A board member title is a title held by a member of a board of directors of a company or organization. This type is being deprecated, and will eventually be deleted one the instances have been analysed and migrated. (See the refactoring plan.)
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In professional wrestling, a manager is a secondary character paired with a wrestler (or wrestlers) for a variety of reasons. The manager is often either a non-wrestler, an occasional wrestler, an older wrestler who has retired or is nearing retirement or, in some cases, a new wrestler who is breaking into the business (or a specific company) and needs the experience in front of the crowds. The wrestler that a manager manages is called his or her charge. A wrestler's manager has nothing to do with their real-world agent.
A manager is somewhat like a storyline agent for an actor or an athlete; he helps his client to book matches and appearances, and otherwise works to further and guide their career. Within the context of storylines it is the manager who positions their charge for title opportunities, decides whom to trust as an ally, and generally acts as a mouthpiece on their wrestlers' behalf. Outside of storylines, a manager's job is to help the wrestler they're paired with get over. For this reason, managers are usually paired with wrestlers who the writers feel have great potential, but need a little help to the top. For example, if a wrestler can perform well in the ring, but
Fidelity Ventures is the venture capital arm of Fidelity Investments. Based in Boston, Massachusetts and London, Fidelity Ventures invests in emerging technology companies in North America and Europe. Their focus is on the go-to-market stage, where companies have products and early customer traction. Fidelity Ventures manages $1.5B in assets.
The former U.S. team of Fidelity Ventures has established Volition Capital in Boston, MA. The Fidelity Ventures operation based in London is now called Fidelity Growth Partners Europe.
The managing partner of Fidelity Ventures is Rob Ketterson.
The President of the Trades Union Congress is a prominent but largely honorary position in British trade unionism.
The President is elected at the annual conference of the Trades Union Congress (TUC). They officially fill the office for the remainder of the year and then preside over the following year's conference.
A treasurer is the person responsible for running the treasury of an organization. The adjective for a treasurer is normally "tresorial". The adjective "treasurial" normally means pertaining to a treasury, rather than the treasurer.
The Treasury of a country is the department responsible for the country's economy, finance and revenue. The Treasurer is generally the head of the Treasury, although, in some countries (such as the U.K. or the U.S.) the treasurer reports to a Secretary of the Treasury, or Chancellor of the Exchequer. In Australia, the Treasurer is a senior Minister and usually the second most important member of the Government after the Prime Minister. From 1867 to 1993, the Ministry of Finance (Ontario) was called the Treasurer of Ontario.
Originally the word referred to the person in charge of the treasure of a noble; however, it has now moved into wider use. In the UK during the 17th Century, a position of Lord High Treasurer was used on several occasions as the third great officer of the Crown. Now the title First Lord of the Treasury is the official title of the British Prime Minister.
In corporations, the Treasurer is the head of the corporate treasury department.
Executive director is a term sometimes applied to the chief executive officer (CEO) or managing director of an organization, company, or corporation. It is widely used in North American non-profit organizations, though in recent decades many U.S. nonprofits have adopted the title "President/CEO".
Confusion can arise because the words "executive" and "director" occur both in this title and in those of various members of some organizations' Board of directors. The precise meanings of these terms are discussed in the "Directors" section of the article on Board of directors.
The role of the Executive Director is to design, develop and implement strategic plans for their organization in a cost-effective and time-efficient manner. The Executive Director is also responsible for the day-to-day operation of the organization, including managing committees and staff and developing business plans in collaboration with the board for the future of the organization. In essence, the board grants the executive director the authority to run the organization. The Executive Director is accountable to the Chairman of the Board and reports to the board on a regular basis - quarterly, semiannually, or
In some countries, a Senior Advisor is an appointed position by the Head of State to advise on the highest levels of national and government policy. Sometimes a junior position to this is called a National Policy Advisor. In some instances, these advisors form a Council of State or a State Council.
Senior Advisor also is a title for senior civil servants in several countries, and is also used in organisations.
The President of the Republic of China can appoint Senior Advisors to the Office of the President of the Republic of China (中華民國總統府資政) and National Policy Advisors to the Office of the President of the Republic of China (中華民國總統府國策顧問), but they do not form a council.
Senior Advisor is a title used within the Executive Branch of the United States Government for various positions.
In the Executive Office of the President of the United States, the title has been used in two different capacities:
Numerous examples of the position also exist throughout the Executive Departments and in the branch's independent agencies. For example, the FDA includes a position called the Senior Advisor for Science. The Department of the Interior includes, for example, a Senior Advisor for Alaskan
The terms, chairperson is a typical example of a non-sexist neologism that was invented to replace the conventional chairman, used to describe the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. Chair and chairwoman (depending on gender) may also be used in similar context.
