33 kW).
A Polish version, the Polski Fiat 518 Mazur was produced between 1937 and 1939 by PZInż in Warszawa under Fiat license. The car has 4 doors and 7 or 5 seats. It used the two-litre Fiat 118 engine (PZInż 157) (45 hp (33 kW) at 3,600 rpm, compression rate of 6,1:1) and a four-speed gearbox. The car weights 1,070 kg (2,359 lb) and has top speed of 100 to 110 km/h (62 to 68 mph) and has fuel fuel consumption of 11.5 L/100 km (24.6 mpg-imp; 20.5 mpg-US).
The Type 51 series succeeded the famous Type 35 as Bugatti's premier racing car for the 1930s. Unlike the dominant Type 35s of the prior decade, the Type 51 (and later Type 53, Type 54, and Type 59) were unable to compete with the government-supported German and Italian offerings.
The original Type 51 bowed in 1931. Its engine was a 160 hp (119 kW) twin overhead cam evolution of the supercharged 2.3 L (2262 cc/138 in³) single overhead cam straight-8 found in the Type 35B. A victory in the 1931 French Grand Prix was a rare case of success for the line. About 40 examples of the Type 51 and 51A were produced. The Type 51 is visually very similar to the Type 35 - the obvious external differences of a Type 51 are: the supercharger blow-off outlet is lower the bonnet in the louvered section; one piece cast wheels instead of bolted on rims; twin fuel caps behind the driver and finally the magneto being off-set to the left on the dash. However many Type 35 cars have been fitted with later wheels, so that isn't a reliable signal.
Grand Prix car of 1931.twin overhead cam 4.9 liter With 300 hp (223 kW), 4 or 5 were built.The photo shows chassis nr 1 54201
The final Bugatti race car of the
The Lancia Ardea was a small sedan produced by the Turin firm between 1939 and 1953. Its unusually short bonnet/hood reportedly contained the smallest V4 engine ever commercialized in an automobile.
Nearly 23,000 of the Ardeas produced were standard bodied sedans but between 1940 and 1942 approximately 500 Ardeas were manufactured with lengthened bodies and a squared off rear cabin for use in Rome as taxis. After the war more than 8,500 commercial adaptations of the Ardea known as 'furgoncini' (light van versions) and the 'camioncini' (car based light trucks) were also produced.
The third series Ardea, produced from 1948, was the first mass-produced car with a 5-speed manual transmission.
Instrumentation included a centrally mounted speedometer, the fuel level and the oil pressure. A third dial directly below the driver's sight line was a clock, unusually on this size of car. The three floor pedals followed the pattern still 'conventional' for a manual transmission car (clutch, brake, gas) but to the left of the clutch pedal was a small foot operated dipper switch for the headlights. Control knobs lined up along the base of the fascia included a hand throttle.
Early Italian images
The Dorris Motor Car Company was founded by George Preston Dorris in 1906. Born in Nashville, Tennessee, Dorris had built an experimental gasoline car circa 1896-1897 in his family's bicycle shop. He relocated to St. Louis, Missouri, where he joined with John L. French to found the St. Louis Motor Company. Dorris served as chief engineer.
When French relocated to Peoria, Illinois in 1905, Dorris quit the firm and founded the Dorris Motor Car Company soon after. With his departure, French and the St. Louis Motor Carriage Company quickly foundered.
Dorris is credited with developing and patenting the float-carburetor, an innovation that was used for decades after it was invented. For much of the Dorris production life the slogan was "Built up to a standard, not down to a price."
The company took over the original St. Louis Motor Company plant and began production there. The first vehicle had a four-cylinder engine with 101-inch (2,600 mm) wheel-base, which took the New York Automobile Show by storm in January 1906. Over time, Dorris' cars became more powerful, graduating from a four to six-cylinder engine, and increasing nearly 30 inches (760 mm) in the wheelbase. The price tag of
The Phantom was Rolls-Royce's replacement for the original Silver Ghost. Introduced as the New Phantom in 1925, the Phantom had a larger engine than the Silver Ghost and used pushrod-operated overhead valves instead of the Silver Ghost's side valves. The Phantom was built in Derby in England and in Springfield, Massachusetts in the United States. There were several differences in specification between the English and American Phantoms. The Phantom was replaced by the Phantom II in 1929, at which point it was called the Phantom I.
Introduced in 1925, the Phantom I was Rolls-Royce's second 40/50 hp model. To differentiate between the 40/50 hp models, Rolls-Royce named the new model "New Phantom" and renamed the old model "Silver Ghost", which was the name given to their demonstration example, Registration No. AX201. When the New Phantom was replaced by another 40/50 hp model in 1929, the replacement was named Phantom II and the New Phantom was renamed Phantom I.
One major improvement over the Silver Ghost was the new pushrod-OHV straight-6 engine. Constructed as three groups of two cylinders with detachable heads, the engine was described by Rolls-Royce as producing "sufficient"
The Bugatti Type 32, commonly called the Tank de Tours, was a streamlined racing car built in 1923. Four examples were made, each with a 2.0 L (1991 cc/121 in³) straight-8 engine based on that in the Type 30. "The Tank" finished third in the ACF Grand Prix that year. This was the first Bugatti to be fitted with roller-bearing big ends in order to improve the bottom-end reliability (Bugatti was rather later than most manufacturers in the incorporation of a fully pressurised oil system, preferring a splash "spit and hope" delivery method). The Type 32 also broke new ground (for a racing Bug) by using a three-speed and reverse transaxle unit, the exceptionally short wheelbase and long straight-8 engine making a conventional gearbox difficult to accommodate. It also heralded an embrionic hydraulic front brake actuation.
Another tank-bodied Bugatti racer, the 1936 Type 57G, was much more successful.
The Type 35 was the most successful of the Bugatti racing models. Its version of the Bugatti arch-shaped radiator that had evolved from the more architectural one of the Bugatti Type 13 Brescia, was to become the one that the marque is most known for though even in the ranks of the various Type 35s there were variations on the theme.
The Type 35 was phenomenally successful, winning over 1,000 races in its time. It took the Grand Prix World Championship in 1926 after winning 351 races and setting 47 records in the two prior years. At its height, Type 35s averaged 14 race wins per week. Bugatti organized the Targa Florio as a special spotlight for this car, and it claimed victory there for five consecutive years, from 1925 through 1929.
The original model, introduced at the Grand Prix of Lyon on August 3, 1924, used an evolution of the 3-valve 2.0 L (1991 cc/121 in³) overhead cam straight-8 engine first seen on the Type 29. Bore was 60 mm and stroke was 88 mm as on many previous Bugatti models. 96 examples were produced.
This new powerplant featured five main bearings with an unusual ball bearing system. This allowed the engine to rev to 6000 rpm, and 90 hp (67 kW) was reliably
The Maserati Mistral (Tipo 109), named after a cold northerly wind of southern France, was the successor to the iconic 3500 GT, it was also the first in a series of classic Maseratis to be given the name of a wind. It was offered both in Coupe and Spyder form. 830 coupes and 120 Spyders were built in total.
The Mistral is the last model from the "Casa del Tridente" or “House of the Trident” to have the famous straight six cylinder, twin-spark, double overhead cam engine, as fitted to the Maserati 250F Grand Prix cars that won 8 Grand Prix between 1954 and 1960 and one F1 World Championship in 1957 driven by Juan Manuel Fangio. The engine also featured hemispherical combustion chambers and was fed by a Lucas indirect fuel injection system which was novelty at the time for Italian car manufacturers. Although the Lucas fuel injection system enhances performance, quite a few owners, especially in the U.S. have converted their cars to Weber carburetors due to difficulties in tuning the system properly. Maserati subsequently moved on to V8 engines for their later production cars. There were three engine variants fitted to the Mistral; 3500, 3700 and 4,000 cc. The most sought after
The Alfa Romeo 6C name was used on road, race and sports cars made between 1925–1954 by Alfa Romeo. 6C refers to a straight 6 engine. Bodies for these cars were made by coachbuilders such as James Young, Zagato, Touring, Castagna, and Pininfarina. Starting from 1933 there was also a 6C version with a factory Alfa body, built in Portello. In the early 1920s Vittorio Jano got a task to create a lightweight, high performance vehicle to replace the Giuseppe Merosi designed RL and RM models. The car was introduced in April 1925 at the Salone dell’ Automobile di Milano as the 6C 1500. It was based on the P2 racing car, using single overhead cam 1,487 cc inline six-cylinder motor producing 44 horsepower, in the 1928 was presented the 1500 Sport which was the first Alfa Romeo road car with double overhead camshafts.
In the mid-1920s, Alfa's RL was considered too large and heavy, so a new development began. The 2-liter formula that had led to Alfa Romeo winning the World Championship in 1925, changed to 1.5 liter for the 1926 season. The 6C1500 was introduced in 1925 at Milan, production started 1927, with the P2 Grand Prix car as starting point. Engine capacity was now 1487 cc, against the
The Bugatti Type 41, better known as the Royale, was a large luxury car with a 4.3 m (169.3 in) wheelbase and 6.4 m (21 ft) overall length. It weighed approximately 3175 kg (7000 lb) and used a 12.7 L (12763 cc/778 in³) straight-8 engine. For comparison, against the modern Rolls-Royce Phantom, the Royale is about 20% longer, and more than 25% heavier.
Ettore Bugatti planned to build twenty-five of these cars, and sell them to royalty. But even European royalty was not buying such things during the Great Depression, and Bugatti was able to sell only three of the six made. Today a Bugatti Royale is both one of the largest and rarest cars in the world.
Crafted by Ettore Bugatti, the Type 41 is said to have come about because he took exception to the comments of an English lady who compared his cars unfavourably with those of Rolls-Royce.
The prototype had a near 15-litre capacity engine. The production version, its stroke reduced from 150 mm (5.9 in) to 130 mm (5.1 in) had a displacement of 12.7 litres. The engine was built around a single huge block, and at (apx. 4.5 ft (1.4 m) long x 3.5 ft (1.1 m) high), is one of the largest automobile engines ever made, producing 205 to 223 kW
The Packard Executive was an automobile produced by the Packard-Clipper Division of the Studebaker-Packard Corporation in 1956.
The Packard Executive was introduced on March 5, 1956 to fill a perceived price gap between the prestige Packard line and the new Clipper brand, which was in its first year as separate brand. In previous years, Clipper models had been Packards. The most expensive Clipper, the Clipper Custom, listed at $3,065 for the 4-door sedan. The Packard Executive sedan retailed for $3,465, the Executive 2-door coupe $3,560, while the top-of-the-line Patrician sedan sold for $4,160.
The Executive was marketed with the invitation to “enter the luxury car class now—at a modest investment,” and was aimed at "the young man on the way up."
Effectively, the Packard Executive replaced the entire Clipper Custom line of vehicles, as production of the Customs was ended once the Executive was announced.
The Executive was created by combining the Clipper Custom's body, complete with its distinctive tail light design, and installing the front fenders, hood, and radiator grille assembly of the senior Packard models. It also used the Clipper Custom's 122-inch (3,100 mm) wheelbase and
The MG VA, or MG 1.5 Litre as it was originally marketed, was produced by the MG Car company between February 1937 and September 1939 and was the smallest of the three sports saloons they produced in the late 1930s, the others being the SA and WA.
The car used a tuned version of the push-rod, overhead valve four-cylinder Morris TPBG type engine that was also fitted to the Wolseley 12/48 and Morris 12. The MG version had twin SU carburettors and developed 54 bhp (40 kW) at 4500 rpm. Drive was to the live rear axle via a four-speed manual gearbox with synchromesh on the top three ratios, though on some early cars it was only on the top two speeds. Nineteen-inch wire wheels were fitted, and the 10-inch (250 mm) drum brakes were hydraulically operated using a Lockheed system. In-built hydraulic jacks were standard. Suspension was by half-elliptic springs all round with a live rear axle and beam front axle. Luvax shock absorbers were fitted, the rear ones adjustable from the dashboard
The four-door saloon body was made in-house by Morris and had the traditional MG grille flanked by two large chromium-plated headlights. Unlike the SA the front doors did not have separate quarter light
The Bentley 8 Litre was a luxury car based on the largest rolling chassis made by Bentley Motors Limited at Cricklewood, London. Announced 15 September 1930, it was also the last completely new model by Bentley before the company's financial collapse and forced sale to Rolls-Royce Limited; a 4-Litre engine in a shortened chassis was announced on 15 May 1931. Intended to provide the basis for a super-luxury car for very wealthy buyers, the 8 Litre chassis was introduced a year into the Great Depression. Sales of the 8-litre were too slow to turn the company's finances around and, less than nine months after the 8-litre's introduction, Bentley Motors was placed into receivership.
The straight-six engine used a one-piece iron block and non-detachable cylinder head with a crankcase made from Elektron, a magnesium alloy. It featured an overhead camshaft driven by a Bentley patented "three-throw drive" system of triple connecting rods with, like all earlier Bentleys, four valves per cylinder and twin-spark ignition (coil and magneto), which were state-of-the-art at the time. The engine had a bore of 110 mm (4.3 in) and a stroke of 140 mm (5.5 in), giving a capacity of 7,983 cc
The Sixty Special name has been used at Cadillac to denote a special model since the 1938 Bill Mitchell-designed Series 60 derivative. Although the 1938 model began in Cadillac's lowest price range, soon the Sixty Special name would be synonymous for some of Cadillac's most luxurious vehicles.
For 1938, the Bill Mitchell designed Sixty Special was added to Cadillac's lowest-priced line of cars - the Cadillac Series 60, and was Fisher bodied for that year only. The new four-door sedan, designed to look like a convertible, showcased trend-setting features including a completely integrated trunk, lack of side running boards (which all makes soon followed), and four front-hinged doors. It was built on a 127.0-inch (3,230 mm) wheelbase - 3-inch (76 mm) longer than the standard Series 60 cars. The new Sixty Special utilized a unique "X" frame underneath, which allowed the 4,170 lb (1,890 kg). car to sit within its frame. This not only gave the new Cadillac the stiffest chassis on the market, but it was also 3 inches lower than other Cadillacs - with no sacrifice in headroom. The disappearance of running boards along the side and its lack of belt-line trim made the sleek car appear even
The Humber Hawk was a large four-cylinder saloon produced by the British-based Humber car company, part of the Rootes Group.
The Hawk was the first Humber car to be launched after World War II, but was not really a new vehicle, being heavily based on the pre-war Hillman 14. The engine dated back to the early 1930s, when it was first used in the Hillman 12 and was a 1944 cc, side-valve, four-cylinder unit and it drove a live rear axle through a four-speed gearbox with centrally located floor change.
The four-door body was mounted on a separate chassis and was of the six-light design (three windows on each side) with a sunshine roof as standard. Suspension was independent at the front using a transverse leaf spring, and at the rear the axle had half-elliptic springs.
The Mark II version of September 1947 was a very mild facelift, the main difference being a column gear change.
Top speed was around 65 mph (105 km/h).
The Mk III Hawk was a completely new car and was first shown at the London Motor Show in October 1948, but it still retained the earlier engine and transmission. The new body was styled by the Loewy Studio and the separate headlights of the old model were gone, along with
The 1958 Packard Hawk was the sportiest of the four Packard-badged Studebakers produced in the final year of Packard production,. Packard's plant in Detroit, Michigan had been leased to Curtiss-Wright (and would be soon sold to them), and Packard models in this dying-gasp year were all rebadged and retrimmed Studebaker products. The 1958 Packard Hawk was essentially a Studebaker Golden Hawk 400 with a fibreglas front end and a modified deck lid.
Instead of the Studebaker Hawk's upright Mercedes-style grille, the Packard Hawk had a wide, low opening just above the front bumper and covering the whole width of the car. Above this, a smoothly sloping nose, and hood—reminiscent of the 1953 Studebakers, but with a bulge as on the Golden Hawk—accommodated the engine's McCulloch supercharger that gave the Studebaker 289 in³ (4.7 L) V8 a total of 275 bhp (205 kW). At the rear, the sides of the fins were coated in metallized PET film, giving them a shiny metallic gold appearance. A fake spare-tire bulge adorned the 1953-style Studebaker deck lid. 'PACKARD' was spelled out in capitals across the nose, with a gold 'Packard' emblem in script—along with a Hawk badge—on the trunk lid and
The Studebaker Champion is an automobile which was produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from the beginning of the 1939 model year until 1958.
The success of the Champion in 1939 was imperative to Studebaker’s survival following weak sales during the 1938 model year. Unlike most other cars, the Champion was designed from a "clean sheet", and had no restrictions caused by necessarily utilizing older parts or requiring the subsequent use of its components in heavier vehicles. Market research guided the selection of features, but a key principle adhered to was the engineering watchword "weight is the enemy." For its size, it was one of the lightest cars of its era. Its compact straight-6 engine outlasted the model itself and was produced to the end of the 1964 model year, with a change to an OHV design in 1961.
The Champion was one of Studebaker's best-selling models because of its low price (US$660 for the two-door business coupe in 1939), durable engine, and styling. The car's ponton styling was authored by industrial designer Raymond Loewy who had been under contract with Studebaker for the design of their automobiles. Champions won Mobilgas economy runs by
The Tatra 87 was a car built by Czechoslovak manufacturer Tatra. It was praised by German officers in World War II for the superior speed and handling it offered for use on the Autobahn. It was powered by a rear-mounted 2.9-litre air-cooled 90-degree overhead cam V8 engine that produced 85 horsepower and could drive the car at nearly 100 mph (161 km/h). It is ranked among the fastest production cars of its time, competing cars in this class, however, used engines with almost twice the volume and consumption of 20 liters. Thanks to aerodynamic shape it has a consumption of just 12.5 liters. The Nazi armaments and munitions minister Fritz Todt declared: "This 87 is the Autobahn car ..." After the war between 1950 and 1953 T87s were fitted with more modern 2.5-litre V8 T603 engines.
The Tatra 87 has a unique bodywork. Its streamlined shape was designed by Hans Ledwinka and Erich Übelacker, and was based on the Tatra 77, the first car designed for aerodynamic purposes. The body design was based on proposals submitted by Paul Jaray of Hungarian descent, who designed the famous German Graf Zeppelin dirigibles. A fin in the sloping rear of the Tatra helps to divide the air pressure on
The Peugeot 505 is a large family car produced by the French manufacturer Peugeot from 1979 to 1992 in Sochaux, France. The 505 was Peugeot's last rear-wheel drive car. It was also manufactured outside France, for example in Argentina by Sevel from 1981 to 1995, China, Indonesia and Nigeria.
According to the manufacturer 1,351,254 Peugeot 505s were produced between 1978 and 1999: of these 1,116,868 were saloons/sedans.
First presented in May 1979, the 505 was the replacement for the 504 with which it shared much of its underpinnings. It was available as a sedan/saloon and station wagon/estate, including an eight-passenger Familiale Estate. The styling, a collaboration between Pininfarina and Peugeot's internal styling department, is very similar to that of its smaller brother the 305. It is known as the "Work Horse" of Africa today.
The 505 was praised by contemporary journalists for its ride and handling, especially on rough and unmade roads; perhaps one reason for its popularity in less developed countries. "Remember that the 505´s predecessor, the 504, had an outstanding ride. It took a British-market model on a hard charging drive across the green lanes of the Chilterns. The
The first new automobile produced by Lagonda after its purchase by David Brown in 1947 was the 2.6-Litre. It was named for the new high-tech straight-6 engine which debuted with the car. The so-called Lagonda Straight-6 engine was designed by Walter Owen Bentley and would propel Lagonda's new parent company, Aston Martin, to fame.
The 2.6-Litre was a larger car than the Aston Martins and was available as either a 4-door closed car or from 1949 2-door drophead coupé, both with 4 seats. The drophead was bodied by Tickford, at the time not part of Aston Martin. A Mark II version appeared in 1952, in closed form only, with engine power increased to 125 bhp.
The car sold reasonably well, in spite of being an expensive car and being launched so soon after the war, with 510 examples made when production ended in 1953.
