An automotive make is a specific car line a manufacturer produces. For example, Pontiac, Chevrolet, Audi and Volkswagen are all makes.
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The Gasmobile, originally called the American, was an automobile first produced in 1899. The name was changed to Gasmobile in 1900 by president John H. Flager. It appeared at the New York Auto Show in 1900. By 1901, 140 cars were made. One of its distinctive features were an automatic starting device. After producing about a six-cylinder car, the company folded in 1902.
Rootes Arrow was the manufacturer's name for a range of cars produced under several badge-engineered marques by the Rootes Group (later Chrysler Europe) from 1966 to 1979. It is amongst the last Rootes designs, developed with no influence from future owner Chrysler. The range is sometimes referred to by the name of the most prolific model, the Hillman Hunter.
A substantial number of separate marque and model names applied to this single car platform. Some were given different model names to justify trim differences (Hillman GT, Hillman Estate) and that from time to time all models were sold in some European markets under the Sunbeam marque (Sunbeam Sceptre for instance), and at other times used UK marque/model names. To add complication, Singer Gazelle/Vogue models were also sold in the UK for one season badged as Sunbeams after the Singer brand was withdrawn.
The models sold – not all concurrently – were, alphabetically by marque:
The most prolific model within the Arrow range, the Hillman Hunter, was the Coventry-based company's major competitor in the medium family car segment. In its 13-year production run, its UK market contemporaries included the Ford Cortina, Morris Marina
The Mitchell was a United States automobile manufactured by the Racine, Wisconsin based Mitchell Motor Car Company which produced automobiles from 1903 to 1923. Originally a carriage builder, the company's first model was a 7hp runabout. Later, four-, six- and eight-cylinder models were built. When the company folded in 1923, Nash Motors bought the factory.
Talbot was an automobile marque that existed from 1903 to 1992, with a hiatus from 1960 to 1978, under a number of different owners, latterly under Peugeot. Talbot participated in rallying, winning the 1981 World Rally Championship constructors' title, and in Formula One.
Talbot was originally the British marque used to sell imported French Clément-Bayard cars. Founded in 1903, this business venture was financed by Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 20th Earl of Shrewsbury and Adolphe Clément-Bayard. Starting in 1905, the company sold imported cars under the Clément-Talbot marque and began assembling French-made parts at a new factory located in Barlby Road, Ladbroke Grove, North Kensington, London, selling them under the name Talbot. Domestically-designed cars followed from 1906. By 1910, 50 to 60 cars a month were being made. A Talbot was the first car to cover 100 mph (160 km/h), in 1913.
During World War I, the firm manufactured ambulances. French and British operations continued in separate, parallel production and marketing processes until 1919, when British-owned but Paris-based Darracq took over the company; Darracq-made Talbots were marketed as Talbot-Darracqs. The following year,
Yes! is a brand of high-performance sports cars manufactured by YES! Beteiligungs- und Besitzgesellschaft mbH. Yes is an acronym for Young Engineers Sportscar. YES! was founded in January 2010. Manager and founder is Marco Kunz, he was the first YES! turbo client in Germany. The experienced businessman didn’t want to accept the end of the brand YES! and their unique roadsters. The headquarter is now in Edermünde, near Kassel in the center of Germany.
Each YES! is handmade by a team of experienced professionals. The result is a unique and remarkable roadster with the "licence for racing".
Each YES! buyer gets a national A-licence, for driving at racing circuits. During the 2-day-racetraining the driver gets a full instruction to drive safe with his YES!.
The original car was a mid-engined, rear-wheel-drive model powered by a 1.8-litre four-cylinder Volkswagen turbo engine.
In 2006 the second generation 3.2 Roadster and 3.2 Roadster Turbo were announced with a V-6 3.2-litre engine producing 188 KW (255 hp) at 5900 rpm and with a maximum torque of 330 N·m (240 lb·ft) in non turbocharged form that takes the car from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in just 4.9 seconds. The Turbo model has a
The Marlborough was a make of car sold on the British market between 1906 and 1926. For most of its life the cars were made in France but after World War I the cars were assembled in London and an increasing number of British parts used.
The first cars were probably supplied completely built by the French company Malicet et Blin . There seems to be some doubt over whether complete cars were imported, or components for assembly in a workshop in Notting Hill, London.
The first model was a 7 hp single-cylinder-engined car and was exhibited at the 1906 London Motor Show. In 1909 the shock absorber company T. B. André took control and a new range of larger cars introduced with engines ranging in size between 2210 cc and 3617 cc. A light car with 1130 cc four-cylinder engine was added to the range in 1912.
After World War I the pre-war light car was again available until replaced by a new model in 1921. This had a 1496 cc British Anzani engine. The sports version was guaranteed to exceed 60 mph. The model only lasted one year and was replaced by a smaller light car with a French 1100 cc C.I.M.E. engine which was listed until the company closed in 1926.
The Marlborough name was also
Imperial was the Chrysler Corporation's luxury automobile brand between 1955 and 1975, with a brief reappearance in 1981 to 1983.
The Imperial name had been used since 1926, but was never a separate make, just the top-of-the-line Chrysler. However,in 1955, the company decided to spin Imperial off as its own make and division to better compete with its rivals, Lincoln and Cadillac. Imperial would see new body styles introduced every two to three years, all with V8 engines and automatic transmissions, as well as technologies that would filter down to Chrysler corporation's other models.
For the 1955 model year, the Imperial was launched and registered as a separate marque, apart from the Chrysler brand. It was a product of the new Imperial Division of Chrysler Corporation, meaning that the Imperial would be a make and division unto itself, and not bear the Chrysler name. Chrysler introduced Forward Look Styling by Virgil Exner, who would define Imperial's look (and the look of cars from the other four Chrysler divisions) from 1955 to 1963.
The 1955 models are said to be inspired by Exner's own 1952 Chrysler Imperial Parade Phaeton show cars (which were themselves later rebodied to
The Minerva was a prominent Belgian luxury automobile manufactured from 1902 until 1938.
In 1883, a young Dutchman, Sylvain de Jong (1868–1928) settled in Antwerp, Belgium.
Minerva started out manufacturing standard safety bicycles in 1897, before in 1900 expanding into light cars and "motocyclettes", particularly motorized bicycles which were a forerunner of motorcycles.
They produced lightweight clip-on engines that mounted below the bicycle front down tube, specifically for Minerva bicycles, but also available in kit form suitable for almost any bicycle. The engine drove a belt turning a large gear wheel attached to the opposite side of the rear wheel as the chain. By 1901 the kit engine was a 211cc unit developing 1.5 hp, comfortably cruising at 30 km/h (19 mph) at 1,500 rpm, capable of a top speed of 50 km/h (31 mph), and getting fuel consumption in the range of 3 L/100 km (94 mpg-imp; 78 mpg-US). These kits were exported around the world to countries including the United Kingdom, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Australia, and other British territories of the time.
As engine power increased, frame ruptures became increasingly common, and by 1903 Minerva had developed an
Chrysler is an American car brand and the longstanding premium brand of eponymous automaker Chrysler Group LLC, named after its founder: Walter P. Chrysler.
The Chrysler brand was originally a premium luxury position competing with Cadillac and Lincoln, owned respectively by Chrysler Group's Detroit rivals, General Motors and Ford Motor Company. Chrysler was the top brand in the portfolio of what was then known as Chrysler Corporation, led by its top model, the Imperial. After the corporation decided to spin Imperial off as a separate brand in 1955 to better compete with Cadillac and Lincoln, Chrysler became the corporation's number two brand, but still offered luxury and near luxury products. Chrysler's positioning of the Chrysler brand towards a mid-price brand caused Chrysler to kill DeSoto after 1961 and merge most DeSoto vehicles into the new Chrysler Newport. After the Imperial brand was dropped in 1975, Chrysler once again became the top brand, with range of products competing with both luxury brands such as Lexus and near luxury brands such as Buick.
During the 1980s the Chrysler division expanded its product line and target markets by marketing upscale versions of the
Buick ( /ˈbjuːɨk/) is a luxury brand of General Motors (GM). Buick models are sold in the United States, Canada, Mexico, China, Taiwan, and Israel, with China being its largest market. Buick holds the distinction as the oldest active American make. Many current Buick models are shared with other GM brands and global subsidiaries.
Buick is currently the oldest still-active American automotive make, and among the oldest automobile brands in the world. It originated as the Buick Auto-Vim and Power Company in 1899, an independent internal combustion engine and motor-car manufacturer, and was later incorporated as the Buick Motor Company on May 19, 1903, by Scottish born David Dunbar Buick in Detroit, Michigan. Later that year, the struggling company was taken over by James H. Whiting (1842–1919), who moved it to his hometown of Flint, Michigan, and brought in William C. Durant in 1904 to manage his new acquisition. Buick sold his stock for a small sum upon departure, and died in modest circumstances 25 years later.
Between 1899 and 1902, two prototype vehicles were built in Detroit, Michigan by Walter Lorenzo Marr. Some documentation exists of the 1901 or 1902 prototype with tiller
Cord was the brand name of an American automobile company from Connersville, Indiana, manufactured by the Auburn Automobile Company from 1929 through 1932 and again in 1936 and 1937.
The Cord Corporation was founded and run by E. L. Cord as a holding company for his many transportation interests, including Auburn. Cord was noted for its innovative technology and streamlined designs. Cord had a philosophy to build truly different, innovative cars, believing they would also sell well and turn a profit. This did not always work well in practice.
Cord innovations include front-wheel drive on the L-29 and hidden headlamps on the 810 and 812.
Front-wheel drive became common in the United States only in the 1980s, though Citroën introduced the Traction Avant in 1934, Ford offered it in certain models of its German-built Taunus, and General Motors sold the front wheel drive Oldsmobile Toronado in 1966 and Cadillac Eldorado in 1967. As personal luxury cars, these two GM models, especially the Toronado, were undoubtedly influenced by Cord.
