An armed force is a top-level military force with no military chain of command outside of itself. It can be a military extension of a nation, group of nations, or a political, religious or ethnic group.
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The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האוויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as חיל האוויר, Kheil HaAvir, "Air Corps") is the air force of the State of Israel and the aerial arm of the Israel Defense Forces. It was founded on May 28, 1948, shortly after the Israeli Declaration of Independence. As of May 2012 its Commander in Chief was Aluf Amir Eshel.
The Israeli Air Force states the following as its functions:
The forerunners of the Israeli Air Force were the Palestine Flying Service established by the Irgun in 1937, and Sherut Avir, the air wing of the Haganah. The Israeli Air Force was formed on May 28, 1948, shortly after Israel declared statehood and found itself under attack. It consisted of a hodge-podge of commandeered or donated civilian aircraft converted to military use. A variety of obsolete and surplus ex-World War II combat aircraft were quickly sourced by various means to supplement this fleet. The backbone of the IAF consisted of 25 Avia S-199s (purchased from Czechoslovakia, essentially Czechoslovak-built Messerschmitt Bf 109s) and 62 Supermarine Spitfire LF Mk IXEs. Creativity and resourcefulness were the early foundations of
Forsvarets Spesialkommando (FSK, en. Armed Forces' Special Command) is a special forces unit of the Norwegian Ministry of Defence. The unit was established in 1982 due to the increased risk of terrorist activity against Norwegian interests, including the oil platforms in the North Sea.
FSK was first officially revealed to the media after the military's comments regarding the hijacking of an airplane at Fornebu in September 1993.
The FSK and the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) cooperated in various ways during the Kosovo conflict. FSK / HJK was the first special forces unit to enter Pristina. The HJK's mission was to level the negotiating field between the belligerent parties, and to fine-tune the detailed, local deals needed to implement the peace deal between the Serbians and the Kosovo Albanians.
Claims have been made, that the FSK could not have avoided witnessing war crimes perpetrated by the KLA, given that the FSK were closely monitoring/cooperating with the KLA. Questions asked in connection with FSK's activities, include "How well informed was the Norwegian government about the cooperation between KLA and FSK? ... Did we help criminals get in to power?"
FSK supported U.S.
The Romanian Navy (Romanian: Forţele Navale Române) is the navy branch of the Romanian Armed Forces; it operates in the Black Sea and on the Danube.
The Romanian Navy has been founded in 1860 as a river flotilla on the Danube. After the unification of Wallachia and Moldavia, Alexandru Ioan Cuza, the ruling Domnitor of the Romanian Principalities, decided on the 22nd of October 1860 by order no. 173 to unify the navies into a single flotilla. The navy was French-trained and organized. Officers were initially sent to Brest Naval Training Centre in France, as the Military School in Bucharest did not have a naval section. The first Commander-in-chief of the navy was Colonel Nicolae Steriade. The base was first established in 1861 at Izmail, but it was later relocated in 1864 at Brăila and in 1867 at Galați. The equipment was modest at best, with 3 ships from Wallachia and 3 from Moldavia, manned by 275 sailors. The main goal of the navy was to organize, train and expand this small force.
The first seamen's training school was established in 1872 at Galați for officers, petty officers and sailors. The first acquisition of the Romanian Navy was the steamboat "Prințul Nicolae Conache
The Corps of Her Majesty's Royal Marines, commonly just referred to as the Royal Marines (RM), are the marine corps and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service. The Royal Marines were formed in 1755 as marine infantry for the Royal Navy. However, it can trace its origins back as far as 28 October 1664 when at the grounds of the Honourable Artillery Company "the Duke of York and Albanys maritime regiment of foot" was first formed.
The Royal Marines are a maritime-focused, amphibious, highly specialised light infantry force of commandos. They are capable of deploying at short notice in support of the United Kingdom Government's military and diplomatic objectives overseas. The Royal Marines are organised into a light infantry brigade, 3 Commando Brigade, and a number of separate units. These include the Fleet Protection Group Royal Marines (previously the Comacchio Group), a special guard and oil rig guard force, the Special Boat Service, a maritime special forces unit, and an assault craft unit, 1 Assault Group Royal Marines, which supervises landing craft on board the amphibious ships and landing
Unit 8200 (Hebrew: יחידה 8200, Yehida Shmoneh-Matayim) is an Israeli Intelligence Corps unit responsible for collecting signal intelligence and code decryption. It also appears in military publications as the Central Collection Unit of the Intelligence Corps.
Unit 8200 was established in 1952 using primitive surplus American military equipment. Originally, it was called the 2nd Intelligence Service Unit and then the 515th Intelligence Service Unit. In 1954, the unit moved from Jaffa to its current base at the Glilot junction.
Unit 8200 is the largest unit in the Israel Defense Forces, comprising several thousand soldiers. It is comparable in its function to the United States' National Security Agency but is a Ministry of Defense, rather than civilian, body. It is led by a Brigadier-General whose identity remains classified.
Subordinate to Unit 8200 is Unit Hatzav (Hebrew: יחידת חצב), responsible for collecting OSINT intelligence. The unit monitors and collects military intelligence-related information from television, radio, newspapers, and the internet. The translation of various items accounts for part of what is termed "basic intelligence," which is collected by the corps'
The IDF Sword Battalion (Hebrew: גדוד חרב, Gdud Herev) is an Arabic-speaking unit of the Israel Defense Forces, also known as Unit 300 and formerly known as the IDF Minorities Unit. Non-Jewish minorities also serve in the Druze Reconnaissance Unit and the Bedouin Trackers Unit. In 1987, "Unit 300" was officially renamed the "Sword Battalion."
The Minorities Unit was formed in the early summer of 1948 by incorporating a unit of Druze defectors from the Arab Liberation Army and small numbers of Bedouin and Circassians. The unit was attached to the Oded Brigade and fought in Operation Hiram in October 1948. It has fought in every war since. Today, most members of the unit are Druze, but there are also Bedouins, Circassians and Christian and Muslim Arabs. The unit has produced several generals.
The Minorities Unit has a small elite Sayeret special forces branch.
Druze and Circassian men are subject to mandatory conscription to the IDF. In the mid-1950s, the Druze leadership appealed to David Ben-Gurion, then Minister of Defense, to draft Druze men on the same basis as Jews. The State Defense Act of 1949, which called for drafting all individuals in the country, allowed the minister to
The Eighth Air Force (8 AF) is a numbered air force of the United States Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC). It is headquartered at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. The command serves as Air Forces Strategic – Global Strike, one of the air components of United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). The Eighth Air Force includes the heart of America's heavy bomber force: the B-2 Spirit and B-52 Stratofortress aircraft.
Established on 22 February 1944 as a redesignation of VIII Bomber Command at High Wycombe Airdrome, England, 8 AF was a United States Army Air Forces combat air force in the European Theater of World War II, engaging in operations primarily in the Northern Europe AOR, carrying out strategic bombing of enemy targets in France, the Low countries and Germany and engaging in air to air fighter combat against enemy aircraft until the German Capitulation in May 1945. It was the largest of the deployed combat Army Air Forces in numbers of personnel, aircraft and equipment.
During the Cold War, 8 AF was one of three Numbered Air Forces of the United States Air Force's Strategic Air Command (SAC), with a three-star general headquartered at Westover AFB, Massachusetts
Strike Fighter Squadron 195 (VFA-195), also known as the "Dambusters", is a United States Navy F/A-18E Super Hornet fighter squadron stationed at Naval Air Facility Atsugi. They are a part of Carrier Air Wing Five (CVW-5) and their tail code is NF.
VFA-195 exists to provide power projection for the United States.
The squadron, originally known as the Tigers, had its first insignia approved by Chief of Naval Operations on 4 March 1944, consisting of a lion cub riding a torpedo. Bob Burns gave the squadron a lion cub. On the patch the cub is holding the musical "bazooka" that Burns used in his act, while riding a torpedo. The lion went to the Los Angeles Zoo. A new design replaced the cub with a tiger and parrot on the torpedo, and was approved on 18 April 1949.
Sometime in the 1950s, the squadron adopted a shield insignia that featured an eagle's head and a torpedo. On 1 May 1951, squadron aircraft disabled the heavily defended Hwacheon Dam in North Korea, earning them the nickname Dambusters, echoing the original Dam Busters of No. 617 Squadron RAF. Destruction of the dam had been previously attempted by other units many times.
In August 1985, the squadron adopted the stylized
The Bolivarian National Air Force of Venezuela/Venezuelan National Bolivarian Military Aviation, since end of 2008: (Spanish) Aviación Militar Bolivariana Venezolana (previously Fuerza Aérea Venezolana, FAV) is a professional armed body designed to defend Venezuela's sovereignty and airspace. It is a component of the Venezuelan armed forces.
In the aftermath of the first plane flight in Venezuela on 22 September 1912, a council was formed to search for a suitable aircraft for the growing Venezuelan Army in 1913.
The birth of the FAV goes back to 10 December 1920 when the Military Aviation School of Venezuela was formed with COL David López Henríquez as its first commandant in Maracay. Early aircraft included Farman and Caudron G-3 as well as the amphibian Caudron G-4. The first decades of the FAV saw mainly French, German and Italian influence. After the Second World War, the air force was reorganized with American aid, eventually leading to the formal inception of the Fuerza Aérea Venezolana on 22 June 1946.
Most current airbases were built in the 1960s. The main fighter types in those years were Venom, Vampire, and F-86. Bomber squadrons typically operated B-25 Mitchell aircraft.
The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts: the joint army (Gemeinsame Armee - Common Army - recruited from all parts of the country), the Austrian Landwehr (recruited from Cisleithania), and the Hungarian Honvédség (recruited from Transleithania).
In the wake of fighting between the Austrian Empire and the Hungarian rebels during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, and the two decades of uneasy co-existence following, Hungarian soldiers served either in mixed units or were stationed away from Hungarian areas. With the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the new tripartite army was brought into being. It existed until the disestablishment of the Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I in 1918.
The joint "Imperial and Royal Army" (kaiserlich und königliche Armee or k.u.k.) units were generally poorly trained and had very limited access to new equipment because the governments of the Austrian and Hungarian parts of the empire often preferred to generously fund their own units instead of outfitting all three army branches equally. All of the Honvédség and the Landwehr regiments were
The Confederate States Army was the army of the Confederate States of America (or "Confederacy") while the Confederacy existed during the American Civil War. On February 8, 1861, delegates from the seven Deep South states which had already declared their secession from the United States of America adopted the Provisional Constitution of the Confederate States of America. On February 28, 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a provisional volunteer army and gave control over military operations and authority for mustering state forces and volunteers to the President of the Confederate States of America. On March 1, 1861, Provisional Confederate President Jefferson Davis, on behalf of the Confederate States government, assumed control of the military situation at Charleston, South Carolina where state militia were threatening to seize Fort Sumter from the small United States Army garrison. On March 6 and 9, 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress passed additional military legislation and established a more permanent Confederate States Army.
The Confederacy's government was effectively dissolved with the last meeting of the Confederate cabinet on May 5, 1865 and
The Finnish Rapid Deployment Force (FRDF) (Finnish: Suomen Kansainvälinen Valmiusjoukko) is the spearhead international force of the Finnish Defence Forces (FDF). It can also be used for national defence.
The force is trained to participate as a part of multinational peacekeeping and "crisis management" operations and can be deployed at short notice.
Although the FRDF is an addition to rather than a replacement for traditional peacekeeping forces, many Finnish peacekeepers have FRDF training, and FRDF soldiers are mostly used as a sort of recruitment pool for international peacekeeping missions, which may consist of a mix of normal reservists, FRDF-trained reservists and professional soldiers (mostly officers).
Formed in 1996, the first battalion became operational in 1998. Elements of the group were first deployed in 1999 as a part of the KFOR operation in Kosovo.
The FRDF currently consists of:
In 2008, training of anti-aircraft troops was supposed to begin in the Karelia Brigade, but for some reason didn't happen yet.
Only volunteer conscripts that have passed an entry test and not yet started their military service can apply for FRDF training, with few exceptions. The test
RAF Station Matching (also known as Matching Green) is a former World War II airfield in Essex, England. The airfield is located approximately 5 miles (8.0 km) east of Harlow; about 22 miles (35 km) northeast of London
Opened in 1944, it was used by both the Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Force. During the war it was used primarily as a bomber airfield. After the war it was closed in 1946.
Today the remains of the airfield are located on private property being used as agricultural fields.
Matching airfield was constructed during 1943 by the 834th and 840th Engineer Battalions (Aviation) of the United States Army. It was originally allocated to the USAAF by the Air Ministry in August 1942, and it was planned to be ready for use in the following spring. Due to various construction delays, it was not suitable for occupation until December 1943.
The airfield was designed to be built to the Class A airfield specification for bomber use, the main feature of which was a set of three converging runways each containing a concrete runway for takeoffs and landings, optimally placed at 60 degree angles to each other in a triangular pattern. The airfield consisted of three runways
The Army Service Forces were one of the three autonomous components of the Army of the United States during World War II, the others being the Army Air Forces and Army Ground Forces. They were created on February 28, 1942 by Executive Order Number 9082 "Reorganizing the Army and the War Department" and War Department Circular No. 59, dated March 2, 1942.
In March 1942, there was a sweeping reorganization of the Army. This was the result of dissatisfaction with the existing structure, with the United States Army Air Forces in particular seeking greater autonomy. However, the main driver was the Chief of Staff, General George Marshall, who felt overwhelmed by the large number of officers and agencies—at least 61—with direct access to him.
The Chief of Staff wanted no more than three commands reporting to him, so everything which did not fit into the Army Ground Forces or Army Air Forces became part of the Services of Supply, which were renamed the Army Service Forces on 12 March 1943, as it was felt that the term "supply" did not accurately describe their broad range of activities.
Army Service Forces brought together elements of five different components of the Army: elements of the
The Irish National Liberation Army (Irish: Arm Saoirse Náisiúnta na hÉireann) or INLA is an Irish republican socialist paramilitary group that was formed on 8 December 1974. Its goal is to remove Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom and create a socialist united Ireland.
Sharing a common Marxist ideology with its political wing, the Irish Republican Socialist Party (IRSP), it enjoyed its peak of influence in the late 1970s and early 1980s. In its earliest days, the INLA was known as the People's Liberation Army (PLA). During the PLA period, the group's purpose was primarily to protect IRSP members from attacks.
After a twenty-four year armed campaign, the INLA declared a ceasefire on 22 August 1998. In August 1999, it stated that "There is no political or moral argument to justify a resumption of the campaign". In October 2009, the INLA formally vowed to pursue its aims through peaceful political means.
The organisation is classified as a proscribed terrorist group in the United Kingdom and as an illegal organisation in the Republic of Ireland.
The founders of the INLA were Seamus Costello and other activists who had left or been forced out of the Official IRA in the wake of
Israeli General Staff (Hebrew: המטה הכללי של צה"ל), abbreviated Matkal (מטכ"ל), is the supreme command of the Israel Defense Forces. It is based in the Kirya compound (Rabin Camp) in Tel Aviv.
The majority of members in the General Staff Forum are officers ranked as Aluf and heads of the following military and civilian bodies:
The Komnenian Byzantine army or Komnenian army was the force established by Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos during the late 11th/early 12th century, and perfected by his successors John II Komnenos and Manuel I Komnenos during the 12th century. Alexios constructed a new army from the ground up, completely replacing previous forms of the Byzantine army. The Komnenian army was instrumental in the Komnenian restoration of the Byzantine Empire during the period of its existence, and was deployed in the Balkans, Italy, Hungary, Russia, Anatolia, Syria, the Holy Land and Egypt.
At the beginning of the Komnenian period in 1081, the Byzantine Empire had been reduced to the smallest territorial extent in its history. Surrounded by enemies, and financially ruined by a long period of civil war, the empire's prospects had looked grim. The state lay defenseless before, as the Byzantine army had been reduced to a shadow of its former self. During the 11th century, decades of peace and neglect had reduced the old thematic forces, and the military and political anarchy following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 had destroyed the professional tagmata, the core of the Byzantine army. At
A sniper team typically consists of a sniper and a spotter. Both members can perform either role and often rotate between the two. The sniper fires the shot while the spotter assists in observation of targets, atmospheric conditions and handles security of their immediate location and communication with other parties, including directing artillery fire and close air support.
The spotter detects, observes, and assigns targets and watches for the results of the shot. Using his spotting scope, he will also read the wind by using physical indicators and the mirage caused by the heat on the ground. Also, in conjunction with the shooter, he will accurately make calculations for distance, angle shooting (slant range), mil dot related calculations, correction for atmospheric conditions and leads for moving targets. It is not unusual for the spotter to be equipped with a notepad and a laptop computer specifically for performing these calculations.
He also provides the team security, therefore he is usually armed with an assault rifle. It is often the case that the sniper rifle is assigned exclusively to a single person, therefore in the case of rotation the spotter carries two weapons.
The 618th Air and Space Operations Center (Tanker Airlift Control Center) is a United States Air Force unit assigned to Air Mobility Command's Eighteenth Air Force (18AF/AFTRANS). It is stationed at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois. The 618th AOC (TACC) is responsible for planning, scheduling, and tracking aircraft performing airlift, aerial refueling, and aeromedical evacuation operations around the world. It serves as an Air and Space Operations Center (AOC) for 18AF/AFTRANS, executing missions assigned by the United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM).
Within the United States Department of Defense, the United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM) is responsible for providing air, land, and sea transportation. Air transportation is provided by the US Air Force’s Air Mobility Command (AMC). Operations within AMC are conducted by the Eighteenth Air Force (18AF) which, in its capacity as a component of USTRANSCOM, is a Component Numbered Air Force (C-NAF) known as Air Force Transportation (AFTRANS). As in other C-NAFs, operations are planned by an Air and Space Operations Center (AOC). The 618th AOC (TACC) serves as the AOC for 18AF/AFTRANS.
Founded as the Tanker Airlift
The Bangladesh Navy (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ নৌবাহিনী) is the naval arm of the Bangladesh Armed Forces. At present the navy is mostly limited to coastal patrolling, however it is implementing an ambitious procurement and expansion program to ensure the security of Bangladesh's maritime boundary. The Bangladesh Navy is presently undergoing major transformation under the leadership of present Chief of the Naval Staff Vice Admiral Zahir. Last year (2010) contracts were signed for a total of 11 ships out of which 8 are new construction. A contract for 2 helicopters was signed with Agusta Westland in 2009. On 23 June 2011 contract was signed with Ruag for supply of 2 Dornier 228 NG MPA.
The Bangladesh Navy was formally created as part of Bangladesh Forces during Bangladesh's 1971 Independence war against Pakistan. Its official creation date is July 1971 during the historic Bangladesh Sector Commanders Conference 1971. In 1971, with West Pakistan imposing a brutal military crack-down in East Pakistan, the Bangladesh Liberation War was already underway. Many Bengali sailors and officers in the Pakistan Navy defected to form the nascent Bangladesh Navy. Initially, there were two ships and 45
Seabees are members of the United States Navy construction battalions. The word Seabee is a proper noun that comes from the initials of Construction Battalion, (CB) of the United States Navy. The Seabees have a history of building bases, bulldozing and paving thousands of miles of roadway and airstrips, and accomplishing a myriad of other construction projects in a wide variety of military theaters dating back to World War II.
In December 1941, with U.S. involvement in war soon expected on both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, Rear Admiral Ben Moreell, Chief of the Navy's Bureau of Yards and Docks, recommended establishing Naval Construction Battalions at a newly constructed base at Davisville, Rhode Island (part of North Kingstown). With the attack on Pearl Harbor and the U.S. entrance into the war, he was given the go-ahead. The Davisville Advanced Base depot became operational in June, 1942. Camp Thomas, a personnel-receiving station on the base, was established in October of that year. It eventually contained 500 Quonset huts for personnel. On August 11, 1942, the Naval Construction Training Center, known as Camp Endicott, was commissioned at Davisville. The Camp trained over
Aerospace Defense Command is an inactive United States Air Force Major Command. Established in 1946 under the United States Army Air Forces, its mission was to organize and administer the integrated air defense system of the Continental United States (CONUS), exercise direct control of all active measures, and coordinate all passive means of air defense.
The command was inactivated on 31 March 1980.
The mission of air defense is a major foundation of the United States Air Force. In 1916, Alexander Graham Bell warned about the possibility of airship raids on the United States. For the next 25 years, experts studied the problem of air defense and lay the foundation for the future.
The War Department established an "Air Defense Command" as part of the Army Air Corps on 26 February 1940. This command, operating under the control of the United States First Army Commander from 2 March 1940, to 9 September 1941, engaged in planning for air defense of the Continental United States.
Before the United States entered World War II, air defense was divided among the four GHQ Air Force districts later, First, Second, Third, and Fourth Air Forces based in the United States. Initially, there was a
The Irish Volunteers (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) was a military organisation established in 1913 by Irish nationalists. It was ostensibly formed in response to the formation of the Ulster Volunteers in 1912, and its declared primary aim was "to secure and maintain the rights and liberties common to the whole people of Ireland". The Volunteers included members of the Gaelic League, Ancient Order of Hibernians and Sinn Féin, and, secretly, the IRB. At the start of World War I over 90% joined the National Volunteers and enlisted in the 10th and 16th (Irish) Divisions of the British Army, leaving the Irish Volunteers with a rump estimated at 10-14,000 members. Volunteers fought for Irish independence in 1916's Easter Rising, and were joined by the Irish Citizen Army, Cumann na mBan and Fianna Éireann to form the Irish Republican Army.
Home Rule for Ireland dominated political debate between the two countries since Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone introduced the first Home Rule Bill in 1886, which was rejected by the House of Commons. The second Home Rule Bill, seven years later having passed the House of Commons, was vetoed by the House of Lords. It would be the third Home Rule
The history of the Royal Canadian Air Force begins in 1920, when the air force was created as the Canadian Air Force (CAF). In 1924 the CAF was renamed the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) and granted the royal title by King George V. The RCAF existed as an independent service until 1968. Prior attempts at forming an air force for Canada were the Canadian Aviation Corps that was attached to the Canadian Expeditionary Force, and a two-squadron Canadian Air Force that was attached to the Royal Air Force.
The modern Royal Canadian Air Force, formerly known as Canadian Forces Air Command, traces its ancestry to the unification of Canada's armed services in 1968, and is one of three environmental commands of the Canadian Forces. Over the course of history, the Royal Canadian Air Force has served in the Second World War, the Korean War, and several United Nations peacekeeping missions and NATO operations. The force has also maintained a presence in Europe through the second half of the 20th century.
The aviation age came to Canada on 23 February 1909, when Alexander Graham Bell's Silver Dart took off from the ice of Bras d'Or Lake at Baddeck, Nova Scotia with J.D. McCurdy at the controls.
The Spanish Navy (Spanish: Armada Española) is the maritime branch of the Spanish Armed Forces and one of the oldest active naval forces in the world. The Armada is responsible for notable achievements in world history such as the discovery of Americas, the first world circumnavigation, and the discovery of a maritime path from the East Asia to America across the Pacific Ocean.
For three centuries the Spanish Navy played a crucial defensive and logistical role within the Spanish Empire. It formed part of a vast trade network that sailed the Pacific from Asia to America and the Atlantic from America to Europe escorting the galleon convoys. The Spanish Navy was the most powerful maritime force in the world in the 16th and early 17th centuries, but the political and economic decline of Habsburg Spain caused it to be eclipsed by the rising Dutch, English, and French navies. Wide-ranging reforms under the new Bourbon dynasty reversed this decline in the 18th century, for much of which Spain possessed the world's third-largest navy and, by combining with the allied Marine royale, rivaled Britain for naval supremacy until Trafalgar.
As of 2010, the Armada has 25,000 personnel, and the
Multi-National Corps – Iraq (MNC-I) was a formerly multinational, then United States only, army corps created on 15 May 2004, fighting the Iraq War. Its superior body, the Multi-National Force-Iraq (MNF-I) had replaced Combined Joint Task Force 7 on May 15, 2004. The change was made due to "concerns that had existed for some period of time, that the Combined Joint Task Force 7 headquarters was not sufficient to handle the range of military operations in Iraq, including peace support, civil military operations, and at the same time conduct strategic engagement such as talking to the sheiks and talking to the political authorities." Multi-National Force-Iraq was established to handle strategic level issues while Multi-National Corps – Iraq, a subordinate command, directed the tactical battle. A number of US Army corps headquarters have rotated into Iraq to provide the MNC-I headquarters. Also created under MNF-I was the Multi-National Security Transition Command - Iraq (MNSTC-I), which primarily directed the reconstruction of Iraqi security forces. With the planned drawdown of US forces from Iraq per the Status of Forces Agreement and President Barack Obama's announced timeline,
The Army of Central Kentucky was a military organization within Department No. 2 (the Western Department of the Confederate States of America). Originally called the Army Corps of Central Kentucky, it was created in the fall of 1861 as a subsection of Department No. 2, and continued in existence until the end of March 1862 when it was absorbed and merged into the Army of the Mississippi, which was then re-organized as the Army of Tennessee on November 20, 1862.
The Department No. 2 (Western Department) was created on June 25, 1861, under the command of Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk, and had military jurisdiction and control over parts of Alabama, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. On September 2, 1861, the Department was expanded to include all of Arkansas and military operations in the state of Missouri, and then on September 10 the area was expanded again to include all of Arkansas, Tennessee, more of Mississippi, and all military operations in Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, and any Indian territories rallying to the Confederate cause west of Arkansas and Missouri.
Brig. Gen. Buckner assumed command of all forces in central Kentucky during September 1861 after having first
The Department of Defense (also known as the Defense Department, USDOD, DOD, DoD or the Pentagon) is the Executive Department of the Government of the United States of America charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States armed forces. The Department is also the largest employer in the world, with more than 2.13 million active duty Soldiers, Sailors, Marines, Airmen, and also civilian workers, and over 1.1 million National Guardsmen and members of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Reserves. The grand total is just over 3.2 million servicemen and servicewomen, plus the civilians who support them.
The Department – headed by the Secretary of Defense – has three subordinate military departments: the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, and the Department of the Air Force. In addition, there are many Defense Agencies such as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), the Missile Defense Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the National Reconnaissance Office
The Mexican Army (Spanish: Ejército Mexicano) is the combined land and air branch and largest of the Mexican Military services; it is also known as the National Defense Army. It was the first army to adopt and use an automatic rifle, (the Mondragón rifle), in 1899, and the first to issue automatic weapons as standard issue weapons, in 1908. The Mexican Army has an active duty force of 192,000 (2011 est.).
Mexico has no foreign nation-state adversaries and little ambition to impose itself upon other nations. It repudiates the use of force to settle disputes and rejects interference by one nation in the affairs of another. Although it has not suffered a major terrorist incident, Mexico considers itself a potential target for international terrorism.
In the prehispanic era, there were many indigenous tribes and highly developed city-states in what is now known as central Mexico. The most advanced and powerful kingdoms were those of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan, which comprised populations of the same ethnic origin and were politically linked by an alliance known as the Triple Alliance; colloquially these three states are known as the Aztec. They had a center for higher education
The Winnipeg Grenadiers was an infantry regiment of the Canadian Army formed on 1 April 1908 under General Order No. 20. Initially it was raised with Headquarters at Morden, Manitoba and companies at: ‘A’ Company at Morden, ‘B’ Company at Morden, ‘C’ Company at Manitou, ‘D’ Company at Carmen,‘E’ Company at Roland, 'F’ Company at Pilot Mound, ‘G’ Company at Cartwright and ‘H’ Company at Boissevain. The unit did not have any active personnel enrolled at the formation.
On 1 February 1910 all companies and headquarters were moved to Winnipeg. On 2 May 1910 the designation was changed to the 100th Winnipeg Grenadiers. The first officers were gazetted to the Regiment on 18 May 1910. Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Norlande Ruttan who came from the Retired List commanded the Regiment on organization (General Order No. 57 (HQ 32-1-107)). The Regiment was reorganized under General Order No. 120 (1915) on 1 October 1915 to an establishment with four companies.
The Winnipeg Grenadiers originated in Morden, Manitoba on 1 April 1908, as the 100th Regiment. It was redesignated the 100th "Winnipeg Grenadiers" on 2 May 1910 and The Winnipeg Grenadiers on 12 March 1920. On 16 November 1936, it was
RAF Debden is a former RAF airfield in England. The field is located 3 miles SE of Saffron Walden and approximately 1 mile north of the village of Debden in North Essex.
The airfield was opened in April 1937 and was first used by the Royal Air Force. One of Debden's early and most bizarre experiences was when the airfield was chosen as a location for the film "It's in the Air" in which George Formby was to pilot a Hawker Fury through Hangar No. 3. The rather sharper angle of the hangars at Debden built around the tarmac apron allowed free access at both ends of the end hangar. The flying for the sequence was actually done by Flying Officer R. H. A. Lee who went missing on August 18, 1940 when he was last seen ten miles north of Foulness Point chasing three German aircraft out to sea.
Hard surface runways were laid in 1940. During the early years of World War II it was a Sector Station, with an Operations Block for No.11 Group RAF during the Battle of Britain. Many different RAF units were based at Debden, including 1, 17, 29, 65, 73, 80, 85, 87, 111, 157, 257, 418, 504 and 601 Squadrons.
The airfield was attacked several times during the Battle of Britain. The first air-raid
The United States Coast Guard Reserve is the reserve component of the United States Coast Guard. It is organized, trained, administered, and supplied under the direction of the Commandant of the Coast Guard through the Director of Reserve and Leadership.