The car had a separate chassis and all independent suspension using coil springs at the front and torsion bars at the rear. At introduction it was believed to be the only all-independently sprung British car. The Lockheed brakes had 12 in (305 mm) drums at the front and 11 in (279 mm) at the rear with the latter being mounted inboard. Rack and pinion steering was used.
The Lagonda Rapier was a small car produced by the British Lagonda company from 1934 to 1935. A few more were subsequently produced by the independent Rapier Car Company.
At the heart of the car was an all new 1104 cc twin overhead camshaft four-cylinder engine. The design of this was done by a consultant Thomas Ashcroft (known as Tim) with the brief of producing "Britain's finest 1100 cc engine". The engine was originally intended to be cast in light alloy but to save cost it was eventually made in cast iron using the original patterns, making it rather heavy. It did, however, produce 50 bhp (37 kW; 51 PS) at 5400 rpm, a very good output for the time. Production of the engine was sub-contracted to Coventry Climax.
The chassis was designed by Charles King and consisted of steel sections bolted together. The engine was connected to a four-speed pre-selector gearbox with right-hand change lever and the Girling system rod operated brakes had large 13 in (330 mm) drums. Half-elliptic springs provided the suspension controlled by friction dampers.
Although the original car as shown at the 1933 London Motor Show had a wheelbase of 90.75 in (2,305 mm), in order to cater for a wider range
The Lancia Dilambda is a passenger car produced by Lancia between 1928 and 1935. The car was officially presented in Paris Motor Show in 1929. The car has 4 litre V8 engine with 24 degree V angle.
Three versions of the Dilambda were built:
The Packard Station Sedan was a pseudo station wagon model produced by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan between 1948 and 1950. By offering the Station Sedan, Packard could market a vehicle with station wagon attributes, but without the full investment costs associated with a full-blown station wagon program development.
The Station Sedan used a combination of steel framing and body parts along with structural wood panels to create a "woody" station wagon-like car. Unlike other woody wagons of the day, which used wooden passenger compartments mounted to chassis of a particular car, the Station Sedan used a steel subframe and steel passenger doors onto which hard wood panels were mounted. The only wooden door on the vehicle was the rear gate assembly.
Neither a sedan, nor true station wagon, the Station Sedan enjoyed limited success and was discontinued when the 1951 Packard models were introduced.
The Peugeot 304 is a small family car introduced to the public at the Paris Motor Show in September 1969 by the French car manufacturer Peugeot. Peugeot, which had always been a financially prudent company, saw a gap in the midsize car market in France, Italy and the rest of Western Europe. By using the smaller 204's midsection, development costs were minimized resulting in a higher profit margin because of the higher pricing structure in the larger, better equipped market. The 304's main competitors on its home market came from Renault and Simca, with Citroen noticeably absent from this sector at the launch. The 304 was a success for Peugeot and was noted for several advanced features under its sombre Pininfarina styled exterior. With its independent suspended front-wheel-drive drivetrain and disc brakes, it rode and handled better than most of its contemporaries, including some cars in higher price brackets. The chassis served Peugeot well and lasted for approximately 24 years adapted to derivative models. There was a distinct upmarket feel to the 304, its handsome lines were well suited to postwar Europe's newly affluent middle classes who desired roomy, advanced and stylish
Alfa Romeo RM was produced between 1923–1925, it was based on RL model. Car was introduced first time in 1923 Paris Motor Show and total production was around 500 cars. RM had 2.0 L straight-4 engine, which produced between 40 bhp (30 kW) to 48 bhp (36 kW). As most of Alfa Romeo cars this was also used in racing purpose. Three versions was made: Normal, Sport and Unificato. Sport had raised compression ratio and Unificato had longer wheelbase and slightly bigger engine. RM top speed was around 90 km/h (56 mph).
A very rare half track version based on RM was built in 1920s. The half track used RM straight-4 engine modified to work with dry sump lubrication. The track used was Citroën Kegresse licensed, only one example is known survive.
Borgeson, Griffith (1990). The Alfa Romeo Tradition. Haynes (Foulis) Publishing Group Ltd. Somerset, UK. ISBN 0-85429-875-4.
The Hispano-Suiza H6 was a luxury automobile from the 1920s. Introduced at the 1919 Paris Motor Show, the H6 was produced until 1933. Roughly 2,350 H6, H6B, and H6C cars were produced in total.
The H6 engine featured a straight-six engine inspired by designer Marc Birkigt's work on aircraft engines. It was an all-aluminium engine displacing 6,597 cubic centimetres (403 cu in). Apart from the new overhead camshaft, it was essentially half of Birkigt's aviation V12 design. The seven-bearing crankshaft was milled from a 600 lb (272 kg) steel billet to become a sturdy 35 lb (16 kg) unit, while the block used screwed-in steel liners, and the water passages were enamelled to prevent corrosion.
One of the most notable features of the H6 was its brakes. They were light-alloy drums on all four wheels with power-assist the first in the industry, driven with a special shaft from the transmission. When the car was decelerating, its own momentum drove the brake servo to provide additional power. This technology was later licensed to other manufacturers, including arch-rival Rolls-Royce.
The 1922 H6B was slightly more powerful. An 8.0 litres (488 cu in) (110 by 140 mm (4.3 by 5.5 in)) engine was
The Maserati Kyalami is an automobile which was produced by Maserati in Italy from 1976 to 1983.
Named after the Kyalami Grand Prix Circuit in South Africa, it was a new model rushed into production after Alessandro de Tomaso took helm of the company. De Tomaso had Pietro Frua take Tom Tjaarda's design of the De Tomaso Longchamp (itself inspired by the Mercedes 450SLC) and modify the front and rear end to create a distinctive Maserati feel for the new car. The interior was also upgraded to incorporate classic Maserati elements such the steering wheel and instrumentation.
The Kyalami, a four-seater notchback coupe, was launched at the 1976 Geneva Motor Show and was initially available with Maserati's 265 PS (195 kW) 4.2 litre V-8 engine. Starting in 1978, the larger 4.9 litre-V8 delivering 290 PS (213 kW) was also available. Both engines were coupled with a ZF five-speed manual transmission or upon request a three-speed automatic. Mechanically the Kyalami was closely related to its contemporary Quattroporte, which was also offered with the same engines and gearboxes.
All told, 155 Kyalamis were built between 1976 and 1983, although some sources quote 184, 188, and even 210. Due to
The Packard Patrician was an automobile built by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan, from model years 1951 through the 1954, and by the Studebaker-Packard Corporation of South Bend, Indiana, during model years 1955 and 1956. During its four years in production, the Patrician was built in Packard's Detroit facilities.
In 1951 and 1952, the automaker attempted to use a numeric naming structure that designated Packard's least expensive models as Packard 200 and 200 Deluxe while two-door hardtop and convertibles were designated Packard 250 and its mid-range sedan the Packard 300.
The highest trim level available was the Packard Patrician 400. The Patrician 400 replaced the previous model year's Custom 8 model range. The car was easily identified from other Packards by its chrome trim; in 1951 the model featured three chrome ports on its rear fenders and in 1952 the car featured four chrome ports. Patricians and 300s also sported a slightly revised grille which included chrome "teeth" in its oval area in 1951. That change occurred to the 250 series soon after introduction.
The Patrician 400 was available only as a premium, four-door sedan, outfitted with high-grade
The Stutz Bearcat was a well-known American sports car of the pre and post World War One period.
Essentially, the Bearcats were a shorter (120" wheelbase vs 130"), lighter version of the standard Stutz passenger cars chassis. It was originally powered by a 390 in, 60-horsepower straight-4 engine produced by the Wisconsin Motor Company. Common with racing and sports cars of the period, it featured minimal bodywork consisting of a "dog house" hood, open bucket seats, a tiny "monocle" windscreen in front of the driver, and a cylindrical fuel tank on a short rear deck. Production Bearcats differed from the factory "White Squadron" racers by having fenders, lights and a trunk. Factory literature from 1913 describes the Bearcat as "The Stutz Bearcat, designed to meet the needs of the customer desiring a car built along the lines of a racing car with a slightly higher gear ratio than our normal torpedo roadster, has met with great favor with motor car owners and meets the demand for a car of this class."
The original production Bearcat was introduced in the Series A of 1912. The first public mention of the car (then spelled “Bear Cat” ) is in an advertisement in the 1912 program for the
The Peugeot 403 is a car produced by French automobile manufacturer Peugeot from 1955 to 1966.
The 403 made its debut in saloon body style on 20 April 1955 at the Trocadéro Palace in Paris. The engine size gave the car a fiscal horsepower of 8 CV (8 hp), which placed it a class below the soon-to-be-replaced 11 CV Citroën Traction, but at least one class above the small cars produced by the principal competitor manufacturers.
When it was first shown, and until after 1958, the leading edge of car's nose carried an angular, forward-leaning chrome lion hood ornament – the lion image being Peugeot's trade mark. That was removed in 1959, due to safety concerns, and the logo was incorporated into a shield-shaped grill emblem.
Subsequently the semaphore-style trafficators on the C-pillars were replaced with flashing indicators within the light cluster. The front lights were modified to conform to new standards and in 1957 parallel parking windscreen wipers were substituted for the original "cross hands" ones featured at launch.
Styled by Pininfarina, the 403 featured ponton, three-box styling incorporating, except on the most basic models, an opening roof panel.
The 403 came with an
The Peugeot 405 is a large family car released by the French automaker Peugeot in July 1987 and which continues to be manufactured under licence outside France. It was voted European Car of the Year for 1988 by the largest number of votes in the history of the contest. About 2.5 million vehicles have been sold worldwide in left-hand and right-hand-drive versions, as a berline (saloon) and break (estate).
Its appearance is similar to the Alfa Romeo 164, launched the same year and also styled by Pininfarina. It used TU/XU petrol and XUD diesel engines.
In July 1987, Peugeot unveiled ten versions of the 405 simultaneously for the 1988 model year, with sales on the continent beginning before Christmas, and sales in the United Kingdom beginning in March. Deliveries began in October 1987 for the saloon, and May 1988 for the estate. No coupé was ever offered to the public, unlike the 504 and later 406, as only two examples of the purpose-built 405 Turbo-16 (not to be confused with 405 T16) were made. The 405 was available as a 4-door only. Four-cylinder petrol engines included 65, 92, 110, 125, and 160 hp (48, 69, 82, 93, and 119 kW) units. A 1.8-litre diesel engines, with or without a
The Tatra 75 is a middle class automobile introduced in 1933 by Tatra as a replacement for their Type 54 model.
The front-mounted ohv air-cooled boxer motor of only 1688 cc had an advertised output of just 30 hp (22 kW). Attention was paid to weight reduction, with light metal used for the cylinder head castings. In common with other Tatras of this time, the 75 delivered its power to the rear wheels, using a four-speed gear box.
The car was offered with a range of four- and six- seater bodies, the latter employing a lengthened wheelbase. During its nine-year production run, 4,501 Tatra 75s were produced.
After the war, in 1947, the model was belatedly replaced with the radically different Tatra 600 "Tatraplan".
Schmarbeck, Wolfgang: Tatra - Die Geschichte der Tatra-Automobile, Verlag des Internationalen Auto- und Motorrad-Museums Deutschland, Bad Oeynhausen (1977)
Volvo ÖV 4 is the first car built by Volvo. The designation ÖV4 stands for "Öppen Vagn 4 cylindrar" in Swedish, which means Open Carriage 4 cylinders. The model ÖV4 was often referred to as "Jakob" but that was just a name for one of the 10 pre-series ÖV4 that was ready on July 25 Jakob's name-day. All 10 prototypes were assembled in Stockholm at the company AB Galco, Hälsingegatan 41 where Gustav Larson worked at that time. Only one of the 10 pre-series cars manufactured during 1926 was saved for posterity and is housed in Volvo Museum, in Gothenburg, Sweden.
The engine was designed by Gustav Larson and its main chassis components by Jan G. Smith, a designer who had worked many years in the American automobile industry and returned to Sweden in 1924. Many of Jan G. Smith's original drawings for the ÖV4 and other technical papers that he collected in America are saved in the archive of the National Museum of Science and Technology in Stockholm, Sweden.
When the first series produced ÖV4 was about to drive out of the factory and engineer Eric Carlberg put it into first gear, the car went backwards, where the car was actually in reverse gear. The explanation was that the differential
The Buick Super is a full-sized automobile produced from the 1940 through the 1958 model years (excluding WW II); it was built on Buick's larger body shared with the Roadmaster. It and the Roadmaster were replaced by the Electra in 1959.
When introduced in 1940 the new Series 50 Super featured the cutting-edge "torpedo" C-body. The new C-body that the 1940 Buick Super shared with the Series 70 Roadmaster, the Cadillac Series 62, the Oldsmobile Series 90, and the Pontiac Torpedo featured shoulder and hip room that was over 5" wider, the elimination of running boards and exterior styling that was streamlined and 2-3" lower. When combined with a column mounted shift lever the cars offered true six passenger comfort. These changes had clearly been influenced by the Cadillac Sixty Special.
The basic formula for the 1940 to 1952 Super was established by mating the Roadmaster's longer behind the engine cowl body to the Series 40 Special's smaller straight-eight engine (and consequently shorter engine compartment). This led to an economical combination of voluminous passenger room and relatively good fuel economy. (In contrast the Series 60 Century combined the smaller Special body with
The MG C-type was produced by the MG Car company from 1931 to 1932. It was designed for competition use and based on the M-Type Midget. A special car, EX120 had been developed from the M-Type for George Eyston to make an attempt on the 750 cc class 24 hour record at Autodrome de Montlhéry in France. The attempt was successful and a series of replica cars were made which became the C-Type.
The car used a tuned short stroke (73 mm) version of the bevel gear driven overhead camshaft engine from the 1928 Morris Minor and Wolseley 10 with a single SU carburettor and a new crankshaft producing 44 bhp (33 kW) at 6400 rpm. It could from 1932 be had with the crossflow head to be seen later on the MG J-type and a Powerplus supercharger version was also available with 52.4 bhp (39.1 kW) at 6500 rpm. Drive was to the rear wheels through a four-speed non-synchromesh gearbox. The chassis was new and took the form of a ladder frame with tubular cross members and passed under the rear axle. The suspension used half-elliptic springs and Hartford friction shock absorbers with rigid front and rear axles and centre lock wire wheels. The car had a wheelbase of 81 inches (2057 mm) and a track of 42
The Packard One-Ten (also One Ten and 110) was a range of six-cylinder automobiles produced by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan during the 1940 and 1941 model years. The One-Ten model designation replaced the Packard Six model name.
Packard reintroduced a line of six-cylinder cars in 1937 after a ten year absence as a response to the economic depression and ongoing recovery cycle in the United States. As an independent automaker, Packard could not look to other internal divisions to support its base of luxury models, so the inclusion of the Six, and the later 110 models, was necessary to aid in supporting the firm's bottom line until better times returned.
Critics of the Packard Six and One-Ten models have long maintained that the cars hurt Packard's reputation of being America's premier luxury marque. Still, the reintroduction of the Six couldn't have come at a better time for the automaker, just prior to the nation's 1938 economic depression. By offering the less expensive Packard, the company was able to attract buyers who would otherwise be unable to purchase the more expensive Packard models.
Built on a shorter wheelbase than the senior Packards, the One-Ten
The BMW 327 is a medium sized touring coupé produced by the Bavarian firm between 1937 and 1941, and again produced after 1945. It sat on a shortened version of the BMW 326 chassis.
The first 327, launched in 1937, was a cabriolet. In 1938, this was joined by a fixed head coupé version. The car was shorter and lower than its sedan counterpart, but shared the famous BMW grill and a streamlined form representative of the more progressive designs of the 1930s.
Mechanically, the car utilised the hydraulic brake control, gear box, clutch and front suspension system first seen on the BMW 326, along with the live axle used on the BMW 320 and BMW 328. The M78 straight-6 engine was used. The advertised top speed was 125 km/h (78 mph).
A higher-powered model, the 327/28, was offered with the M328 engine. 569 of these high-powered 327/28 cars were built up to 1940.
Among some enthusiasts, the 327 has subsequently been overshadowed by its more uncompromising sibling, the 80 bhp (60 kW) BMW 328 which appeared in April 1938. In its day, however, the 327 was the bigger seller, with 1,396 built between 1937 and 1941, and significant further production after 1945.
During the 1930s, Eisenach was the
The Fiat 519 was a model of car produced by Italian automotive company, Fiat between 1922 and 1927.
2411 were produced in total. Approximately 25 known worldwide of which one is a genuine 519S and three others are shortened 519s although all have the pointed 519S radiator.
The Lincoln K-Series (also called the Model K, reflecting the earlier Ford Model K) was a line of luxury vehicle produced by Lincoln from 1930 to 1940. While the original K-Series featured a 385 in³ (6.3 L) V8, a V12 became standard in 1933. Customers also had the choice of ordering a fully custom coachwork.
The original Model K appeared in the 1931 model year on a new chassis with a 145 in (3683 mm) wheelbase. Factory bodies included a 2- or 4-door phaeton, the latter available as a dual-cowl model. The 384.8 in³ (6.3 L) engine was a derivative of the earlier L-series 60° V8, but a dual venturi downdraft Stromberg carburetor, higher compression, and altered timing upped power to 120 hp (89 kW).
The Lincoln K-series was split in 1932 into two lines, the V8 carryover Model KA and the new V12-powered Model KB. The V8 car reverted to a 136 in (3454 mm) wheelbase, though engine output was pushed to 125 hp (93 kW). The KB, on the other hand, featured the marque's new L-head V12 engine. The 447.9 in³ (7.3 L) 65° L-head unit produced 150 hp (112 kW).
Both series featured a new grille with less of a surround, vent doors rather than vertical louvers on the sides of the hood, a parking light
The Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost refers both to a car model and to one specific car from that series.
Originally named the "40/50 h.p." the chassis was first made at Royce's Manchester works, with production moving to Derby in July 1908, and also, between 1921 and 1926, in Springfield, Massachusetts. Chassis no. 60551, registered AX 201, was the car that was originally given the name "Silver Ghost." Other 40/50 hp cars were also given names, but the Silver Ghost title was taken up by the press, and soon all 40/50s were called by the name, a fact not officially recognised by Rolls-Royce until 1925, when the Phantom range was launched.
The Silver Ghost was the origin of Rolls-Royce's claim of making the "Best car in the world" – a phrase coined not by themselves, but by the prestigious publication Autocar in 1907.
The chassis and engine were also used as the basis of a range of Rolls-Royce Armoured Cars.
In 1906, Rolls-Royce produced four chassis to be shown at the Olympia car show, two existing models, a four-cylinder 20 hp and a six-cylinder 30 hp, and two examples of a new car designated the 40/50 hp. The 40/50 hp was so new that the show cars were not fully finished, and examples
The Packard 200 was an automobile model produced by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan during model years 1951 and 1952. Models in the 200 designation represented the least expensive Packard model range, on the firm's shortest wheelbase, and least powerful 288 cubic inches (4.7 L) 8-cylinder in-line engine.
Concurrently, the company also produced the Packard 250, which shared the same basic body and wheelbase as the 200, but was equipped with Packard's larger 327 cubic inches (5.4 L) 8-cylinder in-line engine.
The 1951 Packard 200 and 250 were introduced as Packard's least expensive model range on August 24, 1950, taking the place of the low-line Packard Standard models which were eliminated for the 1951 model year. The 200 debuted as part of the fully redesigned Packard line, attributed to John Reinhart. Replacing the bulbous 1948-1950 Packards in the 22nd and 23rd Packard Series, Reinhart's "High Pockets" design was more formal than its predecessor, and would serve Packard until the end of the 1956 model year when true Packard production ceased.
Both the 200 and the 250 were considered "junior" series cars, and were separated from the Packard 300 and Packard
Maserati 3500 was a 2-door coupé and convertible made by Maserati of Italy. It was the company's first attempt at the Gran Turismo market and large-volume production.
