Vehicular body styles are the particular modifications that may be offered as a model range of a particular vehicle model (a car model may be available with multiple body styles such as a two-door hatchback, four-door sedan and station wagon).
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The Coupe Utility car body style has a passenger-car derived cabin of "coupe" style but with an integral cargo bed behind the cabin. An example of this is the 1957 Ford Ranchero. The vehicle that uses this style is significantly different than a pickup truck, which has a cargo area separate from the cab.
A Coupe Utility style has these features:
Holden coach works of Australia was the first to integrate a cargo area with the bodywork of a passenger vehicle. Starting in 1924 Holden produced these bodies for Chevrolet and Dodge cars (Holden later became a subsidiary of General Motors). These "roadster utilities" were essentially an extension of the open top roadster design, but with a 'well' type cargo area instead of the roadster turtledeck. These were known as roadster utilities. Barsby and other coach builders also built roadster utilities. Later, in 1934, as the result of a request from a Victorian farmer's wife, Ford Australia combined the cab of its newly released Ford Coupe body with the well-type load area of their roadster utility, producing the first 'Coupe Utilities'. Holden also claims to have built the first production-based Coupe Utility in 1934. Both types of
The Ford E-Series, formerly known as the Econoline or Club Wagon, is a line of full-size vans (both cargo and passenger) and truck chassis from the Ford Motor Company. The line was introduced in 1961 as a compact van and its descendants are still produced today. Although based on its own platform, since 1968, the E-Series has used many components from the F-Series line of pickup trucks. The Econoline is manufactured solely at Ford's Ohio Assembly plant in Avon Lake, Ohio—after the closure of the Lorain, Ohio plant in December 2005 and the consolidation of all production at Avon Lake. As of the 2012 model year, the E-Series and the Transit Connect compact MPV (which debuted for the 2010 model year) are the only vans in the Ford lineup in North America.
The Ford E-Series currently holds 79.6% of the full-size van market in the United States with 168,722 sales in the United States in 2007. Since 1980, it has been the best selling American full-sized van.
The E-series is a tow vehicle, due to the available GCWR (Gross Combined Weight Rating) of up to 20,000 lb (9076 kg), and its relatively low curb weight.
95 percent of van sales are to commercial or fleet-end users, about half are
Open-wheel car, formula car, or often single-seater car in British English, describes cars with the wheels outside the car's main body and, in most cases, one seat. Open-wheel cars contrast with street cars, sports cars, stock cars, and touring cars, which have their wheels below the body or fenders. Open-wheel cars are usually built specifically for racing, frequently with a higher degree of technological sophistication than in other forms of motor sport.
A typical open-wheeler has a minimal cockpit sufficient only to enclose the driver's body, with the head exposed to the air. In modern cars the engine is often located directly behind the driver, and drives the rear wheels. Depending on the rules of the class, many types of open-wheelers have wings at the front and rear of the vehicle, as well as a very low and virtually flat undertray that helps achieve additional aerodynamic downforce pushing the car onto the road.
Some major races, such as the Singapore Grand Prix, Monaco Grand Prix (sanctioned by Formula One) and the Long Beach Grand Prix (sanctioned by Indycar), are held on temporary street circuits. However, most open-wheel races are on dedicated road courses, such as
A grand tourer (Italian: gran turismo) (GT) is a high-performance luxury automobile designed for long-distance driving. The most common format is a two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement.
The term derives from the Italian phrase gran turismo, homage to the tradition of the grand tour, used to represent automobiles regarded as grand tourers, able to make long-distance, high-speed journeys in both comfort and style. The English translation is grand touring.
Grand tourers differ from standard two-seat sports cars in typically being engineered as larger and heavier, emphasizing comfort over straight-out performance or spartan accommodations. Historically, most GTs have been front-engined with rear-wheel drive, which creates more space for the cabin than mid-mounted engine layouts. Softer suspensions, greater storage, and more luxurious appointments add to their driving appeal. Some very high-performance grand tourers, such as Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano and Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren make various compromises in the opposite direction while rivalling sports cars in speed, acceleration, and cornering ability, earning them the special designation supercars.
A sports car (sportscar or sport car) is a small, usually two seat, two door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious but high maneuverability and minimum weight are requisite.
The sports car traces its roots to early 20th century touring cars. These raced in early rallys, such as the Herkomer Cup, Prinz Heinrich Fahrt, and Monte Carlo.
Though the term would not be coined until after World War One, the first sports cars are considered to be the 3 litre 1910 Vauxhall 20 hp (15 kW) and the 27/80PS Austro-Daimler designed by Ferdinand Porsche.
These would shortly be joined by the French DFP (which became sporters after tuning by H.M. and W. O. Bentley) and the Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost. In the U.S. (where the type was variously called roadster, speedster, runabout, or raceabout, there was Apperson, Kissel, Marion, Midland, National, Overland, Stoddard-Dayton, and Thomas among small models (which today would be called sports cars), while Chadwick, Mercer, Stutz, and Simplex were among large ones (which might today be called sports sedans or grand tourers).
