An astronaut is a person (or other animal) that has flown in outer space.
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Terry Jonathan Hart (born October 27, 1946, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is a Lieutenant Colonel and former NASA astronaut.
Hart graduated from Mt. Lebanon High School in Mt. Lebanon, Pennsylvania, in 1964. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in mechanical engineering from Lehigh University in 1968, a Master of Science in mechanical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1969, a Master of Science in electrical engineering from Rutgers University in 1978, and an honorary doctorate of engineering from Lehigh University in 1988. He is a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi, and Delta Upsilon.
Hart entered on active duty with the United States Air Force Reserve in June 1969. He completed undergraduate pilot training at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia, in December 1970, and from then until 1973, flew F-106 interceptors for the Air Defense Command at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, at Loring Air Force Base, Maine, and at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. In 1973, he joined the New Jersey Air National Guard and continued flying with the Guard until 1985, retiring as Lt. Colonel in 1990. He has logged 3,000 hours
Manley Lanier "Sonny" Carter, Jr. (August 15, 1947–April 5, 1991) was an American physician, professional soccer player, United States Navy officer, and NASA astronaut who flew on STS-33.
Sonny Carter was born in Macon, Georgia, but considered Warner Robins, Georgia, to be his hometown. He graduated from Lanier High School in Macon in 1965. He received a bachelor of arts degree in chemistry from Emory University in Atlanta in 1969 and a doctor of medicine degree from there in 1973. During his time at Emory, Carter was a brother in the Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity. After completing medical school in 1973, Carter completed internship in internal medicine at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta.
Carter played collegiate soccer and ran track while an undergraduate at Emory University. During his senior season he was captain and most valuable player of the soccer team. In addition to his intercollegiate athletic career, Carter was an intramural wrestling champion. Carter played professional soccer while he attended medical school. In 1970 he signed with the Atlanta Chiefs of the North American Soccer League, for whom he played three seasons.
In 1974 he entered the U.S. Navy and completed
Captain Donald Edward Williams (born February 13, 1942) is a retired United States Navy officer and a former NASA astronaut. He has logged a total of 287 hours and 35 minutes in space.
Williams was born in 1942 in Lafayette, Indiana and raised in the nearby town of Green Hill. He graduated from Otterbein High School in Otterbein, Indiana in 1960. Williams then went on to earn a bachelor of science degree in Mechanical Engineering from Purdue University in 1964.
Society of Experimental Test Pilots, the Association of Space Explorers, and the National Aeronautic Association.
Williams received his commission through the Naval ROTC program at Purdue University. He completed flight training at Pensacola, Florida, Meridian, Mississippi and Kingsville, Texas, receiving his aviator wings in May 1966. After A-4 Skyhawk training, he made two Vietnam War deployments aboard the USS Enterprise with Attack Squadron 113 (VA-113). He served as a flight instructor in Attack Squadron 125 (VA-125) at Naval Air Station Lemoore, California for 2 years and transitioned to the A-7 Corsair II aircraft. He made two additional Vietnam deployments aboard the Enterprise with Carrier Air Wing 14 staff and
Pavel Ivanovich Belyayev (Russian: Павел Иванович Беляев; June 26, 1925 – January 10, 1970), was a Soviet fighter pilot with extensive experience in piloting different types of aircraft. He was the first commander of the cosmonaut corps and the cosmonaut who commanded the historic Voskhod 2 mission which saw the first man walk in space in 1965.
Pavel Belyayev was one of 6 children and was known as Pasha to his family and friends. He was born on June 26, 1925, in Chelishchevo, in what is now Babushkinsky District, Vologda Oblast. In 1932 his family moved to the nearby village of Minkovo. His father was a physician's assistant and his mother worked on a collective farm. Belyayev began his schooling at the age of 7 in 1932. Physics and geography were his favourite subjects. As a boy he enjoyed playing hockey and hunting. Just before his 13th birthday the family moved to Kamensk-Uralsky region. He continued his education at the Gorkogo secondary school.
In 1942, Belyayev took on temporary work as a turner in a factory and later became a check operator in the Sinarsk pipes factory in support of the war effort. He applied to the special air force school in Sverdlovsk but failed to gain
Alan LaVern Bean (born March 15, 1932) is a former NASA astronaut and painter. Bean was selected to become an astronaut by NASA in 1963 as part of Astronaut Group 3. He made his first flight into space aboard Apollo 12, the second manned mission to land on the Moon, at the age of thirty-seven years in November 1969. During this mission, Bean became the fourth human to walk on the Moon. He made his second and final flight into space on the Skylab 3 mission in 1973, the second manned mission to the Skylab space station. After retiring from the United States Navy in 1975 and NASA in 1981, Bean pursued his interest in painting, depicting various space-related scenes and documenting his own experiences in space as well as that of his fellow Apollo Program astronauts.
Bean was born in Wheeler, the seat of Wheeler County in the northeastern Texas Panhandle. He is of Scottish descent. As a boy, he lived in Minden, the seat of Webster Parish in northwestern Louisiana, where his father worked for the U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Bean graduated from R. L. Paschal High School in Fort Worth, Texas. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in aeronautical engineering from the University of
Georgy Stepanovich Shonin (Ukrainian: Гео́ргій Степа́нович Шо́нін) (August 3, 1935 – April 7, 1997; born in Rovenky, Luhansk Oblast, (now Ukraine) but grew up in Balta of Ukrainian SSR) was a Soviet cosmonaut, who flew on the Soyuz 6 space mission.
Shonin was part of the original group of cosmonauts selected in 1960. He left the space programme in 1979 for medical reasons.
He later worked as the director of the 30th Central Scientific Research Institute, Ministry of Defence (Russia).
Shonin died of a heart attack in 1997.
He was awarded:
Robert Lee Stewart is a retired Brigadier General of the United States Army and a former NASA astronaut.
Stewart was born August 13, 1942, in Washington, D.C. He graduated from Hattiesburg High School in Hattiesburg, Mississippi in 1960. He also received a bachelor of science degree in mathematics from The University of Southern Mississippi in 1964, and a master of science in aerospace engineering from the University of Texas at Arlington in 1972. He has been a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, Association of Space Explorers, Phi Eta Sigma, and the Scabbard and Blade (a military honor society).
Stewart is married and has two children. His interests include woodworking, photography, and skiing.
Stewart entered on active duty with the United States Army in May 1964 and was assigned as an air defense artillery director at the 32nd NORAD Region Headquarters (SAGE), Gunter Air Force Base, Alabama. In July 1966, after completing rotary wing training at Fort Wolters, Texas, and Fort Rucker, Alabama, he was designated an Army Aviator. He flew 1,035 hours of combat time from August 1966 to 1967, primarily as a fire team leader in the armed helicopter platoon of "A" Company,
Vladimir Mikhaylovich Komarov (Russian: Влади́мир Миха́йлович Комаро́в; IPA: [vlɐˈdʲimʲɪr mʲɪˈxaɪləvʲɪtɕ kəmɐˈrof]; 16 March 1927 – 24 April 1967) was a Soviet test pilot, aerospace engineer and cosmonaut in the first group of cosmonauts selected in 1960. He was one of the most highly experienced and well-qualified candidates accepted into "Air Force Group One".
Komarov was declared medically unfit for training or spaceflight twice while he was in the program, but his perseverance and superior skills and his knowledge as an engineer allowed him to continue playing an active role. During his time at the Tsentr Podgotovki Kosmonavtov (cosmonaut training centre), he contributed to space vehicle design, cosmonaut training and evaluation and public relations. He was eventually selected to command the first Soviet multiman Voskhod 1 spaceflight that presented a number of technical innovations in the Space Race. Komarov was later chosen for the rigorous task of commanding Soyuz 1 as part of the Soviet Union's bid to reach the Moon first.
His spaceflight on Soyuz 1 made him the first cosmonaut to fly into outer space more than once, and he became the first human to die during a
Takao Doi (土井 隆雄, Doi Takao, born September 18, 1954) is a Japanese astronaut and a veteran of two NASA space shuttle missions.
Doi holds a doctorate from the University of Tokyo in aerospace engineering, and has studied and published in the fields of propulsion systems, and microgravity technology. He researched at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science and was selected by NASDA as an astronaut candidate in 1985 for the Japanese manned space program while also conducting research in the United States at NASA's Lewis Research Center and the University of Colorado at Boulder. Doi flew as a mission specialist aboard STS-87 in 1997, during which he became the first Japanese astronaut to conduct a spacewalk.
He received a Ph.D in Astronomy from Rice University in 2004.
Takao Doi visited the International Space Station in March 2008 as a member of the STS-123 crew. STS-123 delivered the first module of the Japanese laboratory, Kibō, and the Canadian Dextre robot to the space station. During this mission, he became the first person to throw a boomerang in space that was specifically designed for use in microgravity during spaceflight.
Doi retired from the astronaut duty and he
Donald Herod Peterson is a retired United States Air Force officer and a former USAF and NASA astronaut. He was born in Winona, Mississippi, on October 22, 1933. Peterson is married, and has three children and four grandchildren.
He graduated from Winona High School, Winona, Mississippi; received a bachelor of science degree from the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York in 1955, and a master's degree in Nuclear Engineering from the Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio in 1962.
Peterson graduated from West Point in 1955. His assignments included four years as a flight instructor and military training officer with the Air Training Command, three years as a nuclear systems analyst with the Air Force Systems Command, and one year as a fighter pilot with Tactical Air Command, including 3 months combat weapons training.
He is a graduate of the Aerospace Research Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California, and was one of the third group of astronauts assigned to the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program.
He has logged over 5,300 hours flying time—including more than 5,000 hours in jet aircraft.
Peterson became a NASA
Walter Marty Schirra, Jr. (March 12, 1923 – May 3, 2007) was an American test pilot, United States Navy officer, and one of the original Mercury Seven astronauts chosen for the Project Mercury, America's effort to put humans in space. He is the only person to fly in all of America's first three space programs (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo). He logged a total of 295 hours and 15 minutes in space.
Schirra was the fifth American and the ninth human to ride a rocket into space. He was the first person to go into space three times.
Schirra came from an aviation family in Hackensack, New Jersey. Schirra's father, Walter M. Schirra, Sr., who was born in Philadelphia, went to Canada during World War I and earned his pilot rating. He later became a barnstormer. Schirra's mother, Florence Leach Schirra, went along on her husband's barnstorming tours and performed wing walking stunts. By the time he was 15, Wally was flying his father's airplane.
Schirra was a Boy Scout and earned the rank of First Class in Troop 36 in Oradell, New Jersey.
Schirra graduated from Dwight Morrow High School in Englewood, New Jersey in 1940 and attended the Newark College of Engineering, where he was a member of
Wubbo Johannes Ockels (born March 28, 1946) is a Dutch physicist and a former astronaut of the European Space Agency (ESA). In 1985 he participated in a flight on a space shuttle (STS-61-A), making him the first Dutch citizen in space. He was not the first Dutch-born astronaut, as he is preceded by the naturalized American Lodewijk van den Berg, who flew on STS-51-B. Ockels is currently professor of Aerospace for Sustainable Engineering and Technology at the Delft University of Technology.
Ockels was born in Almelo but considers Groningen to be his hometown. He obtained his MSc degree in physics and mathematics in 1973 and subsequently a PhD degree in the same subjects in 1978 from the University of Groningen. His thesis was based on experimental work at the Nuclear-physics Accelerator Institute (KVI) in Groningen.
From 1973 to 1978, Ockels performed experimental investigations at the Nuclear Physics Accelerator Institute in Groningen. His work concerned the gamma-ray decay of nuclear systems directly after formation and the development of a data-handling system involving design of electronics and programming of real-time software. He also contributed to the design and construction
Roberta Bondar OC O.Ont FRCP(C) FRSC ( /ˌbɒnˈdɑr/; born December 4, 1945) is Canada's first female astronaut and the first neurologist in space. Following more than a decade as NASA's head of space medicine, Bondar became a consultant and speaker in the business, scientific, and medical communities.
Bondar has received many honours including the Order of Canada, the Order of Ontario, the NASA Space Medal, over 22 honorary degrees and induction into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame.
Bondar graduated from Sir James Dunn High School in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and holds a Bachelor of Science in zoology and agriculture from the University of Guelph (1968), a Master of Science in experimental pathology from the University of Western Ontario (1971), a Doctor of Philosophy in neuroscience from the University of Toronto (1974), and an Doctor of Medicine from McMaster University (1977). She is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada in neurology (1981). Bondar also has certification in sky diving and parachuting. A celebrated landscape photographer, Bondar studied professional nature photography at the Brooks Institute of Photography, Santa Barbara, California.
Ronald Ellwin Evans, Jr. (November 10, 1933 – April 7, 1990) was a NASA astronaut and one of only 24 people to have flown to the Moon. He also served as a Captain in the United States Navy.
Evans was selected as an astronaut by NASA as part of Astronaut Group 5 in 1966 and made his first and only flight into space as command module pilot aboard Apollo 17 in 1972, the last manned mission to the Moon to date, with Commander Eugene Cernan and Lunar Module Pilot Harrison Schmitt. During the flight, he orbited the Moon as his two crew mates descended to the surface. In 1975 Evans served as backup command module pilot for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission.
Evans was born on November 10, 1933 in St. Francis, Kansas. He was active in the Boy Scouts of America where he achieved its second highest rank, Life Scout. He graduated from Highland Park High School in Topeka, Kansas, received a bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering from the University of Kansas in 1956 and a master of science degree in aeronautical engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in 1964. He was a member of Tau Beta Pi, Society of Sigma Xi, and Sigma Nu.
In June 1957 he completed flight
Lev Stepanovich Dyomin (Russian: Лев Степанович Дёмин; January 11, 1926, in Moscow – December 18, 1998, in Zvyozdny Gorodok) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 15 spaceflight in 1974. This spaceflight was intended to dock with the space station Salyut 3, but the docking failed.
Dyomin gained a doctoral degree in engineering from the Soviet Air Force Engineering Academy and the rank of Colonel in the Soviet Air Force.
He only made a single spaceflight before resigning from the space programme in 1982 and taking up deep-sea research.
He died of cancer in 1998.
He was awarded:
Mark Neil Brown (b. November 18, 1951 in Valparaiso, Indiana) is an engineer, retired Colonel in the United States Air Force and former NASA astronaut.
Brown received his pilot wings at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas, in 1974. He was then assigned to the 87th Fighter Interceptor Squadron at K.I. Sawyer Air Force Base, Michigan, where he flew both T-33 and F-106 aircraft. In 1979 Brown was transferred to the Air Force Institute of Technology at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, and received his master of science degree in astronautical engineering in 1980.
Brown was assigned to the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center since 1980. Assigned as an engineer in the Flight Activities Section, he participated in the development of contingency procedures for use aboard the Space Shuttle and served as an attitude and pointing officer. Brown supported STS flights 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 41-C in the Flight Activity Officer/Staff Support Room of the Mission Control Center.
Selected by NASA in May 1984, Brown became an astronaut in June 1985, and qualified for assignment as a mission specialist on future Space Shuttle flight crews. In December 1985, he was assigned to the crew of STS-61-N, a Department
Richard Harrison Truly (born November 12, 1937) is a retired Vice Admiral in the United States Navy, a former fighter pilot, former astronaut for both the United States Air Force and NASA, and was the eighth Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from 1989 to 1992. He was the first former astronaut to head the space agency.
After his departure from NASA, he led the Georgia Tech Research Institute from 1992 to 1997, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory from 1997 to 2005.
Born in Fayette, Mississippi, Truly attended schools in Fayette and Meridian, Mississippi, receiving a bachelor of aeronautical engineering degree from Georgia Institute of Technology in 1959, where he was a member of the Kappa Alpha Order. Truly was ordered to flight school and was designated a Naval Aviator on October 7, 1960. His initial tour of duty was in Fighter Squadron 33 (VF-33) where he flew F-8 Crusaders aboard USS Intrepid and USS Enterprise) and made more than 300 carrier landings.
From 1963 to 1965, he was first a student and later an instructor at the U.S. Air Force Aerospace Research Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California.
In 1965, Truly was
Barbara Radding Morgan (born November 28, 1951) is an American teacher and a former NASA astronaut. She participated in the Teacher in Space program as the backup to Christa McAuliffe for the ill-fated STS-51-L mission of the Space Shuttle Challenger. She then trained as a Mission Specialist, and flew on STS-118 in August 2007. Leading up to STS-118, Morgan joined Sally Ride and Shannon Lucid as female astronauts widely covered by the media.
Morgan was born to Dr. and Mrs. Jerry Radding in 1951 and raised in Fresno, California, where she attended Herbert Hoover High School. Following graduation in 1969, she was accepted to Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, where she graduated with distinction in 1973 with a B.A. in Human Biology. She obtained her teaching credential from Notre Dame de Namur University in nearby Belmont in 1974.
Morgan began her teaching career in 1974 on the Flathead Indian Reservation at Arlee Elementary School in Arlee, Montana, where she taught remedial reading and math. From 1975 to 1978, she taught remedial reading/math and second grade at McCall-Donnelly Elementary School in McCall, Idaho. From 1978 to 1979, Morgan taught English and science to
Georgiy Timofeyevich Dobrovolsky (Russian: Гео́ргий Тимофе́евич Доброво́льский; June 1, 1928 – June 30, 1971) was a Soviet cosmonaut.
He flew on the Soyuz 11 mission and had the unfortunate distinction of being part of the second Soviet crew to die during a space flight (after Vladimir Mikhaylovich Komarov in Soyuz 1).
After a normal re-entry, the capsule was opened and the crew was found dead. It was discovered that a valve had opened just prior to leaving orbit that had allowed the capsule's atmosphere to vent away into space, suffocating the crew.
Dobrovolsky's ashes were placed in an urn in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis on the Red Square in Moscow. He was posthumously awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, the Order of Lenin and the title of Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR.
Donn F. Eisele (June 23, 1930–December 2, 1987) was a United States Air Force test pilot and later a NASA astronaut. He occupied the command module pilot seat during the flight of Apollo 7 in 1968. After retiring from both NASA and the Air Force, he became the Peace Corps country director for Thailand, before moving into private business.
Donn Fulton Eisele was born June 23, 1930 in Columbus, Ohio, and graduated from West High School in 1948. He received a Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Naval Academy in 1952 and chose a commission in the United States Air Force (the Air Force Academy was still under construction). Eisele received a Master of Science degree in Astronautics in 1960 from the Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.
Eisele was a project engineer and experimental test pilot at the Air Force Special Weapons Center at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico. He flew experimental test flights in support of special weapons development programs. He logged more than 4,200 hours flying time, 3,600 of which were in jet aircraft.
Eisele was part of NASA's third group of astronauts, selected in October 1963. In mid-1966, Eisele, Wally Schirra, and Walter
Kenneth Donald Cameron (born November 29, 1949), a retired Colonel in the United States Marine Corps, is a former NASA astronaut.
Cameron was born on November 29, 1949, in Cleveland, Ohio. He graduated from Rocky River High School, Rocky River, Ohio, in 1967. He went on to attend the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, receiving a Bachelor of Science in aeronautics and astronautics in 1978, and a Master of Science in aeronautics and astronautics in 1979. Cameron graduated from U.S. Naval Test Pilot School in 1983, and completed numerous courses in Russian language and Russian space systems at MIT, the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, and at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, Moscow, Russia. He later earned a Master of Business Administration from Michigan State University in 2002.
Cameron was commissioned in the Marine Corps in 1970 at Officer Candidate School at Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia. After graduating from the The Basic School and Vietnamese language school, he was assigned to the Republic of Vietnam for a one-year tour of duty as an infantry platoon commander with the 1st Battalion, 5th Marines and, later, with the Marine Security Guards at the U.S. Embassy
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (Russian: Ю́рий Алексе́евич Гага́рин; IPA: [ˈjʉrʲɪj ɐlʲɪˈksʲejɪvʲɪtɕ ɡɐˈɡarʲɪn]; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut. He was the first human to journey into outer space, when his Vostok spacecraft completed an orbit of the Earth on 12 April 1961.
Gagarin became an international celebrity, and was awarded many medals and titles, including Hero of the Soviet Union, the nation's highest honour. Vostok 1 marked his only spaceflight, but he served as backup crew to the Soyuz 1 mission (which ended in a fatal crash). Gagarin later became deputy training director of the Cosmonaut Training Centre outside Moscow, which was later named after him. Gagarin died in 1968 when the MiG 15 training jet he was piloting crashed.
Yuri Gagarin was born in the village of Klushino near Gzhatsk (renamed Gagarin in 1968 after his death), (now in Smolensk Oblast, Russia), on 9 March 1934. His parents, Alexey Ivanovich Gagarin and Anna Timofeyevna Gagarina, worked on a collective farm. Despite being identified in reports by the word usually rendered in English as "peasant", they weren't "peasants". Anna Timofeevna was well-known as a voracious reader, and
Hans Wilhelm Schlegel (Überlingen, 3 August 1951) is a German physicist, an ESA astronaut, and a veteran of two NASA Space Shuttle missions.
Schlegel, born and raised in Germany, graduated as an international exchange student from Lewis Central High School in Council Bluffs, Iowa before studying physics at RWTH Aachen University in his home country. After having received his university degree, he conducted research in semiconductor physics before being trained as an astronaut in the late 1980s by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). He flew as a DLR payload specialist in 1993 aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-55, which included the German-sponsored Spacelab D-2 research module.
From 1995 to 1997, he trained as the backup crew member for the German-Russian Mir'97 mission, and afterwards received additional training in Russia to become qualified as a second board engineer for the Mir space station. In 1998, he became a member of the European Astronaut Corps.
Schlegel was a Mission Specialist on the STS-122 Space Shuttle mission. The mission was charged with the responsibility of putting the Columbus laboratory in orbit, in addition to its connection to the International Space
Kent Vernon "Rommel" Rominger (born August 7, 1956) is a former American astronaut, former NASA Chief of the Astronaut Office at Johnson Space Center, and a Captain in the United States Navy. He joined ATK Launch Systems Group in 2006 as Vice President of Advanced Programs.
Kent Rominger was born in Del Norte, Colorado. He graduated from Del Norte High School in 1974. In 1978, he received a bachelor of science degree in civil engineering from Colorado State University, and in 1987 a master of science degree in aeronautical engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School.
He is a member of the Association of Space Explorers, the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the Association of Naval Aviation, and the Chi Epsilon Civil Engineering Society.
He has been awarded the Defense Superior Service Medal, the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Defense Meritorious Service Medal and the NASA Distinguished Service Medal. He is a Distinguished Graduate of the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School and was the Naval Air Test Center Test Pilot of the Year in 1988. He received the Society of Experimental Test Pilots Ray E. Tenhoff Award in 1990,
Miguel López-Alegría (born May 30, 1958) is a Spanish-American astronaut; a veteran of three Space Shuttle missions and one International Space Station mission. He is known for having performed ten EVAs so far in his career, presently holding the second longest all-time EVA duration record and having the longest spaceflight of any American at the length of 215 days; this time was spent on board the ISS from September 18, 2006 to April 21, 2007.
López-Alegría was born in Madrid, Spain and raised in Mission Viejo, California. López-Alegría joined the United States Navy, where he earned engineering degrees in 1980 from the United States Naval Academy, and in 1988 from the Naval Postgraduate School. Designated a Naval Aviator in 1981, his fleet experience in the Navy was at Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadron 2 (VQ-2) in Rota, Spain, and the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School at NAS Patuxent River, Maryland. A natural leader, he was the top Lieutenant of 60 in the second largest aviation wardroom in the Navy (105 officers). He made many connections with Spanish military and civilian personnel while in Spain during his first tour that have made him very popular and well known in Spanish media.
Ham (July 1956 – January 19, 1983), also known as Ham the Chimp and Ham the Astrochimp, was the first chimpanzee launched into outer space in the American space program. Ham's name is an acronym for the lab that prepared him for his historic mission — the Holloman Aerospace Medical Center, located at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico.
Ham was born July 1956 in Cameroon, captured by animal trappers and sent to Rare Bird Farm in Miami, Florida. He was purchased by the United States Air Force and brought to Holloman Air Force Base in 1959.
There were originally 40 chimpanzee flight candidates at Holloman. After evaluation the number of candidates was reduced to 18, then to 6, including Ham. Officially, Ham was known as No. 65 before his flight, and only renamed "Ham" upon his successful return to earth. This was reportedly because officials did not want the bad press that would come from the death of a "named" chimpanzee if the mission were a failure. Among his handlers, No.65 had been known as Chop Chop Chang.
Beginning in July 1959, the three-year-old chimpanzee was trained under the direction of neuroscientist Joseph V. Brady at Holloman Air Force Base Aero Medical Field
Stephen Nathaniel Frick (born September 30, 1964) is an American astronaut and a veteran of two space shuttle missions. Raised in Gibsonia, Pennsylvania, Frick graduated from Pine-Richland High School in 1982, earned a degree in aerospace engineering from the United States Naval Academy in 1986, was commissioned as a United States Navy officer, and trained as a F/A-18 fighter pilot. Stationed aboard the carrier USS Saratoga, he flew combat missions during the Gulf War and then earned a master's degree in aeronautical engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School in 1994.
Frick was selected as a NASA astronaut candidate in 1996 and was trained as a space shuttle pilot. He piloted mission STS-110, a docking mission with the International Space Station.
In July 2006, Frick was assigned to command the crew of STS-122. The 12-day mission delivered the European Space Agency's Columbus laboratory and returned Expedition 16 Flight Engineer Daniel M. Tani to Earth. The mission launched February 7, 2008, and touched down February 20, 2008.
Distinguished Flying Cross; Defense Meritorious Service Medal; 3 Navy Commendation Medals, one with Combat V; Air Medal with 2 Strike-Flight awards; 2
Sandra Hall Magnus (born October 30, 1964) is an American engineer and a NASA astronaut. She returned to Earth with the crew of STS-119 Discovery on March 28, 2009, after having spent 134 days in orbit. She was assigned to the crew of STS-135, the final mission of the Space Shuttle. She is also a licensed amateur radio operator with the call sign KE5FYE.
Magnus was born and raised in Belleville, Illinois. She earned degrees in physics and electrical engineering from the University of Missouri–Rolla (now known as the Missouri University of Science and Technology) before earning a PhD in materials science and engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1996. Research for her dissertation, entitled "An Investigation of the relationship between the thermochemistry and emission behavior of thermionic cathodes based on the BaO-Sc2O3-WO3 ternary system," was supported by a fellowship from the NASA Lewis Research Center.
During the 1980s, Magnus worked on stealth aircraft design as an engineer for McDonnell Douglas. She worked on the propulsion system for the A-12 Avenger II until the project was canceled by the Navy in 1991.
Magnus was selected as an astronaut candidate in
Bjarni V. Tryggvason (born September 21, 1945) is an Icelandic-born Canadian engineer and a former NRC/CSA astronaut. He served as a Payload Specialist on Space Shuttle mission STS-85 in 1997, a 12-day mission to study changes in the Earth’s atmosphere.
Tryggvason was born in Reykjavík, Iceland, but considers Vancouver, British Columbia, to be his hometown. He has two children. Bjarni Tryggvason has about 4,000 hours of flight experience, holds an Airline Transport Rating and has been a flight instructor. He's currently active in aerobatic flight and once qualified as captain in the Tutor jet trainer with the Canadian Air Force. After completing high school in Richmond, BC, he received a Bachelor of Applied Science in Engineering Physics from the University of British Columbia in 1972 and did postgraduate work in engineering with specialization in applied mathematics and fluid dynamics at the University of Western Ontario.
He is a member of the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute. He received an honorary doctorate from the University of Western Ontario in 1998, and one from the University of Iceland in 2000.
He worked as a meteorologist with the cloud physics group at the
Janice Elaine Voss (October 8, 1956 – February 6, 2012) was an American engineer and a NASA astronaut. She flew in space five times, jointly holding the record for American women. Voss died on February 6, 2012, after a battle with breast cancer.
Voss graduated from Minnechaug Regional High School in 1972. She earned a bachelor's degree in engineering from Purdue University while working on a co-op at the Johnson Space Center. She earned an S.M. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from MIT in 1977. She went on to earn a doctorate in aeronautics/astronautics from MIT in 1987.
Voss was selected as an astronaut candidate in 1990 and flew as a mission specialist on missions STS-57 (1993), STS-63 (1995), STS-83 (1997), STS-94 (1997) and STS-99 (2000). All of her flights included another female astronaut as well.
During her career as an astronaut, she participated in the first Shuttle rendezvous with the Mir space station on STS-63: it flew around the station, testing communications and inflight manoeuvres for later missions, but did not actually dock. As an STS-99 crew member on the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, she and her fellow crew members worked continuously in shifts
Kalpana Chawla (July 1, 1961 – February 1, 2003) was an Indian-American astronaut who, was a mission specialist on the space shuttle Columbia. She first flew on the Columbia in 1997 as a mission specialist and primary robotic arm operator. Chawla was one of seven crew members killed in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.
Chawla completed her earlier schooling at Tagore Public School, Karnal and her Bachelor of Engineering degree in Aeronautical Engineering at Punjab Engineering College at Chandigarh in 1982. She moved to the United States in 1982 and obtained a M.S. degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Texas at Arlington in 1984. Chawla went on to earn a second M.S. degree in 1986 and a Ph.D. in aerospace engineering in 1988 from the University of Colorado at Boulder. Later that year she began working at the NASA Ames Research Center as vice president of Overset Methods, Inc. where she did CFD research on Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing concepts. Chawla held a Certificated Flight Instructor rating for airplanes, gliders and Commercial Pilot licenses for single and multi-engine airplanes, seaplanes and gliders.
Chawla joined the NASA 'Astronaut Corps' in March
Sally Kristen Ride (May 26, 1951 – July 23, 2012) was an American physicist and astronaut. Ride joined NASA in 1978 and, at the age of 32, became the first American woman to enter into low Earth orbit in 1983. She left NASA in 1987 to work at Stanford University's Center for International Security and Arms Control and had served on the investigation panels for two space shuttle disasters (Challenger and Columbia) – the only person to serve on both. She co-authored six children's science books with her life partner of 27 years, Tam O'Shaughnessy and founded Sally Ride Science in 2001. Ride remains the youngest American astronaut to be launched into space.
The elder child of Dale Burdell Ride and Carol Joyce (née Anderson), Sally was born in Encino, California, a district of the city of Los Angeles. She had one sibling, Karen "Bear" Ride, who is a Presbyterian minister. Both parents were elders in the Presbyterian Church. Ride's mother had worked as a volunteer counselor at a women’s correctional facility. Her father had been a political science professor at Santa Monica College.
She attended Portola Junior High (now Portola Middle School), and then Westlake School for Girls in Los
David McDowell Brown (April 16, 1956 – February 1, 2003) was a United States Navy Captain and a NASA astronaut. He died on his first spaceflight, when the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107) disintegrated during orbital reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. Brown became an astronaut in 1996, but had not served on a space mission prior to the Columbia disaster.