Hidden headlamps did not become common as a standard feature until the 1960s (though DeSoto used them in 1942). The early Oldsmobile Toronados, whose GM
The Standard was an American automobile manufactured in Butler, Pennsylvania from 1912 until 1923. Produced by the Standard Steel Car Company, in a new factory claimed to have cost $2 million, the first cars used a six-cylinder engine but from 1916 the company was among the first to offer a V-8 engine. This was rated at 29 hp with a capacity of 4.6 litres and was joined by a 34 hp unit in 1917. In 1918 both engines were replaced by a larger V-8 of 80 hp with a swept volume of 5217 cc. The company slogan was "Monarch of the Mountains" and all cars were tested on a 25-mile (40 km) route before delivery.
In 1923 a smaller four-cylinder car was announced, but this never reached the market, and by the end of the year all car making ceased. It is estimated that total production exceeded 14,000.
The company also manufactured rail carriages, and built armored cars during World War I.
The factory was later used for assembly of the American Austin.
Lincoln is an American luxury vehicle brand of the Ford Motor Company. Lincoln vehicles are currently sold mostly in North America. Its current U.S. lineup includes two sedans (MKS and MKZ), two crossovers (MKT and MKX) and one SUV (Navigator). Ford plans to expand the brand to seven different models by 2015 including selling these in China's rapidly expanding Luxury car market.
The company was founded in August 1915 by Henry M. Leland, one of the founders of Cadillac (originally the Henry Ford Company). In 1917 he left Cadillac which had been sold to General Motors in 1909, with Leland remaining as an executive. He formed the Lincoln Motor Company, named after Abraham Lincoln, his longtime hero, to build Liberty aircraft engines with his son Wilfred using cylinders supplied by Ford Motor Company. After the war, the company's factories were retooled to manufacture luxury automobiles. The Lincoln Motor Company was purchased by Ford Motor Company 1922 but continued to operate somewhat as a separate company from Ford until April 30, 1940. The following day, it became the Lincoln Division of Ford Motor Company.
The company encountered severe financial troubles during the transition,
Oldsmobile was a brand of American automobile produced for most of its existence by General Motors. It was founded by Ransom E. Olds in 1897. In its 107-year history, it produced 35.2 million cars, including at least 14 million built at its Lansing, Michigan factory. When it was phased out in 2004, Oldsmobile was the oldest surviving American automobile marque, and one of the oldest in the world, after Daimler, Peugeot and Tatra. The closing of the Oldsmobile division presaged a larger consolidation of GM brands and discontinuation of models during the company's 2009 bankruptcy reorganization.
Oldsmobiles were first manufactured by the Olds Motor Works in Lansing, Michigan, a company founded by Ransom E. Olds in 1897. In 1901, the company produced 425 cars, making it the first high-volume gasoline-powered automobile manufacturer. Oldsmobile became the top selling car company in the United States for a few years. Ransom Olds left the company in financial difficulties and formed the REO Motor Car Company. The last Curved Dash Oldsmobile was made in 1907. General Motors purchased the company in 1908.
The 1901 to 1904 Oldsmobile Curved Dash was the first mass-produced car, made from
Plymouth was a marque of automobiles based in the United States, produced by the Chrysler Corporation and its successor DaimlerChrysler. Production was discontinued on June 29, 2001 in the United States.
The Plymouth automobile was introduced on July 7, 1928. It was Chrysler Corporation's first entry in the low-priced field, which at the time was already dominated by Chevrolet and Ford. Plymouths were actually priced slightly higher than their competition, but offered all standard features such as internal expanding hydraulic brakes that the competition did not provide. Plymouths were originally sold exclusively through Chrysler dealerships. The logo featured a rear view of the ship Mayflower which landed at Plymouth Rock. However, the Plymouth brand name came from Plymouth Binder Twine, chosen by Joe Frazer for its popularity among farmers. (Plymouth Binder Twine was a common household item that was used to tie up various items.)
The origins of Plymouth can be traced back to the Maxwell automobile. When Walter P. Chrysler took over control of the troubled Maxwell-Chalmers car company in the early 1920s, he inherited the Maxwell as part of the package. After he used the company's
Spyker Cars is a Dutch sports car marque. The modern Spyker Cars holds the legal rights to the brand name. The company's motto is "Nulla tenaci invia est via", which is Latin for "For the tenacious, no road is impassable". The marque's logo displays the piston engine of an airplane, a reference to the historic Spyker company which manufactured aircraft. In an attempt to save Spyker from bankruptcy, Swedish Automobile in September 2011, announced the immediate sale of Spyker to American private equity and hedge fund North Street Capital for €32 million ($41 million). However it has since been revealed that the transaction did not occur leaving the future of Spyker uncertain.
The reborn company was founded by Victor Muller and Maarten de Bruijn in 1999, and since 2000 Spyker has been building exclusive sports cars like the C8 Spyder and the C8 Laviolette (with its elegant glass roof). Spyker's history of producing aero engines is reflected in details in these new cars as well as in the logo.
The C8 Laviolette and C8 Spyder have a 4172 cc Audi V8 engine delivering 400 bhp (298 kW; 406 PS), acceleration 0–60 mph in 4.5 seconds and a top speed of 300 km/h (190 mph). On July 14, 2005, it
Eagle was a marque of the Chrysler Corporation following the purchase of American Motors Corporation (AMC) and aimed at the enthusiast driver.
Though short-lived, the Eagle Vision sedan sold in respectable numbers, while the sporty Eagle Talon sold more than 115,000 units.
Following the introduction of General Motors' Saturn brand automobile, both Ford and Chrysler promised similar new brands designed to take Saturn on with innovative design and building methods. In a press release by then Chrysler Chairman Lee Iacocca, it was indicated that Chrysler was working on a car that would bow as the "Liberty". However, these plans never reached fruition.
The Jeep/Eagle division of Chrysler Corporation was formed after Chrysler's 1987 buyout of American Motors Corporation, or AMC. Chrysler's initial problem was that unlike the Big Three, which had multiple brands under their Corporate name, American Motors had sold passenger cars under its corporate initials of "AMC" since 1970. Thus, without having a separate brand from the now defunct company, Chrysler looked to re-brand the legacy vehicles inherited through the purchase of AMC instead of trying to fold those outside designed products
Parent Company:Morris & Salom Electric Carriage and Wagon Company
The Morris & Salom was an American electric car manufactured in New York City from 1895 until 1897. It came in various models, including broughams; all were marketed as "electrobats".
David Burgess Wise, The New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Automobiles.
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor. Most definitions of the term specify that automobiles are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels, and to be constructed principally for the transport of people rather than goods.
The term motorcar has also been used in the context of electrified rail systems to denote a car which functions as a small locomotive but also provides space for passengers and baggage. These locomotive cars were often used on suburban routes by both interurban and intercity railroad systems.
It was estimated in 2010 that the number of automobiles had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, with 500 million reached in 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China and India.
The word automobile comes, via the French automobile from the Ancient Greek word αὐτός (autós, "self") and the Latin mobilis ("movable"); meaning a vehicle that moves itself. The alternative name car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum ("wheeled vehicle"), or the Middle English word carre
Hotchkiss cars were made between 1903 and 1955 by the French company Hotchkiss et Cie in Saint-Denis, Paris. The badge for the marque showed a pair of crossed cannons, evoking the company's history as an arms manufacturer.
The company's first entry into car making came from orders for engine components such as crankshafts which were supplied to Panhard et Levassor, De Dion-Bouton and other pioneering companies and in 1903 they went on to make complete engines. Encouraged by two major car distributors, Mann and Overton of London and Fournier of Paris, Hotchkiss decided to start making their own range of cars and purchased a Mercedes Simplex for inspiration and Georges Terasse, previously of Mors, was taken on as designer.
The first Hotchkiss car, a 17 CV four-cylinder model, appeared in 1903. The engine of the 20 CV type C was heavily based on the Mercedes Simplex except that wherever possible it used ball bearings rather than plain ones (including the crankshaft) and except the Hotchkiss drive. Six-cylinder models, the types L and O followed in 1907.
The ball bearing engines lasted until the 30CV type X of 1910. In that same year Hotchkiss moved into a smaller car market with the
Sunbeam-Talbot was a British car maker.
The Sunbeam Motorcar Company Ltd was formed in 1905 to separate the Sunbeam motorcycle and bicycle maker from the new car manufacturer.
Sunbeam merged with the French company Automobiles Darracq S.A. on August 13, 1920. In order to import Clément-Bayard cars into England, Darracq bought the London-based firm of Clement-Talbot to become Talbot-Darracq. The addition of Sunbeam created Sunbeam-Talbot-Darracq, or STD Motors, however during the height of the Great Depression in 1935 STD Motors went bankrupt.
In France the former Talbot plant was purchased by entrepreneur/engineer Anthony Lago who from 1935 produced luxury cars badges as Talbot-Lagos (though when these were imported into the UK they still turned up carrying the old Darracq name).
Talbots were still a success at this time and in 1935 both its UK assets and the Sunbeam business were purchased by the Rootes Group headed by brothers William 'Billy' and Reginald Rootes.
The existing British Talbots were re-badged as Sunbeam-Talbots from 1938 onwards and were a combination of current Hillman and Humber chassis and quality Talbot coachwork. Subsequent Talbots used a Talbot badge and
Merkur (German pronunciation: [mɛʁˈkuːɐ̯]), Mercury) was an automobile brand which was briefly marketed by Ford Motor Company in the United States and Canada from 1985 to 1989. The brand made only two entry-level luxury cars (as a smaller companion to Lincoln's large luxury cars).
Ford introduced the Merkur brand as a franchise separate from its other brands, and it was only offered to Lincoln-Mercury dealers, of which only about 800 accepted.
When the Merkur name was launched in North America, advertising and PR materials strongly urged the proper German pronunciation. Below the Merkur badge was a script stating FORD WERKE AG-Cologne, West Germany, indicating the car's place of manufacture.
