A company that manufactures motor-powered vehicles (eg., cars, motorcycles, buses, trucks and motorized bikes).
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Laraki (Laraki Automobiles s.a.) was a Moroccan based company established in Casablanca with the intention to develop and sell luxurious high-performance sports cars. Established in 1999, it ceased operation in 2008.
Its owner was Abdeslam Laraki, a Moroccan designer who started out creating luxurious yachts (the King of Bahrain is its main client) and also worked for Franco Sbarro. The technical director was Dr Peter Tutzer, previously from Bugatti. Laraki announced two concept models: the Fulgura in 2002 and Borak in 2005, but neither reached production before the company closed. The company had intended to establish a manufacturing based in Dubai, UAE by 2008.
The Laraki Fulgura (Arabic: فولڭورا) was the company's first attempt at a sportscar. Originally unveiled as a concept at the 2002 Geneva Motor Show, a proposed production version debuted a year later at the same show. A slightly redesigned version of the bodywork was unveiled in 2005. It was intended that production would start in 2008.
Based on the frame and mechanicals of a Lamborghini Diablo, the Fulgura was equipped with a quad-turbo Mercedes-Benz 6.0L V12, initially proposed to produce 920 hp (686 kW), attached to a
AB Volvo is a Swedish manufacturer of trucks, buses and construction equipment, and a former manufacturer of cars. Volvo also supplies marine and industrial drive systems, and financial services. Although Volvo was incorporated in 1915 as a subsidiary of AB SKF, a Swedish ball bearing manufacturer, the auto manufacturer considers itself officially founded on 14 April 1927, when the first car, the Volvo ÖV 4 series, affectionately known as "Jakob", rolled out of the factory in Hisingen, Gothenburg.
Volvo means "I roll" in Latin, conjugated from "volvere", in relation to ball bearing. The name Volvo was originally registered in May 1911 as a separate company within SKF AB and as a registered trademark with the intention to be used for a special series of ball bearing, but this idea was only used for a short period of time and SKF decided to use "SKF" as the trademark for all its bearing products.
In 1924, Assar Gabrielsson, a SKF Sales Manager, and Engineer Gustav Larson, the two founders, decided to start construction of a Swedish car. Their vision was to build cars that could withstand the rigors of Sweden's rough roads and cold temperatures. This has become a trademark feature of
Aptera Motors was a startup company seeking to manufacture high-efficiency road vehicles. Formerly known as Accelerated Composites, the company was based in Oceanside, California. The company went out of business on December 2, 2011.
Aptera’s first product, a three-wheeled two-seater named the Aptera 2 Series, was under development, The fuel efficiency of 300 mpg-US (0.78 L/100 km) when plugged in every 120 miles (190 km) would make it one of the most fuel-efficient cars in the world. This is without accounting for the fuel used for generating the power that charges the batteries. If that is provided for, the equation would stand significantly altered.
The name Aptera is Greek for “wingless,” a nod to their light-aircraft-inspired design and construction techniques, and is correctly pluralized either as 'Apterae' or ‘Apteras.’ However, Aptera Motors maintains that Aptera translates to “wingless flight.”
In January 2006, startup Accelerated Composites issued a press release detailing an automobile design that would get an estimated 330 miles per US gallon (0.71 L/100 km) at 65 mph (105 km/h).
The Mk-0 technology demonstrator was unveiled at the TED Conference in March 2007.
Citroën (French pronunciation: [si.tʁɔ.ˈɛn]) is a major French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group.
Founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën (1878–1935), Citroën was the first mass-production car company outside the USA and pioneered the modern concept of creating a sales and services network that complements the motor car. Within eight years Citroën had become Europe's largest car manufacturer and the 4th largest in the world.
Citroën earned a reputation for innovation and revolutionary engineering, which is reflected in the company's slogan "Créative Technologie". Its history of innovation began with its founding, when André-Gustave Citroën introduced the first industrial mass production of vehicles outside the United States, a technique he developed while mass-producing armaments for the French military in World War I. In 1924, Citroën produced Europe’s first all-steel-bodied car, the B-10. In 1934, Citroën secured its reputation for innovation with its Traction Avant, not only the world's first mass-produced front-wheel drive car, but also one of the first cars to feature a monocoque-type body. In 1954 Citroën produced the
Puma was a Brazilian specialist car manufacturer which built cars from 1966 until roughly 1995. High import tariffs effectively closed Brazil during much of this period to foreign-built cars. This limited the vehicles available to the average Brazilian to those built locally by foreign manufacturers such as Volkswagen and General Motors (which established Brazilian manufacturing plants), and the products of local companies. Puma also made trucks, from 1978 to 1999.
The origin of what became the Puma was the DKW-Malzoni, built by Rino Malzoni of Matão in São Paulo (state) from around 1964. Malzoni was a keen auto racer, and at the behest of DKW-Vemag he developed a competition car based around a DKW straight-three two-stroke engine. Developed to compete with the Willys Interlagos, a locally built copy of the Alpine A108 which was outpacing DKW's heavier sedans, Malzoni developed a steel-bodied prototype. This proved too heavy, and at the São Paulo Motor Show in the fall of 1964 the light, fiberglass-skinned GT made its first appearance. It won its first race, at Interlagos in 1964. Malzoni, auto enthusiast but a lawyer by trade, proceeded to found the company Luminari Ltda with a
Bristol Siddeley Engines Ltd (BSEL) was a British aero engine manufacturer. The company was formed in 1959 by a merger of Bristol Aero-Engines Limited and Armstrong Siddeley Motors Limited. In 1961 the company was expanded by the purchase of the de Havilland Engine Company and the engine division of Blackburn Aircraft. Bristol Siddeley was purchased by Rolls-Royce Limited in 1966.
Bristol Siddeley Engines Limited was formed by a merger, effective from the 1 April 1959, of the Bristol Aero-Engines and Armstrong Siddeley Motors. These were the aero engine manufacturing companies of the Bristol Aeroplane Company and the Hawker Siddeley Group. The share capital of Bristol Siddeley was held in equal proportions by these two parent organisations. At around the same time Bristol's aircraft manufacturing was being subsumed into the British Aircraft Corporation along with those of English Electric and Vickers-Armstrong.
Armstrong Siddeley Motors had been producing aero-engines and motor-cars since it had been formed in 1919 with the merger of Siddeley-Deasy and the Armstrong Whitworth Company. Bristol Aero-Engines had been formed in 1920 when the Bristol Aeroplane Company had taken over the
Stevens-Duryea was an American manufacturer of automobiles in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts between 1901 and 1915 and from 1919 to 1927.
The company was founded after a falling-out between J. Frank Duryea and his brother Charles in 1898. In 1900 Frank went on to form Hampden Automobile and Launch Company (Springfield) where he developed a new automobile and looked for a manufacturer to produce it. J. Stevens Arms and Tool Company who were about to enter the developing car business, entered into a partnership with Frank and took over the factory of steam car and bicycle maker Overman (car company) (sharing the premises for several months).
Stevens-Duryea's first product was a two-cylinder, 5 hp Runabout that sold for $1,200.00 in 1901. No production numbers are known for 1901 but the firm produced 61 cars in 1902 and 483 in 1903. (A 1903 example can be seen at the Gilmore Car Museum in Hickory Corners, MI) By 1904 the runabout, a tube chassis 6 hp (4.5 kW) flat twin buggy runabout victoria, was called the Model L. It had a flat-mounted water-cooled straight twin, situated amidships of the car, four speed gearbox (three forward, one reverse), wire wheels, full-elliptic springs, and
Brewster & Company was an American coachbuilder, active from 1810-1937. Their first known bodywork on an automobile was in 1896, on an electric car, and a gasoline powered car in 1905, on a Delaunay-Belleville chassis. Eventually they would use chassis from a variety of makers. From 1915-1925 and 1934-1935 they produced their own line of opulent and expensive automobiles at their plant in Long Island City.
In 1804 James Brewster became an apprentice to carriage builder Colonel Charles Chapman when he was 16 years old. He considered pursuing a life of military, achieving Lieutenant in the Northampton militia, and ultimately deciding "coachmaker with a competency" sounded better than "General Brewster". James had 30 dollars when he completed his apprenticeship and would head for New York in 1809, but there were delays along the way.
James was exploring New Haven, Connecticut, and had walked into a carriage manufactory. He became journeyman under John Cook, who owned a carriage making shop. By 1810, he had finished working under Cook, saved 250 dollars, gotten married, and opened up his own carriage shop, Brewster Carriage Co.
His coaches were of exceptional quality, and in a few
DB (until 1947 known as Deutsch-Bonnet) was a French automobile maker between 1938 and 1961, based in Champigny-sur-Marne near Paris. The firm was founded by Charles Deutsch and René Bonnet. Immediately before the war the partners concentrated on making light-weight racing cars, but a few years after the war, starting with the presentation of a Panhard based cabriolet at the 1950 Paris Motor Show, the company began to produce small road-going sports cars. By 1952 the company no longer had its own stand at the Paris motorshow, but one of their cars appeared as a star attraction on the large Panhard stand, reflecting the level of cooperation between the two businesses.
The business produced light sports cars, originally in steel but subsequently with fiberglass bodies mainly powered by Panhard flat-twin engines, most commonly of 610, 744, or 851 cc. Deutsch was a "theoretical engineer who had a natural instinct for aerodynamics," while Bonnet was a more "pragmatic mechanical engineer".
The fiberglass bodies covered a tubular central beam chassis made from steel, with front wheel drive and four wheel independent suspension directly lifted from the Panhard donors. Until 1952 all DBs
GMC is a manufacturer of trucks, vans, military vehicles, and Sport utility vehicles marketed in North America and the Middle East by General Motors. In January 2007, GMC was GM's second-largest-selling North American vehicle division after Chevrolet, ahead of Pontiac.
General Motors was founded by William C. Durant on September 16, 1908, as a holding company for Buick. In 1909, GM purchased the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company, forming the basis of the General Motors Truck Company, from which the "GMC Truck" brand name was derived. (Rapid was established on December 22, 1901, by Max Grabowsky. The company developed some of the earliest commercial trucks ever designed, and utilized one-cylinder engines.) The Reliance Motor Car Company (another independent manufacturer) was also purchased that same year by GM. Rapid and Reliance were merged in 1911, and in 1912 the marque "GMC Truck" first appeared on vehicles exhibited at the New York International Auto Show. Some 22,000 trucks were produced that year, though GMC's contribution to that total was a mere 372 units. GMC had some currency within GM referring to the corporate parent in general. Later "GMC" would become distinct as a division
Humber is a dormant British automobile marque which can date its beginnings to Thomas Humber's bicycle company founded in 1868. Following their involvement in Humber through Hillman in 1928 the Rootes brothers acquired a controlling interest and joined the Humber board in 1932 making Humber part of their Rootes Group. The range focused on luxury models, such as the Humber Super Snipe.
The first car was produced in 1898 and was a three-wheeled tricar with the first conventional four-wheeled car appearing in 1901. The company had factories in Beeston near Nottingham and Coventry. The Beeston factory produced a more expensive range known as Beeston-Humbers but the factory closed in 1908 after financial problems. Before the First World War a wide range of models were produced from the 600 cc Humberette to several six-cylinder 6-litre models. In 1913 Humber was the second largest manufacturer of cars in the United Kingdom. The Humber Motor Works in Coventry still survives—a rare thing as the majority of the city was destroyed in the November 1940 air raid.
In 1925 Humber moved into the production of commercial vehicles with the purchase of Commer. In 1928 Hillman was added but
Piaggio [ˈpjaddʒo] based in Pontedera, Italy encompasses seven brands of scooters, motorcycles and compact commercial vehicles. As the fourth largest producer of scooters and motorcycles in the world, Piaggio produces more than 600,000 vehicles annually, with five research and development centers, more than 6,700 employees and operations in over 50 countries.
Founded by Rinaldo Piaggio in 1884, Piaggio initially produced locomotives and railway carriages. During World War I the company focused on producing aircraft.
During World War II the company produced bomber aircraft, but Piaggio emerged from the conflict with its Pontedera plant completely demolished by Allied bombing. Italy's crippled economy and the disastrous state of the roads did not assist in the redevelopment of the automobile markets. Enrico Piaggio, the son of Piaggio's founder Rinaldo Piaggio, decided to leave the aeronautical field in order to address Italy's urgent need for a modern and affordable mode of transportation. The idea was to design an inexpensive vehicle for the masses.
Aeronautical engineer Corradino D'Ascanio, responsible for the design and construction of the first modern helicopter by Agusta, was
The Locomobile Company of America was an automobile manufacturer founded in 1899. For the first two years it was located in Watertown, Massachusetts, but production was transferred to Bridgeport, Connecticut during 1900 where it remained until the company's demise in 1929. The company manufactured affordable, small steam cars until 1903, then production switched entirely to internal combustion-powered luxury automobiles. Locomobile was taken over in 1922 by Durant Motors and went out of business in 1929. The cars were always sold under the brand name Locomobile.
The Locomobile Company of America was founded in 1899, the name coined from locomotive and automobile. John B. Walker, editor and publisher of the Cosmopolitan magazine bought the plans for an early steam-powered vehicle produced by Francis and Freelan Stanley for a price they could not resist: US$250000 (with all of one car built, but 199 more ordered), promptly selling half to paving contractor Amzi L. Barber. Their partnership lasted just a fortnight; Walker went on to found Mobile Company of America at the Stanley works in Tarrytown, New York, while Barber moved house to Bridgeport, Connecticut, as Locomobile, the
Ballot was a French automobile manufacturer that made cars between 1910 and 1932.
The Ballot brothers, Edouard and Maurice, founded their company in 1905. Before World War I they manufactured automobile and marine engines, and from 1910 on cars. The company was re-founded as Etablissements Ballot SA in 1910.
Edouard Ballot was well known as a designer of reliable engines. He helped Ettore Bugatti in developing his first engines. After World War I, the company entered motor racing. A Ballot with a straight-eight-cylinder 4.9-litre car competed in the 1921 French Grand Prix. As well as racing engines, the company made a range of road engines which were fitted to their own production cars.
The first road car was a 2-litre tourer called Ballot 2 LS. In 1923 Ballot 2 LT and a sport version, Ballot 2 LTS followed. From 1927, eight-cylinder engines were used.
In 1931 the company was taken over by Hispano-Suiza. Swift decline followed: the last model was practically a Hispano-Suiza, and only the chassis was provided by Ballot. Ballot closed down in 1932.
A Ballot vehicle driven by René Thomas finished second in the 1919 Targa Florio and second in the 1920 Indianapolis 500.
Hyundai (Hangul: 현대; Hanja: 現代; /ˈhjʌndɛ/) was a multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Seoul and one of the largest South Korean chaebol. It was founded by Chung Ju-yung in 1947 as a construction firm and Chung was directly in control of the company until his death in 2001.
Hyundai underwent a major restructuring and break-up following the 1997 East Asian financial crisis and Chung's death, following which the rump Hyundai Group's business was reduced to container shipping services, the manufacturing of elevators and tourism. Today most companies bearing the name Hyundai are not legally connected to Hyundai Group, including Hyundai Motor Group, Hyundai Department Store Group, Hyundai Heavy Industries Group and Hyundai Development Company.
Most of the former subsidiaries of the Hyundai chaebol continue to be run by Chung's sons or their heirs. If these companies are considered as forming a broad family business, then it remains the single largest company in South Korea, with enormous economic and political power in the country.
The word "Hyundai" comes from hanja 現代, meaning "modernity".
Hyundai was founded as a small construction firm by Chung Ju-yung in 1947. Hyundai
The Franklin Automobile Company was an American manufacturer of automobiles in the United States between 1902 and 1934 in Syracuse, New York.
Herbert H. Franklin founded the H. H. Franklin Manufacturing Company in 1893 and, in 1901, teamed up with engineer John Wilkinson to develop an air-cooled engine. In 1902, the Franklin automobile was introduced. Because he was the primary investor, Franklin assumed control of the company, and named the auto manufacturing division Franklin Automobile Company. As president, he managed the company finances and business administration. Wilkinson was named chief engineer and granted control of the engineering and manufacturing operation.
Throughout its history, Franklin, known as The Car Beautiful, was a luxury brand and competed with other upscale automobiles of the day. As such, it fell victim to the Great Depression along with many luxury car manufacturers. The company sold about 150,000 cars over the course of more than 30 years in existence.
The Franklin motor car was invented by the engineer, John Wilkinson and manufactured by the industrialist, Herbert H. Franklin and marketed under his name.
Franklin worked as a newspaper publisher, real
ZAP is an American electric vehicle company that designs, produces and markets vehicles including automobiles, motorcycles, bicycles, scooters, personal watercraft, hovercraft, ATVs, neighborhood electric vehicles and commercial vehicles. The name stands for Zero Air Pollution. The company headquarters are located in Santa Rosa, California.
ZAP Power Systems (for zero air pollution), was launched by Jim McGreen in 1992 with the goal of designing, building and selling innovative electric vehicles. The company was incorporated on September 23, 1994 as ZAP Power Systems of Sebastopol, California, by McGreen, Gary Starr and their wives . In 1993 Automotive News named Starr among the top ten authorities in the electric car industry. He had previous experience with electric cars, including his work at Solar Electric Engineering and U.S. Electricar, which is currently known as Enova Systems. Starr was involved in electric conversion projects, various production cars and kit cars.
1995 – Manufacture of electric bicycle systems, products included ZAP DX and SX, as well as the ElectriCruiser, PowerBike, S&W Patrol Bike, ZAPTRIKE.
1996 – Launched direct public offering stock, debuted an
Alpina Burkard Bovensiepen GmbH is an automobile manufacturing company based in Buchloe, in the Ostallgäu district of Bavaria, Germany selling their own cars, based on BMW cars.
Alpina works closely with BMW and their processes are integrated into BMW's production lines, thus Alpina is recognized by TÜV as an automobile manufacturer, in contrast to other performance specialists which are aftermarket tuners. For instance, the Alpina B7 is produced at the same assembly line in Dingolfing, Germany, along with BMW's own 7-Series. For the 2011 model year, the B7's twin-turbo 4.4-litre BMW V8 is assembled by hand at Alpina's facility in Buchloe, Germany, before being shipped to BMW for installation, and the assembled vehicle is then sent back to Alpina for finishing touches.
Alpina was founded by Burkard Bovensiepen (b. 1936) in 1965 as Burkard Bovensiepen KG in Kaufbeuren, Bavaria in southern Germany. The original name can be traced to Dr. Rudolf Bovensiepen, his father, whose company produced office machinery.
Although Alpina started by producing typewriters, the original Alpina ceased to exist at the end of the 1960s in their attempt to move into the textile industry. In 1965, Burkard
Fiberfab was a kit car manufacturer founded by Warren "Bud" Goodwin in 1964. Goodwin's earlier company, Sports Car Engineering had manufactured Microplas Mistral bodies under licence and sold them as the Spyder. Fiberfab started building street rod parts and body panels for Mustangs before moving on to kit cars. It was sold in 1983 to Classic Motor Carriages.
The Jamaican was fitted to a TR3, TR4, MGA, Austin-Healey or a Volkswagen Beetle. Later Fiberfab built their own 'Jamaican' chassis for use with a V8 power-plant.
Fiberfab made a Ford GT40 replica based on a VW Beetle floorpan called Avenger GT and the similar Valkyrie designed to take a V8.
The Bonito was at one point license built in Sweden.
Fiberfab built custom vehicles that appeared in the film THX 1138.
The company was purchased by Classic Motor Carriages in 1983. Classic Motor Carriages was forced to close in 1994 after the Florida Attorney General's Office filed suit against it on behalf a several hundred of its customers. It agreed to pay $2.5 millon in compensation. At the same time as the case was proceeding a new company, Auto Resolutions, was set up by the owner George Levin to continue making Classic Motor
Gumpert Sportwagenmanufaktur GmbH is a German, Altenburg-based company manufacturing supercars. The founder and owner of Gumpert was Roland Gumpert, former Director of Audi Sport. Under his management, Audi won a total of 25 World Rally Championship races and 4 World Rally Championship titles.
In 2001 Roland Gumpert proposed a new generation sports car. One of the first concerns of this car was that it be a street-legal car, ready for the race track. Gumpert returned to Germany at the end of 2001, after more than three years in China. There he was the head of sales and marketing, responsible for the development of the dealer network of the Audi-VW joint enterprise. Just after he returned to Germany, Roland Meyer asked him if he would assist him in building a prototype sports car. Audi approved Gumpert's involvement in this project, on the condition that, if they did eventually develop a new sports car, it would not be a prototype, but a series product.
The company was founded in 2004 under the name GMG Sportwagenmanufaktur Altenburg GmbH. The technical guidelines were defined and the first designs of the car were drawn by Marco Vanetta. Upon Vanetta's completion of this process,
The Morgan Motor Company is a British motor car manufacturer. The company was founded in 1910 by Harry Frederick Stanley Morgan, generally known as "HFS" and was run by him until he died, aged 77, in 1959. Peter Morgan, son of H.F.S., ran the company until a few years before his death in 2003. The company is currently run by Charles Morgan, the son of Peter Morgan.
Morgan is based in Malvern Link, an area of Malvern, Worcestershire and employs 163 people. Morgan produced 640 cars in 2007. All the cars are assembled by hand. The waiting list for a car is approximately one to two years, although it has been as high as ten years in the past.
The visitor centre and museum feature a guided tour of the factory and exhibits about the company's history from Edwardian times until the present day, developments in automobile technology, and a display of automobiles.
The early cars were two-seat or four-seat three-wheelers, and are therefore considered to be cyclecars. Three-wheeled vehicles avoided the British tax on cars by being classified as motorcycles. Competition from small cars like the Austin 7 and the original Morris Minor, with comparable economy and price and better comfort, made
The Crawford Automobile was a highly regarded small-production car made in Hagerstown, Maryland throughout the 1910s and early 1920s. The company also made a sporting version of the Crawford, called the Dagmar, starting in 1922. The last Crawfords were sold in 1923, but the Dagmar continued until 1927.
Ultima Sports Ltd. are a sports car manufacturer currently based in Hinckley, Leicestershire, England. Founded in 1992 by Ted Marlow, Ultima manufactures the components to construct cars derived, as road going versions, from the Noble Motorsport Ltd originated Ultima racing cars designed by Lee Noble who is more famous now for the models produced by Noble Automotive Ltd.
There are now 2 models in the current Ultima range; the GTR; and the convertible Can-Am. Previous models have been the Sport and Spyder.
All models in the Ultima range have always been primarily supplied in component form. That is Ultima produce the parts required for an owner/builder to construct the car off-site, and this is the only way to receive such a vehicle in the USA (including a 'rolling body' fully constructed minus engine and transmission). However a few cars are manufactured onsite as "turnkey" models for the European market.
The preferred engine supplier for Ultima are currently American Speed, a company who specialise in re-engineering Chevrolet V8s for increased performance. It was with a 640 hp (480 kW) version of the Chevrolet small block V8 built by American Speed, that Richard Marlow was able to
Fabrique Nationale d'Herstal — self identified as FN Herstal and often referred to as Fabrique Nationale or simply FN — is a firearms manufacturer located in Herstal, Belgium.
FN is a subsidiary of the Belgian Herstal Group, which also owns U.S. Repeating Arms Company (Winchester) and Browning Arms Company. FN Herstal is the parent company of two United States entities: FN Manufacturing and FNH USA. FN Manufacturing, located in Columbia, South Carolina, is the manufacturing branch of FN Herstal in the United States, producing firearms such as the M249 and M240 machine guns and M16 rifle, among others. FNH USA, located in McLean, Virginia, is the sales and marketing branch of FN Herstal in the United States.
Firearms designed and/or manufactured by FN include the Browning Hi-Power pistol, Five-seven pistol, FAL rifle, FNC rifle, F2000 rifle, P90 submachine gun, M2 Browning machine gun, MAG machine gun, and Minimi machine gun—most of which have been very successful for the company. FN Herstal's firearms are used by the armed forces of over 100 nations.
FN originated in the small city of Herstal, near Liège. The Fabrique Nationale d'Armes de Guerre (French for National Factory of
Singer Motors Limited was a British motor vehicle manufacturer, founded by George Singer in 1874 as a bicycle manufacturer in Coventry, England. From 1901 the company also manufactured cars.
Singer was the first motor manufacturer to make a small economy car that was a replica of a large car, showing a small car was a practical proposition. With a four-cylinder ten horsepower engine the Singer 10 was launched at the 1912 Motor Show. William Rootes, Singer apprentice and consummate car-salesman, contracted to buy the entire first year's supply. It became a best-seller. Ultimately Singer's business was acquired by his Rootes Group in 1956, which continued the brand until 1970.
Singer began his bicycle-making business in Coventry in 1874.
He began manufacturing motorised three-wheelers in 1901, followed by motorwheels which were fitted to bicycles. Singer developed a 222 cc four-stroke single using an engine design bought from former Beeston employees Edwin Perks and Frank Birch.
A unique feature of the Perks-Birch design was that the engine, fuel tank, carburettor and low-tension magneto were all housed in a two-sided cast alloy spoked wheel. It was probably the first motor bicycle
Zündapp (aka Zuendapp) was a major German motorcycle manufacturer founded in 1917 in Nuremberg by Fritz Neumeyer, together with the Friedrich Krupp AG and the machine tool manufacturer Thiel under the name "Zünder- und Apparatebau G.m.b.H." as a producer of detonators. In 1919, as the demand for weapons parts declined after the First World War, Neumeyer became the sole proprietor of the company, and two years later he diversified into the construction of motorcycles. The company folded in 1984.
The first Zündapp motorcycle was the model Z22 in 1921. This was the Motorrad für Jedermann ("motorcycle for everyone"), a simple and reliable design that was produced in large series. Zündapp's history of heavy motorcycles began in 1933 with the K-series. The "K" refers to the type of drivetrain that these models used, Kardanantrieb, meaning enclosed driveshaft with two universal joints. Zündapp introduced the enclosed crankcase, a novelty at the time. The series encompassed models from 200 to 800 cc displacement and was a major success, increasing Zündapp's market share in Germany from 5% in 1931 to 18% in 1937.
From 1931 Ferdinand Porsche and Zündapp developed the prototype Auto für
Ford Motor Company (also known as simply Ford; NYSE: F) is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. In the past it has also produced heavy trucks, tractors and automotive components. Ford owns small stakes in Mazda of Japan and Aston Martin of the United Kingdom. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, although they have minority ownership.
Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines; by 1914 these methods were known around the world as Fordism. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States since
Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd. (富士重工業株式会社, Fuji Jūkōgyō Kabushiki-gaisha), or FHI, is a Japanese transportation conglomerate most known for being the manufacturer of Subaru automobiles. It traces its roots to the Nakajima Aircraft Company, a leading supplier of airplanes to the Japanese government during World War II. At the end of World War II, Nakajima was broken up by the Allied Occupation government, and by 1950 part of the separated operation was already known as Fuji Heavy Industries.
FHI was incorporated on July 15, 1953 when five Japanese companies, known as Fuji Kogyo, Fuji Jidosha Kogyo, Omiya Fuji Kogyo, Utsunomiya Sharyo and Tokyo Fuji Sangyo, joined to form one of Japan's largest manufacturers of transportation equipment. Currently, FHI employs more than 15,000 people worldwide, operates nine manufacturing plants and sells products in 100 countries. It currently makes Subaru brand cars, and its aerospace division makes parts for Boeing, helicopters for the Japanese Self Defense Force, Raytheon Hawker, and Eclipse Aviation business jets. FHI is 16.5% owned by Toyota.
In 2003, the company adopted the logo of its Subaru division as its worldwide corporate symbol.
MAN (Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg) SE, formerly MAN AG, is a German mechanical engineering company and parent company of the MAN Group. MAN SE is based in Munich, in the German state of Bavaria. Its primary output is for the automotive industry, particularly heavy trucks. Further activities include the production of diesel engines for various applications, like ship propulsion, and also turbomachinery.
MAN supplies trucks, buses, diesel engines and turbomachinery. Until September 2012 MAN SE was one of the top 30 companies listed on the German stock exchange (DAX). The company celebrated its 250th anniversary in 2008. In 2008, its 51,300 employees generated annual sales of around €15 billion in 120 different countries. The company operates through fully owned subsidiaries or joint ventures with local companies in India, Poland, Turkey, China, United States, United Arab Emirates, South Africa, Uzbekistan, Portugal and Germany/Austria.
The MAN Group currently operates its production output through three main subsidiaries, with each subsidiary's output destined for different locations.
MAN traces its origins back to 1758, when the "St. Antony" ironworks commenced operation in
McLaren Automotive, commonly referred to as McLaren, is a British automotive manufacturer of high-performance vehicles. The company was established as McLaren Cars in 1989 as a producer of road cars based on Formula One technology. It works closely with McLaren Racing, the successful Formula One constructor, and is a spinoff of McLaren Group.
The McLaren M6GT project started when Bruce McLaren decided to enter Le Mans endurance racing in the late 1960s. The plan was to take an M6 Can-Am car and develop a coupe body that would be competitive in long distance racing. To meet regulations at the time a minimum of fifty cars had to be completed. However, homologation problems lead to the project being scrapped.
Having always harboured an ambition to build his own road car, McLaren wanted to turn the project into the ultimate road car. He wanted to build the fastest and quickest accelerating car in the world that translated their expertise on the race track, to create the definitive road going sports car.
In early 1970 work began on the GT so he could use it on the road in an effort to find out what problems would have to be overcome.
Together with chief designer Gordon Coppuck, Bruce
ELCAT is a battery electric vehicle manufacturer based in Järvenpää, Finland.
Elcat Automotive was owned by an electricity producer called Fortum until the production decreases in the early 21st century. Elcat began working in 1974 to design electric cars for Nordic climate. The first prototypes for Elcat's automotive industry were made in 1985 with a joint venture plan with Subaru's Sambar, Dias, and Domingo vans, while the first commercial product was released in 1990. Production ceased in 2002 when Subaru dropped the van models and Elcat lacked the resources to design the systems of a new model. To date more than 160 cars have been made. Main users were Finnish post office (Posti) and Stockholm-based delivery service. Now almost all cars are in second-hand use.
Talbot-Lago was a French automobile manufacturer based in Suresnes, Hauts de Seine, outside of Paris.
The Anglo-French STD (Sunbeam-Talbot-Darracq) combine collapsed in 1935. The French Talbot company was acquired and reorganised by a Venetian born engineer called Anthony Lago (1893–1960) and after that, the Talbot-Lago name was used. On the home market the cars carried a Talbot badge.
At the same time, the British interests of Talbot were taken over by the Rootes Group and the parallel using of Talbot brand in France and Britain ended. Talbot-Lago cars sold in Britain were badged as Darracq.
For 1935, the existing range continued in production but from 1936 these were steadily replaced with cars designed by Walter Becchia featuring transverse leaf sprung independent suspension. These ranged from the two-litre T11, the three-litre T17, four-litre T23 and sporting Spéciale and SS.
Lago was an excellent engineer who developed the existing six-cylinder engine into a high-performance 4-litre one. The sporting six-cylinder models had a great racing history. The bodies—such as of T150 coupé—were made by excellent coachbuilders such as Figoni & Falaschi or Saoutchik.
