An astronomical observatory, for the purposes of this type, is any structure that contains a telescope. This can include buildings, satellites, space probes, and aircraft.
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Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Spanish: Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, ORM) is an astronomical observatory located in the municipality of Garafía on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands. The observatory site is operated by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias which is based on nearby Tenerife, and it is part of European Northern Observatory.
The seeing statistics make it the second best location for optical and infrared astronomy in the Northern Hemisphere, after Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii. The site has some of the premier astronomical facilities in the Northern Hemisphere, including the adaptive optics corrected Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope which provides the highest resolution solar imaging of any telescope, and the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias which is the world's largest single-aperture optical telescope as of July 2009.
The observatory started with the Isaac Newton Telescope, which was moved to La Palma from the Royal Greenwich Observatory site at Herstmonceux Castle in Sussex, England in 1979. The move was beset with difficulties, and it is widely recognized that it would have been cheaper to have built a new telescope rather than moving an
The Fick Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Iowa State University. It is located southwest of Boone, Iowa and is named after Davenport, Iowa amateur astronomer Erwin W. Fick.
Iowa State University’s original telescope and observatory, located northwest of Ames, was donated by the family of Milo Mather of Clarksville, Iowa, following his death in 1960. Mather was an accomplished amateur astronomer and mechanical engineering graduate (1907) of Iowa State. In 1970, the mirror from his telescope was reconditioned and used in a newly reconfigured telescope, also named after Mather, and installed in the Erwin W. Fick Observatory.
Iowa State built its present observatory southwest of Boone, Iowa, in 1970. The facility was named after Erwin W. Fick (1897-1975), an amateur astronomer and retired member of the U.S. Corps of Engineers from Davenport, Iowa. Though Fick had never been to Ames, let alone graduated from Iowa State, he set up a trust through the ISU Foundation to help support Iowa State’s observatory. New imaging devices, such as the CCD (charge-coupled device) camera installed in 1990, and the short focal length of the telescope allow researchers to
The Calar Alto Observatory (Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán or Deutsch-Spanisches Astronomisches Zentrum, respectively "German-Spanish Astronomical Centre" and "Spanish-German Astronomical Centre") is an astronomical observatory owned and operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy) in Heidelberg, Germany, and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia) in Granada, Spain. It is located in Almería province in Spain on Calar Alto, a 2,168-meter (7,113 ft) high mountain in Sierra de Los Filabres.
The site was proposed in 1970, and was officially opened in July 1975 with the commissioning of its 1.2-meter (47 in) telescope. The site developed due German and Spanish cooperation in astronomy. Eventually 4 more telescopes were commissioned.
The Schmidt telescope was moved to Calar Alto in 1976 from the Hamburg Observatory at Bergedorf, where it had been completed in 1954.
The Max-Planck institute owns a 3.5-meter (138-inch), 2.2 m (87 in), and a 1.23 m (48 in) telescope, and an 80 cm (31 in) Schmidt reflector. There is also a 1.5 m (59 in) telescope that is owned and operated by the Spanish (by the
Onsala Space Observatory (OSO), the Swedish National Facility for Radio Astronomy, provides scientists with equipment to study the Earth and the rest of the Universe. The observatory operates two radio telescopes in Onsala, 45 km south of Göteborg, and takes part in several international projects. Examples of activities:
Onsala Space Observatory was founded in 1949 by professor Olof Rydbeck. The observatory is hosted by Department of Earth and Space Science at Chalmers University of Technology, and is operated on behalf of the Swedish Research Council.
The 25.6 m diameter, polar mount decimeter-wave telescope in Onsala is equipped with receivers for frequencies up to 7 GHz. It is used for astronomical VLBI observations. It is also operated as a single dish for studies of molecular clouds in the Galaxy. The telescope was built in 1963.
The 20 m diameter millimetre wave telescope in Onsala is equipped with receivers for frequencies up to 116 GHz. It is used for observations of millimetre wave emission from molecules in comets, circumstellar envelopes, and the interstellar medium in the Galaxy and in extragalactic objects. The telescope is enclosed in a radome of diameter 30 m.
The Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) was an astronomical observatory funded by NASA and located at the United States Geological Survey Flagstaff Science Campus atop McMillan Mesa in Flagstaff, Arizona. Its purpose was to enable the Moon to be used as a radiance calibration source for Earth-orbiting remote-sensing spacecraft. The program ceased observations in September of 2003, but the facility is maintained for calibration and instrument characterization purposes. It consists of two 20 cm (7.9 in) Ritchey-Chrétien telescopes attached to an equatorial mount made by DFM Engineering. One telescope is fitted with a sensor optimized for visible and near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths, while the other is tuned to short-wavelength infrared (SWIR). The VNIR camera began operations in 1995 and the SWIR camera in 1997.
The Zagreb Astronomical Observatory (in Croatian: Zvjezdarnica) is the astronomical observatory located in Zagreb, the Croatian capital, and founded in 1903. It is managed by the Zagreb Astronomical Society; its main purpose is educational.
The main telescope under the dome is a 175/1400 mm TMB APO refracting telescope installed in September 2007. The old Zeiss 130/1950 mm telescope has been mounted in parallel and will, after the acquisition of the needed equipment, be used to photograph the Sun in the Hα line. The third telescope, a Coronado PST Hα 40/400 mm, is installed next to the main telescope and is used for visual observation of the Sun in the Hα line. There are also several smaller portable telescopes (Celestron 200/2000mm, Konus refractor 80/900mm etc.) and binoculars. The photo lab makes black and white photographs.
The Observatory stands in the city center, a couple of streets away from the main city square. It is located in a tower called Popov Toranj (Priest's Tower), erected during the Tatar scare in the 13th century and formerly owned by the Archbishop of Zagreb.
It comprises the last floor of the building complex in Opatička 22, with the telescope dome on a
The James Richard Jewett Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Washington State University. It is located in Pullman, Washington (USA). It houses the second-largest refracting telescope in the state of Washington. The 12-inch lens was originally ground and polished between 1887 and 1889 by Alvan Clark & Sons for an amateur astronomer, who died before the telescope could be assembled. The lens was put into storage, and was purchased by the university when it came up for auction in the 1950s. Its present dome was dedicated in 1953 and it is named after the father of a supporter of the observatory, Mr. George Jewett of Spokane.
The observatory is not used for research purposes; it is primarily used for undergraduate student labs and training, and houses ten portable telescopes for this purpose. Additionally, the telescope is open for use to any students who have been instructed in its use, as well as to the public on monthly star party nights.
Goodsell Observatory is a building on the campus of Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. It was constructed in 1887 and was, at the time, the largest observatory in the state of Minnesota. It was named for Charles Goodsell, who donated much of the land on which Carleton was founded. Goodsell was built to replace Carleton's original observatory (built in 1877), which was razed in 1905 to make room for Laird Hall. Goodsell Observatory is on the National Register of Historic Places.
The observatory's first central telescope, purchased in 1877, was a 8¼" refractor manufactured by Alvan Clark and Sons. In 1890, the college acquired a 16.2" refractor produced by the famous John Brashear of Pennsylvania. It was then the twelfth largest refractor in the world and sixth largest in the United States. In 1922, Carleton professor Edward Fath constructed one of the nation's first photoelectric photometers in Goodsell.
From the late 19th century to the end of the World War II, Goodsell kept the time for every major railroad west of the Mississippi, including Northern Pacific Railway, the Great Northern Railway, the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Railroad, and the St. Paul, Minneapolis,
The Georgetown University Astronomical Observatory (also the Heyden Observatory and Francis J. Heyden Observatory) was founded in 1841 by Father James Curley of the Department of Physics at Georgetown College. Father Curley chose a site on the College grounds, planned the building and supervised its construction to its completion in 1844. Costs were initially supported by Rev. Thomas Meredith Jenkins, S.J., and Rev. Charles H. Stonestreet, S.J., who were Georgetown professors at the time. The Observatory was used in 1846 to determine the latitude and longitude of Washington, D.C., which Curley determined to be longitude 38°54′26N and latitude 5818.29.
In 1850, Benedict Sestini used the Observatory to make a series of sunspot drawings, which were engraved and published (44 plates) as "Appendix A" of the Naval Observatory volume for 1847, printed in 1853. In 1888, Johann Georg Hagen was named director. In 1928, Paul McNally became director. Francis J. Heyden, S.J. became director in 1945, and continued research into solar eclipses. In 1972 the Department of Astronomy was closed, and with it the Observatory, which was renamed for Father Heyden, fell out of use. Light pollution from
The Red Barn Observatory was established in 2006 and is dedicated to follow-up observations and detections of asteroids, comets, and Near-Earth objects. Plans for the observatory began in 2002 and construction was completed in 2005. During the month of August 2006, the observatory code H68 was assigned by the Minor Planet Center. Currently, the observatory is of the "roll-off" roof type, but plans are in the works to install an 8-foot dome in the summer of 2007.
The observatory is located in Ty Ty, Georgia, USA - well away from any city light pollution and is in an excellent location to perform the follow-up observations of Near-Earth objects and Potentially Hazardous Asteroids that are near the vicinity of Earth on a regular basis. Also performed in the observatory is an early evening sky survey (such as Palomar sky survey or NEAT - Near Earth Asteroid Tracking) to search for new comets and/or other unknown objects low on the horizon that can be easily overlooked due to the position of the object. Most amateur discovered comets are found in this location.
Future plans for the observatory include an amateur based asteroid study program that will allow the "amateur astrometrist"
Mount John University Observatory (MJUO), is New Zealand's premier astronomical research observatory. It is situated at 1,029 metres (3,376 ft) ASL atop Mount John at the northern end of the Mackenzie Basin in the South Island, and was established in 1965. There are many telescopes on site including: one 0.4m, two 0.6m, one 1.0m, and a new 1.8m 'MOA Telescope' (see below) The nearest population center is the resort town Lake Tekapo (pop.
The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (国立天文台, kokuritsu tenmondai) (NAOJ) is an astronomical research organisation comprising several facilities in Japan, as well as an observatory in Hawaii. It was established in 1988 as an amalgamation of three existing research organizations - the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory of the University of Tokyo, International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa, and a part of Research Institute of Atmospherics of Nagoya University.
In the 2004 reform of national research organizations, NAOJ became a division of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences.
In 2004, NAOJ, in alliance with four other national institutes - the National Institute for Basic Biology, the National Institute for Fusion Science, the National Institute for Physiological Sciences, and the Institute for Molecular Science - established the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) to promote collaboration among researchers of the five constituent institutes.
Lowell Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona. Lowell Observatory was established in 1894, placing it among the oldest observatories in the United States, and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1965. In 2011, the Observatory was named one of "The World's 100 Most Important Places" by TIME.
The Observatory's original 24-inch (0.61 m) Alvan Clark Telescope is still in use today for public education. Lowell Observatory hosts 85,000 visitors per year at their Steele Visitors Center who take guided daytime tours and view various wonders of the night sky through the Clark Telescope and other telescopes. It was founded by astronomer Percival Lowell, and run for a time by his third cousin Guy Lowell of Boston's well-known Lowell family. The current trustee of Lowell Observatory is William Lowell Putnam III, grandnephew of founder Percival Lowell and son of long-time trustee Roger Putnam. The position of trustee is historically handed down through the family.
The observatory operates several telescopes at two locations in Flagstaff. The main facility, located on Mars Hill just west of downtown Flagstaff, houses the original 24-inch (0.61 m) Clark
Radcliffe Observatory was the astronomical observatory of the University of Oxford from 1773 until 1934, when the Radcliffe Trustees sold it and erected a new observatory in Pretoria, South Africa. It is a grade I listed building.
The observatory was founded and named after John Radcliffe by the Radcliffe Trustees. It was built on the suggestion of the astronomer Thomas Hornsby, who was occupying the Savilian Chair of Astronomy, following his observation of the notable transit of Venus across the sun's disc in 1769 from a room in the nearby Radcliffe Infirmary.
The observatory building commenced to designs by Henry Keene in 1772, and was completed in 1794 to the designs of James Wyatt, based on the Tower of the Winds in Athens.
Until 1839, the Savilian Chair of Astronomy was responsible for the observatory, at this date the appointment of George Henry Sacheverell Johnson an astronomer with no observational experience caused the creation of the new role of Radcliffe Observer.
Because of the viewing conditions, weather, and urban development at Oxford, the observatory was moved to South Africa in 1939. Eventually that site, in Pretoria, also became untenable and the facility was
Crow Observatory is a historic observatory housed in Crow Hall on the Danforth Campus of Washington University in St. Louis. The historic telescope is still in use, and the observatory is open to the public.
The University purchased the observatory's refractor telescope in 1863. The telescope is named the Yeatman refractor, after philanthropist James Yeatman who donated US$1,500 for its construction. The Yeatman Refractor has an aperture of 6 inches, with lenses made by Henry Fitz & Co. The transit was made in 1882, and the clock was made in 1885.
The observatory was originally located on 18th Street in St. Louis City; it was moved with the rest of the University to the Danforth Campus upon the conclusion of the 1904 World's Fair. The current observatory dome was built in 1954, when the Yeatman refractor telescope was relocated from where Louderman Hall currently stands.
Yuba City Astronomical Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned by the Doscher Family Trust and operated primarily by trustee Richard J. Doscher of Yuba City, California. It is located South of Yuba City, which is adjacent to the Sutter Buttes Mountain Range.
The observatory has one 9 foot dome and permanent pier housing an 11-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. It was established on September 22, 2010. Primary work consists of planetary, deep sky, NEO studies, astrometry, photometry and astrophotography. IAU/MPC assignment number pending.
Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory, or AST/RO, was a 1.7 meter diameter off-axis telescope for research in astronomy and aeronomy at wavelengths between 0.2 and 2 mm. The instrument operated between 1994 and 2005 at the South Pole with four heterodyne receivers and three acousto-optical spectrometers. It was replaced by the 10-m South Pole Telescope.
J A Jones Hoober Observatory is a privately owned observatory located in South Yorkshire, England near to the villages of Hoober and Wentworth, 4 miles (6.4 km) North-northwest of Rotherham. It can be found about 300 metres (0.19 mi) east of Hoober Stand. The observatory is owned and operated by Mexborough & Swinton Astronomical Society.
The observatory consists of a 5 metres (16 ft) square building topped by a 5 metre diameter dome. The observatory was built by the members between 1991 and 1993. Originally the dome was only 4 metres (13 ft) in diameter. In 1999 a major refurbishment of the observatory was completed including a new 5 metre diameter dome, which was designed & built by the members over the preceding 3–4 years.
The observatory originally contained the Rayna Telescope, an 18 inches (460 mm) newtonian reflector on a fork mount, this was dedicated to long standing member Ray Jackson and his wife Ina. The telescope was built by Peter Drew of the Amateur Astronomy Centre, Todmorden. It was based around a 18 inch f/4.5 parabolic mirror ground by John Owen. Whilst in use the Rayna telescope was the largest telescope open to the public in South Yorkshire.
Kleť Observatory (Hvězdárna Kleť) is an astronomical observatory in the Czech Republic. It is situated in South Bohemia, south of the summit of Mount Kleť, near the town of České Budějovice. Constructed in 1957, the observatory is at an altitude of 1070 meters (3510 feet) and has around 150 clear nights per year.
Astronomer Antonín Mrkos worked here from 1966-1991.
Two main astronomers who currently work at Kleť Observatory are Jana Tichá and her husband Miloš Tichý.
The observatory has two primary telescopes:
Asteroid 5583 Braunerova was discovered by A. Mrkos at Klet Observatory in 1989. The asteroid 7796 Járacimrman was (re)discovered at Kleť Observatory on 16 January 1996 by Zdeněk Moravec and was designated 1996 BG. It was observed until April 1996 and then in June and July 1997. It was discovered to be a lost asteroid which had previously been observed twice: at the Brera-Merate Observatory in northern Italy on 12 December 1973 and at Siding Spring Observatory (Australia) on 8 and 9 July 1990.
The UBC Liquid-Mirror Observatory was made in 1995 for testing of liquid-mirror telescope technology. It is located not far from the University of British Columbia, at a distance convenient for students to use, but far enough from Vancouver that city lights do not drown the starlight.
The UBC Liquid-Mirror Observatory uses a liquid mirror telescope, which is a reflecting telescope that uses a pool of mercury to produce a high resolution image.
The UBC Liquid-Mirror Observatory's telescope uses a simple design, which can be seen here.
Fenton Hill Observatory is an astronomical research facility operated by Los Alamos National Laboratory in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico, about 35 miles (56 km) west of Los Alamos. The site is home to several astronomical experiments and observatories spanning 30 acres (120,000 m). It is also known as Technical Area 57 (TA-57) and is located at an elevation of 8,700 feet (2,700 m) in a region shielded from light pollution. Los Alamos National Laboratory has a use agreement with the Forest Service for the 30 acres (120,000 m), which is located near Fenton Lake State Park.
The site was originally developed for a project in geothermal energy known as Hot Dry Rock, which was one of the first attempts at geothermal power. The project began in 1974 and was run intermittently until finally being terminated in 1995. At that time the site was set to be turned back to the Forest service.
A number of potential users of the site at Los Alamos met in late 1995 to propose making Fenton Hill into a research station for astronomy, geosciences, and educational outreach programs. A Fenton Hill Observatory steering committee was formed from Los Alamos staff and potential outside users. The Los
The Northeastern Space Radio Observatory (Portuguese: Rádio-Observatório Espacial do Nordeste - ROEN) is a 14.2 m (47 ft) radio dish antenna located in the municipality of Eusébio in the state of Ceará, Brazil, approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of Fortaleza. The facility is owned by the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) and managed by the Center of Radio Astronomy and Astrophysics at Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (CRAAM). It was initially funded by several by Brazilian institutions and the United States National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). It has been operating since 1993 and is used primarily for geodetic very long baseline interferometry (VLBI).
Maragheh observatory (Persian: رصدخانهٔ مراغه) was an institutionalized astronomical observatory which was established in 1259 CE under the patronage of the Ilkhanid Hulagu and the directorship of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, an Iranian scientist and astronomer. Located in the heights west of Maragheh, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran, it was once considered one of the most prestigious observatories in the world.
It was financed by waqf revenues, which allowed it to continue to operate even after the death of its founder and was active for more than 50 years. The observatory served as a model for later observatories including the 15th-century Ulugh Beg Observatory at Samarkand, the 16th-century Taqi al-Din observatory at Istanbul, and the 18th-century Jai Singh observatory at Jaipur.
Considerable parts of the groundwork are preserved in the ruins. In a 340 to 135 m² citadel-like area stood a four-story circular stone building of 28 m diameter. The mural quadrant to observe the positions of the stars and planets was aligned with the meridian. This meridian served as Prime meridian for the tables in the Zij-i Ilkhani, as we nowadays apply the meridian which passes the Royal Greenwich
The Ohio State University Radio Observatory was a Kraus-type radio telescope located on the grounds of the Perkins Observatory at Ohio Wesleyan University from 1963 to 1998. Known as "Big Ear", the observatory was part of The Ohio State University's Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) project. Construction of the Big Ear began in 1956 and was completed in 1961, and it was finally turned on for the first time in 1963.
The observatory completed the Ohio Sky Survey in 1971, and from 1973–1995, Big Ear was used to search for extraterrestrial radio signals, making it the longest running SETI project in history. In 1977, the Big Ear received the noted Wow! signal. The observatory was disassembled in 1998 when developers purchased the site from the university and used the land to expand a nearby golf course. The design of the observatory is named after American physicist John D. Kraus (1910–2004), and is also used as the basis for the Nançay Radio Telescope.
From 1965–1971, the Big Ear was used to map wideband radio sources for the Ohio Sky Survey, its first sky survey for extraterrestrial radio sources. In 1972, the United States Congress voted to stop funding the Ohio Sky
Oriolo Romano Observatory is an amateur astronomical observatory in Oriolo Romano, Viterbo, Italy. Built in 2007, the observatory has a Celestron 8" Schmidt-Cassegrain F/10 telescope. The observatory was designed to be fully robotic, uses a QSI WS40 CCD camera with clear filter for data acquisition. The observatory is only used for astronomical research and educational outreach.Website contains a guide to Universities in the United States and in Italy specialized in Physics. Astrophysics and Astronomy. In addition to the "orioloromano observatory" being an astronomical observatory, it also functions as a local weather station with webcam always on line. The weather station's main purpose is to provide data for planning observing sessions by gathering information about the condition inside and outside the observatory. Conditions at the observatory are monitored and logged by a weather station. The station provides indoor and outdoor temperature as well as barometric pressure, humidity, rainfall, wind speed, direction and dew point. The data is reported real time, as well as logged. The station is configured to log and upload data to this website in 15 minute intervals. This data is
Rochester Institute of Technology Observatory is a small astronomical observatory owned and operated by Rochester Institute of Technology. It is located in Henrietta, New York (USA).
The observatory is primarily used to teach undergraduate astronomy labs, although some research relating to cataclysmic variables and asteroid occultations also takes place.
There are one telescope dome and one roll-off shed on the premises, both housing telescopes. RIT owns a 12' Meade telescope, a 16' telescope, and several smaller refracting telescopes. In addition, a two-element radio interferometer based on the SIMPLE design is being constructed and will be used as a teaching instrument to expose students in astronomy labs to observations at other wavelengths.
STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) is a solar observation mission. Two nearly identical spacecraft were launched into orbits around the sun that cause them to respectively pull farther ahead of and fall gradually behind the Earth. This will enable stereoscopic imaging of the Sun and solar phenomena, such as coronal mass ejections.
The two STEREO spacecraft were launched at 0052 UTC on October 26, 2006 from Launch Pad 17B at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida on a Delta II 7925-10L launcher into highly elliptical geocentric orbits. The apogee reached the Moon's orbit. On December 15, 2006, on the fifth orbit, the pair swung by the Moon for a gravitational slingshot. Because the two spacecraft were in slightly different orbits, the "ahead" (A) spacecraft was ejected to a heliocentric orbit inside Earth's orbit while the "behind" (B) spacecraft remained temporarily in a high earth orbit. The B spacecraft encountered the Moon again on the same orbital revolution on January 21, 2007, ejecting itself from earth orbit in the opposite direction from spacecraft A. Spacecraft B entered a heliocentric orbit outside the Earth's orbit. Spacecraft A will take 347 days
Göttingen Observatory (Universitätssternwarte Göttingen (Göttingen University Observatory) or königliche Sternwarte Göttingen (Royal Observatory Göttingen)) is a German astronomical observatory located in Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany.
In 1802, George III of the United Kingdom, who was also was the prince-elector of Hanover, allocated 22,680 thalers for a new observatory. However, its construction was delayed by the French Revolutionary Wars and extended from 1803 until 1816. Carl Friedrich Gauß became the first director of the Observatory. Some problems of the building were fixed by renovations between 1887 and 1888. Due to the construction of a new telescope at Hainberg. observations at Göttingen Observatory were halted in 1933. The Observatory buildings were used by the University and after renovations, most recently in 2005, they were restored to their original appearance. Since 2009, the Observatory has housed the Lichtenberg-Kolleg Institute for Advanced Study.
To improve observations, a new observatory was planned on the Hainberg, a small hill south east of Göttingen. After the opening of a new observatory there in 1929, the instruments were transferred from Göttingen to
Leiden University (Dutch: Universiteit Leiden), located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. The university was founded in 1575 by William, Prince of Orange, leader of the Dutch Revolt in the Eighty Years' War. The royal Dutch House of Orange-Nassau and Leiden University still have a close relationship. The Queens Juliana and Beatrix and crown-prince Willem-Alexander studied at Leiden University.
