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Best Belief of All Time

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    8.67
    6 votes
    2

    Moksha

    • Belief Of: Hinduism
    In Indian religions moksha (Sanskrit: मोक्ष mokṣa; liberation) or mukti (Sanskrit: मुक्ति; release —both from the root muc "to let loose, let go") is the final extrication of the soul or consciousness (purusha) from samsara and the bringing to an end of all the suffering involved in being subject to the cycle of repeated death and rebirth (reincarnation). The ultimate origin of the concepts of samsara and moksha remains unknown because they were passed on orally for possibly hundreds of years before being committed to writing. It is probable that these concepts were first developed by renunciates who had left the world to practice a solitary path conducive to self-realisation (atma-jnana). Many scholars are inclined to believe that these ideas may have originated within the Sramanic traditions whose spiritual ideas greatly influenced the conceptual framework of mainstream Indian religious thought. The earliest texts discussing the theory and practice of liberation (moksha) are the early Upanishads. There are three major views on moksha from traditional Vedanta philosophy. According to Advaita Vedanta, the attainment of liberation coincides with the realization of the unreality of
    7.83
    6 votes
    3
    Death and Resurrection of Jesus

    Death and Resurrection of Jesus

    • Belief Of: Protestantism
    The major Resurrection appearances of Jesus in the Canonical gospels (and to a lesser extent other books of the New Testament) are reported to have occurred after his death, burial and resurrection, but prior to his Ascension. Among these primary sources, most scholars believe First Corinthians was written first, authored by Paul of Tarsus along with Sosthenes c. AD 55. Finally, the Gospel of the Hebrews recounts the Resurrection appearance to James the brother of Jesus. Paul lists several resurrection appearances of Jesus to various "men" but doesn't describe them. In Matthew, Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene and another Mary at his empty tomb. Later, the eleven disciples go to a mountain in Galilee to meet Jesus, who appears to them and commissions them to baptize in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and to make disciples of all people (the Great Commission). In Luke, Jesus appears to the disciples and eats with them, demonstrating that he is flesh and bones, not a ghost. He tells them to wait in Jerusalem for the start of their mission to the world, and then he ascends into the heavens. In Acts, written by the same author as Luke, see Luke-Acts, Jesus appears to his
    7.33
    6 votes
    4
    Irresistible grace

    Irresistible grace

    • Belief Of: Calvinism
    Irresistible Grace (or efficacious grace) is a doctrine in Christian theology particularly associated with Calvinism, which teaches that the saving grace of God is effectually applied to those whom he has determined to save (the elect) and, in God's timing, overcomes their resistance to obeying the call of the gospel, bringing them to faith in Christ. According to Calvinism, those who obtain salvation do so, not by their own "free" will, but because of the sovereign grace of God. That is, men yield to grace, not finally because their consciences were more tender or their faith more tenacious than that of other men. Rather, the willingness and ability to do God's will, are evidence of God's own faithfulness to save men from the power and the penalty of sin, and since man is so corrupt that he will not decide and cannot be wooed to follow after God, God must powerfully intervene. In short, Calvinism argues that regeneration must precede faith. Calvin says of this intervention that "it is not violent, so as to compel men by external force; but still it is a powerful impulse of the Holy Spirit, which makes men willing who formerly were unwilling and reluctant," and John Gill says that
    7.17
    6 votes
    5
    Four Noble Truths

    Four Noble Truths

    • Belief Of: Buddhism
    The Four Noble Truths (Sanskrit: catvāri āryasatyāni; Pali: cattāri ariyasaccāni) are one of the central teachings of the Buddhist tradition. The teachings on the four noble truths explain the nature of dukkha (Pali; commonly translated as "suffering", "anxiety", "stress", "unsatisfactoriness"), its causes, and how it can be overcome. According to the Buddhist tradition, the Buddha first taught the four noble truths in the very first teaching he gave after he attained enlightenment, as recorded in the discourse Setting in Motion the Wheel of the Dharma (Dharmacakra Pravartana Sūtra), and he further clarified their meaning in many subsequent teachings. The teachings on the Four Noble Truths explain the nature of dukkha (Pali; loosely translated as suffering, anxiety, dissatisfaction), its causes, and how it can be overcome. The Four Noble Truths are regarded as central to the teachings of Buddhism; they are said to provide a unifying theme, or conceptual framework, for all of Buddhist thought. In the Buddhist tradition, it is said that the Buddha compared these four truths to the footprints of an elephant: just as the footprints of all the other animals can fit within the footprint
    8.40
    5 votes
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    7.40
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    Dependent Origination implies emptiness

    • Belief Of: Buddhist philosophy
    The teaching of causal interdependence is the most important of Buddhist principles. It describes the law of nature, which exists as the natural course of things. The Buddha was no emissary of heavenly commandments, but the discoverer of this principle of the natural order, and the proclaimer of its truth to the world.     The progression of causes and conditions is the reality which applies to all things, from the natural environment, which is an external, physical condition, to the events of human society, ethical principles, life events and the happiness and suffering which manifest in our own minds. These systems of causal relationship are part of the one natural truth. Our happiness within this natural system depends on having some knowledge of how it works and practicing correctly within it, through addressing problems on the personal, social, and environmental levels. Given that all things are interconnected, and all are affecting each other, success in dealing with the world lies in creating harmony within it.     The sciences which have evolved with human civilization, and which are influencing our lives so profoundly today, are said to be based on reason and rationality. Their storehouse of knowledge has been amassed through interacting with these natural laws of conditionality. But the human search for knowledge in modern scientific fields has three notable features: Firstly, the search for knowledge in these sciences, and the application of that knowledge, is separated into distinct categories. Each branch of science is distinct from the others. Secondly, human beings in this present civilization are of the belief that the law of conditionality applies only to the physical world, not to the mental world, or to abstract values such as ethics. This can be seen even in the study of psychology, which tends to look at the cause and effect process only in relation to physical phenomena. Thirdly, the application of scientific knowledge (of the laws of conditionality) is applied solely to serve self interests. Our relationship with the natural environment, for instance, is centered around trying to derive as much resources from it as we can with little or no regard for the consequences.     Underneath it all, we tend to interpret such concepts as happiness, freedom, rights, liberty, and peace in ways that preserve self interests and encroach on others. Even when controlling other people comes to be seen as a blameworthy act, this aggressive tendency is then turned in other directions, such as the natural environment. Now that we are beginning to realize that it is impossible to really control other people or other things, the only meaning left in life is to preserve self interests and protect territorial rights. Living as we do with this faulty knowledge and these mistaken beliefs, the natural environment is thrown out of skew, society is in turmoil, and human life, both physically and mentally, is disoriented. The world seems to be full of conflict and suffering.     All facets of the natural order -- the physical world and the human world, the world of conditions (dhamma) and the world of actions (kamma), the material world and the mental world -- are connected and interrelated, they cannot be separated. Disorder and aberration in one sector will affect other sectors. If we want to live in peace, we must learn how to live in harmony with all spheres of the natural environment, both the internal and the external, the individual and the social, the physical and the mental, the material and the immaterial.     To create true happiness it is of utmost importance that we not only reflect on the interrelationship of all things in the natural order, but also see ourselves clearly as one system of causal relationships within that natural order, becoming aware first of the internal mental factors, then those in our life experiences, in society, and ultimately in the world around us. This is why, of all the systems of causal relationship based on the law "because there is this, that arises; when this ceases that ceases," the teachings of Buddhism begin with, and stress throughout, the factors involved in the creation of suffering in individual awareness -- "because there is ignorance, there are volitional formations." Once this system of causal relationship is understood on the inner level, we are then in a position to see the connections between these inner factors and the causal relationships in society and the natural environment.
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    Tao

    Tao

    • Belief Of: Taoism
    Tao or Dao (/taʊ/, /daʊ/; Chinese: 道; pinyin:  Dào (help·info)) is a Chinese word meaning 'way', 'path', 'route', or sometimes more loosely, 'doctrine' or 'principle'. Within the context of traditional Chinese philosophy and religion, Tao is a metaphysical concept originating with Laozi that gave rise to a religion (Wade–Giles, Tao Chiao; Pinyin, Daojiao) and philosophy (Wade–Giles, Tao chia; Pinyin, Daojia) referred to in English with the single term Taoism. The concept of Tao was later adopted in Confucianism, Chán and Zen Buddhism and more broadly throughout East Asian philosophy and religion in general. Within these contexts Tao signifies the primordial essence or fundamental nature of the universe. In the foundational text of Taoism, the Tao Te Ching, Laozi explains that Tao is not a 'name' for a 'thing' but the underlying natural order of the universe whose ultimate essence is difficult to circumscribe. Tao is thus "eternally nameless” (Dao De Jing-32. Laozi) and to be distinguished from the countless 'named' things which are considered to be its manifestations. In Taoism, Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism, the object of spiritual practice is to 'become one with the tao' (Tao
    7.00
    5 votes
    10

    Divine simplicity

    • Belief Of: Judaism
    In theology, the doctrine of divine simplicity says that God is without parts. The general idea of divine simplicity can be stated in this way: the being of God is identical to the "attributes" of God. In other words, such characteristics as omnipresence, goodness, truth, eternity, etc. are identical to God's being, not qualities that make up that being, nor abstract entities inhering in God as in a substance. Varieties of the doctrine may be found in Jewish, Christian, and Muslim philosophical theologians, especially during the heyday of scholasticism, though the doctrine's origins may be traced back to ancient Greek thought, finding apotheosis in Plotinus' Enneads as the Simplex . In Christian theism (to be accurate "Classical theism"), God is simple, not composite, not made up of thing upon thing. In other words, the characteristics of God are not parts of God that together make up God. Because God is simple, God is those characteristics; for example, God does not have goodness, but simply is goodness. For typical Christian theologians, divine simplicity does not entail that the attributes of God are indistinguishable to thought. It is no contradiction of the doctrine to say,
    8.25
    4 votes
    11

    Millenarianism

    • Belief Of: Jehovah's Witnesses
    Millenarianism (also millenarism) is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society, after which all things will be changed, based on a one-thousand-year cycle. The term is more generically used to refer to any belief centered around 1000-year intervals. Millenarianism is a concept or theme that exists in many cultures and religions. Millennialism is a specific type of millenarianism as it applies to Christianity. One well-known form of millenarianism is the Christian concept of Millennialism. A core doctrine in Christian eschatology is the expectation of the Second Coming and the establishment of a Kingdom of God on Earth. According to the literal interpretation of prophecies in the Revelation of John, this kingdom of God on Earth will last a thousand years or more (a millennium). Although Christian Millennialism is the most well-known example of a millenarian belief system, the application of 1000-year cycles to the establishment or changing of the world has happened in many cultures and religions, and continues to this day, and is not relegated to the sects of only major world religions. Millenarian groups claim that
    8.25
    4 votes
    12
    Samsara

    Samsara

    • Belief Of: Hinduism
    Samsāra or Sangsāra (Sanskrit: संसार) (in Tibetan called "khorwa"), literally meaning "continuous flow", is the repeating cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth (reincarnation) within Hinduism, Buddhism, Bön, Jainism, Yoga and Sikhism. According to the view of these Indian religions our current life is only one of many—stretching back before birth into past existences and reaching forward beyond death into future incarnations. During the course of each life the quality of the actions (karma) performed determine the future destiny of each person. The Buddha taught that there is no beginning or end to this cycle. The goal of Indian religions is to escape this process, the achievement of which is called moksha. In popular use, Samsara may refer to the world (in the sense of the various worldly activities which occupy ordinary human beings), the various sufferings thereof; or the unsettled and agitated mind through which reality is perceived. Samsara means "to flow on", to perpetually wander, to pass through states of existence. The historical origins of a concept of a cycle of repeated reincarnation are obscure but the idea appears frequently in religious and philosophical texts in
    8.25
    4 votes
    13