In 1921, Ballot premiered its 2LS, with a remarkable 75 hp (56 kW)
A hardtop is a term for a rigid, rather than canvas, automobile roof. It has been used in several contexts: detachable hardtops, retractable hardtop roofs, and the so-called pillarless hardtop body style.
Among the modern body designs is the two- or four-door hardtop that typically "does not have a center pillar" and requires additional reinforcement compared to similar sedan styles for support in rollover situations.
Before the mid-1920s, 90% of automobiles had open tops, with rudimentary (if any) weather protection provided by a convertible-type canvas top and celluloid or isinglass side curtains. Some automobile bodies had roofs that could be removed during the summer and reattached during the winter, although it was a cumbersome and laborious job. By the time of World War I some automakers offered a lift-off roof, typically with a wood frame, canvas or leather covering, and glass windows. These removable roofs, sometimes called a California top, were the forerunners of the detachable hardtop, offering security and weather protection comparable to a fixed-roof model when installed.
Following the ascendancy of steel tops for closed bodies in the 1930s, detachable hardtops with
A Hatchback is a car body style incorporating a shared passenger and cargo volume, with rearmost accessibility via a rear third or fifth door, typically a top-hinged liftgate—and features such as fold-down rear seats to enable flexibility within the shared passenger/cargo volume. As a two-box design, the body style typically includes an A, B & C-pillar, and may include a D pillar. The American Heritage Dictionary defines a hatchback as "having a sloping back with a hinged rear door that opens upward."
Hatchbacks and liftbacks share commonalities and distinctions with station wagons. The body style appeared as early as the 1930s, but according the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the term itself dates to 1970. This automobile design has been marketed worldwide with wide range of cars from all sizes from superminis to small family cars to executive cars.
Hatchbacks may be described as three-door (two entry doors and the hatch) or five-door (four entry doors and the hatch) cars. A model range may include multiple configurations, as with the 2001–2007 Ford Focus which offered sedan (ZX4), wagon (ZXW), and three or five-door hatchback (ZX3 and ZX5) models. The models typically share a
A pickup truck or pick-up, often simply referred to as a pickup, is a light motor vehicle with an open-top, rear cargo area (bed).
In North America, the term pickup is used only for light trucks, while in other parts of the world it includes coupé utility vehicles, based on car chassis. Some countries have their own terms equivalent to pickup, such as ute – an abbreviation of utility vehicle – in Australia and New Zealand, or bakkie in South Africa.
Pickup trucks are rare in Europe, likely because vans are commonly used for similar roles.
Several North American vehicles, the Chevrolet El Camino, Ford Ranchero, Dodge Rampage, Honda Ridgeline and Subaru Baja have beds, but they are not usually referred to as pickups in North America, because their design and construction does not conform to normal expectations of "trucks". Although the El Camino and the Ranchero were built with body-on-frame architectures, they were based on existing station wagon platforms, while the Ridgeline uses a spot welded sheet steel monocoque (unibody) chassis in the same style as modern passenger cars. Trucks typically have either a tubular or channel rail chassis with a fully floating cab and separate
A liftback is a broad marketing term for a hatchback, which incorporates a shared passenger and cargo volume, with rearmost accessibility via a rear third or fifth door, typically a top-hinged liftgate — especially where the profile aspect of the rear cargo door is more horizontal than vertical, with a sharply raked or fastback profile.
In 1973, Toyota used the term for the Celica Liftback.
Minivan is a type of van designed for personal use. Minivans are typically either two-box or one box designs for maximum interior volume – and are taller than a sedan, hatchback, or a station wagon.
Worldwide, minivans are also marketed as multi-purpose vehicles (MPVs), multi-utility vehicles (MUVs), people-carriers or people-movers.
In Europe and India, "multi-purpose vehicle" (MPV) describes the general vehicle type without reference to its size. These are described with a word before the acronym: a "mini MPV" is derived from a supermini, a "compact MPV" is based on a small family car and a "large MPV" has about the same size as a large family car. In Asia, "multi-utility vehicle" (MUV) has more or less the same meaning as MPV. "People-carrier" and "people mover" describe both large MPVs and minibuses, but not smaller models.
Other terms are used in other English-speaking countries.
MPVs are usually between 1,600–1,800 millimetres (63–71 in) tall, which is around 200 mm (8 in) taller than a sedan, hatchback, or a station wagon. The engine is mounted very close to the front edge of the van, and its elements are grouped higher than in other vehicle types to minimize front overhang
Factory Reference code
0-60 automatic Transmission - 8.3 sec
0-60 manual Transmission - 7.6 sec
Horsepower- 215 hp (160 kW)
Torque - 185 lb·ft (251 N·m)
Top speed- 150 mph (240 km/h)
Fuel grade- Unleaded premium
Liter/type- 2.5/inline 6
Automatic Transmission - 3450 lb
Manual Transmission - 3428 lb
Fuel Capacity is 18.5 US gallons
The BMW 525i has a spacious interior, good handling and advanced safety systems. Even though its acceleration is respectable, it has less power than most of its competitors, and is a good choice for those who feel that speed is not the deciding buying factor in a luxury car.
