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Best Artery of All Time

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    1
    Umbilical artery

    Umbilical artery

    The umbilical artery is a paired artery (with one for each half of the body) that is found in the abdominal and pelvic regions. In the fetus, it extends into the umbilical cord. Umbilical arteries supply deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta in the umbilical cord. There are usually two umbilical arteries present together with one umbilical vein in the cord. The umbilical arteries are actually the latter of the internal iliac arteries that supply the hind limbs with blood and nutrients in the fetus. The umbilical arteries surround the urinary bladder and then carry all the deoxygenated blood out of the fetus through the umbilical cord. The umbilical arteries are the only arteries in the human body, aside from the pulmonary arteries, that carry deoxygenated blood. The pressure inside the umbilical artery is approximately 50 mmHg. Inside the placenta, the umbilical arteries connect with each other at a distance of approximately 5 mm from the cord insertion in what is called the Hyrtl anastomosis. Subsequently, they branch into chorionic arteries or intraplacental fetal arteries. The umbilical artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery and
    8.14
    7 votes
    2
    Anterior cerebral artery

    Anterior cerebral artery

    The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is one of a pair of arteries on the brain that supplies oxygenated blood to most medial portions of the frontal lobes and superior medial parietal lobes. The two anterior cerebral arteries arise from the internal carotid artery and are part of the Circle of Willis. The left and right anterior cerebral arteries are connected by the anterior communicating artery. The ACA is classified into 5 segments with the smaller branches from the ACA "callosal" arteries (supracallosal) considered as the A4 and A5 segments: Areas supplied by the anterior cerebral artery include: Occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery may result in the following defects: If stroke occurs prior to the anterior communicating artery it is usually well tolerated secondary to collateral circulation. Occlusion of A2 segment(Post communal segment of Anterior cerebral artery) the following signs and symptoms ma be noted.
    6.63
    8 votes
    3
    Medial palpebral arteries

    Medial palpebral arteries

    The medial palpebral arteries (internal palpebral arteries) are arteries of the head. They are two in number, superior and inferior, arise from the ophthalmic, opposite the pulley of the Obliquus superior. They leave the orbit to encircle the eyelids near their free margins, forming a superior and an inferior arch, which lie between the Orbicularis oculi and the tarsi. The superior palpebral arch anastomoses, at the lateral angle of the orbit, with the zygomaticoörbital branch of the temporal artery and with the upper of the two lateral palpebral branches from the lacrimal artery. The inferior palpebral arch anastomoses, at the lateral angle of the orbit, with the lower of the two lateral palpebral branches from the lacrimal and with the transverse facial artery, and, at the medial part of the lid, with a branch from the angular artery. From this last anastomoses a branch passes to the nasolacrimal duct, ramifying in its mucous membrane, as far as the inferior meatus of the nasal cavity. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.57
    7 votes
    4
    Anterior medial malleolar artery

    Anterior medial malleolar artery

    The anterior medial malleolar artery (medial anterior malleolar artery, internal malleolar artery) arises about 5 cm. above the ankle-joint and passes behind the tendons of the Extensor hallucis longus and Tibialis anterior, to the medial side of the ankle, upon which it ramifies, anastomosing with branches of the posterior tibial and medial plantar arteries and with the medial calcaneal from the posterior tibial. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.33
    6 votes
    5
    Ascending pharyngeal artery

    Ascending pharyngeal artery

    The ascending pharyngeal artery, the smallest branch of the external carotid, is a long, slender vessel, deeply seated in the neck, beneath the other branches of the external carotid and under the Stylopharyngeus. It lies just superior to the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. Pharyngeal branches of ascending pharyngeal artery are three or four in number. Two of these descend to supply the Constrictores pharyngis medius and inferior and the Stylopharyngeus, ramifying in their substance and in the mucous membrane lining them. It arises from the back part of the external carotid, near the commencement of that vessel, and ascends vertically between the internal carotid and the side of the pharynx, to the under surface of the base of the skull, lying on the Longus capitis. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.33
    6 votes
    6
    Cerebral portion of internal carotid artery

    Cerebral portion of internal carotid artery

    The cerebral portion of internal carotid artery.—Having perforated the dura mater on the medial side of the anterior clinoid process, the internal carotid passes between the optic and oculomotor nerves. This vessel, which then proceeds beyond the circle of Willis, is known as the middle cerebral artery, which sends branches into the anterior perforated substance at the medial extremity of the lateral cerebral fissure, and gives off its terminal or cerebral branches. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.40
    5 votes
    7
    Iliolumbar artery

    Iliolumbar artery

    The iliolumbar artery is the first branch of the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery. The iliolumbar artery turns upward behind the obturator nerve and the external iliac artery and vein, to the medial border of the psoas major, behind which it divides into: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.20
    5 votes
    8

    Common carotid artery

    In human anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (English pronunciation: /kəˈrɒtɪd/) are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood; they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries. The common carotid artery is a paired structure, meaning that there are two in the body, one for each half. The left and right common carotid arteries follow the same course with the exception of their origin. The right common carotid originates in the neck from the brachiocephalic trunk. The left arises from the aortic arch in the thoracic region. The bifurcation into the external and internal carotid arteries occurs at the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, at around the level of the fourth cervical vertebra (C4.) The left common carotid artery can be thought of as having two parts: a thoracic (chest) part and a cervical (neck) part. The right common carotid originates in or close to the neck, so contains a small thoracic portion. There are studies in the bioengineering literature that have looked into characterizing the geometric structure of the common carotid artery from both qualitative and mathematical (quantitative) standpoints. Only
    7.80
    5 votes
    9
    Superior labial artery

    Superior labial artery

    The superior labial artery (superior labial branch of facial artery) is larger and more egregious than the inferior labial artery. It follows a similar course along the edge of the upper lip, lying between the mucous membrane and the Orbicularis oris, and anastomoses with the artery of the opposite side. It supplies the upper lip, and gives off in its course two or three vessels which ascend to the nose; a septal branch ramifies on the nasal septum as far as the point of the nose, and an alar branch supplies the ala of the nose. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.80
    5 votes
    10

    Meningeal branches of vertebral artery

    The meningeal branches of vertebral artery (posterior meningeal branch) springs from the vertebral opposite the foramen magnum, ramifies between the bone and dura mater in the cerebellar fossa, and supplies the falx cerebelli. It is frequently represented by one or two small branches. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.00
    4 votes
    11
    Transverse facial artery

    Transverse facial artery

    The transverse facial artery is an artery that branches from the superficial temporal artery and runs across the face. The transverse facial artery is given off from the superficial temporal artery before that vessel leaves the parotid gland; running forward through the substance of the gland, it passes transversely across the side of the face, between the parotid duct and the lower border of the zygomatic arch, and divides into numerous branches, which supply the parotid gland and parotid duct, the masseter muscle, and the integument, and anastomose with the facial artery, the masseteric artery, the buccinator artery, and the infraorbital artery. This vessel rests on the masseter, and is accompanied by one or two branches of the facial nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.00
    4 votes
    12
    Ovarian artery

    Ovarian artery

    In human anatomy, the ovarian artery is a blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the ovary. It arises from the abdominal aorta below the renal artery, and does not pass out of the abdominal cavity. It can be found in the suspensory ligament of the ovary, anterior to the ovarian vein and ureter. It only exists in females. The ovarian arteries are the corresponding arteries in the female to the testicular artery in the male. They are shorter than the internal spermatics. The origin and course of the first part of each artery are the same as those of the internal spermatic, but on arriving at the upper opening of the lesser pelvis the ovarian artery passes inward, between the two layers of the ovariopelvic ligament and of the broad ligament of the uterus, to be distributed to the ovary. Small branches are given to the ureter and the uterine tube, and one passes on to the side of the uterus, and unites with the uterine artery. Other offsets are continued on the round ligament of the uterus, through the inguinal canal, to the integument of the labium majus and groin. It commonly anastomoses (connects with) the uterine artery.
    8.50
    4 votes
    13
    Superficial palmar arch

    Superficial palmar arch

    The superficial palmar arch is formed predominantly by the ulnar artery, with a contribution from the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery. However, in some individuals the contribution from the radial artery might be absent, and instead anastomoses with either the princeps pollicis artery, the radialis indicis artery, or the median artery, the former two of which are branches from the radial artery. Alternative names for this arterial arch are: superficial volar arch, superficial ulnar arch, arcus palmaris superficialis, or arcus volaris superficialis. The arch passes across the palm in a curve with its convexity downward. If one were to fully extend the thumb, the superficial palmar arch would lie approximately at the level of a line drawn from the distal border of the thumb across the palm. The superficial palmar arch is more distal than the deep palmar arch. Three common palmar digital arteries arise from the arch, proceeding down on the second, third, and fourth lumbrical muscles, respectively. They each receive a contribution from a palmar metacarpal artery. Near the level of the metacarpophalangeal joints, each common palmar digital artery divides into two proper
    8.50
    4 votes
    14
    Medial collateral artery

    Medial collateral artery

    The medial collateral artery (also known as the middle collateral artery) is a branch of deep brachial artery. It anastomoses with the interosseous recurrent artery near the elbow.
    8.25
    4 votes
    15
    Middle colic artery

    Middle colic artery

    The middle colic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery that mostly supplies the transverse colon. It arises just below the pancreas, and, passing inferiorly and anteriorly between the layers of the transverse mesocolon, divides into two branches: right and left. The arches thus formed are placed about two fingers’ breadth from the transverse colon, to which they distribute branches. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.25
    4 votes
    16
    Deep temporal arteries

    Deep temporal arteries

    The deep temporal arteries, two in number, anterior and posterior, ascend between the Temporalis and the pericranium. They supply the muscle, and anastomose with the middle temporal artery. The anterior communicates with the lacrimal artery by means of small branches which perforate the zygomatic bone and great wing of the sphenoid. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    5 votes
    17
    Left gastro-omental artery

    Left gastro-omental artery

    The left gastro-omental artery (or left gastroepiploic artery), the largest branch of the splenic artery, runs from left to right about a finger’s breadth or more from the greater curvature of the stomach, between the layers of the greater omentum, and anastomoses with the right gastroepiploic. In its course it distributes: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    5 votes
    18
    Superior gluteal artery

    Superior gluteal artery

    The superior gluteal artery (gluteal artery) is the largest branch of the internal iliac artery, and appears to be the continuation of the posterior division of that vessel. It is a short artery which runs backward between the lumbosacral trunk and the first sacral nerve, and, passing out of the pelvis above the upper border of the Piriformis, immediately divides into a superficial and a deep branch. Within the pelvis it gives off a few branches to the Iliacus, Piriformis, and Obturator internus, and just previous to quitting that cavity, a nutrient artery which enters the ilium. The superficial branch enters the deep surface of the gluteus maximus, and divides into numerous branches, some of which supply the muscle and anastomose with the inferior gluteal artery, while others perforate its tendinous origin, and supply the integument covering the posterior surface of the sacrum, anastomosing with the posterior branches of the lateral sacral arteries. The deep branch lies under the Gluteus medius and almost immediately subdivides into two. Of these, the superior division, continuing the original course of the vessel, passes along the upper border of the Gluteus minimus to the
    7.00
    5 votes
    19
    Inferior alveolar artery

    Inferior alveolar artery

    The inferior alveolar artery (inferior dental artery) is an artery of the face. It descends with the inferior alveolar nerve to the mandibular foramen on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible. It runs along the mandibular canal in the substance of the bone, accompanied by the nerve, and opposite the first premolar tooth divides into two branches, incisor and mental. The incisor branch is continued forward beneath the incisor teeth as far as the middle line, where it anastomoses with the artery of the opposite side The inferior alveolar artery and its incisor branch during their course through the substance of the bone give off a few twigs which are lost in the cancellous tissue, and a series of branches which correspond in number to the roots of the teeth: these enter the minute apertures at the extremities of the roots, and supply the pulp of the teeth. The mental branch escapes with the nerve at the mental foramen, supplies the chin, and anastomoses with the submental and inferior labial arteries. As the inferior alveolar artery enters the foramen, it gives off a mylohyoid branch which runs in the mylohyoid groove, and supplies the mylohyoid muscle. This article was
    6.00
    6 votes
    20
    Subclavian artery

    Subclavian artery

    In human anatomy, the subclavian arteries are two major arteries of the upper thorax (chest), below the clavicle (collar bone). They receive blood from the top (arch) of the aorta. The left subclavian artery supplies blood to the left arm and the right subclavian artery supplies blood to the right arm, with some branches supplying the head and thorax. The usual branches of the subclavian on both sides of the body are the vertebral artery, the internal thoracic artery, the thyrocervical trunk, the costocervical trunk and the dorsal scapular artery. The subclavian becomes the axillary artery at the lateral border of the first rib. From its origin, the subclavian artery travels laterally, passing between anterior and middle scalene muscles, with the anterior scalene (scalenus anterior) on its anterior side and the middle scalene (scalenus medius) on its posterior. This is in contrast to the subclavian vein, which travels anterior to the scalenus anterior. As the subclavian artery crosses the lateral border of the first rib, it becomes the axillary artery. These may be remembered by the mnemonic VITamin C and D. Embryologically, the left subclavian simply arises from the left 7th
    6.00
    6 votes
    21
    Submental artery

    Submental artery

    The submental artery is a branch of the facial artery that runs on the underside of the chin. The submental artery is the largest of the cervical branches of the facial artery, given off just as that vessel leaves the submandibular gland: it runs forward upon the mylohyoid, just below the body of the mandible, and beneath the digastric muscle. It supplies the surrounding muscles, and anastomoses with the sublingual artery and with the mylohyoid branch of the inferior alveolar artery; at the symphysis menti it turns upward over the border of the mandible. The submental vessels also supply a territory of skin in the submental area. Surgeons can use the skin and vessels in reconstruction of the face or the oral cavity. When the submental artery turns upward over the border of the mandible it divides into a superficial and a deep branch. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.00
    6 votes
    22

    Artery of the ductus deferens

    The artery of the ductus deferens, a branch of the superior vesical, is a long, slender vessel, which accompanies the ductus deferens, ramifying upon its coats, and anastomosing with the internal spermatic artery near the testis.
    6.80
    5 votes
    23
    Common volar digital arteries

    Common volar digital arteries

    Three common palmar digital arteries arise from the convexity of the superficial palmar arch and proceed distally on the second, third, and fourth lumbricales muscles. Alternative names for these arteries are: common volar digital arteries, ulnar metacarpal arteries, arteriae digitales palmares communes, or aa. digitales volares communes. Each of these arteries receive the corresponding volar metacarpal artery and then divide into a pair of proper palmar digital arteries (q.v.).
    6.80
    5 votes
    24
    Superior thoracic artery

    Superior thoracic artery

    The superior thoracic artery (highest thoracic artery) is a small vessel normally arising from the first division of the axillary artery, but may arise from the thoracoacromial artery, itself a branch of the second division of the axillary artery. Running forward and medially along the upper border of the pectoralis minor, the superior thoracic artery passes between it and the pectoralis major to the side of the chest. It supplies branches to the first and second intercostal spaces as well as to the superior portion of serratus anterior. It anastomoses with the internal thoracic artery and intercostal arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.80
    5 votes
    25
    Atrioventricular nodal branch

    Atrioventricular nodal branch

    The atrioventricular nodal branch most frequently arises as a distal branch from the right coronary artery, but occasionally the atrioventricular node receives blood from the circumflex branch of left coronary artery.
    9.00
    3 votes
    26
    Hepatic artery proper

    Hepatic artery proper

    The hepatic artery proper (also proper hepatic artery), arises from the common hepatic artery and runs alongside the portal vein and the common bile duct to form the portal triad. The hepatic artery proper gives off a small supraduodenal artery to the duodenal bulb. Then the right gastric artery comes off and runs to the left along the lesser curvature of the stomach to meet the left gastric artery, which is a branch of the celiac trunk. It subsequently bifurcates into the right and left hepatic arteries. Of note, the right and left hepatic arteries may demonstrate variant anatomy. A replaced right hepatic artery may arise from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and a replaced left hepatic artery may arise from the left gastric artery. The cystic artery generally comes off of the right hepatic artery.
    7.75
    4 votes
    27
    Posterior auricular artery

    Posterior auricular artery

    The posterior auricular artery is a small artery and arises from the external carotid artery, above the Digastric muscle and Stylohyoid muscle, opposite the apex of the styloid process. It ascends posteriorly beneath the parotid gland, along the styloid process of the temporal bone, between the cartilage of the ear and the mastoid process of the temporal bone along the lateral side of the head. The posterior auricular artery supplies blood to the scalp posterior to the auricle and to the auricle itself.
    7.75
    4 votes
    28
    Angular artery

    Angular artery

    The angular artery is the terminal part of the facial artery; it ascends to the medial angle of the eye's orbit, imbedded in the fibers of the angular head of the Quadratus labii superioris, and accompanied by the angular vein. On the cheek it distributes branches which anastomose with the infraorbital; after supplying the lacrimal sac and Orbicularis oculi, it ends by anastomosing with the dorsal nasal branch of the ophthalmic artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.60
    5 votes
    29
    Lacrimal artery

    Lacrimal artery

    The lacrimal artery arises close to the optic foramen, and is one of the largest branches derived from the ophthalmic artery: not infrequently it is given off before the artery enters the orbit. It accompanies the lacrimal nerve along the upper border of the Lateral Rectus and supplies the lacrimal gland. Its terminal branches, escaping from the gland, are distributed to the eyelids and conjunctiva: of those supplying the eyelids, two are of considerable size and are named the lateral palpebral arteries; they run medially in the upper and lower lids respectively and anastomose with the medial palpebral arteries, forming an arterial circle in this situation. The lacrimal artery also give off one or two zygomatic branches, one of which passes through the zygomatico-temporal foramen, to reach the temporal fossa, and anastomoses with the deep temporal arteries; another appears on the cheek through the zygomatico-facial foramen, and anastomoses with the transverse facial. A recurrent branch passes backward through the lateral part of the superior orbital fissure to the dura mater, and anastomoses with a branch of the middle meningeal artery. The lacrimal artery is sometimes derived from
    6.60
    5 votes
    30
    Ascending cervical artery

    Ascending cervical artery

    The ascending cervical artery is a small branch which arises from the inferior thyroid artery as that vessel is passing behind the carotid sheath; it runs up on the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the cervical vertebræ in the interval between the Scalenus anterior and Longus capitis. To the muscles of the neck it gives twigs which anastomose with branches of the vertebral, and it sends one or two spinal branches into the vertebral canal through the intervertebral foramina to be distributed to the medulla spinalis and its membranes, and to the bodies of the vertebræ, in the same manner as the spinal branches from the vertebral. It anastomoses with the ascending pharyngeal and occipital arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.50
    4 votes
    31
    Infraorbital artery