    Three Jewels of the Tao

    • Belief Of: Taoism
    The Three Treasures or Three Jewels (Chinese: 三寶; pinyin: sānbǎo; Wade–Giles: san-pao) are basic virtues in Taoism. Although the Tao Te Ching originally used sanbao to mean "compassion", "frugality", and "humility", the term was later used to translate the Three Jewels (Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha) in Chinese Buddhism, and to mean the Three Treasures (jing, qi, and shen) in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Sanbao "three treasures" first occurs in Tao Te Ching chapter 67, which Lin Yutang (1948:292) says contains Laozi's "most beautiful teachings": 天下皆谓我道大,似不肖。夫唯大,故似不肖。若肖,久矣其细也夫! 我有三宝,持而保之。一曰慈,二曰俭,三曰不敢为天下先。 慈故能勇;俭故能广;不敢为天下先,故能成器长。 今舍慈且勇;舍俭且广;舍后且先;死矣! 夫慈以战则胜,以守则固。天将救之,以慈卫之。 Every one under heaven says that our Way is greatly like folly. But it is just because it is great, that it seems like folly. As for things that do not seem like folly — well, there can be no question about their smallness! Here are my three treasures. Guard and keep them! The first is pity; the second, frugality; the third, refusal to be 'foremost of all things under heaven'. For only he that pities is truly able to be brave; Only he that is frugal is able to be profuse. Only he that refuses to be foremost of all
    6.80
    5 votes
    14
    Enlightenment

    Enlightenment

    • Belief Of: Jainism
    Enlightenment in a secular context often means the "full comprehension of a situation", but in spiritual terms the word alludes to a spiritual revelation or deep insight into the meaning and purpose of all things, communication with or understanding of the mind of God, profound spiritual understanding or a fundamentally changed consciousness whereby everything is perceived as a unity. Some scientists believe that during meditative states leading up to the subjective experience of enlightenment there are actual physical changes in the brain. The English term "enlightenment" has commonly been used to translate several Sanskrit, Pali, Chinese and Japanese terms and concepts, especially bodhi, prajna, kensho, satori and buddhahood. Bodhi is a Theravada term. It literally means "awakening" and "understanding". Someone who is awakened has gained insight into the workings of the mind which keeps us imprisoned in craving, suffering and rebirth, and has also gained insight into the way that leads to nirvana, the liberation of oneself from this imprisonment. Prajna is a Mahayana term. It refers to insight into our true nature, which according to Madhyamaka is empty of a personal essence in
    8.00
    4 votes
    15

    Premortality

    • Belief Of: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
    Premortality is a belief held by Latter-day Saints (Mormons), that everyone existed as spirits before the creation of Earth, the mortality brought by the fall of Adam and Eve, and one's own birth. This includes belief in that a person may have taken upon him- or herself to perform a specific calling in life, in service to God.
    8.00
    4 votes
    16

    Eastern Orthodox view of sin

    • Belief Of: Eastern Orthodox Church
    The Eastern Orthodox Church is particular in its view of sin. The Biblical Greek term for sin is αμαρτία (amartia) which means missing the mark, it means that our aim is out and we have not reached our goal, our fullest potential. As in Western Christianity, in Eastern Orthodoxy, the goal is union with God. Orthodoxy also understands sin as a disease of the soul, a condition where the soul is lacking in God's grace. Union with God, which is made possible through Christ, is the ultimate medicine. In Orthodoxy, the mysteries of the Church, also known as sacraments in the West, are vehicles leading towards union with God. From the Orthodox churches point of view, humans are not sexual creatures in terms of their essential identity. To Eastern Orthodoxy, the relationship which people have with God is reflected in the love for one another; the union of two people in marriage is considered to be a reflection of our ultimate union with God. However, as a result of humanity's rebellion against God (the Fall), humanity has tended to adopt a more animalistic view of sexual activity which is not true to the ultimate transfigurable nature of the human race, having been made in the Divine image
    7.75
    4 votes
    17

    Qadar

    • Belief Of: Islam
    Qadar (Arabic: قدر‎, transl.: qadar, English: fate; divine foreordainment/predestination) is the concept of divine destiny in Islam. It is one of the six articles of faith, along with Belief in the Oneness of Allah, the Revealed Books, the Prophets of Islam, the Day of Resurrection and Angels. This concept has also been mentioned in the Quran as Allah's "Decree". Qadar (Arabic: قدر‎) is an Arabic word for destiny and divine foreordainment. Qada' (Arabic: قَضَاء‎, transl.: qaḍāʾ) is an Arabic word with multiple meanings incl. divine decree/fate. Both Arabic words may or may not be used interchangeably depending on the context. Essentially, destiny is what Allah has decreed. Allah has knowledge of everything in His creation. Nothing occurs except by His will. Human beings are given free will, and it must be made clear that destiny does not have a cause-and-effect influence on the choices humans make. The choices that humans make are all within Allah's knowledge. Qadar is one of the aspects of aqidah. Some Muslims believe that the divine destiny is when God wrote down in the Preserved Tablet ("al-Lauḥ al-Maḥfūẓ") all that has happened and will happen, which will come to pass as
    7.75
    4 votes
    18

    Biblical infallibility

    Biblical infallibility is the belief that what the Bible says regarding matters of faith and Christian practice is wholly useful and true. It is the "belief that the Bible is completely trustworthy as a guide to salvation and the life of faith and will not fail to accomplish its purpose. Some equate 'inerrancy' and 'infallibility'; others do not." From dictionary definitions, Frame (2002) insists that "infalliblity" is a stronger term than "inerrancy." "'Inerrant' means there are no errors; 'infallible' means there can be no errors." Yet he agrees that "modern theologians insist on redefining that word also, so that it actually says less than 'inerrancy.'" Some denominations that teach infallibility hold that the historical or scientific details, which may be irrelevant to matters of faith and Christian practice, may contain errors. This contrasts with the doctrine of Biblical inerrancy, which holds that the scientific, geographic, and historic details of the scriptural texts in their original manuscripts are completely true and without error, though the scientific claims of scripture must be interpreted in the light of the phenomenological nature of the Biblical narratives. For
    6.40
    5 votes
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    9.00
    3 votes
    20

    Biblical inerrancy

    • Belief Of: Jehovah's Witnesses
    Biblical inerrancy is the doctrine that the Bible is accurate and totally free of error (except for errors made in translation or transcription), that "Scripture in the original manuscripts does not affirm anything that is contrary to fact." Some equate inerrancy with infallibility; others do not. Advocates of biblical inerrancy, called biblical inerrantists, generally believe that the original text was without error because God inspired the authors and redactors of the Bible. Although none of the original manuscripts currently exist, some biblical inerranists argue that the original text has been perfectly preserved and passed down through time. Others hold that scholarly reconstructions come as near as possible to the original text and so can be said to be inerrant. These reconstructions are based upon scholars' comparison of thousands of biblical manuscripts (such as the Dead Sea Scrolls) and thousands of biblical citations in the writings of the early Church Fathers. Another often-used adjective to characterize the Bible is "infallible". From dictionary definitions, Frame (2002) insists that this is a stronger term than "inerrant". "'Inerrant' means there are no errors;
    6.20
    5 votes
    21
    Tawhid

    Tawhid

    • Belief Of: Islam
    Tawhid (Arabic: توحيد‎ tawḥīd ; English: doctrine of Oneness [of God]; also transliterated Tawheed, and Tauhid.) is the concept of monotheism in Islam. It is the religion's most fundamental concept and holds God (Arabic: Allah) is one (wāḥid ) and unique (aḥad ). The Qur'an asserts the existence of a single and absolute truth that transcends the world; a unique, independent and indivisible being, who is independent of the entire creation. God, according to Islam, is a universal God, rather than a local, tribal, or parochial one—God is an absolute, who integrates all affirmative values and brooks no evil. Tawhid constitutes the foremost article of the Muslim profession. The first part of the Shahada is the declaration of belief in the oneness of God. To attribute divinity to a created entity is the only unpardonable sin mentioned in the Qur'an. Muslims believe that the entirety of the Islamic teaching rests on the principle of Tawhid. There is an uncompromising monotheism at the heart of the Islamic beliefs which distinguishes Islam from other major religions. Islamic intellectual history can be understood as a gradual unfolding of the manner in which successive generations of
    7.25
    4 votes
    22
    Kabbalah

    Kabbalah

    • Belief Of: Conservative Judaism
    Kabbalah, also spelled Kabala or Qabbālâ (Hebrew: קַבָּלָה‎ literally "receiving"), is an esoteric method, discipline and school of thought. Its definition varies according to the tradition and aims of those following it, from its religious origin as an integral part of Judaism, to its later Christian, New Age, or Occultist syncretic adaptions. Kabbalah is a set of esoteric teachings meant to explain the relationship between an unchanging, eternal and mysterious Ein Sof (no end) and the mortal and finite universe (his creation). While it is heavily used by some denominations, it is not a religious denomination in itself. Inside Judaism, it forms the foundations of mystical religious interpretation. Outside Judaism, its scriptures are read outside the traditional canons of organised religion. Kabbalah seeks to define the nature of the universe and the human being, the nature and purpose of existence, and various other ontological questions. It also presents methods to aid understanding of these concepts and to thereby attain spiritual realisation. Kabbalah originally developed entirely within the realm of Jewish thought and kabbalists often use classical Jewish sources to explain
    10.00
    2 votes
    23

    Solus Christus

    • Belief Of: Protestantism
    Solus Christus (Latin: "Christ alone"), sometimes referred to in the ablative case as Solo Christo ("by Christ alone"), is one of the five solas that summarise the Protestant Reformers' basic belief that salvation is through Christ alone and that Christ is the only mediator between God and man, see also New Covenant. The doctrine was thought to be in contradistinction to several teachings of the Roman Catholic Church: the Pope as Christ's representative head of the Church on earth, the concept of meritorious works, and the idea of a treasury of the merits of saints. It is in some ways comparable to the church doctrine of Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus. A common Roman Catholic argument against Solus Christus is that Jesus needed to be born of a Mother, and that without the Theotokos, Jesus would have never existed as a human being (cf Mother of the Church, Annunciation and Incarnation). Another criticism is that the doctrine is somewhat redundant to Soli Deo Gloria, since the divinity of Jesus has been acknowledged since before the time of the Apostolic Fathers and the Council of Nicaea. But the term is distinct from Soli Deo Gloria in that its main thrust is the function of Christ as
    5.60
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    Pacifism

    Pacifism

    • Belief Of: Religious Society of Friends
    Pacifism is opposition to war and violence, even to the point of allowing self-harm rather than a resort to violent resistance. The term "pacifism" was coined by the French peace campaigner Émile Arnaud (1864–1921) and adopted by other peace activists at the tenth Universal Peace Congress in Glasgow in 1901. The concept is an ancient one that goes back to the teachings of Muhammad, Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha), and Jesus. In modern times, it was refined by Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) into the practice of steadfast nonviolent opposition which he called "satyagraha". Its effectiveness served as inspiration to Martin Luther King Jr. among many others. An iconic image of pacifism came out of the Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989 with the "Tank Man", where one protester stood in nonviolent opposition to a column of tanks. Historians have identified that event as being a key motivation that led to the fall of the Berlin Wall which ultimately precipitated the nonviolent fall of Communism. Pacifism covers a spectrum of views, including the belief that international disputes can and should be peacefully resolved, calls for the abolition of the institutions of the military and war, opposition
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    Meritocracy

    Meritocracy

    • Belief Of: Confucianism
    Meritocracy, in the first, most administrative sense, is a system of government or other administration (such as business administration) wherein appointments and responsibilities are objectively assigned to individuals based upon their "merits", namely intelligence, credentials, and education, determined through evaluations or examinations. The "most common definition of meritocracy conceptualizes merit in terms of tested competency and ability, and most likely as measured by IQ or standardized achievement tests." Supporters of meritocracies do not necessarily agree on the nature of "merit", however they tend to agree that "merit" itself should be a primary consideration during evaluation. In a more general sense, meritocracy can refer to any form of government based on achievement. Like "utilitarian" and "pragmatic", the word "meritocratic" has also developed a broader definition, and can be used to refer to any government run by "a ruling or influential class of educated or able people." This is in contrast to the term originally coined by Michael Young in 1958, who critically defined it as a system where "merit is equated with intelligence-plus-effort, its possessors are
    6.50
    4 votes
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    Peace