Maserati's chief engineer Giulio Alfieri developed the two 2+2 prototype 3500GT, revealed at the Salon International de l'Auto in Geneva, March 1957. Both had a 2,600 mm (102.4 in) wheelbase and aluminum bodywork; one a superleggera body by Carrozzeria Touring of Milan, the other by Carrozzeria Allemano. The design incorporated
Minor design changes were done before production of the 1,420 kg (3,131 lb) Touring-based body started late 1957. Front disc brakes and limited slip differential became optional in 1959, standardized in 1960; rear discs became standard in 1962. Borrani knock-out wire wheels complemented the standard steel wheels, as well as wider 185x16" radial tyres. All cars had leather interior and Jaeger-LeCoultre instruments. Power windows was added as standard.
In 1959, the Maserati 5000 GT was introduced using the chassis of the 3500GT. Two steel-bodied convertible prototypes by Carrozzeria Vignale and Michelotti were developed in 1959 and shown at the Salon de l'Auto in Paris 1959.
A spider made by
The MG P-type was produced by the MG Car company from 1934 to 1936. This 2-door sports car used an updated version of the overhead camshaft, crossflow engine, used in the 1928 Morris Minor and Wolseley 10 and previously fitted in the J-type Midget of 1932 to 1934, driving the rear wheels through a four-speed non-synchromesh gearbox. The chassis was a strengthened and slightly longer version of that used in the J-type with suspension by half-elliptic springs all round with rigid front and rear axles. Steering was initially by a Marles Weller and later a Bishop Cam system. The two-seat car had a wheelbase of 87 inches (2210 mm) and a track of 42 inches (1067 mm). Most cars were open two seaters, but streamlined Airline coupé bodies were also made. The P-type was also available as a four-seater, a car that suffered from a lack of power and poor rear ground clearance. Whereas J, K and L-type MGs differentiated between versions with the use of numbers, with 1 indicating a four-seater (i.e., J1) and 2 a two-seater (i.e., J2), this was not the case with the P-type (or its six-cylinder sister, the N-type Magnette), and there is no clue to the type in the name.
The first version, the PA
The Renault KZ was a Mid-size car or Large family car manufactured by Renault from 1923 to 1931.
The KZ was the replacement of the Type GS and the Type IG and its intention was to be a rival of the Citroen Type C in the class called "populaires" (economic). The car had a 4-cylinder engine of 2120 cc, 33 cm larger than its predecessors.
In 1927 three new models arrived, the KZ1, KZ2, KZ3, 21 cm larger.
In 1930 and 1931 the KZ4 and KZ5 were introduced.
The KZ11, was a taxis G7 company, a special series of 2400 vehicles with new adaptations.
The Triumph Gloria was a popular car made by the Triumph Motor Company in, Coventry in the 1930s.
Between 1933 and 1938 Triumph made a large and confusing range of Gloria sporting saloons, coupés, tourers, 2-seater sports cars, drophead coupés and golfer’s coupés. All these Glorias, apart from the final two models (1.5-Litre Saloon and Fourteen (1767 cc) Six-Light Saloon of 1937-1938) were powered by 1087 or 1232 cc four-cylinder or 1467 or 1991 cc six-cylinder Coventry Climax overhead inlet and side exhaust valve designed engines (modified and built under licence by Triumph).
The chassis came in two lengths, with an extra 8 in (203 mm) ahead of the passenger compartment depending on whether the four- or six-cylinder engine was fitted, and had conventional non-independent suspension with semi elliptic leaf springs. The brakes were hydraulically operated using the Lockheed system with large 12 in (305 mm) drums. A four-speed transmission was fitted with an optional free wheel mechanism allowing "clutchless" gear changing. Synchromesh was fitted to the gearbox on the final Fourteen and 1.5-litre models.
From August 1934 to 1936 the Gloria range included ‘Gloria Vitesse’ models (not
The Alvis 12/70 was introduced by Alvis cars in 1937. It was a 4-cylinder car related to the 6-cylinder Alvis Silver Crest.
Alvis designed and manufactured the 4-cylinder 1842 cc pushrod overhead valve engine which was similar to the engine of the Alvis Firebird but was, in fact, a new design. Alvis also designed and made the 4-speed gearbox which had synchromesh on the top 3 speeds.
Many of the other components were outsourced to other suppliers in a bid to cut costs.
A total of 741 cars was manufactured , and in 1945 the 12/70 was replaced by the Alvis TA 14 but much of the 12/70 lived on in this post war model.
The regular Bentley 6½ Litre and the high-performance Bentley Speed Six were sports and luxury cars based on Bentley rolling chassis in production from 1926 to 1930. The Speed Six, introduced in 1928, would become the most-successful racing Bentley. Two Bentley Speed Six became known as the Blue Train Bentleys after their owner Woolf Barnato's involvement in the Blue Train Races of 1930.
The 6½ Litre was inspired by the Rolls-Royce Phantom I as a closed-body car. Although based on the Bentley 3 Litre, it incorporated many improvements. The cone-type clutch was replaced by a dry-plate design, incorporating a clutch brake for fast gear changes, and four wheel finned-drum brakes were used. The front brake drums had 4 leading shoes in each drum and the brakes were also power assisted. Operation of a patented compensating device by the driver could adjust all four brakes to correct for wear while the car was moving. This was particularly advantageous during racing.
Like the four cylinder engine, Bentley's straight-6 included overhead camshaft, 4 valves per cylinder and two sparking plugs per cylinder, all uncommon technologies at the time, as well as a single-piece engine block and head
The Humber Pullman is a four-door limousine that was introduced by the British Humber company in 1930 as a successor to the Humber 20/65 hp and long-wheelbase version of the Humber Snipe.
In 1939 an ungraded version was launched badged as the Humber Imperial, but postwar the car reverted to the Pullman name. Between 1948 and 1954 the car was offered with a central partition (for chauffeured use) as the Pullman, but without a partition was badged as the Humber Imperial for owner-drivers.
The Pullman / Imperial was not offered for sale to the public during the Second World War; the factory's limited output were used as staff cars. It returned to the market in 1945 and remained in production till 1954. At the present time only eight units of this vehicle are still extant.
The 1930 car came with a 3498cc straight six cylinder overhead inlet side exhaust valve engine and a claimed power output of 80 hp (60 kW). The classic limousine style body featured rear- hinged doors and in some respects resembled the Humber Snipe 80 with which it shared its engine, but the Pullman was longer and wider. For this heavy car Humber claimed a top speed of 73 mph (117 km/h). As well as the limousine,
The Maserati Bora is a Maserati two-seater coupe powered by a V8 engine mounted amidships. Produced from 1971 to 1978, it had a top speed of 174–177 miles per hour (280–285 km/h).
Shortly after Citroën took a controlling interest in Maserati in 1968, the concept of a mid-engined two-seat sports car was proposed. Lamborghini and De Tomaso already had the Miura and Mangusta whilst Ferrari were known to be developing their own mid-engined contender. Initially known as Tipo 117 and later the Bora, the Maserati project got underway in October 1968 and a prototype was on the road by the summer of 1969. Shown in its final form at the Geneva Salon in March 1971, the first customer cars had been delivered before the end of the year. Maserati struggled after being bought by De Tomaso in 1975, and the Bora was discontinued in 1978.
A combined steel monocoque chassis and body featured a tubular steel subframe at the back for the engine and transmission. Suspension was independent all round (a first for a Maserati road car) with coil springs, telescopic shocks and anti-roll bars. The development prototype and the broadly similar show car first seen at the 1971 Geneva Motor Show featured
The Maserati Khamsin (named after the Khamsin, a hot, violent wind in the Egyptian desert) was a sports car introduced as a Bertone prototype in the autumn of 1972 at the Turin Auto Show. In 1973 it was put on display at the Paris Motor Show, where it was badged as a Maserati. Production of the vehicle started in 1974. The car had a front mounted 4.9 litre V-8 delivering 320 hp.The engine however was pushed back as far as possible so it would be able to fit a spare tire for more room in the trunk. The Khamsin now had housed in bodywork that resembled a lower, flatter Ghibli, designed by Bertone. Production of the Khamsin ended in 1982, with only 430 vehicles produced. One of those was delivered to Luciano Benetton in 1981. 155 were brought to the United States.
The Khamsin had several unusual features, such as DIRAVI power steering, with higher than usual assistance for parking, decreasing with speed, and a glass rear panel (between the taillights) below the rear window, giving reverse visibility surpassing most cars, especially similar sports cars. Also, the Khamsin had features like hydraulic seats and an adjustable steering column, which were innovative features at the time.
The Studebaker Dictator was an automobile produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana (USA) from 1927-1937. Model year 1928 was the first full year of Dictator production.
In the mid-1920s, Studebaker began renaming its vehicles. The model previously known as the Studebaker Standard Six became the Dictator during the 1927 model year--internally designated model GE. The name was intended to connote that the model "dictated the standard" that other automobile makes would be obliged to follow.
The Dictator was Studebaker's lowest-price model, followed (in ascending order) by the Studebaker Commander and Studebaker President series. There was a Chancellor in 1927, too, but that year only. In June 1929, Studebaker began offering an 8-cylinder engine for the Dictator series (221 cubic inches, 70 bhp at 3,200 rpm), designed by Barney Roos, though the old 6-cylinder option was continued for another year. Dictators were available in a full range of body-styles.
In retrospect, the choice of the model name might seem unfortunate. Benjamin L. Alpers begins his history of American perceptions of dictators, Dictators, Democracy, and American Public Culture: Envisioning the
The Tatra T600, named the Tatraplan, was a large car from the Czech manufacturer Tatra.
After World War II, Tatra continued its pre-war business of building passenger cars in addition to commercial (and military) vehicles. The factory was nationalised in 1946 two years before the Communist takeover. Although production of pre-war models continued, a new model, the Tatra T600 Tatraplan was designed in 1946-47 by Josef Chalupa, Vladimír Popelář and Hans Ledwinka. The name of the car celebrated the new Communist planned economy but also referred to aeroplane inspiration ('éroplan' means aeroplane in colloquial Czech).
After two prototypes "Ambrož" (December 1946) and "Josef" (March 1947), the T600 went into mass production in 1948. In 1951, the state planning department decided that the Tatraplan should henceforth be built at the Skoda Auto plant in Mladá Boleslav, leaving Tatra to concentrate on truck assembly. This was quite unpopular with the workforce at both plants: as a result Skoda built Tatraplans for one year only before the model was discontinued in 1952.
The Tatraplan had a monocoque streamlined six-seater saloon body with a drag coefficient (Cd) of just 0.32. It was
The Lancia Augusta was produced by Italian automanufacturer Lancia between 1933-1936. The car was powered by a 1196 cc Lancia V4 engine.
During the 1920s, Lancia had been known as producers of sports cars and middle sized sedans: the smaller Augusta represented a departure from that tradition, and contributed to a significant growth in Lancia's unit sales during the 1930s. Nevertheless, in terms of volumes sold, the Augusta was overwhelmed by Fiat's much more aggressively priced 508 Ballila.
Lancia started its French operations on October 1, 1931. At its first factory outside of Italy, at Bonneuil-sur-Marne, Lancia built the Augusta and later Aprilia models, although named them Belna and Ardennes. Approximately 3,000 Augusta/Belna and 1,500 Aprilia/Ardennes were built.
Of the approximately 3,000 Belnas built between 1934 and 1938, 2,500 were saloons and 500 bare chassis.
Georges Paulin had invented the retractable hardtop and subsequently sold it to French coachbuilder Marcel Pourtout. Carrosserie Pourtout built several models based on the French-built Lancia Belna.
The Fiat 521 is a passenger car produced by Fiat between 1928 and 1931. The 521 was derived from predecessor model (Fiat 520), it had a bigger engine and chassis. The 521 C was shorter variant of this car. This car was produced outside Italy, most notably at the Fiat-NSU plant in Heilbronn, starting in 1930. This set Fiat on the path to its subsequent multinational status.
More than 33,000 Fiat 521s were produced in Italy and Germany.
The Peugeot 201 is a car that Peugeot produced between 1929 and 1937.
The car was built at the company's Sochaux plant near the Swiss frontier, and is today celebrated in the adjacent Peugeot museum. Although Peugeot had produced a petrol/gasoline powered motor vehicle as early as 1886, it is reasonable to see the 201 as the company's first volume model.
The 201 was presented at the 1929 Paris Motor Show as the Wall Street Crash burst upon the world. Many European manufacturers would not survive the shock waves emanating from New York, but the compact no-nonsense 201 would match the mood of the moment, enabling Peugeot to survive the economic crisis with its finances intact and its status as a major league auto producer confirmed.
During the 1930s Peugeot offered several variants of the 201, and the engine capacity grew.
Initially, it was powered by a 1122 cc engine developing 23 horsepower (17 kW) at 3500 rpm (top speed: 80 km/h / 50 mph). There followed an engine of 1307 cc, and finally a 1465 cc unit of 35 hp (26 kW).
The 201C launched in 1931 is claimed as the first volume produced car equipped with independent front suspension, a concept rapidly adopted by the competition. The
The Packard One-Twenty (also One Twenty and 120) was an automobile produced by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan from 1935 to 1937 and from 1939 through the 1941 model years. The One-Twenty model designation was replaced by the Packard Eight model name during model years 1938 and 1942.
The One-Twenty is an important car in Packard's history because it signified the first time that Packard entered into the highly competitive mid-priced eight-cylinder car market. Packard enthusiasts view the production of the One-Twenty and the Six/One-Ten models as the start of Packard losing its hold on the market as the premier American luxury automotive brand.
The introduction of the One-Twenty (and later the Six/One-Ten models) was a necessary move to keep Packard in business during the final years of the Great Depression. The reason the company decided to forgo the development of a companion brand name to sell the less expensive models may have been linked to its single production line capability at its Grand Avenue manufacturing plant as much as to the expense of launching a new brand of automobile. By making the One-Twenty a Packard, the car could be brought to market
The Rolls-Royce Phantom III was the final large pre-war Rolls-Royce. Introduced in 1936, it replaced the Phantom II and it was the only V12 Rolls-Royce until the 1998 introduction of the Silver Seraph. 727 V12 Phantom III chassis were constructed from 1936 to 1939, and many have survived. Although chassis production ceased in 1939 (with one final chassis being built in 1940), cars were still being bodied and delivered in 1940 and 1941. The very last car, though completed in 1941, was not delivered to its owner until 1947.
The III is powered by an aluminium-alloy V12 engine of 447in³ (7.32L), having a bore of 3.25 inches (82.5 mm) and a stroke of 4.5 inches (114.3 mm). It is a pushrod engine with overhead valves operated by a single camshaft in the valley between the cylinder banks. Early cars had hydraulic tappets or, rather, a unique system of eccentric bushings in each individual rocker that was actuated by a small hydraulic piston; the eccentric bushing ensuring zero valve-lash at the rocker/valve interface. This system was changed to solid adjustable tappets in 1938. The Phantom III is unusual for its twin ignition systems, with two distributors, two coils and 24 spark plugs.
The Maserati Ghibli is a Gran Turismo car produced by Italian manufacturer Maserati in two generations: first from 1966–73, and again as the Maserati Ghibli II from 1992–97.
The original Maserati Ghibli is a two-door, two-seater GT released by Maserati in 1967. The V8-powered Ghibli debuted at the 1966 Turin Motor Show and proved to be the most popular Maserati vehicle since the automaker withdrew from racing in the 1950s, outselling its two biggest rivals, the Ferrari Daytona and the Lamborghini Miura. So well regarded was the Ghibli Sports Car International named it number nine on its list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s.
The Ghibli's steel body, renowned for its low, shark-shaped nose, was designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro. Giugiaro, who today heads his own company ItalDesign, worked at coachbuilder Ghia when he designed the Ghibli.
The car was powered by a front-placed quad-cam 330 hp (250 kW) V8 engine. It had a 0-60 mph acceleration time of 6.8 seconds, had a top speed of 154 mph (248 km/h) and could be operated by either a five-speed manual or three-speed automatic transmission. Even by the standards of its time and class, the car consumed copious volumes of fuel, but Maserati
The Mercedes-Benz W125 was a Grand Prix racing car designed by Rudolf Uhlenhaut to race during the 1937 Grand Prix season. The car was used by Rudolf Caracciola to win the 1937 European Championship and W125 drivers also finished in the second, third and fourth positions in the championship.
The supercharged engine, with 8 cylinders in line (94.0 x 102.mm) and 5,662.85 cc (345.56 CID), attained an output of up to 595 horse power (444 kW) in race trim. The highest test bed power measured was 637 BHP (646 PS) at 5,800 rpm. It gave 245 BHP (248 PS) at a mere 2,000 rpm. In 1938, the engine capacity of supercharged Grand Prix cars was limited to 3000cc, and the W125 was replaced by the Mercedes-Benz W154.
The W125 was considered the most powerful race car ever for about 3 decades, until large capacity US-built V8 engines in CanAm sportcars reached similar power in the mid 1960s. In Formula One racing itself, the figure was not exceeded until the early 1980s, with the appearance of turbo-charged engines in Formula One.
The W125 reached race speeds of well over 300 km/h (190 mph) in 1937, especially on the AVUS in Berlin, equipped with a streamlined body.
In land speed record runs, a
The Type 97 is a mid-class saloon car from Czechoslovak car-maker Tatra. It was produced for a short time in the pre-war period, from 1936 to 1939.
The T97 was designed in 1936 as a smaller alternative to the large T87. Instead of a V8, it was powered by a 1.8-litre flat-four engine. With engine power of 29.4 kilowatts (40.0 PS; 39.4 bhp) the car could achieve top speed of 130 kilometres per hour (81 mph). The design was also simplified, using just two headlights instead of three, a single-piece windscreen, and an overall smaller body. Production of the car was canceled after the Nazis annexed Czechoslovakia in 1938, possibly to avoid comparison with the KdF-Wagen (see below). At that time, 508 cars were built. In 1946, production resumed, but the new communist government quickly dropped the T97 in favor of the cheaper to build and overall 'more communistic' Tatraplan, which was named after the Communist Planned Economy.
Both the streamlined design and the technical specifications, especially the air-cooled flat-four engine mounted in the back, give the T97 a striking resemblance to the KdF-Wagen of Volkswagen, which later became the Beetle. It is believed that Porsche used Tatra's
The Amilcar CGSS or CGSs was a sporting car made by the Amilcar company from 1926 to 1929. The second S stood for surbaisse and the car was a lowered version of the CGS.
The 1074 cc four-cylinder engine from the CGS was fitted but in a slightly higher state of tune delivering around 35 bhp.
4700 were made.
The Series 70 (models 70 and 75) is a car that was made by Cadillac. It was one of Cadillac's full-size V8-powered cars, produced from the 1930s through the 1980s. It replaced the 1935 355E as the company's mainstream car just as the much less expensive Series 60 was introduced. The Series 72 and 67 were similar to the Series 75 but the Series 72 and 67 were produced on a slightly shorter and longer wheelbase respectively. The Series 72 was only produced in 1940 and the Series 67 was only produced in 1941 and 1942.
The short wheelbase Series 70 would cease production in 1938, but reappear briefly as the relatively expensive and exclusive Series 70 Eldorado Brougham 4-door hardtop from 1957 to 1958, while the long wheelbase Series 75 would make a final appearance in the 1987 model year.
The 1936 Series 70 and 75 both had vee shaped windshield syles by Fleetwood. A narrower radiator shell was supported by the new louver style "Convex vee" grill. Headlights were mounted on the radiator shell. Parking lights were inside the headlights. Front fenders were new with a crease along the center line. The cowl vent was changed back to opening forward. There were built-in trunks on "touring"
The Triumph Super 7 was a car manufactured from 1927 to 1934 by the Triumph Motor Company. It was produced as a response to the success of the Austin 7 and was Triumph's first car to be made in large numbers. In 1933 the name was changed to the Triumph Super 8.