    Infraorbital artery

    The infraorbital artery is an artery in the head that runs in the maxilla, emerging through the infraorbital foramen, just under the orbit of the eye. The infraorbital artery appears, from its direction, to be the continuation of the trunk of the maxillary artery, but often arises in conjunction with the posterior superior alveolar artery. It runs along the infraorbital groove and canal with the infraorbital nerve, and emerges on the face through the infraorbital foramen, beneath the infraorbital head of the levator labii superioris muscle. While in the canal, it gives off On the face, some branches pass upward to the medial angle of the orbit and the lacrimal sac, anastomosing with the angular artery, a branch of the facial artery; others run toward the nose, anastomosing with the dorsal nasal branch of the ophthalmic artery; and others descend between the levator labii superioris and the levator anguli oris, and anastomose with the facial artery, transverse facial artery, and buccal artery. The four remaining branches arise from that portion of the maxillary artery which is contained in the pterygopalatine fossa. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain
    8.67
    3 votes
    32
    Stylomastoid artery

    Stylomastoid artery

    The stylomastoid artery enters the stylomastoid foramen and supplies the tympanic cavity, the tympanic antrum and mastoid cells, and the semicircular canals. It is a branch of the posterior auricular artery, and thus part of the external carotid arterial system. In the young subject a branch from this vessel forms, with the anterior tympanic artery from the internal maxillary, a vascular circle, which surrounds the tympanic membrane, and from which delicate vessels ramify on that membrane. It anastomoses with the superficial petrosal branch of the middle meningeal artery by a twig which enters the hiatus canalis facialis. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.67
    3 votes
    33
    Uterine artery

    Uterine artery

    The uterine artery is an artery that supplies blood to the uterus in females. The uterine artery usually arises from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It travels to the uterus, crossing the ureter anteriorly, reaching the uterus by traveling in the cardinal ligament. It travels through the parametrium of the inferior broad ligament of the uterus. It commonly anastomoses (connects with) the ovarian artery. The uterine artery is the major blood supply to the uterus and enlarges significantly during pregnancy.
    8.67
    3 votes
    34
    Medial femoral circumflex artery

    Medial femoral circumflex artery

    The medial circumflex femoral artery (internal circumflex artery, medial femoral circumflex artery) is an artery in the upper thigh that helps supply blood to the neck of the femur. Damage to the artery following a femoral neck fracture may lead to avascular (ischemic) necrosis of the femoral neck/head. The medial femoral circumflex artery arises from the medial and posterior aspect of the profunda femoris artery, and winds around the medial side of the femur, passing first between the pectineus and iliopsoas muscles, and then between the obturator externus and the adductor brevis muscles. The medial femoral circumflex artery may occasionally arise directly from the femoral artery. At the upper border of the adductor brevis it gives off two branches: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    10.00
    2 votes
    35
    Sinuatrial nodal artery

    Sinuatrial nodal artery

    The sinuatrial nodal artery (or sinoatrial nodal artery) is an artery of the heart which supplies the sinoatrial node, and usually arises from either the right coronary artery or (less frequently) the circumflex branch of left coronary artery.
    10.00
    2 votes
    36
    Superior laryngeal artery

    Superior laryngeal artery

    The superior laryngeal artery accompanies the internal laryngeal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, beneath the Thyreohyoideus. This artery branches from the superior thyroid artery near its bifurcation from the external carotid artery. It pierces the hyothyroid membrane, and supplies the muscles, mucous membrane, and glands of the larynx, anastomosing with the branch from the opposite side. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    10.00
    2 votes
    37
    Common interosseous artery

    Common interosseous artery

    The common interosseous artery, about 1 cm. in length, arises immediately below the tuberosity of the radius from the Ulnar artery. Passing backward to the upper border of the interosseous membrane, it divides into two branches, the anterior interosseous and posterior interosseous arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.25
    4 votes
    38
    Femoral artery

    Femoral artery

    The femoral artery (Latin: arteria femoralis) is a large artery in the thigh. It begins at the inguinal ligament (femoral head). In this segment, it is also called the common femoral artery (arteria femoralis communis) and gives the deep femoral artery, which provides blood to the thigh. After the branching of the deep femoral artery, it is called the superficial femoral artery (arteria femoralis superficialis) in clinical parlance, because of its superficial course. It continues along the femur to provide blood to the arteries that circulate the knee and the foot and enters the adductor canal. After it emerges from it through the adductor hiatus, it is named the popliteal artery. The femoral arteries receive blood through the external iliac artery. This connection occurs at the femoral triangle behind the inguinal ligament, which is usually near the head of the femur bone. That proximal section of the femoral artery, known specifically as the common femoral artery (CFA), leaves the femoral triangle through an apex beneath the sartorius muscle. It then divides into a deep femoral artery, more commonly known as the Profunda, which provides blood to the thigh, and the superficial
    7.25
    4 votes
    39
    Sigmoid arteries

    Sigmoid arteries

    The sigmoid arteries, two or three in number, run obliquely downward and to the left behind the peritoneum and in front of the Psoas major, ureter, and internal spermatic vessels. Their branches supply the lower part of the descending colon, the iliac colon, and the sigmoid or pelvic colon; anastomosing above with the left colic, and below with the superior hemorrhoidal artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.25
    4 votes
    40
    Superior mesenteric artery

    Superior mesenteric artery

    In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum through two-thirds of the transverse colon, as well as the pancreas. It arises anterior to lower border of vertebra L1 in an adult. It is usually 1cm lower than the celiac trunk. It initially travels in an anterior/inferior direction, passing behind/under the neck of the pancreas and the splenic vein. Located under this portion of the superior mesenteric artery, between it and the aorta, are the following: The SMA typically runs to the left of the similarly named vein, the superior mesenteric vein. After passing the neck of the pancreas it starts giving off its branches. The middle, right, and ileocecal branches anastomose with each other to form a marginal artery along the inner border of the colon. This artery is completed by branches of the left colic which is a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery.
    7.25
    4 votes
    41
    Anterior tibial recurrent artery

    Anterior tibial recurrent artery

    The anterior tibial recurrent artery arises from the anterior tibial, as soon as that vessel has passed through the interosseous space; it ascends in the Tibialis anterior, ramifies on the front and sides of the knee-joint, and assists in the formation of the patellar plexus by anastomosing with the genicular branches of the popliteal, and with the highest genicular artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.33
    3 votes
    42
    Anterior intercostal branches of internal thoracic artery

    Anterior intercostal branches of internal thoracic artery

    The Anterior intercostal branches of internal thoracic artery supply the upper five or six intercostal spaces. The internal thoracic artery then divides into the superior epigastric artery and musculophrenic artery. The latter gives out the remaining anterior intercostal branches. Two in number in each space, these small vessels pass lateralward, one lying near the lower margin of the rib above, and the other near the upper margin of the rib below, and anastomose with the posterior intercostal arteries from the thoracic aorta. They are at first situated between the pleura and the Intercostales interni, and then between the Intercostales interni and innermost. They supply the intercostal muscles and, by branches which perforate the Intercostales externi, the Pectoral muscles and the mamma.
    9.50
    2 votes
    43
    Deep artery of the penis

    Deep artery of the penis

    The deep artery of the penis (artery to the corpus cavernosum), one of the terminal branches of the internal pudendal, arises from that vessel while it is situated between the two fasciæ of the urogenital diaphragm (deep perineal pouch). It pierces the inferior fascia, and, entering the crus penis obliquely, runs forward in the center of the corpus cavernosum penis, to which its branches are distributed. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.50
    2 votes
    44
    Atrial branches of coronary arteries

    Atrial branches of coronary arteries

    The atrial branches of right coronary artery derive from the right coronary artery and provide part of the blood supply to the right atrium and left atrium. Although named for the right coronary artery in Terminologia anatomica, a portion of the blood supply to the atria derives from the Circumflex branch of left coronary artery.
    7.00
    4 votes
    45
    Short posterior ciliary arteries

    Short posterior ciliary arteries

    The short posterior ciliary arteries from six to twelve in number, arise from the ophthalmic as it crosses the optic nerve. They pass forward around the optic nerve to the posterior part of the eyeball, pierce the sclera around the entrance of the optic nerve, and supply the choroid (up to the equator of the eye) and ciliary processes. Some branches of the short posterior ciliary arteries also supply the optic disc via an anastomotic ring, the Circle of Zinn-Haller or Circle of Zinn, which is associated with the fibrous extension of the ocular tendons (Annulus of Zinn). This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    4 votes
    46
    Volar metacarpal arteries

    Volar metacarpal arteries

    The palmar metacarpal arteries (volar metacarpal arteries, palmar interosseous arteries), three or four in number, arise from the convexity of the deep volar arch They run distally upon the Interossei, and anastomose at the clefts of the fingers with the common digital branches of the superficial volar arch. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.00
    4 votes
    47
    Internal iliac artery

    Internal iliac artery

    The internal iliac artery (formerly known as the hypogastric artery) is the main artery of the pelvis. The internal iliac artery supplies the walls and viscera of the pelvis, the buttock, the reproductive organs, and the medial compartment of the thigh. The vesicular branches of the internal iliac arteries supply the bladder It is a short, thick vessel, smaller than the external iliac artery, and about 3 to 4 cm in length. It arises at the bifurcation of the common iliac artery, opposite the lumbosacral articulation, and, passing downward to the upper margin of the greater sciatic foramen, divides into two large trunks, an anterior and a posterior. The following are relations of the artery at various points: it is posterior to the ureter, anterior to the internal iliac vein, the lumbosacral trunk, and the piriformis muscle; near its origin, it is medial to the external iliac vein, which lies between it and the psoas major muscle; it is above the obturator nerve. The exact arrangement of branches of the internal iliac artery is variable. Generally, the artery divides into an anterior division and a posterior division, with the posterior division giving rise to the superior gluteal,
    8.00
    3 votes
    48

    Meningeal branches of the ascending pharyngeal artery

    The posterior meningeal arteries are small vessels which are branches of the ascending pharyngeal artery which supply the dura mater. It passes through the mastoid foramen before entering the cranium via the jugular foramen. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.00
    3 votes
    49
    Right gastric artery

    Right gastric artery

    The right gastric artery (pyloric artery) arises above the pylorus from the proper hepatic artery or less frequently from the common hepatic artery, descends to the pyloric end of the stomach, and passes from right to left along its lesser curvature, supplying it with branches, and anastomosing with the left gastric artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    8.00
    3 votes
    50
    Testicular artery

    Testicular artery

    The testicular artery (the male gonadal artery, also called the internal spermatic arteries in older texts) is a branch of the abdominal aorta that supplies blood to the testis. It is a paired artery, with one for each of the testes. It is the male equivalent of the ovarian artery. Because the testis is found in a different location than that of its female equivalent, it has a different course than the ovarian artery. They are two slender vessels of considerable length, and arise from the front of the aorta a little below the renal arteries. Each passes obliquely downward and lateralward behind the peritoneum, resting on the Psoas major, the right spermatic lying in front of the inferior vena cava and behind the middle colic and ileocolic arteries and the terminal part of the ileum, the left behind the left colic and sigmoid arteries and the iliac colon. Each crosses obliquely over the ureter and the lower part of the external iliac artery to reach the abdominal inguinal ring, through which it passes, and accompanies the other constituents of the spermatic cord along the inguinal canal to the scrotum, where it becomes tortuous, and divides into several branches. Two or three of
    8.00
    3 votes
    51
    Anterior lateral malleolar artery

    Anterior lateral malleolar artery

    The anterior lateral malleolar artery (lateral anterior malleolar artery, external malleolar artery) passes beneath the tendons of the Extensor digitorum longus and Peronæus tertius and supplies the lateral side of the ankle, anastomosing with the perforating branch of the peroneal artery, and with ascending twigs from the lateral tarsal artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.75
    4 votes
    52
    Inferior phrenic arteries

    Inferior phrenic arteries

    The inferior phrenic arteries are two small vessels, which supply the diaphragm but present much variety in their origin. They may arise separately from the front of the aorta, immediately above the celiac artery, or by a common trunk, which may spring either from the aorta or from the celiac artery. Sometimes one is derived from the aorta, and the other from one of the renal arteries; they rarely arise as separate vessels from the aorta. They diverge from one another across the crura of the diaphragm, and then run obliquely upward and lateralward upon its under surface. Near the back part of the central tendon each vessel divides into a medial and a lateral branch. Each vessel gives off superior suprarenal branches to the suprarenal gland of its own side. The spleen and the liver also receive a few twigs from the left and right vessels respectively. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.75
    4 votes
    53
    Intestinal arteries

    Intestinal arteries

    The intestinal arteries arise from the convex side of the superior mesenteric artery. They are usually from twelve to fifteen in number, and are distributed to the jejunum and ileum. The term "intestinal arteries" can be confusing, because these arteries only serve a small portion of the intestines. For clarity, some sources prefer instead using the more specific terms ileal arteries and jejunal arteries. They run nearly parallel with one another between the layers of the mesentery, each vessel dividing into two branches, which unite with adjacent branches, forming a series of arches (arterial arcades), the convexities of which are directed toward the intestine. From this first set of arches branches arise, which unite with similar branches from above and below and thus a second series of arches is formed; from the lower branches of the artery, a third, a fourth, or even a fifth series of arches may be formed, diminishing in size the nearer they approach the intestine. In the short, upper part of the mesentery only one set of arches exists, but as the depth of the mesentery increases, second, third, fourth, or even fifth groups are developed. The differences between the ileal
    6.75
    4 votes
    54
    Pulmonary artery

    Pulmonary artery

    The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. It is one of the only arteries (other than the umbilical arteries in the fetus) that carry deoxygenated blood. In the human heart, the pulmonary trunk (pulmonary artery or main pulmonary artery) begins at the base of the right ventricle. It is short and wide - approximately 5 cm (2 inches) in length and 3 cm (1.2 inches) in diameter. It then branches into two pulmonary arteries (left and right), which deliver de-oxygenated blood to the corresponding lung. In contrast to the pulmonary arteries, the bronchial arteries supply nutrition to the lungs themselves. Pulmonary hypertension occurs alone and as a consequence of a number of lung diseases. It can also be a consequence of heart disease (Eisenmenger's syndrome) but equally a cause (right-ventricular heart failure); it also occurs as a consequence of pulmonary embolism and scleroderma. It is characterised by reduced exercise tolerance. Severe forms, generally, have a dismal prognosis.
    6.75
    4 votes
    55
    Superficial temporal artery

    Superficial temporal artery

    In human anatomy, the superficial temporal artery is a major artery of the head. It arises from the external carotid artery when it bifurcates into the superficial temporal artery and maxillary artery. Its pulse is palpable superior to the zygomatic arch, anterior and superior to the tragus. The superficial temporal artery is the smaller of two terminal branches that bifurcate superiorly from the external carotid. Based on its direction, the superficial temporal artery appears to be a continuation of the external carotid. It begins in the substance of the parotid gland, behind the neck of the mandible, and passes superficially over the posterior root of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone; about 5 cm. above this process it divides into two branches, a frontal and a parietal. As it crosses the zygomatic process, it is covered by the Auricularis anterior muscle, and by a dense fascia; it is crossed by the temporal and zygomatic branches of the facial nerve and one or two veins, and is accompanied by the auriculotemporal nerve, which lies immediately behind it. The superficial temporal artery anastomoses with (among others) the supraorbital artery of the internal carotid
    6.75
    4 votes
    56
    Superior vesical artery

    Superior vesical artery

    The superior vesical artery supplies numerous branches to the upper part of the bladder. In the male, from one of these a slender vessel, the artery to the ductus deferens, takes origin and accompanies the duct in its course to the testis, where it anastomoses with the internal spermatic artery. Other branches supply the ureter. The first part of the superior vesical artery represents the terminal section of the previous portion of the umbilical artery (fetal hypogastric artery). This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.75
    4 votes
    57
    Tonsillar branch of the facial artery

    Tonsillar branch of the facial artery

    The tonsillar branch of the facial artery ascends between the Pterygoideus internus and Styloglossus, and then along the side of the pharynx, perforating the Constrictor pharyngis superior, to ramify in the substance of the palatine tonsil and root of the tongue. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated.
    6.75
    4 votes
    58
    Ileocolic artery

    Ileocolic artery

    The ileocolic artery is the lowest branch arising from the concavity of the superior mesenteric artery. It passes downward and to the right behind the peritoneum toward the right iliac fossa, where it divides into a superior and an inferior branch; the inferior anastomoses with the end of the superior mesenteric artery, the superior with the right colic artery. Supplies the cecum, ileum, and appendix. The inferior branch of the ileocolic runs toward the upper border of the ileocolic junction and supplies the following branches: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    5.80
    5 votes
    59
    Descending palatine artery

    Descending palatine artery

    The descending palatine artery is an artery of the head. It descends through the greater palatine canal with the greater and lesser palatine branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion, and, emerging from the greater palatine foramen, runs forward in a groove on the medial side of the alveolar border of the hard palate to the incisive canal; the terminal branch of the artery passes upward through this canal to anastomose with the sphenopalatine artery. Branches are distributed to the gums, the palatine glands, and the mucous membrane of the roof of the mouth; while in the pterygopalatine canal it gives off twigs which descend in the lesser palatine canals to supply the soft palate and palatine tonsil, anastomosing with the ascending palatine artery. According to Terminologia Anatomica, the descending palatine artery branches into the greater palatine artery and lesser palatine arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.00
    2 votes
    60
    Lateral sacral artery

    Lateral sacral artery

    The lateral sacral arteries arise from the posterior division of the internal iliac artery; there are usually two, a superior and an inferior. The superior, of large size, passes medialward, and, after anastomosing with branches from the middle sacral, enters the first or second anterior sacral foramen, supplies branches to the contents of the sacral canal, and, escaping by the corresponding posterior sacral foramen, is distributed to the skin and muscles on the dorsum of the sacrum, anastomosing with the superior gluteal. The inferior runs obliquely across the front of the piriformis and the sacral nerves to the medial side of the anterior sacral foramina, descends on the front of the sacrum, and anastomoses over the coccyx with the middle sacral and opposite lateral sacral artery. In its course it gives off branches, which enter the anterior sacral foramina; these, after supplying the contents of the sacral canal, escapes by the posterior sacral foramina, and are distributed to the muscles and skin on the dorsal surface of the sacrum, anastomosing with the gluteal arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some
    9.00
    2 votes
    61
    Ophthalmic artery

    Ophthalmic artery

    The ophthalmic artery (OA) is the first branch of the internal carotid artery distal to the cavernous sinus. Branches of the OA supply all the structures in the orbit as well as some structures in the nose, face and meninges. Occlusion of the OA or its branches can produce sight-threatening conditions. The OA emerges from the internal carotid artery usually just after the latter emerges from the cavernous sinus although in some cases, the OA branches just before the internal carotid exits the cavernous sinus. The OA arises from the internal carotid along the medial side of the anterior clinoid process and runs anteriorly passing through the optic canal with and inferolaterally to the optic nerve. Here, it should be noted that the ophthalmic artery can also pass superiorly to the optic nerve in a minority of cases . In the posterior third of the cone of the orbit, the ophthalmic artery turns sharply medially to run along the medial wall of the orbit. The central retinal artery is the first, and one of the smaller branches of the OA and runs in the dura mater inferior to the optic nerve. About 12.5mm (0.5 inches) posterior to the globe, the central retinal artery turns superiorly and
    9.00
    2 votes
    62
    Plantar arch