    Peace

    • Belief Of: Religious Society of Friends
    Peace is a state of harmony characterized by the lack of violent conflict and the freedom from fear of violence. Commonly understood as the absence of hostility, peace also suggests the existence of healthy or newly healed interpersonal or international relationships, prosperity in matters of social or economic welfare, the establishment of equality, and a working political order that serves the true interests of all. In international relations, peacetime is not only the absence of war or violent conflict, but also the presence of positive and respectful cultural and economic relationships. From the Latin pax, meaning "freedom from civil disorder," the English word came into use in various personal greetings from c.1300 as a translation of the Hebrew shalom. Such a translation is, however, imprecise, as Shalom, which is also cognate with the Arabic "salaam", has multiple other meanings in addition to peace, including justice, good health, safety, well-being, prosperity, equity, security, good fortune, and friendliness. At a personal level, peaceful behaviors are kind, considerate, respectful, just, and tolerant of others' beliefs and behaviors—tending to manifest goodwill. This
    7.67
    3 votes
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    Nontheism

    • Belief Of: Buddhism
    Nontheism is a term that covers a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence or rejection of theism or any belief in a personal god or gods. It has become an umbrella term for summarizing various distinct and even mutually exclusive positions united by a naturalist approach, such as agnosticism, skepticism, and atheism. It is in use in the fields of Christian apologetics and general liberal theology. Sometimes used synonymously with the term atheism, it can also include positions of belief in a non-personal deity, such as deism and pantheism. Nontheism can be expressed in a variety of ways. Strong or positive atheism is the positive belief that a god does not exist. Someone who does not think about the existence of a deity may be termed a weak or negative atheist, or more specifically implicitly atheist. Other, more qualified types of nontheism are often known as agnosticism: strong or positive agnosticism is the belief that it is impossible for humans to know whether or not any deities exist. It is a more precise opinion than weak or negative agnosticism, which is the belief that the existence or nonexistence of any deities is unknown but not
    9.00
    2 votes
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    End times

    End times

    • Belief Of: Abrahamic religion
    The end time (also called end times, end of days, last days or eschaton) is a time period described in the eschatological writings in the three Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) and in doomsday scenarios in Hinduism, Buddhism and various other non-Abrahamic religions. In Judaism the term "end of days" is a reference to the Messianic Age and the Jewish belief in the coming of mashiach and the Olam haba, that will usher in peace and unity for all mankind, in the service of one God. In Islam, Yawm al-Qiyāmah "the Day of Resurrection" or Yawm ad-Din "the Day of Judgement", Allah's final assessment of humanity, is preceded by the end of the world. In Christianity, the end times are often depicted as a time of tribulation that precedes the Second Coming of the Christian Messiah, Jesus, who will usher in the Kingdom of God and bring an end to suffering and evil and all things wrong with the current world which is tainted by original sin. Various other religions also have eschatological beliefs associated with turning and redemption. Since the advent of modern science in the 18th century, the discovery of deep time, and the age of the Earth, the concept of an end of
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    Godhead

    Godhead

    • Belief Of: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
    In the Mormonism represented by most of Mormon communities (including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), "God" means Elohim (the Father), whereas "Godhead" means a council of three distinct gods; Elohim, Jehovah (the Son, or Jesus), and the Holy Spirit. The Father and Son have perfected, material bodies, while the Holy Spirit is a spirit and does not have a body. This conception differs from the traditional Christian Trinity; in Mormonism, the three persons are considered to be physically separate beings, or personages, but united in will and purpose. As such, the term "Godhead" differs from how it is used in traditional Christianity. This description of God represents the orthodoxy of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), established early in the 19th century. However, the Mormon concept of God has expanded since the faith's founding in the late 1820s. Joseph Smith said after his First Vision that God and Jesus both have physical bodies. Being nontrinitarian, the teachings of the LDS Church differ from other Christian churches' theologies as established, for example, in the First Council of Constantinople. Mormon cosmology teaches the
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    Jah

    • Belief Of: Rastafari movement
    Jah ( /ˈdʒɑː/; Hebrew: יהּ‎ = Yah) is the shortened form of the divine name YHWH (also spelled Jehovah or Yahweh), an anglicized version of the Tetragrammaton (YHWH, Latin JHVH). The name is most commonly associated with the Rastafari movement or within the word hallelujah, although Christian groups may use the name to varying degrees. For example, Jehovah's Witnesses use a form of the name in over 400 languages. The name is used in some English Bible translations which reconstruct the Tetragrammaton; other versions sometimes use the academic Hebrew reconstruction "Yah". Some languages use the letter "I" instead of "Y" or "J": This should not be confused with the phonetically, theologically, and historically unrelated Egyptian god Iah. Other languages use CH (Choctaw), S (Tongan), and Z (Chin). Jah is often used as a shortened form of the reconstructed Tetragrammaton. The Tetragrammaton is often represented (especially in older English versions of the Bible) by the word "LORD"; and the expression "Hallelujah" by the phrase "Praise ye the LORD" (Psalm 104:35 KJV and footnote). The form Jah also appears in the transcription of certain biblical Hebrew names such as Adonijah. With the
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    Maya

    • Belief Of: Hinduism
    Maya or Māyā (Sanskrit माया māyā), in Indian religions, has multiple meanings, usually quoted as "illusion", centered on the fact that we do not experience the environment itself but rather a projection of it, created by us. Māyā is the principal deity that manifests, perpetuates and governs the illusion and dream of duality in the phenomenal Universe. For some mystics, this manifestation is real. Each person, each physical object, from the perspective of eternity, is like a brief, disturbed drop of water from an unbounded ocean. The goal of enlightenment is to understand this—more precisely, to experience this: to see intuitively that the distinction between the self and the Universe is a false dichotomy. The distinction between consciousness and physical matter, between mind and body (refer bodymind), is the result of an unenlightened perspective. The word origin of māyā is derived from the Sanskrit roots ma ("not") and ya, generally translated as an indicative article meaning "that". The mystic teachings in Vedanta are centered on a fundamental truth of the universe that cannot be reduced to a concept or word for the ordinary mind to manipulate. Rather, the human experience and
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    Degrees of glory

    Degrees of glory

    • Belief Of: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
    In Mormon theology, there are three degrees of glory (alternatively, kingdoms of glory) which are the ultimate, eternal dwelling place for nearly all who lived on earth after the Spirit world. Joseph Smith, Jr. described the afterlife based primarily upon a vision he claimed to have received together with Sidney Rigdon, at Hiram, Ohio, February 16, 1832, and recorded as Doctrine and Covenants Section 76. According to this section of LDS scripture, the afterlife consists of three degrees or kingdoms of glory, called the Celestial Kingdom, the Terrestrial Kingdom, and the Telestial Kingdom. The few who do not inherit any degree of glory (though they are resurrected) reside in a state called outer darkness, which, though not a degree of glory, is often discussed in this context. The ones who go there are known as "Sons of Perdition". The three degrees of glory are described in Section 76 of the Doctrine and Covenants. In the preface to Section 76 in the LDS edition of the Doctrine and Covenants, the following explanatory text is given: A vision given to Joseph Smith the Prophet and Sidney Rigdon, at Hiram, Ohio, February 16, 1832. Prefacing his record of this vision the Prophet wrote:
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    Humanism

    Humanism

    • Belief Of: Taoism
    Humanism is a body of philosophies and ethical perspectives that emphasize the value of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally place more importance on rational thought than on strict faith or adherence to principle. During the Renaissance period in Western Europe humanist movements attempted to demonstrate the benefit of gaining learning from classical, pre-Christian sources, which had previously been frowned upon by the Roman Catholic Church. In modern times, many humanist movements have become strongly aligned with atheism, with the term Humanism often used as a byword for non-theistic beliefs about otherwise theistic or spiritual ideas such as meaning and purpose. The term humanism can be ambiguously diverse, and there has been a persistent confusion between the several, related uses of the term because different intellectual movements have identified with it over time. In philosophy and social science, humanism refers to a perspective that affirms some notion of a "human nature" (contrasted with anti-humanism). The word "humanist" derives from the 15th-century Italian term umanista describing a teacher or scholar of classical Greek and Latin literature and
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    Original sin

    Original sin

    • Belief Of: Protestantism
    Original sin, also called ancestral sin, is, according to a Christian theological doctrine, humanity's state of sin resulting from the fall of man. This condition has been characterized in many ways, ranging from something as insignificant as a slight deficiency, or a tendency toward sin yet without collective guilt, referred to as a "sin nature", to something as drastic as total depravity or automatic guilt of all humans through collective guilt. The concept of original sin was first alluded to in the 2nd century by Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons in his controversy (written in Greek) with the dualist Gnostics. Its scriptural foundation is based on the New Testament teaching of Paul the Apostle (Romans 5:12-21 and 1 Corinthians 15:22). Tertullian, Cyprian, Ambrose and Ambrosiaster considered that mankind shares in Adam's sin, transmitted by human generation. Augustine's formulation of original sin was popular among Reformers, such as Martin Luther and John Calvin who equated original sin with concupiscence, affirming that it persisted even after baptism and completely destroyed freedom. Within Roman Catholicism, the Jansenist movement, which the Church then declared heretical, also
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    Salvation

    Salvation

    • Belief Of: Protestantism
    Salvation, in religion, is the saving of the soul from sin and its consequences. It may also be called "deliverance" or "redemption" from sin and its effects. Depending on the religious tradition, salvation is considered to be caused either by the free will and grace of a deity (in theistic religions) or by personal responsibility and self-effort (e.g. in the sramanic and yogic traditions of India). Religions often emphasize the necessity of both personal effort— for example, repentance and asceticism —and divine action (e.g. grace). Within soteriology, salvation has two related meanings. On the one hand it refers to the phenomenon of being saved by divine agency —such as is the case in Christianity, Judaism and Islam. On the other it refers to the phenomenon of the soul being saved (as in 'safe') from some unfortunate destiny. In the former, divine agency gives rise to the situation of the latter. Within Christianity salvation comes by way of grace through Jesus. (Ephesians 2:8-9) However, within Islam devotion, petition, supplication and liturgical participation are not enough alone to bring about salvation. Asceticism and repentance are necessary from both a practical and
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    Chaos magic

    Chaos magic

    • Belief Of: Discordianism
    Chaos magic, sometimes spelled chaos magick, is a school of the modern magical tradition which emphasizes the pragmatic use of belief systems and the creation of new and unorthodox methods. Although there are a few techniques unique to chaos magic (such as some forms of sigil magic), chaos magic is often highly individualistic and borrows liberally from other belief systems, due to chaos magic having a central belief that belief is a tool. Some common sources of inspiration include such diverse areas as science fiction, scientific theories, traditional ceremonial magic, neoshamanism, Eastern philosophy, world religions, and individual experimentation. Despite tremendous individual variation, chaos magicians (sometimes called "chaotes") often work with chaotic and humorous paradigms, such as the worship of Hundun from Taoism or Eris from Discordianism. Some chaos magicians also use psychedelic drugs in practices such as chemognosticism. Chaos magicians are often seen by other occultists as dangerous or worrisome revolutionaries. This magical discipline was first formulated in West Yorkshire, England in the 1970s. A meeting between Peter J. Carroll and Ray Sherwin in Deptford in 1976
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    Karma in Hinduism

    Karma in Hinduism

    • Belief Of: Hinduism
    Karma is a concept in Hinduism which explains causality through a system where beneficial effects are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful effects from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a soul's reincarnated lives forming a cycle of rebirth. The causality is said to be applicable not only to the material world but also to our thoughts, words, actions and actions that others do under our instructions. When the cycle of rebirth comes to an end, a person is said to have attained moksha, or salvation from samsara. Not all incarnations are human. The cycle of birth and death on earth is said to be formed from 8.4 million forms of life, but only in human life is an exit from this cycle possible. The doctrine of transmigration of the soul, with respect to fateful retribution for acts committed, does not appear in the Rig Veda. However, a new translation of two stanzas of the Rig Veda indicate that the Rishis may have had the idea, common among small-scale societies around the world, that an individual cycles back and forth between the earth and a heavenly realm of ancestors. In this worldview, moral behavior has no influence on
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    Nichiren Buddhism