Like the Capri before it, the Merkur was Ford's attempt at selling a European car in the North American market. However, Ford could not just import the cars and sell them; American government-mandated safety regulations dictated that Ford modify the design of the XR4Ti and Scorpio. This meant that the two cars were manufactured in Europe in a manner different from other European Fords. The XR4Ti was manufactured by Karmann in Rheine, Germany, with a turbocharged Ford Lima 2.3 L 4-cylinder
Lagonda is a British luxury car marque established in 1906, which has been owned by Aston Martin since 1947.
Lagonda was founded as a company in 1906 in Staines, Middlesex, by an American, Wilbur Gunn (1859–1920), a former opera singer of Scottish ancestry. He named the company after Lagonda Creek near Springfield, Ohio, the town of his birth. He had originally built motorcycles on a small scale in the garden of his house in Staines with reasonable success including a win on the 1905 London—Edinburgh trial. In 1907 he launched his first car, the 20 hp, 6-cylinder Torpedo, which he used to win the Moscow–St. Petersburg trial of 1910. This success produced a healthy order for exports to Russia which continued until 1914. In the pre-war period Lagonda also made an advanced small car, the 11.1 with a four-cylinder 1000 cc engine, which featured an anti-roll bar and a rivetted monocoque body and the first ever fly-off handbrake.
The ratchet control button on the end of a fly-off handbrake is designed to work in the opposite way to what is normally accepted. If the lever is lifted or pulled back to the "on" position, on letting go it immediately releases unless the end button is pressed
This a list of Rolls-Royce motor cars and includes vehicles produced by:
Bentley models (from 1933)
Bentley models were produced mostly in parallel with the above cars. The Bentley Continental coupés (produced in various forms from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s) did not have Rolls-Royce equivalents. Rolls-Royce Phantom limousines were also produced.
Rover was a British automotive marque used between 1904 and 2005. It was launched as a Bicycle company called the Rover Company in 1878, before manufacturing cars in 1904. The brand used the iconic Viking longship as its logo.
Despite a state-controlled absorption by the Leyland Motor Corporation (LMC) in 1967 and subsequent mergers, nationalisation and de-mergers, the Rover marque retained its identity first as an independent subsidiary division of LMC, and then through variously named groups of British Leyland through the 1970s and into the 1980s.
The Rover marque became the primary brand of the then newly renamed Rover Group in 1988 as it passed first through the hands of British Aerospace and then into the ownership of BMW Group. Technological know-how gained from Honda and financial investment during the BMW ownership led to a revival of the Rover marque during the 1990s in its core midsize segment.
In 2000, BMW sold the Rover and related MG car activities of the Rover Group to the Phoenix Consortium, who established the MG Rover Group at Longbridge. BMW retained ownership of the Rover marque, allowing MG Rover to use it under licence. In April 2005, Rover branded cars ceased
Gordon-Keeble was a British car marque, made first in Slough, then Eastleigh, and finally in Southampton (all in England), between 1963 and 1967. The marque's badge was unusual in featuring a tortoise — a pet tortoise walked into the frame of an inaugural photo-shoot, taken in the grounds of the makers. Because of the irony (the slowness of tortoises) the animal was chosen as the emblem.
The Gordon-Keeble came about when John Gordon, formerly of the struggling Peerless company, and Jim Keeble got together in 1959 to make the Gordon GT car by fitting a Buick 215 c.i. (3.5 litre) V8 engine (the engine which would later be developed and used by Rover), into a chassis by Peerless. The car, still at the development stage, was then tried with a 4.6 litre Chevrolet (283 c.i.) V8 fitted into a square-tube steel spaceframe chassis, with independent front suspension and all-round disc brakes. The complete chassis was then taken to Turin, Italy, where a body made of aluminium panels designed by Giugiaro was built by Bertone. The car's four five-inch headlights were in the rare, slightly angled "Chinese eye" arrangement also used by a few other European marques, generally for high-speed cars
Mini (styled as MINI) is a British automotive marque owned by BMW, which specialises in small cars.
Mini originated as a specific vehicle, a small car originally known as the Morris Mini-Minor and the Austin Seven, launched by the British Motor Corporation in 1959, and developed into a brand encompassing a range of small cars, including the Countryman, Moke and Clubman. The original two-door Mini continued in production until 2000. Development of a successor began in 1995 and the new generation car was launched in 2001. The current Mini range includes the Hardtop/Hatch/Convertible, Clubman (estate), Countryman (crossover) and Coupe/Roadster.
The Mini was originally a product of the British Motor Corporation, which in 1966 became part of British Motor Holdings. British Motor Holdings merged with Leyland Motors in 1968 to form British Leyland. Mini became a marque in its own right in 1969. In the 1980s, British Leyland was broken-up and in 1988 Rover Group, including Mini, was acquired by British Aerospace. In 1994, Rover Group was acquired by BMW. In 2000, Rover Group was broken up by BMW, with BMW retaining the Mini brand.
The Mini Hatch/Hardtop, Clubman and Convertible are
Samand is an Iranian car brand manufactured by Iran Khodro (IKCO) using local manufacturers for its parts. In Persian, Samand is the name for a breed of fast horse. Samand trade name is now registered at the World Intellectual Property Organization. Its selling price starts at US$14,500 in Turkey.
The Samand production project began in 1996 and the first car was sold in 2000. The Samand inherits the title of Iran's national automobile from the Paykan, which was sold by Iran Khodro from 1967 to 2005.
The Samand is built on the Peugeot 405 platform, originally using the "XU7JP/L3" engine, amongst others. The Peugeot 405 is also in production in Iran, along with a facelifted version, the Peugeot Pars. IKCO manufactures 80% of Samand's parts domestically, including an Iranian-designed engine.
For export markets (and also the Iranian market), IKCO is using Peugeot TU5JP4 engine for Samand. That is because TU5 is a low consumption and powerful engine the ease of finding its parts allover the Europe because the engine has been used for Peugeot 206, Peugeot 307 and Peugeot 207. The TU5 version of Samand comes with three new options: driver airbag, pretensioner seat-belts, headlight height
The Courier was a brass era manufactured by Sandusky Automobile Company in Sandusky, Ohio in 1904 and 1905.
The 1904 Courier was a runabout model. It could seat 2 passengers and sold for US$650, making it one of the lowest-priced cars on the market at the time. The flat-mounted single-cylinder engine, situated at the center of the car, produced 7 hp (5.2 kW). A 2-speed sliding transmission was fitted. The angle iron-framed car weighed 1000 lb (454 kg) and used Concord springs.
The Jeffery brand of automobiles were manufactured by the Thomas B. Jeffery Company in Kenosha, Wisconsin.
The company was founded by Charles T. Jeffery and Thomas B. Jeffery, and sold under the brand name Rambler between 1902 and 1913. On the death of the founder, Thomas Jeffery in 1910, his son Charles took over the business. In 1915, Charles T. Jeffery, changed the automotive branding from Rambler to Jeffery to honor the founder, his father, Thomas B. Jeffery. Production continued until 1917 when it was sold to Charles W. Nash, former president of General Motors, and formed the foundation of the Nash Motors Company. Nash Motors went on to become Nash-Kelvinator Corporation, in 1954 merging as American Motors Corporation (AMC), finally bought out by Chrysler in 1987 and becoming the Jeep-Eagle Division of Chrysler.
The first Jeffery Rambler was built in 1898 but does not appear to have been sold.
The 1904 Model L Rambler was a larger touring car model. Equipped with a tonneau, it could seat five passengers and sold for US$1,350. The flat-mounted water-cooled straight-2, situated amidships of the car, produced 14 hp (10.4 kW). A two-speed transmission was fitted. The angle
Biscúter (Spanish spelling for the pronunciation of Biscooter) was a microcar manufactured in Spain during the mid-20th century.
Raw material shortages and general economic difficulties in Europe following the Second World War made very small, economical cars popular in many countries. In Spain, following the Spanish Civil War and the embargo declared by the United Nations against General Francisco Franco's dictatorship, the situation was even worse. The combination of relative underdevelopment, war devastation and an international trade embargo meant that the country operated at a much lower economic level than the rest of Western Europe for nearly two decades and was forced to develop domestic substitutes for hard-to-get imported products and technologies. The Biscúter, tiny, simple, and cheap even by microcar standards, was a product of this economic environment and was well suited to its time and market.
The car actually had its origins in France in the late 1940s, where aircraft designer Gabriel Voisin had designed a minimal car called the Biscooter. The playful name implied that it was about the size of two motorscooters, or a scooter with four wheels. The design drew no
The REVAi, known as G-Wiz in the UK, is a small micro electric car, made by the Indian manufacturer REVA Electric Car Company since 2001. The REVA have sold more than 4,000 vehicles worldwide by March 2011 and is available in 26 countries.
In many countries the Revai does not meet the criteria to qualify as a highway-capable motor vehicle, and fits into other classes, such as neighborhood electric vehicle (NEV) in the United States and heavy quadricycle in Europe.
The vehicle was originally known as simply the REVA, but was then improved and renamed the REVAi. Taken together, the original and current models made the best selling electric vehicle in the world until late 2009.
The REVAi is a small 3-door hatchback measuring 2.6 m (8 ft 6 in) long, 1.3 m (4 ft 3 in) wide and 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) high. The car can accommodate two adults in the front and two children in the rear. The back seats can fold down to provide cargo space. The maximum passenger and cargo weight is 270 kg (600 lb).
The REVAi is intended for city trips and commuting, particularly in congested traffic. It is registered in Europe as a heavy quadricycle (category L7). It may be exported to the USA with a speed limiter
See also: Ajax (1906 automobile) - Swiss car; Ajax (1913 automobile) - French car; or Ajax (1921 automobile) - American car.
The Ajax was an American automobile brand manufactured by the Nash Motors Company of Kenosha, Wisconsin, between 1925-1926. The Ajax was produced in the newly acquired Mitchell Motors Company plant in Racine, Wisconsin. In 1926, all Ajax models were converted into Nash Light Sixes.
Demand for Nash automobiles was so high that by November 1924, the company's existing plants were operating around the clock six days a week and Charles W. Nash announced a US$1 million expansion at the automaker's original Kenosha facility.