Brown, the 1986 recipient of the Navy Operational Flight Surgeon of the Year award, received numerous decorations including:
The symbol indicates a posthumous award.
Brown joined the U.S. Navy after his internship at the Medical University of South Carolina. Upon completion of flight surgeon training in 1984, he reported to the Navy Branch Hospital in Adak, Alaska, as Director of Medical Services. He was then assigned to Carrier Air Wing Fifteen which deployed aboard the USS Carl Vinson in the Western Pacific. In 1988, he became the only flight surgeon in a ten year period to be chosen for pilot training. He was ultimately designated a Naval Aviator in 1990 in Beeville, Texas, ranking number one in his class. Brown was then sent for training and carrier qualification in the A-6E Intruder. In 1991 he reported to the Naval Strike
James Philip Bagian, MD, PE (born 22 February 1952 in Philadelphia), is an engineer and former NASA astronaut. During his career as an astronaut, he logged 337 hours of space-flight, over two missions, STS-29 (in 1989) and STS-40 (in 1991). After leaving NASA in 1995, Bagian was elected as a member of both the National Academy of Engineering and of the Institute of Medicine. Bagian is currently the Director of the Center for Health Engineering in the Department of Anesthesia at the University of Michigan.
Bagian is of Armenian descent. Graduated from Central High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1969; received a bachelor of science degree in mechanical engineering from Drexel University in 1973, and a doctorate in medicine from Thomas Jefferson University in 1977, where he was a member of Alpha Omega Alpha.
Bagian worked as a process engineer for the 3M Company in Bristol, Pennsylvania, in 1973, and later as a mechanical engineer at the U.S. Naval Air Test Center at Patuxent River, Maryland, from 1976 to 1978, and at the same time, pursued studies for his medical degree. Upon graduating from Thomas Jefferson University in 1977, Bagian completed one year of general surgery
James "Jim" Arthur Lovell, Jr., (born March 25, 1928) is a former NASA astronaut and a retired captain in the United States Navy, most famous as the commander of the Apollo 13 mission, which suffered a critical failure en route to the Moon but was brought back safely to Earth by the efforts of the crew and mission control. Lovell was also the command module pilot of Apollo 8, the first Apollo mission to enter lunar orbit. Lovell is a recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor and the Presidential Medal of Freedom. He is one of only 24 people to have flown to the Moon, the first of only three people to fly to the Moon twice, and the only one to have flown there twice without making a landing. Lovell was also the first person to fly in space four times.
Born in Cleveland, Ohio to a Czech mother, Lovell's family moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he graduated from Juneau High School and became an Eagle Scout. His father died in a car accident when Lovell was young and, for about two years, he resided with a relative in Terre Haute, Indiana.
As a boy, Lovell was interested in rocketry, and built flying models.
Later he attended the University of Wisconsin–Madison for two
Roger Keith Crouch (b. September 12, 1940) is an American scientist who flew as a payload specialist on two NASA Space Shuttle missions in 1997.
Born September 12, 1940, in Jamestown, Tennessee, Crouch currently resides in Washington DC with his wife, the former Anne Novotny. He has three grown children, Melanie, Kevin and Kenyon. His mother, Maxine Crouch, resides in Jamestown, Tennessee. He enjoys traveling, photography, sports, camping, hiking, fishing and whitewater rafting. Crouch is an Eagle Scout.
Crouch attended high school at Alvin C. York Institute. He earned a Bachelor of Science in physics from Tennessee Polytechnic Institute in 1962, Master of Science and a Doctor of Philosophy in physics from Virginia Polytechnic Institute in 1968 and 1971, respectively. He was a visiting scientist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1979-80.
On loan from MIT to NASA Headquarters as the Senior Scientist for the International Space Station since 2000; prior to that, on loan from MIT as the Senior Scientist for the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences, NASA-HQ, 1998-2000; crew training, flight and post-flight activities 1996-1998; Lead Scientist of the Microgravity Space and
Malcolm Scott Carpenter (born May 1, 1925) is an American test pilot, astronaut and aquanaut. He is best known as one of the original seven astronauts selected for NASA's Project Mercury in April 1959.
Carpenter was the second American to orbit the Earth and the fourth American in space, following Alan Shepard, Gus Grissom and John Glenn. Carpenter and Glenn are the last living members of the Mercury Seven.
Born in Boulder, Colorado, Carpenter moved to New York City with his parents Marion Scott Carpenter and Florence [née Noxon] Carpenter for the first two years of his life. His father had been awarded a postdoctoral research post at Columbia University. In the summer of 1927, Scott returned to Boulder with his mother, then ill with tuberculosis. He was raised by his maternal grandparents in the family home at the corner of Aurora Avenue and Seventh Street, until his graduation from Boulder High School in 1943.
Upon graduation, he was accepted into the V-12 Navy College Training Program as an aviation cadet (V-12a), where he trained until the end of World War II. The war ended before he was able to finish training and receive an overseas assignment, so the Navy released him from
John Howard Casper (born July 9, 1943) is an American astronaut. Although born in Greenville, South Carolina, he considers Gainesville, Georgia to be his hometown. He was active in the Boy Scouts of America where he achieved its second highest rank, Life Scout. He graduated with a bachelor of science in engineering science from the United States Air Force Academy in 1966 and a master of science in astronautics from Purdue University in 1967.
Before he was an astronaut, Casper was a United States Air Force fighter pilot, earning his pilot wings at Reese Air Force Base, Texas. After F-100 Super Sabre training at Luke Air Force Base, Arizona, he flew 229 combat missions with the 35th Tactical Fighter Wing in the Vietnam War. Following his tour in Vietnam, Casper flew F-100 and F-4 aircraft while assigned to the 48th Tactical Fighter Wing, Royal Air Force Lakenheath, United Kingdom. Casper was selected to attend the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California, and graduated with class 74A. After graduating he became Chief of the F-4 Test Team; he flew initial performance and weapons separation tests for the F-4G Wild Weasel aircraft and avionics tests for
James "Larry" DeLucas (O. D., Ph.D.) is an American biochemist who flew aboard NASA Space Shuttle mission STS-50 as a Payload Specialist. He was born on July 11, 1950 in Syracuse, New York, and is currently married with three children. His recreational interests include basketball, scuba diving, bowling, model airplanes, astronomy and reading.
DeLucas attended the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), in Birmingham, Alabama and received the following degrees:
DeLucas is a member of the following organizations:
He has published over 125 research articles in refereed scientific journals, is co-author of 2 books, and co-inventor on 25 patents.
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DeLucas was a member of the crew of Space Shuttle Columbia for STS-50 (June 25-July 9, 1992), the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) Spacelab mission. Over a two-week period, the crew conducted a wide variety of experiments relating to materials processing and fluid physics. At mission conclusion, DeLucas had traveled over 5.7 million miles in 221 Earth orbits, and had logged over 331 hours in space.
Pedro Duque Duque (born 14 March 1963) is a Spanish astronaut and a veteran of two space missions.
Duque earned a degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) in 1986. He worked for GMV and for the European Space Agency (ESA) for six years before being selected as an astronaut candidate in 1992. Duque underwent training in both Russia and the United States. His first spaceflight was as a mission specialist aboard space shuttle mission STS-95, during which Duque supervised ESA experimental modules. In October 2003, Duque visited the International Space Station for several days during a crew changeover. The scientific program of this visit was called by ESA/Spain Misión Cervantes.
He worked at the UPM, in the Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Aeronáuticos, he used to work at Deimos Imaging. Currently he is employed by ESA in Munich.
Charles Gordon Fullerton (born October 11, 1936) is a retired United States Air Force officer, a former USAF and NASA astronaut and retired research pilot at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California. His assignments include a variety of flight research and support activities piloting NASA's B-52 launch aircraft, the Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), and other multi-engine and high performance aircraft. Fullerton, who has logged more than 380 hours in space flight, was a NASA astronaut from September 1969 until November 1986 when he joined the research pilot office at Dryden. In July 1988, he completed a 30-year career with the U.S. Air Force and retired as a Colonel. He continued in his position of research pilot as a civilian.
Fullerton and his wife and their two children live in Lancaster, California.
According to an Associated Press story, Fullerton suffered a massive stroke on December 31, 2009 and was recovering at a facility in Southern California that specializes in stroke treatment.
Born October 11, 1936, in Rochester, New York, Fullerton graduated from U.S. Grant High School, Portland, Oregon. He received Bachelor of Science and Master of
Claudie Haigneré (formerly Claudie André-Deshays; born 13 May 1957 in Le Creusot, Saône-et-Loire) is a French doctor, politician, and former astronaut with the Centre National d'Études Spatiales (1985–1999) and the European Space Agency (1999–2002).
Born in Le Creusot, France, Haigneré studied medicine at the Faculté de Médecine (Paris-Cochin) and Faculté des Sciences (Paris-VII). She went on to obtain certificates in biology and sports medicine (1981), aviation and space medicine (1982), and rheumatology (1984). In 1986 she received a diploma in the biomechanics and physiology of movement. She completed her PhD thesis in neuroscience in 1992.
Haigneré was a back-up crew member for the 1993 Mir Altaïr mission in which her future husband Jean-Pierre Haigneré participated. The asteroid 135268 Haigneré is named in their combined honour. Haigneré visited the Mir space station for 16 days in 1996, as part of the Russian-French Cassiopée mission. In 2001, Haigneré became the first European woman to visit the International Space Station, as part of the Andromède mission. She retired from ESA on 18 June 2002.
Following her career as an astronaut, Haigneré entered French politics in
James Benson Irwin (March 17, 1930 – August 8, 1991) was an American astronaut. He served as Lunar Module pilot for Apollo 15, the fourth human lunar landing; he was the eighth human to walk on the Moon; he was the first of those astronauts to die; and, the one with the shortest life.
Irwin's grandparents emigrated to the USA from Altmore Parish at Pomeroy in County Tyrone, Ireland around 1859. Irwin himself was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania of Scottish and Irish descent. Irwin graduated from East High School in Salt Lake City, Utah in 1947. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in naval science from the United States Naval Academy in 1951 and a Master of Science in aeronautical engineering and instrumentation engineering from the University of Michigan in 1957.
He received his flight training at Hondo Air Base and Reese Air Force Base, Texas. He graduated from the Air Force Experimental Test Pilot School in 1961 and the Air Force Aerospace Research Pilot School in 1963. Prior to joining NASA, he was chief of the Advanced Requirements Branch at Headquarters Air Defense Command. During his time in the United States Air Force he received an Air Force Distinguished Service Medal
Loren James Shriver (born 23 September 1944) is a former NASA astronaut, aviator, and a retired US Air Force Colonel.
Shriver currently holds the position of Deputy Director for Launch and Payload Processing at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Before taking this position in 1997, Shriver served as the Space Shuttle program Manager for Launch Integration.
Shriver was commissioned in 1967, and served from 1969 to 1973 as a T-38 academic instructor pilot at Vance Air Force Base, Oklahoma. In 1973 he was then assigned to an overseas tour in Thailand. Beginning in 1975, he attended the United States Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California. He was later assigned to the 6512th Test Squadron, and in 1976, Shriver began serving as a test pilot for the F-15 Joint Test Force.
Shriver was selected as an astronaut by NASA in January 1978, participated in three space flights, and logged over 386 hours in space. Shriver was pilot of STS-51-C, launched from Kennedy Space Center on 24 January 1985. Shriver commanded a crew of five on his second mission, STS-31 which launched on 24 April 1990. This five-day flight deployed the Hubble Space Telescope. Shriver also commanded
Richard Oswalt Covey (born August 1, 1946) is a retired U.S. Air Force officer and former NASA astronaut.
Born in Fayetteville, Arkansas, he considers Fort Walton Beach, Florida, to be his hometown. He graduated from Choctawhatchee High School, Shalimar, Florida, in 1964; received a bachelor of science in engineering sciences with a major in astronautical engineering from the United States Air Force Academy in 1968, and a master of science in aeronautics and astronautics from Purdue University in 1969.
As a member of the US Air Force, Covey was an operational fighter pilot 1970-1974, flying the F-100 Super Sabre, A-37 Dragonfly, and A-7 Corsair II. He flew 339 combat missions during two tours in Southeast Asia. At Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, between 1975 and 1978, he was an F-4 Phantom II and A-7D weapons system test pilot and joint test force director for electronic warfare testing of the F-15 Eagle. He has flown over 5,700 hours in more than 30 different types of aircraft.
Selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in January 1978, Covey became an astronaut in August 1979. A veteran of four space flights, STS-51-I in 1985, STS-26 in 1988, STS-38 in 1990, and STS-61 in 1993,
Dr. Ulf Dietrich Merbold (born June 20, 1941) is the first West German citizen and second German native (after Sigmund Jähn) to have flown in space. He is also the first member of the European Space Agency Astronaut Corps to participate in a spaceflight mission. He holds the distinction of being the first non-US citizen to reach orbit in a US spacecraft. In 1983, he and Byron Lichtenberg became the first Payload Specialists to fly on the shuttle.
Merbold was born in Greiz, Thuringia — just 40 kilometers from where Sigmund Jähn, the first German in space, was born. Both happened to grow up in the socialist German Democratic Republic, also known as East Germany. After he finished school in 1960, Merbold, as thousands others before the Berlin wall was built, defected to the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). He studied physics at the University of Stuttgart, earning a diploma in 1968 and a doctorate in 1976. He then joined the Max Planck Institute for Metals Research in Stuttgart, where he worked on solid state physics and low temperature physics.
In 1978, the European Space Agency (ESA) selected him, along with Wubbo Ockels and Claude Nicollier, to train as payload
Clarence William "Bill" Nelson (born September 29, 1942) is the senior United States Senator from the state of Florida and a member of the Democratic Party. He is a former United States Representative and former Treasurer and Insurance Commissioner of Florida. In 1986, he became the second sitting member of the United States Congress to fly in space.
In 1972, Nelson was elected to the Florida House of Representatives. He was re-elected in 1974 and 1976. Nelson was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1978. He served in the U.S. House from 1979 to 1991. In January 1986, he flew as a Payload Specialist on the Space Shuttle Columbia. After a failed gubernatorial race in 1990, he successfully ran for the office of Treasurer and Insurance Commissioner of Florida in 1994 and served for six years. In 2000, Nelson ran for U.S. Senate seat vacated by retiring Republican Senator Connie Mack. In the Senate he is generally considered a social moderate and economic liberal. He was re-elected in 2006 with 60 percent of the vote and is seeking re-election in 2012.
Nelson was born in Miami, the only child of Nannie Merle (née Nelson) and Clarence William Nelson. He spent his youth in
Jean-François André Clervoy (born 19 November 1958) is a French engineer and a CNES and ESA astronaut. He is a veteran of three NASA Space Shuttle missions.
Clervoy was born 19 November 1958 in Longeville-lès-Metz, France. He therefore considers himself as Lorrain Mosellan, but also as Toulousain by adoption. He has a twin brother, Patrick, a military physician. He is married to the former Laurence Boulanger. They have two children. Clervoy enjoys racquet sports, skill games, canyoning, skiing, and flying activities such as boomerang, frisbee, kites.
Received his baccalauréat from Collège Militaire de Saint Cyr l' Ecole in 1976; passed Math. Sup. and Math. Spé. M' at Prytanée Militaire, La Flèche in 1978. Graduated from Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, in 1981, he became a member of the Corps of Armament. He graduated from École nationale supérieure de l'aéronautique et de l'espace, Toulouse, in 1983; graduated as a Flight Test Engineer from École du personnel navigant d'essais et de réception, Istres, in 1987.
He graduated from high-school in Saint-Cyr Lycee, and then joined a class for preparation of "Grandes écoles" being admitted to the École polytechnique. Later he joined the
Colonel Paul Scott "Paco" Lockhart (born April 28, 1956) is a former American astronaut and a veteran of two Space Shuttle missions.
Lockhart, born and reared in Amarillo, Texas, earned degrees in mathematics and aerospace engineering from Texas Tech University and the University of Texas at Austin before being commissioned in 1981 into the United States Air Force. A test pilot for the F-16 aircraft, Lockhart was selected as an astronaut candidate in 1996. Lockhart's two space missions, STS-111 and STS-113, both in 2002, were missions to the International Space Station. He was assigned to STS-113 as pilot after the resignation of Christopher Loria from the NASA Astronaut Corps due to an injury.
After his service with NASA, Lockhart was assigned to and graduated in 2004 from the Royal College of Defence Studies in London, United Kingdom. His last military assignment was with the headquarters Air Force, A9, where he was a directorate chief for both the force structures and the analyses and assessments branch. Lockhart retired from the U.S. Air Force in January 2007 and returned to NASA in an administrative position.
Recipient of the Defense Superior Service Medal, Defense Meritorious
Robert Brent "Bob" Thirsk, OBC (born August 17, 1953) is a Canadian engineer and physician, and a former Canadian Space Agency astronaut. He holds the Canadian records for the longest space flight (187 days 20 hours) and the most time spent in space (204 days 18 hours). The Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia announced on 17 May 2012 that he is the recipient of the Order of British Columbia (OBC).
Thirsk is from New Westminster, British Columbia and is married to Brenda Biasutti of Montreal, Quebec. They have three children. He enjoys spending time with his family as well as flying, hockey, squash, and playing the piano.
He is a member of the Professional Engineers Ontario, the College of Family Physicians of Canada, the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute, the Aerospace Medical Association, and the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario. He is also a director of the Canadian Foundation for the International Space University.
He won the Association of Professional Engineers, Geologists and Geophysicists of Alberta Gold Medal in 1976 and was the first recipient of the University of Calgary Distinguished Alumni Award (1985). In 1997, he was awarded the Gold Medal of
Duane Gene "Digger" Carey (Born April 30, 1957, in Saint Paul, Minnesota) is a retired Lieutenant Colonel in the United States Air Force and a former NASA astronaut. Married to the former Cheryl Ann Tobritzhofer of Saint Paul, Minnesota, They have two children. Carey enjoys motorcycle travel, racing motocross, camping, home-schooling his children, and reading science fiction.
Graduated from Highland Park High School in Saint Paul, Minnesota, in 1975; received a Bachelor of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics and a Master of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Minnesota in 1981 and 1982, respectively. Member of the National Space Society, American Motorcyclist Association, and the Air Force Association.
Carey received his commission from the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps in 1981 and graduated from Undergraduate Pilot Training in 1983. He flew the A-10A during tours at England Air Force Base, Louisiana, and Suwon Air Base, Republic of Korea. He completed F-16 training in 1988 and was assigned to Torrejon Air Base, Spain. In 1991, he was selected to attend the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base,
Leroy Chiao (Chinese: 焦立中; pinyin: Jiāo Li-zhong), (born August 28, 1960) is an American engineer, former NASA astronaut, entrepreneur, motivational speaker and engineering consultant. Chiao flew on three shuttle flights, and was the commander of Expedition 10, where he lived on board the International Space Station from October 13, 2004 to April 24, 2005. He is also a co-author and researcher for the Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity Project.
Chiao was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and raised in Danville, California. Chiao graduated from Monte Vista High School in Danville in 1978. In 1983, he received a Bachelor of Science in chemical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, where he was a member of the Phi Kappa Tau fraternity. He earned a Master of Science and then a Doctor of Philosophy in chemical engineering from the University of California, Santa Barbara in 1985 and 1987, respectively.
Chiao’s father (Tsu Tao Chiao) grew up in Shandong, China; his mother, Dr. Cherry Chiao, was born in Qingdao, Shandong and grew up in Suzhou. After World War II, both fled to Taiwan, where they met and married. His parents immigrated to the United States in the
Mamoru "Mark" Mohri (毛利 衛, Mōri Mamoru, born 29 January 1948) is a Japanese scientist, a former NASDA astronaut, and a veteran of two NASA space shuttle missions.
Born in Yoichi, Hokkaidō, Japan, Mohri earned degrees in chemistry from Hokkaido University and a Doctorate from Flinders University in Adelaide, South Australia, in 1976.
Most of Mohri's work has been in the field of materials and vacuum sciences. From 1975 to 1985, Mohri was a member of the nuclear engineering faculty of Hokkaido University, where he worked on nuclear fusion-related projects.
Mohri was selected by the National Space Development Agency of Japan to train as a payload specialist for a Japanese materials science payload. He flew his first space mission aboard STS-47 in 1992 as chief payload specialist for Spacelab-J. Mohri subsequently made another trip into space as part of mission STS-99 in 2000.
As of 2007, Mohri is the Executive Director for the Miraikan (National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation) in Tokyo.
On 16 March 2006 Mohri was appointed an Honorary Member of the Order of Australia (AM), "for service to Australia-Japan education and science relations".
Viktor Vasilyevich Gorbatko (Russian: Виктор Васильевич Горбатко; born December 3, 1934 in Ventsy-Zarya) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 7, Soyuz 24, and Soyuz 37 missions.
After leaving the space program in 1982 he taught at the Air Force Engineering Academy in Moscow.
His multiple Soviet and Russian Federation awards include:
His foreign awards include:
Chris Austin Hadfield, O.Ont MSC CD BEng MSc (born 29 August 1959) is a Canadian astronaut from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) who was the first Canadian to walk in space. Hadfield has flown two space shuttle missions, STS-74 in 1995 and STS-100 in 2001. He has served as CAPCOM for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) expeditions. He is currently training for a long duration stay on board the ISS, which will include command of Expedition 35 in 2012–13. He will be the first Canadian to command the ISS. He is enthusiastic about the prospects for a manned mission to Mars, and when asked if he would consider a one-way journey to Mars to be the first to visit, he said "I would be honoured to be given the opportunity."
Chris Hadfield was born in Sarnia, Ontario. His parents are Roger and Eleanor Hadfield, who currently reside in Milton, Ontario. Hadfield was raised on a corn farm in southern Ontario and became interested in flying at a young age—from his own words in the interview to STRF.RU, he came to the idea of being astronaut when he was nine on the day of Apollo moon landing, which he had seen on TV then. Hadfield is married to his high-school girlfriend Helene
Jon Andrew McBride is retired United States Navy officer and a former NASA astronaut.
Jon McBride was born August 14, 1943, in Charleston, West Virginia, but considers Beckley, West Virginia, to be his hometown. He graduated from Woodrow Wilson High School, Beckley, West Virginia in 1960, then attended West Virginia University 1960-1964 and received a Bachelor of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in 1971. He did graduate work in Human Resource Management at Pepperdine University. Jon is a member of the Phi Delta Theta Fraternity.
McBride's naval service began in 1965 with flight training at Pensacola, Florida. After being designated a Naval Aviator and receiving his wings, he was assigned to Fighter Squadron 101 (VF-101) based at Naval Air Station Oceana, Virginia, for training in the F-4 Phantom II aircraft. He was subsequently assigned to Fighter Squadron 41 (VF-41) where he served 3 years as a fighter pilot and division officer. He has also served tours with VF-11 and VF-103. While deployed to Southeast Asia, McBride flew 64 combat missions..
He attended the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California,
Norman Earl Thagard (born July 3, 1943) is an American scientist and former NASA astronaut. He is the first American to ride to space on board a Russian vehicle, and can be considered the first American cosmonaut. He did this on March 14, 1995 in the Soyuz TM-21 spacecraft for the Russian Mir-18 mission.
Thagard was born in Marianna, Florida, but considers Jacksonville, Florida, to be his hometown. He is married to the former Rex Kirby Johnson of South Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida. They have three sons. During his free time, he enjoys classical music, and electronic design. Thagard has published articles on digital and analog electronic design. His father, Mr. James E. Thagard, and his mother, Mrs. Mary F. Key, are both deceased.
Thagard held a number of research and teaching posts while completing the academic requirements for various earned degrees.
In September 1966 he entered active duty with the United States Marine Corps Reserve. He achieved the rank of Captain in 1967, was designated a naval aviator in 1968, and was subsequently assigned to duty flying F-4 Phantom IIs with VMFA-333 at Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina. He flew 163 combat missions in Vietnam
Byron Kurt Lichtenberg, Sc. D. (Born February 19, 1948 in Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania) is an American engineer and fighter pilot who flew aboard two NASA Space Shuttle missions as a Payload Specialist. In 1983, he and Ulf Merbold became the first Payload Specialists to fly on the shuttle.
Born February 19, 1948 in Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. Married to Tamara Lichtenberg with five children, including two adopted Chinese daughters. He is a U.S. citizen.
From 1978 to 1984 he was a researcher for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)/Canadian Vestibular experiments on Spacelab 1, Spacelab D-1, Spacelab SLS-1 and SLS-2, and a co-principal investigator for the Mental Workload and Performance experiment flown on IML-1 to assess human-computer workstation characteristics for the Space Station.
He was a founder of Payload Systems, Inc., a company that has provided hardware and flight support for MODE and MACE experiments for the Space Shuttle and ISS. They also were the first commercial user of the Mir Space Station, flying protein crystal growth experiments to Mir in the early 1990s. He is now President of Zero Gravity Corporation, founded to make
Yang Liwei (Chinese: 杨利伟; pinyin: Yáng Lìwěi; born June 21, 1965 in Suizhong, Liaoning) is a major general and military pilot and China National Space Administration astronaut. He was the first man sent into space by the Chinese space program and his mission, Shenzhou 5, made China the third country to independently send people into space.
Liwei was born in the Suizhong County, Liaoning province, an industrial area in Northeast China. His mother was a teacher, and his father was an accountant at a state agricultural firm. Yang Liwei's wife is also a People's Liberation Army (PLA) officer, with whom he has a son.
In 1983, he was admitted to the Number 2 PLAAF Flight Academy (空军第2飞行学院) and graduated four years later. He participated in the screening process for astronauts in 1996.
In the PLAAF, he logged 1350 hours of flight time as a fighter pilot before he went to space training.
Yang was selected as an astronaut candidate in 1998 and has trained for space flight since then. He was chosen from the final pool of 13 candidates to fly on China's first manned space mission. A former fighter pilot in the Aviation Military Unit of the PLA, he held the rank of Lieutenant Colonel at the
Edwin Jacob "Jake" Garn (born October 12, 1932) is an American politician, a member of the Republican Party, and served as a U.S. Senator representing Utah from 1974 to 1993. Garn became the first sitting member of the United States Congress to fly in space when he flew aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery as a Payload Specialist during NASA mission STS-51-D (April 12–19, 1985).
Born in Richfield, Utah, Garn earned a Bachelor of Science degree in business and finance from the University of Utah in 1955, where he became a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity. He also attended East High School, Clayton Middle School, and Uintah Elementary School.
Senator Garn is a former insurance executive. He served in the United States Navy as a pilot. He also served as a pilot of the 151st Air Refueling Group of the Utah Air National Guard. As a pilot, he flew the KC-97L Stratotanker and a KC-135A Stratotanker. He retired as a Colonel in April 1979. He was promoted to Brigadier General after his space shuttle mission. He has flown more than 10,000 hours in military and private civilian aircraft.
Prior to his election to the Senate, Garn served on the Salt Lake City commission for four years and was
Michael Allen Baker (born October 27, 1953) is a retired Captain in the United States Navy, NASA astronaut, and the International Space Station Program Manager for International and Crew Operations, at NASA's Johnson Space Center. He is responsible for the coordination of program operations, integration and flight crew training and support activities with the International Partners.
Baker was born in Memphis, Tennessee and considers Lemoore, California to be his hometown. He was active in the Boy Scouts of America where he achieved its second highest rank, Life Scout. He has two children.
Baker graduated from Lemoore Union High School, Lemoore, California, in 1971, and received a bachelor of science degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Texas in 1975.
After graduation from the University of Texas, Baker completed flight training and earned his Wings of Gold as a Naval Aviator at Naval Air Station Chase Field, Beeville, Texas, in 1977. In 1978 he was assigned to Attack Squadron 56 (VA-56), embarked on the USS Midway, homeported in Yokosuka, Japan, where he flew the A-7 Corsair II. In late 1980 he was assigned to Carrier Air Wing 30 as the Air Wing Landing Signal
Philip Kenyon Chapman (born 5 March 1935) was the first Australian-born American astronaut, serving for about five years in NASA Astronaut Group 6 (1967).
Born in Melbourne, Australia, his family moved to Sydney and he was educated at Sefton High School, then matriculated from Parramatta High School. He went on to attend the University of Sydney, earning a Bachelor of Science in physics and mathematics in 1956. He then attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States, earning a Master of Science in aeronautics and astronautics in 1964 and a Doctorate of Science in instrumentation in 1967.
Chapman served with the Royal Australian Air Force Reserve from 1953 to 1955. He learned to fly (in a Tiger Moth) during Australian National Service.
From 1956 to 1957, he worked for Philips Electronics Industries Proprietary Limited in Sydney, Australia. He then spent 15 months in Antarctica with the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE), for the International Geophysical Year (IGY) as an auroral/radio physicist. The work required that he spend most of the winter with one other man at a remote camp.
From 1960 to 1961, he was an electro-optics staff
Robert Allan Ridley Parker (born December 14, 1936) is the former director of the NASA Management Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and a retired NASA astronaut. He was a mission specialist on two space shuttle missions, STS-9 and STS-35.
He has logged over 3,500 hours flying time in jet aircraft and 463 hours in space.
Parker was born in New York City but grew up in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. He attended primary and secondary schools in Shrewsbury. He received a bachelor of arts degree in astronomy and physics from Amherst College in 1958 and a doctorate in astronomy from the California Institute of Technology in 1962. Prior to his selection for astronaut training, Parker was an associate professor of astronomy at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Parker was selected as a scientist-astronaut by NASA in August 1967. He was a member of the astronaut support crews for the Apollo 15 and 17 missions, and served as program scientist for the Skylab program Director's Office during the three manned Skylab flights.
From March 1988 to March 1989, Parker was stationed at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C. where he served as director of the Space Flight/Space Station Integration
Kenneth Dwane "Sox" Bowersox (born November 14, 1956) is a United States Navy officer, and a former NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of five Space Shuttle missions and an extended stay aboard the International Space Station.
Bowersox was born in Portsmouth, Virginia, but considers Bedford, Indiana his home town. As a young boy, his family lived in Oxnard, CA for seven years and he attended Rio Real elementary. Bowersox is an Eagle Scout and earned a degree in aerospace engineering from the United States Naval Academy before receiving his commission in 1978. He attended the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School and graduated with class 85A. He served as a test pilot on A-7E and F/A-18 aircraft, and was selected as an astronaut candidate in 1987. Bowersox holds the rank of Captain in the United States Navy. Bowersox first flew as a pilot on the Space Shuttle missions STS-50 and STS-61, he commanded missions STS-73, a microgravity research mission and STS-82, a Hubble Space Telescope repair mission. He then launched on STS-113 with Don Pettit and Nikolai Budarin for an extended stay aboard the ISS as the commander of ISS Expedition 6 in 2002 and 2003, returning aboard Soyuz TMA-1 rather
Margaret Rhea Seddon (born November 8, 1947) is a physician and retired NASA astronaut. After being selected as part of the first group of astronauts to include women, she flew on three Space Shuttle flights: as mission specialist for STS-51-D and STS-40, and as payload commander for STS-58. Both before and after her career in the astronaut program, she has been active in the medical community in Tennessee, Mississippi and Texas.
