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Daniel Abraham Yanofsky, OC QC (March 25, 1925 – March 5, 2000) was Canada's first chess grandmaster, an eight-time Canadian Chess Champion, a chess writer, a chess arbiter, and a lawyer.
Yanofsky was born to a Jewish family in Brody, Poland (now western Ukraine), and moved to Canada when he was eight months old, settling with his family in Winnipeg. He learned to play chess at the age of eight. Yanofsky won his first Manitoba provincial championship at age 12 in 1937, also making his debut in the Closed Canadian Chess Championship that same year in Toronto. In 1939, just 14 years old, he played for Canada at the Buenos Aires Olympiad. Yanofsky was the sensation of the tournament, making the highest score on second board. He won his first Canadian Chess Championship in 1941 at age 16, at home in Winnipeg. The next year he won at Ventnor City with 6.5/9, and tied 1st-2nd with Herman Steiner on 16/17 in the U.S. Open at Dallas.
In 1946, at age 21, Yanofsky entered the first top-class post-war tournament, at Groningen, and defeated Soviet champion and tournament winner Mikhail Botvinnik, winning the brilliancy prize. During the next two years, he played several more European events,
Rustam Kasimdzhanov (Uzbek: Rustam Qosimjonov; Russian: Рустам Касымджанов) (born December 5, 1979) is an Uzbekistani chess Grandmaster, best known for winning the FIDE World Chess Championship 2004. He was born in Tashkent, in the former Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. He is an ethnic Uzbek.
His best results include first in the 1998 Asian Championship, second in the World Junior Chess Championship in 1999, first at Essen 2001, first at Pamplona 2002 (winning a blitz playoff against Victor Bologan after both had finished the main tournament on 3.5/6), first with 8/9 at the Vlissingen Open 2003, joint first with Liviu Dieter Nisipeanu with 6/9 at Pune 2005, a bronze-medal winning 9.5/12 performance on board one for his country at the 2000 Chess Olympiad and runner-up in the FIDE Chess World Cup in 2002 (losing to Viswanathan Anand in the final). He has played in the prestigious Wijk aan Zee tournament twice, but did not perform well either time: in 1999 he finished 11th of 14 with 5/13, in 2002 he finished 13th of 14 with 4.5/13.
In the FIDE World Chess Championship 2004 in Tripoli, Libya, Kasimdzhanov unexpectedly made his way through to the final, winning mini-matches against
Vladimir Borisovich Kramnik (Russian: Влади́мир Бори́сович Кра́мник; born 25 June 1975) is a Russian chess grandmaster. He was the Classical World Chess Champion from 2000 to 2006, and the undisputed World Chess Champion from 2006 to 2007. He has also won the two strongest tournaments (by rating strength) in chess history: the 2009 Mikhail Tal Memorial and the 2010 Grand Slam Masters Final. He has won three team gold medals and three individual medals at Chess Olympiads.
In October 2000, he defeated Garry Kasparov in a match played in London, and became the Classical World Chess Champion. In late 2004, Kramnik successfully defended his title against challenger Péter Lékó in a drawn match played in Brissago, Switzerland. In October 2006, Kramnik, the Classical World Champion, defeated reigning FIDE World Champion Veselin Topalov in a unification match, the World Chess Championship 2006. As a result Kramnik became the first undisputed World Champion, holding both the FIDE and Classical titles, since Kasparov split from FIDE in 1993. In 2007, Kramnik lost the title to Viswanathan Anand, who won the World Chess Championship tournament ahead of Kramnik. He challenged Anand at the World
Pentala Harikrishna (Telugu: పెంటేల హరికృష్ణ; born May 10, 1986) is a chess player from Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India. Harikrishna became the youngest grandmaster from India in 2001. As of October 2012, he is the 2nd highest rated player in India after Viswanathan Anand, No. 7 in Asia and 64th in the world.
In November 2004, he won the World Junior Chess Championship. In August 2006, he won the Chess960 (Fischer Random) Junior Chess Championship, beating Arkadij Naiditsch 4.5–3.5 in the final.
As of early 2012, GM Harikrishna is playing first board for chess club Eppingen in Chess Bundesliga, and he is a member of Spanish chess club Solvay since 2007 (first board). Harikrishna is also the first board for BPCL A team, which has won PSPB Inter Unit Chess Tournaments in 2010 and 2011. In international team competition, Harikrishna has represented the Indian team in six Chess Olympiads since 2000.
In May 2011 he won the Asian Chess Championship. In January 2012 he won group B of the Tata Steel Chess Tournament. This result qualifies him to participate in the A group in 2013, considered one of the strongest tournaments each year.
Away from chess, Harikrishna is majoring in political
Rune Djurhuus (born January 25, 1970 in Elverum) is a Norwegian chess player, and the fourth Norwegian International Grandmaster. Djurhuus plays for the "Akademisk" chess club, which is tied to the University of Oslo. Djurhuus is also the chess columnist for Aftenposten and Adresseavisen.
Djurhuus became the Norwegian Junior Champion in 1985. He gained the title of International Master in 1989. In 1991 he became the European Junior Champion, ahead of Vladimir Kramnik among others. His Grandmaster title was gained after scoring a norm at the Chess Olympiad in Manila in 1992, and two norms at Gausdal, in the 1994-1995 tournament, and the 1995-1996 tournament.
Djurhuus' playing style is aggressive and sharp. With Black, Djurhuus regularly employs the King's Indian against 1.d4, and the Sicilian Defence against 1.e4. With White, Djurhuus usually opens with 1.e4.
In an informal poll by the Norwegian Chess Federation in 1999, this game was voted to be the best Norwegian game.
White: Edvins Kengis Black: Rune Djurhuus
Opening: French Defence
Event: Gausdal International, 1991
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nd2 Nf6 4.e5 Nfd7 5.f4 c5 6.c3 Nc6 7.Ndf3 Qb6 8.Ne2 cxd4 9.cxd4 Be7 10.a3 0-0 11.Ng3 f6 12.Bd3
Lev Osipovich Alburt (born August 21, 1945 in Orenburg, Russia) is a chess Grandmaster and chess writer. He was three-time Ukrainian Champion, and after defecting to the United States in 1979, became three-time U.S. Champion.
Lev Alburt won the Ukrainian Chess Championship three times, from 1972 to 1974. He earned the International Master title in 1976, and became a Grandmaster in 1977.
Alburt defected to the United States in 1979, staying for several months with his former coach and fellow Ukrainian chess player and chess journalist Michael Faynberg. In 1980, Alburt led the U.S. Chess Olympiad team at Malta.
Alburt won the U.S. Chess Championship in 1984, 1985, and 1990. In 1986 he drew an eight-game match with British Chess Champion Jonathan Speelman.
Alburt is the author of a series of and best-selling chess books. In 2004, he was awarded the title of FIDE Senior Trainer.
A variation of Alekhine's Defence is named after him: the Alburt Variation (1.e4 Nf6 2.e5 Nd5 3.d4 d6 4.Nf3 g6).
Alburt served three years, 1985–88, on the Board of Directors of the United States Chess Federation. At the conclusion of his term, he stated that not once did he ever hear any discussion by the
Victor Ciocâltea (January 16, 1932, Bucharest, Romania – September 10, 1983, Manresa, Spain) was a Romanian chess master. He was awarded the International Master title in 1957 and the International Grandmaster title in 1978. Among his notable games is the one at the 16th Chess Olympiad, held in Varna in 1962, where he defeated Bobby Fischer.
Ciocâltea was Romanian Champion in 1952, 1959, 1961, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1975, and 1979. He played for Romania in eleven Chess Olympiads from 1956 to 1982.
He was a participant of four zonal FIDE tournaments (1954–1982). In 1954, he took 14th in Mariánské Lázně–Prague (Luděk Pachman won). In 1967, he took 15th in Halle (Lajos Portisch won). In 1972, he tied for 5–7th in Vrnjačka Banja. In 1982, he tied for 19–20th in Băile Herculane (Zoltán Ribli won).
In 1953, he tied for 11–12th in Bucharest (Alexander Tolush won). In 1954, he 16th in Bucharest (Viktor Korchnoi won). In 1956, he took 3rd, behind Yuri Averbakh and Ratmir Kholmov, in Dresden. In 1956, he took 14th in Moscow (Alekhine Memorial; Mikhail Botvinnik won). In 1962, he took 9th in Havana (Capablanca Memorial; Miguel Najdorf won). In 1962, he tied for 1st–2nd in Sofia. In 1962, he tied
Vasily Vasilyevich Smyslov (Russian: Васи́лий Васи́льевич Смысло́в; 24 March 1921 – 27 March 2010) was a Soviet and Russian chess grandmaster, and was World Chess Champion from 1957 to 1958. He was a Candidate for the World Chess Championship on eight occasions (1948, 1950, 1953, 1956, 1959, 1965, 1983, and 1985). Smyslov twice tied for first at the Soviet Championship (1949, 1955), and his total of 17 Chess Olympiad medals won is an all-time record. In five European Team Championships, Smyslov won ten gold medals.
Smyslov remained active and successful in competitive chess well into the 1960s and 1970s, qualifying for the finals of the World Championship Candidates' Matches as late as 1983. Despite failing eyesight, he remained active in the occasional composition of chess problems and studies until shortly before his death in 2010.
Smyslov (pronounced "smis-LOFF") first became interested in chess at the age of six. His father, Vasily Osipovich Smyslov, worked as an engineering technician and had represented the St. Petersburg Technical Institute in intercollegiate chess competitions. Smyslov's father had also studied chess for a time under the tutelage of Mikhail Chigorin and the
Einar Johan Gausel (born November 30, 1963) is a Norwegian chess player and Norway's third International Grandmaster since 1995.
Gausel has won three Norwegian chess championships, in 1992, 1996 and 2001. His Grandmaster title was gained after making good results at tournaments in Gausdal in 1990, 1992, and 1994–1995 and finally winning a Danish tournament.
In 2001 he was equal first with Vladimir Chuchelov in the colossal Cappelle-la-Grande open (702 players, with 92 Grandmasters and 72 International masters).
Gausel is also the chess columnist for the Oslo newspaper Dagbladet. Gausel represents the largest chess club in Norway, Oslo Schackselskap.
Gausel's playing style is mostly positional and strategic. With White he usually opens with 1.d4, 1.c4 or 1.Nf3. With Black against 1.e4 he often plays solid openings like the Caro-Kann Defence, but has also played more adventurous lines such as the Center Counter Defence. Against 1.d4 Gausel often plays the Slav or Semi-Slav Defense.
Suat Atalık (born October 10, 1964) is a Grandmaster of chess. As of the July 2009 FIDE rating list, he is ranked number 165 in the world and number two in Turkey, behind Mikhail Gurevich.
He went to Galatasaray Lycee and studied Psychology in Boğaziçi University.
He was born in Turkey in 1964, represented Turkey in the World Junior Chess Championship in 1983, and was their top board for several Chess Olympiads.
Despite this, and his current residence in Istanbul, he had disputes with chess organizers in his country, so he declared himself to be a resident of Bosnia and Herzegovina, his ancestral home.
During the 2000 Chess Olympiad in Istanbul, Atalik insisted on playing for Bosnia rather than Turkey. As a result, the organizers of the Olympiad banned him from the competition. After the selection of the new national chess federation he returned to the Turkish national team.
In 2003, he took first at Mar del Plata. In 2007 he tied for first with Michael Roiz at the Gorenje Valjevo Tournament.
On November 11, 2005 he married 22-year-old woman grandmaster Ekaterina Polovnikova from Russia. Former world championship challenger Nigel Short, who also played in the World Junior
Gerardo Barbero (21 August 1961 – 4 March 2001) was an Argentine chess grandmaster. He was born in Lanús, Buenos Aires, and raised in Rosario, Santa Fe.
Barbero came fifth in the World Junior Chess Championship of 1978. He was Argentine champion in 1984 and played on board one for the Chess Olympiad team in 1990. He played six times for Argentina, between 1978 and 1994, at the Chess Olympiads.
In 1986 he moved to Budapest, Hungary, where he was married and had a son. In Hungary, he developed a friendship with Bobby Fischer, who, according to GM Eugenio Torre, "liked Barbero". He died in Budapest of cancer in 2001.
The third chapter of Tibor Karolyi's 2009 book Genius in the Background is devoted to him.
Barbero had a win against Bent Larsen in Buenos Aires in 1991:
1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 d5 4.Nc3 c6 5.e3 Nbd7 6.Qc2 Be7 7.b3 a6 8.Bd3 b5 9.0-0 0-0 10.e4 b4 11.Na4 dxe4 12.Bxe4 Bb7 13.Bg5 Nxe4 14.Bxe7 Qxe7 15.Qxe4 Rab8 16.c5 a5 17.Rfe1 Rbd8 18.a3 Nf6 19.Qh4 Ba6 20.axb4 axb4 21.Nb6 Bb5 22.Qf4 Rb8 23.Ne5 Rfd8 24.Re3 Rb7 25.g4 Ra7 26.Rae1 Ne8 27.g5 f6 28.Nf3 Nc7 29.gxf6 gxf6 30.Nh4 Qf7 31.Kh1 Kh8 32.Rg1 Qf8 33.Ng6+ hxg6 34.Rh3+ 1–0
Efstratios Grivas (born March 30, 1966) is a Greek chess Grandmaster.
He was born in Egio, Achaia and grew up in Athens, in the neighbourhood of Kallithea, as his family moved to the Greek capital in 1970. His registration at the Kallithea Chess Club in 1979 was his first contact with chess. His chess evolution was immediate and rapid, as only two years later he won the Greek Cadet Championship, under the coaching guidance of FM Panagiotis Drepaniotis (1979–1981). It immediately became clear that he was a very talented young chess player, capable of great achievements in his chosen sport. He has written a very famous book "The Grivas Sicilian", rightly named after him as he has explored the book over 20 years.
The course of Grivas’ chess career fulfilled expectations as, under the guidance of his trainers IM Dr. Nikolai Minev (1981–1982), FM Michalis Kaloskambis (1984–1986), GM Efim Geller (1987–1988) and IM Nikolai Andrianov (1990–1996), he conquered all (Greek and International) titles awarded by the Greek Chess Federation and the International Chess Federation (FIDE). A significant role in his development was played by the training he received in Moscow in 1984 by outstanding
Lev Abramovich Polugaevsky (Russian: Лев Абрамович Полугаевский) (20 November 1934 – 30 August 1995) was an International Grandmaster of chess and frequent contender for the world chess championship, although he never achieved that title. He was one of the strongest players in the world from the late 1960s until the early 1980s, as well as a distinguished author and opening theorist whose contributions in this field remain important to the present day.
Lev Polugaevsky was born in Mogilev in the Soviet Union (now Mahilyow, Belarus). Unlike many of his grandmaster colleagues, his development in chess came slowly, and he did not receive even the Soviet master title until he was an adult. His progress then accelerated rapidly, however, and by the late 1960s he was one of the world's strongest players, as was recognized by his participation in the famous "USSR vs. Rest of the World" match of 1970. In this match he occupied fourth board, losing one game to Vlastimil Hort and drawing his other three. Polugaevsky won at Mar del Plata in 1962 and 1971. He won or tied in the USSR Chess Championship three times. He played regularly in qualifying events to select a challenger for the world
John Denis Martin Nunn (born 25 April 1955 in London) is one of England's strongest chess players and once was in the world's top ten. He is also a three-time world champion in chess problem solving, a chess writer and publisher, and a mathematician.
As a junior, he showed a prodigious talent for the game and in 1967, at twelve years of age, he won the British under-14 Championship. At fourteen, he was London Under-18 Champion for the 1969/70 season and less than a year later, at just fifteen years of age, he proceeded to Oriel College, Oxford, to study mathematics. At the time, it was said that he was Oxford's youngest undergraduate since Cardinal Wolsey. Graduating in 1973, he went on to gain his doctorate in 1978 with a thesis on finite H-spaces, and remained at Oxford University as a mathematics lecturer until 1981, when he became a professional chess player.
In 1975, he became the European Junior Champion. He gained the Grandmaster title in 1978 and was British champion in 1979. Nunn has twice won individual gold medals at Chess Olympiads. In 1989, he finished sixth in the inaugural 'World Cup', a series of tournaments in which the top 25 players in the world competed. His
László Szabó (March 19, 1917 – August 8, 1998) was a Hungarian grandmaster of chess.
Born in Budapest, he burst onto the international chess scene in 1935, at the age of 18, winning the first of Hungarian Championships, an international tournament in Tatatóváros, and was selected to represent his country at the 1935 Warsaw Olympiad. Onlookers at the Olympiad marvelled at the youngster's flair for attacking chess, a style that ran contrary to the dour, positional approach adopted by his countrymen. It is thought that the young Szabó studied under the tutelage of Géza Maróczy, then a patriarchal figure in Hungarian chess, having previously trained future world champions, Max Euwe and Vera Menchik.
Prior to World War II, there were other successes, including outright victory at Hastings 1938/39 (a tournament he was to hold a long association with). He began a career as a banker, dealing in Foreign Exchange.
Then, at the outbreak of war, was attached to a Forced Labour Unit and later captured by Russian troops who held him as a Prisoner of War. After the war, he returned to chess and played many major international events. He finished fifth at Groningen 1946, an extremely strong
Viktor Viorel Bologan (born December 14, 1971) is a Moldovan chess grandmaster.
On the April 2005 FIDE list, he had an Elo rating of 2700, making him number 18 in the world and Moldova's best chess player. His major accomplishment has been winning the Dortmund Sparkassen 2003, ahead of higher-rated and well-known players such as Vladimir Kramnik, Viswanathan Anand, and Peter Leko. In 2003 he won also the Aeroflot Open, one of the largest open tournaments with 150 grandmasters participating. He won the 2005 Canadian Open Chess Championship. In May 2010, he tied for 1st-2nd with Zahar Efimenko in the 40th Bosna International tournament in Sarajevo.
Bologan played for Moldova in the Chess Olympiads of 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010.
Ilya (or Ilia) Yulievich Smirin (Hebrew: איליה יוליביץ' סמירין; Russian: Илья Юльевич Смирин; born January 21, 1968, in Vitebsk, Belarus) is a Soviet-Israeli chess Grandmaster. As of January 2012, his Elo rating was 2660, making him the 86th-highest rated player in the world. Smirin's peak rating was 2702 in July 2001, making him one of the elite few grandmasters to achieve a 2700+ rating.
Smirin's chess career began in the Soviet Union. He earned a diploma from the Belorussian State Institute of Physical Culture, Minsk, certifying him as a Chess Teacher-Trainer. In 1992 he emigrated to Israel, and has since been one of the leading Israeli players at Chess Olympiads and other international events. He is a member of the Ashdod chess club and the Israel national team.
Smirin's tournament successes include equal first places at Sverdlovsk 1987, New York 1994, and the 2002 Israeli Championship.
He has also won the first league of the USSR Championship (1987, 1989), the Israel Championship (1992, 1994, 1999), and the qualifying tournaments for the 1994 and 1995 PCA World Grand Prix. In 2000 he won the prestigious NY Open and Dos Hermanas 2001. In 2007 he won the Acropolis International
Jan Timman (born 14 December 1951) is a Dutch chess Grandmaster who was one of the world's leading players from the late 1970s to the early 1990s. At the peak of his career he was considered to be the best non-Soviet player and was known as "The Best of the West". He has won the Dutch Chess Championship nine times and has been a Candidate for the World Championship several times.
Timman was an outstanding prospect in his early teens, and at Jerusalem 1967 played in the World Junior Championship, aged fifteen, finishing third.
He received the International Master title in 1971, and in 1974 attained Grandmaster status, making him the Netherlands' third after Max Euwe and Jan Hein Donner. In the same year he won the Dutch Championship for the first time, having finished second in 1972. He was to win it again on many more occasions through 1996. His first notable international success was at Hastings 1973/74, where he shared victory with Tal, Kuzmin, and Szabó. A string of victories quickly followed at Sombor 1974 (with Boris Gulko), Netanya 1975, Reykjavik 1976 (with Fridrik Olafsson), Amsterdam IBM 1978, Nikšić 1978, and Bled/Portorož 1979.
By 1982 Timman was ranked second in the
Eduard Yefimovich Gufeld (March 19, 1936, Kiev, Soviet Union – September 23, 2002) was a Soviet International Grandmaster of chess, and a chess author.
By the late 1950s, Gufeld established himself as one of the strongest players in the world. He defeated Mikhail Tal, Boris Spassky, Vasily Smyslov, Viktor Korchnoi, David Bronstein, and just about every other strong Soviet player.
Gufeld played in his first chess tournament in 1953 at the age of 17. He became the junior champion of Ukraine at the age of 18. He became an International Master in 1964, and became an International Grandmaster in 1967. In 1977 his Elo rating was 2570, and ranked 16th in the world.
He was also a trainer who moved to Tbilisi, the Republic of Georgia, and lived there for more than a decade, and coached Maia Chiburdanidze, who became the youngest women's world chess champion in 1978.
After the fall of the Soviet Union, he emigrated to the United States.
He started the FIDE Committee on Chess Art and Exhibition.
He used to say to those who laughed at his English: "I think that my English is better than your Russian!"
Gufeld was one of most prolific authors in all of chess, writing over 100 chess books, which
Dr. Petar Trifunović (31 August 1910, Dubrovnik – 8 December 1980, Belgrade) was an International Grandmaster and Serbian (Yugoslav) Champion of chess. At the first and second Yugoslav Championships, held 1935 in Belgrade and 1936 in Novi Sad, he finished third behind Vasja Pirc and Boris Kostić, then second behind Pirc, respectively.
Yugoslavia was for many years the world's second strongest chess nation and so it is a measure of his strength that he was able to win the Yugoslav championship five times in 1945, 1946, 1947 (shared with Svetozar Gligorić), 1952, and 1961. The young Trifunovic was also an excellent scholar, obtaining a Law degree in 1933, followed by a Doctorate.
According to Cozens, in his book The Lost Olympiad, he had a reputation as a fierce attacking player in the 1930s and was known as 'Typhoonovic'. Later in his career, he concentrated more on positional play and defensive technique, his style becoming less adventurous but very difficult to refute. Unfortunately, he drew too many games as a result and this may have prevented him from scaling even greater heights in the chess world. For example, his drawn match with Miguel Najdorf at Opatija 1949 included ten
Emanuel Lasker (December 24, 1868 – January 11, 1941) was a German chess player, mathematician, and philosopher who was World Chess Champion for 27 years. In his prime Lasker was one of the most dominant champions, and he is still generally regarded as one of the strongest players ever.
His contemporaries used to say that Lasker used a "psychological" approach to the game, and even that he sometimes deliberately played inferior moves to confuse opponents. Recent analysis, however, indicates that he was ahead of his time and used a more flexible approach than his contemporaries, which mystified many of them. Lasker knew the openings well but disagreed with many contemporary analyses. He published chess magazines and five chess books, but later players and commentators found it difficult to draw lessons from his methods.
Lasker made contributions to the development of other games. He was a first-class contract bridge player and wrote about bridge and other games, including Go and his own invention, Lasca. His books about games presented a problem which is still considered notable in the mathematical analysis of card games. Lasker was also a research mathematician who was known for
Salomon Mikhailovich Flohr (November 21, 1908 – July 18, 1983) was a leading Czech and later Soviet chess grandmaster of the mid-20th century, who became a national hero in Czechoslovakia during the 1930s. His name was used to sell many of the luxury products of the time, including Salo Flohr cigarettes, slippers and eau-de-cologne. Flohr dominated many tournaments of the pre-World War II years, and by the late 1930s was considered a contender for the world championship. However, his patient, positional style was overtaken by the sharper, more tactical methods of the younger Soviet echelon after World War II. Flohr was also a well-respected chess author, and an International Arbiter.
Flohr had a troubled childhood beset by personal crises. He was born in a Jewish family in Horodenka in what was then Galicia, Austria-Hungary (now in Ukraine). He and his brother were orphaned during World War I after their parents were killed in a massacre, and they fled to the newly-formed nation of Czechoslovakia.
Flohr settled in Prague, gradually acquiring a reputation as a skilled chessplayer by playing for stakes in the city's many cafés. During 1924, he participated in simultaneous exhibitions
Grigory Yakovlevich Levenfish (March 21, 1889 [O.S. March 9], Piotrków – February 9, 1961, Moscow) was a leading Jewish Russian chess grandmaster of the 1920s and 1930s. He was twice Soviet champion - in 1934 (jointly with Ilya Rabinovich) and 1937. In 1937 he tied a match against future world champion Mikhail Botvinnik. Levenfish was also a well-regarded chess writer.
Born in Poland, then part of the Russian Empire, he spent most of his formative years in St. Petersburg, where he attended the university and studied chemical engineering. His earliest recognition as a prominent chess player came when he won the St. Petersburg chess championship of 1909, and played in the strong Carlsbad (now Karlovy Vary) tournament of 1911, although he made a minus score in the very strong field. His play at the time was compared to that of the great master Chigorin. Into the next decade, he continued to perform well in local tournaments, most notably winning the Leningrad Championships of 1922, 1924, and 1925 (jointly). At a national level too, he enjoyed an excellent record at the Soviet Championship; third in 1920, second in 1923, co-champion at Leningrad in 1934 (tied with Ilya Rabinovich at
Frank James Marshall (August 10, 1877 – November 9, 1944), was the U.S. Chess Champion from 1909–36, and one of the world's strongest chess players in the early part of the 20th century.
Marshall was born in New York City, and lived in Montreal, Canada from ages 8 to 19. He began playing chess at the age of 10 and by 1890 (aged 13) was one of the leading players in Montreal.
He won the U.S. Championship in 1904, but did not accept the title because the current U.S. champion, Harry Nelson Pillsbury, did not compete. In 1906 Pillsbury died and Marshall again refused the championship title until he won it in competition in 1909.
In 1907 he played a match against World Champion Emanuel Lasker for the title and lost eight games, winning none and drawing seven. They played their match in New York City, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Chicago, and Memphis from January 26 to April 8, 1907.
In 1909 he agreed to play a match with a young Cuban named José Capablanca, and to most people's surprise, lost eight games, drew fourteen, and won only one. After this defeat Marshall did not resent Capablanca; instead, he realized the young man had immense talent and deserved recognition.
Kevin Spraggett (born November 10, 1954) is a Canadian chess grandmaster. He is the fourth Canadian to earn the grandmaster title, after Abe Yanofsky, Duncan Suttles and Peter Biyiasas. Spraggett is the only Canadian to have qualified for the Candidates' level, having done so in 1985 and 1988. He has won a total of eight Canadian Open Chess Championships, seven Closed Canadian Chess Championships, and has represented Canada eight times in Olympiad play. Spraggett has also written for Canadian chess publications.
Kevin Spraggett was raised in Montreal, and began playing chess at age ten. He tied for first in the 1973-74 Junior Canadian Chess Championship, but lost the playoff match to John MacPhail. One of his key early tournament victories came in the 1974 Montreal Championship, where he scored 5½/6. He had reached national master strength by this time, just before his twentieth birthday. He attended McGill University, studying engineering, and was an excellent student; however, he left McGill before completing his degree, in favor of becoming a chess professional. Spraggett spent his early years developing his game in minor Canadian and American Swiss system open events, where the
Francisco Vallejo Pons (born 21 August 1982 in Es Castell, Minorca) is a chess Grandmaster from Spain. He was a chess prodigy, achieving the grandmaster title at the age of 16 years and 9 months, which makes him the 20th youngest player to ever become a grandmaster. He won the under-18 World Chess Youth Championship in 2000.
His fans often refer to him as Paco, a common nickname for Francisco in Spanish.
He won jubilee Ciudad de Leon Masters by beating Veselin Topalov 3½-2½.
On 25 February 2006 he defeated FIDE World Champion Veselin Topalov in 56 moves with the black pieces at the SuperGM Linares-Morelia chess tournament.
1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Nf3 e6 5.Bg5 h6 6.Bh4 dxc4 7.e4 g5 8.Bg3 b5 9.Be2 Bb7 10.0-0 Nbd7 11.Ne5 h5 12.Nxd7 Qxd7 13.Be5 Rh6 14.f3 Qe7 15.a4 a6 16.Qc2 Rd8 17.Rad1 Nd7 18.Bc7 Rc8 19.Bg3 e5 20.d5 b4 21.dxc6 Rhxc6 22.Nd5 Qe6 23.Qd2 h4 24.Bf2 c3 25.bxc3 bxc3 26.Qxg5 c2 27.Rc1 h3 28.g3 Qh6 29.Qf5 Qd2 30.Rfe1 Ba3 31.f4 Bxc1 32.Bh5 Rg6 33.Bxg6 Bxd5 34.exd5 Qxe1+ 35.Bxe1 Be3+ 36.Kf1 c1Q 37.Qxf7+ Kd8 38.Ke2 Bb6 39.Bd2 Qc4+ 40.Kf3 e4+ 41.Kg4 Kc7 42.a5 Bd4 43.Bf5 Rg8+ 44.Kh4 Rh8+ 45.Kg5 Qb5 46.Be6 e3 47.Be1 e2 48.g4 Rf8 49.Qh7 Be3 50.Kh4 Bxf4 51.g5 Qa4 52.Kh5 Bxh2
Mark Bluvshtein (born 20 April 1988, in Yaroslavl, Russia) is a Russian-born Canadian chess player, a Grandmaster, who resides in Canada. He became the youngest Canadian International Grandmaster (GM) ever in 2004, at the age of 16, having become an International Master (IM) at the age of 13. He took part in the Chess World Cup 2011, but was eliminated in the first round by Alexander Riazantsev.
Bluvshtein and his family moved from Russia to Israel when he was five years old. They moved again, to Toronto, Canada, six years later, where he attended Newtonbrook Secondary School. Mark graduated from Newtonbrook in 2006.
Mark's father Ilya Bluvshtein is a Candidate Master level player himself.
Bluvshtein was Israel Boys Under-10 Champion (1998), and Israel Boys Under-12 Champion (1999).
Upon arriving in Canada, Bluvshtein earned a National Master ranking within a few months at age 11, making him the youngest Canadian to achieve this level. He was training during this time with IM Yan Teplitsky, a Canadian Olympic team member who had studied in the famed Russian school run by Mark Dvoretsky before moving to Canada.
Bluvshtein's first major Canadian success came in 2000, when he tied for
Jacques Mieses (Leipzig, 27 February 1865 – London, 23 February 1954) was a German-born Jewish chess Grandmaster and writer. He became a naturalized British citizen after World War II.
Mieses was a dangerous attacker with a number of brilliant victories to his credit, e.g. against Frank Marshall (Monte Carlo 1903). His best achievement was to win the first Trebitsch Memorial at Vienna 1907, and he came third at the 28-round Masters tournament at Ostend the same year.
He organized the 1911 San Sebastian master tournament and insisted that all the masters' expenses were paid. This was the first international tournament of José Raúl Capablanca, who surprised everyone by winning.
Mieses moved to England in the 1930s to escape Nazi persecution. In 1950 he became the first FIDE-authorized British grandmaster, though not (as is sometimes claimed) the first British grandmaster. ('Grandmaster' is a title first used of chess players in the nineteenth century, and a number of British players were considered to be grandmasters in their day, the most obvious examples being Howard Staunton and Joseph Blackburne. When FIDE first awarded the grandmaster title in 1950, Mieses was one of the 27
David Navara (born March 27, 1985) is a chess Grandmaster from the Czech Republic. On the April 2007 FIDE rating list he was ranked number 14 in the world with an Elo rating of 2720, making him the highest ranked Czech player.
His career progressed very fast under coaches like Miloslav Vanka, IM Josef Pribyl, and GMs Luděk Pachman and Vlastimil Jansa, as he won several world medals in youth categories. In 2001, aged 16, he got 7/9 in the European Team Championships. One year later, three days before his 17th birthday, he received the Grandmaster title, next year he won the open tournament in Polanica Zdrój.
Ranked 14th, he finished sixth in the 2004 Fifth European Individual Chess Championship in Antalya with 7.5 points (+5−2=5), including a draw against the eventual champion Vassily Ivanchuk.