Mitchell Motors Company was the manufacturer of Mitchell brand automobiles from 1903 to 1923. In April 1923 the company was forced into bankruptcy. At the 31 January 1924 auction of the Mitchell land and buildings with 500,000-square-foot (46,000 m) of floor space, Charles Nash offered the winning bid of $405,000.
The Ajax was built using machinery moved from Nash's other acquisition, the LaFayette Motors Company of Milwaukee, and installed in the Racine plant. Thus, new Ajax was based on an earlier design, premium version of the Lafayette from
The Amilcar was a French automobile manufactured from 1921 to 1940.
The first offering was a small cyclecar; designed by Jules Salomon and Edmond Moyet, it bore a striking resemblance to the pre-war Le Zèbre. Next was the 903cc CC, which was available in two further versions; the CS was a sport version, while the C4 was a family car. The side-valve engine had splash lubrication, and came with a three-speed gearbox. The most famous model of all was the CGS "Grand Sport" of 1924; this featured a 1074 cc sv engine and four-wheel brakes. This in turn evolved into the more sporty CGSS "Grand Sport Surbaissé". These models were built under license in Germany (as the Pluto) and in Austria (as the Grofri) and in Italy (as Amilcar Italiana). The marque entered automobile racing in the mid-1920s with a batch of supercharged dohc 1100 cc six-cylinder cars that used a roller bearing crankshaft in the full racing version; these vehicles were also available with plain bearings, driven by famous pilote André Morel.
The company also offered a light touring car; called the "M-Type", it featured a sv 1200 cc engine and was launched in 1928. It was followed by the M2, M3, and M4 versions. 1928 also
Datsun is an automobile marque. The name was created in 1931 by the DAT Motorcar Co. for a new car model, spelling it as "Datson" to indicate its smaller size when compared to the existing, larger DAT car. In 1934, after Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. took control of DAT Motorcar Co., the last syllable of Datson was changed to "sun", because "son" also means "loss" (損) in Japanese, and also to honour the sun depicted in the national flag, hence the name "Datsun" : Dattosan (ダットサン, Dattosan). Nissan phased out the Datsun brand in March 1986. The Datsun name is most famous for the 510, Fairlady roadsters and later the Fairlady (240Z) coupes. On March 20, 2012, it was announced that Nissan will revive the brand for use in Indonesia, India and Russia.
Before the Datsun brand name came into being, an automobile named the DAT car was built in 1914, by the Kaishinsha Motorcar Works (快進自動車工場, Kaishin Jidōsha Kōjō), in the Azabu-Hiroo District in Tokyo. The new car's name was an acronym of the company's partners' surnames:
From What's in a Name? The Change From Datsun to Nissan by Daniel Banks, "This despite Business Week’s error that Den, Aoyama, and Takeuchi founded Nissan. They did not, of
DKW is a defunct German car and motorcycle marque. The name derives from Dampf-Kraft-Wagen (English: steam-driven car).
In 1916, the Danish engineer Jørgen Skafte Rasmussen founded a factory in Zschopau, Saxony, Germany, to produce steam fittings. In the same year, he attempted to produce a steam-driven car, called the DKW. Although unsuccessful, he made a two-stroke toy engine in 1919, called Des Knaben Wunsch—"the boy's desire". He also put a slightly modified version of this engine into a motorcycle and called it Das Kleine Wunder—"the little marvel". This was the real beginning of the DKW brand: by the 1930s, DKW was the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer.
In 1932, DKW merged with Audi, Horch and Wanderer, to form the Auto Union. Auto Union came under Daimler-Benz ownership in 1957, and was then purchased by the Volkswagen Group in 1964. The last DKW car was the F102 which ceased production in 1966; after this the brand was phased out.
DKW cars were made from 1928 until 1966. They always used two-stroke engines and, from 1931, the company was a pioneer in front-wheel drive and transverse mounting. The most well-known cars made before World War II, bearing model names F1
Egg or Egg & Egli was a Swiss car make in business from 1896 to 1919. It was one of the more long-lived early Swiss car makes. It appeared at numerous auto shows and competed in France's annual smash-up derby.
Rudolf Egg, an automotive engineer, built a car for his own use in 1893. He later founded the namesake company in 1896 in Zürich with funds from a Swiss banker called Egli. In 1904, the company moved to Wollishofen, operating under the name Motorwagenfabrik Excelsior. Egg's company later produced some of the first Swiss aircraft engines. Financial difficulties after the war forced the closure of the business in 1919. Egg himself later became a Renault dealer.
At the outset, all models were three-wheelers. Called Egg & Egli Tricycle before 1900, later three-wheelers were marketed as Egg & Egli Rapid. The first four-wheeled cars were produced in 1899, with a heavy resemblance to the Oldsmobile Curved Dash. Egg models were regarded as high-quality in Switzerland, and many Swiss companies produced them under license.
Avions Voisin was a French luxury automobile brand established by Gabriel Voisin.
Gabriel B. Voisin was an aviation pioneer and manufacturer who in 1919 started producing cars using Knight-type sleeve valve engines at Issy-les-Moulineaux, an industrial suburb to the South West of Paris. Former student of the Fine Arts School of Lyon and enthusiast for all things mechanical since his childhood, Voisin's uncompromisingly individual designs made extensive use of light alloys, especially aluminum. One of the company's most striking early designs was the Laboratoire Grand Prix car of 1923; one of the first cars ever to use monocoque chassis construction, and utilising small radiator-mounted propeller to drive the cooling pump. The characteristic Voisin style of 'rational' coachwork he developed in conjunction with his collaborator André Noel-Noel prioritized lightness, central weight distribution, capacious luggage boxes and distinctively angular lines. The 1930s models with underslung chassis were strikingly low.
In the early 1930s, Gabriel Voisin could not pay all of his draughtsmen any more and a young creative engineer called André Lefèbvre quit, recommended by Gabriel to Louis
McFarlan is an American automobile manufactured in Connersville, Indiana from 1909 to 1928 as an outgrowth of the McFarlan Carriage Company founded in 1856 by English-born John B. McFarlan (1822-1909).
J. B. McFarlan's grandson, Alfred Harry McFarlan (1881-1937) conceived the idea for the McFarlan motor car and ran the McFarlan Motor Corporation throughout its nineteen years. The first model year was 1910 and two of the company's cars were enterend in events at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway that year. McFarlans driven by Mel Marquette were also entered in first two Indianapolis 500 races (1911 and 1912) in which they finished 25th and 19th, respectively. The McFarlan was a luxury automobile owned by celebrities of the day such as Wallace Reid, William Desmond Taylor, Fatty Arbuckle, Paul Whiteman, Jack Dempsey and Virginia governor E. Lee Trinkle. Al Capone bought a McFarlan for his wife, Mae, in 1924 and bought a second one in 1926. Enormous models of the 1920s gave the company the reputation as being the "American Rolls Royce." 1928 was the final model year and the company went into bankruptcy that year.
In 1967, a book, What Was the McFarlan? was privately published in a
The Pennant was an automobile make manufactured by the Barley Motor Car Co. in Kalamazoo, Michigan (1924-25), which also made the Roamer (1916-29) and the Barley automobiles (1922-24). The latter was intended as a less expensive companion car to the Roamer. After a reorganization the Roamer Motor Car Co. was to be incorporated at Toronto, Ontario, where it was headed by George P. Wigginton and would continue to manufacture the Pennant. A. C. Barley sold his interest in Roamer and the Kalamazoo factory remained the Barley Motor Car Co. and continued to manufacture the Barley. When it failed, the Pennant was phased in. It was basically a Barley with a Buda 4-cylinder engine and targeted at the taxicab market. Its main competitor was the Checker, also built in Kalamazoo. The Pennant trade dress was a maroon upper body and ivory lower body. Both the Barley and Pennant were out of production by 1925, and so A. C. Barley was out of the automobile business.
Hummer was a brand of trucks and SUVs, first marketed in 1992 when AM General began selling a civilian version of the M998 Humvee. In 1998, General Motors (GM) purchased the brand name and marketed three vehicles: the original Hummer H1, based on the Humvee; and the H2 and H3 models that were based on smaller, civilian-market GM platforms.
By 2008, Hummer's viability in the economic downturn was being questioned, and it was placed under review by GM management. Rather than being transferred to Motors Liquidation Company as part of the GM bankruptcy in 2009, the brand was retained by GM, in order to investigate its sale.
In 2009, a Chinese manufacturer, Sichuan Tengzhong Heavy Industrial Machinery Company, announced that it would acquire Hummer, pending government approvals, but later withdrew its bid. On February 24, 2010, Reuters reported that the Chinese ministry of commerce had prevented the deal, although a ministry spokesperson denied rejecting the application, which had been stalled for eight months. At the end of February, General Motors announced it would begin dismantling the Hummer brand.
Although the automaker announced two days later that it had been approached with new
Wills Sainte Claire was an automobile brand manufactured by the C. H. Wills and Company, in Marysville, Michigan, from 1921 to 1927. Childe Harold Wills, the company founder, was a perfectionist and his automobile company focused on very high quality cars. Wills' mother was a fan of Lord Byron's poetry and Wills never used his first name.
Wills had been with Henry Ford, where metallurgy was his specialty. Wills introduced vanadium steel for the production of the Ford Model T; it was the first the large scale application of the alloy. Wills was also a designer and is credited with designing the script "Ford Blue Oval" emblem that the company uses to this day.
Wills left Ford on his own terms and with a sizeable severance package of more than 1.5 million dollars, which he used to establish his own car company he originally named "Wills Saint Clair" – Wills for himself and "Saint Clair" for the Saint Clair River near which his new factory was located. Wills later added the extra e's, thinking that it elevated the cachet of the product.
The first Wills Sainte Claire rolled off the assembly line in 1921. Production was delayed due to metallurgy issues surrounding the use of molybdenum
Kirk Manufacturing Company was a manufacturer of Brass Era automobiles in Toledo, Ohio from 1901 to 1905. Their automobile was marketed as the Yale. It should not be confused with the Yale automobile made in Saginaw, Michigan from 1916 to 1918.