Leiden University has six faculties, over 50 departments and enjoys an outstanding international reputation. In 2012 Leiden was the highest ranked university in the Netherlands in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, where it was rated as the 64th best university worldwide. Shanghai Jiao Tong University's 2011 Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked Leiden University as the 65th best university worldwide. The Times Higher Education World University Rankings consistently rank Leiden University as the best university in Continental Europe for Arts and Humanities. The University is associated with ten leaders and Prime Ministers of the Netherlands including the current Prime Minister Mark Rutte, eight foreign leaders among them the 6th
Purple Mountain Observatory (Chinese: 紫金山天文台; pinyin: Zĭjīnshān Tiānwéntái), also known as Zijinshan Astronomical Observatory, is an astronomical observatory located on the Purple Mountain in Nanjing, China.
The longtime director of the observatory (from 1950 to 1984) was Zhang Yuzhe (张钰哲) (Y. C. Chang).
The observatory discovered the periodic comets 60P/Tsuchinshan and 62P/Tsuchinshan, and also the non-periodic C/1977 V1 (Tsuchinshan), also known as Comet 1977 X.
Many asteroids were also discovered at the observatory, including the Trojan asteroids 2223 Sarpedon, 2260 Neoptolemus, 2363 Cebriones, 2456 Palamedes, as well as the eponymous 3494 Purple Mountain.
Union Observatory was an astronomical observatory located in the suburb Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa. It bears IAU code 078.
Known as the Transvaal Observatory in its early years, it became the Republic Observatory in 1961. Well remembered for the quality of its Directors, work done on minor planets and the discovery of Proxima Centauri, growing light pollution problems in Johannesburg led to its closure in 1971-1972.
At that time the South African government decided to amalgamate all astronomical research into one body, which later became known as the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO); it has its headquarters in Cape Town and has Sutherland as its outstation. The main Cape telescopes were moved to Sutherland, and the Radcliffe Observatory at Pretoria was also dismantled.
Union Observatory went through a number of name changes:
Its directors were:
The Beijing Ancient Observatory (simplified Chinese: 北京古观象台; traditional Chinese: 北京古觀象台; pinyin: Běijīng Gǔ Guānxiàngtái) is a pretelescopic observatory located in Beijing, China. The revolutionary tools used within this ancient observatory were built in 1442 during the Ming Dynasty, and later amended during the Qing.
As one of the oldest observatories in the world, the Beijing Ancient Observatory grounds cover an area of 10,000 square meters. The observatory itself is located on a 15 meter tall brick platform and about 40 x 40 square meters wide, an extant portion of the old Ming Dynasty era city wall that once encircled Beijing. Several of the bronze astronomical instruments are on the platform, and other armillary spheres, sundials, and other instruments are located nearby at ground level. It is operated as a museum in affiliation with Beijing Planetarium.
It was said that in 1227, the Jin Dynasty transferred the ancient astronomical instruments from Kaifeng to the first observatory in Beijing. In 1279, the succeeding Mongols under Kublai Khan built a new observatory just north of the current observatory. After the Mongols, Zhu Yuanzhang, the founding Ming Emperor, transferred
The Gerard P. Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) was a national facility operated by NASA to support research in infrared astronomy. The observation platform was a highly modified C-141A jet transport aircraft with a range of 6,000 nautical miles (11,000 km), capable of conducting research operations up to 48,000 feet (14 km).
The KAO was based at the Ames Research Center, NAS Moffett Field, in Sunnyvale, California. It began operation in 1974 as a replacement for an earlier aircraft, the Galileo Observatory, a converted Convair CV-990 (N711NA), that was destroyed in a collision with a U.S. Navy P-3C Orion patrol aircraft in 1973.
The KAO's telescope was a conventional Cassegrain reflector with a 36-inch (91.5 cm) aperture, designed primarily for observations in the 1 to 500 μm spectral range. Its flight capability allowed it to rise above almost all of the water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere (allowing observations of infrared radiation, which is blocked before reaching ground-based facilities), as well as travel to almost any point on the Earth's surface for an observation.
The KAO made several major discoveries, including the first sightings of the rings of Uranus in 1977 and a
The Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing (AMOS) observatory is an Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) operating location on Maui, Hawaii, with a twofold mission. First, it conducts the research and development mission on the Maui Space Surveillance System (MSSS) at the Maui Space Surveillance Complex (MSSC). Second, it oversees operation of the Maui High Performance Computing Center (MHPCC). AFRL's research and development mission on Maui was formally called AMOS; the use of the term AMOS has been widespread throughout the technical community for over thirty years and is still used today at many technical conferences.
The accessibility and capability of the Maui Space Surveillance System provides an unequaled opportunity to the scientific community by combining state-of-the-art satellite tracking with a facility supporting research and development.
The Maui Space Surveillance System, is routinely involved in numerous observing programs and has the capability of projecting lasers into the atmosphere.
Virtually year-round viewing conditions are possible due to the relatively stable climate. Dry, clean air and minimal scattered light from surface sources enable visibility
The Mount Pleasant Radio Observatory is a radio astronomy based observatory owned and operated by University of Tasmania, located 20 km east of Hobart in Cambridge, Tasmania. It is home to three radio astronomy antennas and the Grote Reber Museum.
The observatory has three radio telescopes: the Mount Pleasant 26 metre antenna, the 14 metre Vela Antenna and a 12 metre AuScope VLBI Antenna. The Observatory is linked to the University of Tasmania's Hobart campus with a 25 km fibre optic cable, installed in 2007.
The 14 m Vela telescope was constructed in 1981 as a dedicated instrument for observation of the Vela Pulsar. The telescope has tracked the pulsar 18 hours a day, nearly continuously for over 20 years.
The 26 metre Radio dish came from the Orroral Valley Tracking Station, ACT, where it was used as a satellite tracker within the Spacecraft Tracking and Data Acquisition Network and then for support to NASA manned missions. The 26 metre telescope is used in Australia's very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) network.
The University of Tasmania also operates three other radio astronomy antennas: the 30 metre Ceduna Radio Observatory (SA) and two additional AuScope 12 metre
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory is a research facility founded in 1960 and located south-west of Okanagan Falls, British Columbia, Canada. The site houses three instruments – an interferometric radio telescope, a 26-m single-dish antenna, and a solar flux monitor – and supports engineering laboratories. The DRAO is operated by the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics of the National Research Council of the Canadian government. The observatory was named an IEEE Milestone for first radio astronomical observations using VLBI.
The interferometric array consists of seven nine-meter, metal-mesh dish antennas along a 600-m east-west line. The antennas are equipped with single-circular polarisation receivers at 408 MHz and dual circular receivers at 1420 MHz, from which all four Stokes parameters may be formed. A spectrometer may also be employed at 1420 MHz for study of the 21-cm hydrogen line.
The single metal-mesh antenna can be equipped to observe at 408 MHz and at 1.5, 2.7, 4.9, 6.6, and 8.4 GHz, including the hydrogen line near 1.4 GHz, the OH lines around 1.6 GHz, and the methanol line near 6.6 GHz.
The monitor consists of two solid-surface dish antennas simultaneously
The Hartung–Boothroyd Observatory (HBO) is located atop Mount Pleasant near the Cornell University in Ithaca, New York (USA). It is used mainly as a teaching facility for upper-level astronomy classes. The observatory is named in honor of M. John Hartung and Samuel L. Boothroyd. The telescope construction began in the 1930s and the observatory was built in 1974. The facility contains a 25-inch telescope and is equipped with various instruments.
The main mirror was constructed as 1/8-scale practice before making the 200-inch Palomar Observatory mirror. This test mirror sat in storage for many years before being put to good use at HBO.
The Lick Observatory is an astronomical observatory, owned and operated by the University of California. It is situated on the summit of Mount Hamilton, in the Diablo Range just east of San Jose, California, USA. The observatory is managed by the University of California Observatories, with headquarters on the University of California, Santa Cruz campus, where its scientific staff moved in the mid-1960s.
Lick Observatory is the world's first permanently occupied mountain-top observatory.
The observatory, in a Classical Revival style structure, was constructed between 1876 and 1887, from a bequest from James Lick. In 1887 Lick's body was buried under the future site of the telescope, with a brass tablet bearing the inscription, "Here lies the body of James Lick".
Before construction could begin, a road to the site had to be built. All of the construction materials had to be brought to the site by horse and mule-drawn wagons, which could not negotiate a steep grade. To keep the grade below 6.5%, the road had to take a very winding and sinuous path, which the modern-day road (SR 130) still follows. Tradition maintains that this road has exactly 365 turns. (This is approximately
The Paris Observatory (in French, Observatoire de Paris or Observatoire de Paris-Meudon) is the foremost astronomical observatory of France, and one of the largest astronomical centres in the world. Its historic main building is to be found on the Left Bank of the Seine in central Paris.
Administratively, it is a grand établissement of the French Ministry of National Education, with a status close to that of a public university. Its missions include:
It maintains a solar observatory at Meudon (48°48′18.32″N 2°13′51.61″E / 48.8050889°N 2.2310028°E / 48.8050889; 2.2310028) and a radio astronomy observatory at Nançay. It was also the home to the International Time Bureau until its dissolution in 1987.
Its foundation lies in the ambitions of Jean-Baptiste Colbert to extend France's maritime power and international trade in the 17th century. Louis XIV promoted its construction starting in 1667, and it being completed in 1671. It thus predates the Royal Greenwich Observatory in England which was founded in 1675. The architect of the Paris Observatory was Claude Perrault whose brother, Charles, was secretary to Colbert and superintendent of public works. Optical instruments were
The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) for the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Department of Defense. Located in Northwest Washington, D.C., it is one of the pre-1900 astronomical observatories located in an urban area; at the time of its construction, it was far from the light pollution thrown off by the (then-smaller) city center. Today, the observatory's primary observational work is done at the U.S. Navy's higher elevation United States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station (NOFS) near Flagstaff, Arizona. USNO also has an "Alternate Master Clock" site in Colorado Springs, CO which, with the "Master Clock", provides precise time to the GPS satellite constellation run by the U.S. Air Force; and it performs radio VLBI-based positions of quasars with numerous global collaborators, in order to produce Earth Orientation parameters. Aside from its scientific mission, since 1974, the Observatory is the official residence of the Vice President of the United States.
Established by the order of the Secretary of the Navy John Branch on 6 December 1830 as the
Vega 1 (along with its twin Vega 2) is a Soviet space probe part of the Vega program. The spacecraft was a development of the earlier Venera craft. They were designed by Babakin Space Center and constructed as 5VK by Lavochkin at Khimki.
The craft was powered by twin large solar panels and instruments included an antenna dish, cameras, spectrometer, infrared sounder, magnetometers (MISCHA), and plasma probes. The 4,920 kg craft was launched by a Proton 8K82K rocket from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Tyuratam, Kazakh SSR. Both Vega 1 and 2 were three-axis stabilized spacecraft. The spacecraft were equipped with a dual bumper shield for dust protection from Halley's comet.
The decent module arrived at Venus on 11 June 1985, two days after being released from the Vega 1 flyby probe. The module, a 1500 kg, 240 cm diameter sphere, contained a surface lander and a balloon explorer. The flyby probe performed a gravitational assist maneuver using Venus, and continued its mission to intercept the comet.
The surface lander was identical to that of Vega 2 as well as the previous five Venera missions. The objective of the probe was the study of the atmosphere and the exposed surface of the planet. The
The Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO) satellites were a series of four American space observatories launched by NASA between 1966 and 1972, which provided the first high-quality observations of many objects in ultraviolet light. Although two OAO missions were failures, the success of the other two increased awareness within the astronomical community of the benefits of space-based observations, and led to the instigation of the Hubble Space Telescope.
The first OAO was launched successfully on 8 April 1966, carrying instruments to detect ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma ray emission. Before the instruments could be activated, however, a power failure resulted in the termination of the mission after three days.
OAO-2 was launched on 7 December 1968, and carried 11 ultraviolet telescopes. It observed successfully until January 1973, and contributed to many significant astronomical discoveries. Among these were the discovery that comets are surrounded by enormous haloes of hydrogen, several hundred thousand kilometres across, and observations of novae which found that their UV brightness often increased during the decline in their optical brightness.
OAO-B carried a 38-inch UV
The Osservatorio Astrometrico Santa Lucia Stroncone (Santa Lucia Stroncone Astronomical Observatory) is located in north central Italy in the town of Stroncone in Umbria, about 6 km SSE of the city of Terni.
The observatory is at an elevation of 350 metres above sea level.
It is an active center for the discovery of asteroids.
Stroncone is also known as IAU/MPC observatory 589. It is located at longitude 12º38'24"E, latitude 42º30'55"N.
The Robinson Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the University of Central Florida College of Sciences in Orlando, Florida, USA.
Public viewings are held the first and third Wednesday of each month and are sponsored by the Central Florida Astronomical Society (CFAS).
The observatory was built at a cost of over $500,000 in 1995, with Herbert Robinson donating almost half of the total cost. The observatory was not officially named for Mr. Robinson until eight months after his death, on April 25, 1996.
Recently many updates and renovations have been performed on the observatory. The most recent addition was in 2007, adding high speed internet connection, a brand-new 20-inch (50 cm) Ritchey-Chrétien telescope, and the ability to remotely operate the telescope and dome.
Plans are under way to expand the Robinson Observatory to include two smaller telescopes with domes donated by the United States Air Force.
Vega 2 (along with Vega 1) is a Soviet space probe part of the Vega program. The spacecraft was a development of the earlier Venera craft. They were designed by Babakin Space Center and constructed as 5VK by Lavochkin at Khimki. The craft was powered by twin large solar panels and instruments included an antenna dish, cameras, spectrometer, infrared sounder, magnetometers (MISCHA), and plasma probes. The 4,920 kg craft was launched by a Proton 8K82K rocket from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Tyuratam, Kazakh SSR. Both Vega 1 and 2 were three-axis stabilized spacecraft. The spacecraft were equipped with a dual bumper shield for dust protection from Halley's Comet.
The descent module arrived at Venus on 15 June 1985, two days after being released from the Vega 2 flyby probe. The module, a 1500 kg, 240 cm diameter sphere, contained a surface lander and a balloon explorer. The flyby probe performed a gravitational assist maneuver using Venus, and continued its mission to intercept the comet.
The surface lander was identical to that of Vega 1 as well as the previous five Venera missions. The objective of the probe was the study of the atmosphere and the exposed surface of the planet. The
The Florence and George Wise Observatory (IAU code 097) is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Tel-Aviv University. It is located 5 km west of the city of Mitzpe Ramon in the Negev desert near the edge of the Ramon Crater, and it is the only professional astronomical observatory in Israel.
Founded in October 1971 as a collaboration between Tel-Aviv University and the Smithsonian Institution, and named after the late Dr. George S. Wise, the first President of the Tel-Aviv University. The observatory is a research laboratory of Tel-Aviv University. It belongs to the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences and it serves mainly staff and graduate students from the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics of the School of Physics and Astronomy, and from the Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences. Traditionally, the Wise Observatory Director is appointed by Tel-Aviv University's Dean of Exact Sciences from the senior academic staff of the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics.
The directors of the Wise Observatory since its foundation were:
The number of clear nights (zero cloudiness) at the Wise Observatory site is about 170 a year. The number
The Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Brera Astronomical Observatory) is an astronomical observatory. Built in the historic palace of Brera in Milan, Italy in 1764 by Jesuits, control of the observatory passed to the government in 1773 where it has remained.
Custer Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Custer Institute. Located in Southold, New York (USA), facing Peconic Bay and Shelter Island, Custer's location boasts some of the darkest skies on Long Island.
Long Island's oldest public observatory, Custer Institute was founded in 1927 by Charles Wesley Elmer (co-founder of the Perkin-Elmer Optical Company), along with a group of fellow amateur-astronomers. The name was adopted to honor the hospitality of Mrs. Elmer, the Grand Niece of General George Armstrong Custer. In 1942, the Custer Institute was incorporated as a non-profit educational corporation in the State of New York.
In 1938, the group purchased the land the institute presently occupies and initial construction was completed in the spring of 1939. The 100-seat lecture hall was added in 1945. In 1947, through donations by Charles Elmer and Mr. Polk, the 3-story tower/library and observatory dome were built. In 1954, Charles Elmer died; that same year, the Institute added the shed, which houses three sliding roof observatories. Over the years, Custer has acquired a large collection of telescopes of all sizes and descriptions. Most recently, this
The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope , formerly referred to as the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), is a space observatory being used to perform gamma-ray astronomy observations from low Earth orbit. Its main instrument is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), with which astronomers mostly intend to perform an all-sky survey studying astrophysical and cosmological phenomena such as active galactic nuclei, pulsars, other high-energy sources and dark matter. Another instrument aboard Fermi, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM; formerly GLAST Burst Monitor), is being used to study gamma-ray bursts.
Fermi was launched on 11 June 2008 at 16:05 GMT aboard a Delta II 7920-H rocket. The mission is a joint venture of NASA, the United States Department of Energy, and government agencies in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and Sweden.
Fermi includes two scientific instruments, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). The LAT is an imaging gamma-ray detector (a pair-conversion instrument) which detects photons with energy from about 30 million to about 300 billion electron volts (30 MeV to 300 GeV), with a field of view of about 20% of the sky; it may be thought
The Llano del Hato National Astronomical Observatory (Observatorio Nacional de Llano del Hato) is an astronomical observatory in Venezuela, run by the Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomia (CIDA). It is 3600 metres above sea level and comprises four telescopes, each in their own cupola or dome: a Schmidt camera, a reflecting telescope, a great refractor, and a double astrograph.
It is the main observatory in Venezuela. It is situated above the village of Llano del Hato close to Apartaderos in the Venezuelan Andes, about 50 kilometres north-east of Merida City, Merida State.
This facility is the closest major optical observatory to the equator lying at 8 degrees and 47.51 minutes north. It therefore has access to large parts of both the northern and southern skies. It benefits from very dark skies and its altitude of 3,600 metres (12,000 feet) above sea level means atmospheric turbulence is greatly reduced.
It comes under the auspices of CIDA (Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía) which is the main astronomical research body in Venezuela.
CIDA conducts many projects in collaboration with other research bodies, academic institutions and international bodies. It also conducts
The Vatican Observatory (Specola Vaticana) is an astronomical research and educational institution supported by the Holy See. Originally based in the Roman College of Rome, it now has headquarters and laboratory at the summer residence of the Pope in Castel Gandolfo, Italy, and an observatory at the Mount Graham International Observatory in the United States.
The Director of the Observatory is Fr. José Gabriel Funes an Argentinian Jesuit. Many distinguished scholars have worked at the Observatory. In 2008, the Templeton Prize was awarded to cosmologist Fr. Michał Heller, a Vatican Observatory Adjunct Scholar. In 2010, the George Van Biesbroeck Prize was awarded to former observatory director, the American Jesuit, Fr. George Coyne.
The Church has had long-standing interests in astronomy, due to the astronomical basis of the calendar by which holy days and Easter are determined. For instance, the Gregorian Calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII, was developed by the Jesuit mathematician Christoph Clavius at the Collegio Romano from astronomical data.
In the 18th century, the Papacy actively supported astronomy, establishing the Observatory of the Roman College in 1774. In
The Eileen M. Collins Observatory is a small astronomical observatory operated by Corning Community College in Corning, New York. It is named for astronaut Eileen Collins. The observatory is primarily used to teach astronomy classes, but the college also provides weekly viewing sessions for the public.
The observatory is equipped with reflecting telescopes ranging from four inches to 20 inches in diameter. The largest telescope is a one-tenth scale model of the Hale telescope at Mount Palomar. The smaller telescopes were assembled by the Elmira-Corning Astronomical Society. Additionally, the observatory maintains an eight-inch Schmidt–Cassegrain telescope and a solar telescope.
The Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, located on Observatory Hill, in Saanich, British Columbia, was completed in 1918 by the Canadian government. The Dominion Architect responsible for the building was Edgar Lewis Horwood Proposed and designed by John S. Plaskett in 1910 with the support of the International Union for Cooperation in Solar Research, when the 72-inch aperture telescope was constructed, it was planned to be the largest telescope in the world but delays meant it saw first light after the Hooker 100-inch telescope.
The observatory has been designated a National Historic Site of Canada as it is a world-renowned facility where many discoveries about the nature of the Milky Way were made, and it was one of the world’s main astrophysical research centres until the 1960s.
Centre of the Universe is the public interpretive centre for the observatory that is regularly open to the public between May and September. The centre features interactive exhibits about astronomy, the work of the observatory and its parent organization, the NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics. There are also tours of the telescope and programs in the planetarium and video theatre.
The building that
The Sternwarte Düsseldorf (a.k.a. Sternwarte Bilk, Sternwarte Charlottenruhe; Bilk Observatory or Düsseldorf-Bilk Observatory in English) in Düsseldorf-Bilk was founded in 1843 by Johann Friedrich Benzenberg for private purposes. The observatory's main feature was a refracting telescope with 1800mm focal length. After Benzenberg's death the observatory was bequeathed to the city of Düsseldorf. It was destroyed by bombing in 1943. Between 1852–1890, C. Robert Luther discovered 24 asteroids there, from Thetis, discovered on April 17, 1852 to Glauke, discovered February 20, 1890. These asteroids and planetoids are called the 24 Düsseldorf planets.
The asteroid 4425 Bilk is named in honour of the observatory. Near its original location, a benchmark was erected, displaying the observatory's burnt-out telescope.
Mount Lemmon Observatory (MLO), also known as the Mount Lemmon Infrared Observatory, is an astronomical observatory located on Mount Lemmon in the Santa Catalina Mountains approximately 28 kilometers (17 mi) northeast of Tucson, Arizona (USA). The site in the Coronado National Forest is used with special permission from the U.S. Forest Service by the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory, and contains a number of independently managed telescopes.
The MLO site was first developed in 1954 as Mount Lemmon Air Force Station, a radar installation of the Air Defense Command. Upon transfer to the Steward Observatory 1970, the site was converted to an infrared observatory. Until 2003, a radar tower operated from Fort Huachuca was used to track launches from the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.
Simeiz Observatory (also spelled "Simeis" or "Simeïs") was an astronomy research observatory until the mid 1950s. It is located on Mount Koshka, Crimea, Ukraine by the town of Simeiz.
Part of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, it is currently used for laser based studies of the orbits of satellites.
Simeiz observatory organized by an amateur astronomer and later Honored member of the Academy of Science, M. Maltsov In 1900 he built a tower for refractor at his land plot near Simeiz. In 1906 - a tower with dome for Zeiss double astrograph. Both towers are preserved and being used nowadays. I11 1908, M. Maltsov handed his observatory to Pulkovo observatory as a present. In 1912, the first astrophysical department of Pulkovo observatory was officially opened at the south of Russia. Simeiz observatory is situated at the level of 360m above sea level at southern mountainside of the Crimean mountains, at Koshka mountain. A main building was restored after the Second World War on the basis of old building in modernized style with balconies decorated by columns.
Research of interstellar space and star formation zones, discovery of star rotation, creation of stellar catalogues of ray
The United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS), is an astronomical observatory near Flagstaff, Arizona, USA. It is the national dark-sky observing facility for the U.S. Department of Defense, under the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). NOFS and USNO combine as the Celestial Reference Frame manager for the U.S. Secretary of Defense.
The USNO and NOFS are commands within the CNMOC claimancy, the latter which serves the U.S. Navy on meteorological and oceanographic matters in addition to overseeing astronomical ones. The Flagstaff Station is a command which was established by USNO (due to a century of eventually untenable light encroachment in Washington, D.C.) at a site five miles west of Flagstaff, Arizona in 1955, and has positions for 35 scientists (astronomers and astrophysicists), optical and mechanical engineers, and support staff. It is currently manned at 20 personnel. Its principal mission is to provide the military and others extremely accurate, ground-based astrometry (defined as the positions of celestial and artificial space objects), Celestial mechanics (dynamical motions of celestial objects) and photometry (defined as brightness variations, often
Wilder Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned by Amherst College. It is located on Snell Street in Amherst, Massachusetts (USA), and was designed by the architectural firm of McKim, Mead, and White. It was renovated in 2001, along with the telescope.