The mission of the Coast Guard Reserve is stated in the Reserve Policy Statement issued in 2004:
The U. S. Coast Guard must be prepared to respond to a wide range of contingencies at home and abroad in accordance with the authorities and responsibilities vested in the Service by law. The Coast Guard Reserve is an accessible pool of talent that enhances the depth and breadth of our readiness for these 21st-century challenges.
Reservists provide critical skills and experience that are vital to our ability to lead, manage and coordinate the national response to acts of terrorism, disasters or other emergencies in the maritime region. Accordingly, the core strategic purpose of the Coast Guard Reserve is to maintain the competencies to perform three prioritized functions:
(1) Maritime Homeland Security; (2) Domestic and expeditionary support to National Defense; and, (3) Domestic, natural or man-made, disaster response and
3 Canadian Forces Flying Training School (3 CFFTS) is located at the Southport Aerospace Centre just south of Portage La Prairie, Manitoba, Canada.
3 CFFTS conducts Primary Flight Training on the Grob G 120A. Helicopter training is done on the Bell CH-139 Jet Ranger and the Bell 412 helicopter (retired CH-146 Griffons). Multi-engine training is conducted on the Beechcraft King Air C-90B.
The school is based at the Southport Aerospace Centre (formerly CFB Portage la Prairie). The service companies of Allied Wings and Southport Aerospace Centre provide all support services for 3 CFFTS, including aircraft maintenance and airfield operations.
3 CFFTS uses civilian pilots to teach primary pilot training and the air navigator courses. Military pilots are employed to teach the helicopter and multi-engine aircraft courses.
Portage la Prairie has been the site of military primary flight training since World War II, when it was home to No. 14 Elementary Flying Training School, part of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. Following the war the base was retained as the home of the Royal Canadian Air Force's 3 Flying Training School, the direct ancestor of 3 CFFTS.
3 CFFTS was first
Eagle warriors or eagle knights Classical Nahuatl: cuāuhtli ['kʷaːwtɬi] (singular) or cuāuhtmeh ['kʷaːwmeʔ] (plural) were a special class of infantry soldier in the Aztec army, one of the two leading military orders in Aztec society. They were a type of Aztec warrior called a cuāuhocēlōtl [kʷaːwo'seːloːt͡ɬ]. The word cuāuhocēlōtl derives from the Eagle warrior cuāuhtli and the Jaguar Warrior ocēlōtl [o'seːloːt͡ɬ]. These military orders were made up of the bravest soldiers of noble birth and those who had taken the greatest number of prisoners in battle. Of all of the Aztec warriors, they were the most feared. Eagle warriors, along with the Jaguar warriors, were the only such societies which did not restrict access solely to the nobility, as commoners or, in Nahuatl, "mācēhualli" [maːseːwalːi] ( listen) were occasionally admitted for special merit. The "Eagles" were soldiers of the sun, for the eagle was the symbol of the sun.
The life of Aztec warriors was one of constant battle, as the primary purpose for this continual warfare was to take prisoners to be sacrificed to their gods. As the Aztec empire expanded, however, the expansion of the empire in size and power became
I Field Force, Vietnam was a Corps-level command of the United States Army during the Vietnam War.
Activated on 15 March 1966, it was the successor to Task Force Alpha, a provisional corps command created 1 August 1965 (renamed Field Force Vietnam on 25 September) for temporary control of activities of U.S. Army ground combat units arriving in Vietnam. I Field Force was a component of U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV) and had its headquarters at Nha Trang.
I Field Force's area of responsibility was II Corps Tactical Zone, later renamed Military Region 2, which comprised the twelve provinces of Vietnam's Central Highlands. Among the divisions and brigades it controlled were:
I Field Force was deactivated on 30 April 1971 during the withdrawal of U.S. ground combat forces from Vietnam, and its assets formed the basis for its successor, the Second Regional Assistance Command (SRAC).
Eckhardt, George (1991). Vietnam Studies: Command and Control. Department of the Army. Online
Stanton, Shelby, Vietnam Order of Battle, ISBN 0-89193-700-5
The Turkish Cypriot Security Force (Turkish: Güvenlik Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı) is the military and security force of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, whose independence is recognized only by Turkey and the United Nations considers to be a Turkish-Occupied territory. It is a 9,000 strong force primarily made up of conscripted Turkish Cypriot males between the ages of 20 and 40. It is a combined arms force, with land, air and naval elements.
This force is supplemented by the 30,000 strong Turkish Military Forces in Northern Cyprus stationed on the island.
Even before independence, the Turkish Cypriot community maintained its own paramilitary force (the Türk Mukavemet Teşkilatı or TMT), trained and equipped by the Turkish Army. In 1967 this force was renamed the Mücahit (fighter), and in 1975 the Mücahit was renamed the Turkish Cypriot Security Force. In 1974, Turkey led a land invasion of Northern Cyprus with the aim of protecting the Turkish minority population after a Greek-inspired coup brought a threat of union of the island with Greece. Since then there have been no major fight for Cyprus and the nation continues to be an independent country, though strongly linked with
In Ancient Greek warfare, psiloi (Ancient Greek ψιλοί, singular ψιλός, literally “bare, stripped”) were extremely light infantry who acted as skirmishers and missile troops.
Psiloi, often used as a broad term to describe types of unarmored or lightly armored infantry, have often been more explicitly referred to by other names, such as gymnitai (naked) or Evzonoi (light armored), Grosfomachoi (swordsmen), Akontistai (javelineers), Sfendonitai (slingers), Toxotai (bowmen) or Lithovoloi (stone throwers). The peltastai (targe bearers) are often categorized as an intermediary infantry type, later grouped either with the psiloi or the heavy infantry, according to their main tactical role.
In Greek and Byzantine literature, the psiloi are light troops equipped with missiles, able to fight irregularly in a loose formation.
In ancient Greece, the psiloi usually belonged to the poorest citizen classes; sometimes even unfree conscripts would be employed, such as the Peloponnesian helots. They were armed with a variety of missile weapons, such as the bow (toxa), javelin (akontia), sling (sfendonai) or even stones (lithoi). For defense, they had no armor and usually no shield, but would be
The U.S. VIII Corps was a corps of the United States Army that saw service during various times over a fifty-year period during the 20th century. The VIII Corps was organized 26–29 November 1918 in the Regular Army in France and demobilized on 20 April 1919. The VIII Corps was soon reactivated, being constituted in the Organized Reserves in 1921. It was allotted to the Regular Army in 1933 and activated on 14 October 1940 at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. The VIII Corps fought across Europe from Normandy to Czechoslovakia in World War II. After World War II, the corps was inactivated and reactivated several times, with the final inactivation occurring in 1968.
Commanded by Major General Troy H. Middleton, VIII Corps was made operational in Normandy on 15 June 1944, and took up defensive positions west of Carentan on the Cotentin Peninsula as part of the U.S. First Army. Attacking in early July, the corps pushed through bocage country, taking La Haye-de-Puits and the Mont Castre forest. After closing on the Ay and Sèves Rivers, VIII Corps joined the allied breakout from Normandy (Operation Cobra) on 26 July 1944. On 28 July, the corps took the key road junction of Coutances and liberated
The Real Irish Republican Army, otherwise known as the Real IRA (RIRA), and styling itself as Óglaigh na hÉireann (Volunteers of Ireland), is an Irish republican paramilitary organisation which aims to bring about a united Ireland. Formed in 1997 following a split in the Provisional IRA, it is an illegal organisation in the Republic of Ireland and designated as a terrorist organisation in the United Kingdom and the United States.
Since its formation, the RIRA has waged a campaign in Northern Ireland against the British Army and the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI), formerly the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC). The RIRA is the biggest and most active of the "dissident republican" paramilitaries operating against the British security forces. It has targeted the security forces in gun attacks and bombings, as well as with grenades, mortars and rockets. The organisation has also been responsible for a number of bombings in Northern Ireland and England with the goal of causing economic harm and/or disruption. The most notable of these was the 15 August 1998 Omagh bombing, which killed 29 people. After the bombing, the RIRA went on ceasefire, but began operations again in 2000.
The Polish I Corps (Polish: I Korpus Polski; from 1942, Polish I Armored-Mechanized Corps, Polish: I Korpus Pancerno-Motorowy) was a tactical unit of the Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II.
It was formed in the United Kingdom on 28 September 1940. It was subordinate to the Scottish Command, and the Corps HQ was located in Perthshire (Moncreiffe House near Bridge of Earn). It numbered 3498 officers and 10,884 soldiers.
Initially formed to protect a 200 kilometres (120 mi) stretch of Scottish shore between Firth of Forth and Montrose against a possible German invasion of Britain, it became the logistical core of the Polish Army fighting alongside the Allies.
For most of its' existence the core of the corps was composed of a variety of en cadre units. Once these have been formed into full tactical units, they were dispatched to the fronts of World War II separately, as part of other Allied tactical units. Among the units created out of First Corps' nominal infantry brigades were 1st Armoured Division, 1st Independent Parachute Brigade, 1t Reconnaissance Regiment and a variety of other detachments.
It was not until after the capitulation of Germany that the corps
The Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) is a major command (MAJCOM) of the U.S. Air Force with its headquarters at Robins AFB, Georgia. It stood up as a major command of the Air Force on 17 February 1997. Previously, the Air Force Reserve (AFRES) was a Field Operating Agency (FOA).
The purpose of the Air Force Reserve as derived from Title 10 United States Code is to:
Provide combat-ready units and individuals for active duty whenever there are not enough trained units and people in the Regular component of the Air Force to perform any national security mission.
The Air Force Reserve Command supports the Air Force mission to defend the United States through control and exploitation of air and space by supporting Global Engagement. The AFRC plays an integral role in the day-to-day Air Force mission and is not a force held in reserve for possible war or contingency operations.
Air Force Reservists are on duty around the world. In addition to its role as a proven and respected combat force, the Air Force Reserve is also involved in international humanitarian relief missions, from repairing roads and schools to airlifting supplies.
At the request of local, state or federal agencies, the
The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army.
It provides military engineering and other technical support to the British Armed Forces and is headed by the Chief Royal Engineer. The Regimental Headquarters and the Royal School of Military Engineering are in Chatham in Kent, England. The corps is divided into several regiments, barracked at various places in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Germany.
The Royal Engineers trace their origins back to the military engineers brought to England by William the Conqueror, specifically Bishop Gundulf of Rochester Cathedral, a talented military engineer, and claim over 900 years of unbroken service to the crown. Engineers have always served in the armies of the Crown; however, the origins of the modern corps, along with those of the Royal Artillery, lie in the Board of Ordnance established in the 15th century. In 1717, the Board established a Corps of Engineers, consisting entirely of commissioned officers. The manual work was done by the Artificer Companies, made up of contracted civilian artisans and
The Texas Air National Guard is the air force militia of the U.S. state of Texas and a component of the Texas Military Forces (along with the Texas Army National Guard and the Texas State Guard). It is composed of airmen and officers assigned to three flying wings and three geographically separated units throughout Texas.
From 2001 through 2007, elements of every Air National Guard unit in Texas were activated in support of the Global War on Terror. Flight crews, aircraft maintenance personnel, communications technicians, air controllers and air security personnel deployed to Iraq, Afghanistan, Qatar, Israel, and other locations throughout Southwest Asia. Additionally, in 2005 elements of all the units were activated to provide relief after Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita.
Texas Air National Guard Headquarters at Camp Mabry in Austin includes the state headquarters staff whose mission is to provide command and control of Texas Air Guard units.
The 136th Airlift Wing in Fort Worth flies C-130H cargo aircraft carrying personnel and equipment around the world. Its main unit is the 181st Airlift Squadron. The 531st Air Force Band is co-located with the 136th Airlift Wing.
The Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile) is the naval force of Chile.
The Chilean Navy dates back to 1817. A year before, following the Battle of Chacabuco, General Bernardo O'Higgins prophetically declared "this victory and another hundred shall be of no significance if we do not gain control of the sea".
This led to the development of the Chilean Navy, and the first legal resolutions outlining the organization of the institution were created. Chile's First National Fleet and the Academy for Young Midshipmen (predecessor of the current Naval Academy) were founded, as were the Marine Corps and the Supply Commissary.
The first commander of the Chilean Navy was Manuel Blanco Encalada until Lord Cochrane, formerly a Captain in the British navy, was hired by O'Higgins to be the commander of the Navy, who in turn hired an almost all-anglophone complement of officers and midshipmen, and crews of British, Irish and American seamen. He was a key figure in the war against loyalist forces in Peru. He later took control of the fortresses of Valdivia, but failed in his attempt to conquer Chiloé Island.
In March 1824 the Chilean Navy and Army took again upon the task of eradicate the Spanish monarchy
The Filthy Thirteen was the name given to the Demolition Section of the Headquarters Company of the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division, of the United States Army, which fought in the European campaign in World War II. This unit was assigned and trained to demolish enemy targets behind the lines. They were ordered to destroy a bridge over the Douve River during the Normandy Invasion of Europe in June 1944, a mission that cost the lives of most of these men. The group was airdropped for the mission by aircraft of the 440th Troop Carrier Group of the U.S. Army Air Forces.
This unit was best known for the famous photo which appeared in Stars and Stripes, showing two members wearing Indian-style "mohawks" and applying war paint to one another. The inspiration for this came from Jake McNiece, who was part Native-American.
After a disciplinary incident while on leave, McNiece joined the "Pathfinders". These were paratroopers sent in ahead of the main force to guide them in. Expected casualties were 80-90%. The pathfinders were dropped into the encircled city of Bastogne at the height of the Battle of the Bulge. Their equipment enabled them to guide in subsequent
The Eastern Air Defense Sector (EADS) is a United States Air Force unit and a component of the New York Air National Guard. It is stationed at the former Griffiss Air Force Base in Rome, New York.
The Eastern Air Defense Sector is one of two Sectors responsible to the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and the Continental NORAD Region for peacetime air sovereignty, strategic air defense, and airborne counter-drug operations in the continental United States. The other sector is the Western Air Defense Sector (WADS).
It operates a Sector Operations Control Center (SOCC) at Rome, New York, as part of the Joint Surveillance System (JSS) which had replaced SAGE in 1983. This system enjoins state-of-the-art air defense systems and cutting-edge computer technology to significantly increase surveillance and identification capabilities, and better protect the nation's airways from intrusion and attack. It relies on digitized radar inputs from Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR) sites jointly operated by the Federal Aviation Administration and the Air Force, and Tethered Aerostat Radar System balloons. It is fully integrated with the E-3A Airborne early warning and control
The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) (English: "Supreme Command of the Armed Forces") was part of the command structure of the armed forces (Wehrmacht) of Nazi Germany during World War II. Created in 1938, the OKW had nominal oversight over the army, navy and Luftwaffe. Rivalry with the Army High Command (Oberkommando des Heeres or OKH) prevented the OKW from becoming a unified general staff. However it did coordinate operations among the three services. During the war the OKW, with Hitler in personal command, acquired more and more operational powers. By 1942 OKW had responsibility for all theaters except for the Eastern Front against the USSR. Hitler manipulated the bipolar system to keep ultimate decisions in his own hands.
The OKW was formed on 4 February 1938 following the Blomberg-Fritsch Affair, which led to the dismissal of Generalfeldmarschall (and Reich War Minister) Werner von Blomberg and the dissolution of the Reichskriegsministerium (Reich War Ministry). The OKW replaced the War Ministry. The appointments made to the OKW and the motive behind the reorganization are commonly thought to be Adolf Hitler's desire to consolidate power and authority around his position as
The Western Air Defense Sector (WADS) is a United States Air Force unit and a component of the Washington Air National Guard. It is stationed at McChord Field, Washington
The Western Air Defense Sector (WADS) is one of two Sectors responsible to the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and the Continental NORAD Region for peacetime air sovereignty, strategic air defense, and airborne counter-drug operations in the continental United States. The other sector is the Eastern Air Defense Sector (EADS).
It operates a Sector Operations Control Center (SOCC) at McChord AFB, as part of the Joint Surveillance System (JSS) which had replaced SAGE in 1983. This system enjoins state-of-the-art air defense systems and cutting-edge computer technology to significantly increase surveillance and identification capabilities, and better protect the nation's airways from intrusion and attack. It relies on digitized radar inputs from Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR) sites jointly operated by the Federal Aviation Administration and the Air Force, and tethered aerostat radar balloons. It is fully integrated with the E-3A Airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) system and the Joint
The Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine (Ukrainian: "Революційна Повстанська Армія України", Russian: Революционная Повстанческая Армия Украины", Revolyutsionnaya Povstancheskaya Armiya Ukrainy), popularly called Makhnovshchina, less correctly Makhnovchina, and also known as the Black Army, was an anarchist army formed largely of Ukrainian and Crimean peasants and workers under the command of the famous anarchist Nestor Makhno during the Russian Civil War.
Ukrainian anarchist guerrilla bands were active during the Russian Civil War. Some claimed to be loyal to the Ukrainian state, but others acknowledged no allegiance; all fought both Red and White Russians with equal ferocity in the opening stages of the Civil War. Of all the anarchist groups, the most famous and successful was that of the peasant anarchist leader Nestor Makhno, aka Batko ("Father"), who began operations in the southeastern Ukraine against the Hetmanate regime in July 1918. In September, he formed the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, or Anarchist Black Army, with arms and equipment largely obtained from retreating Austro-Hungarian and German forces. During the Civil War, the Black Army
Officially established in 1903 under the Militia Act, Title 10 and Title 32 of the U.S. Code, the Army National Guard is part of the National Guard of the United States and is divided up into subordinate units stationed in each of the 50 states, three territories and the District of Columbia operating under their respective governors. The Army National Guard may be called up for active duty by the state governors or territorial commanding generals to help respond to domestic emergencies and disasters, such as those caused by hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes.
With the consent of state governors, members or units of the Army National Guard may be appointed, temporarily or indefinitely, to be federally recognized armed force members, in the active or inactive service of the United States. If federally recognized, the member or unit becomes part of the Army National Guard of the United States, which is a reserve component of the United States Army, and part of the National Guard.
Army National Guard units or members may be called up for federal active duty in times of Congressionally sanctioned war or national emergency. The President may also call up members and units of state Army
The Korean People's Army (KPA) (Chosŏn'gŭl: 조선인민군, Chosŏn inmin'gun), also known as the Inmin Gun (English: People's Army), are the military forces of North Korea. Kim Jong-un is the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and Chairman of the National Defence Commission. The KPA consists of five branches, Ground Force, the Navy, the Air Force, the Strategic Rocket Forces, and the Special Operation Force.
The KPA's annual budget is approximately six billion USD. The U.S. Institute for Science and International Security reports that the DPRK may possess fissile material for around two to nine nuclear warheads. The North Korean Songun ("Military First") policy elevates the KPA to the primary position in the government and society.
In 1978, Kim Il-sung directed that "Military Foundation Day" be changed from 8 February to 25 April, the nominal day of establishment of his anti-Japanese guerrilla army in 1932, to recognize the supposedly indigenous Korean origins of the KPA and obscure its Soviet origin. An active arms industry had been developed to produce long-range missiles such as the Nodong-1.
North Korea is the most militarized country in the world today, having the fourth
The Unidad de Operaciones Especiales (Special Operations Unit - UOE) was the elite special operations force of the Spanish Navy and Marines from 1967 to 2009. In June 2009, the unit was absorbed into the newly formed Naval Special Warfare Force (Fuerza de Guerra Naval Especial). The UOE, which was formerly garrisoned in the Tercio de Armada in San Fernando, Cádiz, operated under the direct control of the Admiralty and Naval Special Warfare Command. It was thought to comprise approximately 100 men organized into three Operational Teams (Estoles) as well as command and support personnel.
The UOE was tasked with Special Operations in maritime, coastal and inland environments usually up to 50 km from the sea, though this was not a restriction and its teams were known to operate deep inland. The unit's remit covered all aspects of modern Naval Special Warfare, including: Maritime Counter-Terrorism, shipboarding (MIO-Non Compliant), combat diving and swimming, coastal infiltration, airborne insertion, Special Reconnaissance, Direct Action, VIP protection and escort, and Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR).
For these purposes the UOE employed a wide range of naval and other military
The British Indian Army, officially simply the Indian Army, was the principal army of the British Raj in India before independence in 1947. It was responsible for the defence of both directly governed British India and the Princely states (which could also have their own armies). The Indian Army was an important part of the British Empire's forces, both in India and abroad, particularly during the First World War and the Second World War.
The term "Indian Army" appears to have been first used informally, as a collective description of the Presidency armies (the Bengal Army, the Madras Army and the Bombay Army) of the Presidencies of British India, particularly after the Indian Mutiny. The first army officially called the "Indian Army" was raised by the government of India in 1895, existing alongside the three long-established presidency armies. However, in 1903 the Indian Army absorbed these three armies. The Indian Army should not be confused with the "Army of India" (1903–1947) which was the Indian Army itself plus the "British Army in India" (British units sent to India).
The Indian Army has its origins in the years after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, when in 1858 the Crown took
The term China Marines originally referred to those United States Marines from the 4th Marine Regiment who were stationed in Shanghai, China during 1927 - 1941 to protect American citizens and their property in the Shanghai International Settlement during the Chinese Revolution and the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Most of these troops were withdrawn in November 1941, however some them were scheduled to be withdrawn on December 10. The remaining Marines who were the Marine Embassy guards, as well as some US Navy support personnel, for a total of 204 men, were captured by the Imperial Japanese Army and forced into slave labor until they were freed in 1945.
Later, another group of Marines also referred to as China Marines were those of the 1st and 6th Marine Divisions sent to occupy northern China after the surrender of Japan and the end of World War II from 1945 - 1948.
Due to the cheap labor being readily available, China Marines lived relatively comfortable lifestyles, with squads being able to hire a Chinese man to do all of their cleaning and errands. When added to the inexpensive goods available on the local economy, assignments to the original China Marines were highly
The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (English: Land Army), is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces. Just like the Armée de l'Air, the Marine Nationale and the Gendarmerie Nationale it is placed under the responsibility of the French government. The current Chief of Staff of the French Army (CEMAT) is general Bertrand Ract-Madoux.
In 1999 the Army issued the Code of the French Soldier, which includes the injunctions:
The French Army employs 126,436 military and 17,025 reservist personnel for a combined component strength of 142,148 personnel in 2012 (this figure excludes French Foreign Legion). All soldiers are considered professionals, following the suspension of conscription, voted in parliament in 1997 and effective as of 2001. In addition there were 19,345 civilian staff working in conjunction with the Department of the Ministry of Defence.
The first permanent army, paid with regular wages, was established under Charles VII of France. From 1792, the French Revolutionary Army fought the allies. Under Napoleon I, the French Army conquered most of Europe during the Napoleonic Wars. In August 1914, the French Armed Forces numbered 1,300,000
The Free French Forces were individuals or military units who joined "Free France", the resistance organization founded by Charles de Gaulle in 1940 in London in order to continue the struggle against the Axis powers.
De Gaulle, a French government minister who rejected the armistice concluded by Maréchal Philippe Pétain and who had escaped to Britain, exhorted the French to resist in his BBC broadcast "Appeal of 18 June" (Appel du 18 juin), which had a stirring effect on morale throughout France and its colonies, though initially relatively few French forces responded to De Gaulle's call.
The Free French fought Axis and Vichy troops, and served on battlefronts everywhere from the Middle East to Indochina and North Africa. The Free French Navy operated as an auxiliary force to the Royal Navy, and there were Free French units in the Royal Air Force, Soviet Air Force, and British SAS.
In November 1942, the Allies invaded Vichy-controlled French North Africa, and many Vichy troops joined the Free French, with General Henri Giraud at their head. This caused the Germans to occupy Vichy France, and in retaliation a Vichy force of 60,000 in North Africa joined the Allies.
By mid-1944, the
The Japan Self-Defense Forces (自衛隊, Jieitai), or JSDF, occasionally referred to as JSF or SDF, are the unified military forces of Japan that were established after the end of the post–World War II Allied occupation of Japan. For most of the post-war period the JSDF was confined to the islands of Japan and not permitted to be deployed abroad. In recent years they have been engaged in international peacekeeping operations. Recent tensions, particularly with North Korea, have reignited the debate over the status of the JSDF and its relation to Japanese society. New military guidelines, announced in December 2010, will direct the Jieitai away from its Cold War focus on USSR (now Russian Federation) to a focus on China, especially regarding the dispute over the Senkaku Islands.
The JSDF numbered 239,430 in 2005 with 147,737 in the Ground Self-Defense Force, 44,327 in the Maritime Self-Defense Force, 45,517 in the Air Self-Defense Force, and 1,849 in the Joint Staff Office. Reserves numbered 57,899.
The Prime Minister is the commander-in-chief of the Self Defense Forces. Military authority runs from the Prime Minister to the cabinet-level Minister of Defense of the Japanese Ministry of
The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) is an Irish republican paramilitary organisation whose aim was to remove Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom and bring about a socialist republic within a united Ireland by force of arms and political persuasion. It emerged out of the December 1969 split of the Irish Republican Army over differences of ideology and how to respond to violence against the nationalist community. This violence had followed the community's demands for civil rights in 1968 and 1969, which met with resistance from some of the unionist community and from the authorities, and culminated in the 1969 Northern Ireland riots. The Provisional Irish Republican Army is also referred to as PIRA, the Provos, or by its supporters as the Army or the 'RA; its constitution establishes it as Óglaigh na hÉireann ("The Irish Volunteers") in the Irish language.
The IRA's initial strategy was to use force to cause the collapse of the Northern Ireland administration and to inflict enough casualties on the British forces that the British government would be forced by public opinion to withdraw from the region. This policy involved recruitment of
The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voenno-morskoj flot SSSR, literally "Military Maritime Fleet of the USSR") was the naval arm of the Soviet Armed Forces. Often referred to as the Red Fleet, the Soviet Navy would have played an instrumental role in a Warsaw Pact war with NATO, where it would have attempted to prevent naval convoys from bringing reinforcements across the Atlantic Ocean from North America to Western Europe.
The Soviet Navy was divided into four major fleets: the Northern, Pacific, Black Sea, and Baltic Fleets; under separate command was the Leningrad Naval Base. The Caspian Flotilla was a smaller force operating in the land-locked Caspian Sea. The 5th Operational Squadron in the Mediterranean drew its units from the Black Sea, Baltic, and Northern Fleets; the Indian Ocean Squadron primarily from the Pacific Fleet. Other components included Naval Aviation, Naval Infantry (the Soviet equivalent of marines), and Coastal Artillery.
According to a 1980 Time article citing analysts from RAND Corporation, non-Slavs were generally prohibited from joining elite or strategic positions in the armed forces like the Navy, Strategic Rocket Forces and the Soviet
The German Army (German: Deutsches Heer, Heer pronounced [ˈheːɐ̯] ( listen)) is the land component of the armed forces of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Heer was founded in 1955 as part of the newly formed West German Bundeswehr along with the Marine (Navy) and the Luftwaffe (Air Force). In the aftermath of the German reunification of 1990, the Landstreitkräfte (Land Forces) of the National People's Army of the former German Democratic Republic were partially integrated into the Heer.
A German Army, equipped, organized and trained following a single doctrine, and permanently unified under one command dates from 1871, and the unification of Germany under the leadership of Prussia. From 1871 to 1919 the title Deutsches Heer or German Army was the official name of the army. This was the title the army carried during the First World War. From 1921 to 1935 under the Weimar Republic the army's title was Reichsheer (Empire Defence). From 1935 to 1945 the title was Heer (Army), part of the Wehrmacht, the name of Germany's armed forces under the Third Reich. From 1938, the Heer was first involved in the occupation of Czechoslovakia and then the successor events that led to the Second
Jagdgeschwader 74 (JG 74) (74th Fighter Wing) is an aviation unit of the German Air Force, based on Neuburg Air Base in Bavaria since 1961.
JG 74 provides air defence duties for southern Germany. The wing operates two squadrons, the Falken (Falcons) squadron and the Viva Zapata squadron.
JG 74 was activated as the last West German fighter wing on 5 May 1961. It was equipped with the F-86K Sabre interceptor and first based at Leipheim in 1960 as JG 75. It moved to Neuburg Air Base a short time later after this base had been opened and was renamed JG 74. In the period from 1964/66 JG 74 received the F-104G Starfighter. The Starfighter proved to be a troublesome aircraft for the Luftwaffe, which lost 292 of 916 Starfighters, 116 pilots died. JG 74 also lost several of them until the wing converted to the F-4F Phantom II in 1974.
The F-4F was a downgraded F-4E which could not fire the medium range AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missile. The use was forbidden until Germany became fully sovereign in 1990. Since then the F-4Fs were upgraded to F-4F ICE standard in the 1990s and were finally equipped to use the AIM-120 AMRAAM missile. Due to the smoke generated by the F-4's General Electric J79
The Vietnam People's Army (VPA) (Vietnamese: Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam, also known as the Vietnamese People's Army and the People's Army of Vietnam) is the army of Vietnam. The VPA is a part of Vietnam People's Armed Forces. The VPA includes: Ground Force (including Strategic Rear Forces), Navy, Air Force, Vietnam Border Defense Force and Vietnam Marine Police. However, Vietnam does not have a specific separate Ground Forces or Army branch. All of the ground troops, army corps, military districts, and specialized arms belong to the Ministry of Defence (Vietnam), directly under command of the Central Military Commission, Minister of Defence and General Staff (Vietnam People's Army).