While chairperson dates from the 1970, the use of chair (according to the Oxford English Dictionary) to refer to being in charge of a meeting, as in "to chair a meeting", dates from as early as 1658.
A chief technology officer (or chief technical officer; CTO) is an executive-level position in a company or other entity whose occupant is focused on scientific and technological issues within an organization. The role became prominent with the ascent of the information technology (IT) industry, but has since become prevalent in technology-based industries of all types (e.g. biotechnology, energy, etc.). As a corporate officer position, the CTO typically reports directly to the chief executive officer (CEO) and is primarily concerned with long-term and "big picture" issues (while still having deep technical knowledge of the relevant field). Depending on company structure and hierarchy, there may also be positions such as director of R&D and vice president of engineering whom the CTO interacts with or oversees. The CTO also needs a working familiarity with regulatory (e.g. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, Consumer Product Safety Commission, as applicable) and intellectual property (IP) issues (e.g. patents, trade secrets, license contracts), and an ability to interface with legal counsel to incorporate those considerations into strategic planning
A chief marketing officer (CMO) is a corporate executive responsible for marketing activities in an organization. Most often the position reports to the chief executive officer.
With primary or shared responsibility for areas such as sales management, product development, distribution channel management, marketing communications (including advertising and promotions), pricing, market research, and customer service, CMOs are faced with a diverse range of specialized disciplines in which they are required to be knowledgeable. This challenge is compounded by the fact that the day-to-day activities of these functions, which range from the highly analytical (e.g. – pricing and market research) to highly creative (advertising and promotions), are carried out by subordinates possessing learning and cognitive styles to which the CMO must adapt his or her own leadership style.
Beyond the challenges of leading their own subordinates, the CMO is invariably reliant upon resources beyond their direct control. That is to say, the priorities and/or resources of functional areas not reporting to marketing such as production, information technology, corporate communications and public affairs,
Grand Master is the typical title of the supreme head of various orders of knighthood, including various military orders, religious orders and civil orders such as the Ancient Order of Hibernians and the Orange Order. The title of Grand Master is used by the heads of Grand Lodges of Freemasons since 1717.
In military orders such as the Knights Templar or the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, the Grand Master was the formal and executive head of a military and feudal pyramid, which can be considered a 'state within the state', especially in the 'crusader' context lato sensu (notably Middle Eastern crusades aimed at Jerusalem, Iberian reconquista, pagan territories east of Germany). If an order is granted statehood (and thus widely considered sovereign), the Grand Master is also its Head of State (if within the Holy Roman Empire, a Reichsfürst) and Head of Government, and thus a true territorial Prince of the church, as was the case with the Teutonic Knights and the Maltese Knights Hospitaller.
In some orders, the head may be styled "Sovereign". In this case a Grand Master may come after the Sovereign.
As most present-day orders are essentially an honorary distinction, as some orders
An Executive Committee was the title of a three-person committee which served as the executive Branch of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the disputed Oregon Country. This arrangement was announced on July 5, 1843, after three months of study by the Provisional Legislature at Champoeg. Two different Executive Committees served until the system was abandoned in 1845 in favor of an elected single chief executive.
The Executive Committee was empowered to grant reprieves and pardons, recommend legislation, and call out the militia.
The Forum of Young Global Leaders is a philanthropic organization founded by Klaus Schwab in 2004 to encourage young leaders from all walks of life to commit to spending five years working to "dramatically impact the global future". Around 220 "YGLs" are selected each year for 5-year positions on this Forum: see the List of Young Global Leaders for details.
The Forum of Young Global Leaders is an independent, Geneva, Switzerland-based foundation whose mission is to build a unique, multi-stakeholder community of the world￢ﾀﾙs most extraordinary leaders under theage of 40 and give them a platform to collaborate and shape best practices for the future of the world. Eachyear we identify and mobilize a new group of 200 exceptional men and women in business, politics,academia, and the activist sectors from every region in the world as Young Global Leaders. Together, theyform a powerful international force for the global good.
The Forum has at least one major annual meeting. The first annual meeting will be held from June 24 to June 28, 2005, in Zermatt, Switzerland.
In the first year of its existence, 237 members were selected to take part in the Forum.
The initial focus of its
The chairman, also commonly chair, is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board committee, or deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is typically elected or appointed by the members of the group. The chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. When the group is not in session, the officer's duties often include acting as its head, its representative to the outside world and its spokesperson.
Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairperson, chairwoman, presiding officer, president, moderator and convenor. The chairman of a parliamentary chamber is often called the speaker.
The term chair is often used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist. Although many experts maintain that use of the term chairman in not sexist because it is meant to encompass both genders, feminists argue otherwise, saying that using an andro-centric generic to stand in for all humans is asymmetrical and therefore biased, because men are allowed to represent all people while women are not. Feminists also say that psycholingual studies find that when
A commercial director is a someone who specializes in creating visual advertising. These are called commercials and are then used as promotional tools for a client's product(s).