When the Wilder Observatory was built in 1903, the telescope was one of the largest telescopes in the world at 18 inches (0.46 m), and it remains one of the largest refractors. Built by Alvan Clark & Sons, the instrument was shipped to Chile in the summer of 1907 to observe the planet Mars. This was due to Mars being at opposition, which occurs approximately every twenty-six months. Because the Mars opposition of 1907 placed the planet low over the southern horizon from North America, it was deemed advantageous to ship a large instrument to a point below the equator, where Mars would appear directly overhead due to the more southerly latitude. Because of the extremely dry climate of the Atacama Desert, the telescope remained set up for the three-week period encompassing the opposition window in the open, without a shelter such as the dome under which it was normally housed. Following the opposition, which allowing for some
The Asiago Astrophysical Observatory (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Asiago, or Asiago Observatory for short) is an astronomical observatory (IAU code 043) owned and operated by the University of Padua. Founded in 1942, it is located on the plateau of Asiago, 90 km northwest of Padova near the town of Asiago. It has the Galilei telescopes.
Nearby (about 3.8 km to the southeast) is the Cima Ekar Observing Station, also known as the Stazione osservativa di Asiago Cima Ekar, IAU code 098.
Kirkwood Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Indiana University. It is located in Bloomington, Indiana (USA). It is named for Daniel Kirkwood (1814 - 1895) an astronomer and professor of mathematics at Indiana University who discovered the divisions of the asteroid belt known as the Kirkwood Gaps.
Built in 1900 and dedicated on May 15, 1901, the observatory was thoroughly renovated during the 2001-2002 academic year. Although the facility is no longer used for research, its original refracting telescope, built by Warner & Swasey Company with a 12-inch (0.3m) Brashear objective lens, also received a complete restoration. The telescope is now used regularly for outreach events and occasionally for undergraduate-level classes.
Kirkwood Observatory also has an instructional solar telescope.
The 22-metre Mopra Radio Telescope, located near Coonabarabran, New South Wales, is part of the Australia Telescope National Facility, operated by CSIRO. The name hails from the location of the facility close to Mopra Rock a geological formation overlooking the telescope. It is also close to the Siding Spring optical observatory in the Warrumbungle National Park.
For use as a single-dish, it has niche equipment allowing large bandwidths to be observed at millimeter-wavelengths. Being a part of the Australia Telescope, it is often used in conjunction with other AT antennas (e.g., the Australia Telescope Compact Array at Narrabri, and the 64-metre Parkes dish) to form a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) array.
Commissioned in 2006 was the Mopra Spectrometer (MOPS) "backend" which has a maximum instantaneous bandwidth of 8 GHz, it also has special zoom-modes which allow high resolution studies of up to 16 138 MHz bands over any 8 GHz. It is especially tuned to the high-performance millimeter-wavelength receivers. The main specialty of the instrument is the response of the 3-mm receiver which nominally can observe between 75-115 GHz. New downconversion equipment fine-tuned the
Mount Graham International Observatory (MGIO) is a division of Steward Observatory the research arm for the Department of Astronomy at The University of Arizona. It is located in southeast Arizona's Pinaleno Mountains near Mount Graham. Scientific researchers from around the world make use of the MGIO facilities.
Construction of MGIO began in 1989. MGIO currently operates and maintains facilities for three scientific organizations. The first two telescopes, the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope and the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope began operations in 1993. The Large Binocular Telescope, one of the world's largest and most powerful telescopes, is being commissioned at this time.
Public tours of the MGIO are conducted by the Eastern Arizona College's (EAC) Discovery Park Campus. Weather permitting tours are allowed between mid-April and mid-November. Reservations and permits must be obtained through EAC's Discovery Park Campus.
Nikolaev Observatory (full name is Research Institute “Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory”, Ukrainian: Науково-дослідницький інститут «Миколаївська астрономічна обсерваторія») is an astronomical observatory in Mykolaiv, Ukraine.
Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory was founded in 1821 by Admiral Aleksey Samuilovich Greig (1775–1845) as a Naval Observatory to ensure the Black Sea Fleet with time, nautical charts and teaching naval officers to utilize astronomical methods of orientation. The top of the Spassky hill, the city of Nikolaev’s highest hill (52M), was chosen as the construction site for the observatory. The designer of the main building project was Fyodor Ivanovich Wunsch (1770–1836), who was also the main architect of the Black Sea Admiralty. Karl Frederick Knorre was appointed to the position of first director on the recommendation of Vasiliy Yakovlevich Struve (1801–1883). In addition to his work in the preparation of naval officers, K. Knorre began the scientific astronomical research. In the history of astronomy he is known as the author of the Berlin Academy of Science’s 5th sheet of the star map, by the help of which the minor planets Astrea and Flora were discovered.
Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is a 258-kilogram robotic space probe that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter and became the first spacecraft to achieve escape velocity from the Solar System. The project was managed by the NASA Ames Research Center and the spacecraft was constructed by TRW Inc. Pioneer 10 was assembled around a hexagonal bus with a 2.74 m parabolic dish high-gain antenna oriented along the spin axis. Power was supplied by four radioisotope thermoelectric generators that provided a combined 155 W at the start of the mission.
Pioneer 10 was launched on March 2, 1972 by an Atlas-Centaur expendable vehicle from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Between July 15, 1972, and February 15, 1973, it became the first spacecraft to traverse the asteroid belt. Imaging of Jupiter began November 6, 1973, at a range of 25 million km, and a total of more than 500 images were transmitted. The closest approach to the planet was on December 4, 1973, at a range of 132,252 km. During the mission, the on-board instruments were used to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter, solar wind, cosmic rays, and eventually the far reaches of the solar system and
Shosanbetu observatory (jp: しょさんべつ天文台, or Shosanbetsu temmondai) is an astronomical observatory in Japan. It is located in the tiny fishermen’s village of Shosanbetsu in the northern-most island of Hokkaidō (141°47′08″E, 44°34′08″N, h=47m above sea level) on a cape facing the Sea of Japan.
It is held by the municipal government for scientific education and regular observations, and is open daily to the public (except Tuesdays and winter). It is equipped with a 650mm diameter cassegrain reflector and a few small portable telescopes.
Its surroundings are a seaside park that has a public-run inn with hot spring, field for sports, bathing spot and camp site, and is crowded with tourists on holidays. It is easy to get there by inter-city buses from Sapporo, the capital city of Hokkaido.
South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) is the national center for optical and infrared astronomy in South Africa. It was established in 1972. The observatory is run by the National Research Foundation of South Africa. The facility's function is to conduct research in astronomy and astrophysics. The primary telescopes are located in Sutherland, which is 370 kilometres (230 mi) from Observatory, Cape Town, which is where the headquarters is located.
The SAAO has international links worldwide that exchange scientific and technological collaboration. Contributions from the South African Astronomical Observatory to the science field include the development of a spherical aberration corrector and the Southern African Large Telescope, otherwise known as SALT.
The Noon Gun on Cape Town's Signal Hill is fired remotely by a time signal from the Observatory.
The history of the SAAO began when the Royal Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope was founded in 1820, the first scientific institution in Africa. Construction of the main buildings were completed in 1829 at a cost of £30,000 (equivalent to £2.2 million in 2012). The post of Her Majesty's astronomer at the Cape of Good Hope was
The Indian Astronomical Observatory (IAO), located near Leh in Ladakh, India, has one of the world's highest sites for optical, infrared and gamma-ray telescopes. It is operated by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. It is currently the second highest optical telescope in the world.
The Indian Astronomical Observatory stands on Mt. Saraswati, Digpa-ratsa Ri, Hanle in south-eastern Ladakh in the eastern Jammu and Kashmir state of India. Accessing the observatory, located near the Chinese border, requires a ten-hour drive from Leh, the district capital of Ladakh. The Observatory is at an altitude of 4,500 m (14,764 ft).
In the late 1980s a committee chaired by Prof. B. V. Sreekantan recommended that a national large optical telescope be taken up as a priority project. The search for the site of the observatory was taken up in 1992 under the leadership of Prof. Arvind Bhatnagar. The scientists from the Indian Institute of Astrophysics found the site at Hanle.
The first light was seen by the Observatory 2-metre telescope on the midnight hour between September 26 and September 27, 2000.
The satellite link between the Centre for Research and Education in Science and
The Arecibo Observatory is a radio telescope in the mailing area of the city of Arecibo, Puerto Rico. This observatory is operated by the company SRI International under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. This observatory is also called the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, although "NAIC" refers to both the observatory and the staff that operates it.
The 305 m (1,000 ft) radio telescope here is the world's largest single-aperture telescope. It is used in three major areas of research: radio astronomy, aeronomy, and radar astronomy observations of the larger objects of the Solar System. Scientists who want to use the telescope submit proposals, and these are evaluated by an independent scientific board.
Since it is visually distinctive, this telescope has made notable appearances in motion picture and television productions. The telescope received additional recognition in 1999 when it began to collect data for the SETI@home project.
This radio telescope has been listed on the American National Register of Historic Places beginning in 2008. It was the featured listing in the National Park Service's weekly list of October 3, 2008. The center was
The Astronaut Memorial Planetarium and Observatory, or AMPO, also known as the Brevard Community College Planetarium and Observatory, is an astronomical observatory and planetarium at Brevard Community College in Cocoa, Florida. The facility consists of a planetarium, public observatory, large-screen movie theater, exhibit halls, classroom (used by Brevard Community College) and an art gallery.
The 210-seat planetarium theater is a 70-foot overhead hemisphere onto which images from a variety of projectors are shone, to simulate the night sky and to provide multimedia educational and entertainment programs to area schools and to the public. On the rooftop public observatory, visitors can view planets, stars, galaxies and other objects directly through a 24-inch-diameter (610 mm) Ritchie-Chretien reflector telescope operated by observatory staff and members of the Brevard Astronomical Society.
The observatory is also home to The Discovery Theater, Science Quest Exhibit Hall, and the International Hall of Space Explorers. The Discovery Theater uses a 70 mm Iwerks movie projector to shown are science and nature films. It also has an art gallery which images of space are shown, such as
The King City weather radar station (ICAO site identifier CWKR) is a weather radar located in King City, Ontario, Canada. It is operated by Environment Canada and is part of the Canadian weather radar network.
The 16.45 hectare site is listed at an elevation of 360 m, and the tower is 27 m tall.
Mounted on the tower is a 5 cm weather radar, and a C-band dual-polarization radar system was installed at the site in 2004.
The station serves a number of research roles, and collects data to fulfill those observational needs. It is "responsible for providing national leadership on radar meteorology research applications".
In 1984, the Research Directorate of the Atmospheric Environment Service established the first Canadian weather radar with Doppler capability in King City. In 2004, a Dual-Polarization Radar was installed for further research. These systems are used for predictive purposes, and the data collected is used for weather forecasts for the Greater Toronto Area and the Golden Horseshoe.
Further, under the auspices of the Cloud Physics and Severe Weather Research Section of Environment Canada, the King Doppler Weather Radar Research Facility collects data for research.
Farpoint Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Northeast Kansas Amateur Astronomers' League, or NEKAAL. It is located 30 miles southwest of Topeka, Kansas, USA, near Auburn.
The observatory is located on the grounds of Mission Valley High School, whose Farpoint Asteroid Search Team (FAST) have an international reputation having discovered more than 330 non-NEO (Near Earth Orbit) asteroids in addition to many in NEO orbits.
NEKAAL received a $56,060 grant from NASA's Near Earth Objects (NEO) tracking program to acquire the Pitt telescope from Lindley Hall, Kansas University. After full refurbishment, the telescope will measure 27 inches in diameter, 9 feet 3 inches long and will weigh 1,600 pounds.
Bochum Observatory, often known in Bochum as Cape Kaminski (German: Kap Kaminski) is a research institute in Bochum, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany. The institution came into being through a private initiative. Its main areas of interest are in Radio Astronomy and Environmental Research.
In 1946, Professor Heinz Kaminski founded Bochum Observatory as a popular observatory of the local Volkshochschule. Since 1957 and the launch of the first artificial satellite – Sputnik 1, whose signal was detected in Bochum – this developed into the Institute for Space Research / Observatory Bochum. It was renamed in 1982 as the Institute for Environment- and Future Research [Institut für Umwelt- und Zukunftsforschung (IUZ)]. Included among its new tasks are involvement with sociological und global ecological themes. It is a recognized and supported further education institution of the Land of Nordrhein-Westfalen. Its educational work is aided by the Landeszentrale for Political Education of the Ministry for Economic Affairs and Employment of the Land of Nordrhein-Westfalen.
In 1999, Professor Heinz Kaminski nominated Thilo Elsner as his successor. Thilo Elsner has been at the Observatory since
The Bradley Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Agnes Scott College. It is located in Decatur, Georgia, 5 miles (8.0 km) east of Atlanta, Georgia, (USA). The observatory's largest telescope, the Beck Telescope, is a vintage 30 inch (750 mm) Cassegrain reflector built in 1930. The telescope was owned and operated by an amateur astronomer, Mr. Gibson. He offered the telescope for sale, seeking to upgrade his own telescope. Agnes Scott purchased it in 1947 for about $15,000. For many years, the Beck telescope was the largest in the Southeast United States, until the Fernbank Observatory opened in 1972 with its 36-inch (910 mm) telescope.
The observatory was built in order to house the Beck telescope and was dedicated in 1950. It also houses faculty offices and a planetarium. The observatory is a contributing structure within the National Register South Candler Street-Agnes Scott College Historic District. Dr. Chris DePree is the current director of the Bradley Observatory.
A number of major astronomical facilities are located at the Paul Wild Observatory near Narrabri, Australia, including:
The observatory is named in honor of Australian radio astronomer Paul Wild.
Two other astronomical facilities are located nearby (although not on the same site). They are the Narrabri Stellar Intensity Interferometer (now decommissioned) and the Bohema Creek Cosmic Ray Observatory.
The Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and is their largest field installation outside of their main site in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It is located near Amado, Arizona on the slopes of Mount Hopkins.
Research activities include imaging and spectroscopy of extragalactic, stellar, and planetary bodies, as well as gamma-ray and cosmic-ray astronomy.
In 1966, roadwork began on the current site with funding granted for the Smithsonian Mt. Hopkins Observatory. The Whipple 10-meter gamma-ray telescope was constructed in 1968.
Formerly known as "The Mount Hopkins Observatory," the observatory was renamed in late 1981 in honor of Fred Lawrence Whipple, noted planetary expert, space science pioneer, and director emeritus of SAO, under whose leadership the Arizona facility was established.
Whipple observatory hosts the MMT Observatory, which is jointly run by SAO and the University of Arizona and houses a 6.5-meter telescope. The observatory also has 1.5- and 1.2-meter reflectors and a second 1.3-meter reflector named PAIRITEL (Peters Automated IR Imaging Telescope, ex-2MASS ). Also on site is
The Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP, Haute-Provence Observatory in English) was established in 1937 as a national facility for French astronomers. Astronomical observations began in 1943 using the 1.20 m telescope, and the first research papers based on observations made at the observatory were published in 1944. Foreign observers first used the observatory in 1949, when Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge visited.
OHP is situated in the southeast of France, about 90 km east of Avignon and 100 km north of Marseille. It lies at an altitude of about 650 m, on a plateau near the village of Saint-Michel-l'Observatoire in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département at 43°55′51″N 5°42′48″E / 43.93083°N 5.71333°E / 43.93083; 5.71333.
The site was chosen for an observatory because of its generally very favourable observing conditions. On average, 60% of nights are suitable for astronomical observations, with the best seasons are Summer and Autumn. About 170 nights per year on average are completely cloudless. The seeing is usually around 2" but can reach 1" or lower on occasion. Seeing degrades severely, sometimes to over 10", when the cold Mistral wind blows from the northwest. This happens
The John H. Witte, Jr. Observatory is a U.S. astronomical observatory owned and operated by Southeastern Iowa Astronomy Club. Located near Mediapolis, 10 miles north of Burlington, Iowa, it was originally built to house the 12-inch Alvan Clark and Sons refractor donated by Mr. Witte to the Burlington school system in 1937. The observatory was completed with the assistance of funds from his foundation in May 1987. Previously, the telescope had been stored on the roof of the Burlington high school. The observatory is now used by many astronomy groups in the area.
The La Posta Astro-Geophysical Observatory was a 60-foot-diameter (18 m) Naval Electronics Laboratory radio-telescope at Campo, CA. Construction began in 1964 at a 3,900-foot-altitude (1,200 m) site in the Laguna Mountains, 65 miles (105 kilometers) east of San Diego.
The observatory played a major role in solar radio mapping, studies of environmental disturbances, and development of a solar optical videometer for microwave research.
Its 60-foot dish, which could both transmit and receive, was used for important research programs in propagation and ionospheric forecasting which were used during a number of Apollo space launches to predict solar activity that might hamper communications from the ground to the space capsules. The building located at the lower right of the dish housed a turbine-powered alternator used to provide power for the dish operation. There was insufficient power available from the national grid. In addition, the dish was computer controlled by an operator located in the building below the dish. The dish movements were monitored by close-circuit television.
Mount Stromlo Observatory (MSO) located just outside of Canberra, Australia, is part of the Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Australian National University (ANU).
The observatory was established in 1924 as The Commonwealth Solar Observatory. The Mount Stromlo site had already been used for observations in the previous decade, a small observatory being established there by Pietro Baracchi using the Oddie telescope being located there in 1911. The dome built to house the Oddie telescope was the first Commonwealth building constructed in the newly established Australian Capital Territory. Until World War II, the observatory specialised in solar and atmospheric observations. During the war the workshops contributed to the war effort by producing gun sights, and other optical equipment. After the war, the observatory shifted direction to stellar and galactic astronomy and was renamed The Commonwealth Observatory.
The ANU was established in 1946 in nearby Canberra and joint staff appointments and graduate studies were almost immediately undertaken. A formal amalgamation took place in 1957 with Mount Stromlo Observatory becoming part of the ANU.
On 18 January 2003 the
Mexico's National Astronomical Observatory (Spanish: El Observatorio Astronómico Nacional - OAN) was first established on the balcony of Chapultepec Castle in Mexico City in 1878. It was later moved to Tacubaya, then on the outskirts of the city, a location remembered in the Observatorio station of the Mexico City Metro, situated nearby. In the middle of the 20th century, OAN was moved from the increasingly crowded and polluted Valley of Mexico to Tonantzintla, Puebla. Excessive lighting and pollution forced another move to the Sierra San Pedro Mártir in Baja California in 1967. The current site has been found to have excellent astronomical seeing. The observatory has been operated by the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) since 1929.
There are three optical telescopes on the summit of Sierra San Pedro Mártir, all with a Ritchey-Chrétien design:
Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) is a radio astronomy observatory located near Big Pine, California (USA) in Owens Valley. It lies east of the Sierra Nevada approximately 350 kilometers (220 mi) north of Los Angeles and 20 kilometers (12 mi) southeast of Bishop. It was established in 1958, and is owned and operated by the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).
One of the ten dish antennas of the Very Long Baseline Array is immediately adjacent to, but not part of, the observatory.
OVRO, owned by Caltech, is one of the biggest radio observatories owned by a university. OVRO uses its telescopes and other instruments (listed below) to improve on the locations of radio sources in the sky, as well as to study hydrogen clouds within the Milky Way. The research that takes place at the observatory includes studies on blazars, the cosmic microwave background, and star-formation, and this research is done by the staff at the observatory with help from professors and post-doctoral students from many institutions. The observatory is different from other national radio observatories because of its extensive work with graduate students, who can come to the observatory for long-term
Pioneer 11 (also known as Pioneer G) is a 259-kilogram (569 lb) robotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturn, solar wind, cosmic rays, and eventually the far reaches of the solar system and heliosphere. It was the first probe to encounter Saturn and the second to fly through the asteroid belt and by Jupiter. Due to power constraints and the vast distance to the probe, communication has been lost since November 30, 1995.
Approved in February 1969, Pioneer 11 and twin probe Pioneer 10 were the first to be designed for exploring the outer solar system. Yielding to multiple proposals throughout the 1960s, early mission objectives were defined as:
Subsequent planning for an encounter with Saturn added many more goals:
Pioneer 11 was built by TRW and managed as part of the Pioneer program by NASA Ames Research Center. A backup unit, Pioneer H, is currently on display in the "Milestones of Flight" exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.. Many elements of the mission proved to be critical in the planning of the Voyager Program.
Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 carry a gold-anodized aluminum
The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (formerly the Royal Greenwich Observatory or RGO), in London played a major role in the history of astronomy and navigation, and is best known as the location of the prime meridian. It is situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames.
The observatory was commissioned in 1675 by King Charles II, with the foundation stone being laid on 10 August. At this time the king also created the position of Astronomer Royal (initially filled by John Flamsteed), to serve as the director of the observatory and to "apply himself with the most exact care and diligence to the rectifying of the tables of the motions of the heavens, and the places of the fixed stars, so as to find out the so much desired longitude of places for the perfecting of the art of navigation." The building was completed in the summer of 1676. The building was often given the title "Flamsteed House".
The scientific work of the observatory was relocated elsewhere in stages in the first half of the 20th century, and the Greenwich site is now maintained as a tourist attraction.
There had been significant buildings on this land since the reign of William I. Greenwich Palace,
The Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) is a radio astronomy observatory located in a natural bowl of hills at Hartebeesthoek just south of the Magaliesberg mountain range, Gauteng, South Africa, about 50 km west of Johannesburg. It is a National Research Facility run by South Africa's National Research Foundation and is the only major radio astronomy observatory in Africa.
The observatory was originally named Deep Space Station 51 and was built in 1961 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In this role the station assisted in tracking many unmanned United States space missions, including the Ranger, Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter spacecraft (which landed on the Moon or mapped it from orbit), the Mariner missions (which explored the planets Venus and Mars) and the Pioneer missions (which measured the Sun's winds).
The first Mars surface images from Mariner 4 was received at DSS 51.
NASA withdrew from the station in 1975, handing it over to South Africa's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), who converted it to a radio astronomy observatory. In 1988 the observatory became a National Facility operated by the Foundation for
Kennon Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the University of Mississippi. Built in 1939 and located on the university's campus in Oxford, Mississippi (USA) it was named after Dr. William Lee Kennon - long serving chair of the department of Physics and Astronomy.
The Kuma Kogen Astronomical Observatory is located at Kumakōgen in Ehime Prefecture, Japan.
The observatory is in the Furusato Country Open Air Museum that incorporates the Seiten Castle (sei ten means "fine weather" and can also mean "star sky".)
The observatory has a 60 cm aperture optical telescope.
Members of the public can book to observe at night, weather permitting.
A 40-seat planetarium is attached to the facility. Thirty-minute shows are conducted during the day.
The observatory's best known staff member is the prolific discoverer of asteroids, Akimasa Nakamura.
The Manastash Ridge Observatory (MRO) is an astronomical observatory built in 1972 by the University of Washington. It is located in a remote area approximately 14 kilometers (8.7 mi) west of Ellensburg, Washington, and can be reached by dirt roads from Ellensburg or Selah. The observatory features a 0.75 m (30 in) Ritchey-Chrétien telescope built by Boller and Chivens. Initially used for professional and graduate research, the observatory is now used mostly by undergraduate students for instruction and research.
The Manastash Ridge Radar (MRR) is located in the MRO building. MRR is a bistatic, passive radar controlled by the University of Washington's Radar Remote Sensing Laboratory (RRSL) led by Dr. John Sahr. MRR uses commercial FM radio broadcasts from Seattle to sense ionospheric turbulence, meteors, and airplanes. The receivers are located at the University of Washington and at MRO.
Markree Observatory was an astronomical observatory in County Sligo, Ireland.
In 1830, Col. Edward Joshua Cooper MP (1798–1863) eldest son of Edward Synge Cooper MP, and Ann, daughter of Henry Vansittart, Governor of Bengal, set up Markree Observatory on the grounds of Markree Castle.