Communist Party of Viet Nam leaders of the People's Army of Vietnam absolute and direct all aspects; the centralized leadership of the Party is unified into the Central Executive Committee that directly, often the Politburo, the Secretariat (Charter of CPV - Article 25).
The name People's Army can be traced to President Ho Chi Minh's phrase "born from people, for people to fight and for people to serve". The word People are also present in many names of such organizations in Vietnam such as the People's
The Ecuadorian Army (Ejército Ecuatoriano) is the land component of the Ecuadorian Armed Forces. Its 24,135 soldiers are deployed in relation to its military doctrine. The contemporary Ecuadorian Army incorporates many jungle and special forces infantry units into its structure.
To develop territorial-power, in order to accomplish institutional objectives, which guarantee the integrity and sovereignty of the national territory and contribute to the security and development of the nation, as well as to accomplish all objectives indicated by the military strategic planning. ART 26 LEY ORGÁNICA DE LA DEFENSA NACIONAL
To be an institution of the highest level and credibility, systematically integrated, with professional military personnel, orientated on ethics and moral. Capable of adapting itself to new requirements which guarantee peace, security and the nations development.
The Ecuadorian Armed Forces history could start as early as 1531, when civil war ravaged through the inca empire. In a key battle near Riobamba, where Huascars troops were met and defeated by Atahualpas troops. Atahualpas final victory over Huascar in the days just before the Spanish conquerors arrived, are seen
The Israeli Home Front Command (Hebrew: פיקוד העורף, Pikud Ha'Oref) is an Israel Defense Forces regional command, created in February 1992 following the Gulf War, which was the first war since the 1948 Arab-Israeli War in which centres of civilian population faced significant threat.
Until the establishment of the Command, responsibility for the Home Front fell under the Civilian Defense’s Chief Officer Corps Command and under Regional Defense. During that time, the three regional commands had their own home front commands. After the first Persian Gulf War, these organizations were unified and the Home Front Command was created.
It is currently headed by Aluf Eyal Eisenberg.
The Japan Air Self-Defense Force (航空自衛隊, Kōkū Jieitai), or JASDF, is the aviation branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and other aerospace operations. The JASDF carries out combat air patrols around Japan, while also maintaining an extensive network of ground and air early warning radar systems. The branch also has an aerobatic team known as Blue Impulse and has recently been involved in providing air transport in several UN peacekeeping missions.
The JASDF has an estimated 45,000 personnel in 2005. As of 2010, the JASDF operates 805 aircraft, 424 of them being fighter aircraft.
Before forming the Japanese Self-Defense Forces after World War II, Japan did not have a separate air force. Aviation operations were carried out by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service. Following World War II the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy were dissolved and replaced by the JSDF with the passing of the 1954 Self-Defense Forces Law with the JASDF as the aviation branch.
Major units of the JASDF are the Air Defense Command, Air Support Command, Air Training Command, Air Development and Test Command, and Air
The Philippine Marine Corps (PMC) (Filipino: Hukbong Kawal Pandagat ng Pilipinas) (HKPP) is the marine corps of the Philippines, and is part of the Philippine Navy.
On orders from President Elpidio Quirino and Ramon Magsaysay, then Secretary of National Defense, the Corps was organized on November 7, 1950, as A Company of the Philippine Fleet's 1st Marine Battalion and then headquartered in Cavite City, in Naval Base Cavite. Personnel from the United States Army and United States Marine Corps helped train the very first Philippine Marines in combat and amphibious duties in Fort Bonifacio in Makati and Taguig and in various other locations. Lieutenant (senior grade) Manuel Gomez was its first commandant, with then Lieutenant (junior grade) Gregorio Lim assisting him, with six other officers (4 seconded from the Navy and two from the Philippine Army) joining them.
Their hardwork and training would pay off as the Marine Company conducted its first amphibious landing on April 19, 1951 in Umiray, Quezon, and took part in battle for the first time on June 4 of the same year in Nueva Ecija against communist rebels. These and other notable battles in various parts of the country led to the
The Polish Air Force (Polish: Siły Powietrzne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej – literally: Air Forces of the Republic of Poland) is a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces. Until July 2004 it was officially known as Wojska Lotnicze i Obrony Powietrznej (literally: Air-and-Air Defence Forces). In 2010 it consisted of roughly 16,000 military personnel and about 320 aircraft, distributed among 12 bases throughout Poland. The Polish Air Force is currently one of the most advanced in Central Europe, equipped with 48 F-16 jet fighter aircraft (2008) designed by Lockheed Martin specifically for Poland, including F-16 D block 52+, the most advanced in NATO.
The Polish Air Force can trace its origins to the months following the end of World War I in 1918. Following the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany in 1939, much of the Polish Air Force was destroyed, although many of its pilots were able to continue fighting throughout World War II in air squadrons in Britain and the Soviet Union. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Poland has steadily reduced its reliance upon Russian-built aircraft and by 2012 will have three squadrons of US F-16 fighter aircraft fully
732 ESFS/Detachment 3 and 732 ESFS/Detachment 2 was a United States Air Force Security Forces unit sent to support Police Transition Teams in Baghdad, Iraq from 2005 until July 31, 2010. It was a "Request for Forces" (RFF) #619 or "In Lieu Of" agreement between the United States Air Force and United States Army. Rff 619 earned multiple unit awards and its members receiving individual awards as the Army Combat Action Badge, Air Force Combat Action Medal, Purple Heart, and the Bronze Star. The 732 ESFS is one of the most highly decorated and regarded Air Force units that participated in OIF.
RFF 619 is the 732nd Expeditionary Security Forces. The 732nd ESFS was part of the 732nd Air Expeditionary Group under the 332nd Air Expeditionary Wing, headquartered at Balad Air Base, Iraq. Det-3 was a subordinate unit of the 1-1 Cavalry and the 336 MP Battalion. In January 2009, Detachment 2 was formed and deployed to join the PTT efforts in Iraq. They were based initially at FOB Mahmudiyah in the middle of the "Triangle of Death." Det 1, 4, and 5 were tasked with Law & Order missions on their respective FOBs at Speicher, the IZ, and Adder/Tallil. Det 6 was used both as a Police Transition
Second United States Army was formed 15 October 1918 during World War I. It functioned as a training and administrative headquarters until being inactivated 15 April 1919.
The Second United States Army was activated again and served as a training army for much of its existence until inactivation in 1966.
It is presently based at Fort Belvoir, Virginia as U.S. Army Cyber Command/Second Army.
Second Army's task during the First World War was to hold the line a short distance east of the Moselle River in France following the end of the Saint-Mihiel offensive along the Western Front. The army was also tasked with reinforcing units from the active-in-combat soldiers of the U.S. First Army.
On 10 November, Second Army advanced on German positions, already in disorder and retreating. Word did not reach the units advancing until after eleven-hundred hours on 11 November, making it one of the last units to fight to the very conclusion of the war. On 15 April 1919, Second Army was inactivated.
Second United States Army was reactivated on 1 October 1933 under a plan developed by then-Army Chief of Staff Douglas MacArthur to consolidate forces in the continental United States under four
Ukrainian National Army (UNA) was a World War II Ukrainian military group, created on March 17, 1945 in Weimar, Germany, and subordinate to Ukrainian National Committee.
The army, formed on April 15, 1945, and commanded by General Pavlo Shandruk, consisted of the following units:
Plans were made regarding the inclusion of the Ukrainian Freedom Army (120,000 soldiers), Kuban Cossacks and Georgian military divisions.
The primary purpose of creation of the Ukrainian National Army was to integrate all the Ukrainian units fighting the Soviets under a single command. The intended size of the army, encompassing all the Ukrainian units subordinate to Oberkommando des Heeres was 220,000. However within the two months left till the end of the war, Shandruk was able to gather about 50 thousand soldiers.
In reality, Shandruk was able to command only the 1. UNA Division and elements of the 2. UNA Division. On May 7, under his influence, the division located in western Austria by this time after slowly moving from Slovenia (February 1945), withdrew further from Red Army forces. The "Army" now split into several groups, with one heading towards Italian border and surrendering to the British
The First Motion Picture Unit (FMPU), officially designated the 18th Army Air Force Base Unit, was the primary film production unit of the US Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II and was the first military unit made up entirely of professionals from the film industry. It produced more than 400 propaganda and training films, which were notable for being informative as well as entertaining. Films for which the unit is known include Resisting Enemy Interrogation, Memphis Belle: A Story of a Flying Fortress and The Last Bomb—all of which were released in theatres. Veteran actors such as Clark Gable and William Holden and directors such as John Sturges served with the FMPU. The unit also produced training films and trained combat cameramen. FMPU personnel served with distinction during World War II.
First Motion Picture Unit is also the eponymous title of a 1943 self-produced documentary about the unit narrated by radio and television announcer Ken Carpenter.
When the United States entered World War II in December 1941, the USAAF was a part of the army, and motion picture production was the responsibility of the Army Signal Corps. USAAF Commanding General "Hap" Arnold believed
The French Navy, officially the Marine nationale ("National Navy") and often called La Royale, is the maritime arm of the French military. Tracing its roots back from 1624 it is one of the world's oldest naval forces and historically played a key part in establishing the French colonial empire. Its roles include the protection of French interests abroad and the maintenance of global stability.
The Marine nationale consists of five branches, the Force d'Action Navale, the Forces Sous-marines, the Aeronavale, the Fusiliers Marins (including Commandos de Marine) and the Gendarmerie maritime.
As a blue-water navy the Marine nationale operates a wide range of fighting vessels, including a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, nuclear-powered submarines, frigates, patrol boats and support ships.
Its motto is Honneur, Patrie, Valeur, Discipline ("Honour, Fatherland, Valour, Discipline") and these words are found on the deck of every ship in the fleet.
The French Navy is affectionately known as La Royale ("the Royal"). The reason is not well known; some theorise that it is for its traditional attachment to the French monarchy, some others said that before being named "nationale" the Navy had
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍, Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or literally "army of the greater Japanese empire" was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1871 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of War, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. Later an Inspectorate General of Military (Army) Aviation, became the third agency with oversight over the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters (IGHQ), an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the minister of war, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the inspector general of military aviation, and the inspector general of military training.
During the Meiji Restoration, the military forces loyal to the Emperor were samurai drawn primarily from the loyalist feudal domains of Satsuma and Chōshū. After the successful overthrow of the Tokugawa Shogunate (bakufu) and establishment of the new
The Army of Islam (Turkish: Kafkas İslâm Ordusu) was a military unit of the Ottoman Empire formed on July 10, 1918. Its creation was ordered by Enver Pasha who could not resist the lure of Pan-Turanism, and it played a very major role during the Caucasus Campaign of World War I.
During 1917, due to the Russian Revolution and subsequent Civil War, the Russian army in the Caucasus had ceased to exist. Meanwhile, the Committee of Union and Progress moved to win the friendship of the Bolsheviks with the signing of the Ottoman-Russian friendship treaty (January 1, 1918). The exclusion of German officers from this army was deliberate. By the end of 1917, Enver Pasha concluded that the Germans and the Ottoman Empire did not have compatible goals after the Russian Empire had collapsed. This feeling was confirmed by the terms of the treaty of Treaty of Brest-Litovsk which was very favorable to the Germans. Enver looked for victory where Russia left in the Caucasus. When Enver discussed his plans for taking over southern Russia, the Germans told him to keep out.
The purpose of this military unit was to mobilize Islam supporters in Transcaspian and Caucasian regions, to advance toward Shatt
The Coastwatchers, also known as the Coast Watch Organisation, Combined Field Intelligence Service or Section C, Allied Intelligence Bureau, were Allied military intelligence operatives stationed on remote Pacific islands during World War II to observe enemy movements and rescue stranded Allied personnel. They played a significant role in the Pacific Ocean theatre and South West Pacific theatre, particularly as an early warning network during the Guadalcanal campaign.
There were about 400 coastwatchers in all—they were mostly Australian military officers, New Zealand servicemen, Pacific Islanders and escaped Allied prisoners of war.
The Australian coastwatch organisation was led by Lieutenant Commander Eric Feldt, who was based in Townsville, Queensland. Their actions were particularly important in monitoring Japanese activity in the roughly one thousand islands that make up the Solomon Islands.
Many personnel who took part in coastwatcher operations behind enemy lines were commissioned as officers of the Royal Australian Navy Volunteer Reserve (RANVR) to protect them in case of capture, although this was not always recognized by the Japanese military, which executed several of
The Guyana Defence Force (GDF) is the military service of Guyana.
The GDF was formed on November 1, 1965. Members of the new Defence Force were drawn from the British Guiana Volunteer Force (BGVF), Special Service Unit (SSU), British Guiana Police Force BGPF and civilians. Training assistance was provided by British instructors.
The GDF is an integral part of the Guyanese nation. Resources and equipment of the GDF are used to help other Guyanese, examples include medical mercy flights and the construction of roads and airstrips by the Engineering Corps.
Enlistment into the Force is voluntary for officers and soldiers. Basic training is done within GDF training schools, which has also trained officers and soldiers from Commonwealth Caribbean territories. However, Officers are trained at two of the world-renowned British officer training schools: Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (Infantry Training) and Britannia Royal Naval College (Coast Guard Training).
The training and skills gained by the members of the GDF have been used when they move either into civilian life or into the sister military organizations, the Guyana People's Militia (now the Second Infantry Battalion Group
The Imperial Russian Air Force (Императорскiй военно-воздушный флотъ, Emperor's Military Air Fleet) existed in the Russian Empire between 1910 and 1917.
The origins of Russian aviation go back to theoretical projects of the 1880s by pioneer Russian scientists such as Nikolai Kibalchich and Alexander Mozhaysky. During the 1890s aviation innovation was further advanced by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.
In 1904 Nikolai Zhukovsky established the world's first Aerodynamic Institute in Kachino near Moscow.
In 1910 the Imperial Russian Army purchased a number of French planes and began training the first military pilots. The history of military aircraft in Imperial Russia is closely associated with the name of Igor Sikorsky .
In 1913 Sikorsky built the first four-engine biplane, the Russky Vityaz, and his famous bomber aircraft, the Ilya Muromets.
In the same year Dmitry Grigorovich built a number of “flying boats” for the Imperial Russian Navy.
In 1914 Russian aviators conducted the first ever flights in the Arctic looking for the lost expedition of polar explorer Georgy Sedov.
At the beginning of World War I, Russia had an air force second only to France, although a significant part of the
The Iraqi Air Force (IQAF) (Arabic: Al Quwwa al Jawwiya al Iraqiya القوة الجوية العراقية) is the Iraqi Armed Forces branch responsible for aerial warfare. Other roles include the policing of international borders and surveillance of national assets. The IQAF also acts as a support force for the Iraqi Navy and the Iraqi Army and it also allows Iraq to rapidly deploy its developing Army.
The Iraqi Air Force was first founded in 1931, during British rule of Iraq with only a few pilots. Aside from a brief period during the Second World War, The Iraqi Air Force operated mostly British aircraft until the 14 July Revolution in 1958, when the new Iraqi government began increased diplomatic relationships with the Soviet Union. The air force used both Soviet and British aircraft throughout the 1950s and 1960s. When Saddam Hussein came to power in 1979, the air force grew very quickly when Iraq ordered more Soviet and French aircraft. Its peak came a few years after the long and bloody Iran-Iraq War, in 1988, when it consisted of over 950 aircraft, becoming one of the largest air forces in the region. Its downfall came during the Gulf War and continued while coalition forces enforced no-fly
Jagdverband 44 (JV 44) was a special fighter unit of top German fighter ace pilots in the Luftwaffe during the last months of World War II. The main aircraft used by the unit was the Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighter. They were known by various nicknames, including "Der Galland-Zirkus" (The Galland Circus).
The commander of JV 44 was General Adolf Galland (103 victories) the former General der Jagdflieger (General of Fighter pilots) who had recently been sacked from his staff post by Hermann Göring for relentlessly criticizing the operational policies, strategic doctrine, and tactics mandated by the Luftwaffe High Command. It was hoped by Galland's superiors that his return to combat-flying in a front-line command would result in his death in action. Galland was charged with setting up a small Me 262 unit of staffel strength to demonstrate that the jet could be developed into the superior fighter it promised to be. The unit was to be independent of all other Luftwaffe commands, including division, corps or air fleets.Galland inspected a number of facilities, and eventually settled on Brandenburg-Briest airfield, west of Berlin.
In late February, Galland discussed his personnel and
The Military Rabbinate (Hebrew: חיל הרבנות הצבאית, Heil HaRabanut HaTzvait) is a corps in the Israel Defense Forces that provides religious services to soldiers, primarily to Jews but also including non-Jews, and makes decisions on issues of religion and military affairs. The Military Rabbinate is headed by the Chief Military Rabbi, who is ranked a Brigadier General. The current Chief Military Rabbi is Rafi Peretz.
The Military Rabbinate constitutes the body responsible for religious institutions in the military. In every unit or military base there are Military Rabbinate soldiers assigned responsibility for assuring religious services, and in particular, the Kashrut of the kitchen and the maintenance of the synagogue and its inventory. Actively serving soldiers can request from the Rabbinate representatives to perform marriage ceremonies as well as the brit mila.
The Military Rabbinate is responsible for treating the bodies of soldiers from the Halakha standpoint, including the identification and post-mortem treatment of bodies, and conducting military funerals. In the past decade, the use of Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System was implemented, setting the IDF
The South Lebanon Army or South Lebanese Army (SLA) (Arabic: جيش لبنان الجنوبي, transliterated: Jaysh Lubnān al-Janūbi; Hebrew: צבא דרום לבנון, צד"ל, transliterated: Tzvá Dróm Levanón, Tzadál) was a Lebanese militia during the Lebanese Civil War which split from the Army of Free Lebanon. After 1979, the militia operated in southern Lebanon under the authority of Saad Haddad's Government of Free Lebanon. It was supported by Israel during the 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict to fight against the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) and Hezbollah.
In 1976, as a result of the ongoing civil war, the Lebanese army began to break up. Major Saad Haddad, commanding an army battalion in the south which had been part of the Army of Free Lebanon, broke away and founded a group known as the Free Lebanon Army (FLA). The FLA was initially based in the towns of Marjayoun and Qlayaa in southern Lebanon. The SLA fought against various groups including the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the Amal Movement and (after the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon) the emerging Hezbollah. While the group was no longer under the direct control of the Lebanese army, from 1976 to 1979 its members were
The Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) is a part of Air Force Space Command of the United States Air Force. SMC is the Air Force’s product center for the development and acquisition of space and missile systems. The Center was established in 1954 and has been involved in military space systems development since the earliest days of the space age.
The Space and Missile Systems Center traces its roots to the Western Development Division, activated by Brigadier General Bernard Schriever on July 1, 1954. Its original mission, the development of strategic nuclear missiles for the nation, was soon expanded to include the development, fielding, and operation of the nation’s first military satellites and launch vehicles. From the first successful military space launches in the 1950s, rapid progress was made in maturing the technology and know-how to develop and operate reliable and effective systems across a broad array of mission areas. During this period, the Western Development Division underwent multiple reorganizations, until finally being designated in 1992 as the Space and Missile Systems Center.
On September 1, 1982, Air Force Space Command was established to serve as the Air
The Warszawa Army (Polish: Armia Warszawa) was one of the Polish armies to take part in the Polish Defensive War of 1939. Created on 8 September, eight days after the invasion begun, it was an improvised formation charged with the defence of the Polish capital of Warsaw (Warszawa).
To defend the Polish capital Warsaw in the face of breakthrough by the German forces.
On 3 September 1939 the Minister of the Army (Min. Spraw Wojskowych), general Tadeusz Kasprzycki, ordered general Walerian Czuma (the Commander of the Border Guards - Straż Graniczna) to organize a force to defend the city of Warsaw against a German attack. The city had been under constant attack by the Luftwaffe since the early morning of 1 September. Initially the only organized units available to him were four infantry battalions, anti-aircraft artillery and anti-aircraft machine guns detachments under colonel Kazimierz Baran, composed mostly of fire-fighter brigades and volunteers supervised by colonel Tadeusz Bogdanowicz and Julian Kulski, the deputy president of Warsaw. The AA artillery had 86 pieces of anti-aircraft artillery, as well as an unknown number of anti-aircraft machine guns. In addition there was an
Łódź Army (Polish: Armia Łódź) was one of the Polish armies that took part in the Polish Defensive War of 1939. It was officially created on 23 March 1939 with the task of filling the gap between Army Poznań in the north and Army Kraków in the south. Commanded by Juliusz Rómmel, it consisted of five infantry divisions and two cavalry brigades with support from the air force.
The army's task was to fill the gap between Army Poznań in the north (defending Greater Poland under general Tadeusz Kutrzeba) and Army Kraków in the south (operating in Silesia and Lesser Poland under general Antoni Szylling), prevent enemy attacks in the direction of Łódź and Piotrków Trybunalski and if possible, advance towards Sieradz. It was also to cover the mobilization of a reserve Prusy Army behind the Polish lines. Because of that, the main strategic purpose of the army was to gain time and offer delaying actions and harsh resistance on the expected main German offensive line (Częstochowa-Łódź-Warsaw)in order for the mobilization to be accomplished.
Despite several early successes, such as the Battle of Mokra on 1 September, where the Volhynian Cavalry Brigade stopped the German 4th Panzer Division,
The Confederate States Navy (CSN) was the naval branch of the Confederate States armed forces, established by an act of the Confederate Congress on February 21, 1861. It was responsible for Confederate naval operations during the American Civil War. The three major tasks of the Confederate Navy during the whole of its existence were the protection of Southern harbors and coastlines from outside invasion, making the war costly for the United States by attacking U.S. merchant ships world-wide and breaking the Union Blockade by drawing off U.S. Navy ships in pursuit of the Confederate raiders.
The C. S. Navy could never achieve equality with the Union Navy, so it used technological innovation, such as ironclads, submarines, torpedo boats, and naval mines (then known as torpedoes) to gain advantage. In February 1861 the Confederate Navy had thirty ships, only fourteen of which were seaworthy, while the Union Navy had ninety vessels; the C. S. Navy eventually grew to 101 ships to meet the rise in naval conflicts and enemy threats.
On April 20, 1861 the Union was forced to quickly abandon the important Gosport Navy Yard. In doing so they failed to effectively burn the facility, its
The Garde Écossaise (French pronunciation: [ɡaʁd ekɔsɛz], Scots Guard) was an elite Scottish military unit founded in 1418 by the Valois Charles VII of France, to be personal bodyguards to the French monarchy. They were assimilated into the Maison du Roi and later formed the first company of the Garde du Corps du Roi (Life Guards).
In 1450, King James II sent a company of 24 noble Scots under the command of Patrick de Spens, son of his custodian. This company takes the name of archiers du corps or gardes de la manche. On 31 August 1490, this company, these of Patry Folcart, Thomas Haliday and a part of the company of Robin Petitloch begin to be the first company of archiers de la garde du roi under the command of Guillaume Stuier (Stuart). At the beginning la compagnie écossaise des gardes du corps du roi included 100 gardes du corps (25 bodyguards and 75 archiers). Each bodyguard had four men-at-arms under his command, (a squire, an archer, a cranequinier and a servant), one of them acquired the name of premier homme d'armes du royaume de France. They were finally disbanded in 1830 at the abdication of Charles X.
Scottish warriors were believed to have fought for Charlemagne and
The Israeli Navy (Hebrew: חיל הים הישראלי, Heil HaYam HaYisraeli) is the naval arm of the Israel Defense Forces, operating primarily in the Mediterranean Sea theater as well as the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea theater. The current commander in chief of the Israeli Navy is Aluf Ram Rothberg.
The origins of the Israeli Navy lay in the founding of the Betar Naval Academy, a Jewish naval training school established in Civitavecchia, Italy, in 1934 by the Revisionist Zionist movement under the direction of Ze'ev Jabotinsky, with the agreement of Benito Mussolini. The Academy trained cadets from all over Europe, Palestine and South Africa and produced some of the future commanders of the Israeli Navy. In September 1937, the training ship Sarah I visited Haifa and Tel Aviv as part of a Mediterranean tour.
In 1938, encouraged by the Jewish Agency, Dr. Shlomo Bardin founded the Marine High School in Bosmat, the Technion's Junior Technical College. 1943 witnessed the founding of the Palyam, the naval branch of the Palmach, whose training was undertaken at the maritime school. The Jewish merchant marine was also raised, operating the SS Tel-Aviv and cargo ships such as the Atid.
The Israeli Southern Command (Hebrew: פיקוד דרום, transliterated: Pikud Darom), often abbreviated to Padam (פד"מ) is a regional command of the Israel Defense Forces. It is responsible for the Negev, the Arava, and Eilat. It is currently headed by Aluf Tal Russo.
For many years the Southern Command was tasked with defending the Negev and securing the border on the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt. The Southern Command led IDF troops in five wars against Egypt: the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the Suez War, the Six-Day War, the War of Attrition, and the Yom Kippur War. This high operational activity and its demanding toll resulted in the Southern Command's Alufs (SCA) being replaced fairly rapidly. The most famous replacements took place in 1973, during the Yom Kippur War, when Shmuel Gonen was suspended as the SCA due to repeated disputes with Ariel Sharon, who was the previous SCA. The government appointed Chaim Bar-Lev, who was the former Chief of Staff, as the new SCA in an emergency directive. After the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty, the southern front remained quiet and most of the activity centred on guarding the borders from smugglers and fluid security over the Gaza Strip.
The Royal Brunei Land Forces (Malay: Tentera Darat Diraja Brunei, abbreviated TDDB) is the land component of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. The RBLF has responsibility for maintaining the territorial defence of Brunei, both from attack from outsiders, and by assisting the Royal Brunei Police in maintaining law and order.
The Royal Brunei Land Forces was formed in May 1961 with the formation of the Brunei Malay Regiment, when the first intake of 60 recruits began training. The formal foundation of the regiment occurred in June 1962 when men of the first three intakes were formed into the regimental headquarters and three rifle companies. In 1965, the regiment received the royal prefix, becoming the Royal Brunei Malay Regiment. Initially stationed at Port Dickson in Malaya, the regiment was soon moved to a purpose built barracks in Brunei itself. The Royal Brunei Malay Regiment established two new units, the Boat Section and the Air Service in 1965 to increase its capabilities further. These two units, together with the infantry, were amalgamated into a single task force in 1966.
In 1972, the regiment's structure was changed, with the infantry, aviation and naval sections split into
The Royal Guard (Guardia Real) is an independent unit of the Spanish Armed Forces dedicated to the military protection of H.M. the King of Spain and the members of the Spanish Royal Family. It currently has a strength of 1,900 troops. While the guard does participate in parades and other ceremonial events, it is a fully functional combat unit. Its members are recruited from the ranks of all three branches of the Spanish Armed Forces and receive the same training as regular soldiers. Some units have served recently in Afghanistan and Bosnia
The history of the Royal Guard dates back to Medieval times. The senior unit and one of the oldest body guards in the World is the Corps of Gentlemen of the Chamber, the "Monteros de Espinosa", dating to 1006 and created by Sancho Garcia of the House of Castile. The present functions of the unit include the protection of the members of Spanish Royal Family, of the foreign Chiefs of State in visit to Spain and of the royal palaces like the Royal Palace of Madrid, the Palace of El Pardo, the Palacio de la Zarzuela and others.
RAF Station Stoney Cross is a former World War II airfield in the New Forest, Hampshire, England. The airfield is located approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) northwest of Lyndhurst and 12 miles (19 km) west of Southampton.
Opened in 1942, it served both the Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Force. During the war it functioned primarily as a combat bomber and fighter airfield. It closed in January 1948.
Today the remains of the airfield sit on New Forest Crown land managed by the Forestry Commission.
Stoney Cross opened in November 1942 and served the Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Force Ninth Air Force.
Due to its location and the topography of the land, the airfield had an unusual runway layout which nonetheless conformed to the Class A airfield standard set by the Air Ministry. It had one main runway, aligned 07/25, with two secondary runways, aligned 01/19 and 15/33; a large number of frying-pan type dispersal pads with a few loops connecting to an enclosing perimeter track, of a standard width of 50 feet.
The ground support station had mainly Nissen huts of various sizes. The support station was where the group and ground station commanders and squadron
The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force: the Commonwealth Naval Forces. Originally intended for local defence, the navy was granted the title of 'Royal Australian Navy' in 1911, and became increasingly responsible for defence of the region.
Britain's Royal Navy continued to support the RAN and provide additional blue-water defence capability in the Pacific up to the early years of World War II. Then, rapid wartime expansion saw the acquisition of large surface vessels and the building of many smaller warships. In the decade following the war, the RAN acquired a small number of aircraft carriers, the last of these paying off in 1982.
Today, the RAN consists of 54 commissioned vessels and over 16,000 personnel. The navy is one of the largest and most sophisticated naval forces in the Pacific region, with a significant presence in the Indian Ocean and worldwide operations in support of military campaigns and peacekeeping missions. The current Chief of Navy is Vice Admiral Ray Griggs.
The Schutzstaffel (German pronunciation: [ˈʃʊtsʃtafəl] ( listen), translated to Protection Squadron or defence corps, abbreviated SS—or with stylized "Armanen" sig runes) was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP). Built upon the Nazi ideology, the SS under Heinrich Himmler's command was responsible for many of the crimes against humanity during World War II (1939–1945). After 1945, the SS was banned in Germany, along with the Nazi Party, as a criminal organization.
The SS began as a small permanent guard unit made up of NSDAP volunteers to provide security for Nazi Party meetings in Munich. Formed at the end of 1920, they were known as the "Saal-Schutz" (Hall-Protection). Later under the leadership of Heinrich Himmler between 1929 and 1945, the SS was renamed the "Schutz-Staffel" and grew from a small paramilitary formation to one of the largest and most powerful organizations in the Third Reich.