The 1904 Yale was a touring car. Equipped with a tonneau, the basic model could seat 5 passengers and sold for US$1500. The car's engine was a horizontally-mounted water-cooled flat-2, mid-mounted, which produced 16 hp (11.9 kW). It powered the wheels through a 2-speed transmission. The car weighed 1800 lb (816 kg).
A model with a 30 hp (22.4 kW) engine sold for US$2500. A 12-horsepower Yale touring car was also sold in 1904 for US$1700. It was advertised nationally that year in Dun's Review as "the simplest, safest and most economical touring car made in America."
Anadol was Turkey's first domestic mass-production passenger vehicle, and the second Turkish car after the ill-fated Devrim sedan of 1961.
Anadol cars and pick-ups were manufactured by Otosan Otomobil Sanayii in Istanbul between 1966 and 1991.
Seven Anadol models were produced:
A1 (1966–1975), A2 (1970–1981), STC-16 (1973–1975), SV-1600 (1973–1982), Böcek (1975–1977), A8-16 (1981–1984) and Otosan 500 Pick-Up (1971–1991).
Production of the Anadol passenger cars was discontinued in 1986, while the production of the Otosan 500 Pick-Up continued until 1991. At present, Otosan builds Ford Motor Company's passenger cars and commercial vehicles, which are exported to numerous countries in the world, particularly to the European Union member states.
The Anadol A1, code named FW5 by Reliant which developed the prototype upon Anadol's request, went into production on 19 December 1966. The styling of the A1 was by Tom Karen of Ogle Design. In 1967 a New Zealand entrepreneur, Alan Gibbs, announced that he intended to also produce the car in his country as the Anziel Nova. This project never proceeded beyond the initial announcement and prototype.
Production of the A1 started at Otosan's new
Mercedes was a brand of the Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft (DMG). DMG which began to develop in 1900, after the death of its co-founder, Gottlieb Daimler. Although the name was not lodged as a trade name until 23 June 1902 and had to wait until 26 September to be registered legally, the brand name eventually would be applied to an automobile model built by Wilhelm Maybach to specifications by Emil Jellinek that was delivered to him on 22 December 1900. By Jellinek's contract, the new model contained a newly designed engine designated "Daimler-Mercedes". This engine name is the first instance of the use of the name, Mercedes, by DMG. The automobile model would later be called, the Mercedes 35 hp.
An Austrian diplomat based in Nice, a business man running a profitable business selling cars, and a racing enthusiast, Emil Jellinek had been racing DMG automobiles under the pseudonym Mercédès, after his daughter, Mercédès Jellinek. Later he contracted with DMG for a small series of dedicated sports cars containing an engine that officially bore his daughter's name. He raced them very successfully, gaining recognition that increased interest in customers and Jellinek was placed on the board
Packard was an American luxury automobile marque built by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan, and later by the Studebaker-Packard Corporation of South Bend, Indiana. The first Packard automobiles were produced in 1899, and the last in 1958.
Packard was founded by James Ward Packard (Lehigh University Class of 1884), his brother William Doud Packard and their partner, George Lewis Weiss, in the city of Warren, Ohio. James Ward Packard believed that they could build a better horseless carriage than the Winton cars owned by Weiss (an important Winton stockholder) and, being himself a mechanical engineer, had some ideas for improvement on the designs of current automobiles.
In September, 1900, the "Ohio Automobile Company" was founded as the manufacturer, while the cars were always sold as Packards. Since these automobiles quickly gained an excellent reputation, and there were more automobile makers that produced — or at least planned to — under the label "Ohio", the name was soon changed. On October 13, 1902, it became the Packard Motor Car Company.
From the very beginning, Packard automobiles introduced a number of innovations in its designs, including the modern
The Queen was an American automobile manufactured between 1904 and 1907 in Detroit, Michigan. Built by the C.H. Blomstrom Motor Company, Queens were chain-driven, and were one-, two-, or four-cylinder cars. The 1906 Queen was available as a 14 hp and 18 hp twin or as a 26/28 hp four.
David Burgess Wise, The New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Automobiles.
The Erskine was an American automobile brand produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana, USA, from 1926 to 1930. The marque was named after Albert Russel Erskine (1871–1933), Studebaker's president at the time.
During his term as president, Erskine encouraged Studebaker engineers to develop advanced engines. As a result, the company achieved numerous racing wins and a bigger share of the upper-price market. This left Studebaker without an entry level automobile in the United States, and Erskine, who had always been fascinated by smaller European vehicles, saw market potential in a short-wheel-base compact car, especially if it could expand Studebaker's presence in the European market. The Erskine Six was therefore first launched in Paris.
When introduced in time for the American 1927 model year, the car was named after its creator, and marketed as The Little Aristocrat. To make the Erskine affordable, Studebaker fitted the cars with six-cylinder Continental engines rather than the more advanced Studebaker units and priced the cars at $995. Body design was by Ray Dietrich; the design proved to be quite a head-turner, and received numerous accolades from the
Infiniti is a make of luxury vehicles produced by the Nissan Motor Corporation. Infiniti's automobiles have been selected as some of the best on the road by Car and Driver, Motor Trend and J.D. Power & Associates.
Willys-Knight is an automobile that was produced between 1914 and 1933 by the Willys-Overland Company of Toledo, Ohio.
John North Willys purchased the Edwards Motor Car Company of Long Island, New York, in 1913, moving the operation to Elyria, Ohio, where Willys owned the plant that had previously manufactured the Garford automobile. Production began with a four-cylinder model which was priced in the $2,500 price range. The Willys-Knight employed a Knight sleeve valve engine, generally four- and six-cylinder models.
In 1915, Willys moved assembly of the Willys-Knight to Toledo, Ohio, but continued manufacturing the engines in Elyria. Willys-Knight introduced a sleeve-valve V8 in 1917, which was sold until 1919.
Willys-Knight enjoyed a production run average of 50,000 cars per year after 1922. Willys also purchased Stearns-Knight of Cleveland, Ohio, which also used a sleeve valve Knight Engine, making that marque the crown jewel in his growing automotive empire.
Willys-Knight production ended in November 1932 (model year 1933) when the company, in receivership, stopped building higher priced cars, and instead focused on the manufacture of the inexpensive but durable Willys 77.
Acadian was a make of automobile produced by General Motors of Canada from 1962 to 1971. The Acadian was introduced so that Canadian Pontiac-Buick dealers would have a compact model to sell, since the Pontiac Tempest was unavailable in Canada. Plans originally called for the Acadian to be based on the Chevrolet Corvair, which was produced at GM's Oshawa plant; however, the concept was moved to the Chevy II platform to be introduced for 1962. The brand was also offered in Chile, with models built in Arica.
Initially, Acadians were retrimmed Chevy IIs, offered as a base model, mid-priced Invader and top-line Beaumont. The car used Pontiac styling cues such as a split grille but was marketed as a separate make, never as a Pontiac.
As with the concurrent Chevy II, Acadians were offered with 4-cylinder, 6-cylinder and V8 engines. There was a choice of transmission, depending upon the model and engine installed, 3 and 4 speed manual gearboxes or the 2-speed Powerglide automatic.
For 1964 and 1965, the Beaumont name was moved to a retrimmed version of the intermediate Chevrolet Chevelle, at which time the name Canso was applied to the top-line compact model, equivalent of the Nova.
Scion is a brand of vehicles produced by Toyota Motor Corporation for the North American market. Founded in 2002, Scion's long-term goal is to appeal to Generation Y consumers. The first Scion models, the xA hatchback and xB wagon, went on sale in California in 2003, followed by a sports coupe, the tC, and a nationwide U.S. launch in 2004. A successor to the xA, the xD, premiered in 2008, and the Scion marque expanded to Canada in 2010. The Scion lineup uses a one-trim, simplified purchase process, and the marque has relied upon guerrilla and viral marketing techniques. The Scion name, meaning the descendant of a family or heir, refers both to the brand's cars and their owners.
In 1999, Toyota launched Project Genesis, an effort to bring younger buyers to the Toyota marque in the United States. This project aimed to create a "marque within a marque" in sales and advertising strategy for compact and coupe models sold by Toyota. The effort, which included the introduction of the Toyota Echo economy car, along with late generation Toyota MR-2 and Toyota Celica models, was judged unsuccessful and cancelled in 2001. In response, Toyota chose to launch a separate marque, an effort called
Auburn was a brand name of American automobiles produced from 1900 through 1936.
The Auburn Automobile Company grew out of the Eckhart Carriage Company, founded in Auburn, Indiana, in 1875 by Charles Eckhart (1841–1915). Eckhart's sons, Frank and Morris, began making automobiles on an experimental basis before entering the business in earnest, absorbing two other local carmakers and moving into a larger plant in 1909. The enterprise was modestly successful until materials shortages during World War I forced the plant to close.
In 1919, the Eckhart brothers sold out to a group of Chicago investors headed by Ralph Austin Bard, who later served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy for President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and as Undersecretary of the Navy for President Roosevelt and for President Harry S. Truman. The new owners revived the business but failed to realize their hoped for profits. In 1924, they approached Errett Lobban Cord (1894–1974), a highly successful automobile salesman, with an offer to run the company. Cord countered with an offer to take over completely in what amounted to a leveraged buyout. The Chicago group accepted. Cord aggressively marketed the company's
The Michel Irat was a French automobile manufactured from 1929 until 1930 in Paris.
Georges Irat bought the Chaigneau-Brasier company and changed its name to that of his son Michel. Production continued of the old models which used a side valve 1086 cc four-cylinder engine.
In 1930 Georges Irat combined the company with his own larger operation.
At least one example (1929) survives in private ownership in England, whilst another was rumoured to exist in Belgium in 1985.