    Plantar arch

    The plantar arch is formed from: The plantar arch supplies the underside, or sole, of the foot. The plantar arch runs from the 5th metatarsal and extends medially to the 1st metatarsal (of the big toe). The arch is formed when the lateral plantar artery turns medially to the interval between the bases of the first and second metatarsal bones, where it unites with the deep plantar branch of the dorsalis pedis artery, thus completing the plantar arch (or deep plantar arch). The spring ligament, long plantar ligament, short plantar ligament, and plantar aponeurosis also support the plantar arch. The tibialis anterior and posterior tendons also help to pull the arch up. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.00
    2 votes
    63
    Posterior interosseous artery

    Posterior interosseous artery

    The posterior interosseous artery (dorsal interosseous artery) is an artery of the forearm. It passes backward between the oblique cord and the upper border of the interosseous membrane. It appears between the contiguous borders of the supinator and the abductor pollicis longus, and runs down the back of the forearm between the superficial and deep layers of muscles, to both of which it distributes branches. Where it lies upon the abductor pollicis longus and the extensor pollicis brevis, it is accompanied by the dorsal interosseous nerve. At the lower part of the forearm it anastomoses with the termination of the volar interosseous artery, and with the dorsal carpal network. It gives off, near its origin, the interosseous recurrent artery, which ascends to the interval between the lateral epicondyle and olecranon, on or through the fibers of the Supinator, but beneath the anconeus, and anastomoses with the radial collateral branch of the profunda brachii, the posterior ulnar recurrent and the inferior ulnar collateral. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.00
    2 votes
    64
    Superficial epigastric artery

    Superficial epigastric artery

    The superficial epigastric artery arises from the front of the femoral artery about 1 cm below the inguinal ligament, and, passing through the femoral sheath and the fascia cribrosa, turns upward in front of the inguinal ligament, and ascends between the two layers of the superficial fascia of the abdominal wall nearly as far as the umbilicus. It distributes branches to the superficial subinguinal lymph glands, the superficial fascia, and the integument; it anastomoses with branches of the inferior epigastric, and with its fellow of the opposite side. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.00
    2 votes
    65
    Ulnar artery

    Ulnar artery

    The ulnar artery is the main blood vessel, with oxygenated blood, of the medial aspect of the forearm. It arises from the brachial artery and terminates in the superficial palmar arch, which joins with the superficial branch of the radial artery. It is palpable on the anterior and medial aspect of the wrist. Along its course, it is accompanied by a similarly named vein or veins, the ulnar vein or ulnar veins. The ulnar artery, the larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial, begins a little below the bend of the elbow in the cubital fossa, and, passing obliquely downward, reaches the ulnar side of the forearm at a point about midway between the elbow and the wrist. It then runs along the ulnar border to the wrist, crosses the transverse carpal ligament on the radial side of the pisiform bone, and immediately beyond this bone divides into two branches, which enter into the formation of the superficial and deep volar arches. In its upper half, it is deeply seated, being covered by the Pronator teres, Flexor carpi radialis, Palmaris longus, and Flexor digitorum superficialis; it lies upon the Brachialis and Flexor digitorum profundus. The median nerve is in relation with the
    9.00
    2 votes
    66
    Middle suprarenal arteries

    Middle suprarenal arteries

    The middle suprarenal arteries (middle capsular arteries; suprarenal arteries) are two small vessels which arise, one from either side of the abdominal aorta, opposite the superior mesenteric artery. They pass laterally and slightly upward, over the crura of the diaphragm, to the suprarenal glands, where they anastomose with suprarenal branches of the inferior phrenic and renal arteries. In the fetus these arteries are of large size. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.67
    3 votes
    67
    Renal artery

    Renal artery

    The renal arteries normally arise off the side of the abdominal aorta, immediately below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood. Each is directed across the crus of the diaphragm, so as to form nearly a right angle with the aorta. The renal arteries carry a large portion of total blood flow to the kidneys. Up to a third of total cardiac output can pass through the renal arteries to be filtered by the kidneys. The arterial supply of the kidneys is variable and there may be one or more renal arteries supplying each kidney. It is located above the renal vein. Supernumerary renal arteries (two or more arteries to a single kidney) are the most common renovascular anomaly, occurrence ranging from 25% to 40% of kidneys. It has a radius of approximately 0.25 cm, 0.26 cm at the root. The measured mean diameter can differ depending on the imaging method used. For example, the diameter was found to be 5.04 ± 0.74 mm using ultrasound, but 5.68 ± 1.19 mm using angiography. Due to the position of the aorta, the inferior vena cava and the kidneys in the body, the right renal artery is normally longer than the left renal artery. Before reaching the hilus of the kidney,
    7.67
    3 votes
    68
    Buccinator artery

    Buccinator artery

    The buccal artery (buccinator artery) is small and runs obliquely forward, between the Pterygoideus internus and the insertion of the Temporalis, to the outer surface of the Buccinator, to which it is distributed, anastomosing with branches of the facial artery and with the infraorbital. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    10.00
    1 votes
    69
    Cystic artery

    Cystic artery

    The cystic artery supplies oxygenated blood to the gallbladder and cystic duct. In the classic arrangement, occurring with a frequency of approximately 70%, a singular cystic artery originates from the geniculate flexure of the right hepatic artery in the upper portion of the hepatobiliary triangle. A site of origin from a more proximal or distal portion of the right hepatic artery is also considered relatively normal. After separating from the right hepatic artery, the cystic artery travels superiorly to the cystic duct and produces 2 to 4 minor branches, known as Calot’s arteries, that supply part of the cystic duct and cervix of the gallbladder before dividing into the major superficial and deep branches at the superior aspect of the gallbladder neck: When superficial and deep branches of the cystic artery do not share a common origin it is defined as a double cystic artery occurring with a frequency of 15%. The deep branch consistently arises from the right hepatic artery which is generally also the source of origin of the superficial branch, however in some cases it has been found to initiate from the anterior segmental artery, middle hepatic artery, left hepatic artery,
    10.00
    1 votes
    70
    Deep palmar arch

    Deep palmar arch

    The deep palmar arch (deep volar arch) is an arterial network found in the palm. It is usually formed mainly from the terminal part of the radial artery, with the ulnar artery contributing via its deep palmar branch. This is in contrast to the superficial palmar arch, which is formed predominantly by the ulnar artery. The deep palmar arch lies upon the bases of the metacarpal bones and on the interossei of the hand, being covered by the oblique head of the adductor pollicis muscle, the flexor tendons of the fingers, and the lumbricals of the hand. Alongside of it, but running in the opposite direction—toward the radial side of the hand—is the deep branch of the ulnar nerve. The superficial palmar arch is more distally located than the deep palmar arch. If one were to fully extend the thumb and draw a line from the distal border of the thumb across the palm, this would be the level of the superficial palmar arch. The deep palmar arch is about a finger width proximal to this. From the deep palmar arch emerge palmar metacarpal arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may
    10.00
    1 votes
    71

    Esophageal arteries

    The esophageal arteries four or five in number, arise from the front of the aorta, and pass obliquely downward to the esophagus, forming a chain of anastomoses along that tube, anastomosing with the esophageal branches of the inferior thyroid arteries above, and with ascending branches from the left inferior phrenic and left gastric arteries below. These arteries supply the middle third of the esophagus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    10.00
    1 votes
    72

    Inferior laryngeal artery

    The inferior laryngeal artery ascends upon the trachea to the back part of the larynx under cover of the Constrictor pharyngis inferior, in company with the recurrent nerve, and supplies the muscles and mucous membrane of this part, anastomosing with the branch from the opposite side, and with the superior laryngeal branch of the superior thyroid artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    10.00
    1 votes
    73
    Interosseous recurrent artery

    Interosseous recurrent artery

    The interosseous recurrent artery (or recurrent interosseous artery) is an artery of the forearm which arises from the posterior interosseous artery near its origin. It ascends to the interval between the lateral epicondyle and olecranon, on or through the fibers of the supinator but beneath the anconeus. It anastomoses with the medial collateral artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    10.00
    1 votes
    74
    Medial plantar artery

    Medial plantar artery

    The medial plantar artery (internal plantar artery), much smaller than the lateral, passes forward along the medial side of the foot. It is at first situated above the Abductor hallucis, and then between it and the Flexor digitorum brevis, both of which it supplies. At the base of the first metatarsal bone, where it is much diminished in size, it passes along the medial border of the first toe, anastomosing with the first dorsal metatarsal artery. Small superficial digital branches accompany the digital branches of the medial plantar nerve and join the plantar metatarsal arteries of the first three spaces. A superficial branch which supplies a plantar digital artery to the medial side of the 1st toe, and a deep branch which assists in supplying blood to the plantar metatarsal arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    10.00
    1 votes
    75
    Medial tarsal arteries

    Medial tarsal arteries

    The medial tarsal arteries are two or three small branches which ramify on the medial border of the foot and join the medial malleolar net-work. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    10.00
    1 votes
    76
    Middle rectal artery

    Middle rectal artery

    The middle rectal artery is an artery in the pelvis that supplies blood to the rectum. The middle rectal artery usually arises with the inferior vesical artery, a branch of the internal iliac artery. It is distributed to the rectum, anastomosing with the inferior vesical artery, superior rectal artery, and inferior rectal artery. In males, the middle rectal artery may give off branches to the prostate and the seminal vesicles, while in females it gives off branches to the vagina.
    10.00
    1 votes
    77
    Right coronary artery

    Right coronary artery

    The right coronary artery (RCA) is an artery originating above the right cusp of the aortic valve. It travels down the right atrioventricular groove, towards the crux of the heart. At the origin of the RCA is the conus artery. In addition to supplying blood to the right ventricle (RV), the RCA supplies 25% to 35% of the left ventricle (LV). In 85% of patients (Right Dominant), the RCA gives off the posterior descending artery (PDA). In the other 15% of cases (Left Dominant), the PDA is given off by the left circumflex artery. The PDA supplies the inferior wall, ventricular septum, and the posteromedial papillary muscle. The RCA also supplies the SA nodal artery in 60% of patients. The other 40% of the time, the SA nodal artery is supplied by the left circumflex artery.
    10.00
    1 votes
    78
    Short gastric arteries

    Short gastric arteries

    The short gastric arteries consist of from five to seven small branches, which arise from the end of the splenic artery, and from its terminal divisions. They pass from left to right, between the layers of the gastrolienal ligament, and are distributed to the greater curvature of the stomach, anastomosing with branches of the left gastric and left gastroepiploic arteries. Unlike the gastroepiploics and the left and right gastric arteries, the short gastric arteries have poor anastomoses if the splenic artery is blocked. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    10.00
    1 votes
    79
    Subscapular artery

    Subscapular artery

    The subscapular artery, the largest branch of the axillary artery, arises at the lower border of the Subscapularis muscle, which it follows to the inferior angle of the scapula, where it anastomoses with the lateral thoracic and intercostal arteries and with the descending branch of the transverse cervical, and ends in the neighboring muscles. About 4 cm. from its origin it gives off two branches, first the scapular circumflex artery and then the thoracodorsal artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    10.00
    1 votes
    80
    Superior epigastric artery

    Superior epigastric artery

    In human anatomy, superior epigastric artery refers to a blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood and arises from the internal thoracic artery (referred to as the internal mammary artery in the accompanying diagram). It anastomoses with the inferior epigastric artery at the umbilicus and supplies the anterior part of the abdominal wall and some of the diaphragm. Along its course, it is accompanied by a similarly named vein, the superior epigastric vein. The superior epigastric arteries, inferior epigastric arteries, internal thoracic arteries and left subclavian artery and right subclavian artery / brachiocephalic are collateral vessels to the thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta. If the abdominal aorta develops a significant stenosis and/or blockage (as may be caused by atherosclerosis), this collateral pathway may develop sufficiently, over time, to supply blood to the lower limbs. A congenitally narrowed aorta, due to coarctation, is often associated with a significant enlargement of the internal thoracic and epigastric arteries.
    10.00
    1 votes
    81
    Radial artery

    Radial artery

    In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main artery of the lateral aspect of the forearm. The radial artery arises from the bifurcation of the brachial artery in the cubital fossa. It runs distally on the anterior part of the forearm. There, it serves as a landmark for the division between the anterior and posterior compartments of the forearm, with the posterior compartment beginning just lateral to the artery. The artery winds laterally around the wrist, passing through the anatomical snuff box and between the heads of the first dorsal interosseous muscle. It passes anteriorly between the heads of the adductor pollicis, and becomes the deep palmar arch, which joins with the deep branch of the ulnar artery. Along its course, it is accompanied by a similarly named vein, the radial vein. The named branches of the radial artery may be divided into three groups, corresponding with the three regions in which the vessel is situated. The artery's pulse is palpable in the anatomical snuff box and on the anterior aspect of the arm over the carpal bones (where it is commonly used to assess the heart rate and cardiac rhythm). Presence of radial pulse has been estimated to indicate a
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    Accessory branch of middle meningeal artery

    Accessory branch of middle meningeal artery

    The accessory meningeal artery (also accessory branch of middle meningeal artery, pterygomeningeal artery, small meningeal or parvidural branch) is a branch of the maxillary artery, sometimes derived from the middle meningeal artery. It enters the skull through the foramen ovale, and supplies the semilunar ganglion and dura mater. Only about 10% of the blood flowing through this artery reaches intracranial structures. Reflecting this fact, Terminologia Anatomica lists entries for both "accessory branch of middle meningeal artery" and "pterygomeningeal artery". This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Bronchial artery

    Bronchial artery

    In human anatomy, the bronchial arteries help supply the lungs with nutrition and oxygenated blood. Although there is much variation, there are usually two bronchial arteries that run to the left lung, and one to the right lung. The left bronchial arteries (superior & inferior) usually arise directly from the thoracic aorta. The single right bronchial artery usually arises from one of the following: The bronchial arteries supply blood to the bronchi and connective tissue of the lungs. They travel with and branch with the bronchi, ending about at the level of the respiratory bronchioles. They anastomose with the branches of the pulmonary arteries, and together, they supply the visceral pleura of the lung in the process. Note that much of the blood supplied by the bronchial arteries is returned via the pulmonary veins rather than the bronchial veins. Each bronchial artery also has a branch that supplies the esophagus. It is easy to confuse the bronchial arteries with the pulmonary arteries, because they both supply the lungs with blood, but there are important differences: The bronchial arteries are typically enlarged and tortuous in chronic pulmonary thromboembolic hypertension. The
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    Dorsal scapular artery

    Dorsal scapular artery

    The dorsal scapular artery (or descending scapular artery) is a blood vessel which supplies the levator scapulae, rhomboids, and trapezius. It most frequently arises from the subclavian artery (the second or third part), but a quarter of the time it arises from the transverse cervical artery. In that case, the artery is also known as the deep branch of the transverse cervical artery, and the junction of those two is called cervicodorsal trunk. It passes beneath the levator scapulae to the superior angle of the scapula, and then descends under the rhomboid muscles along the vertebral border of the scapula as far as the inferior angle. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Occipital artery

    Occipital artery

    The occipital artery arises from the external carotid artery opposite the facial artery, its path is below the posterior belly of digastric to the occipital region. This artery supplies blood to the back of the scalp and sterno-mastoid muscles. Other muscles it supplies are deep muscles in the back and neck. At its origin, it is covered by the posterior belly of the Digastricus and the Stylohyoideus, and the hypoglossal nerve winds around it from behind forward; higher up, it crosses the internal carotid artery, the internal jugular vein, and the vagus and accessory nerves. It next ascends to the interval between the transverse process of the atlas and the mastoid process of the temporal bone, and passes horizontally backward, grooving the surface of the latter bone, being covered by the Sternocleidomastoideus, Splenius capitis, Longissimus capitis, and Digastricus, and resting upon the Rectus capitis lateralis, the Obliquus superior, and Semispinalis capitis. It then changes its course and runs vertically upward, pierces the fascia connecting the cranial attachment of the Trapezius with the Sternocleidomastoideus, and ascends in a tortuous course in the superficial fascia of the
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    Superior ulnar collateral artery

    Superior ulnar collateral artery

    The superior ulnar collateral artery (inferior profunda artery), of small size, arises from the brachial a little below the middle of the arm; it frequently springs from the upper part of the a. profunda brachii. It pierces the medial intermuscular septum, and descends on the surface of the medial head of the Triceps brachii to the space between the medial epicondyle and olecranon, accompanied by the ulnar nerve, and ends under the Flexor carpi ulnaris by anastomosing with the posterior ulnar recurrent, and inferior ulnar collateral. It sometimes sends a branch in front of the medial epicondyle, to anastomose with the anterior ulnar recurrent. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Cavernous portion of internal carotid artery

    Cavernous portion of internal carotid artery

    The Cavernous Portion of internal carotid artery.—In this part of its course, the artery is situated between the layers of the dura mater forming the cavernous sinus, but covered by the lining membrane of the sinus. It at first ascends toward the posterior clinoid process, then passes forward by the side of the body of the sphenoid bone, and again curves upward on the medial side of the anterior clinoid process, and perforates the dura mater forming the roof of the sinus. This portion of the artery is surrounded by filaments of the sympathetic nerve, and on its lateral side is the abducent nerve. Branches: Inferior hypophysial artery This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Dorsalis pedis artery

    Dorsalis pedis artery

    In human anatomy, the dorsalis pedis artery (dorsal artery of foot), is a blood vessel of the lower limb that carries oxygenated blood to the dorsal surface of the foot. It arises at the anterior aspect of the ankle joint and is a continuation of the anterior tibial artery. It terminates at the proximal part of the first intermetatarsal space, where it divides into two branches, the first dorsal metatarsal artery and the deep plantar artery. Along its course, it is accompanied by a deep vein, the dorsalis pedis vein. The dorsalis pedis artery pulse can be palpated readily lateral to the extensor hallucis longus tendon (or medially to the extensor digitorum longus tendon) on the dorsal surface of the foot, distal to the dorsal most prominence of the navicular bone which serves as a reliable landmark for palpation. It is often examined, by physicians, when assessing whether a given patient has peripheral vascular disease. It is absent, unilaterally or bilaterally, in 2-3% of young healthy individuals.
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    Inferior suprarenal artery

    Inferior suprarenal artery

    The inferior suprarenal arteries usually (variations are common ) originate at the trunk of the renal artery before its terminal division, and usually present substantially different diameters corresponding to the age variable. The suprarenal arteries irrigate the suprarenal gland parenchyma, the ureter, and the surrounding cellular tissue and muscles. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Lateral tarsal artery

    Lateral tarsal artery

    The lateral tarsal artery (tarsal artery) arises from the dorsalis pedis, as that vessel crosses the navicular bone; it passes in an arched direction lateralward, lying upon the tarsal bones, and covered by the Extensor digitorum brevis; it supplies this muscle and the articulations of the tarsus, and anastomoses with branches of the arcuate, anterior lateral malleolar and lateral plantar arteries, and with the perforating branch of the peroneal artery. It runs with the lateral terminal branch of deep fibular nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Posterior spinal artery