It has a lot to do with the luxury than the speed, but once you turn the M Button on, you are on to the track.
Xenon Adaptive Headlights
When a driver is driving and makes a sudden turn or slightly curves the car on the road, the headlights will curve into the direction the car turned, this system offers outstanding nighttime vision. This system will be detected by sensors on the steering wheel angle. If the driver changes his angle turn to the left by turning the steering wheel, the lights will be adjusted with it.
Dynamic Stability Control
Combi aircraft in commercial aviation is an aircraft that can be used to carry either passengers, as an airliner, or cargo as a freighter, and may have a partition in the aircraft cabin to allow both uses at once. Combi aircraft typically feature an oversized cargo door, as well as tracks on the cabin floor to allow the seats to be added or removed quickly. Typically, configured for both passenger and cargo duty, the passenger compartment is pressurized to a higher pressure, to prevent fumes from cargo entering the passenger area.
As of 2009, many airlines have converted their combis into full passenger service or full freighter service for a better profit. Only a few major airlines, such as KLM and Air China, still operate the combis.
The Ford LTD Crown Victoria is a full-size rear-wheel drive sedan that was produced by the Ford Motor Company from 1983 to 1991. As part of a redesign for the 1992 model year, it was renamed the Ford Crown Victoria. While the Crown Victoria uses a completely different body and drivetrain, it shares the Ford Panther platform with its predecessor.
In 1980, the Crown Victoria name was revived by Ford for the upper-level trim package on the Ford LTD, replacing the LTD Landau. These cars had a targa-like chrome band across the roof, usually paired with a landau vinyl roof. While the chrome band was unique to the LTD Crown Victoria, the vinyl roof was a common option on its Lincoln-Mercury counterparts, the Mercury Grand Marquis and Lincoln Town Car.
In order to boost mid-size car sales, the LTD nameplate was moved to the mid-sized Ford Fox platform in 1983 to replace the Granada. The LTD Crown Victoria remained on the full-sized Ford Panther platform, becoming a standalone model line. For 1983, the full-size sedans and wagons received a minor facelift consisting of a new grille and taillight lenses; a more distinctive change was the return of the Ford "Blue Oval" badge to the grille
In fiction, a flying car is a car that can be flown in much the same way as a car may be driven. In some cases such flying cars can also be driven on roads.
Flying cars usually appear in science fiction, but some fantasy films, such as Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, employ the same motif. In most cases the exact mechanism for achieving flight is never revealed.
In addition, flying cars have become a running joke; the question "Where is my flying car?" is emblematic of the supposed failure of modern technology to match futuristic visions that were promoted in earlier decades.
In science fiction, the vision of a flying car is usually a practical aircraft that the average person can fly directly from any point to another (e.g., from home to work or to the supermarket) without the requirement for roads, runways or other specially-prepared operating areas. In such works they can often start and land automatically in a garage or on a parking lot. In addition, the science-fiction version of the flying car typically resembles a conventional car with no visible means of propulsion, unlike that of an aeroplane.
A flying car is subtly different from a hovercar, which flies at a constant altitude of
An ambulance is a vehicle for transportation of sick or injured people to, from or between places of treatment for an illness or injury, and in some instances will also provide out of hospital medical care to the patient. The word is often associated with road going emergency ambulances which form part of an emergency medical service, administering emergency care to those with acute medical problems.
The term ambulance does, however, extend to a wider range of vehicles other than those with flashing warning lights and sirens. The term also includes a large number of non-urgent ambulances which are for transport of patients without an urgent acute condition (see functional types, below) and a wide range of urgent and non-urgent vehicles including trucks, vans, bicycles, motorbikes, station wagons, buses, helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, boats, and even hospital ships (see vehicle types, also below).
The term ambulance comes from the Latin word ambulare, meaning to walk or move about which is a reference to early medical care where patients were moved by lifting or wheeling. The word originally meant a moving hospital, which follows an army in its movements. During the American
A truck (North American and Australian English) or lorry (British and Commonwealth English) is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration, with the smallest being mechanically similar to an automobile. Commercial trucks can be very large and powerful, and may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks and concrete mixers and suction excavators. Modern trucks are powered by either gasoline or diesel engines, with diesel dominant in commercial applications. In the European Union vehicles with a gross combination mass of less than 3,500 kilograms (7,716 lb) are known as light commercial vehicles and those over as large goods vehicles.
The word "truck" might have come from a back-formation of "truckle" with the meaning "small wheel", "pulley", from Middle English trokell, in turn from Latin trochlea. Another explanation is that it comes from Latin trochus with the meaning of "iron hoop". In turn, both go back to Greek trokhos (τροχός) meaning "wheel" from trekhein (τρέχειν, "to run"). The first known usage of "truck" was in 1611 when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships' cannon
The Saab 900 was a car produced by Saab Automobile from 1978 until 1998 in two generations. The first generation from 1978 to 1993 is known as the "classic"; the generation from 1994 to 1998 is known as the "new generation" (see below).