Seddon was born in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, where she graduated from Central High School in 1965. She received a bachelor of arts degree in physiology from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1970, and a doctorate of medicine from the University of Tennessee College of Medicine in 1973. While at the University of California, Seddon was a member of Sigma Kappa sorority.
After medical school, Dr. Seddon completed a surgical internship and 3 years of a general surgery residency in Memphis with a particular interest in nutrition in surgery patients. Between the period of her internship and residency, she served as an Emergency Department physician at a number of hospitals in Mississippi and Tennessee, and served in this capacity in the Houston area in
Charles Eldon Brady, Jr. (August 12, 1951 – July 23, 2006) was an American physician, a Captain in the United States Navy and a NASA astronaut.
Brady was born in Pinehurst, North Carolina, but considered Robbins, North Carolina, to be his hometown. He lived in the San Juan Islands in Washington state. He enjoyed canoeing, kayaking, tennis, biking and amateur radio operating. His father is deceased, his mother resides in Robbins, North Carolina. Brady's death was the result of suicide. At the time his death was announced to the public, many reports stated that he had died after a lengthy illness (severe pain and paralysis from his rheumatoid arthritis), while other sources speculated that Brady's decision to take his own life might have been brought on by his chronic pain and diminished mobility. This is also supported by NASA internal emails related to Brady that were later released under the Freedom of Information Act. He is survived by his partner, Susen Oseth, and their son, Charles "Charlie" Brady III.
Brady graduated from North Moore High School in Robbins, North Carolina in 1969, and went on to study pre-med at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, graduating in
Charles David "Charlie" Walker (born August 29, 1948) is an American engineer who flew on three Space Shuttle missions in 1984 and 1985 as a Payload Specialist for the McDonnell Douglas Corporation. He was the first non-government person to fly in space.
Born in Bedford, Indiana. Married to the former Susan Y. Flowers, of Joplin, Missouri. They have one daughter, Catherine Wilcox, one grandson, Jacob Wilcox and one granddaughter, Haley Farr.
Recreational interests include photography, running, hiking, scuba diving, reading, collecting books on Space, and bonsai. His mother and father are deceased.
Following graduation from Purdue University he worked as a civil engineering technician, land acquisition specialist and forest firefighter for the U.S. Forest Service. Subsequently he was a design engineer with the Bendix Aerospace Company where he worked on aerodynamic analysis, missile subsystem design, and flight testing. He also was employed as project engineer with the Naval Sea Systems Command with responsibility for computer-controlled manufacturing systems.
Walker applied for the 1978 astronaut class but was unsuccessful, as he was neither affiliated with a major university nor
George Driver "Pinky" Nelson (born July 13, 1950) is a former NASA astronaut.
Nelson was born in Charles City, Iowa, but considers Willmar, Minnesota, to be his hometown. His wife Susie is from Alhambra, California. They have two daughters, Aimee and Marti.
Nelson graduated from Willmar Senior High School, Willmar, Minnesota, in 1968. He received a B.S. degree in Physics from Harvey Mudd College in 1972 and a M.S. and a Ph.D. in Astronomy from the University of Washington in 1974 and 1978, respectively.
NASA Exceptional Engineering Achievement Medal, NASA Exceptional Service Medal, 3 NASA Space Flight Medals, AIAA Haley Space Flight Award, Federation Aeronautique Internationale's V. M. Komarov Diploma, Western Washington University Faculty Outstanding Service Award. In 2009, Nelson was inducted into the United States Astronaut Hall of Fame.
Dr. Nelson performed astronomical research at the Sacramento Peak Solar Observatory, Sunspot, New Mexico; the Astronomical Institute at Utrecht (Utrecht, Netherlands) and the University of Göttingen Observatory, (Göttingen, West Germany), and at the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (Boulder, Colorado). His current research is in
Karol Joseph "Bo" Bobko (born December 23, 1937) is an engineer, retired United States Air Force officer and a former USAF and NASA astronaut.
Bobko was born in New York City, New York to a Lithuanian-American family. He graduated from Brooklyn Technical High School, New York, then received a Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Air Force Academy in 1959 and a Master of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Southern California in 1970.
Bobko was a member of the first graduating class of the Air Force Academy. Subsequent to receiving his commission and navigator rating, he attended pilot training at Bartow Air Base, Florida, and Vance Air Force Base, Oklahoma. He completed his flight training and received his pilot wings in 1960.
From 1961 to 1965, he flew F-100 and F-105 aircraft while assigned as a pilot with the 523d Tactical Fighter Squadron at Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico, and the 336th Tactical Fighter Squadron at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina. He attended the Aerospace Research Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California, and was assigned as an astronaut to the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program in
Kevin Patrick "Chilli" Chilton (born November 3, 1954), is a former United States Air Force four-star general. His last assignment was as Commander, U.S. Strategic Command from October 3, 2007 to January 28, 2011. Prior to his appointment to general officer ranks, Chilton spent 11 years of his military career as a NASA astronaut. He retired from the Air Force on February 1, 2011, after having achieved the highest rank for any military astronaut. On January 30, 2012, General Chilton was named to the board of directors of Orbital Sciences Corporation (NYSE: ORB).
Born in Los Angeles, California, he graduated from St. Bernard High School, Playa del Rey, California, in 1972. He received a BSc in engineering sciences from the USAF Academy in 1976, and an MSc in mechanical engineering from Columbia University on a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1977.
Chilton received his commission from the USAF Academy in 1976. After receiving his wings at Williams Air Force Base, Arizona in 1978 he qualified in the RF-4C Phantom II and was assigned to the 15th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron at Kadena Air Base, Japan. From 1978 until 1980, he served as a combat-ready pilot and instructor pilot in the RF-4C
Thomas Dale Akers (born May 20, 1951 in St. Louis, Missouri) is a former American astronaut in NASA's Space Shuttle program.
Akers was the valedictorian of his 29-member 1969 senior class from Eminence, Missouri. He worked summers as a park ranger in the 80,000 acre federal wilderness that borders Eminence. He graduated from the University of Missouri–Rolla with B.S. and M.S. degrees in Applied Mathematics in 1973 and 1975, respectively. At the age of 24 he returned to Eminence to become its high school principal. In 1979, when a United States Air Force recruiter left brochures on his desk for his students, it was Akers who decided to sign up. He was selected for the astronaut program in 1987 and officially became an astronaut in 1988.
Akers is a veteran of four shuttle flights in which he spent over 800 hours in orbit, including more than 29 hours of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) experience. In each of his flights, his role was as a mission specialist. His first space flight was in 1990 on STS-41, the 11th flight of Space Shuttle Discovery. He was instrumental in deploying the European Space Agency satellite Ulysses, a solar-exploration craft, as well as tending several secondary
William Benjamin "Bill" Lenoir (March 14, 1939 – August 26, 2010) was an American engineer and a former NASA astronaut.
Lenoir was born on March 14, 1939, in Miami, Florida. He was divorced and remarried, and was survived by three grown children. His recreational interests included sailing, wood-working and outdoor activities. He was a descendant of General William Lenoir.
He was a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and a member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Eta Kappa Nu and the Society of Sigma Xi.
Lenoir received a number of special honors. He was a Sloan Scholar at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, winner of the Carleton E. Tucker Award for Teaching Excellence at MIT, and recipient of the NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1974) and NASA Space Flight Medal (1982).
Lenoir attended primary school in Coral Gables, Florida and graduated from Coral Gables Senior High School in 1957. He graduated with an undergraduate degree in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he was an active member of Sigma Alpha Epsilon (SAE). Lenoir continued at MIT, earning a master of science
Donald Roy Pettit (born April 20, 1955) is an American chemical engineer and a NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of two long-duration stays aboard the International Space Station, one space shuttle mission and a six-week expedition to find meteorites in Antarctica.
Pettit was raised in Silverton, Oregon, and is an Eagle Scout. He earned a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from Oregon State University in 1978 and a doctoral degree from the University of Arizona in 1983. He worked as a scientist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory until 1996, when he was selected as an astronaut candidate. He is married and has two sons.
Pettit's first space mission was as a mission specialist on ISS Expedition 6 in 2002 and 2003. During his six-month stay aboard the space station, he performed two EVAs to help install external scientific equipment. During free time on his stay aboard the International Space Station, he conducted demonstrations showing how fluids react in an extremely low gravity environment in a series he called "Saturday Morning Science".
Pettit was Mission Specialist 1 on the STS-126 mission to deliver equipment and supplies to the ISS. He spent 15 days 20 hours 29 minutes
Henry Warren "Hank" Hartsfield, Jr. (born November 21, 1933) is a retired United States Air Force officer and a former USAF and NASA astronaut who logged over 480 hours in space.
Hartsfield was born in Birmingham, Alabama, and his mother, Mrs. Norma Hartsfield, still resides there. He is married to the former Judy Frances Massey of Princeton, North Carolina and has two daughters: Judy Lynn, May 29, 1958; and Keely Warren, May 14, 1959.
Graduated from West End High School (Birmingham, Alabama); received a bachelor of science degree in Physics at Auburn University in 1954; performed graduate work in physics at Duke University and in astronautics at the Air Force Institute of Technology at Wright-Patterson AFB; and awarded a master of science degree in engineering science from the University of Tennessee in 1971.
Hartsfield received his commission through the Reserve Officer Training Program (ROTC) at Auburn University. He entered the U.S. Air Force in 1955, and his assignments included a tour with the 53rd Tactical Fighter Squadron in Bitburg, Germany. He is also a graduate of the USAF Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California, and was an instructor there prior to his
Janet Lynn Kavandi, a native of Carthage, Missouri, is an American scientist and a NASA astronaut. She is a veteran of three Space Shuttle missions and has served as NASA's Deputy Chief of the Astronaut Office.
Kavandi graduated Valedictorian in 1977 from Carthage Senior High School - Carthage, Missouri. She went on to earn degrees in chemistry from Missouri Southern State College (bachelor's, 1980), the Missouri University of Science and Technology (masters, 1982), and the University of Washington (doctorate, 1990).
Following graduation in 1982, Kavandi accepted a position at Eagle-Picher Industries in Joplin, Missouri, as an engineer in new battery development for defense applications. In 1984, she accepted a position as an engineer in the Power Systems Technology Department of the Boeing Aerospace Company in Seattle, Washington. She served as lead engineer of secondary power for the Short Range Attack Missile II, and principal technical staff representative involved in the design and development of thermal batteries for Sea Lance and the Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile. Other programs she supported include Space Station, Lunar and Mars Base studies, Inertial Upper Stage,
Konstantin Petrovich Feoktistov (Russian: Константин Петрович Феоктистов; 7 February 1926 – 21 November 2009) was a Soviet cosmonaut and an eminent space engineer. Feoktistov also wrote several books on space technology and exploration. The Feoktistov crater on the Far Side of the Moon is named in his honor.
During the Nazi occupation of Voronezh, at the age of just 16, Feoktistov fought with the Soviet Army against the Nazi German invaders, carrying out reconnaissance missions. After being captured by an Waffen-SS Army patrol, Feoktistov was shot by a German officer. However, the bullet went right through his chin and neck and did not kill him. Feoktistov was able to crawl out later and then make his way to the Soviet lines.
After the war was over, Feoktistov enrolled in the Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School as an engineering student, and he graduated in 1949. Feoktistov also later earned a doctorate in physics. He joined Mikhail Tikhonravov's OKB (design bureau), and in 1955, Feoktistov formed part of the team that went on to design the Sputnik satellites, the Vostok space capsule, the Voskhod space capsule, and the Soyuz space capsule under the leadership of the Soviet Chief
Owen Kay Garriott, Ph.D. (born November 22, 1930) is a former NASA astronaut who spent 60 days aboard the Skylab space station in 1973 during the Skylab 3 mission, and 10 days aboard Spacelab-1 on a space shuttle mission in 1983.
He is the father of Robert Garriott and fellow spacefarer Richard Garriott, with whom he helped found Origin Systems.
Garriott was born in Enid, Oklahoma. He graduated from Enid High School in 1948; received a B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Oklahoma in 1953, where he was a member of Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity, and a M.S. and Ph.D from Stanford University in electrical engineering in 1957 and 1960, respectively. He completed a one-year U.S. Air Force Pilot Training Program in 1966, receiving qualification as pilot in jet aircraft.
Garriott served as electronics officer in the United States Navy from 1953 to 1956. From 1961 through 1965 he was an assistant professor, then associate professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University. He performed research and led graduate studies in ionospheric physics after obtaining his doctorate, and authored or co-authored more than 45 scientific papers, chapters and one
Robert Donald Cabana is the director of NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center, a NASA astronaut, and a veteran of four Space Shuttle flights. He is also a former Naval Flight Officer and Naval Aviator in the United States Marine Corps.
Born January 23, 1949, in Minneapolis, Minnesota to Ted and Annabell Cabana, who still reside in Minneapolis. He is the older of two sons. His younger brother is Gary Cabana and he is married to the former Nancy Joan Shimer of Cortland, New York. He has three children: Jeffrey, Christopher and Sarah.
After graduation from the United States Naval Academy, Cabana attended The Basic School at Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia, and completed Naval Flight Officer training at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida, in 1972. He served as an A-6 Intruder bombardier/navigator with squadrons in the 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing (2nd MAW) at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina, and the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing at Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni, Japan. He returned to NAS Pensacola in 1975 for pilot training and was redesignated as a Naval Aviator in September 1976. He was then assigned to the 2nd MAW at MCAS Cherry Point, where he flew A-6
Steven Glenwood MacLean (born December 14, 1954) is a Canadian astronaut. He is the current President of the Canadian Space Agency, appointed on September 1, 2008 and scheduled to end August 31, 2013.
He was born in Ottawa, Ontario, and is married to Nadine Wielgopolski of Hull, Quebec. They have three children. He enjoys hiking, canoeing, flying, parachuting and gymnastics. He currently resides in Saint-Lambert, Quebec.
MacLean attended Merivale High School in Nepean, Ontario. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in physics in 1977 and a doctorate in physics in 1983 from York University in Toronto. In 1977, he received the President's Award at York University (Murray G. Ross Award). He is a recipient of a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council post graduate scholarship in 1980, two Ontario graduate scholarships, one in 1981 and the other in 1982, and a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council postdoctoral fellowship in 1983.
He is an honorary fellow of Norman Bethune College of York University and president of the board of directors for the Mont Megantic Observatory project.
From 1974 to 1976, MacLean worked in sports administration and public relations at
Umberto Guidoni (born in Rome 18 August 1954) is an Italian politician and a former ESA astronaut. He is a veteran of two NASA space shuttle missions. He was a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from 2004 to 2009.
Guidoni earned a doctorate in astrophysics from the University of Rome La Sapienza in 1978 and worked in the Italian Space Agency (ASI) as well as in the European Space Agency (ESA). One of his research projects was the Tethered Satellite System, which was part of the payload of the STS-46 mission. Guidoni trained as an alternate payload specialist for this mission and made his first spaceflight aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-75 in 1996, which included the second flight of the TSS system (TSS-1R).
In 2001, Guidoni participated in the Space Shuttle's STS-100 mission, being the first European on board the International Space Station (ISS).
On that flight, the Space Shuttle Endeavour carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module for its maiden flight as well as the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the Canadian robotic arm used extensively to assemble the ISS.
In September 2001, Guidoni was assigned to ESA's European Space Research and
Franklin Story Musgrave (born August 19, 1935) is an American physician and a retired NASA astronaut. He is currently a public speaker and consultant to both Disney's Imagineering group and Applied Minds in California.
Musgrave was born and grew up in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, but considers Lexington, Kentucky, to be his hometown. He has six children, one deceased. His hobbies are chess, flying, gardening, literary criticism, poetry, microcomputers, parachuting, photography, reading, running, scuba diving and soaring.
In the early 1990s, Musgrave was stalked by Margaret Mary Ray, a schizophrenic woman who had previously served time for stalking comedian David Letterman.
Story Musgrave attended Dexter School, Brookline, Massachusetts and St. Mark's School, Southborough, Massachusetts, from 1947 to 1953, but left school shortly before graduation and before receiving his high school diploma. He received a BS degree in mathematics and statistics from Syracuse University in 1958, an MBA degree in operations analysis and computer programming from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1959, a BA degree in chemistry from Marietta College in 1960, an M.D. degree from Columbia
Ronnie Walter Cunningham (born March 16, 1932), known as Walt Cunningham, is a retired American astronaut. In 1968, he was the Lunar Module pilot on the Apollo 7 mission. He was NASA's third civilian astronaut (after Neil Armstrong and Elliot See), and has also been a fighter pilot, physicist, entrepreneur, venture capitalist, author of The All-American Boys, lecturer, and host of the radio show Lift-off to Logic.
Walter Cunningham was born in Creston, Iowa on March 16, 1932. He graduated from Venice High School in Venice, California, where a building has since been named for him.
After high school, Cunningham joined the U.S. Navy in 1951, and began flight training in 1952. He served on active duty as a fighter pilot with the U.S. Marine Corps from 1953 until 1956. From 1956 to 1975 he served in the Marine Corps Reserve program, ultimately retiring at the rank of Colonel.
Cunningham received his Bachelor of Arts and literature degree in 1960 and his Master of Arts degree in 1961, both in physics, from the University of California at Los Angeles. He then worked as a scientist for the Rand Corporation while pursuing a doctorate.
In October 1963, Cunningham was one of the third group
William Surles McArthur, Jr. (born 26 July 1951) is a retired United States Army Colonel, a NASA astronaut, and a veteran of three Space Shuttle missions and one expedition to the International Space Station via the Russian Soyuz capsule.
Born and raised in North Carolina, McArthur was active in the Boy Scouts of America where he achieved its second highest rank, Life Scout. He attended the United States Military Academy and earned his commission in the U.S. Army. After serving with the 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, McArthur attended the U.S. Army Aviation School and served tours of duty in Korea and Georgia (where he earned a degree in aerospace engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology).
In 1987, McArthur attended the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School and was trained as an experimental test pilot. He was assigned to a post as a flight test engineer at NASA and was selected as an astronaut candidate in 1990. McArthur's first spaceflight was in 1993 aboard STS-58. Subsequent missions included STS-74 in 1995 and STS-92 in 2000.
A Master Army Aviator, McArthur has logged over 9,000 flight hours in 41 different aircraft and spacecraft.
McArthur is the
Aleksandr Yuriyevich "Sasha" Kaleri (Russian: Александр Юрьевич Калери; born Jūrmala, Latvia, 13 May 1956) is a Russian cosmonaut and veteran of extended stays on the Mir Space Station and the International Space Station (ISS). Kaleri has recently been in space aboard the ISS serving as a flight engineer for the long duration Expedition 25/26 missions. He has spent the second-longest time in space of any person and the longest time in space of any person not born in what is now Russia.
Kaleri is married to the former Svetlana L. Nosova. They have a son, Oleg Aleksandrovich Kaleri, born in 1996. His mother, Antonina Petrovna Kaleri, resides in Sevastopol, Ukraine, and his father, Yuri Borisovich Kaleri, is deceased. Kaleri enjoys running, reading and gardening.
In 1979, Kaleri graduated from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region, as a specialist in Aircraft Flight Dynamics and Control. In 1983, he completed post-graduate studies at the same institute as a specialist in the field of Mechanics of Fluids and Plasma.
In 1979, he was hired by the Energia Corporation and worked on the Mir space station. He participated in development of design and
Boris Valentinovich Volynov (Russian: Борис Валентинович Волынов; born December 18, 1934) is a Soviet cosmonaut who flew two space missions of the Soyuz programme: Soyuz 5, and Soyuz 21. He was the first halakhic (by mother) Jewish cosmonaut.
Volynov was born in Irkutsk in Siberia, but then his family relocated, and he finished secondary school in Prokopyevsk, Kemerovo Oblast, in 1952. The next year he completed basic pilot training in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan, and in 1955 graduated from an aviation school in Novosibirsk. From September 1961 to January 1968 he studied at the faculty of engineering of the Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy and graduated with a diploma of a pilot-engineer-cosmonaut. Later in 1980 he defended a PhD at the same academy. After resigning from the space program in 1982, he spent eight years as a senior administrator at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre. After 30 years of service in Star City, in 1990, he retired in the rank of colonel due to age limit. In June 2006, he visited the Kennedy Space Center.
Volynov was assigned as one of two possible commanders training for Voskhod 1 in 1964, but he and his fellow crewmembers Georgi Katys and Boris
Christa McAuliffe (September 2, 1948 – January 28, 1986) was an American teacher from Concord, New Hampshire, and was one of the seven crew members killed in the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.
She received her bachelor's degree in education and history from Framingham State College in 1970, and also a Master of Arts from Bowie State University in 1978. She took a teaching position as a social studies teacher at Concord High School in New Hampshire in 1982.
In 1985, McAuliffe was selected from more than 11,000 applicants to participate in the NASA Teacher in Space Project and was scheduled to become the first teacher in space. As a member of mission STS-51-L, she was planning to conduct experiments and teach two lessons from Space Shuttle Challenger. On January 28, 1986, the spacecraft disintegrated 73 seconds after launch. After McAuliffe's death, schools and scholarships were named in her honor, and also in 2004 she was posthumously awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor.
Born Sharon Christa Corrigan in Boston, Massachusetts, the eldest of the five children of Edward Christopher Corrigan (1922–1990)—an accountant—and Grace Mary Corrigan (née George), a substitute
James Donald Halsell, Jr. (born 29 September 1956) is a retired United States Air Force officer and a former NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of five Space Shuttle missions. He has been quoted as saying he loves floating in zero gravity and watching the earth from space. "It's amazing to hold a handful of Skittles and watch them float away from you," Halsell has said.
Halsell was born and raised in West Monroe, Louisiana and attended the United States Air Force Academy. After training as a test pilot, he worked on F-4, F-16 and SR-71 aircraft. Halsell was selected as an astronaut candidate in 1990 and was trained as a Space Shuttle pilot. He piloted missions STS-65 (1994) and STS-74 (1995), and commanded missions STS-83, STS-94 (1997) and STS-101 (2000).
Halsell was Space Shuttle Program manager for launch integration at the Kennedy Space Center from 2000–2002, responsible for giving the "go for launch" on 13 Shuttle missions. After the Columbia accident, he led the NASA Return to Flight Planning Team, responsible for converting the recommendations of the accident investigation board into Shuttle Program actions that resulted in resumption of missions in 2005.
Halsell earned a
Joseph Percival Allen, Ph.D. (born June 27, 1937) is a former NASA astronaut. He logged more than 3,000 hours flying time in jet aircraft.
Allen is married to the former Bonnie Jo Darling of Elkhart, Indiana. Their children are David Christopher, born September 1968 and Elizabeth Darling, born May 1972.
Allen was born in Crawfordsville, Indiana. His parents, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph P. Allen III, reside in Frankfort, Indiana. He attended Mills School and is a graduate of Crawfordsville High School in Indiana; received a Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics and physics from DePauw University in 1959 where he was a member of The Delta Chapter of Beta Theta Pi, and a master of science degree and a Doctor of Philosophy degree in physics from Yale University in 1961 and 1965, respectively.
Allen was a research associate in the Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington prior to his selection as an astronaut. He was a staff physicist at the Nuclear Structure Laboratory at Yale University in 1965 and 1966, and during the period 1963 to 1967, served as a guest researcher at Brookhaven National Laboratory.
Allen is a member of several organizations, including the American
Koichi Wakata (若田 光一, Wakata Kōichi, born 1 August 1963) is a Japanese engineer and a JAXA astronaut. Wakata is a veteran of four NASA Space Shuttle missions and a long-duration stay on the International Space Station. During a nearly two decade career in spaceflight he has logged five months in space. Wakata is currently assigned to the Soyuz TMA-11M/Expedition 38/Expedition 39 long duration spaceflight scheduled for 2013-2014. He will be the first Japanese commander of the Space Station during Expedition 39.
Wakata was born in Ōmiya, Saitama, Japan, earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering in 1987, a Master of Science degree in Applied Mechanics in 1989, and a Doctorate in Aerospace Engineering in 2004 from Kyushu University. He worked as a structural engineer for Japan Airlines.
Wakata was selected by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) (now JAXA) as an astronaut candidate in 1992, and trained at NASA's Johnson Space Center. Wakata has held a number of assignments, and during STS-85, Wakata acted as NASDA Assistant Payload Operations Director for the Manipulator Flight Demonstration, a robotic arm experiment for the Japanese Experiment
Laurel Blair Salton Clark (March 10, 1961 – February 1, 2003) was a medical doctor, United States Navy Captain, NASA astronaut and Space Shuttle mission specialist who was killed in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.
Clark was born in Ames, Iowa, but considered Racine, Wisconsin, to be her hometown. She is survived by her husband, fellow NASA flight surgeon Dr. Jonathan Clark (who was part of an official NASA panel that prepared the final 400-page report about the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster), and son Iain.
Clark was a member of the Gamma Phi Beta sorority. She held a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) issued Technician Class amateur radio license with the call sign KC5ZSU.
Clark was a member of the Aerospace Medical Association and the Society of U.S. Naval Flight Surgeons. She was also a member of the Olympia Brown Unitarian Universalist Church in Racine, Wisconsin.
Captain Clark was awarded numerous insignia and personal decorations including:
The symbol indicates a posthumous award.
During medical school she did active duty training with the Diving Medicine Department at the United States Navy Experimental Diving Unit in March 1987. After completing medical school,
Michael Lloyd Coats (born January 16, 1946 in Sacramento, California) is a former NASA astronaut (three spaceflights), raised in Riverside, California. Since December 2005, he has served as Director of the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.
Graduated from Ramona High School in Riverside, California, in 1964; received a bachelor of science degree from the United States Naval Academy in 1968, a master of science in Administration of Science and Technology from George Washington University in 1977, and master of science in Aeronautical Engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in 1979.
Awarded the Defense Superior Service Medal, 2 Navy Distinguished Flying Crosses, 32 Strike Flight Air Medals, 3 Individual Action Air Medals, 9 Navy Commendation Medals with Combat "V", and the NASA Space Flight Medal.
Coats graduated from the Naval Academy in 1968 and was designated a Naval Aviator in September 1969. After training as an A-7E pilot, he was assigned to Attack Squadron 192 (VA-192) from August 1970 to September 1972 aboard the USS Kitty Hawk and, during this time, flew 315 combat missions in Southeast Asia. He served as a flight instructor with the A-7E Readiness Training
Richard Douglas Husband (July 12, 1957 – February 1, 2003) was a United States Air Force Colonel, an astronaut, and the space shuttle commander of STS-107 (Columbia) who was killed when the craft disintegrated after reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. Husband is a recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor.
Husband was born in Amarillo, Texas. He attended Belmar Elementary, Crockett Junior High School, and he graduated from Amarillo High School in 1975. Husband received a Bachelor of Science degree in mechanical engineering from Texas Tech University in 1980, and a Master of Science degree also in mechanical engineering from Fresno State University in 1990. His wife Evelyn details her Christian life with Rick and his struggles to fulfill his lifelong dream to become an astronaut in the 2004 book High Calling: The Courageous Life and Faith of Space Shuttle Columbia Commander Rick Husband by Evelyn Husband and co-written by Donna VanLiere. The Husbands have two children, a daughter Laura and a son Matthew. Evelyn married Bill Thompson in January 2008 and was the keynote speaker for the memorial ceremony at the Astronaut Memorial "Space Mirror" at the Kennedy Space Center in
Shannon Matilda Wells Lucid (born January 14, 1943) is an American biochemist and a retired NASA astronaut. At one time, she held the record for the longest duration stay in space by an American, as well as by a woman. She has flown in space five times including a prolonged mission aboard the Mir space station.
Lucid was born in Shanghai, China, to Baptist missionary parents Oscar and Myrtle Wells, but grew up in Bethany, Oklahoma and graduated from Bethany High School. She attended the University of Oklahoma and obtained a Ph.D. in biochemistry from that school in 1973.
She is married to Michael F. Lucid of Indianapolis, Indiana and they have two daughters and one son, and five granddaughters and one grandson.
Lucid's experience includes a variety of academic assignments, such as teaching assistant at the University of Oklahoma's Department of Chemistry from 1963 to 1964; senior laboratory technician at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation from 1964 to 1966; chemist at Kerr-McGee, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1966 to 1968; graduate assistant at the University of Oklahoma Health Science Center's Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from 1969 to 1973 and research
Charles Frank Bolden, Jr. (born August 19, 1946) is the current Administrator of NASA, a retired United States Marine Corps general, and former NASA astronaut.
A 1968 graduate of the United States Naval Academy, he became a Marine Aviator and test pilot. After his service as an astronaut, he became Deputy Commandant of Midshipmen at the Naval Academy. On May 23, 2009, President Barack Obama announced the nomination of Bolden as NASA Administrator and Lori Garver as Deputy NASA Administrator. Bolden was confirmed by the Senate on July 15, 2009. He is the first African American to head the agency on a permanent basis.
Bolden is also the virtual host of the Shuttle Launch Experience attraction at Kennedy Space Center and serves on the board of directors for the Military Child Education Coalition.
Bolden graduated from C. A. Johnson High School in Columbia, South Carolina in 1964. He earned a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical science from the United States Naval Academy in 1968, and a Master of Science in systems management from the University of Southern California in 1977. He is a member of Omega Psi Phi fraternity.
Bolden accepted a commission as a Second Lieutenant in the
Jeffrey Shears "Bones" Ashby (born June 1, 1954) is a former American naval aviator and astronaut, a veteran of three space shuttle missions. He is a retired Captain in the U.S. Navy
Jeff Ashby grew up in Evergreen, Colorado, southwest of Denver, and graduated from Evergreen High School in 1972. He attended the University of Idaho, earning a B.S. in mechanical engineering in 1976. He later earned a master's degree in aviation systems from the University of Tennessee in 1993.
Ashby is a 1986 graduate of the Naval Fighter Weapons School (Top Gun) and the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School. As a test pilot in the U.S. Navy, Ashby helped develop the F/A-18 aircraft and flew the aircraft in combat missions as part of Operation Desert Storm and Operation Southern Watch during and after the Gulf War and as part of Operation Continue Hope in Somalia. He was the Navy Attack Aviator of the Year in 1991. Ashby commanded a fighter squadron stationed aboard the USS Abraham Lincoln; in 1994, his squadron was designated the top F/A-18 squadron in the Navy. Ashby accumulated over 7,000 flight hours and 1,000 carrier landings in his Navy career.
Ashby was selected as an astronaut candidate in December
Vitaly Mikhaylovich Zholobov (Russian: Виталий Михайлович Жолобов; born June 18, 1937 in Zburyivka, Kherson Oblast Ukrainian SSR) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on Soyuz 21 space flight as the flight engineer.