After the war, the
Marcos was a British sports car manufacturer. The name derives from the surnames of founders Jem Marsh and Frank Costin.
Marcos was founded in Luton, in Bedfordshire, England, in 1959 by Jem Marsh and Frank Costin. Costin had earlier worked on the De Havilland Mosquito fighter-bombers and from there he got the idea to use plywood for the chassis. The company moved to a converted mill in Bradford on Avon, Wiltshire in 1963 and in 1971 to a £125,000 purpose-built factory at nearby Westbury.
Problems with exporting cars to the USA and the move to the expensive new premises led to financial troubles, and in 1971 Marcos went out of business. In July 1971 it was reported that the Rob Walker Group of Companies, a principal dealer, had acquired the stocks and assets and established a new company, Marcos Ltd. The new owners said production would continue, albeit, at least in the short term, only for the UK market, but it is not clear whether any additional cars were built. Although Marcos dealers in the UK had been heavily discounting new cars since the end of 1970, and Motor magazine reported at the time of the collapse that the company's stock of 35 unsold cars in the USA had had to be
Jaguar Cars Ltd, known simply as Jaguar ( /ˈdʒæɡjuː.ər/ JAG-ew-ər), is a British luxury and sports car manufacturer, headquartered in Whitley, Coventry, England. It is part of the Jaguar Land Rover business, a subsidiary of the Indian company Tata Motors.
Jaguar was founded as the Swallow Sidecar Company by Sir William Lyons in 1922, originally making motorcycle sidecars before developing passenger cars. The name was changed to Jaguar after WWII to avoid the unfavourable connotations of the SS initials. Following a merger with the British Motor Corporation in 1968, subsequently subsumed by Leyland, which itself was later nationalised as British Leyland, Jaguar was listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1984, and became a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index until it was acquired by Ford in 1990. Jaguar has, in recent years, manufactured cars for the Prime Minister, the most recent delivery being a XJ model on 11 May 2010. The company also holds royal warrants from HM Queen Elizabeth II and HRH Prince Charles.
Jaguar cars today are designed in Jaguar Land Rover's engineering centres at the Whitley plant in Coventry and at their Gaydon site in Warwickshire, and are manufactured in
Kaiser Jeep was the result of the merger between the Kaiser-Frazer Corporation, an independent automaker based in Willow Run, Michigan, and the Toledo, Ohio-based Willys-Overland Company.
Founded by John North Willys, Willys-Overland had survived World War II by producing the Jeep vehicle for the armed forces, and Jeep was considered the crown jewel of Willys-Overland.
While Joseph W. Frazer had left Kaiser-Frazer by 1950, Frazer had been the one-time president of Willys-Overland. Going it alone, Henry J. Kaiser pursued a merger between Kaiser Industries and Willys-Overland, which was arranged in 1953. Kaiser's finances ultimately dictated that he could no longer compete with the established manufacturers in the passenger car business in the US, but he saw value in Willys' Jeep line.
In 1955, Kaiser phased out both the Kaiser and Willys passenger car lines, and shipped the dies to Argentina where the joint venture with the Argentina Government owned Industrias Kaiser Argentina (IKA) continued to build cars through 1977 when Renault took over.
Under the name "Willys Motors", the Jeep-based truck line continued in the United States including the CJ (Civilian Jeep) Series, all steel
Quantum Sports Cars was founded by Mark and Harvey Wooldridge in 1987.
Quantum's first car was the Mark1 hatchback (also referred to as the Mk1 coupé) which was based on the Mark1 Ford Fiesta. It reused all of the donor's mechanical and trim components in an elongated, more rounded shape. Due to its reduced weight over the donor vehicle, performance was significantly improved. The Coupé is unusual for low-volume car manufacture in that it has a glass-reinforced plastic (grp) monocoque rather than a separate metal chassis. This approach relied upon the use of computer analysis to ensure that structural rigidity would not be compromised, offering the strength of a steel chassis but without the weight penalty.
The first Mark1 Quantum, bearing chassis number 001, was a development mule and was subject to so much adjustment that the Wooldridge brothers eventually decided the car would be too dangerous to keep on the road. This car was therefore disposed of in landfill. Chassis 002 was later damaged beyond repair in a head-on collision, so chassis 003 is now the oldest surviving example of a Quantum model and the first to be sold, after a short period being used for magazine tests and
Volkswagen (abbreviated VW) is a German automobile manufacturer and the original and biggest-selling marque of the Volkswagen Group. It has three cars in the top 10 list of best-selling cars of all time compiled by the website 24/7 Wall St: the Volkswagen Golf, the Volkswagen Beetle, and the Volkswagen Passat. With these three cars, Volkswagen has the most cars of any automobile manufacturer in the list that are still being manufactured.
Volkswagen means "people's car" in German (pronounced [ˈfɔlksˌvaːɡən].) Its current slogan is Das Auto (The Car).
Volkswagen was originally founded in 1937 by the Nazi trade union, the German Labour Front (Deutsche Arbeitsfront). In the early 1930s German auto industry was still largely composed of luxury models, and the average German rarely could afford anything more than a motorcycle. As a result only one German out of 50 owned a car. Seeking a potential new market, some car makers began independent "peoples' car" projects – Mercedes' 170H, Adler's AutoBahn, Steyr 55, Hanomag 1,3L, among others.
The trend was not new, as Béla Barényi is credited with having conceived the basic design in the middle 1920s. Josef Ganz developed the Standard
SsangYong Motor Company (Hangul: 쌍용자동차; Hanja: 雙龍自動車) is the fourth largest South Korean automobile manufacturer. The name SsangYong means double dragons.
A 70% share of SsangYong was acquired by India's Mahindra & Mahindra Limited in February 2011, after being named the preferred bidder in 2010 to acquire the bankruptcy-protected company. Mahindra's acquisition was approved by South Korea's Free Trade Commission.
SsangYong originally started out as two separate companies; Ha Dong-hwan Motor Workshop (established in 1954) and Dongbang Motor Co (established in 1962). In mid-1963, the two companies merged into Ha Dong-hwan Motor Co.
In 1964, Hadonghwan Motor Company started building jeeps for the US Army as well as trucks and buses. Beginning in 1976, Hadonghwan produced a variety of special purpose vehicles. After changing its name to Dong-A Motor in 1977, it was taken over by Ssangyong Business Group in 1986 and changed its name to SsangYong Motor. In 1987, it acquired United Kingdom-based specialty car maker Panther Westwinds.
In 1991 it started a technology partnership with Daimler-Benz. The deal was for SsangYong to develop an SUV with Mercedes-Benz technology. This was
Mazda Motor Corporation (マツダ株式会社, Matsuda Kabushiki-gaisha) (TYO: 7261) is a Japanese automotive manufacturer based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.
In 2007, Mazda produced almost 1.3 million vehicles for global sales, the majority of which (nearly 1 million) were produced in the company's Japanese plants, with the remainder coming from a variety of other plants worldwide.
The company website states that name "derives from Ahura Mazda, a god of the earliest civilizations in West Asia...the god of wisdom, intelligence and harmony..." Ahura Mazda is the Iranian – Zoroastrian God. The company website also notes that the name "also derives from the name of our founder, Jujiro Matsuda."
Mazda began as the Toyo Cork Kogyo Co., Ltd, founded in Japan in 1920. Toyo Cork Kogyo renamed itself to Toyo Kogyo Co., Ltd. in 1927. Toyo Kogyo moved from manufacturing machine tools to vehicles with the introduction of the Mazda-Go in 1931. Toyo Kogyo produced weapons for the Japanese military throughout the Second World War, most notably the series 30 through 35 Type 99 rifle. The company formally adopted the Mazda name in 1984, though every automobile sold from the beginning bore
The REO Motor Car Company was a Lansing, Michigan based company that produced automobiles and trucks from 1905 to 1975. At one point the company also manufactured buses on its truck platforms.
REO was initiated by Ransom E. Olds during August 1904. Olds had 52 percent of the stock and the titles of president and general manager. To ensure a reliable supply of parts, he organized a number of subsidiary firms like the National Coil Company, the Michigan Screw Company, and the Atlas Drop Forge Company.
Originally the company was to be called "R. E. Olds Motor Car Company," but the owner of Olds' previous company, then called Olds Motor Works, objected and threatened legal action on the grounds of likely confusion of names by consumers. Olds then changed the name to his initials. Olds Motor Works soon adopted the popular name of its vehicles, Oldsmobile (which, along with Buick and Cadillac, became founding divisions of General Motors Corporation).
The company's name was spelled alternately in all capitals REO or with only an initial capital as Reo, and the company's own literature was inconsistent in this regard, with early advertising using all capitals and later advertising using
MK Sportscars, situated in Langold, Nottinghamshire, offers the Lotus Seven style kit car MK Indy, recently manufacturing Le-Mans style cars, GT-1 and GT-R. The kits offer the option of various engines, from cars and motorbikes.
Dennis Specialist Vehicles Limited was a major British coachbuilder and manufacturer of specialised commercial vehicles based in Guildford, England. The company was best known as the manufacturer of fire engines, although its other major product lines were buses, dustcarts and airport service vehicles.
Originally known as Dennis Brothers Ltd, the company was founded in 1895 by John (1871–1939) and Raymond (1878–1939) Dennis who made Speed King bicycles which they sold from their shop, the Universal Athletic Stores, in Guildford. They made their first motor vehicle in 1898, and in 1899, their first car; though shown at the National Cycle Show, it was never produced or sold. They entered car production around 1900. About this time John Dennis built the Rodboro Buildings, the first purpose-built motor vehicle factory in Britain, to manufacture motorcars in the centre of Guildford. Larger models followed with a 35 hp (26 kW; 35 PS) model in 1906 powered by a White and Poppe engine; this power unit soon fitted to all their models. Commercial vehicle activity was increasing with the first bus being made in 1903 and fire engine in 1908. Cars soon took second place and it is doubtful if
Koenigsegg Automotive AB ( /ˈkʌnɪɡsɛɡ/; Swedish pronunciation: [ˈkøːnɪɡsɛɡ] ( listen)) is a Swedish manufacturer of high-performance sports cars based in Ängelholm.
The company was founded in 1994 in Sweden by Christian von Koenigsegg, with the intention of producing a world-class supercar. Many years of development and prototyping led to the company's first street-legal production car delivery in 2002.
Koenigsegg Automotive AB is a non-listed free traded Swedish Public Company. The Company has around 90 shareholders. As the company is free trading the number of shareholders can vary. Christian von Koenigsegg is the CEO and a major shareholder.
In 2006, Koenigsegg began production of the CCX, which uses an engine created in-house especially for that vehicle. The CCX is street-legal in most countries.
Apart from developing, manufacturing, and selling the Koenigsegg line of supercars, Koenigsegg is also involved in "green technology" development programs, beginning with the CCXR ("Flower Power") flexfuel supercar and continuing through the present with the Agera R. Koenigsegg is also active in development programs when it comes to plug-in electric cars' systems and next-generation
Tata Motors Limited formerly TELCO, (NSE: TATAMOTORS, BSE: 500570, NYSE: TTM) is an Indian multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India and a subsidiary of the Tata Group. Its products include passenger cars, trucks, vans and coaches. It is the world's eighteenth-largest motor vehicle manufacturing company, fourth-largest truck manufacturer and second-largest bus manufacturer by volume.
Tata Motors has auto manufacturing and assembly plants in Jamshedpur, Pantnagar, Lucknow, Sanand, Dharwad and Pune, India, as well as in Argentina, South Africa, Thailand and the United Kingdom. Tata Motors has produced and sold over 6.5 million vehicles in India since 1954.
Originally a manufacturer of locomotives, the company manufactured its first commercial vehicle in 1954 in a collaboration with Daimler-Benz AG, which ended in 1969. In 2010, Tata Motors surpassed Reliance to win the coveted title of 'India's most valuable brand' in an annual survey conducted by Brand Finance and The Economic Times. Tata Motors is ranked 314th in the 2012 Fortune Global 500 ranking of the world's biggest corporations.
Tata Motors is a cross-listed company; its stock
International Harvester Company (IHC or IH) was a United States agricultural machinery, construction equipment, vehicle, commercial truck, and household and commercial products manufacturer. In 1902, J.P. Morgan merged the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company and Deering Harvester Company, along with three smaller agricultural equipment firms, to form International Harvester. International Harvester sold off its agricultural division in 1985 and renamed the company Navistar International Corporation in 1986. Case IH was formed when the agricultural division merged with J.I. Case.
The roots of International Harvester run to the 1830s, when Cyrus Hall McCormick, an inventor from Virginia, finalized his version of a horse-drawn reaper, which he field-demonstrated throughout 1831, and for which he received a patent in 1834. Together with his brother Leander J. McCormick (1819–1900), McCormick moved to Chicago in 1847 and started the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company. The McCormick reaper sold well, partially as a result of savvy and innovative business practices. Their products came onto the market just as the development of railroads offered wide distribution to distant market
The Lanchester Motor Company Limited was a car manufacturer based until early 1931 at Armourer Mills, Montgomery Street, Sparkbrook, Birmingham, and afterwards at Sandy Lane, Coventry England.
Lanchester was purchased by the BSA Group at the end of 1930 and after that its cars were made by Daimler on Daimler's Coventry sites. So, with Daimler, Lanchester became part of Jaguar Cars in 1960. The rights to the Lanchester brand now belong to Tata Motors of India, though Lanchester has been dormant since the last Lanchester rolled off the line in 1955. The Lanchester Motor Company Limited is still registered as an active company and accounts are filed each year though it is currently marked "non-trading".
This business was begun by the three Lanchester brothers, Frederick, one of the most influential automobile engineers of the 19th and 20th century, George and Frank who together incorporated The Lanchester Engine Company Limited in 1899.
Work on the first Lanchester car had been started in 1895, significantly designed from first principles as a car, not a horseless carriage, and it ran on the public roads in February or March 1896. It had a single cylinder 1306 cc engine with the
Marathon Motor Works was an early automobile manufacturer, based in Tennessee. It grew out of an earlier company called Southern Engine and Boiler Works, founded in 1889, which made industrial engines and boilers in Jackson. As such, the firm had metal-working and powerplant experience which could easily be transferred into the then-new and rapidly expanding automobile industry. It turned its attention in this direction shortly after the turn of the twentieth century. From 1911 to 1914 the company manufactured the Marathon automobile.
Then as now it was common for auto manufacturers to outsource some of their components, concentrating on assembly and marketing, and perhaps manufacture of a few major systems. Southern Engine took a different approach however, and rather audaciously decided to engineer and build every single part of its car inhouse. The company was fortunate to possess an exceptionally talented young engineer, William Henry Collier, who accepted the challenge and by 1906 had a prototype ready for inspection. It was not ready for much else, though, because the company's own newsletter drily remarked that the car "should move, but don't."
Rapid progress was made after
Abarth is an Italian racing car maker founded by Austrian-Italian Carlo Abarth in Turin in 1949. Its logo depicts a stylized scorpion on a red and yellow background.
Carlo Abarth began his well-known association with Fiat in 1952, building the Abarth 1500 Biposto upon Fiat mechanicals.
In the 1960s, Abarth & C. S.r.l was quite successful in hillclimbing and sports car racing, mainly in classes from 850cc up to 2000cc, competing with Porsche 904 and Ferrari Dino. Hans Herrmann was a factory driver from 1962 until 1965, winning the 500km Nürburgring in 1963 with Teddy Pilette
Later, Johann Abt, who would later go on to found Abt Sportsline, was promised by Carlo Abarth that he could drive a factory car for free if he won all the races he entered—which Abt nearly did, winning 29 of 30, the 30th being in second.
Along with its racing cars, Abarth produced high-performance exhaust pipes. Later, Abarth diversified in producing various tuning kits for road vehicles, mainly for Fiat. While there were many competitors in this segment, such as Giannini, Abarth has largely dominated the Italian tuning market since the sixties. Abarth was also associated in producing sports or racing cars with
Bedford Vehicles, usually shortened to just Bedford, was a subsidiary of Vauxhall Motors, itself the British subsidiary of General Motors (GM), established in 1930; and constructing commercial vehicles. Bedford Vehicles was a leading international truck manufacturer, with substantial export sales of light, medium, and heavy trucks throughout the world. It was GM Europe's most profitable venture for several years.
Until 1925, General Motors ('GM') assembled trucks in Brazil from parts manufactured at their Canadian works. This enabled them to import vehicles into Britain under Imperial Preference, which favoured products from the British Empire as far as import duties were concerned. Such trucks were marketed as "British Chevrolet".
In 1925, GM took ownership of Vauxhall Motors, production was transferred from Hendon to Luton, Vauxhall's headquarters, production commencing there in 1929.
The AC and LQ models were produced at Luton from 1929 to 1931, and styled as the "Chevrolet Bedford", taking the name from the county town of Bedfordshire, in which Luton is located. The AC was bodied as a light van (12 cwt), and the LQ in a wide variety of roles, including a lorry, ambulance, van
Pierce-Arrow was an American automobile manufacturer based in Buffalo, New York, which was active from 1901 to 1938. Although best known for its expensive luxury cars, Pierce-Arrow also manufactured commercial trucks, fire trucks, camp trailers, motorcycles, and bicycles.
The forerunner of Pierce-Arrow was established in 1865 as Heinz, Pierce and Munschauer. The company was best known for its household items, especially its delicate gilded birdcages. In 1872, George N. Pierce bought out the other two, switching the name to George N. Pierce Company and, in 1896, bicycles were added to the product range. A failed attempt to build a steam-powered car was made in 1900 under license from Overman but, by 1901 Pierce built its first single-cylinder two-speed, no-reverse Motorette with the engine licensed from de Dion. In 1904, a two-cylinder car, the Arrow was made.
In 1903 Pierce decided to concentrate on making a larger, more luxurious car for the upscale market, and the Pierce-Arrow car was born. This proved to be Pierce's most successful product, and the solidly built cars with powerful engines gained positive publicity by winning the 1905 Glidden Trophy, an endurance run from New
The Riga Autobus Factory (Latvian: Rīgas Autobusu Fabrika, Russian: Рижская Автомобильная Фабрика) (abbreviated RAF) was a factory in Jelgava, Latvia, making vans and minibuses under the brand name Latvija.
During the Soviet period, RAF and UAZ were the only producers of vans and minibuses in Soviet Union. RAF vans and minibuses were used only by state enterprises, most often as ambulances and for public transit. Private persons were not allowed to own them, the only exception being for families with at least five children.
In 1949 the factory began producing van bodies on the site of the Riga auto repair factory №2. In 1955, it was renamed the Riga Experimental Bus Factory (Latvian: Rīgas eksperimentālā autobusu fabrika, Russian: Рижский Опытный Автобусный Завод), and the products started to be abbreviated to RAF.
RAF’s first product was the RAF-251, a 22-seat local bus, based on the GAZ-51 chassis. From 1958 the factory started to produce RAF-977 minibuses, based on GAZ-21 Volga assemblies. It was planned to produce passenger, freight and specialized versions of the vehicle. The first batch of 1-ton vans was produced in 1962 and was based on modernized 977D chassis. However, the
Commuter Cars is a Spokane, Washington based company founded by Rick Woodbury and his son Bryan. They are beginning production of the first of their line of ultra-narrow electric sports cars, the Tango T600. The first production car is owned by actor George Clooney who took delivery on August 9, 2005.
The T600 costs $108,000 and is delivered virtually fully assembled, requiring the owner to complete the car in about eight hours.
The company has submitted a Letter of Intent to compete for the Progressive Insurance Automotive X Prize. Whether this involves the Tango T600 or one of their concepts, the Tango T100 and T200, or some other car is unknown.
The GKD EVOLUTION is a lightweight high-performance convertible sports car manufactured by British company GKD Sports Cars, based in Boughton Monchelsea, near Maidstone with workshops at Lenham. The EVOLUTION is available in component form, or fully built.
On 27 February 2005 GKD Sports Cars purchased the G27 chassis jigs, body moulds, patterns and drawings from Ginetta.
A number of improvements were introduced; to the front and rear aerodynamics, exterior styling, greater torsional rigidity for the chassis, reduced weight, and enhanced front suspension geometry. The cockpit was updated to give more interior space. GKD produce their own fabricated suspension uprights instead of compromising the design to take donor uprights.
The improved car - renamed the EVOLUTION - was launched in 2006.
The EVOLUTION has been upgraded to take BMW 3 Series E36/E46 donor parts since the Sierra became more difficult to source. The EVOLUTION will take any BMW 4- or 6-cylinder engine.
Parts are also available to G27 owners wanting to upgrade earlier models. These include a hard top for the first time on a G27.
The car uses a donor pack from a BMW 3 Series. The donor pack includes differential,
Bentley Motors Limited is a British manufacturer of luxury automobiles founded on 18 January 1919 by W. O. Bentley. Bentley had been previously known for his range of rotary aero-engines in World War I, the most famous being the Bentley BR1 as used in later versions of the Sopwith Camel. After the war, W. O. Bentley designed and made production cars that won the 24 hours of Le Mans in 1924 and following models which repeated those successes each June 1927, 1928, 1929 and 1930.
Purchased by Rolls-Royce in 1931, when production was moved from London to Derby and later to Crewe, this business has been owned by the Volkswagen Group of Germany since 1998. The business is still based in Crewe, Cheshire, England with their Central Production Facilities there.
Before World War I, W.O. Bentley had been in partnership with his brother H.M. Bentley selling French DFP cars, but he had always wanted to design and build his own range of cars bearing his name. In August 1919, Bentley Motors Ltd. was registered, and a chassis with dummy engine was exhibited at the London Motor Show in October of that year. An innovative 4 valves per cylinder engine designed by ex-Royal Flying Corps officer Clive
Navistar International Corporation (NYSE: NAV) (formerly International Harvester Company) is a United States-based holding company that owns the manufacturer of International brand commercial trucks, MaxxForce brand diesel engines, IC Bus school and commercial buses, Workhorse brand chassis for motor homes and step vans, and is a private label designer and manufacturer of diesel engines for the pickup truck, van and SUV markets. The company is also a provider of truck and diesel engine parts and service.
The current record shows headquarter located in Lisle, IL with employee size 3,500 - 4,500 and has annual revenue of $9.713 billion. The company's products, parts, and services are sold through a network of nearly 1,000 dealer outlets in the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Mexico and more than 60 dealers in 90 countries throughout the world. The company also provides financing for its customers and distributors principally through its wholly owned subsidiary, Navistar Financial Corporation.
The merger of McCormick Harvesting Machine Company and the Deering Harvester Company in 1902 resulted in the formation of the International Harvester Company (IH) of Chicago, Illinois, which
Rolls-Royce Limited was a renowned British car manufacturing company and, from 1914 on, aero-engine manufacturing company founded by Charles Stewart Rolls and Sir Frederick Henry Royce on 15 March 1906 as the result of a partnership formed in 1904.
In 1971, Rolls-Royce was crippled by the costs of developing the advanced RB211 jet engine, resulting in the nationalization of the company as Rolls-Royce (1971) Limited. In 1973, the car division was separated from the parent company as Rolls-Royce Motors. Rolls-Royce (1971) Limited continued as a nationalized company until it was privatised in 1987 as Rolls-Royce plc.
In 1884, Henry Royce started an electrical and mechanical business. He made his first car, a two-cylinder Royce 10, in his Manchester factory in 1904, and was introduced to Charles Rolls at the Midland Hotel in Manchester on 4 May of that year. Rolls was proprietor of an early motor car dealership, C.S.Rolls & Co. in Fulham.
In spite of his preference for three or four cylinder cars, Rolls was impressed with the Royce 10, and in a subsequent agreement of 23 December 1904 agreed to take all the cars Royce could make. There would be four models:
All would be badged as
The Dorris Motor Car Company was founded by George Preston Dorris in 1906. Born in Nashville, Tennessee, Dorris had built an experimental gasoline car circa 1896-1897 in his family's bicycle shop. He relocated to St. Louis, Missouri, where he joined with John L. French to found the St. Louis Motor Company. Dorris served as chief engineer.
When French relocated to Peoria, Illinois in 1905, Dorris quit the firm and founded the Dorris Motor Car Company soon after. With his departure, French and the St. Louis Motor Carriage Company quickly foundered.
Dorris is credited with developing and patenting the float-carburetor, an innovation that was used for decades after it was invented. For much of the Dorris production life the slogan was "Built up to a standard, not down to a price."
The company took over the original St. Louis Motor Company plant and began production there. The first vehicle had a four-cylinder engine with 101-inch (2,600 mm) wheel-base, which took the New York Automobile Show by storm in January 1906. Over time, Dorris' cars became more powerful, graduating from a four to six-cylinder engine, and increasing nearly 30 inches (760 mm) in the wheelbase. The price tag of
Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A., or simply Lamborghini, (Italian: [lamborˈɡiːni] ( listen)) designs, engineers, manufactures and distributes Italian luxury sports cars. Lamborghini's production facility and headquarters are located in Sant'Agata Bolognese, Italy. In 2011, Lamborghini's 831 employees produced 1,711 vehicles.
Manufacturing magnate Ferruccio Lamborghini founded Automobili Ferruccio Lamborghini S.p.A. in 1963 with the objective of producing a refined grand touring car to compete with offerings from established marques such as Ferrari. The company's first models were released in the mid-1960s and were noted for their refinement, power and comfort. Lamborghini gained wide acclaim in 1966 for the Miura sports coupé, which established rear mid-engine, rear wheel drive as the standard layout for high-performance cars of the era.
Lamborghini grew rapidly during its first decade, but hard times befell the company when sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the 1973 oil crisis. The firm's ownership changed three times after 1973, including a bankruptcy in 1978, before Chrysler Corporation took control in 1987. Unable to operate Lamborghini
Prince Motor Company was a Japanese automobile manufacturer from 1952 until its merger with Nissan in 1966. Prince began as the Tachikawa Aircraft Company, a producer of the famous Japanese Zero fighter planes used in WWII. After Tachikawa Aircraft Company was dissolved after the war, the company took the name Fuji Precision Industries and diversified into automobiles, producing an electric car, the Tama, in 1946. The company changed its name to Prince in 1952 to honor Prince Akihito's formal investiture as Crown Prince. In 1954 they changed their name back to Fuji Precision Industries, and in 1961 changed the name back again to Prince Motor Company.
Prince had success building premium automobiles. Among its most famous car lines were the Skyline and Gloria, both of which were absorbed into the Nissan range after their 1966 merger; however, they also built the 15-passenger Homy which was eventually shared with the Nissan Caravan and the Nissan Laurel, a four-door sedan platform mate with the Skyline, on which Prince had begun development before the merger but was introduced after the merger in 1968. Prince had also begun development on a small car to compete with the Toyota Corolla
Shanghai Maple Guorun Automobile, also known as Shanghai Maple (Huapu) Automobile (SMA), was established in 2000. It was a Chinese automobile manufacturer based in Fengjing, Shanghai, and was a subsidiary of Zhejiang Geely Holding Group. Geely originally held a strategic holding from 2002, and in 2008 was fully consolidated into Geely Auto as their budget brand. By 2010 the project was ended, and Shanghai Maple was replaced by the new Englon brand at the bottom of the Geely ladder.
The first Shanghai Maple vehicle was produced in the summer of 2003 with a range of cars based on the 1990s Citroen ZX.
The Maple Marindo was one of the vehicles displayed at the 2005 Frankfurt Motor Show by Geely.
Cars have been sold in Egypt since 2007 where they are known as the C51 (saloon), C52 (saloon with Audi style grille). A sportier R80 hatchback and R81 saloon is exported to some markets including Russia and Chile.
The Austin Rover Group (ARG) was a British motor manufacturer. It was formed in 1981 as the mass-market car manufacturing subsidiary of British Leyland (BL). ARG was the result of a comprehensive restructuring programme intended to rescue BL from almost-certain oblivion, and with the Triumph, Morris, Riley and Wolseley marques now effectively dead, the new, leaner car business was rechristened as the Austin Rover Group and focused primarily on the Austin and Rover marques.
In 1989, ARG was rebranded as Rover Group, the name of its owner. In 2008, Tata Motors purchased the Rover marque, as well as former BL/Rover Group businesses, Land Rover and Jaguar Cars, and the former BL marques Daimler and Lanchester, from the Ford Motor Company. The Austin marque has been retired and the Mini marque is owned by BMW.
Following the collapse of the British Leyland Motor Corporation (BLMC) in 1975 and the stark Ryder Report on the ailing firm, the resulting government bail-out and nationalisation saw the company being renamed to British Leyland (BL).
However, the huge industrial relations problems, ineffectual management and product duplication that had plagued the company up to the
Bayerische Motoren Werke AG pronunciation (help·info) (BMW; English: Bavarian Motor Works) is a German automobile, motorcycle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1917. BMW is headquartered in Munich, Bavaria, Germany. It also owns and produces the Mini marque, and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW produces motorcycles under BMW Motorrad and Husqvarna brands. In 2010, the BMW group produced 1,481,253 automobiles and 112,271 motorcycles across all its brands.
BMW was established as a business entity following a restructuring of the Rapp Motorenwerke aircraft manufacturing firm in 1917. After the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. The company consequently shifted to motorcycle production in 1923, once the restrictions of the treaty started to be lifted, followed by automobiles in 1928–29.
The first car which BMW successfully produced and the car which launched BMW on the road to automobile production was the Dixi, it was based on the Austin 7 and licensed from the Austin Motor Company in Birmingham, England.
The circular blue and white BMW logo or roundel evolved
British Motor Corporation (Australia) was a motor manufacturing company formed in Australia in 1954 by the merger of the Austin Motor Company (Australia) and Nuffield (Australia) Pty Ltd. This followed the merger in 1952 of the Austin Motor Company and the Nuffield Group in the United Kingdom to form the British Motor Corporation. Following further corporate changes in the UK in the late 1960s, BMC Australia was absorbed in to the newly established British Leyland Motor Corporation of Australia, the name of which became Leyland Motor Corporation of Australia in 1972, and then JRA Limited in March 1983.
In 1949, the British Austin company bought the Melbourne based Ruskin Body Works and used the factory to make pick-up and tourer bodies for fitting to imported Austin A40 chassis.
In March 1950 Nuffield Australia opened a new, 57-acre (230,000 m) assembly and building factory in Zetland, New South Wales on the site of the Victoria Park Racecourse. The facility was established to assemble Morris Minor and Morris Oxford models which had previously been imported into Australia.
In 1954 the Austin Motor Company of Australia and Nuffield Australia merged to form British Motor Corporation
The Hudson Motor Car Company made Hudson and other brand automobiles in Detroit, Michigan, from 1909 to 1954. In 1954, Hudson merged with Nash-Kelvinator Corporation to form American Motors. The Hudson name was continued through the 1957 model year, after which it was dropped.
The name "Hudson" came from Joseph L. Hudson, a Detroit department store entrepreneur and founder of Hudson's department store, who provided the necessary capital and gave permission for the company to be named after him. A total of eight Detroit businessmen formed the company on February 20, 1909, to produce an automobile which would sell for less than US$1,000. One of the chief "car men" and organizer of the company was Roy D. Chapin, Sr., a young executive who had worked with Ransom E. Olds. (Chapin's son, Roy Jr., would later be president of Hudson-Nash descendant American Motors Corp. in the 1960s). The company quickly started production, with the first car driven out of a small factory in Detroit on July 3, 1909.