Navara won the Czech Chess Championship in 2004, 2005 and 2010.
In 2005, Navara participated in the World Chess Cup, but was eliminated by Predrag Nikolić in the first round.
He was very successful in the 37th Chess Olympiad 2006, having 8.5 points from 12 games against world-class competition.
Navara played several matches in Prague, drawing with Anatoly Karpov (+0−0=2) in 2005 and Boris
Peter Heine Nielsen (born May 24, 1973) is a Danish chess Grandmaster.
Nielsen became an International Grandmaster in 1994. He won the Danish Chess Championship five times: in 1996, 1999, 2001, 2003, and 2008. He played for Denmark in seven Chess Olympiads, three times on top board, with an overall result of 60.1% (+24 −10 =35). He won an individual gold medal on third board at Moscow 1994.
By September 2005, Nielsen's Elo rating in the FIDE list was 2668, at the time the highest rating for any player from the Nordic countries. He is currently a second for World Champion Viswanathan Anand.
On January 30, 2004 he played against Chessbrain – which earned the world record as the largest distributed chess computer.
His handle on the Internet Chess Club is "Heine".
Peter Nielsen vs Henrik Danielsen, Danish Championship (playoff) 1996:
1. c4 f5 2. Nc3 Nf6 3. d4 e6 4. Nf3 Bb4 5. Qb3 a5 6. g3 b6 7. Bg2 Bb7 8. 0-0 0-0 9. Rd1 Qc8 10. Qc2 Bxc3 11. Qxc3 d6 12. b3 Nbd7 13. Ne1 h6 14. Bb2 Bxg2 15. Nxg2 Qe8 16. Rac1 Qf7 17. Qc2 Ne4 18. Ba3 e5 19. dxe5 Nxe5 20. Bb2 Ng6 21. e3 Rae8 22. Qe2 Re7 23. Rd5 Kh7 24. Rcd1 Ng5 25. h4 Ne4 26. h5 Ne5 27. Nh4 c6 (see diagram)
28. Rxd6 Ng4
29. Rg6 Rg8 30. Rf1
Étienne Bacrot (French pronunciation: [etjɛn baˈkʁo]) (born January 22, 1983 in Lille, Nord) is a French chess grandmaster and currently ranked number one in France.
He started playing at 4; by 10 young Bacrot was already winning junior competitions and in 1996, at 13 years of age, he won against Vasily Smyslov. He became a Grandmaster in March 1997 at the age of 14 years and 2 months, making him the youngest person to that date to have held the title (later in December, Ruslan Ponomariov took his record).
He has won several competitions and notable games. He first passed the mark of 2700 in Elo rating in 2004. In January 2005, he became the first French player to enter the top 10. His highest Elo rating ever was 2731 in April 2005. On the January 2009 FIDE list, Bacrot had an Elo rating of 2721, making him number 21 in the world and France's number 1.
Bacrot scored 6/8 in the 37th Chess Olympiad in 2006 against opponents averaging 2640, gaining 13 Elo points. This earned him the bronze medal for the third best individual performance in the Olympiad. One of his notable wins was against top American grandmaster Gata Kamsky.
Bacrot served as one of the four advisors to the world team
Alexander Valeryevich Khalifman (Russian: Александр Валерьевич Халифман; born January 18, 1966, in Leningrad) is a Soviet and Russian chess Grandmaster of Jewish descent; he is also a former FIDE World Chess Champion.
When Khalifman was 6 years old, he was taught chess by his father.
He gained the Grandmaster title in 1990 with one particularly good early result being his first place in the 1990 New York Open ahead of a host of strong players.
His most notable achievement was winning the FIDE World Chess Championship in 1999, a title he held until the following year. He was rated 44th in the world at the time, which some compared unfavorably to "Classical" World Champion Garry Kasparov being rated #1. Khalifman said after the tournament, "Rating systems work perfectly for players who play only in round robin closed events. I think most of them are overrated. Organizers invite same people over and over because they have the same rating and their rating stays high". Perhaps in response, Khalifman was invited to the next Linares chess tournament, and performed credibly (though placing below joint winner Kasparov).
He also won the 1982 Soviet Union Youth Championship, 1984 Soviet Union
Boris Vasilievich Spassky (also Spasskij; Бори́с Васи́льевич Спа́сский; born January 30, 1937) is a Soviet-French chess grandmaster. He was the tenth World Chess Champion, holding the title from 1969 to 1972. He is known as one of the greatest living chess players, and is the oldest living world champion.
Spassky won the Soviet Chess Championship twice outright (1961, 1973), and twice lost in playoffs (1956, 1963), after tying for first place during the event proper. He was a World Chess Championship candidate on seven occasions (1956, 1965, 1968, 1974, 1977, 1980, and 1985).
Spassky defeated Tigran Petrosian in 1969 to become World Champion, then lost the title in the Fischer–Spassky match in 1972 – one of the most famous chess matches in history.
He was born in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) to a Russian mother and father, and learned to play chess at the age of five on a train evacuating from Leningrad during World War II. He first drew wide attention in 1947 at age ten, when he defeated Soviet champion Mikhail Botvinnik in a simultaneous exhibition in Leningrad. His early coach was Vladimir Zak, a respected master and trainer. During his youth, from the age of ten, Spassky
Frank Poole is a fictional character from Arthur C. Clarke's Space Odyssey series. In Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey, Poole was portrayed by Gary Lockwood.
Tom Hanks once expressed interest in directing a film version of 3001, in which he would have played Poole.
Frank Poole's boyhood hometown was Flagstaff, Arizona, where he visited the Lowell Observatory at its museums on many occasions. These visits sparked his interest in astronomy and astronautics, and hence he went to college to study these subjects.
In the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, Arthur C. Clarke stated tbat both Frank Poole and Dave Bowman had earned their doctorates in astronautics, and hence they were properly addressed as "Dr. Poole" and "Dr. Bowman". This form of address is used in the motion picture, also.
In 2001: A Space Odyssey, Poole is an astronaut aboard the spaceship Discovery One on the first manned mission to Jupiter (Saturn in the novel). He and Dave Bowman are the only passengers who were not put on board in suspended animation (hibernation).
Poole and Bowman discuss disconnecting the higher functions of HAL 9000 ("HAL"), the Discovery One's mainframe computer, after it mistakenly predicts that
Kamil Mitoń (born 12 April 1984, in Kraków) is a Polish chess Grandmaster (2002).
In 1996, he won the World Chess U12 Championship, in Minorca.
He won the tournaments 2000 in Cannes/France and 2005 in Bajade de la Virgen (ahead of Kolev, Damljanovic, Fridman, Krivoshey, Spassov, Avrukh and others). In 2005 he tied for first with Magesh Chandran Panchanathan in the 33rd World Open, played in Philadelphia over the Independence Day weekend. In the same year he tied for 2nd-5th with Lazaro Bruzon, Zhang Pengxiang and Artyom Timofeev in the Samba Cup in Skanderborg. In December 2007, he came first in the 17th Magistral de Elgoibar tournament. In 2010 he tied for 1st-6th with Lázaro Bruzón, Bojan Kurajica, Yuri Gonzalez Vidal, Evgeny Gleizerov and Bartłomiej Heberla in the 4th Torneo Internacional de Ajedrez Ciudad de La Laguna and won the event on tie-break. In 2011, he tied for 1st-6th with Ivan Sokolov, Vladimir Baklan, Yuriy Kuzubov, Jon Ludvig Hammer and Illya Nyzhnyk in the MP Reykjavik Open.
In 2008 he played in the chess Olympiad in Dresden scoring 4 points in 8 games on the second board. In September 2010 he played for the Polish team at the Olympiad in Khanty-Mansiysk scoring
Sven Magnus Øen Carlsen (born 30 November 1990) is a Norwegian chess Grandmaster and chess prodigy who is currently the number-one ranked player in the world. In January 2010 he became the seventh player in history to be ranked number one in the world on the official FIDE rating list. His peak rating is 2843, the second highest in history (after Garry Kasparov's 2851 set July 1999 to January 2000).
On 26 April 2004 Carlsen became a Grandmaster at the age of 700113000000000000013 years, 7002148000000000000148 days, making him the third-youngest Grandmaster in history. On 1 January 2010 the new FIDE rating list was published, and at the age of 700119000000000000019 years, 700132000000000000032 days, he became the youngest chess player in history to be ranked world number one, breaking the record previously held by Vladimir Kramnik. Carlsen was also the 2009 World blitz chess champion.
His performance at the September–October 2009 Nanjing Pearl Spring tournament has been described as one of the greatest in history and lifted him to an Elo rating of 2801, making him the fifth player to achieve a rating over 2800 – and aged 18 years 10 months at the time, by far the youngest to do
Pavel Eljanov (born 1983) is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster. He has won two team gold medals and one individual silver medal at Chess Olympiads.
In 1999, he was a member of the Ukrainian national youth team, which won the U-16 Chess Olympiad in Artek, Ukraine. Eljanov won the Corus B 2007 in Wijk aan Zee, Holland with a score of 9/13. This result enabled him to qualify for the category 20 tournament Corus A 2008. In February 2012, he tied for 1st–3rd with Mateusz Bartel and Anton Korobov in the 11th Aeroflot Open.
Eljanov has made steady progress up the FIDE world rankings, and on the September 2010 FIDE Elo rating list, Eljanov had a rating of 2761, making him number 1 in Ukraine and number 6 in the world. In May 2010, he won the Astrakhan FIDE Grand Prix with a score of 8/13. In March 2012, his world live ranking has dropped to the 45th in the world.
Tiger Hillarp Persson (born 28 October 1970) is a Swedish chess Grandmaster.
He won tournaments in Gentofte (VISA Nordic Grand Prix, ahead of Sune Berg Hansen, Simen Agdestein, Einar Gausel, Helgi Grétarsson, Heikki Westerinen and more, York in 1999, Jersey (2000) and The Guernsey International Open (2001, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010). He finished second in the Nordic Championship in Vammala, Finland (2005). In 2008 he was the winner of the Sigeman & Co Chess Tournament in his hometown of Malmö with an impressive 7½ points. He has won the Swedish Chess Championship twice, in 2007 and 2008. In 2009 he finished second in the C-group of the Corus Chess Tournament.
Alex Yermolinsky (born April 11, 1958 in Leningrad, Soviet Union) is an American chess Grandmaster. In 1993, Yermolinsky won the U.S. Chess Championship, tying for first place with Alexander Shabalov. In 1996 he was the sole champion.
He was a three-times winner of the Philadelphia World Open: 1993, 1995 and 1996 (in 1999 he was equal first with other nine players, but Gregory Serper won the playoff). In 2001 he won the American Continental Championship.
Yermolinsky is married to the WGM Kamilė Baginskaitė. They have two sons and got to know each other at the Chess Olympiad 1996 in Yerevan.
Efim Dmitriyevich Bogolyubov (Bogoljubov, Bogoljubow) April 14, 1889 – June 18, 1952) was a Russo-German chess grandmaster who won numerous events and played two matches with Alexander Alekhine for the world championship.
In 1911, he tied for first place in the Kiev championships, and for 9–10th in the Saint Petersburg (All-Russian Amateur) Tournament, won by Stepan Levitsky. In 1912, he took second place, behind Karel Hromadka, in Vilna (Vilnius) (Hauptturnier). In 1913/14, he finished eighth in Saint Petersburg (All Russian Masters' Tournament – eighth Russian championship; Alekhine and Aron Nimzowitsch came joint first).
In July/August 1914, he played in Mannheim tournament (the 19th DSB Congress), and tied for 8–9th in that event, which was interrupted by World War I. After the declaration of war against Russia, eleven "Russian players" (Alekhine, Bogoljubow, Fedor Bogatyrchuk, Alexander Flamberg, N. Koppelman, Boris Maliutin, Ilya Rabinovich, Peter Romanovsky, Peter Petrovich Saburov, Alexey Selezniev, Samuil Weinstein) from the Mannheim tournament were interned by Germany. In September 1914, four of the internees (Alekhine, Bogatyrchuk, Saburov, and Koppelman) were allowed to
Maxime Vachier-Lagrave (French pronunciation: [maksˈim vaˈʃje laɡʁˈav]) (born 21 October 1990) is a French chess Grandmaster and the 2009 World Junior Chess Champion.
He completed his final grandmaster norm at age 14 years, 4 months, in 2005.
His norms were obtained in the following tournaments:
Vachier-Lagrave's FIDE rating in July 2008 was 2681 . According to the live top rating site his live rating on August 16, 2009 was 2716.5, making him virtually number 24th in the world. In the official rating list of October 2008 he crossed the "2700" threshold at 2716 points.
His rating on the November 2009 list was 2718 (23rd in the world and third in the top 20 juniors).
Vachier-Lagrave played in the U16 French team championship since 1997. Team results include:
Mikhail Naumovich Gurevich (born 22 February 1959, in Kharkiv, USSR) is a Soviet chess player. He lived in Belgium from 1991 to 2005 and since then resides in Turkey.
Gurevich won the Ukrainian Chess Championship in 1984 and became USSR Champion in 1985, controversially taking the title on tiebreak points from co-winners Alexander Chernin and Viktor Gavrikov, after a three-way playoff was organized and all the games were drawn. However, he was not allowed to leave the country to participate in the Interzonal, and Gavrikov and Chernin went in his place.
Gurevich was awarded the International Master title in 1985, and became an International Grandmaster in 1986. In 1987 he was first at Moscow ahead of Oleg Romanishin and Sergey Dolmatov. He finished second at Leningrad after Rafael Vaganian, but ahead of Andrei Sokolov and Artur Yusupov.
At his peak, between 1989 and 1991, Gurevich was consistently ranked in the top ten players in the world. He took first at Reggio Emilia 1989, ahead of Vassily Ivanchuk, Jaan Ehlvest and Viswanathan Anand and tied for first at Moscow 1990 with Alexander Khalifman and Evgeny Bareev. His highest world rank ever was a tie for fifth place on the January
Anatoly Yevgenyevich Karpov (Russian: Анато́лий Евге́ньевич Ка́рпов, Anatolij Evgen'evič Karpov; born May 23, 1951) is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion. He was the official world champion from 1975 to 1985 when he was defeated by Garry Kasparov. He played three matches against Kasparov for the title from 1986 to 1990, before becoming FIDE World Champion once again after Kasparov broke away from FIDE in 1993. He held the title until 1999, when he resigned his title in protest against FIDE's new world championship rules. For his decades-long standing among the world's elite, Karpov is considered one of the greatest players of all time.
His tournament successes include over 160 first-place finishes. He had a peak Elo rating of 2780, and his 90 total months at world number one is second all-time behind only Garry Kasparov since the inception of the FIDE ranking list in 1971.
Since 2005, he has been a member of the Public Chamber of Russia. He has recently involved himself in several humanitarian causes, such as advocating the use of iodised salt.
Karpov was born on May 23, 1951 at Zlatoust in the Urals region of the former Soviet Union, and learned to play chess at
Vladimir Malakhov (born November 27, 1980) is a chess Grandmaster from Russia.
In the FIDE World Chess Championship 2004, Malakhov made it to the second round.
Malakhov finished in the top 10 in the Chess World Cup 2005, which qualified him for the Candidates for the FIDE World Chess Championship 2007, being played in May–June 2007. He was eliminated in the first round, losing his match to Alexander Grischuk 3½-1½.
He reached the semifinal stage of the Chess World Cup 2009. He was a member of the gold-medal-winning Russian team at the World Team Chess Championship 2009 in Bursa.
Malakhov is a professional chess player, who used to work as a nuclear physicist.
Eugenio Torre (born November 4, 1951) is a chess grandmaster (GM). He is considered the strongest chess player the Philippines produced during the 1980s and 1990s.
Torre shot to prominence in 1976 as a possible future title challenger after winning a strong four-man tournament in Manila ahead of world champion Anatoly Karpov – thus becoming the first player to finish ahead of Karpov in a tournament since the latter became world champion. The high point of his career came in the early 1980s when he was ranked world No.17; successfully going on to qualify as a candidate for the world championship after tying for first with Lajos Portisch during the 1982 Toluca Interzonal.
Torre has the distinction of being the first Asian player to earn the title of International Grandmaster. He qualified for the Candidates Matches for the 1984 World Championship. In that preliminary stage, the contenders play matches against each other to determine who will challenge the world champion. Torre was eliminated when he lost his match against Zoltán Ribli by a score of 6–4.
After losing his quarter-final candidates match to Ribli in 1983, Torre became disillusioned with chess and more or less went into
Ian Rogers (born 24 June 1960, Hobart, Tasmania), is a retired Australian chess grandmaster (1985) and FIDE Senior Trainer (2005).
Rogers was the first Australian to become a Chess Grandmaster, a title he achieved in 1985 after becoming an International Master in 1980. He was Australia's highest rated player for over twenty years, and represented Australia at fourteen chess olympiads (twelve of them on first board).
Rogers won more than a hundred tournaments including fifteen round-robin Grandmaster tournaments. He won the Australian Chess Championship four times - in 1980, 1986, 1998, and 2006. Among his career highlights are three consecutive victories from 1988 to 1990 in the grandmaster tournament in Groningen (outright by a clear point in 1988 and 1989, and jointly in 1990).
Before turning professional, Rogers completed a BSc (Meteorology) from the University of Melbourne. He is married to Cathy Rogers, herself an International Arbiter, Woman FIDE Master, and a lawyer. Throughout his competitive career and more so since his retirement from competitive chess (in July 2007), Rogers has reported on many tournaments for various media outlets, with photographic assistance from
Joseph Gerald Gallagher (born 4 May 1964) is a British Chess Grandmaster and former British Champion, as well as a chess author.
Born to Irish parents Norah and Patrick, Gallagher was the eldest child (his sisters Catherine, Noreen, Pauline and Marie, and brother Stephen also played chess). His sister Marie also played chess to an international standard at age 11. He played for many years on the European chess circuit, before marrying and moving to Neuchâtel in Switzerland, taking Swiss nationality, being awarded the title of Grandmaster, and then winning the British Chess Championship in 2001 and the Swiss Chess Championship in 1997, 1998, 2004, 2005, 2007, and 2012.
He has represented his adopted country Switzerland regularly at the Chess Olympiad and at the European Team Chess Championship since 1997, his best result occurring at the 2006 Chess Olympiad, when he scored 6½/10.
Gallagher is a noted author on various aspects of chess opening theory, being an expert on the King's Indian Defence as Black and the King's Gambit as White. Gallagher was one of four writers of the popular volume Nunn's Chess Openings (Everyman Chess 1999).
Gallagher is also interested in poker.
He has a
Judit Polgár (born 23 July 1976) is a Hungarian chess grandmaster. She is by far the strongest female chess player in history. In 1991, Polgár achieved the title of Grandmaster at the age of 15 years and 4 months, the youngest person ever to do so at that time.
Polgár was ranked number 36 in the world on the July 2012 FIDE rating list with an Elo rating of 2709, the only woman on FIDE's Top 100 Players list, and has been ranked as high as eighth (in 2005). She has won or shared first in the chess tournaments of Hastings 1993, Madrid 1994, León 1996, U.S. Open 1998, Hoogeveen 1999, Siegman 1999, Japfa 2000, and the Najdorf Memorial 2000.
Polgár is the only woman to have won a game from a current world number one player, and has defeated nine current or former world champions in either rapid or classical chess: Anatoli Karpov, Garry Kasparov, Boris Spassky, Vasily Smyslov, Veselin Topalov, Viswanathan Anand, Ruslan Ponomariov, Alexander Khalifman, and Rustam Kasimdzhanov.
Polgár was born on 23 July 1976 in Budapest, to a Hungarian Jewish family. Polgár and her two older sisters, Grandmaster Susan and International Master Sofia, were part of an educational experiment carried out by
Alexander Genrikhovich Beliavsky (sometimes transliterated as Belyavsky, born December 17, 1953) is a Soviet and Slovenian chess grandmaster.
Beliavsky was born in Lviv, USSR. He currently lives in Slovenia and he plays for the Olympic team there. He is noted for his uncompromising style of play and for his classical opening repertoire, including openings such as the Queen's Gambit, Ruy Lopez, French Defence and the Two Knights Defence, for example.
Beliavsky won the World Junior Chess Championship in 1973 and the USSR Chess Championship four times in 1974, 1980, 1987 and 1990.
In the World Chess Championship cycle, Beliavsky qualified for the Candidates Tournament once, losing to eventual winner Garry Kasparov in the quarterfinals of the 1983 Candidates matches.
In tournaments, he was first equal at Baden 1980, first at Tilburg 1981, second equal at Tilburg 1984, joint winner at Wijk aan Zee 1984 and joint second at the same venue a year later. At the second Russia (USSR) vs Rest of the World match in 1984, he was top scorer for the victorious Soviet team, defeating Yasser Seirawan 2-0 and Bent Larsen 1½-½. Beliavsky is a four times winner of the Vidmar Memorial: in 1999, 2001,
Bruno Parma (born December 30, 1941) is a Slovene chess player and Grandmaster.
Parma was born in Ljubljana, Slovenia (then Yugoslavia). He first played in the World Junior Chess Championship in 1959, sharing second place. Two years later at age 21 he won the next Junior Championship (The Hague 1961), receiving the title of International Master. FIDE granted him the grandmaster title based on his outstanding performance at the Beverwijk tournament in 1963. He was the third Slovene to become a grandmaster, after Milan Vidmar (1950) and Vasja Pirc (1953). He won the Slovenian Chess Championship in 1959 and 1961 and shared third place with Dragoljub Minić, Milan Matulović, and Bojan Kurajica in the 1968 Yugoslav Championship in Čateške Toplice.
In an international tournament at San Juan, Puerto Rico in 1969 he was second together with two American grandmasters, Arthur Bisguier and Walter Browne, behind Boris Spassky. His best results was shared first with Georgi Tringov in Vršac 1973 ahead of Wolfgang Uhlmann.
Parma played for the Yugoslav team in the Chess Olympiads eight times: 1962, 1964, 1966, 1968, 1970, 1974, 1978, and 1980. The Yugoslav team won four silver medals and two
Dibyendu Barua (দিব্যেন্দু বড়ুয়া) (born October 27, 1966) is a chess Grandmaster from the city of Kolkata (Calcutta) in the Indian state of West Bengal. He is the second Indian to become a Grandmaster, after Viswanathan Anand. In 1978, Barua, as a 12-year-old, became the youngest participant in the Indian National Championship of chess. In 1982, Barua defeated the then world number two Grandmaster Viktor Korchnoi in London. In 1983, he won the national championship for the first time. Barua was awarded the Grandmaster title in 1991 by FIDE.
Walter Shawn Browne (born January 10, 1949 in Sydney, Australia) is an American chess Grandmaster and poker player. Browne has won the U.S. Chess Championship six times.
Browne was born to an American father and an Australian mother. His family moved to the New York area when he was three and Browne moved to California in 1973.
Browne won the U.S. Junior Championship in 1966.
He represented his country of birth Australia for a short time. He won the 1969 Australian Chess Championship. He tied first with Renato Naranja while representing Australia at the 1969 Asian Zonal tournament in Singapore, earning the International Master title, which immediately earned him an invitation to an international grandmaster tournament in San Juan, Puerto Rico. There, he gained the Grandmaster title by tying for second through fourth places, with Bruno Parma and Arthur Bisguier, behind reigning world champion Boris Spassky.
He played first board for Australia at the 1970 and 1972 Chess Olympiads, before switching to representing the United States in 1974.
He has won the U.S. Chess Championship six times. His victories were at Chicago 1974 with 9½/13, Oberlin 1975 with 8½/13, Mentor 1977 with 9/13,
Boris Franzevich Gulko (Russian: Борис Францевич Гулько; IPA: [bɐˈrʲis ɡʊlʲˈko]; born February 9, 1947 in Erfurt, East Germany) is a Russian-American International Grandmaster in chess.
As of May 2010, his Elo rating was 2535, making him the No. 25 among active chess players in the U.S. and the 520th-highest rated active player in the world. His peak rating was 2644 in 2000.
His father was a soldier of the Red Army and was stationed in East Germany when Boris was born. His family returned in the Soviet Union after a few years. Gulko became an International Master in 1975, and a Grandmaster in 1976. He won the USSR Chess Championship at Leningrad in 1977 along with Iosif Dorfman. The Soviets usually would break ties for the title of Soviet Champion with a multi-game match and 1977 was no exception. However, Gulko and Dorfman were even after the six game playoff, so they shared the title and prestige of Soviet Champion. They finished half a point ahead of a field that included three former World Champions. Shortly after, Gulko applied to leave the country, but permission was refused. He and his wife, Anna Akhsharumova, who is a Woman Grandmaster of chess, became prominent Soviet
Robert Hübner (born November 6, 1948 in Cologne, West Germany) is a respected German chess Grandmaster, chess writer, and papyrologist (an expert in Egyptian hieroglyphics). At eighteen, he was joint winner of the West German Chess Championship. In 1975, he became one of the world's leading players, rising to third place in the FIDE world ranking list in 1980.
At his strongest in the mid-seventies to early eighties, Hübner participated in many of the elite tournaments of the day, such as Tilburg 1978 and Montreal 1979 (The Tournament of Stars), playing alongside Anatoly Karpov, Mikhail Tal, and Jan Timman. There were tournament victories at Houston 1974, Munich 1979 (shared with Ulf Andersson and Boris Spassky), Rio de Janeiro Interzonal 1979 (shared with Lajos Portisch and Tigran Petrosian), and Linares 1985 (shared with Ljubomir Ljubojević). He remained active on the international circuit into the 2000s, but has never been a full-time chess professional due to his academic career.
He served as a second to Nigel Short in his efforts to win the World Chess Championship match against Garry Kasparov in 1993. In 2000 he won, with the German team, a silver medal in the 34th Chess
Utut Adianto Wahyuwidayat (born 16 March 1965 in Jakarta, Indonesia) is an Indonesian chess Grandmaster. He is Indonesia's top-rated player of all-time with an Elo rating of 2548.
Utut Adianto learned the game of chess at the age of six. He won the Jakarta Junior Championship at the age of 12. In 1982, he won the Indonesian national championship. He was awarded the GM title in 1986, becoming at the time the youngest Indonesian to do so at the age of 21 years. Since then, Susanto Megaranto has become a GM at the age of 17 years. Between 1995 and 1999 Adianto was included among the elite group of Grandmasters with an Elo rating over 2600.
In 1999, he participated in the FIDE Knock-out world chess championship in Las Vegas, losing to Daniel Fridman in the first round.
Utut Adianto is chairman of the Indonesian Chess Association (Percasi). With Machnan R. Kamaluddin, Eka Putra Wirya and Kristianus Liem, he founded a chess school in Indonesia, which has produced several national players.
In 2005, Adianto was awarded the title of FIDE Senior Trainer.
On May 9 2009, he was elected to the Indonesian Senate.
In the game below , Adianto beats four-time U.S. chess champion Alexander
Giulio Cesare Polerio (ca. 1550, Lanciano - ca. 1610, Rome, reconstruction of places and dates by Adriano Chicco), was an Italian chess theoretician and player.
Name affixes used for him are l'Apruzzese, Giu[o]lio Cesare da Lanciano (Salvio/Walker), and Lancianese, because he was born in Lanciano, a town in the Chieti province of the Abruzzo region of Italy.
The first printed matter, in which the name Giulio Cesare da Lanciano occurs, is the so called "Il Puttino" of Alessandro Salvio published first in 1634. The story recounted in Il Puttino must have occurred around 1575, thus, published by Salvio some 60 years later. "Il Puttino, altramente detto il Cavaliere errante" is a nickname used by Alessandro Salvio for Giovanni Leonardo. According to Alessandro Salvio, Giulio Cesare da Lanciano accompanied Giovanni Leonardo on on his way to Madrid until Genoa.
After returning to Rome around 1584, Polerio became a chess player and writer in ordinary of Giacomo Boncompagni, Duke of Sora and son of Pope Gregory XIII (born Ugo Boncompagni).
Polerio wrote a number of codexes in which a lively international chess is described (exchanges of ideas among Italy, Portugal, and Spain). In these
Lothar Maximilian Lorenz Schmid (born 10 May 1928) is a German chess grandmaster who was born in Dresden. He is best known as the arbiter of several World Chess Championship matches. Also a collector of chess books and paraphernalia, he owns the largest known private chess library in the world and has a renowned collection of chess art masterpieces and chess boards and pieces from all around the globe.
In 1941, at the beginning of his career, Schmid won the Dresden Championship. In 1943, he took second in Vienna (German Juniors Championship). In June 1947, he tied for first with Gerhard Pfeiffer in Wiessenfels (SBZ-ch). In April 1948, he tied for second/third place in Celle (Carl Ahues won). In September 1948, he tied for fourth/fifth place at the full German Chess Championship (12th GER-ch) in Essen. The event was won by Wolfgang Unzicker. In May 1949, he took third in Bad Pyrmont (13th GER-ch). The event was won by Efim Bogoljubow. In August 1949, he tied for first in Grossröhrsdorf. In 1950, he drew (4 : 4) a match with Wade in Bamberg. In 1951, he won in Travemünde. In 1951/52, he took third in Hastings (Svetozar Gligorić won). In 1953, he tied for second/third place, behind
Samuel "Sammy" Herman Reshevsky (born Szmul Rzeszewski, November 26, 1911, Ozorków near Łódź, (then Russian Empire, today Poland) – died April 4, 1992, New York City) was a famous chess prodigy and later a leading American chess Grandmaster. He was a strong contender for the World Chess Championship from the mid-1930s to the mid-1960s; coming equal third in the World Chess Championship 1948 tournament, and equal second in the 1953 Candidates Tournament. He was also an eight-time winner of the U.S. Chess Championship. He was an accountant by profession, and a well-regarded chess writer.
Reshevsky learned to play chess at age four, and was soon acclaimed as a child prodigy. At age eight he was beating accomplished players with ease, and giving simultaneous exhibitions. In November 1920, his parents moved to the U.S. to make a living exhibiting their child. Reshevsky played thousands of games in exhibitions all over the U.S. He played in the 1922 New York Masters tournament; at that stage he was likely the youngest player to have competed in a strong tournament.
In his youth, Reshevsky did not attend school, and his parents wound up in District Court in Manhattan, facing a charge of
Siegbert Tarrasch (5 March 1862 – 17 February 1934) was one of the strongest chess players and most influential chess teachers of the late 19th century and early 20th century.
Tarrasch was born in Breslau (Wrocław), Prussian Silesia. Having finished school in 1880, he left Breslau to study medicine in Halle. Later he lived most of his life with his family in Nuremberg, Bavaria, and later in Munich. He had five children. Tarrasch was Jewish, converted to Christianity in 1909, and a patriotic German who lost a son in World War I. Yet he faced antisemitism in the early stages of Nazism.
Siegbert Tarrasch wrote The Game of Chess. It was published in 1987 by Courier Dover Publications, although it was originally released in 1931. In the foreword Tarrasch wrote:
The book is divided in three parts the endgame, the middlegame and the opening. It was his last book and his most successful. It has 423 pages and its ISBN number is 048625447X.
A medical doctor by profession, Tarrasch may have been the best player in the world in the early 1890s. He scored heavily against the aging Steinitz in tournaments, (+3-0=1), but refused an opportunity to challenge for the world title in 1892 because of
Susan Polgar (born April 19, 1969, as Polgár Zsuzsanna and often known as Zsuzsa Polgár) is a Hungarian-American chess Grandmaster. She is an Olympic chess champion, a chess teacher, coach, writer and promoter and the head of the Susan Polgar Institute for Chess Excellence (SPICE) at Texas Tech University as well as the coach for the 2011 National Championship college chess team. She is the oldest of the famous "Polgár sisters": Zsuzsa, Zsófia, and Judit. Susan is perhaps most famous for being a child prodigy at chess, for being the first female to earn the Grandmaster title through tournament play, and for breaking a number of gender barriers in chess.