Zholobov joined the space programme from the Soviet Air Force where he held the rank of Colonel-engineer.
His only trip to space involved a two-month stay on the Salyut 5 space station (Soyuz 21 mission). The flight was scheduled to last for 60 days but lasted for only 49. The reason for the cancellation was the detection of a noxious odor on board. Vitaly Zsholobow reported to the Mission Control Center that the smell was similar to that of a propellant which was known to be toxic. The Control Center decided to abort the mission to avoid exposing the crew to further risk and because the research and technology programs were already successfully finished. He was in orbit from June 6, 1976 to August 24, 1976.
Although he never flew again, Zholobov stayed in the space programme until 1981 when he resigned to become director of a geological science research group.
He was awarded:
Template:Lists of Ukrainians
William McMichael Shepherd (born July 26, 1949) is a former American astronaut who served as commander of Expedition 1, the first crew on the International Space Station. Shepherd is a recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor.
Shepherd was born in Oak Ridge, Tennessee on July 26, 1949, but considers Babylon, New York, his hometown. He is married to Beth Stringham of Houston, Texas. His mother, Barbara Shepherd, resides in Bethesda, Maryland. His father, George R. Shepherd, is deceased.
Shepherd graduated from Arcadia High School, in Phoenix, Arizona, in 1967, and received a degree in aerospace engineering from the United States Naval Academy in 1971. After successful completion of Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL training (BUD/S), he joined the elite community of Naval Special Warfare and qualified as a Navy SEAL. Then, in 1978, he obtained both an Master of Science in mechanical engineering and the degree of Ocean Engineer from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Shepherd was selected for the NASA Astronaut Corps in 1984. In 1986, his Navy SEAL training proved unexpectedly useful to NASA as he participated in salvage operations of the Space Shuttle Challenger
Yelena Vladimirovna Kondakova (Russian: Елена Владимировна Кондакóва; born March 30, 1957 in Mytishchi, Soviet Union) was the third Soviet/Russian female cosmonaut to travel to space and the first woman to make a long-duration spaceflight. Her first trip into space was on Soyuz TM-20 on October 4, 1994. She returned to Earth on March 22, 1995 after a five-month stay at the Mir space station. Kondakova's second flight was as a mission specialist on the United States Space Shuttle Atlantis during mission STS-84 in May 1997. Since then no other Russian woman has flown to space.
Kondakova was born in Mytishchi in the Moscow Region of Russia and is married to fellow cosmonaut Valeri Ryumin. She was selected as a cosmonaut candidate in 1989.
Since 1999, Kondakova has served as a deputy in the Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament.
Richard Michael "Mike" Mullane (born September 10, 1945) is a retired USAF officer and a former NASA astronaut, flying on three Space Shuttle missions.
Mullane was born in Wichita Falls, Texas, but considers Albuquerque, New Mexico, to be his hometown. He was a Second Class Scout in the Boy Scouts of America. He graduated from St. Pius X Catholic High School, Albuquerque, New Mexico, in 1963, then received a Bachelor of Science degree in Military Engineering from the United States Military Academy in 1967 and was awarded a Master of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the Air Force Institute of Technology in 1975. He is a member of the Air Force Association.
Mullane, an Air Force Colonel, was graduated from West Point in 1967. He completed 134 combat missions as an RF-4C weapon system operator while stationed at Tan Son Nhut Air Base, Vietnam, from January to November 1969. He subsequently served a 4-year tour of duty, in England. In July 1976, upon completing the USAF Flight Test Engineer Course at Edwards Air Force Base, California, he was assigned as a flight test weapon system operator to the 3246th Test Wing at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida.
Selected by NASA in
Frank Frederick Borman, II (born March 14, 1928) is a retired NASA astronaut, best remembered as the Commander of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon, making him, along with fellow crew mates Jim Lovell and Bill Anders, the first of only 24 humans to do so. Before flying on Apollo, he set a fourteen-day spaceflight endurance record on Gemini 7, and also served on the NASA review board which investigated the Apollo 1 fire. After leaving NASA, he was the chief executive officer (CEO) of Eastern Air Lines from 1975 to 1986. Borman is a recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor. In the HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon, Borman was played by David Andrews.
Borman was born in Gary, Indiana, where the Frank Borman Expressway is named after him. Because he suffered from numerous sinus problems in the cold and damp weather, his father packed up the family and moved to the better climate of Tucson, Arizona, which Borman considers his home town. He started to fly at the age of 15. He is a graduate of the Tucson High School. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1950 where he served as an Army Football Manager, and along with part of his
Roger Bruce Chaffee (February 15, 1935 – January 27, 1967), Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy, was a Naval Aviator, aeronautical engineer and a NASA astronaut in the Apollo program. Chaffee died along with fellow astronauts Gus Grissom and Ed White during a pre-launch test for the Apollo 1 mission at the then-Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida, in 1967. Chaffee was posthumously awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor and the Navy Air Medal.
Roger Bruce Chaffee was born in Grand Rapids, Michigan, where he became an Eagle Scout and graduated from Central High School. Turning down a possible appointment to the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, Chaffee accepted a Naval ROTC scholarship and in September 1953 enrolled at the Illinois Institute of Technology. After transferring to Purdue University in the fall of 1954, Chaffee earned a bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering in 1957. While there, he was a member of the Phi Kappa Sigma social fraternity, and the Tau Beta Pi and Sigma Gamma Tau engineering honor societies. While at Purdue, Chaffee took flight training as part of the Naval ROTC program in order to prepare him for a career
Sigmund Werner Paul Jähn (born 13 February 1937) is a German pilot who became the first German to fly in space as part of the Soviet Union's Interkosmos programme.
Jähn was born in Morgenröthe-Rautenkranz, in the Vogtland district of Saxony, Germany. From 1943 to 1951 he attended school in his hometown, and after school trained as a printer.
In 1955 he joined the East German Air Force where he became a pilot and military scientist. From 1966 until 1970 he studied at the Gagarin Air Force Academy in Monino, in the Soviet Union, and afterwards worked in the administration of the East German air force, responsible for pilot education and flight safety.
Jähn was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union on 3 September 1978. In 1983 he received a doctorate in physics at the "Zentralinstitut für Physik der Erde" in Potsdam, specialising in remote sensing of the earth.
Starting in 1990, after German reunification, he worked as a freelance consultant for the formerly West German spaceflight agency German Aerospace Center (DLR), and from 1993 also for the European Space Agency (ESA) to prepare for the Euromir missions. In 2002 he finally retired from this job.
Jähn is married and has two
David Alexander Wolf (born 23 August 1956) is an American astronaut, medical doctor, electrical engineer. Wolf has been to space four times. Three of his spaceflights were short-duration Space Shuttle missions, the first of which was STS-58 in 1993, and his most recent spaceflight was STS-127 in 2009. Wolf also took part in a long-duration mission aboard the Russian space station Mir which lasted 128 days, and occurred during Mir EO-24. He was brought to Mir aboard STS-86 in September 1997, and landed aboard STS-89 in January 1998. In total Wolf has logged more than 4,040 hours in space. He is also a veteran of 7 spacewalks totaling 41hrs 17min in both Russian and American spacesuits.
David Wolf graduated from North Central High School. Wolf then went on to earn a degree in electrical engineering from Purdue University where he graduated with distinction and became a brother in the Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity. In 1982, he earned a medical degree from Indiana University. He subsequently trained as a flight surgeon with the United States Air Force. Wolf joined the staff of Johnson Space Center in 1983 and investigated the physiological effects of microgravity.
David Wolf has received
John McCreary Fabian (born January 28, 1939, in Goose Creek, Texas) is a former NASA Astronaut and Air Force officer who flew two space shuttle missions and on the development of the shuttle's robotic arm. He later led the Air Force's space operations.
Selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in January 1978, and became an astronaut in August 1979. During the following years, he worked extensively on satellite deployment and retrieval activities, including development of the Canadian Remote Manipulator System. A veteran of two space flights, he has logged over 316 hours in space. He served as a mission specialist on STS-7 (June 18-June 24, 1983) and STS-51G (June 17–24, 1985). He was scheduled to fly next in May 1986 on STS-61G, and was also in training for space shuttle life science mission SLS-1. Fabian instead left NASA on January 1, 1986 to become Director of Space, Deputy Chief of Staff, Plans and Operations, Headquarters USAF.
Colonel Fabian retired from the USAF in June 1987 and joined Analytic Services Inc (ANSER), a non-profit aerospace public service research institute in Arlington, Virginia, where he retired as President and Chief Executive Officer in 1998. He
Robert Laurel Crippen (born September 11, 1937 in Beaumont, Texas) is a retired United States Navy Captain and a former astronaut for the United States Air Force and for NASA. He flew on four Space Shuttle missions, including three as commander. Crippen is a recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor.
He married Pandora Lee Puckett of Miami, Florida, and he has three daughters from a previous marriage.
After graduating from New Caney High School in New Caney, Texas, Crippen received a Bachelor of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Texas at Austin in 1960. He was selected as a member of the Texas Alpha chapter of Sigma Gamma Tau. He then joined the U.S. Navy.
Crippen was commissioned through the United States Navy's Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS) Program. As a Navy pilot from June 1962 to November 1964, he made multiple deployments aboard the aircraft carrier USS Independence, flying the A-4 Skyhawk in Attack Squadron 72 (VA-72). He later attended the U.S. Air Force Aerospace Research Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Upon graduation he remained at Edwards as an instructor until his selection for the US Air Force
Brewster Hopkinson Shaw, Jr. (born May 16, 1945) is a former NASA astronaut, a retired U.S. Air Force colonel and former executive at Boeing. Shaw was inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame on May 6, 2006.
Shaw is a veteran of three space shuttle missions and has logged 533 hours of space flight. He was pilot of space shuttle Columbia in November 1983, commander of space shuttle Atlantis in November 1985 and commander of Columbia in August 1989.
Following the space shuttle Challenger accident in 1986, he supported the Roger’s Presidential Commission investigating the accident. Shaw subsequently led the space shuttle orbiter return-to-flight team chartered to enhance the safety of the vehicles’ operations.
Shaw worked as a manager at NASA until 1996 when he left the agency, retired from the Air Force and went to work in the private sector as an aerospace executive.
Shaw is the son of Mr. and Mrs. Brewster H. Shaw, Sr. He grew up in Michigan and graduated from Cass City High School in Cass City, Michigan in 1963. Shaw received a bachelor of science in engineering mechanics from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1968. He completed a master of science degree in engineering
Curtis Lee "Curt" Brown, Jr. (born March 11, 1956) is a former NASA astronaut and retired United States Air Force Colonel.
Colonel Brown graduated from East Bladen High School in Elizabethtown, North Carolina in 1974 and received a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering from the United States Air Force Academy in 1978.
He is a member of the United States Air Force Association, the United States Air Force Academy Association of Graduates, the Experimental Aircraft Association, and the Classic Jet Aircraft Association.
He was commissioned a Second Lieutenant at the United States Air Force in Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado, in 1978, and completed Undergraduate Pilot Training at Laughlin Air Force Base in Del Rio, Texas. He graduated in July 1979 and was assigned to fly A-10 aircraft at Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, South Carolina, arriving there in January 1980 after completing A-10 training at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona. In March 1982, he was reassigned to Davis-Monthan AFB as an instructor pilot in the A-10. In January 1983, he attended USAF Fighter Weapons School at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada and returned to Davis-Monthan AFB as an instructor in
Dominic Lee Pudwill Gorie (born May 2, 1957) is a retired United States Navy officer and NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of four space shuttle missions.
Gorie was born in Lake Charles, Louisiana. His father, Capt. Paul Pudwill, was killed when the B-47 Stratojet he was flying developed ice on its wings and crashed; Dominic was only six years old. He enrolled in the United States Naval Academy where he studied ocean engineering. Following graduation in 1979, he trained as a pilot and served tours of duty aboard the carriers USS America and USS Coral Sea. In 1987, he trained as a test pilot and worked at the Naval Air Test Center until the Gulf War, where, stationed aboard the USS Theodore Roosevelt, he flew combat missions in Operation Desert Storm.
Gorie graduated from Miami Palmetto High School in Pinecrest, Florida, in 1975. He then obtained his bachelor of science degree in ocean engineering from the United States Naval Academy in 1979, and his master of science degree in aviation systems from the University of Tennessee Space Institute in 1990.
Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying Cross (2) one with Combat “V”, Air Medal (2), Defense Superior
John Oliver Creighton (born April 28, 1943) is a former NASA astronaut who flew three Space Shuttle missions.
Selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in January 1978, Creighton became an astronaut in August 1979. During the following four years he held a variety of technical assignments in support of the Space Shuttle Program. Following his first flight, Creighton became the astronaut representative to the Shuttle Program Manager. During the ensuing two years, Creighton participated in all the key decisions following the Challenger disaster helping to shape the plan for resuming safe manned space flight. Starting with STS-26, Creighton served as Lead "CAPCOM" for the first four Space Shuttle flights. In March 1989 he was assigned to command STS-36 but continued to serve as Head of the Mission Support Branch in the Astronaut Office until commencing full time training for his upcoming flight. Following his second flight, Creighton headed up the Operations Development Branch within the Astronaut Office for one year prior to resuming full-time training for his next command. Creighton served as pilot on STS-51-G (June 17–24, 1985), was spacecraft commander on STS-36 (February 28 to
Joe Henry Engle (born August 26, 1932 in Chapman, Kansas) is a retired U.S. Air Force Major General and a former NASA astronaut. He was married to the late Mary Catherine Lawrence of Mission Hills, Kansas and has two grown children and one stepchild. He is currently married to Jeanie Carter Engle of Houston, Texas. Engle's recreational interests include flying (including World War II fighter aircraft), big game hunting, back-packing and athletics. He received a bachelor of science in Aeronautical Engineering from the University of Kansas in 1955. He was a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots. Engle helped to flight test the joint NASA-Air Force X-15 rocket airplane. During the course of testing, Engle earned his USAF astronaut wings, a Distinguished Flying Cross and other awards. Engle was one of the first astronauts in the Space Shuttle program, having flight tested the Space Shuttle Enterprise in 1977. He was commander of the second orbital test flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia in 1981.
Engle received his commission in the Air Force through the Reserve Officers Training Program at the University of Kansas. While in school he was a member of the Professional
Neil Alden Armstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) was an American astronaut and the first person to walk on the Moon. He was also an aerospace engineer, naval aviator, test pilot, and university professor. Before becoming an astronaut, Armstrong was an officer in the U.S. Navy and served in the Korean War. After the war, he earned his bachelor's degree at Purdue University and served as a test pilot at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics High-Speed Flight Station, now known as the Dryden Flight Research Center, where he logged over 900 flights. He later completed graduate studies at the University of Southern California.
A participant in the U.S. Air Force's Man in Space Soonest and X-20 Dyna-Soar human spaceflight programs, Armstrong joined the NASA Astronaut Corps in 1962. He made his first space flight, as command pilot of Gemini 8, in 1966, becoming NASA's first civilian astronaut to fly in space. On this mission, he performed the first docking of two spacecraft, with pilot David Scott.
Armstrong's second and last spaceflight was as mission commander of the Apollo 11 moon landing, in July 1969. On this mission, Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin descended to the lunar
Paul Desmond Scully-Power AM (born May 28, 1944) is an American oceanographer. While a civilian employee of the United States Naval Undersea Warfare Center, he flew aboard NASA Space Shuttle mission STS-41-G as a Payload Specialist. He was the first Australian-born person to journey into space.
Scully-Power was born in Sydney, Australia, becoming a U.S. citizen in 1982. He is married with six children (Adam, Lincoln, Holly (deceased), Victoria, William and Tara). His recreational interests include squash and racket ball, sailing, and reading.
He attended schools in London and Saint Ignatius' College, Riverview in Sydney. He graduated, bachelor of science degree, honors, post graduate diploma of education, honors in applied mathematics while residing at St John's College, University of Sydney.
Scully-Power has spent extensive time at sea. He took part in 24 scientific cruises, 13 of which he was chief scientist. He is regularly invited to give papers at national and international scientific meetings and reviews articles for four technical journals. Scully-Power is also a qualified Navy diver.
In January 1967. after graduating from the University of Sydney, he was approached by the
Wing Commander Rakesh Sharma, AC, Hero of the Soviet Union, (born January 13, 1949) is a former Indian Air Force test pilot who flew aboard Soyuz T-11 as part of the Intercosmos program. Sharma was the first Indian to travel in space.
The first Indian to fly into space, Rakesh Sharma was born on January 13, 1949 in Patiala, Punjab to Hindu Gaur parents, Sharma joined the Indian Air Force in 1970 as a pilot officer after joining the NDA as an IAF cadet in 1966. In the 1971 War, Sharma flew missions is MiG aircraft with considerable success. He was a squadron leader with the Indian Air Force, when he flew into space in 1984 as part of a joint programme between the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the Soviet Intercosmos space program. He spent eight days in space on board the Salyut 7 space station. He joined two other Soviet cosmonauts aboard the Soyuz T-11 spacecraft which blasted off on April 2, 1984.
Sharma joined the Indian Air Force and progressed rapidly through the ranks. Sharma, then a Squadron Leader and pilot with the Indian Air Force embarked on a historic mission in 1984 as part of a joint space program between the Indian Space Research Organisation and the
Dr. Guion Stewart “Guy” Bluford, Jr. (born November 22, 1942), is an engineer, retired Colonel from the United States Air Force and a former NASA astronaut. He participated in four Space Shuttle flights between 1983 and 1992. In 1983, as a member of the crew of the Space Shuttle Challenger on the mission STS-8, Bluford became the first African American in space, and the second person of African ancestry, after the Cuban cosmonaut Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez.
Bluford was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, graduated from Overbrook High School. He received a B.S. in aerospace engineering from the Pennsylvania State University in 1964, an M.S. in aerospace engineering from the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) in 1974, a Ph.D. in aerospace engineering with a minor in laser physics, again from AFIT, in 1978, and a Master of Business Administration from the University of Houston–Clear Lake in 1987. He married Linda Tull in 1964 and has two sons, Guion III and James. While at Penn State, Bluford became a member of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity.
Bluford attended pilot training at Williams Air Force Base, and received his pilot wings in January 1966. He then went to F-4C combat crew
James Frederick Buchli (born June 20, 1945, in New Rockford, North Dakota) is a retired United States Marine aviator and former NASA astronaut who flew on four Space Shuttle missions.
Buchli graduated from Fargo Central High School, Fargo, North Dakota, in 1963 and received a bachelor of science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the United States Naval Academy in 1967. He also earned a master of science degree in Aeronautical Engineering Systems from the University of West Florida in 1975.
Buchli is an associate member of Naval Academy Alumni, American Legion, Association of Space Explorers, and American Geophysical Union.
Buchli received his commission in the United States Marine Corps following graduation from the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland in 1967. He graduated from Basic Infantry Officer's Course and was subsequently sent to the Republic of Vietnam for a 1-year tour of duty, where he served as a Platoon Commander with the 9th Marine Regiment, and then as Executive Officer and Company Commander for B Company, 3rd Reconnaissance Battalion. He returned to the United States in 1969 for naval flight officer training at Naval Air Station Pensacola,
Julie Payette, OC, CQ (born October 20, 1963, in Montreal, Quebec) is a Canadian engineer and a Canadian Space Agency (CSA) astronaut. Payette has completed two spaceflights, STS-96 and STS-127, logging more than 25 days in space. She serves as Chief Astronaut for the CSA, and has served in other roles for both NASA and CSA, such as CAPCOM for the STS-121 mission.
Payette attended elementary and secondary schools in Montreal. In 1982 she completed an International Baccalaureate Diploma at the international United World College of the Atlantic in South Wales, UK. Later she received a Bachelor of Electrical Engineering cum laude from McGill University in 1986 and a Master of Applied Science in Computer Engineering from the University of Toronto in 1990.
Between 1986 and 1988, Payette worked as a systems engineer for IBM Canada's Science Engineering division. From 1988 to 1990, as a graduate student at the University of Toronto, she was involved in a high-performance computer architecture project and worked as a teaching assistant. At the beginning of 1991, Payette joined the Communications and science department of the IBM Research Laboratory in Zürich, Switzerland, for a one year
Nikolai Mikhailovich Budarin (Russian: Николай Михайлович Бударин) (born April 29, 1953 in Kirya, Chuvashia) is a Russian cosmonaut, a veteran of three extended space missions aboard the Mir Space Station and the International Space Station. He has also performed eight career spacewalks with a total time of 44 hours.
Named a cosmonaut candidate in 1989, Budarin's first space mission was a long-term assignment aboard the space station Mir in 1995. Since then, he again made extended stays on Mir in 1998 and the International Space Station Expedition 6 from 2002 to 2003.
Nikolai Budarin is married to Marina Lvovna Budarina (née Sidorenko). They have two sons, Dmitry born in 1977 and Vladislav, born in 1983. His hobbies include fishing, skiing, and picking mushrooms. His father, Mikhail Romanovich Budarin, died in 1984. His mother, Alexandra Mikhailovna Budarina, died in 1986. His hobbies include tourism and cycling.
Since 2007 he is a member of the Russian parliament, the State Duma, representing the pro-Kremlin United Russia party.
Specializing in aircraft manufacturing, Budarin graduated from the night-time education department of Ordzhonikidze Moscow Aviation Institute in 1979 with
Sultan bin Salman (Arabic: سلطان بن سلمان بن عبد العزيز آل سعود (born 27 June 1956) is a former Royal Saudi Air Force pilot who flew aboard the STS-51-G Space Shuttle mission as a payload specialist, and a member of House of Saud. He is thus the first of royal blood, and the first Arab and Muslim to be in outer space.
Sultan was born in Riyadh on 27 June 1956. He is the second son of Crown Prince Salman bin Abdulaziz. His mother is Sultana bin Turki al Sudairi who died in July 2011. She was a daughter of Prince Salman's uncle, Turki bin Ahmad al Sudairi, who was one of the former governors of Asir Province. Prince Sultan is full brother of Fahd, Ahmed, Abdulaziz, Faisal and Hussa (born 1974).
Sultan completed his elementary and secondary education in Riyadh. He is a graduate of the University of Denver with a degree in mass communications. Then, he received a master's degree in social and political science from Syracuse University in 1999.
Sultan bin Salman started his career as a researcher in the Department of International Communications at the Ministry of Information in Saudi Arabia in 1982. He served as deputy director of Saudi Media Committee for the Saudi athletes
Taylor Gun-Jin Wang (simplified Chinese: 王赣骏; traditional Chinese: 王贛駿; pinyin: Wáng Gànjùn) (born June 16, 1940) is an American scientist and in 1985, became the first ethnic Chinese person to go into space. While an employee of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Wang was a payload specialist on the Space Shuttle Challenger mission STS-51-B.
With ancestry in Yancheng, Jiangsu, China, Wang was born in Jiangxi to Wang Zhang (王章) and Yu Jiehong (俞潔虹). He moved to Taiwan in 1952 with his family. He studied his later part of elementary school in Kaohsiung, and graduated from The Affiliated Senior High School of National Taiwan Normal University in Taipei. He later moved to Hong Kong. He started studying physics in UCLA in 1963, and received his Bachelor of Science B.S. in 1967, and his Master of Science M.S. in 1968, and his doctoral in low temperature physics - Superfluid and solid state physics in 1971.
After completing his doctorate, Wang joined the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in 1972, as a senior scientist. At JPL he was responsible for the inception and development of containerless processing science and technology research. He was the
Vance DeVoe Brand (born May 9, 1931) is a former test pilot and NASA astronaut. He served as command module pilot during the first U.S.-Soviet joint space flight in 1975, and as commander of three space shuttle missions.
His flight experience includes 9,669 flying hours, which includes 8,089 hours in jets, 391 hours in helicopters, 746 hours in spacecraft, and checkout in more than 30 types of military aircraft. Vance Brand Airport in Longmont, Colorado is named in his honor.
Brand was born in Longmont, Colorado, May 9, 1931, and is the son of Rudolph William and Donna Mae Brand. He was active in Troop 64 of the Boy Scouts of America in Longmont, where he achieved Life Scout. He was active in the International Order of DeMolay. He is married to the former Beverly Ann Whitnel, and has two daughters and four sons; Susan Nancy, Stephanie Brand Lowery, Patrick Richard, Kevin Stephen, Erik Ryan, and Dane Vance.
Graduated from Longmont High School, he received a bachelor of science degree in Business from the University of Colorado at Boulder in 1953, a bachelor of science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from there in 1960, and a master's degree in Business Administration from UCLA in
Aleksei Stanislavovich Yeliseyev (Russian: Алексей Станиславович Елисеев; born July 13, 1934 in Zhizdra) is a retired Soviet cosmonaut who flew on three missions in the Soyuz programme as a flight engineer: Soyuz 5, Soyuz 8, and Soyuz 10.
A graduate of the Bauman Higher Technical School (1957) and postgraduate of Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (1962). Yeliseyev worked as an engineer in Sergey Korolev's design bureau before being selected for cosmonaut training.
Following his retirement from the space programme in 1985, he took up at an administrative position at the Bauman school for several years before retiring fully.
His awards include:
Anthony Wayne "Tony" England (Ph.D.) (born May 15, 1942) is a former NASA Astronaut.
Dr. England was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, but his hometown is West Fargo, North Dakota. He is married to the former Kathleen Ann Kreutz and has two daughters. His recreational interests include sailing and amateur radio.
Dr. England attended primary school in Indianapolis, Indiana, and graduated from high school in North Dakota. He received his bachelor and master of science degrees in Earth and Planetary Sciences (course 12A) in 1965, and a doctor of philosophy in Earth and Planetary Sciences in 1970. All 3 degrees were earned at MIT.
Dr. England was a graduate fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for the 3 years immediately preceding his first assignment to NASA. He helped develop and use radars to probe the Moon on Apollo 17 and glaciers in Washington and Alaska. Dr. England participated in and led field parties during two seasons in Antarctica. He was Deputy Chief of the Office of Geochemistry and Geophysics for the U.S. Geological Survey, and Associate Editor for the Journal of Geophysical Research. He served on the National Academy's Space Studies Board, and on several
Daniel Wheeler Bursch (born July 25, 1957) is a former NASA astronaut, and Captain of the United States Navy. He had four spaceflights, the first three of which were Space Shuttle missions lasting 10 to 11 days each. His fourth and final spaceflight was a long-duration stay aboard the International Space Station as a crew member of Expedition 4, which lasted from December 2001 to June 2002. This 196 day mission set a new record for the longest duration spaceflight for an American astronaut, a record simultaneously set with his crew mate Carl Walz. This record has since been broken, and as of 2010 it is held by Michael Lopez-Alegria, who had a 215 day spaceflight as Commander of Expedition 14.
Graduated from Vestal Senior High School, Vestal, New York, in 1975; received a bachelor of science degree in physics from the United States Naval Academy in 1979, and a master of science degree in engineering science from the Naval Postgraduate School in 1991.
Bursch graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1979, and was designated a Naval Flight Officer in April 1980 at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida. After initial training as an A-6E Intruder bombardier/navigator (B/N), he
Frederick Hamilton "Rick" Hauck (pronounced "Howk") is a retired Captain in the United States Navy, a former fighter pilot and NASA astronaut. He piloted Space Shuttle mission STS-7 and commanded STS 51-A and STS-26.
He was born April 11, 1941 in Long Beach, California, but considers Winchester, Massachusetts and Washington, D.C. to be his hometowns. His parents are the late Captain and Mrs. Phillip F. Hauck. His maternal grandfather, Olaf M. Hustvedt, was a United States Navy vice admiral who commanded battleships during World War II. Rick is married to Susan Cameron Bruce. During his spare time, he enjoys skiing, sailing, kayaking, golf, tennis, and working on his 1958 Corvette. Currently, he is President and Chief Executive Officer of AXA Space, Inc.
Hauck, a Navy ROTC student at Tufts University, was commissioned upon graduation in 1962 and reported to USS Warrington (DD-843), where he served 20 months as communications officer and Combat Information Center officer. In 1964, he attended the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, for studies in mathematics and physics and for a brief time in 1965 studied the Russian language at the Defense Language Institute in
John Leonard "Jack" Swigert, Jr., (August 30, 1931 – December 27, 1982) was a NASA astronaut, one of the 24 persons who have flown to the Moon.
Before joining NASA, Swigert was a test pilot. After leaving NASA, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives, but died before being sworn in.
After unsuccessfully applying for NASA's second and third astronaut selections, Swigert was accepted into the astronaut corps as part of NASA Astronaut Group 5, in April 1966. Swigert became a specialist on the Apollo command module: he was one of the few astronauts who requested to be command-module pilots.
Swigert was one of three astronauts aboard the ill-fated Apollo 13 moon mission, which was launched on April 11, 1970. Originally part of the backup crew for the mission, he was assigned to the mission three days before launch, replacing astronaut Ken Mattingly. The prime crew had been exposed to German Measles (the rubella virus) and, because Mattingly alone had no immunity to the disease, NASA did not want to risk his falling ill during any critical phases of the flight. Incidentally, this made Swigert the first American bachelor astronaut to fly in space.
The mission was the
Marsha Sue Ivins (born 15 April 1951) is a former American astronaut and a veteran of five space shuttle missions.
Ivins, born in Baltimore, Maryland, earned a degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Colorado at Boulder in 1973 and went to work for NASA's Johnson Space Center. She worked mainly on orbiter displays and controls before being assigned as a flight engineer in 1980 and co-pilot on NASA administrative aircraft. In 1984, Ivins was selected as an astronaut candidate. She has flown aboard missions STS-32 (1990), STS-46 (1992), STS-62 (1994), STS-81 (1997), and STS-98 (2001).
Ivins retired from NASA on December 31, 2010.
STS-32 (January 9–20, 1990) launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on an eleven-day flight, during which crew members on board the Orbiter Columbia successfully deployed a Syncom satellite, and retrieved the 21,400-pound Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Mission duration was 261 hours, 1 minute, and 38 seconds. Following 173 orbits of the Earth and 4.5 million miles, Columbia returned with a night landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California.
STS-46 (July 31-August 8, 1992) was an 8-day mission, during which crew members
Vitaly Ivanovich Sevastyanov (Russian: Виталий Иванович Севастьянов; 8 July 1935, Krasnouralsk, USSR – 5 April 2010) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 9 and Soyuz 18 missions.
He trained as an engineer at the Moscow Aviation Institute and after graduation in 1959, joined Sergey Korolev's design bureau, where he worked on the design of the Vostok spacecraft. He also lectured at the Cosmonaut Training Centre, teaching the physics of spaceflight. In 1967 he commenced cosmonaut training himself. Between 15-24th September 1972 Vitaly Sevastyanov visited Zagreb, Jugoslavia.