The "classic" Saab 900 was based on the Saab 99 chassis, though with a longer front end to meet U.S. frontal crash regulations. The 900 was produced in 2- and 4-door sedan, and 3- and 5-door hatchback configurations; in addition, from 1986, a cabriolet (convertible) model was produced. There were single- and twin-carburetor, fuel-injection, and turbocharged engines, including both Full-Pressure Turbo (FPT), and, in European models during the early 1990s, Low-Pressure Turbos (LPT).
The Saab 900 was a front-engined, front-wheel-drive compact car with a longitudinally mounted, 45-degree slanted, L 4-cylinder engine, double wishbone front suspension and beam-axle rear suspension. It was originally introduced in May 1978, for the 1979 model year.
Like its predecessor the 99, the 900 contained a number of unusual design features that distinguish it from most other cars. First, the engine was installed "backwards", with power delivered from the crank at
A campervan (or camper van), sometimes referred to simply as a camper, or a caravanette, is a self-propelled vehicle that provides both transport and sleeping accommodation. The term mainly describes vans that have been fitted out, often with a coachbuilt body for use as accommodation. In the United States the term "recreational vehicle" (RV) is more common for these vehicles, and in that country they tend to be larger than in Europe and the rest of the world.
The term motorhome is sometimes used interchangeably with campervan, but the former can also be a larger vehicle than a campervan and intended to be more comfortable, whilst the latter is more concerned with ease of movement and lower cost. For example, campervans generally lack built-in toilets and showers, or a divide between the living compartment and the cab.
Campervans may be equipped either with a "pop-up" roof which is raised during camping or a fixed roof, either shared with the commercial van that forms the basis of the vehicle (commonly a "high-top" model), or as part of a custom coachbuilt body.
Campervans usually have a small kitchen with a refrigerator (which is often powerable by a choice of gas, battery, or
A sport utility vehicle (SUV) is a vehicle similar to a station wagon or estate car, usually equipped with four-wheel drive for on- or off-road ability. Some SUVs include the towing capacity of a pickup truck with the passenger-carrying space of a minivan or large sedan.
Since SUVs are considered light trucks in North America, and often share the same platform with pick-up trucks, at one time, they were regulated less strictly than passenger cars under the two laws in the United States, the Energy Policy and Conservation Act for fuel economy, and the Clean Air Act for emissions. Starting in 2004, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began to hold sport utility vehicles to the same tailpipe emissions standards as cars.
The term is not used in all countries, and outside North America the terms "off-road vehicle", "four-wheel drive" or "four-by-four" (abbreviated to "4WD" or "4x4") or simply use of the brand name to describe the vehicle like "Jeep" or "Land Rover" are more common. Not all SUVs have four-wheel drive capabilities, and not all four-wheel-drive passenger vehicles are SUVs. Although some SUVs have off-road capabilities, they often play only a secondary
The Volkswagen Touareg [ˈtuːaʁɛɡ] is a mid-size crossover SUV produced by German automaker Volkswagen since 2002. The vehicle was named after the Tuareg people, a Berber-speaking group in North Africa.
The Touareg (internally designated Typ 7L) was a joint venture project developed by Volkswagen Group, Audi, and Porsche. The goal was to create an off-road vehicle that could handle like a sports car. The team, with over 300 people, was led by Klaus-Gerhard Wolpert, and based in Porsche main base Weissach im Tal, Germany. The result of the joint project is the Volkswagen Group PL71 platform, shared by the Touareg, Porsche Cayenne, and Audi Q7, although there are styling, equipment, and technical differences between those vehicles. The Touareg and Cayenne both seat five, while the Q7's stretched wheelbase accommodates a third row for seven passengers. The Volkswagen Touareg is built in Bratislava, Slovakia, in the same plant as the Porsche Cayenne and the Audi Q7.
Due to the demand, and the exchange rates of euros against the US dollar, as well as different pricing and environmental policies in the USA, the V6 and V8 engine variants make up most of Volkswagen's American Touareg
A cabriolet is a car body style usually applied to a vehicle with a folding convertible roof. When the roof is lowered the side windows, in particular those on the doors, can remain in place and be opened/lowered as normal. A car where the side windows are removed and stowed separately is not strictly a cabriolet.
Like most coachbuilding terms, the meaning has changed significantly over the years. Cabriolet has its roots in the horse-drawn carriage industry. When applied to a car, it originally meant a four door body with opening top, a division between driver and passenger compartment and open drive: no roof over the driver's compartment. By the 1920s the definition had changed and the existence of a division or open drive was no longer a requirement.
The meaning has further evolved over the years and today the term cabriolet is frequently used for any convertible version of four seat cars; it is rarely applied to two seat or sports cars. Except for Porsche convertible models which are all referred to as cabriolets. The term is now virtually synonymous with convertible.
In this variant the front portion of the folding top over the driver could be folded back separately making the
Targa top, targa for short, is a semi-convertible car body style with a removable roof section and a full width roll bar behind the seats. The term was first used on the 1966 Porsche 911 Targa, and it remains a registered trademark of Porsche AG.
The rear window is normally fixed, but on some targa models, it is removable or foldable, making it a convertible-type vehicle. Any piece of metal or trim which rises up from the side of a car and continues in an uninterrupted line over the roof and down the other side is sometimes called a targa band, targa bar or a wrapover band.