The new Hudson "Twenty" was one of the first low-priced cars on the American market and very successful with more than 4,000 sold the first year. The 4,508 units made in 1910 was the best first
Prodrive is a British motorsport and automotive engineering group based in Banbury, Oxfordshire, England. It designs, constructs and races cars for companies and teams such as Subaru, Aston Martin and Ford. Its automotive technology division provides road car design and engineering consultation for various car manufacturers as well as businesses in the defence, aerospace and marine industries.
Prodrive is perhaps best known for its involvement in the World Rally Championship with the Subaru World Rally Team. While the Subaru World Rally programme ended in 2008, today its motorsport manufacturer programmes include Aston Martin Racing in world sportscar racing, Ford Performance Racing in the Australian V8 Supercar Series and the new Mini WRC Team.
In Australia the company has an interest in Ford Performance Vehicles, a joint venture with Ford Australia which produces automobiles under the FPV brand.
The group is also involved in activities in China.
Globally, the company employs around 600 people and has a turnover of around £100 million.
Prodrive was founded in 1984 by Ian Parry and David Richards, the latter is now the chairman of the group. Their first involvement in motorsport
Sunbeam was a marque registered by John Marston Co. Ltd of Wolverhampton, England, in 1888. The company first made bicycles, then motorcycles and cars from the late 19th century until about 1936, and applied the marque to all three forms of transportation. The company also manufactured 647 aircraft during the Second World War. A Sunbeam was the first British car to win a Grand Prix race, and set a number of land speed records. The company went into receivership in 1935 and was purchased by the Rootes Group, which continued to use the Sunbeam marque.
John Marston was apprenticed to the Jeddo Works of Wolverhampton as a japanner (metal lacquerer). In 1859, at the age of 23, he bought two tinplate manufacturers and set up on his own as John Marston Co. Ltd. Marston was an avid cyclist, and in 1877 set up the Sunbeamland Cycle Factory, producing bikes known as Sunbeams. Between 1899 and 1901 the company also produced a number of experimental cars, but none were offered to the market.
The first production car named as a Sunbeam was introduced in 1901, after a partnership with Maxwell Maberley-Smith. The Sunbeam-Mabley design was an odd one, with seats on either side of a belt-drive
Volkswagen Group (parent company Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft) is a German multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Wolfsburg, Germany. It designs, engineers, manufactures and distributes passenger cars, commercial vehicles, motorcycles, engines and turbomachinery, and offers related services including financing, leasing and fleet management. It is the world’s largest motor vehicle manufacturer by 2011 unit sales and has maintained the largest market share in Europe for over two decades.
Volkswagen Group sells passenger cars under the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Porsche, SEAT, Škoda and Volkswagen marques; motorcycles under the Ducati brand; and commercial vehicles under the MAN, Scania and Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles marques. It is divided into two primary divisions, the Automotive Division and the Financial Services Division, and consists of approximately 340 subsidiary companies. The company has operations in approximately 150 countries and operates 94 production facilities across 24 countries. It holds a 19.9% non-controlling shareholding in Suzuki Motor Corporation.
Volkswagen was founded in 1937 to manufacture the car which would become
American Growler Inc is a manufacturing firm originally based in Ocala, Florida, now in Robbins, North Carolina. For over ten years, it has built a line of Light Utility Vehicles partly derived from drivetrains from M151 MUTT Jeeps. Versions range from $7,000 in price kit form, a $15,500 tactical dune buggy, and a $33,000 version sold to the Dominican Republic's military.
Growler's most expensive model at over $100,000 each, is the Growler Light Strike vehicle. It was specially designed to be transported in the small cargo hold of the V-22 Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft along with the Expeditionary Fire Support System towed mortar.
The V-22 cargo compartment is five feet wide, five feet tall and less than 17 feet in length. In 2005, the Marines planned to buy 400 of the vehicles in a contract that combined with the mortar system was expected to total $296 million.
Compagnie Nationale Excelsior, more simply known as Excelsior, was a Belgian car manufacturer established by Arthus de Coninck in Brussels in 1903, The company first started to manufacture cars in 1904.
The first models were powered by a two- or four-cylinder Aster engine; this was considered nothing special however. In 1907, the company made the headlines with the Adex, powered by a six-cylinder side-valve engine with a capacity of nine litres. This cars chassis could be easily modified for Grand Prix racing. In 1912, the car took second place in the French Grand Prix, and when the Belgian Royal Family purchased an Excelsior, the advertising value proved considerable.
A second version of the Adex came out in 1920, with a smaller 4767 cc, six-cylinder engine including an overhead camshaft. The Adex inspired the design of one of the best cars manufactured by Excelsior, the Albert I Excelsior. This model was powered by a six-cylinder engine with a capacity of 5346 cc.
In 1929, the company was sold to its competitor Impéria. Until 1932, the company was called Impéria-Excelsior. But on the same year, The name Excelsior was dropped.
The "Doble steam Car" was an American steam car maker from 1909-1931. Their latter models of steam car, with fast firing boiler and electric start, were considered the pinnacle of steam car development. The term "Doble steam car" comprises any of several makes of steam-powered automobile in the early 20th century, including Doble Detroit, Doble Steam Car, and Doble Automobile, severally called a Doble because of their founding or association with Abner Doble.
There were four Doble brothers: Abner, William, John, and Warren. The father patented the Doble Pelton wheel in California and made money. All were at one time associated with the automobile company, with Abner, John, and Warren as the leading lights.
Abner Doble built his first steam car between 1906 and 1909 while still in high school, with the assistance of his brothers. It was based on components salvaged from a wrecked White Motor Company steamer, driving a new engine of the Doble brothers' own design. It did not run particularly well, but it inspired the brothers to build two more prototypes in the following years. Abner moved to Massachusetts in 1910 to attend MIT, but dropped out after just one semester to work with
Gillet is a Belgian automobile manufacturer, started in 1994 by former racing driver Tony Gillet. The company produces the Vertigo sports coupé, an ultra-lightweight (990 kg) 'bespoke' and hand-built sportscar. The first Vertigo was powered by a Ford Cosworth 2.0 litre 4-in-line, later evolutions are powered by more powerful and noble engines: the 3.0 litre Alfa Romeo V6 engine and the 4.2 litre Ferrari/Maserati V8 in the latest evolution called Vertigo.5.
Tony Gillet was a successful racing driver, winning the Belgian hill-climb championship for several consecutive years and competing in two Dakar Rallies. In 1982 he became the Belgian importer for Donkervoort, a Dutch Lotus Super Seven-styled car. In January 1990 he broke the 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) record for production cars with a time of 3.85 seconds in a specially modified Donkervoort. The Vertigo held the 0–100 km/h record for production cars at 3.1 seconds, but this has since been broken.
The first Vertigo prototype was finished in 1991 and shown at the 71st Brussels Auto Show in January 1992. In the following two years the car was finalised for production. It was shown at the Paris and Geneva car shows in 1993. Two more
Isotta Fraschini represents two Italian manufacturing companies which produce, respectively, marine engines and luxury goods. In the early 20th century it was famous worldwide as a luxury car manufacturer.
The firm was named for its founders, Cesare Isotta and Vincenzo Fraschini, as Società Milanese Automobili Isotta, Fraschini & C., on 27 January 1900. The motto was, "Import, sell, repair cars". Prior to establishing their own company in 1904, Isotta and Fraschini assembled Renaults.
The first automobile bearing this marque featured a four-cylinder engine with an output of 24 hp. The car, driven by Vincenzo Fraschini, appeared in several races. In 1905, Isotta Fraschini gained notoriety in the Coppa Florio, where they entered aTipo D with an enormous 17.2-litre (1,050 cu in) 100 horsepower (75 kW) engine. For a short time in 1907, Isotta Fraschini merged with French automobile company Lorraine-Dietrich. The firm started out making race cars using this same 100 horsepower (75 kW) engine, establishing the company's reputation and gave its name considerable cachet. It was also one of the first cars with four-wheel brakes, following their invention by the Arrol-Johnson Company of
Land Rover is a British car manufacturer with its headquarters in Gaydon, Warwickshire, United Kingdom which specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles. It has been owned by the Indian company Tata Motors since 2008, forming part of their Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) group. It is the second oldest four-wheel-drive car brand in the world (after Jeep).
The Land Rover name was originally used by the Rover Company for one specific vehicle model, named simply the Land Rover, launched by Rover in 1948. Over the following years it developed into a marque encompassing a range of four-wheel-drive models, including the Defender, Discovery, Freelander, Range Rover, Range Rover Sport and Range Rover Evoque. Land Rovers are currently assembled in the company's Halewood and Solihull plants, with research and development taking place at JLR's Gaydon and Whitley engineering centres. Land Rover sold 194,000 vehicles worldwide in 2009.
Although the brand originates from the original 1947 model, Land Rover as a company has only existed since 1978, prior to this it was a product line of the Rover Company which was subsequently absorbed into the Rover-Triumph division of the British Leyland Motor Corporation
Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (Mitsubishi Jidōsha Kōgyō KK, IPA: [miꜜtsu͍biɕi̥]) is a multinational automaker headquartered in Minato, Tokyo. In 2010 it was the sixth largest Japanese automaker and the sixteenth largest in the world, measured by production. It is part of the Mitsubishi keiretsu, formerly the biggest industrial group in Japan, and was formed in 1970 from the automotive division of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries.
Mitsubishi's automotive origins date back as far as 1917, when the Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. introduced the Model A, Japan's first series-production automobile. An entirely hand-built seven-seater sedan based on the Fiat Tipo 3, it proved expensive compared to its American and European mass-produced rivals, and was discontinued in 1921 after only 22 had been built.
In 1934, Mitsubishi Shipbuilding was merged with the Mitsubishi Aircraft Co., a company established in 1920 to manufacture aircraft engines and other parts. The unified company was known as Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), and was the largest private company in Japan. MHI concentrated on manufacturing aircraft, ships, railroad cars and machinery, but in 1937 developed the PX33, a prototype
Pininfarina S.p.A. (BIT: PINF) (short for Carozzeria Pininfarina) is an Italian car design firm and coachbuilder in Cambiano, Italy.
Founded as Società anonima Carrozzeria Pinin Farina in 1930 by automobile designer and builder Battista "Pinin" Farina, Pininfarina has been employed by a wide variety of high-end automobile manufacturers, including Ferrari, Maserati, Rolls-Royce, Cadillac, Jaguar, Volvo, Alfa Romeo, Honda, Fiat, Peugeot and Lancia. It also has designed trams in France and Greece, high-speed trains in Holland, and trolleys in the USA. Since the 1980s Pininfarina has been consulted on industrial and interior design.
Pininfarina was run by Battista's son Sergio Pininfarina until 2001, then his grandson Andrea Pininfarina until his death in 2008. Andrea's younger brother Paolo Pininfarina was appointed as successor.
The Pininfarina Group employs more than 3,000 people in subsidiary company offices throughout Europe, as well as in Morocco and China. Pininfarina is registered and publicly traded on the Borsa Italiana (Milan Stock Exchange).
The company was founded as Società anonima Carrozzeria Pinin Farina in 1930 by automobile designer and builder Battista "Pinin"
The Rover Group plc was the name given in 1986 to the British state-owned vehicle manufacturer BL (formerly British Leyland). The Group initially included the Austin Rover Group car business (comprising Austin, Rover, Mini and MG marques), Land Rover Group, Freight Rover vans and Leyland Trucks.
The Rover Group was owned by British Aerospace (BAe) from 1988 to 1994, when BAe sold the remaining car business to BMW. The Group was further broken up in 2000, with the Rover and MG marques continuing with the much smaller MG Rover Group until 2005. Ownership of the original Rover Group marques is currently split between BMW (Germany), SAIC (China), and Tata Motors (India).
The Rover Group plc was formed by renaming BL plc in 1986, soon after the appointment by Margaret Thatcher of Canadian Graham Day to the position of Chairman and Managing Director of BL.
After divesting of its commercial vehicle and bus manufacturing divisions the company then consisted of the car manufacturing arm Austin Rover Group and the Land Rover Group. This group was privatised in 1988 by the sale of the company to British Aerospace (BAe) for £150 million, who retained Day as joint CEO/Chairman, and made Kevin
The Squire Car Manufacturing Company was a British auto manufacturer of the 1930s based in Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire. Founded as Squire Motors Ltd by 21-year-old Adrian Squire (1910-1940), formerly of Bentley and MG, the company renamed as the Squire Car Manufacturing Company produced the Squire car, which epitomised the Grand Prix car turned into road car.
After Frazer-Nash temporarily cast aside British Anzani, Squire seized the opportunity to use Anzani's R1 100 bhp (75 kW) 1,496 cc twin-cam engine. They were purchased from Anzani with a Squire emblem cast into them. Blown versions were available.
Very few were made, but it held a reputation for exceptional top speed and braking. Squire designed and built a fine rigid chassis offered in two lengths for two or four seat versions with attractive bodywork by Vanden Plas.
The car was too expensive even with cheaper bodywork from Markham of Reading, and financial difficulties ended production in 1936. A Vanden Plas two seater cost £1,220 which was Bugatti money and even the Markham cost £995.
Two or possibly three more cars were assembled from left over parts by Val Zethrin in 1938 and 1939. There were plans to resume production
Chrysler Europe was a division of the Chrysler Corporation that operated between 1967 and 1979.
In the 1960s, Chrysler sought to become a world producer of automobiles. The company had never had much success outside North America, contrasting with Ford's worldwide reach and General Motors' success with Opel, Vauxhall, Holden and Bedford. In 1967, Chrysler succeeded in purchasing the Rootes Group of the United Kingdom, Simca of France (in which they already had a substantial stake since 1958), and Barreiros of Spain.
The first European Chrysler was the Chrysler 180, launched in 1970. The 180 was the result of combining two projects that were previously being developed independently by Rootes and Simca.
This was followed by the 1975 Alpine hatchback, which was sold in France as the Simca 1307. It was voted European Car of the Year for 1976. Two years later, the smaller Horizon also won the award.
Chrysler also created the Britain-only Sunbeam three-door hatchback which was based on the Rootes-designed Hillman Avenger chassis but was aimed at the likes of the Ford Fiesta and Volkswagen Polo.
Although the original marques were retained at first, from 1975 British-built cars were badged
The Flxible Co. (originally the Flexible Sidecar Company) was an American manufacturer of motorcycle sidecars, funeral cars, ambulances, intercity coaches and transit buses, based in the U.S. state of Ohio. It was founded in 1913 and closed in 1996.
In 1913, Hugo H. Young and Carl F. Dudte founded the Flexible Sidecar Co. in Loudonville, Ohio, to manufacture motorcycle sidecars with a flexible mounting to the motorcycle. The flexible mounting allowed the sidecar to lean on corners along with the motorcycle, and was based on a design patented by Young.
In 1919, the company's name was changed to The Flxible Co. (still pronounced "flexible") so that the name could be registered as a trademark.
After low-priced automobiles became available in the 1920s, the motorcycle sidecar demand dropped and in 1924, Flxible turned to production of funeral cars (hearses), and ambulances, which were primarily manufactured on Buick chassis, but also occasionally on Studebaker, Cadillac and REO chassis, and intercity buses, initially (1930s and early '40s) built on GMC truck chassis, and powered with Buick Straight 8 engines.
In 1953, Flxible absorbed the bus-manufacturing portion of the Fageol Twin
Pegaso (Spanish pronunciation: [peˈɣaso], "Pegasus") was a Spanish make of trucks, omnibuses, tractors, armored vehicles, and, for a while, sports cars. The parent company, Enasa, was created in 1946 and based in the old Hispano-Suiza factory, under the direction of the renowned automotive engineer Wifredo Ricart. In 1990, Iveco took over Enasa, and the Pegaso name disappeared in 1994.
Enasa, a state-owned company, had its main business interest in the truck and 'bus market. Pegaso became one of the leading European industrial vehicle makers, with significant exportation to both Europe and Latin America; the Benelux, Venezuela, and Cuba were its major foreign markets, and a substantial contract to supply tactical trucks to the Egyptian Army was signed in the late 1970s.
The main Enasa factories were located in Barcelona, Madrid, and Valladolid. Between 1946 and 1990, Pegaso built more than 350,000 vehicles; the highest production in a single year, over 26,000, was achieved in 1974.
The first Enasa produced truck, a slightly modified Hispano-Suiza 66G, was the Pegaso I, of which only a few units were made (due mostly to the severe shortages of the post-war era) in 1946 and 1947. An
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. (Italian pronunciation: [ˈalfa roˈmɛːo]), sometimes colloquially referred to as simply Alfa, is an Italian manufacturer of cars. Founded as A.L.F.A. (Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili) on June 24, 1910, in Milan, the company has been involved in car racing since 1911, and has a reputation for building expensive sports cars. The company was owned by Italian state holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale between 1932 and 1986, when it became a part of the Fiat Group, and since February 2007 a part of Fiat Group Automobiles S.p.A.
The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq (SAID) in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with some Italian investors. In the late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling slowly and a new company was founded named A.L.F.A. (Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili, English: Lombard Automobile Factory, Public Company), initially still in partnership with Darracq. The first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Giuseppe Merosi. A.L.F.A. ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the
The Peel Engineering Company was a manufacturing company based on the Isle of Man that primarily made fibreglass boats through its subsidiary company West Marine Ltd and fairings for motorcycles. They were also responsible for the Peel Manxcar, Peel P50, and Peel Trident microcars, in addition to the Peel Viking Sport and prototype GRP Minis for BMC. These models constitute the only automobiles manufactured on the Isle of Man; the company halted their manufacture in 1969. A limited-run Peel Manxkart go-kart was also produced. The Peel P50 to this day still carries the Guinness record as the world's smallest production car. The Peel Engineering Company referred to in this article later became Peel Engineering Ltd in 1965 and was finally dissolved in 1974 and is not the Peel Engineering Company registered in the United Kingdom in 2010.
Saleen, Incorporated, commonly known as Saleen, was an American manufacturer of high-performance sports cars and high-performance automotive parts in Troy, Michigan, formerly based in Irvine, California. Founded by Steve Saleen in 1983, Saleen was a Delaware corporation owned by Hancock Park Associates from 2001 to 2009.
Saleen manufactured limited edition, high-performance vehicles. Saleen was an automotive original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and was the last American small car manufacturer bearing OEM status. Unlike aftermarket "tuner" companies, Saleen was subject to the same federal regulations governing design and testing of their automotive products as larger vehicle manufacturers such as Ford, General Motors, and/or Toyota. Most of Saleen's vehicles were highly modified versions of existing mass-produced sports cars such as the Ford Mustang. Saleen produced over 8,000 modified Mustangs from 1983 through 2009. It also produced modified versions of a number of other Ford models.
Saleen's flagship car was the Saleen S7, introduced in 2000. The S7 is a mid-engine, high-performance sports car that was initially priced at just under US$400,000. The S7 won four different GT
Wolseley Motors Limited was a British motor vehicle manufacturer founded in early 1901 by the Vickers armaments combine. It initially made a full range topped by large luxury cars and dominated the market in the Edwardian era. In 1921 it manufactured 12,000 cars and still continued to be the biggest motor manufacturer in Britain. Following receivership in 1927 it was bought from Vickers by William Morris as a personal investment and years later moved into his Morris Motors empire. After the Second World War its products were "badge-engineered" and it went with its sister businesses into BMC, BMH and British Leyland where its name lapsed in 1975.
The Wolseley Tool and Motor Car Company of Adderley Park Birmingham was incorporated in March 1901 with a capital of £40,000 by Vickers, Sons and Maxim to manufacture motor cars and machine tools. The Managing Director was Herbert Austin. The cars and the Wolseley name came from Austin's exploratory venture for The Wolseley Sheep Shearing Machine Company Limited run since the early 1890s by the now 33-year-old Austin. Wolseley's board had decided not to enter the business and the Vickers brothers picked it up. After his five-year contract
Aston Martin Lagonda Limited is a British manufacturer of luxury sports cars, based in Gaydon, Warwickshire, England. The company name is derived from the name of one of the company's founders, Lionel Martin, and from the Aston Clinton Hillclimb near Aston Clinton in Buckinghamshire. It also designs and engineers cars which are manufactured by Magna Steyr in Austria.
From 1994 until 2007, Aston Martin was part of the Ford Motor Company, becoming part of the company's Premier Automotive Group in 2000. On 12 March 2007, it was purchased for £479 million by a joint venture company, headed by David Richards, John Singers, an American investment banker; and two Kuwaiti investment companies, Investment Dar and Adeem Investment. Ford retained a US$77 million (or 12.1%) stake in Aston Martin, valuing the company at $925 million.
Aston Martin was founded in 1913 by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford. The two had joined forces as Bamford & Martin the previous year to sell cars made by Singer from premises in Callow Street, London where they also serviced GWK and Calthorpe vehicles. Martin raced specials at Aston Hill near Aston Clinton, and the pair decided to make their own vehicles. The
Brammo, Inc. is an electric vehicle company based in Ashland, Oregon, United States. Its first production electric motorcycle, the Enertia, is assembled in Sárvár, Hungary and is selling online via the company's website and is available for sale and service at select motorcycle dealers throughout the USA.
Brammo Motorsports began in Craig Bramscher's garage after he visited several Ferrari and Lamborghini dealerships in Hollywood and Los Angeles, California, looking for a supercar that he could comfortably sit in. Bramscher, who was a football player at his high school, Shawnee Mission South, is 6 ft 3 in (1.91 m) tall but has described himself as "long-waisted, so I sit like I'm 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m) tall." Bramscher set out to design and build a car comparable to the McLaren Formula 1 car, but which would comfortably accommodate a 6 ft 8 in (2.03 m) tall person weighing 300 lb (140 kg). On September 4, 2002, he registered the name "Brammo Motorsports" with the state of Oregon.
Brammo began importing the Ultima Can Am in an attempt to understand at a basic level the components, tools, and processes needed to manufacture a complete vehicle. The company continued to import the cars
Gurgel (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɡuʁˈʒew]) was the brand name of Gurgel Motores (later Gurgel Motores S/A), a Brazilian automobile manufacturer, named after its founder João do Amaral Gurgel. The company was founded in 1969 and first specialized in buggies and off-road vehicles. Early models were fiberglass bodies installed on Volkswagen Beetle chassis and machinery, but VW bodies and chassis were later replaced by a unique solution made of Plasteel - which consists on fiberglass and steel joined together, a system patented by Gurgel. Gurgel also introduced Brazil's first fully domestically designed and manufactured car, the BR-800.
The Ipanema was the first car produced by Gurgel, introducing the brand in the market. The next model was the first commercial success of the brand: the Xavante (also named X-10): production started in 1973, being the first car of Gurgel developed using the Plasteel system, which was proved very resistant under corrosive environments and also very mechanically strong - deforming temporarily but not smashing under pressure or shocks. Xavante also had a feature called Selectraction, a system where two individual hand-brakes were installed next to the
GM Holden Ltd is an automaker that operates in Australia, headquartered in Port Melbourne, Victoria. The company was founded in 1856 as a saddlery manufacturer. In 1908 it moved into the automotive field, before becoming a subsidiary of the U.S.-based General Motors (GM) automotive group in 1931. After becoming a subsidiary of GM, the company was named General Motors-Holden's Ltd, becoming Holden Ltd in 1998, with the current name adopted in 2005.
Founded in 1856 by James Alexander Holden, in 1885 the establishment combined with the carriage builder Henry Frost to become Holden & Frost. In 1908 it moved into the automotive field, trimming motor vehicles and in 1914 they built their first one-off car body for an imported chassis, with larger contracts following. The firm became a subsidiary of the US-based General Motors (GM) automotive group in 1931, and resultantly retitled General Motors-Holden's Ltd. In the late 1930s, the idea of producing a car made entirely in Australia was conceived, but plans were put on hold after the outbreak of World War II. During the war, General Motors-Holden's was a major industrial force in Australia's defence effort. Between 1939 and 1945, Holden's
Invicta is a British automobile manufacturer. The brand has been available intermittently through successive decades. Initially, the manufacturer was based in Cobham, Surrey, England from 1925 to 1933, then in Chelsea, London, England from 1933 to 1938 and finally in Virginia Water, Surrey, England from 1946 to 1950. More recently, the name has been revived for the new S1 sports car.
The company was founded by Noel Macklin, who had previously tried car making with the Eric-Campbell and Silver Hawk companies, with Oliver Lyle of the sugar family providing finance, with assembly taking place in Macklin's garage at his home at Fairmile Cottage on the main London to Portsmouth road in Cobham, Surrey. The cars were designed to combine flexibility, the ability to accelerate from virtual standstill in top gear, with sporting performance. With the assistance of William (Willie) Watson, his mechanic from pre-World War I racing days, a prototype was built on a Bayliss-Thomas frame with Coventry Simplex engine in the stables of Macklin's house on the western side of Cobham. The first production car, the 1925 2½ litre used a Meadows straight six, overhead-valve engine and four-speed gearbox in
Isuzu Motors Ltd. (いすゞ自動車株式会社, Isuzu Jidōsha Kabushiki-Kaisha), (TYO: 7202) is a Japanese car, commercial vehicle and heavy truck manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo. In 2005, Isuzu became the world's largest manufacturer of medium to heavy duty trucks. It has assembly and manufacturing plants in the Japanese city of Fujisawa, as well as in the prefectures Tochigi and Hokkaidō. Isuzu is famous for producing commercial vehicles and diesel engines. By 2009, Isuzu had produced over 21 million diesel engines, which can be found in vehicles all over the world. Isuzu diesel engines are used by Renault-Nissan Alliance and General Motors.
Isuzu's history begins in 1916, when Tokyo Ishikawajima Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd. plan a cooperation with the Tokyo Gas and Electric Industrial Co. to build automobiles. The next step is taken in 1918, when a technical cooperation with Wolseley Motors Limited is initiated, meaning exclusive rights to the production and sales of Wolseley vehicles in East Asia. In 1922 the first Wolseley model, the A-9 car, is domestically produced. The CP truck follows two years later; 550 of these are built until 1927. In 1933, Ishikawajima
The Lambert Automobile Company was a 300,000-square-foot (28,000 m) automobile factory in Anderson, Indiana to make the Lambert automobile through the Buckeye Manufacturing Company.
The Lambert Automobile Company was initially the second factory plant for the Union Automobile Company of Union City, Ohio built in 1904. The name changed officially in 1905 to the Lambert Automobile Company and the Union Automobile Company name was dropped. A better quality automobile was then manufactured from the Union automobile.
The Lambert Automobile Company was founded by automotive pioneer John William Lambert. The company was based in Anderson, Indiana. In the eleven years from 1905 through 1916 the company manufactured not only automobiles but trucks, fire engines and farm tractors as well. The Lambert automobile was the signature product of the company however. The company always made their own bodies, but sometimes had the engines manufactured by different independent motor builders. These outsourced motors done by manufacturers like Buda, Rutenber, Continental, Trebert, and Daviswere were always of Lambert's design. The upholstery used on the interiors was of the best quality and the final
Lotus Cars is a British manufacturer of sports and racing cars based at the former site of RAF Hethel, a World War II airfield in Norfolk. The company designs and builds race and production automobiles of light weight and fine handling characteristics. It also owns the engineering consultancy Lotus Engineering, which has facilities in the United Kingdom, United States, Malaysia and China.
Lotus is owned by Proton, which acquired it following the bankruptcy of former owner Romano Artioli in 1994.
The company was formed as Lotus Engineering Ltd. by engineer Colin Chapman, a graduate of University College, London, in 1952. The four letters in the middle of the logo stand for the initials of company founder, Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman.
The first factory was in old stables behind the Railway Hotel in Hornsey, North London. Team Lotus, which was split off from Lotus Engineering in 1954, was active and competitive in Formula One racing from 1958 to 1994. The Lotus Group of Companies was formed in 1959. This was made up of Lotus Cars Limited and Lotus Components Limited, which focused on road cars and customer competition car production, respectively. Lotus Components Limited became Lotus
Peugeot is a major French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citroën, the second largest carmaker based in Europe.
The family business that precedes the current Peugeot company was founded in 1810, and manufactured coffee mills and bicycles. On 20 November 1858, Emile Peugeot applied for the lion trademark. The company produced its first automobile in 1891. Due to family discord, Armand Peugeot in 1896 founded the Société des Automobiles Peugeot. The Peugeot company and family is originally from Sochaux, France. Peugeot retains a large manufacturing plant and Peugeot Museum there. It also sponsors the Sochaux football club, founded in 1928 by a member of the Peugeot family.
The name is pronounced [pøˈʒo] in French, and is frequently pronounced /ˈpɜrʒoʊ/ PUR-zhoh in British English. It is pronounced PEW-shjo in Irish English and New Zealand English.
The Peugeot family of Valentigney, Montbéliard, Franche-Comté, France, began in the manufacturing business in the 18th century. In 1842, they added production of coffee, pepper, and salt grinders. The company's entry into the vehicle market was by means of crinoline dresses, which used steel rods, leading to umbrella frames, saw blades, wire
SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile (上汽通用五菱汽车股份有限公司) is a joint venture between General Motors, SAIC Motor and Liuzhou Wuling Motors Co., Ltd. Based at the Liuzhou, Guangxi, it is the manufacturer of vehicles sold in China under the Wuling and Baojun marques.
Wuling mostly makes commercial vehicles sold in the poorer interior, but it created a passenger car sub-brand, Baojun, in 2010. The company also makes the Chevy Spark, a small car. One of its best-selling models is a tiny commercial minivan that, as of 2007, could be had for less than US$4,000.
Sales in 2009 topped 1 million units, and reached 1,226,860 in 2010.
The Etsong Automobile Co is a small scale manufacturing concern that comes under the SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile part of SAIC. Based in Qingdao, China, the factory was initially set up by Chinese tobacco company and then owned by the First Automobile Works before moving over to the SAIC group in 2005.
First built in 2000, the factory builds a number of Austin Maestro/Montego hybrids under the Etsong Lubao and Etsong Lande nameplates.
In 2009, Wuling began to export N200 and N300 mini commercial vehicles to South America, the Middle
The Saturn Corporation was an automobile manufacturer and brand, established on January 7, 1985 as a subsidiary of General Motors in response to the success of Japanese automobile imports in the United States. The company marketed itself as a "different kind of car company," and operated somewhat independently from its parent company for a time, with its own assembly plant in Spring Hill, Tennessee, unique models, and a separate retailer network.
Following the withdrawal of a bid by Penske Automotive to acquire Saturn in September 2009, General Motors discontinued the Saturn brand and ended its outstanding franchises on October 31, 2010. All new production was halted on October 1, 2009.
Alex C. Mair began discussions of a "revolutionary new, small-car project codenamed 'Saturn'" in June, 1982. In November, 1983, the Saturn idea was publicized by General Motors' Chairman Roger B. Smith and GM's President F. James McDonald. Twelve months later, the first Saturn demonstration vehicle was revealed. On January 7, 1985, the Saturn Corporation was officially founded.
In July 1990, GM Chairman Roger Smith and UAW President Owen Bieber drove the very first Saturn off the assembly line in
Sylva Autokits is a kit car manufacturer based in Lincolnshire, England. Sylva was founded in 1981 by Jeremy Phillips and has developed and produced a number of small and lightweight sports cars. Sylva cars have proven very successful in competition, winning a number of 750 Motor Club Kit Car championships.