After two successful missions, including a two-month stay on the Salyut 4 space station, he was pulled from active flight status in 1976. He worked in ground control for the Salyut 6 station before returning to spacecraft design in the 1980s to work on the Buran project.
He was president of the Soviet Union Chess Federation from 1977 to 1986 and from 1988 to 1989.
During the 1980s he was the host of a popular television program on space exploration entitled Man, Earth, Universe.
In 1993, he left the space programme and was elected to the State Duma in 1994.
Sevastyanov, along with Alexey Leonov, Rusty
Colonel Gary Eugene Payton, USAF, (born 20 June 1948) is a former American astronaut.
Payton graduated from high school in Rock Island, Illinois, in 1966. He went on to attended Bradley University, in Peoria, Illinois. After one year at Bradley, he entered the United States Air Force Academy, in Colorado Springs, Colorado, graduating with a Bachelor of Science degree in astronautical engineering in 1971. He continued with his graduate education at Purdue University, in West Lafayette, Indiana, earning a Master of Science degree in astronautical and aeronautical engineering in 1972. He graduated from pilot training at Craig AFB, in Alabama in 1973.
Payton served as a Spacecraft Test Controller from 1976 to 1980, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, in Florida. He was selected for the USAF Manned Spaceflight Engineer Program in February 1980.
Payton flew on the STS-51-C mission aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery in January 1985 which launched from and returned to land at the Kennedy Space Center, in Florida. STS-51C was the first dedicated Space Shuttle Department of Defense mission. Payton traveled over 1.2 million miles in 48 Earth orbits, and logged more than 73 hours in
Bruce McCandless II (born June 8, 1937) is a former naval aviator with the United States Navy and former NASA astronaut. During the first of his two Space Shuttle missions he made the first ever untethered free flight, using the Manned Maneuvering Unit.
McCandless is the son of Bruce McCandless, and grandson of Willis W. Bradley, both decorated war heroes. He graduated from Woodrow Wilson Senior High School, Long Beach, California. With his father having been awarded the Medal of Honor, McCandless was assured of being appointed to a military academy. In 1958 he received a Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Naval Academy, followed by a Master of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University in 1965. In 1987 he received a Master of Business Administration degree from the University of Houston–Clear Lake.
McCandless graduated second in a class of 899 from the Naval Academy (Class of 1958), along with John McCain and John Poindexter. Subsequently, he received flight training from the Naval Air Training Command at bases in Pensacola, Florida, and Kingsville, Texas.
In March 1960 he was designated a Naval Aviator and proceeded to NAS Key West, for
Edgar Dean Mitchell, Sc.D. (born September 17, 1930) is an American pilot, retired Captain in the United States Navy and NASA astronaut. As the lunar module pilot of Apollo 14, he spent nine hours working on the lunar surface in the Fra Mauro Highlands region, making him the sixth person to walk on the Moon.
Mitchell was born in Hereford, Texas. He was active in the Boy Scouts of America where he achieved its second highest rank, Life Scout. He was also a member of DeMolay International and has been inducted into its Hall of Fame.
Mitchell earned a Bachelor of Science degree in industrial management from Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1952. The following year he joined the U.S. Navy, where he trained as a pilot and flew off the aircraft carriers USS Bon Homme Richard and USS Ticonderoga. He later qualified as a research pilot and taught at the Navy's research pilot school. While on active duty in the Navy, he earned a Master of Science degree in aeronautical engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School and a Doctor of Science degree in aeronautics and astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He currently resides in suburban West Palm Beach, Florida.
Ellen Louise Shulman Baker, M.D., M.P.H. (born April 27, 1953) is an American physician and a NASA astronaut. Baker serves as Chief of the Education/Medical Branch of the NASA Astronaut Office.
The daughter of Mel and Claire Shulman, she was born in Fayetteville, North Carolina, but raised in New York City. She is married to Kenneth J. Baker. They have two daughters.
Baker graduated from:
After completing medical school, Baker trained in internal medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas. In 1981, after three years of training, she was certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine.
In 1981, following her parents, Baker joined NASA as a medical officer at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. That same year, she graduated from the Air Force Aerospace Medicine Course at Brooks Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas. Prior to her selection as an astronaut candidate she served as a physician in the Flight Medicine Clinic at the Johnson Space Center. Selected by NASA in May 1984, Baker became an astronaut in June 1985. Since then, she has had a variety of jobs at NASA in support of the Space Shuttle program and Space Station development. She was a
Loren Wilber Acton (born March 7, 1936) is an American physicist who flew on Space Shuttle mission STS-51-F as a Payload Specialist for the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory.
Acton was born in Lewistown, Montana. He went on to receive a bachelor of science degree in Engineering Physics from Montana State University in 1959, and a Doctor of Philosophy in Solar Physics from the University of Colorado at Boulder in 1965.
Acton was the senior staff scientist with the Space Sciences Laboratory, Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, California. As a research scientist, his principle duties included conducting scientific studies of the Sun and other celestial objects using advanced space instruments and serving as a co-investigator on one of the Spacelab 2 solar experiments, the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter. He was selected as one of four payload specialists for Spacelab 2 on August 9, 1978, and after seven years of training he flew on STS-51-F/ Spacelab-2. At mission conclusion, Acton had traveled over 2.8 million miles in 126 Earth orbits, logging over 190 hours in space.
He is married and has two children. In 2006 he ran in elections to be the state representative of
Prof. Dr. Reinhard Alfred Furrer (November 25, 1940 – September 9, 1995) was a German physicist and astronaut.
Furrer was born in Wörgl, Austria (then part of Germany). After the end of World War II, his father was expelled from Austria. The family found a new home in Kempten im Allgäu, Bavaria. Furrer stayed there until he joined the University of Kiel to study physics. He later transferred to the Free University of Berlin, where he received a diploma in 1969, and a doctorate in 1972. During his time as a student in Berlin, he was involved in the building of the 145 m long "Tunnel 57" below the Berlin Wall, which was the escape route of 57 people from East Berlin to the West.
In 1974 he became assistant professor in Stuttgart and in 1979 qualified for full professorship. He spent time during 1980-1981 at the University of Chicago and during 1981 at the Argonne National Laboratory in Chicago, USA.
In 1977 Furrer applied for selection as an astronaut for the first Spacelab mission. He made it into the final round of candidates, although Ulf Merbold was finally selected. In 1982, the astronauts for the first German Spacelab mission were selected from the finalists for the first
Richard Noel "Dick" Richards (born August 24, 1946) is an American aviator, retired U.S. Navy officer, and a former NASA astronaut. He flew aboard four Space Shuttle missions in the 1980s and 1990s. He was born in Key West, Florida, but considers Houston, Texas, to be his hometown. Married to the former Lois Hollabaugh of Amarillo, Texas.
Graduated from Riverview Gardens High School in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1964; received a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering from the University of Missouri in 1969, and a master of science in aeronautical systems from the University of West Florida in 1970.
Richards was commissioned as an Ensign in the United States Navy upon graduating from the University of Missouri in 1969 and was designated a Naval Aviator in August of the following year. From 1970 to 1973, he flew support missions in the A-4 Skyhawk and F-4 Phantom airplanes while assigned to Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 33 (VAQ-33) at Norfolk Naval Air Station, Virginia. He subsequently reported to Fighter Squadron 103 (VF-103) and deployed to the North Atlantic and Mediterranean aboard the USS America (CV-66) and USS Saratoga (CV-60), flying F-4 airplanes. Selected
Franklin Ramón Chang Díaz (born April 5, 1950) is a Costa Rican American mechanical engineer, physicist and former NASA astronaut. He is currently president and CEO of Ad Astra Rocket Company. He is a veteran of seven Space Shuttle missions, making him the record holder as of 2008 for the most spaceflights (a record he shares with Jerry L. Ross). He was the third Latin American to go into space. He is the first naturalized US citizen to become an astronaut and he is a member of the NASA Astronaut Hall of Fame.
He was born Franklin Ramón Chang Díaz in San José, Costa Rica on 5 April 1950 to a father of Chinese descent, Ramón Angel Chang Morales (born 1919), an oil worker whose own father fled China during the Boxer Rebellion. His mother is Costa Rican, María Eugenia Díaz Romero (born 1927). One of six children, he has a younger sister, Sonia Rosa (born December 1952), and his mother, brothers, and sisters live in Costa Rica. His elder daughters are Jean Elizabeth (born December 1973), and Sonia Rosa (born March 1978) who is a member of the Massachusetts Senate. He married Peggy Marguerite Doncaster in the United States on 17 December 1984 and his younger daughters are Lidia Aurora
Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov (Russian: Алексе́й Архи́пович Лео́нов; IPA: [ɐlʲɪˈksej ɐˈrxʲipəvʲɪtɕ lʲɪˈonəf]; born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, Kemerovo Oblast, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut and Air Force Major General who, on 18 March 1965, became the first human to conduct an extra-vehicular activity (EVA), also known as a space walk.
Leonov was one of the 20 Soviet Air Force pilots selected to be part of the first cosmonaut group in 1960. Like all the Soviet cosmonauts Leonov was a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. His walk in space was originally to have taken place on the Vostok 11 mission, but this was cancelled, and the historic event happened on the Voskhod 2 flight instead. He was outside the spacecraft for 12 minutes and nine seconds on 18 March 1965, connected to the craft by a 5.35 meter tether. At the end of the spacewalk, Leonov's spacesuit had inflated in the vacuum of space to the point where he could not re-enter the airlock. He opened a valve to allow some of the suit's pressure to bleed off, and was barely able to get back inside the capsule. Leonov had spent some eighteen months undergoing intensive weightlessness training for
Bonnie Jeanne Dunbar is a former NASA astronaut. She retired from NASA in September 2005. She then served as president and CEO of The Museum of Flight until April 2010. She is now a consultant.
Dunbar was born March 3, 1949, in Sunnyside, Washington. In 1967, she graduated from Sunnyside High School, Sunnyside, Washington. Following graduation in 1971 from the University of Washington, Dunbar worked for Boeing Computer Services for two years as a systems analyst. From 1973 to 1975, she conducted research for her master's thesis in the field of mechanisms and kinetics of ionic diffusion in sodium beta-alumina. She is a member of Kappa Delta Sorority.
In 1975, she was invited to participate in research at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell near Oxford, England, as a visiting scientist. Her work there involved the wetting behavior of liquids on solid substrates. Following her work in England, she accepted a senior research engineer position with Rockwell International Space Division in Downey, California. Her responsibilities there included developing equipment and processes for the manufacture of the Space Shuttle thermal protection system in Palmdale, California. She
Leroy Gordon Cooper, Jr. (March 6, 1927 - October 4, 2004), also known as Gordon Cooper, was an American aeronautical engineer, test pilot and one of the seven original astronauts in Project Mercury, the first manned space program of the United States.
Cooper piloted the longest and final Mercury spaceflight in 1963. He was the first American to sleep in space during that 34-hour mission and was the last American to be launched alone to conduct an entirely solo orbital mission. In 1965, Cooper flew as command pilot of Gemini 5.
Cooper was born in Shawnee, Oklahoma. Gordon grew up there and attended Shawnee High School, participating in football and track. His senior year his father, Leroy G. Cooper, was called back into military service and the family moved to Murray, Kentucky where he graduated from high school. He was active in the Boy Scouts of America and achieved the second highest rank of Life Scout. In 1945 Cooper turned down the possibility of a football scholarship to enlist in the Marine Corps but was too late to see combat in the Second World War. After completing three years of coursework at the University of Hawaii he received an Army commission. Cooper met his first
Richard James Hieb (born September 21, 1955 in Jamestown, North Dakota) is a former NASA astronaut and a veteran of three space shuttle missions. He was a mission specialist on STS-39 and STS-49, and was a payload commander on STS-65. He is currently a the Vice-President of Lockheed Martin Civil Programs under Integrated Systems and Ground Support in Houston, Texas.
Hieb's family originates from Russia and is of German descent. His mother was a long time elementary school teacher at Lincoln Elementary in Jamestown, North Dakota.
Mr. Hieb received a bachelor of arts degree in math and physics from Northwest Nazarene College in 1977. He went on to graduate from the University of Colorado at Boulder in 1979 with a master of science degree in aerospace engineering, and came directly to NASA to work in crew procedures development and crew activity planning. He worked in the Mission Control Center on the ascent team for STS-1, and during rendezvous phases on numerous subsequent flights. He has an extensive background in on-orbit procedures development, particularly in rendezvous and proximity operations.
Selected by NASA in June 1985, Mr. Hieb became an astronaut in July 1986, qualified
Robert Lee Curbeam, Jr. (born March 5, 1962) is a former NASA astronaut and Captain in the United States Navy.
Curbeam graduated from Woodlawn High School, Baltimore County, Maryland in 1980. He earned a bachelor of science degree in aerospace engineering from the United States Naval Academy in 1984, a master of science degree in aeronautical engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School in 1990, and a master's degree in astronautical engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School in 1991.
He is a member of the U.S. Naval Academy Alumni Association and the Association of Old Crows.
Curbeam was named Fighter Wing One Radar Intercept Officer of the Year in 1989 and received the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School Best Developmental Thesis (DT-II) Award.
He currently holds the record for the most spacewalks during single spaceflight. During the STS-116 mission, Curbeam completed four spacewalks.
Upon graduation from the U.S. Naval Academy, Curbeam commenced Naval Flight Officer training in 1984. In 1986 he reported to Fighter Squadron 11 (VF-11) and made overseas deployments to the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas, and the Arctic and Indian Oceans on board the USS Forrestal. During his tour
Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (Russian: Валенти́на Влади́мировна Терешко́ва; born 6 March 1937) is a retired Soviet cosmonaut and the first woman to have flown in space, having been selected from more than four hundred applicants and five finalists to pilot Vostok 6 on 16 June 1963. In order to join the Cosmonaut Corps, Tereshkova was only honorarily inducted into the Soviet Air Force and thus she also became the first civilian to fly in space. During her three-day mission, she performed various tests on herself to collect data on the female body's reaction to spaceflight.
Before being recruited as a cosmonaut, Tereshkova was a textile factory assembly worker and an amateur parachutist. After the dissolution of the first group of female cosmonauts in 1969, she became a prominent member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, holding various political offices. She remained politically active following the collapse of the Soviet Union and is still revered as a heroine in post-Soviet Russia.
Tereshkova was born in the village Maslennikovo, Tutayevsky District, Yaroslavl Oblast, in central Russia. Her parents had migrated from Belarus. Tereshkova's father was a tractor driver
William "Bill" Alison Anders (born October 17, 1933) is a former United States Air Force officer, NASA astronaut and businessman. He is, along with Apollo 8 crewmates Frank Borman and Jim Lovell, one of the first three persons to have left Earth orbit and traveled to the Moon (of only 24 people to date).
Anders was born to U.S. Navy Lt. Arthur F. Anders and Muriel Adams Anders in Hong Kong, and was active in the Boy Scouts of America where he achieved its second-highest rank, Life Scout. Anders attended St. Martin's Academy and Grossmont High School in La Mesa, California. He was born and raised Catholic. Anders married Valerie Hoard in 1955. The couple have four sons and two daughters. They live in Washington state.
He received a Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Naval Academy in 1955 and a Master of Science degree in nuclear engineering from the Air Force Institute of Technology at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, in 1962. Anders completed the Harvard Business School Advanced Management Program in 1979.
After graduating from the Naval Academy, Anders took his commission in the U.S. Air Force and served as a fighter pilot in all-weather interceptor squadrons
Andriyan Grigoryevich Nikolayev (Chuvash and Russian: Андриян Григорьевич Николаев; 5 September 1929 – 3 July 2004) was a Soviet cosmonaut. He was an ethnic Chuvash.
Nikolayev flew on two space flights: Vostok 3 (effectively becoming the third Soviet cosmonaut) and Soyuz 9. His call sign in these flights was Falcon (Russian: Со́кол). On both, he set new endurance records for the longest time a human being had remained in orbit. He also served as backup for the Vostok 2 and Soyuz 8 missions. On 22 January 1969, Nikolayev survived an assassination attempt on Leonid Brezhnev, undertaken by a Soviet Army deserter, Viktor Ilyin. He left the cosmonaut corps on 26 January 1982.
Nikolayev was also the first person to make a television broadcast from space, in August 1962. Vostok 3 was part the first dual space flight, with Pavel Popovich on Vostok 4.
In the early days of space travel, it was usual to place trainee astronauts into isolation chambers to see how long they could last alone. They sat in silence unable to gauge time. Many men cracked. One cosmonaut, Andriyan Nikolayev lasted the longest - four days - and became known as the Iron Man.
On 3 November 1963, he married Valentina
Charles Moss Duke, Jr. (born October 3, 1935) is a retired US Air Force brigadier general, and a former United States astronaut for NASA. As lunar module pilot for Apollo 16 in 1972, he became the tenth and youngest of the 12 people who have walked on the Moon.
A former test pilot, Duke has logged 4,147 hours flying time, which includes 3,632 hours in jet aircraft; and 265 hours in space, plus 21 hours and 28 minutes of extra-vehicular activity.
A resident of New Braunfels, Texas, he is currently chairman of the board of directors of the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation.
Duke was born in Charlotte, North Carolina on October 3, 1935. He attended Lancaster High School in Lancaster, South Carolina, and graduated as valedictorian from Admiral Farragut Academy in St. Petersburg, Florida in 1953. He is also an Eagle Scout. He received a bachelor of science degree in naval sciences from the United States Naval Academy in 1957 and a master's degree in aeronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1964.
Duke was commissioned upon graduation from the Naval Academy in 1957. Entering the US Air Force, he went to Spence Air Base in Georgia for primary flight training, then to
John Bennett Herrington (born September 14, 1958) is a former naval aviator with the United States Navy and former NASA astronaut. With his single Space Shuttle mission in late 2002 Herrington became the first enrolled member of a Native American tribe to fly in space. William R. Pogue of Choctaw ancestry, was a crewman aboard Skylab 4 in 1973-74, however Pogue isn't an enrolled member of the Choctaw.
Herrington was born in Wetumka, Oklahoma. He grew up in Colorado Springs, Colorado, Riverton, Wyoming, and Plano, Texas, where he graduated from Plano Senior High School. He earned a bachelor's degree in applied mathematics from the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs before receiving his commission in the United States Navy in 1984.
To honor his Native American heritage, Herrington, an enrolled member of the Chickasaw Nation, carried a Chickasaw Nation flag on his eleven-day trip. The flag had been presented to him by Chickasaw Nation Governor Bill Anoatubby.
Herrington received his commission in the U.S. Navy from the Aviation Officer Candidate School at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida in March 1984. In March 1985 he was designated a Naval Aviator and proceeded to Patrol
Paul Joseph Weitz (born July 25, 1932) is a retired United States Navy pilot and former NASA astronaut, who flew into space twice. He was a member of the three-man crew who flew on Skylab 2, the first manned Skylab mission. He was also commander of the STS-6 mission, the first of the Space Shuttle Challenger flights.
Weitz was born in Erie, Pennsylvania, on July 25, 1932. He graduated from Harbor Creek High School in Harborcreek, Pennsylvania. The high school stadium was later named after him. He received a bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering from Pennsylvania State University in 1954. While attending Penn State, he was a member of the Alpha Upsilon Chapter of Beta Theta Pi. Ten years later he received a master's degree in aeronautical engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California.
Weitz received his commission as an Ensign through the Naval ROTC program at Penn State. He served for one year at sea aboard a destroyer before going to flight training and was awarded his aviator wings in September 1956. He served in various naval aircraft squadrons until he was selected as an astronaut in 1966. He has logged more than 7,700 hours flying
Prof. Dr. Ulrich Hans Walter (born February 9, 1954) is a German physicist/engineer and a former DFVLR astronaut.
Walter was born in Iserlohn, Germany. After finishing secondary school there and two years in the Bundeswehr, he studied physics at the University of Cologne. In 1980, he was awarded a diploma degree, and five years later a doctorate, both in the field of solid state physics.
After two post-doc positions at the Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, Illinois, and the University of California at Berkeley, California, he was selected in 1987 to join the German astronaut team. From 1988 to 1990, he completed basic training at the German German Aerospace Center, and was then nominated to be in the prime crew for the second German Spacelab mission.
In 1993, he flew on board the Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-55 (Spacelab D-2) as a Payload Specialist. He spent 9 days, 23 hours, and 40 minutes in space.
After his spaceflight. he worked for another four years at DLR, managing a space imaging database project. When the German astronaut team was merged into a European Space Agency, he did not transfer, but resigned to work at IBM Germany.
Since 2003, he has been a full
Russell Louis "Rusty" Schweickart aka Schweikart (born October 25, 1935) is an American former astronaut, research scientist, US Air Force fighter pilot, business and government executive. Schweickart, chosen in NASA's third astronaut group, is best known as the Lunar Module pilot on the Apollo 9 mission, the first manned flight test of the LM, on which he performed the first in-space test of the Portable Life Support System used by the Apollo astronauts who walked on the Moon. As backup commander of the first Skylab mission, he was responsible for developing the hardware and procedures used by the first crew to perform critical in-flight repairs of the Skylab station. After Skylab, he served for a time as Director of User Affairs in NASA's Office of Applications.
Schweickart left NASA in 1977 to serve for two years as California governor Jerry Brown's assistant for science and technology, then was appointed by Brown to California's Energy Commission for five and a half years, serving as chairman for three.
Schweickart was born in Neptune Township, New Jersey. After graduating from Manasquan High School, he earned an B.S. and M.S. in Aeronautics/Astronautics from the Massachusetts
Edward Tsang "Ed" Lu (Chinese: 盧傑; pinyin: Lú Jié; born July 1, 1963) is an American physicist and a former NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of two Space Shuttle missions and an extended stay aboard the International Space Station.
Raised in Webster, New York, to a Chinese family. Lu attended R. L. Thomas High School, where he was a member of the wrestling team and graduated in 1980. Later, Lu earned a degree in electrical engineering from Cornell University where he lettered in wrestling. He then received a doctoral degree in applied physics from Stanford University in 1989. Lu is a member of the Psi chapter of Pi Kappa Phi fraternity at Cornell.
Lu is a specialist in solar physics and did postdoctoral work at the Institute for Astronomy in Honolulu, Hawaii before being selected for the NASA Astronaut Corps in 1994.
Lu flew on space shuttle missions STS-84 in 1997 and STS-106 in 2000, in which he carried out a six-hour spacewalk to perform construction work on the International Space Station. Having been flight engineer on Soyuz TMA-2, Lu spent six months in space in 2003 as part of ISS Expedition 7, with cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko. In July 2003, Lu and Malenchenko answered
Ellison Shoji Onizuka (鬼塚 承次, Onizuka Shōji, June 24, 1946 – January 28, 1986) was a Japanese American astronaut from Kealakekua, Kona, Hawaii, who successfully flew into space with the Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-51-C, before losing his life to the destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger, where he was serving as Mission Specialist for mission STS-51-L. He was the first Asian American to reach space.
Ellison Onizuka was the oldest son and second youngest child of the late Masamitsu and Mitsue Onizuka. He had two older sisters, Shirley and Norma, and a younger brother, Claude. Claude became the family spokesman when Ellison attained fame as an astronaut and continued after the Challenger accident. Growing up, Ellison was an active participant in 4-H and the Boy Scouts, where he reached the level of Eagle Scout.
He graduated from Konawaena High School in Kealakekua in 1964. He received a Bachelor's degree in aerospace engineering in June 1969, and a Master's in that field in December of the same year, from the University of Colorado at Boulder. He participated in Air Force ROTC during his time there and is an alumnus of Triangle Fraternity.
Onizuka married Lorna Leiko Yoshida
Jerry Lynn Ross (January 20, 1948, Crown Point, Indiana) is a United States Air Force officer, retired, and a former NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of seven Space Shuttle missions, making him the record holder for most spaceflights (a record he shares with Franklin Chang-Diaz). His papers, photographs and many personal items are in the Barron Hilton Flight and Space Exploration Archives at Purdue University.
Ross is the author of Spacewalker: My Journey in Space and Faith as NASA's Record-Setting Frequent Flyer (Purdue University Press), available January, 2013.
He graduated from Crown Point High School, Crown Point, Indiana, in 1966. He received bachelor of science and master of science degrees in Mechanical Engineering from Purdue University in 1970 and 1972, respectively.
Ross, an Air Force ROTC student at Purdue University, received his commission upon graduation in 1970. After receiving his master's degree from Purdue in 1972, he entered active duty with the Air Force and was assigned to the Ramjet Engine Division of Air Force Aero-Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. He conducted computer-aided design studies on ramjet propulsion systems, served as
Michael Collins (born October 31, 1930) is a former American astronaut and test pilot. Selected as part of the third group of fourteen astronauts in 1963, he flew in space twice. His first spaceflight was Gemini 10, in which he and command pilot John Young performed two rendezvous with different spacecraft and Collins undertook two EVAs. His second spaceflight was as the command module pilot for Apollo 11. While he orbited the Moon, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin made the first manned landing on the lunar surface. He is one of only 24 people to have flown to the Moon.
Prior to becoming an astronaut, he had attended the United States Military Academy, and from there he joined the United States Air Force and flew F-86s at Chambley-Bussieres Air Base, France. He was accepted to the USAF Experimental Flight Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base in 1960. He unsuccessfully applied for the second astronaut group but was accepted for the third group.
After retiring from NASA in 1970 he took a job in the Department of State as Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs. A year later he became the director of the National Air and Space Museum. He held this position until 1978 when
Stanley David Griggs (September 7, 1939 – June 17, 1989) was a United States Navy officer and a NASA astronaut. He is credited with conducting the first unscheduled extra-vehicular activity of the space program during Space Shuttle mission STS-51-D. Griggs was killed when the vintage World War II training aircraft he was piloting crashed near Earle, Arkansas.
Born in Portland, Oregon, Griggs graduated from Lincoln High School in his hometown in 1957. He was an Eagle Scout. In 1962 he received a Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Naval Academy and in 1970 a Master of Science in administration from George Washington University. He enjoyed flying, auto restoration, running, and skiing. He married Karen Frances Kreeb and they had two daughters together, Alison Marie (August 21, 1971) and Carre Anne (May 14, 1974).
Griggs graduated from Annapolis in 1962 and entered Naval pilot training shortly thereafter. In 1964, he received his United States Navy pilot wings and was attached to Attack Squadron-72 flying A-4 Skyhawks. He completed one Mediterranean cruise and two Southeast Asia combat cruises aboard the aircraft carriers USS Independence and USS Franklin Roosevelt.
Steven Alan Hawley (born December 12, 1951) is a former NASA astronaut who flew on five U.S. Space Shuttle flights. He was Professor of Physics and Astronomy and later, Director of Engineering Physics at the University of Kansas.
Hawley was born December 12, 1951, in Ottawa, Kansas, to Dr. and Mrs. Bernard Hawley. One of Hawley's brothers, John, is a theoretical astrophysicist, at the University of Virginia.
Hawley graduated from Salina High School Central, Salina, Kansas, in 1969; he regards Salina as his home town. He received bachelor of arts degrees in physics and astronomy (graduating with highest distinction) from the University of Kansas in 1973, and a doctor of philosophy in astronomy and astrophysics from the University of California, Santa Cruz in 1977. Hawley attended the University of Kansas, majoring in physics and astronomy, graduating in 1973 with a BA in physics and a BA in astronomy. He spent three summers employed as a research assistant: 1972 at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., and 1973 and 1974 at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia. He attended graduate school at Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa
Jack Robert Lousma (born February 29, 1936) is a former NASA astronaut and politician. He was a member of the second manned crew on the Skylab space station in 1973. In 1983, he commanded STS-3, the third space shuttle mission.
Lousma was later the Republican nominee for a seat in the United States Senate from Michigan in 1984, losing to Carl Levin.
Lousma was born in Grand Rapids, Michigan. He is of Frisian decent. Lousma and Gratia Kay were married in 1956. They have four children, nine grandchildren, and one great-grandchild.
He graduated from Angell Elementary School, Tappan Middle School, and Pioneer High School in Ann Arbor, Michigan; received a B.S. degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the University of Michigan in 1959, and a M.S. degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in 1965; presented an honorary doctorate of Astronautical Science from the University of Michigan in 1973, an honorary D.Sc. from Hope College in 1982, and an honorary D.Sc. in Business Administration from Cleary College in 1986.
He is a fellow of the American Astronautical Society; member of the Society of the Sigma Xi, the University of Michigan "M" Club, the Officers'
Michael Richard Uram "Rich" Clifford (born October 13, 1952), is a former United States Army officer and NASA astronaut. Clifford is considered a Master Army Aviator and has logged over 3,400 hours flying in a wide variety of fixed and rotary winged aircraft. Clifford retired from the U.S. Army at the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. He has logged over 12 hours of spacewalk time over three Space Shuttle missions. He is also one of the first people to conduct a spacewalk while docked to an orbiting space station. The spacewalk was conducted during STS-76, while docked at the Russian space station Mir.
Born October 13, 1952 in San Bernardino, California, but considers Ogden, Utah, to be his hometown. He was a First Class Scout in the Boy Scouts of America. Married to the former Nancy Elizabeth Brunson of Darlington, South Carolina. They have two sons: Richard Benjamin (born March 14, 1980) and Brandon Brunson (born May 19, 1983). He enjoys flying, golf, tennis, water and snow skiing, baseball, and coaching youth sports. His parents, Gordon and Lenore Clifford, reside in Ogden. Her parents, R. Ben and Mary Lee Brunson, reside in Darlington.
Clifford was diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease
Vladimir Vasiliyevich Kovalyonok (Belarusian: Уладзі́мір Васі́льевіч Кавалёнак; Russian: Влади́мир Васи́льевич Ковалёнок; born March 3, 1942 in Beloye, Minsk Oblast, Byelorussian SSR, was a Soviet cosmonaut.
He entered the Soviet space programme on July 5, 1967 and was commander of three missions. He retired from the cosmonaut team on June 23, 1984.
From 1990 to 1992 he was a Director of the 30th Central Scientific Research Institute, Ministry of Defence (Russia).
Daniel Charles Brandenstein (born January 17, 1943, Watertown, Wisconsin, United States), is the Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of United Space Alliance. He is a former Naval Aviator and NASA astronaut who flew four Space Shuttle missions.
Selected by NASA in January 1978, Brandenstein became an astronaut in August 1979. He was ascent spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM) and a member of the astronaut support crew for STS-1 (the first flight of the Space Shuttle). He was subsequently assigned to the STS-2 astronaut support crew and was the ascent CAPCOM for the second Space Shuttle flight. A veteran of four space flights -- STS-8 (August 30-September 3, 1983), STS-51-G (June 17–24, 1985), STS-32 (January 9–20, 1990), and STS-49 (May 7–16, 1992) -- Brandenstein has logged over 789 hours in space. Following his second space flight, he served as the Deputy Director of Flight Crew Operations. Between April 1987 and September 1992 Brandenstein served as Chief of the Astronaut Office.