A commercial director is a corporate title referring to an executive responsible for various marketing activities in an organization. Most often the position reports to the chief executive officer.
World renowned commercial directors include: Jonathan Glazer (UK), Spike Jonze (US), Dougal Wilson (UK), Tony Kaye (US) and Peter Truckel (UK).
A ship's purser (also purser or pusser) is the person on a ship responsible for the handling of money on board. On modern merchant ships, the purser is the officer responsible for all administration and supply; frequently the cooks and stewards answer to him/her as well.
The purser joined the warrant officer ranks of the Royal Navy in the early fourteenth century and existed as a Naval rank until 1852. The development of the warrant officer system began in 1040 when five English ports began furnishing warships to King Edward the Confessor in exchange for certain privileges, they also furnished crews whose officers were the Master, Boatswain, Carpenter and Cook. Later these officers were "warranted" by the British Admiralty. Pursers received no pay but were entitled to profits made through their business activities. In the 18th century a purser would buy his warrant for £65 and was required to post sureties totalling £2,100 with the Admiralty. They maintained and sailed the ships and were the standing officers of the navy, staying with the ships in port between voyages as caretakers supervising repairs and refitting.
In charge of supplies such as food and drink, clothing, bedding,
A project manager is a professional in the field of project management. Project managers can have the responsibility of the planning, execution and closing of any project, typically relating to construction industry, architecture, Aerospace and Defence, computer networking, telecommunications or software development.
Many other fields in the production, design and service industries also have project managers.
A project manager is the person responsible for accomplishing the stated project objectives. Key project management responsibilities include creating clear and attainable project objectives, building the project requirements, and managing the constraints of the project management triangle, which are cost, time, scope, and quality.
A project manager is often a client representative and has to determine and implement the exact needs of the client, based on knowledge of the firm they are representing. The ability to adapt to the various internal procedures of the contracting party, and to form close links with the nominated representatives, is essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality and above all, client satisfaction, can be realized.
The term and title
Trustee (or the holding of a Trusteeship) is a legal term which, in its broadest sense, can refer to any person who holds property, authority, or a position of trust or responsibility for the benefit of another. Although the strictest sense of the term is the holder of property on behalf of a beneficiary, the more expansive sense encompasses persons who serve, for example, on the Board of Trustees for an institution that operates for the benefit of the general public. A trust can be set up either to benefit particular persons, or for any charitable purposes (but not generally for non-charitable purposes): typical examples are a will trust for the testator's children and family, a pension trust (to confer benefits on employees and their families), and a charitable trust. In all cases, the trustee may be a person or company, whether or not they are a prospective beneficiary.
Trustees have certain duties (some of which are fiduciary). These include the duty to:
The terms of instrument that creates the trust may narrow or expand these duties—but in most instances they cannot be eliminated completely. Corporate trustees, typically trust departments at large banks, often have very narrow
The Young Leaders' Programme is run alongside the main Explorer Scout Programme of The Scout Association in the United Kingdom. It is a formalisation of what was happening in many Groups and Districts across the country where older Scouts were returning to help the younger sections. Since its launch in 2001 it has been seen as the unexpected success of Explorer Scouting.
Young Leaders support the younger sections of Beaver Scouts, Cub Scouts and Scouts, although they are not a replacement for adult leaders. They are given appropriate training for their positions, and are expected to be involved in the planning of activities and evenings.
Young Leaders are de facto Explorer Scouts, but are not required to participate in Explorer activities. Most Explorer Scouts use the Young Leader scheme as their Service section of the progressive award scheme.
In principle, the Young Leaders of a District are considered to be in a separate Unit, and are under the supervision of an Explorer Scout Leader, although this may not always be the case, in which case the District Explorer Scout Commissioner or District Commissioner takes on this responsibility.
A Young Leaders' Unit might have its own
A partner in a law firm, accounting firm, consulting firm, or financial firm is a highly ranked position. Originally, these businesses were set up as legal partnerships in which the partners were entitled to a share of the profits of the enterprise. The name has remained even though many of these entities are now corporations. Sometimes senior employees of the firm may have the title "partner" (e.g., "salaried partner") to indicate a profit sharing status. Salaried partners are distinguished from equity partners, who own the business.
General Catalyst Partners is a venture capital firm that invests in
exceptional entrepreneurs who are building the technology-based
companies that will lead innovation and transform industries.
General Catalyst's managing directors Larry Bohn, Joel Cutler, David Fialkow, Bill Fitzgerald, David Orfao, John Simon and Hemant Taneja
are accomplished entrepreneurs. Founded in 2000, General Catalyst
Partners leverages its principals' extensive operational, business
development and technological expertise to provide portfolio companies
with a catalyst for success through business-building and partnership
development assistance. General Catalyst has approximately $1 billion
under management and is headquartered in Cambridge, Mass.