Sylva has sold many of its older designs to other kit car manufacturers, such as selling the Fury to Fisher Sportscars, the Stylus to Specialist Sports Cars, and the Striker to Raw Engineering. By doing so, Jeremy Phillips and Sylva have been able to focus on newer designs and ideas, such as the current Sylva Mojo 2 and R1ot.
The first Sylva car launched in 1982. The Sylva Star kit was based on a purpose built two seater chassis using the front subframe and the rear axle from a donor Vauxhall Viva the car was most often powered by 1300 and 1600 four cylinder Ford Kent crossflow engines, though other engine options were available. The Sylva Star was the first in a long line of small, agile two seater open top cars designed by Jeremy Phillips and built for fun and economy.
The Sylva Leader was an evolution of the Sylva Star retaining the two seater, open top, layout but with
Tatra is a vehicle manufacturer in Kopřivnice, Czech Republic. The company was founded in 1850 as Schustala & Company later renamed Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft, a wagon and carriage manufacturer, and in 1897 produced the first motor car in central Europe, and one of the first cars in world, the Präsident automobil. In 1918, it changed its name to Kopřivnická vozovka a.s. and, in 1919, started to use the Tatra badge named after the nearby Tatra mountains in Slovakia. Tatra is the third oldest car maker in the world after Daimler and Peugeot. During World War II Tatra was instrumental in the production of trucks, and tank engines for the German war effort. Production of passenger cars ceased in 1999 but the company still produces a range of primarily all-wheel-drive 4×4, 6×6, 8×8, 10×10, and 12×12 trucks. Currently is mainly known thanks to legendary Czech truck racer Karel Loprais, in 1988-2001 he won the worlds hardest off-road race Dakar Rally as many as six times with Tatra 815. And at the time of his sixth victory he was the most successful driver in the history of the Dakar.
Ignác Šustala (1822–1891), founder of the company in Kopřivnice, Moravia, started the
Tesla Motors, Inc. is a Silicon Valley-based company that designs, manufactures and sells electric cars and electric vehicle powertrain components. Tesla Motors is a public company that trades on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the symbol TSLA.
Tesla Motors gained widespread attention by producing the Tesla Roadster, the first fully electric sports car. Its second model is the Model S, a fully electric luxury sedan. While still expensive, it is substantially cheaper than the Roadster.
Tesla also sells electric powertrain components, including lithium-ion battery packs, to other automakers, including Daimler and Toyota. Tesla's CEO, Elon Musk, has said he envisions Tesla as an independent automaker, aimed at eventually mass producing fully electric cars at a price affordable to the average consumer.
Tesla Motors is named after electrical engineer and physicist Nikola Tesla. The Tesla Roadster uses an AC motor descended directly from Tesla's original 1882 design.
The Tesla Roadster, the company's first vehicle, is the first production automobile to use lithium-ion battery cells and the first production EV with a range greater than 200 miles (320 km) per charge. The base model
'Visteon is an American leading global automotive supplier that designs, engineers and manufactures innovative climate, electronics and interior products for vehicle manufacturers. With corporate offices in Van Buren Township, Mich. (U.S.); Shanghai, China; and Chelmsford, UK; the company has facilities in 28 countries and employs approximately 22,000 people.
Visteon's market share, market and revenue has changed substantially since it formed. A majority of revenue (80+%) came from North America, driven by its relationship with Ford Motor Company. Today, its revenue is mainly from Europe and Asia, with North American market share becoming a lesser part of its portfolio in terms of revenue.
The organization is divided into three core business groups:
The company has three corporate offices reflecting the companies key markets.
Visteon began a three year restructuring program from 2005-2009. During this period the number of employees and facilities dramatically reduced in an effort to fit the global operating conditions.
ACH was formed following a memorandum of understanding with Ford Motor Company that "intended to assure the long-term viability of Visteon", it involved the transfer
Toyota Motor Corporation (トヨタ自動車株式会社, Toyota Jidōsha KK, IPA: [toꜜjota]) /tɔɪˈoʊtə/, abbreviated TMC, is a Japanese multinational automaker headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan. In 2010, Toyota employed 300,734 people worldwide, and was the largest automobile manufacturer in 2010 by production. Toyota is the eleventh largest company in the world by revenue. In July 2012 the company reported that it had manufactured its 200 millionth vehicle.
The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937 as a spinoff from his father's company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Three years earlier, in 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, and, in 1936, its first passenger car, the Toyota AA. Toyota Motor Corporation group companies are Toyota (including the Scion brand), Lexus, Daihatsu and Hino Motors, along with several "non-automotive" companies. TMC is part of the Toyota Group, one of the largest conglomerates in the world.
Toyota is headquartered in Toyota City, Aichi. Its Tokyo office is located in Bunkyo, Tokyo. Its Nagoya office is located in Nakamura-ku, Nagoya. In addition to manufacturing automobiles, Toyota
Chrysler Group LLC ( /ˈkraɪslər/) is an American-based, multinational automaker, in global strategic alliance with its majority owner, Italian manufacturer Fiat, since 2009.
Chrysler was first organized as the Chrysler Corporation in 1925. Its core brands are: Chrysler, Jeep, Dodge, Ram, SRT, Fiat, and Mopar vehicles and products. The Company is headquartered in Auburn Hills, Michigan, United States.
On June 10, 2009, Chrysler LLC emerged from a government backed Chapter 11 reorganization as Chrysler Group LLC, in alliance with the Italian automaker Fiat. Initially holding a 20% interest in Chrysler Group, Fiat's stake was increased to 58.5% (fully diluted) following acquisition of the equity interests held by the U.S. Treasury (6% on June 3, 2011) and Canada (1.5% on July 21, 2011) The stake was further increased to 61.8% in July 2012.
The company was founded by Walter Chrysler (1875–1940) on June 6, 1925, when the Maxwell Motor Company (est. 1904) was re-organized into the Chrysler Corporation.
Walter Chrysler arrived at the ailing Maxwell-Chalmers company in the early 1920s. He was hired to overhaul the company's troubled operations (after a similar rescue job at the
ARO (short for Auto Romania) was a Romanian off-road vehicle manufacturer located in Câmpulung-Muscel. The first ARO vehicles were produced in 1957, and the last in 2003. For a short while, Daihatsu-powered AROs were produced in Spain and Portugal under the brands Hisparo and Portaro, respectively. In Italy, Volkswagen-powered AROs were produced by ARO-Ciemme and sold under ACM brand.
Production of ARO vehicles have restarted under the aegis of a Czech company called Auto Max Czech (AMC).
ARO manufactured over 380,000 vehicles, 2/3 of which were exported to some 110 countries on five continents (before 1989 about 90% of the ARO production was exported). AROs were also produced in Brazil, Italy, and Portugal (Portaro). Portara also produced for Spain and marketed as Hisparo's by Enasa.
Production started in 1957 with the IMS-57, which was the first model of the IMS Series, produced under a GAZ-69 license. In 1959 the IMS-57 model was replaced by the M59, followed by a new model in 1964 called the M461. Though its styling and design were based on its predecessors', the M461 had clearly distinguishable features also boasting fit and finish improvements and redesigned mechanics.
Artega Automobil GmbH & Co. KG is a German sports car manufacturer based in Delbrück, Germany. Founded by Klaus Dieter Frers in 2006, the company filed for bankruptcy in July 2012.
The Artega GT was released at the 2007 Frankfurt Auto Show. It was previously thought that another sports car producer was the last thing that the auto industry needed given the economic downturn of late 2008 and early 2009 in which new car sales decreased cataclysmically, but Klaus Dieter Frers, producer of Artega, announced at the 2008 Detroit Auto Show that Artega was investing in a possible concept vehicle that included solar powered drivetrain-engine. Frers, with help from Henrik Fisker who also designed the Aston Martin DB9, wants to compete with Tesla Roadster and Fisker Karma, both electric luxury vehicles. The price tag of the Artega GT is at €74,948 or $104,000 in Germany with taxes. The car is powered by a VW 300 Hp 3.6 liter V6 direct-injection engine located right behind the driver and produces maximum torque of 350 N·m (260 lb·ft) at 2400/min. The Artega GT is weighted at 1,100 kg (2,425 lb) without passenger. Artega claimed that the GT could sprints from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in less than
AUDI Aktiengesellschaft (help·info) (FWB: NSU) and its subsidiaries design, engineer, manufacture and distribute automobiles and motorcycles under the Audi, Ducati and Lamborghini brands. Audi oversees worldwide operations from its headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany. Audi-branded vehicles are produced in seven production facilities worldwide; Ducati and Lamborghini each have one production facility located in Italy.
AUDI AG has been a majority owned (99.55%) subsidiary of Volkswagen AG since 1966, following a phased purchase of AUDI AG's predecessor, Auto Union, from Daimler-Benz. Volkswagen relaunched the Audi brand with the 1965 introduction of the Audi F103 series.
The company name is based on the surname of the founder, August Horch. "Horch", meaning "listen", becomes "Audi" when translated into Latin. The four rings of the Audi logo each represent one of four car companies that banded together to create the company. Audi's slogan is Vorsprung durch Technik, meaning "Advancement through Technology". Recently in the United States, Audi has updated the slogan to "Truth in Engineering".
The largest shareholder of AUDI Aktiengesellschaft is VOLKSWAGEN AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT,
Myers Motors is a small automobile company operating in Tallmadge, Ohio. Their vehicle, the Myers Motors NmG (which stands for "No More Gas") is a single-passenger, three-wheeled, battery electric vehicle designed specifically for commuting and city driving. It was initially produced by Corbin Motors as the Sparrow and now by Myers Motors. It is a Personal Electric Vehicle (PEV) . The company is developing the Duo, a two-passenger EV with a similar design, but using more advanced battery technology.
Corbin Motors was a manufacturer of sporty pure electric, gas efficient and hybrid vehicles. The company was founded by Mike Corbin and his son, Tom Corbin.
In January 1996, Corbin Motors began work on developing an electric vehicle. The Sparrow passed final testing for Department of Transportation certification in April 1999. In September of that year, the Sparrow production line began manufacturing multiple vehicles in Hollister, California. They also made the Corbin Merlin that was available as both coupé and roadster.
Fewer than 300 Sparrows were produced. Corbin Motors filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy on March 31, 2003, effectively killing the immediate future of the Corbin Sparrow.
Automobile Dacia S.A. (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈdat͡ʃi.a]) is a Romanian car manufacturer, named for the historic region that constitutes much of present-day Romania. It is now a subsidiary of the French carmaker Renault. The company is the main exporter from Romania with 10% of total exports.
Automobile Dacia company was founded in 1966 under the name Uzina de Autoturisme Pitești (UAP). The main Dacia factory was built in 1968, in Colibaşi (now called Mioveni), near Piteşti. Dacia acquired the tooling and basic designs of the Renault 12. However, until the tooling was ready it was decided to produce the Renault 8 under licence; it was known as the Dacia 1100. From 1968 to 1972, some 44,000 were produced, with a very minor cosmetic change to the front in early 1970. Also produced in very limited numbers was the 1100S, with twin headlamps and a more powerful engine, used by the police and in motor racing.
The first Dacia 1300 left the assembly line ready for the 23 August parade in 1969, and was exhibited at the Paris and Bucharest shows of that year. Romanians were delighted with the modernity and reliability of the car, and waiting lists were always lengthy. As early as 1970,
Honda Motor Company, Ltd. (本田技研工業株式会社, Honda Giken Kōgyō KK, IPA: [honꜜda] ( listen); /ˈhɒndə/) (TYO: 7267) is a Japanese public multinational corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles.
Honda has been the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959, as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than 14 million internal combustion engines each year. Honda surpassed Nissan in 2001 to become the second-largest Japanese automobile manufacturer. As of August 2008, Honda surpassed Chrysler as the fourth largest automobile manufacturer in the United States. Honda was the seventh largest automobile manufacturer in the world behind Toyota, General Motors, Volkswagen AG, Hyundai Motor Group, Ford, and Nissan in 2010.
Honda was the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to release a dedicated luxury brand, Acura, in 1986. Aside from their core automobile and motorcycle businesses, Honda also manufactures garden equipment, marine engines, personal watercraft and power generators, amongst others. Since 1986, Honda has been involved with artificial intelligence/robotics research and
Jensen Motors Ltd was a British manufacturer of sports cars and commercial vehicles, based in the Lyng – West Bromwich (in the West Midlands, west of Birmingham). The Jensen brothers (Alan and Richard, born in Moseley, Birmingham) were previously employed in the bodyshop of Patrick Motors, Selly Oak, Birmingham in a building which is still standing next to the University of Birmingham campus. The company was established in 1934 and ceased trading in 1976. The rights to Jensen were bought and the company operated in Speke, Merseyside from 1998 to 2002. Under further new owners, a new version of the Jensen Interceptor was announced in 2011 as bringing manufacturing back to the former Jaguar motor plant in Browns Lane, Coventry.
Jensen began as a small coachbuilding firm run by brothers Richard and Alan Jensen; they bought out the body works of W.J. Smiths & Sons where they worked after the owner's death and renamed it Jensen Motors in 1934. They built exclusive customised bodies for standard cars produced by several manufacturers of the day including Morris, Singer, Standard, and Wolseley. In 1934 they were commissioned by American film actor Clark Gable to design and build a car for
NSU Motorenwerke AG, normally just NSU, was a German manufacturer of automobiles, motorcycles and pedal cycles, founded in 1873. It was acquired by Volkswagen Group in 1969. VW merged the company with Auto Union, to eventually evolve into Audi as it is known today.
NSU began as a knitting machine manufacturer in the town of Riedlingen on the Danube in 1873, and moved to Neckarsulm, where the river Sulm flows into the Neckar, in 1884. In 1886 the company began to produce bicycles, the first of them branded as the "Germania", and by 1892, bicycle manufacturing had completely replaced knitting machine production. At about this time, the name NSU (from Neckar and Sulm) appeared as a brand name.
The first NSU motorcycle appeared in 1901, followed by the first NSU car in 1905. In 1932, the car factory in Heilbronn was sold to Fiat.
During World War II NSU designed and produced the Kettenkrad, the NSU HK101, a half-tracked motorcycle with the engine of the Opel Olympia.
In December 1946 Das Auto reported the company had resumed the manufacture of bicycles and motor-bicycles at Neckarsulm. For Germany this was a time of new beginnings: in July 1946, a new board had been appointed, headed
Porsche Automobil Holding SE, usually shortened to Porsche (German pronunciation: [ˈpɔʁʃə]) or Porsche SE, a Societas Europaea or European Public Company, is a German holding company with investments in the automotive industry.
Porsche SE is headquartered in Zuffenhausen, a city district of Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg and is owned by the Piëch and Porsche families, and Qatar Holdings, through the Qatar Investment Authority (10%). As of September 2011, Porsche owns 50.73% of the voting rights in Volkswagen AG, and 50.1% of Porsche Zwischenholding GmbH, which owns 100% of Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, the manufacturer of a range of sports cars and SUVs.
The company was founded as Dr. Ing. h. c. F. Porsche GmbH in 1931 by Ferdinand Porsche, an Austrian engineer born in Maffersdorf, during the time of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and Porsche's son-in-law Anton Piëch, an Austrian lawyer.
Porsche is the owner of Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG (Porsche AG), and in June 2007 became a holding company for its stake in Porsche Zwischenholding GmbH (50.1%) (which in turn holds 100% of Porsche AG) and Volkswagen AG (50.7%). In August 2009, Porsche SE and Volkswagen AG reached an agreement that the
Bristol Cars Limited is a manufacturer of hand-built luxury cars headquartered in Patchway, near Bristol, United Kingdom. Bristol have always been a low-volume manufacturer; the most recent published official production figures were for 1982, which stated that 104 cars were produced in that year. While no official figures have been produced since then it is believed that in recent years production has been around 20 cars per annum.
Unlike most speciality automakers, Bristol does not court publicity and has only one showroom, located on Kensington High Street in London (51°29′48″N 0°12′22″W / 51.49670833°N 0.206225°W / 51.49670833; -0.206225 (Bristol Cars showroom)). Nevertheless the company maintains an enthusiastic and loyal clientele.
The company suspended manufacturing in March 2011, when administrators were appointed and 22 staff were made redundant. In April 2011, the company was purchased by the Kamkorp Group.
The history of Bristol Cars began in 1945, with the end of World War II. Forecasting an excess labour capacity, the Bristol Aeroplane Company began working with AFN Ltd, makers of Frazer Nash cars and British importer of BMWs before the war, on plans for a joint
Fisker Automotive, Inc. is an American automaker based in Anaheim, California. The company's first product is the Fisker Karma, one of the world's first production plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. It debuted at the 2008 North American International Auto Show, creating the premium green car segment in which most major manufacturers have since announced they would compete.
Fisker originally intended to sell the Karma in late 2009, but after repeated delays, the Environmental Protection Agency certified the car’s vehicle emissions and drive range in October 2011, and thereafter Fisker commenced delivery of production vehicles in the USA.
The Fisker Atlantic concept was unveiled in April 2012 at the New York International Auto Show and it is expected to be produced at a former GM plant in Delaware around 2013.
Henrik Fisker co-founded the company in 2007 with business partner Bernhard Koehler (Fisker Coachbuild) and Quantum Technologies after securing a relatively small investment from Gianfranco Pizzuto, an Italian businessman, and Palo Alto Investors. Henrik Fisker is responsible for designing some of the world's most iconic cars such as the Aston Martin DB9 and V8 Vantage, Artega
Luverne was a United States automobile manufacturing company which produced automobiles from 1904 to 1917. Founded by carriage makers Al and Ed Leicher, the company was based in Luverne, Minnesota. In addition to automobiles, the company also produced fire trucks and equipment.
Luverne advertising slogans:
AM General is an American heavy vehicle manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana. It is best known for the civilian Hummer and the military Humvee, that is assembled in Mishawaka, Indiana. For a relatively brief period, 1974–1979, the company also manufactured transit buses, making more than 5,400.
AM General traces its roots to the Standard Wheel Company of Terre Haute, Indiana, which expanded in 1903 to include the Overland Automotive Division. In 1908, John North Willys purchased the Overland company, then based in Indianapolis, Indiana, and renamed it Willys-Overland Motors, Inc. In the 1940s, Willys-Overland developed a vehicle to U.S. Army's requirements and later mass produced "America's first four-wheel drive one-fourth-ton tactical utility truck" - the Jeep of World War II fame. In 1953, Kaiser Motors purchased Willys-Overland, and changed the name to Willys Motor Company. In 1963 the company's name changed again to Kaiser-Jeep Corporation. In 1964, Kaiser-Jeep purchased the Studebaker facilities in South Bend, Indiana, and formed the Defense and Government Products Division in 1967, which after American Motors purchased Kaiser-Jeep became what is now AM General.
The Austin Motor Company Limited was a British manufacturer of motor vehicles. Founded by Herbert Austin in 1905 ownership was merged with Morris Motors Limited in 1952 in a new holding company, The British Motor Corporation Limited, where Austin, like Morris, kept its separate identity. The marque Austin was used until 1987. The trademark is currently owned by SAIC after being transferred from bankrupt subsidiary Nanjing Automotive which had acquired it with MG Rover Group in July 2005.
While running the original Wolseley business which had a highly cyclical sales pattern Herbert Austin, searching for products with a steady demand, built, starting in 1895, three cars in his own free time. They were among Britain's first cars. The third car, of his own design and a four-wheeler, was completed in 1899. By 1901 his fellow directors still could not see future profit in motor vehicles and so with their blessing and the backing of the Vickers brothers he started a separate car manufacturing business still using the name Wolseley.
In 1905 he fell out with Thomas and Albert Vickers on engine design and leaving behind his creation, Wolseley, which he had made Britain's largest motor
Automobiles Darracq S.A. was a French motor vehicle manufacturing company founded in 1896 by Alexandre Darracq.
Using part of the substantial profit he had made from selling his Gladiator bicycle factory to Adolpe Clément, Darracq began operating from a plant in the Paris suburb of Suresnes. The company started with a Millet motorcycle, powered by a five-cylinder rotary engine, but shortly introduced an electric brougham, and in 1898 a Leon Bolleé-designed voiturette tricar. This proved a débâcle: the steering was problematic, the five-speed belt drive "a masterpiece of bad design", and the hot tube ignition crude, proving the £10,000 Darracq had paid for the design a mistake.
In 1900, the company produced its first vehicle with an internal combustion engine. Designed by Ribeyrolles, this was a 6.5 hp (4.8 kW; 6.6 PS) voiture legére powered by a 785 cc (47.9 cu in) single, and featured shaft drive and three speed column gear change. While not as successful as hoped, one hundred were sold. In 1902, Darracq signed a contract with Adam Opel to jointly produce vehicles in the German Empire under licence, with the brand name "Opel Darracq".
The Darracq automobile company prospered, such
Delahaye automobile manufacturing company was started by Emile Delahaye in 1894, in Tours, France. His first cars were belt-driven, with single- or twin-cylinder engines. In 1900, Delahaye left the company.
Delahaye began experimenting with belt-driven cars while at the Brethon locomotive works, at Tours, in 1894. These experiments encouraged an entry in the Paris-Marseilles-Paris city to city rally, held between 24 September-3 October 1896, fielding one car for himself and one for sportsman Ernest Archdeacon. The winning Panhard averaged 15.7 mph (25.3 km/h); Archdeacon came sixth, averaging 14 mph (23 km/h), while Delahaye himself was eighth, averaging 12.5 mph (20.1 km/h).
For the 1897 Paris-Dieppe, the 6 hp (4.5 kW; 6.1 PS) four-cylinder Delahayes ran in four- and six-seater classes, Archdeacon third in the four-seaters behind a De Dion-Bouton and a Panhard, Courtois winning the six-seater class, ahead of the only other car in the class.
In March 1898, 6 hp (4.5 kW; 6.1 PS) Delahayes of Georges Morane and Courtois came sixteenth and twenty-eighth at the Marseilles-Nice rally, while at the Course de Perigeux in May, De Solages finished sixth in a field of ten. The July
Ferrari S.p.A. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello, Italy. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1929, as Scuderia Ferrari, the company sponsored drivers and manufactured race cars before moving into production of street-legal vehicles as Ferrari S.p.A. in 1947. Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing, especially in Formula One, where it has had great success. Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of luxury and wealth.
Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari (literally "Ferrari Stable", and usually used to mean "Team Ferrari", it is correctly pronounced [skudeˈriːa]) in 1928 as a sponsor for amateur drivers headquartered in Modena. Ferrari prepared, and successfully raced, various drivers in Alfa Romeo cars until 1938, when he was hired by Alfa Romeo to head their motor racing department.
In 1941, Alfa Romeo was confiscated by the fascist government of Benito Mussolini as part of the Axis Powers' war effort. Enzo Ferrari's division was small enough to be unaffected by this. Because he was prohibited by contract from racing for four years,
Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych (FSO) (literally translated as Factory for Passenger Automobiles) is a Polish automobile manufacturer, located in Warsaw.
The FSO plant was established in 1951 by the Polish government in Żerań on Warsaw's eastern bank of the river Vistula, to produce automobiles for post World War II Poland. The first FSO car was the Warszawa, manufactured under the Soviet GAZ-M20 Pobeda licence.
In 1953, an in-house team started development of a smaller, popular car, resulting in the second FSO model, a two-stroke Syrena, introduced in 1957. The Syrena was a proprietary design of FSO; its production was next moved to FSM car factory (Fabryka Samochodów Małolitrażowych).
In 1965, the Polish government signed license agreements with the Italian auto manufacturer Fiat to manufacture selected Fiat models in Poland, under the brand Polski Fiat. In particular, the Fiat 125 was to be manufactured at FSO to replace the outdated Warszawa. The resulting model, called Polski Fiat 125p, was in fact a simplified model with Fiat 1300/1500 mechanicals, and was exported for some time under the names Fiat 125p and later, after the license agreement ended, FSO 1300/1500. It was also
Kia Motors (Korean: 기아자동차, IPA: [ki.a]), headquartered in Seoul, is South Korea's second-largest automobile manufacturer, following the Hyundai Motor Company, with sales of over 1.4 million vehicles in 2010. The company is partly owned by the Hyundai Motor Group, the fourth largest automaker in the world based on annual vehicle sales in 2010 after Toyota, General Motors, and Volkswagen AG. Since August 2009, the company has been led by Hyoung-Keun (Hank) Lee.
The word Kia derives from Korean words meaning "to arise to the world from Asia".
According to Kia Motors, the name "Kia" derives from the Sino-Korean words ki ("to come out") and a (which stands for Asia), it is roughly translated as "arise or come up out of Asia" or "rising out of Asia".
South Korea's oldest car company, Kia was founded on June 9, 1944 as a manufacturer of steel tubing and bicycle parts by hand – and has operated as one of the country's Chaebols since. In 1951 Kia began building complete bicycles. In 1952, Kia changed its name from Kyungsung Precision Industry, and later built motorcycles (starting in 1957), trucks (1962) and cars (1974). The company opened its first integrated automotive assembly plant in
Manganese Bronze Holdings PLC is an engineering company based in Coventry, England. Once an important conglomerator of British motorcycle marques, since the sale of its components division in 2003 the company has only one operating division—LTI Limited, trading as The London Taxi Company—which manufactures and retails London Black Taxis. The London Taxi Company manufactures London Black Taxis in Shanghai and retails and provides maintenance services for taxis in the major cities of the United Kingdom.
Manganese Bronze originally made ship propellors. In the early 1960s Manganese Bronze Bearings Ltd. as it was then known Villiers Engineering Ltd., a motorcycle company chiefly known for its range of engines. Now Manganese Bronze Holdings Ltd, the company next bought AMC (Associated Motorcycles), owners of the Norton, AJS and Matchless motorcycle brands, in 1964 and named new products Norton-Villiers.
Manganese Bronze absorbed part of BSA in 1973, under chairman Dennis Poore, as part of a rescue plan initiated by the Government. BSA Motorcycles interests trading as Triumph were combined with current Manganese Bronze motorcycle production to form Norton Villiers Triumph (NVT). BSA Guns
Maserati (Italian pronunciation: [mazeˈraːti]) is an Italian luxury car manufacturer established on December 1, 1914, in Bologna. The company's headquarters is now in Modena, and its emblem is a trident. It has been owned by the Italian car giant Fiat S.p.A. since 1993. Inside the Fiat Group, Maserati was initially associated with Ferrari S.p.A., but more recently it has become part of the sports car group including Alfa Romeo.
The Maserati brothers, Alfieri, Bindo, Carlo, Ettore, and Ernesto were all involved with automobiles from the beginning of the 20th century. Alfieri, Bindo and Ernesto built 2-litre Grand Prix cars for Diatto. In 1926, Diatto suspended the production of race cars, leading to the creation of the first Maserati and the founding of the Maserati marque. One of the first Maseratis, driven by Alfieri, won the 1926 Targa Florio. Maserati began making race cars with 4, 6, 8 and 16 cylinders (two straight-eights mounted parallel to one another). Another Maserati brother, Mario, an artist, is believed to have devised the company's trident emblem, based on one the Fontana del Nettuno, Bologna. Alfieri Maserati died in 1932, but three other brothers, Bindo, Ernesto and
Mercedes-Benz (German pronunciation: [mɛʁˈtseːdəs ˈbɛnts]) is a multinational division of the German manufacturer Daimler AG, and the brand is used for luxury automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz but traces its origins to Daimler's 1901 Mercedes and to Karl Benz's 1886 Benz Patent Motorwagen, widely regarded as the first automobile.
Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Karl Benz's creation of the first petrol-powered car, the Benz Patent Motorwagen, patented in January 1886 and Gottlieb Daimler and engineer Wilhelm Maybach's conversion of a stagecoach by the addition a nana a petrol engine later that year. The Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft. The first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benz's and Gottlieb Daimler's companies into the Daimler-Benz company. Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that later became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the most well-known and established automotive brands in the world,
Noble Automotive Ltd., more commonly known simply as Noble, is a British sports car manufacturer.
It was established in 1999 by Lee Noble in Leeds, West Yorkshire, for producing high-speed sports cars with a rear mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout. Lee Noble was the chief designer and owner of Noble. He sold the company in August 2006. He resigned from the company in February 2008 and announced his new venture, Fenix Automotive in 2009. The company has since moved to larger premises at Meridian Business Park near Leicester.
Noble is a low-production British sports car company, its past products include the M12 GTO, M12 GTO-3, M12 GTO-3R and Noble M400. The M12 GTO-3R and M400 share chassis and body, but have minor differences in engines and suspensions. The M15 has a new space frame chassis. The body and chassis of the Noble is built by Hi-Tech Automotive in Port Elizabeth, South Africa alongside Superformance cars. Once the body shell is completed, it is sent to the Noble factory where the engines, transmissions, etc. are added.
In 2009 Noble Released the M600, a car which takes Noble into Hyper Car territory. With 650BHP available from its purpose built 4.4 litre V8 Twin turbo
Elfin Sports Cars Pty Ltd is the current name of the car company which was founded by Garrie Cooper. It has been an Australian manufacturer of sports cars and motor racing cars since 1957.
Elfin Sports Cars is owned by the estate of former British racing driver Tom Walkinshaw, through his company Walkinshaw Performance which also owns Holden Special Vehicles. It was previously owned by businessmen and historic racing enthusiasts Bill Hemming and Nick Kovatch (who remains as technical director) who purchased it in 1998.
The current manufacturer location is at Braeside, a suburb of Melbourne, Australia.
Elfin is the oldest continuous sports car maker in Australia and one of the most successful with 29 championships and major Grand Prix titles. The previous factory was located at Conmurra Avenue, Edwardstown in suburban Adelaide, South Australia.
The company was founded by Garrie Cooper, a successful championship driver and designer and builder of racing and sports/racing cars as Elfin Sports Car Company. In 1983, following the death of its founder, the firm was bought by Tasmanian Don Elliott, racing driver Tony Edmondson and mechanic John Porter who re-established the provision of
SEAT, S.A. (Spanish: [ˈse.at]) is a Spanish automobile manufacturer founded on May 9, 1950, by the Instituto Nacional de Industria (INI), a state-owned industrial holding company.
It is currently a wholly owned subsidiary of the German Volkswagen Group, as a member of the now-defunct Audi Brand Group, together with Audi and Lamborghini, and marketed as a car maker with a youthful sporty profile. Within the Volkswagen Group and under the Audi Brand Group, the SEAT brand itself has been developed as a group with subsidiary companies (SEAT Group) and 'SEAT, S.A.' as the parent company.
The headquarters of SEAT, S.A. are located at SEAT's industrial complex in Martorell near Barcelona, Spain. By 2000 annual production peaked at over 500,000 units; in total up to 2006, over 16 million cars have been produced including more than 6 million from the Martorell plant, with three-quarters of the annual production being exported to over seventy countries worldwide.
The name SEAT, previously standing for the acronym Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo (Spanish Touring Car Company, in English), in 1990 was changed to SEAT, S.A..
SEAT today is the only major Spanish car manufacturer with
Alpine (French pronunciation: [alpin]) was a French manufacturer of racing and sports cars that used rear-mounted Renault engines.