In 1831 Cooper acquired from Robert A. Cauchoix of Paris an objective of 13.5-inches (35.5 cm) for which he paid £1200. In 1834 he mounted the lens on an equatorial mounting by supplied by Thomas Grubb of Dublin. For a number of years Cooper’s big refractor was the largest in the world. He used the telescope to sketch Halley's comet in 1835 and to view the solar eclipse of 15 May 1836.
Later a 5-foot (1.5m) transit and a 3-foot (0.9m) Meridian Circle, fitted with an interchangeable 7-inch (17.75 cm) glass were added, which was the largest at that time in 1839. In 1842 a 4-inch (10 cm) Comet Seeker was added.
"The Observatory of Mr Cooper of Markree Castle - undoubtedly the most richly furnished private observatory known - is worked with great activity by Mr Cooper himself and by his very able assistant, Mr Andrew Graham." (Royal Astronomical Society, 1851)
In 1878, Cooper’s assistant, Andrew Graham,
The Morgan-Monroe Observatory, also known as the Morgan-Monroe Station of Goethe Link Observatory, is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Indiana University. It is located in Indiana's Morgan-Monroe State Forest approximately 20 kilometers (12 mi) northeast of Bloomington, Indiana (USA). It was developed in the 1960s when light pollution began to degrade the capabilities of the original Goethe Link Observatory, which Indiana University had used for astronomical research since 1948. The original Boller and Chivens 41 cm (16 in) Cassegrain reflector, installed in 1966, was converted in 1989 to an automated system for monitoring cataclysmic variable stars called "Roboscope." It is capable of making one or two 4-minute exposures of about 100 objects per clear night. In 1997, an automated 1.25-m f/8 Ritchey-Chrétien reflector called "Spectrabot" was added.
The Parkes Observatory is a radio telescope observatory, 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New South Wales, Australia. It was one of several radio antennas used to receive live, televised images of the Apollo 11 moon landing on 20 July 1969.
The Parkes Radio Telescope, completed in 1961, was the brainchild of E.G. (Taffy) Bowen, chief of the CSIRO's Radiophysics Laboratory. During the Second World War, he had worked on radar development in the US and had made some powerful friends in the scientific community. Calling on this old boy network, he persuaded two philanthropic organisations, the Carnegie Corporation and the Rockefeller Foundation to fund half the cost of the telescope. It was this recognition and key financial support from the US that persuaded then Prime Minister Robert Menzies to agree to fund the rest of the project.
The primary observing instrument is the 64-metre movable dish telescope, second largest in the Southern Hemisphere, and one of the first large movable dishes in the world (DSS-43 'Deep Space Station'-43 at Tidbinbilla was extended from 64 m to 70 m in 1987, surpassing Parkes). After its completion it has operated almost continuously to the
The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) is a 66m area optical telescope with a nominally 9.2 meter aperture but up to about 77mx ~9.8 m diameter aperture, and designed mainly for spectroscopy. It is located close to the town of Sutherland in the semi-desert region of the Karoo, South Africa. It is a facility of the South African Astronomical Observatory, the national optical observatory of South Africa.
SALT is the largest optical telescope in the southern hemisphere. It will enable imaging, spectroscopic, and polarimetric analysis of the radiation from astronomical objects out of reach of northern hemisphere telescopes. It was originally planned to be a copy of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory, but while adapting the construction plans, significant changes were introduced to its design, especially to the spherical aberration corrector. The main driver for these changes were desired improvements to the telescope's field of view.
First light with the full mirror was declared on 1 September 2005 with 1 arc second resolution images of globular cluster 47 Tucanae, open cluster NGC 6152, spiral galaxy NGC 6744, and the Lagoon Nebula being obtained. The official
The Global Geospace Science (GGS) WIND satellite is a NASA science spacecraft launched at 04:31:00 EST on November 1, 1994 from launch pad 17B at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in Merritt Island, Florida aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II 7925-10 rocket. WIND was designed and manufactured by Martin Marietta Astro Space Division in East Windsor, New Jersey. The satellite is a spin stabilized cylindrical satellite with a diameter of 2.4 m and a height of 1.8 m.
It was deployed to study radio and plasma that occur in the solar wind and in the Earth's magnetosphere before the solar wind reaches the Earth. The spacecraft's original mission was to orbit the Sun at the L1 Lagrangian point, but this was delayed when the SOHO and ACE spacecraft were sent to the same location. WIND has been at L1 continuously since 2004, and is still operating as of November 2011. WIND currently has enough fuel to last roughly 60 years at L1. WIND continues to produce relevant research as its data has contributed to over ~600 publications since 2008 and nearly 2000 publications prior to 2008. As of March 22, 2012, the total number of publications either directly or indirectly using Wind data is
The Detroit Observatory sits on the corner of Observatory and Ann streets in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It was built in 1854, and was the first scientific research facility at the University of Michigan. Several Detroit businessmen and members of the community provided the funds, which is where the observatory gets its name.
It provided a number of astronomical tools for study, including a 6-inch (15 cm) Pistor & Martins meridian circle and a 12⅝-inch (32 cm) Henry Fitz, Jr. refracting telescope. The Fitz was the third largest telescope in the world when it was installed in 1857.
The function of the Detroit Observatory on campus was taken over by the Angell Hall Observatory which was completed much later.
The "Observatories of the University of Michigan" include the Detroit Observatory (1854), the Angell Hall Observatory (1927), the Lamont-Hussey Observatory (South Africa, 1928) and the McMath-Hulbert Observatory (Lake Angelus, MI, 1930).
In 2005, the Detroit Observatory became a division of the Bentley Historical Library.
The Guillermo Haro Observatory (Spanish: Observatorio Astrofísico Guillermo Haro - OAGH) is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics (Spanish: Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica - INAOE) in the Mexican state of Sonora. It is located 13 km (8.1 mi) north of Cananea and 85 km (53 mi) south-east of Mount Hopkins. It is named after Professor Guillermo Haro.
The main telescope at the observatory is Ritchey-Chretein design with a 2.12 m (83 in) primary mirror and a 0.5 m (20 in) secondary mirror. Four different instruments are available to be mounted at the Cassegrain focus. Planning for the telescope began in 1972, but it was not dedicated until 1987. Routine operations began in 1992.
The observatory has a 0.41 m (16 in) Schmidt-Cassegrain reflector built by Meade Instruments on an equatorial mount located in a separate dome. It is used to make atmospheric extinction measurements and to monitor light pollution.
The Harvard College Observatory (HCO) is an institution managing a complex of buildings and multiple instruments used for astronomical research by the Harvard University Department of Astronomy. It is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and was founded in 1839. With the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, it forms part of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.
HCO houses a collection of approximately 500,000 astronomical plates taken between the mid-1880s and 1989 (with a gap from 1953–68). This 100-year coverage is a unique resource for studying temporal variations in the universe. A project currently is underway to digitally scan and archive these photographic plates.
In 1839, the Harvard Corporation voted to appoint William Cranch Bond, a prominent Boston clockmaker, as "Astronomical Observer to the University" (at no salary). This marked the founding of the Harvard College Observatory. HCO's first telescope, the 15-inch Great Refractor, was installed in 1847.
Between 1847 and 1852 Bond and pioneer photographer John Adams Whipple used the Great Refractor telescope to produce images of the moon that are remarkable in their clarity of detail and aesthetic power.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was carried into orbit by a Space Shuttle in 1990 and remains in operation. A 2.4-meter (7.9 ft) aperture telescope in low Earth orbit, Hubble's four main instruments observe in the near ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared. The telescope is named after the astronomer Edwin Hubble.
Hubble's orbit outside the distortion of Earth's atmosphere allows it to take extremely sharp images with almost no background light. Hubble's Ultra-Deep Field image, for instance, is the most detailed visible-light image ever made of the universe's most distant objects. Many Hubble observations have led to breakthroughs in astrophysics, such as accurately determining the rate of expansion of the universe.
Although not the first space telescope, Hubble is one of the largest and most versatile, and is well known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy. The HST was built by the United States space agency NASA, with contributions from the European Space Agency, and is operated by the Space Telescope Science Institute. The HST is one of NASA's Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the
Nachi-Katsuura Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Nachikatsuura, Wakayama, Japan. Facing the Pacific Ocean, it lies within the Yoshino-Kumano National Park. It is 0.83368 Earth radi from the rotational axis of the Earth, and +0.55040 Earth radii above the equatorial plane.
The Principia Astronomical Observatory is an observatory located on the campus of Principia College, in Elsah, Illinois, United States. The observatory was installed on June 18, 1998. It features a 16 inch mirror and is of a Ritchey-Chretien design. The objective focal length of the telescope is 4000 mm. The control software is by the Telescope Control System written by Dave Harvey of Comsoft Software (of Tucson, AZ). The mirror was ground and certified by Don Loomis, former chief optician at Kitt Peak National Laboratories. The telescope was manufactured by Optomechanics Research.
The Star is an English-language, tabloid-format newspaper in Malaysia. It is the largest in terms of circulation in Malaysia, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations. It has a daily circulation of between 290,000 to 300,000. The Star is a member of the Asia News Network.
The Star is majority-owned by the Malaysian Chinese Association, the second-largest party in the ruling Barisan Nasional alliance. Its major competitors are the New Straits Times and The Sun, both tabloids.
The daily newspaper was first published on 9 September 1971 as a regional newspaper based in Georgetown, Penang. The STAR went into national circulation on 3 January 1976 when it set up its new office in Kuala Lumpur. In 1978, the newspaper headquarters was relocated to Kuala Lumpur. The Star continues to expand its wings over the years. In 1981, it moved its headquarters from Kuala Lumpur to Petaling Jaya which is also its current premise to accommodate a growing number of staff and technology devices.
The Star (daily) and Sunday Star are published in five editions – two editions which cover the northern peninsular states of Penang, Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan and northern Perak, while another two editions
The Argentine National Observatory, today the Astronomical Observatory of Córdoba, was founded on 24 October 1871, by Argentine president Domingo F. Sarmiento and the North American astronomer Benjamin Apthorp Gould.
Its creation is the beginning of astronomical studies in Argentina. When the president Domingo F. Sarmiento was representing his country in the United States, He had the opportunity to meet the pioneering astronomer Benjamin Apthorp Gould, who was very interested in travel to Argentina in order to study the stellar south hemisphere.
Once Sarmiento was already installed as president of Argentina, he invited the eminent scientist to travel to Argentina in 1869, to provide his full support to organize an observatory. Gould arrived in Buenos Aires in 1870. The same night of the inauguration of the Astronomical Observatory of Cordoba, Gould began with the naked eye, later with the aid of small binoculars, a map of the southern sky, with more than 7000 stars recorded, that was published under the name of Uranometría Argentina.
Gould was director of the observatory until 1885, that year he return to United States. Among his works on the observatory, we must mention its
The Observatoire des sciences de l'Univers de Besançon (Observatoire de Besançon for short, Besançon Astronomical Observatory or Besançon Observatory in English) is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS, National Center for Scientific Research). It is located in Besançon, France.
In the past, the Besançon Observatory participated in assessing and rating Swiss timepiece movements for accuracy. As marine navigation adopted the usage of mechanical timepieces for navigational aid, the accuracy of such timepieces became more critical. From this need developed an accuracy testing regime involving various astronomical observatories. In Europe, the Neuchatel Observatory, Geneva Observatory Besançon Observatory and Kew Observatory were examples of prominent observatories that tested timepiece movements for accuracy. The testing process lasted for many days, typically 45 days. Each movement was tested in 5 positions and 2 temperatures, in 10 series of 4 or 5 days each. The tolerances for error were much finer than any other standard, including the modern COSC standard. Movements that passed the stringent tests were issued a
The Centre de recherches en géodynamique et astrométrie (CERGA) was a scientific department of the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA). It included 28 researchers and as many engineers and technicians located on the Observatory sites of Nice, Grasse and Calern (Caussols). The scientific activities covered fields as diverse as fundamental astronomy, celestial mechanics and space geodesy. CERGA was in charge of several observing facilities like the lunar-laser ranging telescope and the two satellite laser stations.
By nature the scientific activity involved the acquisition of data and their processing, a dedicated instrumental development and a close relationship with the more theoretical aspects in dynamics and observation modelling.
CERGA was dissolved in 2004 when the OCA re-organized.
The Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) is located in Ukraine. CrAO has been publishing the Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory since 1947, in English since 1977. The observatory facilities (IAU code 095) are located near the settlement of Nauchny since the mid-1950s; before that, they were further south, near Simeis. The latter facilities still see some use, and are referred to as the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory-Simeis (IAU code 094).
The Fabra Observatory (Catalan: Observatori Fabra, IPA: [upsərβəˈtɔɾi ˈfaβɾə]) is an astronomical observatory located in Barcelona, Catalonia, pointed towards the south at 415 m of altitude over the level of the sea (latitude: 41,4184° N; longitude: 2,1239° E).
It was established in 1904 and belongs to the Reial Acadèmia de Ciències i Arts de Barcelona. Its main activity is the study of asteroids and comets. It's the fourth most ancient observatory in the world that is still functioning.
It was where the comet 32P/Comas Solà was discovered by Josep Comas Solà
Foothill Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Peninsula Astronomical Society and Foothill College. It is located on the college's campus in Los Altos Hills, California (USA). The observatory is used by students enrolled in the introductory astronomy lab on campus, which is part of the college's thriving astronomy for non-scientists program, serving over 800 students per year. It is also used for public viewing one evening a week. A new 16-inch (410 mm) telescope was donated to the observatory and went into operation in 2007. The observatory is generally open to the public without charge every clear Friday night from 9 to about 11 pm.
The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was a US spacecraft developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996. It began the United States's return to Mars after a 10-year absence. It completed its primary mission in January 2001 and was in its third extended mission phase when, on 2 November 2006, the spacecraft failed to respond to messages and commands. A faint signal was detected three days later which indicated that it had gone into safe mode. Attempts to recontact the spacecraft and resolve the problem failed, and NASA officially ended the mission in January 2007.
The Surveyor spacecraft, fabricated at the Lockheed Martin Astronautics plant in Denver, is a rectangular-shaped box with wing-like projections (solar panels) extending from opposite sides. When fully loaded with propellant at the time of launch, the spacecraft weighed 1,060 kg (2,337 lb). Most of Surveyor's mass lies in the box-shaped module occupying the center portion of the spacecraft. This center module is made of two smaller rectangular modules stacked on top of each other, one of which is called the equipment module and holds the spacecraft's electronics, science instruments, and the 1750A
The Molėtai Astronomical Observatory (MAO; Molėtų astronomijos observatorija in Lithuanian) is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy of Lithuania. It is located on the Kaldiniai hill next to Kulionys, Lithuania, 10 km from the town of Molėtai.
The old Astronomical observatory of Vilnius University, opened in 1753, and the new University observatory near the Vingis Park, built in 1921, gradually appeared inside the Vilnius city with no conditions for astronomical observations. In 1969 a new observatory was started in the Molėtai district, about 70 km north of Vilnius. It is built on the Kaldiniai hill just near a small village of Kulionys, about 10 km from a town of Molėtai. In the fall of 1969 the first 25 cm diameter telescope of the Molėtai Astronomical Observatory (hereafter MAO) was mounted. Later on, it was placed to the 35/51 cm Maksutov telescope. In 1974 and 1991 the reflecting telescopes of 63 cm and 165 cm diameters were put into operation.
MAO currently has three research telescopes:
The National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) is the United States national observatory for ground based nighttime ultraviolet-optical-infrared (OUVIR) astronomy. The National Science Foundation (NSF) funds NOAO to provide forefront astronomical research facilities for US astronomers. However, professional astronomers from any country in the world may apply to use the telescopes operated by NOAO under the NSF's "open skies" policy. Astronomers submit proposals for peer review to gain access to the telescopes which are scheduled every night of the year for observations (with the exception of Christmas and New Year's Eve). The combination of truly open access and the merit based science proposal process makes NOAO unique in the world.
The NOAO headquarters are located in Tucson, Arizona and are co-located with the headquarters of the National Solar Observatory. The NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), under a cooperative agreement with the NSF.
NOAO operates world class research telescopes in both the northern and southern hemispheres. These telescopes are located at Kitt Peak and Cerro Tololo in the US and Chile, respectively.
The Solar Monitoring Observatory (SOLAR / SMO) is an ESA science observatory that is part of the Columbus Laboratory, which is a component of the International Space Station. The Columbus module (including SOLAR) was launched February 2008 aboard STS-122. SOLAR was externally mounted to the Columbus Laboratory, together with the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF). Some other components are also planned to be mounted externally on Columbus on future missions, including the Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES).
SOLAR consists of three space science instruments: SOVIM, SOLSPEC and SOL-ACES. Together they will provide detailed measurements of the Sun's spectral irradiance. Once installed on the ISS, Solar is planned to operate continuously for approximately 1.5 years.
The mission was originally planned for a 2003 launch, but was delayed following the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.
The SOVIM (Solar Variantions and Irradiance Monitor) instrument is based on an earlier instrument (SOVA) which flew aboard the European Retrievable Carrier, launched on STS-46 in 1992. It is designed to measure solar radiation with wavelengths from 200 nanometers - 100 micrometers. This covers
The Theodor Jacobsen Observatory is the on-campus observatory of the University of Washington. Built in 1895, it is the second oldest building on campus and was constructed using the remaining Tenino sandstone blocks from Denny Hall, the oldest and first building on campus. The refracting telescope, enclosed within the dome, has a 6-inch Brashear objective lens on a Warner & Swasey equatorial mount. The observatory also includes a transit room on the west side and a 55-seat classroom, which was built later, on the south side.
Today, the observatory is primarily used for public outreach and is run jointly by the UW Department of Astronomy and the Seattle Astronomical Society. Every first and third Wednesday between March and November the observatory is open to the public.
The observatory is listed on the State Register of Historical Buildings.
Information on the original design and building of the observatory by Prof. Joseph Marion Taylor may be found on the University of Washington Astronomy Department website and other sources.
The Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, or Byurakan Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the Armenian Academy of Sciences. It is located on the slope of Mount Aragats in the village of Byurakan in Armenia.
Founded in 1946 by Viktor Ambartsumian, it was one of the main astronomy centers of the USSR. The buildings were designed by architect Samvel Safarian. The hotel, central building and structures for astronomical instruments. The observatory has discovered special star clusters - stellar associations (1947), more than 1,000 flare stars, dozens of Supernovae, hundreds of Herbig-Haro objects and cometary nebulae, hundreds of galaxies. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, the observatory fell into hard times.
The fist conference was held in November 1951 on the topic of stellar associations. In 19 September 1956 a major meeting on non-stable stars was held. It has been the site of two major conferences on SETI, and is recognised as the regional center for astronomical research.
Directors included V.A. Ambartsumian till 1988, E.Ye. Khachikian till 1993, H.A. Harutyunian from 1993 to 1994, and A.R. Petrosian from 1994-1999. Khachikian returned as director
Dr. Ralph L. Buice, Jr. Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the Fernbank Science Center. It is located between Decatur and Atlanta, Georgia (USA). The observatory owns a 0.9 m (35 in) Cassegrain telescope housed beneath a 10 m (33 ft) dome.
GEOTAIL is a satellite observing the Earth's magnetosphere. It was developed by Japan's ISAS in association with United State's NASA, and was launched by a Delta II rocket on July 24, 1992.
From the GEOTAIL website (listed below): "The GEOTAIL satellite was launched on July 24, 1992, by a Delta II launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA. The primary purpose of this mission is to study the structure and dynamics of the tail region of the magnetosphere with a comprehensive set of scientific instruments. For this purpose, the orbit has been designed to cover the magnetotail over a wide range of distances: 8 Re to 210 Re from the earth. This orbit also allows us to study the boundary region of the magnetosphere as it skims the magnetopause at perigees. In the first two years the double lunar swing-by technique was used to keep apogees in the distant magnetotail. The apogee was lowered down to 50 Re in mid November 1994 and then to 30 Re in February 1995 in order to study substorm processes in the near-Earth tail region. The present orbit is 9 Re x 30 Re with inclination of -7° to the ecliptic plane."
Geotail instruments studied electric fields, magnetic fields, plasmas,
The Hoher List Observatory (German: Observatorium Hoher List) is an astronomical observatory located about 60 km south of Bonn, Germany, near the town of Daun in the mountain range of Eifel. The observatory is operated by the Argelander Institute for Astronomy of the University of Bonn.
Until the 1940s, Bonn astronomical observations were carried out mainly from Argelander's old observatory in Bonn itself. With more and more electrical lights in the city, the night sky in town became increasingly brighter, making observations difficult. In search for an alternative location, in 1950, the mountain Hoher List above the village of Schalkenmehren was found to be well suited for astronomical observation. The rural surrounds meant very low sky brightness. It was decided to relocate the Bonn telescopes. The new observatory was inaugurated in 1954, after the 50 cm Schmidt telescope had been installed in the first dome. A major extension in 1964 included the relocation of the Double Refractor, which dates from 1899. The final dome to be erected contains a 1 m Cassegrain telescope, the largest and most modern of the observatory's telescopes. Today, there are six telescopes at the
The Killarney Provincial Park Observatory is a small observatory located in Killarney Provincial Park near the George Lake Campground (near Killarney, Ontario, Canada). Opened on July 17, 2010 it is the first public observatory running in any Ontario Provincial Park (the Algonquin Radio Observatory, stationed in Algonquin Provincial Park is privately operated).
The Killarney Provincial Park Observatory utilizes a SkyShed GPOD XL3 with two doors and houses a Meade 10" LX5 telescope. The dome is made completely from Re-Cycled plastic (Re-HDPE) and the telescope sits on a steel peer. The observatory and telescope were donated by the Waters family to celebrate 25 consecutive years of astronomy lectures by Bruce Waters to over 5,000 park visitors. The telescope and observatory sit on a deck with two ramps (to ease the movement of people) donated by the Friends of Killarney Park. On January 29, 2011 Bill and the Gardner family, donated and installed a top quality Losmandy G11 mount with Gemini GoTo. This generous donation has greatly augmented the capability of the system; especially making it easier for first time observers to use the facility.
While the Observatory will be used for
The Kodaikanal Solar Observatory is a solar observatory owned and operated by Indian Institute of Astrophysics. It is located on the southern tip of the Palni Hills 4 km from Kodaikanal town, Dindigul district, Tamilnadu state, South India.
The Evershed effect was first detected at this observatory in January 1909. Solar data collected by the lab is the oldest continuous series of its kind in India. Precise observations of the equatorial electrojet are made here due to the unique geographic location of Kodaikanal.
Ionospheric soundings, geomagnetic, F region vertical drift and surface observations are made here regularly and summaries of the data obtained are sent to national IMD and global WMO GAW data centers.
They have a full-time staff of two scientists and nineteen technicians.
As early as 1881, Mr. Blanford, then Meteorological Reporter to the government of India, recommended "the improvement of the work of solar observations in order to obtain accurate measures of the sun’s heating power at the earth’s surface and its periodic variations". In May 1882, the Government astronomer at Madras, Norman Robert Pogson, proposed the need for photography and spectrography of the sun
The Kvistaberg Observatory (Kvistabergs observatorium) is an observatory in Sweden belonging to the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Uppsala University and located between Uppsala and Stockholm, at almost equal distance from both cities.
The observatory was the result of a donation in 1944 from Nils Tamm, an artist who had studied astronomy in his youth under Nils Christoffer Dunér and Östen Bergstrand in Uppsala and remained an avid amateur astronomer throughout his life.
Through the work of professor Åke Wallenquist and professor Gunnar Malmquist at the observatory in Uppsala, the new observatory was fitted out with a large Schmidt telescope (100/135/300cm) in 1963. Wallenquist became the first director of the observatory (1948-1970) and was succeeded by Tarmo Oja (1970-1999) and later Claes-Ingvar Lagerkvist (1999-2007).
Around 2004, Uppsala University decided to discontinue active research at the observatory. The property was sold to the municipality of Upplands-Bro, where Kvistaberg is situated. The domes and telescopes are now part of a museum, which was inaugurated in 2009.
The Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory (German: Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Königstuhl) is an historic astronomical observatory located near the summit of the Königstuhl hill in the city of Heidelberg in Germany. The predecessor of the current observatory was originally opened in 1774 in the nearby city of Mannheim but degradation of observational conditions there resulted in a relocation to the Königstuhl in 1898.
The observatory forms part of the Center of Astronomy of the University of Heidelberg. The Max Planck Institute for Astronomy opened on an adjacent site in 1967.
The current director (since 2006) is Andreas Quirrenbach.
The instrumentation of the observatory originated from the Mannheim Observatory, founded in 1774. In 1880 the observatory was provisionally moved to Karlsruhe because the astronomical/atmospherical seeing conditions worsened. In subsequent years, three other locations were considered, with Heidelberg-Königstuhl finally being chosen.
On 20 June 1898 the "Großherzogliche Bergsternwarte" was ceremonially inaugurated by Frederick I, Grand Duke of Baden. The astronomical institute comprised two complementary departments, the astrophysical, led by Max
The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The MWO is located on Mount Wilson, a 5,715-foot (1,742 m) peak in the San Gabriel Mountains near Pasadena, northeast of Los Angeles. The observatory contains two historically important telescopes: the 60 inches (1.5 m) Hale telescope built in 1908, and the 100 inches (2.5 m) Hooker telescope, which was the largest telescope in the world from its completion in 1917 until 1948.
Due to the inversion layer that traps smog over Los Angeles, Mount Wilson has naturally steadier air than any other location in North America, making it ideal for astronomy and in particular for interferometry. The increasing light pollution due to the growth of greater Los Angeles has limited the ability of the observatory to engage in deep space astronomy, but it remains a productive center, with many new and old instruments in use for astronomical research.
The observatory was conceived and founded by George Ellery Hale, who had built the 40 inches (1.0 m) telescope at the Yerkes Observatory. The Mount Wilson Solar Observatory was first funded by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in
Stokesville Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned by H. D. Riddleberger of Harrisonburg, VA. It is located in Stokesville Campground in Stokesville near Mount Solon, Virginia (USA). The location is adjacent to the George Washington National Forest.
The observatory has one 16-foot-diameter (4.9 m) silo-type room housing a 14-inch Celestron Compustar telescope owned by James Madison University under a powered Ash observatory dome. An adjoining shaped room houses astronomy displays and materials used for instructional classes. The building is surrounded by a circle of 8 powered piers for mounting additional telescopes.
The Uppsala Astronomical Observatory (UAO; Astronomiska observatoriet i Uppsala) is the oldest astronomical observatory in Sweden. It was founded in 1741, though there was a professorial chair of astronomy at the University of Uppsala from 1593 and the university archives include lecture notes in astronomy from the 1480s.
In the 18th century, Anders Celsius performed his research there and built the first observatory proper in 1741. Celsius managed to get the university consistory to buy a large stone house of medieval origin in central Uppsala, where he had an observatory constructed on the rooftop. Celsius both worked and had his personal living quarters in the house. This observatory remained in use until the new observatory, now known as the "old observatory", was built in 1853. The Celsius house itself still remains as one of few older buildings on a modern shopping street, but the observatory on the roof was demolished in 1857.
In the 19th century Anders Jonas Ångström was keeper of the observatory and conducted his experiments in astronomy, physics and optics there. His son, Knut Ångström, also conducted research on solar radiation at the observatory.
In 2000 the observatory
The Samuel Oschin telescope (also named Oschin Schmidt) is a 48-inch (1.22-m) aperture Schmidt camera at the Palomar Observatory in northern San Diego County, California. It consists of a 49.75-inch Schmidt corrector plate and a 72-inch (f/2.5) mirror. The instrument is strictly a camera; there is no provision for an eyepiece to look through it. It originally used 10 and 14-inch glass photographic plates. Since the focal plane is curved, these plates had to be preformed in a special jig before being loaded into the camera.
Construction on the Schmidt telescope began in 1939 and it was completed in 1948. It was named the Samuel Oschin telescope in 1986, before that it was just called the 48 inch Schmidt.
The camera has been converted to use a CCD imager. This is a mosaic of 12 CCDs covering the whole (4 degree by 4 degree) field of view of the camera, the largest CCD mosaic used in an astronomical camera at this time. The corrector plate was recently replaced using glass that is transparent to a wider range of wavelengths. The camera was originally hand-guided through one of two 10-inch (25.5 cm) aperture refracting telescopes mounted on either side of the camera. The camera is now
The Black Moshannon Observatory (BMO) was an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Pennsylvania State University. Established in 1972, it was located in the central part of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania in Black Moshannon State Park, approximately 17 kilometers (11 mi) northwest of State College. The observatory was closed some time after August of 1995.
The observatory's main telescope was a 1.6 m (63 in) reflecting telescope. The primary instrument attached to the telescope was a fiber-fed, cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph. Astronomers used this instrument to study chromospherically active stars, binary stars, and pre–main sequence stars.
Cointe Observatory (French: Observatoire de Cointe), situated in the district of Cointe in Liège, Belgium, was built by the University of Liège in 1881-82 to plans by the architect Lambert Noppius.
The building, in a medieval revival style, is sited in a private park formerly the estate of the wealthy industrialist Vanderheyden de Hauzeur family. It accommodated the university's Institute of Astrophysics, later the Institute of Astrophysics and Geophysics, until 2002, when the Institute was moved to the Sart-Tilman campus.
As of 2008 the building was occupied by the Société Astronomique de Liège, but was in the course of renovation with the intention that it should house the Service Régional des Fouilles Archéologiques.
The Haleakalā Observatory on the island of Maui, also known as the Haleakalā High Altitude Observatory Site, is the location of Hawaii's first astronomical research observatory. It is owned by the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Hawai'i, which operates some of the facilities on the site and leases portions to other organizations. Tenants include the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGTN). At over 3,050 meters (10,010 ft) in altitude, the summit of Haleakalā is above one third of the Earth's atmosphere and has excellent astronomical seeing conditions.
The Mees Solar Observatory (MSO) is named after Kenneth Mees and dedicated in 1964. It consists of one dome with multiple instruments sharing a common mount.
The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) is a planned array of telescopes plus a computing facility that will survey the sky on a continual basis, and provide accurate astrometry and photometry of detected objects. By detecting any differences from previous observations of the same areas of the sky, it is expected to discover a very large number of new asteroids, comets,
The International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft was originally known as International Sun/Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3) satellite, launched August 12, 1978. It was part of the ISEE (International Sun-Earth Explorer) international cooperative program between NASA and ESRO/ESA to study the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind. The program used three spacecraft, a mother/daughter pair (ISEE 1 and ISEE 2) and a heliocentric spacecraft (ISEE 3, later renamed ICE).
ISEE 3 was the first spacecraft to be placed in a halo orbit at one of Earth-Sun Lagrangian points (L1). It was later (as ICE) sent to visit Comet Giacobini-Zinner and became the first spacecraft to do so by flying through a comet's tail passing the nucleus at a distance of approximately 7800 km. ICE was not equipped with cameras.
ISEE-3 originally operated in a halo orbit about the L1 Sun-Earth Lagrangian point, 235 Earth radii above the surface (about 1.5 million km, or 924,000 miles). It was the first artificial object placed at a so-called "libration point", proving that such a suspension between gravitational fields was possible.
The purposes of the mission were:
ISEE-3 was spun at 20 rpm,
Palomar Observatory is a privately owned astronomical observatory located in San Diego County, California (USA), 145 kilometers (90 mi) southeast of Los Angeles, California, in the Palomar Mountain Range. It is owned and operated by the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) located in Pasadena, California. Research time is granted to Caltech and its research partners, which includes the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Cornell University.
The observatory operates several telescopes, including the famous 200-inch Hale Telescope (5.1 m) and the 48-inch Samuel Oschin Telescope (1.2 m). In addition, other instruments and projects have been hosted at the observatory, such as the Palomar Testbed Interferometer and the historic 18-inch Schmidt telescope (0.46 m), Palomar Observatory's first telescope, dating from 1936.
Astronomer George Ellery Hale, whose vision created the Palomar Observatory, built the world's largest telescope four times. He published an article in the April 1928 issue of Harper's Magazine called "The Possibilities of Large Telescopes". This article contained Hale's vision for building what was to become the 200-inch Palomar reflector; it was an invitation to
Table Mountain Observatory (TMO) is an astronomical observation facility operated by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology). It is located in Angeles National Forest near Wrightwood, California. Located 63 kilometers (39 mi) north-northwest of Los Angeles, TMO is part of JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF). The larger site hosts a number of non-astronomical projects. The site was first used by the Smithsonian Institution in 1924, which conducted atmospheric, solar, and astronomical observations for many years. JPL took over the lease in 1962.
TMO conducts high precision astrometric observations to support NASA and international spacecraft mission navigation, confirmation and recovery of Near-Earth objects such as comets and asteroids that may potentially impact the Earth, and technology development.
The Taeduk Radio Astronomy Observatory, or TRAO is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institutue. It is located in the science town of Taeduk, part of Daejeon, South Korea.
Founded in 1986, it is with a run through a cooperative agreement with the Ministry of Science and Technology of South Korea.
The Heights School Observatory is an Astronomical Observatory at The Heights School in Modbury Heights, Adelaide, South Australia. A group of Gifted & Talented students known as the STAR Group learns astronomy at an advanced level, both in theory and practice.
The Observatory consists of two buildings. In 1988-89, the Emanuel Papaelia Observatory (opened Nov'89) was built containing a 1963 vintage 12" Dall-Kirkham Cassegrain reflecting telescope belonging to the Astronomical Society of South Australia (ASSA), and originally housed at Marryatville High School. In 1996, a second, building (the Ingham Family Rooms) was constructed. This contained a 10" Meade LX-200 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, and has a roll-off roof.
In August 2011, the 10" Meade in the Inghams building was replaced by a 14" Meade LX-200 GPS-ACF. This was purchased with a grant from the Education Minister, topped up with fund raising money from the STAR Group.
The observatory also houses a portable 16" Meade Light-Bridge Dobsonian.
In April 2012, the Heights School purchased a research-grade, 12.5" space-qualified Schmidt-Cassegrain built by Optical Guidance Systems. That replaced the 14" LX200 in the roll off roof
The V. P. Engel'gardt Astronomical Observatory (Russian: Астрономическая обсерватория им. В. П. Энгельгардта; also known simply as the Engelhardt Observatory), is located 20 km west of Kazan, Russia. It has IAU observatory codes 136. The co-ordinates are about 55°50′23″N 48°48′45″E / 55.83972°N 48.8125°E / 55.83972; 48.8125.
Winer Observatory is an astronomical observatory near Sonoita, Arizona in the United States. It is a private, non-profit observatory, operated by Mark Trueblood since 1983. It has been the site of a number of significant small telescopes and famous robotic telescopes. It has been the site of the Iowa Robotic Observatory. The facility also hosted Michael Schwartz's telescope, active in supernova patrols, until Tenagra Observatories opened a facility in the area.
Airdrie Public Observatory (55° 51' 56" N, 03° 58' 58" W) is in the town of Airdrie, North Lanarkshire, Scotland. The observatory is open to the public by request, and is housed in Airdrie Public Library. Installed on the roof of the first purpose-built library building in 1896, it is the smallest, and second oldest, of four public observatories operating in the UK, all of which are sited in Scotland. The present library building was opened in 1925.
The observatory is owned and funded by North Lanarkshire Council and operated on their behalf by Airdrie Astronomical Association (AAA), a Scottish astronomy society and registered charity. Current honorary curators are Paul Clark and Arthur Bannister.
The observatory's Cooke of York 6 inch refracting telescope is mounted equatorially and has a clockwork drive to track the stars across the sky. A manual mechanism is now used to rotate the observatory’s dome.
The Cooke eye-pieces for the telescope provided a range between 60 and 450 times magnification. The telescope has been adapted by the AAA to use more modern eye-pieces. Although the Cooke is not the original Airdrie telescope, it is believed that it is in excess of 100 years old
Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP) is a German research institute. It is the successor of the Berlin Observatory founded in 1700 and of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam (AOP) founded in 1874. The latter was the world's first observatory to emphasize explicitly the research area of astrophysics. The AIP was founded in 1992, in a re-structuring following the German Reunification.
The AIP is privately funded and member of the Leibniz Association. It is located in Babelsberg in the state of Brandenburg, just west of Berlin, though the Einstein Tower solar observatory and the great refractor telescope on Telegrafenberg in Potsdam belong to the AIP.
The key topics of the AIP are cosmic magnetic fields (magnetohydrodynamics) on various scales and extragalactic astrophysics. Astronomical and astrophysical fields studied at the AIP range from solar and stellar physics to stellar and galactic evolution to cosmology.
The institute also develops research technology in the fields of spectroscopy and robotic telescopes. It is a partner of the Large Binocular Telescope in Arizona, has erected robotic telescopes in Tenerife and the Antarctic, develops astronomical
Gaia (originally an acronym for Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics) is a European Space Agency (ESA) space mission in astrometry to be launched in August 2013. Successor to the Hipparcos mission, it is part of ESA's Horizon 2000 Plus long-term scientific program. The mission aims to compile a catalogue of approximately 1 billion stars, or roughly 1% of stars in the Milky Way. It will monitor each of its target stars about 70 times to a magnitude 20 over a period of 5 years. Its objectives comprise:
Gaia will create an extremely precise three-dimensional map of stars throughout our Milky Way galaxy and beyond, and map their motions which encode the origin and subsequent evolution of the Milky Way. The spectrophotometric measurements will provide the detailed physical properties of each star observed, characterising their luminosity, effective temperature, gravity and elemental composition. This massive stellar census will provide the basic observational data to tackle a wide range of important problems related to the origin, structure, and evolutionary history of our Galaxy. Large numbers of quasars, galaxies, extrasolar planets and Solar System bodies will be
Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitäts-Sternwarte Jena (AIU Jena, Astrophysical Institute and University Observatory Jena, or simply Jena Observatory) is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Friedrich Schiller University of Jena. It is located in Jena, Germany.
Transit Timing Variation (TTV), a variation on the transit method, was used to discover a exoplanet WASP-3c by Rozhen Observatory, Jena Observatory, and Toruń Centre for Astronomy.
The Kevola Observatory is located in Kevola in Paimio in South-Western Finland, some 35 km east from the city of Turku. The observatory is currently owned by Turun Ursa ry, a local astronomical association operating in Turku area. The buildings of the observatory include an observatory dome, a zenith observatory, and a house for recording observations.
Kevola Observatory is listed in the IAU list of observatory codes with code 64.
The observatory was built in 1963 by Tähtitieteellis-optillinen seura (Astronomy-Optical Society) on a small hill on lands of the home farm of Hilkka Rantaseppä-Helenius. She worked at the time as an observer at Tuorla Observatory of University of Turku. The association was founded by Yrjö Väisälä, Liisi Oterma, Hilkka Rantaseppä-Helenius, and other astronomers working at University of Turku.
The association was terminated in 1983. In 1986 the observatory building was passed to Turun Ursa, also founded by Yrjö Väisälä. The land of the observatory was rented from a local farmer until 2002, when Turun Ursa received a grant from Viljo, Yrjö ja Kalle Väisälän rahasto (Viljo, Yrjö and Kalle Väisälä Fund) to purchase the land.
The observatory dome houses a 50
The Mauna Kea Observatories (MKO) are an independent collection of astronomical research facilities located on the summit of Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawai'i, USA. The facilities are located in a 500-acre (2.0 km) special land use zone known as the "Astronomy Precinct", which is located in the Mauna Kea Science Reserve. The Astronomy Precinct was established in 1967 and is located on land protected by the Historical Preservation Act for its significance to Hawaiian culture.
The location is ideal because of its dark skies, good astronomical seeing, low humidity and position above most of the water vapor in the atmosphere, clean air, good weather and almost equatorial location.
The University of Hawai'i manages the site and leases land to several multi-national facilities which have invested more than $2 billion in science and technology.
The altitude and isolation in the middle of the Pacific Ocean makes Mauna Kea one of the best locations on earth for ground-based astronomy. It is an ideal location for submillimeter, infrared and optical observations. The seeing statistics show that Mauna Kea is the best site in terms of optical and infrared image quality—for example the CFHT
Meyer-Womble Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the University of Denver. It is located near the summit of Mount Evans in the Arapaho National Forest approximately 60 kilometers (37 mi) west of Denver, Colorado (USA). At an elevation of 4,326 meters (14,193 ft), it is the third highest optical/infrared observatory in the world, and was the highest until the Indian Astronomical Observatory opened in 2001.
Through a gift of $3.8 million from the estate of William Womble, construction of the facility began in 1995 and was completed in 1996. Eric Meyer, M.D., an anesthesiologist who designed the dual-aperture 0.72 m (28 in) f/21 Ritchey-Chretien telescope, and his wife, Barbara, donated $1 million and brought the optical lenses personally from Chicago. The optical/infrared telescopes saw first light in August of 1997.
During the 2011-2012 winter, the dome over the telescope was severely damaged by high winds, allowing snow to enter the observing area. The telescope was secured in early April 2012 by mountaineer Adam Jones, who hiked to the summit, but a complete inspection of the damage will not take place until the road to the summit is opened in
The Astronomical Observatory of Modra (Slovak: Astronomické observatórium Modra), also known as Modra Observatory or the Astronomical and Geophysical observatory in Modra, is an astronomical observatory located in Modra, Slovakia. It is owned and operated by the Comenius University in Bratislava. The scientific research at the observatory is led by the Department of Astronomy, Physics of the Earth and Meteorology, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics.
The asteroid 11118 Modra discovered in this observatory is named in the honour of the town.
The Astronomical and Geophysical observatory of Comenius University is located near the town of Modra and in the mountain range of Little Carpathians. The 3.5-hectare area contains several buildings and scientific instruments surrounded by beech forest. It lies on the middle trias quartzitic bedrock. It is accessible via a tourist trail or by the private paved road from Zochova chata. The main administrative building with the dome on the top contains the 0.60-metre Zeiss telescope with CCD camera and the 0.20-metre solar telescope with H-alpha filter. Within walking distance there are several buildings and pavilions with scientific
The Stockholm Observatory (Swedish: Stockholms observatorium) is an astronomical institution in Stockholm, Sweden, founded in the 18th century and today part of Stockholm University. Its history is connected to two actual historical observatory complexes in the Stockholm area.
The first observatory was established by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on the initiative of its secretary Per Elvius. Construction, according to designs by the architect Carl Hårleman, was begun in 1748, and the building was completed in 1753. It is situated on a hill in a park nowadays named Observatorielunden. The first head of the observatory was Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin. Later heads of the observatory include Hugo Gyldén and Bertil Lindblad. This 18th-century observatory today functions as a museum. 59°20′30″N 18°03′17″E / 59.34167°N 18.05472°E / 59.34167; 18.05472
A newer observatory was built in Saltsjöbaden outside Stockholm and completed in 1931 (the architect this time being Axel Anderberg). 59°16′18″N 18°18′30″E / 59.27167°N 18.30833°E / 59.27167; 18.30833 More recent astronomical observations, however, are almost exclusively being done in observatories outside Sweden and closer to the
Universitäts-Sternwarte Wien (Vienna Observatory) is an astronomical observatory in Vienna, Austria. It is part of the University of Vienna. The first observatory was built in 1753–1754 on the roof of one of the university buildings.
A new observatory was built between 1874 and 1879, and was finally inaugurated by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria in 1883. The main dome houses a refractor with a diameter of 68 centimetres (27 in) and a focal length of 10.5 metres (34 ft) built by the Grubb Telescope Company. At that time, it was the world's largest refracting telescope.
Iso-Heikkilä Observatory (Finnish: Iso-Heikkilän tähtitorni) is an amateur astronomical observatory in the Iso-Heikkilä district of Turku, Finland. It was operated by the University of Turku from 1937 to 1972 but is now used by a local division of Ursa Astronomical Association.
The observatory was originally owned by the department of astronomy of the University of Turku. It was built in 1935 and 1936, and technically designed by physics and astronomy professor Yrjö Väisälä. Väisälä's research team discovered a total of 807 minor planets and 7 comets in the observatory. Väisälä also contributed significantly to research in the areas of optics and surveying.
As the city expanded and a steel factory was built under a kilometer away from the observatory, the astronomy department of the university moved to Tuorla Observatory in the 1950s. Iso-Heikkilä remained in the use of students for some time, until the university gave up its ownership completely in 1972. The observatory is now used by the Turku department of Ursa Astronomical Association and owned by the city of Turku.
In the 1960s, an apartment building area was built in Iso-Heikkilä, preventing any observations of low-sky
The National Observatory of Athens (NOA) (Greek: Εθνικό Αστεροσκοπείο Αθηνών) is a research institute in Athens, Greece. Founded in 1842, it is the oldest research foundation in Greece, as it was the first scientific research institute built after Greece became independent in 1829, and one of the oldest research institutes in Southern Europe.
Around 1840, the national benefactor, Baron Georgios Sinas, ambassador in Vienna, expresses his intention to make a donation for science development in Greece. He takes advice from his friend, the Austrian ambassador in Athens Prokesh-Osten, whose secretary is the physicist and astronomer, professor Georgios Vouris. The decision of Georgios Sinas is to donate 500.000 drachmas to the Greek Government for founding an Astronomical Observatory in Athens.
The Observatory of Athens foundation ceremony in June 26, 1842, the day of a Solar Eclipse, is a magnificent official event. Persist the King of Greece Otto, members of the Government and of the Greek Church. A large crowd of people fills up the vicinity of the place selected for the Observatory, a location on the hill of Nymphs at Thiseio, facing the Acropolis. Following the panegyric speech by
Sunriver Observatory is an astronomical observatory operated by the not-for-profit Sunriver Nature Center & Observatory in Sunriver, Oregon, United States, near Sunriver Resort. The observatory has 11 telescopes.
The Apache Point Observatory (APO) is an astronomical observatory located in the Sacramento Mountains in Sunspot, New Mexico (USA) approximately 18 miles (29 km) south of Cloudcroft. The observatory is operated by New Mexico State University (NMSU) and owned by the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC). Access to the telescopes and buildings is restricted, but the public is able to visit the grounds.
The ARC was formed in 1984 with the goal of building the 3.5 m telescope. It originally consisted of five institutions: New Mexico State University, University of Washington, University of Chicago, Princeton University, and Washington State University, which has since withdrawn. Four additional organizations have joined over time: the Institute for Advanced Study, Johns Hopkins University, University of Colorado, and University of Virginia. Funding for the 3.5 m and 0.5 m telescopes comes from consortium, but funds for the 2.5 m telescope come from a much wider array of sources. The 1.0 m telescope is supported exclusively by NMSU.
The ARC 3.5 m (140 in) telescope is a Ritchey-Chretien reflector on an alt-azimuth mount with instruments attached at several focal points. Construction
The Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (otherwise known as the Arcetri Observatory, Florence) is an astronomical observatory located in Arcetri in the outskirts of Florence, Italy. Observatory staff carry out theoretical and observational astronomy as well as designing and constructing astronomical instrumentation. The observatory has been heavily involved with the following instrumentation projects:
The Goethe Link Observatory is an astronomical observatory near Brooklyn, Indiana (USA), owned by Indiana University and operated by the Indiana Astronomical Society. It is named in honour of Dr. Goethe Link, an Indianapolis surgeon, who built it with his private funds. Construction of the observatory started in 1937, and the telescope was first operated in 1939. Link donated the observatory to Indiana University in 1948.
A number of asteroid discoveries were made there, including 1578 Kirkwood. These are credited by the Minor Planet Center under the name "Indiana University," which operated the Indiana Asteroid Program at Goethe Link from 1949 until 1967 using a 10-inch (250 mm) f/6.5 Cooke triplet astrograph. The asteroid 1728 Goethe Link was discovered there on October 12, 1964.