An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions founded upon English law. The term may be titular, denoting a high-ranking member of a borough or county council, a council member chosen by the elected members themselves rather than by popular vote, or a council member elected by voters.
The title is derived from the Old English title of ealdorman, literally meaning "elder man", and was used by the chief nobles presiding over shires.
Many local government bodies used the term "alderman" in Australia. As in the way local councils have been modernised in the United Kingdom and Ireland, the term alderman has been discontinued in a number of places. For example, in the State of Queensland before 1994, rural "shires" elected "councillors" and a "chairman", while "cities" elected a "mayor" and "aldermen". Since 1994, all local and regional government areas in Queensland elect a "mayor" and "councillors." (The Brisbane City Council has always had a "Lord Mayor"). An example of the use of the term alderman was in the City of Adelaide. Aldermen were elected from the electors in all the wards.
Historically, in Canada, the term "alderman" was used for those
A notary public (or notary or public notary) in the common law world is a public officer constituted by law to serve the public in non-contentious matters usually concerned with estates, deeds, powers-of-attorney, and foreign and international business. A notary's main functions are to administer oaths and affirmations, take affidavits and statutory declarations, witness and authenticate the execution of certain classes of documents, take acknowledgments of deeds and other conveyances, protest notes and bills of exchange, provide notice of foreign drafts, prepare marine or ship's protests in cases of damage, provide exemplifications and notarial copies, and perform certain other official acts depending on the jurisdiction. Any such act is known as a notarization. The term notary public only refers to common-law notaries and should not be confused with civil-law notaries.
With the exceptions of Louisiana, Puerto Rico, Quebec, whose private law is based on civil law, and British Columbia, whose notarial tradition stems from scrivener notary practice, a notary public in the rest of the United States and most of Canada has powers that are far more limited than those of civil-law or
In politics, the party leader is the most powerful official within a political party. He/She speaks to his/her political party and represents them.The party leader is typically responsible for managing the party's relationship with the general public. As such, he or she will take a leading role in developing and communicating party policy, especially election platforms, to the electorate. He or she is also typically the public face of the party and the principal media contact.
In many representative democracies, party leaders compete directly for high political office. For example, leaders of parties in presidential and semi-presidential republics will often run for President. In parliamentary systems of government, party leaders typically seek to become prime minister. It is thus typical in such states (e.g., in the Westminster system) for the party leader to seek election to the legislature, and, if elected, to simultaneously serve as the party's parliamentary leader.
Sometimes, a party leader will simultaneously hold the post of chairman. However, this is rare in the Westminster system.
The method of selection of the party leader varies from party to party, though often it will
A board of directors is a body of elected or appointed members who jointly oversee the activities of a company or organization. Other names include board of governors, board of managers, board of regents, board of trustees, and board of visitors. It is often simply referred to as "the board".
A board's activities are determined by the powers, duties, and responsibilities delegated to it or conferred on it by an authority outside itself. These matters are typically detailed in the organization's bylaws. The bylaws commonly also specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, and when they are to meet.
In an organization with voting members, e.g., a professional society, the board acts on behalf of, and is subordinate to, the organization's full assembly, which usually chooses the members of the board. In a stock corporation, the board is elected by the stockholders and is the highest authority in the management of the corporation. In a non-stock corporation with no general voting membership, e.g., a typical university, the board is the supreme governing body of the institution; its members are sometimes chosen by the board itself.
Typical duties of boards of
A chief executive officer (CEO) is the highest-ranking corporate officer (executive) or administrator in charge of total management of an organization. An individual appointed as a CEO of a corporation, company, organization, or agency typically reports to the board of directors. In British English, terms often used as synonyms for CEO are managing director (MD) and chief executive (CE). In American English, the title executive director (ED) is sometimes used for non-profit organizations.
The responsibilities of an organization's CEO (Chief Executive Officer, US) or MD (Managing Director, UK) are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure. They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are typically enshrined in a formal delegation of authority.
Typically, the CEO/MD has responsibilities as a communicator, decision maker, leader, manager and executor. The communicator role can involve the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as the organization's management and employees; the decision-making role involves high-level decisions about policy and strategy. As a leader, the CEO/MD advises the board of
A common alias for an investure. This would be a great job; you just hang back and have people come to you with ideas. Since ideas are the foundation for any business and are an entraprenures best friend, you might see how this would be an ideal business. A well known venture capitalst (CP) is Guy Kawasaki who previously worked for Steve Jobs.