Jean Rédélé (1922 - 2007), the founder of Alpine, was originally a Dieppe garage proprietor, who began to achieve considerable competition success in one of the few French cars produced just after World War 2. The company was bought in 1973 by Renault.
Using Renault 4CVs, Rédélé gained class wins in a number of major events, including the Mille Miglia and Coupe des Alpes. As his experience with the little 4CV built up, he incorporated many modifications, including for example, special 5-speed gear boxes replacing the original 3-speed unit. To provide a lighter car he built a number of special versions with lightweight aluminium bodies: he drove in these at Le Mans and Sebring with some success in the early 1950s.
Encouraged by the development of these cars and consequent customer demand, he founded the Société Anonyme des Automobiles Alpine in 1954. The firm was named Alpine after his Coupe des Alpes successes. He did not realise that over in England the previous year, Sunbeam had introduced a sports coupe derived from the Sunbeam Talbot and called the
ATS (Automobili Turismo e Sport) was an Italian automotive constructor and racing team that operated between 1963 and 1965, formed after the famous "Palace Revolution" at Ferrari.
The company was formed by Carlo Chiti and Giotto Bizzarrini, among others - intending for it to be a direct competitor to Ferrari both on the race track and on the street. Chiti and Bizzarrini built, with sponsorship from the Scuderia Serenissima's Count Giovanni Volpi, a road-going sports car and a Formula One car.
The sports car was the ATS 2500 GT, a small coupé developed by Chiti and Bizzarrini with a bodywork built by Michelotti. The engine was a mid-mounted 2.5 L V8 engineered by Chiti, capable of achieving 245 hp (180 kW) and accelerating to 257 km/h (160 mph). Only 12 cars were reportedly built, and few exist today.
The F1 car was the Tipo 100, a 1.5 L V8 engine powering a chassis that was a virtual copy of the outdated Ferrari 156. Drivers Phil Hill and Giancarlo Baghetti, also fleeing from Ferrari during a period of political turmoil, were signed to drive the new car, but a dismal season forced Chiti to close the door on the racing team. The ATS would later be used in the Derrington-Francis F1
Blakely Auto Works (also called Bernardi Auto Works in later years) was a manufacturer of automobiles and of kit cars, working from premises located in a series of US midwest communities including Princeton, Wisconsin in the 1970s and 1980s. Blakely produced several kit car models, the Bantam, Bearcat, and Bernardi.
Blakely Auto was founded by Dick Blakely to market affordable sports cars in the spirit of the legendary Lotus Seven: compact, lightweight, and with excellent handling. The Bantam was Blakely's first offering. It was followed by the larger Bearcat and eventually by the Bernardi.
The founder had a degree in mechanical engineering and had been involved in oval track racing prior to designing the Bantam. His goal with the initial design was to maximize performance while minimizing size, weight, accessories, and other features that might conflict with acceleration and handling. Blakely took inspiration from an early model of the British Dutton Cars, itself a Lotus Seven replica. After building the first car for himself, Blakely found sufficient interest from other auto enthusiasts to warrant building more cars of the same design. Partnering with Denny Myelle, Blakely began
Checker Motors Corporation was a Kalamazoo, Michigan based vehicle manufacturer and tier-one subcontractor that manufactured taxicabs used by Checker Taxi. Checker Motors Corporation was established by Morris Markin in 1922 through a merger of 'Commonwealth Motors' and 'Markin Automobile Body'.
Checker made the iconic American taxi cab which was valued by taxicab companies for its durability in heavy use. Special features included large rear seats and trunks. The company had trouble competing with fleet discounts offered by the larger manufacturers as well as economies of scale in procuring components. The final models were produced in 1982.
On January 16, 2009, the company filed for Chapter 11 protection in U.S. Bankruptcy Court.
Morris Markin, (a clothier from Chicago, Illinois) became the owner of 'Markin Automobile Body', an auto-body manufacturer based in Joliet, Illinois following a default by the owner on a $15,000 personal loan. The facility made bodies for 'Commonwealth Motors' who marketed the vehicles to cab companies under the trade name 'Mogul'.
Commonwealth Motors was on the verge of bankruptcy but had an order from Checker Taxi (a privately-owned cab company in
DAF Trucks NV is a Dutch truck manufacturing company and a division of PACCAR. Its headquarters and main plant are in Eindhoven. Cabs and axle assemblies are produced at its Westerlo plant in Belgium. Some of the truck models sold with the DAF brand are designed and built by Leyland Trucks at their plant in England.
In 1928 Hubert "Hub" van Doorne founded the company as Commanditaire Vennootschap Hub van Doorne's Machinefabriek. His co-founder and investor was Huenges, managing director of a brewery. Van Doorne had repaired Huenges' car several times. Huenges was so pleased with his work that he offered to finance him in business. Hub started to work in a small workshop on the grounds of the brewery. In 1932 the company, now run by Hub and his brother, Wim van Doorne, changed its name to Van Doorne's Aanhangwagen Fabriek (Van Doorne's Trailer Factory), abbreviated to DAF. Huenges left the company in 1936 and the DAF company was now completely in the hands of the van Doorne brothers.
After the Second World War, luxury cars and trucks were very scarce. This meant a big opportunity for DAF. In 1949 the company started making trucks, trailers and buses, changing its name to Van
Adam Opel AG (Opel) is a German automobile company founded by Adam Opel in 1862. Opel has been building automobiles since 1899, and became an Aktiengesellschaft in 1929. The company is headquartered in Rüsselsheim, Hesse, Germany. It became a majority-stake subsidiary of the General Motors Corporation in 1929 and has been a wholly owned subsidiary since 1931. Their models have been rebadged and sold in other countries and continents, such as Vauxhall in the UK, Holden in Australia and New Zealand and, previously, Saturn in the U.S. and Canada. Following the demise of General Motors Corporation's Saturn division in North America, Opel cars are currently rebadged and sold in the U.S., Canada, and China under the Buick name with models such as the Opel Insignia/Buick Regal, Opel Astra sedan/Buick Verano, and Opel Mokka/Buick Encore.
In 2010, Opel announced that it will invest around €11 billion in the next five years. One billion of that is designated solely for the development of innovative and fuel-saving engines and transmissions.
The company was founded in Rüsselsheim, Hesse, Germany, on January 21, 1862, by Adam Opel. At the beginning, Opel just produced sewing machines in a
The Perusahaan Otomobil Kedua Sendirian Berhad (English: Second Automobile Manufacturer Private Limited), usually abbreviated to Perodua /pəˈrɒdjuːə/, is Malaysia's second largest automobile manufacturer after Proton. It was established in 1992 and launched their first car, the Perodua Kancil in August 1994. 'M2’ was refers to the codename which was used when the project to establish Perodua was still Top Secret. The shareholders of Perodua are UMW Corporation Sdn Bhd with 38% stake, Daihatsu Motor Co. Ltd. (20%), MBM Resources Bhd (20%), PNB Equity Resources Corporation Sdn Bhd (10%), Mitsui & Co. Ltd (7%) and Daihatsu (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd (5%).
Perodua mainly produces minicars and superminis and does not have models in the same market segments as Proton. They do not design or engineer their main components such as engine and transmission in house. Perodua cars have historically used Daihatsu component designs. Daihatsu held a 20% stake in Perodua at the company's launch, increasing this to 25% in 2001 and then to 35%. In 2004 Perodua started assembling the Toyota Avanza at their plant in Rawang, for sale in Malaysia.
In the United Kingdom their cars are sold by some Proton dealers
Railton was a British car maker based in Cobham, Surrey between 1933 and 1940. There was an attempt to revive the marque by a new company between 1989 and 1994 in Alcester, Warwickshire.
The company was started by Noel Macklin who was looking for a new car making venture after he sold his Invicta company in 1933. The name came from Reid Railton, the world speed record car designer, but his input was probably small although he did receive a royalty on each car sold.
The first car was made by fitting a British body made by coachbuilder Ranalah to a 4010 cc, 8-cylinder Hudson Terraplane chassis. The resulting machine, at first available as a two-door tourer, was lighter than the original and had, for the time, exceptional performance with a 0–60 mph time of 13 seconds. . A saloon-bodied version was soon added to the range, and the cars were priced at £499.
In 1935 the original Terraplane chassis was replaced by the one from the Hudson Eight and the engine grew to 4168 cc and a wider range of bodies from several coachbuilders was on offer. Two special lightweight models were made in 1935 and with a 0–60 time of 8.8 seconds were claimed to be the fastest production cars in the world.
Studebaker /ˈstjuːdəbeɪkər/ STEW-də-bay-kər Corporation was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana. Founded in 1852 and incorporated in 1868 under the name of the Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company, the company was originally a producer of wagons for farmers, miners, and the military.
Studebaker entered the automotive business in 1902 with electric vehicles and in 1904 with gasoline vehicles, all sold under the name "Studebaker Automobile Company". Until 1911, its automotive division operated in partnership with the Garford Company of Elyria, Ohio and after 1909 with the E-M-F Company. The first gasoline automobiles to be fully manufactured by Studebaker were marketed in August 1912. Over the next 50 years, the company established an enviable reputation for quality and reliability. The South Bend plant ceased production on December 20, 1963, and the last Studebaker automobile rolled off the Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, assembly line on March 16, 1966.
According to the official Studebaker history published in 1918, three German men named Studebecker or Staudenbecker —Peter (aged 38), Clement (36), and Henry (28)—sailed on the ship Harle
Vandenbrink Design is a Netherlands-based automotive design and coachbuilding company, founded in 2006 by Michiel van den Brink and Robert Koumans.
In 2006, Van den Brink introduced a plan to design and build a special coachbuilt Ferrari. The artist impression of a modern-day GTO, to be based on the Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano was well received by the press, prompting Vandenbrink Design to develop and build the design. Soon after, the company announced it was working on two other Ferrari-based designs, the Vandenbrink GT Convertible, based on the 599 GTB Fiorano and a shooting-brake version of the Ferrari 612 Scaglietti.
Currently the company is working on the "Vandenbrink GTO", a tribute to the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO, based on the underpinnings of the Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano. Aluminium coachbuilding will be performed by Hietbrink Coachbuilding (Haaksbergen, Netherlands).
In July 2009, Vandenbrink announced development of the Fra Mauro, a carbon fiber-bodied coach apparently based on the Spyker C8 Spyder chassis and featuring a mid-engine 4.2 litre V8 layout. Production numbers have yet to be determined.
In April 2010, the time came for Van den Brink to continue his business as an
Brabus, founded 1977 in Bottrop (Ruhr Area), Germany, is a high-performance aftermarket tuning company which specializes in Mercedes-Benz, Smart and Maybach vehicles. Founded by Prof. Bodo BUSchmann and Klaus BRAckman in 1977, Brabus has since become the largest Mercedes tuner, other than Mercedes-AMG which became a DaimlerChrysler affiliate in the 1990s.
Brabus's primary focus is to achieve maximum engine performance through the increase of both horsepower and torque. Customers can either buy cars straight from Brabus or send in their Mercedes to be customized and/or overhauled. If a customer orders a car from Brabus, Brabus buys the particular car from Mercedes and then modifies it in-house according to the customer's requests. Brabus is known for providing very expensive tuning and custom solutions, making an "if you have to ask the price, you can't afford it" scenario.
Brabus offers cosmetic changes such as low profile spoilers, bodykits, carbon fiber splitters, and multi-piece alloy wheels. More serious upgrades include racing LSDs, open racing exhaust systems, twelve-piston disc brakes, and engine remapping. However, most customers pay for complete engine overhauls for which
Carroll Shelby International (NASDAQ: CSBI) was formed in 2003 from custom performance vehicle manufacturer Shelby American when, founder and owner, Carroll Shelby took the company public, and additionally forming Shelby Automobiles as a subsidiary from which to continue manufacturing vehicles and parts. In 2009, "Shelby Automobiles" was officially renamed to "Shelby American", bringing back the original company name to celebrate the 45th anniversary of the 427 Cobra and GT350. Carroll Shelby Licensing, Inc. is the second wholly owned subsidiary that forms Carroll Shelby International, which is based at the Las Vegas Motor Speedway in Clark County, Nevada.
Shelby American currently manufactures component automobiles, including replicas of the small-block and large-block AC Cobras, the Shelby GT350 and the GT500 Super Snake. Since 2005, Shelby American has been releasing new models every year.
Carroll Shelby International was previously working with Texas-based Unique Performance to create new Mustang-based Shelby cars such as the GT350SR and GT500E. On November 1, 2007, Unique Performance was raided by the Farmers Branch Police Department due to VIN irregularities and subsequently
Frazer Nash was a British sports car manufacturer and engineering company founded by Archibald Frazer-Nash in 1922. It produced sports cars incorporating a unique multi-chain transmission before the Second World War and also imported BMW cars to the UK. After the war it continued producing sports cars with conventional transmission until 1957. It also continued selling BMW cars and motorcycles and finally in 1956 became the official importer of Porsche cars.
The company was founded in 1922 by Archibald Frazer-Nash who had, with Henry Ronald Godfrey founded and run the GN cyclecar company. The company was established in Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, moving to Isleworth, Middlesex in 1929. The company entered receivership in 1927 and re-emerged as AFN Limited. The majority of AFN was acquired by H. J. ("Aldy") Aldington in 1929 and run by the three Aldington brothers, H.J., Donald A. and William H. Aldy's son, John Taylor ("JT") Aldington was the last of the family owners/directors until AFN Ltd was sold to Porsche GB. The company produced around 400 of the famous chain drive models between 1924 and 1939.
AFN, Ltd became importers and assemblers of BMW cars in 1934 and sold them as
Mécanique Aviation Traction or Matra (Mécanique Aviation TRAction) was a French company covering a wide range of activities mainly related to automobile, bicycles, aeronautics and weaponry. In 1994, it became a subsidiary of the Lagardère Group and now operates under that name.
Matra was owned by the Floirat family. The name Matra became famous in the 1960s when it went into car production by buying Automobiles René Bonnet. Matra Automobiles produced racing cars and sports cars, and was successful in racing.
By merging with various companies Matra CEO Jean-Luc Lagardère built around Matra a group diversified in media, weaponry, high technologies, aeronautics and formerly in automobiles and records production and distribution. Matra was privatized in 1988, with Lagardère holding 6% of the stock and by 1992 25%.
In 1992 the Lagardère Group was radically restructured; acquiring more shares in Matra from Floirat, Daimler Benz and GEC, and Hachette from Floirat, Crédit Lyonnais and Aberly. Lagardère merged Matra and Hachette to form Matra Hachette, of which Lagardère Group held 37.6%. Following a share swap in 1994 Lagardère held 93.3% of Matra Hachette’s stock. In 1996 Matra Hachette
British Aerospace plc (BAe) was a UK aircraft, munitions and defence-systems manufacturer. Its head office was in the Warwick House in the Farnborough Aerospace Centre in Farnborough, Hampshire. In 1999 it purchased Marconi Electronic Systems, the defence electronics and naval shipbuilding subsidiary of the General Electric Company plc, to form BAE Systems.
The company was formed in the United Kingdom as a statutory corporation on 29 April 1977 as a result of the Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act. This called for the nationalisation and merger of the British Aircraft Corporation, Hawker Siddeley Aviation, Hawker Siddeley Dynamics and Scottish Aviation. In 1979 BAe officially joined Airbus, the UK having previously withdrawn support for the consortium in April 1969.
In accordance with the provisions of the British Aerospace Act 1980 the statutory corporation was changed to a Public limited company (plc), British Aerospace Public Limited Company, on 1 January 1981. On 4 February 1981 the government sold 51.57% of its shares. The British government sold its remaining shares in 1985, maintaining a £1 Golden Share which allows it veto foreign control of the board or company.
Dauer Sportwagen GmbH was a German automotive company founded by former racing driver Jochen Dauer in Nuremberg. Initially founded as Jochen Dauer Racing in 1987, the racing team had several years of participation in the German Supercup and European Interserie championships, as well as occasional runs in the World Sports-Prototype Championship and Camel GT Championships with the Porsche 962. Following the demise of sports prototype racing in the early 1990s, Dauer Racing GmbH was created to begin limited production of road cars, including a road-legal version of the 962, known as the Dauer 962 Le Mans, which later went on to win the 1994 24 Hours of Le Mans. Once changing to Dauer Sportwagen, the company sold a continuation of the Bugatti EB110. The company went bankrupt in 2008 and parts for the EB110 were transferred to Toscana-Motors GmbH.
For several years, Jochen Dauer had run for a number of teams, mainly in the Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft and its successor championship, the Supercup. Following the 1986 season, Jochen Dauer purchased a Porsche 962C, formerly belonging to the John Fitzpatrick team, as well as a Zakspeed C1/8. Dauer was able to secure sponsorship from the
Industrias Kaiser Argentina S.A. or IKA was an Argentine motor company established in 1956 in Córdoba Province as a joint venture with Kaiser Motors of the United States.
The automaker produced a variety of Kaiser Jeep vehicles and American Motors (AMC) models, including Argentina's most iconic car, the Torino, before being partnering with France's Renault, which bought it out in 1970.
The government of Argentina sent an emissary to the United States in 1951 meet with auto manufacturers interested in building cars in Argentina. Kaiser was the only one to accept the offer. The market was seen as too small to justify the investment, but Kaiser was interested and on 19 January 1955, the government signed an agreement to permit Kaiser to manufacture automobiles and trucks in Argentina. The U.S. automaker was facing problems in its domestic market. It took the Willys Aero out of production in 1955 leaving two redundant sets of vehicle production lines. The Kaiser auto manufacturing equipment was shipped to Argentina while the Willys equipment formed the automaker's capital contribution to establish a new company in Brazil.
Kaiser created Kaiser Automotores, a wholly owned subsidiary as
Jösse Car was a sports car manufacturer founded in 1997 and located in Arvika, Sweden.
They are most famous for creating the 2 seat open top Indigo 3000 car. This car is powered by a Volvo 3 Litre six cylinder engine giving a top speed of 250 km/h (155 mph) with drive to the rear wheels. The body is of composite panels attached to a space frame. The front suspension is a walking beam design with a transverse composite leaf spring and the rear unit is a multilink from Volvo also using a composite transverse spring.
Rochet-Schneider was a French company that produced automobiles during the early 20th century. The Rochet-Schneider sales slogan was "strength, simplicity and silence".
Like other motorcars of the so-called "brass era", the cars made by Rochet-Schneider were largely intended for wealthy hobbyists and made use of brass fittings, pattern leather, hand-crafted wood and other expensive components.
Edouard Rochet and his father were bicycle manufacturers before entering motorcar production. In 1894 they were joined by Théophile Schneider, a relative of the eponymous armaments family.
Between 1895 and 1901, the company built approximately 240 single cylinder cars "Benz-type" cars. At the 1901 Paris Salon, the company introduced a range of two and four-cylinder cars. Around 1903, these were redesigned along similar lines to Mercedes.
By this time, Rochet-Schneider had become one of the most respected car manufacturers in France. In 1904 the company was sold for 4.5 million francs and a London-based company called "Rochet-Schneider Ltd." was formed. Production averaged less than 250 cars year and by late and late 1907 the company was in liquidation.
Théophile Schneider bought the company
Willys (correctly pronounced "Will-is", but almost universally as "Will-eez") was the brand name used by Willys-Overland Motors, an American automobile company best known for its design and production of military Jeeps (MBs) and civilian versions (CJs) during the 20th century.
In 1908, John Willys bought the Overland Automotive Division of Standard Wheel Company and in 1912 renamed it Willys-Overland Motor Company. From 1912 to 1918, Willys was the second largest producer of automobiles in the United States after Ford Motor Company.
In 1913, Willys acquired a license to build the Charles Knight's sleeve-valve engine which it used in cars bearing the Willys-Knight nameplate. In the mid 1920s, Willys also acquired the F.B. Stearns Company of Cleveland, Ohio and assumed continued production of the Stearns-Knight luxury car as well.
John Willys acquired the Electric Auto-Lite Company in 1914 and in 1917 formed the Willys Corporation to act as his holding company. In 1916, they acquired the Russell Motor Car Company of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, by 1917 New Process Gear, and in 1919 acquired the Duesenberg Motors Company plant in Elizabeth, New Jersey. The New Jersey plant was replaced
The original DeLorean Motor Company (DMC) is an automobile manufacturer formed by automobile industry executive John DeLorean in 1975. It is remembered for the one model it produced—the distinctive stainless steel DeLorean DMC-12 sports car featuring gull-wing doors—and for its brief and turbulent history, ending in receivership and bankruptcy in 1982. Near the end, in a desperate attempt to raise the funds his company needed to survive, John DeLorean was filmed appearing to accept money to take part in drug trafficking, but was subsequently acquitted of charges brought against him on the basis of entrapment.
The DeLorean DMC-12 shot to worldwide fame in the Back to the Future movie trilogy as the car made into a time machine by eccentric scientist Doctor Emmett L. Brown, although the company had ceased to exist before the first movie was made.
In 1995, Liverpool-born mechanic Stephen Wynne started a separate company using the "DeLorean Motor Company" name and shortly thereafter acquired the remaining parts inventory and the stylized "DMC" logo trademark of DeLorean Motor Company. The current DeLorean Motor Company located near Houston is not, and has never been, associated with
Alvis Car and Engineering Company Ltd was a British manufacturing company in Coventry, England. From 1919–1967 in addition to automobiles designed for the civilian market, the company also produced racing cars, aircraft engines, armoured cars and other armoured fighting vehicles.
After becoming a subsidiary of Rover in 1965, car manufacturing was ended but armoured vehicle manufacture continued. Alvis became part of British Leyland and then in 1982 was sold to United Scientific Holdings which renamed itself to Alvis plc
The original company, T.G. John and Company Ltd., was founded in 1919 by Thomas George John (1880 – 1946). Its first products were stationary engines, carburetors and motorscooters. Following complaints from the Avro aircraft company whose logo bore similarities to the original winged green triangle, the more familiar inverted red triangle incorporating the word "Alvis" evolved. On December 14, 1921, the company officially changed its name to The Alvis Car and Engineering Company Ltd. Geoffrey de Freville (1883 – 1965) designed the first Alvis engine and is also responsible for the company name.
The origin of the name Alvis has been the subject of a great deal of
Borgward was a German automobile manufacturer founded by Carl F. W. Borgward (November 10, 1890-July 28, 1963). The company was based in Bremen. The Borgward group eventually produced four brands of cars: Borgward, Hansa, Goliath and Lloyd.
The first "automobile" Carl Borgward designed was the Blitzkarren (lightning cart), a sort of tiny three-wheeled van with 2 hp (1.5 kW), which was an enormous success in the market gap it filled. Traders with a small budget bought it for delivery. The Reichspost ordered many of them for postal service.
In 1929, Borgward became the director of Hansa Lloyd AG and led the development of the Hansa Konsul. In February 1937, there came the new Hansa Borgward 2000 and in 1939 the name was shortened to Borgward 2000. The 2000 model was followed by the Borgward 2300 that remained in production until 1942. After World War II, the company presented the Borgward Hansa 1500. One of the top engineers at Borgward from 1938-1952 was Dipl. Ing. Hubert M. Meingast.
Production of the Borgward Isabella began in 1954. The Isabella would become Borgward's most popular model and remained in production for the life of the company. In 1959, the Borgward P100 was
De Tomaso Automobili SpA is an Italian car-manufacturing company. It was founded by the Argentine-born Alejandro de Tomaso (1928–2003) in Modena in 1959. It originally produced various prototypes and racing cars, including a Formula One car for Frank Williams' team in 1970. The company developed a reputation for producing sports and luxury vehicles. From 1976 to 1993 De Tomaso owned legendary Italian sports car maker Maserati, and was responsible for producing cars including the Biturbo, the Kyalami, Quattroporte III, Karif, and the Chrysler TC. De Tomaso also owned motorcycle company Moto Guzzi from 1973 to 1993.
De Tomaso went into liquidation in 2004, although production of new cars continued after this date. By 2008 a buyer was being sought for the De Tomaso trademarks, as per the court-appointed liquidators. The company was bought by Gian Mario Rossignolo in 2009. A new business plan for the company called for producing three models for a total of 8,000 vehicles: 3,000 crossovers, 3,000 limousines, and 2,000 two-seater sports cars.
In May 2012, De Tomaso was again for sale after their business plan failed to gather sufficient financial backing. In July 2012, Gian Mario
Enfield Automotive was an electric car manufacturer founded in the United Kingdom in the 1960s. Under the ownership of Greek millionaire Giannis Goulandris, production was moved to the Greek isle of Syros during the oil crisis of 1973.
The Enfield 465 was a small 2+2-seater electric car built only in prototype form in 1969. It was equipped with a 48 V, 4.65 bhp (3 kW) electric motor and had a fibreglass body on a steel frame.
The Enfield 8000 (also known the E8000 ECC or "Electric City Car") was similar to the 465, but with an 8 bhp (6 kW) motor and aluminium body. 120 Enfield 8000s were built on the Isle of Wight in the mid-1970s, of which 65 were used by the Electricity Council and southern English Electricity Boards.
The E8000ECC had passed all the necessary tests for production in the United Kingdom and was on its way to be produced in the United States of America. Then Governor of California Ronald Reagan sent a cargo plane to have three E8000ECCs moved to California in support of his Clean Air legislation. However, the E8000ECC was never produced in the United States. The unique aerodynamics of the E8000ECC were not based on traditional industry principles and ideas. They
The Daimler Motor Company Limited was an independent British motor vehicle manufacturer founded in London by H J Lawson in 1896, which set up its manufacturing base in Coventry. The right to the use of the name Daimler had been purchased simultaneously from Gottlieb Daimler and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft of Cannstatt, Germany. As of 2011, the brand appears to be dormant.
The Daimler Motor Company Limited is still registered as active and accounts are filed each year though it is currently marked "non-trading".
All the Daimler shares were purchased from BSA by Jaguar Cars in 1960. After the introduction of the Daimler DR450 new models used Jaguar bodies with Daimler grilles and badging. Daimler remains in the ownership of Jaguar Cars which now belongs to Tata Group of India.
Before 5 October 2007 Jaguar, while still controlled by Ford, reached agreement to permit then de-merging DaimlerChrysler to extend its use of the name Daimler. The announcement of this agreement was delayed until the end of July 2008 and made by Jaguar's new owner, Tata.
As of 2008, Jaguar's use of the Daimler brand was limited to one model, the Super Eight.
When Ford bought Jaguar in 1990, the British press
AvtoVAZ (Russian: АвтоВАЗ, MCX: AVAZ) is the Russian automobile manufacturer formerly known as VAZ: Volzhsky Avtomobilny Zavod (ВАЗ, Во́лжский автомоби́льный заво́д), but better known to the world under the trade name Lada. The company was established in the late 1960s in collaboration with Fiat. The current company name contains the semantic pleonasm "AvtoVAZ", which stands for "Avtomobilniy Volzhsky Avtomobilny Zavod" ("Automobile Volga Automobile Plant"). AvtoVAZ is the largest company in the Russian automotive industry. It is 25% owned by French carmaker Renault.
It produces nearly one million cars a year, including the Kalina, Lada 110 and the Niva off-road vehicle. However, the original Fiat 124-based vehicle, the VAZ-2101 and its derivatives, remain the models most associated with its Lada brand. In the past, the most famous models were also Lada Nova (VAZ2105) and Lada Samara (VAZ-2108/VAZ-2109). But now instead of Lada Nova, the factory produces the same model VAZ-2107 for the domestic market; and instead of Lada Smara, the same model VAZ-2114/VAZ-2115. From April, 2012, VAZ will start to produce Lada Largus: DACIA Logan MCV, which will be on sale in July, 2012. The
Bandini Automobili was an Italian automobile manufacturer operating between 1946 and 1992. It was named after its founder Ilario Bandini.
Founded in 1946 in Bandini’s hometown Forlì, the first Bandini used a modified Fiat 1100 engine, the body was made from hand hammered aluminum and the chassis from aviation-grade tubular steel. Many other post-war Italian sports car companies followed a similar design. But Bandini’s sharp mind, racing knowledge and his eye for detail ensured that Bandini cars were a force to be reckoned with in Europe and the US.
Interest in America surged when Bandini Siluros with their screaming 750-cc engines and wildly flared front fenders won SCCA class championships in 1955 and 1957. His slightly modified Crosley engines became famous thanks their DOHC Bandini heads. Bandini himself continued to race in Italy, including the Mille Miglia, while newer models were being built and developed at the factory. One of these included the new 1957 Sport International "Saponetta". It was a two-seat sports car with a tubular steel frame and room for engines of up to 1.0 liter. The design of the car body was very striking. The smooth lines and petite dimensions gave the
Hispano-Suiza (literally: "Spanish-Swiss") was a Spanish automotive and engineering firm, best known for its luxury cars and aviation engines in the pre-World War II period of the twentieth century. In 1923 its French subsidiary became a semi-autonomous partnership with the parent company. In 1968, the French arm was taken over by the aerospace company Snecma, now a part of the French SAFRAN Group. The Spanish parent sold all its automotive assets to ENASA in 1946.
In 1898 a Spanish artillery captain, Emilio de la Cuadra, started electric automobile production in Barcelona under the name of La Cuadra. In Paris, De la Cuadra met the Swiss engineer Marc Birkigt (1878–1953) and hired him to work for the company in Spain. La Cuadra built their first gasoline-powered engines from a Birkigt design. At some point in 1902, the ownership changed hands to J. Castro and became Fábrica Hispano-Suiza de Automóviles (Spanish-Swiss Car Factory) but this company went bankrupt in December 1903.
Yet another restructuring took place in 1904, creating La Hispano-Suiza Fábrica de Automóviles, under Castro's direction, also based in Barcelona. Four new engines were introduced in the next year and a
Daimler AG (help·info) (German pronunciation: [ˈdaɪmlɐ aːˈɡeː]; formerly DaimlerChrysler) is a German multinational automotive corporation. Daimler AG is headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. By unit sales, it is the thirteenth-largest car manufacturer and second-largest truck manufacturer in the world. In addition to automobiles, Daimler manufactures buses and provides financial services through its Daimler Financial Services arm.
The company also owns major stakes in aerospace group EADS and Japanese truck maker Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation.
Daimler produces cars and trucks under the brands of Mercedes-Benz, Maybach, Smart, Freightliner and many others.
Daimler AG is a German manufacturer of automobiles, motor vehicles, and engines, which dates back more than a century.
An Agreement of Mutual Interest was signed on May 1, 1924 between Benz & Cie (founded 1883) of Karl Benz and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (founded 1890) of Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach.
Both companies continued to manufacture their separate automobile and internal combustion engine brands until, on June 28, 1926, when Benz & Cie. and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft AG formally
Itala was a car manufacturer based in Turin, Italy from 1904-1934, started by Matteo Ceirano and five partners in 1903.
Three cars were offered in the first year, an 18 hp, a 24 hp and a 50 hp. In 1905 they started making very large engined racing cars with a 14.8 Litre 5 cylinder model which won the Coppa Florio and the year after that the Targa Florio. In 1907 a 7,433 cc (453.6 cu in) 35/45 hp model driven by Count Scipione Borghese won the Peking to Paris motor race by three weeks. These sporting successes helped sales dramatically, the company continued to grow. The company experimented with a range of novel engines such as variable stroke, sleeve valve, and "Avalve" rotary types and at the beginning of World War I, offered a wide range of cars. During the war Itala built aeroplane engines but made a loss producing them.