David Burgess Wise, The New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Automobiles
Moskvitch (Russian: Москвич) (sometimes also written as Moskvich, Moskvič or Moskwitsch) was an automobile brand from Russia produced by AZLK from 1945 to 1991 and by OAO Moskvitch from 1991 to 2002. The current article incorporates information about both the brand and the joint-stock successor of AZLK for the sake of simplicity.
OAO Moskvitch was a privatized venture name given to the former factory in order to avoid legal issues after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. Since the factory had no assembly branches outside Russia after 1991, its name is largely used today to refer to the building located in Lower Eastern part of Moscow and abandoned since 2006.
The word moskvitch (Russian: москвич) itself translates as "(a) Muscovite" into English. It was used to point out the original location of the cars manufactured outside of Moscow.
In 1929 the construction of Moscow Automotive Plant began with initial production of 24,000 vehicles. In 1941 the plant was evacuated to Ural and the entire production converted for the manufacture of the military equipment at the dawn of World War II. After the war, the USSR brought an entire Opel manufacturing line from Brandenburg in Germany. A
The Pullman was an American automobile manufactured in York, Pennsylvania by the York Motor Car Company from 1905 to 1917. Total production is estimated at anywhere from 12,000 to 23,000 cars. The Pullman automobile was named by industrialist A. P. Broomell to reflect the quality and luxury of rail cars and coaches made by the Pullman Company, but the two organizations were not related.
Pullman automobiles were sold as luxury vehicles, using advertising slogans such as "Not Only The Best at the Price But the Best at Any Price." While not as expensive as the high-end motor coaches the cars were purported to match in quality, they were considerably more expensive than the contemporary Ford Model T. The Model T introduced in 1909 was $1850, but the price dropped to around $500 by 1914. A Pullman advertisement from 1910 lists four touring car and roadster models for $1650 to $3200.
One unusual Pullman, built around 1903, featured six wheels. However, unlike other six-wheelers, even up to the March 2–4-0 in Formula 1 in the 1980s, these axles were evenly spaced, so that while the endmost two axles were in their conventional fore and aft locations, the middle two wheels were directly
The Excalibur automobile from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was a car styled after the 1928 Mercedes-Benz SSK by Brooks Stevens for Studebaker. Stevens subsequently formed a company to manufacture and market the cars, which were conventional under their styling.
A prototype premiered at car shows in 1963, fitted on a Studebaker chassis and using a 290-horsepower Studebaker 289 V-8. Studebaker subsequently ceased its operations, ending the availability of its 289 V-8. General Motors friends Ed Cole and "Bunkie" Knudsen agreed to provide Brooks Stevens with Chevrolet 327s in 300-bhp Corvette tune, making the 2100-pound Excalibur a strong performer. With the standard 3.31:1 rear axle, acceleration from 0-60 mph took less than five seconds. Projected top speed was 160 mph.
The Syrena was a Polish automobile model first exhibited at the Poznań Trade Fair in 1955 and manufactured from 1957 to 1972 by the Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych (FSO) in Warsaw and from 1972 to 1983 by FSM in Bielsko-Biała. 177,234 were made by FSO and 344,077 by FSM, a total of 521,311. During its remarkably long production run it underwent only minor modifications.
The Syrena was produced in various models: 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, while the most popular model was the 105. All were 2-door sedans with two-stroke engines, initially of two cylinders. In 1965 the Syrena received a larger 3 cylinder Wartburg developed engine at roughly the same time as Wartburg launched their new 353 model based on the Polish Warszawa 210.
From 1968 a Model named laminat was produced. A van called Syrena Bosto and a pick-up R20 were also produced. A coupe Syrena Sport and a hatchback Syrena 110 (in 1966) remained prototypes only.
Syrena is a mermaid who protects the river Wisła and the Polish capital city, Warsaw. She is featured on the city's coat of arms.
At first, Polish engineers wanted Syrena to have a 4-stroke air-cooled engine and a self-supporting chassis. Due to a lack of deep-drawn metal
Fairthorpe cars were made in Chalfont St Peter, Buckinghamshire, England between 1954 and 1976.
Fairthorpe Ltd was founded by Air Vice Marshall Donald Bennett. The first cars were lightweight models powered by motorcycle engines and with glass fibre bodies called the Atom and Atomota. In 1956 a new larger car, the open 2-seat Electron appeared using a Coventry Climax engine. A reduced price version using a Triumph engine followed in 1957 and was the mainstay of production until 1973 with about 700 being built. There was also a closed version called the Electrina but only about 20 were produced. The cars were available fully assembled or in kit form. Production peaked at about 20 cars a month.
A high powered car, the Zeta, was introduced in 1960 using a modified Ford Zephyr engine with up to six carburettors and a BRM cylinder head. Another version, the Rockette used a Triumph Vitesse 1600 cc engine, few were made of either of these models. In 1961 the company moved to Gerrards Cross and in 1964 to Denham, both in Buckinghamshire.
In 1967 Donald Bennett's son Torix (Torix Bennett) joined the company and a new car the TX-GT based on a Triumph GT6 chassis but with transverse rod
Erich Bitter Automobil GmbH (Bitter) is a premium sports-luxury automobile marque originally produced in Germany and later Austria. Founder Erich Bitter, a former race car driver turned automobile tuner, importer and ultimately designer began crafting his own vehicles after business ventures with Italian manufacture Intermeccanica ended.
The Bitter automobile company initially produced vehicles between 1973 and 1989, selling them in Europe and the United States. Several prototypes were created by Bitter in later years with an eye on possible low-volume production, but none of those plans came to fruition until the Vero in 2007.
The Opel Diplomat-based CD, a three-door hatchback coupe featuring a Chevrolet 327 V-8 of 227 hp (169 kW), was built between 1973-1979.
The CD was first shown as an Opel styling study OPEL CD (Coupé diplomat) on Sept 9th, 1969 at the International motor show (IAA) in Frankfurt. Designed by, Charles M. "Chuck" Jordan (OPEL Design boss 1967-1971 and later vice-president of GM) and his assistants George A. Gallion, David Holls, Herbert Killmer and Hideo Kodama, along with Erhard Fast (director/conductor of the OPEL Designstudios 3 for Advanced Design since
Buddy is a Norwegian electric car, produced by Pure Mobility, formerly Elbil Norge AS, at Økern in Oslo. In 2007, the Buddy, and its predecessor, the Kewet, made up 20% of the electric cars in Norway.
Buddy is the sixth generation of the Kewet electric vehicle. Originally the Kewet was developed in Hadsund, Denmark, and the first model was made in 1991. Production alternated between Hadsund, Denmark and Nordhausen, Germany. During the first five generations over 1000 electric vehicles were produced. The vehicle was sold in eighteen countries. In 1998 all rights were acquired by ElBil Norge AS (which at the time was called Kollega Bil AS). Bil is the Norwegian word for car (as in automobile), Norge is the Norwegian word for Norway. For some years ElBil Norge further developed the electric vehicle and in the autumn of 2005 a new model was presented that was first called Kewet Buddy Citi-Jet 6, but is now known simply as the Buddy.
In December 2008, the first 12 Buddy cars were sent from the Buddy factory in Økern by boat to Copenhagen. In 2010, Pure Mobility (former "Elbil Norge") launched a brand new version of the Buddy. It was initially marketed as "MetroBuddy", but the "Metro"
Horch was a car brand manufactured in Germany by August Horch & Cie, at the beginning of the 20th century.
The company was established first by August Horch and his first business partner Salli Herz on November 14, 1899 at Ehrenfeld, Cologne. August Horch was a former production manager for Karl Benz. Three years later in 1902 he moved with his company to Reichenbach im Vogtland. On May, 10th, 1904 he founded the Horch & Cie. Motorwagenwerke AG, a joint-stock company in Zwickau (State of Saxony). The city of Zwickau was the capital of the South Western Saxon County and one of Saxony's industrial centres at the time.
On July 16, 1909, August Horch, after troubles with Horch chief financial officer, founded his second company, the August Horch Automobilwerke GmbH in Zwickau. He had to rename his new company because Horch was already a registered brand and he did not hold the rights on it. On April 25, 1910 the brand Audi was entered in the company's register of Zwickau registration court. Audi is the Latin translation of horch, from the German verb "Horchen", which means "Listen". The Audi name was proposed by a son of one of his business partners from Zwickau.
Both companies from
Pontiac was an automobile brand that was established in 1926 as a companion make for General Motors' Oakland. Quickly overtaking its parent in popularity, it supplanted the Oakland brand entirely by 1933 and, for most of its life, became a companion make for Chevrolet. Pontiac was sold in the United States, Canada, and Mexico by General Motors (GM). Pontiac was marketed as the performance division of General Motors for many years, specializing in mainstream performance vehicles. Pontiac was relatively more popular in Canada, where for much of its history it was marketed as a low-priced vehicle.
On April 27, 2009, amid ongoing financial problems and restructuring efforts, GM announced it would discontinue the Pontiac brand by the end of 2010 and focus on four core brands in North America: Chevrolet, Cadillac, Buick, and GMC. The last Pontiacs were built in late 2009, with the final dealer franchises expiring October 31, 2010.
The Pontiac Spring and Wagon Works was incorporated in July 1899 by Albert G. North and Harry G. Hamilton. By 1905 they had taken over the manufacturing of the Rapid Truck (from the Rapid Motor Vehicle Co.) that had been introduced two years earlier. In 1907
The American Electric was an American automobile manufactured in Chicago from 1899 to 1902 and Hoboken, New Jersey in 1902.
The company built a wide range of electric carriages - some bodied as high, ungainly-looking dos-a-dos four-seaters - these were claimed to be capable of running from 35 miles (56 km) to 50 miles (80 km). Perhaps optimistically, the manufacturer claimed that "very few private carriages would ever be subjected to such a test". The company moved to New Jersey in 1902, according to a company statement, “to find more wealthy customers,” but they shutdown operations within the year.