    Nichiren Buddhism

    • Belief Of: Soka Gakkai International
    Nichiren Buddhism (日蓮系諸宗派: Nichiren-kei sho shūha) is a branch of Mahāyāna Buddhism based on the teachings of the 13th century Japanese Buddhist reformer Nichiren (1222–1282). Nichiren Buddhism is based on the Lotus Sutra, which teaches that all people have an innate Buddha nature and are therefore inherently capable of attaining enlightenment in their current form and present lifetime. Nichiren Buddhism is a comprehensive term covering several major schools and many sub-schools. Nichiren Buddhists believe that the spread of Nichiren's teachings and their effect on practitioners' lives will eventually bring about a peaceful, just, and prosperous society. From the age of 16 until 32, Nichiren studied in numerous temples in Japan, especially Mt. Hiei (Enryaku-ji) and Mt. Kōya, in his day the major centers of Buddhist study, in the Kyoto–Nara area. He eventually concluded that the highest teachings of Shakyamuni Buddha (563?–483?BC) were to be found in the Lotus Sutra. The mantra he expounded on 28 April 1253, known as the Daimoku or Odaimoku, Nam(u)-Myōhō-Renge-Kyō, expresses his devotion to that body of teachings. During his lifetime, Nichiren stridently maintained that the
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    Jain Cosmology

    Jain Cosmology

    • Belief Of: Jainism
    Jain cosmology is the description of the shape and functioning of the physical and metaphysical Universe (loka) and its constituents (such as living, matter, space, time etc.) according to Jainism, which includes the canonical Jain texts, commentaries and the writings of the Jain philosopher-monks. Jain cosmology considers the loka, or universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, having neither beginning nor end. Jain texts describe the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist. This Universe, according to Jainism, is broad at the top, narrow at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom. Mahāpurāṇa of Ācārya Jinasena is famous for this quote: "Some foolish men declare that a creator made the world. The doctrine that the world was created is ill advised and should be rejected. If God created the world, where was he before the creation? If you say he was transcendent then and needed no support, where is he now? How could God have made this world without any raw material? If you say that he made this first, and then the world, you are faced with an endless regression." This Universe is made up of what
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    Qiyamah

    Qiyamah

    • Belief Of: Islam
    In Islam, Yawm al-Qiyāmah (Arabic: يوم القيامة‎ "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Din (Arabic: يوم الدين‎ "the Day of Judgment") is believed to be God's final assessment of humanity as it exists. The sequence of events (according to the most commonly held belief) is the annihilation of all creatures allowable, resurrection of the body, and the judgment of all sentient creatures/beings. The exact time when these events are to occur is not specified; however, there are said to be major and minor signs which are to occur near the time of Qiyamah (end time). Many Qur'anic verses, especially the earlier ones, are dominated by the idea of the nearing of the day of resurrection. "al-Qiyama" is the name of the 75th Sura of the Qur'an, whose subject is the resurrection. Belief in al-Qiyāmah is considered a fundamental tenet of faith by all Muslims. Belief in the Day of Judgment is one of the six articles of faith. The trials and tribulations associated with it are detailed in both the Qur'an and the hadith, as well as in the commentaries of the Islamic expositors and scholarly authorities such as al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Majah, al-Bukhari, and Ibn Khuzaymah, who explain them in
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    Sola gratia

    Sola gratia

    • Belief Of: Protestantism
    Sola gratia is one of the five solas propounded to summarise the Reformers' basic beliefs during the Protestant Reformation; it is a Latin term meaning grace alone. Protestant reformers believed that this emphasis was in contradistinction to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, though the Catholic Church had explicitly affirmed the doctrine of sola gratia in the year 529 in the Council of Orange, which condemned the Pelagianism heresy. As a response to this misunderstanding, Catholic doctrine was further clarified in that Council of Trent-- the Council explained that salvation is made possible only by grace; the faith and works of men are secondary means that have their origins in and are sustained by grace. During the Reformation, Protestant leaders and theologians generally believed the Roman Catholic view of the means of salvation to be a mixture of reliance upon the grace of God, and confidence in the merits of one's own works performed in love, pejoratively called Legalism. The Reformers posited that salvation is entirely comprehended in God's gifts (that is, God's act of free grace), dispensed by the Holy Spirit according to the redemptive work of Jesus Christ
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    Afrocentrism

    Afrocentrism

    • Belief Of: Rastafari movement
    Afrocentrism (also Afrocentricity) is a cultural ideology, worldview mostly limited to the United States and is dedicated to the history of Black people. It is a response to global (Eurocentric/Orientalist) racist attitudes about African people and their historical contributions and revisits their history with an African cultural and ideological focus. Afrocentricity deals primarily with self-determination and African agency and is a Pan-African ideology in culture, philosophy, and history. Afrocentrism can be seen as an African-American inspired ideology that manifests an affirmation of themselves in a Eurocentric-dominated society, commonly by conceptualizing a glorified heritage in terms of distinctly African, foreign origins (where foreign is anything not indigenous to Sub-Saharan Africa). It often denies or minimizes European cultural influences while accenting historical African civilizations that independently accomplished a significant level of cultural and technological development. In general, Afrocentrism is usually manifested in a focus on African-American culture and the history of Africa, and involves an African-centered view of history and culture to portray the
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    Islamic concept of God

    Islamic concept of God

    • Belief Of: Islam
    In Islamic theology, God (Arabic: الله‎ Allāh ) is the all-powerful and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer, and judge of the universe. Islam emphasizes that God is strictly singular (tawḥīd ) unique (wāḥid ) and inherently One (aḥad ), all-merciful and omnipotent. According to Islamic teachings, God exists without place and according to the Qur'an, "No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision. God is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things" (Qur'an 6:103) God, as referenced in the Qur'an, is the only God and the same God worshiped by members of other Abrahamic religions such as Christianity and Judaism. (29:46). In Islam, there are 99 Names of God (al-asmāʼ al-ḥusná lit. meaning: "The best names") each of which evoke a distinct attribute of God. All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name. Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and most frequent of these names are "the Compassionate" (al-raḥmān) and "the Merciful" (al-raḥīm). Creation and ordering of the universe is seen as an act of prime mercy for which all creatures sing God's glories and bear witness to God's unity and lordship. God responds to those
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    Buddha-nature

    • Belief Of: Soka Gakkai International
    Buddha-nature, Buddha-dhatu or Buddha Principle (Skt: Buddha-dhātu, Tathāgatagarbha; Jap: Bussho), is taught differently in various Mahayana Buddhism traditions. Broadly speaking Buddha-nature is concerned with ascertaining what allows sentient beings to become Buddhas. The term, Buddha nature, is a translation of the Sanskrit coinage, 'Buddha-dhātu', which seems first to have appeared in the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra,, where it refers to 'a sacred nature that is the basis for [beings'] becoming buddhas.' Buddha-nature (Classical Chinese: 佛性, modern pinyin fó xìng) literally corresponds to the Sanskrit Buddha-dhātu - "Buddha Element", "Buddha-Principle", but seems to have been used most frequently to translate the Sanskrit "Tathāgatagarbha". The Sanskrit term "tathāgatagarbha" may be parsed into tathāgata ("the one thus gone", referring to the Buddha) and garbha ("root/embryo"). The latter has the meanings: "embryo", "essence"; whilst the former may be parsed into "tathā" ("[s]he who has there" and "āgata" (semantic field: "come", "arrived") and/or "gata" ("gone"). For the various equivalents of the Sanskrit term "tathāgatagarbha" in other languages (Chinese, Japanese,
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    De

    • Belief Of: Taoism
    De (/deɪ/; Chinese: 德; pinyin: dé; Wade–Giles: te) is a key concept in Chinese philosophy, usually translated "inherent character; inner power; integrity" in Taoism, "moral character; virtue; morality" in Confucianism and other contexts, and "quality; virtue" (guna) or "merit; virtuous deeds" (punya) in Chinese Buddhism. Chinese de 德 is an ancient and linguistically complex word. The following analyzes it in terms of semantics, graphics, and etymology. The Hanyu Da Zidian, defines twenty meanings for de 德, translatable as This dictionary provides early usage examples, and all of these de meanings occur in Han or pre-Han Chinese classic texts, except for number 17 (de abbreviating Deutschland). Translating de into English is problematic and controversial. Arthur Waley believed that de was better translated "power" than "virtue", and explained with a "bank of fortune" metaphor. It is usually translated 'virtue', and this often seems to work quite well; though where the word occurs in early, pre-moralistic texts such a translation is in reality quite false. But if we study the usage of the word carefully we find that de can be bad as well as good. What is a 'bad virtue'? Clearly
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    Reincarnation

    Reincarnation

    • Belief Of: Hinduism
    Reincarnation is the religious or philosophical concept that the soul or spirit, after biological death, begins a new life in a new body that may be human, animal or spiritual depending on the moral quality of the previous life's actions. This doctrine is a central tenet of the Indian religions and is a belief that was held by such historic figures as Pythagoras, Plato and Socrates. It is also a common belief of pagan religions such as Druidism, Spiritism, Theosophy, and Eckankar and is found in many tribal societies around the world, in places such as Siberia, West Africa, North America, and Australia. Although the majority of sects within Judaism, Christianity and Islam do not believe that individuals reincarnate, particular groups within these religions do refer to reincarnation; these groups include the mainstream historical and contemporary followers of Kabbalah, the Cathars, and the Shia sects such as the Alawi Shias and the Druze and the Rosicrucians. The historical relations between these sects and the beliefs about reincarnation that were characteristic of Neoplatonism, Orphism, Hermeticism, Manicheanism and Gnosticism of the Roman era, as well as the Indian religions has
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    Restorationism

    Restorationism

    • Belief Of: Mormonism
    Christian primitivism, the primitive Christian movement, or restorationism is the belief that Christianity should be restored along the lines of what is known about the apostolic early church, which restorationists see as the search for a more pure and more ancient form of the religion. Fundamentally, "this vision seeks to correct faults or deficiencies [in the church] by appealing to the primitive church as a normative model." The term "restorationism" is sometimes used more specifically as a synonym for the American Restoration Movement. The term is also used by more recent groups, describing their goal to re-establish Christianity in its original form, such as some anti-denominational Charismatic Restorationists, which arose in the 1970s in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. In comparable terms, earlier primitivist movements, including the Hussites, Anabaptists, Landmarkists and the Puritans, have been described as examples of restorationism, as have many seventh-day Sabbatarians. Efforts to restore an earlier, purer form of Christianity are often a response to denominationalism. As Rubel Shelly put it, "[t]he motive behind all restoration movements is to tear down the walls of
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    Zion

    Zion

    • Belief Of: Rastafari movement
    Zion (Hebrew: ציון‎) (also transliterated Sion, Tzion or Tsion) is a place name often used as a synonym for Jerusalem. The word is first found in Samuel II, 5:7 dating to c.630–540 BCE according to modern scholarship. It commonly referred to a specific mountain near Jerusalem (Mount Zion), on which stood a Jebusite fortress of the same name that was conquered by David and was named the City of David. The term Tzion came to designate the area of Jerusalem where the fortress stood, and later became a metonym for Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem, the city of Jerusalem and generally, the World to Come. In Kabbalah the more esoteric reference is made to Tzion being the spiritual point from which reality emerges, located in the Holy of Holies of the First, Second and Third Temple. The etymology of the word Zion (ṣiyôn) is uncertain. Mentioned in the Bible in the Book of Samuel (2 Samuel 5:7) as the name of the Jebusite fortress conquered by King David, its origin likely predates the Israelites. If Semitic, it may be derived from the Hebrew root ''ṣiyyôn ("castle") or the Hebrew ṣiyya ("dry land," Jeremiah 51:43). A non-Semitic relationship to the Hurrian word šeya ("river" or "brook") has
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    Nontrinitarianism

    Nontrinitarianism

    • Belief Of: Jehovah's Witnesses
    Nontrinitarianism (or antitrinitarianism) refers to monotheistic belief systems, primarily within Christianity, which reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, namely, the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases or persons and yet co-eternal, co-equal, and indivisibly united in one essence or ousia. According to churches that consider ecumenical council decisions final, trinitarianism was infallibly defined at the First Ecumenical Council (the Council of Nicaea) in 325 A.D. Nontrinitarians disagree with the findings of the Council for various reasons, including the belief that the Bible as they understand it takes precedence over creeds, or that there was a Great Apostasy prior to the Council. Church and state in Europe suppressed nontrinitarian belief as heresy from the 4th to 18th century. Today nontrinitarians represent a small minority of professed Christians. Nontrinitarian views differ widely on the nature of God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit. Various nontrinitarian views, such as Adoptionism, Monarchianism and Arianism existed prior to the formal definition of the Trinity doctrine in 325, 360, and 431 AD, at the Councils of Nicaea, Constantinople, and Ephesus.
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    Wu wei