On the July 1984 FIDE Rating List, at the age of 15, she became the top ranked woman player in the world, and remained ranked in the top three for the next 23 years. She was also the first woman in history to break the gender barrier by qualifying for the 1986 "Men's" World Championship. She was the Women's World Chess Champion from 1996 to 1999. In October 2005 Polgar had an Elo rating of 2577, making her the second-ranked woman in the world at the time, after her sister Judit Polgár. Polgar went on to win ten Olympic medals (5
Emil Sutovsky (born 19 September 1977) is an Israeli chess Grandmaster, President of the Association of Chess Professionals. He is one of the several top chess grandmasters who were born in Baku, Azerbaijan (e.g., Garry Kasparov, Teimour Radjabov, Vugar Gashimov and Vladimir Akopian).
Sutovsky learned to play chess at the age of four. He achieved notable successes by winning the World Junior Chess Championship in Medellín in 1996, finishing first at the double-round-robin VAM Hoogeveen Tournament in 1997 (ahead of Judit Polgár, Loek van Wely, and Vasily Smyslov), and winning Hastings 2000 (ahead of Alexey Dreev, Ivan Sokolov and Jonathan Speelman). In 2001 Sutovsky recorded perhaps the greatest individual result by an Israeli player: seeded only 35th among the 204 participants (including 143 Grandmasters) in the second European Chess Championship in Ohrid, Macedonia, he started with an ordinary 3.5−2.5. He then started a series of resounding victories (e.g. ), and finished the tournament with 9.5−3.5, along with future FIDE world champion Ruslan Ponomariov, and ahead of Judit Polgár, Nigel Short, and many other world-class players . He went on to beat Ponomariov 1.5−0.5 in a rapid
Erich Gottlieb Eliskases (February 15, 1913 – February 2, 1997) was a chess Grandmaster of the 1930s and 1940s, who represented Austria, Germany and Argentina in international competition.
Born in Innsbruck, Austro-Hungarian Empire, he learned chess at the age of twelve and quickly displayed an aptitude for the game, winning the Schlechter chess club championship in his first year at the club, aged just fourteen. At fifteen, he was the Tyrolean Champion and at sixteen, joint winner of the Austrian Championship.
His college education in Innsbruck and Vienna centred on business studies; it was chess, though, that captured his imagination and he had exceptional results at the Olympiads of 1930, 1933 and 1935. After the Anschluss of March 1938, he won the German national championship at Bad Oeynhausen in 1938 and 1939. He played under the German flag at the 1939 Buenos Aires Olympiad, during which World War II began, when Eliskases (along with many other players) decided to stay in Argentina (and for a while in Brazil) rather than return to the scene of the conflict. Brazilian authorities threatened to intern and expel Eliskases as they had severed all links with Nazi Germany. Some
Leonid Aleksandrovich Shamkovich (Russian: Леони́д Алекса́ндрович Шамко́вич, June 1, 1923 – April 22, 2005) was a chess Grandmaster, and chess writer.
He was born in a Jewish family in Rostov-on-Don in Russia.
Shamkovich became a Grandmaster in 1965 and won several tournaments, with his best victory coming at Sochi in 1967, where he tied for first place with Nikolai Krogius, Vladimir Simagin, Boris Spassky and Alexander Zaitsev. Other notable results included a tie for 3rd at the 1962 Moscow Championship (behind Yuri Averbakh and Evgeny Vasiukov) and finishing third at Mariánské Lázně 1965 (behind Paul Keres and Vlastimil Hort).
Shamkovich left the Soviet Union in 1975, moving first to Israel, then Canada, and finally the United States, where he lived the remainder of his life. He won the 1975 Canadian Open Chess Championship. He continued to play through the 1990s, and wrote several chess books.
His Sacrifice in Chess begins, "A real sacrifice involves a radical change in the character of a game which cannot be effected without foresight, fantasy, and the willingness to risk."
His aristocratic bearing and manner of speech earned him the nickname "Prince".
Shamkovich died of
Nicholas Ernest (Nick) de Firmian (born July 26, 1957 in Fresno, California), is a chess grandmaster and three-time U.S. chess champion, winning in 1987 (with Joel Benjamin), 1995, and 1998. He also tied for first in 2002, but Larry Christiansen won the playoff. He is also a chess writer, most famous for his work in writing the 13th, 14th, and 15th editions of the important chess opening treatise Modern Chess Openings.
He has represented the United States at several Interzonals and played on the United States Olympiad teams of 1980, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1996, 1998, and 2000. De Firmian earned the International Master title in 1979 and the GM title in 1985. He currently resides in Denmark with his wife, Christine, who is a chess expert and past member of the Danish Women's Chess Team.
He won the 1983 Canadian Open Chess Championship. In 1986, he won the World Open and the first prize of $21,000, at that time a record for a Swiss system tournament. De Firmian was a founding member of Prochess, a grandmaster advocacy group dedicated to promoting chess in the United States. He has a degree in physics from the University of California, Berkeley.
Grandmaster de Firmian is a noted
Paul Keres (January 7, 1916 – June 5, 1975), was an Estonian chess grandmaster, and a renowned chess writer. He was among the world's top players from the mid-1930s to the mid-1960s.
Keres narrowly missed a chance at a world championship match on five occasions. He won the 1938 AVRO tournament, which led to negotiations for a title match against champion Alexander Alekhine, but the match never took place due to World War II. After the war Keres was runner-up in the Candidates' Tournament on four consecutive occasions.
Due to these and other strong results, many chess historians consider Keres the strongest player never to become world champion. He was nicknamed "Paul the Second", "The Eternal Second" and "The Crown Prince of Chess". Keres was the only player in chess history to defeat nine undisputed world champions.
Paul Keres was born in Narva (then under supremacy of Russian Empire, now Estonia).
Keres first learned about chess from his father and older brother Harald (afterwards a prominent physicist, who later told flendly jokes to his students: "I am not Pauls' brother; Paul is my brother.). With the scarcity of chess literature in his small town, he learned about chess
Rafael Artemovich Vaganian, also transliterated Vahanyan (Armenian: Ռաֆայել Վահանյան, Russian: Рафаэль Артёмович Ваганян), is an Armenian chess grandmaster known for his sharp tactical style of play. Vaganian was born on 15 October 1951 in Yerevan.
He achieved International Grandmaster status in 1971, at the unusually young age of 19, following an excellent result at the Vrnjacka Banja tournament the same year, where he took first place ahead of Leonid Stein and Ljubomir Ljubojević. This was also the year that he finished fourth at the World Junior Chess Championship, the winner being the Swiss player, Werner Hug. In the wake of this disappointing outcome, he was so upset with himself that he challenged Hug to a blitz match in an attempt to salvage some pride. The players blitzed for only a few minutes and Vaganian emerged as the winner by a 10–0 scoreline.
A cheerful and popular character on the grandmaster circuit, his tournament record is outstanding and includes further victories at Kragujevac 1974, São Paulo 1977, Kirovakan 1978, Las Palmas 1979, Manila 1981, Hastings 1982/83, Biel 1985 (the Interzonal), Leningrad 1987, Toronto 1990 and Ter Apel 1992. At Moscow 1982 and
Yuriy Kuzubov (born January 26, 1990), is one of the youngest International Grandmasters in the history of chess. As of April 2008, his rating was 2603. He completed his final grandmaster norm at age 14 years, 7 months, 12 days in 2004. His first name is sometimes spelled "Yuri" or "Yury".
In 2004 he tied for 1st–4th with Yge Visser, Friso Nijboer and John van der Wiel in the Harmonie Invitational in Groningen. In 2009, he tied for 1st–3rd with Dmitry Andreikin and Rauf Mamedov in a category 16 tournament at Lubbock, Texas. In 2011, tied for 1st–5th with Alexander Areshchenko, Parimarjan Negi, Markus Ragger and Ni Hua in the 9th Parsvnath Open Tournament and tied for 1st–6th with Ivan Sokolov, Vladimir Baklan, Kamil Miton, Jon Ludvig Hammer and Illya Nyzhnyk in the MP Reykjavik Open.
In the game below, played at the 73rd Ukrainian Chess Championship in 2004, Kuzubov, playing black, defeats fellow Ukrainian Grandmaster Sergey Karjakin, the youngest grandmaster in the history of the game.
1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 Nf6 5. Nc3 e5 6. Ndb5 d6 7. Bg5 a6 8. Na3 b5 9. Bxf6 gxf6 10. Nd5 f5 11. Bd3 Be6 12. c3 Bg7 13. Nxb5 axb5 14. Bxb5 Bd7 15. exf5 O-O 16. O-O Rb8 17. a4 Re8 18.
Ye Jiangchuan (simplified Chinese: 叶江川; traditional Chinese: 葉江川; pinyin: Yè Jiāngchuān; born November 20, 1960 in Wuxi, Jiangsu) is a veteran Chinese chess player and has been one of China's leading players in modern history.
In 1993, Ye became China's third Grandmaster, after Ye Rongguang and Xie Jun. On 1 January 2000, he became the first ever Chinese player to cross the 2600 elo rating mark. He was awarded the title of 'FIDE Senior Trainer' in 2005.
Ye learned chess when he was already 17 years old of age, and at 20 he became National Champion of China. He has altogether won the Chinese Chess Championship seven times (1981, 1984, 1986, 1987, 1989, 1994, 1996) and was the first Chinese player to have a FIDE rating over 2600.
Ye has represented his country at numerous Chess Olympiads and regional team championships in Asia. He has been four times member of the Asia Team Champions, a 10 times Olympiad participant. His best team result in an Olympiad was in 1998 in Elista where he was on the first board as the national team finished in fifth place.
Ye was 1995 and 1999 Champion of Dato Tan Chin Nam Cup, and 2001 Co-Champion of same cup. He reached the 4th round (9–16th place) in
Adrian Bogdanovich Mikhalchishin (or Mihalcisin or Mihalčišin, born November 18, 1954 in Lviv) is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster now playing for Slovenia.
He became a Grandmaster in 1978, shared first place at the Nikolaev tournament in 1983, and was second at Hastings in 1985-86.
Mikhalchishin is Vice-chairman of the FIDE Trainer Committee. From 1980 to 1986 Mikhalchishin was the trainer of Anatoly Karpov, and has also trained Zsuzsa Polgar, Maya Chiburdanidze, Alexander Beliavsky, Arkadij Naiditsch, and Vassily Ivanchuk. In 2004 he was awarded the title of FIDE Senior Trainer. He is currently coaching the Women's Team in Turkey.
Alexei Dmitrievich Shirov (Russian: Алексей Дмитриевич Широв, Latvian: Aleksejs Širovs; born July 4, 1972) is a Soviet-born Latvian chess grandmaster. He has consistently ranked among the world's top players since the early 1990s, and reached a ranking as high as number four in 1998. Shirov is also a well-regarded chess author.
Shirov became the World Champion (under 16) in 1988, the World Under-20 Vice-Champion in 1990 (second on tiebreaks to Ilya Gurevich), and achieved the title of Grandmaster in 1990. Shirov is the winner of numerous international tournaments: Biel 1991, Madrid 1997 (shared first place with Veselin Topalov), Ter Apel 1997, Monte Carlo 1998, Mérida 2000, two time winner of the Paul Keres Memorial International Chess Tournament in Tallinn, Estonia, with victories in 2004 and 2005 just to name a few. He won the 2005 Canadian Open Chess Championship.
In 1998 Shirov's ranking rose to number four in the world. On the basis of his rating, he was invited to play a ten game match against Vladimir Kramnik to select a challenger for World Champion Garry Kasparov. Shirov won the match with two wins, no losses and seven draws. However the plans for the Kasparov match fell
Deep Blue was a chess-playing computer developed by IBM. On May 11, 1997, the machine, with human intervention between games, won the second six-game match against world champion Garry Kasparov by two wins to one with three draws . Kasparov accused IBM of cheating and demanded a rematch, but IBM refused and dismantled Deep Blue. Kasparov had beaten a previous version of Deep Blue in 1996.
The project was started as ChipTest at Carnegie Mellon University by Feng-hsiung Hsu, followed by its successor, Deep Thought. After their graduation from Carnegie Mellon, Hsu, Thomas Anantharaman, and Murray Campbell from the Deep Thought team were hired by IBM Research to continue their quest to build a chess machine that could defeat the world champion. Hsu and Campbell joined IBM in autumn 1989, with Anantharaman following later. Anantharaman subsequently left IBM for Wall Street and Arthur Joseph Hoane joined the team to perform programming tasks. Jerry Brody, a long-time employee of IBM Research, was recruited for the team in 1990. The team was managed first by Randy Moulic, followed by Chung-Jen (C J) Tan.
After Deep Thought's 1989 match against Kasparov, IBM held a contest to rename the
Larry M. Christiansen (born June 27, 1956) is a chess Grandmaster who grew up in Riverside, California, United States, and was the U.S. champion in 1980, 1983, and 2002. He currently makes his home in Somerville, MA with his wife, Women's Candidate Master Natasha Christiansen.
Christiansen showed exceptional strength at an early age. In 1971, he became the first junior high school student to win the National High School Championship. He went on to win three invitational U.S. Junior Championships in 1973, 1974, and 1975. In 1977, at age 21, he became a Grandmaster without first having been an International Master, an accomplishment shared by only a handful of others. Christiansen tied for first place with Anatoly Karpov at Linares 1981. He won the 2001 Canadian Open Chess Championship. He also won Curaçao 2008 and the Bermuda Open 2011.
Christiansen played on the United States Olympiad teams of 1980, 1982, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1996 and 2002.
Christiansen describes his playing style as "aggressive-tactical" and he lists his favorite opening as the Sämisch King's Indian. He is the author of two popular chess books that showcase his aggressive style: Storming the Barricades
Leonid Zakharovich Stein (Леонид Захарович Штейн; November 12, 1934 – July 4, 1973) was a Soviet chess Grandmaster from Ukraine. He won three USSR Chess Championships in the 1960s (1963, 1965, and 1966), and was among the world's top ten players during that era.
Leonid Stein was born in Kamenets-Podolsky. He was a Jewish Ukrainian who served in the Soviet Army.
In both 1955 and 1956, he tied for first place in the individual Army Championship. He achieved the national Master title for chess at the relatively late age of 24, but, as his Army titles against strong competition attest, he was likely at that strength somewhat earlier. At 24, he competed for the first time in the USSR Chess Championship at Tbilisi, 1959. In the following year he won the Ukrainian Championship at Kiev, winning it again in 1962. He played board one for the Soviet team at the Helsinki 1961 Student Olympiad, scoring a strong +8, =3, -1, and helping his team to the overall gold medals.
He tied for third place in the 1961 Soviet Championship, at Moscow, defeating Tigran Petrosian on the way. He won his first Soviet title at Leningrad 1963; he tied with Boris Spassky and Ratmir Kholmov in the tournament itself,
Ossip Samoilovich Bernstein (20 September 1882 at Zhytomyr, Russian Empire (now Ukraine) – 30 November 1962 in the French Pyrenees) was a Russian chess grandmaster and a financial lawyer.
Born in Imperial Russia to a family of Jewish heritage, Ossip Bernstein grew up in pre-revolutionary Russia. He earned a doctorate in law at Heidelberg University in 1906, and became a financial lawyer.
After the First World War, the October Revolution, and during the Russian Civil War in 1918, he fled to France. In 1918 he was arrested in Odessa by the Cheka (Bolshevik secret police), and ordered shot by a firing squad because he was a legal advisor to bankers. As the firing squad lined up, a superior officer asked to see the list of prisoners' names. Discovering the name of Ossip Bernstein, he was asked whether he was the famous chess master. Not satisfied with Bernstein's affirmative reply, the officer made Bernstein play a game with him. If Bernstein lost or drew, he would be shot. Bernstein won in short order and was released. He escaped on a British ship and settled in Paris. Bernstein was a successful businessman. He earned considerable wealth before losing it in the Bolshevik Revolution,
Parimarjan Negi (born 9 February 1993) is a chess Grandmaster (GM) from India. In July 2005, he earned his third and final International Master norm at the Sort International open chess tournament in Sort, Spain. On 1 July 2006, at the age of 13 years, 4 months, and 22 days, he became the second-youngest GM ever, second only to Sergey Karjakin, when he earned his third and final GM norm at the Chelyabinsk Region Superfinal Championship at Satka in Russia. His FIDE rating as of January 2011 is 2641.
On 6 January 2006, he received his second GM norm at the Hastings Chess Congress where he scored 6/10, a performance of 2568. Negi finished 16th when he was 12 years, 10 months and 29 days old.
Parimarjan Negi studies in the Amity International School and has won various tournaments there. Negi became the youngest Grandmaster in India on 1 July 2006 by drawing with Russian Grandmaster Ruslan Sherbakov and finished with six points from nine rounds of the Chelyabinsk Region Superfinal chess tournament in Satka.
Negi replaces Pendyala Harikrishna as India's youngest ever GM.
Negi won the strong Philadelphia International Open Tournament in June 2008 with a score of 7/9, and was undefeated.
Pia Cramling (born 23 April 1963 in Stockholm, Sweden) is a Swedish chess grandmaster. Since the early 1980s, she has been one of the strongest female players in the world.
She regularly plays on the Swedish (Men's) team in the World Chess Olympiads, one of only three women to regularly play on the "men's" teams. In 1992, she was awarded the title of grandmaster by the International Chess Federation (FIDE). She won the women's European Individual Chess Championship in 2003 and 2010.
Cramling, married to the Spanish grandmaster Juan Manuel Bellón López, lived in Spain for a number of years.
Thomas Luther (born 4 November 1969 in Erfurt) is a German chess player and International Grandmaster of Chess. In 2000 he was a member of the German team that won the silver medal in the 34th Chess Olympiad in Istanbul.
He won the German championships 1993, 2002, and 2006. As a result of his 1993 victory, FIDE awarded him the GM title in 1994. In 2009, he won 6th LGA Premium Chess Cup in Nürnberg.
Luther's current Elo rating is 2545 (September 2010).
Eduardas Rozentalis (born 27 May 1963, Vilnius) is a Lithuanian chess grandmaster.
He played for the Lithuanian team at first board in seven Chess Olympiads in 1992–98, and 2002–06.
In 1995 he tied for first in the Canadian Open Chess Championship. He also tied for first, with 6/9, in the 2008 staging of this event, in Montreal. In 2009/10 he tied for 1st-5th with Radosław Wojtaszek, Pavel Ponkratov, Luke McShane and Igor Lysyj at the 39th Rilton Cup in Stockholm. In May 2010, he won the 3rd Magistral Ciudad de Asunción Copa Roggio tournament.
Ehsan Ghaem-Maghami (Persian: احسان قائم مقامی ; born 11 January 1983) is a chess grandmaster (2000) from Iran. On the September 2011 FIDE list, he has an Elo rating of 2583.He is a bachelor of law and now is studying sports management at Tehran university.
In 2004 he came first in the Kish GM Tournament. In 2009, he won a 20 games combined match (four classical, four rapid and twelve blitz games) against Anatoly Karpov, played with a special rule: play to mate or dead draw. The overall score was eight wins to Ghaem-Maghami, seven wins to Karpov, and five draws. In 2011 he came first in the 10th Avicenna International Open Tournament in Hamadan, Iran.
Ehsan was born on 11 January 1982 in Tehran and learned to play chess at the age of 8 from his father. His early rise in chess was swift as he won Iran men championship title by age 14.He was a talented football-player as he became the captain of Tehran juniors football team by age 10.But his great interest in chess caused him to pick chess over football.
An Iranian grandmaster said he ousted the Israeli title holder on 2011/02/09 to regain the Guinness record for simultaneous chess games after facing more than 600 players in over 25
Gioachino Greco (c. 1600 – c. 1634) was an Italian chess player and writer. He recorded some of the first chess games known, 77 in total. His games, all against anonymous opponents ("NN"), were quite possibly constructs (Hooper & Whyld 1992), but served as highly useful tools for spotting opening traps.
Mikhail Botvinnik considered Greco to be the first professional chess player (Gufeld & Stetsko 1996:5).
Greco was a remarkable chess player between Ruy López de Segura and François-André Danican Philidor, and authored a famous manual containing many traps and checkmating patterns. As one of the players during the age of "Italian Romantic Style", he studied the Giuoco Piano (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4) and published his analysis in the form of short games around 1625. In 1665, after his death, the manuscripts were published in London. These games are regarded as classics of early chess literature and are sometimes still taught to beginners.
Greco paved the way for many of the attacking legends of the Romantic era, such as Adolf Anderssen, Paul Morphy, and François Philidor.
Among his games/constructions were the first smothered mate:
NN vs Greco, 1620
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.O-O
Johannes Hendrikus (Hein) Donner (July 6, 1927 – November 27, 1988) was a Dutch chess grandmaster (GM) and writer. Donner was born in The Hague and won the Dutch Championship in 1954, 1957, and 1958. FIDE, the World Chess Federation, awarded him the GM title in 1959. He played for the Netherlands in the Chess Olympiads 11 times (1950–1954, 1958–1962, 1968, 1972–1978). He was the uncle of the former Dutch Minister of Social Affairs and Employment, Piet Hein Donner.
On August 24, 1983 Donner suffered a stroke, which he wrote happened "just in time, because when you are 56 you do not play chess as well as you did when you were 26". After surviving the stroke, he went to live in Vreugdehof, which he described as "a kind of nursing-home". He was unable to walk, but had learned to type with one finger, and wrote for NRC Handelsblad and Schaaknieuws.
Donner was also a chess columnist and writer. He was famous for his outspoken and often outrageous columns about subjects such as women, politics, and fellow Dutch Grandmaster Lodewijk Prins, whom Donner claimed "cannot tell a knight from a bishop".
In 1987, the book De Koning ("The King") was published, which contained 162 of his chess
Jonathan Rowson (born 18 April 1977 in Aberdeen) is a Scottish chess Grandmaster and also a chess author.
He made his Scotland debut for the national Primary School team in the match against England in 1988. At this time he attended Skene Square Primary School, though he later attended Aberdeen Grammar School where a Maths teacher, Mr Michael Wilson, organised and encouraged the school team. Although in 1988 he was not the best player in his age-group at the time, his progress was rapid and he began competing on the world stage in 1991, winning a silver medal in the European Under 18 Championship in 1995 (behind Robert Kempiński of Poland).
After taking a year out to study chess in the wake of this success, he went to Keble College, Oxford University where he earned a first class degree in Philosophy, Politics and Economics. Rowson has an interest in Eastern thought and, following a year at Harvard, completed a PhD thesis on Wisdom at Bristol University, supervised by Guy Claxton.
He came second in the European Under 20 Championship in 1997 and achieved his third and final Grandmaster norm (and with it the title) in the 1999 Scottish Chess Championship. He went on to win the event
Leonid Grigoryevich Yudasin (Hebrew: ליאוניד גריגורייביץ' יודסין; Russian: Леонид Григорьевич Юдасин; born in Leningrad, August 8, 1959) is a prominent chess grandmaster and trainer, now living in New York City.
Awarded the International Master title in 1982, he secured the International Grandmaster title in 1984, the year he became Leningrad Champion. Demonstrating that his skills were not just restricted to classical chess, he went on to gain the USSR Cup for rapid chess in 1988.
However, these notable early achievements were soon to be surpassed when he became joint winner of the 1990 USSR Championship (with Beliavsky, Bareev and Vyzmanavin, the title going to Beliavsky on tie-break). He added individual bronze and team gold medals the same year, at the Novi Sad Olympiad, when he represented the USSR and registered the best performance of any of his team-mates. In 1994 and again in 1996, he played under the Israeli flag at the Moscow and Yerevan Olympiads, respectively.
A world championship Candidate in 1991, he qualified again in 1994 and this time progressed to the latter stages, losing out to Vladimir Kramnik in the quarter finals by a score of 2.5-4.5.
Arguably his most
Aivars Gipslis (February 8, 1937 – April 13, 2000) was a Latvian chess FIDE Grandmaster and also an ICCF Grandmaster, and a chess writer.
Born in Riga, he was champion of Latvia in 1955, 1956, 1957, 1960, 1961, 1963, 1964, and 1966. He also played in several Soviet Chess Championships, his best result coming in 1966, when he was equal third with 12/20. Gipslis played in the Sousse Interzonal of 1967, but did not advance to the Candidates' level. Perhaps his best tournament result was the Alekhine Memorial 1967 in Moscow, where he finished on 10/17, a point behind the winner Leonid Stein. His second place was shared with Milko Bobotsov and two World Champions, Vasily Smyslov and Mikhail Tal, ahead of two others, Boris Spassky and Tigran Petrosian, among a host of other strong players. His other outstanding tournament results include equal first at Bad Liebenstein 1963 with Lev Polugaevsky, and equal second at Budapest 1977 behind David Bronstein. Drink affected his performance in later years, but he continued to play right up to the year of his death.
He became an Grandmaster in 1967, and edited the Latvian chess periodical Šahs from 1963.
With the white pieces, he most frequently
Ľubomír Ftáčnik (born October 30, 1957 in Bratislava) is a Slovak chess player and a former European Junior Champion.
He became European Junior Champion in 1976/77 and was awarded the International Master title shortly after. In 1980, he received the International Grandmaster title and this heralded the start of a successful playing career in national and international competitions.
In his native Czechoslovakia (now the Czech Republic and Slovakia) he became national champion in 1981, 1982, 1983 and 1985. In tournaments, there have been many outright first places, including Esbjerg 1982, Trnava 1983, Alltensteig 1987, Baden-Baden Open 1987, Vienna 1990 and the Parkroyal Surfers (Australia) 2000. At Cienfuegos 1980, Dortmund 1981 and Lugano 1988, he shared first place and at Hradec Králové in 1981, he was runner-up. In 1987 he drew a match with Kiril Georgiev, the strong Bulgarian grandmaster.
At the Chess Olympiad, he has represented first Czechoslovakia and then Slovakia from 1980 onwards, missing out only in 1998. His major triumph occurred in 1982, when an admirable 67.9% score helped the Czechoslovaks win the silver medal, very much against expectation. Oddly, his brilliant
Alexey (Aleksei) Stepanovich Suetin (Russian: Алексей Суэтин; November 16, 1926 in Kirovohrad – September 10, 2001 in Moscow) was a Russian International Grandmaster of chess and author.
A resident of Moscow and a mechanical engineer by profession, he became an International Master in 1961 and a Grandmaster in 1965. His philosophy was always that "mastery is not enough; you must dare, take risks". It was an axiom that fashioned him into a tough and fiercely competitive player and appeared to bring him his fair share of success.
His first major success came in 1955, when as a member of the Soviet team at the World Student Team Championships, he scored 80% and took individual and team gold medals.
As an active tournament player in the 1960s and 1970s, he achieved many fine results, including sharing or winning outright first place at Sarajevo 1965, Copenhagen 1965, Titovo Uzice 1966, Hastings 1967/68, Havana 1969, Albena 1970, Kecskemet 1972, Brno 1975 (the inaugural Czech Open Championship – the title of Champion going to Vlastimil Hort on tie-break), Lublin 1976, and Dubna 1979. Third place finishes at Debrecen 1961 and Berlin (Lasker Memorial) 1968 were also noteworthy.
Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Russian: Га́рри Ки́мович Каспа́ров, Russian pronunciation: [ˈɡarʲɪ ˈkʲiməvʲɪtɕ kɐˈsparəf]; born Garik Kimovich Weinstein, 13 April 1963) is a Russian (formerly Soviet) chess grandmaster, a former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist, considered by many to be the greatest chess player of all time.
Kasparov became the youngest ever undisputed World Chess Champion in 1985 at the age of 22 by defeating then-champion Anatoly Karpov. He held the official FIDE world title until 1993, when a dispute with FIDE led him to set up a rival organization, the Professional Chess Association. He continued to hold the "Classical" World Chess Championship until his defeat by Vladimir Kramnik in 2000. He was the first world champion to lose a match to a computer under standard time controls, when he lost to Deep Blue in 1997.
Kasparov's ratings achievements include being rated world No. 1 according to Elo rating almost continuously from 1986 until his retirement in 2005 and holding the all-time highest rating of 2851. He was the world No. 1 ranked player for 255 months, nearly three times as long as his closest rival, Anatoly Karpov. Kasparov also holds records
Ljubomir Ljubojević (Serbian Cyrillic: Љубомир Љубојевић) is a Grandmaster of chess. He was born on 2 November 1950 in Titovo Užice, Yugoslavia (now Užice, Serbia). Ljubojević was awarded the International Master (IM) title in 1970 and the GM title in 1971. He was Yugoslav champion in 1977 (jointly) and 1982. He won the 1974 Canadian Open Chess Championship. In 1983 he was ranked third in the Elo rating list, but he never succeeded in reaching the Candidates Tournament stage of the World Championship.
He played for Yugoslavia in twelve Chess Olympiads, nine times on top board, with an overall result of 63.5% (+66 =75 −22). He won an individual gold medal on third board at Skopje 1972 and three bronze medals (one individual and two team).
Ljubojević tied for first place with Robert Hübner at Linares 1985. He has defeated almost every top Grandmaster active during his career, including world champions Garry Kasparov and Anatoly Karpov. He plays for Serbia, but is currently living in Spain.
Teimour Radjabov (also spelled Teymur Rajabov; Azerbaijani: Teymur Rəcəbov; born 12 March 1987 in Baku, Azerbaijan) is a leading Azerbaijani chess player. On the October 2012 FIDE list Radjabov has an Elo rating of 2792, and is ranked 4th in the world.
Radjabov earned the title of Grandmaster in March 2001 at the age of 14, making him the second-youngest grandmaster in history at the time. In Linares 2003, not yet 16 years old, he became the first player in seven years to beat Garry Kasparov with the black pieces in a rated game, a feat no one repeated before Kasparov's retirement two years later. During Radjabov's earlier career, his playing style was described as attacking and tactical. He advocated the King's Indian Defence, as well as various dynamic openings against 1.e4, such as the Sicilian Sveshnikov or the Sicilian Dragon. Later Radjabov developed into a more universal player, focused on gaining a small but decisive edge with white, while keeping his trademark dynamism with black.
Radjabov was born in Baku, as were many other grandmasters, for example Garry Kasparov, Vugar Gashimov, Vladimir Akopian, Emil Sutovsky, Rauf Mamedov and Eltaj Safarli.
Being the youngest of the
Alexander Shabalov (born September 12, 1967) is an American chess grandmaster, the multiple winner of the U.S. Chess Championships; he was the 2007 US Champion. He was born in Latvia, and like his fellow Latvians Alexei Shirov and Mikhail Tal he is known for courting complications even at the cost of objective soundness. As of the June 2007 rating supplement Shabalov had a United States Chess Federation rating of 2671, ranking him seventh best among American chess players and 81st in the world.
Until recently, Alexander Shabalov regularly lectured chess players of all ages at the House of Chess, a store that he ran at the Ross Park Mall in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, until it closed in mid-2007. He has been known to play against anyone who shows up, and to be similarly obliging to autograph-seekers. Shabalov is a four-time United States champion.
Colin A. McNab (born 3 February 1961) was Scotland's second chess Grandmaster, fulfilling the requirements for the title in 1992 just after Paul Motwani. After achieving his three norms, he strained to get his rating up to the required 2500 level, and is possibly unique among Grandmasters in only achieving a published rating of 2500 some six years after being awarded the title. The FIDE regulations in force at the time stated that an 'intermediate' rating at any stage during an event would suffice, and that ratings between 2498.5 and 2500 would be rounded up, which is indeed what happened in 1992. On the November 2009 FIDE list McNab's Elo rating is 2475. He is also an International Master of chess problem solving.
McNab played for Scotland 11 times in Chess Olympiads between 1980 and 2008. He was also the Commonwealth Champion in 1992, and won the Scottish Chess Championship in 1983, 1991, 1993 and 1995. His opening repertoire is noted for its seemingly quiet fianchetto systems, and he has written a book on the Fianchetto King's Indian, and co-authored The Ultimate Pirc with John Nunn. He is renowned as an expert on the endgame and has written a regular column for Scottish Chess
Florian Jenni (born 24 March 1980 in Lieli) is a Swiss chess player and International Grandmaster of chess.
When he was five years old, he was taught to play chess by his mother and later on by his father. He was awarded the title of Grandmaster in 2003. On the March 2010 FIDE rating list his Elo rating is 2520.