The SS grew from a small paramilitary unit to a powerful force that served as the Führer's "Praetorian Guard", the Nazi Party's "Protection Squadron" and a force that, fielding almost a million men (both on the front lines and as political
Accensi (Singular: accensus) were light infantry in the armies of the early Roman Republic. They were the poorest men in the legion, and could not afford much equipment. They did not wear armour or carry shields, and their usual position was part of the third battle line. They fought in a loose formation, supporting the heavier troops. They were eventually phased out by the time of Second Punic War.
Accensi appear to have evolved from the old fifth class of the army under the Etruscan kings when it was reformed by Marcus Furius Camillus. The fifth class was made up of the poorest soldiers in the legion who were equipped with slings and perhaps a small shield. They acted as skirmishers, screening their own formations and disrupting the enemy. It is likely that engagements with the Samnites and a crushing defeat at the hands of the Gauls taught the Romans the importance of flexibility and the inadequacy of the phalanx on the rough, hilly ground of central Italy.
In the early Camillan system of organisation of the 3rd and 4th centuries BC, men were sorted into classes according to wealth, the accensi being the poorest. Accensi were armed with slings which they used to hurl stones at
Lee's Legion (also known as the 2nd Partisan Corps) was a military unit within the Continental Army during the American Revolution. It primarily served in the Southern Theater of Operations, and gained a reputation for efficiency and bravery on the battlefield.
The original unit was raised June 8, 1776, at Williamsburg, Virginia, under the command of Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee for service with the 1st Continental Light Dragoons of the Continental Army. On April 7, 1778, the Legion left the 1st CLDs and became known as Lee's Legion. It included elements of both cavalry and foot, and typically was uniformed with short green woolen jackets and white linen or doeskin pants, somewhat mimicking the British Legion in appearance. When Lord Cornwallis moved his British Army into North Carolina, Lee's Legion entered South Carolina to protect that colony and to harass British expeditions. Often, the Legion served with Francis Marion and Thomas Sumter in these missions. In 1781, it participated in the Siege of Ninety Six.
The Legion saw considerable action at the Battle of Camden, Battle of Guilford Court House, and the retaking of Savannah, Georgia. It served through the Battle of
The Military Police Corps is the uniformed law enforcement branch of the United States Army. Investigations are conducted by Military Police Investigators or the United States Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC), both of which report to the Provost Marshal General.
Some U.S. Army MP units, usually at the division or brigade level, are referred to as "combat MPs" or "line MPs", or more specifically as "division MPs" or "brigade MPs", and have combat zone responsibilities strikingly different from the law enforcement duties conventionally associated with the Military Police Corps, instead more closely resembling mission loads traditionally assigned to infantry units. These responsibilities consist of, but are not limited to, patrols including mounted and dismounted patrols as well as LP/OP (Listening Post/Observation Post) "static patrols", movement to contact, route reconnaissance, raids, cordon and search operations, and convoy and personnel escorts. Operationally, these duties still fall under the "Area security" and "Maneuver and mobility support" operational categories listed among the five main functions of the Military Police Corps (see section below). Since the
The Republic of Korea Army (ROK Army, ROKA, Korean: 대한민국 육군, Hanja: 大韓民國 陸軍, Revised Romanization: Daehanminguk Yuk-gun) is the largest of the military branches of the South Korean armed forces with 520,000 members as of 2011. This size is maintained through conscription; South Korean men must complete 21 months of military service between the age of 18 and 35. The Republic of Korea maintains a well equipped army, making it one of the most powerful in Asia. Its primary function is to defend the country's terrain from enemies, most notably North Korea.
The army is structured to operate in both the mountainous terrain native to the Korean Peninsula (70% mountainous) and in North Korea with its 1 million strong Korean People's Army, two-thirds of which is permanently garrisoned in the frontline near the DMZ. The current administration has initiated a program over the next two decades to design a purely domestic means of self-defense, whereby South Korea would be able to fully counter a North Korean attack.
The ROK Army was formerly organized into 3 armies: the First Army (FROKA), Third Army (TROKA) and Second Operations Command. Each with its own headquarters, corps, and divisions.
The United States Army Pigeon Service (a.k.a. Signal Pigeon Corps) was a unit of the United States Army during World War I and World War II. Their assignment was the training and usage of homing pigeons for communication and reconnaissance purposes.
During WWII, the force consisted of 3,150 soldiers and 54,000 war pigeons, which were considered an undetectable method of communication. Over 90% of US Army messages sent by pigeons were received. The pigeon G.I. Joe received the Dickin Medal for gallantry that saved at least 1,000 lives.
From 1917 until 1957, the US Army Pigeon Breeding and Training Center was based at Fort Monmouth, N.J. The US Army discontinued using pigeons as message carriers in 1957.
The British Army is the land warfare branch of the British Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England and Scotland and was administered by the War Office from London. It has been managed by the Ministry of Defence since 1964. The professional head of the British Army is the Chief of the General Staff, currently General Sir Peter Wall KCB CBE ADC Gen.
The full-time element of the British Army is referred to as the Regular Army and has been since the creation of the reservist Territorial Force in 1908. All members of the Army swear (or affirm) allegiance to the monarch as commander-in-chief. However the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires Parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a standing army in peacetime. Parliament therefore annually approves the continued existence of the Army. In contrast to the Royal Navy, Royal Marines and Royal Air Force, the British Army does not include Royal in its title. Many of the Army's constituent Regiments and Corps have been granted the "Royal" prefix
The Croatian Army (also Croatian Ground Army, Croatian: Hrvatska kopnena vojska, Hrvatska vojska) is a branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia.
The fundamental role and purpose of the Croatian Army is to protect vital national interests of the Republic of Croatia and defend the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the state.
Basic tasks of the Croatian Army are:
The Croatian Army was formed in the Croatian War of Independence, when on November 3, 1991 the Croatian National Guard was renamed Croatian Army.
Numerous Croatian army units arose from the Croatian National Guard, including:
The locally-based regiments were named the Home Guard Regiments (Domobranska pukovnija). They were first created on 24 December 1991, during the war, and ceased to exist in a 2003 reorganization.
The Croatian Army is an all-volunteer force numbering 16,500 active personnel. The Army can also call on 6000 reserve personnel who serve up to 30 days every year.
The Croatian Army is being reorganized to fit in the NATO doctrine of a small, highly-capable force with an emphasis on mobility and versatility.
Major combatant commands of the Croatian Army are one mechanized and one motorized
The Ecuadorian Air Force (Spanish: Fuerza Aérea Ecuatoriana, FAE) is the Air arm of the Military of Ecuador and responsible for the protection of the Ecuadorian airspace.
To develop the military air wing, in order to execute institutional objectives which guarantee sovereignty and contribute towards the nation's security and development.
To be a dissuasive Air Force, respected and accepted by society, pioneering within the nation's "air-space" development.
The FAE was officially created on October 27, 1920. However, like in many other countries, military flying activity started before the formal date of birth of the Air Force. The history of Ecuador is marked by many skirmishes with its neighbour Peru. As a direct result of the 1910 Ecuador-Peru crisis the members of Club de Tiro Guayaquil decided to expand their sporting activities into aviation as well. Renamed Club de Tiro y Aviación, they started an aviation school. Cosme Rennella Barbatto, an Italian living in Guayaquil, was one of the very first members of Club de Tiro y Aviación. In 1912 Cosme Rennella was sent to his native Italy for training where he successfully graduated as a pilot. He later returned to Europe a second
The Electrical and Mechanical Engineering (EME) Branch (French Branche du Génie électrique et mécanique) is a personnel branch of the Canadian Forces (CF) that provides army engineering maintenance support.
The Royal Canadian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers came into being officially on 15 May 1944, with the fusion of various elements from the Royal Canadian Engineers, Royal Canadian Army Service Corps and Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps, following the model of the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (REME).
With the increase of mechanized equipment during World War II, the need to have one corps dedicated to service and maintenance thereof was becoming increasingly apparent. Trucks had become the de facto means of transportation and logistic support, armoured vehicles had replaced cavalry, weapons were becoming more complicated, as well as the advent of radios and radar, it was apparent that the previous model of having a different corps for each job was inadequate for a modern, mechanized army.
The majority of RCEME ( /ˈriːmiː/ REE-mee, even though there is a "C" in it, just as "REME" is pronounced) technicians were, and still are, vehicle mechanics, but the original
The Israeli Central Command (Hebrew: פיקוד מרכז, Pikud Merkaz), often abbreviated to Pakmaz (פקמ"ז), is a regional command of the Israel Defense Forces. It is responsible for the units and brigades located in the West Bank (under the West Bank Division), Jerusalem, the Sharon, Gush Dan, and the Shephelah.
The commander (Aluf) of the central command is the one who is authorized to declare new cities in the Judea and Samaria Area.
During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the Central Command was in-charge of the war efforts against Jordan, particularly on the road to Jerusalem, occupying the "Small Triangle" (east Sharon), Lod, and Ramla. During the Six-Day War, the Command led the occupation of the West Bank from Jordan. As of the First Intifada, the Command primarily engages in security and counter-terrorism activities, as well as more conventional military measures, in the West Bank.
Towards the end of 2010 the deployment of IDF troops in and around the West Bank reached a new quantitative low with only six infantry battalions serving where "dozens" were required during the first Intefada.
All commanders of the Central Command were ranked Aluf (Major General).
Kraków Army (Polish: Armia Kraków) was one of the Polish armies to take part in the Polish Defensive War of 1939. It was officially created on March 23, 1939 as the main pivot of Polish defence. It was commanded by Gen. Antoni Szylling.
Its main task was to delay advancing German troops and withdraw eastwards along the northern line of the Carpathians and defend the heavily industrialized Upper Silesia region.
During the war it was forced to retreat when German push penetrated Polish defences to the north and flanked it. It tried to organize lines of defense on the rivers of Nida, Dunajec and later, San. Later in the course of war it joined the Armia Karpaty, forming the Małopolska Army. Together they fought at the first battle of Tomaszów Lubelski (September 17–20), capitulating afterwards.
The Army was commanded by general Antoni Szylling; his chief of staff was colonel S. Wiloch.
It consisted of four infantry divisions, two mountain infantry divisions, one motorized cavalry brigade, one mountain brigade and one cavalry brigade.
The Macedonian phalanx is an infantry formation developed by Philip II and used by his son Alexander the Great to conquer the Persian Empire and other armies. Phalanxes remained dominant on battlefields throughout the Hellenistic period, although wars had developed into more protracted operations generally involving sieges and naval combat as much as field battles, until they were finally displaced by the Roman legions.
Philip II spent much of his youth as a hostage at Thebes, where he studied under the renowned general Epaminondas, whose reforms were the basis for the phalanx. Phalangites were professional soldiers, and were among the first troops ever to be drilled, thereby allowing them to execute complex maneuvers well beyond the reach of most other armies. They fought packed in a close rectangular formation, typically eight men deep, with a leader at the head of each column and a secondary leader in the middle, so that the back rows could move off to the sides if more frontage was needed.
Each phalangite carried as his primary weapon a sarissa, a double-pointed pike over 6 m (18 ft) in length. Before a battle the sarissa were carried in two pieces and then slid together when
The Russian Caucasus Army (Russian: Кавказскaя армия) of World War I was the Russian field army that fought in the Caucasus Campaign and Persian Campaign of World War I.
The Caucasus Army was formed in July 1914 from units of the Caucasus Military District. It ceased to exist in April 1917 when it was reorganized as the Caucasus Front, although this Front contained many of the same units and continued fighting in the same theater. This Front in turn formally ceased to exist in March 1918.
The Caucasus Army was under the nominal command of the Governor General of the Caucasus Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov at the start of hostilities. His chief of command was Aleksandr Zakharevich Myshlayevsky. The Caucasus Army had 100 battalions of infantry, 117 sotnis (cavalry squadrons), and 256 guns for a total of 100,000 troops. Before the war the army was dispersed into two groups according to the two main operating areas: the Kars group (Kars - Erzurum) with 6 divisions in the region of Otu - Sarikamish and the Erivan group (Erivan - Alashkert) with 2 divisions, reinforced by a large number of cavalry, in the vicinity of Igdir.
The flanks were covered by small units formed from the Border Guard,
The Union Navy is the label applied to the United States Navy (USN) during the American Civil War, to contrast it from its direct opponent, the Confederate States Navy (CSN). The term is sometimes used carelessly to include vessels of war used on the rivers of the interior while they were actually under the control of the United States Army, referred to in the same fashion as the Union Army.
The primary missions of the Union Navy were:
To accomplish these, the Union Navy had to undergo a profound transformation, both technical and institutional. During the war, sailing vessels were completely supplanted by ships propelled by steam for purposes of combat. Vessels of widely differing character were built from the keel up in response to peculiar problems they would encounter. Wooden hulls were at first protected by armor plating, and soon were replaced by iron or steel throughout. Guns were reduced in number, but increased in size and range; the reduction in number was partially compensated by mounting the guns in rotating turrets that could fire in any direction.
The institutional changes that were introduced during the war were equally significant. The Bureau of Steam Engineering
The United States Air Forces Southern Command is an inactive Major Command of the United States Air Force. It was headquartered at Albrook Air Force Base, Canal Zone, being inactivated on 1 January 1976.
Formerly designated as Sixth Air Force, the command's mission was the defense of the Panama Canal and for USAF relations, including foreign military sales (FMS) and disaster relief assistance, with the Latin American nations. The command supported disaster relief to countries such as Guatemala, Jamaica, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic, Panama and Colombia. It also assisted nations in Central and South America in purchases of United States military aircraft and trained their technicians in logistics and maintenance for the aircraft.
The first United States air units arrived in the Canal Zone in February 1917, with the 7th Aero Squadron being organized on 29 March at Ancon. It was equipped with Curtiss JN-4 "Jennys" and Curtiss R-3 and R-4 floatplanes.
The squadron initially came under the control of Headquarters, U.S. Troops, Panama Canal Zone, and beginning on 1 July 1917, Army aviation units were assigned directly to the Panama Canal Department, which was the senior United
The XX Corps of the United States Army fought from northern France to Austria in World War II. Constituted by redesignating the IV Armored Corps, which had been activated at Camp Young, California on 5 September 1942, XX Corps became operational in France as part of Lieutenant General George S. Patton's U.S. Third Army on 1 August 1944.
Initially assigned to protect the south flank of the U.S. Third Army, XX Corps secured the bridgehead at Le Mans and liberated Angers on 10 August 1944. The corps fought a successful five day battle for Chartres from 15 – 19 August, and seized a bridgehead over the Aunay River. Liberating Fontainebleau on 23 August, the corps moved rapidly east against disorganized German resistance and seized bridgeheads over the Seine River at Melun and Montereau. Still pushing east at a rapid rate of advance, XX Corps liberated Château-Thierry and captured a bridgehead across the Marne River on 27 August 1944. This feat was followed by the liberation of Reims two days later. The August succession of bridgehead captures culminated in the liberation of Verdun and seizure of a bridgehead over the Meuse River on 31 August. Although the corps had conducted a brilliant
Haganah (Hebrew: "The Defense", ההגנה HaHagana) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948, which later became the core of the Israel Defense Forces.
The predecessor of Haganah was Hashomer (Hebrew: השומר; "The Watchman") established in 1909, itself a successor of Bar-Giora, founded in 1907. The Bar-Giora consisted of a small group of Jewish immigrants who guarded settlements for an annual fee. At no time did the group have more than 100 members.
After the 1920 Arab riots and 1921 Jaffa riots, the Jewish leadership in Palestine believed that the British, to whom the League of Nations had given a mandate over Palestine in 1920, had no desire to confront local Arab gangs that frequently attacked Palestinian Jews. Believing that they could not rely on the British administration for protection from these gangs, the Jewish leadership created the Haganah to protect Jewish farms and kibbutzim. In addition to guarding Jewish communities, the role of the Haganah was to warn the residents of and repel attacks by Palestinian Arabs. In the period between 1920–1929, the Haganah lacked a strong central authority or coordination.
The Miquelets (in Spanish: Miqueletes or Migueletes) were irregular local troops in Catalonia, Spain who derived their name, it is said, from Miguel or Miquelot de Prats, a Catalan mercenary captain in the service of Cesare Borgia. They enjoyed a certain prominence in the minor wars of Spain during the 17th and 18th centuries, and in peace seem to have plundered travellers.
In the War of the Spanish Succession, the Miquelets continued the struggle against the French claimant until long after the peace.
During the Peninsular War they were exceedingly successful in harassing the French invaders in the mountains of Catalonia. Sometimes they even attempted operations in large bodies, as in the operations round Girona in 1808 and 1809.
They were maintained by the several parishes, not by the central or the provincial governments, and as they had to turn out for duty on sound of the village alarm-bell (someten) they are frequently called somatenes.
Regiments of Miquelets were also integrated in the Spanish army and fought in other places of the Empire, outside Spain. For example, the First Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia, which was composed of Catalan Miquelets, was destined in
The Royal Prussian Army (German: Königlich Preußische Armee) was the army of the Kingdom of Prussia. It was vital to the development of Brandenburg-Prussia as a European power.
The Prussian Army had its roots in the meager mercenary forces of Brandenburg during the Thirty Years' War. Elector Frederick William developed it into a viable standing army, while King Frederick William I of Prussia drastically increased its size. King Frederick the Great led the disciplined Prussian troops to victory during the 18th century Silesian Wars and increased the prestige of the Kingdom of Prussia.
The army was outdated by the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars, and Prussia was defeated by France in the War of the Fourth Coalition. However, under the leadership of Gerhard von Scharnhorst, Prussian reformers began modernizing the Prussian Army, which contributed greatly to the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte during the War of the Sixth Coalition. Conservatives halted some of the reforms, however, and the army subsequently became a bulwark of the conservative Prussian government.
The Prussian Army was successful in 19th century wars against Denmark, Austria and France, allowing Prussia to unify Germany
The structural history of the Roman military concerns the major transformations in the organization and constitution of ancient Rome's armed forces, "the most effective and long-lived military institution known to history." From its origins around 800 BC to its final dissolution in AD 476 with the demise of the Western Roman Empire, Rome's military organization underwent substantial structural change. At the highest level of structure, the forces were split into the Roman army and the Roman navy, although these two branches were less distinct than in many modern national defense forces. Within the top levels of both army and navy, structural changes occurred as a result of both positive military reform and organic structural evolution. These changes can be divided into four distinct phases.
According to the historians, Livy and Dionysius of Halicarnassus, writing at a far later date, the earliest Roman army existed in the 8th century BC. During this period Rome itself was probably little more than a fortified hilltop settlement and its army a relatively small force, whose activities were limited "mainly [to] raiding and cattle rustling with the occasional skirmish-like battle".
The Continental Navy was the navy of the United States during the American Revolutionary War, and was formed in 1775. Through the efforts of the Continental Navy's patron, John Adams and vigorous Congressional support in the face of stiff opposition, the fleet cumulatively became relatively substantial when considering the limitations imposed upon the Patriot supply pool.
The main goal of the navy was to intercept shipments of British matériel and generally disrupt British maritime commercial operations. Because of the lack of funding, manpower and resources, the initial fleet consisted of converted merchantmen, with exclusively-designed warships being built later in the conflict. Of the vessels that successfully made it to sea, their success was rare and the effort contributed little to the overall outcome of the rebellion.
The fleet did serve to highlight a few examples of Continental resolve, notably launching Captain John Paul Jones into the limelight. It provided needed experience for a generation of officers who would later go on to command future conflicts which involved the early American navy.
With the war over and the Federal government in need of all available capital,
The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kaigun (help·info) or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, literally "navy of the greater Japanese empire") was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japan's constitutional renunciation of the use of force as a means of settling international disputes. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) was formed after the dissolution of the IJN.
The Japanese Navy was the third largest navy in the world by 1920, behind the Royal Navy and United States Navy. It was supported by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service for aircraft and airstrike operation from the fleet. It was the primary opponent of the Western Allies in the Pacific War.
The origins of the Imperial Japanese Navy go back to early interactions with nations on the Asian continent, beginning in the early medieval period and reaching a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th centuries at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Age of Discovery. After two centuries of stagnation during the country's ensuing seclusion policy under the shoguns of the Edo period, Japan's navy was
The Medical Corps (MC) of the U.S. Army is a staff corps (non-combat specialty branch) of the U.S. Army Medical Department (AMEDD) consisting of commissioned medical officers – physicians with either an MD or a DO degree, at least one year of post-graduate clinical training, and a state medical license.
The MC traces its earliest origins to the first physicians recruited by the Medical Department of the Army, created by the Continental Congress in 1775. The US Congress made official the designation "Medical Corps" in 1908, although the term had long been in use informally among the Medical Department's regular physicians.
Currently, the MC consists of over 4,400 active duty physicians representing all the specialties and subspecialties of civilian medicine. They may be assigned to fixed military medical facilities, to deployable combat units or to military medical research and development duties. They are considered fully deployable soldiers. The Chief of the Medical Corps Branch (under the Army's Human Resources Command) is a colonel and the senior-most Medical Corps officer in the Army is the U.S. Army Surgeon General, a lieutenant general.
Both the Army Medical Department and
The Requetés (from the French requêté, “hunting call”) were the Carlist militia during the Spanish Civil War. Wearing red berets, they mostly came from Navarre and were highly religious with many regarding the war as a Crusade. They were often accompanied by priests as field chaplains, who were known for risking their lives to perform the Last Sacrament on the battlefield, and who also urged the men on. A Spanish encyclopedia of 1965 defines the Requetés as a “group of traditionalists whose object is to encourage amongst themselves the goals of the political party, valorous sentiments, physical prowess, initiative, spirit of resistance, and the acceptance of responsibility, and who during the civil wars of Spain, fought in corps (tercios) in defense of the religious and monarchical traditions.”
The earliest use of the term was applied to the Third Battalion of Navarre (Tercer Batallón de Navarra), in 1835, during the First Carlist War, and was later applied generally to all Carlist combatants.
The Carlist Requetés had been receiving military training during the Second Spanish Republic. During the early and central periods of the war the Requeté units were well known as highly
The Royal Navy (RN) is the principal naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Tracing its origins to the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service. From the end of the 17th century until well into the 20th century it was the most powerful navy in the world, playing a key part in establishing the British Empire as the dominant world power. Due to this historical prominence, it is common - also among non-Britons - to refer to it as "The Royal Navy" without qualification.
Following victory in the First World War the Royal Navy was significantly reduced in size, although at the onset of the Second World War it was still the largest in the world. By the end of the Second World War the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the course of the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union its focus has returned to global expeditionary operations.
The Royal Navy operates a "blue-water" fleet of technologically sophisticated ships including an aircraft carrier (though without
SS Heimwehr "Danzig" was an SS unit established in the Free City of Danzig (today Gdańsk and environs, Poland) before the Second World War. It fought with the German army against the Polish Army during the invasion of Poland. After this it became part of the 3rd SS Division Totenkopf and ceased to exist as an independent unit.
Also known as Heimwehr Danzig (Danzig Home Defense), it was officially established on 20 June 1939, when the Danzig senate under Albert Forster decided to set up its own powerful-armed force; a cadre of this new unit primarily formed the Danzig SS Wachsturmbann "Eimann".
Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler supported this project and sent SS Obersturmbannführer Hans Friedemann Goetze to Danzig. Goetze was the commander of the III. Sturmbann (Battalion) of the 4th SS-Totenkopfstandarte "Ostmark," established in October 1938 in Berlin-Adlersheim.
The III. Sturmbann was strengthened with the help of anti-tank defense forces (the Panzerabwehr-Lehrsturm of the SS Totenkopfstandarten) as well as about 500 additional volunteers from Danzig who named their new unit SS Sturmbann "Goetze". The Danzig SS-men had been members a special SS troop established in July 1939 - the
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest navy in the world, with a battle fleet tonnage that is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S. Navy also has the world's largest carrier fleet, with 11 in service, one under construction (two planned), and one in reserve. The service has 321,053 personnel on active duty and 106,188 in the Navy Reserve. It operates 286 ships in active service and more than 3,700 aircraft.
The Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was essentially disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. The United States Constitution provided the legal basis for a military force by giving Congress the power "to provide and maintain a navy".
Depredations against U.S. shipping by Barbary Coast pirates in the Mediterranean Sea spurred Congress to employ this power by passing the Naval Act of 1794 ordering the construction and manning of six frigates. These ships were used to end most pirate activity off the Barbary Coast. In the 20th
The Chevalier Guard regiment (Russian: Кавалергардский полк) was a Russian heavy cavalry guard regiment, created in 1800 by the reformation of the Chevalier Guard corps, itself created in 1764 by Catherine the Great. As other Russian heavy cavalry guard regiments (the Life-Guards Horse Regiment, His Majesty's Life-Guards Cuirassier Regiment, and Her Majesty's Life-Guards Cuirassier Regiment), the Chevalier Guards were equipped as cuirassiers (with some differences in uniform and equipment from army cuirassiers and other guard cuirassier regiments).
The regiment was disbanded in 1918.
Many famous men served as Chevalier Guards, Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin, Denis Davydov, Mikhail Skobelev, Aleksandr Rodzyanko, Pavlo Skoropadskyi and Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim among them.
The First Army (French: 1ère Armée) was a field army of France that fought during World War I and World War II. It was also active during the Cold War.
On mobilization in August 1914 the First Army was put in the charge of General Auguste Dubail and comprised the 7th, 8th, 13th, 14th, and 21st Army Corps, two divisions of cavalry and one reserve infantry division. It was massed between Belfort and the general line Mirecourt-Lunéville with headquarters at Epinal. First Army then took part, along with the French Second Army, in the Invasion of Lorraine. The First Army intended to take the strongly defended town of Sarrebourg. German Crown Prince Rupprecht, commander of the German Sixth Army, was tasked with stopping the French invasion. The French attack was repulsed by Rupprecht and his stratagem of pretending to retreat and then strongly attacking back. On August 20, Rupprecht launched a major counter-offensive, driving the French armies out. Dubail was replaced in 1915. A frantic 1916 saw four different commanders command the First Army; an even more frantic 1917 saw five different commanders at the helm (including François Anthoine during the Battle of Passchendaele).
At the time
II Field Force, Vietnam was a United States Army Corps-level command during the Vietnam War.
Activated on 15 March 1966, it became the largest corps command in Vietnam and one of the largest in Army history. II Field Force was assigned the lineage of the XXII Corps, a World War II corps in the European Theater of Operations. II Field Force was a component of U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV) and had its headquarters in Long Binh.
II Field Force's area of responsibility was III Corps Tactical Zone, later renamed Military Region 3, which comprised eleven provinces surrounding Saigon. This was designed to mimic the ARVN III Corps region. II Field Force controlled units participating in the 1968 Tet Offensive and the 1970 Cambodian Incursion.
At various times during the Vietnam War, II FFV controlled the following units:
II Field Force Vietnam Headquarters Elements:
II Field Force was de-activated on 2 May 1971, during the withdrawal of U.S. ground combat forces from Vietnam, with its assets providing the basis for its successor, Third Regional Assistance Command (TRAC).
The United States Air Force SEEK EAGLE Office (USAF SEEK EAGLE Office, AFSEO) was started to improve the combat capability of the warfighter. The SEEK EAGLE Program, which is the standard for the aircraft-stores certification process of the United States Air Force (USAF), was created for this purpose. This program certifies all weapons (conventional and nuclear), suspension equipment, tanks, and pods carried externally or internally. The process includes safe upload and download procedures; flight limits for safe carriage, employment, jettison, safe escape, and ballistic accuracy verification. The SEEK EAGLE process includes the integrated use of digital modeling, simulation, and analysis; ground tests; and flight tests to obtain/generate the data needed to verify aircraft-store compatibility accuracy of and update Operational Flight Programs (OFPs) and Technical Orders (TOs).
Ensure new warfighter capabilities through the application and transfer of aircraft-store compatibility expertise.
The Air Force SEEK EAGLE Office (AFSEO) is a named Air Force Unit and, by Special Order, the single point of expertise for aircraft-store compatibility.
In the early stages of air warfare,
The Afghan National Army (ANA) is the main branch of the military of Afghanistan, which is responsible for land-based military operations and ground warfare to defend the state against possible foreign military incursions. It is under the Ministry of Defense in Kabul and is being trained by NATO alliance. The ANA is divided into six regional Corps, with about 200,000 active troops as of June 2012. The current Chief of Staff of the Afghan National Army is Lt. Gen. Sher Mohammad Karimi.
Afghanistan's army traces its roots to the early 18th-century when the Hotaki dynasty was established in Kandahar followed by Ahmad Shah Durrani's rise to power. It was reorganized in 1880 during Emir Abdur Rahman Khan's reign. During World War I and World War II, Afghanistan remained a neutral state. From the 1960s to the early 1990s, the Afghan army was equipped by the Soviet Union. By 1992, the army fragmented into regional militias under various local warlords. This was followed by the Taliban government in the mid 1990s, which was minimally supported by the armed forces of Pakistan. After the end of the Taliban rule in late 2001, the new Afghan National Army was formed with the help of US-led
The Army Ground Forces were one of the three autonomous components of the Army of the United States during World War II, the others being the Army Air Forces and Army Service Forces. Throughout their existence, Army Ground Forces were the largest training organization ever established in the United States. Its strength of 780,000 troops on 1 May 1942 grew to a peak of 2,200,000 by 1 July 1943. Thereafter its strength declined as units departed for overseas theaters.