Targa tops are different from T-tops, which have a solid, non-removable bar running between the top of the windscreen and the rear roll-bar, and generally have two separate roof panels above the seats that fit between the window and central t-bar.
The word targa first came into use from the 1966 Porsche 911 Targa, though the first production car with this system as an option was actually released five years before: namely the 1961 Triumph TR4, where it was commonly called a surrey top. It was also used on the 1964 SAAB Catherina prototype.
The targa syle roof opening became popular in the 1960s and 1970s, when
The Honda Insight is a hybrid electric vehicle manufactured by Honda and the first production vehicle to feature Honda's Integrated Motor Assist system. The first-generation Insight was produced from 1999 to 2006 as a three-door hatchback.
Honda introduced the second-generation Insight to its home market of Japan in February 2009. The car went on sale in the United States on March 24, 2009. At $19,800 as a five-door hatchback it is the least expensive hybrid available in the US. In December 2010, Honda introduced a less expensive base model for the 2011 model year priced US$18,200. The Insight was launched April 2009 in the UK as the most affordable hybrid on the market with a starting price from £15,490, which was more than £2,000 lower than other hybrids, and became the best selling hybrid for the month.
Honda's Insight, billed as the cheapest gas-electric hybrid on the market, ranked as the top-selling vehicle in Japan for the month of April 2009, the first time a hybrid has clinched that spot. During its first twelve months after first available in the Japanese market, the second-generation Insight sold 143,015 units around the world.
Based on the Honda J-VX concept car
A roadster is an open (without a fixed roof or side weather protection) two-seat car with emphasis on sporty handling. While roadsters usually have soft-tops, retractable hard-tops are becoming more common.
In 1916, the Society of Automobile Engineers defined a roadster as: "an open car seating two or three. It may have additional seats on running boards or in rear deck." Additional seating in the rear deck was known as a rumble seat or a dickey seat. A roadster is still defined as an open car with two seats.
Roadster bodies were offered on automobiles of all sizes and classes, from mass market cars like the Ford Model T and the Austin 7 to extremely expensive cars like the Cadillac V-16, the Duesenberg Model J, and even the Bugatti Royale. They are popular with collectors, often valued over other open styles.
Traditionally, roadsters did not have windows; in some instances, they did not have doors. A few manufacturers and fabricators still offer roadsters that meet the strict description. These include Morgan, with the windowless Roadster, Caterham, with the doorless Seven, and Ariel, with the bodyless Atom. Despite these examples, the traditional roadster has been superseded by
The Ford Crown Victoria (or simply Crown Vic) is a rear-wheel drive full-size sedan that was marketed and manufactured by Ford Motor Company; it was produced from the 1992 to the 2012 model years over two generations. Discontinued in the 2012 model year, it had been in production since 1991 at Ford's St. Thomas Assembly plant in Talbotville, Ontario, Canada. Dropping its previous LTD prefix, Crown Victoria revived a nameplate used by Ford on a two-door version of the Fairlane sold in the North American market during the mid-1950s.
The Crown Victoria shared the Ford Panther platform and major powertrain and suspension components with the Lincoln Town Car and Mercury Grand Marquis. Along with its rebadged Mercury and Lincoln variants, the Crown Victoria was the final full-frame rear-wheel-drive passenger sedan produced in North America. The durability associated with its layout popularized the use of the Crown Victoria with taxicab and fleet owners going on to become one of the most commonly-used police patrol/pursuit vehicles in North America.
The first "Crown Victoria" appeared in 1955; it was a two-door six-seater coupe, part of the Ford Fairlane range. It differed from the
The B platform, or B-body, was General Motors' full-size rear-wheel drive automobile platform. It was closely related to the C-body and D-body and was used for convertibles, hardtops, coupés, sedans, and station wagons.
From at least 1936 through 1958, GM used at least four different designations for various bodyshells/platforms including the A-body for Chevrolet, most Pontiacs, and the Oldsmobile Series F and Series 60, the B-body for the Pontiac Streamliner Torpedo and Streamliner, the Oldsmobile Series L, Series 70 and Series 88, the Buick Special and Century, the LaSalle Series 50 and the Cadillac Series 60, Series 61 and Series 63, and the C-body for the Pontiac Series 24/29 Torpedo, Oldsmobile 90, the Buick Roadmaster, Super and 1958 Limited, the LaSalle Series 52, and all remaining Cadillacs except for the Series 90, Series 85 and the Series 75 which were built on the D-body, along with all remaining Buick Limiteds. For the 1959 model year, the previous A and B bodies were built on the new B-body that lasted until 1996. The A-body designation would be resurrected by GM in 1964 for a new series of intermediate-sized cars including the Chevrolet Chevelle, Pontiac Tempest,
A limousine (or limo) was originally an "enclosed automobile with open driver's seat," and was named from the French limousine (in the Occitan language) that was originally an adjective referring to a region in central France. The automobile meaning evolving from a type of cloak and hood that was worn by the inhabitants of the Limousin region that later resembled the covering of a carriage and much later used to describe an automobile body with a permanent top that extended over the open driver's compartment.