After the armistice car production resumed with models based on the pre war cars such as the Tipo 50 25/35 hp and a re-appearance of the Avalve in the 4,426 cc (270.1 cu in) Tipo 55 but financial success eluded the company
From 1924 the company was being run under receivership and they appointed Giulio Cesare Cappa from Fiat as general manager. He produced a
Mitsuoka Motors (光岡自動車) is a small Japanese automobile company. They are noted for building cars with unconventional styling, some of which imitate British vehicles of the 1950s and 1960s. It is primarily a coachbuilder, taking production cars like the Nissan March and replacing the bodywork with its own custom designs. It has also produced a sports car, the Orochi. Mitsuoka Motors is also the principal distributor of retro-classic TD2000 roadster in Japan.
Reliant was a British car manufacturer. The company was traditionally based at Tamworth in Staffordshire, England, but in 2001 it moved to nearby Cannock. It ceased manufacturing cars shortly afterwards.
When the Raleigh Bicycle Company decided to discontinue the manufacture of their 3-wheeled vehicles in 1934, their Works Manager Mr T. L. Williams and a colleague Mr E. S. Thompson, felt that the days of lightweight three wheelers were far from over. The enterprising pair decided to build their own vehicle in Mr Williams's back garden at Kettlebrook, Tamworth. The homebuilt design closely resembled the Karryall van previously built by Raleigh and this prototype was licensed in January 1935. It was a 7 cwt (356 kg) van with a steel chassis, powered by a 750 cc V-twin engine driving the rear wheels through a 3-speed gearbox and shaft drive. The body was a hardwood frame with aluminium panels attached to it, in the traditional manner of the time.
From building vehicles at home the work moved to a disused bus depot on Watling Street in Fazeley. June 3, 1935, saw delivery of the first Reliant. Powered by a single cylinder air cooled 600cc J.A.P. engine, the driver sat centrally the
Renault Sport Technologies (commonly known as Renault Sport, Renaultsport or RST) is the France motorsport division of Renault. Renault Sport was responsible for Renault's sports car racing entries during the 1970s, including their win at the 1978 24 Hours of Le Mans race with the Renault Alpine A442.
Actual Renault's Formula One team, Renault F1 in the 2000s, is not a part of Renault Sport though active in Formula One until the 1990s.
Renault Sport organizes several national and international One-make racing championships.
Renault is also involved in other racing series but not as Renault Sport.
Mahindra Reva Electric Vehicles Private Limited, formerly known as the Reva Electric Car Company, is an Indian company based in Bangalore, involved in designing and manufacturing of compact electric vehicles. The company's flagship vehicle is the REVAi electric car, available in 26 countries with more than 4,000 of its different versions sold worldwide by mid March 2011. Reva was acquired by Indian conglomerate Mahindra & Mahindra in May 2010.
The Reva Electric Car Company (RECC) was founded in 1994 by Chetan Maini, as a joint venture between the Maini Group of Bangalore and Amerigon Electric Vehicle Technologies (AEVT Inc.) of the USA. The company's sole aim was to develop and produce an affordable compact electric car. Several other automakers were also aiming to do so, but in 2001 RECC launched the REVA.
RECC joined up with several automotive experts to develop components for REVA. Curtis Instruments Inc. of USA developed a Motor Controller specifically for the car. The car had a high-tech power pack for which Tudor India Limited supplied customized Prestolite batteries. The Charger for Reva was developed by Modular Power Systems of USA (a division of TDI). Later, RECC started
TVR was an independent British manufacturer of sports cars. Until 2006 it was based in the English seaside town of Blackpool, Lancashire, but has since split up into several smaller subsidiaries and has been relocated elsewhere. The company manufactured lightweight sports cars with powerful engines and was, at one time, the third-largest specialised sports car manufacturer in the world, offering a diverse range of coupés and convertibles. Most vehicles use an in-house straight-6 cylinder engine design; others an in-house V8. TVR sports cars are composed of tubular steel frames, cloaked in fibreglass bodywork.
TVR's two arms were TVR Engineering, which manufactures sports cars and grand tourers, and TVR Power, their powertrain division. The company has had a turbulent recent history and had not made any new cars since 2006.
In July 2012, owner Nikolay Smolensky announced that despite analysing various potential plans to create a new car, building a new TVR model was not going to be financially viable, thus bringing TVR's existence as a car manufacturer to an end.
Trevor Wilkinson (14 May 1923–6 June 2008) was born in Blackpool and left school at 14 to start an engineering
Autobianchi (Italian pronunciation: [autoˈbjaŋki]) was an Italian automobile manufacturer, created jointly by Bianchi, Pirelli and Fiat in 1955. Autobianchi produced only a handful of models during its lifetime, which were almost exclusively small cars, with the biggest being the short-lived Autobianchi A111, a small family car. Autobianchis were priced higher than Fiat models of similar size and the brand was used by Fiat to test new and innovative concepts which later found their way into mainstream Fiat vehicles; these concepts included fibreglass bodies and front-wheel drive.
The most famous Autobianchi models include the A112 released in 1969, a small hatchback very popular in Italy for racing, and which ceased production in 1986; as well as the Y10, which was the first car to use Fiat's new FIRE (Fully Integrated Robotised Engine). The Primula was the car with which Fiat introduced the particular front-wheel drive arrangement of engine, transmission and differential (final drive) that has become prevalent in its cars today. This car competed with the Innocenti-built Mini, which was the inspiration for the drivetrain layout.
Autobianchi was bought by the Fiat group and
The Georges Irat was a French automobile manufactured by engine builder Georges Irat from 1921 to 1953.
The company's first product was an ohv 1990cc four-cylinder car designed by Maurice Gaultier who had been with Delage. This was joined in 1926 by a 2985 cc six-cylinder. The company turned to producing Lycoming powered models in 1929, both sixes and eights; this was also the year in which they moved from Chatou to Neuilly. A small car with 1086 cc four-cylinder engine and designed by George's son Michel, was added to the range in 1929 but sales of this and the large cars were poor resulting in a financial crisis.
The manufacturer was partially taken over by Godefroy et Levecque, makers of the Ruby engine, in 1934, consequently moving to that company's works in Levallois. Here they made two front-wheel-drive sporting roadsters, one with a 1100 cc Ruby and the other with a six-cylinder 2450 cc Lycoming engine. The smaller car sold well but there were few takers for the six. In 1938 a new sports car with a 1911 cc engine produced by Citroën with independent suspension using rubber springing on all wheels was announced but war broke out after about 200 had been made.
Micro Cars is a automobile company based in Peliyagoda, Sri Lanka, Founded in 1995. This was established by automobile engineer, Dr. Lawrence Perara. Their first introduction was "Micro Privilege" which had 1000cc gasoline engine with inline 4 cylinders. After that they have produced Micro MPV Junior van and the Micro Trend hatchback which are somewhat advanced than the first introduction.
As Sri Lanka's first ever car, the "Micro" is designed, developed and prototyped to be manufactured locally with at least 60% of local content. The prototype was prepared in 1999 with the running chassis, making its debut run in December. The body was modeled in styling clay and then transferred to composite for final analysis in June 2000.
Its designs are well suited for this country, where cars are frequently considered luxury accessories. The first Micro was made in mid-2001. The board of Investment provided state support for the car project. Its first car was legally registered only in 2003 after a lengthy battle with the motor car registration department of the country.
Micro Privilege is the first ever locally manufactured vehicle in Sri Lanka. The car was designed to provide safer,
Moon Motor Car (1905 - 1930) was a United States automobile company that was based in St. Louis, Missouri. The company had a venerable reputation among the buying public, as it was known for fully assembled, easily affordable mid-level cars using high-quality parts. Often this meant the manufacturing process required more human intervention, leading to operating losses.
The company was founded by carriage maker Joseph W. Moon . Moon produced both cars and trucks. Moon Motor's peak production year was 1925 when the company produced 10,271 vehicles.
In addition to the Moon name, Moons were sold under the Hol-Tan name in 1908. Moon produced the Diana via its subsidiary the Diana Motors Company in 1925 - 1928. Another subsidiary produced the Windsor in 1929-1930.
The firm also produced a Cotton picker built under contract from the American Cottonpicker Corporation.
Beginning in 1924, Moon was increasingly unable to meet dealership orders. The company went out of business at the start of the Great Depression; the Moon factory was purchased by Ruxton automobile.
Moon automobiles are on display at the Missouri History Museum and Museum of Transportation in St. Louis, Missouri. The
Troller Veículos Especiais S/A (Troller) is a manufacturer of off-road vehicles in Brazil. It was founded in 1995, in Horizonte, Ceará. Troller T4 3.0 Turbodiesel is Troller's flagship. It has featured successfully in several rally races around the world, including the Dakar Rally.
The name Troller is a non-official Portuguese adaptation of the English word troll.
The Troller company started in 1995, by Rogério Farias. In April 1996, the first prototype was built. In 1997, Troller was bought by the entrepreneur Mário Araripe, who formed a partnership with Rogério Farias, and the first gasoline-powered T4s were built. The mass-production of the vehicles started in 1999, when a factory was built.
In 2005, a manufacturing plant opened in the African country of Angola to build the T4 for the African market.
Ford do Brasil announced in January 2007 the acquisition of Troller for an undisclosed price.
On the 14th of December 2009, a Troller made the news when it cleared São Paulo's flooded city streets during a live broadcast.
Vector Motors Corporation is an American automobile manufacturer originally based in Wilmington, California. Its history can be traced to Vehicle Design Force, which was founded in 1978 by Gerald Wiegert. Vehicle production began in 1989 and ceased in the 1990s. The company was recently revived (as Vector Motors Corporation), and is currently developing a new supercar. Vector is credited by some as America's first attempt to compete with European performance car manufacturers like Ferrari, Lamborghini, and Lotus.
Nearly every car produced by the company is designated the letter "W" (for Wiegert) and a number. A letter "X" after the W (e.g. WX-8) signifies a prototype unit. The only exception to this rule is the Megatech-era M12, wherein the "M" stands for Megatech and the 12 signifies its V12 engine.
In 1971, Gerald Wiegert, fresh from college, founded a design house called Vehicle Design Force, and teamed up with Lee Brown to create a new car called The Vector. The Vector was said to have various powerplants including a DOHC Porsche engine, and preproduction literature claimed that it would cost US$10,000 (when a new Rolls Royce Silver Shadow cost $11,500). None of these plans
GAZ or Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod (Russia, Nizhny Novgorod), translated as Gorky Automobile Plant (Russian: ГАЗ or Го́рьковский автомоби́льный заво́д), started in 1932 as NAZ, a cooperation between Ford and the Soviet Union.
GAZ is the core company of GAZ Group holding, a part of Basic Element business group. The headquarters of GAZ Group is located in Nizhny Novgorod. Russian Machines Corporation is the controlling shareholder in OAO GAZ.
GAZ Group is the leading manufacturer of commercial vehicles in Russia. GAZ Group produces light commercial and medium-duty vehicles, heavy-duty trucks, buses, cars, powertrain and automotive components. The market shares of the company: about 50% in the light commercial vehicles segment, 58% in the segment of medium-duty trucks, 42% in the all-wheel drive heavy-duty trucks segment and about 65% in the bus segment.
In May 1929 the Soviet Union signed an agreement with the Ford Motor Company. Under its terms, the Soviets agreed to purchase $13 million worth of automobiles and parts, while Ford agreed to give technical assistance until 1938 to construct an integrated automobile-manufacturing plant at Nizhny Novgorod. Production started on January
Optare plc is a bus manufacturer based in Sherburn in Elmet, Leeds, UK. Its Parent company Ashok Leyland, part of the Hinduja Group, is ranked within the top five global bus manufacturers.
The company operates two main business units, Bus Manufacturing and Product Support and manufactures a full range of bus types from minibuses to full-size single deckers, with a new double-decker currently undergoing preproduction testing.
As well as bus manufacturing, the group operates a nationwide and international sales division, together with the Optare Product Support parts and service network.
The Optare name originated in 1985, with a new business formed from the remnants of the Charles H Roe operation which had been closed in 1984 by its owners Leyland Bus. The closure was in anticipation of a steep decline in demand expected to result from the deregulation of bus services.
In order to differentiate itself from its competitors, The new company’s phylosophy was to offer its customers more choice, hence the name Optare which is Latin for “to choose”.
Deregulation brought about a time of changing and challenging market conditions for UK bus manufacturers, with the breakup of the
Industrieverband Fahrzeugbau ('Industrial Association for Vehicle Construction'), usually abbreviated as IFA, was a conglomerate and a union of companies for vehicle construction in the former East Germany (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik - DDR).
IFA produced bicycles, motorcycles, light commercial vehicles, automobiles, vans and heavy trucks. All East German vehicle manufacturers were part of the IFA, including Barkas, EMW (which made Wartburg cars), IWL, MZ, Multicar, Robur, Sachsenring (which made Trabant cars) and Simson.
IFA cars were based on pre-war DKW designs and made in the former Horch factory in Zwickau. The F8 had a two cylinder 684 cubic centimetres (41.7 cu in) engine, and the F9 had a three cylinder 804 cubic centimetres (49.1 cu in) unit. The F8 bodies were straight copies of the pre-war models, and rapidly looked old-fashioned, but some had more modern coachwork by Baur of Stuttgart, then in West Germany. The three cylinder cars (F9) had not got into production before war broke out in 1939, and so had more up to date bodies similar to the West German DKWs. More than 26,000 F8's and 30,000 F9s were built. IWL produced W50 and L60 trucks and Robur light
Zagato (CPP Milan s.r.l.) is a design consultancy and engineering services company situated just outside Milan, Italy. The company's premises occupy an area of 23,000 square metres (250,000 sq ft), of which 11,000 square metres (120,000 sq ft) are covered.
The company was established at the end of the World War I by Ugo Zagato, putting aircraft industry construction techniques to use in the expanding market for passenger vehicles. Zagato's cars were advanced in design and became synonymous with light weight and excellent aerodynamics. Alfa Romeo, Fiat and Lancia immediately realised the advantages of his rakish, streamlined designs. A collaboration followed which saw the creation of a series of legendary racing cars, such as the Alfa Romeo 1500, then the 1750 Gran Sport, and the 2300 8C. After World War II, Zagato was very much active in the new GT racing category. Avant-garde styling, together with light weight and wind-cheating lines were main features of Zagato's models for the leading sports car manufacturers of that era - Maserati, Alfa Romeo, Fiat, Lancia, Abarth, Ferrari, Aston Martin and Bristol. In addition to cars that have been produced officially in small series, the
American Motors Corporation (AMC) was an American automobile company formed by the 1954 merger of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and Hudson Motor Car Company. At the time, it was the largest corporate merger in U.S. history.
George W. Mason was the architect of the merger to reap benefits from the strengths of the two firms to battle the much larger "Big Three" automakers (General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler). Within a year George W. Romney took over, reorganizing the company and focusing AMC's future on a new small car line. By the end of 1957 the original Nash and Hudson brands were completely phased out. The company struggled at first, but Rambler sales took off. A Rambler won the 1959 Mobil Economy Run and the cars achieved America's third highest sales figures in 1960 and 1961. In the mid-1960s, under Roy Abernethy's leadership, AMC focused on larger and more profitable car lines to move away from the perceived negative of the Rambler's compact car image. In the face of deteriorating financial and market positions, Roy D. Chapin, Jr., took charge to revitalize the company, and designer Richard A. Teague economized by developing several vehicles from common stampings. While prices
Davrian cars were built by Davrian Developments at 65 North Street, Clapham in London, England, from 1965 to 1976, in Tregaron, Dyfed, Wales from 1976 to 1980 and Lampeter, Dyfed, from 1980 to 1983.
Adrian Evans (d. 1992), a structural engineer and the car's designer, built a series of cars called Davrian from 1965, Co-designed by ex-Ferrari engineer and Formula One driver Mike Parkes, the Davrian used a 875 or 998 cc (53.4 or 60.9 cu in) aluminium alloy Hillman Imp engine based on the Coventry Climax.
In 1967, the design had settled to a 2-seat glass fibre monocoque coupé, officially called the Davrian Demon or Davrian Imp and series production started with a company being formed called Davrian Developments. The cars were sold in kit form. A variety of power units were offered including Mini (for mid-mounting), Type 1 (for rear-mounting), and Ford Fiesta. The car weighed in at 4 cwt (448 lb (203 kg)).
Over the years a series of improvements led the cars to go through Marks 1 to 8. They proved very popular in amateur hands as rally and circuit racing cars.
In 1980, the Mk8 was offered as a complete car called the Davrian Dragon. This was mid-engined and used Ford Fiesta components
The MG Car Company Limited was a former British sports car manufacturer founded in the 1920s by Cecil Kimber. Best known for its two-seat open sports cars, MG also produced saloons and coupés. Kimber was an employee of William Morris; MG is from Morris Garages. The MG business was Morris's personal property until 1935 when he sold MG into his holding company, Morris Motors Limited, restructuring his holdings before issuing (preference) shares in Morris Motors to the public in 1936.
The original MG marque was in continuous use (barring the years of the Second World War) for 56 years after its inception. Production of predominantly two-seater sports cars was concentrated at a factory in Abingdon, some 10 miles (16 km) south of Oxford. The British Motor Corporation (BMC) competition department was also based at the Abingdon plant and produced many winning rally and race cars. In the autumn of 1980, however, the Abingdon factory closed and MGB production ceased.
Between 1982 and 1991, the MG marque was revived on sportier versions of Austin Rover's Metro, Maestro and Montego ranges. After an interval of barely one year, the MG marque was revived again, this time on the MG RV8 – an
Morris Motors Limited was a British motor vehicle manufacturer. Though merged into larger organisations, the Morris name remained in use until 1984 when British Leyland's Austin Rover Group decided to concentrate on the more popular Austin brand. The trademark is currently owned by the China-based automotive company SAIC after being transferred from bankrupt subsidiary Nanjing Automotive.
Morris Motors began in 1912 when bicycle manufacturer William Morris turned his attention from sale hire and repair of cars to car manufacturing and began to plan a new light car assembled from bought-in components. In this way he was able to retain personal ownership keeping within the bounds of his own capital resources. A factory was opened in 1913 in a former Oxford Military College at Cowley, Oxford, United Kingdom, and Morris's first car, the 2-seat Morris Oxford "Bullnose" was introduced.
Nearly all the major components were bought-in, with only final assembly being undertaken in the Morris works. In 1914 a coupé and van were added to the line-up but the chassis was too short and the 1018 cc engine too small to make a much-needed 4-seat version of the car. White and Poppe, who made the
Pavlovsky Avtobusny Zavod is a manufacturer of buses in Russia, located in the city of Pavlovo, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. The building of the factory started in 1952, and in the same year the first buses PAZ-651 (based on GAZ-51) were produced. The government had a plan to produce 10,000 buses per year. In 1960, the production of new model PAZ-652 started. It was replaced by PAZ-672 in early 1968, and this bus had a large family of various modifications. 1989 saw a start of production of the new modernised model PAZ-3205.
The small PAZ buses have long been used by Russian "fixed-route taxi" (marshrutka) operators.
Steyr (or Steyr-Puch) was an Austrian automotive company from 1915 until 1990.
Formed as a branch of Steyr Osterreichische Waffenfabriks-Gesellschaft (Steyr AG) in 1915, to diversify manufacturing, the founders hired 38-year-old designer Hans Ledwinka after he resigned from Nesselsdorfer-Wagenbau. Ledwinka developed Steyr's new six-cylinder car and supervised hiring engineers and mechanics.
This, the 12/40PS, featured the fashionable spitzkuhler (pointed radiator) of the prewar Mercedes and had very modern features: a 3255 cc (199ci) engine with SOHC, ball bearing-mounted crankshaft, four-speed gearbox, and multi-plate clutch, but not including four-wheel brakes, though Ledwinka's designs had used them as early as 1909. The ability of the engine to rev led to 4014 cc (245ci) Type VI and 4890 cc (298ci) Type VI Klausen sport versions, and it was employed in a 2½ ton truck.
Ledwinka again came into conflict with management when the company wanted luxury cars and he preferred a cheap, simple car, the sidevalve four-cylinder Type IV. Steyr concentrated on luxury cars. Ledwinka did not give up, creating a car with an air-cooled flat-twin and backbone chassis. Management ignored him, and
The Automobilwerk Eisenach (AWE) was an automobile manufacturer in Eisenach, Germany.
Heinrich Ehrhardt founded the Fahrzeugfabrik Eisenach (FFE) in Eisenach on 3 December 1896 as a stock company. Initially he produced bicycles and guns, but after two years he started to produce a motor car which he called the Wartburg, a licensed model of the French Decauville. The company was the third to manufacture cars in Germany after Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft and Benz & Cie, which later merged to become Mercedes-Benz. His son Gustav took over the factory that at the end of the 19th century employed 1,300 workers, being one of the largest in Thuringia.
In 1903, the Ehrhardt family withdrew from management due to financial losses and also because the license to build Decauvilles was revoked. The factory began building under the new name, Dixi (Latin, “I have spoken”) in 1904 with Willi Seck as chief engineer. The top model, the type U35, was introduced in 1907 and was soon recognized for its reliability and performance with 65 hp (48 kW) and a top speed of 85 km/h (53 mph).
During World War I the company produced trucks and guns. Afterwards the factory suffered from reparations with removal
Brilliance Auto (officially Brilliance China Automotive Holdings Limited) (FWB: CBA, SEHK: 1114) is an automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Shenyang, China. Its products include automobiles, minibuses and automotive components. It operates a car-making joint venture with BMW and a minibus-making joint venture with Toyota.
Brilliance Auto had an estimated production capacity of 800,000 units/year as of late 2010 (treating engines and vehicles as discrete). Brilliance Auto produced 523,500 units in 2011, ranking eighth among Chinese vehicle maker in terms of production volume.
Brilliance Auto is listed on the Frankfurt and Hong Kong stock exchanges. Mr Qi Yumin has been the Chief Executive Officer and President since January 2006.
The origins of today's modern Brilliance can be traced to a state-owned auto factory which, under the guiding hand of the infamous Yang Rong, became a leading Chinese maker of minibuses between 1991, the year Yang invested in the company, and 2002, when he fled into exile.
In 2003 BMW and Brilliance signed a deal for the production of BMW-branded sedans in China. Its models are, alongside FAW Group Audis, Beijing Benz Mercedes Benzes, and
DENSO Corporation (株式会社デンソー, Kabushiki-gaisha Densō) (TYO: 6902) is a global automotive components manufacturer headquartered in the city of Kariya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Established December 16, 1949 as Nippondenso Co. Ltd. (日本電装株式会社, Nippon Densō Kabushiki-gaisha), in 1996 the company became DENSO Corporation worldwide. DENSO is a member of the Toyota Group of companies.
The company is known for creating the QR Code, a two-dimensional barcoding system which has become prevalent in much of the developed world.
As of March 31, 2010 DENSO Corporation consisted of 184 subsidiaries (68 in Japan, 34 in the Americas, 34 in Europe and 48 in Asia/Oceania) with a total of 120,812 employees. In 2010, DENSO was listed at #232 on the Fortune 500 list with a total revenue of US$ 32,060 million.
In 2004, DENSO's global sales were distributed as follows:
DENSO WAVE is a subsidiary that produces automatic identification products (bar-code readers and related products), industrial robots and programmable logic controllers. They are noted for creating the two dimensional QR code, are a member of the Japan Robot Association and support the ORiN standard.
Denso International America is the
Leyland Motors Limited was a British vehicle manufacturer of lorries, buses and trolleybuses. It gave its name to the British Leyland Motor Corporation formed when it merged with British Motor Holdings, later to become British Leyland after being nationalised. British Leyland later changed its name to simply BL, then in 1986 Rover Group.
Leyland Motors has a long history dating from 1896, when the Sumner and Spurrier families founded the Lancashire Steam Motor Company in the town of Leyland in North West England. Their first products included steam lawn mowers. The company's first vehicle was a 1.5-ton-capacity steam powered van. This was followed by a number of undertype steam wagons using a vertical fire-tube boiler. By 1905 they had also begun to build petrol-engined wagons. The Lancashire Steam Motor Company was renamed Leyland Motors in 1907 when they took over Coulthards of Preston. They also built a second factory in the neighbouring town of Chorley which still remains today as the headquarters of the LEX leasing and parts company.
In 1920 Leyland Motors produced the Leyland 8 luxury touring car, a development of which was driven by J.G. Parry-Thomas at Brooklands.
Pagani Automobili S.p.A. is an Italian manufacturer of sports cars and carbon fibre. The company was founded in 1992 by Argentinian Horacio Pagani, and is based in San Cesario sul Panaro, near Modena, Italy.
Horacio Pagani, who formerly managed Lamborghini's composites, founded Pagani Composite Research in 1988. This new company worked with Lamborghini on numerous projects, including the restyling of the 25th Anniversary Countach, the Lamborghini LM002, the P140 design concept, and the Diablo. In the late 1980s, Pagani began designing his own car, then referred to as the "C8 Project". Pagani planned to rename the C8 the "Fangio F1" to honour five-time Formula One champion Juan Manuel Fangio.
In 1991 Pagani established Modena Design to meet the increasing demand for his design, engineering, and prototyping services. In 1992, he began construction of a Fangio F1 prototype, and by 1993, the car was being tested at the Dallara wind tunnel with positive results. In 1994, Mercedes-Benz agreed to supply Pagani with V12 engines.
The final car was named the Zonda C12; the Fangio F1 name was dropped out of respect for Fangio, who died in 1995. It was first presented at the 1999 Geneva Motor
Suzuki Motor Corporation (スズキ株式会社, Suzuki Kabushiki-Kaisha) is a Japanese multinational corporation headquartered in Minami-ku, Hamamatsu, Japan that specializes in manufacturing compact automobiles and 4x4 vehicles, a full range of motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), outboard marine engines, wheelchairs and a variety of other small internal combustion engines. Suzuki is Japan's 4th largest automobile manufacturer after Toyota, Nissan and Honda, the 9th largest automobile manufacturer in the world by production volume, employs over 45,000, has 35 main production facilities in 23 countries and 133 distributors in 192 countries. According to statistics from the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA), Suzuki is Japan's second-largest manufacturer of small cars and trucks.
In 1909, Michio Suzuki (1887–1982) founded the Suzuki Loom Works in the small seacoast village of Hamamatsu, Japan. Business boomed as Suzuki built weaving looms for Japan's giant silk industry. In 1929, Michio Suzuki invented a new type of weaving machine, which was exported overseas. Suzuki filed as many as 120 patents and utility model rights. The company's first 30 years focused on the
Ascari Cars Ltd. is a British automobile manufacturer that is based in Banbury, United Kingdom founded by Dutch millionaire Klaas Zwart. The company is named after Alberto Ascari (1918–1955) who was the first double world Formula One champion. Ascari also manages a racetrack, Race Resort Ascari, which continues to operate.
Ascari Cars was established in Dorset, England in 1995. Its first limited-edition car, the Ascari Ecosse, was launched in 1998. After the release of the Ecosse, Dutch businessman Klaas Zwart purchased the company.
In 2000 Ascari built a new facility in Banbury in northern Oxfordshire, England. Ascari's second car, the Ascari KZ1, was developed at Banbury, which also housed Team Ascari's racing assets. The premises are now occupied by Virgin Racing.
In 2000, Ascari began developing a racetrack near Ronda, in southern Spain. The track includes recreations of famous corners from other tracks around the world, and may be set up as one long track, three separate short tracks, or some combination in between. The full track is approximately 5.5 km in length. By 2002 the three part track was finished and accompanied by a high-end resort, with several road and racing cars
Brough Superior ( /ˈbrʌf/ BRUF) motorcycles, sidecars, and motor cars were made by George Brough in his Brough Superior works on Haydn Road in Nottingham, England, from 1919 to 1940. They were dubbed the "Rolls-Royce of Motorcycles" by H. D. Teague of The Motor Cycle newspaper. Approximately 3,048 of 19 models were made in 21 years of production. In 2004, around 1,000 still exist. T. E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia") owned seven of these motorcycles and died from injuries sustained while crashing one. George Bernard Shaw was another among many celebrities who were enthusiastic about Brough products.
George Brough was a racer, designer, and showman. All Brough Superior motorcycles were high performance and superior quality. Most were custom-built to the customer's needs, and rarely were any two of the same configuration. Each motorcycle was assembled twice. The first assembly was for fitting of all components, then the motorcycle was disassembled and all parts were painted or plated as needed, then the finished parts were assembled a second time. Every motorcycle was test ridden to ensure that it performed to specification, and was personally certified by George Brough. The SS100
The Daewoo Motors was a South Korean car maker established in 1978, part of the Daewoo Group. The company sold most of its assets in 2001 to General Motors after running into financial trouble. The commercial vehicles division was acquired by Tata Motors in 2004.
The company was first established as National Motor in 1937 in Bupyeong-gu, Incheon, South Korea. The name was changed to Saenara Motor in November 1962. Saenara was assembling and selling the Datsun Bluebird PL310. Very first automobile company in Korea, Saenara was equipped with modern assembly facilities, and was established after the Automobile Industry Promotion Policy was announced by the South Korean government in 1962. Saenara Motor was then bought by Shinjin Industrial in 1965, which changed its name to Shinjin Motors after establishing collaborations with Toyota.
After Toyota's withdrawal in 1972, Shinjin Motor started a joint venture with General Motors under the name General Motors Korea (GMK), but was renamed again in 1976 to Saehan Motor. GMK shortly sold their Rekord under the GMK marque, together with the Holden Torana based Chevrolet 1700.
After the Daewoo Group gained control in 1982 the name was changed
Marmon Motor Car Company was an American automobile manufacturer founded by Howard Marmon and owned by Nordyke Marmon & Company of Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. It was established in 1902 and was merged and renamed in 1933. They produced cars under the Marmon brand. It was succeeded by Marmon-Herrington and later the Marmon Motor Company of Denton, Texas. The name currently survives through the Marmon Group of Chicago, Illinois.
Marmon's parent company was founded in 1851 manufacturing flour grinding mill equipment, and branching out into other machinery through the late 19th century. Small limited production of experimental automobiles began in 1902, with an air-cooled V-twin engine. An air-cooled V4 followed the next year, with pioneering V6 and V8 engines tried over the next few years before more conventional straight engine designs were settled upon. Marmons soon gained a reputation as a reliable, speedy upscale car.
The Model 32 of 1909 spawned the Wasp, winner of the first Indianapolis 500 motor race. This car featured the world's first known automobile rear-view mirror.
The 1913 Model 48 was a left-hand steering tourer with a cast aluminum body and electric headlights and
Duesenberg Automobile & Motors Company, Inc. (sometimes referred to as "Duesy") was an American manufacturer of luxury automobiles. Founded in Des Moines, Iowa, United States by brothers August Duesenberg and Frederick Duesenberg, the company's principal place of operations moved to Auburn, Indiana. Duesenberg was active in various forms from 1913 to 1937.