Army Ground Forces traces their origins back to General Headquarters, United States Army (GHQ), which were activated on 26 July 1940. Although inactive before this date, GHQ had long featured in mobilization plans as far back as 1921 as a headquarters for directing US field armies overseas, similar to that of the American Expeditionary Force in World War I. This was not realized in practice because the war was fought in many theaters, so overall direction was exercised by the War Department General Staff. Nor did GHQ become the equivalent of a theater command for the Zone of Interior; administrative authority was exercised by G-4 of the War Department General Staff through the Corps Area Commands. Instead, GHQ was drawn
The term ANZAC originated as a telegraphic address for the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, an army corps of Australian and New Zealand troops who fought against the Turks in 1915 at the Battle of Gallipoli during World War I. The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps was disbanded in 1916 and other Anzac formations were then formed and fought during that war in the Middle East and on the Western Front.
The term ANZAC was used again during the Vietnam War as part of the name of battalions comprising Australian and New Zealand troops.
Within Australasia, Anzac came to stand not just for the troops in World War I, but for Australian and New Zealand soldiers in time of war more generally. Anzac Day is observed annually in memory of those soldiers who died in war. It is commemorated each year by both countries on 25 April, the date of the first landing at Gallipoli in 1915 on a beach known as Anzac Cove. (It is similar to days such as Memorial Day, Veterans Day, Armistice Day, Remembrance Day or V-E Day commemorated in other countries.)
The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps was the original ANZAC formation. It served at Gallipoli under the command of General William Birdwood
The Chemical Corps is the branch of the United States Army tasked with defending against Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) weapons. The corps was founded as the Chemical Warfare Service during World War I. Its name was changed to the Chemical Corps in 1946.
The use of chemical weapons in an offensive context by the United States military did not actually begin until World War I but discussion of the topic dates back to the American Civil War. A letter to the War Department dated 5 April 1862 from New York City resident John Doughty proposed the use of chlorine shells to drive the Confederate Army from its positions. Doughty included a detailed drawing of the shell with his letter. It is unknown how the military reacted to Doughty's proposal but the letter was unnoticed in a pile of old official documents until modern times. Another American, Forrest Shepherd of New Haven, also proposed a chemical weapon attack against the Confederates. Shepherd's proposal involved hydrogen chloride, an attack that would have likely been non-lethal but may have succeeded in driving soldiers from their positions. Shepherd was a well-known geologist at the time and his proposal
North Eastern Area air defence command was one of the five Australian area defence commands during World War II. The command was headquartered at Townsville, Queensland and was commanded from the Commonwealth Building (Federation Place) on Sturt Street, Townsville.
Ian McLachlan took command of RAAF North-Eastern Area in September 1951.
No. 1426 (Enemy Aircraft) Flight RAF, nicknamed "the Rafwaffe", was a Royal Air Force flight formed during the Second World War to evaluate captured enemy aircraft and demonstrate their characteristics to other Allied units. Several aircraft on charge with the RAE Farnborough section were also used by this unit. The RAE facilities at Farnborough were utilized for the flight testing of German and Italian aircraft during the war.
Many crash-landed airframes were brought to Farnborough for examination, testing and cannibalisation of spare parts to keep other airframes in serviceable condition. The main flight testing work was carried out by the Aerodynamics Flight of the Experimental Flying Department and the Wireless & Electrical Flight (W&EF), the latter responsible for evaluation and examination of radar-equipped aircraft later in the war.
The unit was established in November 1941 at RAF Duxford, made up of a small group of pilots who had previously been maintenance test pilots with No. 41 Group RAF. Initially, it operated a Heinkel He 111 (AW177) that had been in British hands for two years, a Messerschmitt Bf 109 that had been captured during the Battle of France (AE479) and a
Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The article first presents a short overview of Roman training. Roman performance against different types of enemies is then analyzed. Finally a summation of what made the Roman tactics and strategy militarily effective through their long history is given below, as is a discussion of how and why this effectiveness eventually disappeared.
The focus below is primarily on Roman tactics - the "how" of their approach to battle, and how it stacked up against a variety of opponents over time. It does not attempt detailed coverage of things like army structure or equipment. Various battles are summarized to illustrate Roman methods with links to detailed articles on individual encounters. For in depth background on the historical structure of the infantry relevant to this article, see Structure of the Roman military. For a history of Rome's military campaigns see Campaign history of the Roman military. For detail on equipment, daily life and specific Legions see Roman Legion and Roman military
The Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service (Marinens Flyvevesen) was alongside the Norwegian Army Air Service the forerunner to the modern-day Royal Norwegian Air Force.
The RNNAS was established on 1 June 1912, with the maiden flight of the HNoMS Start, piloted by Hans Dons. The founding of the Air Service was based largely on pride. On 19 April 1912 newspapers had reported that a Swedish pilot was planning to fly over Moss and Horten. Horten was the site of the main base of the Royal Norwegian Navy. Three officers of the Norwegian submarine Kobben decided that it would be a shame if they were not able to beat him to it.
Later that year, the Maurice Farman biplanes Njaal and Gange Rolf were purchased.
In 1915 the Navy established its own aircraft factory and a flying school.
The main flight base was established in Horten. Other naval air stations were established in Kristiansand in 1918, Bergen in 1919 and in Tromsø shortly before the invasion in 1940.
In 1940 most of the planes in Norwegian service were outdated, and the 1 100 transport and figher planes of the Luftwaffe soon gained air superiority. The armed resistance in Norway was abandoned 9 June 1940, although some Norwegians
Marine Attack Squadron 231 (VMA-231) is a United States Marine Corps fixed wing attack squadron that consists of AV-8B Harrier (V/STOL) jets. The squadron, known as the "Ace of Spades", is based at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina and fall under the command of Marine Aircraft Group 14 (MAG-14) and the 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing (2nd MAW).
VMA-231 began as the 1st Division, Squadron 1 on February 8, 1919 — a unit that emerged from the Northern Bombing Group of Northern France in 1918. By the end of February, the newly activated squadron arrived in Santo Domingo for duty with the 2nd Brigade where it served until July 1924. During its deployment to Santo Domingo, the squadron was designated Marine Observation Squadron One (VO-1M) on 1 July 1922.
From Santo Domingo the squadron traveled to San Diego, California and became the first Marine squadron on the West Coast and was designated as the aviation asset to accompany Marine Expeditionary Forces. During the West Coast interlude, the late Major General Ross E. Rowell, then a Major and Commanding Officer concentrated on training in dive-bombing tactics. Such tactics were to prove invaluable to the squadron in
Special Operations Weather Team (SOWT) (AFSC 1W0X2) specialists are tactical observer/forecasters with ground combat capabilities and fall under the 720th Special Tactics Group within the Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC). The mission of a Special Operations Weather Team Specialist is to deploy by the most feasible means available into combat and non-permissive environments to collect and interpret meteorological data and provide air and ground forces commanders with timely, accurate intelligence. They collect data, assist mission planning, generate accurate and mission-tailored target and route forecasts in support of global special operations, conduct special weather reconnaissance and train foreign national forces. SOWTs provide vital intelligence and deploy with joint air and ground forces in support of direct action, counter-terrorism, foreign internal defense, humanitarian assistance, special reconnaissance, austere airfield, and combat search and rescue.
During World War II, Air Force's combat weathermen supported the American effort against the Japanese in the China-Burma-India theater of operations. They also participated in the European theater at Normandy
The Army of Sambre-et-Meuse (French: Armée de Sambre-et-Meuse) is the best known of the armies of the French Revolution. It was formed on 29 June 1794 by combining three forces: the Army of the Ardennes, the left wing of the Army of Moselle, and the right wing of the Army of the North. It had a brief but celebrated existence. On 29 September 1797, the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse merged with the Army of Rhin-et-Moselle to become the Army of Germany.
The various elements of the army won a key victory at the Battle of Fleurus on 16 June 1794. The merging of the forces into the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse was made official soon afterwards. Shortly after Fleurus, the Allied position in Flanders collapsed and the French armies overran both the Austrian Netherlands and the Dutch Republic in the winter of 1794-1795.
After the storming of Tournai and Ostend, the Convention declared that the army had merited honors. The Sambre-et-Meuse won more honors after the storming of Brussels, Maastricht, and Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen). The army participated in the conquest of Holland and the Siege of Luxembourg.
In 1795, the Sambre-et-Meuse fought on the middle Rhine. The army crossed the Rhine in 1796 to
The Frontier Corps (FC) (Urdu: فرنٹیئرکور) is a federally controlled paramilitary force of Pakistan, recruited mostly from the tribal areas along the western borders and led by officers from the Pakistan Army. The Frontier Corps comprises three major subdivisions: FC NWFP (stationed in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province (formerly known as North-West Frontier Province) and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas) and FC Balochistan (stationed in Balochistan province). Each subdivision is headed by a seconded Inspector General, who is a Pakistan Army officer of at least major-general rank, although the force itself is under the jurisdiction of the Interior Ministry.
With a total manpower of approximately 80,000, the task of the Frontier Corps is to help local law enforcement in the maintenance of law and order, and to carry out border patrol and anti-smuggling operations. Recently, units of the Frontier Corps have been used in military operations against insurgents in Balochistan and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas.
The Frontier Corps should not be confused with the Frontier Constabulary or the Frontier Force Regiment. The Frontier Constabulary is a federal paramilitary police
The Mexican Navy is one of the two independent Armed Forces of Mexico. The actual naval forces are called the Armada de México. The Secretaría de Marina (SEMAR) (English: Naval Secretariat) includes both the Armada itself and the attached ministerial and civil service. The commander of the Navy is the Secretary of the Navy, who is both a cabinet minister and a career naval officer.
The Mexican Navy's stated mission is "to use the naval force of the federation for external defense, and to help with internal order". The Navy consists of about 56,000 men and women plus reserves, over 189 ships, and about 130 aircraft. The Navy attempts to maintain a constant modernization program in order to upgrade its response capability.
Given Mexico's large area of water (3,149,920 km) and extensive coastline (11,122 km), the Navy's duties are of great importance. Perhaps its most important on-going missions are the war on drugs and protecting PEMEX's oil wells in Campeche in the Gulf of Mexico. Another important task of the Mexican Navy is to help people in hurricane relief operations and other natural disasters.
The Mexican Navy has its origins in the creation of the Ministry of War in 1821.
The People's Liberation Army (PLA; simplified Chinese: 中国人民解放军; traditional Chinese: 中國人民解放軍; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Jiěfàngjūn) is the military arm of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the de facto armed forces of the People's Republic of China, consisting of land, sea, strategic missile and air forces. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927 which is celebrated annually as "PLA Day". The People's Liberation Army's insignia consists of a roundel with a red star bearing the Chinese characters for "Eight One", referring to August 1 (Chinese: 八一), the date of the 1927 Nanchang Uprising.
The PLA is the world's largest military force, with approximately 3 million members, and has the world's largest (active) standing army, with approximately 2.25 million members. The PLA comprises five main service branches, consisting of the PLA Ground Force, PLA Navy (PLAN), PLA Air Force (PLAAF), Second Artillery Corps (strategic missile force), and the PLA Reserve Force.
Military service is compulsory, in theory, for all men who attain the age of 18; women may register for duty in the medical, veterinary, and other technical services at ages as young as 14. However, a draft in China has
The Scholae Palatinae (literally "Palatine Schools", in Greek: Σχολαὶ, Scholai), were an elite military guard unit, usually ascribed to the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great as a replacement for the equites singulares Augusti, the cavalry arm of the Praetorian Guard. The Scholae survived in Roman and later Byzantine service until they disappeared in the late 11th century, during the reign of Alexios I Komnenos.
During the civil wars of the late Tetrarchy, Caesar Flavius Valerius Severus, following the orders of Galerius (reigned 305–311), attempted to disband the Praetorian Guard but only managed to lead the rest of them in revolting and joining Maxentius. When Constantine the Great (r. 306–337), launching an invasion of Italy in 312, forced a final confrontation at the Milvian Bridge, the Praetorian cohorts made up the most prominent element of Maxentius' army. Later, in Rome, the victorious Constantine definitively disbanded the Praetorian Guard. Although there is no direct evidence that Constantine established the Scholae Palatinae at the same time, the lack of a bodyguard unit would have become immediately apparent, and he is commonly regarded as their founder. Nevertheless,
The South African Defence Force (SADF) comprised the South African armed forces from 1957 until 1994. Shortly before the nation reconstituted itself as a republic in 1961, the former Union Defence Force was officially proceeded by the SADF, which was established by the Defence Act (No. 44) of 1957. The SADF was, in turn, superseded by the South African National Defence Force in 1994.
South African military units were involved in the long-running Angolan and Mozambican civil wars throughout the 1980s, frequently supporting Pretoria's allies in the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) and the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO). SADF personnel were also deployed during the related South African Border War and attempted, unsuccessfully, to crush Namibia's bid for independence.
Within South Africa itself, the SADF was organised with the aim of performing a dual mission: to counter possible insurgency in all forms, and to maintain a conventional military arm which could defend the republic's immediate borders, making retaliatory strikes as necessary. During apartheid, armed SADF troops were used in quelling opposition to minority rule, often directly
The Sri Lanka Army is the oldest and largest of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and is responsible for land-based military and humanitarian operations. Established as the Ceylon Army in 1949, it was renamed when Sri Lanka became a republic in 1972. As of the year 2010, the Army has believed to have approximately 200,000 regular personnel, approximately between 20,000–40,000 reserve personnel and 18,000 National Guardsmen and comprises 13 operational divisions, one air-mobile brigade, one commando brigade, one special forces brigade, one independent armored brigade, three mechanized infantry brigades and over 40 infantry brigades. From the 1980s to 2009 the army was engaged in the Sri Lankan civil war.
The professional head of the Sri Lanka Army is the Commander of the Army, currently Lieutenant General Jagath Jayasuriya. The Commander-in-Chief of the Sri Lankan Military is the President of the country, who heads the National Security Council through the Ministry of Defense, which is the highest level of military command charged with formulating, executing defence policy and procurements for the armed forces. However operations of the Sri Lanka Army are coordinated by the Joint
The United States Air Force Band of Liberty is a United States military band of forty-five active duty members, based at Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts. It entertains audiences in New England, New York, and New Jersey. The band is to be inactivated in summer 2013.
The band is a select group of professional Airmen-musicians who support the global Air Force mission by providing musical products and services for official military, recruiting, and community relations events, and by fostering America’s rich national heritage. Originally known as the 541st Air Force Band of the Southwest, stationed at Luke AFB, Arizona, the unit relocated to Pease AFB, New Hampshire in 1978. Renamed the Air Force Band of New England, the band brought its musical message of pride, patriotism, and professionalism to concerts and events throughout New England. In 1991, the band received its current name and was assigned to Electronics Systems Center, Hanscom Air Force Base, in Massachusetts. This change fostered another new name: the United States Air Force Band of Liberty.
The Band of Liberty consists of forty-five active duty personnel assigned to two primary ensembles—the Concert Band and the
The United States Army Security Agency (ASA) was the United States Army's signal intelligence branch. Its motto was "Vigilant Always." The Agency existed between 1945 and 1976 and was the successor to Army signal intelligence operations dating back to World War I. The ASA was under the command of the Director of National Security (DIRNSA) at the National Security Agency, located at Fort Meade. Besides intelligence gathering, it had responsibility for the security of Army communications and for electronic countermeasures operations. In 1977, the ASA was merged with the US Army's Military Intelligence component to create the United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM).
Composed of soldiers with high scores on Army intelligence tests, the ASA was tasked with monitoring and interpreting military communications of the Soviet Union, the People’s Republic of China, and their allies and client states around the world. The ASA was directly subordinate to the National Security Agency and all field stations had NSA technical representatives present.
All gathered information had time-sensitive value depending on its importance and classification. Information was passed
The Women's Auxiliary Australian Air Force (WAAAF) was formed in March 1941 after considerable lobbying by women keen to serve and by the Chief of the Air Staff who wanted to release male personnel serving in Australia for service overseas. The WAAAF was the first and largest of the World War II Australian Women's Services. It was disbanded in December 1947.
Not long after World War II was declared in 1939, the Royal Australian Air Force had an urgent need for more skilled and semi-skilled signals and maintenance personnel to fulfil its wartime commitments to the Empire Air Training Scheme (EATS) for local defence in Australia.
On 4 February 1941, the formation of an air force women's auxiliary was approved by the War Cabinet. It had taken 14 months of difficult discussion and opposition to achieve this final outcome.
The formation of the Women's Auxiliary Australian Air Force (WAAAF) set a precedent for the formation of other women's service organisations such as The Australian Women's Army Service (AWAS) and the Women's Royal Australian Naval Service (WRANS).
Approximately 27,000 women enlisted in the WAAAF between 15 March 1941 and 24 August 1945. In June 1941, Squadron Officer
The Normandie-Niemen Regiment (Russian: Нормандия-Неман) was a fighter squadron, later regiment (of three squadrons) of the French Air Force. It served on the Eastern Front of the European Theatre of World War II with the 1st Air Army. The regiment is notable for being one of only two air combat units from an Allied western European country to participate on the Eastern Front during World War II, the other being the British No. 151 Wing RAF, and the only one to fight together with the Soviets until the end of the war in Europe.
The unit originated in mid-1943 during World War II. Initially the groupe comprised a group of French fighter pilots sent to aid Soviet forces on the Eastern Front at the suggestion of Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French Forces, who felt it important that French servicemen serve on all fronts in the war.
The unit was the GC3 (Groupe de Chasse 3 or 3rd Fighter Group) in the Free French Air Force, first commanded by Jean Tulasne. It fought in three campaigns on behalf of the Soviet Union between 22 March 1943, and 9 May 1945, during which time it destroyed 273 enemy aircraft and received numerous orders, citations and decorations from both France and
The United States Army Quartermaster Corps is a Sustainment (formerly combat service support (CSS)) branch of the United States Army. It is also one of three U.S. Army logistics branches, the others being the Transportation Corps and the Ordnance Corps.
The Quartermaster Corps is the U.S. Army's oldest logistics branch, established 16 June 1775. On that date the Second Continental Congress passed a resolution providing for "one Quartermaster General of the grand army and a deputy, under him, for the separate army." From 1775 to 1912 this organization was known as the Quartermaster Department. In 1912, Congress consolidated the former Subsistence, Pay, and Quartermaster Departments to create the Quartermaster Corps. Quartermaster units and soldiers have served in every U.S. military operation from the Revolutionary War to current operations in Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom) and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom).
The function of the Quartermaster Corps is to provide the following support to the Army:
Former functions and missions of the Quartermaster Corps were:
Quartermaster detachments, companies and battalions are normally assigned to corps or higher level commands.
The Medium Tank Trials Unit (MTTU) was a temporary Australian Army unit formed to test M60 Patton and Leopard 1 tanks to determine the most suitable replacement for the Army's Centurion tanks. The MTTU was formed in early 1972 by converting B Squadron, 1st Armoured Regiment. The MTTU's personnel were trained in the United States and Germany in early 1972 and received two M60A1 Pattons, two Leopard 1A2s and a Leopard 1 armoured recovery vehicle in the middle of the year. The tank trials commenced in late 1972 and were conducted at Puckapunyal and the Tully - Innisfail region of north Queensland. The trials were completed in March 1973 and the MTTU reverted to B Squadron, 1st Armoured Regiment on 1 June 1973. The Leopard 1 tank was selected on the basis of the results of the trials and entered service with the Australian Army in 1976.
The Hellenistic armies is the term applied to the armies of the successor kingdoms which emerged after the death of Alexander the Great. After his death, Alexander's huge empire was torn between his successors, the Diadochi. During the Wars of the Diadochi the Macedonian army, as developed by Alexander and Philip II, gradually adopted new units and tactics, further developing Macedonian warfare. The armies of the Diadochi bear few differences from that of Alexander but during the era of the Epigonoi (Successors), the differences were obvious, favoring numbers over quality and weight over maneuverability. The limited availability of Greek conscripts in the east led to increasing dependence on mercenary forces, whereas in the west, Hellenistic armies were continuously involved in wars, which soon exhausted local manpower, paving the way to Roman supremacy. The major Hellenistic states were Seleucid Empire, Ptolemaic Egypt, the Antigonid kingdom (Macedonia), smaller states: Attalid Pergamum, Pontus, Epirus, the Achaean League, the Aetolian League, Syracuse, and other states (like Athens, Sparta etc.).
The Diadochi were capable of deploying some of the largest armies of their day, and
The Myanmar Air Force (Burmese: တပ်မတော် (လေ), pronounced: [taʔmədɔ̀ lè]) is the aerial branch of Myanmar's armed forces, the Tatmadaw. It is mainly used in counter-insurgency campaigns, and, on a smaller, scale, in relief missions, especially after the deadly Cyclone Nargis of May 2008.
The Myanmar Air Force was formed on 16 January 1947, while Myanmar (also known as Burma) was still under British rule. By 1948, the new air force fleet included 40 Airspeed Oxfords, 16 de Havilland Tiger Moths, 4 Austers and 3 Supermarine Spitfires transferred from Royal Air Force with a few hundred personnel. The primary mission of Myanmar Air Force since its inception has been to provide transport, logistical, and close air support to Myanmar Army in counter-insurgency operations. in its entire history, the air force has never been in air to air battle.
The Mingaladon Air Base HQ, the main air base in the country, was formed on 16 June 1950. No.1 Squadron, Equipment Holding Unit and Air High Command - Burma Air Force, and the Flying Training School, were placed under the jurisdiction of the base. A few months later, on 18 December 1950, No. 2 Squadron was formed with nine Dakotas as a transport
Rodeleros ("shield bearers"), also called espadachines ("swordsmen") colloquially known as "Sword and Buckler Men" were Spanish troops in the early 16th (and again briefly in the 17th) century, equipped with steel shields or bucklers known as rodela and swords (usually of the side-sword type).
Originally conceived as an Italian attempt to revive the legionary swordsman, they were adopted by the Spaniards and used with great efficiency in the Italian Wars during the 1510s and 1520s, but discontinued in the 1530s.
The majority of Hernán Cortés's troops during his campaigns in the New World were rodeleros: in 1520, over 1000 of his 1300 men were so equipped, and in 1521 he had 700 rodeleros, but only 118 arquebusiers and crossbowmen. Bernal Díaz, the author of an account of Cortés' conquest of the Aztecs, served as a rodelero under Cortés.
When the Spanish adopted the colunella (the first of the mixed pike and shot formations), they used small groups of sword and buckler men to break the deadlock of the push of pike, as the Swiss and Germans used halberdiers, comparable to the role of the German Doppelsöldner during the same period. At the Battle of Ravenna in 1512, they proved to be
The Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) was the air arm of the Royal Navy until near the end of the First World War, when it was merged with the British Army's Royal Flying Corps to form a new service, the Royal Air Force, the first of its kind in the world. The RNAS came under the direction of the Admiralty's Air Department.
In 1908 the British government had recognised that the use of aircraft for military and naval purposes should be investigated. To this end the Prime Minister, Herbert Asquith, approved the formation of an "Advisory Committee for Aeronautics" and an "Aerial Sub-Committee of the Committee of Imperial Defence". Both committees were composed of politicians, army officers and Royal Navy officers. On 21 July 1908 Captain Reginald Bacon, who was a member of the Aerial Navigation sub-committee, submitted to the First Sea Lord Sir John Fisher that a rigid airship based on the German Zeppelin be designed and constructed by the firm of Vickers. After much discussion on the Committee of Imperial Defence the suggestion was approved on 7 May 1909. The airship, named Mayfly, never flew and broke in half on 24 September 1911. The then First Sea Lord, Sir Arthur Wilson, recommended
The Leicestershire and Derbyshire (Prince Albert's Own) Yeomanry was a yeomanry regiment of the Territorial Army, formed in 1957 by the amalgamation of The Leicestershire Yeomanry (Prince Albert's Own) and The Derbyshire Yeomanry, and currently perpetuated by a squadron of The Royal Yeomanry.
The regiment was re-roled as infantry in 1967, with four squadrons. In 1969 it was reduced to a cadre, however, the LDY (PAO) Cadre paraded their Guidon with the Royal Yeomanry Regiment in 1969 at Catterick Camp in Yorkshire. In 1971 became The Leicestershire and Derbyshire (Prince Albert's Own) Yeomanry Squadron as part of 7th Battalion, The Royal Anglian Regiment. This was redesignated a company in 1975, and in 1978 the Ilkeston platoon was formed into B (Leicestershire and Derbyshire Yeomanry) Company of 3rd Battalion, The Worcestershire and Sherwood Foresters Regiment. In 1988 the company of 7th Royal Anglian Regiment was retitled as C (Leicestershire and Derbyshire (P.A.O) Yeomanry) Company.
With the reorganisation of the Territorial Army in 1992, the companies were reorganised; one became the 3 (Leicestershire and Derbyshire Yeomanry) Company of 5th Battalion, The Royal Anglian Regiment,
Fourteenth United States Army was a fictitious field army developed as a part of Operation Quicksilver and as a part of the fictitious First United States Army Group, under the command of John P. Lucas.
As part of a psychological warfare campaign the Fourteenth Army was described by Agent Garbo in a message sent to German intelligence around the 24th of August 1944 claiming that his source in the ETO Services of Supply, who had a relative in the US 48th Infantry Divison had advised him of:
"...a lot of curious things about the basis of the composition of this Fourteenth US Army; amongst them he said that in their ranks there were many convicts who were released from prisons in the United States to be enrolled in a foreign legion of the French or Spanish type. It can almost be said that there are brigades composed of gangsters and bloodthirsty men, specially selected to fight against the Japanese, men who are not supposed to take prisoners, but instead to administer a cruel justice at their own hands."
What follows is the order of battle for the Fourteenth Army at one point during Operation Fortitude. The various formations changed as the operation continued in order to mislead Axis
The Abkhazian Air Force is a small air force operating from Abkhazia. Few details are available on its formation, but it is reported to have been established by Viyacheslav Eshba based upon several Yak-52 trainer aircraft armed with machine guns. Its first combat mission was conducted on 27 August 1992, which has come to be celebrated in Abkhazia as "Aviation Day." The Abkhaz Air Force claims to have made 400 operational flights during the 1992-1993 Abkhaz-Georgian war. Abkhaz combat losses during the civil war are uncertain, but include a Yak-52 on a reconnaissance mission near Sukhumi on 4 July 1993.
Besides the Yak-52, aircraft operated by the Abkhaz Air Force during the war reportedly included at least a pair each of Sukhoi Su-25 (NATO reporting name: "Frogfoot") and Su-27 ("Flanker") fighters and five L-39 Albatros jet trainers, as well as a few Mil Mi-8 ("Hip") helicopters and several other unidentified light aircraft. However, the Russians flew numerous sorties in support of the Abkhazians and it is unclear which of these aircraft were truly Abkhazian-operated. (There are also claims that Russian aircrew were instructed to cover up the national insignia on their aircraft and
The Imperial Camel Corps (ICC) was a camel-mounted infantry brigade, raised in January 1916, by the British Empire, for service in the Middle East, during the First World War.
From a small beginning the brigade eventually comprised four battalions, one battalion each from Great Britain and New Zealand and two battalions from Australia. Support troops included a mountain artillery battery, a machine gun squadron, Royal Engineers, a field ambulance, and an administrative train.
The ICC became part of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) and fought in several battles and engagements, in the Senussi Campaign, the Sinai and Palestine Campaign and in the Arab Revolt. The brigade suffered significant casualties, and 246 men were killed. British deaths totalled 106, with another forty-one from New Zealand, eighty-four from Australia and nine from India. The ICC was disbanded after the end of the war in May 1919.
The advantages of camels in a desert environment are well known, and the British Army had raised the Somaliland Camel Corps in 1912. However the British Army forces serving in Egypt at the start of the First World War did not possess their own camel formation. The first units of
The Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) (Japanese: 陸上自衛隊;, Rikujō Jieitai), is main branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the de facto army of Japan.
The largest of the three services of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force operates is tasked with maintaining internal security in Japan and operates under the command of the chief of the ground staff, based in the city of Ichigaya, Tokyo. The present chief of ground staff is General Eiji Kimizuka (Japanese: 君塚 栄治). The JGSDF numbered around 148,000 soldiers as of 2008.
The JGSDF was created on July 1, 1954. Up until the end of the Cold War, its primary concern was maintaining internal security in Japan and countering a Soviet invasion of Hokkaido.
Japan accepted the Potsdam Declaration in 1945, and, based on Potsdam Declaration Article 9, the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy were dismantled. Both were replaced by United States Armed Forces occupation force, which assumed responsibility for the defense of Japan.
On the outbreak of the Korean War, many U.S. units were transferred to Korea, and Japan was perceived as lacking
The Polish Air Forces (Polskie Siły Powietrzne) was the name of the Polish Air Forces formed in France and the United Kingdom during World War II. The core of the Polish air units fighting alongside the Allies were experienced veterans of the 1939 Invasion of Poland. They contributed to the Allied victory in the Battle of Britain and most World War II air operations.
A total of 145 Polish fighter pilots served in the RAF during the Battle of Britain, making up the largest non-British contribution. By the end of the war, around 19,400 Poles were serving in the RAF.