Jenni, who studied economics and plays the piano in his free time, won tournaments in Lenk (2002), the Swiss Championship in Silvaplana (2003), and Wintherthur (2005).
He is also a member of the Swiss National Team.
Dr. Karsten Müller (born November 23, 1970 in Hamburg, West Germany) is a German chess Grandmaster and author. He earned the Grandmaster title in 1998 and a PhD in mathematics in 2002 at the University of Hamburg. He had placed third in the 1996 German championship and second in the 1997 German championship.
He is an authority on endgames. He is the author of Fundamental Chess Endings (Gambit Publications, 2001) and Secrets of Pawn Endings (Everyman Chess, 2000), both with Frank Lamprecht. He also wrote How to Play Chess Endgames, with Wolfgang Pajeken (Gambit, 2008) and Magic of Chess Tactics (Russell Enterprises 2003) with FIDE Master Claus Dieter Meyer. His column "Endgame Corner" has appeared at ChessCafe.com since January 2001 and he has been a regular contributor to ChessBase Magazine since 1997.
The seventh chapter of Tibor Karolyi's 2009 book Genius in the Background is devoted to him. His main interest apart from chess are football and mathematical games.
Karsten has authored a large number of ChessBase products. These can be found online here
Levon Grigori Aronian (Armenian: Լևոն Գրիգորի Արոնյան; born 6 October 1982) is an Armenian chess Grandmaster. On the May 2012 FIDE list, he had an Elo rating of 2825, making him number two in the world and third highest of all time.
Aronian won the Chess World Cup 2005. He led the Armenian national team to the Gold medals in the 2006 (Turin), 2008 (Dresden) and 2012 (Istanbul) Chess Olympics and at the World Team Chess Championship in Ningbo 2011. He won the FIDE Grand Prix 2008–2010, qualifying him for the Candidates tournament for the World Chess Championship 2012, where he was knocked out in the first round. He was also World Chess960 Champion in 2006 and 2007, World Rapid Chess Champion in 2009, and World Blitz Chess Champion in 2010.
Aronian was declared the best sportsman of Armenia in 2005 and was awarded the title of "Honoured Master of Sport of the Republic of Armenia" in 2009.
Aronian was born on 6 October 1982 in Yerevan, Armenia, to Seda Sarkisovna, an Armenian mining engineer, and Grigory Leontievich, a Jewish physicist. He was taught to play chess by his sister Lilit at the age of nine. His first coach was the Grandmaster Melikset Khachiyan. An early sign of his
Mikhail Tal (Latvian: Mihails Tāls; Russian: Михаил Нехемьевич Таль, Michail Nechem'evič Tal, [mʲixʌˈiɫ nʲɪˈxɛmʲɪvʲit͡ɕ ˈtal]; sometimes transliterated Mihails Tals or Mihail Tal; November 9, 1936 – June 28, 1992) was a Soviet-Latvian chess Grandmaster and the eighth World Chess Champion.
Widely regarded as a creative genius and the best attacking player of all time, he played in a daring, combinational style. His play was known above all for improvisation and unpredictability. Every game, he once said, was as inimitable and invaluable as a poem. He was often called "Misha", a diminutive for Mikhail, and "The magician from Riga". Both The Mammoth Book of the World's Greatest Chess Games (Burgess, Nunn & Emms 2004) and Modern Chess Brilliancies (Evans 1970) include more games by Tal than any other player. Tal was also a highly regarded chess writer. He also holds the records for both the first and second longest unbeaten streaks in competitive chess history.
On May 28, 1992, dying from kidney failure, he left hospital to play at the Moscow blitz tournament, where he defeated Garry Kasparov. He died one month later. The Mikhail Tal Memorial is held in Moscow each year since 2006 to
Ksawery Tartakower, PhD (also known as Saviely or Savielly Tartakower in English, less often Xavier Tartacover or Xavier Tartakover; 1887–1956) was a leading Polish and French chess Grandmaster. He was also a leading chess journalist of the 1920s and 30s. Tartakower is best remembered for his sharp wit and countless aphorisms which kept his audience bent over with laughter. His books remain very popular even today at all levels.
Tartakower was of Jewish origin, born on 22 February 1887 in Rostov-on-Don, Russia to Austrian citizens. His parents were killed in a pogrom in Rostov-on-Don in 1911 in spite of having adopted Christianity some time earlier (Tartakower had been Christened). Tartakower stayed in Austria, where he graduated from the law faculties of universities in Geneva and Vienna. He spoke perfectly both German, and French. During his studies he became interested in chess and started attending chess meetings in various cafés for chess players in Vienna. He met many notable masters of the time, among them Carl Schlechter, Géza Maróczy (against whom he later won what was probably his most famous brilliancy), Milan Vidmar, and Richard Réti. His first achievement was first
Vladimir Akopian (Russian: Владимир Акопян; born December 7, 1971 in Baku, Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet Union) is a leading Armenian chess Grandmaster. In Armenia, his surname is more commonly written Hakobyan (Armenian: Վլադիմիր Հակոբյան) however, most English texts and FIDE use a transliteration of the Russian version.
Akopian won the World Under-16 Championship in 1986 at the age of 14 and the World Under-18 Championship at 16. In 1991 he won the World Junior Chess Championship.
He won the Armenian Chess Championship in 1996 and 1997. In 1999 he made his way through to the final of the FIDE Knock-Out World Chess Championship, but lost to Alexander Khalifman, 3.5-2.5. In the 2004 event, he was knocked out in the quarter-finals by the player he had defeated in the 1999 semi-finals, Michael Adams.
It was reported that Akopian had to withdraw from the 2005 Dubai Open when he was arrested at Dubai airport having been mistaken for an individual of the same name wanted by Interpol for murder.
On the July 2011 FIDE list, he has an Elo rating of 2667, making him number 81 in the world and Armenia's number three player, behind Levon Aronian and Sergei Movsesian.
Wolfgang Unzicker (26 June 1925 – 20 April 2006) was one of the strongest German chess Grandmasters from 1945 to about 1970. He decided against making chess his profession, choosing law instead. Unzicker was at times the world's strongest amateur chess player, and World Champion Anatoly Karpov called him the "world champion of amateurs".
Unzicker was born in Pirmasens, a small town near Kaiserslautern in the province of Rhineland-Palatinate. His father taught him how to play chess at age 10. His brother, four years older, was also a chess player but was killed in World War II. Unzicker began to play tournaments abroad in 1948 as Germany was struggling to rebuild after the war, and achieved the grandmaster title in 1954. He won the German Championship six times from 1948 to 1963 and tied for first in 1965. From 1950 to 1978 Unzicker played in twelve Chess Olympiads, and was first board on ten of them. He played nearly 400 times representing Germany's national team. For many years he was legal advisor for the German Chess Association.
His tournament victories include the first place tie (+6 −0 =9) with Boris Spassky at the Chigorin Memorial in Sochi 1965, first at Maribor 1967 ahead
Zoltán Ribli (born September 6, 1951 in Mohács) is a Hungarian chess grandmaster and International Arbiter (1995). He was twice a World Championship Candidate and three times Hungarian Champion.
As a youngster, he was twice the European Junior Champion, in 1968/69 (shared) and 1970/71. In domestic competition, he has been three times the national champion of Hungary, sharing the honours in 1973 and 1977, while winning outright in 1974.
His International Master and Grandmaster titles were awarded in 1970 and 1973, respectively.
At the peak of his career, Ribli was twice a Candidate for the World Championship, in 1984 and 1986. At London in 1984, he participated in the high profile match between USSR and the Rest of the World, defeating his Soviet counterpart, Rafael Vaganian by a narrow margin.
He became a fearsome competitor on the international tournament circuit of the 1970s and 1980s, chalking up victories at Kecskemét 1972 (with Suetin), Budapest 1975 (with Polugaevsky), Mexico 1980, Baden Baden 1981 (with Miles), Portorož/Ljubljana 1985 (Vidmar Memorial, with Miles and Portisch), Dortmund 1986, Reggio Emilia 1987, and Wijk aan Zee 1989 (with Anand, Sax and Nikolić). Runner-up
Artur Mayakovich Yusupov (de: Jussupow; born February 13, 1960 in Moscow, Soviet Union) is a German grandmaster of chess and a chess writer.
Yusupov learned to play chess at the age of six and trained at the Young Pioneers' Palace in Moscow. He won the World Junior Championship in 1977, which then automatically qualified for the International Master title, qualification as a grandmaster following in 1980. Second place at his first USSR Championship in 1979 (behind Geller). International tournament results in the next decade included first place at Esbjerg 1980, first at Yerevan 1982, equal fourth at Linares 1983, first at the Tunis Interzonal 1985, equal first at Montpellier Candidates 1985, and third at Linares 1988. He also won the 1986 Canadian Open Chess Championship.
By this time Yusupov was also chasing World Championship qualification, reaching the semi-final of the Candidates Tournament on three occasions in 1986 (defeated by Andrei Sokolov), 1989 (defeated by Anatoly Karpov) and 1992 (defeated by Jan Timman).
In the early 1990s, he returned to his Moscow apartment one day and came upon burglars. During the struggle that broke out, he was shot and considers himself lucky to
Viacheslav Vasilyevich Ragozin (October 8, 1908 – March 11, 1962) was a Soviet chess Grandmaster, an International Arbiter of chess, and a World Correspondence Chess Champion. He was also a chess writer and editor.
Born in the city of St.Petersburg, Ragozin's chess career first came to the fore with a series of excellent results in the 1930s. In the earliest of these, he defeated the respected master Ilyin-Zhenevsky in a 1930 match and was himself awarded the title of soviet master. At Moscow 1935, he won the best game prize for his victory against Lilienthal. At the very strong Moscow tournament of 1936, he beat Flohr and Lasker and came very close to defeating Capablanca, the ever-resourceful ex-world champion scrambling to find a draw by perpetual check at the game's frantic conclusion. There followed a victory at the Leningrad championship of 1936 and second place shared with Konstantinopolsky (behind Levenfish) at the Soviet Championship of 1937. At the 1939 Leningrad-Moscow tournament, he finished third equal, behind Flohr and Reshevsky, but ahead of Keres.
Success continued into the 1940s with first prize at Sverdlovsk in 1942 and a repeat triumph at the Leningrad
Robert James "Bobby" Fischer (March 9, 1943 – January 17, 2008) was an American chess Grandmaster and the 11th World Chess Champion. He is widely considered one of the greatest chess players of all time. Fischer was also a best-selling chess author.
A chess prodigy, at age 13 Fischer won a "brilliancy" that became known as The Game of the Century. Starting at age 14, he played in eight United States Championships, winning each by at least a point. At age 15½, he became both the youngest grandmaster and the youngest candidate for the World Championship up to that time. He won the 1963–64 U.S. Championship 11–0, the only perfect score in the history of the tournament. In the early 1970s he became one of the most dominant players in modern history—winning the 1970 Interzonal by a record 3½-point margin and winning 20 consecutive games, including two unprecedented 6–0 sweeps in the Candidates Matches. According to research by Jeff Sonas, in 1971 Fischer had separated himself from the rest of the world by a larger margin of playing skill than any player since the 1870s. He became the first official World Chess Federation (FIDE) number-one rated chess player in July 1971, and his 54
Jaan Ehlvest (born 14 October 1962) is a chess player, who was awarded the title of Grandmaster by FIDE in 1987 and was named Estonian sportsman of the year in 1987 and 1989. Since 2006, he has represented the United States.
He was briefly a world top 10 player when, in 1991, he ascended to the number 5 slot on FIDE's official list with an Elo rating of 2650.
Jaan Ehlvest's brother, Jüri Ehlvest, was a well-known writer in Estonia.
Ehlvest's tournament victories include the 1980 USSR Junior Chess Championship, the 1983 European Junior Championship, the 1986 Estonian Championship, the 1994 New York Open, and the 2003 World Open in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. When SK Rockaden won the 2001 Swedish championship they fielded Ehlvest.
Ehlvest studied psychology at Tartu State University. In 2004, Ehlvest published his autobiography, The Story of a Chess Player. In 2006, unsatisfied with the lack of support from the Estonian Chess Federation, Ehlvest decided to move to the United States; since then, he has been a member of the USCF and competed internationally for the USA.
In March 2007, Ehlvest accepted an invitation to play an unusual eight-game match against the chess program Rybka,
Luděk Pachman (German: Ludek Pachman, May 11, 1924, Bělá pod Bezdězem, today Czech Republic – March 6, 2003, Passau, Germany) was a Czechoslovak-German chess grandmaster, chess writer, and political activist. In 1972, after being imprisoned and tortured almost to death by the Communist regime in Czechoslovakia, he was allowed to emigrate to West Germany. He lived the remainder of his life there, and resumed his chess career with considerable success, including playing in the Interzonal in 1976 and winning the West German Championship in 1978.
Pachman's first chess championship came in 1940, when he became champion of the nearby village of Cista (population 900). The first break in his chess career came in 1943, when he was invited to an international tournament in Prague. World Champion Alekhine dominated the event, with Keres taking second place. Pachman finished ninth in the nineteen-player tournament. Alekhine paid him a compliment in an article in the "Frankfurter Zeitung" and from the fifth round on, invited him every evening to analyze games and opening variations. "I don't have to tell you how a beginner from a village chess club felt at that time", Pachman wrote.
Oleg Mikhailovich Romanishin (born January 10, 1952 in Lviv) is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster and former European junior champion.
Many honours and awards were bestowed on him as a young man. After winning the European Junior Championship in 1973, he became an International Master the same year. In 1974 he was a member of the victorious USSR team at the World Student Team Championship held in Teesside, England, where he scored the best result for board 4 (8/9).
The following year, he had a terrific result at the USSR Championship, sharing second place with Boris Gulko, Mikhail Tal and Rafael Vaganian, after Tigran Petrosian. In 1976, his Grandmaster title was ratified.
He has an impressive collection of tournament victories including Odessa 1974, Novi Sad 1975, Yerevan 1976, Hastings 1976/77, Leningrad 1977 (shared with Tal), Gausdal 1979, Polanica Zdroij 1980, Lviv 1981 (shared with Tal), Jurmala 1983, Moscow 1985, Reggio Emilia 1986 (shared with Andersson and Ljubojević) and Debrecen 1990. Playing the Hungarian Open Championship at Györ in 1990 he enjoyed a most impressive victory, finishing a clear 2 points ahead of the field. Second place finishes at Tilburg 1979 (after Karpov)
Murray Graham Chandler (born 4 April 1960, Wellington, New Zealand) is a New Zealand chess grandmaster who has played internationally for that nation and for England, after gaining citizenship there in the early 1980s. Chandler is also known as a chess writer and occasional organiser of chess tournaments.
Chandler won the New Zealand chess championship in 1975–76, and qualified as an International Master in 1977. His first international chess appearance was in 1974 when he turned out for the New Zealand team in the first Asian Team Chess Championship in Penang, Malaysia. Later, he represented New Zealand at the Chess Olympiads of 1976, 1978 and 1980 but then switched allegiance to England. He played for England at the Chess Olympiads of 1982, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1990 and 1992, as part of a highly successful team that defeated the Soviets in some crucial encounters. He maintained an Elo rating around the 2600 level between 1987 and 1992, and qualified for the title of International Grandmaster in 1983.
Amongst Chandler's best results have been Commonwealth Champion (twice – jointly in 1984 and outright in 1987), first place at Brighton 1981, first place in the Blackpool Zonal of 1990,
Antoaneta Stefanova (Bulgarian: Антоанета Стефанова) (born April 19, 1979) is a Bulgarian chess grandmaster, and a former Women's World Chess Champion. She became the twelfth holder of that title in 2004 in a 64-player knockout tournament held in Elista, Kalmykia under the auspices of FIDE.
Stefanova was born in Sofia, Bulgaria. Her passion for chess was first inspired when she was just four years old, receiving her first lessons from her father, Andon Stefanov, a designing artist.
Christian Bauer (born January 11, 1977 in Forbach, Moselle) is a French chess player and author. In 1996 he won the French Chess Championship.
In 2005 he won the 2nd Calvia Chess Festival. In 2009, came first at Vicente Bonil ahead of 21 GMs and 33 titled players. In 2010, he tied for 1st–7th with Alexander Riazantsev, Vitali Golod, Nadezhda Kosintseva, Leonid Kritz, Sébastien Feller, Sébastien Mazé in the 43rd Biel Chess Festival.
Enrico Paoli (January 13, 1908–December 15, 2005), was an Italian International chess master. He was born in Trieste, Italy, and learned chess when he was nine years old. He was winner of International Tournaments of Vienna (1951) and Imperia (1959). Paoli won his last Italian Championship at age 60, and organized the famous Reggio Emilia chess tournament. He beat Soviet GM Alexander Kotov with the black pieces in Venice in 1950, but missed receiving the Grandmaster title by only half a point at a tournament in 1969. He was awarded the title honoris causa in 1996 by FIDE.
Gabriel Sargissian (Armenian Գաբրիել Սարգսյան, other transcriptions of the name are Sarkissian and Sarkissyan, the transliteration is Gabriel Sargsyan; born 3 September 1983) is an Armenian chess player and International Grandmaster of Chess (2002). He was a member of the gold-medal winning Armenian team at the chess Olympiads in 2006 and 2008 and at the World Team Chess Championship in 2011.
Sargissian was born in Yerevan on 3 September 1983 and was taught to play chess by his grandfather when he was 6. He won the World Youth Chess Championship (under 14) in 1996 and the European Youth Chess Championship (under 16) in 1998. In the same year he become an International Master.
Sargissian won the Armenian Chess Championship in 2000 and 2003. He took part in the FIDE World Chess Championship 2004, but was eliminated in the first round by Sergei Tiviakov. Sargissian was victorious at Reykjavik 2006 and Dubai 2006. In 2007 he won the Ruy Lopez Festival (Zafra, Spain, March 16–25) finishing with 6.5/7, a point-and-a-half above the rest including in particular super players Ponomariov, Sasikiran, I. Sokolov. In 2009 he came first in the 18th Annual Chicago Open. He qualified for the Chess
Gata Kamsky (Tatar: Ğata Kamski, Ğataulla Röstäm ulı Sabirov; Гата Камский, Гатаулла Рөстәм улы Сабиров; Гатаулла Рустемович Сабиров, Гата Камский) (born June 2, 1974) is a Soviet-born American chess grandmaster, and the current World Rapid Chess Champion. As of May 2012, he was rated No. 2 in the United States and No. 14 in the world.
Kamsky was a prodigy who reached the final of the FIDE World Chess Championship 1996 at the age of 22, and reached a ranking of fourth in the world rankings in 1996. He played almost no FIDE-rated games between 1997 and late 2004.
Kamsky won the Chess World Cup 2007. This earned him a match against Veselin Topalov for the right to challenge for the World Chess Championship 2010, which he lost. Kamsky played in the Candidates Tournament to determine the challenger for the World Chess Championship 2012, where he advanced to the semifinals before losing to Boris Gelfand.
Kamsky was born in Novokuznetsk in Russia, in a Tatar family. Gata's last name, Kamsky, is derived from the stage nickname of his grandparents who were members of the Tatar traveling theater group. The family's "real" name is Sabirov.
He won the Soviet under-20 championship twice before
Jonny Hector (born 13 February 1964) is a Swedish chess grandmaster.
Born in Malmö, Sweden, Hector has lived in Denmark for many years. He learned chess at the relatively late age of 14, but quickly became a very strong player. In 1987 he was equal first in the strong Cappelle-la-Grande open (with Anthony Kosten and Anatoly Vaisser).
In 2002 he won the Swedish championship at Skara. In 2012, tied for 1st–3rd with Ivan Sokolov and Ivan Cheparinov in the Politiken Cup in Copenhagen, Denmark.
He has an aggressive, attacking style and is known for playing unusual chess openings. He is also an International Grandmaster of Correspondence Chess (1999).
Karen Asrian (Armenian: Կարեն Ասրյան) (24 April 1980 – 9 June 2008) was an Armenian chess Grandmaster.
As of the October 2006 FIDE rating list, his Elo rating was 2634, tied for the fourth highest rank in Armenia.
He won the Armenian Chess Championship in 1999, 2007, and 2008, and the Dubai 2001 and Tigran Petrosian Memorial (2004) tournaments.
In 2006, Asrian won the Chess Olympiad in Turin, playing third board on the Armenian team. Asrian had a solid playing style, refusing to take much risk, and this combined with good endgame technique has made him an excellent team player.
He graduated from Armenian State Institute of Physical Culture in 2001.
On 9 June 2008 the Armenian Chess Federation said Asrian had died of a suspected heart attack while driving.
Machgielis (Max) Euwe (Dutch: [ˈøːwə]) (May 20, 1901 – November 26, 1981) was a Dutch chess Grandmaster, mathematician, and author. He was the fifth player to become World Chess Champion (1935–37). Euwe also served as President of FIDE, the World Chess Federation, from 1970 to 1978.
Euwe was born in Watergraafsmeer, near Amsterdam. He studied mathematics at the University of Amsterdam, earning his doctorate in 1926, and taught mathematics, first in Rotterdam, and later at a girls' Lyceum in Amsterdam. He published a mathematical analysis of the game of chess from an intuitionistic point of view, in which he showed, using the Thue–Morse sequence, that the then-official rules did not exclude the possibility of infinite games.
Euwe won every Dutch chess championship that he participated in from 1921 until 1952, and additionally won the title in 1955 – his 12 titles are still a record. The only other winners during this period were Salo Landau in 1936, when Euwe, then world champion, did not compete, and Jan Hein Donner in 1954. He became the world amateur chess champion in 1928, at The Hague, with a score of 12/15.
Euwe had a young family and could only play competitive chess during
Ratmir Dmitrievich Kholmov (Russian: Ратмир Дмитриевич Холмов, Lithuanian: Ratmir Cholmovas, German: Ratmir Cholmow) (13 May 1925 in Shenkursk – 18 February 2006 in Moscow) was a Russian chess Grandmaster. He won many international tournaments in Eastern Europe during his career, and tied for the Soviet Championship title in 1963, but lost the playoff. Kholmov was not well known in the West, since he never competed there during his career peak, being confined to events in socialist countries. His chess results were impressive, so this may have been for security reasons, as Kholmov had been a wartime sailor. But he was one of the strongest Soviet players from the mid-1950s well into the 1970s, and was ranked as high as No. 8 in the world by Chessmetrics.com from August 1960 to March 1961. Kholmov stayed active in competitive chess right to the end of his life, and maintained a high standard.
Ratmir Dmitrievich Kholmov learned chess at age 12, and was near Master strength within three years. He served as a sailor in the Soviet merchant marine during World War II, sailing mainly the Northern Arctic route. In 1945, he took 5th in Tula. In 1946, he won in Zhdanovichi (Belarus). In 1947,
Sergei Movsesian (born November 3, 1978 in Tbilisi, Georgian SSR, USSR) is an Armenian-born chess Grandmaster who played for the Czech republic for most of his career. Later he represented Slovakia for better conditions and citizenship certification there, but as of late 2010, Movsesian announced that he plays for his home country of Armenia. He was a member of the gold-medal winning Armenian team at the World Team Chess Championship in Ningbo 2011.
In 1999, Movsesian reached the quarterfinals of the FIDE World Chess Championship in Las Vegas, but lost to Vladimir Akopian, 1.5–2.5.
He won international tournaments in Sarajevo (2002 and 2007); 2007 Czech Coal Carlsbad tournament in Karlovy Vary; Mikhail Chigorin Memorial in Saint Petersburg in 2007; and B-tournament of the Corus Chess Tournament in 2008.
He speaks eight languages fluently.
Sergei Rublevsky (born 15 October 1974) is a Russian chess grandmaster (1994). He has won four team gold medals and one individual bronze medal at Chess Olympiads. He won the prestigious Aeroflot Open in 2004, and became the 58th Russian chess champion after winning the Russian Superfinal in Moscow (18–30 December 2005), one point clear from Dmitry Jakovenko and Alexander Morozevich.
He finished in the top 10 in the 2005 FIDE World Cup, which qualified him for the Candidates Tournament for the FIDE World Chess Championship 2007, played in May–June 2007. He defeated Ruslan Ponomariov 3½-2½ in the first round. In the second round he played Alexander Grischuk. The match was tied 3-3, but Grischuk won the rapid playoff 2½-½, eliminating Rublevsky from the championship.
GM Nigel Short said of Rublevsky, "Rublevsky is not a sexy player. There are younger and more gifted individuals around and he knows it. Yet he has canniness, which the greenhorns don't. He does not engage the teenagers on the sharp end of opening theory, testing his ailing memory against the freshness of their computer-assisted analysis. Instead he heads a little off the beaten track - not exactly to the jungle, but to
Florin Gheorghiu (born 6 April 1944) is a Romanian chess player and university lecturer in foreign languages.
Born in Bucharest, his prodigious talent for the game was evidenced by his many early achievements; he became an International Master in 1963 and Romania's first Grandmaster just two years later. He was also awarded the title of World Junior Chess Champion (on tie-break) in 1963 at Vrnjacka Banja.
In his home country there were few who could rival his dominance of the 1960s, 70s, and 80s. He won the Romanian Championship nine times (the first at age 16) and represented his country in all of the Chess Olympiads between 1962 and 1990, playing first board on ten occasions.
Gheorghiu was a lecturer in French at Bucharest University and also speaks English, Russian, German, and Spanish.
Gheorghiu has seldom been regarded a serious contender for the world chess championship title, although he regularly participated in the cycle and at other prestigious events. His placings at four Interzonal Tournaments (world championship qualifiers) confirm that he was not as strong as the world's elite players at the time, but could nevertheless perform consistently well at a high level. At
Hans Ree (born 15 September 1944 in Amsterdam) is a Dutch Grandmaster of chess and is a columnist and chess writer for the NRC Handelsblad. He contributes to the leading chess magazines New In Chess and ChessCafe.com. His earlier publications include Een blinde reus (A Blind Giant, 1989), Rode dagen en zwarte dagen (Red Days, Black Days, 1993) and Schaakstukjes (Chess Pieces, 1993).
His more recent offering The Human Comedy Of Chess (Access Publishers Network, 2000) chronicles developments in the chess world in a humorous and occasionally acerbic manner, drawing on material from his columns and insider observations.
Having previously shared the title of European Junior Champion in 1964/65 and 1965/66, Ree won the Dutch Chess Championship in 1967, 1969, 1971 and 1982. Additionally, in 1971 he was a winner of the Canadian Open Chess Championship. He became an International Master in 1968 and an International Grandmaster in 1980.
Vlastimil Hort (born 12 January 1944) is a chess Grandmaster of Czech nationality. During the 1960s and 1970s he was one of the world's strongest players and reached the Candidates stage of competition for the world chess championship, but was never able to compete for the actual title.
Hort was born in Kladno, Czechoslovakia and was a citizen of Czechoslovakia for the first part of his chess career, winning national championships in 1970, 1971, 1972, 1975, and 1977. He achieved the Grandmaster title in 1965 as a Czechoslovak citizen. While playing for Czechoslovakia he won a number of major tournaments (Hastings 1967-8, Skopje 1969, etc.), gaining recognition as one of the strongest non-Soviet players in the world. This led to him representing the "World" team in the great "USSR vs. Rest of the World" match of 1970, where he occupied fourth board and had a commendable +1 score against the formidable Soviet Grandmaster Lev Polugaevsky—in some regards his greatest result. He defected to the West after the 1985 Tunis Interzonal, moving to West Germany and winning the national championship of his new homeland in 1987, 1989, and 1991.
Despite advancing age he has remained an active
Arshak B. Petrosian (Armenian: Արշակ Պետրոսյան; born December 16, 1953) is an Armenian chess player and National Coach. FIDE awarded him the International Grandmaster title in 1984. He won the Armenian Chess Championship in 1974 and 1976. He became a prominent Soviet tournament player during the 1980s, winning games against such noted grandmasters as Alexey Shirov, Rafael Vaganian, and Alexander Morozevich. His current Elo rating is 2470, although he has been inactive for at least five years. More recently he has served as a trainer and mentor to his son-in-law, Péter Lékó. Petrosian is not related to Tigran Petrosian, also of Armenia, who was World Chess Champion from 1963 to 1969.
He is the father-in-law of Hungarian grandmaster Peter Leko.
A. Petrosian–A. Shirov, Daugavpils 1989
1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4 d6 5.Be2 0-0 6.Bg5 h6 7.Be3 e5 8.d5 Nbd7 9.Qd2 Nc5 10.f3 a5 11.Bd1 Nh5 12.Nge2 f5 13.Bc2 Qh4+ 14.Bf2 Qg5 15.Rg1 Nf6 16.Ng3 f4 17.Nge2 Qh5 18.h4 g5 19.hxg5 hxg5 20.0-0-0 g4 21.Rh1 Qf7 22.Nxf4 exf4 23.Bxc5 dxc5 24.e5 Re8 25.Qxf4 Ra6 26.e6 Bxe6 27.dxe6 Qxe6 28.fxg4 Qxg4 29.Qxc7 Qc8 30.Qg3 Qg4 31.Qc7 Qc8 32.Nb5 Rf8 33.Qg3 Rd8 34.Qg6 Rxd1+ 35.Rxd1 Ra8 36.Nd6 Qg4 37.Qf7+ 1–0
Joel Benjamin (born March 11, 1964) is an American chess Grandmaster. In 1998, he was voted "Grandmaster of the Year" by the U.S. Chess Federation. As of April 2007, his Elo rating was 2576, making him the No. 12 player in the U.S. and the 214th-highest rated player in the world.
Benjamin is a native of Brooklyn, New York, and grew up in the Marine Park neighborhood, where he attended PS 222. He was in the class for "intellectually gifted children." He is now a New Jersey resident, married to Deborah, and they have 2 children, Aidan, born October 10, 2008, and Amy, born December 8, 2010.
He graduated from Yale University in 1985. At the age of 13, Benjamin broke Bobby Fischer's record by becoming the youngest-ever U.S. Master; this record was subsequently broken by Stuart Rachels and is presently held by Samuel Sevian. As a junior player he won the National Elementary title in 1976, the National Junior High crown in 1978, and the National High School title 1980–81.
Other successes included the U.S. Junior Championship in 1980. In the same year he earned the IM title. He won the U.S. Junior Championship again in 1982, and the U.S. Open Chess Championship in 1985. He earned the
Mark Evgenievich Taimanov (Russian: Марк Евгеньевич Тайманов; born 7 February 1926, Kharkiv) is a leading Soviet and Russian chess player and concert pianist.
He was awarded the International Grandmaster title in 1952 and played in the Candidates Tournament in Zurich in 1953, where he tied for eighth place. From 1946 to 1956, he was among the world's top ten players. He played in 23 USSR Chess Championships (a record equalled by Efim Geller), tying for first place twice. In 1952 he lost the playoff match to Mikhail Botvinnik, while in 1956, he beat Yuri Averbakh and Boris Spassky for the title. He is probably best known for his 6–0 loss to Bobby Fischer in the 1971 World Championship Candidates match. However, few players have beaten six world champions (Botvinnik, Vasily Smyslov, Mikhail Tal, Tigran Petrosian, Spassky, and Anatoly Karpov) as Taimanov has.
After his loss to Fischer, the Soviet government was embarrassed, and, as Taimanov later put it in a 2002 interview, found it "unthinkable" that he could have lost the match so badly to an American without a "political explanation". Soviet officials took away Taimanov's salary and no longer allowed him to travel overseas. The
Maurice Ashley (born March 6, 1966 in St. Andrew, Jamaica) is a chess grandmaster. In the October 2006 rating lists, he had a FIDE rating of 2465, and a USCF rating of 2520 at standard chess, and 2536 at quick chess. Ashley is associated with Chesswise. In 2005 he wrote the book Chess for Success, relating his experiences and the positive aspects of chess. He was the main organizer for the HB global chess event, with the biggest cash prize in history for an open chess tournament. FIDE awarded him the grandmaster title in 1999. Ashley and Englishman James Plaskett are the only two grandmasters to have made it to the studio stage of "Who Wants To Be A Millionaire?," each in his respective country. In 1992, Ashley shared the United States Game/10 chess championship with Maxim Dlugy.