In 1913, brothers Frederick and August Duesenberg founded Duesenberg Automobile & Motors Company, Inc. on 915 Grand Avenue in Des Moines, Iowa, to build sports cars. Born in 1876 and 1879 respectively in Kirchheide (Lemgo), Germany, the two brothers were self-taught engineers and built many experimental cars. Duesenberg cars were considered some of the very best cars of the time, and were built entirely by hand. In 1914, Eddie Rickenbacker drove a "Duesy" to finish in 10th place at the Indianapolis 500, and a Duesenberg won the race in 1924, 1925, and 1927. The fledgling company sidestepped into aviation engine manufacturing when Colonel R.C. Bolling and his commission acquired a license to produce the Bugatti U-16 for the U.S. military aviation. The end of World War I stopped this project before it could ever mature.
Kirk Manufacturing Company was a pioneer brass era American automobile company, built at 958 Oakwood Avenue, Toledo, Ohio, from 1902 until 1905.
A manufacturer of bicycles, in 1899 Kirk announced it would begin building cars. They introduced the Yale in 1902. Describing it as "the Beau Brummel of the road", it had the choice of two gasoline engine models: a two-cylinder 14 hp (10 kW) side-entrance tourer for US$1000 and a four-cylinder 24 hp (18 kW) for US$2500. This compared to US$650 for the high-volume Oldsmobile Runabout, the $700 Ford Model S, US$1500 for the Colt Runabout and Cole 30, the US$1600 Oakland 40 the FAL at US$1750, and the Enger 40 and Ford Model F at $2,000. Even so, the Yale was well below even Lozier's lowest-price Light Six Metropolian tourer and runabout, at US$3,250, American's entry-level car, at US$4250 (its highest was US$5250), or the Lozier Big Six, starting at US$5,000.
Renault S.A. (French pronunciation: [ʁəno]) (Euronext: RNO) is a French multinational vehicle manufacturer established in 1899. The company produces a range of cars and vans, and in the past, trucks, tractors, tanks, buses/coaches and autorail vehicles.
Headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, Renault owns the Romanian manufacturer Automobile Dacia and the Korean Renault Samsung Motors. Renault also owns subsidiaries RCI Banque (providing automotive financing) and Motrio (automotive parts). Renault Trucks, previously Renault Vehicules Industriels, has been part of Volvo Trucks since 2001. Renault Agriculture became 100% owned by German agricultural equipment manufacturer CLAAS in 2008. Carlos Ghosn is the current chairman and CEO and the French government owns a 15 percent share of Renault.
As part of the Renault-Nissan Alliance, the company is the fourth-largest automotive group. Together Renault and Nissan are undertaking significant electric car development, investing 4 billion euros ($5.16 billion) in eight electric vehicles over the next 3–4 years.
The company's most successful cars to date are the Renault Clio and the Renault Mégane, and its core market is Europe. The company
Arrol-Johnston (later known as Arrol-Aster) was an early Scottish manufacturer of automobiles, which operated from 1896 to 1931 and produced the first automobile manufactured in Britain. The company also developed the world’s first "off-road" vehicle for the Egyptian government, and another designed to travel on ice and snow for Ernest Shackleton’s Nimrod Expedition to the South Pole.
George Johnston was by training a locomotive engineer from Neilson, Reid and Company Limited of Springburn, Glasgow. Johnston was commissioned by Glasgow Corporation Tramways in 1894 to build an experimental steam-powered tramcar to replace their fleet of horse-drawn trams.
During a final test before a Corporation committee, it caught fire and work was abandoned. Johnston's attention was then turned to a detailed examination of continental makes of motor cars and he came to the conclusion that he could design and make a better vehicle than any of them and, in particular, a better engine. The first British-built motor car was thus conceived and by the end of 1895 was ready for financial backing. In the autumn of that year Johnston was joined by Norman Osborne Fulton and T. Blackwood Murray. Fulton was
Cosworth is a high-performance engineering company founded in London in 1958, specialising in engines and electronics for automobile racing (motorsport), mainstream automotive and defence industries. Cosworth is based in Northampton, England, with North American facilities in Torrance, Indianapolis and Mooresville and an Indian facility in Pune.
Cosworth has had a long and distinguished career in Formula One, beginning in 1963. Two Formula One teams were supplied with Cosworth engines in 2006: the Williams team using Cosworth V8 engines, transmissions, and associated electronics; and the Scuderia Toro Rosso team using rev-limited Cosworth V10s based on 2005 spec engines. The end of the 2006 F1 season marked the end of Cosworth's remarkable 43 year association with the series, as no team opted to use Cosworth for 2007. Cosworth returned to Formula One in 2010 as an engine supplier to Williams and three new teams (Hispania Racing F1 Team, Lotus Racing and Virgin Racing), with first units shipped in January. Cosworth's 176 wins make it one of the most successful engine manufacturers to race in F1, second only to Ferrari in victories.
Cosworth was initially an independent company,
Automobiles Delaunay-Belleville was a French luxury automobile manufacturer from Saint-Denis, France, north of Paris. At the beginning of the 20th century they were among the most prestigious cars produced in the world, and perhaps the most desirable French marque.
Julien Belleville had been a maker of marine boilers from around 1850. Louis Delaunay (1843-1912) joined the firm in 1867 and married Delaunay's daughter, changing his name to Delaunay-Belleville and succeeded Belleville in charge of the company.
S.A. des Automobiles Delaunay-Belleville was formed in 1903 by Louis Delaunay and Marius Barbarou. Barbarou's family owned the boiler making company St. Denis in Belleville, with boiler design influences inspired by the company. Barbarou, then 28, had experience working for Clément, Lorraine-Dietrich and Benz and was responsible for design and styling, including the trademark round grille shell. The first car was exhibited at the 1904 Paris Salon, and it received enormous acclaim.
The company started with three models, all fours: a live axled 16 hp (12 kW; 16 PS) and a 24 hp (18 kW; 24 PS) and 40 hp (30 kW; 41 PS) model, both chain-driven. These were likely the first automobiles
Ford Performance Vehicles is the Melbourne-based, premium performance vehicle partner of automobile manufacturer Ford Australia. The company, which is as a joint venture of Ford Australia, has produced a range of Ford based models under the FPV brand name since April 2003.
The roots of FPV can be traced back to 1991, when the english automotive engineering company Tickford began a collaboration with Ford Australia to produce high-performance variants of the Australian Falcon range. The partnership, Tickford Vehicle Engineering, saw the introduction of the Ford Falcon S-XR6 and Ford Falcon S-XR8 models. This was followed in October 1999 by the launch of the Ford Tickford Experience dealer network and the FTE T-Series range based on Ford’s AU Falcon and Fairlane models. In 2002, following the purchase of Tickford by Prodrive, the Ford Performance Vehicles company was formed and the FPV brand name was created to replace the FTE name. A restructured range was developed based on Ford’s BA Falcon and headlined by the FPV GT-P.
The 2003 BA range included the GT, GT-P, and the Pursuit. The GT was the entry-level vehicle that started with a suggested retail price of A$59,810. The GT-P was
Lister Cars is a British sports car manufacturer.
Beginning in 1954, company manager and racing driver Brian Lister brought out the first in a series of sports cars from a Cambridge iron works. Inspired by Cooper, he used a tubular ladder chassis, de Dion rear axle, and inboard drum brakes. Like others, he used a tuned MG engine and stock gearbox. It made its debut at the British Empire Trophy at Oulton Park in 1954, with the skilled, and light, (former MG pilot) Archie Scott Brown at the wheel. Good as he was, Scott Brown could not make up the Lister-MG's deficiencies against superior competition, so Lister swapped in a Moore-tuned Bristol two litre engine and knockoff wire wheels in place of the MG's discs. For the sports car race supporting the 1954 British Grand Prix at Silverstone, Scott Brown easily won the two litre class and placed fifth overall, ahead even of C-Jags, behind only works Astons. The Lister-Bristol spent the rest of the 1954 season proving this was no fluke, beating Maseratis, Cooper-Masers, and even Lotus-Bristols.
In 1955, a handful of Lister-Bristols were built with a new body by ex-Bristol man Lucas, claimed to have been designed with the aid of a wind
Škoda Auto (Czech pronunciation: [ˈʃkoda] ( listen)), more commonly known as Škoda, is an automobile manufacturer based in the Czech Republic. Škoda became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group in 2000, positioned as the entry brand to the group. Its total global sales reached 875,000 cars in 2011.
Škoda Works was established as an arms manufacturer in 1859.
The origins of what became Škoda Auto go back to the early 1890s where, like many long-established car manufacturers, a company started out manufacturing bicycles. It was 1894, and 26-year old Václav Klement, who was a bookseller in Mladá Boleslav, in today's Czech Republic, which was then part of Austria-Hungary, was unable to obtain spare parts to repair his German bicycle. Klement returned his bicycle to the manufacturers, Seidel and Naumann, with a letter, in Czech, asking them to carry out repairs, only to receive a reply, in German, stating: "If you would like an answer to your inquiry, you should try writing in a language we can understand". A disgusted Klement, despite not having technical experience, decided to start a bicycle repair shop, which he and Václav Laurin opened in 1895 in Mladá Boleslav. Before
Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in Molsheim, Alsace by Italian-born Ettore Bugatti.
Bugattis were well known for the beauty of their designs (Ettore Bugatti was from a family of artists and considered himself to be both an artist and constructor) and for the large number of races that they have won. The death of Ettore Bugatti in 1947 proved to be the end for the marque, and the death of his son Jean Bugatti in 1939 ensured there wasn't a successor to lead the factory. No more than about 8000 cars were made. The company struggled financially, and released one last model in the 1950s, before eventually being purchased for its airplane parts business in the 1960s. In the 1990s, an Italian entrepreneur revived it as a builder of limited production exclusive sports cars. Today, the name is owned by German automobile manufacturing group Volkswagen.
Founder Ettore Bugatti was born in Milan, Italy, and the automobile company that bears his name was founded in 1909 in the town of Molsheim located in the Alsace. Its region was the territory of German Empire until 1918. The company was known both for the level of
Chenard-Walcker, also known as Chenard & Walcker and Chenard et Walcker was a French automobile manufacturer, from 1900 to 1946. The factory was at first in Asnières-sur-Seine moving to Gennevilliers in 1906.
Ernest Chenard (1861–1922) was a railway engineer and maker of bicycles with a factory in Asnières-sur-Seine. He joined with mining engineer Henri Walcker (1877–1912) in 1898 to make motor tricycles. They formally founded Chenard, Walcker et Compagnie in 1900 with Chenard in charge of design and Walcker sales and finance. In the same year made their first four-wheel car. This had a two-cylinder, 1,160 cc (71 cu in) engine of their own design which drove the rear wheels through a four-speed gearbox and an unusual transmission system. From the gearbox there were two drive shafts, one to each rear hub, with the hubs driven by gear teeth cut on the inside. The car was shown at the 1901 Paris Salon.
In March 1906 the company went public and became the Société Anonyme des Anciens Étabissements Chenard et Walcker and moved to a new factory at Gennevilliers in 1908. The new name has caused confusion over the years as to whether the cars should be called Chenard-Walcker or Chenard et
Proton is a Malaysian automobile manufacturer headquartered in Subang Jaya and Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, with a manufacturing plant in Tanjung Malim, Perak. Founded in 1983, it was Malaysia's only carmaker until the establishment of the secondary national carmaker, Perodua, in 1993. Its name is a Malay acronym for Perusahaan Otomobil Nasional (English: National Automobile Enterprise).
It is a core member of Proton Holdings Berhad, the holding company which is listed on Bursa Malaysia. A Majority of its equity is owned by Malaysian conglomerate DRB-HICOM, which bought a 42.74% stake in Proton Holdings for 1.291 billion ringgit ($413.1 million) from Khazanah Nasional in January 2012.
For more than two decades since its establishment, this stake was jointly owned by Mitsubishi Motors and parent Mitsubishi Corp. which each held a 7.93% stake in Proton until they sold it in March 2004. Mitsubishi disposed of its entire 15.86% stake in Proton, most of which were picked up by Khazanah Nasional, which previously owned 42.7% of Proton shares. The Mitsubishi-Proton partnership had come to an end due to a lack of technology transfer.
Proton was established on 7 May 1983 under the
AC Cars Ltd. formerly known as Auto Carriers Ltd. is a British specialist automobile manufacturer and one of the oldest independent car marques founded in Britain.
The first automobile from what would eventually become AC was presented at the Crystal Palace motor show in 1903; it was a 20 HP touring car and was displayed under the Weller name. The Weller Brothers of West Norwood, London, planned to produce an advanced 20 hp (15 kW) car. However, their financial backer and business manager John Portwine, a butcher, thought the car would be too expensive to produce and encouraged Weller to design and produce a little delivery three-wheeler. Weller did so, called it the Auto-Carrier, and a new company was founded and named Autocars and Accessories; production started in 1904. The vehicle caught on quickly and was a financial success. In 1907 a passenger version appeared, called the A.C. Sociable. It had a seat in place of the cargo box.
The company became Auto Carriers Ltd. in 1911 and moved to Ferry Works, Thames Ditton, Surrey - at this time they also began using the famed "AC" roundel logo. Their first four-wheeled car was produced in 1913; it was a sporty little two-seater with a
F. B. Stearns and Company (later F.B. Stearns Company) was an American manufacturer of luxury cars in Cleveland, Ohio marketed under the brand names Stearns and Stearns-Knight.
Frank Ballou Stearns (1879–1955) was an early automotive pioneer who, in 1896, built his first experimental car as a student, aged seventeen, in the basement of the family home. He built a four-cylinder car as early as 1897, but as it did not work properly he instead switched to single-cylinder engines. His father allowed him to proceed and supported him with money and a barn they converted to a machine shop.
The first production model evolved in 1898; it was a gasoline-fuel buggy-style automobile with a one-cylinder engine (horizontal under the floor), tiller steering, wire wheels, planetary transmission, and chain drive. In the same year, F. B. Stearns & Company was organized with his partners, brothers Raymond M. and Ralph L. Owen.
As early as 1901, he introduced a steering wheel instead of the tiller, and advanced to a gasoline runabout with a 4083cc (101ci) one-cylinder engine under the seat bench, and single chain drive. Until then, about 50 cars had been built.
For 1902, Stearns offered a variety of
Acura is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese automaker Honda Motor Company. The brand has been available in the United States and Canada since March 1986, marketing luxury, performance, and near-performance vehicles. It was introduced to Hong Kong in 1991, Mexico in 2004, and China in 2006. Honda's plan to introduce Acura to the Japanese market in 2008 was delayed, due to economic reasons, and later withheld as a result of the 2008 financial crisis.
The creation of Acura coincided with the introduction of a Japanese Honda dealership sales channel, called Honda Clio, which sold luxury vehicles, joining previously established Honda Verno, followed by Honda Primo the following year. Acura holds the distinction of being the first Japanese automotive luxury brand. In its first few years of existence, Acura was among the best-selling luxury marques in the US. Though sales were down in the mid-to-late 1990s, the brand experienced a revival in the early 2000s, due to drastic redesigns and the introductions of new models.
Following a decade of research, Honda opened 60 new dealerships in North America by 1986, to support its Acura automobile division. Acura was the first Japanese luxury
Auto Union was an amalgamation of four German automobile manufacturers, founded in 1932 and established in 1936 in Chemnitz, Saxony, during the Great Depression. The company has evolved into present day Audi, as a subsidiary of Volkswagen Group.
Auto Union is widely known for its racing team (Auto Union Rennabteilung, based at Horch works in Zwickau/Saxony). The Silver Arrows of these two German teams (Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union) dominated not only GP car racing from 1934 onwards, but set records that would take decades to beat.
Auto Union was formed in Germany in 1932, merging:
In August 1928, Rasmussen, the owner of DKW, acquired a majority ownership of Audiwerke AG. In the same year, Rasmussen bought the remains of the US automobile manufacturer Rickenbacker, including the manufacturing equipment for eight-cylinder engines. These engines were used in Audi Zwickau, Audi Imperator and Audi Dresden models that were launched in 1929. At the same time, six-cylinder and four-cylinder (licensed from Peugeot) models were manufactured.
In 1932, with all companies still losing money, Audi/DKW, Horch and Wanderer were brought together under the umbrella of communal shareholder company
Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd. (ダイハツ工業株式会社, Daihatsu Kōgyō Kabushiki-gaisha , TYO: 7262, OSE: 7262) is the oldest Japanese manufacturer of cars, known mostly for its smaller models and off-road vehicles. Many of its models are also known as kei jidōsha (or kei cars) in Japan. Its headquarters is located in Ikeda, Osaka Prefecture.
The name "Daihatsu" is a combination of the first kanji for Ōsaka (大) and the first of the word "engine manufacture" (発動機製造, hatsudōki seizō). In the new combination the reading of the "大" is changed from "ō" to "dai", giving "dai hatsu."
Daihatsu was formed in 1951 as successor organisation to Hatsudoki and, by the 1960s, had started exporting cars to Europe, although it did not enjoy any major sales success until well into the 1980s.
Since February 1992 in North America, it has been common for Toyota to distribute Daihatsu models.
In January 2011, Daihatsu announced it would pull out of Europe by 2013, citing the persistently strong yen which makes it difficult to turn a profit from its export business. Daihatsu's sales in Europe had plummeted from 58,000 in 2007 before the financial crisis, to 12,000 in 2011.
An affiliate company spun out in 1966, Daihatsu
The Duryea Motor Wagon Company, established in 1895 in Springfield, Massachusetts, was the first American firm to build gasoline automobiles.
Founded by Charles Duryea and his brother Frank, they built the Duryea Motor Wagon, a one-cylinder "Ladies Phaeton", first demonstrated on September 21, 1893 in Springfield, Massachusetts, on Taylor Street in Metro Center. It is considered the first successful gas-engine vehicle built in the U.S.
In 1895, a second Duryea (built in 1894), driven by Frank, won the Chicago Times Herald race in Chicago on a snowy Thanksgiving day. He travelled 54 miles (87 km) at an average 7.5 mph (12 km/h), marking the first U.S. auto race in which any entrants finished. That same year, the brothers began commercial production, with thirteen cars sold by the end of 1896. Their first ten production vehicles were the first automobiles sold in the United States. Banking on the idea that future racing successes would propel their market share, The brothers entered two vehicles in Britain's London to Brighton Veteran Car Run. Frank placed first and beat out the nearest competition by 75 minutes. As well in 1896, a Duryea motorcar had the unfortunate distinction of
Fiat S.p.A., (Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino) (Italian Automobile Factory of Turin), is an Italian automobile manufacturer based in Turin. Fiat was founded in 1899 by a group of investors including Giovanni Agnelli. During its more than a century long history, Fiat has also manufactured railway engines and carriages, military vehicles, and aircraft. As of 2009, the Fiat group (not inclusive of its subsidiary Chrysler) was the world's ninth largest carmaker and the largest in Italy.
Fiat-based cars are built around the world. Outside Italy, the largest country of production is Brazil, where the Fiat brand is the market leader. The group also has factories in Argentina and Poland and a long history of licensing production of its products in other countries. It also has numerous alliances and joint ventures around the world, the main ones being located in Italy, France, Turkey, Serbia, India and China.
Agnelli's grandson Gianni Agnelli was Fiat's chairman from 1966 until 1996; he then served as honorary chairman from 1996 until his death on 24 January 2003, during which time Cesare Romiti served as chairman. Until their removal, Paolo Fresco served as chairman and Paolo
The Haynes Automobile Company was a United States automobile manufacturing company which produced automobiles in Kokomo, Indiana, from 1905 to 1924. The company was related to the Haynes-Apperson company which produced automobiles from 1896-1905. Co-founder Elwood Haynes changed the name of the company after fellow co-founders Elmer and Edgar Apperson left to form the Apperson automobile company.
In 1923, just before going out of business, Haynes introduced the 57, with a 121-inch (3073 mm) wheelbase, in five-seat four-door sedan, three-seat coupelet, and two-seat roadster, advertised as complete with front and rear bumpers, six disc (as opposed to wire) wheels, wind wings, sun visors, "artistically fashioned individual steps" (for the running boards), and "individual fenders".
Iveco, an acronym for Industrial Vehicle Corporation, originally an alliance of European commercial vehicle manufacturers such as Fiat (including OM and Lancia Veicoli Speciali), Unic and Magirus. Iveco is now an Italian truck, bus, and diesel engine manufacturer, based in Turin. The firm is a subsidiary of Fiat Industrial, having been demerged from the Fiat Group at the start of 2011, and produces around 200,000 commercial vehicles and 460,000 diesel engines annually, and for the year ended 2007 the company had €11,196 million in sales (revenues).
Today the company is a significant player in the medium-duty trucks and engine markets, and is near the top for sales of passenger transport and 3.5 ton light vehicles.
The company is dominated by Fiat Group, and was created on 1 January 1975 by Fiat manager and mechanical engineer Bruno Beccaria (1915–2001) through the merger of five companies operating in Italy, France and Germany; Fiat Veicoli Industriali (located in Turin), Officine Meccaniche (Brescia), Lancia Veicoli Speciali (Bolzano), Unic (Trappes) and Magirus (Ulm).
In 1990, Iveco acquired 60% of ENASA, a leading truck manufacturer and makers of Pegaso brand of commercial
LuAZ (Ukrainian: ЛуАЗ, short for "Луцький автомобільний завод", Luts'kyi avtomobiln'nyi zavod -"Lutsk car plant") is a Ukrainian automobile manufacturer in the city Lutsk.
The original product of this relatively small plant is the "LuAZ"-branded off-road vehicle, sturdy and simple, but outdated. At the moment the company is on the verge of bankruptcy, holding together by assembling cars produced by VAZ.
The company was once part of AvtoZAZ holding, but now is a part of the Bogdan group, which also controls bus manufacturing facilities in Cherkasy.
In 2005, LuAZ commenced assembly of Hyundai and Kia cars from kits, with production set to further expand in 2006.
A major expansion program is planned, which will see construction of a new car manufacturing facility in Cherkasy including a new paint shop, with planned annual assembly of around 60,000 Lada's and 60,000 Hyundai's and Kia's from 2007. Passenger car production will be transferred from Luts'k to Cherkasy, while bus production will move to Luts'k.
From the period of 1984 through 2002, 67 people were killed by faulty exhaust systems. Apparently, toxic carbon monoxide entered the cabin via the ventilation vents and asphyxiated
PSA Peugeot Citroën (officially Peugeot S.A., informally PSA) is a French multinational manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles sold under the Peugeot and Citroën marques. Headquartered in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, PSA is the second-largest Europe-based automaker (after Volkswagen Group) and the eighth-largest in the world measured by 2010 unit production. Peugeot Onyx is the latest one of a kind concept from the manufacturer.
PSA is listed on the Euronext Paris stock exchange and is not a constituent of the CAC 40 index.
In December 1974 Peugeot S.A. acquired a 38.2% share of Citroën. On 9 April 1976 they increased their stake of the then bankrupt company to 89.95%, thus creating the PSA Group (where PSA is short for Peugeot Société Anonyme), becoming PSA Peugeot Citroën. Since Citroën had two successful new designs in the market at this time (the GS and CX) and Peugeot was typically prudent in its own finances, the PSA venture was a financial success from 1976 to 1979.
In late 1978, PSA purchased the failing Chrysler Europe (which was formerly Rootes and Simca), from the troubled U.S. parent firm for a nominal USD $1.00, plus assumption of outstanding debt, leading
Tofaş (acronym for Türk Otomobil Fabrikası Anonim Şirketi; pronounced [tofaʃ]) is a Turkish automaker based in Bursa, Turkey, where the production plant of the company is located. It was established in 1968 and builds Fiat models under license, together with some locally-designed vehicles (mainly used as taxicabs). Tofaş is jointly owned by Fiat and Koç Holding (37.8% of the company's shares belong to Fiat Group Automobiles; 37.8% to Koç Holding; and 24.3% to others).
The first Tofaş model was a Fiat 124, produced under licence from Fiat and locally named Murat 124 (with a later version named as Serçe). Subsequently, this model was replaced by a long production run of cars based on the Fiat 131: the Murat 131 series, including the Doğan (sedan), Şahin (sedan) and Kartal (station-wagon). Tofaş models are also produced under license in Egypt by the state owned Nasr car company. Tofaş still maintains a close relationship with Fiat, producing its models both for the domestic market and for other countries.
Tofaş currently produces the following Fiat models:
and the following models for other automobile brands:
Old models the company has produced in the past:
The Bucciali was a French automobile manufactured from 1922 until 1933. Built by the brothers Bucciali, it began life at Courbevoie as a cyclecar under the name Buc. Initial offerings were powered by 1,340 cc two-cylinder two-stroke engines. In 1925 a 1,600 cc S.C.A.P.-engined model appeared, available in two versions, the "Tourisme" and the "Quatre Speciale" supercharged. A six-cylinder car of 1,500 cc displacement was also offered. 1928 saw the creation of a TAN six-cylinder and an eight-cylinder with front-wheel drive and Sensaud de Lavaud's steering and automatic gearbox, both of which caused a sensation. In the 1930s the company produced the Double Huit, also a front-wheel drive model, which was powered by a pair of Continental straight-eight engines mounted side by side. The last of the prototypes took a Voisin 12-cylinder engine. Very few of the front-wheel-drive Buccialis ever reached the road.
While it is not known exactly how many of the TAV 12 models were produced, only two are known by automotive enthusiasts to still exist: one in the USA and one in France.
The black Bucciali that still exists was rebuilt by Bruce Kelly with the help of Robert LeMire at Lake Country
Neue Automobil-Gesellschaft (NAG) was a German automobile manufacturer in Berlin. In 1902, German electrical company AEG purchased the coachbuilding side of Kühlstein under engineer Joseph Vollmer, renaming it NAG. The company's first two cars were reliable, if unoriginal: the two-cylinder Typ A and 5.2 liter (317ci) four-cylinder Typ B, both with chain drive, which resembled contemporary Mercédès. Shortly, an enlarged Typ B2, with 40/45hp (30kW) 7.9-liter (482ci) four, appeared. In 1907, one of these was given to the Empress Auguste Viktoria.
The next year, AEG got out of the car business, but NAG continued alone, introducing a 15 hp (11 kW) 1502 cc (91.7ci) four called Puck, with a remarkable (for the period) ability to rev to 3000 rpm, which may have contributed to its ability to win the Gothenburg Cup at the Swedish Winter Trials in 1912, 1913, and 1914. This sporting reputation was balanced by "aggressively ugly Prince Henry-type bodies".
The Puck would later be developed into a model known in Germany as the Darling. From 1911 to 1914, NAG's standard offering was a 8495 cc (518ci) 60 hp (44.7 kW), joined in 1912-14 by a 1502 cc (91.7ci) 10/12 hp (7.5 kW) K2, 2085 cc (127ci)
Swedish Automobile N.V. (abbreviated SWAN; formerly Spyker Cars N.V.) is a Dutch based automobile company that produces high-end sports cars. In 2010, the company acquired Swedish car manufacturer Saab Automobile from General Motors. In September 2011, Spyker announced the impending sale of its supercar division to Greenwich, Connecticut based North Street Capital, and subsequently changed its name to Swedish Automobile.
Spyker Cars N.V. was founded in 1999 by Victor Muller and Maarten de Bruijn to build exclusive sports cars such as the C8 Spyder and the C8 Laviolette. The company is not related to or controlled by the previous Spyker company that went bankrupt in 1929, only having the legal right to the brand name.
In 2005 the head designer and founder, Maarten de Bruijn, left the company.
In 2006 Spyker built the C12 La Turbie with an V12 engine capable of 500 horsepower and acceleration 0–60 mph in less than 4 seconds.
In 2007 Spyker, in collaboration with Italian car-design firm Zagato, produced the C12 Zagato, based in the La Turbie, but with more appealing body work, and the Zagato trademark roof bubbles. This is perhaps the more exclusive Spyker car to date.
On May 27, 2004
Allard Motor Company Limited was an English car manufacturer founded in 1945 by Sydney Allard which operated from small premises in south London. Car manufacture almost ceased within a decade. It produced approximately 1900 cars before his death in 1966. Before the war, Allard supplied some replicas of a Bugatti-tailed special of his own design from Adlards Motors in Putney.
Allards generally featured a large American V8 engine in a small, light British sports car body, giving a high power-to-weight ratio and foreshadowing the Sunbeam Tiger and AC Cobra of the early 1960s. Cobra designer Carroll Shelby and father of the Corvette Zora Arkus Duntov both drove Allards in the early 1950s.
The first Allard cars were built specifically to compete in Trials events - timed rally-like events on terrain almost impassable by wheeled vehicles. The first Allard was powered by a Ford flathead V8 in a body mostly sourced from a Bugatti racer. It used the American engine's high torque to great effect in slow-speed competition.
Further Allards were soon built to order with a variety of large, Ford-sourced engines, including Lincoln-Zephyr V12 powerplants. By the outbreak of war in 1939 twelve
Sharps Commercials Ltd was a British car maker. It changed its name to Bond Cars Ltd in 1963. The company was taken over by the Reliant Motor Co Ltd of Tamworth, Staffs in 1970 who quickly closed the Preston factory, transferring the spare parts business for the Bond Minicar, 875 saloon, 875 Ranger van and Equipe models to a firm called Bob Joyner & Son in Oldbury in the English Midlands. Reliant nevertheless continued to use the Bond name until 1974 on Bond Bug models made at their own Tamworth plant.
Sharp's Commercials began production of an economical three-wheeled car early in 1949. It was called the "Bond Minicar" (retrospectively to be called the Mark A) and was powered by a single-cylinder two-stroke Villiers engine of 122 or 197 cc. Bodywork was mostly aluminium, though some later models used fibreglass for parts of the car. It proved very popular at the time owing to post-war economies.
The Minicar moved on through several different incarnations, culminating in the "Mark G" in 1961. Convertibles were offered, as were van and estate versions. The engine was upgraded, first to a single-cylinder 250 cc and then to a 250 cc twin-cylinder Villiers 4T (optional on the Mark G).
Diatto was an Italian manufacturing company founded in 1835 in Turin by Guglielmo Diatto to make 'carriages for wealthy customers'. In 1874 Guglielmo’s sons, Giovanni and Battista Diatto, began building railway carriages for Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits and the Orient Express. In 1905 Guglielmo's grandsons, Vittorio and Pietro Diatto, began Diatto-Clément, a cooperative venture making motor-vehicles under license from French manufacturer Clément-Bayard owned by industrialist Adolphe Clément-Bayard. By 1909 they had full ownership of 'Autocostruzioni Diatto' and began developing their own motor-vehicles and exporting them worldwide.
From 1905 the company built two and four cylinder cars based on the Clément-Bayard, a leading contemporary French manufacturer. By the 1920s, Diatto was making quality cars of its own design, including race cars with supercharged eight-cylinder engines. Diatto also supplied frames to Bugatti which used them for their own race cars. Some Diatto racers were prepared and raced by Alfieri Maserati who left Diatto in 1926 to establish with his brothers, his own marque, Maserati.
Diatto cars were known for their innovative engineering and as early
Du Pont Motors was founded by E. Paul du Pont to produce marine engines for the Allied nations in World War I. After the war, the Du Pont Motor Company produced extremely high-end automobiles. The cars were manufactured in Wilmington, Delaware.