After the joint German-Soviet victory in the Invasion of Poland of 1939, most of the flying personnel and technicians of the Polish Air Force were evacuated to Romania and Hungary, after which thousands found their way to France. There, in accordance with the Franco-Polish Military Alliance of 1921 and the amendments of 1939, Polish Air Force units were to be re-created. However, the French headquarters was hesitant about creating large Polish air units, and instead most Polish pilots were attached to small units, so-called keys. Only one large unit was formed, the Groupe de Chasse polonaise I/145 stationed at Mions
The Sri Lanka Civil Security Force, officially the Department of Civil Security is a paramilitary force which is tasked as an auxiliary to the Sri Lanka Police.
The activities relating to the Home Guard Service established under the Mobilization of Supplementary Force Act No. 40 of 1985. The local home guards come under the command of the local police. They are all volunteers deployed in the their home towns and villages, to protect the civilian population from attacks by the LTTE. The with the establishment of Department of Civil Security, the Home Guards were re-designated as the Civil Security Force and came under the purview of the Ministry of Defence.
The Home Guard is not the Sri Lanka National Guard, which is a volunteer reserve regiment of the Sri Lanka Army.
The functions to be performed by Home Guards are listed below:
Following the start of Sri Lankan civil war many villages were attacked by LTTE terrorists which resulted in the deaths of many civilians. Due to these attacks the villagers began to organize themselves to protect themselves. The original Home Guards were local volunteers, who were initially armed with shotguns by the government to protect themselves.
The United States Army Reserve (USAR) is the federal reserve force of the United States Army. Together, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard constitute the reserve components (RC) of the United States Army.
The Army Reserve was formed 23 April 1908 to provide a reserve of medical officers to the Army. After the First World War, under the National Defense Act on 4 June 1920, Congress reorganized the U.S. land forces by authorizing a Regular Army, a National Guard, and an Organized Reserve (Officers Reserve Corps and Enlisted Reserve Corps) of unrestricted size, which later became the Army Reserve.
Reserve soldiers perform only part-time duties as opposed to full-time (active duty) soldiers, but rotate through mobilizations to full-time duty. When not on active duty, reserve soldiers typically perform training/service one weekend per month, currently referred to as Battle Assembly, and for two continuous weeks at some time during the year referred to as Annual Training (AT). Many reserve soldiers are organized into Army Reserve troop program units (TPU), while others serve in active Army units as Individual Mobilization Augmentees (IMA), or are in non-drilling control groups
The Wehrmacht (German pronunciation: [ˈveːɐ̯maxt] ( listen) (Armed Forces)—from German: wehren, to defend and Macht, power, force, cognate to English might) was the unified armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the Heer (army), the Kriegsmarine (navy) and the Luftwaffe (air force).
The term Wehrmacht generically describes a nation's Armed Forces, thus, Britische Wehrmacht denotes “British Armed Forces.” The term Wehrmacht is in Article 47 of the 1919 Weimar Constitution, establishing that: Der Reichspräsident hat den Oberbefehl über die gesamte Wehrmacht des Reiches (“The National President holds supreme command of all armed forces of the nation”). From 1919, Germany’s national defence force was known as the Reichswehr, which name was dropped in favor of Wehrmacht on 16 March 1935. The name Wehrmacht even in Germany is generally considered a proper noun of the 1935-45 armed forces, being replaced by Streitkräfte in its original meaning; however, this was not so even some decades after 1945. The German rank of General saw its widest usage during World War II. Due to the massive expansion of the German armed forces (Wehrmacht), a new “wave” of generals was
The Army of Africa (French: Armée d’Afrique) was an unofficial but commonly used term for those portions of the French Army recruited from or normally stationed in French North Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) from 1830 until the end of the Algerian War in 1962.
These included indigenous Arab or Berber volunteers (Spahis, Goumiers and Tirailleurs); regiments largely made up of French settlers doing their military service (Zouaves and Chasseurs d'Afrique); and non-French volunteers (French Foreign Legion). The divisions were not absolute and (for example) volunteers or conscripts from mainland France might choose to serve with the Muslim rank and file of the Spahis and Tirailleurs, while Arab volunteers might appear amongst the ranks of the Zouaves.
In May 1913 a limited form of selective conscription was applied to the Muslim population of Algeria. Only 2,000 conscripts a year were obtained by this method out of approximately 45,000 possible candidates and Muslim enlistment remained predominately voluntary in peacetime. As in France itself, military service was an obligation of citizenship and all physically fit male settlers of French origin were required to undertake two
The Korean People's Army Naval Force (Korean: 조선인민군 해군, Hanja: 朝鮮人民軍 海軍) is the navy of North Korea. The Korean People's Army is made up of the Ground Force, the North Korean Air Force, and the Navy. It was established on June 5, 1946. The navy strength in the 1990s was about 40,000 to 60,000; current strength (2008) is at about 46,000. There are some 708 vessels including 3 frigates and 70 submarines: approximately 20 Romeo class submarines (1,800 tons), 40 Sang-O class submarines (300 tons) and 10 midget submarines including the Yono class submarine (130 tons).
The North Korean navy is considered a green-water navy and operates mainly within the 50 kilometer exclusion zone. The fleet consists of east and west coast squadrons, which cannot support each other in the event of war with South Korea. The limited range of most of the vessels means that even in peacetime it is impossible for a ship on one coast to visit the other coast.
According to the 1997 edition of North Korea Country Handbook, published by the Defense Intelligence Agency:
"The 146,000-man [North Korean navy (NKN)] is primarily a coastal navy. The NKN is organized into two fleets: the East Coast Fleet, with eight
The Singapore Combat Engineers (SCE) is one of the combat arms of the Singapore Army. Combat Engineers provide mobility by bridging gaps and clearing minefields to facilitate speedy advance of troops into enemy territory, and counter-mobility by constructing obstacles such as anti-tank ditches to impede the enemy's movement. The Combat Engineers also construct trenches, drainage systems and other related infrastructure to enhance the survivability of troops during operations.
When the Singapore Armed Forces Training Institute (SAFTI) was set up in 1967 as the first military training institute to train officers and non-commissioned officers (NCOs, now known as Specialists), an Engineer Training Wing was incorporated into the plan. Two young officers, 2LT Gurcharan Singh and 2LT Chng Teow Hua, were selected to attend a basic engineer officer's course in Fort Belvoir, Virginia, United States. Upon completion of their course, these two officers, with the Commanding Officer, MAJ George Mitchell, conducted the first Engineer Commanders' Course from April to August 1968. The graduate officers and NCOs from the course formed the nucleus of the SCE.
As its role became more defined and her
Swiss Guards or Schweizergarde are the Swiss soldiers who have served as bodyguards, ceremonial guards, and palace guards at foreign European courts since the late 15th century. Apart from household and guard units, regular Swiss mercenary regiments have served as line troops in various armies; notably those of France, Spain and Naples up to the 19th century (see Swiss Mercenaries). In contemporary usage, the name Swiss Guards generally refers to the Pontifical Swiss Guard of Holy See.
Various units of Swiss Guards existed for hundreds of years. The earliest such unit was the Swiss Hundred Guard (Cent Suisses) at the French court (1497 – 1830). This small force was complemented in 1567 by a Swiss Guards regiment. The Papal Swiss Guard (now located in the Vatican City State), was founded in 1506 and is the only Swiss Guard that still exists. In the 18th and early 19th centuries several other Swiss Guards existed for periods in various European courts.
The use of Swiss soldiers as Royal guards and as the Pontifical guard stems from the reputation of Swiss mercenaries at the time of their formation. Since Switzerland was a poor country, young men often sought their fortunes abroad.
The Department of the Air Force (DAF) is one of the three Military Departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Air Force was formed on September 18, 1947, per the National Security Act of 1947 and it includes all elements and units of the United States Air Force (USAF).
The Department of the Air Force is headed by the Secretary of the Air Force (SAF/OS), a civilian, who has the authority to conduct all of its affairs, subject to the authority, direction and control of the Secretary of Defense. The Secretary of the Air Force's principal deputy is the Under Secretary of the Air Force (SAF/US). Their senior staff assistants in the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force are four Assistant Secretaries for Acquisition, Financial Management & Comptroller, Installations, Environment & Logistics, Manpower & Reserve Affairs and a General Counsel. The highest ranking military officer in the department is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force who is the senior uniformed adviser to the Secretary, represents the Air Force on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, heads the Air Staff and is assisted in the latter capacity by the Vice Chief of Staff of
The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven U.S. uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, military, multi-mission service unique among the U.S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission (with jurisdiction in both domestic and international waters) and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, and can be transferred to the Department of the Navy by the President at any time, or by Congress during time of war.
Founded by Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue Marine first, and later as the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790, it is the United States' oldest continuous seagoing service. Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton headed the USRCS, and the branch was involved in every war from 1790 to World War 1. As of August 2009 the Coast Guard had approximately 42,000 men and women on active duty, 7,500 reservists, 30,000 auxiliarists, and 7,700 full-time civilian employees.
The Coast Guard's legal authority differs from the other four armed services: it operates simultaneously under Title 10 of the United
The Bikaner Camel Corps was a unit of Imperial Service Troops from India that fought for the allies in World War I and World War II.
The Corps was founded by Maharaja Ganga Singh of the Indian state of Bikaner, as the Ganga Risala after the British government of India accepted his offer to raise a force of 500 soldiers. The state of Bikaner had a long tradition of using soldiers mounted on camels. For instance, in 1465 Rao Bika led a force of 300 sowar (or camel riders) to conquer neighbouring territories. Ganga Singh subsequently lead the Ganga Risala when it fought in the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900, in Somaliland in 1902-1904 to quell the Somali Uprising and in Egypt in World War I. At the Suez Canal in 1915 the corps routed the opposing Turkish forces in a camel cavalry charge. The Corps fought in the Middle East in World War II, when it was supported by the camel-mounted Bijay Battery, which became a mule team battery.
After India's Independence the Bikaner Camel Corps was merged with camel troops from Jaisalmer in 1951 to become the Ganga Jaisalmer Risala and joined the Grenadiers as the 13th battalion. It took part in the actions to foil Pakistani raiders in the
The army of Ireland, known simply as the Army (Irish: an tArm), is the main branch of the Defence Forces of Ireland. Approximately 8,500 men and women serve in the Irish Army, divided into three infantry Brigades. Since 1958 the Army has had a continuous presence in peacekeeping missions around the world as well as its maintaining its primary roles of defending the State and internal security within the State. The Army also participates in the European Union Battlegroups. The Air Corps and Naval Service support the Army in carrying out its roles.
The roles of the Army are:
The Defence Forces, including the Army, trace their origins to the Irish Volunteers founded in 1913. The Volunteers later became known as the Irish Republican Army (IRA), the guerilla organisation that fought British government forces during the Irish War of Independence. In February 1922, the Provisional Government began to recruit volunteers into the new 'National Army'.
The Provisional Government was set up on 16 January 1922 to transfer power from the British regime to the Irish Free State. On 31 January 1922, a former IRA unit (the Dublin Guard) assumed its new role as the first unit of the new National Army
The Military Airlift Command (MAC) is an inactive United States Air Force Major Command of the USAF which was headquartered at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois. It was constituted on 1 January 1966 and active until the end of the Cold War, when the Air Force table of organization was revised. Inactivated on 1 June 1992, its personnel and equipment were reassigned to the new Air Mobility Command.
MAC was the USAF successor organization to the Department of Defense Military Air Transport Service (MATS) which was disestablished on 8 January 1966. MAC's emblem reflected its predecessor's history by incorporating the emblem of MATS into its shield.
Although MATS was under the operational control of the United States Air Force, the 4-digit USAF Military Air Transport Service units at all levels were considered Major Command (MAJCOM) provisional units by the USAF due to MATS being a Department of Defense Unified Command. Under the USAF lineage system they did not possess a permanent lineage or history and were discontinued upon inactivation. AFCON (HQ Air Force-controlled) units were activated under MAC to which USAF personnel and equipment formerly assigned to MATS MAJCOM units were
The Saudi Arabian Army (Arabic: الجيش العربي السعودي), also called Royal Saudi Land Force (Arabic: القوات البرية الملكية السعودية). Is a branch of the Saudi Armed Forces. The total number of active troops is estimated to be 150,000 The current Chief of the Saudi General Staff is Field Marshal Saleh Al-Muhaya.
1923 is considered to be the birth year of the Saudi Army, as the modern Saudi Arabia have been Unified and founded as a single state. After the discovery of oil and the meeting between King Abdulaziz and the American President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 14, 1945, the Americans became the new major ally of Saudi Arabia.
Other events that led to an expansion of the Saudi Army were the Arab-Israeli conflict in 1948, the fall of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in the Iranian Revolution in 1979 and the subsequent fears of possible Shia's actions and in the last years the first Gulf War in 1990. In the year 2000, Saudi Arabia's government spent billions of dollars to expand the Saudi Forces including the Saudi Army.
Wars involving Saudi Army:
The combat strength of the Saudi Army consists of 4 armoured brigades, 17 mechanized infantry brigades, three light motorized rifle
Sparrow Force was a detachment based on the 2/40th Australian Infantry Battalion and other British and Australian 8th Division units during World War II. The force was formed to defend the island of Timor from invasion by the Empire of Japan. It formed the main part of the Allied units in the Battle of Timor (1942–43).
The majority of the personnel in Sparrow Force were from the 2/40th Infantry Battalion, which had been formed in Tasmania and was part of the 23rd Australian Infantry Brigade. The force was initially commanded by Lieutenant Colonel William Leggatt, although later command was taken over by Brigadier William Veale before being passed on to Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Spence. A commando unit—the 2/2nd Independent Company (recruited mostly in Western Australia)—was also part of Sparrow Force. With the other forces from the 23rd Brigade, it shared contingents from 18 Anti-Tank Battery, the 2/12th Field Ambulance unit, 23rd Brigade Signals unit and the 2/11th Field Company. 445 personnel were delivered to Timor by HMAS Westralia and SS Zealandia, which sailed from Darwin on 8 December 1941.
Sparrow Force was reinforced on 16 February 1942 with 189 British anti-aircraft
Ukrainian Galician Army (Ukrainian: Українська Галицька Армія, Ukrayins’ka Halyts’ka Armiya, UHA), was the Ukrainian military of the West Ukrainian National Republic during and after the Polish-Ukrainian War.
The Ukrainian Galician Army obtained its arms from Austrian depots and from the demobilized Austrian and German troops who streamed through Galicia by the hundreds of thousands following the collapse of the Central Powers at the end of World War I. However, the centers of Austria's military industry lay far from Galicia, and subsequent difficulty with resupply was a major factor in the Galicians losing their war against Poland.
The government of the West Ukrainian People's Republic was well organized and was able to mobilize over 100,000 people by spring 1919, 40,000 of whom were battle-ready. Due to the Ukrainians' generally poor socioeconomic status, the army had a disporoprtionately low ratio of officers to other ranks. In the Austro-Hungarian Army, ethnic Ukrainians had accounted for only two out of 1,000 officers (in comparison, Poles had made up 27/1,000 officers in the Austrian military). As a result, although most of the junior rank officers were Galicians the
United States Army Rangers are elite members of the United States Army. Rangers have served in recognized U.S. Army Ranger units or have graduated from the U.S. Army's Ranger School. The term "Ranger" was first used in North America in the early 17th century; however, the first ranger company was not officially commissioned until King Philip's War (1676) and then they were used in the four French and Indian Wars. Rangers also fought in the American Revolution, the War of 1812, and the American Civil War.
The six battalions of the modern Rangers have been deployed in wars in Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan, and Iraq, and saw action in several conflicts, such as those in Panama and Grenada. Of the current active Ranger battalions, two—the 1st and the 2nd—have been in service since reactivation in 1974. The 3rd Ranger Battalion and the headquarters of the 75th Ranger Regiment were reactivated in 1984.
The 75th Ranger Regiment is now a light infantry combat formation within the U.S. Army Special Operation Command (USASOC). The Ranger Regiment traces its lineage to three of six battalions raised in WWII, and to the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional)—known as “Merrill's Marauders,” and then
The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (海上自衛隊, Kaijō Jieitai), or JMSDF, is the naval branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan. It was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) after World War II. The JMSDF has a large fleet and its main tasks are to maintain control of the nation's sea lanes and to patrol territorial waters. It has also stepped up its participation in UN-led peacekeeping operations (PKOs) and Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIOs).
Japan has a long history of naval interaction with the Asian continent, involving the transportation of troops, starting at least with the beginning of the Kofun period in the 3rd century. Following the attempts at Mongol invasions of Japan by Kublai Khan in 1274 and 1281, Japanese wakō became very active in plundering the coast of the Chinese Empire.
Japan undertook major naval building efforts in the 16th century, during the Warring States period, when feudal rulers vying for supremacy built vast coastal navies of several hundred ships. Around that time, Japan may have developed one of the world's first ironclad warships, when Oda Nobunaga (a Japanese daimyo) had six
The Fourth United States Army was a field army of the United States Army.
It was organized as Fourth Army in the Organized Reserves in 1922 at New York City, NY. It was withdrawn from the Organized Reserves on 9 August 1932 and allotted to the Regular Army as an inactive unit. It was activated 1 October 1933 and headquartered at the Presidio of San Francisco, California. It was redesignated Fourth United States Army on 1 January 1957.
The Fourth United States Army has no combat record. It remained in the Continental United States during World War II, training tactical units to operate efficiently in combat. In addition, Fourth Army was largely responsible for the defense of the West Coast.
During the 1960s, the Fourth Army operated "Tigerland," an infantry training school at Louisiana's Fort Polk to prepare new recruits for infantry combat in Vietnam. In July 1971, the Fourth Army was disbanded and consolidated with Fifth United States Army at Fort Sam Houston.
Between 1984 and 1992, Fort Sheridan served as the headquarters of the Fourth Army and U.S. Army Recruiting Command. During that time, Fort Sheridan was the headquarters for activities at 74 U.S. Army Reserve Centers located
The Union Army Balloon Corps was a branch of the Union Army during the American Civil War, established by presidential appointee Thaddeus S. C. Lowe. It was organized as a civilian operation, which employed a group of prominent American aeronauts and seven specially built, gas-filled balloons to perform aerial reconnaissance on the Confederate States Army.
Lowe was one of few veteran balloonists who was working on an attempt to make a transatlantic crossing by balloon. His efforts were interrupted by the onset of the Civil War, which broke out one week before one of his most important test flights. Subsequently he offered his aviation expertise to the development of an air-war mechanism through the use of aerostats for reconnaissance purposes. Lowe met with U.S. President Abraham Lincoln on June 11, 1861, and proposed a demonstration with his own balloon, the Enterprise, from the lawn of the armory directly across the street from the White House. From a height of 500 feet (150 m) he telegraphed a message to the President describing his view of the Washington, D.C., countryside. Eventually he was chosen over other candidates to be chief aeronaut of the newly formed Union Army
The International Force for East Timor (INTERFET) was a multinational peacekeeping taskforce, mandated by the United Nations to address the humanitarian and security crisis which took place in East Timor from 1999–2000 until the arrival of United Nations peacekeepers. INTERFET was commanded by an Australian, Major General Peter Cosgrove.
Indonesia invaded East Timor in 1975 and annexed the former Portuguese colony. The annexation was recognised by few nations and was resisted by East Timorese. Foreign powers placed high importance on good relations with Indonesia and were largely reluctant to assist a push for independence. Following the fall of long-serving Indonesian President Suharto the new President, B. J. Habibie, was prepared to grant special autonomy for East Timor. Portugal had started to gain some political allies firstly in the EU, and after that in other places of the world to pressure Indonesia.
In late 1998, the Australian Prime Minister John Howard with his Foreign Minister Alexander Downer drafted a letter to Habibie supporting the idea of autonomy but incorporating a suggestion that the long term issue of East Timorese self-determination could best be diffused by
The Israeli Military Censor (Hebrew: הצנזורה הצבאית) is a unit in the IDF Directorate of Military Intelligence which watches over the publication of information regarding the military network, and generally, the security of Israel. In practice, this authority has been used to suppress information considered embarrassing to the Israeli government. The Military Censor, as part of its duty, has authority to suppress information it deems compromising from being made public in the media. In practice however, the ability of the censor to suppress publication of news stories in the Israeli media is rather limited as Israeli news outlets often circumvent the censor by reporting stories "as quoted from foreign news sources", which, since they were originally published outside of Israel, are not subject to the restrictions of the Israeli military censor.
In 1966, the Censorship Agreement was signed between media representatives and the IDF. The media agreed to abide by the orders of the Military Censor, while the IDF agreed not to misuse its role. Three main points of the arrangement are:
During the 1990s, the Knesset's Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee appointed a subcommittee, chaired
The Latvian Legion (Latvian: Latviešu leģions) was a formation of the Waffen-SS during World War II created in 1943 and consisting primarily of ethnic Latvian conscripts. The 15th Division was administratively subordinated to the VI SS Volunteer Corps, but operationally it was in reserve or at the disposal of the XXXXIII Army Corps, 16th Army, Army Group North. The 19th Division remained active in the Courland Pocket until May 1945, when it was among the last of Nazi Germany's forces to surrender at the close of World War II.
The legion consisted of two divisions of the Waffen-SS:
The Latvian Legion was created in January 1943 on the orders of Adolf Hitler following a request by Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler. The initial core of the force was provided by Latvian Schutzmannschaft collaborationist auxiliary police battalions, which were formed several years earlier and had been previously engaged in anti-partisan duties. Thus technically the Legion was a volunteer unit, though one month after the unit was founded, German occupation authorities in Latvia started conscripting military age men. Draftees were given a choice between volunteering for Waffen-SS Legions, serving as
"Night Witches" is the English translation of Nachthexen, a World War II German nickname (Russian Ночные ведьмы), for the female military aviators of the 588th Night Bomber Regiment, known later as the 46th "Taman" Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment, of the Soviet Air Forces. The regiment was formed by Colonel Marina Raskova and led by Major Yevdokia Bershanskaya.
The regiment flew harassment bombing and precision bombing missions against the German military from 1942 to the end of the war. At its largest size, it had 40 two-person crews. It flew over 23,000 sorties and is said to have dropped 3,000 tons of bombs. It was the most highly-decorated female unit in the Soviet Air Force, each pilot having flown over 1,000 missions by the end of the war and twenty-three having been awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union title. Thirty of its members died in combat.
The regiment flew in wood and canvas Polikarpov Po-2 biplanes, a 1928 design intended for use as training aircraft and for crop-dusting, and to this day the most-produced biplane in all of aviation history. The planes could carry only two bombs at a time, so multiple missions per night were necessary. Although the aircraft
The Signal Corps in the American Civil War comprised two organizations: the U.S. Army Signal Corps, which began with the appointment of Major Albert J. Myer as its first signal officer just before the war and remains an entity to this day, and the Confederate States Army Signal Corps, a much smaller group of officers and men, using similar organizations and techniques as their Union opponents. Both accomplished tactical and strategic communications for the warring armies, including electromagnetic telegraphy and aerial telegraphy ("wig-wag" signaling). Although both services had an implicit mission of battlefield observation, intelligence gathering, and artillery fire direction from their elevated signal stations, the Confederate Signal Corps also included an explicit espionage function.
The Union Signal Corps, although effective on the battlefield, suffered from political disputes in Washington, D.C., particularly in its rivalry with the civilian-led U.S. Military Telegraph Corps. Myer was relieved of his duties as chief signal officer by Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton for his attempts to control all electromagnetic telegraphy within the Signal Corps. He was not restored to his
The Wachbataillon (full name: Wachbataillon beim Bundesministerium der Verteidigung (WachBtl BMVg) (Guard battalion at the Ministry of Defence)) is the German Bundeswehr's elite drill unit. The Wachbataillon is the largest battalion of the German forces with about 1,800 soldiers, split in two garrisons in Berlin and Siegburg. It consists of nine companies (see list below) and belongs to the Streitkräftebasis (Joint Service Support Command) of the Bundeswehr. The soldiers of the Wachbataillon often refer to themselves as Protter or Protokollsoldaten, meaning protocol soldiers.
The primary mission of the Wachbataillon is to perform the military honours for the German president, the German Chancellor, the Federal Minister of Defence and the Inspector General of the Bundeswehr during state visits or on comparable occasions.
In addition the Wachbataillon executes the Großer Zapfenstreich on special occasions (for example on the 50th anniversary of the Bundeswehr in front of the Reichstag in Berlin on the night of October 26, 2005) or takes part in (inter)national events like the ceremonial oath of the Bundeswehr ceremony, parades, military tattoos and shows with its drill team which is
The Alpinist Unit is a special Israeli Defence Force infantry reserve unit, under the command of the Israeli Northern Command, specializing in mountain warfare, snow warfare and difficult terrain warfare in the northern front, especially Mt. Hermon.
The Alpinists are proficient in many aspects of snow warfare, among them shooting and attacking while sliding on skis and custom-made Snowcats, defensive tactics, and more. The unit was established in 1983.
Their standard equipment includes M4 Carbine assault rifles, the new Israeli TAR-21 Tavor assault rifle, "Negev" light machine gun and sniper rifles, mostly M24 and SR-25.
The Armenian Army (Armenian: Հայկական բանակ) is the largest branch of the Armed Forces of Armenia and consists of the ground forces responsible for the country's land-based operations. It was established in conjunction with the other components of Armenia's military on January 28, 1992, several months after the republic declared its independence from the Soviet Union. The army's first head was the former deputy commander-in-chief of the main staff of the Soviet Ground Forces, Norat Ter-Grigoryants. In compliance with its strategic allies, Armenia has sent over 1,500 officers to be trained in Greece and Russia.
Since the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War, Armenia has committed many elements of the army to help bolster the defense and defend the unrecognized Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh from a possible renewal of hostilities with neighboring Azerbaijan. Jane's World Armies reports that both conscripts and officers from Armenia are routinely sent for duty to Karabakh, often posted to the frontline between Karabakh Armenian and Azerbaijani forces.
The Armenian army's history is described to have gone through three different stages. It entered the first stage in February 1988, from the
The IV Army Corps (Greek: Δ' Σώμα Στρατού, abbr. Δ' ΣΣ) is an army corps of the Hellenic Army. Established before the First World War, it served in all conflicts Greece participated in until the German invasion of Greece in 1941. Re-established in 1976, it has been guarding the Greco-Turkish land border along the Evros River, and thus the most powerful formation in the Hellenic Army.
The IV Army Corps was established by Royal Decree on 23 December 1913 (O.S.) at Kavala, East Macedonia, during the reorganization of the Hellenic Army following the Balkan Wars. When East Macedonia was occupied by German and Bulgarian forces during World War I, the entire Corps was carried by rail to Görlitz, Germany, as "guests" of the German Government, where they remained for almost three years.
During the Greco-Turkish War it was renamed the Thracian Army and was stationed in Adrianople. In 1922, after the defeat of the Hellenic forces in Asia Minor, it covered the withdrawal of many units to Thrace.
In November, 1940 during the Greco-Italian War it was renamed again as East Macedonia Army Group (ΤΣΑΜ) joining the 1st Army which was fighting in Albania. In April 1941 it surrendered to German
The following are operators of the Gloster Gladiator.
Belgium received 16 Mk I aircraft (G15-G30) and an additional eight were built at SABCA (G31-G38) According to other sources 22 aircraft were ordered, 15 of which were delivered carrying the serials G5-1 to G5-15, the remaining seven were assembled by SABCA. The 'G' serials mentioned by Spencer (but then only the range G-17 to G-38) would have been applied later, while in service.
China received 36 Mk I aircraft in January 1938, given the Chinese serial numbers 5701-5736. They served until December 1939, when the last aircraft was shot down.
Egypt received over 40 Mk II aircraft.
Finland received 30 Mk.IIs from the UK during the Winter War, plus an additional 12 Mk.Is from Sweden after the Winter War.
The Third Reich captured at least 15 airworthy Mk Is.
Greece received 19 Mk I and 6 Mk II aircraft. The first two Mk I aircraft were bought by M. Zarparkis Hoimogenos (for ₤9.200) for presentation to the Royal Hellenic Air Force in 1938. They carried the serial numbers Delta Epsilon 1 and 2. The later 17 obtained Mk I aircraft retained their RAF serials, as did the six Mk IIs. Most of them were eventually destroyed by enemy air
The Land Forces (Polish: Wojska Lądowe) are a military branch of the Armed Forces of Republic of Poland. They currently contain some 65,000 active personnel and form many components of European Union and NATO deployments around the world. Poland's recorded military history stretches back for hundreds of years – since the 10th century (see List of Polish wars and History of the Polish Army), but Poland's modern army was formed after 1918.
When Poland regained independence in 1918, it recreated its military which participated in the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–1921, and in the two smaller conflicts ( Polish-Ukrainian War (1918–1919) and the Polish-Lithuanian War (1920)).
Initially, right after the First World War, Poland had five military districts (1918–1921):
The Polish land forces as readied for the Polish-Soviet War was made up of soldiers who had formerly served in the various partitioning empires, supported by some international volunteers. There appear to have been a total of around 30 Polish divisions involved. Boris Savinkov was at the head of an army of 20,000 to 30,000 largely Russian POWs, and was accompanied by Dmitry Merezhkovsky and Zinaida Gippius. The Polish forces
The RAAF Washington Flying Unit was a temporary Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) unit formed to ferry Australia's first twelve General Dynamics F-111C aircraft from the United States to Australia. It was formed in March 1973 and disbanded in July of that year after the ferry flights were completed.
The RAAF Washington Flying Unit was formed at McClellan Air Force Base, California on 31 March 1973 under the command of Group Captain John Newham. The unit was tasked with ferrying the RAAF's first twelve (out of a total order of 24) F-111Cs to Australia. The unit comprised twelve F-111 crews, each consisting of a pilot and a navigator. Newham was also the commanding officer of No. 82 Wing, which was to operate the F-111Cs once they arrived in Australia.