Development of the new car had started in 1925 when Arthur Sykes, who had been with Lea-Francis was given responsibility to design a new small car. Amongst those he recruited to help him was Stanley Edge, who had been the original draughtsman for the Austin 7. The car was launched in September 1927 and was 6 inches (150 mm) longer and 2 inches (50 mm) wider than the Austin. The new 832 cc 4-cylinder side-valve engine, mainly designed by Harry Ricardo, had a stroke of 83 mm (3.3 in) and bore of 56.5 mm (2.22 in) and unlike the Austin had a three bearing crankshaft with pressure lubrication and monobloc crankcase made from cast iron. (The Austin 7 had a two-bearing crankshaft and the cylinder block and crankase were separate castings.) The car followed its Triumph predecessors by having Lockheed hydraulic brakes, but now they were internal expanding in 9.5 in (240 mm) drums and so less affected by water then the older external
The Cadillac Series 65, after the Series 60, represented the company's second, and, being built on the C-body instead of the B-body, somewhat physically larger entry into the mid-priced vehicle market when it appeared in 1937.
In 1937 it was offered in only one body style, a five passenger touring sedan, built by Fisher on the same 131.0 in (3,327 mm) wheelbase as used by the Cadillac Series 70 and the Buick Roadmaster. The car offered a longer heavier car than the Series 60 at a price below that of the Fleetwood bodied Series 70.
Under the hood was the Monobloc V8. The only displacement that was available was the 346 cu in (5.7 L). This engine produced 135 hp (101 kW) at 3400 R.P.M. The car had Bendix dual-servo brakes, "Knee-Action"independent suspension in front and a Stromberg carburetor ('37: AA-25; '38: AAV-25) with an electric choke.
In 1938 the Series 65 and the Series 75 shared a new front end style featuring a massive vertical cellular grille, three sets of horizontal bars on the hood sides, alligator hood, and headlights on the filler space between the fenders and the hood. Optional sidemount covers were hinged to the fenders. Quarter windows were of sliding rather than
The 508 was a car introduced by Fiat in 1932. It effectively replaced the Fiat 509, although production of the earlier model had ceased back in 1929. It had a three-speed transmission (increased to four in 1934), seated four, and had a top speed of about 50 mph (80 km/h). It sold for 10,800 lire (or 8,300 2005 euro). About 113 thousand were produced, a large part of them in the Centralne Warsztaty Samochodowe factory in Poland.
The 508 was also manufactured in France by SAFAF (Société Anonyme Française des Automobiles Fiat) branded as Simca-Fiat 6cv.
The Fiat 508 was fitted with a 995 cc side valve engine.
The Fiat 522 is a passenger car produced by Fiat between 1931 and 1933. The 522 was derived from predecessor models, now with a new chassis and the option of a shorter wheelbase.
The engine was an in-line six-cylinder engine of 2,516 cc for which 52 bhp (39 kW) of output was claimed. The car also featured a four-speed all-syncromesh gear box, which set this Fiat ahead of its time.
The 522 was the first model to feature Fiat's subsequently familiar rectangular logo: the badge used here employed gold lettering on a red background.
Almost 6,000 examples of the 522 were produced. A Fiat 522 CSS was also offered: in this version, the car had a higher compression ratio and twin carburetters.
The Hudson Greater Eight was a premium line of automobiles produced by the Hudson Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan during 1931 and 1932.
The Hudson Motor Car Company, headed by Roy D. Chapin, developed a reputation and success in the automobile marketplace by building solid cars with good performance for the money and fine reliability. The introduction of the Essex Six in 1924, targeting budget minded buyers, increased the combined sales of Hudson Motors from seventh to third place in the U.S. automobile market by 1925. Production of Hudson and Essex cars continued to hold third place for 1927, fourth place in 1928, and returned to capture third in 1929 with a total of 300,962 units.
The automaker decided to move upmarket and in 1930, launched a line of cars called Great Eight. Hudson Eights were "often luxurious, and usually smooth, effortless performers" powered by a new for 1930 straight-eight engine that would be produced through 1952. Total production in 1930 for Hudson Motors fell by almost 40% to 113,898 units.
For 1931, the automaker renamed the line to "Hudson Greater Eight" – implying that the new models "were even better than" the previous year because of
The Humber Super Snipe is a car which was produced from 1938 to 1967 by the British-based Humber car company, part of the Rootes Group.
The Super Snipe was introduced in October, 1938, derived by combining the four-litre inline six-cylinder engine from the larger Humber Pullman with the chassis and body of the Humber Snipe, normally powered by a three-litre engine. The result was a car of enhanced performance and a top speed of 79 mph (127 km/h) —fast for its day. Its design was contributed to by American engine genius Delmar "Barney" Roos who left a successful career at Studebaker to join Rootes in 1936.
The Super Snipe was marketed to upper-middle-class managers, professional people and government officials. It was relatively low-priced for its large size and performance, and was similar to American cars in appearance and concept, and in providing value for money.
Within a year of introduction, World War II broke out in Europe but the car continued in production as a British military staff car, the Car, 4-seater, 4x2, while the same chassis was used for an armoured reconnaissance vehicle, the Humber Light Reconnaissance Car.
In 1946, post-war civilian production resumed and the
The MG WA was a sporting saloon produced by the MG Car company between 1938 to 1939 and was at the time the largest and heaviest car the company had built. Although similar to the SA the car had a wider track at the rear allowing a larger body to be fitted.
The car used a tuned version of the six-cylinder Morris QPHG engine enlarged to 2561 cc. The compression ratio was increased to 7.25 to 1 and a new balanced crankshaft was fitted. Drive was to the live rear axle via a four-speed manual gearbox with synchromesh on the top three ratios and a divided propshaft. Wire wheels were fitted and the 14 inch drum brakes were hydraulically operated using a Lockheed system.
The saloon body was made in-house by Morris and was a spacious four-door with traditional MG grille flanked by two large chrome plated headlights. It can be distinguished from the outwardly similar SA by the front bumper which has a dip in the centre and the spare wheel was carried on the front wing as opposed to the boot lid. Inside there were individual seats in front and a bench seat with folding centre arm rest at the rear, all with leather covering and a return was made to the traditional octagonal framed
The Nash Metropolitan is a car that was sold, initially, only in the United States and Canada, from 1954–1962.
It conforms to two classes of vehicle: economy car and subcompact car. In today’s terminology the Metropolitan is a “subcompact”, but this category had not yet come into use when the car was made. At that time, it was variously categorized, for example as a "small automobile" as well as an "economy car".
The Metropolitan was also sold as a Hudson when Nash and Hudson merged in 1954 to form the American Motors Corporation (AMC), and later as a standalone marque during the Rambler years, as well as in the United Kingdom and other markets.
While most U.S. automobile makers were following a "bigger-is-better" philosophy, Nash Motor Company executives were examining the market to offer American buyers an economical transportation alternative. The Metropolitan was designed in the U.S. and it was patterned from a concept car, the NXI (Nash Experimental International), that was built by Detroit-based independent designer William J. Flajole for Nash-Kelvinator. It was designed as the second car in a two car family, for Mom taking the kids to school or shopping or for Dad to drive
The Renault Juvaquatre is a small family car / compact car automobile produced by the French manufacturer Renault between 1937 and 1960, although production stopped or slowed to a trickle during the war years. The Juvaquatre was produced as a sedan/saloon until 1948 when the plant switched its full attention to the new Renault 4CV. During the second half of 1952 the plant restarted production of the Juvaquatre sedans/saloons for a period of approximately five months.
In 1948 a Juvaquatre based panel van appeared and two years later a van based station wagon body joined the range; later models of the station wagon (from 1956 on) were known as the Renault Dauphinoise. The sedan/saloon found itself overshadowed and massively outsold after the appearance in 1946 of the Renault 4CV (which was France's top selling car in the post-war years). However, both the 4CV and its successor, the Renault Dauphine, were rear engined and unsuitable for simple station wagon adaptation, which is why the Juvaquatre "Dauphinoise" station wagon remained in production until effectively replaced by the Renault 4 in 1960.
The Juvaquatre was originally conceived in 1936 by Louis Renault as a small, affordable
The Czechoslovakian Tatra 77 is the first serial-produced truly aerodynamically designed automobile. It was developed by Hans Ledwinka and Paul Jaray, the Zeppelin aerodynamic engineer. Launched in 1934, the Tatra 77 is a coach-built automobile constructed on a central tube-steel chassis and is powered by a 75 horsepower (56 kW) rear-mounted 3.4-liter air-cooled V8 engine. It possessed such advanced engineering as overhead valves, hemispherical combustion chambers, dry sump, fully independent suspension, rear swing axles and extensive use of lightweight magnesium-alloy for the engine, transmission, suspension and body. The average drag coefficient of a 1:5 model of Tatra 77 was recorded as 0.2455. The later model T77A has a top speed of over 150 km/h (93 mph) due to the advanced aerodynamics which delivers an exceptionally low drag coefficient of 0.212 although some sources claim that this is the coefficient of 1:5 model, not of the car itself.
The Tatra Company began manufacturing cars in 1897 in Kopřivnice, Moravia, today's Czech republic, making it the third oldest still existing automobile manufacturer in the world. During the time the company, lead by Hans Ledwinka employed
The AC 2-Litre is an exclusive and stylish saloon offered by AC of Thames Ditton in Surrey, England between 1947 and 1956. Two and, from 1953, four-door saloons were sold. In addition, as from 1949, a small number of drophead coupés and "Buckland" tourers were produced.
The car's wetliner, aluminium cylinder block, six-cylinder 1991 cc engine was the unit first offered by the company in the AC 16, back in 1922. However, by 1947 the engine was fed by three SU carburetors, and boasted a power output of 74 bhp (55.2 kW), increased again in 1951 to 85 bhp (63.4 kW) which was more than twice the 35 bhp (26.1 kW) claimed for engine's original commercial application.
The aluminium-panelled body on a wood frame was fitted to a conventional steel chassis with rigid axles front and rear with semi-elliptic leaf springs with, for the first time on an AC, hydraulic dampers. Until 1951 the car had a hybrid braking system, hydraulic at the front and cable at the rear with 12 in (305 mm) drums.
The car changed very little during its ten-year production run, though the wheel size did increase slightly to 16 in (406 mm) in 1951. The AC 2-litre was outlived by its engine, which continued to be
The Alfa Romeo 8C name was used on road, race and sports cars of the 1930s. The 8C means 8 cylinders, and originally referred to a straight 8-cylinder engine. The Vittorio Jano designed 8C was Alfa Romeo's primary racing engine from its introduction in 1931 to its retirement in 1939. In addition to the two-seater sports cars it was used in the world's first genuine single-seat Grand Prix racing car, the Monoposto 'Tipo B' - P3 from 1932 onwards. In its later development it powered such vehicles as the twin-engined 1935 6.3-litre Bimotore, the 1935 3.8-litre Monoposto 8C 35 Type C, and the Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Mille Miglia Roadster. It also powered top-of-the-range coach-built production models. In 2004 Alfa Romeo revived the 8C name for a V8-engined concept car which has made it into production for 2007, the Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione.
In 1924, Vittorio Jano created his first straight-eight-cylinder engine for Alfa Romeo, the 1987 cc P2, with common crankcase and four plated-steel two-cylinder blocks, which won the first World Championship ever in 1925. Albeit it was a straight-8, the 8C designation was not used.
The 8C engine, first entered at the 1931 Mille Miglia road race
The Armstrong Siddeley Hurricane was a two door, four seat drophead coupé automobile made by the British company of Armstrong Siddeley. It was made from 1946 to 1953 and based on the 1945 Armstrong Siddeley Lancaster.
The chassis featured independent front suspension using torsion bars and a live rear axle with leaf springs. A Girling hydro-mechanical braking system was fitted, with the front drums hydraulically operated while those at the rear used rod and cable.
Early models of the Hurricane were was fitted with a 70 bhp 1991 cc six cylinder, overhead valve engine, carried over from the pre-war 16 hp model but from 1949 this was enlarged to a 75 bhp 2309 cc by increasing the cylinder bore from 65 to 70 mm. There was a choice of four speed synchromesh or pre-selector gearbox.
The four seat, two door body was made of steel and aluminium panel fitted over a wood and aluminium frame. The doors were rear hinged, an arrangement that got the name of suicide doors. Changes during the model life were minimal: however, the bonnet line was slightly lowered for 1948 when the car also acquired stoneguards on the leading edges of its rear wings.
At launch, the car cost £1151 on the UK market.
The Fiat 525 is a passenger car produced by Italian automobile manufacturer Fiat between 1928 and 1931. The 525 was larger successor to the Fiat 512. The 525 was modified only after a year it was introduced and named as 525N. Sport variant 525 SS had more powerful engine and shorter chassis.
Produced 4400 examples.
The Nash-Healey is a two-seat sports car that was produced for the American market between 1951 and 1954. Marketed by Nash-Kelvinator Corporation with a Nash Ambassador drivetrain and a European chassis and body, it served as a halo (or image) vehicle for the automaker to promote the sales of the other Nash models. It was "America's first post-war sports car", and the first introduced in the U.S. by a major automaker since the Great Depression. The Nash-Healey was the product of a partnership between Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and British automaker Donald Healey, as well as a later restyle by Pinin Farina and subassembly in Italy.
Donald Healey and Nash-Kelvinator CEO George W. Mason met on the Queen Elizabeth, an ocean liner going from the United States to Great Britain. Healey was returning to England after his attempt to purchase engines from Cadillac, but General Motors declined his idea. His idea was expand production of the Healey Silverstone that race car driver Briggs Cunningham had customized with Cadillac’s new 1949 overhead-valve V8 engine. Mason and Healey met over dinner and a production plan ensued during the remainder of the voyage. The two became friends because
The Peugeot 402 is a large family car produced in Sochaux, France from 1935 to 1942 by Peugeot. It was unveiled in Paris Motor Show in 1935, replacing the Peugeot 401.
The Peugeot 403, introduced approximately thirteen years after the demise of the 402, can be seen as the older car’s natural heir. (Immediately after World War II the market demanded smaller cars: Peugeot acknowledged this by concentrating during the late 1940s and early 1950s on their 202 and 203 models.)
The 402 was characterized by what became during the 1930s a "typically Peugeot" front end, with headlights well set back behind the grille. The style of the body was reminiscent of the Chrysler Airflow, and received in France the soubriquet Fuseau Sochaux which loosely translates as "Sochaux rocket". Streamlining was a feature of French car design in the 1930s, as can be seen by comparing the Citroën Traction Avant or some of the Bugatti models of the period with predecessor models: Peugeot was among the first volume manufacturers to apply streamlining to the extent exemplified by the 402 and smaller Peugeot 202 in a volume market vehicle range.
Recessed ‘safety’ door handles also highlighted the car’s innovative
The Renault KJ was a compact car or small family car automobile manufactured by Renault from 1923 to 1924.
The Renault KJ was presented at the Mondial de l'Automobile in Paris in 1923, the project was created and designed by Louis Renault. A car of the medium social class, its competitors were the Peugeot Quadrilette and the Citroen Type C, the Renault KJ was very similar to the Renault Type MT, but it had a nautic style body or skiff or boattail style.
In 1924 Renault ceased production of this model and replaced it with the Renault NN.
The Bugatti Type 55 was a road-going version of the Type 54 Grand Prix car. A roadster, it had a short 108.3 in (2750 mm) wheelbase and light 1800 lb (816 kg) weight.
Power came from the Type 51's 2.3 L (2262 cc/138 in³) straight-8 engine. This 2-valve DOHC unit produced 130 hp (96 kW) and could rev to 5000 rpm. A Roots-type supercharger was used.
The car's 4-speed manual transmission came from the Type 49 touring car. 38 examples were produced from 1932 through 1935
The Maserati Quattroporte is a luxury four-door saloon made by Maserati in Italy. The name translated from Italian literally means "four doors". There have been five generations of the car, each separated by a period of roughly seven years.
In the early 1960s, Maserati's reputation was at a high. With growing sales, Prince Karim Aga Khan ordered a special Maserati 5000 WP, chassis no. 103,060, designed by Pietro Frua. The following year, Maserati showed the first-generation Quattroporte of 1963, which bore a striking resemblance to the earlier drawing. While the design was by Frua, construction was carried out by Vignale.
This, the 1963 'Tipo 107' Quattroporte, joined two other notable grand tourers, the Facel Vega and the Lagonda Rapide, which could comfortably do 200 km/h (124 mph) on the new motorways of Europe. However, the Quattroporte could be said to have been the first car specifically designed for this purpose.
It was equipped with a 4.1 L (4,136 cc/252 cuin) V8 engine, producing 256 hp (SAE) (191 kW) at 5,600 rpm, and either a five-speed ZF manual transmission or a three-speed automatic. Maserati claimed a top speed of 230 km/h (143 mph).
Between 1963 and 1966, 230
The Packard Clipper was initially a single model of the Packard Motor Car Company introduced in April, 1941, midyear, much as was the 1964 1/2 Ford Mustang and other new departures. It was manufactured between 1942 and 1947, from the six and junior eight, to the Super-8, where it cost more than and outperformed corresponding Cadillacs. The Clipper name alone was reintroduced in 1953 for the Company's bottom line through 1956, in which final year it was considered a stand alone make, and not a model of Packard.
By the end of the 1930s, Packard president Max M. Gilman realized that his best efforts to improve profitability during the last lean decade had not been enough. The Packard One-Twenty had arrived in 1935 and saved the company from immediate demise; the One-Ten had followed, achieving even higher volume. But despite a strong performance in revival year 1937, Packard sales had plummeted as the depression returned in 1938, and the 76,000 sales for the calendar year 1939 were hardly past the break-even point. To be precise, they netted the company a scant half million dollars. This precarious financial state combined with the new model developments among Packard's rivals meant
The Rolls-Royce 25/30 built between 1936 and 1938 is an updated version of the 20/25 with larger engine to provide more power, as often, over-large bodies had been fitted to the earlier model leading to complaints about its performance.
The in-line 6-cylinder, overhead-valve engine is similar to that used in the 20/25 but increased in capacity to 4257 cc by increasing the bore from 3.25 inches (82.6 mm) to 3.5 inches (88.9 mm), with the stroke remaining at 4.5 inches (114.3 mm). The compression ratio is 6:1. A single proprietary Stromberg downdraught carburettor replaced the Rolls-Royce one, and magneto ignition was no longer fitted, but a standby coil was provided. The four-speed gearbox is mounted in unit with the engine, and a traditional right-hand change used. Synchromesh is fitted to third and top gears.
The riveted chassis has rigid front and rear axles suspended by half-elliptic springs with hydraulic dampers. Braking is on all four wheels assisted by a mechanical servo, famously under licence of Hispano-Suiza. Separate rear brakes are fitted for the handbrake. The traditional Rolls-Royce radiator with triangular top was used with vertical louvres, the angle of which is
The Isotta Fraschini 8A was a car manufactured by Isotta Fraschini, successor to the Tipo 8 model with a new 7.3 litre straight-eight engine to replace the 5.9 litre unit used in the previous model. This new engine could produce between 115-160 hp. This was the most powerful mass produced straight-8 engine in the world at that time.
The Isotta Fraschini car company promised that every car could do 150 km/h (93 mph). The car was very luxurious and it cost more than a Model J Duesenberg. Around one third of these cars were sold in the United States.
The Maserati Merak was an Italian sports car introduced in 1972, essentially a junior version of the Maserati Bora. It substituted an all new Maserati designed quad-cam V-6 motor (also shared with the Citroen SM) for the Bora's larger V-8, resulting not only in a lower cost, but room for a small backseat and better handling due to lower weight and a better front/rear weight distribution.
Aesthetically, the Merak differed from the otherwise very similar Bora mainly in sporting open flying buttresses instead of the Bora's fully glassed rear, and the use of the Citroen SM dashboard on models produced before 1976.
The Merak went out of production in 1982.
The first Merak was designed during the Citroën ownership of Maserati (1968–1975). It featured a 3.0 L (180 cu in) Maserati V6 engine with 190 PS (140 kW; 187 hp), also used in the Citroën SM.