Fuldamobil is the name of a series of small cars produced by Elektromaschinenbau Fulda GmbH of Fulda, Germany, and Nordwestdeutscher Fahrzeugbau (NWF) of Wilhelmshaven between 1950 and 1969. Though numbers produced were relatively small, the cars attracted sufficient attention to see licensed construction on four continents including Europe. In its ultimate configuration it is said to have inspired the term "bubble car".
The cars original design was conceived by Norbert Stevenson, a freelance-journalist who had worked for the "Rhein-Zeitung" newspaper who had completed one term of mechanical engineering at the Technische Hochschule Berlin. His design concept was for a very simple three-wheeled car with room for two people inside, it would have two wheels at the front for stability, and be driven by a small engine at the rear. After initial financial support for the project from his former employer had ceased, Stevenson took his concept to several companies and in the summer of 1949, it was accepted by Karl Schmitt, a wealthy engineering graduate.
Schmitt was a Bosch wholesaler in the town of Fulda, Germany, who also ran another small company; Elektromaschinenbau Fulda GmbH, which
The Olympian was an automobile built in Pontiac, Michigan, USA, by the Olympian Motors Company from 1917-21. Two Olympian models were built, a touring car called the Tourist and a four-seat roadster called the Gypsy. They came equipped with a four-cylinder engine. Both models sold for $965.
Vivinus cars were made by Ateliers Vivinus S.A. of Schaerbeek, Brussels (1899 - 1912).
The owner, Alexis Vivinus (1860-1929), had made bicycles in the 1890s and become an importer of Benz. From 1895 he started to make his own range of cars. These were belt-driven voiturette models with a 785 cc single-cylinder engine and 2-speed transmission by belt drive. Licences to make his designs were sold to firms such as New Orleans of England, Georges Richard of France and De Dietrich in Germany.
From 1907 a range of more conventional 4-cylinder cars were made with shaft drive along with motorcycles and aero engines.
The company went into liquidation in 1912. The workshop was taken over by Fabrique Automobile Belge. Vivinus himself later joined Minerva.
The DeSoto (sometimes De Soto) was a brand of automobile based in the United States, manufactured and marketed by the now-defunct DeSoto Division of the Chrysler Corporation from 1928 to 1961. The DeSoto logo featured a stylized image of Hernando de Soto. The De Soto marque was officially dropped 30 November 1960, with over two million vehicles built since 1928.
The DeSoto make was founded by Walter Chrysler on August 4, 1928, and introduced for the 1929 model year. It was named after the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto. Chrysler wanted to enter the brand in competition with its arch-rivals General Motors, Studebaker, and Willys-Knight, in the mid-price class.
Shortly after DeSoto was introduced, however, Chrysler completed its purchase of the Dodge Brothers, giving the company two mid-priced makes. Had the transaction been completed sooner, DeSoto never would have been introduced.
Initially, the two-make strategy was relatively successful, with DeSoto priced below Dodge models. Despite the economic times, DeSoto sales were relatively healthy, pacing Dodge at around 25,000 units in 1932. In fact, when DeSoto first came out in 1929, it broke the record for first-year sales record,
Cadillac /ˈkædɨlæk/ is an American luxury vehicle marque owned by General Motors (GM). Cadillac currently sells vehicles in 37 countries, with its primary market being North America. In 2011, Cadillac's U.S. sales were 152,389. Globally, Cadillac's next largest market is China, where the SRX model is its largest seller.
Cadillac is currently the second oldest American automobile manufacturer behind fellow GM marque Buick and is among the oldest automobile brands in the world. Depending on how one chooses to measure, Cadillac is arguably older than Buick. Cadillac was founded in 1902 by Henry Leland, a master mechanic and entrepreneur, who named the company after his ancestor, Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac, the founder of the city of Detroit. The company's crest is based on a coat of arms that Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac had created at the time of his marriage in Quebec in 1687. General Motors purchased the company in 1909 and within six years, Cadillac had laid the foundation for the modern mass production of automobiles by demonstrating the complete interchangeability of its precision parts while simultaneously establishing itself as America's premier luxury car.
Honda is an automobile make from the Honda Motor Company based in Japan. Many popular cars, trucks and SUVs have been produced under the Honda banner, including the Accord, Civic and Pilot. In August, 2008, Honda overtook Chrysler as the fourth largest automobile manufacturer in the United States.
Kewet was the brand name of an battery electric vehicle. Since 2007, it has been manufactured under the name Buddy by ElbilNorge AS in Oslo, Norway.
In 1971 Knud Erik Westergaard started KEW Industries in Hadsund, Denmark. The company produced industrial washing equipment and high pressure cleaners. In 1988 this company was sold, and Westergaard founded Kewet to produce electric cars. In 1991 the first cars emerged from the production facilities. In 1995 production was moved to Nordhausen in the former East Germany. But this move was unsuccessful. Kewet went bankrupt in 1998. In August 1998 Kewet International was formed. Shortly thereafter, rights to the Kewet vehicle were transferred to the Norwegian company, Kollega Bil A/S, which changed its name to Elbil Norge AS. Currently, Kewet Service provides spare parts and repairs Kewet vehicles in Denmark, while Consys develops various systems for electric vehicles.
Six generations of the Kewet have been produced:
The car seats three, has a range of typically 50 to 80 km (~31 to 50 mi) between charges (150 km/~93 mi with Li-Ion), with a top speed of 80 km/h (~49.7 MPH), and features a 1.6 KW electric heater or an optional paraffin
The LaSalle was an automobile product of General Motors Corporation and sold as a companion marque of Cadillac from 1927 to 1940. The two were linked by similarly themed names, both being named for French explorers — Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac and René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, respectively.
The La Salle had its beginnings when General Motors' CEO, Alfred P. Sloan, noticed that his carefully crafted market segmentation program was beginning to develop price gaps in which General Motors had no product to sell.
As originally developed by Sloan, General Motors' market segmentation placed each of the company's individual automobile makes into specific price points. The Chevrolet was designated as the entry level product. Next, (in ascending order), came the Oakland, Oldsmobile, Buick, and ultimately, the Cadillac. However, during the robust 1920s, certain General Motors products began to shift out of the plan as the products improved and engine advances were made.
In an era where automotive brands were somewhat restricted to building a specific car per model year, Sloan surmised that the best way to bridge the gaps was to develop "companion" marques that
Warszawa was a Polish automobile marque manufactured from 1951 to 1973 by the Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych of Warsaw.
The Warszawa was the first new-design Polish car built after the Second World War. Warszawas were popular as taxis because of their sturdiness and ruggedness. However, due to their weight they were underpowered and had high fuel consumption. In total, 254,471 cars were made.
Named after the city of Warsaw, the Warszawa was until 1957 identical to the Soviet Pobeda, built under license. The first major modernisation took place in 1957. The new model was called FSO Warszawa M20 model 57, but not so long after its name was changed to Warszawa 200. New model received a restyled front-end section. The powertrain was modified too, compression ratio was raised from 6.2:1 to 6.8:1.
Since 1962 car could be equipped with the OHV I4 engine. It was much more modern than the archaic sidevalve construction used before. In 1964 the body style was changed to a Ponton, three-box design by then becoming mainstream in Europe, though the car retained a rather heavy style to western eyes.
In 1967 it was announced that Perkins four cylinder 1.76-litre diesel engines would be fitted in
The Oakland was a brand of automobile manufactured between 1907–1909 by the Oakland Motor Car Company of Pontiac, Michigan, (formerly a carriage-maker called Pontiac Buggy) and between 1909 and 1931 by the Oakland Motors Division of General Motors Corporation. Oakland's principal founder was Edward M. Murphy, who sold half the company to GM in January 1909; when Murphy died in the summer of 1909, GM acquired the remaining rights to Oakland.
As originally conceived and introduced, the first Oakland used a vertical two-cylinder engine that rotated counterclockwise. This design by Alanson Brush (inventor of the Brush Runabout) lasted one year and was replaced by a more standard 4-cylinder engine and sales increased to approximately 5,000 automobiles per year.
Within General Motors, Oakland was slotted above price leader Chevrolet and below the more premium Oldsmobile and Buick brand cars. In 1916, the company introduced a V8 engine, and Oakland initially flourished. By early 1920, however, production and quality control problems began to plague the division. In 1921, under new General Manager Fred Hannum, a consistent production schedule was underway and the quality of the cars
Peerless was a United States automobile produced by the Peerless Motor Company of Cleveland, Ohio from 1900 to 1931. The company was known for building high-quality, precision luxury automobiles. Peerless' factory was located at 9400 Quincy Avenue in Cleveland.
Established in Cleveland in 1900, Peerless Motors began producing De Dion-Bouton "machines" under license from the French Company. At the time, Cleveland was the center of automotive production in the US. Peerless employed Barney Oldfield as a driver of its Green Dragon racecar; in early speed races Peerless proved the durability of the product and setting world speed records. Peerless was noted for its use of flat-plane crankshafts in its engine designs.
As the Peerless evolved, it, along with makes Packard and Pierce-Arrow, became known as the "Three-Ps of Motordom" (premium vehicles) in the US.
Peerless' downfall was in its quality. In the 1920s, the company was producing conservatively-styled vehicles that endured for ten or more years. Current Peerless owners retained their cars, which ran very well. New buyers of luxury cars were attracted to LaSalle, Packard, and the Studebaker President series.
In 1930-31, Peerless
The Trabant /trəˈbɑːnt/ is a car that was produced by former East German auto maker VEB Sachsenring Automobilwerke Zwickau in Zwickau, Sachsen. It was the most common vehicle in East Germany, and was also exported to countries both inside and outside the communist bloc. The main selling points were that it had room for four adults and luggage in a compact, light and durable shell; it was fast (when introduced); and it was durable.
With its mediocre performance, outdated and inefficient two-stroke engine (which returned poor fuel economy for the car's size and produced heavy exhaust), and production shortages, the Trabant is often cited as an example of the disadvantages of centralized planning; on the other hand, it is regarded with derisive affection as a symbol of the failed former East Germany and of the fall of communism (in former West Germany, as many East Germans streamed into West Berlin and West Germany in their Trabants after the opening of the Berlin Wall in 1989). It was in production without any significant changes for nearly 30 years with 3,096,099 Trabants produced in total. In 2008, Time magazine rated the Trabant as one of the 50 worst cars ever made.