The term now refers to a luxury sedan or saloon car, especially one with a lengthened wheelbase or driven by a chauffeur. The chassis of a limousine may have been extended by the manufacturer or by an independent coachbuilder. These are called "stretch" limousines and are traditionally black or white. Limousines are usually liveried vehicles, driven by professional chauffeurs. As the most expensive form of automobile ground transportation, limousines are culturally associated with extreme wealth or power and are commonly cited as examples of conspicuous consumption. Among the less wealthy, limousines are often hired during special events (most commonly weddings, proms, and
A Tourer is an open car with four or five seats. Tourers may have two or four doors. Often, the belt line is lowered in the (front) doors to give the car a more sportive character. They are usually equipped with a folding roof and side curtains.
An all-weather tourer has wind-up side-windows and might also be described as a cabriolet, drophead, or convertible.
A crossover (or CUV: crossover utility vehicle) is a vehicle built on a car platform and combining, in highly variable degrees, features of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) and/or minivan with features from a passenger vehicle, especially those of a station wagon or hatchback.
Using the unibody construction typical of passenger vehicles, the crossover combines SUV design features such as tall interior packaging, high H-point seating, high ground-clearance or all-wheel-drive capability — with design features from an automobile such as a passenger vehicle's platform, independent rear suspension, car-like handling and fuel economy.
A crossover may borrow features from a station wagon or hatchback such as the two-box design of a shared passenger/cargo volume with rear access via a third or fifth door, a liftgate — and flexibility to allow configurations that favor either passenger or cargo volume, e.g., fold-down rear seats.
Crossovers are typically designed for only light off-road capability, if any at all.
The crossover term was used as a market segment description and one of the reasons Chrysler purchased American Motors Corporation (AMC) in 1987. The automaker acquired the famous Jeep
A light utility vehicle is a general term for small, jeep-like four-wheel drive trucks designed for military use. They are usually short and relatively light compared to other trucks and cars, are unarmored and have short body overhangs for all-terrain mobility and at least 4 passenger capacity.
Civilian adaptations of the Willys MB Jeep and Land Rover were the first sport utility vehicles, and some SUVs such as the Chevy Blazer have been used as military Light Utility Vehicles.
The importance of this class of military vehicle was summed up by General Eisenhower who said that the four most important US weapons in World War II were the C-47 Skytrain, the bazooka, the jeep, and the atom bomb, and similar vehicles are among the most common military vehicles in armies of most nations.
The Willys MB Jeep of World War II used by the U.S. Army is perhaps the most widely known vehicle of this class. Over 640,000 Jeeps were built for World War II, and they inspired many vehicles similar in layout, or function. The M38A1 Jeep was used in the Korean War. It was followed by the Vietnam-era M151 MUTT, which was designed by Ford. By the mid-1980s, this role would be taken over by the larger
A chassis cab or cab chassis is a body style, and type of vehicle construction, often found in medium duty truck commercial vehicles.
Instead of supplying the customer with a factory pre-assembled flatbed, cargo container, or other equipment - the customer is given the vehicle with just 'chassis' rails and a 'cab'. This allows the customer to assemble any desired aftermarket equipment; for instance, fire apparatus, an ambulance, or a recreational vehicle conversion package; which can be customised for the specific needs of the customer.
Aftermarket equippers, including coachbuilders, often make their own packages that can be ordered for the truck.
A sedan (American English, Canadian English, Australian English; /sɨˈdæn/) or saloon car (British English, Irish English, New Zealand English) is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with A, B & C-pillars and principal volumes articulated in separate compartments for engine, passenger and cargo. The passenger compartment features two rows of seats and adequate passenger space in the rear compartment for adult passengers. The cargo compartment is typically in the rear, with the exception of some rear-engined models, such as the Renault Dauphine, Tatra T613, Volkswagen Type 3 and Chevrolet Corvair. It is one of the most common car body styles.
Several versions of the body style exist, including four-door, two-door, nine-door, and fastback variants of both.
A sedan seats four or more people and has a fixed roof that is full-height up to the rear window. The roof structure will typically have a fixed B-pillar on sedan models. Most commonly it is a four-door; two-door models are rare, but they do occur (more so historically). In the U.S., the term sedan has been used to denote a car with fixed window frames, as opposed to the hardtop style without a "B" pillar and where the
A van is a kind of vehicle used for transporting goods or people.
In British English usage, it can be either specially designed or based on a saloon or sedan car, the latter type often including derivatives with open backs (such as pick-up trucks). There are vans in all shapes and sizes, ranging from the classic van version of the tiny Mini to much larger vehicles such as the Mercedes Sprinter, Ford E-Series, and Nissan commercial vehicles. Vans run up to about 4 tons and are classified as Light Duty Trucks (North America) or Light Commercial Vehicles (Europe). Similar larger vehicles are lorries (full sized trucks), and are not known as vans.
The word van is a shortened version of the word caravan, which originally meant a covered vehicle.