The mid-engine Merak used the Bora bodyshell, but with the extra space offered by the smaller engine used to carve out a second row of seats, suitable for children or very small adults.
As for the Bora, certain Citroën hydraulic systems were used in the Merak; brakes, clutch, headlight pods. The Citroën SM's dashboard was also used in early
The MGB is a sports car launched by MG Cars in May 1962 to replace the MGA. Introduced as a four-cylinder roadster, a coupé with 2+2 seating was added in 1965. The six-cylinder MGC debuted in 1967; a later derivative fitted with the Buick-based Rover V8 was made from 1973 to 1976.
MGB/MGC production continued until October 1980 variously by the British Motor Corporation and its successors, British Motor Holdings and British Leyland Motor Corporation.
The MGB was a relatively modern design at the time of its introduction, utilizing a monocoque structure instead of the traditional body-on-frame construction used on both the MGA and MG T-types and the MGB's rival, the Triumph TR series. The lightweight design reduced manufacturing costs while adding to overall vehicle strength. Wind-up windows were standard, and a comfortable driver's compartment offered plenty of legroom. A parcel shelf was fitted behind the seats.
The MGB's performance was considered brisk at the time of its introduction, with a 0–60 mph (96 km/h) time of just over 11 seconds, aided by the relatively light weight of the car. Handling was one of the MGB's strong points. The 3-bearing 1798 cc B-Series engine produced
The Nash Statesman (1949–1956) was the lower-priced version of the two main Nash Motors' automobile series, and was priced below the top-line Nash Ambassador.
Although the Statesman's interior cabin was nearly identical to that of the Ambassador, upholstery and trim materials were plainer in design and less expensive.
Mechanically, the Statesman's wheelbase was substantially shorter than the Ambassador's, which was achieved by using a shorter front "clip" (the portion of a car from the cowl forward) than was installed on the Ambassador; therefore, Statesman and Ambassador hoods and front fenders were not interchangeable. From the cowl rearward, however, the two series' dimensions were identical.
Statesman engine designs were based on the sturdy and reliable decades-old L-head Nash Light Six engine designed in the 1920s and continuing into the 1940s in the Nash LaFayette and Nash 600, remarkable in itself for the lack of intake and exhaust manifolds. Because of the Statesman's lighter weight, remarkable fuel economies were reported by owners and testers.
Nash Statesman models were offered in three sub-series - the top-line Statesman Custom and the entry-level Statesman Super and
The Renault Vivastella (Type PG2) was a full-size automobile manufactured by Renault between 1929 and 1939.
Different versions of the car were produced throughout the thirties and were differentiated by engine size but always shorter than the Renault Reinastella.
The Vivastella was introduced as a more luxurious version of the Renault Vivasix
The BMW 328 is a sports car made by BMW between 1936 and 1940, with the body design credited to Peter Szymanowski, who became BMW chief of design after World War II (although technically the car was designed by Fritz Fiedler).
In 1999 the BMW 328 was named one of 25 finalists for Car of the Century by a worldwide panel of automotive journalists.
It won the RAC Rally in 1939 and came in fifth overall (first in its class) in the 1939 Le Mans 24 hours.
In 1938, BMW 328 became a class winner in Mille Miglia.
In 1940, the Mille Miglia Touring Coupe won the Mille Miglia with average speed of 166.7 km/h (103.6 mph).
In 2004, the BMW 328 Mille Miglia Touring Coupe became the first car to win both the Mille Miglia (1940) and the modern-day classical version of the race.
After the Second World War, the manufacturing plant in Eisenach where the 328 had been built found itself in the Russian occupation zone, and automobile manufacturing in Eisenach would follow a state directed path until German Reunification in 1989.
One of the Mille Miglia 328s (disguised as a Frazer Nash) and BMW's technical plans for the car were taken from the bombed BMW factory by English representatives from the Bristol
The early Bugatti 8-cylinder line began with the 1922 Type 30. The same basic design was used for the 1926 Type 38 as well as the Type 40, Type 43, Type 44, and Type 49.
Produced from 1922 through 1936, the Type 30 used the 2 L (1991 cc/121 in³) engine of the Type 29 racer. It shared its chassis (including the axles and gearbox) with the Type 13 "Brescia". This engine went on to be used in the cut-cost Type 35A and Type 38. About 600 were built from late 1922 through 1926 in varying specifications.
The Type 38 was produced in 1926 and 1927. It used the 2 L (1991 cc/121 in³) engine from the Type 35A "Tecla". The supercharger from the Type 37A was later fitted, making the Type 38A. Its gearbox and brakes were later used in the Type 40, while its radiator and axles were shared with the Type 43.
385 examples were produced, 39 of which were supercharged 38As.
The Type 40, introduced in 1926 and produced through 1930, used the 3-valve 1.5 L (1496 cc/91 in³) engine first used in some Type 37s. It was an enclosed tourer or (as the Type 40A) small roadster. About 830 were built.
The Type 40A shared its block with the Type 40 and displaced 1.6 L (1627 cc/99 in³). All 40 Type 40As were built
The Chrysler Imperial, introduced in 1926, was the company's top of the range vehicle for much of its history. Models were produced with the Chrysler name until 1954, and again from 1990 to 1993. The company tried to position the cars as a prestige marque that would rival Cadillac and Lincoln. According to a feature article in AACA's magazine The adjective ‘imperial’ according to Webster’s Dictionary means sovereign, supreme, superior or of unusual size or excellence. The word imperial thus justly befits Chrysler’s highest priced quality model.
In 1926, Walter P. Chrysler decided to attempt to compete with Cadillac and Lincoln in the luxury car field. Chrysler offered a variety of body styles: a two/four-passenger roadster(four passenger if car had the rumble seat), a four-seat coupé, five-passenger sedan and phaeton, and a seven-passenger top-of-the-line limousine. The limo had a glass partition. The Imperial's new engine was slightly larger than the company's standard straight 6. It was a 288.6 cu in (4.7 L) six-cylinder with seven bearing blocks and pressure lubrication of 92 brake horsepower (69 kW). Springs were semi-elliptic in the front. The car set a transcontinental speed
The MG Y-Type was a small saloon and limited production open four-seat tourer built by the MG Car Company between 1947 and 1953.
When production ceased in 1953 8,336 “Y” Types had been produced, the breakdown being: 6,131 “YA”s, 904 “YT” Tourers and 1,301 “YB”s.
In the years immediately before the Second World War, MG had sought to supplement its popular range of ‘Midget’ sports cars with three saloons of various sizes and engine capacities. These were the “S”, “V” and “W” models. The MG factory at Abingdon on Thames had grown by developing what were in essence Morris based products and they were always to be closely associated with what was to become the Nuffield Organisation (Morris, Wolseley and later Riley). The “WA” had an engine displacement of 2,561 cc, the “SA” 2,288 cc and the smallest of the group, the “VA”, had an engine of 1,548 cc. The next development to the range was to include one more saloon, of smaller engine capacity than the “VA”, and for a component base the Cowley design office turned to Morris’s Ten-Four Series M saloon, which was introduced during 1938, and the smaller Eight Series E which was launched at the Earls Court Motor show the same year.
The Peugeot 202 was an automobile from Peugeot. Production of the car ran between 1938 and 1942 and then, after a brief production run of 20 in early 1945, restarted in mid-1946. It was sold until 1949, by when it had been replaced by the 203.
The 202 was instantly recognisable as a Peugeot from the way that the headlights were set, as on the older 302, close together, in a protected location behind the front grille. Most customers chose the four-door berline (saloon) version which by 1948 came with a steel-panel sliding sun roof included in the price. However the boot/trunk was small and could be accessed only from within the car, there being no outside boot lid. The two-seater two-door cabriolet "décapotable" did have a separate boot lid but cost approximately 30% more than the berline. Priced very closely to the berline was a structurally similar four-door four-seater "berline découvrable", which featured a full fold away hood: this type of body would become difficult to provide using the monocoque body structure then becoming mainstream and which would be a feature of the Peugeot 203.
Between 1947 and 1949 the manufacturer produced 3,015 timber bodied "break" (estate)
The Pierce Silver Arrow was a concept car designed by James R. Hughes, of which five were built in a record three months, and introduced at the 1933 New York Auto Show.
The car caused an absolute sensation, with a futuristic design, spare wheels hidden behind the front wheels, a wide-degree angle V-12 and a top speed of 115 mph (185 km/h). A few production models were built, but they resembled a more typical Pierce-Arrow and lacked many of the unique features shown in New York. Only three Silver Arrows exist today.
The Pierce Silver Arrow can be seen and driven in the computer game Mafia: The City of Lost Heaven, in which it is referred to as the Silver Fletcher.
The Renault NN is an compact car or small family car manufactured by Renault from 1924 to 1930.
The NN was first presented at the 1924 Mondial de l'Automobile in Paris as the successor for Renault Type KJ and Type MT.
The exterior design was very simple and family-oriented. It reached 60 km/h (37 mph) and 150,000 cars were sold. The NN2 was introduced in 1929, a larger and heavier car.
The car was replaced by the Renault Monasix and Renault Juvaquatre.
The SS90 was a British sports car first built by SS Cars Ltd in Coventry, England in 1935. In 1945 the company changed its name to Jaguar Cars Ltd.
The car used a six-cylinder side-valve Standard engine of 2663 cc with an output of 68 bhp (51 kW). The engine differed from the one used in the ordinary cars by having Dural connecting rods, an aluminium cylinder head with 7:1 compression ratio, and twin RAG carburettors. At 8 feet 8 inches (2.64 m) in length the chassis was a shortened version of the one used on the SS 1, and was also supplied by Standard. Suspension was by half-elliptical springs all round, with an underslung back axle. The braking system was Bendix.
The cars rapidly gained attention for their elegant sporting styling, but were not well regarded by the sporting fraternity as their performance did not match their appearance. True sports car performance had to wait for the SS 100, which had similar styling and suspension but an engine fitted with an overhead-valve cylinder head.
The SS 90 does not seem to have been tested independently by any magazines, therefore contemporary performance figures are unknown, but it was widely believed to be capable of reaching 90 mph
The MG Q-type (sometimes referred to as the QA) was a racing car produced by the MG Car company in 1934. The chassis was based on the one used on the MG K3 but was narrower and used N-type axles. The engine used the cylinder block from the P-type but with a special crankshaft to bring the capacity down to 746 cc by reducing the stroke from 83 mm (3.3 in) to 71 mm (2.8 in). A high-pressure Zoller supercharger was fitted giving a boost to 2.5 atmospheres (1.8 kg/cc) and allowing the engine to produce 113 bhp (84 kW) at 7200 rpm. A sprint version was also made with output increased to 146 bhp (109 kW) which at nearly 200 bhp (150 kW) per litre was the highest specific output of any engine in the world at the time
Probably only eight were made (Michael Sedgwick states nine) as the car was expensive at £550–650, and the rigid axle chassis had difficulty in dealing with the power of the engine. The single-seat version achieved a lap speed of 122 mph (196 km/h) at Brooklands race track driven by George Harvey-Noble, and the two-seater was capable of 120 mph (190 km/h).
The Peugeot 203 is a medium-sized car which was produced by the French manufacturer Peugeot between 1948 and 1960.
The car was exhibited at the Paris Motor Show in 1947, but by then had already been under development for more than five years. Volume manufacturing was initially hampered by strikes and shortages of materials, but production got under way late in 1948, with buyers taking delivery of 203s from early 1949.
The 203 was Peugeot's first new model launched after World War II. During its twelve year production run nearly 700,000 203s of all variants rolled off the assembly line in Sochaux, France. Between the demise of the 202 in 1949 and the launch of the 403 in 1955, the 203 was the only model produced by Peugeot.
The 203 was the first monocoque bodied production Peugeot. The car was eye catchingly modern and bore a marked resemblance to the American Chevrolet Fleetline fastback, although its wind cheating profile also reflected the streamlining trend apparent in some of Europe's more modern designs, including some of Peugeot's own 402 model, from the 1930s.
The four-door saloon was the major seller, but from 1950 a commodious five-door estate version (Commerciale) and a
Volvo PV 36 Carioca is an automobile manufactured by Volvo between 1935 and 1938. The word Carioca describes someone from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and was also the name of a dance that was fashionable in Sweden at the time when the car was introduced.
Visually the car was styled similarly to the then strikingly modern Chrysler Airflow. Volvo styling was heavily influenced by North American auto-design trends in the 1930s and 1940s, many of the company's senior engineers having previously worked in the US Auto-industry.
The PV36 was the first Volvo to offer an independent front suspension, but the car used the same side-valve engine as the traditional Volvo cars that were still produced alongside the modern Carioca. The PV36 was an expensive car, with a price at 8,500 kronor and Volvo didn’t build more than 500 cars. The last one wasn’t sold until 1938.
The Peugeot 604 is an executive car produced by the French manufacturer Peugeot from 1975 to 1985. 153,252 examples of the 604 were sold during its 10-year production life. It was made in France and also assembled by Kia in South Korea.
The Pininfarina-designed 604 was unveiled at the Geneva Motor Show in March 1975 and drew praise for its formal, handsome styling. Denmark´s "Bilrevyen 1976" ("The Car Review 1976"), for example, described the styling as possessing a "calm elegance". Sales began in September 1975. Based "on the principles of the Peugeot 504", using its bulkhead, doors, and part of the 504 floorpan, and usually powered by the then-new 144 PS (106 kW) 2.7-litre V6 PRV engine, developed in conjunction with Renault and Volvo, the car was Peugeot's first entry into the large luxury saloon market for 40 years - the most recent being the short-lived Peugeot 601 of 1934.
The 604 was effectively Peugeot's first entry into the executive class market segment and augmented the Peugeot range. The drive to enter a product in this class came from the increased affluence of the French market which Peugeot felt could accommodate a car more expensive than the 504.
The 604 had several
The Peugeot 104 is a supermini motor car designed by Paolo Martin and produced by the French car manufacturer Peugeot between 1972 and 1988. It was the first model produced at the company's Mulhouse plant. It was also the first new Peugeot introduced since 1955 not to be available with a diesel option.
Saloon launch 1972
On its launch in 1972, the Peugeot 104 was offered as a four-door saloon, with a sloping rear end that suggested a hatchback. Power was provided from a 954 cc Douvrin engine called the PSA X engine, an all-aluminium alloy, chain driven overhead cam, with gearbox in the sump, sharing engine oil, which was jointly developed with Renault. This transmission-in-sump arrangement was similar to that pioneered by the British Motor Corporation in the Mini. It gave good levels of economy and refinement as well as having an impressive chassis which made ride and handling excellent. The engine was mounted leaning backwards, at a 72 degree angle.
Coupé launch 1974
A three-door coupé was launched on a shortened chassis, with the same 954 cc engine as the saloon. Headlights were larger and rectangular in shape, rather than square. Originally sold as the "104 Coupé", shorter
The Bentley 3 Litre was a sports car based on a rolling chassis by Bentley. The 3 Litre was Bentley's first car. Introduced in 1919, the 3 Litre chassis was made available to customers' coachbuilders from 1921 to 1929. It was for a large car compared to the tiny, lightweight Bugattis then dominating racing, but its innovative technology and strength made up for its weight. The 4000 lb (1800 kg) car won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1924, with drivers John Duff and Frank Clement, and again in 1927, this time in Super Sports form, with drivers S. C. H. "Sammy" Davis and Dudley Benjafield. Its weight, size, and speed prompted Ettore Bugatti to call it "the fastest lorry in the world."
The 3 Litre was delivered as a running chassis, with Bentley referring many customers to Vanden Plas for standard bodies. Most were tourers, but some variety was inevitable with custom coachwork. Customers included Prince George, Duke of Kent, Gertrude Lawrence, and Beatrice Lillie.
The 3.0 L (2,996 cc/183 cu in) straight-4 engine was large for its day, but it was its technical innovations that were most notable. The engine was one of the first production car engines with 4 valves per cylinder and an
The BMW 335 is a six-cylinder sports sedan produced by the Bavarian firm between 1939 and 1941.
Commercial success for the BMW 326, introduced in 1936, encouraged a move upmarket. This would involve BMW in challenging the dominance then enjoyed by Mercedes-Benz over a lucrative sector, with their 320 and 340 models.
BMW were producing, in their Eisenach plant, the model that would form the basis for the larger car. The 326 had already spawned successful sporting derivatives. The 335 was also to be based on the 326, but with the wheelbase and chassis extended to accommodate a 3485 cc M335 six-cylinder in-line engine. Despite clearly reflecting the approach taken with existing BMW units, this was an entirely new design. Claimed maximum power output of 90 bhp (67 kW) was lower than the values advertised for comparably sized and powered Jaguars of the period, it achieved full power at only 3500 rpm. With 90 bhp (67 kW), the car had top speed of 145 km/h (90 mph).
The engine’s additional weight prompted the fitting of larger brake drums and wheels than on the 326. The 335 sustained BMW’s reputation for innovation, being the first car to offer a four-speed gear box with full synchromesh
The Fiat 520 is a name of two different Fiat produced car in 1920s.
Fiat's entry in the luxury car market, the 520 "Superfiat" was equipped with a V12 engine of 6,805 cc producing a claimed 90 bhp. For several years in the early 1920s it was the only car in the world offered with a V12 engine.
Fiat's upper middle class car in the later 1920s was also designated as the Fiat 520, but was smaller and more modestly powered than its earlier namesake.
During the early decades of the 20th century European automakers, once steering wheels had replaced centrally positioned steering tillers, tended to place the driver and his steering wheel on the right side of the car regardless of any local regulations or conventions concerning which side of the road cars should be driven. By the 1920s, as the number of wheeled vehicles on the roads increased, clearer consensus had become necessary in the more populous parts of Italy about the need for everyone to drive along the right side of the road. The 1927 Fiat 520 was one of the first cars, presumably in recognition of this trend, to place the steering wheel on the left side of the car.
The 520 was replaced by the Fiat 521 in 1928, although the 520
The Lancia Lambda is an innovative automobile produced from 1922 through 1931. It was the first car to feature a load-bearing monocoque-type body, (but without a stressed roof) and it also pioneered the use of an independent suspension (the front sliding pillar with coil springs). Vincenzo Lancia even invented a shock absorber for the car and it had excellent four wheel brakes. Approximately 11,200 Lambdas were produced.
Nine versions of the Lambda were built:
The narrow-angle aluminum Lancia V4 engine was also notable. All three displacements shared the same long 120 mm (4.7 in) stroke, and all were SOHC designs with a single camshaft serving both banks of cylinders. First engine had 13° V angle, second 14° and 3rd 13° 40'.
Maserati 5000 GT (1959–1965) were thirty-two 2-door coupé automobiles, made by Maserati of Italy.
The first car in the Tipo 103 series, was the Shah of Persia, delivered to Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who had been impressed by the Maserati 3500. He commissioned Maserati's chief engineer Giulio Alfieri to utilize a slightly modified 5-litre engine from the Maserati 450S on the 3500GT's chassis. Carrozzeria Touring developed the superleggera tubing and aluminum body of the two-seater coupe. The second car, also by Touring, was displayed at Salone dell'automobile di Torino 1959.
Specifications for the 5000 GT were:
In 1960 the engine got some modifications and received a displacement of 4940cc with a bigger stroke and a smaller bore; in the new configuration engine developed 340 bhp. After three bodies by Touring, the main body partner since 1960 became Carrozzeria Allemano which did 22 of the cars. Other builders were Pietro Frua (3), Carrozzeria Monterosa (2), Pininfarina (1), Ghia (1), Michelotti (1) and Bertone (1). At least one convertible Allemano was made.
The 5000 GT was sold at prices around USD 17000 (twice the cost of a Maserati 3500), and in many respects individualized to the
The MG K-type Magnette was produced by the MG Car company from October 1932 to 1934.