When light pollution began to degrade the Goethe Link Observatory's capabilities in the 1960s, Indiana University built a new facility in the Morgan-Monroe State Forest officially designated as the Morgan-Monroe Station (MMS) of the Goethe Link Observatories.
Holcomb Observatory and Planetarium is a part of Butler University in Indianapolis, Indiana. A small observatory was built on the Butler campus on the east side of Indianapolis. The campus moved to the north side of Indianapolis in 1928 and the old observatory was torn down.
The telescope was reconditioned in the 1930s and remounted on the new campus, but sat unused until 1945.
In 1953, benefactor James Irving Holcomb and his wife gave $325,000 for the construction of an observatory. In October 1954, a 38-inch (970 mm) reflecting telescope was installed by J. W. Fecker, Inc. The observatory was built on a hill on the north end of the Butler University campus.
Planetarium equipment includes a Spitz A3P projector installed in 1981.
The telescope was refurbished over 7 years beginning in 1995 by AB Engineering of Fort Wayne, Indiana at a cost of approximately $100,000.
39°50′29″N 86°10′17″W / 39.84139°N 86.17139°W / 39.84139; -86.17139
Hvězdárna Hradec Králové (Hradec Králové Observatory) is part astronomical observatory and part planetarium. Also housed in the same building are the Institute of Atmospheric Physics and the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. It is located on the southern outskirts of Hradec Králové in the Czech Republic, and was founded in 1961.
The Observatoire de Nice (Nice Observatory) is an astronomical observatory located in Nice, France on the summit of Mont Gros. The observatory was founded in 1879 by the banker Raphaël Bischoffsheim. The architect was Charles Garnier, and Gustave Eiffel designed the main dome.
The 77 cm (30.3 inch) refractor telescope made by Henry and Gautier became operational around 1886–1887, was the largest in a privately funded observatory, and the first at such high altitude (325 m (1,066 ft) above sea level). It was slightly bigger in aperture and several metres longer than the new (1895) 30 inch at Pulkovo observatory in the Russian Empire. The French telescope was also at a higher altitude. The two 30 inch telescopes had taken the crown from the 69 cm at Vienna Observatory (completed early 1880s). All three were outperformed by the 36 in (91 cm) refractor installed at the Lick Observatory in 1889.
As a scientific institution, the Nice Observatory no longer exists. It was merged with CERGA in 1988 to form the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur.
The Nice Observatory was featured in the 1999 film Simon Sez.
Rutherfurd Observatory is the astronomical facility maintained by Columbia University named after Lewis Morris Rutherfurd. Initially, Rutherfurd houses his telescopes and equipment in midtown Manhattan and later on the Stuyvesant Estate. When the Morningside campus was built, telescopes were kept in a "transit building" where the Interdisciplinary Science Building now stands. When Pupin Physics Laboratories were completed in 1927, the home of the observatory was moved to the top of the building. Below the Rutherford Observatory on the 14th floor was the site of Professor Wallace Eckert's Astronomical Laboratory, in which he constructed the first device to perform general scientific calculations automatically in 1933-34.
The observatory formerly included a twelve inch (30 cm.) refractor telescope built by the Alvan Clark firm in 1916 for the Czarist government of Russia. It was to be installed at a site to observe an upcoming solar eclipse in Russia. With unrestricted U-boat warfare during World War I shipment was delayed until the war ended. The new Russian government headed by Lenin refused to pay for or accept the telescope, which sat in a crate in a warehouse until 1920, when
The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is a spacecraft built by a European industrial consortium led by Matra Marconi Space (now Astrium) that was launched on a Lockheed Martin Atlas IIAS launch vehicle on December 2, 1995 to study the Sun, and has discovered over 2200 comets. It began normal operations in May 1996. It is a joint project of international cooperation between the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA. Originally planned as a two-year mission, SOHO currently continues to operate after over fifteen years in space. In October 2009, a mission extension lasting until December 2012 was approved.
In addition to its scientific mission, it is currently the main source of near-real time solar data for space weather prediction. Along with the GGS Wind and Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), SOHO is one of three spacecraft currently in the vicinity of the Earth-Sun L1 point, a point of gravitational balance located approximately 0.99 astronomical unit (AU)s from the Sun and 0.01 AU from the Earth. In addition to its scientific contributions, SOHO is distinguished by being the first three-axis-stabilized spacecraft to use its reaction wheels as a kind of virtual gyroscope;
Østervold Observatory is a former astronomical observatory (IAU code 035) in Copenhagen, Denmark owned and operated by the University of Copenhagen (Københavns Universitet). It opened in 1861 as a replacement for the University's old observatory at Rundetårn.
The first astronomical observatory operated by the University of Copenhagen was Rundetårn. It had been inaugurated in 1642 as a replacement for Tycho Brahe's Stjerneborg, but during the early 19th century had become outdated as astronomical instruments grew bigger and bigger while the tower could not be expanded. In the same time, light pollution from the surrounding city as well as vibrations caused by the still increasing traffic in the streets below had made the observations inaccurate.
In 1861 the observatory was moved to Østervold, where a new observatory was constructed on the old bastioned fortifications of the city, which had become outdated and were being disabandonned. The well-known Russian-German astronomer, Heinrich Louis d'Arrest, who had been appointed professor in astronomy at the university in 1857, was chosen to plan the new observatory. He used the observatory for his study of nebulas, in 1867 publishing an
The Givatayim Observatory was founded in 1968 by the Israeli Astronomical Association and the Givatayim municipality.
These are some of the activities taking place in the observatory:
The observatory is placed on a hill (87m above sea level) inside a public park in Givatayim (Second Alyia Park). Givatayim is a town adjacent to Tel Aviv and part of the Greater Tel Aviv region. Because of this location, the sky is very bright and precludes observation of faint objects.
The main telescope (16-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope) is located in a dome and is dedicated to imaging and research. The other telescopes are operated on an observation terrace next to the dome. The sky in Givatayim is highly light polluted. The situation deteriorated during the last years due to new skyscrapers (Azrieli Center, City Gate, new government building etc.), which are illuminated from below by strong floodlights, sending their light cones into the sky. Moreover, during the last years the bad habit of huge advertisement walls, also illuminated by strong spotlights, became widespread. Many of these spotlights are misdirected, sending their light into the sky.
Since 1984 Dr. Igal Patel is the head of the
The Kanzelhoehe Solar Observatory or KSO is an astronomical observatory affiliated with the Institute of Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology out of the Karl-Franzens-University. It is located near Villach on the southern border of Austria .
Its Web page at http://www.solobskh.ac.at/ usually posts current images of the sun, especially in the hydrogen-alpha line that is the strongest visible-light line of hydrogen and that reveals the solar chromosphere.
Founded in 1943 by the German Luftwaffe to research the effects of the Sun on the Earth's ionosphere, the KSO focuses on multispectral synoptic observations of the sun using several telescope on the same mount.
The Royal Observatory of Belgium, officially known in French as the Observatoire Royal de Belgique, and in Dutch as the Koninklijke Sterrenwacht van België, is situated at Uccle (Ukkel in Dutch) since 1890, although it was originally founded in 1834. It was home to a 100 cm diameter aperture Zeiss reflector in the first half of the 20th century, one of the largest telescopes in the world at the time. It has had a variety of other astronomical instruments, such as astrographs, as well as a range of seismograph equipment (such as for detecting earthquakes).
The main activities are:
The Royal Observatory was founded by Adolphe Quetelet in 1828, and the facilities there began operation by 1834. It was moved to Uccle in 1890, however, this was a fairly common practice for observatory in those days. It suffered some damage in 20th-century wars, but it was repaired and new instruments were acquired (new instruments were bought on a regular basis also).
Since 1981, the Sunspot Index Data center, the World data center for the Sunspot Index is harbored at the observatory.
The asteroid 1276 Ucclia is named for City and the Observatory.
The Planetarium is located at the Heysel, in the northern
Puckett Observatory is a private astronomical observatory located in the North Georgia Mountains, near Ellijay, Georgia, United States. It is owned and operated by Tim Puckett. Its primary observation goals are the study of comets and the discovery of supernovae. To facilitate the latter goal it sponsors the Puckett Observatory World Supernova Search whose astronomers have discovered 266 supernovae.
The Puckett Observatory houses two telescopes. The 60 cm (24”) Ritchey-Chrétien telescope was custom engineered and built by Puckett, and took nine years to complete, going online full-time in 1997. The telescope features a new type of hybrid disk/band worm drive designed by Puckett in 1993.
The other observatory telescope includes a Celestron C-14 Schmidt-Cassegrain with a Software Bisque's Paramount ME Robotic Telescope System.
The Puckett Observatory World Supernova Search was formed in 1998, with its principal investigator being Tim Puckett. The search consists of a team of amateur astronomers located in the United States, Canada and Italy. Observatories participating in the search include the Puckett Observatory, and telescopes located in Portal, Arizona (Jack Newton), and Osoyoos,
The University of Birmingham Observatory is used primarily for undergraduate teaching at the University of Birmingham. It has two main instruments, a 16" Cassegrain (working at f/19) and a 14” Meade LX200R (working at f/6.35). A third telescope is also present and is used exclusively for visual observations.
Undergraduates of the Physics & Astrophysics programmes use the observatory in their 2nd and 3rd years. In the 2nd year they use this for prime focus imaging (e.g. light curve of an eclipsing binary, orbit of a comet) and in the 3rd year they use it for spectral analysis of celestial bodies (e.g. the wind speed of a P-Cygni star, the distance to a nearby Seyfert galaxy).
Yerkes Observatory is an astronomical observatory operated by the University of Chicago in Williams Bay, Wisconsin. The observatory, which calls itself "the birthplace of modern astrophysics," was founded in 1897 by George Ellery Hale and financed by Charles T. Yerkes. It represented a shift in the thinking about observatories, from their being mere housing for telescopes and observers, to the modern concept of observation equipment integrated with laboratory space for physics and chemistry.
The Observatory has the largest refracting telescope successfully used for astronomy and has a collection of over 100,000 photographic plates. The present (2010) director of the observatory is Dr. Kyle M. Cudworth.
Yerkes Observatory is most famous for its 102 cm (40 inch) refracting telescope built by the master optician Alvan Clark. This is the largest refracting telescope used for scientific research (a larger demonstration refractor, the Great Paris Exhibition Telescope of 1900, was exhibited at the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1900). The 40-inch telescope was exhibited at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago before being installed in the observatory.
In addition to the Yerkes
Glen D. Riley Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Naperville Astronomical Association. It was founded 1973 and located in Naperville, Illinois (USA). Partnered with the DuPage Valley Observatory, which is equipped with a custom 12.5" astrograph for video imaging; together, they make up the association's "Astronomy Education Center". The facility is used both by the organization's members and for extensive public outreach; see their website for information on scheduled public programs and for setting up observing sessions for youth groups.
The Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) is a United States astronomical observatory site located on 2,096 m (6,880 ft) Kitt Peak of the Quinlan Mountains in the Arizona-Sonoran Desert on the Tohono O'odham Nation, 88 kilometers (55 mi) southwest of Tucson. With 24 optical and two radio telescopes, it is the largest, most diverse gathering of astronomical instruments in the world. The observatory is administered by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO).
Kitt Peak was selected by its first director, Aden B. Meinel, in 1958 as the site for a national observatory under contract with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and was administered by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy. The land was leased from the Tohono O'odham under a perpetual agreement. The second director (1960 to 1971) was Nicholas U. Mayall. In 1982 NOAO was formed to consolidate the management of three optical observatories — Kitt Peak; the National Solar Observatory facilities at Kitt Peak and Sacramento Peak, New Mexico; and the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The observatory sites are under lease from the Tohono O'odham Nation at the amount of a quarter dollar
The Ulugh Beg Observatory is an observatory in Samarkand, Uzbekistan. Built in the 1420s by the Timurid astronomer Ulugh Beg, it is considered by scholars to have been one of the finest observatories in the Islamic world. Some of the famous Islamic astronomers who worked at the observatory include Al-Kashi, Ali Qushji, and Ulugh Beg himself. The observatory was destroyed in 1449 and rediscovered in 1908.
In 1420, the great astronomer Ulugh Beg built a madrasah in Samarkand, named the Ulugh Beg Madrasah. It became an important centre for astronomical study and only invited scholars to study at the university whom he personally approved of and respected academically and at its peak had between 60 and 70 astronomers working there. In 1424, he began building the observatory to support the astronomical study at the madrasah and it was completed five years later in 1429. Beg assigned his assistant and scholar Ali Qushji to take charge of the Ulugh Beg Observatory which was called Samarkand Observatory at that time. He worked there till Ulugh Beg was assassinated. Other notable astronomers made observations of celestial movements at the observatory, including Qāḍīzāda al-Rūmī (who took
The Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari (Cagliari Observatory, OAC) is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Italy's Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (National Institute for Astrophysics, INAF). It is located 20 km away from Cagliari in Sardinia. It was founded in 1899 to study the Earth's rotation.
Félix Aguilar Observatory (Spanish: Observatorio Félix Aguilar, or Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar - OAFA) is an astronomical observatory in the San Juan Province of Argentina. Its primary observing facility is located El Leoncito National Park in the west of San Juan Province. Also located in El Leoncito Park is the Leoncito Astronomical Complex. The remote site was known as "El Leoncito Observatory" until 1990, when it became Carlos Ulrrico Cesco Astronomical Station (Spanish: Estación Astronómica Carlos Ulrrico Cesco - EACUC). The observatory is operated by the School of Physical and Natural Sciences at National University of San Juan in San Juan, Argentina. The original OAFA observatory buildings are located at the west end of the city.
OAFA is named after Félix Aguilar (1884–1943), an Argentine astronomer and engineer who was director of the La Plata Astronomical Observatory from 1919 to 1921, and again from 1934 until his death. EACUC was renamed after Carlos Ulrrico Cesco on the 25th anniversary of the beginning of observations in honour of his contributions to the founding and operation of the observatory.
In 1947, research had been started at the Lick Observatory in
Hamburger Sternwarte (Hamburg Observatory) is an astronomical observatory located in the Bergedorf borough of the city of Hamburg in northern Germany. It is owned and operated by the University of Hamburg, Germany since 1968, although it was founded in 1825 by the City of Hamburg and moved to its present location in 1912. It has operated telescopes at Bergedorf, at two previous locations in Hamburg, at other observatories around the world, and it has also supported space missions.
The precursor of Hamburg observatory was a private observatory by Johann Georg Repsold built in 1802, originally located at the Stintfang in Hamburg. It started in 1803 with a meridian circle built by Repsold in 1808. However, it was destroyed in 1811 by a war. Repsold, Reinke, and J.C. von Hess submitted a proposal to Hamburg for city observatory that same year, to rebuild.
Funding for a new Observatory was approved in August 1821, on the condition J. G. Repsold built the instruments. The new observatory was completed in 1825 next to the Millerntor. However, in 1830 Repsold died while fighting a fire (he was also a Hamburg fireman) and the City of Hamburg voted to take over and continue running the
The Hirsch Observatory is an astronomical observatory at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, New York. It is located on the roof of the Jonsson-Rowland Science Center (seen below) and is used by members of the Rensselaer Astrophysical Society as well as astronomy students in laboratory exercises. It is frequently opened to the community for public viewing sessions. The observatory's main dome contains a 16" Cassegrain Reflector, with a CCD camera and fully computerized controls. The observatory also owns a variety of smaller scopes and a SBIG Spectrograph. The spectrograph has been used to catalog bright solar spectrum as part of an effort to create an online digital database for astrophysical research. The current director of the observatory is Professor Heidi Newberg.
The Hirsch observatory finished construction in 1942. It was built to house a 12" equatorial reflector designed and constructed at RPI. The telescope appeared on the cover of the October 1942 issue of Sky & Telescope magazine. Today the instrument is still operational and is stored on display in the lobby of the observatory. In 1980 the General Electric company donated the Boller and Chivens 16"
Nyrölä Observatory (Finnish: Nyrölän observatorio) is an amateur astronomical observatory in Finland. It is owned and operated by the astronomical association Jyväskylän Sirius ry, and located in the countryside village of Nyrölä near Jyväskylä.
Discoveries: asteroid 22978 Nyrölä that was the first asteroid discovered by Finnish amateur astronomers, Harri Hyvönen, Marko Moilanen and Arto Oksanen.
The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint project of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) to construct and maintain an airborne observatory. NASA awarded the contract for the development of the aircraft, operation of the observatory and management of the American part of the project to the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) in 1996. The DSI (Deutsches SOFIA Institut) manages the German parts of the project which are primarily science and telescope related. SOFIA's telescope saw first light on May 26, 2010. SOFIA is the successor to the Kuiper Airborne Observatory.
SOFIA is based on a Boeing 747SP wide-body aircraft that has been modified to include a large door in the aft fuselage that can be opened in flight to allow a 2.5 meter diameter reflecting telescope access to the sky. This telescope is designed for infrared astronomy observations in the stratosphere at altitudes of about 41,000 feet (about 12 km). SOFIA's flight capability allows it to rise above almost all of the water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere, which blocks some infrared wavelengths from reaching the ground. At the aircraft's cruising altitude, 85% of the full
The James C. Veen Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the Grand Rapids Amateur Astronomical Association. Built during the 1960s and opened in 1970, it is located south of Lowell, Michigan, USA. Its two domes house the main instruments, and a roll-off structure houses a 17-inch Dobsonian.
The Voyager 2 spacecraft is a 722-kilogram (1,592 lb) space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977 to study the outer Solar System and eventually interstellar space. It was operating for 35 years, 1 month and 27 days as of today (17 October 2012), the spacecraft still receives and transmits data via the Deep Space Network. At a distance of 99.1 AU (1.48×10 km; 9.21×10 mi) as of September 2012, it is one of the most distant manmade objects (along with Voyager 1, Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11).
Voyager 2 is part of the Voyager program with its identical sister craft Voyager 1, and is in extended mission, tasked with locating and studying the boundaries of the Solar System, including the Kuiper belt, the heliosphere and interstellar space. The primary mission ended December 31, 1989 after encountering the Jovian system in 1979, Saturnian system in 1980, Uranian system in 1986, and the Neptunian system in 1989. It is still the only spacecraft to have visited the two outer gas giant planets Uranus and Neptune.
Conceived in the 1960s, a Planetary Grand Tour proposal to study the outer planets, prompted NASA to begin work on a mission in the early 1970s. The development of the
The Algonquin Radio Observatory (ARO) is a radio telescope research facility located in the Algonquin Provincial Park in Ontario, Canada. The site's primary instrument is a major 46 m (150 ft) parabolic-dish radio antenna. This instrument is historically famous for taking part in the first successful very long baseline interferometry experiment in the 1960s. The site also formerly ran a solar-observing array of thirty-two 10 ft (3 m) dishes, and a single 1.8 m solar flux monitor observing at 10.7 cm wavelength. The site is currently used to provide high accuracy geodetic location information to the present day for applications such as real time GPS signal correction.
Algonquin Radio Observatory was inaugurated in 1959 and became Canada's national radio observatory in 1962. The observatory house complex, radiometer building, utility buildings, University of Toronto Laboratory, 10 m (33 ft) dish and parabolic microwave feed horn instruments were designed in 1959 and construction was completed in phases over the next several years. In 1961, the site was selected by the National Research Council of Canada as suitable for the construction of a 120 ft (37 m) fully steerable antenna. By
Piwnice radio observatory is located at Piwnice, 15 km north of Toruￅﾄ, Poland . Since 1981 the observatory has been a part of world wide network of radio telescope participating in VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry). With the new 32ￂﾠm telescope (620-ton construction designed by Zygmunt Bujakowski) and modern sophisticated instrumentation.
Toruￅﾄ VLBI station is the unique place in eastern Europe. International collaboration and involvement in various European research projects is the major activity of this department. The research concentrates on observations and theoretical interpretation of physical processes in compact active regions of radio galaxies and quasars, the timing of pulsars, the search for new planetary systems and Solar System studies. In addition, the development of instrumentation for radio astronomy (ultra low noise receivers, spectrometers, frequency converters, digital electronics, control systems) is also significant part of activities in the observatory. Since 1997 the Department of Radio Astronomy has been a part of Toruￅﾄ Centre for Astronomy at Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics of the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruￅﾄ. From
The La Plata Astronomical Observatory (in Spanish, Observatorio Astronómico de La Plata) is an observatory located in the city of La Plata, capital of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Its IAU code is 839.
La Plata was a planned city, intended as the capital of the province after the city of Buenos Aires became the Argentina's Federal Capital. The observatory was the result of the 1872 establishment of the National Meteorological Bureau, enacted by President Domingo Sarmiento on an initiative by U.S. astronomer Benjamin Apthorp Gould (who lived in Argentina between 1870 and 1885). The construction of the Observatory was funded by a decree passed by La Plata's founder, Buenos Aires Province Governor Dardo Rocha, on 7 May 1881. In this decree the Engineering Department was ordered to set up plans and a budget for several public buildings, including an astronomical observatory.
Designed by the master planner of La Plata, Pedro Benoit, ground was broken on the observatory in November 1883. A year earlier, the Paris Observatory had sent astronomical instruments to the city of Bragado, Buenos Aires, to observe a transit of Venus in front of the Sun, for which the location was
Leiden Observatory (Sterrewacht Leiden in Dutch) is an astronomical observatory in the city of Leiden, Netherlands. It was established by Leiden University in 1633, to house the quadrant of Snellius, and is the oldest operating University observatory in the world (before this, astronomy taught at medieval universities tended to be of a more theoretical nature, and any observations were usually done with private equipment rather than at University observatories —see this timeline).
The original observatory used observing platforms on the roof of the main university building at the Rapenburg. In 1860 a large, modern observatory was erected at the Witte Singel. This building was the home of the astronomy department until it moved to the science campus north-west of the city centre in 1974. Although professional astronomical observations are no longer carried out from Leiden itself, the department still calls itself Leiden Observatory. Today's astronomers instead travel to the big observatories, e.g. ESO's VLT in Chile.
The astronomy department (Sterrewacht Leiden) is the largest in the Netherlands and is internationally renowned, performing research in a wide range of astronomical
The Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) is a division of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and consists of three radio instruments located in Nobeyama, a village in the Japan Alps at an elevation of 1350m.
The Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory (Russian: Пу́лковская астрономи́ческая обсервато́рия, official name The Central Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences at Pulkovo, Гла́вная (Пу́лковская) астрономи́ческая обсервато́рия Росси́йской акаде́мии нау́к), the principal astronomical observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, located 19 km south of Saint Petersburg on Pulkovo Heights (75 m above sea level). It is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments.
The observatory was opened in 1839. Originally, it was a brainchild of the German/Russian astronomer Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve, who would become its first director (in 1861, his son Otto Wilhelm von Struve succeeded him). The architect was Alexander Bryullov. The observatory was equipped with the state-of-the-art devices, one of them being the a 38-cm (15 in.) aperture refractor, one of the large refractors in the world at that time (see Great Refractor). In 1885, the observatory was equipped with 30-inch (76 cm) refractor, which was one of the biggest refractors in the world, until the 36" (91 cm) telescope at the Lick Observatory in
The Special Astrophysical Observatory (Russian: Специальная Астрофизическая Обсерватория), or SAO RAS for short, is an astronomical observatory, set up in 1966 in the USSR, now operated by the Russian Academy of Sciences. Based in the Bolshoi Zelenchuk Valley of the Greater Caucasus near the village of Nizhny Arkhyz, the observatory houses the large BTA-6 optical telescope and RATAN-600 radio telescope. The two instruments are about 20 km (12 mi) apart.