    • Belief Of: Taoism
    Wu wei (Chinese: 無爲; a variant and derivatives: traditional Chinese: 無為; simplified Chinese: 无为; pinyin: wú wéi; Japanese: 無為; Korean: 무위; Vietnamese: Vô vi; English, lit. non-doing) is an important concept in Taoism that literally means non-action or non-doing. In the Tao te Ching, Laozi explains that beings (or phenomena) that are wholly in harmony with the Tao behave in a completely natural, uncontrived way. As the planets revolve around the sun, they "do" this revolving, but without "doing" it. As trees grow, they simply grow without trying to grow. Thus knowing how and when to act is not knowledge in the sense that one would think, "now I should do this," but rather just doing it, doing the natural thing. The goal of spiritual practice for the human being is, according to Laozi, the attainment of this natural way of behaving. Wu may be translated as not have or without; Wei may be translated as do, act, serve as, govern or effort. The literal meaning of wu wei is "without action", "without effort", or "without control", and is often included in the paradox wei wu wei: "action without action" or "effortless doing". The practice of wu wei and the efficacy of wei wu wei are
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    Omnipotence

    • Belief Of: Judaism
    Omnipotence (from Latin: Omni Potens: "all power") is unlimited power. Monotheistic religions generally attribute omnipotence to only the deity of whichever faith is being addressed. In the monotheistic philosophies of Abrahamic religions, omnipotence is often listed as one of a deity's characteristics among many, including omniscience, omnipresence, and omnibenevolence. Between people of different faiths, or indeed between people of the same faith, the term omnipotent has been used to connote a number of different positions. These positions include, but are not limited to, the following: Under many philosophical definitions of the term "deity", senses 2, 3 and 4 can be shown to be equivalent. However, on all understandings of omnipotence, it is generally held that a deity is able to intervene in the world by superseding the laws of physics, since they are not part of its nature, but the principles on which it has created the physical world. However many modern scholars (such as John Polkinghorne) hold that it is part of a deity's nature to be consistent and that it would be inconsistent for a deity to go against its own laws unless there were an overwhelming reason to do so. The
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    Trinity

    Trinity

    • Belief Of: Protestantism
    The Christian doctrine of the Trinity defines God as three divine persons (Greek: ὑποστάσεις): the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit. The three persons are distinct yet coexist in unity, and are co-equal, co-eternal and consubstantial (Greek: ὁμοούσιοι). Put another way, the three persons of the Trinity are of one being (Greek: οὐσία). The Trinity is considered to be a mystery of Christian faith. According to this doctrine, there is only one God in three persons. Each person is God, whole and entire. They are distinct from one another in their relations of origin: as the Fourth Lateran Council declared, "it is the Father who generates, the Son who is begotten, and the Holy Spirit who proceeds". While distinct in their relations with one another, they are one in all else. The whole work of creation and grace is a single operation common to all three divine persons, who at the same time operate according to their unique properties, so that all things are from the Father, through the Son and in the Holy Spirit. Trinitarianism (one deity in three persons) contrasts with non-Trinitarian positions which include Binitarianism (one deity in two persons, or two deities),
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    Unitarian monotheism

    • Belief Of: Judaism
    Unitarian Monotheism is a form of monotheism that teaches that the single god/God is not and cannot be divided into more than one part. Examples of religions that have this teaching are Judaism, Samaritanism, Church of God of the Abrahamic Faith, and Islam. In contrast with Unitarian Monotheism is Trinitarian Monotheism.
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    Divine grace

    Divine grace

    Divine grace is a theological term which is present in many and varied spiritual traditions. However, there are significant differences between the way people of different traditions use the word. In particular, a more treatment of the Grace of God indicates that Divine Grace is one of the three categories of Grace. The other two are Material Grace and Spiritual Grace. Romans 5:1-2 (King James Version) "Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ: By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand..." Galatians 5:4 (King James Version) "Christ is become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by the law; ye are fallen from grace." Grace in this context is something that is God-given, made possible only by Jesus Christ and none other. It is God's gift of salvation granted to sinners for their salvation. Common Christian teaching is that grace is unmerited mercy (favor) that God gave to humanity by sending his son to die on a cross, thus delivering eternal salvation. For example Luke 2:40 (King James Version) "And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, filled with wisdom: and the grace of God was upon
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    Pyaar

    • Belief Of: Sikhism
    Pyaar means Love for the Lord and His creation. This is one of five virtues that is vigorously promoted by the Sikh Gurus. The other four qualities in the arsenal are: Truth (Sat), Contentment (Santokh), Compassion (Daya) and Humility (Nimrata). These five qualities are essential to a Sikh and it is their duty to meditate and recite the Gurbani so that these virtues become a part of their mind set. This is a very positive and powerful tool in the Sikhs arsenal of virtues. When one's mind is full of love, the person will overlook deficiency in others and accept them wholeheartedly as a product of God. Sikhism asks all believers to take on "god-like" virtues and this perhaps is the most "god-like" characteristic of all. Gurbani tells us that Waheguru is a "loving God", full of compassion and kindness. It is the duty of the Sikh to take on qualities of this nature and to easily forgive; to never hate anyone; to live in His Hukam - "Will" and to practise compassion and humility. "My mind is imbued with the Lord's Love; it is dyed a deep crimson. Truth and charity are my white clothes." (Guru Granth Sahib page 16) Ones mind has to be immersed in "love" of the Lord at all times to
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    Virgin Birth

    Virgin Birth

    • Belief Of: Catholicism
    The virgin birth of Jesus (also referred to as the virginal conception) is a doctrine of Christianity and Islam which holds that Mary miraculously conceived Jesus while remaining a virgin. It was universally held in the Christian church by the 2nd century, and is included in the two most widely used Christian creeds, which state that Jesus "was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary" (the Nicene Creed) and was "born of the Virgin Mary" (Apostles' Creed). It was not seriously challenged, except by some minor sects, before the 18th century. The earliest expressions of the doctrine are found in the gospels of Matthew (Matthew 1:18) and Luke, which say that Mary was a virgin at the time of Jesus' birth and that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit. These gospels, later tradition and current doctrine present Jesus' conception as a miracle involving no natural father, no sexual intercourse, and no male seed in any form, but instead brought about by the Holy Spirit. In Roman Catholic and Eastern and Oriental Orthodox faith, the virgin birth is subsumed by the doctrine that Mary remained a virgin throughout her life, a belief first documented in the 2nd century. The general
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    Naraka

    Naraka

    • Belief Of: Buddhism
    Naraka (Sanskrit: नरक) or Niraya (Pāli: निरय) is the name given to one of the worlds of greatest suffering in Buddhist cosmology. Naraka is usually translated into English as "hell", "hell realm", or "purgatory". The Narakas of Buddhism are closely related to diyu, the hell in Chinese mythology. A Naraka differs from the hells of Abrahamic religions in two respects: firstly, beings are not sent to Naraka as the result of a divine judgment and punishment; secondly, the length of a being's stay in a Naraka is not eternal, though it is usually very long. Instead, a being is born into a Naraka as a direct result of his or her accumulated karma and resides there for a finite period of time until that karma has achieved its full result. After his or her karma is used up, he or she will be reborn in one of the higher worlds as the result of karma that had not yet ripened. In the Devaduta Sutta, the 130th discourse of Majjhima Nikaya, the Buddha teaches about hell in vivid detail. Physically, Narakas are thought of as a series of cavernous layers which extend below Jambudvīpa (the ordinary human world) into the earth. There are several schemes for enumerating these Narakas and describing
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    Polytheism

    Polytheism

    • Belief Of: Taoism
    Polytheism is the woship or belief in multiple deities usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals. Polytheism is a type of theism. Within theism, it contrasts with monotheism, the belief in a singular God. Polytheists do not always worship all the gods equally, but can be henotheists, specializing in the worship of one particular deity. Other polytheists can be kathenotheists, worshipping different deities at different times. Polytheism was the typical form of religion during the Bronze Age and Iron Age, up to the Axial Age and the gradual development of monotheism or pantheism, and atheism. It is well documented in historical religions of Classical antiquity, especially Greek polytheism and Roman polytheism, and after the decline of Greco-Roman polytheism in tribal religions such as Germanic paganism or Slavic mythology. It continues into the modern period in traditions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Shintoism, Chinese folk religion, Wicca, Druidry, Taoism, Asatru and Candomble. The term comes from the Greek poly ("many") and theoi ("gods") and was first invented by the Jewish writer Philo of Alexandria to argue with the
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    Unconditional election

    Unconditional election

    • Belief Of: Calvinism
    Unconditional election is the Calvinist teaching that before God created the world, he chose to save some people according to his own purposes and apart from any conditions related to those persons. The counter-view is conditional election, the belief that God chooses, for eternal salvation, those whom He foresees will have faith in Christ. Unconditional election is drawn from the doctrines of salvation adopted by Augustine of Hippo, was first codified in the Belgic Confession (1561), re-affirmed in the Canons of Dort (1619), which arose from the Quinquarticular Controversy, and is represented in the various Reformed confessions such as the Westminster Standards (1646). It is one of the five points of Calvinism and is often linked with predestination. In Calvinist theology, election is considered to be one aspect of predestination in which God selects certain individuals to be saved. Those elected receive mercy, while those not elected, the reprobates, receive justice without condition. This unconditional election is essentially related to the rest of the TULIP hinged upon the supreme basic belief in the sovereignty of God. Unconditional election is God's choice to save people
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    Infallibility of the Church

    • Belief Of: Catholicism
    The infallibility of the Church (or, more properly, indefectibility of the Church) is the belief that the Holy Spirit will not allow the Church to err in its belief or teaching under certain circumstances. In Christianity, this belief is held by the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. The doctrine of the infallibility of ecumenical councils states that solemn definitions of ecumenical councils, approved by the pope, which concern faith or morals, and to which the whole Church must adhere are infallible. Such decrees are often labeled as 'Canons' and they often have an attached anathema, a penalty of excommunication, against those who refuse to believe the teaching. The doctrine does not claim that every aspect of every ecumenical council is infallible. The Roman Catholic Church holds this doctrine, as do most or all Eastern Orthodox theologians. However, the Orthodox churches accept only the first seven general councils as genuinely ecumenical, while Roman Catholics accept twenty-one. Only a very few Protestants believe in the infallibility of ecumenical councils, but they usually restrict this infallibility to the Christological statements of the first seven
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    Perseverance of the saints

    Perseverance of the saints

    • Belief Of: Calvinism
    Perseverance of the saints, as well as the corollary—though distinct—doctrine known as "Once Saved, Always Saved", is a Calvinist teaching that asserts that once persons are truly "born of God", or "regenerated" nothing in heaven or earth "shall be able to separate (them) from the love of God" (Romans 8:39). Sometimes this position is held in conjunction with Reformed Christian confessions of faith in traditional Calvinist doctrine which argues that all men are "dead in trespasses and sins", and thus, apart from being resurrected from spiritual death to spiritual life none choose salvation of their own accord. Calvinists maintain that God selected certain individuals before the world began and then draws them to faith in His Son, Jesus Christ. They believe that when Jesus said, "No man can come unto Me except the Father which hath sent Me draw him", that Jesus was saying that men had to be drawn to Him by God before they would believe. Calvinists have long taught that when the apostle Paul wrote, "God hath chosen us in Him before the foundation of the world" (Ephesians 1:4), that it the passage is meant be understood that God actually choses believers in Christ before the world was
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    Tradition

    Tradition

    • Belief Of: Shinto
    A tradition is a ritual, belief or object passed down within a society, also a basical character of a society still maintained in the present, with origins in the past. Common examples include holidays or impractical but socially meaningful clothes (like lawyer wigs or military officer spurs), but the idea has also been applied to social norms such as greetings. Traditions can persist and evolve for thousands of years—the word "tradition" itself derives from the Latin tradere or traderer literally meaning to transmit, to hand over, to give for safekeeping. While it is commonly assumed that traditions have ancient history, many traditions have been invented on purpose, whether that be political or cultural, over short periods of time. Certain scholarly fields, such as anthropology and biology, have adapted the term "tradition," defining it more precisely than its conventional use in order to facilitate scholarly discourse. The concept of tradition, as the notion of holding on to a previous time, is also found in political and philosophical discourse. For example, the political concept of traditionalism is based around it, as are strands of many world religions including traditional
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    70
    World peace