Launched at the 1932 London Motor Show, the K-Type replaced the F-Type Magna but having at first a slightly smaller capacity engine it took the name Magnette. The chassis was similar to the Magna but strengthened and had the track increased by 6 inches (150 mm) to 48 inches (1200 mm) and was available in two lengths with a wheelbase of either 94 inches (2388 mm) or 108 inches (2743 mm). The steering was modified with a patented divided track rod which was claimed to reduce kick back at the steering wheel. The brakes were cable operated with 13-inch (330 mm) drums made of "Elektron", a light magnesium alloy, with shrunk in steel liners. Suspension by half-elliptic springs and Hartford friction shock absorbers all round with rigid front and rear axles. Wire wheels with 4.75 x 19 tyres and centre lock fixing were used.
The engines were based on a Wolseley overhead camshaft design used first in the 1930 Wolseley Hornet and subsequently used by MG in the F-Type but subject to a major re-design. The stroke was reduced from 83 mm to 71 mm to reduce the capacity from 1272 cc to 1087 cc and a cross flow
The MG Midget is a small two seater sports car produced by the MG division of the British Motor Corporation from 1961 to 1979. It revived a famous name used on earlier models such as the MG M-type, MG D-type, MG J-type and MG T-type.
The first version was essentially a slightly more expensive badge-engineered version of the Austin-Healey Sprite MKII and retained the quarter-elliptic sprung rear axle from the original Sprite. The engine was a 948 cc A-Series with twin SU carburettors producing 46 hp (34 kW) at 5500 rpm and 53 lbf·ft (72 Nm) at 3000 rpm. Brakes were 7 in (178 mm) drums all round. A hard top, heater, radio and luggage rack were available as factory fitted extras.
In October 1962 the engine was increased to 998 cc, raising the output to 56 hp (42 kW) at 5500 rpm and 62 lbf·ft (84 Nm) at 3250 rpm and disc brakes replaced the drums at the front. Wire spoked wheels became available.
The doors had no external handles or locks and the windows were sliding Perspex side-screens. A heater was an optional extra.
Production was 16,080 of the small-engined version and 9601 of the 1098.
A car with the 948 cc engine was tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1962 and had a top
The Peugeot 504 is a large family car manufactured by French automaker Peugeot between 1968 and 1983, with licensed production continuing until 2006.
Peugeot's flagship, the 504 made its public debut on 12 September 1968 at the Paris Salon. The press launch which had been scheduled for June 1968 was at the last minute deferred by three months, and production got off to a similarly delayed start because of the political and industrial disruption which exploded across France in May 1968.
The 504 was a sunroof-equipped four-door saloon, introduced with a carbureted 1796 cc four-cylinder petrol engine 97 bhp (72 kW; 98 PS) with optional fuel injection and 82 bhp (61 kW; 83 PS). A column-mounted four-speed manual transmission was standard; a 3-speed ZF 3HP22 automatic available as an upgrade.
The 504 was European Car of the Year in 1969, praised for its styling, quality, chassis, ride, visibility, strong engine and refinement.
The 504 Injection two-door coupé and two-door cabriolet were introduced at the Salon de Geneva in March 1969. The engine produced the same 97 bhp (72 kW; 98 PS) of output as in the fuel-injected saloon, but the final drive ratio was slightly revised to give a
The Renault Viva Grand Sport was introduced on the 1934 Paris Motor Show, with the name of Renault Vivasport, the car was next to the Renault Vivastella and Nervastella. Renault concluded a contract with pilot Hélène Boucher to promote the car.
The Viva Grand Sport was powered by a 6-cylinder straight engine with 4,085 cc (249 cu in) displacement.
In 1934 Renault won the Grand Prix de la Baule.
The Studebaker Big Six was an automobile produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana between 1918 and 1926, being designated the Model EG (1918-21), the EK (1922-24) and the EP (1925-26). In 1927, it was renamed the President (ES) pending introduction of a smaller and smoother straight-eight engine for new top-of-the-range models after January 1928.
All Studebaker models for 1918 represented an important milestone for the automaker because they represented a clean break from the legacy of E-M-F automobiles that Studebaker had been producing since the collapse of a less than successful marketing agreement.
Between 1918 and 1920, the Big Six was offered only as a four-door touring car, the most popular body style for automobiles at the time. But, as the price of enclosed cars came down and consumers discovered the benefits of closed and semi-closed passenger compartments, a wider variety of body styles was made available beginning with the 1921 model year. By 1926, the Big Six could be bought in a variety of specialty body styles including a dual-cowl Phaeton and a Berline (sedan).
1918 to 1919 Big Sixes were powered by Studebaker's 354 in³ (5.8-litre) Straight-6
The Triumph Dolomite is a car that first appeared in 1934 as a sports car and reused on a series of sporting saloons and open cars until at least 1939 when the Triumph Motor Company went into receivership. A number were still sold and registered in 1940, though it is uncertain whether the receiver or new owner turned out cars from spare parts, or sold off completed cars. All except the Straight 8 featured a "waterfall" grille styled by Walter Belgrove, versions of the saloons with conventional grilles were sold as Continental models.
The first use of the Dolomite name was in 1934, when it was used for a 8-cylinder sports car which resembled the Alfa Romeo 8C. However this car did not make production, only 3 being made. The engine was of 1990 cc capacity with twin overhead camshafts and fitted with a Roots type supercharger. The engine output was 120 bhp (89 kW) at 5500 rpm, giving the car a top speed of over 110 mph (175 km/h). Lockheed hydraulic brakes with large 16-inch (400 mm) drums were fitted. The pressed steel chassis was conventional with a beam front axle and half-elliptic springs all round.
One of the cars was entered in the 1935 Monte Carlo Rally driven by Donald Healey
Named to celebrate Maserati's two victories at the Indy 500, the Maserati Indy (Tipo 116) first appeared in 1968, at the Salone dell'automobile di Torino as a prototype by Carrozzeria Vignale that was to replace the ageing Mexico and Quattroporte.
The production model was launched by Maserati at the Geneva Motor Show the following March. In 1969, the Indy was offered only with a 4.2 Litre V8. For the 1970-1972 model years, the Indy started sporting a 4.7 Litre engine alongside the 4.2. In 1971, Maserati added the Ghibli SS's 4.9 Litre V8 to the range, albeit downrated to 320 bhp compared to the Ghibli's 335 bhp and from 1973–1974, both the 4.2 and 4.7 Litre engines were supplanted by the 4.9.
The Mercedes-Benz SSK is a roadster built by German automobile manufacturer Mercedes-Benz between 1928 and 1932. Its name is an abbreviation of Super Sport Kurz, German for "Super Sport Short", as it was a short wheelbase development of the earlier Mercedes-Benz S. The SSK's extreme performance and numerous competitive successes made it one of the most highly regarded sports cars of its era.
The SSK was the last car designed for Mercedes-Benz by the engineer Ferdinand Porsche before he left to found his own company. The SSK was based on the earlier Mercedes-Benz S, but with the chassis shortened by 19 inches (480 mm) to make the car lighter and more agile for racing, especially short races and hillclimbs.
Fitted with a supercharged single overhead camshaft 7-litre straight-6 engine producing 200–300 metric horsepower (150–220 kW) and over 500 lb·ft (680 N·m) of torque (depending on the state of tune), the SSK had a top speed of up to 120 miles per hour (190 km/h), making it the fastest car of its day. The supercharger on the SSK's engine was operated by a clutch that was engaged by fully depressing the throttle pedal and then giving the pedal an extra push. Backing off the throttle
The Packard Caribbean was a "halo" vehicle produced by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan during model years 1953 through 1956. Some of the Caribbean's styling was derived from the Pan American Packard show car of the previous year. Produced only as a convertible from 1953 to 1955, the Caribbean added a hardtop model in its final year of 1956.
Introduced as part of the Packard Cavalier model range, the 1953 Caribbean was perhaps Packard’s most easily identified car because of its full cutout rear wheel housing and side trim, limited to a chrome band outline that stretched the entire length of the car. The band also helped to further delineate the car's wheel openings. A steel continental spare tire was also standard. The hood featured a broad, low leaded-in hood scoop. Bodies for the Caribbean were modified by Mitchell-Bentley Corporation of Ionia, Michigan. Available "advertised" colors for the car were limited to Polaris Blue, Gulf Green Metallic, Maroon Metallic or Sahara Sand. However, a mere handful of special-ordered cars were built in Ivory or Black.
Interiors of the Caribbean were richly upholstered in leather. Most Caribbeans were also generously optioned,
The name Mayfair was applied to the early hardtop coupes built by the Packard Motor Corporation on the 1951-54 Senior body in order to keep in competition with Cadillac, Buick, and Imperial from Chrysler, whose hardtop sales were booming.
Mayfair hardtops were built up to and including, the 1954 model year.
Starting in 1955, Packard renamed its senior hardtop the Four Hundred.
The Renault Primaquatre was an automobile produced from 1931 to 1941 by Renault, the last car built before Louis Renault's death in 1944.
The Primaquatre was first exhibited on 29 December 1930 as the Type KZ6, being a development from to the KZ series. Its 4-cylinder engine was of 2120 cc providing a published maximum output of 35 horsepower (26 kW) at 2900 rpm. The claimed maximum speed was 100 km/h (62 mph). The rear wheels were driven via a 3-speed manual transmission without synchromesh.
In January 1936 appeared the New Primaquatre (Type ACL1) with a new 2383 cc engine offering 48 PS (35 kW; 47 hp) at 3200 rpm.
In following years appeared the type ACL2, BDF1, BDF2 and BDS1, the production running good until 1939 when the war began. The last Primaquatre was the Primaquatre Sport (Type BDS2) with the engine 2.4 cc but with 56 PS (41 kW; 55 hp), type BDF2 receive the engine too of 62 PS (46 kW; 61 hp).
One technical enhancement came in 1940 when Lockheed hydraulic brakes replaced the cable brakes specified for the original design.
The Triumph Vitesse is a compact six-cylinder car built by Standard-Triumph from 1962 to 1971. The car was styled by Giovanni Michelotti, and was available in saloon and convertible variants.
The Vitesse name had previously been used by Triumph on a car made between 1936 and 1938, also by G. N.(Godfrey & Nash) on their 1922 GN Vitesse Cyclecar, and earlier yet by Austin on their 1914–16 Austin 20 (hp) and 30 (hp) Vitesse models.
After the last Triumph Vitesse was made in July 1971, the name remained unused until October 1982, when Rover used it on their SD1 until 1986, and one final time on their Rover 800, 820 and 827 models from October 1988 to 1991, at which time that car was rebodied as the R17 version, which was produced until 1998 as the Rover Vitesse Sport.
The Triumph Vitesse was introduced on 25 May 1962, re-using a name previously used by the pre-Second World War Triumph company from 1936–38, and was an in-line 6-cylinder performance version of the Triumph Herald small saloon. The Herald had been introduced on 22 April 1959 and was an attractive 2-door car styled by the Italian designer Giovanni Michelotti. By the early 1960s, however, Triumph began to give thought to a
The REO Speed Wagon (alternatively Reo Speedwagon) was a light motor truck manufactured by REO Motor Car Company. It was an ancestor of the pickup truck.
First introduced in 1915, production continued through at least 1953 and led to REO being one of the better known manufacturers of commercial vehicles prior to World War II. Although the basic design and styling of the chassis remained consistent, the Speed Wagon was manufactured in a variety of configurations (pickup and panel truck, passenger bus) to serve as delivery, tow, dump, and fire trucks as well as hearses and ambulances. Other manufacturers provided refits for adapting the Speed Wagon for specialized purposes. The Speed Wagon used REO's "Gold Crown" series of engines and was well regarded for power, durability, and quality.
While REO produced some wagons based on its automobile chassis (the Model H) starting in 1908 and had organized a division to produce trucks in 1910 with success, the Speed Wagon's introduction in 1915 was a significant step and a sales success. The company was soon offering a variety of Speed Wagon models with many options and by 1925 had produced 125,000.
After years of roughly equal car and truck
The Peugeot 401 was a mid-size model from Peugeot produced in 1934 and 1935. It was introduced at the 1934 Paris Motor Show and continued to be offered until August 1935.
The 401 was powered by an enlarged version of the engine from the smaller Peugeot 301 and slotted between that model and the range-topping 601. The 401 displaced 1.7 L and produced 44 horsepower (33 kW). Models of the 401 include the 401 D, 401 DL, and 401 DLT. Though the majority were made as sedans, the 401 was offered with no fewer than eleven different body styles.
Peugeot conceived of an electric folding metal roof more than twenty years before Ford reimagined the concept in their Skyliner. This system was called "Eclipse" and was first introduced on the 401. A total of 79 Peugeot 401 Eclipses were made. It later became available on the 301 and 601, also utilized on vehicles by Georges Paulin, Darl'mat, and the coachbuilder Pourtout.
The Studebaker President was the premier automobile model manufactured by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana (USA) from 1926-1942. The nameplate was reintroduced in 1955 and used until the end of the 1958 model when the name was retired.
Prior to mid-1926, Studebaker’s premium model was the Studebaker Big Six. The first automobile bearing the name President was unveiled on July 23, 1926, designated as the ES model in internal Studebaker memos. It was powered by a 354 cu in (5,800 cc) six-cylinder engine until the appearance in January 1928 of the smaller and smoother straight-eight engine of 312.5 cu in (5,121 cc). Albert Russel Erskine, Studebaker’s president, spared no expense in his goal of making the President the finest automobile on the American road. Presidents produced from 1928-1933 established land speed records, some of which went unbroken for 35 years.
The primary advance of the 1931 engine was that the crankshaft was drilled for oil passage to each of its nine large main bearings. At this time, the straight-eight engines of many other firms had only five bearings; connecting the crank throws of every pair of cylinders between said bearings, their
Maserati Sebring was a 2-door coupé and convertible made by Maserati 1962–69. Based on the Maserati 3500, the Sebring was aimed at the American Gran Turismo market and nicknamed after Maserati's 1957 racing victory at the 12 Hour race.
The Series I (Tipo 101.01) was shown at Salon International de l'Auto 1962 and Salone dell'automobile di Torino 1963. Employing all but the Maserati 3500's coachwork, it could reach 137 mph (220 km/h) and 0–60 mph in 8.5 seconds on 185x15 Pirelli tyres. A Borg-Warner automatic transmission was available, a first for Italian automobiles. A total of 348 Tipo 101.01's were built between 1962 and 1965.
In 1965, the Tipo 101.S10 (or 3700 GTiS) was introduced, a lengthened stroke enlarging its engine to 3694.4 ccs (245 cubic inches).
A Series II (Tipo 101.10) joined the Series I in 1965, taking minor design cues from the Quattroporte. It rode on larger 205x15 Pirellis. A run of 243 units was made 1965–69.
The Tipo 101.A10 series (4000 GTiS) was introduced in 1966, with a 4012.2 cc engine producing 255 bhp (190 kW) at 5200 rpm. It remained in production until 1969, when financial constraints forced Maserati to drop its older models from production.
The Steyr 50 is a small car released in 1936 by the Austrian automobile manufacturer Steyr. The streamlined body was approved by Director Karl Jenschke to be constructed in 1935, but in that same year Jenschke relocated to the German Adlerwerke in Frankfurt/Main.
The car had a water-cooled four-cylinder boxer engine driving the rear wheels through a four-speed transmission. To save room and weight a dynastarter was used, which doubled as the axle of the radiator fan. It was regarded as the "Austrian Peoples' Car" and was affectionately referred to as the Steyr "Baby". Professor Porsche had, despite rumors, not been involved in the design or production of the 50. Moreover, the little Steyr offered better seating and luggage space than Porsche's Volkswagen with shorter overall length, a large sheet metal sliding roof and was available with hydraulic brakes (instead of the early Volkswagens' cable-operated ones).
In early 1938, the car was revised. It got a more powerful engine and a longer wheelbase. The new model was called the Steyr 55 and went on sale in 1940.
A total of 13,000 Steyr "Babies" were sold.
Other Steyr models included the Steyr 100, Steyr 120, both equipped with
The Alfa Romeo RL was produced between 1922-1927. It was Alfa's first sport model after World War I. The car was designed in 1921 by Giuseppe Merosi. It had a straight-6 engine with overhead valves. Three different versions were made: Normale, Turismo and Sport. The RLTF (Targa Florio) was the race version of RL - it weighed half of normal versions, the engine had seven main bearings instead of four and double carburetors. In 1923 Alfa's race team had drivers like Ugo Sivocci, Antonio Ascari, Giulio Masetti and Enzo Ferrari. Sivocci's car had green cloverleaf symbol on white background and when he won Targa Florio 1923, that symbol was to become the Alfa team's good luck token.
RL total production was 2640.
Borgeson, G. (2002). The Alfa Romeo Tradition. ISBN 0-85429-875-4
The Aston Martin Le Mans was a two or four seat sports car made by Aston Martin between 1932 and 1934.
Aston Martin’s single-overhead-cam engine with a Bore/Stroke of 69.3 mm x 99 mm, had first been seen in the 1927 models, was highly efficient and now had an output of 70 brake horsepower (52 kW) at 4750 rpm from 1.5 litres, an outstanding development by early 1930s standards. Twin Horizontal SU carburettors were fitted. The aluminium body was mounted on a separate steel chassis which had beam axles front and rear with semi-elliptic leaf springs. 4-Wheel drum brakes, mechanically operated at the rear, and by cable at the front were used.
During 1932 the Aston Martin International Le Mans had slowly sold at £650; the 1933 Aston Martin Le Mans model retailed at £595, thereby increasing the chance of the car selling faster.
Aston Martin, encouraged by the car’s reception, began to offer alternative wheelbase lengths: 102 inches/2591 mm or 120 inches/3048 mm and a choice of open two-seater of four-seater bodywork. The cars were long, low, and immediately recognisable by their unique radiator style and had great character making all the appropriate mechanical noises that characterised
The Bentley 4½ Litre was a British sports car based on a rolling chassis built by Bentley Motors. Replacing the Bentley 3 Litre, it is famous for epitomizing prewar British motor racing and for its popular slogan "there's no replacement for displacement", created by the founder of Bentley, Walter Owen Bentley. Bentley sought to produce a more powerful race car by increasing engine displacement.
At the time, noted car manufacturers like Bugatti and Lorraine-Dietrich focused on designing cars to compete in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, a popular automotive endurance course established only a few years earlier. A victory in this competition quickly elevated any car maker's reputation.
A total of 720 4½ Litre were produced between 1927 and 1931, including 55 models with a supercharged engine known as the Blower Bentley. A 4½ Litre Bentley won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1928. Though the 4½ Litre Bentley's competitive performance was not outstanding, it set several speed records, most famously in 1932 at Brooklands with a recorded speed of 222.03 km/h (138 mph).
The 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance race is a 24 hour race around the Circuit de la Sarthe. The inaugural race was held May 26–27,
The Bugatti Type 57 and later variants (including the famous Atlantic and Atalante) was an entirely new design by Jean Bugatti, son of founder Ettore. Type 57s were built from 1934 through 1940, with a total of 710 examples produced.
Most Type 57s used a twin-cam 3257 cc engine based on that of the Type 49 but heavily modified by Jean Bugatti. Unlike the chain-drive twin-cam engines of the Type 50 and 51, the 57's engine used gears to transmit power from the crankshaft.
There were two basic variants of the Type 57 car:
The Type 57 chassis and engine was revived in 1951 as the Bugatti Type 101 for a short production.
A rediscovered Type 57 sold for 3.4 million euros at auction on 7 February 2009 at a motor show in Paris.
The famous Type 57G tank-bodied racers used the 57S chassis in 1936 and 1937 and the 57C for 1939.
The original Type 57 was a touring car model produced from 1934 through 1940. It used the 3.3 L (3257 cc; 198 cu in) engine from the Type 59 Grand Prix cars, producing 135 hp (100 kW). Top speed was 95 miles per hour (153 km/h).
It rode on a 130-inch (3,302 mm) wheelbase and had a 53.1-inch (1,349 mm) wide track. Road-going versions weighed about 2,100 pounds (950 kg).