The BTA-6 (Большой Телескоп Альтазимутальный, or Large Altazimuth Telescope) was for several years the world's largest solid-mirror reflecting telescope. The BTA-6 has a prime mirror diameter of 6 m (236 in) and is housed in a 48 m (157.5 ft) diameter dome at an altitude of 2,070 m (6,791 ft). Seeing first light in late 1975, it held the record from its completion until 1993, when it was surpassed by the Keck 1 telescope, Hawaii. Telescopes of comparable or larger size have subsequently employed flexible or segmented mirrors, and the BTA-6 remains the world's largest rigid-mirror telescope until the advent of spin-casting technology (which produced, for example, the single 8.4-meter primary mirror of the Large Binocular Telescope in
The Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO), formerly the Anglo-Australian Observatory, is an optical/near-infrared astronomy observatory with its headquarters in suburban Sydney, Australia. Originally funded jointly by the United Kingdom and Australian governments, it is now managed wholly by Australia's Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education . The AAO operates the 3.9 metre Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) and 1.2 metre UK Schmidt Telescope (UKST) at Siding Spring Observatory, located near the town of Coonabarabran, Australia.
In addition to operating the two telescopes, AAO staff carry out astronomical research, as well as design and build innovative astronomical instrumentation for the AAT, UKST, and other telescopes including the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope in Chile, and the Japanese Subaru Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii.
UK involvement in the AAO ceased in June 2010, with the change of name and management arrangements effective from 1 July 2010.
In the years immediately after World War II optical observational astronomy in the UK was toiling due to a lack of modern infrastructure. There were no large
The David B. Cole Observatory is an educational astronomical observatory owned and operated by Barnstable High School. It is named after David Cole, the longtime trustee of the trust fund of Enoch Cobb. The observatory itself houses one telescope, while there are mounts outside the building for four more telescopes. The observatory is also located within the grounds of the high school, thus allowing for more access to the building for its students.
Helsinki University Observatory housed the Department of Astronomy at the University of Helsinki, south Finland until end of 2009.
The Helsinki astronomical observatory was designed in cooperation by professor Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander and architect Carl Ludvig Engel. The building was finished in 1834. The instruments and astronomical books that had escaped the great fire in Turku were transferred to Helsinki. The observatory was among the most modern astronomical observatories of its time, and served as an example for several European observatories that were built afterwards.
A separate tower was built in the observatory garden for the telescope designed for astrophotography. This building was finished in 1890.
The Metsähovi observatory of the University of Helsinki started in 1973. Metsähovi Radio Observatory has also become a centre for the radio astronomical research of the Helsinki University of Technology.
The Leoncito Astronomical Complex (Spanish: Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito - CASLEO) is an astronomical observatory in the San Juan Province of Argentina. CASLEO is one of two observatories located within El Leoncito National Park, which is in a part of the country which rarely sees cloud cover. The other facility in the park is the Carlos U. Cesco Astronomical Station of the Félix Aguilar Observatory. CASLEO was established in 1983 by an agreement between National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET) of Argentina, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MINCYT) of Argentina, the National University of San Juan (UNSJ), the National University of La Plata (UNLP), and the National University of Córdoba (UNC). The facility was dedicated in 1986 and regular observations began in 1987.
CASLEO's telescope are located in two separate areas within the El Leoncito Park. The Sahade and Submillimeter telescopes are at the main site on the edge of the Pampa de la Ciénaga del Medio, along with support facilities. The Hogg telescope, Ghielimetti telescope, and the astrograph are located on Cerro Burek, approximately 1.6 km (1 mi) to the northeast and 85 m (279 ft)
Paranal Observatory is an astronomical observatory located on Cerro Paranal at 2,635 m (8,645 ft) altitude, 120 km (70 mi) south of Antofagasta, Chile, and operated by the European Southern Observatory. The Very Large Telescope (VLT), the largest telescope on Paranal, is composed of four separate 8.2 m (320 in) telescopes. In addition, the four main telescopes can combine their light to make a fifth instrument, the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). Four auxiliary telescopes of 1.8 m (71 in) each are also part of the VLTI to make it available when the main telescopes are being used for other projects.
The site also houses the 2.6 m (100 in) VLT Survey Telescope and 4.0 m (160 in) VISTA survey telescope with wider fields of view for surveying large areas of sky uniformly.
The Very Large Telescope (VLT) consists of four 8.2 m telescopes operating in the visible and infrared. These telescopes, along with four smaller Auxiliary telescopes, are also combined to operate as an optical interferometer on certain nights of the year. All of the 8.2 m telescopes have adaptive optics and a full suite of instruments.
VISTA is the Visible & Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy. A
The Pico dos Dias Observatory (Portuguese: Observatório Pico dos Dias - OPD) is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the National Astrophysical Laboratory of Brazil (Portuguese: Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica - LNA). It is located in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais 37 kilometers (23 mi) from the city of Itajubá.
Siding Spring Observatory near Coonabarabran, New South Wales, Australia, part of the Research School of Astronomy & Astrophysics (RSAA) at the Australian National University (ANU), incorporates the Anglo-Australian Telescope along with a collection of other telescopes owned by the Australian National University, the University of New South Wales, and other institutions. The observatory is situated 1,165 metres (3,822 ft) above sea level in the Warrumbungle National Park on Mount Woorat, also known as Siding Spring Mountain. Siding Spring Observatory is owned by the Australian National University (ANU) and is part of the Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories research school. There are currently 12 telescopes on site.
The original Mount Stromlo Observatory was set up by the Commonwealth Government in 1924. After duty supplying optical components to the military in World War II, the emphasis on astronomical research changed in the late 1940s from solar to stellar research. Between 1953 and 1974, the 74-inch (1.9 m) reflecting telescope at Mount Stromlo was the largest optical telescope in Australia.
Already in the 1950s, the artificial lights of Canberra had brightened the
Starkenburg-Sternwarte (Starkenburg Observatory) is an astronomical observatory in Heppenheim, Germany. It was formed in 1970, and currently has about 150 members.
The instruments at the observatory consists of:
The observatory was the venue for the 1997 and 2003 meetings of the European Radio Astronomy Congress. The amateur astronomers at the observatory have discovered more than 40 asteroids and participate in the tracking of near earth asteroids. The asteroid 6864 Starkenburg was named in honor of their efforts.
The Voyager 1 spacecraft is a 722 kilogram (1,592 lb) space probe launched by NASA in 1977 to study the outer Solar System and interstellar medium. Operating for 35 years, 1 month and 12 days as of 17 October 2012, the spacecraft receives routine commands and transmits data back to the Deep Space Network. At a distance of about 122 AU (1.83×10 km) as of September 2012, it is the furthest manmade object from Earth. Voyager 1 is now in the heliosheath, which is the outermost layer of the heliosphere. On June 15, 2012, NASA scientists reported that Voyager 1 may be very close to entering interstellar space and becoming the first manmade object to leave the Solar System.
As part of the Voyager program, and like its sister craft Voyager 2, the spacecraft is in extended mission, tasked with locating and studying the boundaries of the Solar System, including the Kuiper belt, the heliosphere and interstellar space. The primary mission ended November 20, 1980, after encountering the Jovian system in 1979 and the Saturnian system in 1980. It was the first probe to provide detailed images of the two largest planets and their moons.
In the 1960s, a Grand Tour to study the outer planets was
Llano de Chajnantor Observatory is the name for a group of astronomical observatories located at an altitude of over 4,800 m (15,700 ft) in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. The site is in the Antofagasta Region approximately 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of the town of San Pedro de Atacama. The exceptionally arid climate of the area is inhospitable to humans, but creates an excellent location for submillimetre astronomy. This is because water vapour absorbs and attenuates submillimetre radiation. Llano de Chajnantor is home to the largest and most expensive astronomical telescope project in the world, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). Llano de Chajnantor and the surrounding area has been designated as the Chajnantor Science Reserve (Spanish: Reserva Científica de Chajnantor) by the government of Chile.
The Llano de Chajnantor is located on the western side of the Puna de Atacama, which is another name for the southern part of the Altiplano. The main ridge of the Andes is over 200 kilometres (120 mi) to the east, well into Argentina. The Salar de Atacama basin borders the Puna de Atacama to the west, which in turn is bordered by the Cordillera Domeyko. The western side of
Lund Observatory is the official English name for the astronomy department at Lund University. As of January 2010 Lund Observatory is part of The department of astronomy and theoretical physics at Lund University. It is located in Lund, Sweden.
The institution was founded in 1749, but was preceded by an observatory built by astronomy professor Anders Spole (the grandfather of Anders Celsius) in 1672, which was destroyed at the Battle of Lund in 1676. The now old observatory from 1867 is located in a cultural-heritage protected observatory park just outside the medieval city boundaries. The current Lund Observatory location is in a new building on the northern campus of Lund University, inaugurated in 2001. The history of astronomy in Lund through five centuries is told in the book Lundaögon mot stjärnorna
A famous picture: Towards the middle of the last century astronomer professor Knut Lundmark, of the Lund Observatory in Sweden, supervised the two engineers Martin Kesküla and Tatjana Kesküla who painstakingly mapped the positions of about 7000 individual stars to create an unprecedented drawing of the Milky Way. The map took two years to complete, measures 2 m (6.6 ft) by 1 m
Pises Observatory is an astronomical observatory at the Parc National des Cévennes in France. It is situated at 1300 m altitude and houses an optical telescope with a charge-coupled device used for asteroid surveys.
Ulysses is a decommissioned robotic space probe that was designed to study the Sun as a joint venture of NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). The spacecraft was originally named Odysseus, because of its lengthy and indirect trajectory to near Solar distance. It was renamed Ulysses, the Latin translation of "Odysseus" at ESA's request in honour not only of Homer's mythological hero but also with reference to Dante's description in Dante's Inferno. Originally scheduled for launch in May 1986 aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger. Due to the loss of Challenger, the launch of Ulysses was delayed until October 6, 1990 aboard Discovery (mission STS-41). The spacecraft's mission was to study the Sun at all latitudes. To do this required a major orbital plane shift. Due to velocity change limitations of the Shuttle and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), this was accomplished by using an encounter with Jupiter to effect the plane change instead of an engine burn. The need for a Jupiter encounter meant that Ulysses could not be powered by solar cells and was powered by a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) instead.
By February 2008, the power output from the RTG, which is generated
Tuorla Observatory is the Department of Astronomy at the University of Turku, southwest Finland. Currently it is the largest astronomical research institute in Finland. Together with the Space Research Laboratory at the Physics Department of the University of Turku, it forms Väisälä Institute of Space Physics and Astronomy (VISPA).
Tuorla Observatory was established in 1952 by professor Yrjö Väisälä. A new observatory was needed because the old Iso-Heikkilä Observatory close to the centre of Turku started suffering heavy light pollution from nearby city and especially industrial areas to the south of the observatory. A new place was found in Tuorla, which is one of the small villages in (former) Piikkiö municipality. It is located about 12 kilometres from Turku in the direction of Helsinki.
The first part of the observatory contained a main building and 51 meter long tunnel for optical research. Due to the growing size of the department, new parts to it have been built in 1989 and 2002. Starting in 1974, the observatory was part of the Physics Department until 1991 when it became again an independent research institute of the university. In 2009 observatory reunited with physics
Boswell Observatory is located at Doane College in Crete, Nebraska. Built in 1883, it was primarily a time service observatory and student teaching observatory. The first telescope in the building was an 8" Alvan Clark.
The observatory is still used by the astronomy classes and is open to the public at different times throughout the year. It is no longer in operation as a weather station, but has been preserved well. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Doane College Historic Buildings.
The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) was a space telescope for infrared light designed and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), in cooperation with ISAS (part of JAXA as of 2003) and NASA. The ISO was designed to study infrared light at wavelengths of 2.5 to 240 micrometres.
The Euro 480.1 million ISO was launched on 17 November 1995 from the ELA-2 launch pad at the Guiana Space Centre near Kourou in French Guiana. The launch vehicle, an Ariane 44P rocket, placed ISO successfully into a highly elliptical geocentric orbit, completing one revolution around the Earth every 24 hours. The primary mirror of its Ritchey-Chrétien telescope measured 60 cm in diameter and was cooled to 1.7 Kelvin by means of superfluid helium. The ISO satellite contained four instruments that allowed for imaging and photometry from 2.5 to 240 micrometres and spectroscopy from 2.5 to 196.8 micrometres.
In 1983 the US-Dutch-British IRAS inaugurated space-based infrared astronomy by performing the first-ever 'all-sky survey' at infrared wavelengths. The resulting map of the infrared sky pinpointed some 350,000 infrared sources waiting to be explored by IRAS' successors. In 1979 IRAS was in an advanced
The Karl-Schwarzschild-Observatorium (Karl Schwarzschild Observatory) is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the institute of Thüringer Landessternwarte (Thuringian State Observatory) ’Karl Schwarzschild’ Tautenburg. In 1992 it was acquired by the state of Thuringia. It has the largest telescope in Germany and the largest Schmidt camera of the world (2 metres), which was produced by VEB Zeiss Jena (the branch of Zeiss located in Jena in what was then East Germany). It is located in Tautenburg, Germany (10 kilometres north-east of Jena), was founded in 1960 and named after the celebrated physicist Karl Schwarzschild.
On 5 April 2005 the observatory observed an exoplanet around the star HD 13189.
The Lee Observatory is a (now closed) astronomical observatory it was the first and the oldest of the Middle East. It is located in the campus of the American University of Beirut in Beirut, Lebanon.
The Lee observatory of the American University of Beirut, opened in 1873. Dr. Cornelius Van Dyck was its pioneer. The observatory was named the 'Lee' Observatory in reference to Henry Lee, a wealthy British merchant from Manchester, who made a significant donation to help finance its construction.
The Observatory had a twin role, sky gazing and a meteorological station for the middle east. Several directors and assistants managed the Observatory, among them:
Dr Van Dyck who had astronomy as a hobby bought most of the equipment from his own budget. Professor Mansour Jurdak and Professor Owen Gingerich with their concept of "Open Nights Observatory" made contributions to the Observatory library.
Saad Sami Haddad drew a sky map of stars up to and including the 5th magnitude. He contributed in the filing of sunspot data taken daily and forwarded them to Zurich, the International center for sunspot research. He made statistical tests revealing the significance of the East-West asymmetry of
The McDonald Observatory is an astronomical observatory located near the unincorporated community of Fort Davis in Jeff Davis County, Texas, United States. The facility is located on Mount Locke in the Davis Mountains of West Texas, with additional facilities on Mount Fowlkes, approximately 1.3 kilometers (0.81 mi) to the northeast. The site is property of the University of Texas at Austin, and is primarily funded through two special items in the Texas state budget: the McDonald Observatory line item and the CASA (Center for Advanced Studies in Astronomy) line item.
The observatory produces StarDate, a daily syndicated radio radio program consisting of short segments related to astronomy that airs on many National Public Radio affiliates. The observatory also produces a similar program, Universo, in Spanish.
The McDonald Observatory was originally endowed by the Texas banker William Johnson McDonald (1844–1926), who left $850,000 - the bulk of his fortune - to the University of Texas to endow an astronomical observatory. The provision of the will was challenged by McDonald's relatives, but after a long legal fight, construction began at Mt. Locke. The then-unnamed Otto Struve
The MDM Observatory is an optical astronomical observatory on Kitt Peak (west of Tucson, Arizona, USA), adjacent to Kitt Peak National Observatory. It is owned and operated by the University of Michigan, Dartmouth College, Ohio State University, Columbia University, and Ohio University. The "MDM" acronym stands for Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT, because the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was part of the operating consortium in the past.
It has two reflecting telescopes, the 2.4 m Hiltner Telescope (since 1986), used for galactic surveys, and the 1.3 m McGraw-Hill Telescope (since 1975), which was originally located near Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The mirror of the 2.4 m Hiltner Telescope is aluminum coated Cer-Vit, and usable foci include f/7.5 and f/13.5 Cassegrain foci. The telescope was built in 1986 and the mirrors were re-polished in 1991. It was named after astronomer W. Albert Hiltner (1914-1991).
The 1.3 meter, actually 1.27 m clear aperture, telescope is aluminum coated Cer-Vit (low thermal expansion glass), and usable foci include f/7.5 and f/13.5. The telescope was originally installed at Stinchfield Woods, Michigan in 1969, and moved in 1975 to MDM. Asteroid 4432 McGraw-Hill
The Stephens Observatory is located atop the Carnegie Science Building at Bates College in Lewiston, Maine. It houses a 12 in (30 cm) Newtonian reflecting telescope, built by Roscoe G. Stephens of Kennebunk, Maine, and donated to the College in 1929. It is used mainly as a teaching facility for upper-level astronomy classes. The observatory has a modern tracking system and electronic drive mechanism.
Bates' observatory was initially going to be built on top of nearby Mount David in Lewiston. In the 1860s, Bates Catalogues first mentioned plans to build an observatory on the outcropping. The land encompassing Mount David was given by Senator William Frye in the 1860s to be used specially for an observatory. Bates Student articles from the 1870s–1910s and Catalogues continuously refer to plans to build an observatory at Bates. Many of these articles featured pictures of the future observatory. Due to financial constraints, it was not until 1929 that the Stephens Observatory was actually completed on Carnegie Science Building. Philanthropist Andrew Carnegie donated the initial funds for the building.
Xinglong Station (simplified Chinese: 兴隆观测基地; traditional Chinese: 興隆觀測基地; pinyin: Xīnglóng guāncè jīdì) is an observatory (IAU code 327) situated south of the main peak of the Yanshan mountains in Hebei province, China. Installed are seven telescopes: a Mark-III photoelectric astrolabe; a 60cm reflector; an 85cm reflector; a 60/90cm Schmidt telescope; an 1.26m infrared telescope; and a 2.16m telescope. The most recent telescope is the 4m LAMOST. It is a popular tourist site.
The Astronomical Observatory of Belogradchik or Belogradchik Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. It is located near the town of Belogradchik in northwestern Bulgaria.
Built in 1961 by a group of astronomy enthusiasts led by high school physics teacher Hristo Kostov, Belogradchik Observatory became the first school observatory in Bulgaria. From 1964 to 1971 it was used as an auxiliary observation base. In 1974, Bugarian Academy of Sciences took over operation.
The observatory started out with a single 15 cm Cassegrain telescope, then added on an 60 cm Cassegrain telescope in 1965. In 1994 another telescope was added, a 14 inch Schmidt-Cassegrain model.
The Oak Ridge Observatory, also known as the George R. Agassiz Station, is located at 42 Pinnacle Road, Harvard, Massachusetts, and was formerly operated by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics as a facility of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO).
The observatory was established in 1933. Through its first 40 years, its primary research focus was on tracking minor planets and asteroids in the solar system. Starting in the 1980s, astronomers began to use the facility to measure stars over long periods of time, which led to hunts for extrasolar planets, i.e., planets outside our solar system. Surveys at Oak Ridge found many such distant planets.
Until most of its projects were discontinued in 2005, it housed the largest telescope east of Texas in the United States, a 61-inch reflector. It also housed an 84-foot (26 m) steerable radio telescope once used in Project BETA, a search for extraterrestrial intelligence. A 41-cm (16-inch) Boller and Chivens Cassegrain reflector originally housed at Oak Ridge is available for public use at the National Air and Space Museum's Public Observatory Project on the National Mall in Washington, DC.
Harvard University's Optical
The Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste (Trieste Astronomical Observatory) is an astronomical center of studies located in Trieste, northern Italy.
The observatory originates from the Nautical School founded in Trieste by the Empress Maria Theresia of Austria in 1753. Entered into the lists of Italian astronomical observatories in 1923, the Trieste Astronomical Observatory is presently part of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (National Institute for Astrophysics, INAF). The scientific production of the Astronomical Observatory exceeds 130 papers per year, mostly on international refereed Journals.
The main research and development activity includes extragalactic astronomy and cosmology (large scale structure of the universe, intergalactic medium), stellar physics, interstellar medium and the Galaxy, the physics of the Sun and the solar system (radioastronomy, coronal plasma, cometary and interplanetary dust), high energy astrophysics (Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts), astronomical technologies (computer system for data acquisition and control, including remote control, acquisition, handling and analysis of images, supercomputing) and space astronomy (development of space
The Valongo Observatory (Observatório do Valongo) is the astronomical observatory of the UFRJ. It is located on the top of the Conceição Hill, an old settlement in the downtown of Rio de Janeiro dating from the first centuries of the colonization of the city. The observatory hosts the Astronomy Undergraduation Course and the Astronomy Graduate School of this university.
Višnjan Observatory (Croatian: Zvjezdarnica Višnjan) is an astronomical observatory located near the village of Višnjan in Croatia. It is headed by Korado Korlević.
By mid-2003, the observatory was credited with 1748 discoveries.
The observatory is home of several summer programs for youth in astronomy, archeology, marine biology and other disciplines: Youth Science Camp, Summer School of Science and Višnjan School of Astronomy.
The Einstein Tower (German: Einsteinturm) is an astrophysical observatory in the Albert Einstein Science Park in Potsdam, Germany built by Erich Mendelsohn. It was built on the summit of the Potsdam Telegraphenberg to house a solar telescope designed by the astronomer Erwin Finlay-Freundlich. The telescope supports experiments and observations to validate (or disprove) Albert Einstein's relativity theory. The building was first conceived around 1917, built from 1919 to 1921 after a fund-raising drive, and became operational in 1924. Although Einstein never worked there, he supported the construction and operation of the telescope. It is still a working solar observatory today as part of the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam. Light from the telescope is directed down through the shaft to the basement where the instruments and laboratory are located. There were more than half a dozen telescopes in the laboratory.
This was one of Mendelsohn's first major projects, completed when a young Richard Neutra was on his staff, and his best-known building.
The exterior was originally conceived in concrete, but due to construction difficulties with the complex design and shortages from
La Silla Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Chile with three telescopes built and operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Several telescopes are located at the site and are partly maintained by ESO. The observatory is one of the largest in the Southern Hemisphere and was the first in Chile to be used by ESO.
The La Silla telescopes and instruments are located at the outskirts of the Chilean Atacama Desert, one of the driest and loneliest areas of the world. Like other observatories in this geographical area, La Silla is located far from sources of light pollution and, like the Paranal Observatory, home to the Very Large Telescope, it has one of the darkest night skies on the Earth.
Following the decision in 1963 to approve Chile as the site for the ESO observatory, scouting parties were sent to various locations to assess their suitability. The site that was decided upon was La Silla in the southern part of the Atacama desert, 600 km north of Santiago de Chile and at an altitude of 2400 metres. Besides being government property, it had the added benefits of being in a dry, flat and easily accessible area, yet isolated and remote from any artificial light and
The Monte Mario Observatory (Sede di Monte Mario, literally "Monte Mario Site") is an astronomical observatory and is part of the Rome Observatory (Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma). It is located atop of Monte Mario in Rome, Italy. This location (12°27'8.4"E ) was used as the prime meridian (rather than Greenwich) for maps of Italy until the 1960s.
Boyden Observatory is an astronomical research observatory and science education centre located 20 kilometres (12 mi) north-east of the city of Bloemfontein in Free State, South Africa. The observatory is managed by the Physics Department of the University of the Free State (UFS). The Friends of Boyden assist the observatory as a public support group, organising open evenings and protecting its public interest. Boyden also makes use of members of ASSA Bloemfontein Centre, the amateur astronomy club of the city, for presenters and telescope assistants.
The Boyden Station of Harvard Observatory was founded in 1889 by Harvard University at Mount Harvard near Lima, Peru. It was relocated to Arequipa, Peru in October 1890. It was named after Uriah A. Boyden, who in 1879 left in his will $238,000 to Harvard Observatory to be used for astronomical purposes. Significant work done at Arequipa include the discovery of Phoebe, an outer moon of Saturn, by William Henry Pickering using photographic plates captured with the 24 in (61 cm) Bruce Astrograph.
In 1927 the observatory was moved to its present location in South Africa. This was done because it was expected that Bloemfontein would be
The Črni Vrh Observatory (Observatorij Črni Vrh, IAU code 106) is located in Western Slovenia, close to the settlement Črni Vrh, near the town of Idrija. The current observatory was built in 1985, and is at an altitude of 730 metres. Much of the construction was done by volunteers.