Following their arrival in the United States, the Australian airmen were provided with training on the F-111 by General Dynamics. Once this was completed, they ferried F-111s from the company's facilities at Fort Worth to McClellan Air Force Base.
The first ferry flight of six F-111Cs departed McClellan Air Force Base in May 1973. The aircraft first flew to Hickam Air Force Base where they refueled. On 30 May they flew to Pago Pago
The Armenian Air Force (Armenian: Հայաստանի Ռազմաօդային Ուժեր) is the air arm formed by independent Armenia in 1992 in the wake of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It is organized and equipped principally to provide Armenian ground forces with tactical air support in the form of ground attack and airlift in mountainous terrain. It provided effective support during the battles with Azerbaijan in the Nagorno-Karabakh region from 1992–1994, albeit without much fanfare. It currently lacks air superiority fighters, but air defense is provided by MiG-29s of the Russian Air Force under a military cooperation treaty. Since 2003, the Armenian government has been funding a modernization and enlargement of the air fleet.
Although Armenia began working to establish an independent Armenian armed forces as early as 1989, due to a lack of resources, suitably trained personnel and useful infrastructure, the government delayed formally creating an air force until August 1992, and commenced combat operations in October. However, this may not represent the first use of armed aircraft by the Armenians; an Azeri report states that the Armenians allegedly used modified civilian Mi-8 helicopters for
The French Far East Expeditionary Corps (French: Corps Expéditionnaire Français en Extrême-Orient, CEFEO) was a colonial expeditionary force of the French Union Army that was initially formed in French Indochina during 1945 during the Pacific War. The CEFEO later fought and lost in the First Indochina War against the Viet Minh rebels.
The CEFEO was created in early 1945 as a replacement for the older Far East French Expeditionary Forces (Forces Expéditionnaires Françaises d'Extrême-Orient, FEFEO). Its purpose was to support Saigon-based General Gilbert Sabattier, divisional commander of colonial "Indochina French Forces" (Forces Françaises d'Indochine) and Free French Forces resistance small groups C.L.I. then fighting with the Japanese Southern Expeditionary Army Group during the Second French Indochina Campaign. After the 1944 Liberation of France and the fall of Nazi Germany in Europe the following year, the French authorities wanted to "free" the last Axis powers occupied territories in Southeast Asia, these included the newly established Empire of Vietnam, which was a Japanese colony. On June 7, 1945, Leclerc was nominated commander of the CEFEO. On June 22, Leclerc
The Indian Air Force (IAF; Devanāgarī: भारतीय वायु सेना, Bharatiya Vāyu Senā) is the air arm of the Indian armed forces. Its primary responsibility is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during a conflict. It was officially established on 8 October 1932 as an auxiliary air force of the British Raj and the prefix Royal was added in 1945 in recognition of its services during World War II. After India achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, the Royal Indian Air Force served the Dominion of India, with the prefix being dropped when India became a republic in 1950.
Since independence, the IAF has been involved in four wars with neighbouring Pakistan and one with the People's Republic of China. Other major operations undertaken by the IAF include Operation Vijay – the invasion of Goa, Operation Meghdoot, Operation Cactus and Operation Poomalai. Apart from conflicts, the IAF has been an active participant in United Nations peacekeeping missions.
The President of India Pranab Mukherjee serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the IAF. The Chief of Air Staff, an Air Chief Marshal (ACM), is a four-star commander and commands the Air Force. There is never more
The Soviet Air Force, officially known in Russian as Военно-воздушные силы or (in the Latin alphabet) Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily (literally, "Military Air Forces") and often abbreviated VVS (ВВС in Cyrillic) was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union. The other was the Soviet Air Defence Forces. The Air Forces were formed from components of the Imperial Russian Air Force in 1917, faced their greatest test during World War II, were involved in the Korean War, and dissolved along with the Soviet Union itself in 1991-92.
The All-Russia Collegium for Direction of the Air Forces of the Old Army (translation is uncertain) was formed on 20 December 1917. This was a Bolshevik aerial headquarters initially led by Konstantin Akashev. Along with a general postwar military reorganisation, the collegium was reconstituted as the "Workers' and Peasants' Red Air Fleet" (Glavvozduhflot), established on 24 May 1918 and given the top-level departmental status of "Main Directorate".
It became the Directorate of the USSR Air Forces on 28 March 1924, and then the Directorate of the Workers-Peasants Red Army Air Forces on 1 January 1925. Gradually its influence on aircraft
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the military aviation arm of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II, and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force.
The AAF was a component of the United States Army, which in 1942 was divided functionally by executive order into three autonomous forces: the Army Ground Forces, the Services of Supply (which in 1943 became the Army Service Forces), and the AAF. Each of these forces had a commanding general who reported directly to the Chief of Staff of the United States Army. The AAF controlled all parts of military aviation formerly distributed among the Army Air Corps, General Headquarters Air Force, and ground forces corps area commanders, and thus became the first air organization of the U.S. Army to control its own installations and support personnel.
The peak size of the AAF was over 2.4 million men and women in service and nearly 80,000 aircraft in 1944, and 783 domestic bases in December 1943. By VE Day it had 1.25 million men stationed overseas and operated from more than 1,600 airfields worldwide.
The Air Corps became the Army Air Forces in June 1941 to provide the air arm a greater
The Liverpool Irish is a unit of the British Territorial Army, raised in 1860 as a volunteer corps of infantry. Conversion to an anti-aircraft regiment occurred in 1947, but the regimental status of the Liverpool Irish ceased in 1955 upon reduction to a battery. Since 1967, the lineage of the Liverpool Irish has been perpetuated by "A" Troop, in 208 (3rd West Lancashire) Battery, 103rd (Lancashire Artillery Volunteers) Regiment. The 103rd has provided individual reinforcements to regular artillery regiments equipped with the AS-90 and L118.
Liverpool's large Irish community formed the 64th Lancashire Rifle Volunteer Corps on 25 April 1860, one of many volunteer corps raised in Lancashire in response to heightened tension with France. The Liverpool Irish became a volunteer (later territorial) battalion of the King's (Liverpool Regiment) in July 1881. As such, it fought in the Second Boer War and First World War, sustaining thousands of casualties in numerous battles that prominently included Givenchy, Guillemont, Third Ypres, and the Hundred Days Offensive. Disbanded in 1922, the Liverpool Irish reformed before the Second World War and constituted the nucleus of the 7th Beach Group
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services. The modern army has its roots in the Continental Army which was formed on 14 June 1775, before the establishment of the United States, to meet the demands of the American Revolutionary War. The Congress of the Confederation officially created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 after the end of the Revolutionary War to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The army considers itself to be descended from the Continental Army and thus dates its inception from the origins of that force.
The primary mission of the army is "to fight and win our Nation’s wars by providing prompt, sustained land dominance across the full range of military operations and spectrum of conflict in support of combatant commanders." The army is a military service within the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. The army is headed by the Secretary of the Army, and the top military officer in the department is the Chief of
The Indiana National Guard is the armed force of the state of Indiana. It consists of the Indiana Army National Guard and the Indiana Air National Guard, and is part of the larger Army National Guard and the Air National Guard. With roots dating back to 1801, the origination of the guard was first began in 1846 during the Mexican American War, and was reorganized into its current configuration in 1903. Since then the guard has served at home and abroad as a part of multiple wars, disaster relief actions, and putting down strikes and riots. The Indiana National Guard is supported by the state's official militia force, the Indiana Guard Reserve.
The Indiana Army National Guard consists of the 11,000 strong 38th Infantry Division, 219th Battlefield Surveillance Brigade, and the 76th Infantry Brigade Combat Team. The Indiana Air National Guard consists of the 122nd Fighter Wing and the 181st Intelligence Wing.
The Indiana National Guard comprises both Army and Air National Guard components. The Constitution of the United States specifically charges the National Guard with dual federal and state missions. In fact, the National Guard is the only United States military force empowered to
Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) is a command and control (C2) weapon system focused on planning and executing US Strategic Command's Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC SPACE) mission. The purpose of the JSpOC is to provide a focal point for the operational employment of worldwide joint space forces, and enable the Commander of JFCC SPACE (CDR JFCC SPACE) to integrate space power into global military operations. The JSpOC is located at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, is the organization responsible for performing all of the orbit determination activity necessary to maintain the US space catalogue.
The JSpOC includes the personnel from all four military services and three Allied nations (United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada), facilities and equipment necessary to provide CDR JFCC SPACE the ability to plan and execute command and control of worldwide space forces. It is composed of five core divisions: Strategy (SD), Combat Plans (CPD), Combat Operations (COD), Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISRD), and Unified Space Vault (USV).
Three products are used to plan and execute JFCC SPACE forces in support of the mission:
All three products
The Red Guards (Finnish: Punakaarti) formed the army of Red Finland during the Finnish Civil War in 1918. The combined strength of the Red Guard was about 30,000 at the beginning of the Civil War, and peaked at 90,000-120,000 during the course of the conflict.
The leadership of the Red Guards altered during the war: Ali Aaltonen, Eero Haapalainen, Eino Rahja and in the end Kullervo Manner. The government of Red Finland was called "The People's Deputation". The Red Guards were in power from 28 January to the end of April 1918 in southern Finland.
The Red Guards' general staff were located in Helsinki; the other major cities controlled by the Red forces were Tampere, Turku, Pori and Viipuri. Red Tampere came to its end on 6 April 1918 after bloody battles when Mannerheim's White Guards conquered the city.
Thousands of Red Guards were imprisoned, hundreds of them were executed and the rest were transported to POW camps. Helsinki was in White control by April 12, 1918.
During the general strike of 1905 "National Guards" were formed in Finland. These Guards included both socialists and non-socialists, but eventually they were divided into opposing militias. In that year, however,
Armoured units made a relatively small, but important, contribution to Australia’s war effort during World War II. While Australia formed three armoured divisions and two independent armoured brigades during the war, Australian armoured units only saw action as independent regiments and companies supporting larger infantry formations.
The Australian Army formed its first armoured units in the late 1920s when two independent Tank Sections equipped with Vickers Medium tanks were formed in New South Wales and Victoria. An armoured car regiment was formed in 1933 based on the 19th Light Horse Regiment. A second armoured car regiment was formed in Sydney in 1939.
As with the rest of the Australian Army, the outbreak of war in 1939 lead to a dramatic expansion of Australia’s armoured force. Each of the four divisions in the Second Australian Imperial Force (AIF) was authorised a cavalry reconnaissance regiment equipped with light tanks and scout carriers.
Until the formation of the 1st Armoured division, the three AIF divisional cavalry regiments were Australia’s only armoured units. What the Australian armoured force lacked in numbers, however, was more than made up by the intense
The Chilean Air Force (Spanish: Fuerza Aérea de Chile, FACh) is the air force of Chile, a branch of the Chilean military.
The first step towards the current FACh was taken by Teniente Coronel Pedro Pablo Dartnell, when he founded the Servicio de Aviación Militar de Chile (Military Aviation Service of Chile) on December 20, 1910, being trained as a pilot in France. Although a school was included, the first officers were sent to France for their training as well. One of them, Captain Manuel Ávalos Prado, took command over the Chilean military aviation school that was officially instated 11 February 1913, and remained in command until 1915. The Escuela de Aviación Militar (Military Aviation School) was named in honor of him in 1944, and still carries that name today.
In those early years many aviation milestones were achieved; conquering the height of the Andes was one of the main targets as well as long distance flights. Typical aircraft of that era were Avro 504, Bleriot XI, Bristol M.1C, DH.9, and SE5a. In the following decade, the (Airmail Line of Chile) Línea Aeropostal de Chile was created on 5 March 1929 as a branch of the military aviation. This postal airline later developed
The 11th Army (German: 11. Armee) was a World War II field army.
The 11th Army was activated in 1940 to prepare for the forthcoming German attack on the Soviet Union.
The 11th Army was part of Army Group South when it invaded Russia in Operation Barbarossa. In September 1941, Erich von Manstein was appointed its commander. His predecessor, Colonel-General Eugen Ritter von Schobert, had perished when his plane landed in a Russian minefield.
Before the start of Barbarossa, the 11th Army included:
The 11th Army was tasked with invading the Crimea and the pursuit of enemy forces on the flank of Army Group South during its advance into Russia.
The 11th Army order of battle included two Corps: XXX Corps, which was composed of the 22nd, 72nd and Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler divisions and the LIXth Mountain Corps, consisting of the 170th Infantry Division and the 1st and 4th Mountain Divisions; and LIVth Corps, consisting of the 46th, 73rd and 50th Infantry Divisions. The latter formation had been in charge of the advance into the Crimean peninsula earlier in September. The Romanian 3rd Army, three Mountain brigades and three cavalry brigades, were also under von
The Indonesian Marine Corps (Indonesian: Korps Marinir, KorMar) is the Indonesian National Navy's ground troops. It was created on 15 November 1945, and is the country's main amphibious warfare force and quick reaction force against enemy invasion.
Kormar has been active in various military operations in Indonesia. One of the largest amphibious military operations would have been Operation Jayawijaya in which thousands of marines were planned to land on Biak in 1963 as a part of the Trikora Campaign to take West Irian from Dutch control. The operation was aborted as a consequence deals preceding the New York Agreement.
In 1999 a plan was proposed to expand the Kormar from its strength of 13,000 troops. Based on this plan, every Kormar's base would have three combat brigades: the Infantry, Cavalry, and Artillery and would be supported by one Combat Support Regiment and one Administration Support Regiment. The expansion will create three Kormar bases: Surabaya for Eastern area command, Jakarta for Central area command, and Rate Island in Lampung for Western area command. Now the Indonesian Marine Corps has an estimated 29,000 troops in 2 marine force or (PASMAR) equal to division in
Moldavia had a military force for much of its history as an independent and, later, autonomous principality subject to the Ottoman Empire (14th century-1859).
Under the reign of Stephen the Great, all farmers and villagers had to bear arms. Stephen justified this by saying that "every man has a duty to defend his fatherland"; according to Długosz, if someone was found without carrying a weapon, he was sentenced to death. Stephen reformed the army by promoting men from the landed free peasantry răzeşi (i.e. something akin to freeholding yeomen) to infantry (voinici) and light cavalry (hânsari) — to make himself less dependent on the boyars — and introduced his army to guns. In times of crises, The Small Host (Oastea Mică) — which consisted of around 10,000 to 12,000 men — stood ready to engage the enemy, while the Large Host (Oastea Mare) — which could reach up to 40,000 — had all the free peasantry older than 14, and strong enough to carry a sword or use the bow, recruited. This seldom happened, for such a levée en masse was devastating for both economy and population growth. In the Battle of Vaslui, Stephen had to summon the Large Host and also recruited mercenary troops.
The New Zealand Army (Maori: Ngāti Tumatauenga, "Tribe of the God of war"), is the land component of the New Zealand Defence Force and comprises around 4,500 Regular Force personnel, 2,000 Territorial Force personnel and 500 civilians. Formerly the New Zealand Military Forces, the current name was adopted around 1946. The New Zealand Army traces its history from settler militia raised in 1845.
New Zealand soldiers served with distinction in the major conflicts in the 20th Century, including South Africa 1899–1902, World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Malayan Emergency, Borneo Confrontation and the Vietnam War. Since the 1970s, deployments have tended to be assistance to multilateral peacekeeping efforts. Considering the small size of the force, operational commitments have remained high since the start of the East Timor deployment in 1999. New Zealand personnel served in the First Gulf War, Iraq and are currently serving in East Timor, Afghanistan and several UN and other peacekeeping missions.
War had been an integral part of the life and culture of the Māori people. The Musket Wars dominated the first years of European trade and settlement. The first European settlers
The United States Army Parachute Team, nicknamed and commonly known as the Golden Knights, is a demonstration and competition parachute team of the United States Army. It consists of demonstration and competition Parachutist teams, drawn from US Army Paratroopers who have demonstrated excellence in their parachuting skills.
The STRAC or Strategic Army Corps Sport Parachute Team was originally conceptualized by Brigadier General Joseph Stilwell. The original STRAC team consisted of 13 military parachutists. This unofficial unit competed successfully in parachute competitions, provided assistance to the military in the development of modern parachuting techniques and equipment, and provided support for Army public relations and recruiting. In 1959, the team was formally organized and later re-designated as the Army's official aerial demonstration unit on June 1, 1961.
The United States Army Parachute Team is part of the United States Army Accessions Command's Accessions Support Brigade, Headquartered at Ft. Knox, KY. The parachute team is garrisoned at Ft. Bragg, NC, and has several dedicated facilities in the area. These facilities include: an aviation support facility, a team
The National Guard of the United States is a reserve military force composed of National Guard militia members or units of each state and territory, plus the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia under federally recognized active or inactive armed force service for the United States. National Guard members are a subset of the Militia as defined by 10 U.S.C. § 311. The majority of National Guard soldiers and airmen hold a civilian job full-time while serving part-time as a National Guard member. These part-time guardsmen are augmented by a full-time cadre of Active Guard & Reserve (AGR) personnel in both the Army National Guard and Air National Guard, plus Army Reserve Technicians in the Army National Guard and Air Reserve Technicians (ART) in the Air National Guard.
The National Guard of the United States is a joint activity of the United States Department of Defense composed of reserve components of the United States Army and the United States Air Force: the Army National Guard of the United States for the Army and the Air National Guard of the United States for the Air Force.
The National Guard is the oldest component of the Armed Forces of the United States.
The Australian Army is Australia's military land force. It is part of the Australian Defence Force (ADF) along with the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Air Force. While the Chief of Defence (CDF) commands the Australian Defence Force (ADF), the Army is commanded by the Chief of Army (CA). The CA is therefore subordinate to the CDF, but is also directly responsible to the Minister for Defence. Although Australian soldiers have been involved in a number of minor and major conflicts throughout its history, only in World War II has Australian territory come under direct attack.
The history of the Australian Army can be divided into two periods:
During its history the Australian Army has fought a large number of major wars, including: Second Boer War (1899–1902), First World War (1914–1918), the Second World War (1939–1945), Korea War (1950–1953), Malayan Emergency (1950–1960), Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation (1962–1966), Vietnam War (1962–1973) and more recently in Afghanistan (2001 – present) and Iraq (2003–2009). However, since 1947 it has also been involved in many peacekeeping operations, usually under the auspices of the United Nations. The largest one began in
The Union Army was the land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. It was also known as the Federal Army, the U.S. Army, the Northern Army and the National Army. It consisted of the small United States Army (the regular army), augmented by massive numbers of units supplied by the Northern states, composed of volunteers as well as conscripts. The Union Army fought and eventually defeated the smaller Confederate States Army during the war which lasted from 1861 to 1865. About 360,000 died from all causes; some 280,000 were wounded.
When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,000 men in the U.S. Army, and of these many Southern officers resigned and joined the Confederate States Army. The U.S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, two of cavalry, two of dragoons, and one of mounted infantry. The regiments were scattered widely. Of the 197 companies in the army, 179 occupied 79 isolated posts in the West, and the remaining 18 manned garrisons east of the Mississippi River, mostly along the Canadian border and on the Atlantic coast.
With the secession of the Southern states, and with this drastic shortage of men
Ancient Rome's military was highly advanced for its time, divided into multiple units to maximize efficiency and power. One such unit was the immune class. By definition, the immunes were legionary soldiers who possessed specialized skills, qualifying them to perform duties atypical of a Roman soldier. Immunes’ expertise in their respective fields allowed them to be exempt from the more tedious and dangerous tasks other soldiers were required to do, such as ditch digging and rampart patrol.
Prior to becoming an immune, men were required to serve as milites (also known as munifex), a non-specialist regular soldier. These men were the soldiers that made up the bulk of the legions, liable to perform guard duties, labour work and other less than desired duties. Milites would usually have to serve for several years before becoming eligible for training to become immunes.
Immune status within the army was achieved either through selection or through promotion. If not possessing the specialist skills that could see a soldier chosen to become an immune, the legionary who wished to become one would have to undergo a period of specialist training, during which time they would be known as
The Spanish Air Force (SPAF) (Spanish: Ejército del Aire; literally, "Army of the Air") is the aerial branch of the Spanish Armed Forces.
Hot air balloons had been used with military purposes in Spain as far back as 1896. In 1905, with the help of Alfredo Kindelán, Leonardo Torres y Quevedo directed the construction of the first Spanish dirigible in the Army Military Aerostatics Service, created in 1896 and located in Guadalajara. The new airship was completed successfully and, named 'España', made numerous test and exhibition flights.
The Spanish Army air arm, however, took off formally in 1909 when Colonel Pedro Vives and Captain Alfredo Kindelán made an official trip to different European cities to check the potential of introducing airships and airplanes in the Spanish Armed Forces. One year later a Royal decree established the National Aviation School, Escuela Nacional de Aviación (civil) in Getafe, near Madrid, under the Ministry of Public Works and Transport, Ministerio de Fomento. The established institution became militarized under the name Aeronáutica Española when Colonel Pedro Vives was chosen to lead it as director of the Aeronáutica Militar, Military Aeronautics, the
The Marine ( listen (help·info)) is the navy of Germany and is part of the unified Bundeswehr (the German Armed Forces). It is deeply integrated into the NATO alliance. Its mission is protection of German and Allied territories as well as peace-keeping and peace enforcement operations.
The Marine traces its roots back to the Reichsflotte (Empire Fleet) of the revolutionary era of 1848 – 52. The Reichsflotte was the first German Navy to sail under the black-red-gold flag. Founded on 14 June 1848 by the orders of the democratically elected Frankfurt Parliament the Reichsflottes brief existence ended with the failure of the revolution and was disbanded on 2 April 1852; thus, the modern Marine celebrates its birthday on 14 June.
From 1945 to 1956, the German Mine Sweeping Administration and its successor organizations, made up of former members of the Kriegsmarine, became something of a transition stage for the Marine, allowing the future Marine to draw on experienced personnel upon its formation. In 1956, with West Germany's accession to NATO, the Marine was formally established. With the reunification of Germany in 1990 the Marine took over the former East German Volksmarine
The Japanese 1st Army (第1軍, Dai-ichi gun) was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army. It was raised and demobilized on three separate occasions.
The Japanese 1st Army was initially raised during the First Sino-Japanese War from September 1, 1894 to May 28, 1895 under the command of General Yamagata Aritomo. It participated in all of the major battles of that conflict, and was demobilized at the successful end of that war.
It was revived for the Russo-Japanese War from February 2, 1904 to December 9, 1905 under the command of General Kuroki Tamemoto. Its forces were the first to land in Korea and Manchuria and it fought in most of the major campaigns of the war, including the Battle of Nanshan, Battle of Te-li-Ssu, Battle of Tashihchiao, Battle of Shaho, Battle of Liaoyang, Battle of Sandepu, and Battle of Mukden. It was again demobilized at the end of that conflict.
The Japanese 1st Army was raised again on August 26, 1937 in Tianjin, China under the Japanese China Garrison Army. In addition to protecting the Japanese settlement at Tianjin, it served as a reinforcement to the newly formed Japanese Northern China Area Army following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident during the Second
The Japanese 2nd Army (第2軍, Dai-ni gun) was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army. It was raised and demobilized on four separate occasions.
The Japanese 2nd Army was initially raised during the First Sino-Japanese War from September 27, 1894 to May 14, 1895 under the command of General Ōyama Iwao.
It was revived for the Russo-Japanese War from March 6, 1904 to January 2, 1906 under the command of General Oku Yasukata. It fought in most of the major campaigns of the war, including the Battle of Nanshan, Battle of Te-li-Ssu, Battle of Tashihchiao, Battle of Shaho, Battle of Liaoyang, Battle of Sandepu, and Battle of Mukden.
The Japanese 2nd Army was raised again on August 23, 1937 and placed under the command of the Japanese Northern China Area Army as reinforcement to Japanese forces in China following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. The 2nd Army participated in the North China Incident, Tianjin–Pukou Railway Operation, Battle of Xuzhou and Battle of Taierzhuang before being demobilized on December 15, 1938.
The fourth and final incarnation of the Japanese 2nd Army was on July 4, 1942, when it was revived under the command of the Japanese First Area Army in Manchukuo. It was
Machal (Hebrew: מח"ל, an acronym for Mitnadvei Hutz LaAretz (Hebrew: מתנדבי חוץ לארץ), lit. Volunteers from outside the Land [of Israel]) were both Jewish and non-Jewish volunteers who went to Israel to fight in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War including Aliyah Bet. About 4,000 volunteers from all over the world came to fight on the Israeli side.
The Machalniks were mostly World War II veterans from American and British armed forces. Allied armies were reduced considerably after the end of the war and many soldiers were demobilised; moreover, the service experience became mundane and did not suit some servicemen, particularly pilots. In various circumstances they were invited, or heard of the Jewish state's struggle for independence and volunteered. There were Jews and Christians, both ideological supporters of Zionism and mercenaries.
The Ha'apala movement, also called "Aliyah Bet", which attempted to evade the 1939 and 1948 British naval blockade restricting Jewish immigration to Palestine, was assisted by 236 Machal former servicemen of the Allied navies as crews of ten clandestine Jewish refugee ships, out of sixty-six participating vessels.
The 1948 Arab-Israeli War saw
The Korean People's Army Air Force, (Korean: 조선인민군 공군, Hanja: 朝鮮人民軍 空軍), is the name of the unified aviation forces of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. The KPAF is the second-largest branch of the Korean People's Army with an estimated 110,000 personnel. It possesses between 1,600 and 1,700 aircraft of different types, mostly of Soviet and Chinese origin. Its primary task is to defend North Korean airspace. When the People's Army was formed up with Soviet help, the aviation unit became its air force branch on August 20, 1947. North Korea has celebrated August 20 as Air Force Foundation Day ever since.
Kim Il-sung set up the Aviation Association branches in Pyongyang, Sinuiju, Chongjin and other parts of the country in 1945. In December 1945 he merged them into the Aviation Association of Korea. The air force became a separate service in 1948. The KPAF incorporates much of the original Soviet air tactics, as well as North Korean experience from the UN bombings during the Korean War. In 1990-91, North Korea activated four forward air bases near the DMZ.
Given North Korea's experience with heavy U.S. bombardments in the Korean War, its aim has been mainly to defend North
Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) is a joint task force of United States Africa Command (AFRICOM). It originated under Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA) as part of the United States response to the September 11, 2001 attacks.
The mission of the CJTF-HOA is to conduct operations in the Combined Joint Operations Area to enhance partner nation capacity, promote regional security and stability, dissuade conflict, and protect U.S. and coalition interests.
CJTF-HOA consists of about 2,000 service men and women from the United States military and allied countries. Currently, the task force has an assigned area of interest that includes Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Seychelles and Kenya. Outside this Combined Joint Operating Area, the CJTF-HOA has operations in Mauritius, Comoros, Liberia, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania.
CJTF-HOA operations are encompassed by what the U.S. military has termed the ‘indirect approach’ with a focus on military-to-military engagements, civil-military operations, key leader engagements, and providing enabling support to partner nations. They provide short-term assistance by drilling wells for clean water,
The People's National Army (ANP) is the land force of the Military of Algeria.
The People's National Army's equipment is provided by Russia, China,and other various countries.
The Army include two armoured and three mechanised divisions (IISS Military Balance 2007), one of which is the 8th Armoured Division based at Sidi Bel Abbes, which was formed from the 8th Armoured Brigade after 1988. Another is the 40th Mechanised Infantry Division apparently based in the Third Military Region. The mission of the 40th Division is usually the protection of the Algerian-Moroccan frontier.
Sources are the INSS Israel's Middle East Military Balance,, SIPRI Trade registres and Army-Guide.
The Royal Navy Submarine Service is the submarine element of the Royal Navy. It is sometimes known as the "Silent Service", as the submarines are generally required to operate undetected.
The service operates six fleet submarines (SSNs), of the Trafalgar and Astute classes, and four ballistic missile submarines (SSBN), of the Vanguard class. All of these submarines are nuclear powered. The service also owns the LR5 Submarine Rescue System.
The Royal Navy's use of submarines began in 1901, and for many years of the late 20th century was associated with HMS Dolphin in Hampshire. Flag Officer Submarines moved from Dolphin to the Northwood Headquarters in 1978. In the early 21st century Flag Officer Submarines lost his solely submarine role and is now Commander Operations on the staff of Commander-in-Chief Fleet. The Submarine School is now at HMS Raleigh at Torpoint in Cornwall.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the idea of submarine warfare was considered by senior personnel in the Admiralty to be "Underhand, unfair and damned un-English" (Admiral Sir Arthur Wilson VC, 1901). However, those in favour of experimenting with submarine technology eventually won the argument, and the
The Syrian Air Force (Arabic: القوات الجوية العربية السورية, Al Quwwat al-Jawwiyah al Arabiya as-Souriya) is the Aviation branch of the Syrian Armed Forces. It was established in 1948.
The end of World War II led to a withdrawal of the United Kingdom and France from the Middle East, and this included a withdrawal from Syria. In 1948, the Syrian Air Force was officially established after the first class of pilots graduated from flight schools in the United Kingdom. The embryonic force saw limited participation in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, conducting bombing raids against Israeli forces and settlements. One North American Harvard was lost to ground fire while attacking Ayelet Hashahar on 16 July, and another possibly shot down by Morris Mann (flying an Avia S-199) on 10 June. The Syrian Air Force claimed its sole kill of the war on 10 July when a Harvard supposedly shot down an Avia S-199 flown by Lionel Bloch.