He retired from NASA and the United States Navy in October 1992.
Brandenstein was pilot on STS-8, his first flight, which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on August 30,
Jean-Jacques Favier (Born April 13, 1949) is a French engineer and a former CNES astronaut who flew aboard the STS-78 NASA Space Shuttle mission.
Born in Kehl, Germany, he later married Michèle Jean. They have four children. He enjoys downhill skiing, tennis, wind-surfing, and archeology.
Favier was the Advisor to the Director of the Material Science Research Center (CEREM) at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and was detached to CNES. He proposed the MEPHISTO program, a collaborative project between the French Space Agency and NASA, and has developed many other scientific projects in collaboration with the United States since 1985. He was the principal investigator for a MEPHISTO materials processing experiment, which made its debut on the United States Microgravity Payload in 1992 and 1994. He became a CNES payload specialist in 1985. He has been principal investigator of more than ten space experiments in collaboration with ESA, NASA, and the Russian Space Agency.
Favier was assigned as an alternate payload specialist on STS-65/IML-2, the second International Migrogravity Laboratory mission, and supported the mission as a Crew Interface Coordinator (CIC/APS) from the
Naoko Yamazaki (山崎 直子, Yamazaki Naoko, born December 27, 1970) is a former Japanese female astronaut at JAXA, the second Japanese woman to qualify. The first was Chiaki Mukai.
Yamazaki was born Naoko Sumino in Matsudo City. She spent two years of her childhood in Sapporo. After graduating from Ochanomizu University Senior High School in 1989, Yamazaki earned a Bachelor of Science degree major in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Tokyo in 1993, earned a Master of Science degree major in Aerospace Engineering in 1996.
Yamazaki was selected an astronaut candidate in February 1999 by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA, now JAXA), attended the ISS Astronaut Basic Training program beginning in April 1999, and was certified as an astronaut in September 2001. Since 2001, Yamazaki has participated in ISS Advanced Training and supported the development of the hardware and operation of the Japanese Experiment Module. In May 2004, Yamazaki completed Soyuz-TMA Flight Engineer training at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Center in Star City, Russia.
In June 2004, Yamazaki arrived at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas to begin Astronaut Candidate Training
Patrick Pierre Roger Baudry (born March 6, 1946 in Cameroon, then a French colony), is a retired Lieutenant Colonel in the French Air Force and a former CNES astronaut. In 1985, he became the second French citizen in space, after Jean-Loup Chrétien, when he flew aboard NASA's Space Shuttle mission STS-51-G.
Baudry was born in Douala (United Republic of Cameroon) and is married with two children from another union. His hobbies include mechanical sports, such as motorcycling and car racing. He also enjoys running marathons, playing squash, skiing, shooting, windsurfing, and sky diving. Baudry is also a wine connaisseur.
Baudry completed flight training at Salon-de-Provence and Tours, France, receiving his wings in 1970. Served as a fighter pilot in Fighter Squadron 1/11 "Roussillon" on F100 and Jaguar, and completed numerous operational missions in several countries of Africa. He entered the Empire Test Pilots' School at Boscombe Down, England, in 1978, and was awarded the Patuxent Trophy at the completion of the course. He was assigned to the Flight Test Center in Brétigny-sur-Orge, France, in 1979, where he flew various test projects on fighter and attack-type aircraft which
Charles "Pete" Conrad, Jr. (June 2, 1930 – July 8, 1999) was a U.S. Navy officer and NASA astronaut, and during the Apollo 12 mission became the third man to walk on the Moon. He set an eight-day space endurance record along with his command pilot Gordon Cooper on the Gemini 5 mission, and commanded the Gemini 11 mission. After Apollo, he commanded the Skylab 2 mission (the first manned one), on which he and his crewmates repaired significant launch damage to the Skylab space station. For this, President Jimmy Carter awarded him the Congressional Space Medal of Honor in 1978.
Pete Conrad was born on June 2, 1930, in Philadelphia, the third child and the first son of Charles Conrad, Sr., and Frances De Rappelage Vinson Conrad, a well-to-do real estate and banking family. His mother wanted very much to name her newborn son "Peter", but Charles insisted that his first son bear his name. In a compromise between two strong-willed people, the name on his birth certificate read "Charles Conrad, Jr.", but to his mother and virtually all who knew him, he was "Peter". When he was 21, his fiancee's father called him "Pete" and thereafter, Conrad adopted it. For the rest of his life, to
Anatoly Vasilyevich Filipchenko (Russian: Анато́лий Васи́льевич Фили́пченко; born February 26, 1928 in Davydovka, Voronezh Oblast, RSFSR) was a Soviet cosmonaut of Ukrainian descent. He flew on the Soyuz 7 and Soyuz 16 missions.
After leaving the space programme in 1982 Filipchenko became the Deputy Director of the OKB in Kharkiv.
He was awarded:
Edward Higgins White, II (Lt Col, USAF) (November 14, 1930 – January 27, 1967) was an engineer, United States Air Force officer and NASA astronaut. On June 3, 1965, he became the first American to "walk" in space. White died along with fellow astronauts Gus Grissom and Roger Chaffee during a pre-launch test for the first manned Apollo mission at Cape Kennedy. He was awarded the NASA Distinguished Service Medal for his Gemini 4 spaceflight and was posthumously awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor.
White was born in San Antonio, Texas, where he attended school and became a member of the Boy Scouts of America. White's father, Edward H. White, Sr. was a major general in the Air Force. After graduation from high school, he was accepted to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, where in 1952 he earned his Bachelor of Science degree and was commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the U.S. Air Force. White then chose a commission with the U.S. Air Force and attended flight school, a course that takes more than a year. Following graduation from flight school, White was assigned to the 22nd Fighter Day Squadron at Bitburg Air Base, Germany and would spend three and a half years in
Eugene Andrew Cernan (born March 14, 1934) is a retired United States Navy officer and a former NASA astronaut. He has been into space three times: as pilot of Gemini 9A in June 1966; as lunar module pilot of Apollo 10 in May 1969; and as commander of Apollo 17 in December 1972, the final Apollo lunar landing.
On Apollo 17, Cernan became "the last man on the Moon" since he was the last to re-enter the lunar module Challenger during the mission's third and final extra-vehicular activity (EVA). (Crewmate Harrison Schmitt was "the last man to arrive on the Moon", as Cernan left the module first.) Cernan was also a backup crew member for the Gemini 12, Apollo 7 and Apollo 14 space missions.
A native of Chicago, Illinois, son of a Slovak father and a Czech mother, Cernan received his father's name, originally spelled Ondrej Čerňan (IPA: [ˈondrɛj ˈtʃɛrɲan]). He grew up in the towns of Bellwood and Maywood. He graduated from Proviso East High School in Maywood, Illinois. He attended Purdue University, where he became a member of Phi Gamma Delta, and graduated with a B.S. in electrical engineering in 1956. He was commissioned into the U.S. Navy through the Naval Reserve Officers Training
Gregory Bruce Jarvis (August 24, 1944 – January 28, 1986) was an American engineer who died during the destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51-L, where he was serving as Payload Specialist.
Jarvis graduated from Mohawk Central High School, in Mohawk, New York, in 1962. He received a B.S. in electrical engineering from the University at Buffalo (SUNY) in 1967, and a Master's in the same discipline from Northeastern University in 1969. Jarvis joined the United States Air Force the same year and served until 1973, when he was honorably discharged as a Captain. Thereafter he worked for Hughes Aircraft. While working at Hughes, Jarvis completed all of the coursework for a Masters in Science Management at West Coast University in Los Angeles.
While pursuing his masters degree at Northeastern, Jarvis worked at Raytheon in Bedford, Massachusetts, where he was involved in circuit design on the SAM-D missile. In July 1969, he entered active duty in the U.S. Air Force and was assigned to the Space Division in El Segundo, California. As a Communications Payload Engineer, in the Satellite Communications Program Office, he worked on advanced tactical communications
Kenneth Dale "Taco" Cockrell (born 9 April 1950) is an American astronaut and a veteran of five space shuttle missions.
Cockrell was born in Austin, Texas to Buford Dale Cockrell and Jewell Moorman. He earned a bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Texas at Austin in 1972 and received his commission in the United States Navy that same year. He also earned a master's in aeronautical systems from the University of West Florida in 1974. He was trained a pilot and was stationed from 1975 to 1978 aboard the aircraft carrier USS Midway. Cockrell then became a test pilot for several years before serving two tours of duty aboard the USS Constellation. In 1987, Cockrell resigned from the Navy and joined the Aircraft Operations Division of Johnson Space Center as a research pilot.
Selected by NASA in January 1990, Cockrell became an astronaut in July 1991. His technical assignments to date include: duties in the Astronaut Office Operations Development Branch, working on landing, rollout, tires and brakes issues; CAPCOM in Mission Control for ascent and entry; Astronaut Office representative for Flight Data File, the numerous books of procedures carried aboard
Lodewijk van den Berg (born March 24, 1932) is a Dutch American chemical engineer, specializing in crystal growth, who flew on a 1985 Space Shuttle Challenger mission as a Payload Specialist.
He was the first Dutch-born astronaut, a fact that is often ignored in the Netherlands because he was a naturalized American and no longer a Dutch citizen at the time of flight. He is married and has two children. As of 2005, he resides in Florida and works as a chief scientist at the Constellation Technology Corporation.
Van den Berg was born on March 24, 1932, in Sluiskil, Netherlands. Van den Berg was educated in the Netherlands where he attended the Delft University of Technology from 1949 to 1961 and earned his Engineer's degree in chemical engineering. He then moved to the United States to continue studying at the University of Delaware, where he obtained a MSc degree in applied science, followed by a PhD degree in 1974, also in applied science.
After he had completed his doctoral study, he was offered a job at EG&G Corporation Energy Measurements in Goleta, California, to work on crystal growth. EG&G was a defense contractor of the United States government and dealt with sensitive
Mary Louise Cleave (born 5 February 1947) is an American engineer and a former NASA astronaut. She also served from 2004 to 2007 as NASA Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate.
Cleave was born in Southampton, New York as the daughter of Howard Cleave and Barbara Cleave. She grew up in Great Neck, New York, and has an older (Trudy Carter) and a younger sister (Bobbie Cleave). Currently, Cleave resides in Annapolis Maryland, owning several cats and a fox terrier named Abbey family.
In 1965 Cleave graduated from Great Neck North High School, Great Neck, New York In 1969 she received a bachelor of science degree in Biological Sciences from Colorado State University, and in 1975 a master of science in Microbial Ecology from Utah State University. In 1979 she received a doctorate in Civil and Environmental Engineering from Utah State University.
Cleave held graduate research, research phycologist, and research engineer assignments in the Ecology Center and the Utah Water Research Laboratory at Utah State University from September 1971 to June 1980. Her work included research on the productivity of the algal component of cold desert soil crusts in the Great Basin
Peggy Annette Whitson (born February 9, 1960) is an American biochemistry researcher, NASA astronaut, and former NASA Chief Astronaut. Her first space mission was in 2002, with an extended stay aboard the International Space Station as a member of Expedition 5. Her second mission launched October 10, 2007, as the first female commander of the ISS with Expedition 16. With her two long-duration stays abroad the ISS, Whitson is NASA's most experienced female astronaut, with just over 376 days in space. This also places her twentieth among all space flyers.
The flight of Space Shuttle mission STS-120, commanded by female astronaut Pam Melroy, was the first time that two female mission commanders have been in orbit at the same time.
On December 18, 2007, during the fourth spacewalk of Expedition 16 to inspect the S4 starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ), the ground team in Mission Control informed Whitson that she had become the female astronaut with the most cumulative EVA time in NASA history, as well as the most EVAs, with her fifth EVA. Three hours and 37 minutes into the spacewalk, Whitson surpassed NASA astronaut Sunita Williams with a total time at that point of 29 hours and
William Edgar Thornton (M.D.) (born April 14, 1929) is a former NASA Astronaut. Thornton was born in Faison, North Carolina, and is married with two sons to the former Elizabeth Jennifer Fowler of Hertfordshire, England.
Following graduation from the University of North Carolina and having completed Air Force ROTC training, Thornton served as officer-in-charge of the Instrumentation Lab at the Flight Test Air Proving Ground. He later became a consultant to Air Proving Ground Command.
As chief engineer of the electronics division of the Del Mar Engineering Labs at Los Angeles from 1956 to 1959, he also organized and directed its Avionics Division. He returned to the University of North Carolina Medical School in 1959, graduated in 1963, and completed internship training in 1964 at the Wilford Hall USAF Hospital at Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas.
Dr. Thornton returned to active duty with the United States Air Force and was then assigned to the USAF Aerospace Medical Division, Brooks Air Force Base, San Antonio, where he completed the Primary Flight Surgeon’s training in 1964. It was during his two-year tour of duty there that he became involved in space medicine research
Elliot McKay See, Jr. (July 23, 1927 – February 28, 1966), was an American astronaut, selected in the second group of astronauts. He died in 1966 in a NASA trainer jet crash in St. Louis while training for what would have been his first space flight, Gemini 9.
See was born in Dallas, Texas, and attended Highland Park High School. After initially attending The University of Texas where he was a member of Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity, he then attended the United States Merchant Marine Academy, graduating in 1949. He later obtained a masters degree from UCLA. He worked for General Electric before and after serving as a naval aviator from 1953 to 1956. He was married to Marilyn Denahy See, and had three children, Sally, Carolyn, and David.
See served as backup pilot for Gemini 5 and was in line to fly as Prime Crew Pilot for Gemini 8 but was promoted to be the Command Pilot of Gemini 9. According to chief astronaut Deke Slayton's autobiography, Slayton did not assign See to Gemini 8 because he did not consider him physically capable of performing an extra-vehicular activity. Slayton further stated that he assigned See to Gemini 9 because he had become "sentimental" about getting him a
Andrew "Andy" Sydney Withiel Thomas (born 18 December 1951 in Adelaide, South Australia) is an Australian-born American aerospace engineer and a NASA astronaut. He became a U.S. citizen in December 1986, hoping to gain entry to NASA's astronaut program. He is married to fellow NASA astronaut Shannon Walker.
Educated at St Andrews School and St Peter's College, Adelaide before receiving a bachelor of engineering degree in mechanical engineering (with First Class honors) from the University of Adelaide in 1973. He completed a doctorate in the same subject at the University of Adelaide in 1978.
He appears in the 1972 edition of the Adelaide University Engineering Society's annual publication, Hysteresis. The caption below a photograph of the young Thomas reads:
A.S.W. (Syd) Thomas: Hides his massive intellect behind a screen of silence and hair. His abilities are varied and include designing wine labels for the A.U.E.S.
— Hysteresis 1972, pg 27
He is the great, great grandson of Frederick George Waterhouse, first curator of the South Australian Institute Museum, and naturalist of the John McDouall Stuart Expedition 1861-1862.
As a child, Thomas was fascinated by space. His father has
Catherine Grace "Cady" Coleman (born December 14, 1960) is an American chemist, a former United States Air Force officer, and a current NASA astronaut. She is a veteran of two Space Shuttle missions, and departed the International Space Station on May 23, 2011, as a crew member of Expedition 27 after logging 159 days in space.
Coleman graduated from Wilbert Tucker Woodson High School, Fairfax, Virginia, in 1978; in 1978–1979 she was an exchange student at Røyken upper secondary school in Norway with the AFS Intercultural Programs. She received a bachelor of science degree in chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1983, and a doctorate in polymer science and engineering from the University of Massachusetts Amherst in 1991 as a member of the Air Force ROTC. She was a member of the intercollegiate crew and was a resident of Baker House.
After completing her regular education, Coleman joined the U.S. Air Force as a Second Lieutenant while continuing her graduate work for a Ph.D. at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1988 she entered active duty at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base as a research chemist. During her work she participated as a surface analysis
Frank, Viscount De Winne (born 25 April 1961 in Ledeberg, Belgium) is a Belgian Air Component officer and an ESA astronaut. He is Belgium's second person in space (after Dirk Frimout). He was the first ESA astronaut to command a space mission when he served as commander of ISS Expedition 21. ESA astronaut de Winne serves currently as Head of the European Astronaut Centre of the European Space Agency in Cologne/Germany (Köln).
De Winne graduated in 1979 from the Royal School of Cadets. In 1984, he graduated from the Royal Military Academy with the degree of Master of Sciences in Engineering (Polytechnics).
De Winne followed the elementary flying school of the Belgian Air Component at Goetsenhoven. After graduating he flew Dassault Mirage 5 airplanes for the Air Force until he was attached to SAGEM in Paris to work on the safety of the Mirage. In 1991, De Winne completed the Staff Course at the Defence College in Brussels with the highest distinction. In 1992, De Winne received his degree as test pilot from the British Empire Test Pilots' School in Boscombe Down, receiving the McKenna Trophy as well.
From December 1992, Major of Royal Belgian Air Component De Winne operated as a test
Ilan Ramon (June 20, 1954 – February 1, 2003; Hebrew: אילן רמון, born Ilan Wolferman) was an Israeli fighter pilot in the Israeli Air Force, and later the first Israeli astronaut.
Ramon was the space shuttle payload specialist of STS-107, the fatal mission of Columbia, in which he and six other crew members were killed in the re-entry accident. Ramon is the only foreign recipient of the United States Congressional Space Medal of Honor.
Ramon was born in Ramat Gan, Israel, to Tonya (1929-2003) and Eliezer Wolferman (1923-2006). He grew up in Beersheba. His father was from Germany, and his family fled Nazi persecution in 1935. His mother and grandmother were from Poland, and were Holocaust survivors, having been in Auschwitz. They immigrated to Israel in 1949. His first name, Ilan, means "tree" in Hebrew. Ilan changed his last name from Wolferman when he joined the IAF just as many other Israeli aviators.
Ramon graduated from high school in 1972. In 1987, he graduated with a B.Sc. degree in electronics and computer engineering from Tel Aviv University.
Ilan Ramon was a Colonel (Aluf Mishne) and fighter pilot in the Israeli Air Force, with thousands of hours flying experience. In
James Craig Adamson (born March 3, 1946) is a former NASA astronaut and retired Colonel of the United States Army. He is married with 3 children. James Adamson flew on two missions, STS-28 and STS-43, and completed 263 orbits and 334 hours in space. After retiring from NASA, he was recruited by Allied Signal (later merged with Honeywell) where he retired in 2001. Adamson has logged over 3,000 hours in over 30 different types of helicopters and airplanes.
Adamson was born in Warsaw, New York. He currently resides in Fishersville, Virginia with his wife Ellen and two of his three children.
Adamson completed his Bachelor of Science in Engineering and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the U.S. Army at United States Military Academy at West Point, New York in 1969. In 1977, he completed a Master of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering at Princeton University. In 2010, he completed his Chartered Director certification, graduating from The Directors College, (a joint venture between McMaster University and the Conference Board of Canada. Additionally he has completed undergraduate and graduate pilot training, paratrooper training, Arctic water and mountain survival training,
Jeffrey Nels Williams (born January 18, 1958) is a retired United States Army officer and a NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of three space flights.
Williams was born in Superior, Wisconsin, and raised in Winter, Wisconsin. As a child, Williams was a Star Scout in the Boy Scouts of America. During the Jamboree on the Air in October 2009 he communicated with Boy Scouts in the National Scouting Museum in Texas from the International Space Station. Williams graduated from Winter High School in Winter, Wisconsin, in 1976. He earned an engineering degree from the U.S. Military Academy in 1980, receiving his commission in the United States Army. Williams served with the Army at Johnson Space Center from 1987 to 1992 before training as a test pilot. In 1996, he was selected by NASA as an astronaut candidate and flew as a mission specialist and flight engineer aboard STS-101 in 2000.
In July 2002, Williams served as the commander of the NEEMO 3 mission aboard the Aquarius underwater laboratory, living and working underwater for six days.
During his six-month stint at the International Space Station in 2006, Williams orbited the Earth more than 2,800 times. During Expedition 13, he worked on
James Donald "Wxb" Wetherbee (born November 27, 1952) is an American naval officer and a former NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of six Space Shuttle missions and is the only American to have commanded five spaceflight missions.
Wetherbee was raised in Huntington Station, New York. He earned a bachelor's degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Notre Dame before receiving his commission in the United States Navy. A test pilot, Wetherbee worked extensively on the F/A-18 aircraft before being selected as an astronaut candidate in 1984. He piloted mission STS-32 in 1990 and commanded missions STS-52 (1992), STS-63 (1995), STS-86 (1997), STS-102 (2001), and STS-113 (2002). The final three missions were dockings with Mir and the International Space Station; STS-113 was the last Space Shuttle mission before the Columbia disaster.
Wetherbee retired from NASA in January 2005 and currently works for BP.
Wetherbee is married and has two children.
In 2009, Wetherbee was inducted into the United States Astronaut Hall of Fame.
Andrew Michael "Andy" Allen (born 4 August 1955) is a retired American astronaut. A former Marine aviator and Lieutenant Colonel, he worked as a test pilot before joining NASA in 1987. He flew three Space Shuttle missions before retiring in 1997.
Andrew Michael Allen was born on 4 August 1955 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He graduated from Archbishop Wood Catholic High School in 1973 and was interviewed in 2003 for the school's newspaper, The Viking Voice. He then graduated from Villanova University. The crux of the interview is Mr. Allen's history with NASA and the future of the agency in regard to the then-recent Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. That interview can be found online here. In 2004 he received his Masters degree in Business Administration from the University of Florida.
Allen received his commission in the United States Marine Corps at Villanova University in 1977. At Villanova he was initiated into the Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity. Following graduation from flight school, he flew F-4 Phantoms from 1980 to 1983 with squadron VMFA-312 at Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina, and was assigned as Aircraft Maintenance Officer. He was selected by Headquarters
Dale Allan Gardner (born November 8, 1948, in Fairmont, Minnesota) is a former NASA astronaut who flew two missions for NASA in the early 1980s.
Gardner was selected as an Astronaut Candidate by NASA in January 1978, reporting to the Johnson Space Center in July 1978. In August 1979 he completed a one year training and evaluation period, making him eligible for assignment as a Mission Specialist Astronaut. He subsequently served as the Astronaut Project Manager for the flight software in the Space Shuttle onboard computers leading up to the first flight in April 1981. He then served as a Support Crew Astronaut for the fourth flight (STS-4). He flew as a mission specialist on STS-8 (August 30 to September 5, 1983) and STS-51-A (November 8–16, 1984). Gardner logged a total of 337 hours in space and 225 orbits of the Earth on these two flights. He has logged more than 2,300 hours flying time in over 20 different types of aircraft and spacecraft. Prior to the Challenger accident, Gardner was chosen to be a member of the first Shuttle mission to launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. That flight and the Vandenberg launch capability itself were canceled after the accident.
David Randolph Scott (born June 6, 1932) is an engineer; an American test pilot; a retired U.S. Air Force officer; and a former NASA astronaut, who was one of the third group of astronauts, selected by NASA in October 1963. As an astronaut, Scott became the seventh person to walk on the Moon.
Before becoming an astronaut, Scott graduated from the West Point Military Academy and joined the United States Air Force. Scott retired from the Air Force in 1975 with the rank of Colonel, and more than 5600 hours of logged flying time.
As an astronaut, Scott made his first flight into space as pilot of the Gemini 8 mission, along with Neil Armstrong, in March 1966, spending just under eleven hours in Low Earth orbit. Scott then spent ten days in orbit as Command Module Pilot aboard Apollo 9, his second spaceflight, along with Commander James McDivitt and Lunar Module Pilot Rusty Schweickart. During this mission, Scott became the last American to fly solo in Earth orbit (not counting subsequent untethered EVAs). Scott made his third and final flight into space as commander of the Apollo 15 mission, the fourth human lunar landing, becoming the seventh person to walk on the Moon and the first
Dennis Anthony Tito (born August 8, 1940, in Queens, New York) is an Italian American engineer and multimillionaire, most widely known as the first space tourist to fund his own trip into space. In mid-2001, he spent nearly eight days in orbit as a crew member of ISS EP-1, a visiting mission to the International Space Station. This mission was launched by the spacecraft Soyuz TM-32, and was landed by Soyuz TM-31.
Tito graduated from Forest Hills High School in New York City. He holds a Bachelor of Science in Astronautics and Aeronautics from New York University, 1962 and a Master of Science in Engineering Science from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute satellite campus in Hartford, Connecticut. He is a member of Psi Upsilon and received an honorary doctorate of engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute on 18 May 2002 and is a former scientist of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
In 1972, he founded Wilshire Associates, a leading provider of investment management, consulting and technology services in Santa Monica, California. Tito serves an international clientele representing assets of $12.5 trillion. Wilshire relies on the field of quantitative analytics, which uses
John Watts Young (born September 24, 1930) is a retired American astronaut, Naval officer, test pilot and aeronautical engineer, who became the ninth person to walk on the Moon as commander of the Apollo 16 mission in 1972.
Young enjoyed the longest career of any astronaut, making six spaceflights over the course of 42 years of active NASA service, becoming the first person to make six spaceflights; and is the only person to have piloted four different classes of spacecraft: Gemini, the Apollo Command/Service Module, the Apollo Lunar Module, and the Space Shuttle.
In 1965 Young flew on the first manned Gemini mission, and in 1969 was the first person to orbit the moon alone during Apollo 10. He is one of only three persons who twice journeyed to the Moon, and drove the Lunar Roving Vehicle on the Moon's surface. He also commanded two Space Shuttle flights, including its first in 1981; and served as Chief of the Astronaut Office from 1974–1987. Young retired from NASA in 2004.
Born in San Francisco, California, and raised in the College Park neighborhood of Orlando, Florida. Young earned a bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering with highest honors from the Georgia
William Cameron "Willie" McCool (September 23, 1961 – February 1, 2003) was a United States Navy Commander, NASA astronaut and the pilot of Space Shuttle Columbia mission STS-107. He was killed, along with all others, when their spacecraft disintegrated during re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere.
McCool was born September 23, 1961, in San Diego, California, and died on February 1, 2003, over the southern United States when Space Shuttle Columbia broke up during entry, 16 minutes prior to scheduled landing. He was survived by his wife and children. He enjoyed running, mountain biking, back country hiking/camping, swimming, playing guitar, and chess, and had a home in Anacortes, Washington, at the time of his death.
His favorite song was "Imagine" by John Lennon, which was played during the space mission. His favorite band was Radiohead, and the song "Fake Plastic Trees" was played by mission control as a wake-up call. McCool is buried at the United States Naval Academy Cemetery.
McCool completed flight training and was designated a Naval Aviator in August 1986. He was assigned to Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 129 (VAQ-129) at NAS Whidbey Island, Washington, for initial EA-6B
Stephen Kern Robinson is a former NASA astronaut. He was born October 26, 1955, in Sacramento, California.
He enjoys flying, antique aircraft, swimming, canoeing, hiking, music, art, and stereo photography. He plays lead guitar in Max Q, a rock and roll band. His Canadian parents, William, a land surveyor, and Joyce Robinson, reside in Moraga, California.
He was active in the Boy Scouts of America where he achieved its second highest rank, Life Scout. Robinson graduated from Campolindo High School, Moraga, California, in 1973, and obtained a Bachelor of Science degree in mechanical and aeronautical engineering from the University of California, Davis in 1978, a Master of Science degree in mechanical engineering from Stanford University in 1985; and a doctorate in mechanical engineering, with a minor in aeronautics and astronautics from Stanford University in 1990.
Robinson is a member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the Aerospace Medical Association, and the Experimental Aircraft Association.
He was awarded the NASA Ames Honor Award for Scientists in 1989, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Outstanding Technical paper Award for Applied
Valery Fyodorovich Bykovsky (Russian: Валерий Фёдорович Быковский; born 2 August 1934, Pavlovsky Posad) is a retired Soviet cosmonaut who flew three manned space mission space flights: Vostok 5, Soyuz 22, and Soyuz 31. He was also backup for Vostok 3 and Soyuz 37.
Bykovsky set a space endurance record when he spent five days in orbit aboard Vostok 5 in 1963. Although this flight duration has long since been surpassed by crews of more than one person, to this day it remains the endurance record for a solo spaceflight.
Bykovsky was to have commanded the original Soyuz 2 mission, which was cancelled due to problems with Soyuz 1. After the parachutes failed on that mission, killing Vladimir Komarov, the same problem was found with the Soyuz 2 capsule, which meant if the mission had flown, Bykovsky and his crew would also have been killed.
Many of his later years in the space programme were involved with promoting the Intercosmos programme amongst the world's Socialist nations. He retired in 1988 and then spent three years as the Director of the House of Soviet Science and Culture in Berlin.
Bykovsky was also a keen sportsman:
Valery Bykovsky was awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union
Brian Duffy (born June 20, 1953, Boston, Massachusetts) is a retired U.S. Air Force colonel and a former NASA astronaut. He flew aboard four Space Shuttle missions.
Married to the former Janet M. Helms of West Lafayette, Indiana. They have two children. He enjoys golf, running, and reading. His mother, Mrs. Anne C. Duffy, resides in Hingham, Massachusetts. His father, Mr. Daniel E. Duffy, is deceased. Her father, John J. Helms, resides in Ft. Myers, Florida. Her mother, Mary Helms, is deceased.
Duffy graduated from the USAF Academy in 1975. He completed Undergraduate Pilot Training at Columbus Air Force Base, Mississippi, in 1976, and was selected to fly the F-15. He was stationed at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia, until 1979.
At the end of 1979 he transferred to Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan. He flew F-15’s there until 1982 when he was selected to attend the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School. Following graduation, he served as the Director of F-15 Tests at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida.
He has logged over 5,000 hours of flight time in more than 25 different aircraft.
Selected by NASA in June 1985, Duffy became an astronaut in July 1986. He participated in the development and
Francis Richard "Dick" Scobee (May 19, 1939 - January 28, 1986) was an American astronaut. He was killed commanding the Space Shuttle Challenger, which suffered catastrophic booster failure during launch of the STS-51-L mission.
Born in Cle Elum, Washington to Francis William Scobee and Edlynn (Miller) Scobee, Scobee attended Auburn Senior High School, Cascade Middle School, and Washington Elementary in Auburn, Washington. He graduated in 1957.
He enlisted in the United States Air Force in 1957, where he served as a reciprocating engine mechanic at Kelly Air Force Base in Texas. While off duty, he attended San Antonio College, and eventually received a Bachelor of Science degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Arizona in 1965; the same year, he was awarded an officer's commission. Afterward, he attended flight school and earned his wings in 1966, serving as a combat aviator in the Vietnam War. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Air Medal, and other decorations.
After his tour of duty, Scobee attended the Aerospace Research Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, 100 miles north of Los Angeles, California. Upon graduation in 1972, he became an Air
Michael Phillip Anderson (December 25, 1959 – February 1, 2003) was a United States Air Force officer and NASA astronaut, who was killed in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster when the craft disintegrated after reentry into the Earth's atmosphere.