The Apple was a short-lived American automobile manufactured by Apple Automobile Company in Dayton, Ohio from 1915 to 1917. Agents were assured that its $1150 Apple 8 model was "a car which you can sell!". Sadly for the company, it would seem that the public did not buy.
In the late 1980s, Mazda diversified in the Japan market with the launch of three new marques. The company created Autozam, Eunos, and Efini, in addition to the Mazda and Ford brands already marketed there. This experiment was ended in the mid-1990s.
The Autozam marque specialized in small cars and keicars with many models being rebadged Suzukis. This is the only Mazda marque to survive the 1990s—many of the vehicles are still sold with the "AZ" prefix.
Like Eunos, Mazda continues to run dealerships with the Mazda Autozam name. These specialize in small vehicles, though all are part of the regular Mazda lineup and use the Mazda name now.
The following vehicles were part of the Autozam brand. Those that were rebadged versions are noted in parentheses.
Chevrolet ( /ʃɛvrəˈleɪ/), also known as Chevy (/ˈʃɛvi/), is an American brand of vehicle produced by General Motors (GM). Chevrolet was founded by Louis Chevrolet and ousted GM founder William C. Durant on November 3, 1911, and later acquired by General Motors in 1918. Chevrolet was positioned by Alfred Sloan to sell a lineup of mainstream vehicles to directly compete against Henry Ford's Model T in the 1920s, with "Chevrolet" or "Chevy" being at times synonymous with GM. In North America, Chevrolet sells and produces a wide variety of automobiles, from subcompact cars to medium-duty commercial trucks, whereas in Europe, the brand name is used mainly for automobiles produced in Korea by General Motors.
On November 3, 1911, Swiss race car driver and automotive engineer Louis Chevrolet co-founded the Chevrolet Motor Car Company in Detroit with William C. Durant and investment partners William Little (maker of the Little automobile) and Dr. Edwin R. Campbell (son-in-law of Durant) and in 1912 R. S. McLaughlin GEO of General Motors in Canada.
Durant was ousted from the management of General Motors in 1910 for five years. He took over the Flint Wagon Works, incorporating the Mason and
Geo was a brand of small cars made by General Motors as a subdivision of its Chevrolet division from 1989 to 1997. Its original slogan was "Get to know Geo." Originally formed by GM to compete with the growing small import market of the mid 1980s, the line continued through the 1997 model year, after which the remaining models were given the Chevrolet name itself. Geo's logo was based on the Chevrolet logo and the newest look had a small Chevrolet Bowtie logo placed within the "O" in Geo. The 1990s saw fading consumer interest in the economy compact market, and the last vehicle of the former Geo line, the Tracker, was discontinued in 2004. In Canada, another import marque, Asüna, was introduced in 1992 to provide Pontiac-Buick-GMC dealers access to a similar range of import vehicles.
Geo models were manufactured by GM in joint ventures with three Japanese automakers. The Prizm was produced at the GM/Toyota joint-venture NUMMI assembly plant in Fremont, California, and the Metro and Tracker were produced at the GM/Suzuki joint-venture CAMI assembly plant in Ingersoll, Ontario. The exceptions, the Spectrum and Storm, were entirely manufactured by Isuzu in Japan. Geo Metro
Jeep is a brand of American automobiles that is a marque of Chrysler Group LLC, a multinational automobile manufacturer in a global strategic alliance with Fiat. The former Chrysler Corporation acquired the Jeep brand, along with the remaining assets of its owner American Motors, in 1987. Jeep's line of vehicles consists solely of sport utility vehicles and off-road vehicles but has also included pickup trucks in the past.
The first Willys MB Jeeps were produced in 1941 with the first civilian models in 1945, making it the oldest off-road vehicle and sport utility vehicle (SUV) brand. It inspired a number of other light utility vehicles, such as the Land Rover which is the second oldest four-wheel-drive brand. The original Jeep vehicle that first appeared as the prototype Bantam BRC became the primary light four-wheel-drive vehicle of the United States Army and Allies during World War II, as well as the postwar period. Many Jeep variants serving similar military and civilian roles have since been created in other nations.
There are many explanations of the origin of the word jeep, all of which have proven difficult to verify. The most widely-held theory is that the military
Lada is a trademark of the Russian car manufacturer AvtoVAZ based in Tolyatti, Samara Oblast. It was originally the export brand for the models it sold under the Zhiguli name in the domestic Soviet market since June 1970. All AvtoVAZ vehicles are currently sold under the Lada brand.
Lada cars became extremely popular in Russia and Eastern Europe during the last two decades of the Soviet era, particularly in former Soviet bloc countries, where they have become a symbol of city life.
The Lada badge depicts a Viking sailing ship.
Lada made its name in Western Europe selling the Fiat 124-based VAZ-2101 and its many derivatives as an economy car in large quantities during the 1980s, but later models were less successful.
The common Lada sedan/estate, sometimes known as the Classic in the west (VAZ 2104/2105/2107 were known as Signet in Canada, Riva in the UK, and Nova in Germany), was partly based on the 1966 Fiat 124 sedan, and became a successful export car. The keys to its success were: competitive price as an export, reliability, simple DIY-friendly mechanics and unpretentious functionality. Since 1980 over 13.5 million Ladas were badged as 'Rivas' (UK only, Signet in Canada, Nova
The Maxwell was a brand of automobiles manufactured in the United States of America from about 1904 to 1925. The present-day successor to the Maxwell company is Chrysler Group.
The brand name of motor cars was started as the Maxwell-Briscoe Company of Tarrytown, New York. The company was named after founders Jonathan Dixon Maxwell, who earlier had worked for Oldsmobile, and the Briscoe Brothers Metalworks. Benjamin Briscoe, an automobile industry pioneer, was president of the company at its height.
Maxwell was the only profitable company of the combine named United States Motor Company formed in 1910. Due to a conflict between two of its backers, the United States Motor Company failed in 1913 after the failure of its last supporting car manufacturer; the Brush Motor Company. Maxwell was the only surviving member of the combine.
In 1907, following a fire that destroyed the Tarrytown, NY factory, Maxwell-Briscoe constructed what was then the largest automobile factory in the world in New Castle, Indiana. The factory continued as a Chrysler plant until its demolition in 2004. In 1913, the Maxwell assets were purchased by Walter Flanders, who reorganized the company as the Maxwell
Nissan is a multinational automaker headquartered in Japan. It was formerly a core member of the Nissan Group, but has become more independent after its restructuring under Carlos Ghosn (CEO). It formerly marketed vehicles under the "Datsun" brand name and is one of the largest car manufacturers in the world. As of 2011, the company's global headquarters is located in Nishi-ku, Yokohama. In 1999, Nissan entered a two way alliance with Renault S.A. of France, which owns 43.4% of Nissan while Nissan holds 15% of Renault shares, as of 2008. The current market share of Nissan, along with Honda and Toyota, in American auto sales represent the largest of the automotive firms based in Asia that have been increasingly encroaching on the historically dominant US-based "Big Three" consisting of GM, Ford and Chrysler.
Stearns-Knight was an American luxury automobile produced in Cleveland, Ohio first by the F.B. Stearns Company from 1900 to 1925, and then under ownership by WillysOverland Company of Toledo, Ohio until 1929.
Frank Ballou Stearns quit school at age 14 in 1893 in his freshman year at the Case School of Applied Science Stearns became the first American automobile to use the sleeve valve Knight Engine in its vehicles in 1911.
Frank Ballou Stearns sold his company in 1925 to John North Willys who maintained the company as a non-integrated affiliate of WillysOverland.
Production of the Stearns Knight ended on December 20, 1929.
Velie was a brass era American automobile brand produced by the Velie Motors Corporation in Moline, Illinois from 1908 to 1928. The company was founded by and named for Willard Velie, a maternal grandson of John Deere.
Velie founded Velie Carriage Company in 1902, which was successful, then Velie Motor Vehicle Company in 1908.
Velie ads bragged they "produce every important part" and were not simply assemblers, a lesson Ford had taught. However, Velie's first car was assembled from suppliers' components. Velie had sold more than 1000 cars by 1910.
Beginning in 1911, Velie introduced a truck line, and began making a proprietary four-cylinder engine, though parts continued to come from suppliers.
The 1911 Velie 40 had a 334 in (5473 cc) (4½×5¼-inch, 114×133 mm) four-cylinder L-head four-cycle gasoline engine, fired by Splitdorf magneto, producing 40 hp (30 kW), mated to a Brown-Lipe sliding-gear transmission with three forward and one reverse speed). It was a four-seater with a 115 in (2921 mm) wheelbase and 34×4-inch (86×10-cm) hickory artillery wheels, shod in the customer's choice of Hartford or Firestone tires. It was priced at US$1800, which compared against US$1500 for the Colt
Wartburg was a car marque manufactured in East Germany.
The name "Wartburg" derives from Wartburg Castle on one of the hills overlooking the town of Eisenach where the cars were manufactured.
From the 1950s, Wartburgs had a three-cylinder two-stroke engine with only seven moving parts (three pistons, three connecting rods and one crankshaft).
The marque dates back to 1898 when a car made by Automobilwerk Eisenach was named the Wartburgwagen. It consisted of a two-seating cane chair, four mudgards, two headlamps, and a two-cylinder, 765-cc engine. Its top speed was 25 mph. The name was dropped in 1904 when the company changed hands but re-appeared briefly in the early 1930s on the BMW 3/15 DA-3 Wartburg, which was BMW's first sports car.
The name was revived in 1956 by VEB Automobilwerk Eisenach and given to an updated version of their IFA F9 car which had been in production since 1950. The new car had a more powerful version of the three-cylinder two-stroke engine driving the front wheels and a completely new body. By this time, Germany had been divided into two countries (the West and the East) and the Wartburg factory was in the communist East.
Exports to West Germany started in