Since 1993, Maurice Ashley has been married to Michele Johnson, then a teacher at the Bilingual Center of P.S. 189. Their daughter Nia-Ashanti Ashley was born the following year and now attends Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School.
Ashley graduated from the College of the City of New York (CCNY), and represented the school in intercollegiate team competition. Always promoting chess among youth, Ashley coached
Andor (André, Andre, Andrei) Arnoldovich Lilienthal (May 5, 1911 – May 8, 2010) was a Hungarian and Soviet chess Grandmaster. In his long career, he played against ten male and female world champions, beating Emanuel Lasker, José Raúl Capablanca, Alexander Alekhine, Max Euwe, Mikhail Botvinnik, Vasily Smyslov, and Vera Menchik. In a 2005 article, Slobodan Adzic wrote that Lilienthal was still active, in good health, driving his car, and writing articles for chess magazines. At the time of his death, he was the oldest living grandmaster, and the last surviving person from the original group of grandmasters awarded the title by FIDE in 1950.
Andor Lilienthal was born in Moscow, Russia, in a Jewish family of austro-Hungarian descent. At the age of two. He played for Hungary in three Chess Olympiads: Folkestone 1933 (scoring +7 = 6 − 0 as the reserve, the fifth player on the team), Warsaw 1935 (scoring +11 =8 −0 on second board), and Stockholm 1937 (scoring +9 =6 −2 on first board, leading his team to the silver medal). He won the individual gold medal for his board (reserve and second board, respectively) at the 1933 and 1935 Olympiads, and had the fourth-best result on first board in
Isaac Kashdan (19 November 1905, New York – 20 February 1985, Los Angeles) was an American chess grandmaster and chess writer. He was twice U.S. Open champion (1938, 1947). He played five times for the United States in chess Olympiads, winning a total of nine medals, and his Olympiad record is the all-time best among American players.
Kashdan, who was Jewish, was often called 'der Kleine Capablanca' (The little Capablanca) in Europe because of his ability to extract victories from seemingly even positions. Alexander Alekhine named him one of the most likely players to succeed him as World Champion. Kashdan could not, however, engage seriously in a chess career, for financial reasons; his peak chess years coincided with the Great Depression. He resorted to earning a living as an insurance agent and administrator in order to support his family. One of Kashdan's children had serious health problems, and the family moved to California in the 1940s, because of its better climate.
Kashdan attended CCNY in the 1920s.
He played five times for U.S. team in the Chess Olympiads, with his detailed results below:
In Stockholm 1937, he scored 14/16, the best individual record of all the
Kiril Dimitrov Georgiev (Bulgarian: Кирил Димитров Георгиев) (born November 28, 1965 in Petrich) is a Bulgarian chess grandmaster and three-time national champion. He should not be confused with fellow Bulgarian chess player (no relation) Krum Georgiev.
Kiril Georgiev first caught the eye of the chess world in 1983, when he became the World Junior Champion, thereby gaining the title of International Master. Two years later, he was awarded the International Grandmaster title.
In the process of becoming the Bulgarian Champion of 1984 (shared), 1986 and 1989, he rapidly became recognised as Bulgaria's number one player, taking over from Radulov and eventually giving way to Topalov. He has represented his country at the Chess Olympiad many times, playing on either board 1 or 2. Exceptionally, in 2002 he played for Macedonia, while he was temporarily resident there.
His record in international competition has been remarkable, considering that he has never quite reached supergrandmaster status (Elo 2700 or above). He was a winner at Sarajevo 1986 (and would meet board boy Ivan Sokolov there again, some 15 years later), San Bernardino 1988, Elenite (Burgas) 1992 (ahead of Sokolov,
John Peter Fedorowicz (born September 27, 1958) from the Bronx area of New York is an American International Grandmaster of chess, and a chess writer.
He learned to play chess in 1972, inspired by the Fischer-Spassky World Championship Match coverage on TV and as an enthusiastic youngster, made rapid progress to become co-winner of the 1977 U.S. Junior Championship and outright winner in 1978.
Fedorowicz, or "The Fed" as he is affectionately known on the chess circuit, continued to impress and in 1984 tied for third place in the U.S. Championships, tied for second place at Hastings in 1984-85 and tied for second place at Dortmund in 1986. He represented the U.S. at the 1986 Dubai Chess Olympiad and scored well, earning himself the grandmaster title the same year.
Since becoming a grandmaster, he has established himself as one of the United States' leading players, chalking up victories at Cannes 1987, Sesimbra 1987 and Wijk Aan Zee 1990. He has also won open tournaments, including the New York Open 1989 and the U.S. Open and the World Open in Philadelphia. At Stockholm in 1990, he finished second to Alexei Shirov.
Fedorowicz has captained the U.S. Olympiad team on two occasions and
Andrew Jonathan Mestel (born 13 March 1957 in Cambridge, England) is Professor of applied mathematics at Imperial College London who works on magnetohydrodynamics and biological fluid dynamics. He holds Ph.D. on the thesis "Magnetic Levitation of Liquid Metals" at University of Cambridge.
A distinguished chess player, he was the first person to be awarded chess Grandmaster titles by FIDE in both over-the-board play and problem solving. He is also close to Grandmaster strength at contract bridge.
He announced his arrival on the international chess scene by winning the World Cadet Championship in 1974 at Pont-Sainte-Maxence. The same year, he nearly won the British Chess Championship, figuring in a seven-way play-off at Clacton, but failing to clinch the title at the last hurdle. Playing in Tjentiste in 1975, he took the bronze medal at the World Junior Championship, finishing behind Valery Chekhov and Larry Christiansen. There followed a string of British Championship successes, where he took the title in 1976, 1983 and 1988. His victory at Portsmouth in 1976 was remarkable for a start of nine consecutive wins, a record for the competition.
Along the way, Mestel was awarded the
Michał Krasenkow (born 14 November 1963) is one of Poland's strongest chess players since World War II, a chess trainer and writer. He plays with an aggressive and spectacular style and has won many "best game" awards.
Krasenkow has written several books on chess theory: The Open Spanish. London, Cadogan Books, 1995 The Sveshnikov Sicilian. London, Cadogan Books, 1996
He was born in Moscow (formerly Mikhail Krasenkov - Михаил Красенков). Master of applied mathematics (1985). His first notable successes date back to the 80s: he became a national master of the USSR in 1982, an International Master in 1988 and an International Grandmaster in 1989. He became Champion of Georgia in 1987 and team champion of the USSR (with "Tigran Petrosian Chess Club", Moscow) in 1990.
In 1992 Krasenkow emigrated to Poland. Since 1996 he represents that country at international competitions. Two-times champion of Poland (2000, 2002). Krasenkow holds an unofficial record of winning Polish team championships, which he has done 14 times: 1991, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997, and 1998 with "Stilon" Gorzów Wielkopolski, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2009 with "Polonia" Warsaw. European Cup winner (1997,
Miguel Najdorf (born Mendel (Mieczysław) Najdorf in Grodzisk Mazowiecki near Warsaw, Poland, April 15, 1910 – died in Málaga, Spain, July 4, 1997) was a Polish-born Argentine chess grandmaster of Jewish origin, famous for his Najdorf Variation.
Mieczysław Najdorf was tutored first by Dawid Przepiórka, then by Savielly Tartakower, the latter of whom he always referred to as "my teacher".
At the beginning of his chess career, in 1929, Najdorf defeated Glücksberg in a famous game known as "The Polish Immortal." In 1930, he tied for 6th–7th at the Warsaw Championship, an event won by Paulino Frydman. In 1931, he took second in Warsaw, behind Frydman. In 1932, he tied for 9th–10th in Warsaw. In 1933, he won in Warsaw (Quadrangular). In January 1934, he finished second to Rudolf Spielmann, in Warsaw. In summer 1934, he lost a match against Ored Karlin (+1 –2 =1). In 1934, he won the Warsaw championship. In 1935, he tied for 2nd–4th with Frydman and Henryk Friedman, behind Tartakower, in the 3rd Polish Chess Championship, held in Warsaw. Afterward, Najdorf won a match against Tartakower in Toruń (+2 –1 =2). In 1936, he tied for first with Lajos Steiner in the Hungarian Championship. In
Simen Agdestein (born 15 May 1967) is a Norwegian chess grandmaster and retired footballer. He has won seven Norwegian chess championships, including the 2005 title.
Agdestein became Norwegian national champion at the age of 15, an International Master at 16 and a grandmaster at 18.
On a local level, his regular dominance of the Nordic and Norwegian Chess Championships during the 1980s amply demonstrated that there were few players who could resist his enterprising and inventive style. In international competition, he finished second at the 1986 World Junior Championship behind Walter Arencibia but ahead of Evgeny Bareev, Viswanathan Anand and Jeroen Piket. A little later, his Elo rating rose to over 2600.
In the late 1980s, Agdestein combined top-flight chess with a full-time football career, representing his country at both. In the early 1990s, a knee injury cut short his football activities. In 1999, Agdestein returned to winning ways, topping the Cappelle la Grande tournament that year and the Isle of Man tournament in 2003.
Agdestein has represented his country seven times at the Chess Olympiad, mostly playing first board and winning an individual (board 4) gold medal at his
Akiba Kiwelowicz Rubinstein (12 December 1882 in Stawiski, Poland – 15 March 1961 in Antwerp, Belgium) was a famous Jewish Polish chess Grandmaster at the beginning of the 20th century. He was scheduled to play a match with Emanuel Lasker for the world championship in 1914, but it was cancelled because of the outbreak of World War I. In his youth, he astonished the chess world, defeating many famous players, including Capablanca and Schlechter - however, his later life was plagued by mental illness.
He learned to play chess when he was 16. He trained with and played against the strong master Gersz Salwe in Łódź. Rubinstein was Jewish, and his family planned for him to become a rabbi. However, in 1903, after finishing fifth in a tournament in Kiev, Rubinstein decided to abandon his rabbinical studies and devote himself entirely to chess.
Between 1907 and 1912, Rubinstein established himself as one of the strongest players in the world. In 1907, he won the Karlovy Vary tournament and shared first at St. Petersburg. In 1912 he had a record string of wins, finishing first in five consecutive major tournaments: San Sebastian, Piešťany, Breslau (the German championship), Warsaw and
Igor Vasilyevich Ivanov (January 8, 1947 – November 17, 2005) was a Russian Grandmaster of chess and a concert pianist.
He was born in 1947 in Leningrad, USSR, and learned chess at age five. He studied music intensively as a youth, specializing in piano, and was very talented. He was orphaned at age 14 when his mother died; she had wanted him to become a concert performer. He essentially gave up this path to concentrate on chess. Ivanov studied Mathematics at Leningrad State University, but left before completing his degree. He was a member of the Army Sports Club, for which he trained chessplayers, and also played extensively. For several years in the early-to-mid 1970s, he was part of the exceptionally deep class of Soviet masters which was just below international standard. Ivanov did qualify for the 1975 Soviet Championship First League; this event, with several Grandmasters in the field, was still one stage below the top level at that time.
Ivanov took an opportunity to represent Uzbekistan, a central Asian Soviet republic, and to be a professional player there. Several victories in strong Soviet events soon followed, such as Vladivostok 1978, Yaroslavl 1979, and Ashkhabad
Alejandro Tadeo Ramírez Álvarez (born in San José, Costa Rica, June 21, 1988) is a chess Grandmaster. At the age of 15, he became the first Centro-American to achieve the Grand Master Chess Title given by the International Chess Federation (FIDE) being, at that moment, the second youngest Chess Grand Master in the world.
Alejandro started playing chess at the age of four after watching the movie "Searching for Bobby Fischer." And with the guide of his father and mentor Jorge Ramírez started to progress and to revolutionized the way chess was played in Centro-America.
Alejandro was named for the first time in the Chess World during the Chess Olympiad 2002, held in the city of Bled, Slovenia, when, at the age of 13, he historically got a draw against the Russian Chess Super Grand Master Alexander Morozevich.
He has recently graduated from the University of Texas in Dallas (UTD) with a Master Degree in Arts & Technology / Design and Production of Videogames.
The title of FIDE Chess Master was obtained by Alejandro at the age of 9 when obtaining the gold medal in the Pan-American Chess Championship Sub-10 held in Florianopolis, Brazil in the year 1998.
He obtained the title of
Iván Eduardo Morovic Fernández (born March 24, 1963) is a Chilean chess player and an International Grandmaster. He has reached the best Latin American chess player place several times.
Morovic was born in Viña del Mar, Chile. He began to play chess at age 9. At age 22, he became the first Chilean to hold the title of International Grandmaster. He won the Chilean Chess Championship in 1981. His best tournament participation was in 1993, when he won the Las Palmas, España, with an excellent performance ahead of stars like Anand (draw with him), current world chess champion.
Morovic's best Elo was 2613 at age 35 in 1999.
Jonathan Simon "Jon" Speelman (born 2 October 1956) is an English Grandmaster chess player, mathematician and chess writer.
He was educated at Worcester College, Oxford, where he studied mathematics, earning a doctorate.
A winner of the British Chess Championship in 1978, 1985 and 1986, Speelman has been a regular member of the English team for the Chess Olympiad, an international biennial chess tournament organized by FIDE, the World Chess Federation.
He qualified for two Candidates Tournaments:
Speelman's highest ranking in the FIDE Elo rating list was equal fourth in the world, in January 1989.
In 1989, he beat Kasparov in a televised speed tournament, and then went on to win the event.
In the April 2007 FIDE list, Speelman had an Elo rating of 2518, making him England's twelfth-highest-rated active player.
He is noted for his imaginative style, often choosing unobvious ways to carry on his games.
Speelman is also known as "Spess", short for "specimen", one of the many misspellings of his name in the press over the years.
He has written a number of books on chess, including several on the endgame, among them Analysing the Endgame (1981), Endgame Preparation (1981) and Batsford
Milan Vidmar (22 June 1885 – 9 October 1962) was a Slovene electrical engineer, chess player, chess theorist, philosopher, and writer. He was a specialist in power transformers and transmission of electric current.
He was born in a middle-class family in Ljubljana, Austria-Hungary (now in Slovenia). He began to study mechanical engineering in 1902, and he graduated in 1907 at the University of Vienna. He got his doctor's degree in 1911 from the Technical faculty in Vienna. The study of electrical engineering at the Technical faculty did not begin until 1904, so Vidmar had to take special examinations in the field basics. He was a professor at the University of Ljubljana, a member of the Slovene Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the founder of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering. Between 1928 and 1929 he was the 10th Chancellor of the University of Ljubljana. In 1948 he established the Institute of Electrotechnics that now bears his name.
Vidmar was also a top-class chess player, probably one of the best half dozen players in the world from 1911 to 1929, all the while remaining an amateur. He was awarded the Grandmaster title in 1950.
His successes include high places at some of
Svetozar Gligorić (Serbian: Светозар Глигорић, 2 February 1923 – 14 August 2012) was a Serbian and Yugoslavian chess grandmaster. He won the championship of Yugoslavia a record twelve times, and is considered the best player ever from Serbia. In 1958 he was declared the best athlete of Yugoslavia.
In the 1950s and 1960s Gligorić was one of the top players in the world, and also among the world's most popular, owing to his globe-trotting tournament schedule and a particularly engaging personality, reflected in the title of his autobiography, I Play Against Pieces. (I.e., playing without hostility toward the opponent, or playing differently against different players for "psychological" reasons; playing the board and not the man.)
Gligorić was born in Belgrade to a poor family. According to his recollections, his first exposure to chess was as a small child watching patrons play in a neighborhood bar. He began to play at the age of eleven, when taught by a boarder taken in by his mother (his father had died by this time). Lacking a chess set, he made one for himself by carving pieces from corks from wine bottles—a story paralleling the formative years of his contemporary, the renowned
Vladas Mikėnas (17 April 1910 – 3 November 1992) was a Lithuanian International Master of chess, an Honorary Grandmaster, and a journalist.
Vladas Mikėnas played for Lithuania at first board in five official and one unofficial Chess Olympiads.
In 1930, he won the Estonian Championship in Tallinn (3rd EST-ch). In 1931, he tied for 2nd-5th at the first Baltic Championship in Klaipėda, which was won by Isakas Vistaneckis. In the same year, Mikenas emigrated from Estonia to Lithuania. In 1934, he won a match against Povilas Vaitonis (6:2). In 1935, he took 10th in Łódź (Savielly Tartakower won), and drew a match with Vistaneckis (8:8). In 1936, he won the Lithuanian Championship. In 1937, he won a match against Vaitonis (5.5:4.5). In 1937, he took 10th in Kemeri; despite his lowly placing, he defeated Alexander Alekhine. In 1937/38, he took 6th at Hastings (Samuel Reshevsky won).In 1938, he won a match against Vaitonis (9:3). In 1939, he took 4th in Kemeri–Riga (Salo Flohr won). In September 1939, he took 3rd in Rosario (Vladimirs Petrovs won).
On 28 September 1939, the Soviet Union and Germany had changed the secret terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. They moved Lithuania into the
Ulf Andersson (born 27 June 1951 in Västerås, Sweden) is a leading Swedish chess player. FIDE awarded him the International Master title in 1970 and the Grandmaster title in 1972 (Kaufeld & Kern 2011:217).
At his peak, Andersson reached number four on the FIDE Elo rating list. Tournaments he has won or shared first include the 1969 Swedish Chess Championship, Göteborg 1971, Dortmund 1973, Camagüez 1974, Cienfuegos 1975, Belgrade 1977, Buenos Aires 1978, Hastings 1978–79, Phillips & Drew 1980, Johannesburg 1981, Phillips & Drew 1982, Turin 1982, Wijk aan Zee 1983, Reggio Emilia 1985, Rome 1985, and Rome 1986. He drew a six-game match against former world champion Mikhail Tal in 1983, and played top board in the second USSR versus The Rest of The World Match in 1984. He led the Swedish Chess Olympiad Team during the 1970s and 1980s, and reached his best personal result in the 23rd Chess Olympiad in Buenos Aires 1978, where he finished in third place after Viktor Korchnoi and Orestes Rodríguez Vargas.
Andersson is a very solid positional player. He draws a high percentage of his games against fellow grandmasters (Kaufeld & Kern 2011:12). He is renowned as a great player of endgames,
Andriy Volokitin (born 18 June 1986 in Lviv) is a Ukrainian chess player and International Grandmaster of Chess.
As a junior, he was twice a medallist at the World Youth Chess Championship, taking silver in 1998 at Oropesa del Mar at under-12 level, and bronze at the same venue a year later in the under-14 category. In 1999, he was a member of the Ukrainian national youth team, which won the U-16 Chess Olympiad in Artek, Ukraine. He achieved the grandmaster title in 2001, when only 15 years old. In 2004 he entered the top 100 of the FIDE world ranking list, won the 73rd Ukrainian Chess Championship and was a member of the gold-medal winning national team at the 36th Chess Olympiad. In 2005 he won the Lausanne young Masters Tournament with a 2984 performance rating. As of January 2012, he is ranked number 48 in the world, with a FIDE listed Elo rating of 2695.
Berge Østenstad (born 15 September 1964) is a Norwegian chess player and Norway's sixth International Grandmaster. Østenstad plays for the chess club in Asker. He appears on the official FIDE rating list as "Ostenstad, Berge".
As of 2005, Østenstad has won more Norwegian Chess Championships than any other player, eight in total. He won in 1984, 1990, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2004 and 2011. He played for Norway in the Chess Olympiads of 1984, 1990 and 2004.
Østenstad gained the title of International Master in 1987. He achieved his first GM norm in Gausdal in 1990, his second in Biel in 1990 and the third in Gothenburg in 2003. His rating peaked the required 2500 in 1991. The Biel norm came after FIDE liberalized the requirements for GM norms by allowing them to be achieved before the tournament ended, and made these changes retroactive.
Géza Maróczy (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈmɒroːtsi ˈɡeːzɒ]; 3 March 1870 – 29 May 1951) was a leading Hungarian chess Grandmaster, one of the best players in the world in his time. He was also a practicing engineer.
Géza Maróczy was born in Szeged, Hungary on March 3, 1870. He won the "minor" tournament at Hastings 1895, and over the next ten years he won several first prizes in international events. Between 1902 and 1908, he took part in thirteen tournaments and won five first prizes and five second prizes. In 1906 he agreed to terms for a World Championship match with Emanuel Lasker, but political problems in Cuba, where the match was to be played, caused the arrangements to be canceled.
After 1908, Maróczy retired from international chess to devote more time to his profession as a clerk. He worked as an auditor and made a good career at the Center of Trade Unions and Social Insurance. When the Communists came briefly to power he was a chief auditor at Educational Ministry. After the Communist government was overthrown he couldn't get a job. He did make a brief return to chess after World War I, with some success, and today the Maróczy bind (see below) bears his name. At the turn
Humpy Koneru (born 31 March 1987 in Gudivada, Andhra Pradesh) is an Indian chess Grandmaster. Her January 2010 FIDE Elo rating was 2614, placing her number two in the world for women's players (behind Judit Polgár). In 2007 she surpassed the rating of 2577 set by Susan Polgar (often known as Zsuzsa Polgár) to become the second-highest ranked female player in history. She became the second female player ever, after Judit Polgár, to exceed the 2600 Elo mark.
From 2002 through 2008, Humpy held the record as the youngest woman ever to become a grandmaster (not merely a Woman Grandmaster), which she achieved at the age of 15 years, 1 month, 27 days, beating Judit Polgár's previous mark by three months; however, this has since been surpassed by Hou Yifan.
Humpy was originally named "Hampi" by her parents, who derived the name from the word "champion". Her father later changed the spelling to Humpy, to more closely resemble a Russian-sounding name.
In 2001 she won the World Junior Girls Chess Championship. In 2006 she participated in the Women's World Chess Championship, but was eliminated in the second round. In the Women's World Chess Championship 2008 she made it to the semifinals, but
Krishnan Sasikiran (born January 7, 1981) is an Indian chess Grandmaster. Among Indians, he is second, after Viswanathan Anand, No. 3 in Asia and ranked 26th in the world in FIDE rating as on May 2012.
"Sasi", as he is sometimes called, comes from Chennai in Tamil Nadu in south-eastern India. He earned the Grandmaster title at the 2000 Commonwealth Championship. In 2001, he won the prestigious Hastings International Chess tournament. In 2003, he won the 4th Asian Individual Championship as well as the Politiken Cup in Copenhagen. Sasikiran tied Jan Timman for first place in the 2005 Sigeman Tournament in Copenhagen/Malmö Denmark. In 2009, he tied for 2nd-3rd with Étienne Bacrot in Antwerp.
In the January 2007 FIDE rating list, Sasikiran was ranked number 21 in the world with an Elo rating of 2700. He became only the second chess player from India to reach Elo rating of 2700. He won a Gold medal in Asian Games 2006 in team event. Tamil Nadu government presented a cheque of Rs 20 Lacs as appreciation towards his success.
He completed his education in Modern Senior Secondary School, Nanganallur, Chennai. In December 2008, he won City of Pamplona international chess tournament, a
Liviu-Dieter Nisipeanu (born 1 August 1976) is a Romanian chess grandmaster. His peak FIDE rating was 2707 in October 2005, when he was ranked fifteenth in the world, and the highest ranked Romanian player ever. Noted for his risky, almost paradoxical play; he is frequently called a student of Mikhail Tal.
In 1999, Nisipeanu as a clear outsider made it to the semifinals of the FIDE World Chess Championship by beating Vasily Ivanchuk in round 4 and Alexei Shirov in the quarterfinals only to succumb to the eventual champion Alexander Khalifman. Nisipeanu won the European Individual Chess Championship 2005 in Warsaw with 10 points out of 13 games, half a point ahead of runner-up Teimour Radjabov from Azerbaijan.
In April 2006, Nisipeanu played FIDE World Champion Veselin Topalov in a four-game match. Topalov won by a score of 3:1. The match was not for any official title.
Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik, PhD (Russian: Михаи́л Моисе́евич Ботви́нник, pronounced [mʲixaˈiɫ̺ mʌiˈs̺ʲɛjɛvʲitʃʲ bʌt̺ˈvʲin̺n̻ʲik]) (August 17 [O.S. August 4] 1911 – May 5, 1995) was a Soviet and Russian International Grandmaster and three-time World Chess Champion. Working as an electrical engineer and computer scientist at the same time, he was one of the very few famous chess players who achieved distinction in another career while playing top-class competitive chess. He was also a pioneer of computer chess.
Botvinnik was the first world-class player to develop within the Soviet Union (Alekhine was a top player before the Russian Revolution), putting him under political pressure but also giving him considerable influence within Soviet chess. From time to time he was accused of using that influence to his own advantage, but the evidence is unclear and some suggest he resisted attempts by Soviet officials to intimidate some of his rivals.
Botvinnik also played a major role in the organization of chess, making a significant contribution to the design of the World Chess Championship system after World War II and becoming a leading member of the coaching system that enabled the
Pal Benko (Hungarian: Benkő Pál, born July 14, 1928 in Amiens) is a chess grandmaster, author, and composer of endgame studies and chess problems.
Benko was born in France but was raised in Hungary. He was Hungarian champion by age 20. He emigrated to the United States in 1958, after defecting following the World Student Team Championship in Reykjavík, Iceland in 1957. FIDE awarded him the title of Grandmaster in 1958.
Benko's highest achievements were playing in the Candidates Tournament—the tournament to decide the challenger for the World Championship—in 1959 and 1962. Both tournaments had eight of the world's top players.
He qualified for the 1970 Interzonal tournament, the leaders of which advance to the Candidates. However, he gave up his spot in the Interzonal to Bobby Fischer, who went on to win the World Championship in 1972.
Benko finished in first place (or tied for first place) in eight U.S. Open Chess Championships, a record. His titles were: 1961, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1974, 1975. He won the 1964 Canadian Open Chess Championship.
Benko played some of his very best chess in team competition. He represented Hungary at the 1957 Student Olympiad in Reykjavík on
Yasser Seirawan (Arabic: ياسر سيروان; born March 24, 1960) is a chess grandmaster and four-time United States champion. He was winner of the World Junior Chess Championship in 1979. Seirawan is also a respected chess author and commentator.
Seirawan was born in Damascus, Syria. His father was Syrian and his mother an English nurse from Nottingham, where he spent some time in his early childhood. When he was seven, his family emigrated to Seattle (United States), where he attended Queen Anne Elementary School, Meany Middle School and Garfield High School, and honed his game at a (now-defunct) coffeehouse, the Last Exit on Brooklyn, playing against the likes of Latvian-born master Viktors Pupols and six-time Washington State Champion James Harley McCormick.
He is married to Woman FIDE Master Yvette Nagel, daughter of former Leefbaar Nederland political party president and politician Jan Nagel.
Seirawan began playing chess at 12; at 13 he became Washington junior champion. At 19 he won the World Junior Chess Championship. He also won a game against Viktor Korchnoi, who then invited Seirawan to Switzerland, where Korchnoi was training for his world title match against Anatoly Karpov.
Zoltán Almási (born August 29, 1976) is a Grandmaster of chess from Hungary. He is a seven-time Hungarian Chess Champion, winning in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2008. In the FIDE World Chess Championship 2004, he made it to the fourth round where he lost 2-0 to Rustam Kasimdzhanov, the eventual winner of the event.
In 2008 he won the Reggio Emilia chess tournament in Italy scoring 5.5/8.
He crossed the 2700 FIDE rating line in November 2009 (2704).
Alexander Anatolyevich Motylev (Russian: Александр Анатольевич Мотылёв; born 17 June 1979) is an International Grandmaster of chess and a former champion of Russia.
He learnt how to play at the age of four and a half years and at age six took part in group instruction sessions. This is not uncommon in Russia where chess is very much part of the school curriculum. His progress remained good and by the time he was eleven, Motylev was already a Candidate Master (a title previously achieved by his father). Around this time, he was also gifted at football, a sport for which he had major aspirations. Made aware of his split loyalties by his chess coach, Motylev's physical education teacher advised him to concentrate on chess and this proved to be good advice, as he went on to become national junior champion at both under 16 and under 18 level.
In 2001, he shocked the chess world with a surprise win of the Russian Championship, but in the years that followed, his indifferent form lead to both good and bad results. In 2002, he was invited to take part in the prestigious Russia vs Rest of the World match in Moscow and in the company of the world's elite players, scored only 1/6. In 2003, he
Jaime Sunye Neto (born May 2, 1957 in Curitiba, Brazil) is a grandmaster of chess.
Awarded the IM title in 1980 and the GM title in 1986 he was Brazilian Champion six times, in 1976, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982 and 1983 (jointly).
He played in his first Interzonal in 1979, finishing fifth overall. He was joint second place at Havana 1985 and first at Zenica 1986 and won the South-American Zonal in 1989. From 1978 to 1986 he was a mainstay on the Brazilian Chess Olympiad team, and was President of the Brazilian Chess Federation from 1988 to 1992.
In 1996, Neto ran for President of FIDE. He assembled a powerful team and won the support of almost all of the chess playing countries of Europe. However the whole congress and the election took place under very suspicious circumstances, including one employee of FIDE, Ignatius Leong from Singapore, who was holding a number of proxies, feeling threatened and asking for protection by the American Embassy. He signed the proxies under obvious pressure in favour of the current president. FIDE president Kirsan Ilyumzhinov distributed presents and gifts to the delegates and generally exerted a lot of influence and pressure on the delegates
Sergei Tiviakov (Russian: Сергей Тивяков; born February 14, 1973 in Krasnodar, Soviet Union) is a naturalised Dutch chess Grandmaster.
Tiviakov won the Dutch Chess Championship in 2006 and 2007. In 2008, in Plovdiv, he won the European Individual Chess Championship with 8.5/11.
His first Olympiad appearance was for Russia at the Moscow event in 1994, when he took home a gold medal in celebration of the team's winning performance. He played for the Dutch team at each of the events held from 2000–2006, with an overall record of +14 −2 =33 (62.2%).
At the European Team Chess Championships, he has earned three gold medals (two team and one individual) for his contribution to the successful Dutch teams of 2001 (León) and 2005 (Gothenburg). At León, he registered a 77.8% score.
In 2009 he won the 13th Unive Tournament in Hoogeveen. In 2011 he came first in the Fagernes Chess Festival, in the 5th Leiden Chess Tournament and in the First Panama Chess Open.
He was awarded the Grandmaster title in 1991.
Viktor Lvovich Korchnoi (Russian: Ви́ктор Льво́вич Корчно́й; IPA: [kɐrt͡ɕˈnoj]; born March 23, 1931) is a professional chess player, author and currently the oldest active grandmaster on the tournament circuit. He was born in Leningrad, USSR, defected to the Netherlands in 1976, and has been residing in Switzerland for many years.
Korchnoi played three matches against Anatoly Karpov, the latter two for the World Chess Championship. In 1974, he lost the Candidates final to Karpov, who was declared world champion in 1975 when Bobby Fischer failed to defend his title. Then he won consecutive Candidates cycles to qualify for World Championship matches with Karpov in 1978 and 1981, losing both.
In all, Korchnoi was a candidate for the World Championship on ten occasions (1962, 1968, 1971, 1974, 1977, 1980, 1983, 1985, 1988 and 1991). Korchnoi was also a four-time USSR chess champion, a five-time member of Soviet teams that won the European championship, and a six-time member of Soviet teams that won the Chess Olympiad. In September 2006, he won the World Senior Chess Championship.
Korchnoi graduated from Leningrad State University with a major in history.
He learned to play chess from
Wang Hao (Chinese: 王皓; pinyin: Wáng Hào; born August 4, 1989 in Harbin, Heilongjiang) is a Chinese chess Grandmaster. In November 2009, Wang Hao became the fourth Chinese player to break through the 2700 Elo rating mark. In the latest FIDE ELO lists he is ranked No. 1 in China; No. 2 in Asia and No. 15 in the world. He has assisted in preparing Levon Aronian for the Candidate Matches.
In a report on the 2010 Tal Memorial, the noted chess journalist Ilya Odessky writes that Levon Aronian "in his teasing style" named Wang Hao as the most talented player of the tournament.
In 2005, he became China's 20th Grandmaster at the age of 16.