More info about this job: http://www.princetonreview.com/cte/profiles/dayInLife.asp?careerID=214
Pamela is the former executive vice president and chief administrative officer of Exelon Corporation, the parent company of ComEd and largest public utility company in the U.S. She retired from Exelon in October of 2005 after twelve years, holding a variety of positions beginning with general counsel and including heading Exelon's energy delivery business and its unregulated businesses. Before joining ComEd in 1993, she was a partner in the law firm of Sidley & Austin, following 11 years with the firm of Isham, Lincoln & Beale. She serves on many not-for-profit boards and is a director of Sabre Holdings Corporation and State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company. Pam received both her undergraduate and law degrees from the University of Ilinois, where she was a Bronze Table (upper three percent of her class) recipient and a member of the law review. She is married to Russ Strobel and they have two teenagers, Ben and Libby.
Flagship Ventures is an early-stage venture capital firm focused on
creating, financing, and building innovative companies in the Life
Science and Technology sectors. Headquartered in Cambridge, MA,
Flagship Ventures was founded in 1999 and manages $700 million in
capital. Prior to its founding, Flagship's principals were involved as
founders or investors in over 100 firms including: Adolor, AltaVista,
Anesta, Antigenics, Aspect Medical, Astral Point, Celera Genomics,
ChemGenics Pharmaceuticals, Color Kinetics, Chantry Networks, Cytyc,
DataSage, Exact Sciences, IDEXX, PerSeptive Biosystems, Somatogen,
Telecorp PCS and TripAdvisor.
The Flagship investment team consists of 10 professionals and is
led by co-founders Noubar Afeyan and Ed Kania. Complementing our
internal team is our extensive network of academic and industrial
advisors who are actively engaged in evaluating and helping develop our
new ventures. Extending over a period of 20 years, our entrepreneurship
and investment experience comes from founding over 30 successful new
ventures while funding and building over 100 more.
To maximize the returns to our investors, we combine our
experience, our passion for innovation, our focus on value creation and
our commitment to the success of each company's leadership team.
A Chief Operating Officer (or Chief Operations Officer; COO) or Director of Operations (or Operations Director) can be one of the highest-ranking executives in an organization and comprises part of the "C-Suite". The COO is responsible for the daily operation of the company, and routinely reports to the highest ranking executive, usually the Chief Executive Officer (CEO). The COO may also carry the title of President which makes him or her the clear number-two in command at the firm, especially if the highest ranking executive is the Chairman and CEO.
Unlike other C-suite positions, which tend to be defined according to commonly designated responsibilities across most companies, the COO job tends to be defined in relation to the specific CEO with whom he/she works, given the close working relationship of these two individuals. In many ways, the selection of a COO is similar to the selection of a Vice President of the United States: the role (including the power and responsibilities therein) can vary dramatically, depending on the style and needs of the President of the United States. Thus, the COO role is highly contingent and situational, as the role changes from company to
A vice president (British English - government: vice-president; business: director) is an officer in government or business who is below a president (managing director) in rank. The name comes from the Latin vice meaning 'in place of'. In some countries, the vice president is called the deputy president. A common colloquial term for the office is vee-pee, deriving from a phonetic interpretation of the abbreviation VP.
In government, a vice president is a person whose primary responsibility is to replace the president on the event of his or her death, resignation or incapacity. Vice presidents are either elected jointly with the president as his or her running mate, elected separately, or appointed independently after the president's election.
Most, but not all, governments with vice presidents have only one person in this role at any time. If the president is not present, dies, resigns, or is otherwise unable to fulfill his or her duties, the vice president will generally serve as president. In many presidential systems, the vice president does not wield much day-to-day political power, but is still considered an important member of the cabinet. Several vice presidents in the
Board of Governors is a term sometimes applied to the board of directors of a public entity or non-profit organization.
Many public institutions, such as public universities, are government-owned corporations. The British Broadcasting Corporation was managed by a board of governors, though this role has now been taken by the BBC Trust. In other cases, government services are provided by "independent establishments," which provide an environment mixing a corporation and a government agency (see public-private partnership). These, such as the United States Postal Service, are governed by a board of governors. The US Federal Reserve System is also partially governed by a board of governors.
Another is the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency.
The General Secretary of the TUC is the chief permanent officer of the Trades Union Congress, and a major figurehead in the trade union movement in the United Kingdom.
The Secretary is responsible for the effective operation of the TUC and for leading implementation of policies set by the annual Congress and the organisation's General Council. They also serve as the TUC's chief representative, both with the public and with other organisations.
The position was formed in 1921, when the Parliamentary Committee of the TUC became the General Council. The position of Secretary has been a permanent, full-time position in the TUC since 1904. Before that, the Secretary was elected annually at Congress.
Principal or Head of School is the title of the head administrator of an elementary school, middle school, or high school in some English-speaking countries, including the United States, India and Australia. Public schools in the United States generally use the title Principal whereas private schools in the United States generally use the title Head of School. In other English-speaking countries, the terms head teacher, head master or head mistress are used. Books and documents relating to the early days of public education in the United States show that the title was originally Principal Teacher.