The word van has slightly different, but overlapping, meanings in different forms of English. While the word always applies to boxy cargo vans, the most major differences in usage are found between the different English-speaking countries.
British English speakers will generally refer to a passenger minivan as a people-carrier or MPV, or multi-purpose vehicle, and a larger passenger van as a minibus. Ford makes a distinct line of vans with short
A convertible is a type of automobile of various automobile body styles that can convert from open-air mode to a provisional enclosed (roofed) mode.
Roof designs have varied widely and have evolved from the earliest models, where roofs were demountable and/or detachable. Contemporary roofs are often hinged to fold away, either into a recess behind the rear seats or into the boot or trunk of the vehicle. The roof may operate either manually or automatically via hydraulic or electrical actuators, and the roof itself may be constructed of soft or rigid material. Soft-tops are made of vinyl, canvas or other textile material, while hard-tops are made of steel, aluminum, plastic or other rigid materials.
Convertibles may also be called (drop top), (rag top,) (Roadster) (automobile),(roadster, (cabriolet) or (cabrio). Hard-top convertibles may be called coupé cabriolet, coupé convertible, retractable hardtop or, when equipped with two-seats, coupé roadster/roadster coupé.
Roof designs vary widely, but a few characteristics are common to all convertibles. Roofs are affixed to the body of the vehicle and are usually not detachable. Instead the roof is hinged and folds away, either into a
A luxury SUV is a North American term for sport utility vehicle which have features that resemble other luxury vehicle. They are relatively expensive and have a higher emphasis and premium on comfort, quality, style and engineering, than their mainstream counterparts.
Even though luxury SUVs do not necessarily feature more comfort or a higher quality than sedans, they tend to be more expensive than luxury sedans. The top-of-the-line SUVs of American and Japan luxury car makers out price their flagship sedans. The flagship SUV Cadillac Escalade, for example, has a base MSRP of approximately $57,280, versus $41,991 for the flagship DTS. This scenario, however, does not hold true for Europe automakers, where the flagship sedans are still priced above the top-of-the-line SUV.
Luxury SUV can be classified into similar segment as luxury cars.
Many other domestic SUVs can be classified as luxury SUVs when equipped, such as the GMC Yukon Denali, Ford Expedition Limited, Chevrolet Tahoe, Chevrolet Suburban and many others.
A station wagon (also known as an estate or estate car) is an automobile with a body style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door (the liftgate or tailgate), instead of a trunk lid. The body style transforms a standard three-box design into a two-box design—to include an A, B, and C-pillar, as well as a D-pillar. Station wagons can flexibly reconfigure their interior volume via fold-down rear seats to prioritize either passenger or cargo volume.
The American Heritage Dictionary defines a station wagon as "an automobile with one or more rows of folding or removable seats behind the driver and no luggage compartment but an area behind the seats into which suitcases, parcels, etc., can be loaded through a tailgate."
When a model range includes multiple body styles, such as sedan, hatchback and station wagon, the models typically share their platform, drivetrain and bodywork forward of the A-pillar. In 1969, Popular Mechanics said, "Station wagon-style ... follows that of the production sedan of which it is the counterpart. Most are on the same wheelbase, offer the same
The Aptera was designed from the ground up as an electric vehicle, and later as an extended range electric vehicle. After building the proof-of-concept Mk-0, we hired the automotive design firm, 'eleven', to help us further develop the concept vehicle. The 'eleven' team, led by Jason Hill and Nathan Armstrong, made great strides in the development of the Aptera's body styling, interior design, and structural engineering. Meanwhile, we refined the Aptera's shape to maximize efficiency using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), developed and built advanced suspension and drivetrain components, and integrated a strong yet lightweight composite shell. Our entire process has been developed in-house exclusively by Aptera for the Aptera Typ-1. Our structural elements have undergone countless revisions of FEA (Finite Element Analysis) to be lightweight, robust, and manufacturable.December 29, 2008 The already unmistakable Aptera 2e three-wheeler is continuing to evolve as it approaches its promised 2009 release with the latest development being the introduction of front-wheel drive to replace the original belt-driven rear wheel set-up. Front-wheel drive will now be used in all production vehicles with the company citing improved traction, stability and greater efficiency at high-speed as the key reasons for making the switch. The change to front-wheel drive will also give the Aptera-2e (which was previously known as the Typ-1 before a branding change back in November) increased durability, better noise insulation and more room for cargo over the previous configuration 1. Better weight distribution, which, in turn, maximizes stability 2. Improved traction during acceleration and in inclement weather wet conditions 3. More efficiency at higher speeds 4. Increased durability during the life of the vehicle 5. Improved noise insulation 6. Increased rear cargo space (without sacrificing front legroom)
Aptera 2e Specifications:
Dimensions: 53" high x 91.0" wide x 173" long 111" wheelbase 80.5" front track.
Other specs: 0.15 Coefficient of drag 5" ground clearance 1500 lbs curb wt.