    World peace

    • Belief Of: Bahá'í Faith
    World peace is an ideal of freedom, peace, and happiness among and within all nations and/or people. World peace is an idea of planetary non-violence by which nations willingly cooperate, either voluntarily or by virtue of a system of governance that prevents warfare. The term is sometimes used to refer to a cessation of all hostility among all individuals. For example, World Peace could be crossing boundaries via human rights, technology, education, engineering, medicine, diplomats and/or an end to all forms of fighting. Since 1945 World Peace has been upheld by the United Nations and the 5 permanent members of the Security Council who all hold equal veto power. Upholding equality is said to be one of the foundation of World Peace. While world peace is theoretically possible, some believe that human nature inherently prevents it. This belief stems from the idea that humans are naturally violent, or that rational agents will choose to commit violent acts in certain circumstances. Others, however, believe that war is absolutely not an innate part of human nature, and that this myth in fact prevents people from reaching for world peace. Many theories as to how world peace could be
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    71

    Creation

    • Belief Of: Protestantism
    Creation is a doctrinal position in many religions and philosophical belief systems which maintains that one or more deities is responsible for creating the universe. The theological implications of creation may take a variety of forms, the most innocuous being that of a religious dogma, although there are varieties of such a belief fully compatible with a scientific point of view. There are religious believers who extend this to a strident advocacy of creationism, but the doctrinal belief is not necessarily synonymous with such advocacy. Traditional Judaism and Christianity holds the belief in a divine creation of the cosmos as it is recounted in the Bible. This is affirmed by most scientific creationists. It is wrongly asserted by some that scientific creationists believe that the process of creation is uncovered best through scientific investigation, experiment and observation. This is incorrect. Scientific creationists believe that the processes present at the beginning of the world are not observable, and therefore the process of creation itself cannot be uncovered. What scientific creationists do believe, however, is that the observable creation itself will, by scientific
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    72

    Omniscience

    • Belief Of: Judaism
    Omniscience ( /ɒmˈnɪʃəns/), mainly in religion, is the capacity to know everything that there is to know. In particular, Hinduism and the Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) believe that there is a divine being who is omniscient. An omniscient point-of-view, in writing, is to know everything that can be known about a character, including past history, thoughts, feelings, etc. In Latin, omnis means "all" and sciens means "knowing". There is a distinction between: Some modern Christian theologians argue that God's omniscience is inherent rather than total, and that God chooses to limit his omniscience in order to preserve the freewill and dignity of his creatures. John Calvin, among other theologians of the 16th century, comfortable with the definition of God as being omniscient in the total sense, in order for worthy beings' abilities to choose freely, embraced the doctrine of predestination. Omnipotence (unlimited power) is sometimes understood to also imply the capacity to know everything that will be. Nontheism often claims that the very concept of omniscience is inherently contradictory. Whether omniscience, particularly regarding the choices that a human will
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    Total depravity

    Total depravity

    • Belief Of: Calvinism
    Total depravity (also called absolute inability, radical corruption, total corruption, or Augustinianism) is a theological doctrine derived from the Augustinian concept of original sin. It is the teaching that, as a consequence of the Fall of Man, every person born into the world is enslaved to the service of sin and, apart from the efficacious or prevenient grace of God, is utterly unable to choose to follow God, refrain from evil, or accept the gift of salvation as it is offered. It is advocated to various degrees by many Protestant confessions of faith and catechisms, including those of Lutheranism, Arminianism, and Calvinism. Total depravity is the fallen state of human beings as a result of original sin. The doctrine of total depravity asserts that people are by nature not inclined or even able to love God wholly with heart, mind, and strength, but rather all are inclined by nature to serve their own will and desires and to reject the rule of God. Even religion and philanthropy are wicked to God to the extent that these originate from a human imagination, passion, and will, and are not done to the glory of God. Therefore, in Reformed theology, if God is to save anyone God must
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    74

    Dharma

    • Belief Of: Hinduism
    Dharma  listen (help·info) (Sanskrit: धर्म dhárma, Pali: धम्म dhamma; lit. that which upholds, supports or maintains the regulatory order of the universe) means Law or Natural Law and is a concept of central importance in Indian philosophy and religion. As well as referring to Law in the universal or abstract sense dharma designates those behaviours considered necessary for the maintenance of the natural order of things. Therefore dharma may encompass ideas such as duty, vocation, religion and everything that is considered correct, proper or decent behaviour. The idea of dharma as duty or propriety derives from an idea found in India's ancient legal and religious texts that there is a divinely instituted natural order of things (rta) and justice, social harmony and human happiness require that human beings discern and live in a manner appropriate to the requirements of that order. Dharma states that there are guidelines or rules that must be obeyed varying from place to place . The source of any individual dharma lies in the nature of each individual and is part of their customs and practices. According to the various Indian religions, such as Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and
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    75

    23

    • Belief Of: Discordianism
    The 23 enigma refers to the belief that most incidents and events are directly connected to the number 23. Robert Anton Wilson cites William S. Burroughs as being the first person to believe in the 23 enigma. Wilson, in an article in Fortean Times, related the following story: Burroughs wrote a short story in 1967 called "23 Skidoo." The term "23 skidoo" was popularized in the early 1920s and means "it's time to get (leave) while the getting is good." It appeared in newspapers as early as 1906. The Principia Discordia states that "All things happen in fives, or are divisible by or are multiples of five, or are somehow directly or indirectly appropriate to 5"—this is referred to as the Law of Fives. The 23 Enigma is regarded as a corollary of this law, since 2+3=5. It can be seen in Robert Anton Wilson and Robert Shea's The Illuminatus! Trilogy (therein called the "23/17 phenomenon"), Wilson's Cosmic Trigger I: The Final Secret of the Illuminati (therein called "The Law of fives" and "The 23 Enigma"), Arthur Koestler's Challenge of Chance, as well as the Principia Discordia. In these works, 23 is considered lucky, unlucky, sinister, strange, or sacred to the goddess Eris or to the
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    76

    Relativism

    • Belief Of: Taoism
    Relativism is the concept that points of view have no absolute truth or validity, having only relative, subjective value according to differences in perception and consideration. The term is often used to refer to the context of moral principle, where in a relativistic mode of thought, principles and ethics are regarded as applicable in only limited context. There are many forms of relativism which vary in their degree of controversy. The term often refers to truth relativism, which is the doctrine that there are no absolute truths, i.e., that truth is always relative to some particular frame of reference, such as a language or a culture (cf. cultural relativism). Another widespread and contentious form is moral relativism. Some relativists such as Ludwig Wittgenstein in his Philosophical Investigations claim that humans can understand and evaluate beliefs and behaviors only in terms of their historical or cultural context. Anthropological relativism refers to a methodological stance, in which the researcher suspends (or brackets) his or her own cultural biases while attempting to understand beliefs and behaviors in their local contexts. This has become known as methodological
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    Soli Deo gloria

    Soli Deo gloria

    • Belief Of: Protestantism
    Soli Deo gloria is a Latin term for Glory to God alone. It has been used by artists like Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel and Christoph Graupner to give God credit for their work. The phrase has become one of the five solas propounded to summarise the Reformers' basic beliefs during the Protestant Reformation. As a doctrine, it means essentially that everything that is done is for God's glory to the exclusion of humankind's self-glorification and pride. Christians are to be motivated and inspired by God's glory and not their own. The three words S.D.G. have meanings in Latin as follows: soli is the (irregular) dative singular of the adjective "lone", "sole", and agrees with the dative singular Deo, (in the nominative dictionary form Deus), meaning "to God"; and gloria is the nominative case of "glory". Soli Deo gloria is usually translated glory to God alone, but some translate it glory to the only God. A similar phrase is found in the Vulgate translation of the Bible: "soli Deo honor et gloria". This is grammatically the same as the signature of Bach and Handel, but using the dative "to the only God" then two nominative subjects "honour and glory." The verse reads
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    80
    Nirvana

    Nirvana

    • Belief Of: Pure Land Buddhism
    Nirvāṇa (Sanskrit: निर्वाण; Pali: निब्बान, nibbāna; Prakrit: णिव्वाण) is an ancient Sanskrit term used in Indian religions to describe the profound peace of mind that is acquired with moksha (liberation). In shramanic thought, it is the state of being free from suffering. In Hindu philosophy, it is union with the Brahman (Supreme Being). The word literally means "blown out" (as in a candle) and refers, in the Buddhist context, to the imperturbable stillness of mind after the fires of desire, aversion, and delusion have been finally extinguished. Nirvana is a composed of three phones ni and va and na: Vana is forest in/of the forest/forests; composed of flowers and other items of the forest., but vana has both phones van and va. Van has both an auspicious and ominous aspect: The abhidharma-mahāvibhāsa-sāstra, a sarvastivādin commentary, 3rd century BCE and later, describes the possible etymological interpretations of the word nirvana. Each of the five aggregates is called a skandha, which means "tree trunk". Each skandha informs the study of one's every normal experience, but eventually leads away from nirvana. Skandha also means "heap" or "pile" or "mass", like an endless knot's
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    81

    Providentialism

    • Belief Of: Quiverfull
    Providentialism is a belief that God's will is evident in all occurrences. It can further be described as a belief that the power of God (or Providence) is so complete that humans cannot equal his abilities, or fully understand his plan. Another aspect of providentialism is the belief that God's plan is beyond the control of humans, and that sometimes this may be expressed in seemingly bad things happening to good people. It may further be understood as a belief that all that occurs is for the greater good. Providentialism was frequently featured in discussions in European circles seeking to justify imperialism in the 19th century, on the grounds that the suffering caused by European conquest was justified under the grounds of furthering God's plan and spreading Christianity to distant nations. Providentialism is also a term sometimes used to refer to the general philosophy of Quiverfull adherents. Quiverfull is a small movement among conservative evangelical Christians. Advocates oppose the general acceptance among Protestant Christians of deliberately limiting family size through use of birth control. Advocates believe God controls via providence how many children are conceived
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    82
    Anekantavada

    Anekantavada

    • Belief Of: Jainism
    Anekāntavāda (Devanagari: अनेकान्तवाद) is one of the most important and fundamental doctrines of Jainism. It refers to the principles of pluralism and multiplicity of viewpoints, the notion that truth and reality are perceived differently from diverse points of view, and that no single point of view is the complete truth. Jains contrast all attempts to proclaim absolute truth with adhgajanyāyah, which can be illustrated through the parable of the "blind men and an elephant". In this story, each blind man felt a different part of an elephant (trunk, leg, ear, etc.). All the men claimed to understand and explain the true appearance of the elephant, but could only partly succeed, due to their limited perspectives. This principle is more formally stated by observing that objects are infinite in their qualities and modes of existence, so they cannot be completely grasped in all aspects and manifestations by finite human perception. According to the Jains, only the Kevalis—omniscient beings—can comprehend objects in all aspects and manifestations; others are only capable of partial knowledge. Consequently, no single, specific, human view can claim to represent absolute truth. The origins
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    83

    Objectivity

    • Belief Of: Anti-theist
    Objectivity is a central philosophical concept which has been variously defined by sources. A proposition is generally considered to be objectively true when its truth conditions are met and are "mind-independent"—that is, existing freely or independently from the thoughts of a conscious entity or subject. In a simpler form, Objectivity is the ability to judge fairly. "Objectivism" is a term that describes a branch of philosophy that originated in the early nineteenth century. Gottlob Frege was the first to apply it, when he expounded an epistemological and metaphysical theory contrary to that of Immanuel Kant. Kant's rationalism attempted to reconcile the failures he perceived in Philosophical realism. Objectivism, in this context, is an alternative name for philosophical realism, the view that there is a reality, or ontological realm of objects and facts, that exists independent of the mind. Stronger versions of this claim hold that there is only one correct description of this reality. If it is true that reality is mind-independent, then reality might include objects that are unknown to consciousness and thus might include objects not the subject of intensionality. Objectivity
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    84
    The Fall of Man