In 1999, there were about 129,000 "principals" in the United States.
In many Australian schools, a principal is the head administrator of a school who has been appointed to her/his position by the school board, superintendent, or other body. The principal, often in conjunction with the school board, makes the executive decisions that govern the school, as well as having the authority over the employment (and in some cases firing) of teachers. The principal is often the chief disciplinarian of the students. In many US schools, however, student discipline is the vice-principal's
Marshal of the Royal Air Force (MRAF) is the highest rank in the Royal Air Force. In peacetime it was granted to RAF officers in the appointment of Chief of the Defence Staff, and to retired Chiefs of the Air Staff, who were promoted to it on their last day of service. Promotions for such officers have ceased since the British defence cuts of the 1990s. While surviving Marshals of the RAF retain the rank for life, the highest rank to which officers on active service are promoted is now air chief marshal. Although general promotions have ceased, further promotions to marshal of the Royal Air Force are still possible in wartime and also for members of the Royal Family and possibly other very senior officers in peacetime at the discretion of the Monarch. In 2012, Charles, Prince of Wales was promoted to the rank.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force is a five-star rank and unlike the air marshal ranks, can properly be considered a marshal rank. MRAF has a NATO ranking code of OF-10, equivalent to an admiral of the fleet in the Royal Navy or a field marshal in the British Army.
The rank was instituted in 1919 and the first officer to be promoted to MRAF was Sir Hugh Trenchard in 1927. Since
With over 20 years of experience in the manufacturing and retailing industries, M. Susan Chambers serves as the Executive Vice President of the Global People Division for Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. In that role, she is responsible for managing, attracting and retaining the nation’s largest private workforce.Prior to joining Wal-Mart, Susan worked for 14 years with Hallmark Cards Inc. She was the director of applications development at Hallmark before beginning her career at Wal-Mart in 1999. Susan trained for six months in the field as a Store and Club Manager before accepting senior positions across multiple corporate functions, starting in the information systems division. There, she served as a Vice President for Applications and Development-Merchandising and then as a Senior Vice President, CMI and Benefits. She was then promoted to the role of Executive Vice President of Risk Management and Benefits Administration, with additional responsibilities in Global Security and Aviation. In 2006, Susan was promoted to her current position as Executive Vice President of the Global People Division, reporting directly to Wal-Mart’s CEO H. Lee Scott.
Today, Susan oversees recruiting, training and retention initiatives for more than 2 million Wal-Mart associates. Additionally, Susan’s responsibilities include human resource technology, culture change, regulatory issues, benefits and the Office of Diversity- a group of professionals dedicated to promoting inclusion within the company and in the communities it serves.Susan’s role at Wal-Mart also extends well beyond traditional human resources responsibilities. Her position at the world’s largest private employer allows Susan the opportunity to be involved in multiple arenas, including workforce development and education. She is a firm believer that human resources issues – like training, compensation and opportunity – are issues with a real social, financial and economic impact.Susan is part of a growing team that is involved in many of the changes underway at Wal-Mart. The retailer’s continuous company-wide transformation has led to the company working to bring about solutions to some of the toughest challenges facing businesses and the nation, like healthcare, job creation and environmental sustainability. From the company’s launch of a $4 prescription program to its work to bring affordable, environmentally-friendly products to consumers, Wal-Mart’s transformation is about making a real difference … and helping people save money so they can live better.
A president is a leader of an organization, company, club, trade union, university, or country.
Etymologically, a president is one who presides, (from Latin pre- "before" + sedere "to sit"; giving the term praeses). Originally, the term referred to the presiding officer of a ceremony or meeting (i.e., chairman), but today it most commonly refers to an official. Among other things, "President" today is a common title for the heads of state of most republics, whether popularly elected, chosen by the legislature or by a special electoral college.
Presidents in countries with a democratic or representative form of government are usually elected for a specified period of time and in some cases may be re-elected by the same process by which they are appointed, i.e. in many nations, periodic popular elections. The powers vested in such presidents vary considerably. Some presidencies, such as that of Ireland, are largely ceremonial, whereas other systems vest the President with substantive powers such as the appointment and dismissal of Prime Ministers or cabinets, the power to declare war, and powers of veto on legislation. In many nations the President is also the Commander-in-Chief of
The Head of the Commonwealth heads the Commonwealth of Nations, an intergovernmental organisation which currently comprises 54 sovereign states. The position is currently occupied by Queen Elizabeth II, who also serves as monarch and head of state for the 16 members of the Commonwealth of Nations that are also considered the Commonwealth realms. The Head of the Commonwealth has no day-to-day involvement in the governance of any of the member states within the Commonwealth of Nations. The first Head of the Commonwealth was King George VI, who was succeeded by the second and current Head of the Commonwealth, Queen Elizabeth II. The office is personal to Queen Elizabeth II and there is no agreement concerning whether the office will pass to her heir along with her other offices.