As with Garry Kasparov, Vladimir Kramnik and Boris Gelfand, Wang Hao became a grandmaster without first gaining an International Master (IM) title. He achieved his three GM norms at the:
In 1999, Wang came third in the U-10 Youth World Championship in Oropesa del Mar, Spain. In July 2002 he won the Qingdao Zhongfand Cup. In August 2002 he won gold on the fourth board of the Chinese national team in the U-16 Chess Olympiad in Kuala Lumpur.
In July 2004, being 14 years old, he again won a gold medal with his national team in the U-16 Chess Olympiad in
Kenneth Saul "Ken" Rogoff (born March 22, 1953) is currently the Thomas D. Cabot Professor of Public Policy and Professor of Economics at Harvard University. He is also a chess Grandmaster.
Rogoff grew up in Rochester, New York. His father was a Professor of Radiology at the University of Rochester. He attended East High School.
Rogoff received a BA and MA from Yale University summa cum laude in 1975, and a PhD in Economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1980.
Rogoff learned chess from his father at age 6, but took up the game in earnest when he got a chess set for his 13th birthday. He was soon recognised as a chess prodigy. By age 14, he was a USCF master and New York State Open Champion, and shortly thereafter became a senior master, the highest US national title.
At sixteen Rogoff dropped out of high school to concentrate on chess, and spent the next several years living primarily in Europe and playing in tournaments there. However, at eighteen he made the decision to go to college and pursue a career in economics rather than to become a professional player, although he continued to play and improve for several years afterward. Rogoff was awarded the IM title
Li Shilong (simplified Chinese: 李师龙; traditional Chinese: 李師龍; pinyin: Lǐ Shīlóng; born August 10, 1977) is a Chinese chess Grandmaster. In 2002, he became China's 14th Grandmaster.
At the 5–16 October 2005 5th Asian Chess Championship in Hyderabad, he came second with 7.5/9 points behind Zhang Zhong. He has competed in numerous tournaments, including the Amsterdam tournament, Groningen Chess Festival, Corus tournament, Aeroflot Open, Noteboom Memorial, Cappelle la Grande and the Chinese Chess Championship, besides others.
In September 2008, Li won the 4th Prospero Pichay Cup in a field of 18 grandmasters at the Duty Free Fiesta Mall in Parañaque City. He scored 7½/9 with 1 point clear from the rest of the field.
Nguyễn Ngọc Trường Sơn (born Rach Soi, Rach Gia, Kien Giang Province, Vietnam; February 23, 1990) is a leading Vietnamese chess player. After learning chess at the age of 3, he won the gold medal at the world under 10 championship in 2000. He is Vietnam's youngest Grandmaster ever, and one of the youngest grandmasters in the history of the game. (See List of youngest grandmasters).
According to May 2010 FIDE rating list, he is second ranked among Vietnamese players with 2642 Elo rating.
Zurab Azmaiparashvili (Georgian: ზურაბ აზმაიფარაშვილი) (born 16 March 1960) is a chess Grandmaster from Georgia. In the September 2010 FIDE list, he has an Elo rating of 2637, making him 114th in the world and Georgia's number two.
He became a Grandmaster in 1988. Among his great achievements are a 2810 performance rating at the 1998 Chess Olympiad and first place finishes at Pavlodar 1982, Moscow 1986, Albena 1986, Tbilisi 1986, London (Lloyds Bank Open) 1989, and in the 2003 European Individual Chess Championship in Istanbul. In 2010 he tied for 1st-2nd with IM Oliver Barbosa in the 1st ASEAN Chess Championship in Singapore, and won the event on tie-break.
Azmaiparashvili is also FIDE Senior Trainer (2004), who has worked with now retired world champion Garry Kasparov, against whom he also lost a match of rapid and blitz games 0.5-5.5 (2003).
Azmaiparashvili is active in chess politics, being President of the Georgian chess federation, a board member of the European Chess Union and a vice-president of international chess federation FIDE.
In August 2009, he appointed as captain of Azerbaijani chess team and won European Team Chess Championship in Novi Sad.
In winning the 2003
Alexandra Konstantinovna Kosteniuk (Russian: Александра Константиновна Костенюк; born April 23, 1984 in Perm) is a Russian chess Grandmaster and a former Women's World Chess Champion.
Kosteniuk learned to play chess at the age of five after being taught by her father. She has a younger sister named Oxana, who is a FIDE master level chess player.
In 2001, at the age of 17, she reached the final of the World Women's Chess Championship, but was defeated by Zhu Chen. Three years later, she became European women's champion by winning the tournament in Dresden, Germany. She also won the 2005 Russian Women's Championship, held in Samara, Russia, finishing with a score of +7 −0 =4 . In August 2006, she became the first Chess960 women's world champion after beating Germany's top female player Elisabeth Pähtz 5½–2½. She defended that title successfully in 2008 by beating Kateryna Lahno 2½–1½. However, her greatest success so far has been to win the Women's World Chess Championship 2008, beating in the final the young Chinese prodigy Hou Yifan, with a score of 2½–1½.
In November 2004, she was awarded the International Grandmaster title, becoming the tenth woman to receive the highest title of
Glenn Curtis Flear (born 12 February 1959 in Leicester, England) is a British chess grandmaster now living in Montpellier, France. He is the author of several books, some on chess openings and some on the endgame.
He was awarded the International Master title in 1983 and Grandmaster title in 1987. His current FIDE rating is 2510.
Flear created one of the greatest-ever chess tournament upsets when, as a last minute substitute, he won the very strong London 1986 event (ahead of Chandler, Short, Nunn, Ribli, Polugaevsky, Portisch, Spassky, Vaganian, Speelman, and Larsen, amongst others). To round off the happy occasion, he married five-time French Ladies' Champion Christine Leroy during the event. They have two sons, James and Nathan.
He also represented England at the 1986 Dubai Olympiad (earning a team silver medal) and at the European Team Chess Championship at Plovdiv in 2003.
José Raúl Capablanca y Graupera (19 November 1888 – 8 March 1942) was a Cuban chess player who was world chess champion from 1921 to 1927. One of the greatest players of all time, he was renowned for his exceptional endgame skill and speed of play. Due to his achievements in the chess world, mastery over the board and his relatively simple style of play he was nicknamed the "Human Chess Machine".
José Raúl Capablanca, the second surviving son of a Spanish army officer, was born in Havana on November 19, 1888. According to Capablanca, he learned the rules of the game at the age of four by watching his father play, pointed out an illegal move by his father, and then beat his father twice. At the age of eight he was taken to Havana Chess Club, which had hosted many important contests, but on the advice of a doctor he was not allowed to play frequently. Between November and December 1901, he narrowly beat the Cuban Chess Champion, Juan Corzo, in a match. However in April 1902 he only came fourth out of six in the National Championship, losing both his games against Corzo. In 1905 Capablanca passed with ease the entrance examinations for Columbia University in New York City, where he
Lázaro Bruzón Batista (born 2 May 1982) is a chess grandmaster from Cuba. On the May 2012 FIDE list his Elo rating is 2711. Bruzón was the 2000 World Junior Chess Champion. In 2004 he finished first at the XII Torneo "Guillermo Garcia" in Memoriam in Villa Clara. In 2005 he won the American Continental Championship and tied for 2nd–5th with Kamil Mitoń, Zhang Pengxiang and Artyom Timofeev in the Samba Cup in Skanderborg. In 2008 he came first in the 35th open tournament in Manresa. In 2010 he tied for 1st–6th with Kamil Mitoń, Bojan Kurajica, Yuri Gonzalez Vidal, Evgeny Gleizerov and Bartlomiej Heberla in the 4th Torneo Internacional de Ajedrez Ciudad de La Laguna and tied for 1st–2nd with Ivan Salgado Lopez at Barcelona.
Reuben Fine (October 11, 1914 – March 26, 1993) was one of the strongest chess players in the world from the early 1930s through the 1940s, an International Grandmaster, psychologist, university professor, and author of many books on both chess and psychology.
Fine won five medals (four gold) in three chess Olympiads. Fine won the U.S. Open Chess Championship all seven times he entered (1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1939, 1940, 1941); this is a record for that event. He was the author of several chess books that are still popular today, including important books on the endgame, opening, and middlegame.
He earned a bachelor's degree from the City College of New York in 1932. After World War II, he earned his doctorate in psychology from the University of Southern California. He served as a university professor, and wrote many successful books on psychology as well.
Although Fine was regarded as a serious contender for the World Chess Championship, he declined his invitation to participate in the six-player 1948 tournament, which was organized to determine the World Champion after the 1946 death of reigning champion Alexander Alekhine, and he virtually retired from serious competition
Roman Yakovlevich Dzindzichashvili (Georgian: რომან იაკობის-ძე ჯინჯიხაშვილი; Hebrew: רומן יעקובלביץ' ג'ינג'יחשווילי; pronounced jin-jee-khash-VEE-lee; born May 5, 1944) is a chess Grandmaster (GM).
Born in Tbilisi, Georgian SSR into a family of Georgian Jews, he won the Junior Championship of the Soviet Union in 1962 and the University Championships in 1966 and 1968. In 1970, he earned the title of International Master. He left the U.S.S.R. in 1976 for Israel, and earned the GM title in 1977. In 1979, Dzindzichashvili settled in the United States, and he won the Lone Pine tournament the next year. He led the U.S. Olympiad team in 1984. One of his best career performances was first place at The 53rd Hastings Chess Festival in 1977/1978. He scored 10½ out of 14 points, a full point ahead of former World Champion Tigran Petrosian. He won the U.S. Chess Championship twice, in 1983 and again in 1989, sharing the title with two other players each time. He briefly took up residence in Washington Square Park in New York City, and hustled chess during the 1980s, making a living playing blitz for stakes, as is popular there. He had a cameo in the 1993 film Searching For Bobby Fischer.
Anthony John Miles (born 23 April 1955 in Edgbaston, Birmingham, England; died 12 November 2001 in Harborne, Birmingham) was an English chess Grandmaster.
Miles was born in Edgbaston, a suburb of Birmingham. He learned the game of chess early in life and made good progress nationally, taking the titles of British under-14 Champion and under-21 Champion in 1968 and 1971, respectively.
In 1973, Miles won the silver medal at the World Junior Chess Championship at Teesside, his first important event against international competition. Both he and compatriot Michael Stean defeated the tournament winner Alexander Beliavsky, but were unable to match the Soviet player's ruthlessness in dispatching lesser opponents. Miles went on to win this prestigious title the following year in Manila, while an undergraduate of the University of Sheffield.
Taking the decision to pursue the game professionally, Miles did not complete his studies, but in 1975, was awarded an MA by the University for his chess achievements.
In 1976, Miles became the first UK-born, 'over-the-board' chess Grandmaster, narrowly beating Raymond Keene to the accolade. The naturalised, German-born Jacques Mieses was awarded the GM
Zhang Pengxiang (simplified Chinese: 张鹏翔; traditional Chinese: 張鵬翔; pinyin: Zhāng Péngxiáng; born June 29, 1980 in Tianjin) is a Chinese chess Grandmaster, and was the 2007 Asian Chess Champion. In 2001, he became China's 12th Grandmaster. He has stated his desire to teach and give training to youngsters in China via an online classroom network. He lives in Beijing.
Zhang learned to play chess when he was 5 years old, and at the age of six he started to play in chess competitions at school. He became National Youth Champion in 1992 and 1993.
He became a FIDE Master in 1996, and an International Master in 1998. He was National Junior Champion in 1999.
In 2001, he finally became a Grandmaster, and in 2002, won the National Chess Championship. Zhang's peak rating was 2657 in April 2007 when he was ranked 47th in the world.
He was the runner-up at the 1998 Chinese national men's chess championships. He has been a Grandmaster (GM) since August 2001, when he achieved his last norm at the Asian Continental Championships - won by Xu Jun - in Kolkata where he came fourth with 7.5/11.
Earlier that month, he won the Zhong Hong Real Estate Cup in Beijing with 8/11.
In November 2001, he upset
Ni Hua (born May 31, 1983 in Shanghai) is one of China's top chess grandmasters and is the national team captain. In 2003, he became China's 15th Grandmaster at the age of 19. On April 2008, Ni Hua and Bu Xiangzhi both became the second and third Chinese players to pass the 2700 Elo rating line, after Wang Yue. He is ranked 59th globally, 7th in Asia, and 4th in China.
He also played 4th board at the World Team Chess Championship in January 3–14, 2010.
Ni learned to play chess at six. He won the S.T. Lee Cup for under 14 year-olds in 1996 and 1997 and repeated the performance in a higher age group in 1999.
In 2000 he played in his first Olympiad in Istanbul, where he scored 5.5/9. In February 2000, he gained his first GM norm at the 1st Saturday GM Tournament in Budapest with 7/10 score. He achieved his second GM norm at the April 2001 China Team Championship in Suzhou with a score of 6.5/10. His third GM norm was achieved at the Tan Chin Nam Cup with a score of 6.5/9 in Qingdao in July 2002. In the 2001 China-USA Summit Match, Ni Hua scored notable victories against Dmitry Schneider and Hikaru Nakamura.
In February 2003, Ni had his Grandmaster title ratified. He achieved his GM
Alexey Dreev (Russian: Алексей Дреев; born 1969) is a chess grandmaster from Russia. His career peak Elo rating was 2705, attained in October 2003 and again in April 2005. He qualified for the Candidates Tournament in 1991, but lost his Quarter Final match to Viswanathan Anand in Madras (+1 =5 -4).
Then in the FIDE World Championship Tournaments, firstly in Groningen in 1997, he reached the Quarter Finals, where he lost to Boris Gelfand. In the next four FIDE World Championship tournaments, he was knocked out at the last sixteen stage: in 1999 at Las Vegas by Michael Adams, in 2000 at New Delhi to Veselin Topalov, in 2001 at Moscow to Viswanathan Anand, and finally in 2004 at Tripoli to Leinier Dominguez.
His best performance in the Russian Chess Championship was in 2004 which was held in Moscow, when he finished third (+4 =5 -2). This tournament was won by Garry Kasparov.
His best tournament victories were at the Biel chess tournament in 1995 (+5 =8 -0), and at the Corus chess tournament also in 1995 (+9 =4 -1). In 2007 he won the 5th Parsvnath Open in New Delhi. In 2011 he came first in the Cento Open.
He has represented Russia in five Chess Olympiads between 1992-2004. His
George Koltanowski (also "Georges"; 17 September 1903 – 5 February 2000) was a Belgian-born American chess player, promoter, and writer. He was informally known as "Kolty". Koltanowski set the world's blindfold record on 20 September 1937, in Edinburgh, by playing 34 chess games simultaneously while blindfolded, making headline news around the world. He holds the current record with 56 games, set in 1960.
Born into a Polish Jewish family in Antwerp, Belgium, Koltanowski learned chess while watching his father play his older brother. He took up the game seriously at the age of 14, and was the top Belgian player after the death of Edgar Colle in 1932.
He gave up a fledgling career as a diamond cutter to play full-time.
He served a short stint in the Belgian army, where his primary duty was the peeling of potatoes. While he peeled away absent-mindedly, he studied chess positions. "Soldiers were going hungry", he said, "because I was peeling the potatoes into smaller and smaller cubes."
He got his first big break in chess at age 21, when he visited an international tournament in Meran, planning to play in one of the reserve sections. The organizers were apparently confused or mixed up
Harold James Plaskett (born Dkeliah, Cyprus, 18 March 1960) was British Chess Champion in 1990, awarded the International Grandmaster title in 1985, and is also a writer, blogger, sometime explorer/cryptozoologist and legal campaigner. Married in 1995 to writer Fiona Pitt-Kethley, they have a son, Alexander, born 1996, and live in Cartagena, Spain.
Generally known in the chess world as 'Jim', he has written nine chess books and also one quasi-autobiographical one, Coincidences. For some years in the 1990s he was chess columnist at The New Statesman.
He appeared unsuccessfully several times on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?, and then drew on his experiences to write a defence of contestant Charles Ingram, who along with two supposed accomplices had been found guilty of cheating to win the £1 million top prize.
This essay led to an article by Bob Woffinden in The Daily Mail of 9 October 2004 – Is The Coughing Major Innocent?, and also prompted a reconsideration of the case in The Guardian Comment is free blog on 17 July 2006 from Jon Ronson – Are the Millionaire three innocent? Woffinden and Ronson had both been initially sceptical.
Plaskett may also be heard at Episode 29 of The Pod
Leif Erlend Johannessen, born 1980, is a Norwegian chess player, and Norway's fifth International Grandmaster. He received his title in 2002. He picked up his first norm in Oslo, the second at Bermuda and finally the third in the Sigeman tournament in Malmö. Johannessen has yet to win the Norwegian championship, the closest he has come is second place in 1999 after losing the play-off 0-2 to Berge Østenstad. Johannessen did win the Norwegian blitz chess championship the same year however.
Johannessen usually plays 1.d4 when he is White. With Black, Johannessen employs a variety of defenses including the Sicilian Defence and Caro-Kann Defence against 1.e4 and the Queen's Gambit Declined, Slav Defense, or Semi-Slav Defense against 1.d4.
Johannessen, often nicknamed "Leffi", writes the column "Leffis lille lure" (Leffi's little smart one) for the official Norwegian chess magazine Norsk Sjakkblad. Johannessen is a member of the Oslo chess club Oslo Schakselskap.
Johannessen is also a lawyer and seems to have put in less time in chess over the last few years.
Johannessen is an honorary member of the Portuguese amateur team Mata de Benfica and played in the Portuguese First League Team
Oldřich Duras (also Důras; 30 October 1882, Pchery, Bohemia, then Austria-Hungary – 5 January 1957, Prague, then Czechoslovakia) was a leading Czech chess master of the early 20th century. FIDE awarded him the title of International Grandmaster in 1950, when the title was first introduced, in recognition of his achievements in the early twentieth century.
Among his noted tournament wins (all shared) are Bremen (1905), Prague (1908), Vienna (1908) and Breslau (1912). He had plus scores against Richard Teichmann (+6-2=6), David Janowski (+3-1=0), Carl Schlechter (+2-1=11) and Aron Nimzowitsch (+3-2=3), and level scores with Siegbert Tarrasch and Géza Maróczy. He lost the one game he played with Emmanuel Lasker, had a draw and loss against José Raúl Capablanca, and heavy minus scores against Akiba Rubinstein, Ossip Bernstein and Milan Vidmar and was one game behind with Frank Marshall (+7-8=5).
Duras was also a noted chess composer.
Yannick Pelletier (born September 22, 1976 in Biel/Bienne, Switzerland) is a Swiss chess player. He completed his final Grandmaster norm at the 2000 Chess Olympiad in Istanbul and was officially awarded the Grandmaster title in 2001. Pelletier won the Swiss Chess Championship in 1995, 2000, 2002 and 2010.
In 2001 he tied for 1st-4th with Tamaz Gelashvili, Mark Hebden and Vladimir Tukmakov in the 9th Neuchâtel Open and in 2007 tied for 3rd-5th with Judit Polgár and Alexander Grischuk in the 40th Biel chess tournament.
Pelletier also won in Zurich 2001 with a score of 6 1/2 out of 7 and repeated this victory in Zurich 2002 with a score of 6 out of 7.
Andrei Yurievich Sokolov (Андрей Юрьевич Соколов; born 20 March 1963 in Vorkuta, Komi ASSR, Russian SFSR) is a chess Grandmaster of Russian origin, now living in France. He is not to be confused with the Latvian International Master of the same name and other, similar named players registered with FIDE.
He learnt the game from his father Yuri, a Soviet Army officer and Candidate Master. At just 6 years of age, inspiration arrived in the form of a book of Alekhine's games. At age 12, he attended one of the many chess schools that existed in and around Moscow and he occasionally frequented the legendary Pioneer Palace. Some major preparation followed in the years 1975–1982, mainly under the tutelage of renowned coach, Vladimir Yurkov.
Alexei Suetin attended the same sports club (Trud) and as senior Moscow coach, observed the youngster's progress closely. Sokolov won the minor championship of Moscow in 1981, but fared less well in the major Open Championship a short while later. He had yet to learn the subtleties of positional play, but already there was much to admire. Suetin described him as "a practical-minded chess player ... most concentrated, deprived of any impulsiveness and
Evgeny Ellinovich Sveshnikov (Jevgēņijs Svešņikovs) (born Cheliabinsk, February 11, 1950) is a Latvian, former Soviet International Grandmaster of chess, and a chess writer.
He played in his first USSR Chess Championship when he was just 17 years old and became an IM in 1975 and a GM in 1977.
In earliest international competition he was a joint winner at Decin 1974, shared first place (with Lev Polugaevsky) at Sochi 1976 and won category 8 tournaments at Le Havre 1977 and Cienfuegos 1979. At Novi Sad in 1979, he shared second prize with Efim Geller behind Florin Gheorghiu. At Wijk aan Zee in 1981, he shared 3rd place and in 1983 was (joint) Champion of Moscow.
In team chess, he was selected as a reserve for the Soviet side participating at the Moscow 1977 European Team Chess Championship. Although only an International Master at the time, he registered an 80% score, winning individual and team gold medals. Representing Latvia at the Chess Olympiads of 2004 and 2006, he has lost only twice in 22 games.
His Elo rating in October 2007 was 2494, but has in recent times been much higher. He is respected by his peers as a deep and original thinker and a master tactician. He won the
Lajos Portisch (born 4 April 1937 in Zalaegerszeg, Hungary) is a Hungarian chess Grandmaster, whose positional style earned him the nickname, the "Hungarian Botvinnik". One of the strongest non-Soviet players from the early 1960s into the late 1980s, he participated in twelve consecutive Interzonals from 1962 through 1993, qualifying for the World Chess Championship Candidates' cycle a total of eight times (1965, 1968, 1974, 1977, 1980, 1983, 1985, and 1988). Portisch set several all-time records in Chess Olympiads. In Hungarian Chess Championships, he either shared the title or won it outright a total of eight times (1958, 1959, 1961, 1964, 1965, 1971, 1975, and 1981). He won many strong international tournaments during his career. In 2004, Portisch was awarded the 'Nemzet Sportoloja', Hungary's highest national sports achievement award. He still competes occasionally at his age. His main hobby is singing operatic arias; he has a fine baritone voice, a quality shared by Vasily Smyslov, a chess world champion and grandmaster who had also talent as an operatic singer. His younger brother, Ferenc (born 1939), is an International Master.
Portisch represented Hungary at the World
Lubomir (Lubosh) Kavalek (Czech: Lubomír Kaválek, born August 9, 1943) is a Czech-American world-class chess player. He was awarded both the International Master and International Grandmaster titles by FIDE in 1965. He won two Czechoslovak and three U.S. championships, and was rated among the world’s top 10 players. He was inducted into the World Chess Hall of Fame in 2001. Kavalek is also a chess coach, organizer, teacher, commentator, author and award-winning columnist.
Kavalek was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia (now the Czech Republic). He studied communication and journalism at Charles University. He won the championship of Czechoslovakia in 1962 and 1968. When Soviet tanks rolled into Prague in August 1968, Kavalek was playing in the Akiba Rubinstein Memorial in Poland, in which he finished second. Kavalek, who had always hated Communism, decided to defect to the West rather than return to Soviet-dominated Czechoslovakia. He bought several crates of vodka with his winnings, used them to bribe the border guards, and drove to West Germany. "It was the biggest loss ever suffered by Czechoslovakian chess," wrote Andrew Soltis in "The 100 Best Chess Games of the 20th Century,
Péter Lékó (Serbian: Петер Леко) (born September 8, 1979 in Subotica, Yugoslavia) is a Hungarian chess grandmaster. He became a grandmaster in 1994 at the age of 14 years (a world record at the time). He was the challenger in the Classical World Chess Championship 2004 and tied Vladimir Kramnik 7–7, but Kramnik retained his title. His best world ranking was number four, first achieved in April 2003. Lékó is the son-in-law of Armenian grandmaster Arshak Petrosian.
In 2002 Lékó won the Candidates Tournament to qualify as the challenger to Vladimir Kramnik for the Classical World Chess Championship 2004. (The World Chess Championship was split at the time, but most of the strongest players participated, the most notable exceptions being the world's top two, Garry Kasparov and Viswanathan Anand). After several delays, the match was held from September 25 to October 18, 2004, in Brissago, Switzerland. Lékó led by a point with just one game left to play. Kramnik managed to win the last game, tying the match 7–7 (+2−2=10), which entitled him to remain the reigning "classical" world champion.
In October 2005, Lékó played for the FIDE World Chess Championship title in San Luis, Argentina,
Wolfgang Uhlmann (born 29 March 1935) is a prominent German International Grandmaster of chess. Despite being a dedicated professional chess player, and undoubtedly the GDR's most successful ever, he has also had a career in accountancy.
Uhlmann's father taught him the game at the age of eleven at their home in Dresden and he progressed to the title of German Youth Champion in 1951. By 1956 he was an International Master and by 1959, a Grandmaster.
He quickly established himself as the dominant force in East German chess, winning the GDR (German Democratic Republic, or East German) national championship on eleven occasions from 1954 to 1986. The number eleven repeated again, when as the GDR's most outstanding player at the Chess Olympiads of 1956–90, he made eleven appearances, mostly on top board. At the 1964 event in Tel Aviv, he scored 83.3 percent, earning him the individual board one gold medal. An individual bronze medal followed in 1966 at Havana.
His most promising attempt at World Championship qualification occurred at the Palma de Mallorca Interzonal of 1970, where he tied for fifth and sixth place and reached the Candidates Matches held the following year. But his
Alexander Sergeyvich Morozevich (Russian: Александр Сергеевич Морозе́вич; born July 18, 1977) is a Russian chess Grandmaster. In the May 2012 FIDE list, he had an Elo rating of 2769, making him the 9th-highest rated player in the world, although he has previously ranked as high as second, in the July 2008 list.
Morozevich has been one of the best chess players in the world for nearly a decade. He is famous for employing unusual openings, for example the Chigorin Defense (1. d4 d5 2. c4 Nc6), and more recently the Albin Countergambit (1.d4 d5 2.c4 e5); both systems are hardly ever seen at the top level. He is also well known for preferring complicated rather than clear positions. Due to his risky and spectacular style which produces relatively few draws, Morozevich is popular among chess fans. Among his most notable results are 7.5/10 at the 2000 Chess Olympiad (winning Bronze Medal for board 2 and gaining the highest Elo performance rating at 2803.7) and 7/11 at the 2002 Chess Olympiad; first place in the overall standings at the Amber tournament in 2002, 2004 (shared with Kramnik) and 2006 (shared with Anand); first place in Biel tournament three times: 2003, 2004 and 2006; and
Arkadij Naiditsch (born 25 October 1985 in Latvia) is a German chess Grandmaster (title awarded in April 2001) who was the clear winner of the Dortmund Sparkassen 2005 Tournament, ahead of higher-rated and well-known players such as Loek Van Wely, Veselin Topalov, Peter Svidler, Vladimir Kramnik, Michael Adams, and Peter Leko. In 2007, he won the German national championship based in Ghert.
In 2011 he won the 15th International Neckar Open with 8.5/9, breaking the 2700 Elo barrier.
Arthur Bernard Bisguier (born 8 October 1929) is an American chess Grandmaster, chess promoter, and writer. Bisguier won two U.S. Junior Championships (1948, 1949), three U.S. Open Chess Championship titles (1950, 1956, 1959), and the 1954 United States Chess Championship title. He played for the United States in five chess Olympiads. He also played in two Interzonal tournaments (1955, 1962). On March 18, 2005, the United States Chess Federation (USCF) proclaimed him "Dean of American Chess".
Bisguier was born in New York City. He was taught chess at the age of four by his father, a mathematician. In 1944, aged 15, he was third at the Bronx Empire Chess Club. In 1946, aged 17, he came fifth in the U.S. Open at Pittsburgh, followed by seventh place in 1948. Later that year, he took the U.S. Junior Championship and was invited to the New York 1948–49 International Tournament.
As he gained in strength, Bisguier was coached by Master Alexander Kevitz.
In 1949 he retained the U.S. Junior Championship title, and also won the Manhattan Chess Club Championship. In 1950 he won the first of his three U.S. Open titles, and also won at Southsea in England
Dmitry Olegovich Jakovenko (born 1983) is a Russian chess grandmaster. On the May 2012 FIDE Elo rating list, Jakovenko has a rating of 2736, making him the 18th highest rated player in the world.
He learned chess from his father at age 3, and was later coached by former Kasparov trainer Alexander Nikitin. In 2001 he won the U18 World Championship and the Saint-Vincent Open, and in 2004 he decided to become a professional chess player. Recently he has achieved a lot of successes: he shared first in the Russian Championship 2006 (he lost the playoff against Evgeny Alekseev), got second place at Pamplona 2006/2007, Corus B Group 2007, and Aeroflot Open, and won first place at Poikovsky. In 2012, in Plovdiv, he won the European Individual Chess Championship with 8.5/11.
In the July 2009 FIDE ratings, Jakovenko overtook Vladimir Kramnik as the number one Russian chess player. However, Kramnik regained the position in September.
Edmar John Mednis (March 22, 1937–February 13, 2002) was an American International Grandmaster of chess (awarded in 1980) born in Riga, Latvia. He was also a popular and respected chess writer.
At the end of World War II, Mednis's family moved to the U.S. He was trained as a chemical engineer, then worked as a stockbroker, but became best known as a chess author. Mednis wrote 26 chess books, including Practical Rook Endings (1982) and Strategic Chess: Mastering the Closed Game (1993), and hundreds of chess articles. He and Robert Byrne annotated many games for Chess Informant.
Mednis finished second in the 1955 World Junior Championship behind Boris Spassky (the two drew their game). He was the first player to beat Bobby Fischer in a U.S. Championship. He played on the 1962 United States Olympiad team and finished equal third in the 1961–62 U.S. Championship. Tournament results included third at Houston 1974, equal fourth at New York 1980, and equal first at Puerto Rico 1984. The Puerto Rico Chess Federation, rather than the United States Chess Federation, formally proposed him for the Grandmaster title. He played in the 1979 Interzonal tournament in Riga, his birthplace.
Ernst Franz Grünfeld (November 21, 1893, Josefstadt – April 3, 1962, Ottakring), an Austrian grandmaster and writer specializing in opening theory, was for a brief period after the First World War one of the strongest chess players in the world.
Born in Vienna, Grünfeld lost a leg in an early childhood which was beset by poverty. However, he discovered chess, studied intensely, and quickly earned a reputation as a skilled player at the local chess club, the Wiener Schach-Klub.
The First World War (1914–1918) seriously affected Grünfeld's chances of playing the best in the world as few tournaments were played during this troubled period. He was reduced to playing correspondence matches and spent much of his spare time studying opening variations. He started a library of chess material which he kept in his small Viennese flat until his death at the age of 68 in 1962.
He developed a reputation as an expert on openings during the 1920s and success over the board soon followed. He was 1st= in Vienna (1920) with Saviely Tartakower; 1st in Margate (1923); 1st in Meran (1924); 1st in Budapest (1926) with Mario Monticelli; 1st in Vienna (1927) and he shared first spot in the Vienna
Evgeny Bareev (born in a Tatar family on 21 November 1966) is a Russian chess Grandmaster and chess coach. In October 2003, he was in fourth place in the world rankings, with an Elo rating of 2739.
Bareev was World Under-16 Champion in 1982 when his talent was first showcased internationally. Bareev was a member of the Russian national team in the two Chess Olympiads of 1994 and 1996. The biggest success in his career was winning the Corus super-tournament in Wijk aan Zee 2002. In this event he scored 9/13 ahead of elite players like Alexander Grischuk, Michael Adams, Alexander Morozevich, and Peter Leko. In a man vs. machine contest in January 2003, Bareev took on the chess program HIARCS in a four game-match: all four games were drawn. In the Enghien-les-Bains tournament held in France in 2003, Bareev finished in first place.
He was a second to Vladimir Kramnik in his triumphant 2000 World championship match against Garry Kasparov.