The Vignale Maserati Mexico (Tipo 112) body was first used on a 5000GT chassis which an important Mexican customer had shipped to Italy for repair after crashing it. Thereafter the model became known as the Mexico. By coincidence, the Cooper-Maserati win in the Mexican Grand Prix occurred the following year. It made an appearance at the Vignale stand at the Salon di Torino in 1965 and was so well received that Maserati immediately made plans to put a version into limited production. A year later the production model debuted at the Paris Motor Show.
Originally powered by a 4.7 Liter V8 that produced 290 bhp, the car managed to turn out a top speed between 240–250 km/h (150-156 mph). In 1969, however, contrary to Maserati tradition, the Mexico was also made available with a 'smaller' engine. This time the 4.2-litre V8 engine that powered the original Quattroporte.
Apart from the smaller engine option the Mexico underwent few changes during its lifetime. Its luxurious interior included a rich leather seating for four adults, electric windows, wooden dashboard and air conditioning as standard. Automatic transmission, power steering and a radio were available as optional extras. The
The Packard 180 was introduced for the 1940 model year (18th series) by the Packard Motor Car Company to replace the discontinued V-12 as their top-of-the-line luxury model. The correct name of the model was Custom Super Eight One-Eighty. The car was derived from the Packard Super Eight One-Sixty with which it shared the complete running gear including the in-line eight-cylinder, 356-cubic-inch (5,830 cc) engine that developed 160 horsepower. It was advertised as the most powerful eight-cylinder engine offered by any automobile manufacturer in 1940. (By contrast, the Cadillac 346 cubic inch V-8 developed 150 hp).
Packards of all series (110, 120, 160, 180) shared similar body styling in 1940 (which some later said led to a "cheapening" of the once-exclusive luxury marque), using the same bodies with hoods and front fenders of different length to meet their respective chassis. Thus the 160 and 180 got identical bodies. However, the 180s featured finer interior detailing with the best fabrics, leather and carpeting available. Packard used a special woolen ceiling in these cars only which was sewn longitudinally. Packard built the partition in its Limousines in a way that there was no
Tatra 57 is an automobile launched by Tatra company (in Czech: Závody Tatra, official name: Závody Tatra akciová společnost or Ringhoffer - Tatra company, also later known as Tatra Kopřivnice, in German: Tatra Nesselsdorf, now Tatra, a. s.) in 1932 as a replacement for the Tatra 12 model.
The Alvis Firebird was a British touring car made between 1935 and 1939 by Alvis Ltd in Coventry.
Developed from the Alvis Firefly, 449 Firebirds were produced, as a two-door Tourer, a 2+2 sports tourer, a two-door drophead Coupé, and a four-door Saloon.
Powered by an 1842 cc 4-cylinder overhead-valve Alvis engine, it had an aluminium body on an ash wood frame. As with other Alvis cars, the Firebird was built as a rolling chassis then sent to the coachbuilders Cross & Ellis, to be finished to the customer's requirements, so all Alvis Firebirds are different. The Firebird had an all-synchromesh gearbox, and the chassis was lubricated by grease nipples under the bonnet.
In 1939 World War II halted Alvis car production to make aircraft engines, and a German Luftwaffe bomb destroyed the Alvis car factory in 1940.
The Amilcar Compound is a front wheel drive car with unitary body/chassis introduced shortly before World War II by Amilcar after their takeover by Hotchkiss. It was designed by the famous French engineer Jean-Albert Grégoire.
The first Compound, the Compound B38, was presented at the 1937 Paris Motor Show, but production was delayed by difficulties involving the car’s light metal panels, which still represented a very new technology. Series production only got underway a year later. Nevertheless, 35 of the cars were produced during the final quarter of 1938, and through 1939 production built up progressively, with 576 Compounds produced that year. A further 64 were produced during the early months of 1940: however France, along with Britain, had declared war on Germany in September 1939. War impacted the French auto-industry during the ensuing months, as first the Paris Motor Show, scheduled for October 1939, was cancelled and then, in June 1940 the German army invaded and occupied the northern half of the country.
The four cylinder, side valve, 1185 cc engine had its all synchromesh equipped, four speed, gearbox mounted in front of it with gear selection via cables. The drive was
The BMW 326 is a medium-sized sedan produced by BMW between 1936 and 1941, and again briefly, under Soviet control, after 1945. The 326 was BMW's first four-door sedan. It had an innovative design and sold well despite its relatively high price. It also had an unusually involved afterlife.
Designed by Fritz Fiedler, the 326 featured a box-section frame that could readily be adapted for derivative models.. Also innovative were the torsion bar rear suspension, inspired by the dead axle suspension of the Citroën Traction Avant, and the hydraulic braking system. Styled by Peter Schimanowski, the 326 was offered as a four-door sedan and as a two- or four-door cabriolet. The 326 sedan was the first BMW available with four doors. The BMW 320, BMW 321, BMW 327, and BMW 335 were based on the 326. The streamlined form of the body contrasted with previous relatively upright BMWs: drag was presumably reduced further by including a fixed cover over the spare wheel at the back.
The 1971 cc straight 6 engine was a version of the 319’s power plant, with the bore increased from 65 mm (2.6 in) to 66 mm (2.6 in), and an unchanged stroke of 96 mm (3.8 in) giving a displacement of 1,971 cc
The Type 13 was the first real Bugatti car. Production of the Type 13 and later Types 15, 17, 22, and 23, began with the company's founding in 1910 and lasted through 1920 with 435 examples produced. Most road cars used an 8-valve engine, though five Type 13 racers had 16-valve heads, one of the first ever produced. The road cars became known as "pur-sang" ("thoroughbred") in keeping with Ettore Bugatti's feelings for his designs.
The car was brought back after World War I with multi-valve engines to bring fame to the marque at Brescia. The production "Brescia Tourer" also brought in much-needed cash.
The Bugatti automobile was prototyped as the Type 10 in Ettore Bugatti's basement in 1908 and 1909 while he was chief engineer at Deutz Gasmotoren Fabrik in Cologne, Germany.
The Type 10 used a monobloc straight-four engine of Ettore's own design. it was an overhead cam unit with 2 valves per cylinder, highly advanced for the time. A very-undersquare design, it had a 60 mm bore and 100 mm stroke for a total of 1.1 L (1131 cc/69 in). This was attached to an open roadster body with solid axles front and rear. Leaf springs suspended the front with no suspension at all in the rear. Cables
The Fiat 509 was a model of car produced by Italian automotive manufacturer Fiat between 1925 and 1929 as a replacement for the 501. Approximately 90,000 of the model were sold. In 1926 the car was upgraded to the 509A. For 1928, the 509 was offered with standard insurance, also.
In addition to as the standard car, there were 509S and 509SM sports models, as well as taxi and commercial versions.
The Fiat 509 was fitted with a 990 cc overhead cam engine.
The Hudson Commodore was an automobile produced by the Hudson Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan between 1941 and 1952. During its time in production, the Commodore model represented the largest and most luxurious Hudson model.
The Commodore and the Commodore Custom names debuted in Hudson's 1941 model line. Commodore models rode exclusively on the 121-inch (3,073 mm) wheelbase, while Commodore Customs rode either on the company's 121 in (3,073 mm) wheelbase for coupes, or 128 in (3,251 mm) for sedans. The Commodore was powered by Hudson's 202 cu in (3.3 L) I6 producing 102 bhp (76 kW), or by Hudson's 254.4 cu in (4.2 L) I8 that produced 128 bhp (95 kW).
The Commodore series was Hudson's largest model range in its debut year, consisting of sedans, coupes, and convertibles. Hudson used a forward hinged hood that opened from the rear by the windshield with the front end of the hood sliding downward over the grille.
For 1942, the cars received a facelift. This included concealed running boards, modestly enlarged front grilles, and external trim arrangements. Hudson offered an optional "Drive-Master" vacuum assisted clutch and servo-operated transmission with three modes:
The Peugeot 305 is a small family car produced by the French automaker Peugeot from 1977 to 1989. It was offered as a 4-door saloon, 5-door estate, and 2-door van body derivative.
During the mid to late 1970s, the motoring press speculated that a new Peugeot would soon arrive, in order to update the company's model lineup, in an attempt to make the Peugeot more internationally appealing. Since Peugeot had only recently discontinued their Peugeot 404 model, many people thought that the purpose of the new car was to fill the gap, previously occupied by the 404, between the Peugeot 304 and Peugeot 504 models.
It therefore would have been natural for the new car to be called the 405. The car was to be developed from and use the running gear from the 304, but in terms of size and price, it was to succeed the 404, especially considering that the top model in the new range would cost more than the entry-level 504, and that the 304 would remain in production some time after the new car was introduced. Instead of being called the 405, the new car was called the 305. When it made its press debut in November 1977, the motoring press were initially confused as to why it was called a 305 rather
The Peugeot 601 was a range-topping car produced between 1934 and 1935 by Peugeot. The car was equipped with a six-cylinder 2148 cc engine developing 60 hp at 3500 rpm. With limited power and relatively high weight the car could reach top speed of only 110 kilometres per hour (68 mph). Like the other Peugeots of the era, the 601 was also equipped with independent front suspension.
The 601 was produced in three different body styles. The first models came with Berlina body normale and aerodinamica versions, limousine, familiale, coupe and roadster. A cabriolet version was also available, which was over 5 metres (200 in) in length.
There was also special Eclipse body with electrical folding metal roof. The Eclipse was made by designer Georges Paulin, the Darl'mat and the coachbuilder Pourtout.
The sales figures of the 601 were affected by the underwhelming performance of the engine. Nevertheless, at this end of the market, a total of 3,999 units during just two years was a reasonable production volume.
The 601 was taken out of production in 1935, leaving a gap in Peugeot's field of high-end cars that was filled only 40 years later with the arrival of the Peugeot 604. This was also
The MG F-type Magna was a six-cylinder-engined car produced by the MG Car company from October 1931 to 1932. It was also known as the 12/70.
Looking for a car to fill the gap between the M-Type Midget and the 18/80, MG turned to another of the engines that had become available from William Morris's acquisition of Wolseley. This was the 1271 cc 6-cylinder version of the overhead camshaft engine used in the 1929 MG M type Midget and previously seen in the 1930 Wolseley Hornet and had dummy side covers to disguise its origins. Fitted with 1 in (25 mm) twin SU carburettors it produced 37.2 bhp (27.7 kW) at 4100 rpm at first, later increased to 47 bhp (35 kW) by revising the valve timing. Drive was to the rear wheels through a four-speed non-synchromesh gearbox of ENV manufacture. The chassis was a 10-inch (250 mm) longer version of the one from the MG D-type with suspension by half-elliptic springs and Hartford friction shock absorbers all round with rigid front and rear axles. Wire wheels with 4.00 x 19 tyres and centre lock fixing were used. The car had a wheelbase of 94 in (2,388 mm) and a track of 42 in (1,067 mm).
With its sloping radiator and long bonnet the F-Type is an
The Amilcar C4 is a light sporting car designed for road use made between 1922 and 1928 by the French Amilcar company. The chassis is a lengthened version of that of the Amilcar CC model. Coachwork for this vehicle was originally made only by external builders and sent to the factory.
It is powered by a 1043 cc four-cylinder engine with a 58.0 millimetres (2.3 in) bore, a 95.0 millimetres (3.7 in) stroke, and a magneto ignition. The vehicle has three speeds and runs on rear wheel drive. The suspension uses semi-elliptic leaf springs in both the front and real as well as fitted friction type dampers.
Lancia Aprilia (1937–1949) is automobile manufactured by Lancia, one of the first designed using wind tunnel in collaboration with Battista Farina and Politecnico di Torino, achieving a record low drag coefficient of 0.47. The berlinetta aerodinamica was first shown in 1936.
Production commenced in February 1937, the month in which the firm's founder died: this was the last of Vincenzo Lancia's designs, featuring four pillarless doors. The first series (mod. 238, 10,354 units, 1937–39) featured a 1,352 cc V4 motor providing 47 bhp (35 kW). The second series (mod. 438, 9,728 units, 1939–49) had its engine capacity increased to 1,486 cc which provided 48 bhp (36 kW). A Lusso model of this second series was also offered as well as a lungo (lengthened) version (706 made, 1946–49). A total of 20,082 cars and 7,554 additional chassis for coach built bodies were produced in Turin along with about 700 in France.
With the Aprilia Lancia followed their tradition of offering cars with the steering wheel on the right even in markets seen by other manufacturers as left hand drive markets. Outside the UK and Sweden customers increasingly picked the optional left hand drive versions,
The Buick Limited was an automobile built by the Buick Motor Division of General Motors, Flint, Michigan (USA) between 1936 and 1942 and during model year 1958. Since 1959 Buick has used the "Limited" name to denote those models which featured a high level of trim and standard options in its various model ranges.
The origins of the Limited name date to 1936 when Buick added names to its entire model lineup to celebrate the engineering improvements and design advancements over their 1935 models. Buick had released a new line of cars that were technically superior to their predecessors by offering such features as all-steel passenger compartment tops (GM's Turret Top design), improved front suspension, improved hydraulic safety-breaking system, alloy engine pistons and an improved engine cooling system. Buick's Series 40 was named the Special, the Series 60 was named the Century, the Series 80 was named the Roadmaster, and the Series 90 — Buick's largest and most luxurious vehicle — was named the Limited. The engine was a 320CID 120 hp (89 kW) I8
Limiteds were the most expensive Buicks in production, riding on the company's longest wheelbase of 138 in (3,505 mm), and the best
The Series 60 was Cadillac's entry into the mid-priced vehicle market when it appeared in 1936. It was replaced by the Series 61 in 1939, but a model that was derived from it, the Sixty Special continued off and on through 1993.
The Series 60 was the brainchild of new Cadillac manager, Nicholas Dreystadt. Debuting in 1936, it filled a gaping price gap between the LaSalles and Series 70 Cadillac models. Initially it rode on a 121.0 in (3,073 mm) wheelbase and shared the B body with cars from LaSalle, Buick, and Oldsmobile. This went up to 124.0 in (3,150 mm) in 1937-38.
The exterior featured a new Harley Earl-designed look with a tall, slender grille and split vee-shaped windshield. This body used Fisher Body's new Turret Top one-piece roof and Bendix dual-servo brakes. "Knee-Action" independent suspension, first introduced by Cadillac in 1934, was a welcome novelty for the mid-price market for the time.
Under the hood was the new (less expensive) Monobloc V8. This 322 cu in (5.3 L) engine produced 125 hp (93 kW), just 10 less than that in the larger Cadillacs. The Series 60 immediately became the company's best-selling model, making up half of all Cadillacs sold the first year.
The Cadillac V-16 (sometimes known as the Cadillac Sixteen) was Cadillac's top-of-the-line car from its January 1930 launch until production ceased in 1940 as the war in Europe killed sales. All were finished to custom order, and the car was built in very small numbers; only 4076 cars were constructed in the eleven years the model was offered. The majority of these were built in the single year of 1930, before the Great Depression really took hold. This was the first V16 powered car to reach production status in the United States.
In 1926, Cadillac began the development of a new, "multi-cylinder" car. A customer requirement was seen for a car powered by an engine simultaneously more powerful and smoother than any hitherto available. Development proceeded in great secrecy over the next few years; a number of prototype cars were built and tested as the new engine was developed, while at the same time Cadillac chief Larry Fisher and GM's stylist Harley Earl toured Europe in search of inspiration from Europe's finest coachbuilders. Unlike many builders of luxury cars, who sold bare chassis to be clothed by outside coachbuilding firms, General Motors had purchased the coachbuilders
The Triumph 10/20 was a car manufactured from 1923 to 1926 by the Triumph Motor Company.
This was the first Triumph automobile and was named the 10/20 for the Royal Automobile Club's taxation class of 10 horsepower rating and its actual output of 20 brake horsepower. The design was principally by Arthur Alderson assisted by Alan Lea and Arthur Sykes who were employed by Lea-Francis and Triumph paid them a royalty on every car made. It was powered by a 1,393 cc (1.4L) 4 cylinder side valve engine designed by Harry Ricardo and fitted with a single updraught Zenith carburettor. The engine produced 23.5 brake horsepower (17.5 kW) at 3000 rpm giving the car a top speed of 52 mph (84 km/h) and economy of 40 miles per imperial gallon (7.1 L/100 km; 33 mpg-US). The four speed gearbox was mounted centrally and coupled to the engine by a short drive shaft.
At launch it came with a 2 seat, steel panelled, open tourer with provision for a third passenger in a dickey seat not made by Triumph but bought in from the Regent Carriage Company of London. This was soon joined by a Sports model with aluminium body panels and long wings and in 1924 by a fabric covered 4 seat Weymann saloon which
The Chevrolet Two-Ten, or 210 was the midrange model of the Chevrolet car from 1953-1957. It took its name by shortening the production series number (2100) by one digit in order to capitalize on 50's numerical auto name trend. The numerical designation '"210"' was also sporadically used in company literature. It replaced the Styleline DeLuxe model available in previous years. This model was dropped following the 1957 model year to be replaced by the Biscayne.
The Two-Ten series, introduced for the 1953 model year, replaced the Styleline DeLuxe series. It was actually the best-selling Chevrolet model during 1953 and 54, offering a balance of style and luxury appointments unavailable in the base 150 series, but was less costly than the glitzy Bel Air. Two-Tens offered the widest choice of body styles for 1953, including a convertible, Sport Coupe hardtop, two- and four-door sedans, and four-door station wagons.
As the American public began to prefer posh to economy, the Bel Air began to outsell the lesser series, including both 150 and 210 models. As a partial answer to this, Chevrolet re-introduced the Two-Ten Sport Coupe hardtop in the middle of the 1955 model year, and also added
The Fiat 1100 is a compact automobile produced from 1937 to 1969, by the Italian car maker Fiat.
The Fiat 1100 was first introduced in 1937 as an updated version of the 508 "Balilla" (its real name was the 508C) with a look similar to the 1936 Fiat 500 "Topolino" and the larger 1500, with the typical late-thirties heart-shaped front grille, with styling by the emerging designer, Dante Giacosa. It was powered by a 1,089 cc four cylinder overhead-valve engine. Drive was to the rear wheels through a four-speed gearbox, and for the period, its comfort, handling, and performance were prodigious, making it "the only people's car that was also a driver's car". Subsequently the car underwent a partial restyling around the front end and gained new streamlined window-shaped louvres and was renamed the 1100B and popularly known as the "1100 musone" (i. e. "big nose"). After World War II, in 1949, the car was re-introduced with a curvy trunk and new name, the 1100E. Both the 508C and the 1100B were also available as the long wheelbase 508L which was mainly used for vans and taxis.
In 1953 the 1100 was completely redesigned as a compact four-door sedan, with a modern monocoque bodywork and
Fiat 524 is a model of car produced by Italian automotive manufacturer Fiat between 1931-1934. The 524 was bigger and more luxurious version of Fiat 522 model. 10135 cars were produced in total.
A Polish version was also built in Warsawa plant badged Fiat-Polski 524.
The Fiat 527 is a passenger car produced by Fiat between 1934 and 1936. The 527 was a six-cylinder version of 518 Ardita, also known as Ardita 2500. This car was built only with a full-length sedan chassis, having a wheelbase of 3,170 mm (124.8 in).
The 527 was not assembled outside Italy. Approximately 1,000 were produced.
The Isotta Fraschini Tipo 8 is an automobile introduced in 1919 by Isotta Fraschini. The car was equipped with straight-8 engine and it was first serial produced car in the world to have such an engine.
With this car the company gained great name and success as luxury car manufacturer. The Tipo 8 was fitted with 5,9 litre straight-8 engine initially producing 80 bhp (60 kW) and soon raised to 90 bhp (67 kW). The car had top speed of around 85 mph (137 km/h) to 90 mph (140 km/h). The main rival of the car was Rolls-Royce. The Tipo 8 was offered only with bare chassis and engine for the coachbuilders.
The Tipo 8 series got two updated models the 8A and 8B.