Anderson was born in Plattsburgh, New York, into an Air Force family and grew up as a military brat. He attended high school in Cheney, Washington, while his father was stationed at Fairchild Air Force Base, west of Spokane.
Anderson graduated from the University of Washington in 1981 and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the U.S. Air Force. After completing a year of technical training at Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi, he was assigned to Randolph Air Force Base, Texas. At Randolph he served as Chief of Communication Maintenance for the 2015th Communication Squadron and later as Director of Information System Maintenance for the 1920th Information System Group.
In 1986 he was selected to attend Undergraduate Pilot Training at Vance Air Force Base, Oklahoma. Upon graduation he was assigned to the 2d Airborne Command and Control Squadron, Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska as an EC-135 pilot, flying the Strategic Air Command's
Nancy Jane Sherlock Currie is an engineer, United States Army officer and a NASA astronaut.
Currie was born December 29, 1958, in Wilmington, Delaware, but considers Troy, Ohio, to be her hometown. She graduated from Troy High School in Troy, Ohio, in 1977, then received a Bachelor of Arts degree, with honors, in biological science from Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, in 1980, a Master of Science degree in safety engineering from the University of Southern California in 1985, and a Doctorate in industrial engineering from the University of Houston in 1997.
Currie is a member of Army Aviation Association of America, Phi Kappa Phi, Ohio State University and ROTC Alumni Associations, Institute of Industrial Engineers, and Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Currie has served in the United States Army for over 22 years. Prior to her assignment at NASA in 1987, she attended initial rotary-wing pilot training and was subsequently assigned as an instructor pilot at the U.S. Army Aviation School. She has served in a variety of leadership positions including section leader, platoon leader, and brigade flight-standardization officer. As a Master Army Aviator she has logged over
Pamela Anne Melroy (born 17 September 1961) is a retired United States Air Force officer and a former NASA astronaut. She served as pilot on Space Shuttle missions STS-92 and STS-112 and commanded mission STS-120. Melroy left the agency in August 2009 and currently serves as Deputy Program Manager, Space Exploration Initiatives, Lockheed Martin.
Melroy graduated from Bishop Kearney High School in 1979. Melroy received a bachelor's degree in physics and astronomy from Wellesley College in 1983. She then earned a master's degree in earth and planetary sciences from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1984. On May 18, 2008 Melroy received an honorary degree from Iona College in New Rochelle, NY.
Melroy was commissioned through the Air Force ROTC program in 1983. After completing a master’s degree, she attended Undergraduate Pilot Training at Reese Air Force Base in Lubbock, Texas and was graduated in 1985. She flew the KC-10 for six years at Barksdale Air Force Base in Bossier City, Louisiana, as a copilot, aircraft commander and instructor pilot. Melroy is a veteran of Operation Just Cause and Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm, with over 200 combat and combat support
Robert Henry Lawrence, Jr. (October 2, 1935 - December 8, 1967) was a United States Air Force officer and the first African-American astronaut.
At the age of 16, he graduated in the top 10 percent from Englewood High School in Chicago. At the age of 20, he graduated from Bradley University with a Bachelor's Degree in Chemistry. At Bradley, he distinguished himself as Cadet Commander in the Air Force ROTC and received the commission of Second Lieutenant in the Air Force Reserve Program.
At the age of 21 he was designated as a U.S. Air Force pilot after completing flight training at Malden Air Force Base.
At 22, he married Barbara Cress, daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Henry Cress of Chicago. By the time he was 25, he had completed an Air Force assignment as an instructor pilot in the T-33 training aircraft for the German Air Force.
In 1965, Lawrence earned a Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from the Ohio State University.
He was a senior USAF pilot, accumulating well over 2,500 flight hours—2,000 of which were in jets. Lawrence flew many tests in the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter to investigate the gliding flight of various unpowered spacecraft returning to Earth from orbit, such as the North
Roy Dubard Bridges, Jr. (born July 19, 1943, in Atlanta, Georgia) is an American aviator, retired United States Air Force officer, former NASA astronaut and the former director of NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center and Langley Research Center.
Bridges served as a NASA astronaut, piloting the Space Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51-F (July 29 to August 6, 1985).
Bridges became the Director of NASA's Langley Research Center in 2003, after serving as Director of the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). He retired from Langley and from NASA at the end of 2005. As the senior management official of the laboratory employing approximately 2,100 NASA civil service and 1,800 contractor personnel, Bridges was responsible for the Center’s aeronautical and space research programs, as well as facilities, personnel, and administration. In that capacity, he was responsible for managing facilities and activities related to the processing and launch of the Space Shuttle, processing and integration of Shuttle payloads and those aboard Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs), as well as final tests and preparation of elements delivered to the International Space Station via Shuttle. He was also
Talgat Amangeldyuly Musabayev (Kazakh: Талғат Аманкелдіұлы Мұсабаев; born January 7, 1951, Kargaly, Kazakhstan), is a Kazakh test pilot and former cosmonaut who flew on three spaceflights. His first two spaceflights were long-duration stays aboard the Russian space station Mir. His third spaceflight was a short duration visiting mission to the International Space Station, which also carried the first paying space tourist Dennis Tito. He retired as a cosmonaut in November 2003. Since 2007 he has been head of Kazakhstan's National Space Agency, KazCosmos.
Musabayev graduated from Engineering Institute of Civil Aviation in Riga in 1974. Then in 1983 he graduated from Higher Military Aviation School in Akhtubinsk, with a engineering diploma. Musabayev received several awards as an aerobatic flyer and was selected as a cosmonaut on May 11, 1990. In 1991, he was appointed to Major and transferred to the cosmonaut group of Air Force (TsPK-11).
Musabayev was selected to be a cosmonaut on 11 May 1990.
His first spaceflight was as a crew member of the long-duration mission Mir EO-16, which was launched and landed by the spacecraft Soyuz TM-19. Musabayev was designated Flight Engineer; the
Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko (Russian: Юрий Иванович Маленченко; born December 22, 1961) is a Ukrainian-Russian cosmonaut. Malenchenko became the first person to marry in space, on 10 August 2003, when he married Ekaterina Dmitrieva, who was in Texas, while he was 240 miles over New Zealand, on the International Space Station. As of March 2011, Malenchenko ranks tenth for career time in space due to his time on both Mir and the International Space Station (ISS).
Malenchenko was born in Khrushchev, Kirovohrad Oblast, Ukrainian SSR. He and his wife Ekaterina Dmitrieva have one child.
Malenchenko graduated from the Kharkov Military Aviation School in 1983, and attended the Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy, graduating in 1993.
Malenchenko was awarded:
After graduation from the Military Aviation School, he served as a pilot, senior pilot and multi-ship flight lead from 1983 till 1987 in the Odessa Region. In 1987 he was selected as a cosmonaut, and arrived at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. From December 1987 to June 1989 Malenchenko underwent a course of general space training. After completion of the course, he was qualified as a test-cosmonaut. Between September 1989 to
Dafydd Rhys "Dave" Williams (born May 16, 1954) is a Canadian physician and a retired CSA astronaut. He had two spaceflights, both of which were Space Shuttle missions. His first spaceflight, STS-90 in 1998, was a 16-day mission aboard Space Shuttle Columbia dedicated to neuroscience research. His second flight, STS-118 in August 2007, was flown by Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station. During that mission he performed three spacewalks, becoming the third Canadian to perform a spacewalk and setting a Canadian record for total number of spacewalks. These spacewalks combined for a total duration of 17 hours and 47 minutes.
In 1998, Williams became the first non-American to hold a senior management position within NASA, when he held the position of Director of the Space and Life Sciences Directorate at the Johnson Space Center.
He attended high school in arber Beaconsfield, Quebec and earned a B.Sc in from McGill University, Montreal, in 1976, a master of science degree in physiology, MD, and master of surgery degrees from McGill University, Montreal, in 1983. He completed a residency in family practice in the faculty of medicine, University of Ottawa, in 1985 and
David Mathieson Walker (May 20, 1944 - April 23, 2001), was a United States Navy officer and a NASA astronaut. He flew aboard four Space Shuttle missions in the 1980s and 1990s.
Born May 20, 1944, in Columbus, Georgia. Died on April 23, 2001 following a sudden and brief illness, Walker was 56 years old and was being treated at University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas. His wife, the former Paige Lucas, and two adult sons from a previous marriage, Michael and Mathieson, survive him. He was interred at Arlington National Cemetery on May 24, 2001.
Walker graduated from the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland and subsequently received flight training from the Naval Air Training Command at bases in Florida, Mississippi, and Texas. He was designated a Naval Aviator in December 1967 and proceeded to Naval Air Station Miramar, California, for assignment to F-4 Phantoms aboard the aircraft carriers USS Enterprise and USS America. From December 1970 to 1971, he attended the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California, and was subsequently assigned in January 1972 as an experimental and engineering test pilot in the flight test
John Elmer Blaha (born August 26, 1942, in San Antonio, Texas) is a retired United States Air Force Colonel and a former NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of six Space Shuttle missions and a stay on the Mir space station.
Married to the former Brenda I. Walters of St. Louis, Missouri, they have three grown children and two grandchildren.
Blaha graduated from Granby High School in Norfolk, Virginia, in 1960; received a bachelor of science in engineering science from the United States Air Force Academy in 1965 and a master of science in astronautical engineering from Purdue University in 1966.
Blaha received his pilot wings at Williams Air Force Base, Arizona, in 1967. He was subsequently assigned as an operational pilot flying F-4, F-102, F-106, and A-37 aircraft (completing 361 combat missions in Vietnam). He attended the USAF Aerospace Research Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California, in 1971, and piloted the NF-104 research aircraft to 104,400 feet. Following graduation, he served as an F-104 instructor pilot at the test pilot school, teaching low lift-to-drag approach, zoom, performance, stability/control, and spin flight test techniques. In 1973, he was assigned as a
Mae Carol Jemison (born October 17, 1956) is an American physician and NASA astronaut. She became the first black woman to travel in space when she went into orbit aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on September 12, 1992. After her medical education and a brief general practice, Jemison served in the Peace Corps from 1985 to 1987. She resigned from NASA in 1993 to form a company researching the application of technology to daily life. She has appeared on television several times, including as an actor in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation. She is a dancer, and holds nine honorary doctorates in science, engineering, letters, and the humanities.
Mae Carol Jemison was born in ], the youngest child of Charlie Jemison and Dorothy Green. Her father was a maintenance supervisor for a charity organization, and her mother worked most of her career as an elementary school teacher of English and math at the Beethoven School in Chicago. The family moved to Chicago, Illinois, when Jemison was three years old, to take advantage of better educational opportunities there. Jemison says that as a young girl growing up in Chicago she always assumed she would get into space. "I thought, by
Colin Michael Foale, CBE, PhD (born 6 January 1957) is a British-American astrophysicist with dual citizenship and a NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of six space shuttle missions and extended stays on both Mir and the International Space Station. He was the first Briton to perform a space walk, and until 17 April 2008, he held the record for most time spent in space by a US citizen: 374 days, 11 hours, 19 minutes. He still holds the cumulative-time-in-space record for a UK citizen.
Born in Louth, England (where Michael Foale Lane is named after him), to English father Colin and American mother Mary, he was raised in Cambridge and educated at The King's School, Canterbury. A member of the Air Training Corps, he studied at Queens' College, Cambridge, (with Stephen Fry who when he told him he was going to space mocked him) receiving a doctorate in laboratory astrophysics in 1982. When he left university he: "owned two pairs of jeans, a donkey jacket, a bicycle and a pilot’s licence; which shows I had my priorities absolutely right.”
Foale joined the mission operations directorate of NASA in Houston in 1983 aged 26, working on the shuttle's navigation system. Born with dual-UK/US
Robert Franklyn Overmyer (July 14, 1936 - March 22, 1996) was an American test pilot, Colonel in the United States Marine Corps and NASA astronaut. He was born in Lorain, Ohio, but considered Westlake, Ohio his hometown.
Overmyer graduated from Westlake High School, Westlake, Ohio, in 1954. He received a bachelor of science degree in physics from Baldwin Wallace College in 1958 and a master of science degree in Aeronautics with a major in Aeronautical Engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School in 1964.
Overmyer entered active duty with the Marine Corps in January 1958. After completing Navy flight training in Kingsville, Texas, he was assigned to VMA-214 in November 1959. Overmyer was assigned to the Naval Postgraduate School in 1962 to study aeronautical engineering. Upon completion of his graduate studies, he served one year with Marine Maintenance Squadron 17 at MCAS Iwakuni, Japan. He was then assigned to the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Colonel Overmyer was chosen as an astronaut for the Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) Program in 1966. Colonel Overmyer logged over 7,500 flight hours, with over 6,000 in jet aircraft.
Robert Joseph Cenker is an engineer and aerospace systems consultant who flew aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-61-C as Payload Specialist for RCA.
Born November 5, 1948 and raised near Uniontown, Pennsylvania. Married to Barbara Ann (Cosentino) Cenker. They have two sons named Daniel and Brian and one daughter named Laura.
Cenker currently consults with various firms in the areas of spacecraft design, assembly, and flight operations, and micro-gravity research. This has included launch vehicle evaluation and systems engineering support for Motorola on Iridium; avionics architecture, generation of performance specification, and generation of performance map for small expendable launch vehicle; and constellation configuration and launch vehicle performance definition for proprietary smallsat communications system. Last two years with RCA were spent as Manager of Payload Accommodations on EOS Platform. Prior assignments at RCA included Integration and Test Manager for the Satcom D & E spacecraft, responsible for implementation of all launch site activities, and Spacecraft Bus Manager on the Spacenet/Gstar programs, responsible for satisfaction of multiple launch vehicle interfaces
Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr. (November 18, 1923 – July 21, 1998) was an American naval aviator, test pilot, flag officer, NASA astronaut, and businessman, who in 1961 became the second person, and the first American, to travel into space. This Mercury flight was designed to enter space, but not to achieve orbit. Ten years later, at age 47 the oldest astronaut in the program, Shepard commanded the Apollo 14 mission, piloting the lander to the most accurate landing of the Apollo missions. He became the fifth person to walk on the Moon, and the only astronaut of the Mercury Seven to walk on the Moon. During the mission he hit two golf balls on the lunar surface.
These were his only two space flights, as his flight status was interrupted for five years (1964–69) during the Mercury and Gemini programs by Ménière's disease, an inner-ear disease that was surgically corrected before his Moon flight. Shepard served as Chief of the Astronaut Office from November 1963 – July 1969 (approximately the period of his grounding), and from June 1971 – August 1, 1974 (from his last flight, to his retirement). He was promoted from Captain to Rear Admiral (lower half) on August 25, 1971. He retired from
Edwin Eugene "Buzz" Aldrin, Jr. (born January 20, 1930) is a retired American astronaut who was the lunar module pilot on Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing in history. On July 20, 1969, he was the second human being to set foot on the Moon, following mission commander Neil Armstrong. He is also a retired United States Air Force pilot.
Aldrin was born in Glen Ridge, New Jersey, to Edwin Eugene Aldrin, Sr., a career military man, and his wife Marion (née Moon). He is of Scottish, Swedish, and German ancestry. After graduating from Montclair High School in 1946, Aldrin turned down a full scholarship offer from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and went to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. The nickname "Buzz" originated in childhood: the younger of his two elder sisters mispronounced "brother" as "buzzer", and this was shortened to Buzz. Aldrin made it his legal first name in 1988.
Aldrin graduated third in his class at West Point in 1951, with a bachelor of science degree in mechanical engineering. He was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the U.S. Air Force and served as a jet fighter pilot during the Korean War. He flew 66 combat
Claude Nicollier (born 2 September 1944 in Vevey, Switzerland) is the first astronaut from Switzerland, and has flown on four Space Shuttle missions. His first spaceflight (STS-46) was in 1992, and his final spaceflight (STS-103) was in 1999. He took part in two servicing missions to the Hubble Space Telescope (called STS-61 and STS-103). During his final spaceflight he participated in a spacewalk, becoming the first European Space Agency astronaut to do so during a Space Shuttle mission (previous ESA astronauts conducted spacewalks aboard Mir, see List of spacewalks and moonwalks 1965–1999). In 2000 he was assigned to the Astronaut Office Extravehicular Activity Branch, while maintaining a position as Lead ESA astronaut in Houston. Nicollier retired from ESA in April 2007.
He was appointed full professor of Spatial Technology at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne on 28 March 2007.
After graduating from the Gymnase de Lausanne (high school) in Lausanne in 1962, he studied physics at the University of Lausanne and received a bachelor of science in 1970. He then worked as a graduate scientist from 1970 to 1973 at the Institute of Astronomy at the University and at the
Nancy Jan Davis (born November 1, 1953 as Nancy Jan Smotherman, later assuming the name of her stepfather (Davis)) is a former American astronaut. A veteran of three space flights, Dr. Davis has logged over 673 hours in space. Dr. Davis is now retired from NASA.
She was born in Cocoa Beach, Florida, but considers Huntsville, Alabama, to be her hometown. The former spouse of astronaut Mark C. Lee, she is currently married to Judge Schuyler Richardson.
She graduated from Huntsville High School in 1971, received a bachelor of science degree in applied biology from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1975 and another in mechanical engineering from Auburn University in 1977. She received a master of science degree in 1983 and a doctorate in 1985, both in mechanical engineering at the University of Alabama in Huntsville.
She is a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and a member of Tau Beta Pi, Omicron Delta Kappa, Pi Tau Sigma, and Sigma Gamma Tau honoraries, and the Alpha Xi Delta Women's Fraternity.
She has been awarded the NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal in 1998, the NASA Exceptional Service Medal in 1995 and 2002, and the NASA Space Flight Medal in 1992, 1994,
Ronald Ervin McNair, Ph.D. (October 21, 1950 – January 28, 1986) was a physicist and NASA astronaut. McNair died during the launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51-L.
Born in Lake City, South Carolina. He was raised by his parents, Pearl M. and Carl C. McNair, and had two brothers, Carl S. and Eric A. McNair. McNair graduated as valedictorian of Carver High School in 1967. He was a member of the United Methodist faith committee.
In 1971 he received a bachelor's degree in engineering physics, magna cum laude, from North Carolina A&T State University in Greensboro, North Carolina. McNair was a member of Omega Psi Phi Fraternity. In 1976, he received his Ph.D. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under guidance of Prof. Michael Feld becoming nationally recognized for his work in the field of laser physics. He received three honorary doctorates, a score of fellowships and commendations and achieved a black belt in karate. After graduation from MIT, he became a staff physicist at the Hughes Research Lab in Malibu, California.
In 1978, McNair was selected as one of thirty-five applicants from a pool of ten thousand for the NASA astronaut program. He
Valeri Nikolayevich Kubasov (Russian: Валерий Николаевич Кубасов; born 7 January 1935 in Vyazniki) is a former Soviet cosmonaut who flew on two missions in the Soyuz programme as a flight engineer: Soyuz 6 and Soyuz 19 (the Apollo-Soyuz mission), and commanded Soyuz 36 in the Intercosmos programme. On 21 July 1975, the Soyuz 7K-TM module used for ASTP landed in Kazakhstan at 5:51 p.m. and Kubasov was the first to exit the craft.
He was also involved in the development of the Mir space station. He retired from the Soviet space program in March 1993. He was later deputy director of RKK Energia.
Kubasov seems to have cheated death twice during his space career. He was part of the crew that was originally intended to fly Soyuz 2, which was found to have the same faulty parachute sensor that resulted in Vladimir Komarov's death on Soyuz 1 and was later launched without a crew. Later, he was grounded for medical reasons before the Soyuz 11 flight, which killed the crew when the capsule was accidentally depressurised by a faulty valve.
He was awarded:
Gerald Paul Carr (born August 22, 1932) is a retired Colonel in the United States Marine Corps and former NASA astronaut. He was commander of Skylab 4, the third and final manned visit to the Skylab Orbital Workshop, from November 16, 1973 to February 8, 1974.
Carr was born in Denver, Colorado on August 22, 1932, but was raised in Santa Ana, California, which he considers his home town. He graduated from Santa Ana High School in Santa Ana; received a bachelor of engineering degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Southern California in 1954, a bachelor of science in aeronautical engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in 1961, and a master of science degree in aeronautical engineering from Princeton University in 1962.
Carr began his military career in 1949 with the U.S. Navy, and in 1950 he was appointed a midshipman with the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC) detachment at the University of Southern California. Upon graduation in 1954, he received his commission in the U.S. Marine Corps and subsequently reported to The Basic School at Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia. He received flight training at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida,
Virgil Ivan Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967), (Lt Col, USAF), better known as Gus Grissom, was one of the original NASA Project Mercury astronauts and a United States Air Force pilot. He was the second American to fly in space, and the first member of the NASA Astronaut Corps to fly in space twice.
Grissom was killed along with fellow astronauts Ed White and Roger Chaffee during a pre-launch test for the Apollo 1 mission at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (then known as Cape Kennedy), Florida. He was the first of the Mercury Seven to die. He was also a recipient of the Distinguished Flying Cross and, posthumously, the Congressional Space Medal of Honor.
Grissom was born in Mitchell, Indiana on April 3, 1926, the second child of Dennis and Cecile King Grissom. His father was a signalman for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and his mother a homemaker. His older sister died shortly before his birth, and he was followed by three younger siblings, Wilma, Norman and Lowell. As a child he attended the local Church of Christ where he remained a lifelong member and joined the Boy Scouts' Troop 46. He was enrolled in public elementary schools and went on to attend Mitchell High
Tamara Elizabeth "Tammy" Jernigan, Ph.D. (born May 7, 1959, in Chattanooga, Tennessee) is an American scientist and former NASA astronaut and a veteran of five shuttle missions.
Jernigan attended Santa Fe High School in Santa Fe Springs, CA. She graduated in 1977. Jernigan attended Stanford University, where she earned a B.S. degree in physics in 1981, an M.S. in engineering science in 1983. At the University of California, Berkeley, she received an M.A. in astronomy in 1985. In 1988 she was awarded a Ph.D. in space physics and astronomy from Rice University.
She entered the NASA Astronaut Corps in 1986 and retired in 2001. She flew on five Space Shuttle program missions (three on Columbia and one each on Endeavour and Discovery) and logged 1512 hours in space. In her last mission on Discovery in 1999, she performed an extra-vehicular activity for about eight hours.
She is married to former astronaut Peter Wisoff.
Daniel Christopher Burbank (born July 27, 1961) is an American astronaut and a veteran of two Space Shuttle missions. Burbank, a Captain in the United States Coast Guard, is the second Coast Guard astronaut after Bruce Melnick.
Burbank was born in Manchester, Connecticut, and raised in Tolland, Connecticut, where he graduated from Tolland High School. He attended Fairfield University his freshman year before transferring to the United States Coast Guard Academy, where he earned his commission in 1985. In 1987, he went through flight training and became an instructor pilot, serving at various Coast Guard stations at Coast Guard Air Station Elizabeth City, Coast Guard Air Station Cape Cod, and Coast Guard Air Station Sitka.
Burbank is listed as a member of the astronaut band "Max Q", and a former member of The Idlers.
He has a master's degree in aeronautical science from Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.
He is a licensed amateur radio operator (ham) with Technician License KC5ZSX.
Selected by NASA in April 1996, Burbank reported to the Johnson Space Center in August 1996. After completing two years of training and evaluation, Burbank worked technical issues for the Astronaut
Georgy Mikhaylovich Grechko (Russian: Георгий Михайлович Гречко; born May 25, 1931 in Leningrad) is a retired Soviet cosmonaut who flew on several space flights among which Soyuz 17, Soyuz 26, and Soyuz T-14.
Grechko graduated from the Leningrad Institute of Mechanics with a doctorate in mathematics. He was a member of Communist Party of Soviet Union. He went on to work at Sergei Korolev's design bureau and from there was selected for cosmonaut training for the Soviet moon programme. When that program was cancelled, he went on to work on the Salyut space stations.
Georgy Mikhaylovich Grechko made the first spacewalk in an Orlan space suit. This spacewalk was made on December 20, 1977 during the Salyut 6 EO-1 mission.
He was awarded twice the medal of Hero of the Soviet Union.
He resigned from the space programme in 1992 to lecture in atmospheric physics at the Russian Academy of Sciences.
A minor planet 3148 Grechko discovered by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh in 1979 is named after him.
Grechko, along with Alexey Leonov, Vitaly Sevastyanov and Rusty Schweickart established the Association of Space Explorers in 1984. Membership is open to all people who have flown
Harrison Hagan "Jack" Schmitt (born July 3, 1935) is an American geologist, a retired NASA astronaut, university professor, and a former U.S. senator from New Mexico.
He was the twelfth and last of the Apollo astronauts to arrive and set foot on the Moon, as Apollo 17 crewmate Eugene Cernan exited the Apollo Lunar Module first. However, as Schmitt re-entered the module first, Cernan became the last astronaut to walk on and depart the moon. Schmitt is also the only geologist as well as the only person to have walked on the Moon who was never a member of the United States Armed Forces, although he is not the first civilian, since Neil Armstrong left military service prior to his landing in 1969.
Born in Santa Rita, New Mexico, Schmitt grew up in nearby Silver City. He received a B.S. degree in geology from the California Institute of Technology in 1957 and then spent a year for graduate studying geology at the University of Oslo in Norway. He received a Ph.D. in geology from Harvard University in 1964, based on his geological field studies in Norway.
Before joining NASA as a member of the first group of scientist-astronauts in June 1965, he worked at the U.S. Geological Survey's
Joe Frank Edwards, Jr. (born February 3, 1958), is a former United States Navy officer and NASA astronaut.
Edwards was born in Richmond, Virginia, but considers Lineville, Alabama to be his hometown. He graduated from Lineville High School in 1976 and earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering from the United States Naval Academy in 1980. In 1994, he received a Master of Science degree in Aviation Systems from University of Tennessee in Knoxville.
Edwards was designated a Naval Aviator in February 1982. Assigned to Fighter Squadron 143 (VF-143) in 1983 after completion of F-14 Tomcat training. Flew fighter escort and reconnaissance combat missions over Lebanon in 1983 and graduated from the Navy Fighter Weapons School (TOPGUN) in 1984. Graduated from U.S. Naval Test Pilot School in 1986 and subsequently worked as project flight test officer and pilot for F-14A (PLUS) and F-14D Full Scale Development. Flew the first Navy flight of the F-14D and a high angle of attack/departure from controlled flight test program for the F-14 airframe/F110 engine integration. Served as Operations and Maintenance Officer in Fighter Squadron 142 (VF-142) from 1989 to 1992. Worked as
John Herschel Glenn, Jr., (born July 18, 1921) is a former United States Marine Corps pilot, astronaut, and United States senator. He was the first American to orbit the Earth and the third American in space. Glenn was a combat aviator in the Marine Corps and one of the Mercury Seven, who were the elite U.S. military test pilots selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to operate the experimental Mercury spacecraft and become the first American astronauts. He flew the Friendship 7 mission on February 20, 1962. In 1965, Glenn retired from the military and resigned from NASA so he could be eligible to stand for election to public office. As a member of the Democratic Party he was elected to represent Ohio in the U.S. Senate from 1974 to 1999.
Glenn received a Congressional Space Medal of Honor in 1978, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2012. He was inducted into the Astronaut Hall of Fame in 1990. On October 29, 1998, he became the oldest person to fly in space, and the only one to fly in both the Mercury and Space Shuttle programs, when at age 77, he flew on Discovery (STS-95). Glenn and Scott Carpenter are the last living members of the Mercury
Judith Arlene Resnik (April 5, 1949 – January 28, 1986) was an American engineer and a NASA astronaut who died in the destruction of Space Shuttle Challenger during the launch of mission STS-51-L.
Resnik was the second American female astronaut, logging 145 hours in orbit. She was a graduate of Carnegie Mellon University and had a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Maryland. The IEEE Judith Resnik Award for space engineering is named in her honor.
Judith Arlene Resnik was born in 1949 to Sara and Marvin, an optometrist, in Akron, Ohio; her brother Charles was born four years later. She attended Hebrew school. A graduate of Firestone High School in 1966, she excelled in mathematics and played classical piano. While at Firestone she achieved a perfect SAT score, the sole female to do so that year. She received a B.S. in electrical engineering from Pittsburgh's Carnegie Mellon University in 1970, the year she married fellow student Michael Oldak. They divorced in 1974. In 1977 Resnik earned a Ph.D. in electrical engineering at the University of Maryland.
Upon graduation from Carnegie Mellon, she was employed at RCA as a design engineer, and later worked with
Piers John Sellers (Ph.D.) OBE (born 11 April 1955) is a British-born Anglo-American meteorologist and a NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of three space shuttle missions. Sellers graduated from Cranbrook School, Cranbrook, Kent, United Kingdom, in 1973 and achieved a bachelor of science degree in ecological science from the University of Edinburgh in 1976. In 1981 he gained a doctorate in biometeorology from the University of Leeds.
Before joining the astronaut corps, Sellers worked at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on research into how the Earth's biosphere and atmosphere interact. This work involved climate system computer modeling and field work utilizing aircraft, satellites and ground support input.
Sellers was born in Crowborough, Sussex, His education started at Tyttenhanger Lodge Pre-preparatory School in Seaford, East Sussex, and Cranbrook School, Kent, where he was trained as a Royal Air Force cadet to pilot gliders and powered aircraft. He earned a bachelor of science degree in ecological science from the University of Edinburgh and a doctorate in biometeorology from the University of Leeds.
Sellers and his wife left the UK in 1982, moving to the United States, where he
Scott Jay "Doc" Horowitz (born March 24, 1957) is a retired American astronaut and a veteran of four space shuttle missions.
After earning his undergraduate degree in engineering from California State University, Northridge in 1974-1978, Horowitz earned a doctorate in aerospace engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology (1982) and worked as a scientist for Lockheed Company. He joined the United States Air Force and flew as a T-38 and F-15 pilot while also teaching courses in aircraft design and propulsion at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University and later California State University, Fresno. He graduated from the United States Air Force Test Pilot School in Dec, 1990 as a member of class 90-A. Horowitz was selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in 1992, and piloted missions STS-75 (1996), STS-82 (1997) and STS-101 (2000). He commanded mission STS-105, a visit to the International Space Station for equipment and crew transfer.
Horowitz retired from the United States Air Force and NASA in October, 2004. He returned to NASA in September, 2005 to become the Associate Administrator for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, in charge of the return of America to the
Maurizio Cheli (born 4 May 1959) is an Italian air force officer, a European Space Agency astronaut and a veteran of one NASA space shuttle mission.
A native of Modena, Cheli attended the Italian Air Force Academy and trained as a test pilot at the Empire Test Pilots' School, England, being awarded the McKenna Trophy as the best student on his course. He studied geophysics at the University of Rome La Sapienza and earned a master's degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Houston. He then trained with the United States Air Force and was selected as an astronaut candidate by the European Space Agency in 1992. He holds the rank of lieutenant colonel in the Italian Air Force. He flew aboard STS-75 in 1996 as a mission specialist.