His most notable participation in the World Chess Championship events was the Candidates Tournament for the Classical World Chess Championship 2004 in Dortmund 2002. Bareev reached the semi-finals, but lost his match against Veselin Topalov.
Jānis Klovāns (April 9, 1935 – October 5, 2010) was a Latvian chess Grandmaster. He was a career officer in the Soviet Army.
Jānis Klovāns won the Latvian Championship nine times (1954, 1962, 1967, 1968, 1970, 1971, 1975, 1979, and 1986), and participated in several Soviet Championships. He was a member of several successful Latvian youth teams during the early to mid-1950s, along with stars such as GM Mikhail Tal and GM Aivars Gipslis.
He played for Latvia in two Chess Olympiads. In Manila 1992, at second reserve board (+0 −0 =2), and in Istanbul 2000, at third board (+5 −4 =4).
Janis Klovans thrice won the World Senior Chess Championship, in 1997, 1999, and 2001. Still an active player in his seventies, he played regularly in tournaments all over Europe, and maintained a FIDE rating of over 2400, making him one of the strongest players in his age group.
He was awarded the International Master (IM) title in 1976, and the Grandmaster (GM) title in 1997, following his win in the World Senior Championship. This achievement is notable in that he was probably the oldest player to be awarded the GM title for current achievements, rather than an honorary or retrospective title. This can
Luke James McShane (born 7 January 1984) is an English chess player. A former World Youth Champion and prodigious talent in chess, he has become one of England's leading players and a member of the Olympiad team. He has also been a trader in London's financial sector.
McShane won the World Under-10 Championship in Duisburg at the age of eight. Shortly afterwards he found a sponsor in the form of computer company Psion and played Garry Kasparov at a simultaneous exhibition in 1995. At sixteen he became the youngest ever British Grandmaster, gaining the three results required ("grandmaster norms") in tournaments in Germany, Iceland and the Politiken Cup in Copenhagen, Denmark. He held the record until David Howell broke it in January 2007. In January 2004 McShane was ranked second in the world among junior (under-21) players behind Teimour Radjabov.
Among McShane's more notable results are joint first in the 1998 Bunratty Masters in Ireland with John Nunn, winning five of his six games, and joint winner with Stuart Conquest and Bogdan Lalić of the Iona Tech Masters in Kilkenny. McShane led the 2002 British Championship in Torquay, and was in a good position in the final round before
Nigel David Short MBE (born 1 June 1965 in Leigh, Lancashire) is an English chess grandmaster earning the title at the age of 19. Short is often regarded as the strongest English player of the 20th century as he was ranked third in the world, from January 1988 to July 1989. In 1993, he challenged Garry Kasparov for the World Chess Championship in London. He has defeated 12 of the 19 officially recognised World Champions since 1886. As of September 2012, Short was the oldest player on the world top 50 live rating list and was working as a chess columnist, coach and commentator.
He grew up in Atherton, going to the St Philip's Primary School on Bolton Old Road. He studied at the independent Bolton School and Leigh College. He was a member both of Atherton Chess Club, which was founded by his father, David, and later of Bolton Chess Club, which had initially rejected him, aged seven, for being too young.
A chess prodigy, Short first attracted significant media attention, as a 10-year-old, by defeating Viktor Korchnoi in a simultaneous exhibition. In 1977 he became the youngest ever participant in the British Chess Championship by qualifying three days before his twelfth birthday. Two
Shakhriyar Hamid oglu Mammadyarov (Azerbaijani: Şəhriyar Həmid oğlu Məmmədyarov) (born 12 April 1985 in Sumgayit, Azerbaijan SSR), also known for his Shah nickname, is an Azerbaijani chess Grandmaster. On the September 2010 FIDE rating list he was ranked number nine in the world with an Elo rating of 2756.
Shakhriyar Mamedyarov was born April 12, 1985 in Sumgayit, Azerbaijan.
In 2003 he won the World Junior Chess Championship. He repeated his victory in 2005 (thus becoming the only two-time champion), achieving an incredible 2953 performance rating after eight rounds. This gained him an invitation to the Essent Tournament 2006 in Hoogeveen, and by winning this one and also the 2007 edition, Shakhriyar achieved world fame.
In 2005 Mamedyarov competed at European Club Cup and had the second highest performance rating (2913) among all of the participants (Vassily Ivanchuk had the highest).
IM Goran Antunac has commented that Mamedyarov is a true virtuoso at handling the pieces, always finding the best squares for them.
Mamedyarov attained joint first place in Aeroflot Open in Moscow in February 2006, with a score of 6½/9. In October 2006, he won the closed Essent Chess Tournament in
Susanto Megaranto (born 8 October 1987) is an Indonesian chess Grandmaster.
He became the youngest Indonesian GM ever at 17, beating out Utut Adianto's record by four years.
In 2004 he tied for 2nd-3rd with Eugenio Torre in the SEA Games in Vietnam. In the same year he tied for first with Mark Paragua in the Singapore Masters Open and won the event on tie-break. In 2007 he tied for 3rd-8th with Abhijit Kunte, Zhao Jun, Wen Yang, Darwin Laylo and Zhou Jianchao in the Asian Chess Championship. In 2008, he tied for 3rd-7th with Marat Dzhumaev, Darwin Laylo, Dražen Sermek and Ashot Nadanian in the 5th Dato' Arthur Tan Malaysia Open Championship in Kuala Lumpur and tied for 3rd-6th with Nguyen Anh Dung, Sadikin Irwanto and Magesh Chandran Panchanathan in the Kuala Lumpur Open. He took part in the Chess World Cup 2011, but was eliminated in the first round by Le Quang Liem.
On the July 2009 FIDE list, he has an Elo rating of 2534.
Vladislav Tkachiev (Владислав Ткачёв, born Moscow November 9, 1973) is a French-Russian-Kazakhstani chess player.
In 1982, he moved to Kazakhstan with his parents and learnt to play chess a year later. A winner of the Kazakhstani Youth Championship in 1985, he went on to represent Kazakhstan at the 1992 Chess Olympiad in Manila and was twice the national champion.
International Master and Grandmaster titles were awarded to him in 1993 and 1996 respectively. Now living in Cannes, Tkachiev has taken French citizenship and won the 2006 French Chess Championship, held at Besançon, August 14–26. His victory included a rapid play-off win against Laurent Fressinet.
In 2007, he won the European Individual Chess Championship, held in Dresden, following a play-off with GMs Emil Sutovsky, Dmitry Jakovenko and Ivan Cheparinov.
He also reached the semi-finals of the Russian Chess Championship in 2005 and won the Moscow Blitz Superfinal in 2004, ahead of Alexander Morozevich. Other victories include Oakham 1993, Cannes 1996 (and 1999), Isle of Man 1996 and Makarska 1997.
In matchplay, he has defeated Alberto David 6-2 (+4=4) in 1999 and beat Dutch grandmaster John van der Wiel by 7-3 (+5=4-1).
Harry Golombek OBE (1 March 1911 – 7 January 1995, Lambeth, London), was a British chess International Master and honorary grandmaster, chess arbiter, and chess author. He was three times British chess champion, in 1947, 1949, and 1955 and finished second in 1948. He became a grandmaster in 1985.
He was the chess correspondent of The Times newspaper from 1945 to 1989. He was an official of the FIDE, and served as Arbiter for several important events, including the Candidates' Tournament of 1959 in Yugoslavia, and the World Chess Championship match 1963 between Mikhail Botvinnik and Tigran Petrosian. He was also editor of some well-known collections of games such as Capablanca's and Réti's, and was a well-respected author. He was editor of British Chess Magazine from 1938 to 1940, and its overseas editor throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Golombek also translated several chess books from Russian into English.
On the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, Golombek was in Buenos Aires, Argentina, competing in the Chess Olympiad for Britain alongside C. H. O'D. Alexander and Stuart Milner-Barry. They immediately returned to the UK, and were soon recruited into Bletchley Park, the
János Flesch (30 September 1933 – 9 December 1983) was a chess Grandmaster, chess writer and coach, born in Budapest, Hungary. He is best known for claiming a world record simultaneous blindfold exhibition when he played 52 opponents in Budapest in 1960. However, he was apparently allowed to consult scoresheets of the games and therefore his claim was disallowed.
Flesch was awarded the International Master (IM) title in 1963 and the Honorary Grandmaster (GM) title in 1980. He died in an automobile accident with his wife Ildiko Tenyei in Whitstable, England, in 1983.
Represented Hungary on the Tel-Aviv Chess Olympiad (1964) (fourth place), also participated in the European Team Chess Championship in Hamburg (1965) (third place).
From 1967 he was working as chess trainer:
(1967–1970) Ferencvárosi Torna Club (FTC) Chess Club
(1971–1983) PMSC Chess Club
János Flesch was an attacking player, taking risk in his games, developing an imaginative style of play. He often sacrificed material in search for the initiative in chess. In many of his sharp games he won with a creative attack against the opponent's king.
Alexander Alexandrovich Alekhine, PhD (October 31 [O.S. October 19] 1892 – March 24, 1946) (Russian: Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Але́хин, pronounced [ɐlʲɪkˈsandr ɐlʲɪkˈsandrəvʲɪtɕ ɐˈlʲexʲɪn]) was the fourth World Chess Champion. He is often considered one of the greatest chess players ever.
By the age of twenty-two, he was already among the strongest chess players in the world. During the 1920s, he won most of the tournaments in which he played. In 1927, he became the fourth World Chess Champion by defeating Capablanca, widely considered invincible, in what would stand as the longest chess championship match held until 1985.
In the early 1930s, Alekhine dominated tournament play and won two top-class tournaments by large margins. He also played first board for France in five Chess Olympiads, winning individual prizes in each (four medals and a brilliancy prize). Alekhine offered Capablanca a rematch on the same demanding terms that Capablanca had set for him, and negotiations dragged on for years without making much progress. Meanwhile, Alekhine defended his title with ease against Bogoljubov in 1929 and 1934. He was defeated by Euwe in 1935, but regained his crown in the 1937
Alexander Areshchenko (born June 15, 1986 in Lugansk, Soviet Union) is a Ukrainian chess Grandmaster and won the Ukrainian Champion in 2005. In 1999, he won the U-14 World Youth Chess Championship in Oropesa del Mar, Spain ahead of future super-grandmaster Wang Yue. In 2007 he tied for 2nd–4th with Hikaru Nakamura and Emil Sutovsky in the 5th GibTelecom Chess Festival. In 2009 he tied for 1st–4th with Humpy Koneru, Evgenij Miroshnichenko and Magesh Panchanathan in the Mumbai Mayor Cup and came first on tiebreak. In the same year, he tied for first with Boris Avrukh in the Zurich Jubilee Open tournament and again won the event on tiebreak. In 2010, he tied for 2nd–7th with Alexey Dreev, Ivan Sokolov, Vladimir Fedoseev, Dmitry Andreikin and Konstantin Sakaev in the Chigorin Memorial. In 2011, Areshchenko tied for 1st–5th with Yuriy Kuzubov, Parimarjan Negi, Markus Ragger and Ni Hua in the 9th Parsvnath Open Tournament.
Alexander Onischuk (born September 3, 1975) is a Soviet-born American chess grandmaster.
Originally from Ukraine, he immigrated to the United States in 2001 and currently lives in Northern Virginia. He was the 2006 U.S. Chess Champion. He is currently the third-ranked American grandmaster, behind Hikaru Nakamura and Gata Kamsky.
Onischuk participated in International Chess Festival Biel 2007, where he placed second after Magnus Carlsen. He scored 5.5/9 like Carlsen, but lost in the tie-breaker match held after the regular rounds finished.
Darryl Keith Johansen (born 4 February 1959, Melbourne, Australia) is an Australian chess Grandmaster. He became an International Master in 1983 and Australia's second Grandmaster, after Ian Rogers, in 1995.
Johansen has won the Australian Chess Championship a record six times (in 1984, 1988, 1990, 2000, 2002 and 2012). He has also represented Australia at 14 Chess Olympiads (1980–96, 2000–04, 2008–10).
He won the Lloyds Bank Masters tournament in London in 1983, ahead of Viktor Korchnoi. In 1987, he won the inaugural Australian Masters tournament, and has finished first in this event on two other occasions. He won the 2002 Oceania Chess Championship and represented the Oceania Zone at the FIDE World Chess Championship 2004. In 2009, he won the Sydney International Open held in Parramatta, with a score of 7/9, taking the title on countback ahead of George Xie, Abhijit Kunte, and Gawain Jones. This made him the first Australian to win the event. He has also won the Victorian State Chess Championships twelve times, the last occasion being in 2009. In January 2012, Johansen tied for 1st–3rd with Li Chao and Zhao Jun in the third Queenstown Chess Classic.
Johansen is currently
David Wei Liang Howell (born 14 November 1990) is an English chess player. He is the youngest chess Grandmaster in the United Kingdom, a title he earned when he came second during the 35th Rilton Cup in Stockholm on 5 January 2007 when he was 16. The previous record holder, Luke McShane, was six months older when he became a grandmaster.
Howell was born in Eastbourne to Angeline (originally from Singapore) and Martin Howell. He has a younger sister, Julia, and lives with his family in Seaford, East Sussex. He has been playing chess since the age of five years and eight months, following his father's purchase of a second-hand chess set at a jumble sale.
Howell quickly learned to defeat his father and soon came to the attention of the Sussex Junior Chess Association, where he received tuition from a number of established county players. He progressed rapidly and became the British Under-8, Under-9 and Under-10 chess champion.
In August 1999, Howell became famous internationally when he broke the world record for the youngest player to have defeated a Grandmaster in an official game. He defeated GM John Nunn in a blitz game at the Mind Sports Olympiad. Howell still holds this record.
Maia Chiburdanidze (Georgian: მაია ჩიბურდანიძე; born January 17, 1961) is a Georgian chess grandmaster, and the seventh (and then youngest) Women's World Chess Champion. She is the only chess player in history who has won nine Chess Olympiads.
Chiburdanidze's FIDE Elo rating as of January 2011 is 2502, making her the 14th highest rated female player in the world.
Maia Chiburdanidze was born in Kutaisi, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, USSR and started playing chess around the age of eight. She became the USSR girls' champion in 1976 and a year later she won the women's title. In 1977 she was awarded the title of International Women's Grandmaster.
She won outright on her debut at the Braşov women's international tournament of 1974 when she was only 13 years old and went on to win another tournament in Tbilisi in 1975 before entering the women's world championship cycle of 1976/77.
Her style of play is solid, but aggressive and well grounded in classical principles; it was influenced by Eduard Gufeld, a top Soviet trainer, who was her coach early in her career.
Chiburdanidze finished 2nd in the Tbilisi Women's Interzonal (1976), thereby qualifying for the 1977 candidates matches.
Arnold Sheldon Denker (February 20, 1914 – January 2, 2005) was an American chess player, Grandmaster, and chess author. He was U.S. Chess Champion in 1945 and 1946.
In later years he served in various chess organizations, receiving recognition from the United States Chess Federation, including in 2004 the highest honor, "Dean of American Chess".
Denker was born on February 20, 1914 in the Bronx, New York City, in an Orthodox Jewish family. According to Denker himself, he learned chess in 1923 watching his elder brothers play, but took up the game seriously only in his freshman year in Theodore Roosevelt high school, where his schoolmates played for a nickel a game in the cafetaria. After steadily losing his milk money for a long time, Denker discovered former world chess champion Emanuel Lasker's book "Common Sense in Chess" in the school library, studied the book, and soon "the nickels came pouring back with interest".
Denker was a promising boxer in his early years. He first gained attention in chess by winning the New York City individual interscholastic championship in 1929 at age 15. In the next decade he established himself as a leading rival to Samuel Reshevsky, Reuben
Carlos Torre Repetto (23 November 1905 in Mérida, Yucatán – 19 March 1978 in Mérida, Yucatán) was a chess grandmaster from Mexico.
While Torre was Mexican by birth and citizenship, he spent much of his early life in New Orleans and developed as a young player under the tutelage of the New Orleans player E. Z. Adams.
Torre first came to international attention when he attended the great New York 1924 tournament—not the event won by Kupchik—and impressed both the American and European Grandmasters with the high quality of his speed chess and analytical ability. The website Chessmetrics.com places Torre as eighth in the world following his tour of Europe. He was awarded the Grandmaster title in 1977.
Torre's career was cut short by mental illness. Torre spent much if not the remainder of his life hospitalized following his breakdown in 1926. A coming marriage that was broken by a Dear John letter is believed to have played a role in his breakdown per The Oxford Companion to Chess. However, as of 2012 the chess historian Edward Winter regards this as an open question. Reuben Fine visited him many years later and found that he still played very well. Torre's meteoric rise and
Gennadi (Gennady, Genna) Borisovich Sosonko (Геннадий Борисович Сосонко; born 18 May 1943, Troitsk, Russia) is a Dutch chess Grandmaster (GM).
At the beginning of his career, in 1958, he won in the Leningrad juniors championship.
Sosonko moved from the Soviet Union to the Netherlands via Israel in 1972. This was a highly publicised defection, which led to the Soviet Union Chess Federation pressuring FIDE to declare him an "unperson". He won the Dutch Championship in 1973 and 1978 (jointly). His tournament record includes 1st at Wijk aan Zee 1977, 1st at Nijmegen 1978, 3rd at Amsterdam 1980, 1st at Wijk aan Zee 1981, 3rd at Tilburg 1982 and 4th at Haninge 1988. He also drew a match with Jan Timman (+1 =0 −1) in 1984.
Sosonko played eleven times for Dutch team at the Chess Olympiads in 1974-84, and 1988-96. He won two individual medals: gold at Haifa 1976, bronze at Nice 1974, and two medals for team: silver at Haifa 1976, and bronze at Thessaloniki 1988.
FIDE, the World Chess Federation, awarded Sosonko the International Master (IM) title in 1974, the GM title in 1976 and the FIDE Senior Trainer title in 2004.
Sosonko has also authored three non-technical chess books centering
Peter Veniaminovich Svidler (Russian: Пётр Вениами́нович Сви́длер; Pyotr Veniaminovich Svidler, born June 17, 1976, in Leningrad) is a Russian chess Grandmaster. He is six-time Russian champion (1994, 1995, 1997, 2003, 2008, 2011). He placed shared second (together with Viswanathan Anand) in the FIDE World Chess Championship 2005 with 8½ points out of 14 games, finishing 1½ points behind the winner, Veselin Topalov. In the World Chess Championship 2007, he placed 5th among the eight players. He has won five team gold medals and one individual bronze medal at Chess Olympiads.
Svidler learned to play chess when he was six years old. In 1992, he tied for 1st–2nd with Ragim Gasimov in the USSR Junior Open Chess Championship. He became Grandmaster in 1994.
In 2001, he reached the semifinals of the FIDE World Championship. Andrei Lukin is his coach.
Svidler is a noted proponent of Fischer Random Chess (also called Chess960). He won the first edition of the Chess960 Open held in Mainz, Germany. At the 2003 Mainz Chess Classic, he became Chess960 World Champion by beating Péter Lékó in an eight-game match. He successfully defended his title twice, defeating Levon Aronian in 2004 and Zoltán
Vasilios Kotronias (Greek: Βασίλειος Κοτρωνιάς; first name sometimes spelled Vasilios, born 25 August 1964) is a Greek chess grandmaster and chess author.
Kotronias was awarded the titles of International Master in 1986 and Grandmaster in 1990. He is nine-time Greek Champion.
Between 1998 and 2004, he represented Cyprus, but has since switched Federations to become a Greek national player once again.
In team chess, he has participated in many Chess Olympiads since 1984, including eight on top board, with a healthy overall plus score of +55 −27 = 55. In seven appearances at the European Team Chess Championships, all played at board one, he made a score of +19 −13 = 26. At León, in 2001, he earned an individual silver medal for his score of 5½/8.
Boris Abramovich Gelfand (Belarusian: Барыс Абрамавіч Гельфанд; Hebrew: בוריס אברמוביץ' גלפנד; born 24 June 1968) is a Belarusian-born Israeli chess Grandmaster. He won the 2011 Candidates Tournament and faced World Champion Viswanathan Anand for the World Chess Championship 2012. Although the match was level at 6–6, Gelfand lost in the rapid tie break games.
Boris Gelfand was born in Minsk, Belarussian SSR, on 24 June 1968. His parents, Abram and Nella, were engineers. His father bought him a book about chess, Journey to the Chess Kingdom, by Averbakh and Beilin, when he was four years old. In 1980–83, he attended the Tigran Petrosian School, where he met the former world champion in person and received advice that impacted on his life as a chess player: "I remember Petrosian saying to me that I shouldn’t make a single move without having an idea: 'Even when you’re playing blitz, always think!'"
In 1998, Gelfand immigrated to Israel and settled in Rishon LeZion, where he became Israel's top ranking chess player. He is married to Maya.
Gelfand was Junior Champion of the Soviet Union at 17, and European Junior Champion two years later. In 1988 he tied for first in the World Junior
Curt Hansen (born September 18, 1964 in Bov, Sønderjylland) is a Danish chess Grandmaster and a former World Junior Champion.
A strong junior player, he had major successes in international youth competitions, commencing with the then Groningen based European Junior Chess Championship, where he finished first in 1982 and second in 1983. The following year, he became the World Junior Champion in Kiljava, ahead of Alexei Dreev and was awarded the International Master title. In 1985, he became a Grandmaster after earning the necessary norms.
In domestic chess, he succeeded Bent Larsen as Denmark's strongest player and between 1983–2000, won the Danish Championship six times. By 1992, his rating had reached the 2600 mark and later the same year rose to 2635, giving him his best ever ranking amongst the World's best players - a share of 14th place on the FIDE list.
Hansen has represented his country five times at the Olympiad between 1984–2000, always playing first board and always scoring in excess of 50%.
His list of International tournament successes includes outright or shared first places at Borgarnes 1984, Vejstrup 1989 (Politiken Cup), Groningen 1991, Tastrup 1992, Aalborg 1994,
Michael Adams (born 17 November 1971 in Truro, Cornwall, England, UK) is a British chess Grandmaster (1989). His highest ranking is world No. 4, achieved several times from October 2000 to October 2002. His peak Elo rating is 2755.
He has achieved good results in World Chess Championship tournaments. Several times a Candidate, he reached the semifinals in 1997, 1999 and 2000. At the 2004 FIDE Championship, he reached the final, narrowly losing out to Rustam Kasimdzhanov in the tie-break games.
By 1980, Adams' chess talent had been recognised by the BCF and he received high-level coaching from former European Junior Champion Shaun Taulbut along with coaching from local chess champion Michael Prettejohn. In 1981, aged nine, he entered the Cornwall (County) Under-9 Championship and won it. At the same event, he won the Under-13, Under-15 and Under-18 Championships. For one day, the latter two contests clashed and he had to play them simultaneously, commuting cautiously between different rooms, some thirty metres apart.
In 1987, he took the silver medal at the World Under-16 Championship, held in Innsbruck, behind the Icelandic player Hannes Stefansson. Later that year, at the age of
Anatoly Yakovlevich Lein (Анатолий Яковлевич Лейн; born March 28, 1931, Leningrad) is a Soviet-born American chess Grandmaster.
FIDE awarded Lein the International Master title in 1964 and the Grandmaster title in 1968.
Lein finished equal first at Moscow 1970, and won the 1971 Moscow championship after a play-off. He placed first at Cienfuegos 1972, first at Novi Sad 1972, first at Novi Sad 1973, and equal first at Grand Manan 1984.
In 1976 Lein emigrated to the United States, finishing equal first with Leonid Shamkovich in the U.S. Open, and equal first with Bernard Zuckerman in the World Open chess tournament that year. He also played on the U.S. team in the 1978 Chess Olympiad.
Lein was New Jersey champion from 1992 through 1994.
In 2005 he was inducted into the World Chess Hall of Fame in Miami.
In his prime, Lein was capable of beating anyone in the world. Among his notable victims were two World Champions, Mikhail Tal and Vassily Smyslov. He also scored wins against such world class Grandmasters as David Bronstein, Lev Polugaevsky, Leonid Stein, and Mark Taimanov.
Ujtumen–Lein, Sochi 1965
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Nd4 4.Nxd4 exd4 5.0-0 c6 6.Bc4 Nf6 7.Re1 d6 8.c3 Ng4 9.h3 Ne5
Borislav Ivkov (born November 12, 1933 in Belgrade) is a Serbian chess Grandmaster. He was the first ever World Junior Champion in 1951. He won the Yugoslav Championship in 1958 (joint), 1963 (joint) and 1972. He was a World championship candidate in 1965, and played in four more Interzonal tournaments, in 1967, 1970, 1973, and 1979. Ivkov represented Yugoslavia 12 times in Olympiad competition, from 1956 to 1980, and six times in European Team Championships. Ivkov won nearly two dozen high-class events during his career; notable tournament triumphs include Mar del Plata 1955, Buenos Aires 1955, Beverwijk 1961, Zagreb 1965, Sarajevo 1967, Amsterdam 1974, and Moscow 1999. For more than 15 years from the mid-1950s, he was the second-ranking Yugoslav player, after Svetozar Gligorić. He remains an active tournament competitor at age 78, having played successfully in the 2007 Canadian Open in Ottawa. He is preparing his chess autobiography.
Ivkov earned his National Master title in 1949 at age 16, by placing shared 4th-7th in the Yugoslav Championship at Zagreb, with 11/19; the winner was Svetozar Gligorić. Ivkov earned his first international event opportunity at Bled 1950, sharing
Jørgen Bent Larsen (4 March 1935 – 9 September 2010) was a Danish chess Grandmaster and author. Larsen was known for his imaginative and unorthodox style of play and he was the first western player to pose a serious challenge to the Soviet Union's dominance of chess. He is considered to be the strongest chess player born in Denmark and the strongest from Scandinavia until the emergence of Magnus Carlsen.
Larsen was a six time Danish Champion and a candidate for the World Chess Championship on four occasions, reaching the semi final three times. He had multiple wins over all seven World Champions who held the title from 1948 to 1985: Mikhail Botvinnik, Vasily Smyslov, Mikhail Tal, Tigran Petrosian, Boris Spassky, Bobby Fischer, and Anatoly Karpov., but lifetime minus scores against them. On a percentage basis, his best score against a World Champion was with Max Euwe. Larsen and Euwe met over the board only once, at the Munich Olympiad in 1958; the game ended in a draw. From the early 1970s, he divided his year between Las Palmas and Buenos Aires, with his Argentinian-born wife. He suffered from diabetes and died in 2010 from a cerebral haemorrhage.
Larsen was born in Tilsted, near
Hikaru Nakamura (中村光, Nakamura Hikaru) (born December 9, 1987) is a Japanese-born American chess grandmaster. He is ranked fifth in the world by FIDE as of October 2012, and is the current United States Chess Champion.
Nakamura's first supertournament victory came at Wijk aan Zee 2011, finishing clear first ahead of the four top-rated players in the world in a performance described by former World Champion Garry Kasparov as better than any tournament result of Bobby Fischer's, and the best by an American in more than 100 years.
Nakamura is the top United States Chess Federation (USCF) rated player at 2876, as published on June 1, 2012. As of October 2012, he has reached a FIDE rating of 2786; 5th in the world and the highest of his career.
Nakamura was born in Hirakata, Osaka Prefecture, Japan, to a Japanese father and an American mother. When he was two years of age his family moved to the United States. He began playing chess prior to the age of five and was coached by his Sri Lankan stepfather, FIDE Master and chess author Sunil Weeramantry.
At age 10 years and 79 days, Nakamura achieved the title of chess master from the USCF, becoming the youngest American ever to earn the
Kateryna Oleksandrivna Lahno (Ukrainian: Катерина Олександрівна Лагно; born December 27, 1989) is a Ukrainian chess player. She earned the FIDE title of Woman Grandmaster (WGM) at the age of 12 years and 4 months, breaking Judit Polgár's record to become the youngest ever to earn this title. She is now a full Grandmaster (GM). Born in Lviv, Lahno grew up in the industrial and chess-friendly town Kramatorsk. As of 2005, she lives in Donetsk.
Lahno was the fifth seed for the 64-player knockout 2004 Women's World Chess Championship. At the age of 15 she won the 2005 European Individual Women's Championship, held in June in Chişinău, Moldova. Tied with Russian IM Nadezhda Kosintseva at the end of the 12th round with 9 points each, Lahno won both games of a two-game rapid-play tie-break playoff to win the championship. She won IV Women's 'North Urals Cup - 2006', attaining a full grandmaster norm in the process.
In May 2008, Lahno won the European Individual Women Chess Championships again in Plovdiv, by one-half point in the 11-round open tournament.
On February 25, 2009 she married Robert Fontaine, French chess grandmaster and TV reporter.
The same year, she became Russian Team
Kjetil Aleksander Lie (born November 18, 1980 in Porsgrunn) is a Norwegian chess player, and Norway's eighth International Grandmaster (GM). Lie is the current Norwegian chess champion, having won the 2009 title, and then defending it through play-offs in the 2010 championship. Representing the chess club in Porsgrunn, Lie is the first Norwegian GM not from the Oslo vicinity.
Lie started playing scholastic chess at the age of eight. In 1994 he won the Norwegian championship for the cadet age group (14 to 15 year olds). He won the Open Norwegian Championship in 2000, and finished first in the top age group in the Norwegian Youth Championships every year from 2000 to 2003.
In 2002, Lie was awarded the title of International Master. The required three Grandmaster norms came in the Norwegian team chess championship of 2003 to 2004, Politiken Cup in Copenhagen in 2004, and Smartfish Chess Masters in Drammen in December 2004 and January 2005. Even after these norms, Lie had still not achieved the required Elo rating of 2500 until he won the first two rounds in a local tournament in Porsgrunn at the end of February 2005. These wins gave Lie a rating of 2500.5, and it did not matter that
Raymond Dennis Keene OBE (born 29 January 1948) is an English chess Grandmaster, a FIDE International Arbiter, a chess organiser, and a journalist and author. He won the British Chess Championship in 1971, and was the first player from England to earn a Grandmaster norm, in 1974. In 1976 he became the second Englishman, following Tony Miles, to be awarded the Grandmaster title. He represented his country in eight Chess Olympiads.
Keene retired from competitive play in 1986 at the age of thirty eight, and is now better known as a chess organiser, columnist and author. He was involved in organising the 1986, 1993 and 2000 World Chess Championships; and the 1997, 1998 and 1999 Mind Sports Olympiads; all held in London. He has been chess correspondent of The Times since 1985, and is a prolific author, having written over 100 books on chess. He was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) for services to chess in 1985.
Keene is a controversial figure in the chess world, and has had disputes with figures such as Tony Miles, Viktor Korchnoi, John Donaldson and David Levy. His business dealings, and the quality of some of his chess books, have also been
Danny Gormally (born 4 May 1976), is a British chess Grandmaster. On the July 2011 FIDE rating list his Elo rating was 2519. His peak rating was 2573 on the January 2006 rating list. Nationally he is ranked 15th, and is the 14th strongest of England's 26 grandmasters. He was a member of the English team competing in the 37th Chess Olympiad and prematurely left the Olympiad after assaulting Armenian Grandmaster Levon Aronian over the Australian Woman International Master Arianne Caoili at one of the evening social events.
In 2006, he tied for 2nd-9th with Luke McShane, Stephen J. Gordon, Gawain Jones, Šarūnas Šulskis, Luís Galego, Klaus Bischoff and Karel van der Weide in the 2nd EU Individual Open Chess Championship in Liverpool.
He is a former member of Charlton Chess Club and currently plays for Wood Green.
In November 2006 Gormally was joint winner of the British Rapidplay Chess Championship.
Julian Michael Hodgson (born 25 July 1963) is a British International Grandmaster and former British Champion of chess.
Hodgson was born in St Asaph, Wales. He first came to the notice of the chess world for his phenomenal prowess as a junior; he was London under-18 champion at 12 years of age and won the British Boys under-21 title aged just 14.