Electric motor torque: 60FtLb torque 110v 15A charge time: 8 hrs. Battery output: 10-13 KWh battery pack. Battery voltage: 336V DC Nominal Tractoon Voltage Transmission: Gear box 10:1 ratio Battery Type: Lithium Ion PhosphateChassis: Front Suspension: Independent unequal length A-arm Rear Suspension: Swing Arm Steering: Manual Steering, tilt steering column Brakes: Manual Brakes, dual circuit brake hydraulics, mechanical brake proportioning, 3-wheel disc Wheels: 14-inch High Strength Stamped Steel wheels Size: P165/65R14
Push Button Start: S Electronic shift PRNDL (shift controller): S AM/FM/MP3/WMA with 5 speakers and MP3/Smart Phone Connectivity: S DVD Navigation System: O Power up/down windows with Driver side one-touch and anti-pinch: S Power automatic door locks with anti-lockout feature: S Center console armrest with two cup holders: S Overhead mounted LED Dome Lights: S Recycled Fabric-trimmed seats and door panels: S Leatherette (recycled materials) trimmed steering wheel: S Defroster-linked CFC-free automatic climate control with electric inverter compressor air conditioning: S One 12V auxilliary power outlets and One 12V USB Outlet: S Retractable passenger-assist grips at all doors: S
Exterior: Dual color-keyed power outside mirros: S Aerodynamic multi-reflector halogen headlamps: S Washer-linked variable intermittent windshield wipers: S Rear window defogger with timer: S Rear Electronic rear hatch locking system (sic): S Solar Energy-Reflecting glass: S Smart Key System (Proximity locking/starting) Maintenance key & cylinder to prevent accidental lock out: S
Safety: Remote keyless entry system with 2-stage unlocking, panic function and remote illuminated entry: S Backup camera: O Driver and front passenger Airbag System: S Front and rear crumple zones and side-impact door beams: S Engine immobilizer: S Center high-mount stop lamp: S Emergency Tire inflation system: S 3-point front outboard seatbelts with adjustable shoulder anchors and driver-side Emergency Locking Retractor (ELR), front passenger Automatic/Emergency Locking Retractor (ALR/ELR): S Driver and front passenger seatbelt with seat belt starter interlock: S Direct Tire Pressure Monitor System (TPMS): S Anti-theft system: O
A brougham (pronounced "broom" or "brohm") was a light, four-wheeled horse-drawn carriage built in the 19th century. It was either invented for Scottish jurist Lord Brougham or simply made fashionable by his example. It had an enclosed body with two doors, like the rear section of a coach; it sat two, sometimes with an extra pair of fold-away seats in the front corners, and with a box seat in front for the driver and a footman or passenger. Unlike a coach, the carriage had a glazed front window, so that the occupants could see forward. The forewheels were capable of turning sharply. A variant, called a brougham-landaulet, had a top collapsible from the rear doors backward.
In 19th-century London, broughams previously owned and used as private carriages were commonly sold off for use as hackney carriages, often displaying painted-over traces of the previous owner's coat of arms on the carriage doors.
The special characteristics of the brougham bear a distinct similarity to the London Public Carriage Office's "Conditions of Fitness" for a vehicle intending to be licenced as a taxi cab.
Pronunciation of this word is correct as two syllables, \ˈbrü:(-ə)m, ˈbrō:(-ə)m\, but can be
A coupé or coupe (from the French verb couper, to cut) is a closed car body style (permanently attached fixed roof), the precise definition of which varies from manufacturer to manufacturer, and over time. Classic coupés are hardtopped sports cars or sporty variants of sedan (saloon) body styles, with doors commonly reduced from four to two, and a close-coupled interior (i.e. the rear seat placed further forward than in a standard sedan) offering either two seats or 2+2 seating (space for two passengers in the front and two occasional passengers or children in the rear). A coupé could be a classic two door sports coupé or four-door coupé. This definition was accepted by German manufacturers and the German press after Daimler introduced the 2005 Mercedes-Benz CLS 4 door coupé (an earlier example was the Rover P5 Coupé which was based on the standard P5 3 litre, but with the roof line lowered, narrower window frames, and more raked front and rear windscreens). In their opinion, the four-door coupé should still be classified under the coupé body style and not that of a sedan. Accordingly, vehicles that fit the previous definition of a coupé are often termed as classic coupés. However,
A landaulet or landaulette is a car body style similar to a limousine, but with the passenger section covered by a convertible top. It was based on a carriage of similar style that was a cut-down (coupé) version of a landau. Landaulets are usually used by public figures in formal processions.
A Landaulet carriage is a cut-down (coupé) version of a landau carriage The landaulet retained the rear half of the landau's two-part folding top. Like many other coachbuilding styles, the term landaulet was transferred from horse-drawn carriages to motor carriages.
In 1916, the Society of Automobile Engineers defined a landaulet as: "a closed car with folding top, seats for three or more inside, and driver's seat outside." The term has also been defined as "an automobile having a convertible top for the back seat, with the front seat either roofed or open", and "an enclosed sedan or coupé with a folding top at the extreme rear quarter, over the rear seat."
A landaulet is a chauffeured vehicle. Since the Second World War, conventional use has been largely restricted to formal processions by dignitaries when the dignitary's security can be assured. Pope John XXIII, Pope Paul VI, and Pope