    Posterior spinal artery

    The posterior spinal artery (dorsal spinal artery) arises from the vertebral artery, adjacent to the medulla oblongata. It passes posteriorly to descend the medulla passing in front of the posterior roots of the spinal nerves. Along its course it is reinforced by a succession of segmental or radicular branches, which enter the vertebral canal through the intervertebral foramina, forming a plexus called the vasocorona. The posterior spinal arteries continue as the two major trunks down to the lower part of the medulla spinalis, and to the cauda equina. Branches from the posterior spinal arteries form a free anastomosis around the posterior roots of the spinal nerves, and communicate, by means of very tortuous transverse branches, with the vessels of the opposite side. Close to its origin each posterior spinal artery gives off an ascending branch, which ends ipsilaterally near the fourth ventricle. The posterior spinal artery can often originate from the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, rather than the vertebral. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Posterior tibial recurrent artery

    The posterior tibial recurrent artery, an inconstant branch, is given off from the anterior tibial before that vessel passes through the interosseous space. It ascends in front of the Popliteus, which it supplies, and anastomoses with the inferior genicular branches of the popliteal artery, giving an offset to the tibiofibular joint. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated.
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    Superior rectal artery

    Superior rectal artery

    The superior rectal artery (superior hemorrhoidal artery) is an artery that descends into the pelvis to supply blood to the rectum. The superior rectal artery is the continuation of the inferior mesenteric artery. It descends into the pelvis between the layers of the mesentery of the sigmoid colon, crossing the left common iliac artery and vein. It divides, opposite the third sacral vertebra into two branches, which descend one on either side of the rectum. About 10 or 12 cm from the anus, these branches break up into several small branches. These pierce the muscular coat of the bowel and run downward, as straight vessels, placed at regular intervals from each other in the wall of the gut between its muscular and mucous coats, to the level of the internal anal sphincter; here they form a series of loops around the lower end of the rectum, and communicate with the middle rectal artery (from the internal iliac artery) and with the inferior rectal artery (from the internal pudendal artery). This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Supra-orbital artery

    Supra-orbital artery

    The supraorbital artery is an artery of the head. It springs from the ophthalmic artery as that vessel is crossing over to the medial side of the optic nerve. It passes upward on the medial borders of the superior rectus muscle and levator palpebrae superioris, meeting the supraorbital nerve accompanies it between the roof of the orbit and levator palpebrae superioris to the supraorbital notch. When passing through the supraorbital notch it divides into a superficial and a deep branch. Its terminal branches anastomose with branches of the supratrochlear artery and the superficial temporal arteries. This artery supplies the levator palpebrae superioris, the diploë of the frontal bone, the frontal sinus, the upper eyelid, and the skin of the forehead and the scalp. This artery may be absent in 10% to 20% of individuals. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Thoracodorsal artery

    Thoracodorsal artery

    The thoracodorsal artery is a branch of the subscapular artery. It travels inferiorly with the thoracodorsal nerve and supplies the latissimus dorsi.
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    Artery of Adamkiewicz

    Artery of Adamkiewicz

    In human anatomy, the Artery of Adamkiewicz is the largest anterior segmental medullary artery. It has several other names, including: It typically arises from a left posterior intercostal artery, which branches from the aorta, and supplies the lower two thirds of the spinal cord via the anterior spinal artery. The spinal cord vasculature has a complex and highly variable anatomy. In a study of approximately 70 people that examined the spinal cord's blood supply it was found that: In 75% of people, the artery of Adamkiewicz originates on the left side of the aorta between the T8 and L1 vertebral segments. In an extensive literature review, recognition of the AKA using CT and/or MR was achieved in 466 of 555 cases (83.96%)and in 384 (83.3%) cases the AKA originated from a left intercostal artery. "Great radicular artery of Adamkiewicz… provides the major blood supply to the lumbar and sacral cord." When damaged or obstructed, it can result in anterior spinal artery syndrome, with loss of urinary and fecal continence and impaired motor function of the legs; sensory function is often preserved to a degree. It is important to identify the location of the artery when treating a thoracic
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    Dorsal nasal artery

    Dorsal nasal artery

    The dorsal nasal artery (nasal artery) is an artery of the head. It is one of the two terminal branches of the ophthalmic artery. It emerges from the orbit above the medial palpebral ligament, and, after giving a twig to the upper part of the lacrimal sac, divides into two branches. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Obturator artery

    Obturator artery

    The obturator artery is a branch of the internal iliac artery that passes antero-inferiorly (forwards and downwards) on the lateral wall of the pelvis, to the upper part of the obturator foramen, and, escaping from the pelvic cavity through the obturator canal, it divides into both an anterior and a posterior branch. In the pelvic cavity this vessel is in relation, laterally, with the obturator fascia; medially, with the ureter, ductus deferens, and peritoneum; while a little below it is the obturator nerve. Inside the pelvis the obturator artery gives off iliac branches to the iliac fossa, which supply the bone and the Iliacus, and anastomose with the ilio-lumbar artery; a vesical branch, which runs backward to supply the bladder; and a pubic branch, which is given off from the vessel just before it leaves the pelvic cavity. The pubic branch ascends upon the back of the pubis, communicating with the corresponding vessel of the opposite side, and with the inferior epigastric artery. Outside the pelvis, the obturator artery divides at the upper margin of the obturator foramen, into an anterior branch and a posterior branch which encircle the foramen under cover of the Obturator
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    Thoracoacromial artery

    Thoracoacromial artery

    The thoracoacromial artery (acromiothoracic artery; thoracic axis) is a short trunk, which arises from the forepart of the axillary artery, its origin being generally overlapped by the upper edge of the Pectoralis minor. Projecting forward to the upper border of the Pectoralis minor, it pierces the coracoclavicular fascia and divides into four branches—pectoral, acromial, clavicular, and deltoid. Mnemonics used to remember the four branches are: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Anterior ethmoidal artery

    Anterior ethmoidal artery

    The anterior ethmoidal artery, also anterior ethmoid artery is an artery of the head. Once branching from the ophthalmic artery, it accompanies the nasociliary nerve through the anterior ethmoidal canal to supply the anterior and middle ethmoidal cells, frontal sinus, and anterosuperior aspect of the lateral nasal wall. When entering the cranium, it gives off: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Arteria pancreatica magna

    Arteria pancreatica magna

    In human anatomy, the arteria pancreatica magna, also great pancreatic artery and greater pancreatic artery, is the largest blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the pancreas and arises from the splenic artery. Rarely, the arteria pancreatica magna can rupture as a complication of chronic pancreatitis; this is often fatal.
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    Facial artery

    Facial artery

    The facial artery (external maxillary artery in older texts) is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies structures of the superficial face. The facial artery arises in the carotid triangle from the external carotid artery a little above the lingual artery and, sheltered by the ramus of the mandible, passes obliquely up beneath the digastric and stylohyoid muscles, over which it arches to enter a groove on the posterior surface of the submandibular gland. It then curves upward over the body of the mandible at the antero-inferior angle of the masseter; passes forward and upward across the cheek to the angle of the mouth, then ascends along the side of the nose, and ends at the medial commissure of the eye, under the name of the angular artery. This vessel, both in the neck and on the face, is remarkably tortuous: in the former situation, to accommodate itself to the movements of the pharynx in deglutition; and in the latter, to the movements of the mandible, lips, and cheeks. In the neck, its origin is superficial, being covered by the integument, platysma, and fascia; it then passes beneath the digastric and stylohyoid muscles and part of the submandibular gland, but
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    Popliteal artery

    Popliteal artery

    In human anatomy, the popliteal artery is defined as the extension of the "superficial" femoral artery after passing through the adductor canal and adductor hiatus above the knee. The termination of the popliteal artery is its bifurcation into the anterior tibial artery and posterior tibial artery. The popliteal artery, through numerous smaller branches, supplies blood to the knee joint and muscles in the thigh and calf. It is accompanied, along its length, by the popliteal vein. The branches of the popliteal artery are: The fibular artery typically arises from the posterior tibial artery. Therefore, the posterior tibial artery proximal to the fibular artery origin is sometimes called the tibial-peroneal trunk or tibial-fibular trunk and it could be said that the popliteal artery bifurates into the tibial-fibular trunk and anterior tibial artery. Its pulse can be palpated behind the knee when it is semi-flexed, but is generally more challenging to find than other arteries of the leg; thus, a readily-detectable and easy-to-find popliteal pulse may actually suggest some pathology.
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    Posterior intercostal arteries

    Posterior intercostal arteries

    The posterior intercostal arteries are arteries that supply blood to the intercostal spaces. There are eleven posterior intercostal arteries on each side. The right aortic intercostals are longer than the left because of the position of the aorta on the left side of the vertebral column; they pass across the bodies of the vertebrae behind the esophagus, thoracic duct, and azygos vein, and are covered by the right lung and pleura. The left aortic intercostals run backward on the sides of the vertebrae and are covered by the left lung and pleura; the upper two vessels are crossed by the left superior intercostal vein, the lower vessels by the hemiazygos vein. Opposite the heads of the ribs, the sympathetic trunk passes downward in front of them, and the splanchnic nerves also descend in front by the lower arteries. Each artery then divides into an anterior and a posterior ramus. A given posterior intercostal artery travels along the bottom of the rib with its corresponding posterior intercostal vein, as well as the intercostal nerve of the given space. The vein is superior to the artery, and the intercostal nerve is inferior to it. Commonly, the mnemonic, "Van," is used to recall the
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    Axillary artery

    Axillary artery

    In human anatomy, the axillary artery is a large blood vessel that conveys oxygenated blood to the lateral aspect of the thorax, the axilla (armpit) and the upper limb. Its origin is at the lateral margin of the first rib, before which it is called the subclavian artery. After passing the lower margin of teres major it becomes the brachial artery. The axillary artery is often referred to as having three parts, with these divisions based on its location relative to the Pectoralis minor muscle, which is superficial to the artery. The axillary artery is accompanied by the axillary vein along its length. In the axilla, it is surrounded by the brachial plexus. The second part of the axillary artery is the reference for the locational descriptions of the cords in the brachial plexus. For example, the posterior cord of the brachial plexus is so named because it lies posterior to the second part of the artery. The axillary artery has several smaller branches. The branches can be remembered, in order, when traveling from the heart, with the mnemonic "Screw The Lawyers Save A Patient", "Summertime: The Lakers Schedule Another Parade", or "She Tastes Like Sweet Apple Pie." The origin of
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    Superior thyroid artery

    Superior thyroid artery

    The superior thyroid artery arises from the external carotid artery just below the level of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone and ends in the thyroid gland. From its origin under the anterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus it runs upward and forward for a short distance in the carotid triangle, where it is covered by the skin, Platysma, and fascia; it then arches downward beneath the Omohyoideus, Sternohyoideus, and Sternothyreoideus. To its medial side are the Constrictor pharyngis inferior and the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. It distributes twigs to the adjacent muscles, and numerous branches to the thyroid gland, anastomosing with its fellow of the opposite side, and with the inferior thyroid arteries. The branches to the gland are generally two in number; Besides the arteries distributed to the muscles and to the thyroid gland, the branches of the superior thyroid are: This artery must be ligated at the thyroid when conducting a thyroidectomy. If the artery is severed, but not ligated, it will bleed profusely. In order to gain control of the bleeding the surgeon may need to extend the original incision laterally to gain access to its origin from the
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    Transverse cervical artery

    Transverse cervical artery

    The transverse cervical artery (transverse artery of neck, transversa colli artery) is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk, running at a higher level than the suprascapular artery. It passes transversely above the inferior belly of the omohyoid muscle to the anterior margin of the trapezius, beneath which it divides into a superficial and a deep branch. It crosses in front of the phrenic nerve and the scalene muscles, and in front of or between the divisions of the brachial plexus, and is covered by the platysma and sternocleidomastoid muscles, and crossed by the omohyoid and trapezius. The transverse cervical artery splits into two branches, a superficial one and a deep one: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Accompanying artery of ischiadic nerve

    Accompanying artery of ischiadic nerve

    The accompanying artery of ischiadic nerve is a long, slender vessel, which accompanies the sciatic nerve for a short distance; it then penetrates it, and runs in its substance to the lower part of the thigh. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Central retinal artery

    Central retinal artery

    The central retinal artery (retinal artery) branches off the ophthalmic artery, running inferior to the optic nerve within its dural sheath to the eyeball. It pierces the optic nerve close to the eyeball, sending branches over the internal surface of the retina, and these terminal branches are the only blood supply to the larger part of it. The central part of the retina where the light rays are focussed after passing through the pupil and the lens is a circular area called the macula. The center of this circular area is the fovea. The fovea and a small area surrounding it are not supplied by the central retinal artery or its branches, but instead by the choroid. The central retinal artery supplies all the nerve fibers that form the optic nerve that carries the visual information to the occipital lobe cerebral cortex, including those that reach over the fovea. Thus if the central retinal artery gets occluded, there is complete loss of vision in that eye even though the fovea is not affected. The entire retina (with the exception of the fovea) becomes pale and swollen and opaque while the central fovea still appears reddish (this is because the choroid color shows through). This is
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    Inferior epigastric artery

    Inferior epigastric artery

    In human anatomy, inferior epigastric artery refers to the artery that arises from the external iliac artery and anastomoses with the superior epigastric artery. Along its course, it is accompanied by a similarly named vein, the inferior epigastric vein. It arises from the external iliac artery, immediately above the inguinal ligament. It curves forward in the subperitoneal tissue, and then ascends obliquely along the medial margin of the abdominal inguinal ring; continuing its course upward, it pierces the transversalis fascia, and, passing in front of the linea semicircularis, ascends between the Rectus abdominis and the posterior lamella of its sheath. It finally divides into numerous branches, which anastomose, above the umbilicus, with the superior epigastric branch of the internal thoracic artery and with the lower intercostal arteries. As the inferior epigastric artery passes obliquely upward from its origin it lies along the lower and medial margins of the abdominal inguinal ring, and behind the commencement of the spermatic cord. The vas deferens, as it leaves the spermatic cord in the male, and the round ligament of the uterus in the female, winds around the lateral and
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    Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery

    Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery

    The inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery or from its first intestinal branch, opposite the upper border of the inferior part of the duodenum. It courses to the right between the head of the pancreas and duodenum, and then ascends to anastomose with the anterior and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. It distributes branches to the head of the pancreas and to the descending and inferior parts of the duodenum. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Internal thoracic artery

    Internal thoracic artery

    In human anatomy, the internal thoracic artery (ITA), previously known as the internal mammary artery (a name still common among surgeons), is an artery that supplies the anterior chest wall and the breasts. It is a paired artery, with one running along each side of the sternum, to continue after its bifurcation as the superior epigastric and musculophrenic arteries. The internal thoracic artery arises from the subclavian artery near its origin. It travels downward on the inside of the ribcage, approximately a centimeter from the sides of the sternum, and thus medial to the nipple. It is accompanied by the internal thoracic vein. It runs deep to the internal intercostal muscles, but superficial to the transverse thoracic muscles. It continues downward until it divides into the musculophrenic artery and the superior epigastric artery around the sixth intercostal space. After passing the sixth intercostal space, the internal thoracic artery splits into the following two terminal branches: The internal thoracic artery is the cardiac surgeon's blood vessel of choice for coronary artery bypass grafting. The left ITA has a superior long-term patency to saphenous vein grafts and other
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    Radial collateral artery

    Radial collateral artery

    The radial collateral artery (another term for the anterior descending branch of the profunda brachii artery) is a branch of the deep brachial artery. It arises in the arm proper and anastomoses with the radial recurrent artery near the elbow.
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    Subcostal arteries

    The subcostal arteries, so named because they lie below the last ribs, constitute the lowest pair of branches derived from the thoracic aorta, and are in series with the intercostal arteries. Each passes along the lower border of the twelfth rib behind the kidney and in front of the Quadratus lumborum muscle, and is accompanied by the twelfth thoracic nerve. It then pierces the posterior aponeurosis of the Transversus abdominis, and, passing forward between this muscle and the Obliquus internus, anastomoses with the superior epigastric, lower intercostal, and lumbar arteries. Each subcostal artery gives off a posterior branch which has a similar distribution to the posterior ramus of an intercostal artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Supratrochlear artery

    Supratrochlear artery

    The supratrochlear artery (or frontal artery), one of the terminal branches of the ophthalmic artery, branches off where the ophthalmic travels posterior to the trochlea. It leaves the orbit at its medial angle by piercing the orbital septum with the supratrochlear nerve, and, ascending on the forehead, supplies the integument, muscles, and pericranium, anastomosing with the supraorbital artery, and with the artery of the opposite side. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Urethral artery

    Urethral artery

    The Urethral artery arises from the internal pudendal artery a short distance in front of the artery of the urethral bulb. In the male, it runs forward and medially, pierces the inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm and enters the corpus cavernosum urethræ, in which it is continued forward to the glans penis. In the female, the urethral artery serves the analogous structures. Because the female urethra is so much shorter than the male, this structure is often impossible to find on a female cadaver. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Aorta

    Aorta

    The aorta ( /eɪˈɔrtə/; from Greek ἀορτή - aortē, from ἀείρω - aeirō "I lift, raise") is the largest artery in the body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it bifurcates into two smaller arteries (the common iliacs). The aorta distributes oxygenated blood to all parts of the body through the systemic circulation. The aorta is usually divided into five segments/sections: All amniotes have a broadly similar arrangement to that of humans, albeit with a number of individual variations. In fish, however, there are two separate vessels referred to as aortas. The ventral aorta carries de-oxygenated blood from the heart to the gills; part of this vessel forms the ascending aorta in tetrapods (the remainder forms the pulmonary artery). A second, dorsal aorta carries oxygenated blood from the gills to the rest of the body, and is homologous with the descending aorta of tetrapods. The two aortas are connected by a number of vessels, one passing through each of the gills. Amphibians also retain the fifth connecting vessel, so that the aorta has two parallel arches. In mammalian and avian embryological development, the pharyngeal arch
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    Ciliary arteries

    Ciliary arteries

    The ciliary arteries are divisible into three groups, the long posterior, short posterior, and the anterior. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.00
    1 votes
    119
    Circumflex scapular artery

    Circumflex scapular artery

    The circumflex scapular artery (scapular circumflex artery, dorsalis scapulae artery) is a branch of the subscapular artery and part of the scapular anastomoses. It curves around the axillary border of the scapula, traveling through the anatomical "Triangular space" made up of the Teres minor superiorally, the Teres major inferiorally, and the long head of the Triceps laterally. It enters the infraspinatous fossa under cover of the Teres minor, and anastomoses with the transverse scapular artery (suprascapular) and the descending branch of the transverse cervical (a.k.a. dorsal scapular artery). In its course it gives off two branches: In addition to these, small branches are distributed to the back part of the Deltoideus and the long head of the Triceps brachii, anastomosing with an ascending branch of the profunda brachii. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.00
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    120
    Internal auditory artery

    Internal auditory artery

    The labyrinthine artery (auditory artery, internal auditory artery), a long slender branch of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (85%-100% cases) or basilar artery (
    9.00
    1 votes
    121
    Posterior superior alveolar artery

    Posterior superior alveolar artery

    The posterior superior alveolar artery (posterior dental artery) is given off from the maxillary, frequently in conjunction with the infraorbital artery just as the trunk of the vessel is passing into the pterygopalatine fossa. Descending upon the tuberosity of the maxilla, it divides into numerous branches, some of which enter the alveolar canals, to supply the molar and premolar teeth and the lining of the maxillary sinus, while others are continued forward on the alveolar process to supply the gingiva. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    9.00
    1 votes
    122
    Inferior genicular arteries