The title was devised in 1949 but was not added to the monarch's style until 1953. In that year, a Royal Style and Titles Act was passed separately in each of the seven Commonwealth realms then existing (except Pakistan), which gave formal recognition to the separateness and the equality of the realms by entitling the Queen as Queen of [Realm] and her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth.
Secretary is a title commonly held by a member of an organization, club, or society. Common duties of the Secretary include taking minutes, notifying members of meetings, contacting various persons in relation to the society, administrating the day to day activities of the organization and creating the order of business.
The secretary of the club is also considered to be, in most cases, the third person in charge of the organization, after the president/chairman and vice president/vice chairman. The secretary of the NGO or INGO can be vice president/vice chairman.
The office of General Secretary (or First Secretary) is staffed by the chief officer (sometimes also the leader) of:
The official title of the leader of most Communist and Socialist political parties is the "General Secretary of the Central Committee" or "First Secretary of the Central Committee". When a Communist party is in power, the General Secretary is usually the country's de facto leader (though sometimes this leader also holds state-level positions to monopolize power, such as a presidency or premiership in order to constitute de jure leadership of the state).
The Technical Director (TD) or Technical Manager (TM) is usually a senior technical person within a software company, film studio, theatrical company or television studio. This person usually possesses the highest level of skill within a specific technical field and may be recognized as an expert in that industry.
The Technical Director provides technical direction on business decision making using the Business Decision Mapping technique and in the execution of specific projects. He or she may be assigned to a single project, or may oversee a number of projects with related technologies. A Technical Director also typically keeps close contact with any Production Managers and keeps them informed of their budget status at all Production Meetings.
In software development, a Technical Director is GAGO typically responsible for the successful creation and delivery of the company's product to the marketplace by managing technical risks and opportunities: making key software design and software implementation decisions with the development teams; scheduling of tasks including tracking dependencies, managing change requests, and guaranteeing quality of deliveries; and educating the team on
The term director-general (plural directors-general, as "general" is postpositive) is a title given the highest executive officer within a governmental, statutory, NGO, third sector or not-for-profit institution.
In the European Commission, each department (called a directorate-general) is headed by a non-political director-general. This is roughly equivalent to a British permanent secretary.
In most Australian states, the director-general is the most senior civil servant in any government department, reporting only to the democratically-elected minister representing that department. In Victoria and the Australian Government, the equivalent position is the secretary of the department.
The Australian Defence Force Cadets has three Directors-General which are all One-star rank's;
In Canada, a director general is not the highest civil servant in a department. Directors general typically report to a more senior civil servant, e.g. at the assistant deputy minister level. Deputy ministers are the highest level bureaucrat in the Canadian civil service. At school boards in Quebec, the director general is the highest-ranking employee.
In France, the similar word président-directeur général
The chief financial officer (CFO) or chief financial and operating officer (CFOO) is a corporate officer primarily responsible for managing the financial risks of the corporation. This officer is also responsible for financial planning and record-keeping, as well as financial reporting to higher management. In some sectors the CFO is also responsible for analysis of data. The title is equivalent to finance director, a common title in the United Kingdom. The CFO typically reports to the chief executive officer and to the board of directors, and may additionally sit on the board.
Most CFOs of large companies have finance qualifications such as an MBA or come from an accounting background. A finance department would usually contain some accountants with Certified Public Accountant or equivalent status. The Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002, enacted in the aftermath of several major U.S. accounting scandals, requires at least one member of a public company's audit committee to be a financial expert.
The federal government of the United States has incorporated more elements of business-sector practices in its management approaches, including the use of the CFO position (alongside, for example,
The title, Chief of Staff, identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a Principal Staff Officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president.
In general, a chief of staff provides a buffer between a chief executive and that executive's direct-reporting team. The chief of staff generally works behind the scenes to solve problems, mediate disputes, and deal with issues before they bubble up to the Chief Executive. Often Chiefs of Staff act as a confidante and advisor to the Chief Executive, acting as a sounding board for ideas. Ultimately the actual duties depend on the actual position and the people involved.
In general, the positions listed below are not "chiefs of staff" as defined at the top of this page. In general, they are the heads of the various forces/commands. Note that, in general, they tend to have subordinates that do fulfill the "chief of staff" roles.
The Sovereign is the Commander-in-Chief. The CDS heads the Chiefs of Staff Committee and is assisted by the Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff. The Queen is not the ceremonial
A fellow in the broadest sense is someone who is an equal or a comrade. The term fellow is also used to describe a person, particularly by those in the upper social classes. It is most often used in an academic context: a fellow is often part of an elite group of learned people who are awarded fellowship to work together as peers in the pursuit of knowledge or practice. The fellows may include visiting professors, postdoctoral researchers and doctoral researchers.