That same year he joined Alenia Aeronautica, and two years later he became Chief Test Pilot for combat aircraft. His last test program was for the Eurofighter Typhoon.
Maurizio Cheli has more than 380 hours of space activity and more than 4500 flying hours on more than 50 different aircraft types.
He is married to fellow former ESA astronaut Marianne Merchez.
Michael John Smith (April 30, 1945 – January 28, 1986), usually known as Mike Smith, was an American astronaut—pilot of the Space Shuttle Challenger when it was destroyed during the STS-51-L mission. All seven crew members died.
Smith was born in Beaufort, North Carolina. He graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1967 and subsequently attended the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School at Monterey, California. He completed naval aviation jet training at Naval Air Station Kingsville, Texas, receiving his aviator wings in May 1969. He was then assigned to the Advanced Jet Training Command (VT-21) where he served as an instructor from May 1969 to March 1971. During the 2-year period that followed, he flew A-6 Intruders and completed a tour during the Vietnam War while assigned to Attack Squadron 52 (VA-52) aboard the USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63). In 1974, he graduated from U.S. Naval Test Pilot School and was assigned to the Strike Aircraft Test Directorate at NAS Patuxent River, Maryland, to work on the A-6E TRAM and Cruise missile guidance systems. He returned to the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School in 1976 and completed an 18-month tour as an instructor. From Patuxent River, he was
Mirosław Hermaszewski (born September 15, 1941), is a retired Polish Air Force officer. He became the first (and to this day remains the only) Polish national in space when he flew aboard the Soyuz 30 spacecraft in 1978.
Mirosław Hermaszewski was born in Lipniki, Wolynian Voivodship in the Reichskommissariat Ukraine, in present day - Ukraine. He is a survivor of the Volhynian massacres during World War II, during which Ukrainian nationalists murdered 19 members of his family, including his father.
In 1965, he graduated from the military pilot school in Dęblin. In 1978, he was chosen from almost 500 Polish pilots to take part in the Intercosmos space program. Together with Pyotr Klimuk, he spent almost eight days on board the Salyut 6 space station (from 17:27, June 27, 1978 'til 16:31, July 5). During their time in orbit, they carried out geoscience experiments and photographed the Earth.
They landed 300 km west of Tselinograd. He was awarded with the Hero of the Soviet Union title for that flight.
During the period of martial law in Poland, Hermaszewski was a member of the Military Council of National Salvation (Wojskowa Rada Ocalenia Narodowego, WRON), a military
Sergei Viktorovich Zalyotin (Russian: Сергей Викторович Залётин; born 21 April 1962) is a Russian cosmonaut and a veteran of two space missions.
Zalyotin was born in Tula and attended the Borisoglebsk Higher Military School before becoming a fighter pilot in the Russian Air Force. He also holds a degree in ecological management. Zalyotin was selected as a cosmonaut candidate in 1990. In 2000, Zalyotin was a member of the final resident crew aboard the Mir space station. He briefly visited the International Space Station aboard Soyuz TMA-1 in 2002.
Born 21 April 1962, Schekino, Tula Area, RF (Russia). Father: Viktor Dmitrievich Zaletin (1930–1988). Mother: Valentina Ivanovna Zaletina (Prokhorova), born in 1926. Married to Elena Mikhailovna Zaletina (Goriacheva), they have one son.
In 1983 he graduated from Borisoglebsk Higher Military Pilot School after V.P. Chkalov and got a diploma of pilot-engineer. In 1994 after tuition by correspondence at the International Center of Training Systems he got a qualification of engineer-ecologist and a degree of Master of ecological management.
In 1983-1990 he served as a pilot, master pilot and flight leader in Air Force units of Moscow military
Vladislav Nikolayevich Volkov (Russian: Владисла́в Никола́евич Во́лков; November 23, 1935 – June 30, 1971) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 7 and Soyuz 11 missions. The second mission terminated fatally.
Volkov graduated from the Moscow Aviation Institute, 1959. As an aviation engineer at Korolyov Design Bureau, he was involved in the development of the Vostok and Voskhod spacecrafts prior to his selection as a cosmonaut. He flew aboard Soyuz 7 in 1969.
Volkov, on his second space mission in 1971, was assigned to Soyuz 11. The three cosmomauts on this flight spent 23 days on Salyut 1, the world's first space station. After three relatively placid weeks in orbit, however, Soyuz 11 became the second Soviet space flight to terminate fatally, after Soyuz 1.
After a normal re-entry, the Soyuz 11 capsule was opened and the corpses of the three crew members were found inside. It was discovered that a valve had opened just prior to leaving orbit that had allowed the capsule's atmosphere to vent away into space, causing Volkov and his two flight companions to suffer fatal hypoxia as their cabin descended toward the earth's atmosphere.
Vladislav Volkov was decorated twice as the
Yuri Mikhailovich Baturin (Russian: Юрий Михайлович Батурин (born 12 June 1949, Moscow, Russia), is a Russian cosmonaut and former politician.
Baturin graduated from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology in 1973, and is the former head of National Security; he is also an author in constitutional law. Baturin was also a cosmonaut who flew on two missions.
His first spaceflight, sometimes called Mir EP-4, was launched with the spacecraft Soyuz TM-28 13 August 1998, and landed with Soyuz TM-27. He was a Research Cosmonaut for this mission, which lasted for 11 days 19 hours 39 minutes. His second spaceflight was ISS EP-1, which was launched with the spacecraft Soyuz TM-32 on April 28, 2001, and landed with Soyuz TM-31. This mission was notable as carrying to first paying space tourist Dennis Tito. For this mission he was designated a Flight Engineer; the mission lasted for 7 days 22 hours and 4 minutes.
He married Svetlana Veniaminovna Polubinskaya, (born 1954); they had a daughter, Alexandra Yurievna Baturina, (born 1982), a student at the Moscow State Academy of Law.
This article is about the American astronaut. For the composer, see Clifton Williams (composer).
Clifton Curtis 'C.C.' Williams (September 26, 1932 - October 5, 1967) was a NASA astronaut, a Naval Aviator, and a Major in the United States Marine Corps who was killed in a plane crash; he had never been to space. The crash was caused by a mechanical failure in a NASA T-38 jet trainer, which he was piloting to visit his parents in Mobile, Alabama. The failure caused the flight controls to stop responding, and although he activated the ejection seat, it did not save him. He was the fourth astronaut from NASA's Astronaut Group 3 to have died, the first two (Bassett and Freeman) having been killed in separate T-38 flights and (Chaffee) in the Apollo 1 fire earlier that year. The aircraft crashed in Florida near Tallahassee within an hour of departing Patrick AFB.
Although he was never on a spaceflight, he served as backup pilot for the mission Gemini 10, which took place in July 1966. Following this mission he was selected to be the lunar module pilot for an Apollo mission to the moon commanded by Pete Conrad. Following Williams' death, Alan Bean became lunar module pilot for Conrad's
David Cornell Leestma (born May 6, 1949) is a former American astronaut and retired Captain in the United States Navy.
Born May 6, 1949, in Muskegon, Michigan. Married to the former Patti K. Opp of Dallas, Texas, they have six children. He enjoys golfing, tennis, aviation, and fishing. His parents, Dr. and Mrs. Harold F. Leestma, reside in Palm Desert, California. His wife's parents, Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Opp, reside in New Braunfels, Texas.
Graduated from Tustin High School, Tustin, California, in 1967; received a bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering from the United States Naval Academy in 1971, and a master of science degree in aeronautical engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in 1972.
Associate Fellow, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA); Life Member, Association of Naval Aviation.
The Distinguished Flying Cross, Legion of Merit, Defense Superior Service Medal, Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Navy Commendation Medal, Navy Achievement Medal, Meritorious Unit Commendation (VX-4), National Defense Service Medal, Battle "E" Award (VF-32), the Rear Admiral Thurston James Award (1973), the NASA Space Flight Medal (1984, 1989,
Donald Kent Slayton (March 1, 1924 – June 13, 1993), better known as Deke Slayton, was an American World War II pilot, one of the original NASA Mercury Seven astronauts, and a NASA administrator.
After joining NASA, Slayton was selected to pilot the second U.S. manned orbital spaceflight, but was grounded in 1962 by a heart murmur. He then served as NASA's director of flight crew operations, making him responsible for crew assignments at NASA from November 1963 until March 1972. At that time he was granted medical clearance to fly, and was assigned as the docking module pilot of the 1975 Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, becoming the oldest person to fly in space at age 51. This record was surpassed in 1998 by his fellow Project Mercury astronaut John Glenn, who at the age of 77 flew on space shuttle mission STS-95.
Slayton was born on a farm near Sparta, Wisconsin. A childhood farm equipment accident left him with a severed left ring finger. He attended elementary school in Leon, Wisconsin and graduated from Sparta High School.
He entered the United States Army Air Forces as a cadet in 1942, training as a B-25 bomber pilot. He flew 56 combat missions with the 340th Bombardment Group over
Eileen Marie Collins (born November 19, 1956 in Elmira, New York) is a retired NASA astronaut and a retired United States Air Force Colonel. A former military instructor and test pilot, Collins was the first female pilot and first female commander of a Space Shuttle. She was awarded several medals for her work. Colonel Collins has logged 38 days 8 hours and 10 minutes in outer space. Collins retired on May 1, 2006 to pursue private interests, including service as a board member of USAA.
Collins was selected to be an astronaut in 1992 and first flew the Space Shuttle as pilot in 1995 aboard STS-63, which involved a rendezvous between Discovery and the Russian space station Mir. In recognition of her achievement as the first female Shuttle Pilot, she received the Harmon Trophy. She was also the pilot for STS-84 in 1997.
Collins was also the first female commander of a U.S. Spacecraft with Shuttle mission STS-93, launched in July 1999, which deployed the Chandra X-Ray Observatory.
Collins commanded STS-114, NASA's "return to flight" mission to test safety improvements and resupply the International Space Station (ISS). The flight was launched on July 26, 2005, and returned on August
Fred Wallace Haise, Jr. (/ˈheɪz/HAYZ; born November 14, 1933) is an American engineer and former NASA astronaut. He is one of only 24 humans to have flown to the Moon. Having flown on Apollo 13, Haise was to be the sixth human to walk on the Moon, but the mission did not land due to a failure aboard the spacecraft.
Haise flew as the lunar module pilot on the aborted Apollo 13 lunar mission in 1970. Due to the free return trajectory on this mission, Haise, and Jim Lovell and Jack Swigert, the other two astronauts on Apollo 13, likely hold the record for the furthest distance from the Earth ever traveled by human beings. Haise was slated to become the sixth human to walk on the Moon during Apollo 13 behind Lovell, who was to be fifth. Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell eventually became the fifth and sixth, respectively, on the Apollo 14 mission. Both missions were targeted for the Fra Mauro formation.
Bill Paxton played the role of Haise in the film Apollo 13 in 1995. Adam Baldwin also played Haise in the mini-series From The Earth To The Moon.
James Dougal Adrianus "Ox" van Hoften is a former NASA Astronaut.
Van Hoften was born June 11, 1944, in Fresno, California. He was active in the Boy Scouts of America where he achieved its second highest rank, Life Scout. He considers Burlingame, California, to be his hometown. James is married with three children. He enjoys skiing, playing handball and racquetball, and jogging.
Graduated from Mills High School, Millbrae, California, in 1962; received a bachelor of science degree in Civil Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1966; and a master of science degree in Hydraulic engineering and a Doctorate of Philosophy in Hydraulic Engineering from Colorado State University in 1968 and 1976, respectively.
Member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), Sigma Xi, Chi Epsilon, and Pi Kappa Alpha.
From 1969 to 1974, Van Hoften was a pilot in the United States Navy. He received flight training at Pensacola, Florida, and completed jet pilot training at Beeville, Texas, in November 1970. He was then assigned to the Naval Air Station, Miramar, California, to fly F-4 Phantoms, and subsequently to VF-121 Replacement Air Group. As a pilot with
Jeffrey Alan Hoffman, Ph.D. (born November 2, 1944) is an American former NASA astronaut and currently a professor of aeronautics and astronautics at MIT.
Hoffman made five flights as a space shuttle astronaut, including the first mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope in 1993, when the orbiting telescope's flawed optical system was corrected. Trained as an astrophysicist, he also flew on 1990 Spacelab shuttle mission that featured the ASTRO-1 ultraviolet astronomical observatory in the shuttle's payload bay. Over the course of his five missions he logged more than 1,211 hours and 21.5 million miles in space. He was also the second Jewish man in space after Boris Volynov.
Hoffman was born November 2, 1944, in Brooklyn, New York, but considers Scarsdale, New York, to be his hometown. He graduated from Scarsdale High School in 1962, then received a Bachelor of Arts degree in astronomy (graduated summa cum laude) from Amherst College in 1966, a Doctor of Philosophy in astrophysics from Harvard University in 1971, and a Masters Degree in materials science from Rice University in 1988.Hoffman is an Eagle Scout.
Hoffman is a member of the International Academy of Astronautics, the
Jerome III "Jay" Apt, Ph.D. (born April 28, 1949 in Massachusetts) is an American astronaut and professor at Carnegie Mellon University. Before he became an astronaut, Apt was a physicist who worked on the Venus space probe project, and used visible light and infrared techniques to study the planets and moons of the solar system from ground-based observatories.
Apt graduated from Shady Side Academy in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1967. He went on to attend Harvard University, earning a Bachelor of Arts in physics in 1971. He then attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and earned a Doctor of Philosophy in physics in 1976. From 1976 to 1980 he was a staff member of the Center for Earth & Planetary Physics at Harvard, and served as the Assistant Director of Harvard's Division of Applied Sciences from 1978 to 1980. In 1980 he joined the Earth and Space Sciences Division of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as a scientist doing planetary research, and from 1982 through 1985 he was a flight controller responsible for Shuttle payload operations at NASA's Johnson Space Center. In 1985 he was selected as an astronaut candidate, and qualified to become an astronaut after a
John-David Francis Bartoe (b. November 17, 1944 in Abington, Pennsylvania) is an American astrophysicist. He is the Research Manager for the International Space Station (ISS) at NASA's Johnson Space Center. He provides oversight for the Program Manager concerning the research capability, research hardware, and research plans of the ISS. As a civilian employee of the US Navy, he flew aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-51-F as a Payload Specialist.
Prior to his present position, Bartoe was Director of Operations and Utilization in the Space Station Office of NASA Headquarters from 1990 to 1994. He also served as Chief Scientist for the Space Station from 1987 to 1990.
Before coming to NASA Headquarters, he flew on Space Shuttle mission STS-51-F (July 29 to August 6, 1985) as a civilian Navy payload specialist. A physicist by training, Bartoe was co-investigator on two solar physics investigations aboard this mission, designated Spacelab 2, that were designed to study features of the sun's outer layers. In completing this flight, Bartoe traveled over 2.8 million miles in 126 Earth orbits and logged over 190 hours in space.
From 1966 to 1988, Bartoe worked as an astrophysicist at the
Kathryn Dwyer Sullivan (born October 3, 1951 in Paterson, New Jersey) is an American geologist and a former NASA astronaut. A crew member on three Space Shuttle missions, she is the first American woman to walk in space.
Sullivan is a 1969 graduate of William Howard Taft High School in Woodland Hills, California. She was awarded a bachelor in science degree in Earth Sciences from the University of California, Santa Cruz in 1973, as well as a Ph.D. in geology from Dalhousie University in 1978.
In 1988, Sullivan joined the U.S. Naval Reserve as an oceanography officer, retiring with the rank of Captain in 2006. She has served as chief scientist for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Before NASA, Sullivan worked in Alaska as an oceanographer.
Sullivan performed the first EVA by an American woman during Space Shuttle Challenger mission STS-41-G on October 11, 1984. She flew on three space shuttle missions and logged 532 hours in space.
After leaving NASA, Sullivan served as President and CEO of the COSI Columbus, an interactive science center in Columbus, Ohio. Dr. Sullivan currently serves as Director for Ohio State University's Battelle Center for Mathematics and
Thomas Kenneth "Ken" Mattingly II, (born March 17, 1936) is a retired American astronaut and rear admiral in the United States Navy who flew on the Apollo 16, STS-4 and STS-51-C missions. He had been scheduled to fly on Apollo 13, but was held back due to concerns about a potential illness (which he did not contract). He later flew as Command Module Pilot for Apollo 16, making him one of only 24 people to have flown to the Moon.
Born in Chicago, Illinois, Mattingly attended school in Hialeah, Florida, and was active in the Boy Scouts of America where he achieved its second highest rank, Life Scout. He graduated from Miami Edison High School and went on to receive a B.S. degree in Aeronautical Engineering from Auburn University in 1958, where he was also a member of Delta Tau Delta fraternity (Epsilon Alpha chapter). He joined the U.S. Navy as an Ensign in 1958 and received his aviator wings in 1960. He was then assigned to VA-35 and flew A-1H Skyraider aircraft aboard the USS Saratoga from 1960 to 1963. In July 1963, he served in VAH-11 deployed aboard the USS Franklin D. Roosevelt where he flew the A-3B Skywarrior aircraft for two years.
Mattingly was a student at the Air Force
Léopold Eyharts is a Brigadier General in the French Air Force and an ESA astronaut.
Eyharts was born April 28, 1957, in Biarritz, Basque Country, France. He graduated as an engineer from the French Air Force Academy of Salon-de-Provence in 1979.
He joined the French Air Force Academy of Salon-de-Provence in 1977 and was graduated as an aeronautical engineer in 1979. In 1980, he became a fighter pilot and was assigned to an operational Jaguar squadron in Istres Air Base (France). In 1985, he was assigned as a wing commander in Saint-Dizier Air Force base.
In 1988, he was graduated as a test pilot in the French test pilot school (EPNER) and was assigned to Bretigny flight test center near Paris. He then flew on different types of military and civilian aircraft including Mirage 2000, Alpha Jet, Mirage 3, Caravelle, C-160 mainly involved in radar and equipment testing.
He has logged 3500 flight hours as a fighter and test pilot in 40 different aircraft types, 21 parachute jumps including one ejection.
In 1990, Léopold Eyharts was selected as an astronaut candidate by CNES (Centre National d’Études Spatiales) and assigned to support the Hermes spaceplane program managed by the Hermes
Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau, C.C., CD, Ph.D., F.C.A.S.I., MP (born February 23, 1949) is a Canadian politician, retired military officer, former astronaut, and engineer. He is currently the Member of Parliament for the riding of Westmount—Ville-Marie and the Liberal Party House Leader.
Garneau was the first Canadian in outer space taking part in three flights aboard NASA Space shuttles. He was the president of the Canadian Space Agency from 2001 to 2006, and in 2003 was installed as the ninth Chancellor of Carleton University in Ottawa.
In the 2006 federal election, he unsuccessfully sought a seat in the Canadian House of Commons in the riding of Vaudreuil-Soulanges. Two years later he was elected in the riding of Westmount—Ville-Marie in downtown Montreal, winning by over 9000 votes. He was re-elected to the House of Commons in the 2011 federal election by 642 votes.
Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau was born on February 23, 1949, in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. He attended primary and secondary schools in Quebec City and Saint-Jean. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Engineering physics from the Royal Military College of Canada in 1970, and in 1973 received a Doctorate
Michael John "Bloomer" Bloomfield (born 16 March 1959) is a former American astronaut and a veteran of three Space Shuttle missions.
Born in Flint and raised in Lake Fenton, Michigan, Bloomfield received his bachelor's degree in Engineering Mechanics from the United States Air Force Academy, where he played Falcons football for coach Bill Parcells and was the team's captain. He became an F-15 fighter pilot with the rare combination of having graduated the Fighter Weapons Instructor Course (FWIC, pronounced 'Fwick') and then selected as a test pilot (assigned to the F-16 test squadron at Edwards AFB). He earned his master's degree in Engineering Management from Old Dominion University in 1993.
Selected by NASA in December 1994, Bloomfield reported to the Johnson Space Center in March 1995. He worked as Chief of Safety for the Astronaut Office, Chief Instructor Astronaut, Director of Shuttle Operations, and Chief of the Shuttle Branch, which oversees all Shuttle technical issues for the Astronaut Office.
He first flew as a pilot aboard STS-86 in 1997, where he docked with the space station Mir. Bloomfield also piloted STS-97 in 2000 and commanded STS-110 in 2002, both missions to the
Oleg Grigoryevich Makarov (Russian: Оле́г Григо́рьевич Мака́ров) (January 6, 1933 – May 28, 2003) was a Soviet cosmonaut.
Makarov was born in Udomlya, Tver Oblast, USSR. He graduated from Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School in 1957 and started working at the Special Design Bureau Number One (which is now RSC Energia) as an engineer, working on the Vostok spacecraft. In 1966, he was selected for cosmonaut training.
At first he did work on the Soviet lunar program and was training with Aleksei Leonov for a circumlunar flight. After the success of Apollo 8, however, the flight was cancelled.
His first spaceflight was Soyuz 12 in 1973, a test flight to check the changes made to the Soyuz spacecraft after the Soyuz 11 disaster. His second flight was the abortive Soyuz 18a that made an emergency landing in the Altay Mountains, 21 minutes after launch. With his third launch on Soyuz 27 he flew to space station Salyut 6 and landed five days later with the Soyuz 26 spacecraft. His last mission was Soyuz T-3, during which several repairs on Salyut 6 were done. He was also in backup crews for Soyuz 17 and Soyuz T-2. Altogether he spent 20 days, 17 hours, and 44 minutes in space.
Pavel Romanovich Popovich (Russian: Па́вел Рома́нович Попо́вич, Ukrainian: Павло Романович Попович, Pavlo Romanovych Popovych) (October 5, 1930 – September 29, 2009) was a Soviet cosmonaut.
He was the 4th cosmonaut in space, the 6th person in orbit, and the 8th person in space.
He was born in Uzyn, Kiev Oblast of Soviet Union (now Ukraine). to Roman Porfirievich Popovich (a fireman in a sugar factory) and Theodosia Kasyanovna Semyonov. He had two sisters (one older, one younger) and two brothers (both younger).
During World War II, the Germans occupied Uzyn, and burned documents including Popovich's birth certificate. After the war, these were restored through witness testimony, and although his mother knew that he was born in 1929, two witnesses insisted that Popovich was born in 1930, and so this became his official year of birth.
In 1947, he left vocational school in Bila Tserkva with qualifications as a carpenter. In 1951, Popovich graduated as a construction engineer from a technical school in Magnitogorsk, as well as receiving a pilot's degree.
In 1954, he joined the Young Communist League.
He was married to Marina Popovich, a retired Soviet Air Force colonel, engineer, and
Robert Lee "Hoot" Gibson (born October 30, 1946) is a retired Captain and Naval Aviator in the United States Navy and a retired NASA astronaut.
Born in Cooperstown, New York, but considered the Lakewood area of east Long Beach, California, to be his hometown. Married to fellow astronaut Dr. M. Rhea Seddon of Murfreesboro, Tennessee, and had four children. He enjoyed home built aircraft, Formula One Air Racing, Unlimited Class Air Racing, running and surfing during his free time. His mother, Mrs. Paul A. Gibson, resides in Seal Beach, California. Gibson's late father, an FAA Inspector, built his own private plane in the garage of their home in Long Beach with help from his family. Family includes brothers, Jon, Don and Richard and a sister Kathy.
Hoot, a long time model aviation enthusiast, serves as Ambassador for the Academy of Model Aeronautics (AMA)..
Gibson graduated from Huntington High School, Huntington, New York as a part of the class of 1964, and went on to earn an associate degree in engineering science from Suffolk County Community College in 1966. He received a bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering from California Polytechnic State University in
Scott Douglas "Scooter" Altman, (born 15 August 1959) is a United States Navy Captain test pilot and former NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of four space shuttle missions. His fourth mission on STS-125 was the last servicing mission to the Hubble Space Telescope.
Born in Lincoln, Illinois, Scott is married to the former Jill Shannon Loomer of Tucson, Arizona. They have three children, the second oldest of whom, Alex, graduated Rice University in Houston, Texas in May 2009. Hometown is Pekin, Illinois, where his parents, Fred and Sharon Altman, currently reside. Scott's sister Sarah Beardsley is the publisher of Venus Zine, a women's music, DIY and culture multi-media company. His callsigns have been "D-Bear" and Scooter.
Commissioned as an Ensign in the United States Navy in August 1981, received his Navy wings of gold in February 1983. As a member of Fighter Squadron 51 at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, Altman completed two deployments to the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean flying the F-14A Tomcat. In August 1987, he was selected for the Naval Postgraduate School-Test Pilot School Coop program and graduated with Test Pilot School Class 97 in June 1990 as a Distinguished
Stuart Allen Roosa (August 16, 1933 – December 12, 1994) was a NASA astronaut, who was the command module pilot for the Apollo 14 mission. The mission lasted from January 31 to February 9, 1971 and was the third mission to land astronauts (Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell) on the Moon. While Shepard and Mitchell spent two days on the lunar surface, Roosa conducted experiments from orbit in the command module "Kitty Hawk". He was one of only 24 people to travel to the Moon.
Roosa was born in Durango, Colorado, and grew up in Claremore, Oklahoma. He attended Oklahoma State University and the University of Arizona.
He started his career as a smokejumper with the U.S. Forest Service in the early 1950s. He joined the U.S. Air Force in 1953, attended Gunnery School at Del Rio Air Force Base, Texas, and Luke Air Force Base, Arizona, and was a graduate of the Aviation Cadet Program at Williams Air Force Base, Arizona, where he received his flight training commission in the Air Force.
From July 1962 to August 1964, Roosa was a maintenance flight test pilot at Olmsted Air Force Base, Pennsylvania, flying F-101 aircraft. He was a fighter pilot at Langley Air Force Base, VA, where he flew the
Svetlana Yevgenyevna Savitskaya (Russian: Светла́на Евге́ньевна Сави́цкая; born August 8, 1948) is a former Soviet female aviator and cosmonaut who flew aboard Soyuz T-7 in 1982, becoming the second woman in space some 19 years after Valentina Tereshkova. She served two duty tours on the Salyut 7 space station, and on her second one became the first woman to perform a space walk on July 25, 1984. She was outside the space station for 3 hours 35 minutes. Of the 57 Soviet/Russian spacewalker through 2010, she is the only female. She is the daughter of Soviet military commander Yevgeniy Savitskiy. She is married, with one child.
She started training as a cosmonaut in 1980. Upon returning to Earth, Savitskaya was assigned as the commander of an all-female Soyuz crew to Salyut 7 in commemoration of the International Women's Day, a mission that was later canceled.
She was twice awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union title. The asteroid 4118 Sveta is named for her.
She was also a test and sports pilot - starting from 1974 she set 18 international world records on MiG aircraft and three records in team parachute jumping. She won first place at the 6th FAI World Aerobatic Championship in
Terrence Wade Wilcutt (born 31 October 1949) is a United States Marine Corps officer and a NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of four Space Shuttle missions. Wilcutt is currently the Deputy Director, Safety and Mission Assurance, Johnson Space Center.
Raised in Louisville, Kentucky, Wilcutt earned a degree in mathematics in 1974 from Western Kentucky University where he was a member of the Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity. He then taught high school math for two years before entering the United States Marine Corps.
He was commissioned in 1976 and earned his aviator wings in 1978. Following initial F-4 Phantom training with squadron VMFAT-101, he reported to VMFA-235 at Marine Corps Air Station Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. While assigned to VMFA-235, Wilcutt attended the Navy Fighter Weapons School ("TOPGUN"), and made two overseas deployments to Japan, Korea, and the Philippines. In 1983 he was selected for F/A-18 conversion training, and served as an F/A-18 Fighter Weapons and Air Combat Maneuvering Instructor with VFA-125, Naval Air Station Lemoore, California. In 1986, Wilcutt was selected to attend the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School. Following graduation, he was assigned as a test pilot/project
Viktor Mikhailovich Afanasyev Russian: Виктор Михайлович Афанасьев; born 31 December 1948) is a colonel in the Russian Air Force and a test cosmonaut of the Yu. A. Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. He was born December 31, 1948, in Bryansk, Russia, and is married to Yelena Ya. Afanasyeva, born 1952. They have two children. His father, Mikhail Z. Afanasyev, is deceased. His mother, Marya S. Afanasyeva, resides in Merkulyevo, Bryansk region, Russia. His recreational interests include football, swimming, and tourism.
Graduated from Kachynskoye Military Pilot School in 1970 and the Ordzhonikidze Aviation Institute, Moscow, in 1980.
Hero of the Soviet Union; Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR.
1970 to 1976 served in the Air Force fighting troops as a pilot, senior pilot and aircraft flight commander. 1976 to 1977 attended the Test Pilot Training Center. 1977 to 1988 served as a test pilot and senior test pilot at the State Research/Test Institute named after Valery Chkalov. Viktor Afanasyev has a Class 1 military test pilot certification. He has logged over 2000 flight hours in more than 40 different aircraft.
1985 to 1987 Viktor Afanasyev was taking basic space training course at the Yuri
Yury Petrovich Artyukhin (Russian: Ю́рий Петро́вич Артю́хин; June 22, 1930 – August 4, 1998) was a Soviet Russian cosmonaut and engineer who made a single flight into space.
Artyukhin graduated from the Soviet Air Force Institute with a doctorate in engineering, specialising in military communication systems. He was selected for the space programme in 1963 and would have flown on the Voskhod 3 mission had it not been cancelled. He made his single flight on Soyuz 14 in 1974, where his area of expertise was presumably put to good use.
He left the space programme in 1982 and held various positions in space-related fields. Most notably, he was involved in the development of the Soviet space shuttle Buran and in cosmonaut training.
He died after a long battle with cancer.
He was awarded:
Yury Valentinovich Lonchakov (Russian: Юрий Валентинович Лончаков; born 4 March 1965) is a Russian cosmonaut and a veteran of three space missions. He has spent 200 days in space and has conducted two career spacewalks.
Lonchakov was born on 4 March 1965, in Balkhash, Dzhezkazkansk Region, Kazakhstan. He considers Aktyubinsk as his native city since he had spent his childhood and youth there. Lonchokov's parents, Lonchakov Valentin Gavrilovich and Galina Vasilyevna were geologists. He is married to Lonchakova (Dolmatova) Tatyana Alexeevna. They have one son, Kirill, born in 1990. His hobbies include books, tourism, auto-tourism, downhill skiing, sport games.
Following graduation from high school in 1982, Lonchakov entered the Orenburg Air Force Pilot School, graduating with honors in 1986 as pilot-engineer. In 1995, Lonchakov entered the Zhukovski Air Force Academy from which he graduated with honors in 1998 as pilot-engineer-researcher.
Lonchakov was awarded the Hero of the Russian Federation medal and the honorary title Pilot-Cosmonaut of the Russian Federation. He was decorated with the Order For Merit to the Fatherland IV class, the Medal "For Merit in Space Exploration", and