Regular astronomical observations started in 1975, at a small observatory that was equipped with home-made instruments and was set up 4 km from the present site. At that time first images of Comet West were taken. The site is well above the inversion border much of winter, which enables undisturbed observations on many successive clear nights.
The observatory runs a Comet and Asteroid Search Program named PIKA after a Slovene acronym. Since March 2003, the program is being operated on a new 60-cm, f/3.3 Cichocki telescope equipped with a Finger Lake 1k x 1k CCD detector. Telescope project funding has been covered in part by the Planetary Society Shoemaker Grant 2000 and 2010. The recent grant was for the purchase of a deep-cooling Apogee Alta U9000 CCD camera that will increase sensitivity of the imaging system, enabling discoveries of even fainter objects. The new camera has been in operation since
Dudley Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in Schenectady, New York, United States. Along with Albany College of Pharmacy, Albany Law School, Albany Medical College, the Graduate College of Union University, and Union College, it is one of the constituent entities of Union University.
The observatory was founded in 1852. It is the oldest independent astronomical research organization in the United States. The Dudley Observatory now offers some research awards for professional research and outreach funding to younger students. It no longer operates an astronomical observatory.
The Dudley Observatory was named for Charles E. Dudley of Albany, a former United States Senator (1828–1833). Dudley lived in New York State, died in 1841, and his widow Blandina (Bleeker) Dudley endowed the Dudley Observatory after his death.
The Jodrell Bank Observatory (originally the Jodrell Bank Experimental Station, then the Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories from 1966 to 1999; /ˈdʒɒdrəl/) is a British observatory that hosts a number of radio telescopes, and is part of the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics at the University of Manchester. The observatory was established in 1945 by Sir Bernard Lovell, who wanted to investigate cosmic rays after his work on radar during the Second World War. It has since played an important role in the research of meteors, quasars, pulsars, masers and gravitational lenses, and was heavily involved with the tracking of space probes at the start of the Space Age. The managing director of the observatory is Professor Simon Garrington.
The main telescope at the observatory is the Lovell Telescope, which is the third largest steerable radio telescope in the world. There are three other active telescopes located at the observatory; the Mark II, as well as 42 ft (13 m) and 7 m diameter radio telescopes. Jodrell Bank Observatory is also the base of the Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN), a National Facility run by the University of Manchester on behalf of the
The Mount Suhora Observatory (Polish: Obserwatorium astronomiczne na Suhorze) is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Cracow Pedagogical University's Astronomy department. It is located on Mount Suhora in the Gorce mountain range, 50 km south of Kraków (Cracow).
Founded on November 5, 1987, Mt. Suhora Observatory was meant as a place for Cracow University's astronomy department to teach new students and work after Lubomir Observatory was burnt by the invading Red Army in 1939. The building was designed by R. Walczykiewicz out of Cracow.
The observatory has one 0.6 metre Cassegrain telescope along with a photometer and a CCD camera.
The Ondřejov Observatory (pronounced [ˈondr̝ɛjof]; Czech: Observatoř Ondřejov) is the principal observatory of the Astronomical Institute (Astronomický ústav) of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. It is located near the village of Ondřejov, 35 km southeast of Prague.
The facility was constructed in 1898 by Czech amateur astronomer Josef Jan Frič as a private observatory. Frič donated the facility to the Czechoslovak state on October 28, 1928 to celebrate the tenth anniversary of its independence. The observatory, located at an altitude of 500 m, away from the air and light pollution of urban Prague, was administered by Charles University until the founding of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in 1953, which from then on operated it as part of its Astronomical Institute in conjunction with other Czechoslovak observatories.
It has been responsible, amongst other scientific achievements, for the discovery of numerous asteroids.
Observatórium Skalnaté pleso (Skalnaté Pleso Observatory) is an astronomical observatory in Slovakia. There is also a meteorological observatory. It is near Tatranská Lomnica and has IAU observatory code 056. The name means "Rocky Lake" (or better: "Rocky Tarn") .
The observatory produced the popular sky atlas Skalnate Pleso Atlas of the Heavens by A. Becvar.
The Vainu Bappu Observatory, or VBO for short, is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Indian Institute of Astrophysics. It is located in the Javadi Hills Kavalur, near vaniyambadi of vellore district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, 200 km south-west of Chennai & 175 km south-east of Bangalore. This place is also informally called "Telescope City". The nearest railway station is Vaniambadi and is about 29 kms from here.
The observatory is home to the Vainu Bappu Telescope, the largest telescope in Asia. It has a diameter of 2.3 meters and was first used in 1986. Along with the Vainu Bappu telescope, the observatory has two other telescopes: A 1 meter Zeiss manufactured and another 75 centimeter cassegrain reflector currently being refurbished. The observatory also has a Fabry–Pérot interferometer.
The 1 metre telescope is associated with two unique discoveries in the solar system. In the year 1972, atmosphere was detected around Jupiter's satellite Ganymede and in the year 1977, rings were discovered around the planet Uranus. In 1984, Kavalur reported the discovery of a thin outer ring around Saturn.
On 17 February 1988, a new minor planet was discovered using the
The Warkworth Radio Astronomical Observatory is located just south of Warkworth off SH1 about 50 km north of Auckland and is operated by the Institute of Radio Astronomy and Space Research, AUT University.
WARK12M 12m Radio Telescope
WARK30M 30m Radio Telescope
A Hydrogen maser is installed on-site for very accurate time required by VLBI observations.
The observatory has a 1Gbit/s connection to the Kiwi Advanced Research and Education Network, providing high speed data transfers for files and e-VLBI.
2008 The 12m dish was built on the site
2010 A license to operate the New Zealand Telecom 30m dish was granted
The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is an astronomical observatory located on Cerro Tololo in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, with additional facilities located on Cerro Pachón about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) to the southeast. It is within the Coquimbo Region and approximately 80 kilometres (50 mi) east of La Serena, where support facilities are located. The site was identified by a team of scientists from Chile and the United States in 1959, and it was selected in 1962. Construction began in 1963 and regular astronomical observations commenced in 1965. Construction of large buildings on Cerro Tololo ended with the completion of the Víctor M. Blanco Telescope in 1974, but smaller facilities have been built since then. Cerro Pachón is still under development, with two large telescopes inaugurated since 2000, and one in the early stages of construction.
The principal telescopes at CTIO are the 4 m Víctor M. Blanco Telescope, named after Puerto Rican astronomer Victor Manuel Blanco, and the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is situated on Cerro Pachón. Other telescopes on Cerro Tololo include the 1.5 m, 1.3 m, 1.0 m, and 0.9 m telescopes
IUCAA Girawali Observatory is an optical astronomy observatory run by the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Pune. The Observatory is located about 80 km from Pune City, off the Pune Nashik Highway.
The Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) felt the need of an optical telescope for observation, research, training and for the University community. Therefore, a proposal was made to set up a medium sized optical telescope, preferably close to the IUCAA campus in Pune. The University Grants Commission provided funding for the project.
A contract was signed with the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) of the United Kingdom, which gave the contract to the Telescope Technologies Ltd of Liverpool, UK.
The telescope was installed, calibrated and handed over to the team at IUCAA on February 14, 2006. The Observatory was formally inaugurated and the Telescope dedicated to the Astronomy community by Prof. Yash Pal on May 13, 2006. After a phase of performance and science verification, the Observatory was opened for regular observations in November, 2006.
The Observatory is located near Junnar, 80 km from Pune City, off
Fuertes Observatory is an observatory located on the North Campus of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. The observatory was completed in fall of 1917 and was originally used by the Civil Engineering Department as an instructional field office for navigation and surveying. With increased building on the North Campus, Fuertes Observatory is no longer used for research but it still used for introductory Astronomy classes usually taught by grad students.
Day-to-day maintenance of the observatory is handled by the Cornell Astronomical Society, a group of Cornell undergraduates, graduates and Ithaca citizens. The Society offers public viewing nights on Friday evenings throughout the year.
The observatory is named after Estevan Fuertes.
The observatory contains a 12-inch refracting telescope with a mechanical clock drive, which is powered by weights in a manner similar to a grandfather clock. The drive is stable enough to allow the production of photographs of up to 20 minute duration without star trailing.
The NASA Pathfinder, NASA Pathfinder Plus, NASA Centurion and NASA Helios Prototype were an evolutionary series of solar- and fuel-cell-system-powered unmanned aerial vehicles. AeroVironment, Inc. developed the vehicles under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. They were built to develop the technologies that would allow long-term, high-altitude aircraft to serve as "atmospheric satellites", to perform atmospheric research tasks as well as serve as communications platforms.
AeroVironment initiated its development of full-scale solar-powered aircraft with the Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger vehicles in the late 1970s and early 1980s, following the pioneering work of Robert Boucher, who built the first solar-powered flying models in 1974. Under ERAST, AeroVironment built four generations of long endurance unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), the first of which was the Pathfinder.
In 1983, AeroVironment obtained funding from an unspecified US government agency to secretly investigate a UAV concept designated "High Altitude Solar" or HALSOL. The HALSOL prototype first flew in June 1983. Nine HALSOL flights took place in the summer of 1983 at
The Istanbul observatory of Taqi al-Din, founded in Istanbul by Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf in 1577, was one of the largest astronomical observatories to be built in the Islamic world. However, it only existed for a few years before it was destroyed in 1580.
In 1574, Murad III became the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. The empire's chief astronomer, Taqi al-Din, petitioned the Sultan to finance the building of a great observatory to rival Ulugh Beg's Samarkand observatory. The Sultan approved, and construction was completed in 1577, at nearly the same time as Tycho Brahe's observatory at Uraniborg.
This observatory consisted of two large structures perched on a hill overlooking the European section of Istanbul and offering a wide view of the night sky. Much like a modern institution, the main building was reserved for the library and the living quarters of the staff, while the smaller building housed a collection of instruments built by Taqi al-Din. These included a giant armillary sphere and an accurate mechanical astronomical clock for measuring the position and speed of the planets. With these instruments, Taqi al-Din had hoped to update the old astronomical tables describing
The Norman Lockyer Observatory and Planetarium (NLO) is a planetarium and a public access optical observatory in East Devon on the Jurassic Coast of South West England.
The Norman Lockyer Observatory and Planetarium is situated near a south facing cliff one mile east of the coastal town of Sidmouth, fifteen miles southeast of Exeter and ten miles from the M5 motorway. The observatory provides modern telescopes with computer enhanced imaging, as well as maintaining some of the nation's most historic instruments, and enjoys a relatively dark night sky with a southerly aspect across the sea. There are four domes; McClean (12" refractor), Kensington (10" refractor), Victoria, (12" reflector) and Mond which houses the famous 6¼-inch Lockyer telescope which the astronomer Norman Lockyer used to discover helium during the solar eclipse of 1868. At the present time (January 2012) a new 5th dome is under construction to house a 20-inch remotely-operated reflector telescope.
The observatory is particularly well situated for spectral analysis in astronomy, which requires a clear sky over the whole optical spectrum, as it enjoys a relatively "clean" sky to the east and south across the sea.
Rozhen Observatory (Bulgarian: Национална астрономическа обсерватория "Рожен", НАО-Рожен - NAO-Rozhen) is a Bulgarian astronomical observatory, located 90 km south of the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The nearest town, Chepelare, is 15 km away. It is owned and operated by the Institute of Astronomy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The Observatory is one of the largest in Europe and has an active team of about 50 astronomers. It is the principal center for astronomical research in Bulgaria.
Transit Timing Variation (TTV), a variation on the transit method, was used to discover a exoplanet WASP-3c by Rozhen Observatory, Jena Observatory, and Toruń Centre for Astronomy.
Sherzer Hall is an academic building on the Eastern Michigan University campus, located in Ypsilanti, Michigan. Sherzer Hall is one of four buildings comprising the Eastern Michigan University Historic District on the National Registry of Historic Places. The building building was designed by E. W.. Arnold of Battle Creek and survived two fires. Sherzer Hall has a red-brick exteriors Sherzer's exterior has a few mildly Romanesque and Georgian elements. Due to its unique style causes it to defies stylistic classification. Sherzer also is home to Sherzer Observatory which was established in 1878 and eventually moved to the top of Sherzer Hall in 1903.
Sherzer Hall is one of four buildings comprising the Eastern Michigan University Historic District. The architect of the building was E. W. Arnold of Battle Creek. Sherzer Hall has a red-brick exteriors Sherzer's exterior has a few mildly Romanesque and Georgian elements. Due to its unique style causes it to defies stylistic classification. The building is named after Dr. William H. Sherzer, professor of geology and head of Department of Natural Sciences who served from 1892 to 1932 The building was built during the presidency of Dr.
Urania Sternwarte is a public observatory in the Lindenhof quarter of Zurich, Switzerland. Its name Urania refers to the muse of astronomy in Greek mythology.
Its origins base on a first observatory on the roof of the Zunfthaus zur Meisen. In 1759, so called «Astronomische Kommission» succeeded from this location for the first time, to define Culminatio solis and thus calculated the exact global location of the city of Zurich. In later years, astronomical observations were done from the Grossmünster's southern «Karl's tower», followed by scientific obsevations (not for public use by interested enthusiasts) from the Federal observatory, built 1861/64 for ETH Zürich by Gottfried Semper.
In 1899, the Zürich merchant Abraham Weill Einstein initiated the oldest observatory in Switzerland, situated near Werdmühleplatz (Uraniastrasse). On June 15, 1907, the observatory was given to operational use. Its approximately 51 meter high tower, dominating western end of Zurich's historical Altstadt.
Urania's refracting telescope is equipped with a Fraunhofer two-lens system of 30 cm aperture and focal length of 5.05 meters, allowing maximal 600-fold magnification (mostly used 150- to 205-fold
The W. M. Keck Observatory is a two-telescope astronomical observatory at an elevation of 4,145 meters (13,600 ft) near the summit of Mauna Kea in the U.S. state of Hawaii. The primary mirrors of each of the two telescopes are 10 meters (33 ft) in diameter, making them the second largest optical telescopes in the world, slightly behind the Gran Telescopio Canarias; however the Gran Canary telescope does not have the capability to use all of its 10.4 meters, thus making the Keck telescopes the largest observable telescope in the world. The telescopes can operate together to form a single astronomical interferometer.
In 1985, Howard B. Keck of the W. M. Keck Foundation gave $70 million to fund the design and construction of the Keck I Telescope. The key advance that allowed the construction of the Keck's large telescopes was the ability to operate smaller mirror segments as a single, contiguous mirror. In the case of the Keck each of the primary mirrors is composed of 36 hexagonal segments that work together as a single unit. The mirrors were made from Zerodur glass-ceramic by the German company Schott AG. On the telescope, each segment is kept stable by a system of active optics,
Angell Hall Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by University of Michigan. It is located on the UM Central Campus on top of Angell Hall in Ann Arbor, Michigan (USA). It has a computer-controlled 0.4-m Cassegrain telescope in its single dome, and a small radio telescope on the roof. In the past has housed a large, clock-driven refracting telescope and a reflecting telescope in side-by-side domes. The current telescope was manufactured by DFM Engineering and installed in December 1994.
Other observatories that UM has operated include the Detroit Observatory (1854), the Lamont-Hussey Observatory (South Africa, 1928), the McMath-Hulbert Observatory (Lake Angelus, Michigan, 1930), and the Peach Mountain Observatory (Dexter, Michigan 1958).
The Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon (Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa) is located in "Alcântara - Tapada da Ajuda", in the city of Lisbon. It’s an institution that has been recognized internationally for the quality of its work in the field of positioning astronomy, since the 19th century.
In 1992, this institution came to depend on the University of Lisbon and in 1995 it was included in the Science Faculty of the University of Lisbon, with its operations directed towards research and scientific and historical dissemination.
The Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon, established by a Law Act on 6 May 1878, was born from great controversy between Hervé Faye, director of the Observatory of Paris and Peters, astronomer at the Russian Observatory of Pulkova, on the parallax of the star of Argelander. The construction of the AOL was due to the strong desire to build a magnificent institution, a reference in Portuguese culture. The foundations were established in the mid-19th century with the aim of promoting new Sidereal Astronomy, discovery and understanding of the infinite cosmos, and concern about the exact mapping of the sky and measuring the size of the universe. It was then
The Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is a solar observatory located on the north side of Big Bear Lake in the San Bernardino Mountains of southwestern San Bernardino County, California (USA), approximately 120 kilometers (75 mi) east of downtown Los Angeles. The telescopes and instruments at the observatory are designed and employed specifically for studying the activities and phenomena of our solar system's star, the Sun.
The observatory was built by the California Institute of Technology in 1969 under the direction of professor Harold Zirin. Management of the observatory was transferred to the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) in 1997. Funding comes from NASA, the National Science Foundation, the United States Air Force, and other agencies.
The location at Big Bear Lake is optimal due to the clarity of the sky and the presence a body of water. The lake surface is about 2,055 meters (6,742 ft) above sea level, putting it above a significant portion of the atmosphere. The main observatory building is in the open waters of the lake, and was originally reached by boat, though a causeway was added later. The water provides a cooling effect on the atmosphere surrounding the
Dora Observatory is on the South Korean side of the 38th parallel. Situated on top of Dorasan (Mount Dora), the observatory looks across the Demilitarized Zone. It is the part of South Korea closest to the North. Visitors can catch a rare glimpse of the reclusive North Korean state through binoculars from the 304 square feet, 500-person capacity observatory. They will be able to see the North Korean propaganda village situated in the DMZ, a remnant of the old prosperity of the North, and can see as far as the city of Kaesong. The observatory is very close to the Third Tunnel (Third North Korean Infiltration Tunnel), a massive North Korean-dug tunnel which was planned as a pathway for invasion to the South if war had erupted and it had not been discovered. The Dorasan Station, also nearby, is designed to be the station that connects the railroads of the South and North one day in the future.
The Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO) is the equatorial anchor of the Western Hemisphere chain of Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) observatories extending from Lima, Peru to Søndre Strømfjord, Greenland. JRO is the premier scientific facility in the world for studying the equatorial ionosphere. The Observatory is about half an hour drive inland (east) from Lima and 10 km from the Central Highway (11°57′05″S 76°52′27.5″W / 11.95139°S 76.874306°W / -11.95139; -76.874306, 520 meters ASL). The magnetic dip angle is about 1°, and varies slightly with altitude and year. The radar can accurately determine the direction of the Earth's magnetic field (B) and can be pointed perpendicular to B at altitudes throughout the ionosphere. The study of the equatorial ionosphere is rapidly becoming a mature field due in large part due to the contributions made by JRO in radio science.
JRO’s main antenna is the largest of all the incoherent scatter radars in the world. The main antenna consists of a 300m x 300m square array composed of 18,432 cross-polarized dipoles. The main research areas of the observatories are: the stable equatorial ionosphere, ionospheric field aligned irregularities, the
Koenigsberg observatory was an astronomical research facility which was attached to the Albertina University of Königsberg. Many important astronomers, such as Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander and Arthur Auwers worked there. In 1838, the parallax of a star was determined successfully for first time by Bessel using a heliometer.
The observatory was destroyed by Royal Air Force bombs in 1944 during Second World War.
The Mills Observatory in Dundee, Scotland, is the only full-time public astronomical observatory in the UK. Built in 1935, the observatory is classically styled in sandstone and has a distinctive 7 m dome, which houses a Victorian refracting telescope, a small planetarium, and display areas. The dome is one of two made from papier-mâché to survive in the UK, the other being at the Godlee Observatory.
The main telescope is a Victorian 0.25m (10 inch) Cooke refractor, with a focal length of 3.75 m. It was made in York in 1871 by Thomas Cooke and the optical components are of the highest quality. The telescope is actually older than the building. The dome also houses a 0.3m (12 inch) Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, which was purchased in 2006. When the Mills Observatory opened on 28 October 1935 it originally housed a 450mm (18 inch) reflecting telescope, constructed by the Newcastle based company of Grubb Parsons. The remains of the original telescope can be seen in the upper display area of the observatory. The dome itself is made of papier-mâché with a steel frame, and was also supplied by Grubb Parsons. Refracting telescopes have long been regarded as the superior instrument for
The Sphinx Observatory is an astronomical observatory located on Jungfraujoch in Switzerland. The mountain top has been tunneled to fit an elevator which ascends to the observatory from the Jungfraujoch train station, the highest such rail station in Europe, and a nearby Ice Palace.
As of 2012, the Sphinx, at 3,571 m (11,716 ft) above Mean Sea Level, is the 14th highest permanent land-based observatory in the world.
Stardome Observatory (IAU observatory code 467, previously known as Auckland Observatory) is a public astronomical observatory situated in Cornwall Park in New Zealand's largest city, Auckland.
Founded in 1967, the observatory is administered by the Auckland Observatory and Planetarium Trust Board. The Trust Board was created by the Auckland Astronomical Society (AAS) in 1956. The Stardome Observatory is also home to the AAS.
In 1969, the observatory (then called Auckland Observatory) constructed a UBV photoelectric photometer with assistance from the University of Auckland. This photometer on the Zeiss telescope became a very successful instrument and produced a significant number of published research papers. Probably the most important discovery was the phenomenon of "super-humps" in the SU Ursae Majoris class of cataclysmic binary stars in 1974.
In 1988, the observatory participated in the discovery of the atmosphere of Pluto by measuring the brightness change as the planet passed in front of a star.
During the 1980s the Zeiss telescope was used to support several doctoral students from the University of Auckland (most notably Roger Freeth), including the development of a new
Steward Observatory is the research arm of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Arizona (UA). Its offices is located on the UA campus in Tucson, Arizona (USA). Established in 1916 in a single building, it now operates, or is a partner in telescopes at, five mountain-top locations in Arizona, one in New Mexico, and one in Chile. It has provided instruments for three different space telescopes and numerous terrestrial ones. Steward also has one of the few facilities in the world that can cast and figure the very large primary mirrors used in telescopes built in the past decade.
Steward Observatory was established in 1916 by its first director, Andrew Ellicott Douglass, and a $60,000 bequest made by Lavinia Steward in memory of her late husband Henry B. Steward. The original building in a field on the east side of campus was completed in 1923.
Steward Observatory manages three different observing locations in southern Arizona: Mount Graham International Observatory (MGIO), Mount Lemmon Observatory, and Catalina Station on Mount Bigelow. It also operates telescopes at two additional important observatories: Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and Fred Lawrence Whipple
Sternwarte Stuttgart (Stuttgart Observatory) is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the association Schwäbische Sternwarte e.V.. It is located on the Uhlandshöhe in Stuttgart, Germany. Public tours have been held since 1920 and the observatory claims to be one of the oldest in Germany.
The Tartu Observatory (Estonian: Tartu Observatoorium) is the largest astronomical observatory in Estonia. It is located on the Tõravere hill, about 20 km south-west of Tartu in Nõo Parish, Tartu County. The old Tartu Observatory is known internationally for its connection to Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve and the Struve Geodetic Arc, of which it is the first reference point.
The Tartu Observatory was founded at the Imperial University of Dorpat as it was reopened in 1802. The observatory building was completed in 1810 on the Toome hill in Dorpat. The instruments were installed in 1814 by von Struve who subsequently started observations. In 1824, a 9" Fraunhofer refractor arrived, the largest achromatic telescope in the world at the time. When von Struve began assembling his Geodetic Arc in 1816, the doorstep of the observatory became its first point.
In 1946 the renamed Tartu Observatory was separated from the university and subjected to the Estonian Academy of Sciences. The authorities started to look for the new observational base in 1950. A patch of land on the Tõravere hill was assigned for the purpose and in 1958 construction began. By 1963, the new observatory building
The Observatorio del Teide (Teide Observatory) is an astronomical observatory on Tenerife operated by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Opened in 1964, it became one of the first major international observatories, attracting telescopes from different countries around the world because of the good astronomical seeing conditions. Later the emphasis for optical telescopes shifted more towards Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma. It is considered one of the world's major observatories.
The observatory has a visitors' centre and a residencia (hostel) for astronomers.