E. Paul du Pont's resources allowed him to hire quality automotive and management talent. The company's first product, the Model A, was introduced at the 1919 International Salon at the Commodore Hotel in New York City (an event for the wealthy by invitation only, along with the finest manufacturers and coach builders). The Model G was introduced in 1928 with a 5.3 liter side-valve straight eight engine of 125 hp (93 kW).
Between 1919 and 1931, Du Pont produced only some 600 automobiles, most of which no longer exist. They were compared to such luxury cars as Packard, Cadillac and even Duesenberg, and were known for their quality and style. Customers included Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, Will Rogers and Jack Dempsey. The company went bankrupt in 1932 and merged into the Indian Motorcycle Company when E. Paul du Pont purchased the Indian Company.
Edelsbrunner Automobile München was a small Bavarian car company based in Munich, Germany.
At the beginning of 1990 the company began producing a small series of two cars in the style of the thirties. Inspired by legendary driver Tazio Nuvolari, the first Roadster was the EAM Nuvolari S1. In the presence of the sister and other relatives of Tazio Nuvolari, the Nuvolari S1 was formally presented and introduced to the public.
Unfortunately the German market at that time was very small and these cars were not successful.
There were two types:
The Nuvolari S1 was only produced in small numbers and the R1 model R1 did not get beyond a prototype.
Société Anonyme des Anciens Etablissements Hotchkiss et Cie was a French arms and, in the 20th Century, automobile manufacturer first established by United States gunsmith Benjamin B. Hotchkiss. He moved to France and set up a factory, first at Viviez near Rodez in 1867, then at Saint-Denis near Paris in 1875 manufacturing arms used by the French in the Franco-Prussian war, and later the US government, who deployed them in the 1879 Mill River Campaign against Sitting Bull.
An example of the company's output was the Hotchkiss revolving cannon (see picture from a privately circulated book dated 1874 by Alfred Koerner, later chairman of the company). The cannon had five barrels each able to fire 43 shells a minute a distance of one mile; it was made in four sizes from 37 mm to 57 mm, the largest intended for naval use. At the turn-of-the-twentieth-century, the company introduced the gas-actuated Hotchkiss machine gun, a sturdy and reliable weapon which was widely used during World War I and thereafter by the French Army.
An embarrassment of profits at the turn of the twentieth century prompted the company to move into the car business to avoid attracting too much attention from the
Nissan Motor Company Ltd (Japanese: 日産自動車株式会社, Nissan Jidōsha Kabushiki-gaisha) (TYO: 7201), usually shortened to Nissan ( /ˈniːsɑːn/ or UK /ˈnɪsæn/; Japanese: [nisːaɴ]), is a multinational automaker headquartered in Japan. It was a core member of the Nissan Group, but has become more independent after its restructuring under Carlos Ghosn (CEO).
Nissan was the sixth largest automaker in the world behind Toyota, General Motors, Volkswagen AG, Hyundai Motor Group, and Ford in 2010. It formerly marketed vehicles under the "Datsun" brand name. As of 2011, the company's global headquarters is located in Nishi-ku, Yokohama. In 1999, Nissan entered a two way alliance with Renault S.A. of France, which owns 43.4% of Nissan while Nissan holds 15% of Renault shares, as of 2008. Along with its normal range of models, Nissan also produces a range of luxury models branded as Infiniti.
The Nissan VQ engines, of V6 configuration, have been featured among Ward's 10 Best Engines for 14 straight years.
Masujiro Hashimoto founded The Kwaishinsha Motor Car Works in 1911. In 1914, the company produced its first car, called DAT.
The new car's name was an acronym of the company's investors' family
Panhard is currently a French manufacturer of light tactical and military vehicles. Its current incarnation was formed by the acquisition of Panhard by Auverland in 2005. Panhard had been under Citroën ownership, then PSA (after the 1974 Peugeot Citroën merger), for 40 years. The combined company now uses the Panhard name; this was decided based on studies indicating that the Panhard name had better brand recognition worldwide than the Auverland name. Panhard once built civilian cars but ceased production of those in 1968. Many of their military products however end up on the civilian market via third sources and as military/government surplus vehicles. Panhard also built railbuses between the wars.
Panhard was originally called Panhard et Levassor, and was established as a car manufacturing concern by René Panhard and Émile Levassor in 1887.
Their first car (based on a Daimler engine licence) was offered in 1890. Levassor obtained his licence from a friend who already had one, Sarazin. Upon Sarazin's death in 1887, Sarazin's widow married Levassor, and the deal was cemented. Daimler and Levassor became fast friends, and shared improvements with one another.
These first vehicles
Csepel is a Hungarian manufacturer of trucks for industrial use.
In 1944 the Steyr 380 truck was designed in Austria, licensing Csepel lorries and engines. Production of the MÁVAG and the RÁBA lorries stopped after nationalization in 1946. In 1947 Hungary bought the licence for the Steyr 380 lorry, D413 and D613 engines from the USSR. (At this time the Soviets occupied Austria.)
In 1949 an automobile factory was established in the NIK (Nehéz Ipari Központ—en: Heavy Industry Center) at the earlier Dunai Repülőgépgyár—en: Danube Aircraft Factory place at Szigethalom. The first Csepel (NIK) engine was ready on 7 November.
The first director of the factory was Ferencné Bíró. She was a mechanical engineer and had studied in Moscow, sister-in-law of Mátyás Rákosi.
The first 3 Csepel D-350 was ready on 3 April 1950. The D350 and B350 types were produced between 1950 and 1958. The B-130 4x4 rover pickup lorry began production in 1949. The prototypes were made in Győr and Ikarus. It won a lorry race in Poland in 1950.
During 1968-1975 the evolution of Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) changed the way Csepel operated. Csepel began shipping the undercarriage of the Ikarus to
Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroën Automobile (DPCA) is a joint venture between the Dongfeng Motor Corporation and the French PSA Peugeot Citroën. Based in Wuhan, capital of Hubei province, it manufactures Peugeot and Citroën models for sale in China. Imported models are also sold although by a separate, wholly PSA-owned subsidiary, Peugeot Citroën (China) Automotive Trade Co Ltd.
PSA Peugeot Citroën was an early entrant in the Chinese auto market. In 1985 it established a Chinese company, Guangzhou Peugeot Automobile Company, as a joint venture with the government of Guangzhou. This company was defunct by 1997.
Prior to the failure of its first China effort, PSA Peugeot Citroën initiated a second. Building smaller vehicles, specifically the Citroën ZX, it partnered with Dongfeng Motor Corporation, a large, indigenous vehicle maker. Finalized in 1992, this joint venture company was located in Wuhan and was known as Dongfeng Citroën Automobile Company (DCAC). It was the forerunner to the current Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroën Automobile (DPCA).
Established in 1992 producing semi-knocked down cars, by 1996 production capacity had reached 150,000 units/year, and its second offering, the Fukang 988
The Hunslet Engine Company was founded in 1864 in Hunslet, Leeds, England. The company manufactured steam powered shunting locomotives for over 100 years, and currently manufactures diesel engined shunting locomotives.
As of 2012 the company is part of the LH Group, a subsidiary The Hunslet Steam Company maintains and manufactures build steam locomotives.
The Hunslet Engine Company was founded in 1864 at Jack Lane, Hunslet, Leeds, West Yorkshire, England by John Towlerton Leather, a civil engineering contractor, who appointed James Campbell (son of Alexander Campbell, a Leeds engineer) as his Works Manager.
The first engine built in 1865 was Linden a standard gauge 0-6-0 saddle tank delivered to Brassey and Ballard, a railway civil engineering contractor as were several of the firm's early customers. Other customers included collieries. This basic standard gauge shunting and short haul 'industrial' engine was to be the main-stay of Hunslet production for many years.
In 1871, James Campbell bought the company for £25,000 (payable in five installments over two years) and the firm remained in the Campbell family ownership for many years. Between 1865 and 1870, production had averaged
The Kissel Motor Car Company was an American automobile manufacturing company founded by Louis Kissel and his sons, George and William, on June 5, 1906 in Hartford, Wisconsin. The company custom built high-quality automobiles, hearses, fire trucks, taxicabs, and utility vehicles from their plant at 123 Kissel Avenue, Hartford. They offered trucks of 1½, 2, 3, 4, and 5 tons. During World War I the company produced trucks for the military and prospered after the war but with stiff competition and the Great Depression, mounting losses, and an attempted hostile take-over by New Era Motors' president Archie Andrews forced Kissel to file for receivership protection in November, 1930.
Often called "Kissel Kars," of the 35,000 automobiles the company produced, only 150 are known to exist today. The Wisconsin Automotive Museum of Hartford has several of these remaining cars on display. The most famous car was one the company donated to Hollywood actress Anita King for her transcontinental trip in 1915 that marked the first-ever such trip by a female driving alone. The most popular Kissel model was the 1919 Speedster, nicknamed the Gold Bug. The two passenger Gold Bug was owned by famous
Morris Commercial Cars Limited was a British manufacturer of commercial vehicles formed by William Morris, founder of Morris Motors Limited, to continue the business of E G Wrigley and Company which he purchased as of 1 January 1924.
Morris bought the assets of E.G. Wrigley and Company after it went into receivership late in 1923. Up until that point a small number of commercial vehicle variants of Morris cars were built at the Morris plant at Cowley, but with the newly acquired plant in Foundry Lane, Soho, Birmingham serious production began.
In 1932 the business was moved a few miles across Birmingham to Adderley Park.
In 1936 Morris sold the company into his Morris Motors Limited. The use of the Morris Commercial brand name continued until 1968 when British Motor Holdings, by then the parent of Austin as well as Morris, merged with the Leyland Motor Corporation to form the British Leyland Motor Corporation.
In wartime commercial vehicles in the Morris range were produced for military use - such as the Morris C8 and Morris Commercial also built vehicles such as the Terrapin amphibious carrier
During the 1960s the light trucks and forward-control J4 light vans produced by Austin
Premier Ltd. (formerly The Premier Automobiles Limited) is a manufacturer of vehicles based in Mumbai, India.
Founded in 1944, the car first launched production by building vehicles under license from Dodge and Plymouth. In 1951, they began producing versions of the Fiat 500 for the Indian market. This was followed by the Fiat 1100 in 1954. In 1973, the Premier name was used on their vehicles for the first time, the Premier President, based on the Fiat 1100 as Premier Padmini. In 1978, they launched the Fiat 124-based Premier 118 and 138D models. In 2000, they launched production, under license from Taiwan's China Motor Corporation, of the Premier Sigma and Roadster vans and pick-ups.
Premier Automobiles is an Indian automaker which flourished in the so called 'sudhakar'- bribe - licence- monopoly period from the 1950s till the early 1990s when India was closed to the world and imports. The company was established in 1944 as a result of successful negotiations with Chrysler Corporation in 1939, resulting in licenses to build a Plymouth car and a Dodge truck, sold under the Dodge, Plymouth, DeSoto, and Fargo names starting around 1949. In the early years, quality was considered good
Simca (Société Industrielle de Mécanique et Carrosserie Automobile) (Industrial Society of Mechanical and Automotive Body) was a French automaker, founded in November 1934 by Fiat. It was directed from July 1935 to May 1963 by the Italian Henri Théodore Pigozzi (born Enrico Teodoro Pigozzi, 1898–1964). Simca was affiliated with Fiat, but later, when Simca bought Ford's French branch, became increasingly controlled by the Chrysler Group, in 1970 becoming a part of Chrysler Europe and a brand rather than independent company. In 1978, Chrysler divested its European operations to another French automaker, PSA Peugeot Citroën, which replaced the Simca brand with Talbot, thus ending the life of the brand (although some models were badged as Simca-Talbots for a time).
During most of its post-war activity, Simca was one of the biggest automobile manufacturers and most popular automobile brands in France. The Simca 1100 was for some time the best-selling car in France, while the Simca 1307 and Simca Horizon won the coveted European Car of the Year title in 1976 and 1978, respectively — these models were badge engineered as products of other marques in some countries. For instance the Simca
Established in 1901, Belsize Motors was based in Clayton, Manchester, England. The company was founded by Marshall & Company and took its name from their Belsize works where they had built bicycles.
Marshall and Company of Clayton Lane, probably Manchester's first automobile manufacturer, built its first car in 1897. The cars were very similar to the French Hurtu, itself a Benz replica and were sold badged as Marshalls.
Agencies were established in London and Dublin and the car gained a Gold Medal for efficiency at the 1899 London exhibition. A new more modern four-seat model appeared in 1901 with twin-cylinder engine made by Buchet and was the first to carry the Belsize name as the "Marshall Belsize". In 1903 the company name was changed to Belsize Motors and Engineering. In 1906 this changed again to Belsize Motors Ltd.
Before World War I they were a major player in the United Kingdom motor industry employing 1200 people and making up to fifty vehicles a week. A bewildering range of models were made including taxis, commercial vehicles and fire engines with engines of up to 14.5 Litre capacity.
After the First World War they followed a single model policy at first with the 15 hp
Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft (DMG) (Daimler Motors Corporation) was a German engine and later automobile manufacturer, in operation from 1890 until 1926. Founded by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, it was based first in Cannstatt (today Bad Cannstatt, a city district of Stuttgart). Daimler died in 1900, and their business moved in 1903 to Stuttgart-Untertürkheim after the original factory was destroyed by fire, and again to Berlin in 1922. Other factories were located in Marienfelde (near Berlin) and Sindelfingen (next to Stuttgart).
The enterprise was begun to produce petrol engines but after the success of a small number of race cars built on contract by Wilhelm Maybach for Emil Jellinek, it began to produce the Mercedes model of 1902. After this automobile production expanded to become DMG's main product, and it built several models.
Because of the post World War One German economic crisis, DMG merged in 1926 with Benz & Cie., becoming Daimler-Benz and adopting Mercedes-Benz as its automobile trademark. A further merger occurred in 1998 with Chrysler to become DaimlerChrysler. The name was finally changed to just Daimler AG in 2007 when Chrysler was sold.
By 1882 both
Donkervoort Automobielen BV is a manufacturer of authentic hand-built and ultra light weight sports cars based in Lelystad in The Netherlands. This car brand was founded in 1978 by Joop Donkervoort.
In 1996, Donkervoort's Ford engines were replaced by Audi engines. Donkervoorts motto - "No Compromise" - means driving without any electronic aids such as ABS (Anti-lock braking system), Electronic stability program (ESP) or power steering.
The S8 and S8A were the first Donkervoorts, with the "Eight" implying an improvement over the Lotus Seven. The cars originally used a two-liter inline-four engine from Ford of Europe.
Responding to the need for more power, a turbocharged version of the S8 soon appeared; this car is identifiable by a profusion of various vents and openings to cool the engine.
This sleek, minimalist version was built in a very limited series of ten to celebrate Donkervoort's tenth anniversary in 1988. The cars lacked a spare wheel as well as a windshield, but benefitted from an enlarged (2,160 cc) version of the Ford engine with a bigger Garrett T3 turbocharger, producing 190 PS (140 kW). The last car was only built in 1994, with some of the later examples receiving
For the manufacturer of the Fisker Karma, see Fisker Automotive
Fisker Coachbuild is a car design firm based in Orange County, California. The company produces custom sportscars. Its current models are the Tramonto and Latigo CS. In addition to its own car design, Fisker designs and manufactures after market parts such as 3-piece aluminum alloy wheels, carbon fiber engine covers and custom leather interior trim packages for the current BMW 6-series and M6 as well as Mercedes-Benz SL models. Fisker Coachbuild also provides design services for companies in various industries. Fisker recently designed a high-end men's watch for Danish company Rosendahl. On the sports car front, Fisker Coachbuild designed the Artega GT for German based company Artega. It carries a badge which reads – "Designed by Fisker Coachbuild."
The company was founded by partners, Henrik Fisker and Bernhard Koehler in January 2005. The Danish born Henrik Fisker and the German native Bernhard Koehler worked at many automotive companies together before co-founding Fisker Coachbuild, BMW and Aston Martin standing as the most prominent, where they worked together to bring the Aston Martin DB9 and V8 Vantage to
General Motors Company (NYSE: GM, TSX: GMM.U), commonly known as GM, formerly incorporated (until 2009) as General Motors Corporation, is an American multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, and the world's largest automaker, by vehicle unit sales, in 2011.
GM employs 202,000 people and does business in some 157 countries. General Motors produces cars and trucks in 31 countries, and sells and services these vehicles through the following divisions/brands: Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Opel, Vauxhall, and Holden, as well as two joint ventures in China, Shanghai GM and SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile. GM's OnStar subsidiary provides vehicle safety, security and information services.
In 2009, the company emerged from a government backed Chapter 11 reorganization. In 2010, GM made an initial public offering that was one of the world's top 5 largest IPOs to date. GM returned to profits in 2011.
Based on global sales, General Motors is currently the world's no. 1 automaker. Headquartered at the Renaissance Center in Detroit, GM employs approximately 202,000 people around the world. In 2009, General Motors sold 6.5 million cars and trucks globally. Much of
Graham-Paige was an American automobile manufacturer founded by brothers Joseph B. Graham (September 12, 1882–July 1970), Robert C. Graham (August 1885–October 3, 1967), and Ray A. Graham (May 28, 1887–August 13, 1932) in 1927. Automobile production ceased in 1940, and its automotive assets were acquired by Kaiser-Frazer in 1947. As a corporate entity, the Graham-Paige name continued until 1962.
After successful involvement in a glass manufacturing company (eventually sold to Libbey Owens Ford) brothers Joseph B. Graham (September 12, 1882–July 1970), Robert C. Graham (August 1885–October 3, 1967) and Ray A. Graham (May 28, 1887–August 13, 1932) began in 1919 to produce kits to modify Ford Model Ts and TTs into trucks. That led to the brothers building their trucks using engines of various manufacturers and the Graham Brothers brand. Eventually they settled on Dodge engines, and soon the trucks were sold by Dodge dealers. The Grahams expanded from beginnings in Evansville, Indiana, opening plants in 1922 on Meldrum Avenue in Detroit, Michigan of 13,000 square feet (1,200 m), and in 1925 in Stockton, California. The Canadian market was supplied by the Canadian Dodge plant. Dodge
Haynes-Apperson Company was a manufacturer of Brass Era automobiles in Kokomo, Indiana, from 1896 to 1905. It was the first automobile manufacturer in Indiana, and among the first in the United States. Elwood Haynes, one of the founders, was the inventor of stainless steel and stellite, and many of the early advances in automobile technology were first invented by the company.
The company was founded by Elwood Haynes and brothers Elmer and Edgar Apperson. In 1894, the trio built one of the first gasoline powered vehicles in the United States, at Apperson's Riverside Machine Works. By 1898 the company was producing one new car every two to three weeks, and selling early models for $2,000 (USD). At the end of that year, they relocated the company to a large factory where they designed two additional models. They brought on a larger workforce and increased the production rate to between two and three new cars each year. From there business began to boom, five cars in 1898, thirty 1899, 192 in 1900 and 240 in 1901. Production increases kept the factory open 24 hours a day, and two shifts of workers were needed to keep the factory running at capacity.
Haynes-Apperson automobiles were
Hillman is a British automobile marque created by the Hillman Motor Car Company, founded in 1907. The company was based in Ryton-on-Dunsmore, near Coventry, England. Before 1907 the company had built bicycles. Although the Hillman company was acquired by Humber in 1929, Hillman was used as the primary marque of the Rootes Group from 1931, following its acquisition of Humber, until 1967, when Chrysler in turn took over Rootes. The marque continued to be used under Chrysler until 1976.
The original company, named Hillman-Coatalen, was founded by William Hillman with the Breton Louis Coatalen as designer and chief engineer. Coatalen left in 1909 to join Sunbeam and the company was re-registered as the Hillman Motor Car Company in 1910.
The first cars were large, featuring a 9.76-litre 6-cylinder engine or a 6.4-litre four. A smaller car, the 9 hp of 1913 with a 1357 cc side-valve four-cylinder, was the first to sell in significant numbers and was re-introduced after the First World War as the 11 hp, having grown to 1600 cc. The big seller was the 14 hp introduced in 1925, and the only model made until 1928. Following the fashion of the time a Straight Eight of 2.6 litres and Hillman's
HQM Sachsenring GmbH is a Zwickau-based company that supplies parts to the automotive industry.
The company was named after the Sachsenring race track.
Called VEB Sachsenring until 1990, it was a producer of vehicles in the former German Democratic Republic, its most famous product being the Trabant.
After three years in bankruptcy, Sachsenring AG was purchased in February, 2006 by Härterei und Qualitätsmanagement GmbH (HQM) of Leipzig.
The Kaiser-Frazer Corporation was the result of a partnership between automobile executive Joseph W. Frazer and industrialist Henry J. Kaiser. In 1947, the company acquired the automotive assets of Graham-Paige, of which Frazer had been president before the Second World War. Kaiser-Frazer was the only new US automaker to achieve success after World War II, if only for a few years.
The company was founded on July 25, 1945 and in 1946 K-F displayed prototypes of their two new cars at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City. The Kaiser was of an advanced front wheel drive design while the Frazer was an upscale conventional rear wheel drive car. The production costs and the limited time available prevented the front wheel drive design from seeing production so the new 1947 Kaiser and Frazer shared bodies and powertrains. Being some of the first newly designed cars to hit the market while the "Big Three" were still marketing their pre-war designs, the Kaisers and Frazers made quite an exciting entrance. Kaiser and Frazer would continue to share bodies and engines through 1950 with different exterior and interior trim.
Henry Kaiser had no automotive marketing experience while Joseph
Melkus was a marque of single seat racing cars and sport cars founded by the race driver Heinz Melkus in Dresden in East Germany. The company existed from 1959 to 1986, and then from 2009 to 2012. The cars originally used engines from Wartburgs and many of the other parts came from Wartburgs and Trabants. The racing cars competed in Formula 3, Formula Junior and Formula E. The 2009 to 2012 models used engines from Toyota and Volkswagen.
The only road car the company produced from 1959 to 1986 was the Melkus RS 1000. It was a sleek sports car powered by a tuned mid-mounted Wartburg 3-cylinder 2-stroke engine. Most of the cars used the 992 cc version, but some of the later cars had the 1200 cc version. It had gullwing doors. 101 cars were made.
The company stopped making cars in 1986. In the early 1990s, Heinz Melkus and his family started running a BMW dealership in Dresden.
In December 2006, Melkus Engineering--a German company owned by Peter Melkus, son of Heinz Melkus--announced it would re-launch the RS 1000 sports car. A new model, the Melkus RS 2000 was produced from 2009 to 2012. It was originally to be powered by either an Opel or turbocharged 150–200 hp (110–150 kW; 150–200
Mercer was an American automobile manufacturer from 1909 until 1925. It was notable for its high-performance cars, especially the Type 35 Raceabout.
There was considerable talent and backing for the Mercer Automobile Company; Ferdinand Roebling, son of John A. Roebling, was the president, and his nephew Washington A. Roebling, II was the general manager. The Roeblings had extensive success with wire rope manufacturing and suspension bridge design; engineering was not a recent concept for them. The secretary-treasurer was John L. Kuser, who, with his brothers Frederick and Anthony, had amassed a fortune from banking, bottling and brewing.
Washington A. Roebling, II was friends with William Walter, who had been making a small number of high-quality automobiles in New York City. The Kusers owned a vacant brewery in Hamilton, New Jersey, and brought Walter and his car factory there in 1906. However, Walter found himself deeply in debt by 1909, so the Roeblings and Kusers bought him out in a foreclosure sale. They changed the company name to Mercer, named after Mercer County, New Jersey. Talented designers and race drivers contributed to the new effort, and the focus became proving
Nova Bus is a Canadian bus manufacturer in North America, owned by Volvo Buses, and headquartered in Saint-Eustache, Quebec, Canada.
The factory was originally a General Motors plant for building city transit buses intended for the Canadian market. In 1987 GM divested its entire bus holdings by selling them to Motor Coach Industries (MCI), itself formed from companies formerly owned by Greyhound Lines. The plant was used to produce the Classic model for sales in Canada, while GMC's Rapid Transit Series (RTS) product was moved to join MCI's own designs at Transportation Manufacturing Corporation in Roswell, New Mexico. MCI decided to divest its urban rapid transit models in 1993, and Nova Bus was created to take over the Classic and RTS models at the Saint-Eustache and Roswell plants.
The Classic and RTS were later dropped in order to concentrate on the Nova LFS, a low floor city bus, which was introduced in 1995. The last Classic model was produced in 1997. Sales of Nova LFS proved uncompetitive and Nova Bus closed their Roswell and Niskayuna, New York plants in 2002 to concentrate all efforts on the Canadian market. The Roswell plant was later taken over by a local consortium,
Waltham Manufacturing Company was a manufacturer of automobiles in Waltham, Massachusetts between 1902 and 1908.
Their first car was a light model sold as the Orient Buckboard. It seated 2 passengers and sold for just US$425, making it the lowest-priced automobile available. The vertically mounted air-cooled single-cylinder engine, situated at the rear of the car, produced 4 hp (3 kW). A 2-speed transmission was fitted. The car weighed 500 lb (227 kg) and had a 100 mi (161 km) range, though the complete lack of any bodywork made it less than practical for a long journey.
A more conventional car came in 1905 with front-mounted 4-cylinder engine and chain drive. It was made until 1908. In 1909, the company was reorganized as the Metz Company.
Royal Motor Car Company was a Brass Era manufacturer of automobiles in Cleveland, Ohio, in business from 1904 to 1911. It was the result of a reorganization of the Hoffman Company.
The 1904 Royal 16-H.P. Tourist was a touring car model. Equipped with a tonneau, it could seat five passengers and sold for US$ 2300. The vertically mounted water-cooled straight-2, situated at the front of the car, produced 16 hp (11.9 kW). A three-speed sliding transmission was fitted. The pressed steel-framed car weighed 1700 lb (771 kg). A modern cellular radiator was used, and the car rivaled the offerings of cross-town rival, Peerless.
In November 1907 the Royal Motor Company went into receivership. On December 2, 1908, a court judge authorized the sale of the company's assets to a new corporation named the Royal Tourist Car Company headed by Bostonian, George J. Dunham.
Saab /ˈsɑːb/ (or SAAB, an acronym for Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget), or Saab Automobile AB, is a Swedish car manufacturer.
It was formed in 1945 out of Saab AB, "Svenska Aeroplan AB (aktiebolaget)" (English: Swedish Aeroplane Limited), a Swedish aerospace and defence company, when Saab AB started a project to design a small automobile. The Saab 92, Saab's first production model, was launched in 1949. The parent company merged with Scania-Vabis in 1968, and ten years later, in 1978, launched the Saab 900, Saab's best-selling model. In the mid 1980s, the new Saab 9000 was launched and in 1989, the Saab car division of Saab-Scania was restructured into an independent company, Saab Automobile AB; General Motors (GM), with an investment of US$600 million, owned 50%. GM exercised its option to acquire the remaining Saab shares in 2000, spending US$125 million to turn the company into a wholly owned subsidiary. GM sold it to the Dutch automobile manufacturer Spyker Cars N.V. (now Swedish Automobile) in 2010.
After struggling to avoid insolvency throughout 2011, the company petitioned the Swedish court for bankruptcy following the failure of a Chinese consortium to complete a purchase of
The Stutz Motor Company was a producer of luxury cars based in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Production began in 1911 and continued through 1935. The marque reappeared in 1968 under the aegis of Stutz Motor Car of America, Inc., and with a newly defined modern retro-look. Although the company is still active today, actual sales of factory produced vehicles ceased in 1995. Throughout its history, Stutz was known as a producer of fast cars (America's first sports car) and luxury cars for the rich and famous.
The company was founded as the Ideal Motor Car Company in Indianapolis, Indiana in 1911. Ideal entered a car in the Indianapolis 500 that year and placed 11th, earning it the slogan, "the car that made good in a day". The next year, the founder, Harry C. Stutz, renamed the company Stutz Motor Company and began selling high-performance roadsters like the famous Stutz Bearcat. The Bearcat featured a brawny 4-cylinder T-head engine with four valves per cylinder, one of the earliest multi-valve engines. Stutz has also been credited with the development of "the under-slung chassis", an invention that greatly enhanced the safety and cornering of motor vehicles and one that is still in
The Thomas B. Jeffery Company was an American automobile manufacturer in Kenosha, Wisconsin from 1902 until 1916. The company manufactured the Rambler and Jeffery brand motorcars. It was preceded by the Gormully & Jeffery Manufacturing Company (a bicycle company) and it was the parent company to Nash Motors, thus one of the parent companies of American Motors and Chrysler.
Thomas B. Jeffery was an inventor and an industrialist. He was one of America's first entrepreneurs interested in automobiles in the late 19th century. In 1897, he built his first prototype motorcar. Thomas B. Jeffery was serious enough about automobiles to sell his stake in Gormully & Jeffery to the American Bicycle Company to finance the new car company.
Charles T. Jeffery's (Thomas' son) experimental prototypes of 1901 (Models A & B) used at least two radical innovations - steering wheels and front-mounted engines. By the time Charles was ready for production in 1902, his father had talked him out of these wild dreams and convinced him to stick with tillers and engines under the seat.
From 1902 until 1908, Jeffery moved steadily to bigger, more reliable models. Jeffery cars were built on assembly lines (the
The Union Automobile Company began to make automobiles in Union City, Indiana in 1902. It built the Union automobile from 1902 through 1905. The company was located in Union City, Indiana from 1902 to 1905. In 1905 it moved to Anderson, Indiana.
John William Lambert's first automobile marketing success was with the model called the "Union." The reason it was called the Union automobile was because of favorable agreements and concessions from Union City chamber of commerce. Most of the automobile components for the Union automobile were made at the Buckeye Manufacturing Company in Anderson, Indiana, owned and operated by Lambert.
The Union automobile was initially released in 1902. The first friction disk-drive gearless transmission automobile, as designed by Lambert, was on the road in 1901 as an experimental vehicle. The motor for the automobile was a pair of opposed 6 by 4-inch (100 mm) cylinders, far in front, crosswise, side chains to rear drivers. One model was a single seater that weighed 1,400 pounds (640 kg) and was equipped with a 4 horsepower (3.0 kW) motor. Another model was 1,800 pounds with a 7 horsepower (5.2 kW) motor. The motors were built by the Buckeye
Vauxhall Motors (/ˈvɒksɔːl/; registered name General Motors UK Limited) is a British automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Luton, United Kingdom and a subsidiary of Adam Opel AG, itself a wholly owned subsidiary of General Motors (GM). It was founded in 1857 as a pump and marine engine manufacturer, began manufacturing cars in 1903 and was acquired by GM in 1925. It has been the second-largest selling car brand in the UK for over two decades.
Vauxhall has major manufacturing facilities in Luton (commercial vehicles, owned by sister company IBC Vehicles) and Ellesmere Port, UK (passenger cars). The Luton plant currently employs around 1,085 staff and has a capacity of approximately 100,000 units. The Ellesmere Port plant currently employs around 2,100 staff and has a capacity of approximately 187,000 units. The current Vauxhall car range includes the Adam (City car), Agila (Microvan), Ampera (Extended Range Electric Vehicle), Astra (small family car), Corsa (supermini), Insignia (large family car), Meriva (mini MPV), Mokka (mini crossover SUV) and Zafira Tourer (compact MPV).
Since 1980 Vauxhall products have been largely identical to those of Opel, GM's German