International Master and Grandmaster titles followed in 1983 and 1988 respectively. Tournament successes, either shared or outright, included second place Lloyds Bank Open 1986: first place Benidorm 1986: first place Geneva Open 1988: second place Tel Aviv 1988: first place Kecskemét 1988 and first place Dos Hermanas 1989. At San Bernardino 1989, he finished first on tie-break, ahead of strong grandmasters Kiril Georgiev and Ivan Sokolov. A frequent visitor to Spain's Seville Open, he shared first place in 1986 and 1988. At the Philadelphia World Open of 1990, he was runner-up behind Igor Glek.
In domestic competition, Hodgson competed regularly at the British Chess Championship, bagging the Champion's title on four occasions (1991, 1992, 1999, and 2000). By 2000, he was so at home with the event that he even brought his own executive
Aleksander Wojtkiewicz (Latvian: Aleksandrs Voitkevičs) (January 15, 1963 – July 14, 2006) was a Polish International Grandmaster of chess. He was born in Latvia. In his early teens he was already a strong player; a student of ex-world champion Mikhail Tal whom he assisted in the 1979 Interzonal tournament in Riga. He won the Latvian Chess Championship in 1981. His promising chess career was interrupted when he refused to join the Soviet Army. For several years he went undercover and in 1986, was sentenced to two years in prison. After one year he received an amnesty after the meeting of Presidents Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev. Following his release he moved from Riga to Warsaw where he won two Polish Chess Championships. He played for Poland in the Chess Olympiads of 1990 and 1992.
He later resided in the United States, whereupon he became one of the most active players on the tournament circuit, constantly flying around the world. Several times he won the annual $10,000 first prize for Grand Prix chess tournaments in the United States.
Wojtkiewicz played in the FIDE World Chess Championship 2004. In his final months, he tied for first at the 2006 World Open in Philadelphia
Győző Victor Forintos (born 30 July 1935, Budapest) is a Hungarian chess master and by profession, an economist.
He first participated in the Hungarian Championship as early as 1954 and became the national champion in 1968/9.
In tournaments he was 1st at Reggio Emilia 1962/3, 2nd at Wijk aan Zee 1970 (after Andersson), 1st at Baja 1971, 3rd at Caorle 1972, 2nd at Vrnjačka Banja 1973, 2nd at Reykjavík 1974 (after Smyslov, but ahead of Bronstein), 2nd at Novi Sad 1974, 2nd= at Lone Pine 1976 (after Petrosian), 2nd at Sarajevo 1978, and 1st= at the Perpignan Open 1987.
He played for Hungary in six Chess Olympiads (1958, 1964, 1966, 1970, 1972, and 1974). In 1958, he took an individual gold medal for his impressive 80% score and has also won silver and bronze team medals.
As a writer on chess, he has produced two notable books on the opening in the English language, both co-authored by Ervin Haag: Petroff Defence, MacMillan Chess Library, 1992 and Easy Guide to the 5.Nge2 King's Indian, Everyman, 2000. The latter describes a fairly offbeat method of playing white against the King's Indian. Sometimes referred to as the 'Hungarian Attack', it is a system that Forintos has himself
Isaac Yefremovich Boleslavsky (Ukrainian: Ісаак Єфремович Болеславський, Исаак Ефремович Болеславский) (June 9, 1919 Zolotonosha, Ukraine – February 15, 1977 Minsk) was a Soviet–Jewish chess Grandmaster.
Boleslavsky taught himself chess at age nine. In 1933, Boleslavsky became schoolboy champion of Dnipropetrovsk. Three years later, he won third prize in the 1936 USSR All-Union Junior Championship, held in Leningrad.
In 1938, at nineteen, he won the Ukrainian Championship; the following year, he won the Ukraine SSR championship, qualified to play in the USSR Chess Championship at the age of 20, and gained his national chess master title. He earned a degree in philology at Sverdlovsk University.
In 1940, Boleslavsky played in the 12th USSR championship final in Moscow. He won eight of his last ten games and tied for fifth/sixth place. At the end of 1940 he won the Ukrainian Championship for the third consecutive year. In March 1941, he took part in the match-tournament for the title of Absolute Champion of the USSR, finishing fourth of six participants. On the eve of the match-tournament, he had to pass an examination at the University, and his preparation for the chess event proved
Ivan Sokolov (born 13 June 1968 to a Bulgarian father and Bosnian mother) is a chess grandmaster born in Jajce, SFR Yugoslavia, who currently resides in the Netherlands. Sokolov won the 1988 Yugoslav Championship.
Before earning the GM title, he became a FIDE Master in 1985 and an International Master in 1986. In 1987 and 1993 he won the Vidmar Memorial.
Sokolov's most famous win in chess was against Garry Kasparov in 1999 Wijk aan Zee where Sokolov outprepared Kasparov's legendary opening preparation.
Magesh Chandran Panchanathan (born August 10, 1983 in Madurai) is an Indian chess Grandmaster.
In 2003 he won Asian Junior Championship in Sri Lanka. In 2005 he tied for first with Kamil Mitoń in the 33rd World Open, played in Philadelphia over the Independence Day weekend. In the same year he came first in the UTD GM Invitational Tournament in Richardson, Texas. In 2008 tied for 3rd–6th with Nguyen Anh Dung, Sadikin Irwanto and Susanto Megaranto in the Kuala Lumpur Open. In 2009 he tied for 1st–4th with Alexander Areshchenko, Humpy Koneru and Evgenij Miroshnichenko in the Mumbai Mayor Cup and in 2010 tied for 3rd–6th with Vladimir Malaniuk, David Smerdon, Saptarshi Roy Chowdhury in the Doeberl Cup in Canberra. In 2011 he tied for 2nd–4th with Tigran L. Petrosian and Abhijeet Gupta in the 3rd Orissa International GM Open Chess Tournament and came third at Berkeley. In 2012 he won the Philadelphia Open outright with 7/9.
On the May 2010 FIDE list his Elo rating is 2549. His handle on the Internet Chess Club is "thamizhan".
He is currently a Graduate student at the University of Texas at Dallas.
Below is an excerpt from an article by Lubomir Kavalek in The Washington Post on July 11,
Ruslan Olegovich Ponomariov (Ukrainian: Русла́н Оле́гович Пономарьо́в, Ruslan Olehovych Ponomar'ov; Russian: Русла́н Оле́гович Пономарёв; born October 11, 1983) is a Ukrainian chess player and former FIDE World Champion.
Ponomariov was born in Horlivka in Ukraine. In 1994 he placed third in the World Under-12 Championship at the age of ten. In 1996 he won the European Under-18 Championship at the age of just twelve, and the following year won the World Under-18 Championship. In 1998, at the age of fourteen, he was awarded the Grandmaster title, making him the youngest ever player at that time to hold the title. In 1999, he was a member of the Ukrainian national youth team, which won the U-16 Chess Olympiad in Artek, Ukraine.
Among Ponomariov's notable later results are first at the Donetsk Zonal in 1998, 5/7 in the European Club Cup 2000 (including a victory over then-FIDE World Champion Alexander Khalifman), joint first with 7½/9 at Torshavn 2000, 8½/11 for Ukraine in the 2001 Chess Olympiad in Istanbul, winning gold medal on board 2, and first place with 7/10 in the 2001 Governor's Cup in Kramatorsk.
In 2002 he beat his fellow countryman Vassily Ivanchuk in the final of the FIDE
Timur Gareev (born March 3, 1988 of Tatar parents) is a chess Grandmaster from Uzbekistan. In 2004 he became the youngest-ever chess grandmaster from Asia at age 16. Timur was a part of the University of Texas at Brownsville's Chess Team from August 2005 to August 2006 where he helped the University obtain its first National Championship. In 2007 he tied for 1st–3rd with Vladimir Egin and Anton Filippov in the Uzbekistani Chess Championship. In 2011 he won the 20th Annual Chicago Open and the 11th Metropolitan Chess FIDE Invitational tournament.
Gareev studied Business & Accounting in the University of Texas at Brownsville, where he received his B.A. degree in 2011.
Yakov Borisovich Estrin (April 21, 1923 – February 2, 1987) was a Russian chess International Master, theoretician, and writer.
After a brief foray into "over-the-board" play, he turned to correspondence chess in the early 1960s with immediate success (joint first place in the U.S.S.R. Correspondence Championship in 1962.) He became an ICCGM (International Correspondence Chess Grandmaster) in 1966, and would go on to compete in the final of the World Correspondence Championship five times. He is best known for being the seventh International Correspondence Chess Federation world champion between 1972 and 1976.
For over-the-board play, he was awarded the International Master title in 1975.
Estrin wrote several chess books and was an authority on the Two Knights Defense. His game with Hans Berliner in which Berliner played the Two Knights Defense and defeated Estrin is one of the most famous and important games in correspondence chess.
Alexander Igorevich Grischuk (Russian: Алекса́ндр И́горевич Грищу́к) (born October 31, 1983) is a Russian chess grandmaster and Russian Champion in 2009. He has won two team gold medals and one individual bronze medal at Chess Olympiads.
In the FIDE World Chess Championship 2000, Grischuk he made it to the semifinals, losing to Alexei Shirov. In the FIDE World Chess Championship 2004 he made it to the quarter finals, where he lost 3–1 to eventual champion Rustam Kasimdzhanov.
Grischuk finished in the top 10 in the 2005 FIDE World Cup, which qualified him for the 2007 Candidates Tournament in May–June 2007. He won his matches against Vladimir Malakhov (+2 −0 =3) and Sergei Rublevsky (tied at +1 −1 =4, winning the rapid playoff +2 −0 =1), to advance to the eight-player FIDE World Chess Championship 2007 tournament. In that tournament he scored 5.5 out of 14, placing last in the eight-player field.
In 2009, Grischuk won the Russian Chess Championship. In the same year he became the champion of Linares 2009, winning on tie-break over Vassily Ivanchuk because he had more wins. In 2010, he finished second in Linares to Veselin Topalov.
Grischuk finished third in the FIDE Grand Prix
Alexander Alexandrovich Kotov (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Ко́тов; 12 August [O.S. 30 July] 1913 – 8 January 1981) was a Soviet chess grandmaster and author. He was a Soviet champion, a two-time world title Candidate, and a prolific chess author. Kotov served in high posts in the Soviet Chess Federation and most of his books were written during the period of Cold War between the US and the USSR. Therefore, his works tended to be rather critical of (and occasionally somewhat dismissive toward) American players. Russian players, on the other hand, were presented and described in a particularly favorable light.
Kotov's books also included frequent praise for the Soviet system in general. For example, the 1958 book The Soviet School of Chess (which he co-wrote with Mikhail Yudovich) stated that "The rise of the Soviet school to the summit of world chess is a logical result of socialist cultural development." At the time, statements such as this were sufficiently controversial that Western publishers felt compelled to include disclaimers in versions of his books that were translated for distribution to English-speaking countries. Dover Publications, Inc.'s 1961 paperback version of The
Bu Xiangzhi (Chinese: 卜祥志; pinyin: Bǔ Xiángzhì; born December 10, 1985 in Qingdao) is a Chinese chess grandmaster. In 1999, he became China's 10th Grandmaster at the age of 13 years, 10 months, 13 days, at the time the youngest in history. In April 2008, Bu and Ni Hua became the second and third Chinese players to pass the 2700 Elo rating line, after Wang Yue. Bu is ranked 39th globally and 3rd in China.
At age six, Bu was first introduced to chess by an elder cousin (his grandfather was a strong xiangqi player), and his interest grew with his compatriot Xie Jun's women's world championship victory in 1991. He began taking chess seriously at the age of nine years and received early training from then on. During this time, the Qingdao Daily newspaper founded a local chess club which many children in the city went to, including the Qingdao Daily's chief editor's son. His first chess book was a translation of the famous My 60 Memorable Games by Bobby Fischer, a player Bu admires. By 1993, he had already won the Qingdao Junior Chess Championship.
In 1997 this talent became the Children's Champion of the National S.T. Lee Cup. In 1998 at the age of 12, he captured the titles of National
Christopher Lutz (born February 24, 1971) is a German chess grandmaster and the German chess champion in 1995 and 2001. In 2000 he was a member of the German team that won a silver medal in the 34th Chess Olympiad in Istanbul.
As of early 2006, Lutz was working as a consultant for the Hydra chess project, which has developed possibly the strongest chess computer in the world. He concentrates on developing the opening book for Hydra, as well as creating test positions.
On the July 2009 FIDE rating list, Lutz is the number 14 player in Germany, with a rating of 2567.
Friðrik Ólafsson (born 26 January 1935) is an Icelandic chess Grandmaster and former president of FIDE.
Friðrik was born in Reykjavík, Iceland. A first-time winner of the Icelandic Championship in 1952 and of the Scandinavian Championship a year later, he rapidly became recognised as the strongest Icelandic player of his generation. Friðrik's first result of international note was his shared first with Viktor Korchnoi at Hastings 1955-56.
Friðrik's best result in World Chess Championship competition was in the 1958 Interzonal tournament at Portorož, where he finished equal 5th-6th, automatically earning the grandmaster title and qualifying for the 1959 Candidates Tournament (the last stage to determine the challenger to the World Chess Champion) in 1960. In the event, held at Bled, Zagreb and Belgrade, however, he finished seventh of eight with 10/28. He also played in the following Interzonal (Stockholm 1962) but failed to qualify for the Candidates.
Among his best tournament results were joint third in the first Piatigorsky Cup, Los Angeles 1963, with 7.5/14 and shared first with Ljubomir Ljubojević at Wijk aan Zee 1976, ahead of Mikhail Tal. In 1978, he succeeded Max Euwe as
Gedeon (Gideon) Barcza (August 21, 1911 in Kisújszállás – February 27, 1986 in Budapest) was a Hungarian chess master.
In 1940, Barcza took third place, behind Max Euwe and Milan Vidmar, at Maróczy Jubiläum in Budapest. In September 1942, he took sixth place at the first European Championship in Munich; the event was won by Alexander Alekhine. In 1948, he took second place in Karlovy Vary; the event was won by Jan Foltys. In 1948, he tied for second/third place in Venice; the event was won by Miguel Najdorf. In 1950, he tied for second/fourth place in Salzbrunn (Szczawno Zdrój); the event was won by Paul Keres. In 1952, he took fifteenth place in Saltsjöbaden (interzonal). In 1957, he won in San Benedetto del Tronto. In 1961, he took third place in Vienna. In 1962, he tied for third/sixth place in Moscow. In 1962, he tied for fourteenth/fifteenth place in Stockholm (interzonal).
Barcza won the Hungarian Chess Championship eight times (1942, 1943, 1947, 1950, 1951, 1955, 1957, and 1958) and played for Hungarian team in seven Chess Olympiads (1952, 1954, 1956,1958, 1960, 1962, and 1968). He was awarded the Grandmaster title in 1954.
Barcza is remembered for the opening 1.Nf3 d5 2.g3,
Gregory Kaidanov (Григорий Кайданов; born October 11, 1959) is a Grandmaster of chess.
As of April 2007, his Elo rating was 2587, making him the #9 player in the US and the 179th-highest rated player in the world. His peak rating was 2646 in 2002.
He was born in Berdychiv, Ukrainian SSR, USSR, but in 1960 first moved to Kaliningrad, Russian SFSR, USSR.
He learned to play when he was 6 years old from his father. At age 8, he started to attend a chess study group in 'Pioneer's House.'
As an adult, he moved to Lexington, Kentucky in 1991, with his two children and wife. He now coaches the chess team for Sayre School.
He won the 1992 World Open in Philadelphia, and the 1992 U.S. Open.
His first major tournament win came in Moscow 1987, where he defeated Indian star Vishwanathan Anand. He earned the IM title that same year, and was awarded the GM title just a year later in 1988.
He is the head coach of the www.uschessschool.com founded in 2006 by IM Greg Shahade.
He is one of the most active Grandmaster teachers in the United States. In 2009 he was awarded the title of FIDE Senior Trainer.
He is married to Valeria Kaidanov and together have three children: Anastasia (April 18, 1983),
Gyula Sax (Hungarian: Sax Gyula, born June 18, 1951) is a Hungarian chess player and International Arbiter (1995), born in Budapest.
He was awarded the IM title in 1972 and the GM title in 1974. He was the Hungarian Chess Champion in 1976 and 1977 (jointly). In 1971-72, he was the European Junior Champion, and he placed first at Rovinj-Zagreb 1975, Vinkovci 1976, Las Palmas 1978 and Amsterdam 1979. He won the 1978 Canadian Open Chess Championship. He participated in the Candidates Tournament after qualifying at the Subotica Interzonal in 1987, but was eliminated by Nigel Short (+0=3−2). His highest Elo rating was 2610.
Hristodoulos (Hristos) Banikas (born May 20, 1978) is a distinguished Greek chess player. He is a resident of Salonica.
Banikas won the 1990 Greek U-12 championship, the 1993 Greek U-16 championship, and the 1996 Greek U-20 championship. He won eight Greek Championships from 2000 through 2005 and from 2008 to 2009. Ranked number 196 in the world, his July 2009 FIDE Elo rating is 2598, the highest he has yet achieved. Banikas has received the Grandmaster title from FIDE. He is the reigning Greek champion, although he is only the fourth-highest rated Greek player.
In 2001 he lost a Man vs. Machine match against Deep Junior.
Banikas is well known for entering into tactical complications. With the black pieces he usually plays the Sicilian Defence against 1.e4. With the white pieces he prefers 1.d4, but occasionally plays 1. Nf3 or 1.c4.
Lev Borisovich Psakhis (Hebrew: לב בוריסוביץ' פסחיס; Russian: Лев Борисович Псахис; born November 29, 1958, in Krasnoyarsk, Russia) is a naturalised Israeli chess grandmaster, trainer and author. Born in Siberia, he is also a two-time former champion of the Soviet Union.
He gained the International Master and International Grandmaster titles in 1980 and 1982 respectively, either side of two momentous Soviet Championship victories in 1980 (Vilnius - shared with Alexander Beliavsky) and 1981 (Frunze - shared with Garry Kasparov, whom he defeated in round 2).
In international tournaments, he has had many fine results, including outright or shared first place at Naleczow 1980, Sarajevo 1981, Cienfuegos 1983, Troon 1984, Sverdlovsk 1984, Szirak 1986, Sarajevo 1986, Sevastopol 1986, Lugano Open 1988, Tel Aviv 1990 (and again in 1999), London MSO 1999 and Andorra 2002. There were creditable second place finishes at Tallinn 1983, Sochi 1985, Trnava 1988, Calcutta 1988, Erevan 1988 and Herzliya 1998.
In the World Championship cycle, he was a runner-up at the Erevan Zonal of 1982 and qualified for the Interzonal at Las Palmas later the same year. Posting only a modest score however, he
Loek van Wely (born 7 October 1972) is a chess Grandmaster from the Netherlands. He won the Dutch Chess Championship six times straight from 2000 through 2005. He was rated among the world's top ten in 2001. In 2002, in Maastricht, Netherlands, van Wely took on the computer program Rebel in a four-game match. The computer won two games and van Wely won two games. In 2005, he led the Dutch team to victory at the European Team Championships in Gothenburg.
Van Wely is a frequent participant in the elite Corus chess tournament. As of 2010, he has participated in the tournament 19 years consecutively.
In May 2010 he won the 14th Chicago Open. In 2011, came first at Berkeley.
On 9 July 2012 Van Wely was denied access to the United States, because he lacked a work visa.
Nona Gaprindashvili (Georgian: ნონა გაფრინდაშვილი; born 3 May 1941) is a Georgian chess player, the sixth women's world chess champion (1962–1978), and first female Grandmaster. Born in Zugdidi, Georgia (then part of the Soviet Union), she was the strongest female player of her generation.
In 1961, aged 20, Gaprindashvili won the fourth women's Candidates Tournament, setting up a title match against Russian world champion Elisabeth Bykova. She won the match easily, with a final score of 9-2 (+7−0=4), and went on to defend her title successfully four times: three times against Alla Kushnir (1965: 10–6; 1969: 12–7; 1972: 12–11) and once against fellow Georgian Nana Alexandria (1975: 9–4). She finally lost her crown in 1978 to another Georgian, 17-year-old Maia Chiburdanidze, by a score of 6½–8½ (+2−4=9).
Gaprindashvili played for Soviet Union in the Chess Olympiads of 1963, 1966, 1969, 1972, 1974, 1978, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1986, 1990, and for Georgia in 1992. She was one of the contributing players of the USSR team that dominated the women's Olympiads of the 1980s. She won as many as 25 medals, among which 11 team gold medals and 9 individual gold medals. At the olympiad of Dubai 1986
Peng Zhaoqin (Simplified: 彭肇勤; born May 8, 1968 in Guangzhou, Guangdong) is a female Chinese chess player, who has resided in the Netherlands since 1996. She has the FIDE title of International Grandmaster (full GM), which was awarded in October 2004, and has an Elo rating of 2455 (October 2008).
Peng Zhaoqin has won the Dutch Women's Championship an unprecedented thirteen times, landing her first title in 1997 and then winning twelve more in an uninterrupted sequence from 2000 to 2011. In the 2011 Dutch Women's Championship, Peng won nine games out of ten, placing a full three points ahead of her closest competitor. She is currently the Netherlands' female number one.
Predrag Nikolić (born 11 September 1960 in Bosanski Šamac, SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, SFR Yugoslavia) is a Bosnian chess grandmaster.
He first competed for the Yugoslav Championship in 1979, taking a share of second place. The following year and again in 1984, he went one step further and became the Yugoslav national champion. He was awarded the International Master and Grandmaster titles in 1980 and 1983 respectively. The GM title was earned from his 1982 performances at Sarajevo (third) and Sochi (second after Mikhail Tal).
He was a winner at Sarajevo in 1983, at Novi Sad in 1984 and at Reykjavík two years later. 1986 was also the year that he shared second place behind Nigel Short at Wijk aan Zee. He returned to winning ways at Sarajevo in 1987 and at the Zagreb Interzonal, narrowly failed to qualify for the Candidates Tournament (sharing fourth place behind Korchnoi, Ehlvest and Seirawan).
In 1989, he won at Wijk aan Zee (jointly with Anand, Ribli and Sax) and took first place at Portorož/Ljubljana (the Vidmar Memorial tournament). There followed the 1990 Interzonal in Manila, where once more he shared fourth place, but qualified this time for the 1991 Candidates tournament. In
Sergey Alexandrovich Karjakin (Ukrainian: Сергій Олександрович Карякін, Serhiy Oleksandrovych Karjakin; Russian: Серге́й Алекса́ндрович Каря́кин; born January 12, 1990 in Simferopol) is a Russian (formerly Ukrainian) chess grandmaster. He was a chess prodigy and holds the record for both the youngest International Master, eleven years and eleven months, and grandmaster in history, at the age of twelve years and seven months. In September 2011 he had an Elo rating of 2772, making him Russia's second best chess player, and the fifth in the world.
On July 25, 2009, Karjakin adopted Russian citizenship.
Karjakin learned to play chess when he was five years old and became an IM at age eleven and eleven months. In 2001, he won the World Chess U12 championship. He first attracted attention in January 2002, when he was the official second of fellow Ukrainian Ruslan Ponomariov during the final of the 2002 FIDE World championship, though Karjakin had only just turned twelve at the time. By scoring GM norms at the Aeroflot tournament in Moscow later that month, the Alushta tournament in May 2002 and the international tournament in Sudak in August 2002, he surpassed Bu Xiangzhi to become the
Vadim Zvjaginsev (Zviagintsev) (born August 18, 1976 in Moscow) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
He graduated from Moscow State University (Faculty of Economics) in 1996.
A mostly consistent performer with a growing reputation, Zvjaginsev is less conspicuous than some of his compatriots, not having yet managed to break into the elite tournament circuit. Nevertheless, he has thus far shown a great propensity for effective, attacking chess. In 1997, at the Groningen (FIDE) World Championship, he gave early notice of his chess talent by single-handedly knocking out most of the U.S. contingent. In consecutive rounds, he dispatched Benjamin, Kaidanov and Seirawan, before losing to fellow Russian GM Alexey Dreev in round 4.
In 2000, he was first at Essen (ahead of Dreev and Bischoff) and triumphed there again in 2002 (this time ahead of Leko). At the Mainz Chess Classic in 2003, he finished joint 2nd behind Aronian, repeating his placing the following year. At the Russian Championships of 2005, he took 3rd place at the Kazan qualifier and finished (joint) 4th at the Superfinal. In 2006, he had an impressive joint 2nd finish at the Poikovsky (Karpov) Tournament (behind a rejuvenated
Valery Salov (born May 26, 1964 in Wrocław, Poland) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
Salov was awarded the International Master title in 1984 and the Grandmaster title in 1986. He was the World under-17 Champion in 1980 and European Junior Champion in 1983–84. He shared the 1st place with Alexander Beliavsky in the 1987 USSR Championship but lost the play-off match (+0, =2, −2). At the 1988 USSR Championship he finished 3rd= with Artur Yusupov, behind Anatoly Karpov and Garry Kasparov.
He qualified twice for the Candidates Tournament for the World Chess Championship. In 1988, he reached the round of 16 but was defeated by Jan Timman in his first match (+0, =5, −1).
His best result was in the FIDE World Chess Championship 1996. He qualified for the Candidates and won his first two matches against Alexander Khalifman and Jan Timman, to reach the final 4. He then lost at the semi-final stage to Gata Kamsky.
He has not played any FIDE-rated tournaments since January 2000.
Vasyl Mykhaylovych Ivanchuk, also transliterated as Vasyliy or Vasyl (Ukrainian: Василь Михайлович Іванчук; Russian: Васи́лий Михайлович Иванчу́к) (born March 18, 1969 in Kopychyntsi, Ukrainian SSR), is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster.
Ivanchuk has been a leading player in the world since 1988, ranking as high as No. 2 on the official FIDE Elo rating list (July 1991, July 1992, October 2007) and No. 1 briefly on the unofficial live rating updates from September 10–12, 2008. Ivanchuk often has erratic results, dropping as low as 30th in July 2009 before returning to the top ten in the next list.
Ivanchuk was the 2007–2008 World Blitz Chess champion, and won the Amber blindfold and rapid chess championship in 1992 and 2010.
In 2011, by the decree of the President of Ukraine, Ivanchuk was awarded the Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise IV degree.
Ivanchuk was born in Kopychyntsi, Ukraine. He won the 1987 European Junior Chess Championship in Groningen and first achieved international notice by winning the 1988 New York Open with 7½/9, ahead of a field of Grandmasters. He tied for first place in the 1988 World Junior Chess Championship at Adelaide, but lost the title on tiebreak to Joël
Veselin Aleksandrov Topalov (pronounced [vɛsɛˈlin toˈpɑlof]; Bulgarian: Веселин Александров Топалов; born 15 March 1975) is a Bulgarian chess grandmaster.
Topalov became the FIDE World Chess Champion by winning the FIDE World Chess Championship 2005. He lost his title in the World Chess Championship 2006 match against Vladimir Kramnik. He won the 2005 Chess Oscar.
He has been ranked number one a total of 27 months in his career, fourth all-time since the inception of the FIDE ranking lists in 1971 behind only Garry Kasparov, Anatoly Karpov, and Bobby Fischer. He was ranked No. 1 in the world from April 2006 to January 2007, during which his Elo rating was 2813, which had been surpassed only by Garry Kasparov, and subsequently by Magnus Carlsen, Anand and Levon Aronian. He regained the world No. 1 ranking again in October 2008, and officially remained No. 1 until January 2010, when he fell to No. 2 behind Carlsen. He currently has the 12th highest rating in the world.
In the World Chess Championship 2010, he was the challenger facing world champion Viswanathan Anand, losing the match 6½–5½.
Topalov was born in Rousse, Bulgaria. His father taught him to play chess at the age of
Viswanathan Anand (IPA: [ʋiʃʋəˈn̪aːt̪ən ˈaːnən̪d̪]; born 11 December 1969) is an Indian chess Grandmaster and the current World Chess Champion. Anand has won the World Chess Championship five times (2000, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012), and has been the undisputed World Champion since 2007. Anand was the FIDE World Rapid Chess Champion in 2003, and is widely considered the strongest player in history in this form of the game. Anand has been described by many of his peers (e.g., Vladimir Kramnik) as probably one of the greatest talents in chess history. Lubomir Kavalek describes Anand as the most versatile world champion ever, since Anand is the only player to have won the world chess championships in many formats including Tournament, Match, Rapid, and Knockout chess.
Anand became India's first grandmaster in 1987. He was also the first recipient of the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award in 1991–92, India's highest sporting honour. In 2007, he was awarded India's second highest civilian award, the Padma Vibhushan, making him the first sportsperson to receive the award in Indian history. Anand has won the Chess Oscar 6 times (1997, 1998, 2003, 2004, 2007, 2008).
He held the FIDE World Chess
Vladimir Borisovich Tukmakov (born March 5, 1946 in Odessa) is a Jewish-Ukrainian chess grandmaster. He gained the Grandmaster title in 1972.
His career first blossomed when he helped and then led the USSR to consecutive wins of the World Student Team Championship from 1966 to 1972, bagging nine gold medals along the way.
In the 1970s and 1980s he progressed to the senior Soviet Russian team and was again on the multiple gold medal winning trail. In his only Olympiad appearance in 1984 he took team gold and in 1973, 1983 and 1989 he played in the European Team Chess Championship, where his collective haul was an amazing 5 (three team and two individual) gold medals.
In international tournaments, his best results include second place (after Fischer) at Buenos Aires 1970, 2nd (after Karpov) at Madrid 1973, 1st= (with Jansa and Ivkov) at Amsterdam 1974, 1st at Decin 1977, 1st= (with Sax) at Las Palmas 1978, 1st at Vilnius 1978 and 1st at Malta 1980. At Yerevan 1982, he was 2nd (after Yusupov), at Tilburg 1984, 2nd= (after Miles). He won the Reggio Emilia tournament 1987/88 and at Amsterdam (GM) 1990, shared first place with Judit Polgár. He won the Canadian Open Chess Championship in
Wang Yue (Chinese: 王玥; pinyin: Wáng Yuè, born March 31, 1987) is a Chinese chess Grandmaster. He is China's highest-ever rated player with a peak Elo rating of 2751. In 2004, he became China's 18th Grandmaster at the age of 17.
In October 2007, Wang became the first Chinese player and third Asian player to cross the 2700 Elo rating mark. In October 2008, he became the World No. 11, the highest ranking a Chinese player has ever achieved, surpassing the previous record of 17th by Ye Jiangchuan set in 2000. He has since surpassed this with a current world ranking of 9 in the January 2010 FIDE rankings, becoming the first Chinese world top-ten player.
Wang is currently ranked 4th in Asia and 2nd in China. In the FIDE Grand Prix, he was a last round victory over Teimour Radjabov away from joining Levon Aronian as an automatic qualifier for the Candidates Tournament of the World Chess Championship 2012 cycle; however, Radjabov secured a draw which allowed him to win the final qualifying position.
Wang Yue was to play on 1st Board at the World Team Chess Championship in January 2010, until China dropped out of the event at the last minute.
Wang Yue was born in Taiyuan, Shanxi Province,
Zhu Chen (simplified Chinese: 诸宸; traditional Chinese: 諸宸; pinyin: Zhū Chén; born March 16, 1976 in Wenzhou, Zhejiang) is a chess Grandmaster. In 2001, she became China's second women's world chess champion after Xie Jun, and China's 13th Grandmaster.
She today plays for Qatar.
In 1988 Zhu became the first Chinese player to win an international chess competition when she won the World Girls Under-12 Championship in Romania.
She won the World Junior Girls Chess Championship in 1994 and 1996.
At the age of 25 she defeated Alexandra Kosteniuk of Russia in a tournament for the 2001/2002 Women's World Chess Championship, by 5–3, becoming the eleventh champion.
Zhu gave up the chance to defend her world title in Georgia in May 2004 due to a jammed schedule and her pregnancy.
In June 2004, Zhu played two games against the chess computer "Star of Unisplendour", which was an advanced AMD 64 bit 3400+ CPU and 2 GB RAM combined with the chess engine Fritz 8. She lost both games.
Zhu is married to Qatari Grandmaster Mohamad Al-Modiahki, and now represents Qatar. She also studied for a master's degree at Tsinghua University.
1988.25th July-7th August,World Girls Under 12 Championship. 1st place