Military governments formed after the war sought to bolster the air force, which began equipping with Fiat G.59s, ex-Egyptian Macchi C.205s and Supermarine Spitfire F.22s. In September 1952 the SAF received its first jet aircraft, the Gloster Meteor F.8. Additional Meteors,
United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) is one of nine Unified Combatant Commands of the United States Department of Defense (DoD). It is charged with space operations (such as military satellites), information operations (such as information warfare), missile defense, global command and control, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (CISR), global strike and strategic deterrence (the United States nuclear arsenal), and combating weapons of mass destruction.
Strategic Command was established in 1992 as a successor to Strategic Air Command (SAC). It is headquartered at Offutt Air Force Base south of Omaha, Nebraska. In October 2002, it merged with the United States Space Command (USSPACECOM). It employs more than 2,700 people, representing all four services, including DoD civilians and contractors.
Strategic Command is one of the three Unified Combatant Commands organized along a functional basis. The other six are organized on a geographical basis. The unified military combat command structure is intended to give the President and the Secretary of Defense a unified resource for greater understanding of specific threats around the world and the means to respond to
The Volunteer Force was a citizen army of part-time rifle, artillery and engineer corps, created as a popular movement in 1859. Originally highly autonomous, the units of volunteers became increasingly integrated with the British Army after the Childers Reforms in 1881, before forming part of the Territorial Force in 1908. Most of the regiments of the present Territorial Army Infantry, Artillery, Engineers and Signals units are directly descended from Volunteer Force units.
Following the Crimean War, it was painfully clear to the War Office that, with half of the British Army dispositioned around the Empire on garrison duty, it had insufficient forces available to quickly compose and despatch an effective expeditionary force to a new area of conflict, unless it was to reduce the British Isles' own defences. During the Crimean War, the War Office had been forced to send militia and yeomanry to make up the shortfall in regular soldiers. The situation had been complicated by the fact that both auxiliary forces were under the control of the Home Office until 1855.
Tensions rose between the United Kingdom and France following the Orsini affair, an assassination attempt on Emperor
The Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) was — along with its precursor, the Walter Reed General Hospital — the U.S. Army's flagship medical center from 1909 to 2011. Located on 113 acres (457,000 m²) in Washington, D.C., it served more than 150,000 active and retired personnel from all branches of the military. The center was named after Major Walter Reed (1851–1902), an army physician who led the team that confirmed that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes rather than direct contact.
Since its origins, the WRAMC medical care facility grew from a bed capacity of 80 patients to approximately 5,500 rooms covering more than 28 acres (113,000 m²) of floor space. WRAMC combined with the National Naval Medical Center at Bethesda, Maryland in 2011 to form the tri-service Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC).
Fort Lesley J. McNair, located in southwest Washington, D.C. on land set aside by George Washington as a military reservation, is the third oldest U.S. Army installation in continuous use in the United States after West Point and Carlisle Barracks. Its position at the confluence of the Anacostia River and the Potomac River made it an excellent site for the
The Sturmabteilung (SA) (German pronunciation: [ˈʃtʊʁmʔapˌtaɪlʊŋ] ( listen); Storm Detachment or Assault Division, or Brownshirts) functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party. It played a key role in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in the 1920s and 1930s. Their main assignments were providing protection for Nazi rallies and assemblies; the disruption of opposing political parties and the fight against their paramilitary units (esp. the Rotfrontkämpferbund); and the intimidation of Jewish citizens (eg. the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses).
The SA was the first Nazi paramilitary group to develop pseudo-military titles for bestowal upon its members. The SA ranks were adopted by several other Nazi Party groups, chief amongst them the SS, itself originally a branch of the SA. SA men were often called "brownshirts" for the colour of their uniforms (similar to Benito Mussolini's blackshirts). Brown-coloured shirts were chosen as the SA uniform because a large batch of them were cheaply available after World War I, having originally been ordered during the war for colonial troops posted to Germany's former African colonies.
The SA became dis-empowered after Adolf Hitler
The Ghana Army is the army of the West African nation of Ghana. In 1959, two years after the Gold Coast obtained independence as Ghana, the Gold Coast Regiment was withdrawn from the Royal West African Frontier Force, and formed the basis for the new Ghanaian Army. Together with the Ghanaian air force and navy, the Army makes up the Ghana Armed Forces, controlled by The Ministry of Defence and Central Defence Headquarters, both located in Accra.
The command structure for the army forces in Ghana originally stemmed from the British Army's West Africa Command. Lieutenant General Lashmer Whistler was the penultimate commander holding the command from 1951 to 1953. Lt Gen Sir Otway Herbert, who left the West Africa Command in 1955, was the last commander. The command was dissolved on 1 July 1956.
In 1957, the Ghana Army consisted of its headquarters, support services, three battalions of infantry and a reconnaissance squadron with armoured cars. Total strength was approximately 5,700 men. Partially due to an over-supply of British officers after the end of the Second World War, only 12% of the officer corps in Ghana, 29 officers out a total of 209 in all, were Ghanaians at
According to the official definition adopted in 2011, "Paramilitary Forces" refers to three organisations which assist the Indian Armed Forces particularly closely and are led by officers of the Indian Army or Indian Navy. They are
The term "paramilitary forces" was previously used to refer to a variety of armed services that aid the operations of the law enforcement agencies of India and the Indian Armed Forces. No single official definition existed, so the term normally included central armed police and often included state armed police.
In March 2011, at the request of the Indian Army, the Indian government authorized the Indian Army to provide definitive terminology. An extremely narrow definition of "paramilitary" was adopted which excluded services now known as the "Central Armed Police Forces" (CAPF) (e.g. the Central Reserve Police Force) and services now known as the "State Armed Police Forces". The Indian government's new terminology does not necessarily coincide with the existing terminology of the states of India; for example, the state of Bihar calls its state armed police force "Military Police". It is not yet clear how (or whether) such discrepancies will be
The People's Liberation Army Special Operations Forces (simplified Chinese: 中国特种部队; traditional Chinese: 中國特種部隊; pinyin: Zhōngguó tèzhǒng bùduì) is the Special forces branch of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Ground Force. It specialises in rapid reaction combat in a limited regional war under high-tech conditions, commando operations, counter-terrorism, and intelligence gathering. Although the size of the Special Operations Forces is classified, it is estimated to number 7,000 ~ 14,000 troops.
The PLA first became interested in modern special warfare in the mid-1980s when it was shifting from the "people's war" to "fighting a local war under hi-tech conditions." The PLA planners believed that the next war would be a short, fast-pace conflict on the periphery rather than a total war on Chinese territories, and conventional infantry-orientated ground forces in their mass numbers could no longer meet the requirements.
On 23 December 2008, their first publicly-known mission was to accompany three Chinese warships in protecting and escorting commercial ships against the Somali pirates, in cooperation with other nations as part of a UN mandate.
A Rapid Deployment Force is a military formation capable of quick deployment of its forces. Such forces typically consist of elite military units (special ops, paratroopers, marines, etc.) and are usually trained at a higher intensity than the rest of their country's military. They usually receive priority in equipment and training to prepare them for their mission. Quick Response Force (QRF) should not be confused with Rapid Deployment Forces (US) or Rapid Response (NATO). QRF units are most often units that react to local or regional issues within their area of jurisdiction, i.e. National Guard, militias, Forward Deployed, para-military forces, etc.
Rapid Deployment Forces in most militaries are used for deployment outside of their country's borders. The US Army's 82nd Airborne Division and the 75th Ranger Regiment are the best examples of Rapid Deployment Forces. Both units have the mission of having combat troops "Wheels Up" (enroute by aircraft) within 18 hours of executive notification. Both units have the capability of "Forced Entry" into a territory to seize and secure key terrain, i.e. Drop Zone (DZ), airfield or airport, to accommodate additional follow on forces. A good
The Austro-Hungarian Navy was the naval force of Austria-Hungary. Its official name in German was kaiserliche und königliche Kriegsmarine (Imperial and Royal War Navy), abbreviated as k.u.k. Kriegsmarine.
This navy existed under this name after the formation of the Dual Monarchy in 1867 and continued in service until the end of World War I in 1918. Prior to 1867, the country's naval forces were those of the Austrian Empire. By 1915 a total of 33,735 naval personnel served in the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine.
Neither Austria nor Hungary had a coast or sea ports after World War I, thus having little or no need for a naval force. The available ports in the Adriatic Sea became parts of Italy and Yugoslavia.
Ships of the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine were designated SMS, for Seiner Majestät Schiff (His Majesty's Ship).
Until the end of the 18th century there were only limited attempts to establish an Austrian navy. The Habsburgs had employed armed ships sailing the Danube in the 16th and 17th centuries to fight the Ottoman Empire, and ships guarding the merchant fleet also operated from the Austrian Netherlands, but these forces were neither under a common command nor did they serve a common purpose.
The Continental Army was formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Continental Congress on June 14, 1775, it was created to coordinate the military efforts of the Thirteen Colonies in their revolt against the rule of Great Britain. The Continental Army was supplemented by local militias and other troops that remained under control of the individual states. General George Washington was the Commander-in-Chief of the army throughout the war.
Most of the Continental Army was disbanded in 1783 after the Treaty of Paris ended the war. The 1st and 2nd Regiments went on to form the nucleus of the Legion of the United States in 1792 under General Anthony Wayne. This became the foundation of the United States Army in 1796.
The Continental Army consisted of troops from all 13 colonies, and after 1776, from all 13 states. When the American Revolutionary War began at the Battles of Lexington and Concord in April 1775, the colonial revolutionaries did not have an army. Previously, each colony had relied upon the militia, made up of part time citizen-soldiers, for local defense, or the
The United States Army Observation Group, commonly known as the Dixie Mission, was the first U.S. effort to establish official relations with the Communist Party of China and the People's Liberation Army, then headquartered in the mountainous city of Yan'an. This mission was launched on 22 July 1944 during World War II, and lasted until 11 March 1947.
In addition to establishing relations, the goal was to investigate the Communist Party politically and militarily, and determine if the U.S. would benefit from establishing liaison. John S. Service, of the United States Department of State, was responsible for political analysis, and Colonel David D. Barrett of the United States Army performed the military analysis. Initially, they reported that the Chinese Communists might be useful wartime and post-war ally, and that the atmosphere in Yan'an was more energetic and less corrupt than in Nationalist areas. After the war, the Dixie Mission's reports, and Service and Barrett, were condemned by pro-Chinese Nationalist factions in the American government and fell victim to McCarthyism. Service was fired from his position at the State Department, and Barrett was denied a promotion to
The Netherlands Naval Aviation Service (Dutch: Marine-Luchtvaartdienst; MLD) is the naval aviation branch of the Royal Netherlands Navy.
Although the MLD was formed in 1914, with the building of a seaplane base at De Mok, Texel, it developed slowly in the inter-war years due to limited budget. After the graduation of the first pilot group in 1915, on August 18, 1917, the MLD was founded under official decree and the De Mok became the main base. At this time, the emphasis was on seaplane operations in the Dutch East Indies where Dornier Wal aircraft enabled patrols of the large archipelago in 1926. The perceived threat from Nazi Germany in the 1930s accelerated the development of air capability and the purchase of new equipment.
The German invasion of the Netherlands on May 10, 1940 rapidly overwhelmed Dutch resistance and the MLD aircraft were redeployed to France before the Dutch formally surrendered on 15 May. Shortly after, the MLD was ordered to Britain, where Dutch personnel formed No. 320 Squadron RAF, in Coastal Command, in June 1940. A second squadron, 321 Squadron, was also formed, but later merged with 320 Squadron. Other MLD personnel served on MAC ships as Fleet Air Arm
The French Revolutionary Army is the term used to refer to the military of France during the period between the fall of the ancien regime under Louis XVI in 1792 and the formation of the First French Empire under Napoleon Bonaparte in 1804. These armies were characterised by their revolutionary fervour and their poor equipment. They performed with mixed results, from the early disastrous defeats to the amazing victories under Generals Moreau, Masséna and Bonaparte.
As the ancien regime gave way to a constitutional monarchy, and then to a republic, the entire structure of France was transformed to fall into line with the Revolutionary principles of "Liberty, Equality and Fraternity". The signing of the Declaration of Pillnitz between Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and King Frederick William II of Prussia and the subsequent French declaration of war meant that from its formation, the Republic of France was at war, and it required a potent military force to ensure its survival. As a result, one of the first major elements of the French state to be restructured was the army.
Almost all of the ancien regime officer class had been drawn from the aristocracy. During the period preceding
Free Corps Denmark (Danish: Frikorps Danmark) was a Danish volunteer free corps created by the Danish Nazi Party (DNSAP) in cooperation with Germany, to fight the Soviet Union during the Second World War. On June 29, 1941, days after the German invasion of the Soviet Union, the DNSAP's newspaper Fædrelandet proclaimed the creation of the corps. Its formation was subsequently sanctioned by the democratic elected Danish government which authorized officers of the Danish Army to join the unit. The corps was disbanded in 1943.
During the course of the war, approximately 6000 Danes joined the corps, including 77 officers of the Royal Danish Army.
Denmark had signed a treaty of nonaggression with Nazi Germany in 1939. Germany invoked this treaty on April 9, 1940, when it ordered the military occupation of Denmark under the guise of protecting the Danes from British invasion. Faced with potential German aerial bombing, King Christian X and the Danish government accepted "protection of the Reich" and permitted the "peaceful occupation" of the country in return for nominal political independence. The Danes began a policy of collaboration that included diplomatic and economic support of
The German Army Aviation Corps (Heeresfliegertruppe) is a special unit within the German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr). The German Army Aviation Corps is part of the German Army (Heer), containing all its helicopter units. The German Air Force and the German Navy both also have their own helicopter units.
The coat of arms of the German Army Aviation Corps depicts a white eagle, swooping down whilst carrying a sword in its claws. Members of the Army Aviation Corps wear a burgundy-coloured beret. The badge on the beret is a wing, crossed vertically by a sword, surrounded by oak leaves. Their epaulettes are lined in silver-grey. The sleeves of their uniforms show the flying wings, emphasizing their main task.
The main tasks of the Army Aviation Corps are:
Due to their manifold tasks, the German Army Aviation Corps cannot be classified as having any of the classic tasks of army units, namely leading and supporting the leadership, fighting and supporting the fighting force.
Most units of the Army Aviation Corps are incorporated into the Airmobile Operations Division (Division Luftbewegliche Operationen). This division was founded on 1 July 2002 and became operational on 8 October
The Indian Coast Guard (Hindi: भारतीय तटरक्षक, Bhāratīya Taṭarakṣaka) (ICG) is an Armed Force of the Union Of India. Its mission is the protection of India's maritime interests and enforcement of maritime law with jurisdiction over both territorial (including contiguous zone & exclusive economic zone) and international waters.
ICG was formally established on 18 August 1978 as an armed force of the Union by the Coast Guard Act, 1978. It operates under the Department of Defence of the Union Ministry of Defence.
The Coast Guard works in close cooperation with the Indian Navy, Department of Fisheries, Department of Revenue (Customs) and the Central and State police forces.
The Indian Coast Guard's motto is वयम रक्षामः (Vayam Rakshamah), which translates from Sanskrit as We Protect. Its missions are:
The establishment of the Indian Coast Guard was first proposed by the Indian Navy to provide non-military maritime services to the nation. In the 1960s, sea-borne smuggling of goods was threatening India's domestic economy. The Indian Customs Department frequently called upon the Indian Navy for assistance with patrol and interception in the anti-smuggling effort.
The Nagchaudhuri Committee
Allied Joint Force Command (JFC) Naples (JFC Naples) is a NATO military command based in Naples, Italy. It was activated on 15 March 2004, after what was effectively a redesignation of its predecessor command, Allied Forces Southern Europe (AFSOUTH), originally formed in 1951. Commander JFC Naples reports to the Supreme Allied Commander Europe at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Casteau, Belgium.
Originally, Allied Forces Southern Europe was one of two major NATO commands in the Mediterranean area, the other being Allied Forces Mediterranean based on the island of Malta, responsible for naval activities in the region. While Admiral Robert B. Carney of the U.S. Navy was appointed as Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Southern Europe (CinCAFSOUTH) on 19 June 1951, AFMED was not activated until 1953. The delay was due to negotiations and compromises between the Americans and the British, who wished to retain one of their commanders over Britain's traditional sea lines of communication stretching through the Mediterranean to the Suez Canal and beyond. From 1951 to 2003, the Commander-in-Chief of Allied Forces Southern Europe was always a United States Navy admiral, based at
Long Range Aviation (Russian: Дальняя Авиация, Dalnaya Aviatsiya, or ДА, DA) was the branch of the Soviet Air Forces tasked with long-range bombardment of strategic targets with nuclear weapons. During the Cold War, it was the counterpart to the Strategic Air Command of the United States Air Force.
The first three Air Armies, designated Air Armies of Special Purpose were created between 1936 and 1938. On 5 November 1940 these were reformed as the Long Range Bombardment Aviation of the High Command of the Red Army (until February 1942) due to lack of combat performance during the conflict with Finland.
During the Battle of Stalingrad, the ADD, having taken crippling losses over the past 18 months, was restricted to flying at night. The Soviets flew 11,317 night sorties over Stalingrad and the Don-bend sector between 17 July and 19 November. These raids caused little damage and were of nuisance value only.
Strategic bombers (including Petlyakov Pe-8s?) were initially a part of the Long Range Aviation divisions of the reserve of High Command, but were reformed as the 18th Air Army (Vozdushnaya Armiya VA) in December 1944. One of the divisions of the 18th Air Army was the 62nd Long
United States Marine Corps Special Operations Command (MARSOC) is a component command of the US Special Operations Command (SOCOM) that comprises the Marine Corps' contribution to SOCOM. Its core capabilities are direct action, special reconnaissance and foreign internal defense. MARSOC has also been directed to conduct counter-terrorism, information operations, and unconventional warfare.
Its creation was announced on 1 November 2005 by US Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, following a meeting between him, the USSOCOM commander General Bryan D. Brown, and the Marine Corps Commandant General Michael Hagee on 28 October 2005. MARSOC was officially activated on 24 February 2006 with ceremonies at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.
The potential participation of the Marine Corps in SOCOM has been controversial since SOCOM was formed in 1986. At the time, Marine Corps leaders felt that their Force Reconnaissance units were best kept in the Marine Corps' MAGTF command structure, and that the detachment of an "elite" Marine Special Operations unit from the Marine Corps would be to the detriment of the Marine Corps as a whole. A re-evaluation following the 11 September attacks and the War on
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА or Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya; RKKA) started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.
The "Red Army" refers to the traditional colour of the communist movement. On 25 February 1946 (when Soviet national symbols replaced revolutionary symbols), the Red Army was renamed the Soviet Army (Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya).
The Red Army is widely credited with being the decisive force in the Allied victory in the European Theatre of World War II. During operations on the Eastern Front, it engaged and defeated about 80% of the total German armed forces (Wehrmacht and Waffen SS) deployed in the war.
In September 1917 V. I. Lenin wrote "There is only one way to prevent the restoration of the police, and that is to create a people's militia and to fuse it with the army (the standing army to be replaced by the arming of the entire people)."
At this time the Imperial Russian Army was in a state of collapse. 23%
The Royal Air Force of Oman (RAFO) (Al-Quwwat al-Jawiyya al-Sultaniyya al-'Umaniyya) is the air arm of the Armed Forces of Oman
The Sultan of Oman's Air Force (SOAF) was formed with British personnel and aircraft in March 1959. The first aircraft were two Scottish Aviation Pioneers transferred from the Royal Air Force. The first armed aircraft was the Percival Provost T52.
In 1968 the SOAF received the first of 24 BAC Strikemaster jet trainer and light strike aircraft for operation against insurgents in the Dhofar region. In 1974 the SOAF was expanded with orders for the Britten Norman Defender, BAC One-Eleven, BAC VC10 and 32 Hawker Hunter ground attack aircraft. In 1977 Jaguar International joined the SOAF, followed in the 1980s by the BAe Hawk.
In 1990 the SOAF was renamed the Royal Air Force of Oman (RAFO). In 1993 and 1994 the RAFO replaced its Hawker hunters with four BAE Hawk Mk 103 lead in fighter-trainers and 12 single-seat Hawk Mk 203, equipped with Westinghouse APG-66H radar, as light ground attack/interceptors. In September 1997 after the evaluation of new combat aircraft the RAFO decided to upgrade and extend the service lives of its remaining 17 SEPECAT Jaguar ground
The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is the air force branch of the Australian Defence Force. The RAAF was formed in March 1921. It continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps (AFC), which was formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF has taken part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts including World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. More recently the RAAF participated in the 2003 invasion of Iraq and is still involved with the War in Afghanistan (2001–present). The motto on the RAAF's coat of arms is the Latin phrase Per ardua ad astra, which means "Through Struggle to the Stars".
The RAAF traces its history back to the Imperial Conference held in London in 1911, where it was decided aviation should be developed within the armed forces of the British Empire. Australia implemented this decision, the only country to do so, by approving the establishment of the Central Flying School at Point Cook, Victoria on 22 October 1912. The RAAF was the second air force to be officially formed.
Soon after the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the Australian Flying Corps sent aircraft to assist in capturing German colonies in what is now north-east New Guinea. These
The Royal Bahraini Air Force (abbreviated as RBAF, formerly known as Bahrain Amiri Air Force) is the aerial warfare branch of the Bahrain Defense Force. The air force had 650 personnel in 1992 and 1,500 in 2009.
The air branch of the Bahrain Defence Force was organized in 1977 and began flying helicopters. In 1986, F5 fighter jets were acquired from the United States.
In 1987, the Bahrain Defense Force was reorganized into separate Army, Navy and Air force branches with the Air Wing becoming the Bahrain Amiri Air Force (BAAF). The delivery of a squadron of F-16s from 1990 marked a further increase in the capabilities of the air arm. The new F-16 unit was based at Sheik Isa Air Base alongside the F-5s. On 2 August 1990 several aircraft from the Kuwait Air Force were evacuated to Bahrain during the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. During the subsequent Gulf War, BAAF carried out the first F-5s and F-16s defensive missions on 25 January 1991 and began offensive operations the following day. The Gulf War ended on 28 February 1991.
A second batch of F-16s commenced delivery in 2000. The new aircraft were equipped to carry the AMRAAM missile, first used by the USAF in 1992. In July 2000,
The Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger; KNIL) was the military force maintained by the Netherlands in its colony of the Netherlands East Indies (also known as the Dutch East Indies, and now modern Indonesia). The KNIL's air arm was the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force. Elements of the Royal Netherlands Navy were also stationed in the Netherlands East Indies.
The KNIL was formed by royal decree on 10 March 1830. It was not part of the Royal Netherlands Army, but a separate military arm specifically formed for service in the Netherlands East Indies. Its establishment coincided with the Dutch drive to expand colonial rule from the 17th century area of control to the far larger territories comprising the Dutch East Indies seventy years later, which remain the present boundaries of Indonesia.
In 1894, Lombok and Karangasem were annexed in response to reports of the local Balinese aristocracy oppressing the native Sasak people. Bali was finally taken under full control with the Dutch intervention in Bali (1906) and the final Dutch intervention in Bali (1908). The KNIL was involved in many campaigns against indigenous groups in the
The SAC Elite Guard was a United States Air Police unit established in December, 1956 to provide security at the headquarters of the Strategic Air Command (SAC) of the United States Air Force, as well as personal protection for the Commander and Vice Commander of SAC.
Established by order of General Curtis E. LeMay, the unit was initially known as Detachment “A” of the 3902nd Air Police Squadron at Offutt Air Force Base.
The Elite Guard was formed under a signed order from General Curtis LeMay, who was instrumental in modernizing USAF security forces in general and the Strategic Air Command in particular. At the creation of the USAF in 1947, aircraft were normally guarded by security detachments formed from airdrome or air base squadrons. In many cases "guard duty" was a detail or extra duty and not a full-time job, often given out as punishment to underperforming personnel. Security and weapons training was minimal or nonexistent. During his initial inspection of the SAC strategic bomber fleet at Offutt Air Force Base in 1948, LeMay reported that at one hangar he found an Air Police sentry on duty "armed only with a ham sandwich". The exigencies of the Korean War imposed
The Southeast Air Defense Sector (SEADS), was a unit of the US Air Force located at Tyndall Air Force Base near Panama City, Florida. It provided air defense and surveillance of the southeastern region of the US. SEADS closed in winter 2006, giving up surveillance and control of their airspace to the Eastern Air Defense Sector (EADS) and the former Northeast Air Defense Sector (NEADS).
The origins of the Southeast Air Defense Sector (SEADS) are in September 1957 with the formation of its predecessor organization, the Montgomery Air Defense Sector (MoADS) by Air Defense Command (ADC). It was established in September 1957 with a mission to train and maintain tactical flying units in state of readiness in order to defend the Southeastern United States, assuming control of former ADC Central Air Defense Force units. Its original region consisted of ADC atmospheric forces (fighter-interceptor and radar units) located east of the Mississippi River, south of the 34th parallel north and east to a designated line west of the 86th meridian west, southeast to the southernmost point of Key Largo Island, Florida.
It was consolidated on 1 January 1959 with the Shreveport and Miami Air Defense
The Liverpool Scottish, known diminutively as "the Scottish", is a unit of the British Territorial Army, raised in 1900 as an infantry battalion of the King's (Liverpool Regiment). The Liverpool Scottish became affiliated to the Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders in the 1920s and formally transferred to the regiment in 1937 with its identity preserved. Reflecting the Territorial Army's decline in size since the 1940s, the battalion was reduced to a company in 1967, then to a platoon of "A" (King's) Company, King's and Cheshire Regiment in 1999. In 2006, the company was incorporated into the 4th Battalion, The Duke of Lancaster's Regiment.
Service in the First World War was extensive and the Liverpool Scottish was one of the first territorial battalions to arrive in France when it deployed in November 1914. Approximately 1,000 of more than 10,000 men who served with the Scottish died during the war. The first major battle of the Scottish during the war was on 16 June 1915 in what is officially known as "The First Action at Bellewaarde", which was designed to pin down German reserves while other Allied forces were engaged elsewhere. The action is known to the Liverpool Scottish as the
I Armored Corps was a World War II corps of the United States Army. The army made its debut in Operation Torch in November 1942 under the command of Major-General George S. Patton. In July 1943 it was redesignated as the U.S. Seventh Army.
XXIV Corps (24th Corps) was a U.S. Army Corps-level command during World War II and the Vietnam War.
XXIV Corps was activated at Fort Shafter, Hawaii, on 8 April 1944. It participated in the invasion of Leyte in the Philippine Islands on 20 October 1944, with the 7th Infantry Division and 96th Infantry Division its major combat units. During the campaign on Leyte, the 77th Infantry Division came under control of XXIV Corps.
From 1 April to 30 June 1945, XXIV Corps and its divisions participated in the invasion of Okinawa. In September 1945, after the surrender of Japan, XXIV Corps moved to Korea, where it remained on occupation duty until its inactivation on 25 January 1949.
XXIV Corps was re-activated on 15 August 1968, at Fort Hood, Texas, to replace the "Provisional Corps Vietnam," a temporary headquarters (known as MACV Forward Command Post or MACV Forward between 25 January and 10 March) created 10 March 1968 during the Tet Offensive. Upon its arrival in Vietnam, XXIV Corps was placed under the operational control of the III Marine Expeditionary Force to control the activities of U.S. Army ground combat units deployed in northern South Vietnam and had its headquarters at Phu
United States Naval Forces Europe is the United States Navy component commander of the United States European Command and provides forces for United States African Command.
Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Europe (COMUSNAVEUR) provides overall command, operational control, and coordination of U.S. Naval Forces in the European Command area of responsibility. As the Navy component in Europe, COMUSNAVEUR, plans, conducts, and supports naval operations in the European theater during peacetime, contingencies, in general war and as tasked by Commander, U.S. European Command. With its headquarters now at Naval Support Activity Naples, Italy, COMUSNAVEUR directs all its naval operations through Commander, United States Sixth Fleet based in Gaeta, Italy, and support activities ashore through Commander, Navy Region Europe (CNRE), headquartered in Naples, Italy. As of 2010, Naval Forces Europe is commanded by Admiral Samuel J. Locklear III, who also serves as NATO's Commander, Allied Joint Force Command Naples. By a directive of 20 September 2005, Naval Forces Europe and Sixth Fleet were merged
The earliest presence of U.S. Navy forces in Europe was the Mediterranean Squadron.the European
The Vietnam Air Force – VNAF (Vietnamese: Không lực Việt Nam Cộng hòa – KLVNCH) was the Air Force branch of the Republic of Vietnam’s Military Forces, the official military of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) from 1955 to 1975.
The VNAF began with a few hand-picked men chosen to fly alongside French pilots during the State of Vietnam era. It eventually grew into the world's sixth largest air force at the height of its power, in 1974. It is an often neglected chapter of the history of the Vietnam War as they operated in the shadow of the world’s largest air war machine. It was dissolved in 1975 after the Fall of Saigon. Many of its members emigrated to the United States.
In March 1949, Emperor Bảo Đại officially requested that the French help set up a Vietnamese military air arm. Pressure was maintained with the assistance of Lt. Col. Nguyễn Văn Hinh, who had flown the B-26 Marauder with the French Air Force in the Second World War. In March 1952, a training school was set up at Nha Trang, and the following year two army co-operation squadrons began missions flying the Morane-Saulnier MS.500 Criquet light aircraft. In 1954, the French allocated a number of Dassault MD.315