    The Fall of Man

    • Belief Of: Protestantism
    In Christian doctrine, the fall of man, or simply the fall, was the transition of the first humans from a state of innocent obedience to God to a state of guilty disobedience to God. Though not named in the Bible, the concept for the Fall comes from Genesis chapter 3. Adam and Eve live at first with God in a paradise, but the serpent tempts them into eating the fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, which God forbade. After doing so they become ashamed of their nakedness and God consequently expelled them from paradise. The Fall is a story of disobedience and expulsion and is referred to in both Testaments in different ways. Many Christian denominations believe that the fall corrupted the entire natural world, including human nature, causing people to be born into original sin, a state from which they cannot attain eternal life without the gracious intervention of God. Protestants hold that Jesus's death was a "ransom" by which humanity was offered freedom from the sin acquired at the fall. In other religions, such as Judaism, Islam, and Gnosticism, the term "the fall" is not recognised and varying interpretations of the Eden narrative are presented. The term
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    Tikkun olam

    • Belief Of: Judaism
    Tikkun olam (Hebrew: תיקון עולם‎) is a Hebrew phrase that means "repairing the world" (or "healing and restoring the world") which suggests humanity's shared responsibility (with the Creator) "to heal, repair and transform the world." In Judaism, the concept of tikkun olam originated in the early rabbinic period. The concept was given new meanings in the kabbalah of the medieval period and further connotations in modern Judaism. The expression tikkun olam is used in the Mishnah in the phrase mip'nei tikkun ha-olam ("for the sake of tikkun of the world") to indicate that a practice should be followed not because it is required by Biblical law, but because it helps avoid social disharmony. One example is in Gittin 4:2. At first a person used to convene a Court in another place and cancel it. Rabban Gamliel the Elder enacted in the public interest (mip'nei tikkun ha-olam) that they should not do so. At first a person used to change his name and her name, the name of his city and the name of her city, and Rabban Gamliel the Elder enacted in the public interest (mip'nei tikkun ha-olam) that he should write, "The man so-and-so and every name that he has," "The woman so-and-so and every
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    86
    Transubstantiation

    Transubstantiation

    • Belief Of: Catholicism
    In Roman Catholic theology, transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio, in Greek μεραβεγασ metousiosis) is the doctrine that, in the Eucharist, the substance of the bread and the wine used in the sacrament is changed into the substance of the Body and the Blood of Jesus, while all that is accessible to the senses (the appearances - species in Latin) remains as before. The Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church, and Church of the East have sometimes used the term "transubstantiation" (metousiosis); however, terms such as "divine mystery", "trans-elementation" (μεταστοιχειοσισ) metastoicheiosis), "re-ordination" (μεταρρύθμισις metarrhythmisis), or simply "change" (μεταβολή) are more common among them. The earliest known use of the term "transubstantiation" to describe the change from bread and wine to body and blood of Christ that was believed to occur in the Eucharist was by Hildebert de Lavardin, Archbishop of Tours (died 1133), in the eleventh century and by the end of the twelfth century the term was in widespread use. The Fourth Council of the Lateran, which convened beginning November 11, 1215, spoke of the bread and wine as "transubstantiated" into the body
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    Yuga

    Yuga

    • Belief Of: Hinduism
    Yuga (Devanāgari: युग) in Hindu philosophy is the name of an 'epoch' or 'era' within a cycle of four ages. These are the Satya Yuga, the Treta Yuga, the Dvapara Yuga, and finally the Kali Yuga. According to Hindu cosmology, life in the universe is created, destroyed once every 4.1 to 8.2 billion years, which is one full day (day and night) for Brahma. The lifetime of a Brahma himself may be 311 trillion and 40 billion years. The cycles are said to repeat like the seasons, waxing and waning within a greater time-cycle of the creation and destruction of the universe. Like Summer, Spring, Winter and Autumn, each yuga involves stages or gradual changes which the earth and the consciousness of mankind goes through as a whole. A complete yuga cycle from a high Golden Age of enlightenment to a Dark Age and back again is said to be caused by the solar system's motion around another star. Lord Vishnu has many avatars and in each yuga,he has revealed all of them except-the last avatar(tenth)-Kalki.It is said that in the last yuga Lord Vishnu will reveal this avatar too and the Kalki avatar will lead to the end of the world.The main reason is to destroy the wicked, to restart the new
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    Celestial marriage

    Celestial marriage

    • Belief Of: Mormonism
    Celestial marriage (also called the New and Everlasting Covenant of Marriage, Eternal Marriage, Temple Marriage or The Principle) is a doctrine of Mormonism, particularly The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and branches of Mormon fundamentalism. Within Mormonism, celestial marriage is an ordinance associated with a covenant that always takes place inside temples by those authorized to hold the sealing power. The only people allowed to enter the temple, be married there, or simply attend these weddings are those who hold an official temple recommend. Obtaining a temple recommend requires one to abide by LDS doctrine and be interviewed and considered worthy by their bishop and Stake President. A prerequisite to contracting a celestial marriage, in addition to obtaining a temple recommend, involves undergoing the temple endowment, which involves making of certain covenants with God. In particular, one is expected to promise to be obedient to all the Lord's commandments including living a clean chaste life, abstaining oneself from any impure thing, willing to sacrifice and consecrate all that one has for the Lord. In the marriage ceremony a man and a woman make
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    89

    Exaltation

    • Belief Of: Mormonism
    Exaltation or Eternal Life is a belief among members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) that mankind can return to live in God's presence and continue as families. Exaltation often referred to as being a more literal belief in both the ancient and modern Christian doctrine of deification or divinization. Exaltation is often referred to in Mormon Christianity as "eternal progression" and is believed to be what God desires for all humankind. The LDS Church teaches that, through the atonement of Jesus Christ, believers may become joint-heirs with Jesus Christ. The objective of adherents is to strive for purity and righteousness and to become one with Jesus as Jesus is one with the Father (God). In the Doctrine and Covenants is found a verse that states that those who are exalted will become like god and, thus, will inherit God's glory through Christ's atonement. Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints believe that human beings can grow and progress spiritually until, through the mercy and grace of Christ, they can inherit and possess all that the Father has—they can become gods. As the primary source for this doctrine, Mormon Christians
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    90
    Miaphysitism

    Miaphysitism

    • Belief Of: Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church
    Miaphysitism (sometimes called henophysitism) is a Christological formula of the Oriental Orthodox Churches and of the various churches adhering to the first three Ecumenical Councils. Miaphysitism holds that in the one person of Jesus Christ, Divinity and Humanity are united in one or single nature ("physis"), the two being united without separation, without confusion, and without alteration. Historically, Chalcedonian Christians have considered Miaphysitism in general to be amenable to an orthodox interpretation, but they have nevertheless perceived the Miaphysitism of the non-Chalcedonians to be a form of Monophysitism. The Oriental Orthodox Churches themselves reject this characterization. The term "miaphysitism" arose as a response to Nestorianism. As Nestorianism had its roots in the Antiochene tradition and was opposed by the Alexandrian tradition, Christians in Syria and Egypt who wanted to distance themselves from the extremes of Nestorianism and wished to uphold the integrity of their theological position adopted this term to express their position. The theology of miaphysitism is based on an understanding of the nature (Greek φύσις physis) of Christ: divine and human.
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    Natalism

    • Belief Of: Quiverfull
    Natalism (also called pronatalism or the pro-birth position) is a belief that promotes human reproduction. The term is taken from the Latin adjective form for "birth", natalis. Natalism promotes child-bearing and glorifies parenthood. It typically advocates policies such as limiting access to abortion and contraception, as well as creating financial and social incentives for the population to reproduce. The degree of natalism is individual; the extreme end is "Natalism" as a life stance (with capitalized first letter by life stance orthography), which holds natalism as of ultimate importance and everything else is only good to the extent it serves this purpose. The more moderate stance holds that there ought to be a higher rate of population growth than what is currently mainstream in industrialized countries. Philosophic motivations for natalism may include that of considering value in bringing potential future persons into existence. Many religions, including Islam, Judaism and some forms of Christianity, such as Roman Catholicism with its sacrament of marriage, encourage procreation. The Amish are among the fastest-growing populations in the world, with an average of 6.8
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    Sola fide

    Sola fide

    • Belief Of: Protestantism
    Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also historically known as the doctrine of justification by faith alone, is a Christian theological doctrine that distinguishes most Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Eastern Christianity, and some in the Restoration Movement. The doctrine of sola fide or "by faith alone" asserts God's pardon for guilty sinners is granted to and received through faith, conceived as excluding all "works", alone. All humanity, it is asserted, is fallen and sinful, under the curse of God, and incapable of saving itself from God's wrath and curse. But God, on the basis of the life, death, and resurrection of his Son, Jesus Christ alone (solus Christus), grants sinners judicial pardon, or justification, which is received solely through faith. Faith is seen as passive, merely receiving Christ and all his benefits, among which benefits are the active and passive righteousness of Jesus Christ. Christ's righteousness, according to the followers of "sola fide", is imputed (or attributed) by God to the believing sinner (as opposed to infused or imparted), so that the divine verdict and pardon of the believing sinner is based not upon anything in the sinner, nor even
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    Islamic view of angels

    Islamic view of angels

    • Belief Of: Islam
    Angels (Arabic: ملائكة‎ malāʾikah; singular: ملاك malāk) are heavenly beings mentioned many times in the Qur'an and Hadith. Unlike humans or jinn, they have no free will and therefore can do only what God orders them to do. An example of a task they carry out is that of testing of individuals by granting them abundant wealth and curing their illness. Believing in angels is one of the six Articles of Faith in Islam. Just as humans are made of clay, and jinn are made of smokeless fire, angels are made of light. There is no standard hierarchical organization in Islam that parallels the division into different "choirs" or spheres, as hypothesized and drafted by early medieval Christian theologians. Most Islamic scholars agree that this is an unimportant topic in Islam, simply because Angels have a simple existence in obeying God already, especially since such a topic has never been directly addressed in the Qur'an. However, it is clear that there is a set order or hierarchy that exists between angels, defined by the assigned jobs and various tasks to which angels are commanded by God. Some scholars suggest that Islamic angels can be grouped into fourteen categories as follows, of which
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    Sola scriptura

    Sola scriptura

    • Belief Of: Protestantism
    Sola scriptura (Latin ablative, "by scripture alone") is the doctrine that the Bible contains all knowledge necessary for salvation and holiness. Consequently, sola scriptura demands only those doctrines are to be admitted or confessed that are found directly within or indirectly by using valid logical deduction or valid deductive reasoning from scripture. However, sola scriptura is not a denial of other authorities governing Christian life and devotion. Rather, it simply demands that all other authorities are subordinate to, and are to be corrected by, the written word of God. Sola scriptura was a foundational doctrinal principle of the Protestant Reformation held by the Reformers and is a formal principle of Protestantism today (see Five solas). During the Reformation, authentication of scripture was governed by the discernible excellence of the text as well as the personal witness of the Holy Spirit to the heart of each man. Furthermore, per sola scriptura, the relationship of Scriptural authority to pastoral care was well exampled by the Westminster Confession of Faith which stated: VII. All things in Scripture are not alike plain in themselves, nor alike clear unto all; yet
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    Born again

    In Christianity, to be born again is to undergo a "spiritual rebirth" (regeneration) of the human soul or spirit, contrasted with the physical birth everyone experiences. The origin of the term "born again" is the New Testament: "Jesus replied, 'Very truly I tell you, no one can see the kingdom of God without being born again.'" It is a term associated with salvation in Christianity. Individuals who profess to be born again often state that they have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ. To many historic church denominations, to be "born again" was understood as spiritual regeneration via the sacrament of baptism by the power of water and word. This is still the understanding in Roman Catholicism, some parts of Anglicanism, Lutheranism and Eastern Orthodoxy. However, beginning sometime after the Reformation, being born again has been predominantly understood by some Protestants (of the "anabaptist" branch) to be an experience of conversion symbolized by water baptism, and rooted in a commitment to one's own personal faith in Jesus Christ for salvation. This same belief is also an integral part of Methodist doctrine, and is connected with the doctrine of Justification.
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    Incarnation