    Inferior genicular arteries

    The inferior genicular arteries (inferior articular arteries), two in number, arise from the popliteal beneath the Gastrocnemius. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    5.75
    4 votes
    123
    Median sacral artery

    Median sacral artery

    The median sacral artery (or middle sacral artery) is a small vessel, which arises posterior to the abdominal aorta,superior to its bifurcation. It descends in the middle line in front of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebræ, the sacrum and coccyx, and ends in the glomus coccygeum (coccygeal gland). From it, minute branches are said to pass to the posterior surface of the rectum. On the last lumbar vertebra it anastomoses with the lumbar branch of the iliolumbar artery; in front of the sacrum it anastomoses with the lateral sacral arteries, and sends offsets into the anterior sacral foramina. It is crossed by the left common iliac vein, and is accompanied by a pair of venæ comitantes; these unite to form a single vessel, which opens into the left common iliac vein. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    5.75
    4 votes
    124
    Ascending palatine artery

    Ascending palatine artery

    The ascending palatine artery is an artery in the head that branches off the facial artery and runs up the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle. The ascending palatine artery arises close to the origin of the facial artery and passes up between the styloglossus and stylopharyngeus to the side of the pharynx along which it is continued between the superior pharyngeal constrictor and the medial pterygoid muscle to near the base of the skull. It divides near the levator veli palatini muscle into two branches: one supplies and follows the course of this muscle, and, winding over the upper border of the superior pharyngeal constrictor, supplies the soft palate and the palatine glands, anastomosing with its fellow of the opposite side and with the descending palatine branch of the maxillary artery; the other pierces the superior pharyngeal constrictor and supplies the palatine tonsil and auditory tube, anastomosing with the tonsillar branch of the facial artery and the ascending pharyngeal artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.67
    3 votes
    125
    Brachial artery

    Brachial artery

    The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the (upper) arm. It is the continuation of the axillary artery beyond the lower margin of teres major muscle. It continues down the ventral surface of the arm until it reaches the cubital fossa at the elbow. It then divides into the radial and ulnar arteries which run down the forearm. In some individuals, the bifurcation occurs much earlier and the ulnar and radial arteries extend through the upper arm. The pulse of the brachial artery is palpable on the anterior aspect of the elbow, medial to the tendon of the biceps, and, with the use of a stethoscope and sphygmomanometer (blood pressure cuff) often used to measure the blood pressure. The brachial artery is closely related to the median nerve; in proximal regions, the median nerve is immediately lateral to the brachial artery. Distally, the median nerve crosses the medial side of the brachial artery and lies anterior to the elbow joint. as well as important anastomotic networks of the elbow and (as the axillary artery) the shoulder. The biceps head is lateral to the brachial artery. The median nerve is medial to the brachial artery for most of its course.
    6.67
    3 votes
    126
    Inferior gluteal artery

    Inferior gluteal artery

    The inferior gluteal artery (sciatic artery), the larger of the two terminal branches of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery, is distributed chiefly to the buttock and back of the thigh. It passes down on the sacral plexus of nerves and the Piriformis, behind the internal pudendal artery, to the lower part of the greater sciatic foramen, through which it escapes from the pelvis between the Piriformis and Coccygeus. It then descends in the interval between the greater trochanter of the femur and tuberosity of the ischium, accompanied by the sciatic and posterior femoral cutaneous nerves, and covered by the Glutæus maximus, and is continued down the back of the thigh, supplying the skin, and anastomosing with branches of the perforating arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.67
    3 votes
    127
    Inferior thyroid artery

    Inferior thyroid artery

    The inferior thyroid artery arises from the thyrocervical trunk and passes upward, in front of the vertebral artery and Longus colli, then turns medially behind the carotid sheath and its contents, and also behind the sympathetic trunk, the middle cervical ganglion resting upon the vessel. Reaching the lower border of the thyroid gland it divides into two branches, which supply the postero-inferior parts of the gland, and anastomose with the superior thyroid artery, and with the corresponding artery of the opposite side. The recurrent laryngeal nerve passes upward generally behind, but occasionally in front of, the artery. This makes it vulnerable to injury during surgery that involves ligating the inferior thyroid artery, such as excision of the lower pole of the thyroid gland. The branches of the inferior thyroid are: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.67
    3 votes
    128
    Plantar metatarsal arteries

    Plantar metatarsal arteries

    The plantar metatarsal arteries (digital branches) are four in number, and run forward between the metatarsal bones and in contact with the Interossei. Each divides into a pair of plantar digital arteries which supply the adjacent sides of the toes. Near their points of division each sends upward an anterior perforating branch to join the corresponding dorsal metatarsal artery. The first plantar metatarsal artery (arteria princeps hallucis) springs from the junction between the lateral plantar and deep plantar arteries and sends a digital branch to the medial side of the first toe. The digital branch for the lateral side of the fifth toe arise from the lateral plantar artery near the base of the fifth metatarsal bone. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.67
    3 votes
    129
    Sural arteries

    Sural arteries

    The sural arteries (inferior muscular arteries) are two large branches, which are distributed to the Gastrocnemius, Soleus, and Plantaris. The term applies to any of four or five arteries arising from the popliteal artery, with distribution to the muscles and integument of the calf, and with anastomoses to the posterior tibial, medial and lateral inferior genicular arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.67
    3 votes
    130
    Anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery

    Anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery

    The "LAD", or left anterior descending artery (or anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery, or anterior descending branch) is an artery of the heart. It passes at first behind the pulmonary artery and then comes forward between that vessel and the left auricula to reach the anterior interventricular sulcus, along which it descends to the incisura apicis cordis. In 78% of cases, it reaches the apex of the heart. It supplies the anterolateral myocardium, apex, and interventricular septum. The LAD typically supplies 45-55% of the left ventricle (LV). The LAD gives off two types of branches: septals and diagonals. Because the LAD provides much of the bloodflow for the left ventricle, which in turn provides much of the propulsive force for ejecting oxygenated blood to systemic circulation via the aorta, blockage of this artery is particularly associated with mortality. In the medical community ischemic heart attacks associated with this blood vessel are colloquially called "the Widowmaker." This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.50
    2 votes
    131
    Deep plantar artery

    Deep plantar artery

    The deep plantar artery (ramus plantaris profundus; communicating artery) descends into the sole of the foot, between the two heads of the first Interosseous dorsalis, and unites with the termination of the lateral plantar artery, to complete the plantar arch. It sends a branch along the medial side of the great toe and continues forward along the first interosseous space as the first plantar metatarsal artery, which bifurcates for the supply of the adjacent sides of the great and second toes. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.50
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    132
    Internal carotid artery

    Internal carotid artery

    In human anatomy, the internal carotid arteries are two major arteries, one on each side of the head and neck. They arise from the common carotid arteries where these bifurcate into the internal and external carotid artery, and they supply the brain. Terminologia Anatomica in 1998 subdivided the artery into four parts: "cervical", "petrous", "cavernous", and "cerebral". However, in clinical settings, the classification system of the internal carotid artery follows the 1996 recommendations by Bouthillier, and describes seven anatomical segments of the internal carotid artery. The Bouthillier system is often used clinically by neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists and neurologists. This nomenclature system is a clinical one, based on the angiographic appearance of the artery and its relationship to surrounding anatomy, in contrast to an embryologic classification system. An older clinical classification is based on work by Fischer in 1938 is also commonly used, as well as classification schemes based on the embryologic anatomy of the carotid artery. The segments of the internal carotid artery are as follows: Mnemonic for Branches in Skull: Please Let Children Consume Our Candy The
    7.50
    2 votes
    133
    Left coronary artery

    Left coronary artery

    The left coronary artery, abbreviated LCA and also known as the left main coronary artery (often abbreviated LMCA), is an artery that arises from the aorta above the left cusp of the aortic valve and feeds blood to the left side of the heart. It typically runs for 1 to 25 mm and then bifurcates into the anterior interventricular artery (also called left anterior descending (LAD)) artery and the left circumflex artery (LCX). Sometimes an additional artery arises at the bifurcation of the left main artery, forming a trifurcation; this extra artery is called the intermediate artery. The part that is between the aorta and the bifurcation only is known as the left main artery (LM), while the term 'LCA' might refer to just the left main, or to the left main and all its eventual branches. A "first septal branch" is sometimes described.
    7.50
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    134
    Left gastric artery

    Left gastric artery

    In human anatomy, the left gastric artery arises from the celiac artery, and runs along the superior portion of the lesser curvature of the stomach. Branches also supply the lower esophagus. The left gastric artery anastomoses with the right gastric artery, which runs right to left. In terms of disease, the left gastric artery may be involved in peptic ulcer disease: if an ulcer erodes through the stomach mucosa into a branch of the artery, this can cause massive blood loss into the stomach, which may result in such symptoms as hematemesis or melaena.
    7.50
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    135
    Posterior ethmoidal artery

    Posterior ethmoidal artery

    The posterior ethmoidal artery is an artery of the head which supplies the nasal septum. It is smaller than the anterior ethmoidal artery. Once branching from the ophthalmic artery, it passes between the upper border of the medial rectus muscle and superior oblique muscle to enter the posterior ethmoidal canal. It exits into the nasal cavity to supply posterior ethmoidal cells and nasal septum; here it anastomoses with the sphenopalatine artery. There is often a meningeal branch to the dura mater while it is still contained within the cranium. This artery supplies the posterior ethmoidal air sinuses, dura mater of the anterior cranial fossa, and the upper part of the nasal mucosa of the nasal septum. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.50
    2 votes
    136

    Princeps pollicis artery

    The princeps pollicis (principal artery of the thumb) arises from the radial artery just as it turns medially towards the deep part of the hand; it descends between the first dorsal interosseous muscle and the oblique head of the adductor pollicis, along the medial side of the first metacarpal bone to the base of the proximal phalanx, where it lies beneath the tendon of the flexor pollicis longus muscle and divides into two branches. These make their appearance between the medial and lateral insertions of the adductor pollicis, and run along the sides of the thumb, forming an arch on the palmar surface of the distal phalanx, from which branches are distributed to the integument and subcutaneous tissue of the thumb. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.50
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    137
    Superficial iliac circumflex artery

    Superficial iliac circumflex artery

    The superficial iliac circumflex artery (or superficial circumflex iliac), the smallest of the cutaneous branches of the femoral artery, arises close to the superficial epigastric artery, and, piercing the fascia lata, runs lateralward, parallel with the inguinal ligament, as far as the crest of the ilium. It divides into branches which supply the integument of the groin, the superficial fascia, and the superficial subinguinal lymph glands, anastomosing with the deep iliac circumflex, the superior gluteal and lateral femoral circumflex arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.50
    2 votes
    138
    Superior cerebellar artery

    Superior cerebellar artery

    The superior cerebellar artery (SCA) arises near the termination of the basilar artery. It passes lateralward, immediately below the oculomotor nerve, which separates it from the posterior cerebral artery, winds around the cerebral peduncle, close to the trochlear nerve, and, arriving at the upper surface of the cerebellum, divides into branches which ramify in the pia mater and anastomose with those of the anterior and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. Several branches are given to the pineal body, the anterior medullary velum, and the tela chorioidea of the third ventricle. The SCA is frequently the cause of trigeminal neuralgia, where it compresses the trigeminal nerve causing lancinating pain in the distribution of this nerve on the patient's face. However, at autopsy, 50% of people without trigeminal neuralgia will also be noted to have vascular compression of the nerve. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    7.50
    2 votes
    139
    Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery

    Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery

    The superior pancreaticoduodenal artery is an artery that supplies blood to the duodenum and pancreas. It is a branch of the gastroduodenal artery, which most commonly arises from the common hepatic artery of the celiac trunk (there are numerous variations of the origin of the gastroduodenal artery ). The common hepatic itself becomes the proper hepatic after giving off the gastroduodenal artery and goes on to supply the right and left lobes of the liver. The term superior distinguishes the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery from the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, which is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery. These arteries, together with the pancreatic branches of the splenic artery, form connections or anastomoses with one another, allowing blood to perfuse the pancreas and duodenum through multiple channels. The artery splits into two branches:
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    140

    Middle vesical artery

    The middle vesical artery, usually a branch of the superior vesical artery, is distributed to the fundus of the bladder and the seminal vesicles. This artery is not usually described in modern anatomy textbooks. Instead, it is described that the superior vesical artery may exist as multiple vessels that arise from a common origin.
    5.50
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    141
    Posterior cerebral artery

    Posterior cerebral artery

    The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy. It arises near the intersection of the posterior communicating artery and the basilar artery and connects with the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery via the posterior communicating artery (PCommA). The development of the PCA in fetal brain comes relatively late and arises from the fusion of several embryonic vessels near the caudal end of the PCommA supplying the mesencephalon and diencephalon of the fetus. The PCA begins as such, as a continuation of the PCommA in the fetus with only 10-30% of fetuses having a prominent basilar origin. The fetal carotid origin of the PCA usually regresses as the vertebral and basilar arteries develop with the PCommA reducing is size. In most adults, the PCA sources from the anterior portion of the basilar artery. Only about 19% of adults retain PCommA dominance of the PCA with 72% having dominant basilar origin, and the rest being equal prominence or exclusive sources for suppyling the PCA. The branches of the posterior cerebral artery are
    5.50
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    142
    Posterior ulnar recurrent artery

    Posterior ulnar recurrent artery

    The posterior ulnar recurrent artery is much larger than the anterior ulnar recurrent artery, and arises somewhat lower than it. It passes backward and medialward on the Flexor digitorum profundus, behind the Flexor digitorum sublimis, and ascends behind the medial epicondyle of the humerus. In the interval between this process and the olecranon, it lies beneath the Flexor carpi ulnaris, and ascending between the heads of that muscle, in relation with the ulnar nerve, it supplies the neighboring muscles and the elbow-joint, and anastomoses with the superior and inferior ulnar collateral and the interosseous recurrent arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    143
    Sublingual artery

    Sublingual artery

    The Sublingual Artery arises at the anterior margin of the Hyoglossus, and runs forward between the Genioglossus and Mylohyoideus to the sublingual gland. It supplies the gland and gives branches to the Mylohyoideus and neighboring muscles, and to the mucous membrane of the mouth and gums. One branch runs behind the alveolar process of the mandible in the substance of the gum to anastomose with a similar artery from the other side; another pierces the Mylohyoideus and anastomoses with the submental branch of the external maxillary artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    5.50
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    144
    Anterior tympanic artery

    Anterior tympanic artery

    The anterior tympanic artery (tympanic artery) usually arises as a branch of the mandibular (first) part of the maxillary artery. It passes upward behind the temporomandibular articulation, enters the tympanic cavity through the petrotympanic fissure, and ramifies upon the tympanic membrane, forming a vascular circle around the membrane with the stylomastoid branch of the posterior auricular, and anastomosing with the artery of the pterygoid canal and with the caroticotympanic branch from the internal carotid. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    6.33
    3 votes
    145

    Aortic arch

    The arch of the aorta or the transverse aortic arch (English pronunciation: /eɪˈɔrtɪk/) is the part of the aorta that begins at the level of the upper border of the second sternocostal articulation of the right side, and runs at first upward, backward, and to the left in front of the trachea; it is then directed backward on the left side of the trachea and finally passes downward on the left side of the body of the fourth thoracic vertebra, at the lower border of which it becomes continuous with the descending aorta. It thus forms two curvatures: one with its convexity upward, the other with its convexity forward and to the left. Its upper border is usually about 2.5 cm. below the superior border to the manubrium sterni. It lies within the mediastinum. The ligamentum arteriosum connects the commencement of the left pulmonary artery to the aortic arch. The blood bypasses the lungs through the ductus arteriosus during embryonic circulation. This becomes the ligamentum arteriosum postnatal as pulmonary circulation begins. The aortic knob is the prominent shadow of the aortic arch on a frontal chest radiograph. Aortopexy is a surgical procedure in which the aortic arch is fixed to the
    6.33
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    146
    Vertebral artery

    Vertebral artery

    The vertebral arteries are major arteries of the neck. They branch from the subclavian arteries and merge to form the single midline basilar artery in a complex called the vertebrobasilar system, which supplies blood to the posterior part of the circle of Willis and thus significant portions of the brain. The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries, one on each side of the body, then enter deep to the transverse process of the level of the 6th cervical vertebrae (C6). Or occasionally (in 7.5% of cases) at the level of C7. They then proceed superiorly, in the transverse foramen (foramen transversarium) of each cervical vertebra until C1. This path is largely parallel to, but distinct from, the route of the carotid artery ascending through the neck. At the C1 level the vertebral arteries travel across the posterior arch of the atlas through the suboccipital triangle before entering the foramen magnum. Nunziante Ippolito, a neapolitan physician, indicated the "angle of Nunziante Ippolito" to find vertebral artery, between anterior scalene muscle and Longus colli muscle. Inside the skull, the two vertebral arteries join up to form the basilar artery at the base of the
    6.33
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    147
    Basilar artery

    Basilar artery

    In human anatomy, the basilar artery is one of the arteries that supplies the brain with oxygen-rich blood. The two vertebral arteries and the basilar artery are sometimes together called the vertebrobasilar system, which supplies blood to the posterior part of circle of Willis and anastomoses with blood supplied to the anterior part of the circle of Willis from the carotid arteries. It arises from the confluence of the two vertebral arteries at the junction between the medulla oblongata and the pons. It ascends in the central gutter (sulcus basilaris) inferior to the pons and divides into the posterior cerebral arteries and the superior cerebellar artery just inferior to the pituitary stalk. From the basilar artery arises the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (supplying the superior and inferior aspects of the cerebellum), as well as smaller branches for the supply of the pons (the pontine branches).
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    148
    Lingual artery

    Lingual artery

    The lingual artery arises from the external carotid between the superior thyroid artery and facial artery. It can be located easily in the tongue. It first runs obliquely upward and medialward to the greater cornu of the hyoid bone. It then curves downward and forward, forming a loop which is crossed by the hypoglossal nerve, and passing beneath the Digastricus and Stylohyoideus it runs horizontally forward, beneath the Hyoglossus, and finally, ascending almost perpendicularly to the tongue, turns forward on its lower surface as far as the tip, under the name of the deep lingual artery (profunda linguae ). This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
    5.25
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    149
    Anterior tibial artery

    Anterior tibial artery

    The anterior tibial artery of the lower limb carries blood to the anterior compartment of the leg and dorsal surface of the foot, from the popliteal artery. It is accompanied by a deep vein, the anterior tibial vein, along its course. It crosses the anterior aspect of the ankle joint, at which point it becomes the dorsalis pedis artery. The branches of the anterior tibial artery are:
    8.00
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    150
    Middle meningeal artery

    Middle meningeal artery

    The middle meningeal artery (Latin arteria meningea media) is typically the third branch of the first part (retromandibular part) of the maxillary artery, one of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery. After branching off the maxillary artery in the infratemporal fossa, it runs through the foramen spinosum to supply the dura mater (the outermost meninges) and the calvaria. The middle meningeal artery is the largest of the three (paired) arteries which supply the meninges, the others being the anterior meningeal artery and the posterior meningeal artery. In approximately half of subjects it branches into an accessory meningeal artery. The anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery runs beneath the pterion. It is vulnerable to injury at this point, where the skull is thin. Rupture of the artery may give rise to an epidural hematoma. In the dry cranium, the middle meningeal, which runs within the dura mater surrounding the brain, makes a deep indention in the calvarium. The middle meningeal artery is intimately associated with the auriculotemporal nerve which wraps around the artery making the two easily identifiable in the dissection of human cadavers and also
    8.00
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    151
    Musculophrenic artery