The Armstrong Siddeley Whitley was a large post-war sports saloon automobile and was a version of the 16/18 hp series made between 1946 and 1954 by the British company of Armstrong Siddeley. The Whitley was the last of the range to enter production, first appearing in 1949.
The Whitley only used the larger 2309 cc overhead valve engine with a tax rating of 18hp that had first appeared on export versions of the Tempest coupled with a choice of synchromesh or pre-selector gearbox. The front suspension was independent using torsion bars, while at the rear was a live axle and leaf springs. A Girling hydro-mechanical braking system was fitted, with the front drums hydraulically operated, while those at the rear were cable.
A variety of body styles were made. Most common are the 4 or 6 light saloons, but limousines were also made on a long-wheelbase chassis from 1950 to 1952.
The Utility Coupe and Station Coupe were pick up versions made for the export market and in particular for Australia. The former had a conventional front seat only and the latter had an extended cabin with a small additional seat at the rear.
The Series 62 was a series of cars produced by Cadillac, designed to replace the Series 65 in 1940. It remained in production through 1964, having been renamed Series 6200, when it was replaced by the Cadillac Calais name.
The Fisher-bodied Series 62 replaced the Cadillac Series 61 at the lowest rung in the model line up in 1940. The Series 62 featured a low sleek "torpedo" style C-body with chrome window reveals, more slant in the windshield, and a curved rear window. The new C-body that the 1940 Cadillac Series 62 shared with the Buick Roadmaster and Super, the Oldsmobile Series 90 and the Pontiac Torpedo featured shoulder and hip room that was over 5" wider, the elimination of running boards and exterior styling that was streamlined and 2-3" lower. When combined with a column mounted shift lever the cars offered true six passenger comfort. These changes had clearly been influenced by the Cadillac Sixty Special. The styling feature distinguishing all V-8 Cadillacs was once again the grille. Although grilles had the same pointed shape as in 1939, the grille bars were heavier and fewer in number. Two sets of louver bars appeared on each side of the hood. Runningboards were a no
Ambassador was the model name applied to the senior line of Nash automobiles from 1932 until 1957 From 1958 until the end of the 1974 model year, the Ambassador was the product of American Motors Corporation (AMC), which continued to use the Ambassador model name on its top-of-the-line models, making it "one of the longest-lived automobile nameplates in automotive history."
From 1927 through the mid-1932 model year, the Ambassador name was applied to a high trim club sedan body style, one of Nash's most prestigious senior models. The Ambassador series was the "flagship" in the Nash line.
Nash Motors' first use of the name Ambassador was during the 1927 model year when a specially trimmed four-door, five-passenger club sedan version of the "Nash Advanced Six" (designated model 267) was developed. As the most expensive car in the line, the Ambassador received premium upgrades in upholstery and other trim items for a base price of US$2,090 (FOB).
Exports accounted for almost 11% per cent of Nash production in 1927, and the cars were purchased by several royal families. For example, Prince Wilhelm, Duke of Södermanlandof Sweden and Norway personally visited the Nash factory in Kenosha,
The Packard Cavalier is an automobile produced by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan during 1953 and 1954. Produced only as a sedan, the Cavalier took the place of the Packard 300 model which was fielded in 1951 and 1952 as Packard’s mid-range priced vehicle.
The 1953 Cavalier was easily identified from other Packards by its unique chrome side spear trim.
Packard also created a Cavalier sub-series under which three other Packard models, marketed under various names were grouped:
A convertible model, using Cavalier trim, was offered during the 1953 model year and was priced in a more affordable price range than the Caribbean.
For 1954, the Cavalier was again offered as a four-door sedan only, but the range also lost its sub series, and the Caribbean was moved into the senior Packard line where it remained until Packard transferred manufacturing to South Bend in 1956.
For the 1955 model year, the Cavalier name was retired and the line was absorbed into the Packard Clipper Custom series.
The Peugeot 204 is a small family car produced by the French manufacturer Peugeot between 1965 and 1976.
The 204, known in development as Project D12, was available in many body styles including a sedan/saloon/berline, convertible/cabriolet, coupe, estate/wagon, and a van. It was launched in Paris, France on 23 April 1965 and became the best-selling car in France from 1969 to 1971.
The 204 used a front-wheel drive layout and was launched with a single overhead cam 1130 cc gasoline engine (the maximum allowed for the 6CV 'car tax' class in France). In September 1975, less than a year before production ceased, it received a more modern petrol engine, now of 1127 cc. Claimed maximum output, which at launch had been 53 bhp (39 kW), increased to 59 bhp (43 kW), though there was a marginal reduction in maximum torque.
Following the demise of the 204 the new 1127 cc engine found its way into a version of the Peugeot 304 estate: the smaller engine enjoyed in France tax benefits when compared to the 1290 cc engines fitted to most 304s.
For certain export markets engine compression ratios and power on the petrol/gasoline engines were reduced in order to accommodate lower octane
The Studebaker US6 (M16A) is a class of 2.5-ton trucks manufactured by Studebaker during World War II, produced in the United States from 1941-1945 and in the Soviet Union beginning in 1942.
The US6 had a Hercules built six-cylinder gasoline engine that produced 94 horsepower (70 kW), with a five-speed transmission plus a two speed transfer case. Production was divided between GMC producing trucks for the US Army, Studebaker Corporation producing 2.5-ton trucks for Lend-Lease, and International Harvester producing for the US Navy & Marines. Three primary manufacturers produced over 900,000 2.5-ton trucks in all, in both 6x4 and 6x6 axle/wheel versions, with approximately 200,000 Studebaker trucks built in thirteen variations, including dump truck and tractor models.
Studebaker trucks were unique from other 2.5-ton trucks built for the war effort because vent windows were included in each door. These windows were separate from the window that rolled down into the door and could be rotated out to help with ventilation.
Large numbers of Lend-Lease Studebaker trucks were sent into the Soviet Union via the Persian Corridor. The Soviets found them a good platform for "Stalin Organ"
The Willys Jeep Station Wagon, introduced in 1946 by Willys-Overland Motors is the first mass-market all-steel station wagon designed and built as a passenger vehicle and is arguably the world's first popular sport utility vehicle or SUV (the heavy-duty, truck-based Chevrolet Suburban with steel body was introduced in 1939 for professional use mainly as train depot hacks and funeral homes). The Willys Jeep was designed in the mid-40s by industrial designer Brooks Stevens and the station wagon stayed in production until 1965.
The steel body was efficient to mass-produce, as easy to maintain and safer than the real wood-bodied station wagon versions at the time. This was one of Willys' most successful post-World War II models. Its production coincided with individual consumers moving to the new suburbs during the post-war period.
This model was also assembled in several international markets under various forms of joint ventures, licenses, or Complete knockdown kits.
The Willys Jeep Station Wagon was introduced in 1946 as just the 463 model, powered by the L-134 Go-Devil flathead four cylinder. The 663 model, powered by the L-148 Lightning straight six, was brought in for 1948.
The Lancia Artena was produced between 1931 and 1936 by the Italian automanufacturer Lancia. The car was powered by a 2 litre Lancia V4 engine.
There were four successive versions of the car. Lancia built approximately 1500 of the first series between autumn of 1931 through summer of 1932. During the next year the second series was produced, and the third series from Autumn 1933 till the start of 1936. The third series was available in two lengths.
The 54 bhp (40 kW) engine was sufficient to provide a claimed maximum speed of 115 km/h (72 mph) for each of the first three versions.
Between 1940 and 1942 a further 507 Artenas were built. These modified Artenas were larger and slower than the prewar versions: they were used by senior military and political personnel, and in modified form as ambulances.
The Lancia Astura was a more powerful and more luxurious version of this car based on the same platform.
Four versions of the Artena were built:
Maserati A6 (1947–1956) were various cars made by Maserati of Italy, named for Alfieri Maserati (one of the Maserati brothers, founders of Maserati) and for the straight-six engine.
The 1.5-litre straight-six was named A6 TR (Testa Riportata), and was based on the pre-war Maserati 6CM; 65 bhp (48 kW). It first appeared in the A6 Sport or Tipo 6CS/46, a barchetta prototype, developed by Ernesto Maserati and Alberto Massimino. This became the A6 1500 Pininfarina-designed two-door berlinetta, first shown at the 1947 Salon International de l'Auto in Geneva (59 made) and the spider shown at the 1948 Salone dell'automobile di Torino (2 made).
A 2-litre straight-six (120 bhp) was used in the A6 GCS two-seater, «G» denoting Ghisa, cast iron block, and «CS» denoting Corsa & Sports. Also called monofaro, the 580 kg single-seater and cycle-winged racing version first appeared at Modena 1947 by Luigi Villoresi and Alberto Ascari, and won the 1948 Italian Championship by Giovanni Bracco. Fifteen cars were made 1947-1953, of these being two-seaters (630 kg).
The A6G were a series of two-door coupe and spyders by Zagato, Pininfarina, Pietro Frua, Ghia, Bertone, Carrozzeria Allemano and Vignale.
The MG N-type Magnette was produced by the MG Car company from October 1934 to 1936. The car was developed from the K-Type and L-Type but had a new chassis that broke away in design from the simple ladder type used on the earlier cars of the 1930s being wider at the rear than the front and with the body fitted to outriggers off the main frame.
The engine was a further development of the 1271 cc 6-cylinder KD series overhead camshaft engine used in the K-type and originally used in the 1930 Wolseley Hornet. Modifications were made to the cylinder block and head and fitted with twin SU carburettors it produced 56 bhp (42 kW) at 5500 rpm, a near 25% improvement. Drive was to the rear wheels through a four-speed non-synchromesh gearbox. The car had a wheelbase of 96 inches (2439 mm) and a track of 45 inches (1143 mm). Semi elliptic leaf springs, wider and longer than those used on previous cars, were fitted all round and the body was mounted to the chassis using rubber pads.
The factory-supplied body was new and taller than on earlier cars, the doors were rear hinged and featured cut-away tops. The slab type fuel tank at the rear which had featured on earlier models was no longer seen
The MG SA or MG 2-litre was a sporting saloon produced by the MG Car company from 1936 to 1939. Launched as the 2 litre, it only later became known as the SA, the car had been originally planned as an advanced performance saloon to rival the likes of SS Cars (later to be known as Jaguar) and even Bentley with all independent suspension and was given the factory code of EX150 and designated the S-type. A prototype was made but with the amalgamation of MG with Morris Motors in 1935 development stopped. The Cowley drawing office picked up the project again but a much more conservative car appeared with conventional live rear and beam front axles.
The car used a tuned version of the six cylinder 2062 cc Morris QPHG engine which it shared with the Wolseley Super Six but enlarged to 2288 cc. The capacity was increased again to 2322 cc in 1937 bringing it into line with the Wolsley 18. This was a tall engine and to allow the bonnet line to be as low as possible the twin SU carburettors had their dashpots mounted horizontally. Drive was to the live rear axle via a four speed manual gearbox with synchromesh on the top two ratios (on all but a few early models). Wire wheels were fitted and
The MG T series included the TA, TB, TC, TD, and TF Midget models, a range of body-on-frame convertible sports cars produced in sequence from 1936 to 1955. The last of these models, the TF, was replaced by the MGA.
The MG TA Midget replaced the PB in 1936. It was an evolution of the previous car and was 3 inches (76 mm) wider in its track at 45 inches (1,100 mm) and 7 inches (180 mm) longer in its wheelbase at 94 inches (2,400 mm). The previous advanced overhead-cam inline-four engine was now not in use by any other production car so it was replaced by a more typical MPJG OHV unit from the Wolseley 10 but with twin SU carburettors, modified camshaft and manifolding. The engine displaced just 1292 cc, with a stroke of 102 mm (4.0 in) and a bore of 63.5 mm (2.5 in) and power output was 50 hp (40.3 kW) at 4,500 rpm. The four-speed manual gearbox now had synchromesh on the two top ratios. Like the PB, most were two-seat open cars with a steel body on an ash frame, but it could also be had from 1938 as a Tickford drophead coupé with body by Salmsons of Newport Pagnell or closed "airline" coupé as fitted to the P type, but only one of these is thought to have been made. It was capable of
The Nash 600 was an automobile manufactured by the Nash-Kelvinator Corporation of Kenosha, Wisconsin from 1940 through the 1949 model year, after which the car was renamed the Nash Statesman. The Nash 600 was positioned in the low-priced market segment. The '600' name comes from the car's ability to go 600 miles (970 km) on one tank of gasoline due to the combination of the 20-US-gallon (76 L; 17 imp gal) gasoline capacity and its 30 mpg-US (7.8 L/100 km; 36 mpg-imp) fuel economy.
The "600" is generally credited with being the first mass produced American automobile that constructed through unitized body/frame construction in which the car body and the frame are welded as one rather than the (then) more traditional body-on-frame (the body is bolted to the frame). Unitized construction allowed Nash to advertise that the car was lighter in weight, quieter, and more rigid than its competitors. Elimination of the frame in favor of a combined body-and-chassis construction reduced the car's weight by 500 pounds (230 kg).
Nash's innovation also required new techniques for collision repairs. This included the development of a new portable body and frame puller tool that was quickly
The Renault Celtaquatre is a small family car or compact car automobile produced by the French manufactured Renault between 1934 and 1938, it was French but looked like an American car ( it had a 1400 cc engine 34 hp.), it had elements recalling the "american school".
1934-1938: four-cylinder motor of 1463 cc to Valve S side, 30 ch, Boring ×course of 70×95 mm
In May 1934 is revealed Celtaquatre. It was intended to compete with the Citroen Traction Avant.
Its silhouette all in roundness was worth the nickname of “Celtaboule to him”.
In 1935, adjustments are made to the cap, of which the side parts from now on are decorated with chrome snap rings horizontal in the place of the 3 shutters.
Two-tone paintwork is standard. A supplement of 400 francs is required for a single color.
In 1936, Celtaquatre loses its roundnesses and takes a more aerodynamic form. Appearance of two new types of body: a Convertible and a Coach. In 1937, Celtaquatre receives a grill out of V of American inspiration, which one will find on all the range.
In 1938, appearance of the Bumper to right blades. Disappearance of the Cut.
1939: Celtaquatre leaves the place to the Juvaquatre, 44,000 unit was
The Rolls-Royce Twenty built between 1922 and 1929 was Rolls-Royce's "small car" for the 1920s and was produced alongside the 40/50 Silver Ghost and Phantom. It was intended to appeal to owner drivers but many were sold to customers with chauffeurs.
A new inline-6 cylinder overhead valve engine was designed for the car of 3127 cc with a bore of 76 mm and stroke of 114 mm. Unlike the Silver Ghost engine, the cylinders were cast in one block and the cylinder head was detachable. Both coil and magneto ignition were fitted. The early cars had 3-speed manual gearboxes with the change lever in the centre of the car, but this changed in 1925 to a four-speed unit with traditional right-hand change. The power was transmitted to the rear axle via a standard propeller shaft with a universal joint at each end.
The substantial chassis had rigid front and rear axles suspended by half-elliptic springs, with braking initially only on the rear wheels. Four-wheel brakes with mechanical servo were introduced in 1925. The famous Rolls-Royce radiator with triangular top was fitted, and early examples had enamel-finished horizontal slats, later changing to a nickel finish and finally becoming vertical.
The Rolls-Royce Wraith was built by Rolls-Royce at their Derby factory from 1938 to 1939 and supplied to independent coachbuilders as a running chassis.
The in-line six cylinder, overhead valve, 4257 cc engine was based on that of the 25/30 but featured a cross-flow cylinder head. The four speed gearbox had synchromesh on second, third and fourth speeds and retained the traditional right hand change.
The Wraith featured an independent coil sprung front suspension based on a Packard 120 retaining semi elliptical leaf springs on the rear axle. The hydraulic dampers at the front had their damping rate controlled by governor and so varied with the speed of the car, making it superior to its predecessor, the 25/30 H.P. and on par with the Phantom III. The car was still built on a separate chassis but this was now of welded rather than the traditional riveted construction. The drum brakes were assisted by a mechanical servo driven by the engine patented by Hispano-Suiza and built by Rolls-Royce under licence. Wire wheels of 17 inch diameter were fitted, with the spokes usually covered by removable discs. A built in hydraulic jacking system was fitted operated by a lever under the
The SS1 was a British sports car first built by the Swallow Sidecar Company in Coventry, England. It was first presented at the 1931 London Motor Show and was produced between 1932 and 1936. In 1933 the company changed its name to SS Cars Ltd and in 1945 to Jaguar Cars Ltd.
The car used a six cylinder side valve Standard engine of 2054 cc 48 bhp (36 kW) or 2552 cc 62 bhp (46 kW) from 1932 until 1934 which was enlarged to 2143 cc 53 bhp (40 kW) or 2663 cc 68 bhp (51 kW) for the 1934 to 1936 models. The chassis was also made by Standard and changed to underslung suspension in 1933. The cars were remarkable for their styling and low cost rather than performance with 75 mph (121 km/h) the top speed. In 1932 the basic coupe cost £310. Just over 4200 cars were made.
The car was initially only made in 4 seater coupé version. In 1933 a tourer was launched. For 1934 the chassis was modified to give a wider track and better front footwells. The gearbox also gained synchromesh. In 1934 a saloon version and in 1935 an Airline coupe and Drophead coupe were added to the range.
The car was 15 feet 6 inches (4.72 m) long and 5 feet 3.5 inches (1.613 m) wide (growing to 5 feet 5⁄2 inches in 1934)
The Jaguar SS100 is a British 2-seat sports car built between 1936 and 1940 by SS Cars Ltd of Coventry, England. The last one is thought to have been delivered in 1941.
The SS Cars Ltd Model 100 "Jaguar" was so named as the '100' reflected the capability of the 3.5-litre model to exceed 100 mph - then a remarkable speed for a production vehicle. In common with many products of the thirties, the adoption of an animal name was deemed appropriate, and once approved by Bill Lyons the name "Jaguar" was given to a new saloon car in 1936, and from that point to all the cars. .
Following the Second World War, because of the connotations then attached to the initials ""SS", the company was renamed Jaguar in 1945.
The chassis had a wheelbase of 8 feet 8 inches (2.64 m), and was essentially a shortened version of the one designed for the 2.5-litre saloon, a car produced in much greater numbers, and first been seen in the SS 90 of 1935. Suspension was on half-elliptical springs all round with rigid axles. The engine was a development of the old 2.5-litre Standard pushrod unit converted from side valve to overhead valve with a new cylinder head designed by William Heynes and Harry Weslake. The
The Studebaker Light Four was an automobile produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana in 1918 and 1919. The car was officially designated Model SH Series 19 and available as a touring car, sedan and roadster.
The Light Four rode a 112 in (2,800 mm) wheelbase, and was powered by Studebaker's inline 192 cu in (3,150 cc) four-cylinder engine, delivering 40 bhp (30 kW) at 2,000 rpm.
The Light Four was dropped in 1920 as Studebaker shifted its model range exclusively to six-cylinder engines.
Because of its low production numbers, the Light Four is considered to be a rare model by Studebaker collectors of this era of automobile.
The Vauxhall 10 is a small British-built four-door saloon first shown in public in October 1937. A striking structural innovation, following the pattern set in 1935 by GM's German subsidiary, was the Ten's integral (chassisless) construction which suggests that it was designed by Vauxhall to enjoy a long life and high production volumes. According to Maurice Platt, who transferred from technical journalism to a career with Vauxhall in 1937 (and would be employed as the company's Chief Engineer between 1953 and 1963), the Vauxhall Ten became known within the company as the million-pound car, which reflected the extent of the company's investment in tooling up for the new model. Unfortunately war intervened, however: Vauxhall’s Luton plant switched to tank production and the Vauxhall 10 was unavailable after 1940.
The model reappeared briefly in 1946 with the same 1203 cc ohv engine as before, albeit with a reduction in claimed power output (and probably also a lowered compression ratio reflecting fuel type availability). The post war Vauxhall 10 was little changed in other respects. However, with British consumers cash-strapped, and the market for small saloons of prewar design