The title of research fellow is used to denote an academic research position at a university or a similar institution.
The title of Teaching fellow is used to denote an academic teaching position at a university or similar institution.
The title fellow might be given to an academic member of staff upon retirement who continues to be affiliated to a university institution in the United Kingdom.
At Colleges of the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin, full fellows form the governing body of the college. They may elect a Council to handle day-to-day management. All fellows are entitled to certain privileges within their colleges, which may include dining at High Table (free of charge) and possibly the right to a
General manager (sometimes abbreviated GM) is a descriptive term for certain executives in a business operation. It is also a formal title held by some business executives, most commonly in the hospitality industry.
A manager may be responsible for one functional area, but the General Manager is responsible for all areas. Sometimes, most commonly, the term General Manager refers to any executive who has overall responsibility for managing both the revenue and cost elements of a company's income statement. This is often referred to as profit & loss (P&L) responsibility. This means that a General Manager usually oversees most or all of the firm's marketing and sales functions as well as the day-to-day operations of the business. Frequently, the General Manager is responsible for effective planning, delegating, coordinating, staffing, organizing, and decision making to attain desirable profit making results for an organization (Sayles 1979).
In many cases, the general manager of a business is given a different formal title or titles. Most corporate managers holding the titles of Chief Executive Officer (CEO) or President, for example, are the General Managers of their respective
A governor (from French gouverneur) is a governing official, usually the executive (at least nominally, to different degrees also politically and administratively) of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, a governor may be the title of each appointed or elected politician who governs a constituent state.
In countries, the heads of the constitutive states, provinces, communities and regions may be titled Governor, although this is less common in parliamentary systems such as in some European nations and many of their former colonies, which use titles such as President of the Regional Council in France and Ministerpräsident in Germany, where in some states there are governorates (German: Regierungsbezirke) as sub-state administrative regions. Other countries using different titles for sub-national units include Spain and Switzerland.
The title also lies, historically, to executive officials acting as representatives of a chartered company which has been granted exercise of sovereignty in a colonial area, such as the British HEIC or the Dutch VOC. These companies operate as a major state within a state with its own armed forces.
A managing director or MD (UK English) or chief executive officer (U.S. English) is the director of a company given special powers by its articles of association. In most companies, the managing director is the senior executive director, subordinate only to the chairman of the board.
The MD is usually the most senior manager of the company, heading the organisation, and so may have a title such as Chief Executive Officer or CEO. This person may be responsible for the routine operation of the company or this role may be delegated to a separate Chief Operating Officer, leaving the CEO free to plan and direct the company's strategy. However some companies have joint managing directors or a managing director in charge of each separate division. In some Wall Street firms, such as Goldman Sachs, managing director is the second highest title after partner.
The managing director is a leadership role for an organisation and the MD may fulfill a motivational role for the workforce, in addition to an operational role in the running of the business. MDs motivate and mentor members of the management team and chair meetings. The MD leads the company and develops the corporate culture for the
A non-executive director (NED, also NXD) or outside director is a member of the board of directors of a company who does not form part of the executive management team. They are not an employee of the company or affiliated with it in any other way and are differentiated from inside directors, who are members of the board who also serve or previously served as executive managers of the company (most often as corporate officers).
Non-executive directors are sometimes considered the same as an Independent director, while other sources distinguish them from independent directors saying non-executive directors are allowed to hold shares in the company while independent directors are not.
Non-executive directors have responsibilities in the following areas, according to the Higgs Report, commissioned by the British government published in 2003:
NEDs should also provide independent views on:
Non-executive directors are the custodians of the governance process. They are not involved in the day-to-day running of business but monitor the executive activity and contribute to the development of strategy.
In 2011 the Financial Times launched the first formal qualification specifically for
A supervisory board or supervisory committee, often called board of directors, is a group of individuals chosen by the stockholders of a company to promote their interests through the governance of the company and to hire and supervise the executive directors and CEO.
Corporate governance varies between countries, especially regarding the board system. There are countries that have a one-tier board system (like the U.S.) and there are others that have a two-tier board system like Germany.
In a one-tier board, all directors (both executive directors as well as non-executive directors) form one board, called the board of directors.
In a two-tier board there is an executive board (all executive directors) and a separate supervisory board (all non-executive directors).
German corporation law Aktiengesetz requires all Aktiengesellschaften to have two boards: a management board called Vorstand and a supervisory board called Aufsichtsrat.
In Germany the supervisory board of large corporations is composed of 20 members, 10 of which are elected by the shareholders, the other 10 being employee representatives. The supervisory board oversees and appoints the members of the management board