    Musculophrenic artery

    The musculophrenic artery arises from the internal thoracic artery, directed obliquely downward and laterally, behind the cartilages of the false ribs; it perforates the diaphragm at the eighth or ninth costal cartilage, and ends, considerably reduced in size, opposite the last intercostal space. It gives off intercostal branches to the seventh, eighth, and ninth intercostal spaces; these diminish in size as the spaces decrease in length, and are distributed in a manner precisely similar to the intercostal arteries from the internal thoracic artery. The musculophrenic artery also gives branches to the lower part of the pericardium, and others which run backward to the diaphragm, and downward to the abdominal muscles.
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    152
    Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

    Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

    The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) arises from the basilar artery at the level of the junction between the medulla oblongata and the pons in the brainstem. It passes backward to be distributed to the anterior part of the undersurface of the cerebellum, anastomosing with the posterior inferior cerebellar branch of the vertebral artery. It supplies the anterior inferior quarter of the cerebellum. It also gives off the labyrinthine artery in most cases; however, the labyrinthine artery can emerge as a branch of the basilar artery in others. Occlusion of AICA results in lateral pontine syndrome, also known as AICA syndrome. The symptoms include sudden onset vertigo and vomiting, nystagmus, falling to the side of the lesion (due to damage to vestibular nuclei), ipsilateral loss of sensation of the face (due to damage to principal sensory trigeminal nucleus), ipsilateral facial paralysis (due to damage to the facial nucleus) and ipsilateral hearing loss and tinnitus (due to damage to the cochlear nuclei). This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    153
    Anterior spinal artery

    Anterior spinal artery

    In human anatomy, the anterior spinal artery is the blood vessel that supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord. It arises from branches of the vertebral arteries and is supplied by the anterior segmental medullary arteries, including the artery of Adamkiewicz, and courses along the anterior aspect of the spinal cord. The anterior spinal artery is a small branch, which arises near the termination of the vertebral, and, descending in front of the medulla oblongata, unites with its fellow of the opposite side at the level of the foramen magnum. One of these vessels is usually larger than the other, but occasionally they are about equal in size. The single trunk descends in the front of the medulla spinalis, and gives off several small branches which enter the vertebral canal through the intervertebral foramina. These branches are derived from the vertebral artery, the ascending cervical artery, a branch of the inferior thyroid artery in the neck, the intercostal arteries in the thorax, and from the lumbar artery, iliolumbar artery and lateral sacral arteries in the abdomen and pelvis. They unite, by means of ascending and descending branches, to form a single anterior median
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    154
    Deep circumflex iliac artery

    Deep circumflex iliac artery

    The deep circumflex iliac artery (or deep iliac circumflex artery) is an artery in the pelvis that travels along the iliac crest of the pelvic bone. The deep circumflex iliac artery arises from the lateral aspect of the external iliac artery nearly opposite the origin of the inferior epigastric artery. It ascends obliquely and laterally, posterior to the inguinal ligament, contained in a fibrous sheath formed by the junction of the transversalis fascia and iliac fascia. It travels to the anterior superior iliac spine, where it anastomoses with the ascending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery. It then pierces the transversalis fascia and passes medially along the inner lip of the crest of the ilium to a point where it perforates the transversus abdominis muscle. From there, it travels posteriorly between the transversus abdominis muscle and the internal oblique muscle to anastomose with the iliolumbar artery and the superior gluteal artery. Opposite the anterior superior iliac spine of the ilium, it gives off a large ascending branch. This branch ascends between the internal oblique muscle and the transversus abdominis muscle, supplying them, and anastomosing with the
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    155
    Fibular artery

    Fibular artery

    In anatomy, the fibular artery (also known as the peroneal artery) supplies blood to the lateral compartment of the leg and is typically a branch of posterior tibial artery. The fibular artery branches off the posterior tibial artery in the upper part of the leg proper, just below the knee. It runs downward in the deep posterior compartment of the leg, just medial to the fibula. It supplies a perforating branch to both the lateral and anterior compartments of the leg; it also provides a nutrient artery to the fibula. The fibular artery is accompanied by small veins (venae comitantes) known as fibular veins Communication branch to anterior tibial artery. Perforating branch to Anterior lateral malleolar artery. A calcaneal branch to the lateral part of the calcaneus. At one point in its history, both the Greek term perone and the Latin term fibula were competing to describe the smaller bone of the leg. Many of the arteries, veins, nerves, and muscles in the leg are named according to what bone they are near (e.g. tibialis anterior and the tibial nerve are near the tibia). So the artery that runs near the smaller leg bone had two names: the peroneal artery and the fibular artery. The
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    Long posterior ciliary arteries

    Long posterior ciliary arteries

    The long posterior ciliary arteries are arteries of the head arising, together with the other ciliary arteries, from the ophtalmic artery. There are two in each eye. They pierce the posterior part of the sclera at some little distance from the optic nerve, and run forward, along either side of the eyeball, between the sclera and choroid, to the ciliary muscle, where they divide into two branches. These form an arterial circle, the circulus arteriosus major, around the circumference of the iris, from which numerous converging branches run, in the substance of the iris, to its pupillary margin, where they form a second (incomplete) arterial circle, the circulus arteriosus minor. The long posterior ciliary arteries supply the iris, ciliary body and choroid. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Perineal artery

    Perineal artery

    The perineal artery (superficial perineal artery) arises from the internal pudendal artery, and turns upward, crossing either over or under the Transversus perinæi superficialis, and runs forward, parallel to the pubic arch, in the interspace between the Bulbocavernosus and Ischiocavernosus, both of which it supplies, and finally divides into several posterior scrotal branches which are distributed to the skin and dartos tunic of the scrotum. As it crosses the Transversus perinæi superficialis it gives off the transverse perineal artery which runs transversely on the cutaneous surface of the muscle, and anastomoses with the corresponding vessel of the opposite side and with the perineal and inferior hemorrhoidal arteries. It supplies the Transversus perinæi superficialis and the structures between the anus and the urethral bulb. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Posterior communicating artery

    Posterior communicating artery

    In human anatomy, the left and right posterior communicating arteries are arteries at the base of the brain that form part of the circle of Willis. Each posterior communicating artery connects the three cerebral arteries of the same side. Anteriorly, it connects to the internal carotid artery (ICA) prior to the terminal bifurcation of the ICA into the anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery. Posteriorly, it communicates with the posterior cerebral artery. The brain is supplied with blood by the internal carotid arteries and also by the posterior cerebral arteries; the posterior communicating arteries connects the two systems. This provides redundancies or collaterals in the cerebral circulation so that, if one system is blocked or narrowed, the other can take over. Aneurysms of the posterior communicating artery are the third most common circle of Willis aneurysm (the most common are anterior communicating artery aneurysms) and can lead to oculomotor nerve palsy. The development of the PCA in the fetal brain occurs relatively late and arises from the fusion of several embryonic vessels near the caudal end of the posterior communicating artery. The PCA begins as a
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    Radial artery of index finger

    Radial artery of index finger

    The radialis indicis artery (radial artery of index finger) is a branch of the radial artery that provides blood to the index finger. It arises close to the princeps pollicis artery, and descends between the first dorsal interosseous muscle and the transverse head of the adductor pollicis, and runs along the lateral side of the index finger to its extremity, where it anastomoses with the proper digital artery, supplying the medial side of the finger. At the lower border of the transverse head of the adductor pollicis, this vessel anastomoses with the princeps pollicis, and gives a communicating branch to the superficial palmar arch. The princeps pollicis and radialis indicis may arise from a common trunk termed the first palmar metacarpal artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Vaginal artery

    Vaginal artery

    The vaginal artery is an artery in females that supplies blood to the vagina. The vaginal artery is usually defined as a branch of the internal iliac artery. Some sources say that the vaginal artery can arise from the internal iliac artery or the uterine artery. However, the phrase vaginal branches of uterine artery is the Terminologia Anatomica term for blood supply to the vagina coming from the uterine artery. Some texts consider the inferior vesical artery to be found only in males, and that this structure in females is a vaginal artery. It descends to the vagina, supplying its mucous membrane. It can send branches to the bulb of the vestibule, the fundus of the bladder, and the contiguous part of the rectum. The vaginal artery is frequently represented by two or three branches. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Inferior hypophyseal artery

    The inferior hypophysial artery is an artery supplying the neurohypophysis of the pituitary gland. It is a branch of the cavernous carotid artery (internal carotid artery).
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    Inferior mesenteric artery

    Inferior mesenteric artery

    In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, supplies the large intestine from the left colic (or splenic) flexure to the upper part of the rectum, which includes the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and part of the rectum. Proximally, its territory of distribution overlaps (forms a watershed) with the middle colic artery, and therefore the superior mesenteric artery. The SMA and IMA anastomose via the marginal artery of the colon (artery of Drummond). The territory of distribution of the IMA is more or less equivalent to the embryonic hindgut. The IMA branches off the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta below the renal artery branch points, and approximately midway between these and the aortic bifurcation (into the common iliac arteries), L3 vertebral level. The IMA has the following branches: All these arterial branches further divide into arcades which then supply the colon at regular intervals. The IMA is accompanied along its course by a similarly named vein, the inferior mesenteric vein, which drains into the splenic vein. The IMV therefore drains to the portal vein and does not fully mirror the course of the IMA. The IMA and/or its
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    Lateral thoracic artery

    Lateral thoracic artery

    In human anatomy, the lateral thoracic artery (or external mammary artery) is a blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lateral structures of the thorax and breast. It originates from the axillary artery and follows the lower border of the Pectoralis minor muscle to the side of the chest, supplies the Serratus anterior muscle and the Pectoralis major muscle, and sends branches across the axilla to the axillary lymph nodes and Subscapularis muscle. It anastomoses with the internal thoracic artery, subscapular, and intercostal arteries, and with the pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial artery. In the female it supplies an external mammary branch which turns round the free edge of the Pectoralis major and supplies the breasts. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Marginal artery of the colon

    Marginal artery of the colon

    In human anatomy, the marginal artery of the colon, also known as the marginal artery of Drummond and artery of Drummond (named after Sir David Drummond (1852-1932) an English physician), is a blood vessel that anastomoses (connects) the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) with the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). It is sometimes absent, as an anatomical variant. Along with branches of the internal iliac arteries, it is usually sufficiently large to supply the oxygenated blood to the large intestine covered by the inferior mesenteric artery and is a reason that in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair the inferior mesenteric artery does not have to be re-implanted (re-attached) into the repaired abdominal aorta. The Marginal Artery of Drummond runs in the mesentery close to the bowel as part of the vascular arcade that connects the SMA and IMA. This artery is almost always present and its absence should be considered a variant. The Arc of Riolan (Riolan's arcade, Haller's anastomosis), also known as the 'meandering mesenteric artery', is another vascular arcade present in the colonic mesentery that connect the proximal middle colic artery with a branch of the left colic artery. This
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    Celiac artery

    Celiac artery

    The celiac (or coeliac) artery, also known as the celiac trunk, is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta. Branching from the aorta anterior to the upper border of L1 vertebra (almost immediately after entering the abdominal cavity through the diaphragm at T12) in humans, it is one of three anterior/ midline branches of the abdominal aorta (the others are the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries). The celiac artery supplies oxygenated blood to the liver, stomach, abdominal esophagus, spleen and the superior half of both the duodenum and the pancreas. These structures correspond to the embryonic foregut. (Similarly, the superior mesenteric artery and inferior mesenteric artery feed structures arising from the embryonic midgut and hindgut respectively. Note that these three anterior branches of the abdominal aorta are distinct and cannot substitute for one another, although there are limited connections between their terminal branches.) The celiac artery is an essential source of blood, since the interconnections with the other major arteries of the gut are not sufficient to sustain adequate perfusion. Thus it cannot be safely ligated in a living person, and obstruction
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    Highest intercostal artery

    Highest intercostal artery

    The highest intercostal artery (supreme intercostal artery, superior intercostal artery) is an artery in the human body that usually gives rise to the first and second posterior intercostal arteries, which supply blood to their corresponding intercostal space. It usually arises from the costocervical trunk, which is a branch of the subclavian artery. Some anatomists may contend that there is no supreme intercostal artery, only a supreme intercostal vein.
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    Middle temporal artery

    Middle temporal artery

    The middle temporal artery arises immediately above the zygomatic arch, and, perforating the temporal fascia, gives branches to the Temporalis, anastomosing with the deep temporal branches of the internal maxillary. It occasionally gives off a zygomaticoörbital branch, which runs along the upper border of the zygomatic arch, between the two layers of the temporal fascia, to the lateral angle of the orbit. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Middle genicular artery

    The middle genicular artery (azygos articular artery) is a small branch, arising opposite the back of the knee-joint. It pierces the oblique popliteal ligament, and supplies the ligaments and synovial membrane in the interior of the articulation. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

    Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

    The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), the largest branch of the vertebral artery, is one of the three main arterial blood supplies for the cerebellum, part of the brain. Occlusion of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery or one of its branches, or of the vertebral artery leads to Wallenberg syndrome, also called lateral medullary syndrome. It winds backward around the upper part of the medulla oblongata, passing between the origins of the vagus and accessory nerves, over the inferior cerebellar peduncle to the undersurface of the cerebellum, where it divides into two branches. The medial branch continues backward to the notch between the two hemispheres of the cerebellum; while the lateral supplies the under surface of the cerebellum, as far as its lateral border, where it anastomoses with the anterior inferior cerebellar and the superior cerebellar branches of the basilar artery. Branches from this artery supply the choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle. Infarction of this artery due to thrombosis or a stroke leads to lateral medullary syndrome, also known as PICA syndrome or Wallenberg syndrome. Severe occlusion of this or vertebral arteries could lead to Horner's
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    Right colic artery

    Right colic artery

    The Right Colic Artery arises from about the middle of the concavity of the superior mesenteric artery, or from a stem common to it and the ileocolic. It passes to the right behind the peritoneum, and in front of the right internal spermatic or ovarian vessels, the right ureter and the Psoas major, toward the middle of the ascending colon; sometimes the vessel lies at a higher level, and crosses the descending part of the duodenum and the lower end of the right kidney. At the colon it divides into a descending branch, which anastomoses with the ileocolic, and an ascending branch, which anastomoses with the middle colic. These branches form arches, from the convexity of which vessels are distributed to the ascending colon. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Arcuate artery of the foot

    Arcuate artery of the foot

    The arcuate artery of the foot (metatarsal artery) arises a little anterior to the lateral tarsal artery; it passes lateralward, over the bases of the metatarsal bones, beneath the tendons of the Extensor digitorum brevis, its direction being influenced by its point of origin; and its anastomoses with the lateral tarsal and lateral plantar arteries. This vessel gives off the second, third, and fourth dorsal metatarsal arteries. It is not present in all individuals. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Circle of Willis

    The Circle of Willis (also called Willis' Circle, Loop of Willis, cerebral arterial circle, and Willis Polygon) is a circle of arteries that supply blood to the brain and surrounding structures. It is named after Thomas Willis (1621–1675), an English physician. The Circle of Willis is a part of the cerebral circulation and is composed of the following arteries: The basilar artery and middle cerebral arteries, supplying the brain, are also considered part of the circle. The arrangement of the brain's arteries into the Circle of Willis creates redundancies or collaterals in the cerebral circulation. If one part of the circle becomes blocked or narrowed (stenosed) or one of the arteries supplying the circle is blocked or narrowed, blood flow from the other blood vessels can often preserve the cerebral perfusion well enough to avoid the symptoms of ischemia. Considerable anatomic variation exists in the Circle of Willis. Based on a study of 1413 brains, the classic anatomy of the circle is only seen in 34.5% of cases. In one common variation the proximal part of the posterior cerebral artery is narrow and its ipsilateral posterior communicating artery is large, so the internal carotid
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    Costocervical trunk

    Costocervical trunk

    The costocervical trunk arises from the upper and back part of the subclavian artery, behind the scalenus anterior on the right side, and medial to that muscle on the left side. Passing backward, it splits into the deep cervical artery and the supreme intercostal artery (highest intercostal artery), which descends behind the pleura in front of the necks of the first and second ribs, and anastomoses with the first aortic intercostal (3rd posterior intercostal artery). As it crosses the neck of the first rib it lies medial to the anterior division of the first thoracic nerve, and lateral to the first thoracic ganglion of the sympathetic trunk. In the first intercostal space, it gives off a branch which is distributed in a manner similar to the distribution of the aortic intercostals. The branch for the second intercostal space usually joins with one from the highest aortic intercostal artery. This branch is not constant, but is more commonly found on the right side; when absent, its place is supplied by an intercostal branch from the aorta. Each intercostal gives off a posterior branch which goes to the posterior vertebral muscles, and sends a small spinal branch through the
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    Middle cerebral artery

    Middle cerebral artery

    The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the cerebrum. The MCA arises from the internal carotid and continues into the lateral sulcus where it then branches and projects to many parts of the lateral cerebral cortex. It also supplies blood to the anterior temporal lobes and the insular cortices. The left and right MCAs rise from trifurcations of the internal carotid arteries and thus are connected to the anterior cerebral arteries and the posterior communicating arteries, which connect to the posterior cerebral arteries. The MCAs are not considered a part of the Circle of Willis. The middle cerebral artery can be classified into 4 parts: Although the M2-M3 segments may split into 2 or 3 main trunks (terminal branches) with an upper trunk, lower trunk and occasionally a middle trunk. Bifurcations and trifurcations occurs in 50% and 25% of the cases respectively. Other cases include duplication of the MCA at the internal carotid artery (ICA) or an accessory MCA (AccMCA) which arise not from the ICA but as a branch from the anterior cerebral artery. The middle trunk that exist in parts of the population, when present provides the
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    Abdominal aorta

    Abdominal aorta

    The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity. As part of the aorta, it is a direct continuation of the descending aorta (of the thorax). It begins at the level of the diaphragm, crossing it via the aortic hiatus, technically behind the diaphragm, at the vertebral level of T12. It travels down the posterior wall of the abdomen, anterior to the vertebral column. It thus follows the curvature of the lumbar vertebrae, that is, convex anteriorly. The peak of this convexity is at the level of the third lumbar vertebra (L3). It runs parallel to the inferior vena cava, which is located just to the right of the abdominal aorta, and becomes smaller in diameter as it gives off branches. This is thought to be due to the large size of its principal branches. At the 11th rib, the diameter is 122mm long and 55mm wide and this is because of the constant pressure The abdominal aorta supplies blood to much of the abdominal cavity. It begins at T12, and usually has the following branches: Note that the bifurcation (union) of the inferior vena cava is at L5 and therefore below that of the bifurcation of the aorta. The abdominal aorta lies slightly to the left of the midline of the
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    Ascending aorta