    Incarnation

    • Belief Of: Eastern Orthodox Church
    The Incarnation in traditional Christianity is the belief that Jesus Christ the second person of the Trinity, also known as God the Son or the Logos (Word), "became flesh" by being conceived in the womb of a woman, the Virgin Mary, also known as the Theotokos (God-bearer). The Incarnation is a fundamental theological teaching of orthodox (Nicene) Christianity, based on its understanding of the New Testament. The Incarnation represents the belief that Jesus, who is the non-created second hypostasis of the triune God, took on a human body and nature and became both man and God. In the Bible its clearest teaching is in John 1:14: "And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us." In the Incarnation, as traditionally defined by those Churches that adhere to the Council of Chalcedon, the divine nature of the Son was united but not mixed with human nature in one divine Person, Jesus Christ, who was both "truly God and truly man". The Incarnation is commemorated and celebrated each year at Christmas, and also reference can be made to the Feast of the Annunciation; "different aspects of the mystery of the Incarnation" are celebrated at Christmas and the Annunciation. This is central to the
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    Kami

    Kami

    • Belief Of: Shinto
    "Kami" (神) is the Japanese word for the divinity; the supreme being. It is also for the spirits, natural forces, and essence in the Shinto faith. Although the word is sometimes translated as "god" or "deity", some Shinto scholars argue that such a translation can cause a misunderstanding of the term. The wide variety of usage of the word can be compared to the Sanskrit Deva and the Hebrew Elohim, which also refer to God, gods, angels or spirits. In some instances, such as Izanagi-no-Mikoto and Izanami-no-Mikoto, kami are personified deities, similar to the gods of ancient Greece or Rome. In other cases, such as those concerning the phenomenon of natural emanation, kami are the spirits dwelling in trees, or forces of nature. Kami may, at its root, simply mean "spirit", or an aspect of spirituality. It is written with the kanji "神", Sino-Japanese reading shin or jin; in Chinese, the character is used to refer to various nature spirits of traditional Chinese religion, but not to the Taoist deities or the Supreme Being. An apparently cognate form, perhaps a loanword, occurs in the Ainu language as kamuy and refers to an animistic concept very similar to Japanese kami. Following the
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    Karma

    Karma

    • Belief Of: Sikhism
    Karma (Sanskrit: कर्म IPA: [ˈkərmə] ( listen); Pali: kamma) in Indian religions is the concept of "action" or "deed", understood as that which causes the entire cycle of cause and effect (i.e., the cycle called saṃsāra) originating in ancient India and treated in the Hindu, Jain, Buddhist and Sikh religions. A concept of karma (along with samsara and moksha) may originate in the shramana tradition of which Buddhism and Jainism are continuations. This tradition influenced the Brahmanic religion in the early Vedantic (Upanishadic) movement of the 1st millennium BC. This worldview was adopted from this religious culture by Brahmin orthodoxy, and Brahmins wrote the earliest recorded scriptures containing these ideas in the early Upanishads. Until recently, the scholarly consensus was that reincarnation is absent from the earliest strata of Brahminical literature. However, a new translation of two stanzas of the Rig Veda indicate that the Brahmins may have had the idea, common among small-scale societies around the world, that an individual cycles back and forth between the earth and a heavenly realm of ancestors. In this worldview, moral behavior has no influence on rebirth. The idea
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    Prophets of Islam

    • Belief Of: Islam
    Muslims identify the prophets of Islam (Arabic: النبوة في الإسلام‎) as those humans who were assigned a special mission by God to guide humans. Muslims believe that every prophet was given a belief to worship God and their respective followers believed it as well. Each prophet, in Muslim belief, preached the same main belief, The Oneness of the Divine Creator, worshiping of that One God, avoidance of idolatry and sin, Day of Resurrection. Each came to preach Islam at different times in history and some, including Jesus, told of the coming of the final prophet and messenger of God, who would be named "AHMAD" commonly known as Muhammad. Each prophet directed a message to a different group of people, and thus would preach Islam in accordance with the times. Although many lay Muslims and many Western scholars and writers hold the view that Islam began with Muhammad in Mecca, this contradicts the Quran, which says that Muhammad simply was the last prophet who preached the same faith that Adam preached to his children. Islamic tradition holds that God sent messengers to every nation. Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad to transmit the message of the Quran, the holy book which,
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    Jain Karmis Theory

    Jain Karmis Theory

    • Belief Of: Jainism
    In Jainism, karma is the basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology. In the Jain cosmology, human moral actions form the basis of the transmigration of the soul (jīva). The soul is constrained to a cycle of rebirth, trapped within the temporal world (saṃsāra), until it finally achieves liberation (mokṣa). Liberation is achieved by following a path of purification. In Jain philosophy, karma not only encompasses the causality of transmigration, but is also conceived of as an extremely subtle matter, which infiltrates the soul—obscuring its natural, transparent and pure qualities. Karma is thought of as a kind of pollution, that taints the soul with various colours (leśyā). Based on its karma, a soul undergoes transmigration and reincarnates in various states of existence—like heavens or hells, or as humans or animals. Jains cite inequalities, sufferings, and pain as evidence for the existence of karma. Jain texts have classified the various types of karma according to their effects on the potency of the soul. The Jain theory seeks to explain the karmic process by specifying the various causes of karmic influx (āsrava) and bondage (bandha), placing equal emphasis on deeds
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    Papal infallibility

    Papal infallibility

    • Belief Of: Catholicism
    Papal infallibility is a dogma of the Catholic Church which states that, in virtue of the promise of Jesus to Peter, the Pope is preserved from the possibility of error "when, in the exercise of his office as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church". This doctrine was defined dogmatically in the First Vatican Council of 1869-1870. According to Catholic theology, there are several concepts important to the understanding of infallible, divine revelation: Sacred Scripture, Sacred Tradition, and the Sacred Magisterium. The infallible teachings of the Pope are part of the Sacred Magisterium, which also consists of ecumenical councils and the "ordinary and universal magisterium". In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is one of the channels of the infallibility of the Church. The infallible teachings of the Pope must be based on, or at least not contradict, Sacred Tradition or Sacred Scripture. The doctrine of infallibility relies on one of the cornerstones of Catholic dogma: that of petrine supremacy of the pope, and his authority to be the ruling agent in
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    Prevenient grace

    Prevenient grace

    Prevenient grace is a Christian theological concept rooted in Augustinian theology. It is divine grace that precedes human decision. It exists prior to and without reference to anything humans may have done. As humans are corrupted by the effects of sin, prevenient grace allows persons to engage their God-given free will to choose the salvation offered by God in Jesus Christ or to reject that salvific offer. Prevenient grace is embraced primarily by Arminian Christians who are influenced by the theology of Jacob Arminius or John Wesley. Whereas Augustine held that prevenient grace cannot be resisted, Wesleyan Arminians believe that it enables, but does not ensure, personal acceptance of the gift of salvation. Wesley typically referred to it in 18th-century language as prevenient grace. In modern English, the phrase preceding grace would have a similar meaning. The United Methodist Book of Discipline (2004) defines prevenient grace as "...the divine love that surrounds all humanity and precedes any and all of our conscious impulses. This grace prompts our first wish to please God, our first glimmer of understanding concerning God's will, and our 'first slight transient conviction'
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    Swadhyay

    Swadhyay

    • Belief Of: Jainism
    Svādhyāya (Devanagari: स्वाध्याय) is a Sanskrit term in Hinduism having several meanings, including study of the Vedas and other sacred books, self-recitation, repetition of the Vedas aloud, and as a term for the Vedas themselves. Svādhyāya is extolled in orthodox Brahmanism in its traditional sense as "study of the scriptures and darśanas which help the understanding of the nature of the Paramātman." Some translators simply use the word "study" without qualifying the type of study. Adhyāya means "a lesson, lecture, chapter; reading" (- Monier-Williams). Svādhyāya (a compound of sva + adhyāya), therefore, literally means one's own (Vedic) lesson (taught by guru), i.e.,of one's own shakha (śākhā or recension)'. Sāyana defines the "sva-" in svādhyāya as "āmnātah", i.e., "handed down as a sacred tradition", and says that svādhyāya is not a kāmya (depending on self will) but a nitya karma (a religious duty to be performed daily) Manusmriti defines svādhyāya as a daily duty (2.105) and extols its virtues (Mn.2.107). There are certain days on which svādhyāya is prohibited, these are called anadhyāya, after which svādhyāya must be resumed on the following day ; therefore the day of
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    Vedanta

    Vedanta

    • Belief Of: Hinduism
    Vedanta (/vɪˈdɑːntə/; Hindustani pronunciation: [ʋeːd̪aːn̪t̪], Devanagari: वेदान्त, Vedānta) was originally a word used in Hindu philosophy as a synonym for that part of the Veda texts also known as the Upanishads. The name is a morphophonological form of Veda-anta = "Veda-end" = "the appendix to the Vedic hymns". It is also speculated that "Vedānta" means "the purpose or goal [end] of the Vedas". Vedanta can also be used as a noun to describe one who has mastered all four of the original Vedas. By the 8th century CE, the word came to be used to describe a group of philosophical traditions concerned with the self-realisation by which one understands the ultimate nature of reality (Brahman). In this respect Vedānta is also called Uttarā Mīmāṃsā, or the 'latter enquiry' or 'higher enquiry', and is often paired with Purva Mīmāṃsā, the 'former enquiry'. Pūrva Mimamsa, usually simply called Mimamsa, deals with explanations of the fire-sacrifices of the Vedic mantras (in the Samhita portion of the Vedas) and Brahmanas, while Vedanta explicates the esoteric teachings of the Āraṇyakas (the "forest scriptures"), and the Upanishads, composed from ca. the 9th century BCE, until modern times.
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    Islamic Holy Books

    • Belief Of: Islam
    Islamic holy books are the texts which Muslims believe were authored by God to various Prophets of Islam throughout the history of mankind. All these books, in Muslim belief, promulgated the code and laws of Islam. Muslims believe the Qur'an, the final holy scripture, was sent because all the previous holy books had been either corrupted or lost. Nonetheless, Islam speaks of respecting all the previous scriptures in their original forms. Belief in all the revealed books is an article of faith in Islam and a Muslim must believe that all the original scriptures of the prophets of Abrahamic monotheism were revealed by Allah. The four books are the Tawrat, Zabur, Injil and Quran. The Torat was sent to Musa (Moses), the Zabur was sent to Dawood (David), the Injil was sent to Isa (Jesus) and the Qur'an was sent to Muhammad. The Qur'an mentions at least three main Islamic scriptures which came before the Qur'an by name. The Qur'an also mentions two ancient scrolls and another possible book:
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    Limited atonement

    Limited atonement

    • Belief Of: Calvinism
    Limited atonement (or definite atonement or particular redemption) is a doctrine accepted in some Christian theological traditions. It is particularly associated with the Reformed tradition and is one of the five points of Calvinism. The doctrine states that Jesus Christ's substitutionary atonement on the cross is specifically designed for the elect only, that He only died for them. This is in contrast to a belief that Christ died for all, but while this atonement is sufficient for the salvation of all, it is only efficient for the elect, those who receive Christ, these being predestined unto salvation. Thus its primary benefits are not given to all of humanity due to unbelief. However this is not a classical view. Limited Atonement and Particular Redemption are synonymous and is held by Old School Baptists, Primitive Baptists, Particular Baptists and Gospel Standard Baptists The doctrine of the limited scope (or extent) of the atonement is intimately tied up with the doctrine of the nature of the atonement. It also has much to do with the general Calvinist view of predestination. Calvinists advocate the satisfaction theory of the atonement, which developed in the writings of
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    Monotheism

    • Belief Of: Sikhism
    Monotheism (from Greek μόνος, monos, "single", and θεός, theos, "god") is the belief in the existence of one god or in the oneness of God. Monotheism is characteristic of Atenism, Bahá'í Faith, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Ravidassia, Judaism, Sabianism, Sikhism and Zoroastrianism. The word monotheism is derived from the Greek μόνος (monos) meaning "single" and θεός (theos) meaning "god". The English term was first used by Henry More (1614–1687). Some writers such as Karen Armstrong believe that the concept of monotheism sees a gradual development out of notions of henotheism (worshiping a single god while accepting the existence or possible existence of other deities) and monolatrism (the recognition of the existence of many gods, but with the consistent worship of only one deity). However, the historical incidences of monotheism are so rare, that it's difficult to support any theory of the natural progression of religions from polytheism to henotheism to monotheism. Two examples of monolatrism developing from polytheism are the Aten cult in the reign of the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten, as well as the rise of Marduk from the tutelary of Babylon to the claim of universal
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