    The ascending aorta is a portion of the aorta commencing at the upper part of the base of the left ventricle, on a level with the lower border of the third costal cartilage behind the left half of the sternum; it passes obliquely upward, forward, and to the right, in the direction of the heart’s axis, as high as the upper border of the second right costal cartilage, describing a slight curve in its course, and being situated, about 6 centimetres (2.4 in) behind the posterior surface of the sternum. The total length is about 5 centimetres (2.0 in). The aortic root is the portion of the ascending aorta beginning at the aortic annulus and extending to the sinotubular junction. Between each commissure of the aortic valve and opposite the cusps of the aortic valve, three small dilatations called the aortic sinuses. The sinotubular junction is the point in the ascending aorta where the aortic sinuses end and the aorta becomes a tubular structure. At the union of the ascending aorta with the aortic arch the caliber of the vessel is increased, owing to a bulging of its right wall. This dilatation is termed the bulb of the aorta, and on transverse section presents a somewhat oval
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    Pancreatic branches of splenic artery

    Pancreatic branches of splenic artery

    The pancreatic branches are numerous small vessels derived from the splenic artery as it runs behind the upper border of the pancreas, supplying its body and tail. One of these, larger than the rest, is sometimes given off near the tail of the pancreas; it runs from left to right near the posterior surface of the gland, following the course of the pancreatic duct, and is called the arteria pancreatica magna. These vessels anastomose with the pancreatic branches of the pancreaticoduodenal and superior mesenteric arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Right gastro-omental artery

    Right gastro-omental artery

    The right gastro-omental artery (or right gastroepiploic artery) is one of the two terminal branches of the gastroduodenal artery. It runs from right to left along the greater curvature of the stomach, between the layers of the greater omentum, anastomosing with the left gastroepiploic branch of the splenic artery. Except at the pylorus where it is in contact with the stomach, it lies about a finger's breadth from the greater curvature. This vessel gives off numerous branches: The right gastroepiploic artery was first used by us as a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in 1984. It has become an accepted alternative conduit, particularly useful in patients who do not have suitable saphenous veins to harvest for grafts. The right gastroepiploic artery is typically used as a graft to coronary arteries on the posterior wall of the heart e.g. right coronary artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Thyrocervical trunk

    Thyrocervical trunk

    The thyrocervical trunk is a branch of the subclavian artery arising from the first portion of this vessel, i.e. between the origin of the subclavian artery and the inner border of the scalenus anterior muscle. It is located distally to the vertebral artery and proximally to the costocervical trunk. It is a short and thick vessel and it divides soon after its origin in three branches: The suprascapular artery and transverse cervical artery both head laterally and cross in front of (anterior to) the scalenus anterior muscle and the phrenic nerve. The inferior thyroid artery runs superiorly from the thyrocervical trunk to the inferior portion of the thyroid gland.
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    Thyroid ima artery

    Thyroid ima artery

    The thyroidea ima ascends in front of the trachea to the lower part of the thyroid gland, which it supplies. It varies greatly in size, and appears to compensate for deficiency or absence of one of the other thyroid vessels. The thyroidea ima artery, when present, arises from the brachiocephalic trunk (innominate artery). It occasionally arises from the aorta, the right common carotid, the subclavian or the internal thoracic artery. This artery is present in approximately 3-10% of the population and can cause problems for physicians attempting a tracheostomy or a thyroidectomy. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Inferior medial genicular artery

    Inferior medial genicular artery

    The medial inferior genicular is an artery of the leg. It first descends along the upper margin of the popliteus, to which it gives branches; it then passes below the medial condyle of the tibia, beneath the tibial collateral ligament, at the anterior border of which it ascends to the front and medial side of the joint, to supply the upper end of the tibia and the knee-joint, anastomosing with the lateral inferior and medial superior genicular arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Lateral nasal branch of facial artery

    Lateral nasal branch of facial artery

    The lateral nasal branch of facial artery (lateral nasal artery) is derived from the facial artery as that vessel ascends along the side of the nose. It supplies the ala and dorsum of the nose, anastomosing with its fellow, with the septal and alar branches, with the dorsal nasal branch of the ophthalmic artery, and with the infraorbital branch of the internal maxillary. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Lateral plantar artery

    Lateral plantar artery

    The lateral plantar artery (external plantar artery), much larger than the medial, passes obliquely lateralward and forward to the base of the fifth metatarsal bone. It then turns medialward to the interval between the bases of the first and second metatarsal bones, where it unites with the deep plantar branch of the dorsalis pedis artery, thus completing the plantar arch. As this artery passes lateralward, it is first placed between the calcaneus and Abductor hallucis, and then between the Flexor digitorum brevis and Quadratus plantæ as it runs forward to the base of the little toe it lies more superficially between the Flexor digitorum brevis and Abductor digiti quinti, covered by the plantar aponeurosis and integument. The remaining portion of the vessel is deeply situated; it extends from the base of the fifth metatarsal bone to the proximal part of the first interosseous space, and forms the plantar arch; it is convex forward, lies below the bases of the second, third, and fourth metatarsal bones and the corresponding Interossei, and upon the oblique part of the Adductor hallucis. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As
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    Left colic artery

    Left colic artery

    The left colic artery is a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery that runs to the left behind the peritoneum and in front of the psoas major muscle, and after a short, but variable, course divides into an ascending and a descending branch; the stem of the artery or its branches cross the left ureter and left internal spermatic vessels. The ascending branch crosses in front of the left kidney and ends, between the two layers of the transverse mesocolon, by anastomosing with the middle colic artery; the descending branch anastomoses with the highest sigmoid artery. From the arches formed by these anastomoses branches are distributed to the descending colon and the left part of the transverse colon. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Splenic artery

    Splenic artery

    In anatomy, the splenic artery (in the past called the lienal artery) is the blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the spleen. It branches from the celiac artery, and follows a course superior to the pancreas. The splenic artery gives off branches to the stomach and pancreas before reaching the spleen. Note that the branches of the splenic artery do not reach all the way to the lower part of the greater curvature of the stomach. Instead, that region is supplied by the right gastroepiploic artery, a branch of the gastroduodenal artery. The two gastroepiploic arteries anastomose with each other at that point. Along its course, it is accompanied by a similarly named vein, the splenic vein, which drains into the portal vein. Splenic artery aneurysms are rare, but still the third most common abdominal aneurysm (after aneurysms of the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries). They may occur in pregnant women in the 3rd trimester and rupture carries a maternal mortality of greater than 50% and a fetal mortality of 70% - 90%. Risk factors include smoking and high blood pressure.
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    Superior genicular arteries

    Superior genicular arteries

    The superior genicular arteries (superior articular arteries), two in number, arise one on either side of the popliteal artery, and wind around the femur immediately above its condyles to the front of the knee-joint. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Azygos arteries of the vagina

    Azygos arteries of the vagina

    The uterine artery supplies branches to the cervix uteri and others which descend on the vagina; the latter anastomose with branches of the vaginal arteries and form with them two median longitudinal vessels—the vaginal branches of uterine artery (or azygos arteries of the vagina)—one of which runs down in front of and the other behind the vagina. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Inferior rectal artery

    Inferior rectal artery

    The inferior rectal artery (inferior hemorrhoidal artery) is an artery that supplies blood to the lower half of the anal canal. The inferior rectal artery arises from the internal pudendal artery as it passes above the ischial tuberosity. Piercing the wall of the pudendal canal, it divides into two or three branches which cross the ischioanal fossa, and are distributed to the muscles and integument of the anal region, and send offshoots around the lower edge of the gluteus maximus to the skin of the buttock. They anastomose with the corresponding vessels of the opposite side, with the superior and middle rectal arteries, and with the perineal artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Common iliac artery

    Common iliac artery

    The common iliac arteries are two large arteries that originate from the aortic bifurcation at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. They bifurcate into the external iliac artery and internal iliac artery . They are about 4cm long in adults and more than a centimeter in diameter. The arteries run inferolaterally, along the medial border of the psoas muscles to their bifurcation at the pelvic brim, in front of the sacroiliac joints. The common iliac artery, and all of its branches, exist as paired structures (that is to say, there is one on the left side and one on the right). The distribution of the common iliac artery is basically the pelvis and lower limb (as the femoral artery) on the corresponding side. Both common iliac arteries are accompanied along their course by common iliac veins which lie posteriorly and to the right. Their terminal bifurcation is crossed anteriorly by the ureters.
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    Deep cervical artery

    Deep cervical artery

    The deep cervical artery (Profunda cervicalis) is an artery of the neck. It arises, in most cases, from the costocervical trunk, and is analogous to the posterior branch of an aortic intercostal artery: occasionally it is a separate branch from the subclavian artery. Passing backward, above the eighth cervical nerve and between the transverse process of the seventh cervical vertebra and the neck of the first rib, it runs up the back of the neck, between the semispinalis capitis and semispinalis cervicis, as high as the axis vertebra, supplying these and adjacent muscles, and anastomosing with the deep division of the descending branch of the occipital, and with branches of the vertebral. It gives off a spinal twig which enters the canal through the intervertebral foramen between the seventh cervical and first thoracic vertebrae. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Inferior labial artery

    Inferior labial artery

    The inferior labial artery (inferior labial branch of facial artery) arises near the angle of the mouth; it passes upward and forward beneath the Triangularis and, penetrating the Orbicularis oris, runs in a tortuous course along the edge of the lower lip between this muscle and the mucous membrane. It supplies the labial glands, the mucous membrane, and the muscles of the lower lip; and anastomoses with the artery of the opposite side, and with the mental branch of the inferior alveolar artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Inferior vesical artery

    Inferior vesical artery

    The inferior vesical artery is an artery in the pelvis that supplies the lower part of the bladder. The inferior vesical artery is a branch (direct or indirect) of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It frequently arises in common with the middle rectal artery, and is distributed to the fundus of the bladder. In males, it also supplies the prostate and the seminal vesicles. The branches to the prostate communicate with the corresponding vessels of the opposite side. Some texts consider it to be found only in males, and cite the vaginal artery as the homologous structure in females. Other texts consider it to be present in both males and females. In these contexts, the inferior vesical artery in females is a small branch of a vaginal artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Pericardiacophrenic artery

    Pericardiacophrenic artery

    The pericardiacophrenic artery is a long slender branch of the internal thoracic artery. It accompanies the phrenic nerve, between the pleura and pericardium, to the diaphragm, to which it is distributed. It anastomoses with the musculophrenic and inferior phrenic arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Zygomatico-orbital artery

    The middle temporal artery occasionally gives off a zygomatico-orbital branch, which runs along the upper border of the zygomatic arch, between the two layers of the temporal fascia, to the lateral angle of the orbit. This branch, which may arise directly from the superficial temporal artery, supplies the Orbicularis oculi, and anastomoses with the lacrimal and palpebral branches of the ophthalmic artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Anterior humeral circumflex artery

    Anterior humeral circumflex artery

    The anterior humeral circumflex artery (anterior circumflex artery, anterior circumflex humeral artery), considerably smaller than the posterior, arises nearly opposite it, from the lateral side of the axillary artery. It runs horizontally, beneath the Coracobrachialis and short head of the Biceps brachii, in front of the neck of the humerus. On reaching the intertubercular sulcus, it gives off a branch which ascends in the sulcus to supply the head of the humerus and the shoulder-joint. The trunk of the vessel is then continued onward beneath the long head of the Biceps brachii and the Deltoideus, and anastomoses with the posterior humeral circumflex artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Appendicular artery

    Appendicular artery

    The appendicular artery, also appendiceal artery, is a terminal branch of the ileocolic artery that descends behind the termination of the ileum and enters the mesoappendix of the vermiform appendix. It runs near the free margin of the mesoappendix and ends in branches which supply the appendix. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Posterior descending artery

    Posterior descending artery

    The posterior interventricular artery (PIV) (or posterior descending artery (PDA)) is an artery running in the posterior interventricular sulcus to the apex of the heart where it meets with the anterior interventricular artery. It supplies the posterior 1/3rd of the interventricular septum. The remaining anterior 2/3rds is supplied by the anterior interventricular artery which is a septal branch of the left anterior descending artery, which is a branch of left coronary artery. It is typically a branch of the right coronary artery (70%, known as right dominance). Alternately, the PIV can be a branch of the circumflex coronary artery (10%, known as left dominance) which itself is a branch of the left coronary artery. It can also be supplied by an anastomosis of the left and right coronary artery (20%, known as co-dominance). Variants have been reported.
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    Volar interosseous artery

    Volar interosseous artery

    The anterior interosseous artery (volar interosseous artery) is an artery of the forearm. It passes down the forearm on the volar surface of the interosseous membrane. It is accompanied by the volar interosseous branch of the median nerve, and overlapped by the contiguous margins of the flexor digitorum profundus and flexor pollicis longus, giving off in this situation muscular branches, and the nutrient arteries of the radius and ulna. At the upper border of the Pronator quadratus it pierces the interosseous membrane and reaches the back of the forearm, where it anastomoses with the dorsal interosseous artery. It then descends, in company with the terminal portion of the dorsal interosseous nerve, to the back of the wrist to join the dorsal carpal net-work. The volar interosseous artery gives off a slender branch, the arteria mediana, which accompanies the median nerve, and gives offsets to its substance; this artery is sometimes much enlarged, and runs with the nerve into the palm of the hand. Before it pierces the interosseous membrane the anterior interosseous sends a branch downward behind the pronator quadratus to join the volar carpal network. This article was originally
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    Artery of the pterygoid canal

    Artery of the pterygoid canal

    The artery of the pterygoid canal (Vidian artery) is an artery that can arise from the internal carotid (ICA) or external carotid (ECA), or serve as an anastomosis between these arteries. It more commonly arises from the ECA. The eponym derived from Vidus Vidius. The artery passes backward along the pterygoid canal with the corresponding nerve. It is distributed to the upper part of the pharynx and to the auditory tube, sending into the tympanic cavity a small branch which anastomoses with the other tympanic arteries. It can end in the oropharynx. The artery is a small, inconstant branch which passes into the pterygoid canal and anastomoses with a branch of the maxillary artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Common hepatic artery

    Common hepatic artery

    In anatomy, the common hepatic artery is a short blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver, pylorus (a part of the stomach), duodenum (a part of the small intestine) and pancreas. It arises from the celiac artery and has the following branches:
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    Masseteric artery

    Masseteric artery

    The masseteric artery is small and passes laterally through the mandibular notch to the deep surface of the masseter muscle, which it supplies. It anastomoses with the masseteric branches of the external maxillary artery and with the transverse facial artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    External iliac artery

    External iliac artery

    The external iliac arteries are two major arteries which bifurcate off the common iliac arteries anterior to the sacroiliac joint of the pelvis. They proceed anterior and inferior along the medial border of the psoas major muscles. They exit the pelvic girdle posterior and inferior to the inguinal ligament about 1/3rd laterally from the insertion point of the inguinal ligament on the pubic tubercle at which point they are referred to as the femoral arteries.. The external iliac artery is usually the artery used to attach the renal artery to the recipient of a kidney transplant. The external iliac artery arises from the bifurcation of the common iliac artery. It travels inferiorly, anteriorly, and laterally, making its way to the lower limb: The abdominal aorta divides to form the "common iliac arteries" in the lower abdomen, and these vessels supply blood to the pelvic organs, gluteral region, and legs. Each common iliac artery descends a short distance and divides into an internal and an external branch. The external iliac artery provides the main blood supply to the legs. It passes down along the brim of the pelvis and gives off two large branches - the "inferior epigastric
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    Posterior humeral circumflex artery

    Posterior humeral circumflex artery

    The posterior humeral circumflex artery (posterior circumflex artery, posterior circumflex humeral artery) arises from the axillary artery at the lower border of the subscapularis, and runs posteriorally with the axillary nerve through the quadrangular space. It winds around the neck of the humerus and is distributed to the deltoid muscle (aka deltoideus) and shoulder-joint, anastomosing with the anterior humeral circumflex and profunda brachii. It feeds the teres minor and deltoid muscles. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Posterior tibial artery

    Posterior tibial artery

    The posterior tibial artery of the lower limb carries blood to the posterior compartment of the leg and plantar surface of the foot, from the popliteal artery. It is accompanied by a deep vein, the posterior tibial vein, along its course. It typically gives rise to the fibular artery. It also gives rise to medial plantar artery and lateral plantar artery. In addition a calcaneal branch to the medial aspect of the calcaneus. The posterior tibial artery pulse can be readily palpated posterior and inferior to the medial malleolus and is often examined by physicians when assessing a patient for peripheral vascular disease. It is very rarely absent in young and healthy individuals; in a study of 547 healthy individuals only one person did not have a palpable posterior tibial artery. It is easily palpated over Pimenta's Point.
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    Anterior communicating artery

    Anterior communicating artery

    In human anatomy, the anterior communicating artery is a blood vessel of the brain that connects the left and right anterior cerebral arteries. The anterior communicating artery connects the two anterior cerebral arteries across the commencement of the longitudinal fissure. Sometimes this vessel is wanting, the two arteries joining together to form a single trunk, which afterward divides; or it may be wholly, or partially, divided into two. Its length averages about 4 mm, but varies greatly. It gives off some of the anteromedial ganglionic vessels, but these are principally derived from the anterior cerebral artery. It is part of the cerebral arterial circle, also known as the circle of Willis. Aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery are the most common circle of Willis aneurysm and can cause visual field defects such as bitemporal hemianopsia, psychopathology and frontal lobe pathology. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Descending aorta

    Descending aorta

    The descending aorta is part of the aorta, the largest artery in the body. The descending aorta is the part of the aorta beginning at the aortic arch that runs down through the chest and abdomen. The descending aorta is divided into two portions, the thoracic and abdominal, in correspondence with the two great cavities of the trunk in which it is situated. Within the abdomen, the descending aorta branches into the two common iliac arteries which serve the pelvis and eventually legs. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Gastroduodenal artery

    Gastroduodenal artery

    In anatomy, the gastroduodenal artery is a small blood vessel in the abdomen. It supplies blood directly to the pylorus (distal part of the stomach) and proximal part of the duodenum, and indirectly to the pancreatic head (via the anterior and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal arteries). It most commonly arises from the common hepatic artery of the celiac trunk, but there are numerous variations of the origin . It first gives rise to the supraduodenal artery, followed by the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. It terminates in a bifurcation when it splits into the right gastroepiploic artery and the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery (superior pancreaticoduodenal artery). These branches form functional anastomoses with the anterior and posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries from the superior mesenteric artery. Note that the exact branching of vessels from the gastroduoenal artery is variable. Typically, the posterior and anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal arteries branch independently in that order, but can rarely come of a common trunk. The gastroduodenal artery can be the source of a significant gastrointestinal bleed, which may arise as a
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    Inferior lateral genicular artery

    Inferior lateral genicular artery

    The lateral inferior genicular is an artery of the leg. It runs lateralward above the head of the fibula to the front of the knee-joint, passing in its course beneath the lateral head of the gastrocnemius, the fibular collateral ligament, and the tendon of the biceps femoris. It ends by dividing into branches, which anastomose with the medial inferior and lateral superior genicular arteries, and with the anterior recurrent tibial artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Inferior ulnar collateral artery

    Inferior ulnar collateral artery

    The inferior ulnar collateral artery (anastomotica magna artery) arises about 5 cm. above the elbow. It passes medialward upon the Brachialis, and piercing the medial intermuscular septum, winds around the back of the humerus between the Triceps brachii and the bone, forming, by its junction with the profunda brachii, an arch above the olecranon fossa. As the vessel lies on the Brachialis, it gives off branches which ascend to join the superior ulnar collateral: others descend in front of the medial epicondyle, to anastomose with the anterior ulnar recurrent. Behind the medial epicondyle a branch anastomoses with the superior ulnar collateral and posterior ulnar recurrent arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Internal maxillary artery

    Internal maxillary artery

    The maxillary artery (or internal maxillary artery in older texts) is an artery that supplies deep structures of the face. It branches from the external carotid artery just deep to the neck of the mandible. The maxillary artery, the larger of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery, arises behind the neck of the mandible, and is at first imbedded in the substance of the parotid gland; it passes forward between the ramus of the mandible and the sphenomandibular ligament, and then runs, either superficial or deep to the lateral pterygoid muscle, to the pterygopalatine fossa. It supplies the deep structures of the face, and may be divided into mandibular, pterygoid, and pterygopalatine portions. The first or mandibular portion passes horizontally forward, between the neck of the mandible and the sphenomandibular ligament, where it lies parallel to and a little below the auriculotemporal nerve; it crosses the inferior alveolar nerve, and runs along the lower border of the lateral pterygoid muscle. Branches include: (M.I.A.D.A) The second or pterygoid portion runs obliquely forward and upward under cover of the ramus of the mandible and insertion of the temporalis, on
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    Left marginal artery

    Left marginal artery

    The left marginal artery (or obtuse marginal artery) is a branch of the circumflex artery, originating at the posterior interventricular sulcus, traveling along the left margin of heart towards the apex of the heart.
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    Lumbar arteries

    Lumbar arteries

    The lumbar arteries are in parallel with the intercostals. They are usually four in number on either side, and arise from the back of the aorta, opposite the bodies of the upper four lumbar vertebræ. A fifth pair, small in size, is occasionally present: they arise from the middle sacral artery. They run lateralward and backward on the bodies of the lumbar vertebræ, behind the sympathetic trunk, to the intervals between the adjacent transverse processes, and are then continued into the abdominal wall. The arteries of the right side pass behind the inferior vena cava, and the upper two on each side run behind the corresponding crus of the diaphragm. The arteries of both sides pass beneath the tendinous arches which give origin to the Psoas major, and are then continued behind this muscle and the lumbar plexus. They now cross the Quadratus lumborum, the upper three arteries running behind, the last usually in front of the muscle. At the lateral border of the Quadratus lumborum they pierce the posterior aponeurosis of the Transversus abdominis and are carried forward between this muscle and the Obliquus internus. They anastomose with the lower intercostal, the subcostal, the
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    Petrous portion of the internal carotid artery

    Petrous portion of the internal carotid artery

    Petrous portion of the internal carotid artery (or petrous segment).—When the internal carotid artery enters the canal in the petrous portion of the temporal bone, it first ascends a short distance, then curves forward and medially, and again ascends as it leaves the canal to enter the cavity of the skull between the lingula and petrosal process of the sphenoid. The artery lies at first in front of the cochlea and tympanic cavity; from the latter cavity it is separated by a thin, bony lamella, which is cribriform in the young subject, and often partly absorbed in old age. Farther forward it is separated from the semilunar ganglion by a thin plate of bone, which forms the floor of the fossa for the ganglion and the roof of the horizontal portion of the canal. Frequently this bony plate is more or less deficient, and then the ganglion is separated from the artery by fibrous membrane. The artery is separated from the bony wall of the carotid canal by a prolongation of dura mater, and is surrounded by a number of small veins and by filaments of the carotid plexus, derived from the ascending branch of the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk. This article was originally
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    Radial recurrent artery

    Radial recurrent artery

    The radial recurrent artery arises from the radial artery immediately below the elbow. It ascends between the branches of the radial nerve, lying on the Supinator and then between the Brachioradialis and Brachialis, supplying these muscles and the elbow-joint, and anastomosing with the terminal part of the profunda brachii. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Superior lateral genicular artery

    Superior lateral genicular artery

    The lateral superior genicular is an artery of the leg. It passes above the lateral condyle of the femur, beneath the tendon of the Biceps femoris. It divides into a superficial and a deep branch; the superficial branch supplies the vastus lateralis, and anastomoses with the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex and the lateral inferior genicular arteries; the deep branch supplies the lower part of the femur and knee-joint, and forms an anastomotic arch across the front of the bone with the highest genicular and the medial inferior genicular arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Superior medial genicular artery

    Superior medial genicular artery

    The medial superior genicular runs in front of the Semimembranosus and Semitendinosus, above the medial head of the Gastrocnemius, and passes beneath the tendon of the Adductor magnus. It divides into two branches, one of which supplies the vastus medialis, anastomosing with the highest genicular and medial inferior genicular arteries; the other ramifies close to the surface of the femur, supplying it and the knee-joint, and anastomosing with the lateral superior genicular artery. The medial superior genicular artery is frequently of small size, a condition, which is associated with an increase in the size of the highest genicular. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Artery to the ductus deferens

    Artery to the ductus deferens

    The artery to the ductus deferens, as its name suggests, is an artery in males that provides blood to the vas deferens. The artery usually arises from the anterior trunk of the superior vesical artery. It accompanies the vas deferens into the testis, where it anastomoses with the testicular artery. In this way it also supplies blood to the testis and epididymis. A small branch supplies the ureter. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Cremasteric artery

    Cremasteric artery

    The cremasteric artery (external spermatic artery) is a branch of the Inferior epigastric artery which accompanies the spermatic cord, and supplies the Cremaster and other coverings of the cord, anastomosing with the testicular artery (internal spermatic artery in older texts). (In the female, the cremasteric artery is very small and accompanies the round ligament.) This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Descending genicular artery

    Descending genicular artery

    The descending genicular artery (highest genicular artery) arises from the femoral artery just before it passes through the opening in the tendon of the Adductor magnus It immediately divides into: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Dorsal carpal arch

    Dorsal carpal arch

    The dorsal carpal arch (dorsal carpal network, posterior carpal arch) is an anatomical term for the combination (anastomosis) of dorsal carpal branch of the radial artery and the dorsal carpal branch of the ulnar artery near the back of the wrist. It is made up of the dorsal carpal branches of both the ulnar and radial arteries. It also anastomoses with the anterior interosseous artery and the posterior interosseous artery. The arch gives off three dorsal metacarpal arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Perforating arteries

    Perforating arteries

    The perforating arteries, usually three in number, are so named because they perforate the tendon of the Adductor magnus to reach the back of the thigh. They pass backward close to the linea aspera of the femur under cover of small tendinous arches in the muscle. The first is given off above the Adductor brevis, the second in front of that muscle, and the third immediately below it. The first perforating artery (a. perforans prima) passes posteriorly between the Pectineus and Adductor brevis (sometimes it perforates the latter); it then pierces the Adductor magnus close to the linea aspera. It gives branches to the Adductores brevis and magnus, Biceps femoris, and Gluteus maximus, and anastomoses with the inferior gluteal, medial and lateral femoral circumflex and second perforating arteries. The second perforating artery (a. perforans secunda), larger than the first, pierces the tendons of the Adductores brevis and magnus, and divides into ascending and descending branches, which supply the posterior femoral muscles, anastomosing with the first and third perforating. The second artery frequently arises in common with the first. The nutrient artery of the femur is usually given off
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    Anterior ulnar recurrent artery

    Anterior ulnar recurrent artery

    The anterior ulnar recurrent artery arises immediately below the elbow-joint, runs upward between the Brachialis and Pronator teres, supplies twigs to those muscles, and, in front of the medial epicondyle, anastomoses with the superior and inferior ulnar collateral arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Brachiocephalic artery

    Brachiocephalic artery

    The brachiocephalic artery (or brachiocephalic trunk or innominate artery) is an artery of the mediastinum that supplies blood to the right arm and the head and neck. It is the first branch of the aortic arch, and soon after it emerges, the brachiocephalic artery divides into the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery. There is no brachiocephalic artery for the left side of the body. The left common carotid, and the left subclavian artery, come directly off the aortic arch. However, there are two brachiocephalic veins. It arises, on a level with the upper border of the second right costal cartilage, from the commencement of the arch of the aorta, on a plane anterior to the origin of the left carotid; it ascends obliquely upward, backward, and to the right to the level of the upper border of the right sternoclavicular articulation, where it divides into the right common carotid and right subclavian arteries. The artery then crosses the trachea in front of it obliquely from the left to the right, roughly at the middle of the trachea or the level of the ninth tracheal cartilage. In infants, it often divides cephalad to the sternoclavicular articulation, within the
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    Cervical portion

    The Cervical portion (or cervical segment) of the internal carotid begins at the bifurcation of the common carotid, opposite the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, and runs perpendicularly upward, in front of the transverse processes of the upper three cervical vertebræ, to the carotid canal in the petrous portion of the temporal bone. It is comparatively superficial at its commencement, where it is contained in the carotid triangle, and lies behind and lateral to the external carotid, overlapped by the Sternocleidomastoideus, and covered by the deep fascia, Platysma, and integument: it then passes beneath the parotid gland, being crossed by the hypoglossal nerve, the Digastricus and Stylohyoideus, and the occipital and posterior auricular arteries. Higher up, it is separated from the external carotid by the Styloglossus and Stylopharyngeus, the tip of the styloid process and the stylohyoid ligament, the glossopharyngeal nerve and the pharyngeal branch of the vagus. It is in relation, behind, with the Longus capitis, the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, and the superior laryngeal nerve; laterally, with the internal jugular vein and vagus nerve, the nerve
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    Deep auricular artery

    Deep auricular artery

    The deep auricular artery often arises in common with the anterior tympanic artery. It ascends in the substance of the parotid gland, behind the temporomandibular articulation, pierces the cartilaginous or bony wall of the external acoustic meatus, and supplies its cuticular lining and the outer surface of the tympanic membrane. It gives a branch to the temporomandibular joint. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Deep external pudendal artery

    Deep external pudendal artery

    The deep external pudendal artery (deep external pudic artery), more deeply seated than the superficial external pudendal artery, passes medialward across the Pectineus and the Adductor longus muscles; it is covered by the fascia lata, which it pierces at the medial side of the thigh, and is distributed, in the male, to the integument of the scrotum and perineum, in the female to the labium majus; its branches anastomose with the scrotal (or labial) branches of the perineal artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Dorsal artery of the penis

    Dorsal artery of the penis

    The Dorsal Artery of the Penis is a branch of the internal pudendal artery which ascends between the crus penis and the pubic symphysis, and, piercing the inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm, passes between the two layers of the suspensory ligament of the penis, and runs forward on the dorsum of the penis to the glans, where it divides into two branches, which supply the glans and prepuce. On the penis, it lies between the dorsal nerve and deep dorsal vein, the former being on its lateral side. It supplies the integument and fibrous sheath of the corpus cavernosum penis, sending branches through the sheath to anastomose with the deep artery of the penis. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    External carotid artery

    External carotid artery

    In human anatomy, the external carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. It arises from the common carotid artery when it bifurcates into the external and internal carotid artery. The external carotid artery begins at the level of the upper border of thyroid cartilage, and, taking a slightly curved course, passes upward and forward, and then inclines backward to the space behind the neck of the mandible, where it divides into the superficial temporal and maxillary artery within the parotid gland. It rapidly diminishes in size in its course up the neck, owing to the number and large size of the branches given off from it. In the child, it is somewhat smaller than the internal carotid; but in the adult, the two vessels are of nearly equal size. At its origin, this artery is more superficial, and placed nearer the middle line than the internal carotid, and is contained within the carotid triangle. The external carotid artery is covered by the skin, superficial fascia, Platysma, deep fascia, and anterior margin of the Sternocleidomastoideus; it is crossed by the hypoglossal nerve, by the lingual, ranine, common facial, and superior thyroid veins; and by the Digastricus and
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    Internal pudendal artery

    Internal pudendal artery

    The internal pudendal artery is an artery that branches off the internal iliac artery, providing blood to the external genitalia. The internal pudendal artery is the terminal branch of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery. It is smaller in the female than in the male. It exits the pelvic cavity through the greater sciatic foramen to enter the gluteal region. It then curves around the sacrospinous ligament to enter the perineum through the lesser sciatic foramen. It travels through the pudendal canal with the internal pudendal veins and the pudendal nerve. The internal pudendal artery gives off the following branches: Some sources consider the urethral artery a direct branch of the internal pudendal artery, while others consider it a branch of the perineal artery. In males, the internal pudendal artery also gives rise to the perforating arteries of the penis.
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    Lateral femoral circumflex artery

    Lateral femoral circumflex artery

    The lateral circumflex femoral artery (lateral femoral circumflex artery, external circumflex artery) is an artery in the upper thigh. The lateral femoral circumflex artery arises from the lateral side of the profunda femoris artery, passes horizontally between the divisions of the femoral nerve, and behind the sartorius and rectus femoris, and divides into ascending, transverse, and descending branches. The lateral femoral circumflex artery may occasionally arise directly from the femoral artery. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Left circumflex artery

    Left circumflex artery

    The "LCX", or left circumflex artery (or circumflex artery, or circumflex branch of the left coronary artery) is an artery of the heart. It follows the left part of the coronary sulcus, running first to the left and then to the right, reaching nearly as far as the posterior longitudinal sulcus. The circumflex artery curves to the left around the heart within the coronary sulcus, giving rise to one or more diagonal or left marginal arteries (also called obtuse marginal branches (OM)) as it curves toward the posterior surface of the heart. It helps form the posterior left ventricular branch or posterolateral artery. The circumflex artery ends at the point where it joins to form to the posterior interventricular artery in ten percent of all cases, which lies in the posterior interventricular sulcus. In the other 90% of all cases the posterior interventricular artery comes out of the right coronary artery. The LCX supplies the posterolateral left ventricle and the anterolateral papillary muscle. It also supplies the sinoatrial nodal artery in 38% of people. It supplies 15-25% of the left ventricle in right-dominant systems. If the coronary anatomy is left-dominant, the LCX supplies
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    Parietal branch of superficial temporal artery

    Parietal branch of superficial temporal artery

    The parietal branch of superficial temporal artery (posterior temporal), larger than the frontal, curves upward and backward on the side of the head, lying superficial to the temporal fascia, and anastomosing with its fellow of the opposite side, and with the posterior auricular and occipital arteries. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Profunda brachii

    Profunda brachii

    The arteria profunda brachii (also known as deep artery of the arm and the deep brachial artery) is a large vessel which arises from the lateral and posterior part of the brachial artery, just below the lower border of the Teres major. It follows closely the radial nerve, running at first backward between the medial and lateral heads of the triceps brachii, then along the groove for the radial nerve (the radial sulcus), where it is covered by the lateral head of the triceps brachii, to the lateral side of the arm; there it pierces the lateral intermuscular septum, and, descending between the brachioradialis and the brachialis to the front of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, ends by anastomosing with the radial recurrent artery. It gives branches to the deltoid muscle (which, however, primarily is supplied by the posterior circumflex humeral artery) and to the muscles between which it lies; it supplies an occasional nutrient artery which enters the humerus behind the deltoid tuberosity. A branch ascends between the long and lateral heads of the triceps brachii to anastomose with the posterior humeral circumflex artery; the medial collateral artery, a branch, descends in the
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    Profunda femoris artery

    Profunda femoris artery

    The profunda femoris artery (also known as the deep femoral artery, or the deep artery of the thigh) is a branch of the femoral artery that, as its name suggests, travels more deeply (posteriorly) than the rest of the femoral artery. The profunda femoris branches off the femoral artery soon after its origin. It travels down the thigh closer to the femur than the femoral artery, running between the pectineus and the adductor longus, and running on the posterior side of adductor longus. The deep femoral artery does not leave the thigh. The profunda femoris gives off the following branches: This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Sphenopalatine artery

    Sphenopalatine artery

    The sphenopalatine artery (nasopalatine artery) is an artery of the head, commonly known as the artery of epistaxis. The sphenopalatine artery is a branch of the maxillary artery which passes through the sphenopalatine foramen into the cavity of the nose, at the back part of the superior meatus. Here it gives off its posterior lateral nasal branches. Crossing the under surface of the sphenoid, the sphenopalatine artery ends on the nasal septum as the posterior septal branches. Here it will anastomose with the branches of the greater palatine artery. This artery is often ligated surgically to control severe epistaxis. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Superficial external pudendal artery

    Superficial external pudendal artery

    The superficial external pudendal artery (superficial external pudic artery) arises from the medial side of the femoral artery, close to the superficial epigastric artery and superficial iliac circumflex artery. After piercing the femoral sheath and fascia cribrosa, it courses medialward, across the spermatic cord (or round ligament in the female), to be distributed to the integument on the lower part of the abdomen, the penis and scrotum in the male, and the labium majus in the female, anastomosing with branches of the internal pudendal artery. it crosses superficial to the inguinal ligament This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Superior tympanic artery

    Superior tympanic artery

    The superior tympanic artery, a branch of the middle meningeal on entering the cranium, runs in the canal for the Tensor tympani, and supplies this muscle and the lining membrane of the canal. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.
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    Suprascapular artery

    Suprascapular artery

    The suprascapular artery (or transverse scapular artery) is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk. At first, it passes downward and laterally across the scalenus anterior and phrenic nerve, being covered by the sternocleidomastoid muscle; it then crosses the subclavian artery and the brachial plexus, running behind and parallel with the clavicle and subclavius muscle and beneath the inferior belly of the omohyoid to the superior border of the scapula. It passes over the superior transverse scapular ligament (unlike the suprascapular nerve, which passes below the ligament). (This can be remembered with the mnemonic, "Army over Navy", where Army replaces Artery and Navy replaces Nerve. You could also remember by making a reference to a bridge where the army would go over the bridge while the navy would go under.) The artery then enters the supraspinatous fossa of the scapula. It travels close to the bone, running between the scapula and the supraspinatus muscle, to which it supplies branches. It then descends behind the neck of the scapula, through the great scapular notch and under cover of the inferior transverse ligament, to reach the infraspinatous fossa, where it anastomoses with
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    241
    Thoracic aorta

    Thoracic aorta

    The thoracic aorta is contained in the posterior mediastinal cavity. It begins at the lower border of the fourth thoracic vertebra where it is continuous with the aortic arch, and ends in front of the lower border of the twelfth thoracic vertebra, at the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm where it becomes the abdominal aorta. At its commencement, it is situated on the left of the vertebral column; it approaches the median line as it descends; and, at its termination, lies directly in front of the column. The vessel describes a curve which is concave forward; as the branches given off from it are small, its diminution in size is insignificant. It has a radius of approximately 1.16 cm. It is in relation, anteriorly, from above downward, with the root of the left lung, the pericardium, the esophagus, and the diaphragm; posteriorly, with the vertebral column and the azygos vein; on the right side, with the hemiazygos veins and thoracic duct; on the left side, with the left pleura and lung. The esophagus, with its accompanying plexus of nerves, lies on the right side of the aorta above; but at the lower part of the thorax it is placed in front of the aorta, and, close to the diaphragm, is
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